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Sample records for strongest predictor asl

  1. Caregiver burden: the strongest predictor of self-rated health in caregivers of patients with dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdollahpour, Ibrahim; Nedjat, Saharnaz; Noroozian, Maryam; Salimi, Yahya; Majdzadeh, Reza

    2014-09-01

    People having dementia need help and supervision to perform their activities of daily living. This responsibility is usually imposed on family members who endure a great burden, leading to undesirable health outcomes. The aims of our study were to measure caregivers' health as well as identify its adjusted relevant predictors. One hundred and fifty three registered patients and their caregivers from Iranian Alzheimer Association were included in this cross-sectional study through sequential sampling. Self-rated health (SRH) was measured using a single question with Likert-type scale ranging from very bad (1) to very good (5). The multiple linear regression model was applied to determine the adjusted associations between independent variables under study and SRH. The mean caregiver SRH level was 3.03. Of the participant caregivers, 29% were either unsatisfied or very unsatisfied with their health level. In the final regression model, SRH showed a direct significant association with the patient's number of children but an inverse significant association with the marital status (married patients), patient's age, and caregiver burden. Caregiver burden was not only significantly associated with poor SRH after removing the effect of the other covariates but it was also recognized as the strongest predictor of caregivers' SRH. Therefore, it seems that development of intervention programs, in order to reduce caregiver burden, can be considered as important step in promoting caregivers' health level. © The Author(s) 2014.

  2. Timed Stair Climbing is the Single Strongest Predictor of Perioperative Complications in Patients Undergoing Abdominal Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Sushanth; Contreras, Carlo M; Singletary, Brandon; Bradford, T Miller; Waldrop, Mary G; Mims, Andrew H; Smedley, W Andrew; Swords, Jacob A; Thomas N, Wang; Martin J, Heslin

    2016-01-01

    Background Current methods to predict patients' peri-operative morbidity utilize complex algorithms with multiple clinical variables focusing primarily on organ-specific compromise. The aim of the present study is to determine the value of a timed stair climb (SC) in predicting peri-operative complications for patients undergoing abdominal surgery. Study Design From March 2014 to July 2015, 362 patients attempted SC while being timed prior to undergoing elective abdominal surgery. Vital signs were measured before and after SC. Ninety day post-operative complications were assessed by the Accordion Severity Grading System. The prognostic value of SC was compared to the ACS NSQIP risk calculator. Results A total of 264 (97.4%) patients were able to complete SC. SC time directly correlated to changes in both mean arterial pressure and heart rate as an indicator of stress. An Accordion grade 2 or higher complication occurred in 84 (25%) patients. There were 8 mortalities (2.4%). Patients with slower SC times had an increased complication rate (P<0.0001). In multivariable analysis SC time was the single strongest predictor of complications (OR=1.029, P<0.0001), and no other clinical co-morbidity reached statistical significance. Receiver operative characteristic curves predicting post-operative morbidity by SC time was superior to that of the ACS risk calculator (AUC 0.81 vs. 0.62, P<0.0001). Additionally slower patients had a greater deviation from predicted length of hospital stay (P=0.034) Conclusions SC provides measurable stress, accurately predicts post-operative complications, and is easy to administer in patients undergoing abdominal surgery. Larger patient populations with a diverse group of operations will be needed to further validate the use of SC in risk prediction models. PMID:26920993

  3. Education is the strongest socio-economic predictor of smoking in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Härkönen, Juho; Lindberg, Matti; Karlsson, Linnea; Karlsson, Hasse; Scheinin, Noora M

    2018-01-14

    To investigate socio-economic disparities in smoking in pregnancy (SIP) by the mother's education, occupational class and current economic conditions. Cross-sectional analysis with linked survey and register data. South-western Finland. A total of 2667 pregnant women [70% of the original sample (n = 3808)] from FinnBrain, a prospective pregnancy cohort study. The outcome was smoking during the first pregnancy trimester, measured from the Finnish Medical Birth Register. Education and occupational class were linked from population registers. Income support recipiency and subjective economic wellbeing were questionnaire-based measures of current economic conditions. These were adjusted for age, partnership status, residential area type, parental separation, parity, childhood socio-economic background, childhood adversities (the Trauma and Distressing Events During Childhood scale) and antenatal stress (Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale). Logistic regressions and attributable fractions (AF) were estimated. Mother's education was the strongest socio-economic predictor of SIP. Compared with university education, adjusted odds ratios (aORs) of SIP were: 2.2 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.2-3.9; P = 0.011] for tertiary vocational education, 4.4 (95% CI = 2.1-9.0; P education, 2.9 (95% CI = 1.4-6.1; P = 0.006) for general secondary education, 9.5 (95% CI 5.0-18.2; P education and 14.4 (95% CI = 6.3-33.0; P education was 0.5. Adjusted for the other variables, occupational class and subjective economic wellbeing did not predict SIP. Income support recipiency was associated positively with SIP (aOR = 1.8; 95% CI = 1.1-3.1; P = 0.022). Antenatal stress predicted SIP (aOR = 2.0; 95% CI = 1.4-2.8; P pregnancy are attributable primarily to differences in the mother's educational level (low versus high) and orientation (vocational versus general). © 2018 The Authors. Addiction published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society for the Study

  4. Investigating predictors of eating: is resting metabolic rate really the strongest proxy of energy intake?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeil, Jessica; Lamothe, Gilles; Cameron, Jameason D; Riou, Marie-Ève; Cadieux, Sébastien; Lafrenière, Jacynthe; Goldfield, Gary; Willbond, Stephanie; Prud'homme, Denis; Doucet, Éric

    2017-11-01

    Background: Evidence suggests that fat-free mass and resting metabolic rate (RMR), but not fat mass, are strong predictors of energy intake (EI). However, body composition and RMR do not explain the entire variance in EI, suggesting that other factors may contribute to this variance. Objective: We aimed to investigate the associations between body mass index (in kg/m 2 ), fat mass, fat-free mass, and RMR with acute (1 meal) and daily (24-h) EI and between fasting appetite ratings and certain eating behavior traits with daily EI. We also evaluated whether RMR is a predictor of the error variance in acute and daily EI. Design: Data collected during the control condition of 7 studies conducted in Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, were included in these analyses ( n = 191 and 55 for acute and daily EI, respectively). These data include RMR (indirect calorimetry), body composition (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry), fasting appetite ratings (visual analog scales), eating behavior traits (Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire), and EI (food buffet or menu). Results: Fat-free mass was the best predictor of acute EI ( R 2 = 0.46; P fasting prospective food consumption ratings and RMR was the best predictor of daily EI ( R 2 = 0.44; P < 0.0001). RMR was a statistically significant positive predictor of the error variance for acute ( R 2 = 0.20; P < 0.0001) and daily ( R 2 = 0.23; P < 0.0001) EI. RMR did, however, remain a statistically significant predictor of acute ( R 2 = 0.32; P < 0.0001) and daily ( R 2 = 0.30; P < 0.0001) EI after controlling for this error variance. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that combined measurements of appetite ratings and RMR could be used to estimate EI in weight-stable individuals. However, greater error variance in acute and daily EI with increasing RMR values was observed. Future studies are needed to identify whether greater fluctuations in daily EI over time occur with increasing RMR values. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT

  5. Muscle quality and relative adiposity are the strongest predictors of lower-extremity physical function in older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straight, Chad R; Brady, Anne O; Evans, Ellen M

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the relative contributions of physical activity, adiposity, lean mass and muscle quality to lower-extremity physical function (LEPF) in older women. Cross-sectional analysis at a university research laboratory. Community-dwelling older women (n=96, 73.9 ± 5.6 years, BMI=26.5 ± 4.7 kg/m(2)) were assessed for body composition via dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, leg extension power using the Nottingham power rig, muscle quality (W/kg) as the ratio of leg extension power (W) to lower-body mineral free lean mass (kg) and moderate-intensity physical activity via questionnaire. A composite measure of LEPF was calculated by summing Z-scores of the 6-min walk, 8-foot up-and-go and 30-s chair stand tests. Muscle quality and physical activity were associated with all measures of LEPF (all p0.05). Hierarchical linear regression analyses revealed that muscle quality (standardized β=0.47, pquality and relative adiposity are the strongest independent predictors of LEPF in older women. These findings suggest that maintaining muscle quality, especially relative to adiposity, may be a critical target for interventions to prevent declines in physical function in older women. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Hemoglobin to Hematocrit Ratio: The Strongest Predictor of Femoral Head Osteonecrosis in Children With Sickle Cell Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worrall, Douglas; Smith-Whitley, Kim; Wells, Lawrence

    2016-03-01

    Femoral head osteonecrosis (ON) secondary to sickle cell disease (SCD) often progresses to femoral head collapse, requiring total hip arthroplasty. However, this treatment has a limited durability and patients with SCD have higher rates of complications, requiring multiple revision operations. Identifying risk factors linked to ON in SCD can facilitate earlier precollapse diagnosis and surgical treatment aimed at preservation of the native hip joint. Fifty-nine children treated at our institution between January 2001 and April 2012 with SCD and ON, as diagnosed by magnetic resonance imaging or radiographic imaging, were compared with age-matched and sickle cell phenotype-matched (SS, SC, Sβ, Sβ) controls with no evidence of ON. Two sided t-tests assuming unequal variances determined statistically risk factors and threshold values were assigned to calculate odds ratios. Systolic blood pressure (P=1.2×10, OR=3.68), diastolic blood pressure (P=0.0084, OR=1.41), weight in the SCD-SS population (P=0.04, OR=1.85), and hemoglobin (Hb) in the SCD-SS population (P=0.036, OR=2.56) were elevated in cases. Curiously, dividing the Hb by the hematocrit to serve as a clinical proxy for the mean corpuscular Hb concentration (MCHC) produced an excellent predictor of ON (P=2.06×10, OR=5.17), which was especially pronounced in the SCD-SS subpopulation (P=2.28×10, OR=8.65). Among children with SCD, the overall prevalence of ON was 9% (59/658) and the phenotype with the highest prevalence of ON was Sβ thalassemia with an ON prevalence of 11.1%. There was no observed correlation between ON and height, body mass index, cholesterol, mean corpuscular volume, hematocrit, or glucocorticoid use. These data support a novel clinical marker, the MCHC proxy, as the strongest predictor of ON in children with SCD. High-risk children should receive hip magnetic resonance imaging to diagnose early ON and facilitate interventions focused on hip preservation, forestalling, or possibly preventing

  7. Physical activity is the strongest predictor of all-cause mortality in patients with COPD: a prospective cohort study.

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    Waschki, Benjamin; Kirsten, Anne; Holz, Olaf; Müller, Kai-Christian; Meyer, Thorsten; Watz, Henrik; Magnussen, Helgo

    2011-08-01

    Systemic effects of COPD are incompletely reflected by established prognostic assessments. We determined the prognostic value of objectively measured physical activity in comparison with established predictors of mortality and evaluated the prognostic value of noninvasive assessments of cardiovascular status, biomarkers of systemic inflammation, and adipokines. In a prospective cohort study of 170 outpatients with stable COPD (mean FEV(1), 56% predicted), we assessed lung function by spirometry and body plethysmography; physical activity level (PAL) by a multisensory armband; exercise capacity by 6-min walk distance test; cardiovascular status by echocardiography, vascular Doppler sonography (ankle-brachial index [ABI]), and N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide level; nutritional and muscular status by BMI and fat-free mass index; biomarkers by levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, IL-6, fibrinogen, adiponectin, and leptin; and health status, dyspnea, and depressive symptoms by questionnaire. Established prognostic indices were calculated. The median follow-up was 48 months (range, 10-53 months). All-cause mortality was 15.4%. After adjustments, each 0.14 increase in PAL was associated with a lower risk of death (hazard ratio [HR], 0.46; 95% CI, 0.33-0.64; P leptin level (HR, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.65-0.99; P = .042), right ventricular function (Tei-index) (HR, 1.26; 95% CI, 1.04-1.54; P = .020), and ABI COPD. In addition, adiponectin level and vascular status provide independent prognostic information in our cohort.

  8. Brief Report: Lopinavir Hair Concentrations Are the Strongest Predictor of Viremia in HIV-Infected Asian Children and Adolescents on Second-Line Antiretroviral Therapy.

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    Pintye, Jillian; Bacchetti, Peter; Teeraananchai, Sirinya; Kerr, Stephen; Prasitsuebsai, Wasana; Singtoroj, Thida; Kuncze, Karen; Louie, Alexander; Koss, Catherine A; Jin, Chengshi; Phung, Nhi; Horng, Howard; Sohn, Annette H; Gandhi, Monica

    2017-12-01

    Children/adolescents display suboptimal antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence and outcomes versus adults. Hair ART concentrations are objective adherence measures that predict viremia in adults but longitudinal data on hair levels in pediatric populations is limited. We assessed the predictive utility of hair lopinavir (LPV) levels on viremia among youth on second-line ART. We examined predictors of viremia (HIV-1 RNA >400 and >1000 copies/mL) at least 24 weeks after switch to LPV-based second-line ART in a cohort of HIV-infected Asian children followed between 2011 and 2014. Small hair samples, HIV-1 RNA, and self-reported adherence were collected biannually. Hair concentrations of LPV were measured through liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry using validated methods. Time-to-first viremia was examined using discrete-time Cox models. Overall, 244 children met the inclusion criteria for the present analysis. Approximately half (55%) were boys and the median age 10 years [interquartile range (IQR) 7-13]; 40% were older than 11 years. At switch to second-line ART, median CD4 count was 300 (IQR 146-547) cells/mm and median HIV-RNA level was 5.0 (IQR 4.3-5.6) log10/mL. Median time of study follow-up was 48 weeks and a median of 3 (range 1-5) hair samples were collected from each participant. Adjusting for age, sex, country, self-reported adherence, CD4, and HIV-RNA, higher LPV hair concentrations were the strongest predictor of lower odds of viremia (HIV-RNA >400 copies/mL adjusted odds ratio = 0.41 per doubling in hair concentration, 95% confidence interval: 0.29 to 0.58, P 1000 copies/mL, adjusted odds ratio = 0.54, 95% confidence interval: 0.45 to 0.65, P Hair concentrations predict viremia among children with HIV on second-line ART and could guide clinical decisions for this population.

  9. Prostate volume is strongest predictor of cancer diagnosis at transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy with prostate-specific antigen values between 2.0 and 9.0 ng/mL.

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    Al-Azab, Rami; Toi, Ants; Lockwood, Gina; Kulkarni, Girish S; Fleshner, Neil

    2007-01-01

    Data have suggested benign prostatic hyperplasia, and not cancer, as the major reason for elevated prostate-specific antigen (PSA) values between 2.0 and 9.0 ng/mL. If this hypothesis were correct, within these ranges, a smaller prostate volume would be a stronger predictor of cancer than the PSA level itself (the relative contribution from cancer is greater in smaller glands). We examined our institutional data set of transrectal ultrasound-guided procedures from 2000 to 2003. We studied patients who presented for their first prostate biopsy with a PSA level of 2.0 to 9.0 ng/mL. The indications for biopsy were elevated age-specific PSA level or abnormal digital rectal examination findings. Other covariates included patient age, abnormal transrectal ultrasound findings, transrectal ultrasound volume, and biopsy sampling scheme. Univariate analyses were used to assess the association between each variable and cancer diagnosis. Multivariate logistic regression modeling was then used to determine the adjusted risk factors for cancer at biopsy. On univariate analyses, all measured covariates were predictive of cancer. On multivariate modeling, the significant risk factors (in order of strength) for positive biopsy findings were smaller prostate volume (odds ratio [OR] 0.26, P <0.001), increasing age (OR 1.72, P <0.001), increasing PSA (OR 1.64, P <0.001), and the presence of hypoechoic lesions (OR 2.42, P <0.001). When the PSA level is in the 2.0 to 9.0 ng/mL range, a smaller prostate volume is the strongest predictor of cancer detection. These data support previous studies suggesting the amount of benign prostatic hyperplasia, and not cancer, as the major factor responsible for elevated PSA.

  10. Anti-citrullinated peptide antibodies are the strongest predictor of clinically relevant radiographic progression in rheumatoid arthritis patients achieving remission or low disease activity: A post hoc analysis of a nationwide cohort in Japan.

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    Tomohiro Koga

    Full Text Available To determine prognostic factors of clinically relevant radiographic progression (CRRP in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA achieving remission or low disease activity (LDA in clinical practice.Using data from a nationwide, multicenter, prospective study in Japan, we evaluated 198 biological disease-modifying antirheumatic drug (bDMARD-naïve RA patients who were in remission or had LDA at study entry after being treated with conventional synthetic DMARDs (csDMARDs. CRRP was defined as the yearly progression of modified total Sharp score (mTSS >3.0 U. We performed a multiple logistic regression analysis to explore the factors to predict CRRP at 1 year. We used receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve to estimate the performance of relevant variables for predicting CRRP.The mean Disease Activity Score in 28 joints-erythrocyte sedimentation rate (DAS28-ESR was 2.32 ± 0.58 at study entry. During the 1-year observation, remission or LDA persisted in 72% of the patients. CRRP was observed in 7.6% of the patients. The multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that the independent variables to predict the development of CRRP were: anti-citrullinated peptide antibodies (ACPA positivity at baseline (OR = 15.2, 95%CI 2.64-299, time-integrated DAS28-ESR during the 1 year post-baseline (7.85-unit increase, OR = 1.83, 95%CI 1.03-3.45, and the mTSS at baseline (13-unit increase, OR = 1.22, 95%CI 1.06-1.42.ACPA positivity was the strongest independent predictor of CRRP in patients with RA in remission or LDA. Physicians should recognize ACPA as a poor-prognosis factor regarding the radiographic outcome of RA, even among patients showing a clinically favorable response to DMARDs.

  11. Academic Achievement of Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing Students in an ASL/English Bilingual Program.

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    Hrastinski, Iva; Wilbur, Ronnie B

    2016-04-01

    There has been a scarcity of studies exploring the influence of students' American Sign Language (ASL) proficiency on their academic achievement in ASL/English bilingual programs. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of ASL proficiency on reading comprehension skills and academic achievement of 85 deaf or hard-of-hearing signing students. Two subgroups, differing in ASL proficiency, were compared on the Northwest Evaluation Association Measures of Academic Progress and the reading comprehension subtest of the Stanford Achievement Test, 10th edition. Findings suggested that students highly proficient in ASL outperformed their less proficient peers in nationally standardized measures of reading comprehension, English language use, and mathematics. Moreover, a regression model consisting of 5 predictors including variables regarding education, hearing devices, and secondary disabilities as well as ASL proficiency and home language showed that ASL proficiency was the single variable significantly predicting results on all outcome measures. This study calls for a paradigm shift in thinking about deaf education by focusing on characteristics shared among successful deaf signing readers, specifically ASL fluency. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Academic Achievement of Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing Students in an ASL/English Bilingual Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilbur, Ronnie B.

    2016-01-01

    There has been a scarcity of studies exploring the influence of students’ American Sign Language (ASL) proficiency on their academic achievement in ASL/English bilingual programs. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of ASL proficiency on reading comprehension skills and academic achievement of 85 deaf or hard-of-hearing signing students. Two subgroups, differing in ASL proficiency, were compared on the Northwest Evaluation Association Measures of Academic Progress and the reading comprehension subtest of the Stanford Achievement Test, 10th edition. Findings suggested that students highly proficient in ASL outperformed their less proficient peers in nationally standardized measures of reading comprehension, English language use, and mathematics. Moreover, a regression model consisting of 5 predictors including variables regarding education, hearing devices, and secondary disabilities as well as ASL proficiency and home language showed that ASL proficiency was the single variable significantly predicting results on all outcome measures. This study calls for a paradigm shift in thinking about deaf education by focusing on characteristics shared among successful deaf signing readers, specifically ASL fluency. PMID:26864688

  13. Investigating Black ASL: A Systematic Review

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    Toliver-Smith, Andrea; Gentry, Betholyn

    2017-01-01

    The authors reviewed the literature regarding linguistic variations seen in American Sign Language. These variations are influenced by region and culture. Features of spoken languages have also influenced sign languages as they intersected, e.g., Black ASL has been influenced by African American English. A literature review was conducted to…

  14. The strongest magnetic fields in the universe

    CERN Document Server

    Balogh, A; Falanga, M; Lyutikov, M; Mereghetti, S; Piran, T; Treumann, RA

    2016-01-01

    This volume extends the ISSI series on magnetic fields in the Universe into the domain of what are by far the strongest fields in the Universe, and stronger than any field that could be produced on Earth. The chapters describe the magnetic fields in non-degenerate strongly magnetized stars, degenerate stars (such as white dwarfs and neutron stars), exotic members called magnetars, and in their environments, as well as magnetic fields in the environments of black holes. These strong fields have a profound effect on the behavior of matter, visible in particular in highly variable processes like radiation in all known wavelengths, including Gamma-Ray bursts. The generation and structure of such strong magnetic fields and effects on the environment are also described.

  15. A description of ASL features in writing

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    Kimberly A. Wolbers

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Similar to second language students who embed features of their primary languages in the writing of their second languages, deaf and hard of hearing (d/hh writers utilize features of American Sign Language (ASL in their writing of English. The purpose of this study is to identify categories of language transfer, provide the prevalence of these transfer tendencies in the writings of 29 d/hh adolescents and describe whether language features are equally or differently responsive to instruction. Findings indicate six categories of language transfer in order of prevalence: unique glossing & substitution, adjectives, plurality & adverbs, topicalization, and conjunctions. ASL features, of both lexical and syntactical nature, appear to respond similarly to instruction.

  16. The Strongest Magnetic Field in Sunspots

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    Okamoto, J.; Sakurai, T.

    2017-12-01

    Sunspots are concentrations of magnetic fields on the solar surface. Generally, the strongest magnetic field in each sunspot is located in the dark umbra in most cases. A typical field strength in sunspots is around 3,000 G. On the other hand, some exceptions also have been found in complex sunspots with bright regions such as light bridges that separate opposite polarity umbrae, for instance with a strength of 4,300 G. However, the formation mechanism of such strong fields outside umbrae is still puzzling. Here we report an extremely strong magnetic field in a sunspot, which was located in a bright region sandwiched by two opposite-polarity umbrae. The strength is 6,250 G, which is the largest ever observed since the discovery of magnetic field on the Sun in 1908 by Hale. We obtained 31 scanned maps of the active region observed by Hinode/SOT/SP with a cadence of 3 hours over 5 days (February 1-6, 2014). Considering the spatial and temporal evolution of the vector magnetic field and the Doppler velocity in the bright region, we suggested that this strong field region was generated as a result of compression of one umbra pushed by the outward flow from the other umbra (Evershed flow), like the subduction of the Earth's crust in plate tectonics.

  17. ASL-LEX: A lexical database of American Sign Language

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    Caselli, Naomi K.; Sehyr, Zed Sevcikova; Cohen-Goldberg, Ariel M.; Emmorey, Karen

    2016-01-01

    ASL-LEX is a lexical database that catalogues information about nearly 1,000 signs in American Sign Language (ASL). It includes the following information: subjective frequency ratings from 25–31 deaf signers, iconicity ratings from 21–37 hearing non-signers, videoclip duration, sign length (onset and offset), grammatical class, and whether the sign is initialized, a fingerspelled loan sign or a compound. Information about English translations is available for a subset of signs (e.g., alternate translations, translation consistency). In addition, phonological properties (sign type, selected fingers, flexion, major and minor location, and movement) were coded and used to generate sub-lexical frequency and neighborhood density estimates. ASL-LEX is intended for use by researchers, educators, and students who are interested in the properties of the ASL lexicon. An interactive website where the database can be browsed and downloaded is available at http://asl-lex.org. PMID:27193158

  18. ASL-LEX: A lexical database of American Sign Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caselli, Naomi K; Sehyr, Zed Sevcikova; Cohen-Goldberg, Ariel M; Emmorey, Karen

    2017-04-01

    ASL-LEX is a lexical database that catalogues information about nearly 1,000 signs in American Sign Language (ASL). It includes the following information: subjective frequency ratings from 25-31 deaf signers, iconicity ratings from 21-37 hearing non-signers, videoclip duration, sign length (onset and offset), grammatical class, and whether the sign is initialized, a fingerspelled loan sign, or a compound. Information about English translations is available for a subset of signs (e.g., alternate translations, translation consistency). In addition, phonological properties (sign type, selected fingers, flexion, major and minor location, and movement) were coded and used to generate sub-lexical frequency and neighborhood density estimates. ASL-LEX is intended for use by researchers, educators, and students who are interested in the properties of the ASL lexicon. An interactive website where the database can be browsed and downloaded is available at http://asl-lex.org .

  19. Multiparametric estimation of brain hemodynamics with MR fingerprinting ASL.

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    Su, Pan; Mao, Deng; Liu, Peiying; Li, Yang; Pinho, Marco C; Welch, Babu G; Lu, Hanzhang

    2017-11-01

    Assessment of brain hemodynamics without exogenous contrast agents is of increasing importance in clinical applications. This study aims to develop an MR perfusion technique that can provide noncontrast and multiparametric estimation of hemodynamic markers. We devised an arterial spin labeling (ASL) method based on the principle of MR fingerprinting (MRF), referred to as MRF-ASL. By taking advantage of the rich information contained in MRF sequence, up to seven hemodynamic parameters can be estimated concomitantly. Feasibility demonstration, flip angle optimization, comparison with Look-Locker ASL, reproducibility test, sensitivity to hypercapnia challenge, and initial clinical application in an intracranial steno-occlusive process, Moyamoya disease, were performed to evaluate this technique. Magnetic resonance fingerprinting ASL provided estimation of up to seven parameters, including B1+, tissue T 1 , cerebral blood flow (CBF), tissue bolus arrival time (BAT), pass-through arterial BAT, pass-through blood volume, and pass-through blood travel time. Coefficients of variation of the estimated parameters ranged from 0.2 to 9.6%. Hypercapnia resulted in an increase in CBF by 57.7%, and a decrease in BAT by 13.7 and 24.8% in tissue and vessels, respectively. Patients with Moyamoya disease showed diminished CBF and lengthened BAT that could not be detected with regular ASL. Magnetic resonance fingerprinting ASL is a promising technique for noncontrast, multiparametric perfusion assessment. Magn Reson Med 78:1812-1823, 2017. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  20. The Hand of The Silent Worker: Reading an ASL imageword

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    Pamela J. Kincheloe

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The essay argues that the attempt to represent ASL in two dimensions is not a new, postmodern phenomenon, but is instead one that is embedded in deaf history at least as far back as the nineteenth century.  The essay then provides a close, historically contextual reading of a particular illustration from the October 1928 issue of The Silent Worker, showing evidence of a multivocal imageword; a successful two dimensional representation of ASL, depicted in a clash with the heteroglossic English text with which it appears.

  1. Uncovering Translingual Practices in Teaching Parents Classical ASL Varieties

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    Snoddon, Kristin

    2017-01-01

    The view of sign languages as bounded systems is often important for deaf community empowerment and for pedagogical practice in terms of supporting deaf children's language acquisition and second language learners' communicative competence. Conversely, the notion of translanguaging in the American Sign Language (ASL) community highlights a number…

  2. Increasing Children's ASL Classifier Production: A Multicomponent Intervention

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    Beal-Alvarez, Jennifer S.; Easterbrooks, Susan R.

    2013-01-01

    The Authors examined classifier production during narrative retells by 10 deaf and hard of hearing students in grades 2-4 at a day school for the deaf following a 6-week intervention of repeated viewings of stories in American Sign Language (ASL) paired with scripted teacher mediation. Classifier production, documented through a…

  3. Salomon: '97 E and P looking strongest in 9 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1997-01-01

    Based on companies' disclosed spending plans, 1997 is shaping up to be the strongest year-ahead outlook in 9 years, according to Salomon Bros. Inc. Salomon Bros.' conclusion stems from its 15th annual survey of worldwide oil and gas exploration and production spending. The survey, released last month, included 125 US independents, 97 Canadian companies, 103 companies outside the US and Canada, and 15 majors. Significantly, when the 15% growth experienced in 1996 is combined with the 1997 outlook, it represents the strongest indicator of 2-year activity in the past 15 years, said Salomon Bros. Double-digit spending growth is projected in all regions for 1997, the analyst said. Salomon Bros. said a higher percentage of companies' E and P budgets are being allocated to offshore projects, driven in part by attractive prospects, 3D seismic technology, and increased operational efficiencies

  4. Considering body mass differences, who are the world's strongest women?

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    Vanderburgh, P M; Dooman, C

    2000-01-01

    Allometric modeling (AM) has been used to determine the world's strongest body mass-adjusted man. Recently, however, AM was shown to demonstrate body mass bias in elite Olympic weightlifting performance. A second order polynomial (2OP) provided a better fit than AM with no body mass bias for men and women. The purpose of this study was to apply both AM and 2OP models to women's world powerlifting records (more a function of pure strength and less power than Olympic lifts) to determine the optimal model approach as well as the strongest body mass-adjusted woman in each event. Subjects were the 36 (9 per event) current women world record holders (as of Nov., 1997) for bench press (BP), deadlift (DL), squat (SQ), and total (TOT) lift (BP + DL + SQ) according to the International Powerlifting Federation (IPF). The 2OP model demonstrated the superior fit and no body mass bias as indicated by the coefficient of variation and residuals scatterplot inspection, respectively, for DL, SQ, and TOT. The AM for these three lifts, however, showed favorable bias toward the middle weight classes. The 2OP and AM yielded an essentially identical fit for BP. Although body mass-adjusted world records were dependent on the model used, Carrie Boudreau (U.S., 56-kg weight class), who received top scores in TOT and DL with both models, is arguably the world's strongest woman overall. Furthermore, although the 2OP model provides a better fit than AM for this elite population, a case can still be made for AM use, particularly in light of theoretical superiority.

  5. Noninvasive method for mapping CVR in moyamoya disease using ASL-MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noguchi, Tomoyuki, E-mail: tnogucci@radiol.med.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Department of Radiology, National center for Global Health and Medicine, 1-21-1, Toyama, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 162-8655 (Japan); Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine and Graduate School of Medicine, Saga University, 5-1-1, Nabeshima, Saga 849-8501 (Japan); Kawashima, Masatou, E-mail: m996kawa@cc.saga-u.ac.jp [Department of Neurosugery, Faculty of Medicine and Graduate School of Medicine, Saga University, 5-1-1, Nabeshima, Saga 849-8501 (Japan); Nishihara, Masashi, E-mail: nishiham@cc.saga-u.ac.jp [Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine and Graduate School of Medicine, Saga University, 5-1-1, Nabeshima, Saga 849-8501 (Japan); Egashira, Yoshiaki, E-mail: bunta1974@yahoo.co.jp [Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine and Graduate School of Medicine, Saga University, 5-1-1, Nabeshima, Saga 849-8501 (Japan); Azama, Shinya, E-mail: azama-ssam-71257@b2.bunbun.ne.jp [Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine and Graduate School of Medicine, Saga University, 5-1-1, Nabeshima, Saga 849-8501 (Japan); Irie, Hiroyuki, E-mail: irie@cc.saga-u.ac.jp [Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine and Graduate School of Medicine, Saga University, 5-1-1, Nabeshima, Saga 849-8501 (Japan)

    2015-06-15

    Highlights: • A clinical use of a pulse-wave-synchronized ASL-MRI (pulsy ASL-MRI) was proposed. • Resting IMP-SPECT correlated with pulsy ASL-MRI in moyamoya disease. • ASL-MRI could measure cerebrovascular reserve noninvasively in moyamoya disease. - Abstract: Purpose: To project a noninvasive method for mapping cerebrovascular reserve (CVR) in moyamoya disease (MMD) using ASL-MRI. Methods: 16 MMD patients underwent cerebral blood flow (CBF) examinations by standard ASL-MRI, pulse-wave-synchronized ASL-MRI (pulsy ASL-MRI) which tagged the arterial blood coincident with a peak of a pulse wave, and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imagings with iodine-123-N-isopropyl-p-iodoamphetamine in the resting (rest-IMP) and after acetazolamide challenge (ACZ-IMP). Hemispheric 32-sided cerebral blood flow (CBF) values were measured with normalized CBF maps created from standard ASL-MRI (standard-ASL value), pulsy ASL-MRI (pulsy-ASL value), rest-IMP (rest-IMP value), and ACZ-IMP (ACZ-IMP value). CVR based on rest-IMP and ACZ-IMP values (IMP-CVR) was calculated. ASL-CVR was also calculated on the basis of corrected standard-ASL values and pulsy-ASL values, which were adjusted to the ACZ-IMP values and rest-IMP values, respectively, by the least-squares method. We assessed the relationships between rest-IMP values and pulsy-ASL values, ACZ-IMP values and standard-ASL values, and IMP-CVR and ASL-CVR. Results: Significant relationships were observed between rest-IMP values and pulsy-ASL values (correlation coefficient (r = 0.557, p < 0.01)), ACZ-IMP values and standard-ASL values (r = 0.825, p < 0.01), and IMP-CVR and ASL-CVR (r = 0.736, p < 0.01). Conclusions: ASL-MRI is equivalent to SPECT and that it might serve as a noninvasive method for mapping CVR in MMD.

  6. Noninvasive method for mapping CVR in moyamoya disease using ASL-MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noguchi, Tomoyuki; Kawashima, Masatou; Nishihara, Masashi; Egashira, Yoshiaki; Azama, Shinya; Irie, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A clinical use of a pulse-wave-synchronized ASL-MRI (pulsy ASL-MRI) was proposed. • Resting IMP-SPECT correlated with pulsy ASL-MRI in moyamoya disease. • ASL-MRI could measure cerebrovascular reserve noninvasively in moyamoya disease. - Abstract: Purpose: To project a noninvasive method for mapping cerebrovascular reserve (CVR) in moyamoya disease (MMD) using ASL-MRI. Methods: 16 MMD patients underwent cerebral blood flow (CBF) examinations by standard ASL-MRI, pulse-wave-synchronized ASL-MRI (pulsy ASL-MRI) which tagged the arterial blood coincident with a peak of a pulse wave, and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imagings with iodine-123-N-isopropyl-p-iodoamphetamine in the resting (rest-IMP) and after acetazolamide challenge (ACZ-IMP). Hemispheric 32-sided cerebral blood flow (CBF) values were measured with normalized CBF maps created from standard ASL-MRI (standard-ASL value), pulsy ASL-MRI (pulsy-ASL value), rest-IMP (rest-IMP value), and ACZ-IMP (ACZ-IMP value). CVR based on rest-IMP and ACZ-IMP values (IMP-CVR) was calculated. ASL-CVR was also calculated on the basis of corrected standard-ASL values and pulsy-ASL values, which were adjusted to the ACZ-IMP values and rest-IMP values, respectively, by the least-squares method. We assessed the relationships between rest-IMP values and pulsy-ASL values, ACZ-IMP values and standard-ASL values, and IMP-CVR and ASL-CVR. Results: Significant relationships were observed between rest-IMP values and pulsy-ASL values (correlation coefficient (r = 0.557, p < 0.01)), ACZ-IMP values and standard-ASL values (r = 0.825, p < 0.01), and IMP-CVR and ASL-CVR (r = 0.736, p < 0.01). Conclusions: ASL-MRI is equivalent to SPECT and that it might serve as a noninvasive method for mapping CVR in MMD

  7. The Strength of the Strongest Ties in Collaborative Problem Solving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Montjoye, Yves-Alexandre; Stopczynski, Arkadiusz; Shmueli, Erez

    2014-01-01

    Complex problem solving in science, engineering, and business has become a highly collaborative endeavor. Teams of scientists or engineers collaborate on projects using their social networks to gather new ideas and feedback. Here we bridge the literature on team performance and information networks...... by studying teams' problem solving abilities as a function of both their within-team networks and their members' extended networks. We show that, while an assigned team's performance is strongly correlated with its networks of expressive and instrumental ties, only the strongest ties in both networks have......-significant in the statistical analysis. Our results have consequences for the organization of teams of scientists, engineers, and other knowledge workers tackling today's most complex problems....

  8. Spatio-temporal TGV denoising for ASL perfusion imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spann, Stefan M; Kazimierski, Kamil S; Aigner, Christoph S; Kraiger, Markus; Bredies, Kristian; Stollberger, Rudolf

    2017-08-15

    In arterial spin labeling (ASL) a perfusion weighted image is achieved by subtracting a label image from a control image. This perfusion weighted image has an intrinsically low signal to noise ratio and numerous measurements are required to achieve reliable image quality, especially at higher spatial resolutions. To overcome this limitation various denoising approaches have been published using the perfusion weighted image as input for denoising. In this study we propose a new spatio-temporal filtering approach based on total generalized variation (TGV) regularization which exploits the inherent information of control and label pairs simultaneously. In this way, the temporal and spatial similarities of all images are used to jointly denoise the control and label images. To assess the effect of denoising, virtual ground truth data were produced at different SNR levels. Furthermore, high-resolution in-vivo pulsed ASL data sets were acquired and processed. The results show improved image quality, quantitative accuracy and robustness against outliers compared to seven state of the art denoising approaches. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. 'And' or 'or': General use coordination in ASL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn Davidson

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In American Sign Language (ASL, conjunction (‘and’ and disjunction (‘or’ are often conveyed by the same general use coordinator (transcribed as “COORD”. So the sequence of signs MARY WANT TEA COORD COFFEE can be interpreted as ‘Mary wants tea or coffee’ or ‘Mary wants tea and coffee’ depending on contextual, prosodic, or other lexical cues. This paper takes the first steps in describing the syntax and semantics of two general use coordinators in ASL, finding that they have a similar syntactic distribution to English coordinators and and or. Semantically, arguments are made against an ambiguity approach to account for the conjunctive and disjunctive readings; instead, I propose a Hamblin-style alternative semantics where the disjunctive and conjunctive force comes from external quantification over a set of alternatives. The pragmatic consequences of using only a prosodic distinction between disjunction from conjunction is examined via a felicity judgement study of scalar implicatures. Results indicate decreased scalar implicatures when COORD is used as disjunction, supporting the semantic analysis and suggesting that the contrast of lexical items in the scale plays an important role in its pragmatics. Extensions to other languages with potential general use coordination are discussed. http://dx.doi.org/10.3765/sp.6.4 BibTeX info

  10. Contrast optimization in multiphase arterial spin labeling; Otimizacao do contraste em ASL multi-fase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paiva, Fernando F.; Paschoal, Andre M., E-mail: paiva@ifsc.usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (CIERMag/USP), Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Instituto de Fisica; Foerster, Bernd U. [Philips Medical Systems LatAm, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Tovar-Moll, Fernanda; Moll, Jorge [Instituto D' Or de Pesquisa e Ensino, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2013-08-15

    Multiphase ASL is an effective way to overcome the regional variation of the transit time that difficult the estimation of perfusion values. However, with conventional multiple phases ASL techniques, the ASL contrast at later phases is impaired due to repeated application of excitation pulses and longitudinal relaxation making it difficult to evaluate the tissue perfusion in regions where the transit time is longer. In the present study, we show an improvement of the acquisition scheme by exploring a modulation on the flip angle of the MR acquisition to keep the ASL contrast constant over multiple phases. (author)

  11. A Curriculum for ASL: Empowering Students by Giving Them Ownership of Their Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzig, Melissa P.

    2017-01-01

    In response to the need for deaf and hard of hearing students to facilitate literacy in American Sign Language (ASL) and to put as much focus on developing students' ASL skills as they usually do on developing their English skills, Melissa Herzig has created a curriculum entitled "Creating the Narrative Stories: The Development of the…

  12. Language without Sound: The Orality or Literacy of the Deaf and ASL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batson, Lorie Goodman

    1989-01-01

    Examines American Sign Language (ASL) in the context of the orality/literacy debate and issues of language and cognition. Posits that ASL is a natural language independent of English, and asserts that examining other modes of language use can illuminate the nature of discourse in both oral and written forms. (MM)

  13. Sexual Health Behaviors of Deaf American Sign Language (ASL) Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiman, Erica; Haynes, Sharon; McKee, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Background Little is known about the sexual health behaviors of Deaf American Sign Language (ASL) users. Objective We sought to characterize the self-reported sexual behaviors of Deaf individuals. Methods Responses from 282 Deaf participants aged 18–64 from the greater Rochester, NY area who participated in the 2008 Deaf Health were analyzed. These data were compared with weighted data from a general population comparison group (N=1890). We looked at four sexual health-related outcomes: abstinence within the past year; number of sexual partners within the last year; condom use at last intercourse; and ever tested for HIV. We performed descriptive analyses, including stratification by gender, age, income, marital status, and educational level. Results Deaf respondents were more likely than the general population respondents to self-report two or more sexual partners in the past year (30.9% vs 10.1%) but self-reported higher condom use at last intercourse (28.0% vs 19.8%). HIV testing rates were similar between groups (47.5% vs 49.4%) but lower for certain Deaf groups: Deaf women (46.0% vs. 58.1%), lower-income Deaf (44.4% vs. 69.7%) and among less educated Deaf (31.3% vs. 57.7%) than among respondents from corresponding general population groups. Conclusion Deaf respondents self-reported higher numbers of sexual partners over the past year compared to the general population. Condom use was higher among Deaf participants. HIV was similar between groups, though HIV testing was significantly lower among lower-income, less well-educated, and female Deaf respondents. Deaf individuals have a sexual health risk profile that is distinct from that of the general population. PMID:26242551

  14. Sexual health behaviors of Deaf American Sign Language (ASL) users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiman, Erica; Haynes, Sharon; McKee, Michael

    2015-10-01

    Little is known about the sexual health behaviors of Deaf American Sign Language (ASL) users. We sought to characterize the self-reported sexual behaviors of Deaf individuals. Responses from 282 Deaf participants aged 18-64 from the greater Rochester, NY area who participated in the 2008 Deaf Health were analyzed. These data were compared with weighted data from a general population comparison group (N = 1890). We looked at four sexual health-related outcomes: abstinence within the past year; number of sexual partners within the last year; condom use at last intercourse; and ever tested for HIV. We performed descriptive analyses, including stratification by gender, age, income, marital status, and educational level. Deaf respondents were more likely than the general population respondents to self-report two or more sexual partners in the past year (30.9% vs 10.1%) but self-reported higher condom use at last intercourse (28.0% vs 19.8%). HIV testing rates were similar between groups (47.5% vs 49.4%) but lower for certain Deaf groups: Deaf women (46.0% vs 58.1%), lower-income Deaf (44.4% vs 69.7%) and among less educated Deaf (31.3% vs 57.7%) than among respondents from corresponding general population groups. Deaf respondents self-reported higher numbers of sexual partners over the past year compared to the general population. Condom use was higher among Deaf participants. HIV was similar between groups, though HIV testing was significantly lower among lower income, less well-educated, and female Deaf respondents. Deaf individuals have a sexual health risk profile that is distinct from that of the general population. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The efficacy of ASL/ENGLISH bilingual education: considering public schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLana, Melissa; Gentry, Mary Anne; Andrews, Jean

    2007-01-01

    The study investigated the efficacy and viability of American Sign Language (ASL)/English bilingual education for public schools serving deaf and hard of hearing children. Prior research related to ASL/English bilingual education is reviewed. Quantitative data related to the reading comprehension achievement of 25 deaf and hard of hearing students that were collected for the study are analyzed. The subjects' school program is described in depth. Overall performance of the sample is discussed. A description of high and low gainers is included. A statistically significant correlation between years of ASL usage and reading achievement is identified. Implications for the implementation of ASL/English bilingual methodology are reviewed, and suggestions for future research are offered.

  16. A Case Study of Native-ASL Deaf Child's Play in an ASL/English Bilingual Preschool Classroom: Play Behaviors, Interactions, and Language Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musyoka, Millicent Malinda

    2013-01-01

    The focus of this mixed method study was to investigate the play behaviors, play interactions, and language use--within a bilingual AS L/English classroom--of a Deaf child who is a native user of American Sign Language (ASL). Play is an essential element in all children's development. Previous research suggests that there is a strong relationship…

  17. Clinical and Dosimetric Predictors of Acute Severe Lymphopenia During Radiation Therapy and Concurrent Temozolomide for High-Grade Glioma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Jiayi, E-mail: jhuang@radonc.wustl.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri (United States); DeWees, Todd A.; Badiyan, Shahed N.; Speirs, Christina K.; Mullen, Daniel F.; Fergus, Sandra [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri (United States); Tran, David D.; Linette, Gerry; Campian, Jian L. [Division of Medical Oncology, Department of Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri (United States); Chicoine, Michael R.; Kim, Albert H.; Dunn, Gavin [Department of Neurosurgery, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri (United States); Simpson, Joseph R.; Robinson, Clifford G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri (United States)

    2015-08-01

    Purpose: Acute severe lymphopenia (ASL) frequently develops during radiation therapy (RT) and concurrent temozolomide (TMZ) for high-grade glioma (HGG) and is associated with decreased survival. The current study was designed to identify potential predictors of ASL, with a focus on actionable RT-specific dosimetric parameters. Methods and Materials: From January 2007 to December 2012, 183 patients with HGG were treated with RT+TMZ and had available data including total lymphocyte count (TLC) and radiation dose-volume histogram parameters. ASL was defined as TLC of <500/μL within the first 3 months from the start of RT. Stepwise logistic regression analysis was used to determine the most important predictors of ASL. Results: Fifty-three patients (29%) developed ASL. Patients with ASL had significantly worse overall survival than those without (median: 12.5 vs 20.2 months, respectively, P<.001). Stepwise logistic regression analysis identified female sex (odds ratio [OR]: 5.30; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.46-11.41), older age (OR: 1.05; 95% CI: 1.02-1.09), lower baseline TLC (OR: 0.92; 95% CI: 0.87-0.98), and higher brain volume receiving 25 Gy (V{sub 25Gy}) (OR: 1.03; 95% CI: 1.003-1.05) as the most significant predictors for ASL. Brain V{sub 25Gy} <56% appeared to be the optimal threshold (OR: 2.36; 95% CI: 1.11-5.01), with an ASL rate of 38% versus 20% above and below this threshold, respectively (P=.006). Conclusions: Female sex, older age, lower baseline TLC, and higher brain V{sub 25Gy} are significant predictors of ASL during RT+TMZ therapy for HGG. Maintaining the V{sub 25Gy} of brain below 56% may reduce the risk of ASL.

  18. Strongest Tropical cyclones: 1980-2009: A 30-year collage of Hurricane Satellite (HURSAT) data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Strongest Tropical Cyclones: 1980-2009 poster - a 30-year collage of Hurricane Satellite (HURSAT) data. This poster depicts a series of 5 degree grids where within...

  19. Dual-echo ASL based assessment of motor networks: a feasibility study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storti, Silvia Francesca; Boscolo Galazzo, Ilaria; Pizzini, Francesca B.; Menegaz, Gloria

    2018-04-01

    Objective. Dual-echo arterial spin labeling (DE-ASL) technique has been recently proposed for the simultaneous acquisition of ASL and blood-oxygenation-level-dependent (BOLD)-functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data. The assessment of this technique in detecting functional connectivity at rest or during motor and motor imagery tasks is still unexplored both per-se and in comparison with conventional methods. The purpose is to quantify the sensitivity of the DE-ASL sequence with respect to the conventional fMRI sequence (cvBOLD) in detecting brain activations, and to assess and compare the relevance of node features in decoding the network structure. Approach. Thirteen volunteers were scanned acquiring a pseudo-continuous DE-ASL sequence from which the concomitant BOLD (ccBOLD) simultaneously to the ASL can be extracted. The approach consists of two steps: (i) model-based analyses for assessing brain activations at individual and group levels, followed by statistical analysis for comparing the activation elicited by the three sequences under two conditions (motor and motor imagery), respectively; (ii) brain connectivity graph-theoretical analysis for assessing and comparing the network models properties. Main results. Our results suggest that cvBOLD and ccBOLD have comparable sensitivity in detecting the regions involved in the active task, whereas ASL offers a higher degree of co-localization with smaller activation volumes. The connectivity results and the comparative analysis of node features across sequences revealed that there are no strong changes between rest and tasks and that the differences between the sequences are limited to few connections. Significance. Considering the comparable sensitivity of the ccBOLD and cvBOLD sequences in detecting activated brain regions, the results demonstrate that DE-ASL can be successfully applied in functional studies allowing to obtain both ASL and BOLD information within a single sequence. Further, DE-ASL is a

  20. Multiband multi-echo simultaneous ASL/BOLD for task-induced functional MRI.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander D Cohen

    Full Text Available Typical simultaneous blood oxygenation-level dependent (BOLD and arterial spin labeling (ASL sequences acquire two echoes, one perfusion-sensitive and one BOLD-sensitive. However, for ASL, spatial resolution and brain coverage are limited due to the T1 decay of the labeled blood. This study applies a sequence combining a multiband acquisition with four echoes for simultaneous BOLD and pseudo-continuous ASL (pCASL echo planar imaging (MBME ASL/BOLD for block-design task-fMRI. A multiband acceleration of four was employed to increase brain coverage and reduce slice-timing effects on the ASL signal. Multi-echo independent component analysis (MEICA was implemented to automatically denoise the BOLD signal by regressing non-BOLD components. This technique led to increased temporal signal-to-noise ratio (tSNR and BOLD sensitivity. The MEICA technique was also modified to denoise the ASL signal by regressing artifact and BOLD signals from the first echo time-series. The MBME ASL/BOLD sequence was applied to a finger-tapping task functional MRI (fMRI experiment. Signal characteristics and activation were evaluated using single echo BOLD, combined ME BOLD, combined ME BOLD after MEICA denoising, perfusion-weighted (PW, and perfusion-weighted after MEICA denoising time-series. The PW data was extracted using both surround subtraction and high-pass filtering followed by demodulation. In addition, the CBF/BOLD response ratio and CBF/BOLD coupling were analyzed. Results showed that the MEICA denoising procedure significantly improved the BOLD signal, leading to increased BOLD sensitivity, tSNR, and activation statistics compared to conventional single echo BOLD data. At the same time, the denoised PW data showed increased tSNR and activation statistics compared to the non-denoised PW data. CBF/BOLD coupling was also increased using the denoised ASL and BOLD data. Our preliminary data suggest that the MBME ASL/BOLD sequence can be employed to collect whole

  1. Glioma Grading and Determination of IDH Mutation Status and ATRX loss by DCE and ASL Perfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brendle, Cornelia; Hempel, Johann-Martin; Schittenhelm, Jens; Skardelly, Marco; Tabatabai, Ghazaleh; Bender, Benjamin; Ernemann, Ulrike; Klose, Uwe

    2017-05-09

    To evaluate arterial spin labeling (ASL) perfusion and dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) perfusion in glioma grading according to the previous WHO classification of 2007, as well as concerning isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) mutation status and ATRX expression as required by the new WHO 2016 brain tumor classification. The mean values of Ktrans, Kep, Ve, and Vp by DCE perfusion, and cerebral blood flow (CBF) by ASL perfusion were assessed retrospectively in 40 patients with initial glioma diagnosis. Perfusion parameters were correlated and compared concerning glioma grading, IDH mutation status and ATRX expression. The DCE and ASL perfusion parameters showed merely moderate correlation. The Ktrans, Ve, and CBF by DCE perfusion were different in low-grade and high-grade gliomas (p = 0.0018, p IDH mutation (p = 0.014, sensitivity = 0.75, specificity = 0.88) and showed a trend for the discrimination of astrocytomas with IDH mutation from oligodendrogliomas (p = 0.074). In conclusion, DCE and ASL perfusion are complementary in the differentiation of gliomas. The discrimination of low- and high-grade gliomas is possible by the DCE perfusion parameter Ve, while ASL perfusion shows potential for the differentiation of the IDH and ATRX mutation status of gliomas following the new WHO classification 2016. Both perfusion techniques might represent different aspects of brain tumor perfusion.

  2. Diffusive versus Displacive Contact Plasticity of Nanoscale Asperities: Temperature- and Velocity-Dependent Strongest Size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Wei; Wang, Zhao; Li, Ju

    2015-10-14

    We predict a strongest size for the contact strength when asperity radii of curvature decrease below 10 nm. The reason for such strongest size is found to be correlated with the competition between the dislocation plasticity and surface diffusional plasticity. The essential role of temperature is calculated and illustrated in a comprehensive asperity size-strength-temperature map taking into account the effect of contact velocity. Such a map should be essential for various phenomena related to nanoscale contacts such as nanowire cold welding, self-assembly of nanoparticles and adhesive nanopillar arrays, as well as the electrical, thermal, and mechanical properties of macroscopic interfaces.

  3. Levothyroxine therapy and impaired clearance are the strongest contributors to small intestinal bacterial overgrowth: Results of a retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brechmann, Thorsten; Sperlbaum, Andre; Schmiegel, Wolff

    2017-02-07

    To identify a set of contributors, and weight and rank them on a pathophysiological basis. Patients who have undergone a lactulose or glucose hydrogen breath test to rule out small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) for various clinical symptoms, including diarrhoea, weight loss, abdominal pain, cramping or bloating, were seen as eligible for inclusion in a retrospective single-centre study. Clinical data such as co-morbidities, medication, laboratory parameters and other possible risk factors have been identified from the electronic data system. Cases lacking or with substantially incomplete clinical data were excluded from the analysis. Suspected contributors were summarised under four different pathophysiological pathways (impaired gastric acid barrier, impaired intestinal clearance, immunosuppression and miscellaneous factors including thyroid gland variables) and investigated using the χ 2 test, Student's t -test and logistic regression models. A total of 1809 patients who had undergone hydrogen breath testing were analysed. Impairment of the gastric acid barrier (gastrectomy, odds ratio: OR = 3.5, PPI therapy OR = 1.4), impairment of intestinal clearance (any resecting gastric surgery OR = 2.6, any colonic resection OR = 1.9, stenosis OR = 3.4, gastroparesis OR = 3.4, neuropathy 2.2), immunological factors (any drug-induced immunosuppression OR = 1.8), altered thyroid gland metabolism (hypothyroidism OR = 2.6, levothyroxine therapy OR = 3.0) and diabetes mellitus (OR = 1.9) were associated significantly to SIBO. Any abdominal surgery, ileocecal resection, vagotomy or IgA-deficiency did not have any influence, and a history of appendectomy decreased the risk of SIBO. Multivariate analysis revealed gastric surgery, stenoses, medical immunosuppression and levothyroxine to be the strongest predictors. Levothyroxine therapy was the strongest contributor in a simplified model (OR = 3.0). The most important contributors for the development of SIBO in ascending

  4. ASL Handshape Stories, Word Recognition and Signing Deaf Readers: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gietz, Merrilee R.

    2013-01-01

    The effectiveness of using American Sign Language (ASL) handshape stories to teach word recognition in whole stories using a descriptive case study approach was explored. Four profoundly deaf children ages 7 to 8, enrolled in a self-contained deaf education classroom in a public school in the south participated in the story time five-week…

  5. Black Deaf Individuals' Reading Skills: Influence of ASL, Culture, Family Characteristics, Reading Experience, and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Candace; Clark, M. Diane; Musyoka, Millicent M.; Anderson, Melissa L.; Gilbert, Gizelle L.; Agyen, Selina; Hauser, Peter C.

    2010-01-01

    Previous research on the reading abilities of Deaf individuals from various cultural groups suggests that Black Deaf and Hispanic Deaf individuals lag behind their White Deaf peers. The present study compared the reading skills of Black Deaf and White Deaf individuals, investigating the influence of American Sign Language (ASL), culture, family…

  6. The Sign "Institute" and Its Derivatives: A Family of Culturally Important ASL Signs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalsky, Jilly; Meier, Richard P.

    2013-01-01

    The sign "institute" is the source of a family of ASL signs that are used to refer to residential schools for deaf children and to other institutions. The members of the "institute" sign family--although initialized--are well-established within the Deaf community and, importantly, are used to refer to highly-valued aspects of Deaf culture. This is…

  7. Family-Centered Practices and American Sign Language (ASL): Challenges and Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardin, Belinda J.; Blanchard, Sheresa Boone; Kemmery, Megan A.; Appenzeller, Margo; Parker, Samuel D.

    2014-01-01

    Families with children who are deaf face many important decisions, especially the mode(s) of communication their children will use. The purpose of this focus group study was to better understand the experiences and recommendations of families who chose American Sign Language (ASL) as their primary mode of communication and to identify strategies…

  8. Black deaf individuals' reading skills: influence of ASL, culture, family characteristics, reading experience, and education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Candace; Clark, M Diane; Musyoka, Millicent M; Anderson, Melissa L; Gilbert, Gizelle L; Agyen, Selina; Hauser, Peter C

    2010-01-01

    Previous research on the reading abilities of Deaf individuals from various cultural groups suggests that Black Deaf and Hispanic Deaf individuals lag behind their White Deaf peers. The present study compared the reading skills of Black Deaf and White Deaf individuals, investigating the influence of American Sign Language (ASL), culture, family characteristics, reading experience, and education. (The descriptor Black is used throughout the present article, as Black Deaf individuals prefer this term to African American. For purposes of parallel construction, the term White is used instead of European American.) It was found that Black Deaf study participants scored lower on measures of both reading and ASL. These findings provide implications for possible interventions at the primary, secondary, and college levels of education.

  9. Comparison of ASL and DCE MRI for the non-invasive measurement of renal blood flow: quantification and reproducibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cutajar, Marica; Hales, Patrick W.; Clark, Christopher A.; Gordon, Isky; Thomas, David L.; Banks, T.

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the reproducibility of arterial spin labelling (ASL) and dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and quantitatively compare these techniques for the measurement of renal blood flow (RBF). Sixteen healthy volunteers were examined on two different occasions. ASL was performed using a multi-TI FAIR labelling scheme with a segmented 3D-GRASE imaging module. DCE MRI was performed using a 3D-FLASH pulse sequence. A Bland-Altman analysis was used to assess repeatability of each technique, and determine the degree of correspondence between the two methods. The overall mean cortical renal blood flow (RBF) of the ASL group was 263 ± 41 ml min -1 [100 ml tissue] -1 , and using DCE MRI was 287 ± 70 ml min -1 [100 ml tissue] -1 . The group coefficient of variation (CV g ) was 18 % for ASL and 28 % for DCE-MRI. Repeatability studies showed that ASL was more reproducible than DCE with CV g s of 16 % and 25 % for ASL and DCE respectively. Bland-Altman analysis comparing the two techniques showed a good agreement. The repeated measures analysis shows that the ASL technique has better reproducibility than DCE-MRI. Difference analysis shows no significant difference between the RBF values of the two techniques. (orig.)

  10. Ka-Pow! : using ASL and English to explore narratives in comics

    OpenAIRE

    Stone, Adam Michael

    2010-01-01

    A major goal in elementary education is to explore stories in its many forms, including comics. Based on Cummin's framework for the empowerment of minority students, a bilingual curriculum centered on comics was designed and implemented based on reading and creating narratives in the form of comics using American Sign Language (ASL) and English. Deaf students gained experience in working with comics and the narratives within, and acquired the linguistic abilities to do so, in both languages

  11. Gestione del rischio clinico nell’ASL 3 Genovese: esperienze e prospettive

    OpenAIRE

    Bruno, Giovanni; Corbella, Angela; Giacobbe, Sara; Rebagliati, Bruna

    2009-01-01

    In recent years all the most authoritative healthcare organizations have underlined the importance of improving clinical risk management strategies to ensure patients safety and cost savings. This article describes a one-year experience in the contest of ASL 3 Genovese, showing the developement of a risk management project, its aims and its limits. An adequate risk management approach should be based on a “system approach”, which assumes that errors of individuals can’t be avoided, but the sy...

  12. Aslı Erdoğan'ın Anlatılarında Ontolojik Sorunlar Ontological Problems in Aslı Erdoğan's Narratives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet ÖZGER

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The issue of existence in Aslı Erdoğan's narratives will be examined in this article. Aslı Erdoğan is one of the leading female autor in the last term Turkish Literature. Having written sort stories, novelsand essays the autor became famous with her artistic creativity. It canbe talked about two interwoven adventures in Aslı Erdoğan’s Works.The adventures in the outside world are accompanied by the heroes’adventures of an inner worlds. Heroes appear to be almost all alone, nothold, competing with backgrounds and themselves, living in a constantfeeling of emptiness and nothingness, who are looking to a meaningtoward lack and devastation in their lives. In this context, it seems thatexistential concepts and trajectory are in the forefront rather than plotin which speeches and interviews gained density. The circumstancesand details which shape human existence and attitude toward life areemphasized. The main problem of the narrative heroes is the alienationand the other existential problems that we see in narrative areconditions that become visible with other existential alienationproblems. It is seen that heroes are alienated particularly againstthemselves, environment and society. In this respect in the alienation ofnarrative, as a type of alienation themes like individual anomie andaccordingly, solitude, nothingness / space, escape / exile, death andsuicide and so on stand out. This narrative themes are important inrevealing the psychological world of the heroes as well as to reveal thepsychology of the author. Bu yazıda Aslı Erdoğan’ın anlatılarında varoluş sorunsalı incelenecektir. Aslı Erdoğan son dönem Türk edebiyatının önemli kadın yazarlarından biridir. Öykü, roman, deneme türlerinde eserler kaleme alan sanatçı, sanatsal yaratıcılık yeteneğiyle adından söz ettirmeyi başarmıştır. Aslı Erdoğan’ın eserlerinde iç içe geçmiş iki serüvenden bahsedilebilir. Kahramanların dış dünyadaki ser

  13. Application of 3.0T magnetic resonance arterial spin labeling (ASL) technology in mild and moderate intracranial atherosclerotic stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhongwei; Li, Naikun; Qu, Yanyan; Gai, Feng; Zhang, Guowei; Zhang, Guanghui

    2016-07-01

    The application value of 3.0T magnetic resonance arterial spin labeling (ASL) technology in mild and moderate intracranial atherosclerotic stenosis was evaluated. A total of 58 cases of transient ischemic attack (TIA) and 60 cases of ischemic cerebral apoplexy cases were selected. The cases were analysed using a GE Healthcare Signa HDx 3.0T superconducting whole-body magnetic resonance scan within 24 h of attack. Eight-channel head phased array coils and conventional sequence were used to create T1-weighted images (T1WI), T2WI, diffusion-weighted imaging, magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) and ASL imaging, which were generated into ASL pseudo-color images (blue was hypoperfusion area) through post-processing in order to compare and analyze the correlation and differences between ASL and conventional imaging in terms of lesion location, size, blood perfusion situation and signal range of relative cerebral blood flow (rCBF). The results showed that, 13 TIA cases of abnormal signal in conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can also be found through ASL technology. Diameter stenosis beyond 30% in MRA can also be tested in ASL. A positive rate in ASL was significantly higher than that of conventional MRI (χ 2 =29.078, P<0.001) and hypoperfusion area was greatly increased (t=32.526, P<0.001). The rCBF value was positively correlated with the degree of diameter stenosis shown in MRA (r=0.524, P=0.012). Additionally, the positive rate of ASL was positively correlated with the attack times of TIA (r=0.352, P=0.027). A total of 39 cerebral apoplexy cases of abnormal signal in conventional MRI were also found through ASL technology. A positive rate in ASL was significantly higher than that of conventional MRI (χ 2 =7.685, P=0.006) and hypoperfusion area was greatly increased (t=9.425, P<0.001). The rCBF value was positively correlated with the degree of diameter stenosis (r=0.635, P=0.009). In conclusion, 3.0T ASL correlated with early diagnosis of TIA and mild and

  14. MobileASL: intelligibility of sign language video over mobile phones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavender, Anna; Vanam, Rahul; Barney, Dane K; Ladner, Richard E; Riskin, Eve A

    2008-01-01

    For Deaf people, access to the mobile telephone network in the United States is currently limited to text messaging, forcing communication in English as opposed to American Sign Language (ASL), the preferred language. Because ASL is a visual language, mobile video phones have the potential to give Deaf people access to real-time mobile communication in their preferred language. However, even today's best video compression techniques can not yield intelligible ASL at limited cell phone network bandwidths. Motivated by this constraint, we conducted one focus group and two user studies with members of the Deaf Community to determine the intelligibility effects of video compression techniques that exploit the visual nature of sign language. Inspired by eye tracking results that show high resolution foveal vision is maintained around the face, we studied region-of-interest encodings (where the face is encoded at higher quality) as well as reduced frame rates (where fewer, better quality, frames are displayed every second). At all bit rates studied here, participants preferred moderate quality increases in the face region, sacrificing quality in other regions. They also preferred slightly lower frame rates because they yield better quality frames for a fixed bit rate. The limited processing power of cell phones is a serious concern because a real-time video encoder and decoder will be needed. Choosing less complex settings for the encoder can reduce encoding time, but will affect video quality. We studied the intelligibility effects of this tradeoff and found that we can significantly speed up encoding time without severely affecting intelligibility. These results show promise for real-time access to the current low-bandwidth cell phone network through sign-language-specific encoding techniques.

  15. Recognition of American Sign Language (ASL) Classifiers in a Planetarium Using a Head-Mounted Display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hintz, Eric G.; Jones, Michael; Lawler, Jeannette; Bench, Nathan

    2015-01-01

    A traditional accommodation for the deaf or hard-of-hearing in a planetarium show is some type of captioning system or a signer on the floor. Both of these have significant drawbacks given the nature of a planetarium show. Young audience members who are deaf likely don't have the reading skills needed to make a captioning system effective. A signer on the floor requires light which can then splash onto the dome. We have examined the potential of using a Head-Mounted Display (HMD) to provide an American Sign Language (ASL) translation. Our preliminary test used a canned planetarium show with a pre-recorded sound track. Since many astronomical objects don't have official ASL signs, the signer had to use classifiers to describe the different objects. Since these are not official signs, these classifiers provided a way to test to see if students were picking up the information using the HMD.We will present results that demonstrate that the use of HMDs is at least as effective as projecting a signer on the dome. This also showed that the HMD could provide the necessary accommodation for students for whom captioning was ineffective. We will also discuss the current effort to provide a live signer without the light splash effect and our early results on teaching effectiveness with HMDs.This work is partially supported by funding from the National Science Foundation grant IIS-1124548 and the Sorenson Foundation.

  16. Vocabulary Use by Low, Moderate, and High ASL-Proficient Writers Compared to Hearing ESL and Monolingual Speakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singleton, Jenny L; Morgan, Dianne; DiGello, Elizabeth; Wiles, Jill; Rivers, Rachel

    2004-01-01

    The written English vocabulary of 72 deaf elementary school students of various proficiency levels in American Sign Language (ASL) was compared with the performance of 60 hearing English-as-a-second-language (ESL) speakers and 61 hearing monolingual speakers of English, all of similar age. Students were asked to retell "The Tortoise and the Hare" story (previously viewed on video) in a writing activity. Writing samples were later scored for total number of words, use of words known to be highly frequent in children's writing, redundancy in writing, and use of English function words. All deaf writers showed significantly lower use of function words as compared to their hearing peers. Low-ASL-proficient students demonstrated a highly formulaic writing style, drawing mostly on high-frequency words and repetitive use of a limited range of function words. The moderate- and high-ASL-proficient deaf students' writing was not formulaic and incorporated novel, low-frequency vocabulary to communicate their thoughts. The moderate- and high-ASL students' performance revealed a departure from findings one might expect based on previous studies with deaf writers and their vocabulary use. The writing of the deaf writers also differed from the writing of hearing ESL speakers. Implications for deaf education and literacy instruction are discussed, with special attention to the fact that ASL-proficient, deaf second-language learners of English may be approaching English vocabulary acquisition in ways that are different from hearing ESL learners.

  17. ON POTENTIAL REPRESENTATIONS OF THE DISTRIBUTION LAW OF RARE STRONGEST EARTHQUAKES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Rodkin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Assessment of long-term seismic hazard is critically dependent on the behavior of tail of the distribution function of rare strongest earthquakes. Analyses of empirical data cannot however yield the credible solution of this problem because the instrumental catalogs of earthquake are available only for a rather short time intervals, and the uncertainty in estimations of magnitude of paleoearthquakes is high. From the available data, it was possible only to propose a number of alternative models characterizing the distribution of rare strongest earthquakes. There are the following models: the model based on theGuttenberg – Richter law suggested to be valid until a maximum possible seismic event (Мmах, models of 'bend down' of earthquake recurrence curve, and the characteristic earthquakes model. We discuss these models from the general physical concepts supported by the theory of extreme values (with reference to the generalized extreme value (GEV distribution and the generalized Pareto distribution (GPD and the multiplicative cascade model of seismic regime. In terms of the multiplicative cascade model, seismic regime is treated as a large number of episodes of avalanche-type relaxation of metastable states which take place in a set of metastable sub-systems.The model of magnitude-unlimited continuation of the Guttenberg – Richter law is invalid from the physical point of view because it corresponds to an infinite mean value of seismic energy and infinite capacity of the process generating seismicity. A model of an abrupt cut of this law by a maximum possible event, Мmах is not fully logical either.A model with the 'bend-down' of earthquake recurrence curve can ensure both continuity of the distribution law and finiteness of seismic energy value. Results of studies with the use of the theory of extreme values provide a convincing support to the model of 'bend-down' of earthquakes’ recurrence curve. Moreover they testify also that the

  18. Teachers' perceptions of promoting sign language phonological awareness in an ASL/English bilingual program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crume, Peter K

    2013-10-01

    The National Reading Panel emphasizes that spoken language phonological awareness (PA) developed at home and school can lead to improvements in reading performance in young children. However, research indicates that many deaf children are good readers even though they have limited spoken language PA. Is it possible that some deaf students benefit from teachers who promote sign language PA instead? The purpose of this qualitative study is to examine teachers' beliefs and instructional practices related to sign language PA. A thematic analysis is conducted on 10 participant interviews at an ASL/English bilingual school for the deaf to understand their views and instructional practices. The findings reveal that the participants had strong beliefs in developing students' structural knowledge of signs and used a variety of instructional strategies to build students' knowledge of sign structures in order to promote their language and literacy skills.

  19. Annona muricata leaves have strongest cytotoxic activity against breast cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susi Endrini

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background Plant-derived herbal compounds have a long history of clinical use, better patient tolerance and acceptance. They are freely available natural compounds that can be safely used to prevent various ailments. Plants have been the basis of traditional medicine throughout the world for thousands of years and are providing mankind with new remedies. The objective of this study was to determine the cytotoxicity of soursop (Anona muricata Linn leaves and pearl grass (Hedyotis corymbosa (L. Lam. on the hormone-dependent human breast carcinoma Michigan Cancer Foundation-7 (MCF-7 cell line. Methods This study used two types of solvents (water and ethanol in the extraction process and two incubation times (24 hours and 48 hours in the MTT assays to analyze the cytotoxic effects of both plants. Results Preliminary results showed that the ethanolic extract of soursop leaves (SE displayed cytotoxic effects against MCF-7 on 24- and 48-hour incubation times with IC50 values of 88.788 ìg/ml and 14.678 mg/ml, respectively. Ethanolic pearl grass extract (PE showed similar results, with IC50 values of 65.011 mg/ml on 24-hour incubation time and 52.329 mg/ml on 48-hour incubation time against MCF-7 cell line. However, the water extract of both plants displayed lower cytotoxic effect against MCF-7 cell line. Conclusion The ethanolic extract of both plants displayed cytotoxic effect against MCF-7. Soursop (Anona muricata Linn leaves have the strongest cytotoxic activity against MCF-7 breast cancer cell line.

  20. Annona muricata leaves have strongest cytotoxic activity against breast cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susi Endrini

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Plant-derived herbal compounds have a long history of clinical use, better patient tolerance and acceptance. They are freely available natural compounds that can be safely used to prevent various ailments. Plants have been the basis of traditional medicine throughout the world for thousands of years and are providing mankind with new remedies. The objective of this study was to determine the cytotoxicity of soursop (Anona muricata Linn leaves and pearl grass (Hedyotis corymbosa (L. Lam. on the hormone-dependent human breast carcinoma Michigan Cancer Foundation-7 (MCF-7 cell line. METHODS This study used two types of solvents (water and ethanol in the extraction process and two incubation times (24 hours and 48 hours in the MTT assays to analyze the cytotoxic effects of both plants. RESULTS Preliminary results showed that the ethanolic extract of soursop leaves (SE displayed cytotoxic effects against MCF-7 on 24- and 48-hour incubation times with IC50 values of 88.788 μg/ml and 14.678 μg/ml, respectively. Ethanolic pearl grass extract (PE showed similar results, with IC50 values of 65.011 μg/ ml on 24-hour incubation time and 52.329 μg/ml on 48-hour incubation time against MCF-7 cell line. However, the water extract of both plants displayed lower cytotoxic effect against MCF-7 cell line. CONCLUSION The ethanolic extract of both plants displayed cytotoxic effect against MCF-7. Soursop (Anona muricata Linn leaves have the strongest cytotoxic activity against MCF-7 breast cancer cell line.

  1. Simultaneous perception of a spoken and a signed language: The brain basis of ASL-English code-blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisberg, Jill; McCullough, Stephen; Emmorey, Karen

    2018-01-01

    Code-blends (simultaneous words and signs) are a unique characteristic of bimodal bilingual communication. Using fMRI, we investigated code-blend comprehension in hearing native ASL-English bilinguals who made a semantic decision (edible?) about signs, audiovisual words, and semantically equivalent code-blends. English and ASL recruited a similar fronto-temporal network with expected modality differences: stronger activation for English in auditory regions of bilateral superior temporal cortex, and stronger activation for ASL in bilateral occipitotemporal visual regions and left parietal cortex. Code-blend comprehension elicited activity in a combination of these regions, and no cognitive control regions were additionally recruited. Furthermore, code-blends elicited reduced activation relative to ASL presented alone in bilateral prefrontal and visual extrastriate cortices, and relative to English alone in auditory association cortex. Consistent with behavioral facilitation observed during semantic decisions, the findings suggest that redundant semantic content induces more efficient neural processing in language and sensory regions during bimodal language integration. PMID:26177161

  2. Where to Look for American Sign Language (ASL) Sublexical Structure in the Visual World: Reply to Salverda (2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberman, Amy M.; Borovsky, Arielle; Hatrak, Marla; Mayberry, Rachel I.

    2016-01-01

    In this reply to Salverda (2016), we address a critique of the claims made in our recent study of real-time processing of American Sign Language (ASL) signs using a novel visual world eye-tracking paradigm (Lieberman, Borovsky, Hatrak, & Mayberry, 2015). Salverda asserts that our data do not support our conclusion that native signers and…

  3. The Development of Antonym Knowledge in American Sign Language (ASL) and Its Relationship to Reading Comprehension in English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novogrodsky, Rama; Caldwell-Harris, Catherine; Fish, Sarah; Hoffmeister, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    It is unknown if the developmental path of antonym knowledge in deaf children increases continuously with age and correlates with reading comprehension, as it does in hearing children. In the current study we tested 564 students aged 4-18 on a receptive multiple-choice American Sign Language (ASL) antonym test. A subgroup of 138 students aged 7-18…

  4. Lexical-Semantic Organization in Bilingually Developing Deaf Children with ASL-Dominant Language Exposure: Evidence from a Repeated Meaning Association Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Wolfgang; Sheng, Li; Morgan, Gary

    2016-01-01

    This study compared the lexical-semantic organization skills of bilingually developing deaf children in American Sign Language (ASL) and English with those of a monolingual hearing group. A repeated meaning-association paradigm was used to assess retrieval of semantic relations in deaf 6-10-year-olds exposed to ASL from birth by their deaf…

  5. DIFFERENCES BETWEEN AMERICAN SIGN LANGUAGE (ASL AND BRITISH SIGN LANGUAGE (BSL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zora JACHOVA

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available In the communication of deaf people between them­selves and hearing people there are three ba­sic as­pects of interaction: gesture, finger signs and writing. The gesture is a conditionally agreed manner of communication with the help of the hands followed by face and body mimic. The ges­ture and the move­ments pre-exist the speech and they had the purpose to mark something, and later to emphasize the speech expression.Stokoe was the first linguist that realised that the signs are not a whole that can not be analysed. He analysed signs in insignificant parts that he called “chemeres”, and many linguists today call them pho­nemes. He created three main phoneme catego­ries: hand position, location and movement.Sign languages as spoken languages have back­ground from the distant past. They developed par­allel with the development of spoken language and undertook many historical changes. Therefore, to­day they do not represent a replacement of the spoken language, but are languages themselves in the real sense of the word.Although the structures of the English language used in USA and in Great Britain is the same, still their sign languages-ASL and BSL are different.

  6. Health Information National Trends Survey in American Sign Language (HINTS-ASL): Protocol for the Cultural Adaptation and Linguistic Validation of a National Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushalnagar, Poorna; Harris, Raychelle; Paludneviciene, Raylene; Hoglind, TraciAnn

    2017-09-13

    The Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS) collects nationally representative data about the American's public use of health-related information. This survey is available in English and Spanish, but not in American Sign Language (ASL). Thus, the exclusion of ASL users from these national health information survey studies has led to a significant gap in knowledge of Internet usage for health information access in this underserved and understudied population. The objectives of this study are (1) to culturally adapt and linguistically translate the HINTS items to ASL (HINTS-ASL); and (2) to gather information about deaf people's health information seeking behaviors across technology-mediated platforms. We modified the standard procedures developed at the US National Center for Health Statistics Cognitive Survey Laboratory to culturally adapt and translate HINTS items to ASL. Cognitive interviews were conducted to assess clarity and delivery of these HINTS-ASL items. Final ASL video items were uploaded to a protected online survey website. The HINTS-ASL online survey has been administered to over 1350 deaf adults (ages 18 to 90 and up) who use ASL. Data collection is ongoing and includes deaf adult signers across the United States. Some items from HINTS item bank required cultural adaptation for use with deaf people who use accessible services or technology. A separate item bank for deaf-related experiences was created, reflecting deaf-specific technology such as sharing health-related ASL videos through social network sites and using video remote interpreting services in health settings. After data collection is complete, we will conduct a series of analyses on deaf people's health information seeking behaviors across technology-mediated platforms. HINTS-ASL is an accessible health information national trends survey, which includes a culturally appropriate set of items that are relevant to the experiences of deaf people who use ASL. The final HINTS-ASL

  7. Health Information National Trends Survey in American Sign Language (HINTS-ASL): Protocol for the Cultural Adaptation and Linguistic Validation of a National Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Raychelle; Paludneviciene, Raylene; Hoglind, TraciAnn

    2017-01-01

    Background The Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS) collects nationally representative data about the American’s public use of health-related information. This survey is available in English and Spanish, but not in American Sign Language (ASL). Thus, the exclusion of ASL users from these national health information survey studies has led to a significant gap in knowledge of Internet usage for health information access in this underserved and understudied population. Objective The objectives of this study are (1) to culturally adapt and linguistically translate the HINTS items to ASL (HINTS-ASL); and (2) to gather information about deaf people’s health information seeking behaviors across technology-mediated platforms. Methods We modified the standard procedures developed at the US National Center for Health Statistics Cognitive Survey Laboratory to culturally adapt and translate HINTS items to ASL. Cognitive interviews were conducted to assess clarity and delivery of these HINTS-ASL items. Final ASL video items were uploaded to a protected online survey website. The HINTS-ASL online survey has been administered to over 1350 deaf adults (ages 18 to 90 and up) who use ASL. Data collection is ongoing and includes deaf adult signers across the United States. Results Some items from HINTS item bank required cultural adaptation for use with deaf people who use accessible services or technology. A separate item bank for deaf-related experiences was created, reflecting deaf-specific technology such as sharing health-related ASL videos through social network sites and using video remote interpreting services in health settings. After data collection is complete, we will conduct a series of analyses on deaf people’s health information seeking behaviors across technology-mediated platforms. Conclusions HINTS-ASL is an accessible health information national trends survey, which includes a culturally appropriate set of items that are relevant to the

  8. Neural Substrates Associated with Weather-Induced Mood Variability: An Exploratory Study Using ASL Perfusion fMRI

    OpenAIRE

    Gillihan, Seth J.; Detre, John A.; Farah, Martha J.; Rao, Hengyi

    2011-01-01

    Daily variations in weather are known to be associated with variations in mood. However, little is known about the specific brain regions that instantiate weather-related mood changes. We used a data-driven approach and ASL perfusion fMRI to assess the neural substrates associated with weather-induced mood variability. The data-driven approach was conducted with mood ratings under various weather conditions (N = 464). Forward stepwise regression was conducted to develop a statistical model of...

  9. Incentivi ai farmaci generici a livello di ASL: l’osservatorio I.H.A.G.O.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Martina

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Generic drugs are pharmaceutical products that contain an active substance whose patent-covered period expired and are marketed with the name of the molecule. The public health authorities of most EU countries agree on the importance of generic drugs in rationalising the pharmaceutical market, particularly by favouring reasonable pricing of “mature” products. In contrast with this wide consensus, the market share of generic drugs remains quite poor in Italy, despite recent regulatory incentives for the promotion of their use. The longlasting lack of specific laws - reference-price politics were introduced only in 2001- and the unusually long patent-covered period fixed by the past legislation are among the main reasons for the scarce utilisation of generics in Italy. The awareness of the importance of promoting initiatives conducted on a local (ASL, and not only national (SSN scale conducted to the I.H.A.G.O. project, an observatory on the diffusion of generics in several local health districts. The project analyses the impact, in terms of market share, of local promoting activities (investigated by means of questionnaires conducted during the year 2001 in 11 ASLs (local health districts, deliberately selected among the most active in terms of promotion of the use of generics. The I.H.A.G.O. observation revealed several praiseworthy promotional efforts, particularly of informative and cultural kind, conducted by some of the considered ASLs. Unfortunately, these measures seem not to have had a practical impact on the generics market in the observed districts: the market share increase was superior to the one observed on national scale only in 4 of the considered ASLs, in other 4 it was similar, and in the remaining 3 it resulted even inferior. It appears useful to plan further measures to support the diffusion of generics, maybe by motivating health operators to their prescription with the introduction of “prize/punishment” mechanisms.

  10. Neural Substrates Associated with Weather-Induced Mood Variability: An Exploratory Study Using ASL Perfusion fMRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillihan, Seth J; Detre, John A; Farah, Martha J; Rao, Hengyi

    2011-04-01

    Daily variations in weather are known to be associated with variations in mood. However, little is known about the specific brain regions that instantiate weather-related mood changes. We used a data-driven approach and ASL perfusion fMRI to assess the neural substrates associated with weather-induced mood variability. The data-driven approach was conducted with mood ratings under various weather conditions (N = 464). Forward stepwise regression was conducted to develop a statistical model of mood as a function of weather conditions. The model results were used to calculate the mood-relevant weather index which served as the covariate in the regression analysis of the resting CBF (N = 42) measured by ASL perfusion fMRI under various weather conditions. The resting CBF activities in the left insula-prefrontal cortex and left superior parietal lobe were negatively correlated (corrected p<0.05) with the weather index, indicating that better mood-relevant weather conditions were associated with lower CBF in these regions within the brain's emotional network. The present study represents a first step toward the investigation of the effect of natural environment on baseline human brain function, and suggests the feasibility of ASL perfusion fMRI for such study.

  11. Diabetes mellitus and female gender are the strongest predictors of poor collateral vessel development in patients with severe coronary artery stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yetkin, Ertan; Topal, Ergun; Erguzel, Nuri; Senen, Kubilay; Heper, Gulumser; Waltenberger, Johannes

    2015-04-01

    Coronary collateral vessel development (CVD), i.e., arteriogenesis, is regarded as one of the most important mechanisms—along with angiogenesis—to result in protection of the myocardium. Coronary CVD is associated with a reduction in infarct size, future cardiovascular events and improved survival in patients with occlusive coronary artery disease by enhancing regional perfusion in the chronically ischemic myocardium. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the relation of cardiovascular risk factors and hematological parameters with collateral development in patients with severely stenotic (≥95%) and totally occluded coronary artery disease including at least one major coronary artery. The study population was selected from the patients who underwent coronary angiography between January 2008 and March 2009. Five hundred and two patients who had at least one coronary artery stenosis ≥95% (368 men; mean age 59 ± 10 years) comprised the study population. Of the 502 patients, 228 had total occlusion in at least one major epicardial coronary artery. Collateral artery grading was performed by using Cohen-Rentrop method to the vessel with coronary artery stenosis of ≥95% and patients with chronic total occlusions (CTO). Patients with grade 0-1 collateral development were regarded as the poor collateral group, and patients with grade 2-3 collateral development were regarded as the good collateral group. Two hundred and fifty-eight (51%) of 502 patients had poor collateral development, and 244 (49%) had good collateral development. Logistic regression analysis revealed that DM was independently associated with poor CVD in patients with ≥95% stenosis (p risk factor for poor CVD in addition to DM in patients with CTO.

  12. Talent predictors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Lorenzo

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge of talent predictors is the initial point for building diagnosis and encouragement procedures in this field. The meaning of word predictor is to anticipate the future, to divine. Early prediction of high performance is complex problem no resolute by the science yet. There are many discrepancies about what measure and how to do. The article analyze the art state in this problematic because the excellence is determined by the interaction between internal and environmental factors.

  13. Incidenza di meningiti nell'ASL di Brescia nei primi mesi del 2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Magoni

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available

    Obiettivi: nell’ASLdi Brescia durante i mesi di gennaiomaggio 2003 si è verificato un consistente aumento di casi di meningite che ha allarmato oltre agli operatori sanitari anche l’opinione pubblica locale.

    Metodi: i dati riguardanti i casi di meningite verificatisi dal gennaio 1999 al maggio 2003 sono stati raccolti dal Servizio Igiene Pubblica dell’ASLdi Brescia.

    Tenuto conto della omogeneità dei dati nel quadriennio 1999- 2002 e della stagionalità che le meningiti possono avere, sono stati calcolati i tassi di incidenza per i primi cinque mesi dell’anno per tutte le meningiti in generale e per agente eziologico, durante il quadriennio 1999-2002. Tali tassi sono stati confrontati con i tassi corrispondenti nei primi mesi del 2003.

    Risultati: nel primi 5 mesi del 2003 si sono registrati in tutto 48 casi, di cui 9 da meningocco, 13 da pneumococco, 14 virali, 3 da altri agenti batterici e 8 senza agente microbico identificato. Nei 4 anni precedenti erano stati notificati 66 casi di meningite nei primi 5 mesi dell’anno, con una media annua di 16.5. Il tasso di incidenza di meningite in gennaio-maggio è stato quindi il triplo nel 2003 (rischio relativo = 2.9 rispetto ai 4 anni precedenti (p=0.0001. L’eccesso di incidenza si è riscontrato per tutti i tipi di meningite considerati in base all’agente eziologico.

    L’analisi per diverse età ha mostrato un aumento di incidenza sia nei bambini che nei giovani adulti e negli anziani. Non si è riscontrata alcuna differenza statisticamente significativa tra l’incidenza nel comune di Brescia (area urbana rispetto all’intera ASL nel periodo in studio.

    Conclusioni: l’aumento di incidenza per meningiti
    osservato nel 2003 non sembra spiegabile in termini di variabilità casuale del fenomeno da un anno all’altro e riguarda tutti i tipi di meningite e tutte le categorie d

  14. La ristorazione nelle case di cura convenzionate di una ASL romana. Verifica dell'adeguatezza nutrizionale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Cairella

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available

    Obiettivi: valutazione dell’adeguatezza nutrizionale dei menù di case di cura convenzionate e formulazione di raccomandazioni finalizzate al raggiungimento della sicurezza nutrizionale dell’utente ricoverato.

    Metodi: alle Direzioni Sanitarie delle case di cura convenzionate sono stati richiesti i menu invernali ed estivi del vitto comune e speciale. La valutazione giornaliera media dell’energia totale, l’apporto giornaliero medio di macronutrienti, la ripartizione % fra i nutrienti e fra proteine e lipidi di origine animale e vegetale sono stati effettuati utilizzando come banca dati le tabelle di composizione degli alimenti INRAN; i valori ottenuti sono stati classificati adeguati o non adeguati, in accordo con i LARN e le Linee Guida delle specifiche patologie. Per quanto riguarda il parametro variabilità della dieta, il giudizio di adeguatezza è stato formulato considerando la presenza di opzioni di scelta nel menu, la presenza di menu estivo ed invernale e la frequenza settimanale degli alimenti, secondo le Linee Guida per una Sana Alimentazione.

    Risultati: I risultati, relativi all’85% (n. 7 delle case di cura convenzionate presenti nella ASL, evidenziano: 1 quota energetica giornaliera media adeguata nell’85% delle strutture; ripartizione in macronutrienti inadeguata nel 50% dei casi; inadeguata ripartizione % tra proteine di origine animale e vegetale nella totalità delle strutture 2 Relativamente al vitto comune, l’opzione di scelta è presente nel 65% delle Case di Cura ed il menu non è coerente con le Linee Guida per una Sana Alimentazione nel 30%. 3 Le diete speciali sono presenti nel 65% delle strutture: la tipologia è adeguata alle caratteristiche dell’utenza, ma l’adeguatezza nutrizionale si riscontra solo nel 25% dei casi. I risultati di tali valutazioni, integrati da proposte operative, sono stati comunicati alle Direzioni Sanitarie delle

  15. Quantitative renal perfusion measurements in a rat model of acute kidney injury at 3T: testing inter- and intramethodical significance of ASL and DCE-MRI.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabian Zimmer

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To establish arterial spin labelling (ASL for quantitative renal perfusion measurements in a rat model at 3 Tesla and to test the diagnostic significance of ASL and dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI in a model of acute kidney injury (AKI. MATERIAL AND METHODS: ASL and DCE-MRI were consecutively employed on six Lewis rats, five of which had a unilateral ischaemic AKI. All measurements in this study were performed on a 3 Tesla MR scanner using a FAIR True-FISP approach and a TWIST sequence for ASL and DCE-MRI, respectively. Perfusion maps were calculated for both methods and the cortical perfusion of healthy and diseased kidneys was inter- and intramethodically compared using a region-of-interest based analysis. RESULTS/SIGNIFICANCE: Both methods produce significantly different values for the healthy and the diseased kidneys (P<0.01. The mean difference was 147±47 ml/100 g/min and 141±46 ml/100 g/min for ASL and DCE-MRI, respectively. ASL measurements yielded a mean cortical perfusion of 416±124 ml/100 g/min for the healthy and 316±102 ml/100 g/min for the diseased kidneys. The DCE-MRI values were systematically higher and the mean cortical renal blood flow (RBF was found to be 542±85 ml/100 g/min (healthy and 407±119 ml/100 g/min (AKI. CONCLUSION: Both methods are equally able to detect abnormal perfusion in diseased (AKI kidneys. This shows that ASL is a capable alternative to DCE-MRI regarding the detection of abnormal renal blood flow. Regarding absolute perfusion values, nontrivial differences and variations remain when comparing the two methods.

  16. Imaging brain fatigue from sustained mental workload: an ASL perfusion study of the time-on-task effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Julian; Wu, Wen-Chau; Wang, Jiongjiong; Detre, John A; Dinges, David F; Rao, Hengyi

    2010-02-15

    During sustained periods of a taxing cognitive workload, humans typically display time-on-task (TOT) effects, in which performance gets steadily worse over the period of task engagement. Arterial spin labeling (ASL) perfusion functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used in this study to investigate the neural correlates of TOT effects in a group of 15 subjects as they performed a 20-min continuous psychomotor vigilance test (PVT). Subjects displayed significant TOT effects, as seen in progressively slower reaction times and significantly increased mental fatigue ratings after the task. Perfusion data showed that the PVT activates a right lateralized fronto-parietal attentional network in addition to the basal ganglia and sensorimotor cortices. The fronto-parietal network was less active during post-task rest compared to pre-task rest, and regional CBF decrease in this network correlated with performance decline. These results demonstrate the persistent effects of cognitive fatigue in the fronto-parietal network after a period of heavy mental work and indicate the critical role of this attentional network in mediating TOT effects. Furthermore, resting regional CBF in the thalamus and right middle frontal gyrus prior to task onset was predictive of subjects' subsequent performance decline, suggesting that resting CBF quantified by ASL perfusion fMRI may be a useful indicator of performance potential and a marker of the level of fatigue in the neural attentional system. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The AP2/EREBP gene PUCHI Co-Acts with LBD16/ASL18 and LBD18/ASL20 downstream of ARF7 and ARF19 to regulate lateral root development in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Na Young; Lee, Han Woo; Kim, Jungmook

    2013-08-01

    The developmental process of lateral root formation consists of priming, initiation, primordium development and the emergence of lateral roots from the primary root. Molecular genetic studies with Arabidopsis have revealed several key transcriptional regulators involved in lateral root development. However, their functional interaction has not been fully characterized yet. Here we utilized a genetic approach to understand some of these interactions, revealing that PUCHI functioning in morphogenesis of early lateral root primordium is regulated downstream of ARF7/ARF19 and acts with LBD16(ASL18)/LBD18(ASL20) to regulate lateral root development. We showed that auxin-responsive expression of PUCHI was significantly reduced in arf7 or arf19 single mutants and completely abolished in arf7 arf19 double mutants. Consistent with this, β-glucuronidase (GUS) expression under the PUCHI promoter in arf7 arf19 was greatly reduced in the lateral root primordium compared with that in the wild type and did not respond to exogenous auxin. Results of GUS expression analyses under the PUCHI, LBD16 or LBD18 promoter in lbd16, lbd18 single and double mutants or puchi demonstrated that PUCHI and LBD16 or LBD18 do not regulate each other's expression. Lateral root phenotypes of double and triple mutants of lbd16, lbd18 and puchi showed that the puchi mutation in lbd16 and lbd18 mutants synergistically decreased the number of emerged lateral roots. These analyses also showed that puchi affected lateral root primordium development of lbd16 or lbd18 additively but differentially. Taken together, these results suggest that PUCHI co-acts with LBD16 and LBD18 to control lateral root primordium development and lateral root emergence.

  18. Early phonological and sociocognitive skills as predictors of later language and social communication outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiat, Shula; Roy, Penny

    2008-06-01

    Previous studies of outcome for children with early language delay have focused on measures of early language as predictors of language outcome. This study investigates whether very early processing skills (VEPS) known to underpin language development will be better predictors of specific language and social communication outcomes than measures of language itself. Participants were 163 children referred to clinical services with concerns about language at 2;6-3;6 years and followed up at 4-5 years. Novel assessments of phonological and sociocognitive processing were administered at Time 1 (T1), together with a standardised test of receptive and expressive language, and parental report of expressive vocabulary. The language test was re-administered at Time 2 (T2), together with assessments of morphosyntax and parental reports of social communication. Intercorrelations at and between T1 and T2 were high, and dissociations were rare. Ordinal regressions were run, entering predictors singly and simultaneously. With the exception of the phonological task, every early measure on its own was significantly predictive of most outcomes, and receptive language was the strongest all-round predictor. Results of simultaneous entry, controlling for the effect of other predictors, showed that early language was the strongest predictor of general language outcome, but early phonology was the strongest predictor of a measure of morphosyntax, and early sociocognition the strongest predictor of social communication. Language measures which draw on a wide range of skills were the strongest overall predictors of general language outcomes. However, our VEPS measures were stronger predictors of specific outcomes. The clinical and theoretical implications of these findings are discussed.

  19. Do nonphysical punishments reduce antisocial behavior more than spanking? a comparison using the strongest previous causal evidence against spanking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cox Ronald B

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The strongest causal evidence that customary spanking increases antisocial behavior is based on prospective studies that control statistically for initial antisocial differences. None of those studies have investigated alternative disciplinary tactics that parents could use instead of spanking, however. Further, the small effects in those studies could be artifactual due to residual confounding, reflecting child effects on the frequency of all disciplinary tactics. This study re-analyzes the strongest causal evidence against customary spanking and uses these same methods to determine whether alternative disciplinary tactics are more effective in reducing antisocial behavior. Methods This study re-analyzed a study by Straus et al.1 on spanking and antisocial behavior using a sample of 785 children who were 6 to 9 years old in the 1988 cohort of the American National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. The comprehensiveness and reliability of the covariate measure of initial antisocial behavior were varied to test for residual confounding. All analyses were repeated for grounding, privilege removal, and sending children to their room, and for psychotherapy. To account for covarying use of disciplinary tactics, the analyses were redone first for the 73% who had reported using at least one discipline tactic and second by controlling for usage of other disciplinary tactics and psychotherapy. Results The apparently adverse effect of spanking on antisocial behavior was replicated using the original trichotomous covariate for initial antisocial behavior. A similar pattern of adverse effects was shown for grounding and psychotherapy and partially for the other two disciplinary tactics. All of these effects became non-significant after controlling for latent comprehensive measures of externalizing behavior problems. Conclusions These results are consistent with residual confounding, a statistical artifact that makes all corrective actions by

  20. Pharmacoeconomic aspects related to the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine: preliminary analysis of the data from the ASL of Viterbo

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    Dari Silvia

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Streptococcus pneumoniae is a pathogen of considerable importance to public health because it causes morbidity and mortality on the world population. It has more than 90 serotypes with different epidemiological characteristics and pathogenicity. Some categories of the population are particularly vulnerable to infection. The Regional Plan for the Prevention of Lazio for vaccination, based on the national plan for the prevention for vaccination involves the active offer of vaccination no 13-valent PCV, with a target of at least 90% in children 24 months of age.OBJECTIVE: To begin to assess the real economic impact of disease attributable to Pneumococcus, starting from the analysis of hospital discharge records (SDO of the Viterbo's ASL.METHODS: The model is structured follows the observational approach of 33 months, from January 2012 to September 2014, selecting the SDO with a principal diagnosis of Streptococcus Pneumoniae diseases and those with a principal diagnosis of respiratory diseases without etiological diagnosis, which, with good approximation, it can be considered responsible for Streptococcus pneumoniae 40%.RESULTS: From the preliminary analysis of the data, evaluating only patients diagnosed due to Pneumococcus, is known as the only pediatric cases hospitalized are between 0 and 1 year. Therefore one might assume that vaccination disbursed to the child population with 13-valent PCV, has ensured effective protection to persons of the age group 2-18 years.CONCLUSIONS: The importance of this study is the observation conducted on an ASL, (similar in size and catchment area to many Italian realty of the vaccination coverage effects, as provided by PRPV Lazio Region, on hospitalizations by Pneumococcus. The study offers a moment of reflection for decision makers, as it would be interesting to conduct pharmacoeconomic’s analysis in the presence of vaccination strategies extended to adults, especially for those at risk

  1. MDMA ‘ecstasy’ increases cerebral cortical perfusion determined by bolus-tracking arterial spin labelling (btASL) MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouine, J; Gobbo, O L; Campbell, M; Gigliucci, V; Ogden, I; McHugh Smith, K; Duffy, P; Behan, B; Byrne, D; Kelly, M E; Blau, C W; Kerskens, C M; Harkin, A

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose The purpose of this study was to assess cerebral perfusion changes following systemic administration of the recreational drug 3,4-methylendioxymethamphetamine (MDMA ‘ecstasy’) to rats. Experimental Approach Cerebral perfusion was quantified using bolus-tracking arterial spin labelling (btASL) MRI. Rats received MDMA (20 mg·kg−1; i.p.) and were assessed 1, 3 or 24 h later. Rats received MDMA (5 or 20 mg·kg−1; i.p.) and were assessed 3 h later. In addition, rats received MDMA (5 or 10 mg·kg−1; i.p.) or saline four times daily over 2 consecutive days and were assessed 8 weeks later. Perfusion-weighted images were generated in a 7 tesla (7T) MRI scanner and experimental data was fitted to a quantitative model of cerebral perfusion to generate mean transit time (MTT), capillary transit time (CTT) and signal amplitude. Key Results MDMA reduces MTT and CTT and increases amplitude in somatosensory and motor cortex 1 and 3 h following administration, indicative of an increase in perfusion. Prior exposure to MDMA provoked a long-term reduction in cortical 5-HT concentration, but did not produce a sustained effect on cerebral cortical perfusion. The response to acute MDMA challenge (20 mg·kg−1; i.p.) was attenuated in these animals indicating adaptation in response to prior MDMA exposure. Conclusions and Implications MDMA provokes changes in cortical perfusion, which are quantifiable by btASL MRI, a neuroimaging tool with translational potential. Future studies are directed towards elucidation of the mechanisms involved and correlating changes in cerebrovascular function with potential behavioural deficits associated with drug use. PMID:23517012

  2. Gamma band plasticity in sensory cortex is a signature of the strongest memory rather than memory of the training stimulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberger, Norman M; Miasnikov, Alexandre A; Bieszczad, Kasia M; Chen, Jemmy C

    2013-09-01

    Gamma oscillations (∼30-120Hz) are considered to be a reflection of coordinated neuronal activity, linked to processes underlying synaptic integration and plasticity. Increases in gamma power within the cerebral cortex have been found during many cognitive processes such as attention, learning, memory and problem solving in both humans and animals. However, the specificity of gamma to the detailed contents of memory remains largely unknown. We investigated the relationship between learning-induced increased gamma power in the primary auditory cortex (A1) and the strength of memory for acoustic frequency. Adult male rats (n=16) received three days (200 trials each) of pairing a tone (3.66 kHz) with stimulation of the nucleus basalis, which implanted a memory for acoustic frequency as assessed by associatively-induced disruption of ongoing behavior, viz., respiration. Post-training frequency generalization gradients (FGGs) revealed peaks at non-CS frequencies in 11/16 cases, likely reflecting normal variation in pre-training acoustic experiences. A stronger relationship was found between increased gamma power and the frequency with the strongest memory (peak of the difference between individual post- and pre-training FGGs) vs. behavioral responses to the CS training frequency. No such relationship was found for the theta/alpha band (4-15 Hz). These findings indicate that the strength of specific increased neuronal synchronization within primary sensory cortical fields can determine the specific contents of memory. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Perception and the strongest sensory memory trace of multi-stable displays both form shortly after the stimulus onset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastukhov, Alexander

    2016-02-01

    We investigated the relation between perception and sensory memory of multi-stable structure-from-motion displays. The latter is an implicit visual memory that reflects a recent history of perceptual dominance and influences only the initial perception of multi-stable displays. First, we established the earliest time point when the direction of an illusory rotation can be reversed after the display onset (29-114 ms). Because our display manipulation did not bias perception towards a specific direction of illusory rotation but only signaled the change in motion, this means that the perceptual dominance was established no later than 29-114 ms after the stimulus onset. Second, we used orientation-selectivity of sensory memory to establish which display orientation produced the strongest memory trace and when this orientation was presented during the preceding prime interval (80-140 ms). Surprisingly, both estimates point towards the time interval immediately after the display onset, indicating that both perception and sensory memory form at approximately the same time. This suggests a tighter integration between perception and sensory memory than previously thought, warrants a reconsideration of its role in visual perception, and indicates that sensory memory could be a unique behavioral correlate of the earlier perceptual inference that can be studied post hoc.

  4. The dynamics of competitive activity performance of the strongest athletes in the world during the Olympic year

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabin Muhammad Fahmi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper scrutinizes the annual dynamics of competitive activity performance of prize winners in track and field of the Games of the XXXI Olympiad in Rio de Janeiro. The studies performed allow to identify two basic strategies of participation of elite athletes in the competitions. The first implies a strong focus on achieving the best results in major competitions of the year. It is used by most of the strongest athletes in the world. The second focuses the athlete on the effective combination of competitive activity in major competitions of the year (the Olympics and World Championships and in the Diamond League. As shown by the experience of the best sports practice, only a limited number of athletes manage to implement the latter strategy. The methodological approaches to planning competitive activity during the year are identified. The first involves the rational allocation of the optimal number of competitions throughout the year, the second focuses on preparatory competitive activities of a fairly high intensity, and the third involves the use of a small number of competitions in the system of annual training.

  5. The 100 strongest radio point sources in the field of the Large Magellanic Cloud at 1.4 GHz

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    Payne J.L.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the 100 strongest 1.4 GHz point sources from a new mosaic image in the direction of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC. The observations making up the mosaic were made using Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA over a ten year period and were combined with Parkes single dish data at 1.4 GHz to complete the image for short spacing. An initial list of co-identifications within 1000 at 0.843, 4.8 and 8.6 GHz consisted of 2682 sources. Elimination of extended objects and artifact noise allowed the creation of a refined list containing 1988 point sources. Most of these are presumed to be background objects seen through the LMC; a small portion may represent compact H ii regions, young SNRs and radio planetary nebulae. For the 1988 point sources we find a preliminary average spectral index (α of -0.53 and present a 1.4 GHz image showing source location in the direction of the LMC.

  6. The 100 Strongest Radio Point Sources in the Field of the Large Magellanic Cloud at 1.4 GHz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Payne, J. L.

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available We present the 100 strongest 1.4~GHz point sources from a new mosaicimage in the direction of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC. The observationsmaking up the mosaic were made using Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCAover a ten year period and were combined with Parkes single dish data at 1.4 GHz to complete the image for short spacing. An initial list of co-identifications within 10arcsec at 0.843, 4.8 and 8.6 GHz consisted of 2682 sources. Elimination of extended objects and artifact noise allowed the creation of a refined list containing 1988 point sources. Most of these are presumed to be background objects seen through the LMC; a small portion may represent compact HII regions, young SNRs and radio planetary nebulae. For the 1988 point sources we find a preliminary average spectral index ($alpha$ of -0.53 and present a 1.4 GHz image showing source locationin the direction of the LMC.

  7. Evidence for the strongest version of the 4d a-theorem via a-maximization along RG flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, Edwin; Intriligator, Ken; Wecht, Brian; Wright, Jason

    2004-01-01

    In earlier work, we (KI and BW) gave a two line 'almost proof' (for supersymmetric RG flows) of the weakest form of the conjectured 4d a-theorem, that aIRaUV, using our result that the exact superconformal R-symmetry of 4d SCFTs maximizes a=3TrR3-TrR. The proof was incomplete because of two identified loopholes: theories with accidental symmetries, and the fact that it is only a local maximum of a. Here we discuss and extend a proposal of Kutasov (which helps close the latter loophole) in which a-maximization is generalized away from the endpoints of the RG flow, with Lagrange multipliers that are conjectured to be identified with the running coupling constants. a-maximization then yields a monotonically decreasing 'a-function' along the RG flow to the IR. As we discuss, this proposal in fact suggests the strongest version of the a-theorem: that 4d RG flows are gradient flows of an a-function, with positive-definite metric. In the perturbative limit, the RG flow metric thus obtained is shown to agree precisely with that found by very different computations by Osborn and collaborators. As examples, we discuss a new class of 4d SCFTs, along with their dual descriptions and IR phases, obtained from SQCD by coupling some of the flavors to added singlets

  8. The Strongest Acceleration of >40 keV Electrons by ICME-driven Shocks at 1 au

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Liu; Wang, Linghua; Li, Gang; Wimmer-Schweingruber, Robert F.; He, Jiansen; Tu, Chuanyi; Tian, Hui; Bale, Stuart D.

    2018-01-01

    We present two case studies of the in-situ electron acceleration during the 2000 February 11 shock and the 2004 July 22 shock, with the strongest electron flux enhancement at 40 keV across the shock, among all the quasi-perpendicular and quasi-parallel ICME-driven shocks observed by the WIND 3DP instrument from 1995 through 2014 at 1 au. We find that for this quasi-perpendicular (quasi-parallel) shock on 2000 February 11 (2004 July 22), the shocked electron differential fluxes at ∼0.4–50 keV in the downstream generally fit well to a double-power-law spectrum, J ∼ E ‑β , with an index of β ∼ 3.15 (4.0) at energies below a break at ∼3 keV (∼1 keV) and β ∼ 2.65 (2.6) at energies above. For both shock events, the downstream electron spectral indices appear to be similar for all pitch angles, which are significantly larger than the index prediction by diffusive shock acceleration. In addition, the downstream electron pitch-angle distributions show the anisotropic beams in the anti-sunward-traveling direction, while the ratio of the downstream over ambient fluxes appears to peak near 90° pitch angles, at all energies of ∼0.4–50 keV. These results suggest that in both shocks, shock drift acceleration likely plays an important role in accelerating electrons in situ at 1 au. Such ICME-driven shocks could contribute to the formation of solar wind halo electrons at energies ≲2 keV, as well as the production of solar wind superhalo electrons at energies ≳2 keV in interplanetary space.

  9. Pollen and plant macrofossils at Lac de Fully (2135 m a.s.l.): Holocene forest dynamics on a highland plateau in the Valais, Switzerland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Finsinger, W.; Tinner, W.

    2007-01-01

    We use pollen, stomata and plant-macrofossil records to infer Holocene timberline fluctuations and changes in forest composition at Lac Supérieur de Fully (2135 m a.s.l.), a small lake located near the modern regional timberline on a highland plateau in the Central Alps. Our records suggest that

  10. Selection criteria for a radiography programme in South Africa: Predictors for academic success in the first year of study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol Anne Kridiotis

    2016-12-01

    Conclusion: Matriculation marks and NSC APS were adequate predictors for academic success, with a focus on Life Sciences or Biology marks as the strongest predictor. The usefulness of the GSAT and SDS Questionnaire could be questioned, and a recommendation was made to replace these tests with alternative student selection methods.

  11. Predictors of public climate change awareness and risk perception around the world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tien Ming; Markowitz, Ezra M.; Howe, Peter D.; Ko, Chia-Ying; Leiserowitz, Anthony A.

    2015-11-01

    Climate change is a threat to human societies and natural ecosystems, yet public opinion research finds that public awareness and concern vary greatly. Here, using an unprecedented survey of 119 countries, we determine the relative influence of socio-demographic characteristics, geography, perceived well-being, and beliefs on public climate change awareness and risk perceptions at national scales. Worldwide, educational attainment is the single strongest predictor of climate change awareness. Understanding the anthropogenic cause of climate change is the strongest predictor of climate change risk perceptions, particularly in Latin America and Europe, whereas perception of local temperature change is the strongest predictor in many African and Asian countries. However, other key factors associated with public awareness and risk perceptions highlight the need to develop tailored climate communication strategies for individual nations. The results suggest that improving basic education, climate literacy, and public understanding of the local dimensions of climate change are vital to public engagement and support for climate action.

  12. Sedimentological and biostratigraphical analyses of short sediment cores from Hagelseewli (2339 m a.s.l. in the Swiss Alps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline F.N. VAN LEEUWEN

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Several short sediment cores of between 35 and 40 cm from Hagelseewli, a small, remote lake in the Swiss Alps at an elevation of 2339 m a.s.l. were correlated according to their organic matter content. The sediments are characterized by organic silts and show in their uppermost part a surprisingly high amount of organic matter (30-35%. Synchronous changes, occurring in pollen from snow-bed vegetation, the alga Pediastrum, chironomids, and grain-size composition, point to a climatic change interpreted as cooler or shorter summers that led to prolonged ice-cover on the lake. According to palynological results the sediments date back to at least the early 15th century A.D., with the cooling phase encompassing the period between late 16th and the mid-19th century thus coinciding with the Little Ice Age. Low concentrations of both chironomid head capsules and cladoceran remains in combination with results from fossil pigment analyses point to longer periods of bottom-water anoxia as a result of long-lasting ice-cover that prevented mixing of the water column. According to our results aquatic biota in Hagelseewli are mainly indirectly influenced by climate change. The duration of ice-cover on the lake controls the mixing of the water column as well as light-availability for phytoplankton blooms.

  13. Dynamic ASL and T2-weighted MRI in exercising calf muscle at 7 T: a feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schewzow, Kiril; Fiedler, Georg Bernd; Meyerspeer, Martin; Goluch, Sigrun; Laistler, Elmar; Wolzt, Michael; Moser, Ewald; Schmid, Albrecht Ingo

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a measurement protocol for noninvasive simultaneous perfusion quantification and T2 *-weighted MRI acquisition in the exercising calf muscle at 7 Tesla. Using a nonmagnetic ergometer and a dedicated in-house built calf coil array, dynamic pulsed arterial spin labeling (PASL) measurements with a temporal resolution of 12 s were performed before, during, and after plantar flexion exercise in 16 healthy volunteers. Postexercise peak perfusion in gastrocnemius muscle (GAS) was 27 ± 16 ml/100g/min, whereas in soleus (SOL) and tibialis anterior (TA) muscles it remained at baseline levels. T2 *-weighted and ASL time courses in GAS showed comparable times to peak of 161 ± 72 s and 167 ± 115 s, respectively. The T2 *-weighted signal in the GAS showed a minimum during exercise (88 ± 6 % of the baseline signal) and a peak during the recovery (122 ± 9%), whereas in all other muscles only a signal decrease was observed (minimum 91 ± 6% in SOL; 87 ± 8% in TA). We demonstrate the feasibility of dynamic perfusion quantification in skeletal muscle at 7 Tesla using PASL. This may help to better investigate the physiological processes in the skeletal muscle and also in diseases such as diabetes mellitus and peripheral arterial disease. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Elevated serum triglycerides is the strongest single indicator for the presence of metabolic syndrome in patients with type 2 diabetes

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    Dimou Eleni

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients with diabetes already fulfill one diagnostic criterion for MS according to the existing classifications. Our aim was to identify one single clinical parameter, which could effectively predict the presence of MS in patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods We studied all patients with type 2 diabetes who attended our Diabetes Outpatient Clinic during a three-month period. Waist circumference, blood pressure and serum lipids were measured. Establishment of MS diagnosis was based a on National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP ATP III criteria and b on International Diabetes Federation (IDF criteria. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC analysis was applied in order to identify the clinical parameter with the highest predictive capability for MS. Among the 500 participating patients (231 males, 269 females, MS was diagnosed in 364 patients (72.8% according to the NCEP ATP III criteria and in 408 patients (81.6% according to the IDF criteria. Results For the NCEP ATP III classification, serum triglycerides (in the overall population, waist and HDL (in female population demonstrated the highest predictive capability for MS (AUCs:0.786, 0.805 and 0.801, respectively. For the IDF classification, no single parameter reached an AUC > 0.800 in the overall population. In females, HDL displayed a satisfactory predictive capability for MS with an AUC which was significantly higher than the one in males (0.785 vs. 0.676, respectively, p Conclusion Elevated serum triglycerides strongly indicate the presence of MS in patients with type 2 diabetes. In female patients with type 2 diabetes, central obesity was the second stronger predictor of MS besides hypertriglyceridemia.

  15. Heart and/or soul : reality and fiction in the association between the two strongest contributors to the global burden of disease - ischemic heart disease and depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jonge, Peter

    Depression and heart disease are the strongest contributors to the global burden of disease and are often intertwined: depression is a risk factor for heart disease and vice versa. Moreover, depression in patients with established heart disease is associated with cardiovascular disease progression.

  16. EXPANSINA17 up-regulated by LBD18/ASL20 promotes lateral root formation during the auxin response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Han Woo; Kim, Jungmook

    2013-10-01

    Expansins are non-hydrolytic cell wall-loosening proteins involved in a variety of plant developmental processes during which cell wall modification occurs. Cell wall remodeling proteins including expansins have been suggested to be involved in cell separation to facilitate the emergence of lateral roots (LRs) through the overlaying tissues of the primary root. LBD18/ASL20 activates EXPANSINA14 (EXPA14) expression by directly binding to the EXPA14 promoter to enhance LR emergence in Arabidopsis thaliana. Here we show that EXPA17 is another target gene regulated by LBD18 to promote LR formation in Arabidopsis. We showed that nuclear translocation of the LBD18:GR fusion protein expressed under the Cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter or under the LBD18 promoter by dexamethasone treatment results in an increase in EXPA17 transcript levels. β-Glucuronidase (GUS) expression under the EXPA17 promoter, which is detected only in the roots of the wild type, was reduced in the LR primordium and overlaying tissues in an lbd18 mutant background. The number of emerged LRs of the EXPA17 RNAi (RNA interference) Arabidopsis lines was significantly lower than that of the wild type. Overexpression of EXPA17 in Arabidopsis increased the density of emerged LRs in the presence of auxin compared with the wild type. LR induction experiments with a gravitropic stimulus showed that LR emergence is delayed in the EXPA17 RNAi plants compared with the wild type. In addition, EXPA4 expression was also detected in overlaying tissues of the LR primordium and was inducible by LBD18. Taken together, these results support the notion that LBD18 up-regulates a subset of EXP genes to enhance cell separation to promote LR emergence in Arabidopsis.

  17. [Manual handling of loads in the hotel trade: the experience of the ASL (Local Health Unit) Milan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontani, S; Mercuri, Irene; Salicco, R; Veratti, Silvia; Sorrentino, L

    2010-01-01

    There are over 400 hotels in Milan with a guest capacity of about 62,000 and employing more than 10,000 workers. In 2008/09 the Occupational Health and Safety Service of A.S.L. Milano (Local Health Unit) carried out research into the hotel trade to ascertain the development of this commercial sector, also in view of EXPO 2015. The aim of the project was to improve hygiene and safety conditions and carry out preventive measures. A specific purpose was to study manual handling of loads and repetitive movements risk. The study covered 30 hotels and 7 temporary staff cooperatives. We acquired the Risk Evaluation Document, the Health Surveillance Programme and Registers of Labour Accidents to analyze manual handling of loads and repetitive movements. In the investigations and assessments on hotels we used currently available scientific tools--NIOSH Lifting Index, Push and Pulling Analysis, OC.R.A. Check-List--to study risks related to handling loads and upper limb mechanical overload, which revealed a specific occupational risk that requires a fresh approach to prevention and safety in the entire sector. Chambermaid: LI (Range): 0.57-2.75; Push and Pulling Actions: Fi 0.66-Fm 1.5 and Fi 0.76-Fm 1.33 respectively; OC.R.A. Check-List: 21. Porter: LI (Range): 0.77-3.75. Maintenance staff LI (Range): 0.57-2.75. The study highlighted the presence of risk due to manual handling of loads and repetitive movements in porters, maintenance personnel and particularly in chambermaids that up to now have been poorly assessed by safety experts. Analysis of the information contained in the registers of labour accidents suggests that a significant number of accidents can be related to muscular-skeletal disorders that affect especially cleaning, portering and kitchen staff

  18. Assessment of PET & ASL metabolism in the hippocampal subfields of MCI and AD using simultaneous PET-MR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goubran, Maged; Douglas, David; Chao, Steven; Quon, Andrew; Tripathi, Pragya; Holley, Dawn; Vasanawala, Minal; Zaharchuk, Greg; Zeineh, Michael [Stanford University (United States)

    2015-05-18

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) has been reported to show decreased metabolic activity in the hippocampus using FDG PET-MR. Histological data suggests that the hippocampal subfields are selectively affected in AD. Given the simultaneous imaging nature of integrated PET-MR scanners and the multimodal capabilities of PET-MR, our purpose here is to assess FDG activity, as well as ASL perfusion in the subfields of MCI and AD patients. 10 consecutive subjects were recruited for this study 3 MCI, 3 AD patients and 4 age-matched controls. The scanning was performed on a simultaneous 3T PET/MR scanner. To delineate the hippocampal subfields, automatic segmentation of hippocampal subfields (ASHS) was employed. Static FDG-PET series were reconstructed for analysis at 45-75 min for all subjects. All imaging sequences were automatically registered to the oblique coronal T2-weighted images (segmentation space). PET standardized uptake values (SUV) in the hippocampal subfields were normalized by the pons. FDG PET metabolism was reduced significantly in AD, as well as MCI patients as compared to controls, with the highest effect demonstrated in the CA3/DG and CA1/2 (p = 0.047, subfields. Patients (MCI and AD combined) had decreased metabolism as compared to controls in CA1/2 and significantly smaller volumes the Subiculum. When assessing CBF across groups, a significant decrease in CBF was found in the Subiculum. Our preliminary results demonstrate that PET-MRI may potentially be a sensitive biomarker and tool for early diagnosis of AD. They also confirm the importance of assessing metabolic and structural changes of neurodegenerative diseases at the subfield level.

  19. Atmospheric Ice Nucleating Particle measurements at the high mountain observatory Mt. Cimone (2165 m a.s.l., Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinaldi, M.; Santachiara, G.; Nicosia, A.; Piazza, M.; Decesari, S.; Gilardoni, S.; Paglione, M.; Cristofanelli, P.; Marinoni, A.; Bonasoni, P.; Belosi, F.

    2017-12-01

    Measurement campaigns at the high mountain Observatory Mt. Cimone (CMN; 2165 m a.s.l.) were performed during May 2014 and October 2015. The concentration of Ice Nucleating Particles (INPs) were measured offline with a dynamic filter processing chamber (DFPC), in the deposition and condensation mode, after collecting PM1 and PM10 aerosol samples. Presented INP data are the first ever published for a high mountain site in the Mediterranean basin. During the May campaign, parallel INP measurements were also carried out at San Pietro Capofiume (SPC), a low altitude rural background area within the Po Valley basin, by the same offline technique. The average INPPM10 concentration at CMN was 86 m-3 (saturation ratio Sw = 1.01; T = -18 °C) during the May 2014 campaign, while it was 171 m-3 at SPC, in the same period. A lower average INPPM10 concentration was observed at CMN during October 2015 (43 m-3). A significantly higher activated fraction (AF) characterized the October 2015 campaign, suggesting that the seasonal changes in the aerosol sources have an impact on the INP efficiency of the aerosol at CMN. Super-micrometer INP contributed for ∼30% of total INP in the May 2014 campaign, at both sites, and for ∼70% in the October 2015 campaign, showing the importance of coarse particles in the INP population. The analysis of meteorological parameters, gaseous tracers concentrations and backwards trajectories suggests that the INP population at CMN is contributed by transport processes occurring at diverse spatial scales, from the local to the synoptic scale. During the Saharan Dust transport Event observed in May 2014, a reduction of the AF was observed, suggesting, for this case, a limited ice nucleating activity for Saharan dust particles. This may be due to physico-chemical aging of the Saharan dust particles during transport or to the relatively high activation temperature at which the experiments were performed in this study.

  20. Noninvasive estimation of oxygen consumption in human calf muscle through combined NMR measurements of ASL perfusion and T₂ oxymetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decorte, Nicolas; Buehler, Tania; Caldas de Almeida Araujo, Ericky; Vignaud, Alexandre; Carlier, Pierre G

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this work was to demonstrate the feasibility of measuring muscle O2 consumption (V˙O2) noninvasively with a combination of functional nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) imaging methods, and to verify that changes in muscle V˙O2 can be detected with a temporal resolution compatible with physiological investigation and patient ease. T2-based oxymetry of arterial and venous blood was combined with the arterial-spin labeling (ASL)-based determination of muscle perfusion. These measurements were performed on 8 healthy volunteers under normoxic and hypoxic conditions in order to assess the sensitivity of measurements over a range of saturation values. Blood samples were drawn simultaneously and used to titrate blood T2 measurements versus hemoglobin O2 saturation (%HbO2) in vitro. The in vitro calibration curve of blood T2 fitted very well with the %HbO2 (r(2): 0.95). The in vivo venous T2 measurements agreed well with the in vitro measurements (intraclass correlation coefficient 0.82, 95% confidence interval 0.61-0.91). Oxygen extraction at rest decreased in the calf muscles subjected to hypoxia (p = 0.031). The combination of unaltered muscle perfusion and pinched arteriovenous O2 difference (p = 0.038) pointed towards a reduced calf muscle V˙O2 during transient hypoxia (p = 0.018). The results of this pilot study confirmed that muscle O2 extraction and V˙O2 can be estimated noninvasively using a combination of functional NMR techniques. Further studies are needed to confirm the usefulness in a larger sample of volunteers and patients. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Etiology and antibiotic susceptibility patterns of bacteria collected from urinary tract infections in the ASL3 in Genoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Fedele

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available An epidemiological study addressed to identify the pathogens collected from urine samples and their antibiotic susceptibility patterns was conducted. From January 2008 to May 2009 56,435 urine samples were processed in the Clinical Microbiological Laboratory of the ASL3 in Genoa. Materials and methods. Urine samples were firstly screened by automated equipment Uroquik (ALIFAX.All urine cultures with microbial ≥105 CFU / ml were seeded on Chromagar Orientation (BD and incubated at 37 ° C °.The identification of the isolates and the evaluation of their susceptibility to antibiotics were determined by the automated system Vitek 2 (bioMérieux. Results. About 33% (18,543 of the urine samples gave positive results.The number and frequency of the microorganisms collected was: 13,379 (72% Gram-negative including 9179 (69% E.coli, 1382 (10% Klebsiella spp, 1209 (9% Proteus spp, 445 (3% Pseudomonas spp, and other species 1164 (9%, 4942 (27% Gram positive which included 3615 (73% Enterococcus spp, 821 (17% Staphylococcus spp, 506 (10% Streptococcus spp and 222 (1% fungi. In E. coli the incidence of susceptible strains ranged between 90-96% for gentamicin, fosfomycin, nitrofurantoin, piperacillin-tazobactam, between 87-89% for the cefepime, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, about 70% for quinolones ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, 62% for piperacillin, about 50% to ampicillin. For Klebsiella spp and Proteus spp the percentage of susceptible strains ranged from 95-99% to piperacillin-tazobactam, gentamicin, and respectively 93% and between 68-52% for third-generation cephalosporins cefotaxime and ceftazidime and fluoroquinolones ciprofloxacin and norfloxacin. Conclusions. Present findings indicate that among the Enterobacteriaceae, E. coli, cause most of UTI and in vitro resulted susceptible various antibiotics.There was an increased resistance to fluoroquinolones among community-acquired E. coli and Proteus spp.A periodical

  2. Clinically useful predictors for premature mortality among psychiatric patients visiting a psychiatric emergency room

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Jørgen; Buus, Niels; Wernlund, Andreas Glahn

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine changes in the distribution of causes of death and mortality rates among psychiatric patients visiting a psychiatric emergency room (PER), to determine clinically useful predictors for avoiding premature mortality among these patients and to discuss...... linked to the Cause of Death Register and the Central Psychiatric Research Register, and logistic predictor analyses for premature death were performed. RESULTS: The standardised mortality ratio (SMR) of all visitors compared to the general Danish population was approximately 5. Overall, patients...... was the strongest predictor of premature death among visitors to a PER (odds ratio (OR) = 1.8; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.5, 2.2). CONCLUSION: Persons visiting the PER had an increased SMR and substance use disorders were the strongest predictor of premature death within 3 years. However, death caused...

  3. Biological Age Predictors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juulia Jylhävä

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The search for reliable indicators of biological age, rather than chronological age, has been ongoing for over three decades, and until recently, largely without success. Advances in the fields of molecular biology have increased the variety of potential candidate biomarkers that may be considered as biological age predictors. In this review, we summarize current state-of-the-art findings considering six potential types of biological age predictors: epigenetic clocks, telomere length, transcriptomic predictors, proteomic predictors, metabolomics-based predictors, and composite biomarker predictors. Promising developments consider multiple combinations of these various types of predictors, which may shed light on the aging process and provide further understanding of what contributes to healthy aging. Thus far, the most promising, new biological age predictor is the epigenetic clock; however its true value as a biomarker of aging requires longitudinal confirmation.

  4. Usability Testing of Guided Internet-based Parent Training for Challenging Behavior in Children with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (Strongest Families FASD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hundert, Amos S; Huguet, Anna; Green, Courtney R; Hewitt, Amy J; Mushquash, Christopher J; Muhajarine, Nazeem; Sourander, Andre; Caughey, Heather; Lingley-Pottie, Patricia; McGrath, Patrick J; Reynolds, James N

    2016-01-01

    In order to meet the need for accessible interventions and support for families affected by fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD), we have developed an Internet-based, distance intervention for caregivers of children with FASD between the ages of four and twelve, called Strongest Families™ FASD. To evaluate the usability of the Strongest Families FASD program content and website in terms of learnability, efficiency and acceptability. A remote usability testing approach was conducted in two iterative cycles of participants. Synchronous online usability testing sessions were conducted, followed by asynchronous testing. A total of 18 participants were included, comprised of both health care professionals with expertise in FASD and caregivers of children with FASD. The data collected in each cycle was examined for commonalities and results were used to inform changes to the website and content after each cycle. Participants rated the website as appealing and relatively easy and fast to use. Nevertheless, several usability problems were identified such as difficulty navigating between sections of content on the website, displaying too much content per page, and the relevance and appropriateness of the content as it related to FASD. The identification of usability problems was an important step in refining the Strongest Families FASD program before its effectiveness is evaluated in a randomized controlled trial.

  5. Demographic and Psychological Predictors of Grade Point Average (GPA) in North-Norway: A Particular Analysis of Cognitive/School-Related and Literacy Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saele, Rannveig Grøm; Sørlie, Tore; Nergård-Nilssen, Trude; Ottosen, Karl-Ottar; Goll, Charlotte Bjørnskov; Friborg, Oddgeir

    2016-01-01

    Approximately 30% of students drop out from Norwegian upper secondary schools. Academic achievement, as indexed by grade point average (GPA), is one of the strongest predictors of dropout. The present study aimed to examine the role of cognitive, school-related and affective/psychological predictors of GPA. In addition, we examined the…

  6. Arterial Transit Time Mapping Obtained by Pulsed Continuous 3D ASL Imaging with Multiple Post-Label Delay Acquisitions: Comparative Study with PET-CBF in Patients with Chronic Occlusive Cerebrovascular Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujikawa, Tetsuya; Kimura, Hirohiko; Matsuda, Tsuyoshi; Fujiwara, Yasuhiro; Isozaki, Makoto; Kikuta, Ken-Ichiro; Okazawa, Hidehiko

    2016-01-01

    Arterial transit time (ATT) is most crucial for measuring absolute cerebral blood flow (CBF) by arterial spin labeling (ASL), a noninvasive magnetic resonance (MR) perfusion assessment technique, in patients with chronic occlusive cerebrovascular disease. We validated ASL-CBF and ASL-ATT maps calculated by pulsed continuous ASL (pCASL) with multiple post-label delay acquisitions in patients with occlusive cerebrovascular disease. Fifteen patients underwent MR scans, including pCASL, and positron emission tomography (PET) scans with 15O-water to obtain PET-CBF. MR acquisitions with different post-label delays (1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5 and 3.0 sec) were also obtained for ATT correction. The theoretical framework of 2-compartmental model (2CM) was also used for the delay compensation. ASL-CBF and ASL-ATT were calculated based on the proposed 2CM, and the effect on the CBF values and the ATT correction characteristics were discussed. Linear regression analyses were performed both on pixel-by-pixel and region-of-interest bases in the middle cerebral artery (MCA) territory. There were significant correlations between ASL-CBF and PET-CBF both for voxel values (r = 0.74 ± 0.08, slope: 0.87 ± 0.22, intercept: 6.1 ± 4.9) and for the MCA territorial comparison in both affected (R2 = 0.67, y = 0.83x + 6.3) and contralateral sides (R2 = 0.66, y = 0.74x + 6.3). ASL-ATTs in the affected side were significantly longer than those in the contralateral side (1.51 ± 0.41 sec and 1.12 ± 0.30 sec, respectively, p <0.0005). CBF measurement using pCASL with delay compensation was feasible and fairly accurate even in altered hemodynamic states.

  7. Remote population-based intervention for disruptive behavior at age four: study protocol for a randomized trial of Internet-assisted parent training (Strongest Families Finland-Canada).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, Patrick J; Sourander, Andre; Lingley-Pottie, Patricia; Ristkari, Terja; Cunningham, Charles; Huttunen, Jukka; Filbert, Katharine; Aromaa, Minna; Corkum, Penny; Hinkka-Yli-Salomäki, Susanna; Kinnunen, Malin; Lampi, Katja; Penttinen, Anne; Sinokki, Atte; Unruh, Anita; Vuorio, Jenni; Watters, Carolyn

    2013-10-21

    Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) is characterized by angry and noncompliant behaviour. It is the most common disruptive behaviour disorder (DBD), with prevalence estimates of 6-9% for preschoolers and is closely linked to several long-term difficulties, including disorders of conduct, mood, anxiety, impulse-control, and substance abuse. ODD in children is related to parental depression, family dysfunction, and impairments in parental work performance. Children displaying early DBDs exhibit more symptoms of greater severity, more frequent offences, and commit more serious crimes later in life. The goal of the Strongest Families Finland Canada (SFFC) Smart Website intervention research program is to develop and evaluate an affordable, accessible, effective secondary prevention parent training program for disruptive behaviour in preschoolers to prevent the negative sequelae of ODD. Strongest Families is an 11-session program with two booster sessions that focuses on teaching skills to: strengthen parent-child relationships; reinforce positive behaviour; reduce conflict; manage daily transitions; plan for potentially problematic situations; promote emotional regulation and pro-social behaviour and decrease antisocial behaviour. This protocol paper describes an ongoing population-based randomized controlled trial (RCT) of high-risk 4 year-olds attending well-child clinics in Turku, Finland and environs to examine the effectiveness of the Strongest Families Smart Website intervention compared to an Education Control condition. Randomization consists of a 1:1 ratio for intervention versus the education group, stratified by the child's sex. The participants randomized to the intervention group receive access to the Strongest Families Smart Website and weekly telephone coaching sessions. The participants randomized to the Education Control condition receive access to a static website with parenting tips. Children are followed using parental and daycare teacher measures

  8. Strongest magnet in the cosmos

    CERN Document Server

    Zane, S

    2003-01-01

    In November 1996 a NASA satellite called the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) was monitoring a rare type of pulsar some 40 000 light-years from Earth. The star, called SGR 1806-20, is one of just four known 'soft gamma repeaters' - rotating neutron stars that periodically emit huge bursts of gamma rays. Now an international team of astrophysicists studying the RXTE data has found evidence for what is known as a magnetar - the most magnetic object in the universe. (U.K.)

  9. A longitudinal study of children's outside play using family environment and perceived physical environment as predictors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remmers, Teun; Broeren, Suzanne M L; Renders, Carry M; Hirasing, Remy A; van Grieken, Amy; Raat, Hein

    2014-06-16

    A natural and cheap way of increasing children's physical activity is stimulating unstructured outside play. This study examined whether characteristics of the family and perceived physical environment were associated with the duration of children's outside play. Parents participating in the "Be Active, Eat Right" cluster RCT control group (N = 2007) provided information on potential predictors of outside play (i.e. family and perceived physical environment) of their 5-year-old child by questionnaire. Child outside play was assessed by parental reports both at five and seven years. Linear regression analyses, adjusted for seasonality, were performed to evaluate associations between potential predictors and child outside play. Linear mixed models were fitted to evaluate the relationship between potential predictors and the development of outside play over two years, with season entered as a random factor. Family environment was the strongest construct predicting child outside play, while parent perceived physical environment had no significant association with child outside play. Parental habit strength and the presence of rules were the strongest predictors of increased outside play. Parent perceived difficulty in improving child outside play was the strongest predictor of decreased outside play. Family environment predicted child outside play and not perceived physical environment. Parental rules and habit strength regarding improving outside play were associated with an improvement of child's engagement in outside play.

  10. RS-WebPredictor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zaretzki, J.; Bergeron, C.; Huang, T.-W.

    2013-01-01

    Regioselectivity-WebPredictor (RS-WebPredictor) is a server that predicts isozyme-specific cytochrome P450 (CYP)-mediated sites of metabolism (SOMs) on drug-like molecules. Predictions may be made for the promiscuous 2C9, 2D6 and 3A4 CYP isozymes, as well as CYPs 1A2, 2A6, 2B6, 2C8, 2C19 and 2E1....... RS-WebPredictor is the first freely accessible server that predicts the regioselectivity of the last six isozymes. Server execution time is fast, taking on average 2s to encode a submitted molecule and 1s to apply a given model, allowing for high-throughput use in lead optimization projects.......Availability: RS-WebPredictor is accessible for free use at http://reccr.chem.rpi.edu/ Software/RS-WebPredictor....

  11. La frattura dell'estremitá prossimale del femore: valutazioni epidemiologiche basate su cinque anni di ricoveri ospedalieri della popolazione residente nel territorio della ASL di Firenze

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Papini

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Obiettivo: l’alta prevalenza negli anziani e l’elevato costo sociale della frattura dell’estremità prossimale del femore (FPF, ha motivato una descrizione epidemiologica del fenomeno nella nostra area. Metodi: per la popolazione dei circa 800.000 residenti nel territorio della ASL di Firenze, basandosi sulle schede di dimissione ospedaliera, è stata studiata la distribuzione dei ricoveri per ASL, per diagnosi, per sesso e per fasce di età. Escludendo i ricoveri ripetuti, è stato stimato il tasso di incidenza. È stata calcolata la degenza media e il tempo di attesa per un eventuale intervento chirurgico. Risultati: il tasso di incidenza stimato sui ricoveri è elevato, sebbene costante negli anni: i valori medi nel periodo sono di 2627,08/100.000 per i soggetti con 85 o più anni d’età e di 1264,25/100.000 nella fascia d’età 80-84 anni. Tale tasso presenta un andamento esponenziale in funzione dell’età a partire da 50 anni e nelle fasce d’età avanzata le femmine mostrano una incidenza circa doppia. Anche la degenza media risulta più elevata nelle fasce di età più anziane. Per i 4 interventi chirurgici più frequenti abbiamo dimostrato che la media della degenza pre-intervento è significativamente maggiore nei deceduti rispetto ai dimessi a domicilio. Conclusioni: il tasso di incidenza di FPF è risultato superiore alla media nazionale sebbene stabile negli anni. La distribuzione dell’incidenza per fasce di età e sesso rispecchia i valori di letteratura. La correlazione tra degenza media pre-intervento e mortalità intaospedaliera è un reperto interessante che richiede ulteriori analisi per una corretta interpretazione.

  12. Cerebral blood flow alterations as assessed by 3D ASL in cognitive impairment in patients with subcortical vascular cognitive impairment: A marker for disease severity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yawen Sun

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abnormal reductions in cortical cerebral blood flow (CBF have been identified in subcortical vascular cognitive impairment (SVCI. However, little is known about the pattern of CBF reduction in relation with degree of cognitive impairment. CBF measured with 3D Arterial Spin Labeling (ASL perfusion MRI helps detect functional changes in subjects with SVCI. We aimed to compare CBF maps in subcortical ischemic vascular disease (SIVD subjects with and without cognitive impairment and to detect the relationship of the regions of CBF reduction in the brain with the degree of cognitive impairment according to the z-score. A total of 53 subjects with SVCI and 23 matched SIVD subjects without cognitive impairment (controls underwent a whole-brain 3D ASL MRI in the resting state. Regional CBF (rCBF was compared voxel wise by using an analysis of variance design in a statistical parametric mapping program, with patient age and sex as covariates. Correlations were calculated between the rCBF value in the whole brain and the z-score in the 53 subjects with SVCI. Compared with the control subjects, SVCI group demonstrated diffuse decreased CBF in the brain. Significant positive correlations were determined in the rCBF values in the left hippocampus, left superior temporal pole gyrus, right superior frontal orbital lobe, right medial frontal orbital lobe, right middle temporal lobe, left thalamus, and right insula with the z-scores in SVCI group. The noninvasively quantified resting CBF demonstrated altered CBF distributions in the SVCI brain. The deficit brain perfusions in the temporal and frontal lobe, hippocampus, thalamus, and insula was related to the degree of cognitive impairment. Its relationship to cognition indicates the clinical relevance of this functional marker. Thus, our results provide further evidence for the mechanism underlying the cognitive deficit in patients with SVCI.

  13. Investigation of the mechanisms mediating MDMA "Ecstasy"-induced increases in cerebro-cortical perfusion determined by btASL MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouine, J; Kelly, M E; Jennings-Murphy, C; Duffy, P; Gorman, I; Gormley, S; Kerskens, C M; Harkin, Andrew

    2015-05-01

    Acute administration of the recreational drug of abuse 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA; Ecstasy) has previously been shown to increase cerebro-cortical perfusion as determined by bolus-tracking arterial spin labelling (btASL) MRI. The purpose of the current study was to assess the mechanisms mediating these changes following systemic administration of MDMA to rats. Pharmacological manipulation of serotonergic, dopaminergic and nitrergic transmission was carried out to determine the mechanism of action of MDMA-induced increases in cortical perfusion using btASL MRI. Fenfluramine (10 mg/kg), like MDMA (20 mg/kg), increased cortical perfusion. Increased cortical perfusion was not obtained with the 5-HT2 receptor agonist 2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodophenyl-aminopropane hydrochloride (DOI) (1 mg/kg). Depletion of central 5-HT following systemic administration of the tryptophan hydroxylase inhibitor para-chlorophenylalanine (pCPA) produced effects similar to those observed with MDMA. Pre-treatment with the 5-HT receptor antagonist metergoline (4 mg/kg) or with the 5-HT reuptake inhibitor citalopram (30 mg/kg), however, failed to produce any effect alone or influence the response to MDMA. Pre-treatment with the dopamine D1 receptor antagonist SCH 23390 (1 mg/kg) failed to influence the changes in cortical perfusion obtained with MDMA. Treatment with the neuronal nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibitor 7-nitroindazole (7-NI) (25 mg/kg) provoked no change in cerebral perfusion alone yet attenuated the MDMA-related increase in cortical perfusion. Cortical 5-HT depletion is associated with increases in perfusion although this mechanism alone does not account for MDMA-related changes. A role for NO, a key regulator of cerebrovascular perfusion, is implicated in MDMA-induced increases in cortical perfusion.

  14. Biological Age Predictors

    OpenAIRE

    Jylh?v?, Juulia; Pedersen, Nancy L.; H?gg, Sara

    2017-01-01

    The search for reliable indicators of biological age, rather than chronological age, has been ongoing for over three decades, and until recently, largely without success. Advances in the fields of molecular biology have increased the variety of potential candidate biomarkers that may be considered as biological age predictors. In this review, we summarize current state-of-the-art findings considering six potential types of biological age predictors: epigenetic clocks, telomere length, transcr...

  15. Social network predictors of latrine ownership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakya, Holly B; Christakis, Nicholas A; Fowler, James H

    2015-01-01

    Poor sanitation, including the lack of clean functioning toilets, is a major factor contributing to morbidity and mortality from infectious diseases in the developing world. We examine correlates of latrine ownership in rural India with a focus on social network predictors. Participants from 75 villages provided the names of their social contacts as well as their own relevant demographic and household characteristics. Using these measures, we test whether the latrine ownership of an individual's social contacts is a significant predictor of individual latrine ownership. We also investigate whether network centrality significantly predicts latrine ownership, and if so, whether it moderates the relationship between the latrine ownership of the individual and that of her social contacts. Our results show that, controlling for the standard predictors of latrine ownership such as caste, education, and income, individuals are more likely to own latrines if their social contacts own latrines. Interaction models suggest that this relationship is stronger among those of the same caste, the same education, and those with stronger social ties. We also find that more central individuals are more likely to own latrines, but the correlation in latrine ownership between social contacts is strongest among individuals on the periphery of the network. Although more data is needed to determine how much the clustering of latrine ownership may be caused by social influence, the results here suggest that interventions designed to promote latrine ownership should consider focusing on those at the periphery of the network. The reason is that they are 1) less likely to own latrines and 2) more likely to exhibit the same behavior as their social contacts, possibly as a result of the spread of latrine adoption from one person to another. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A longitudinal study of children’s outside play using family environment and perceived physical environment as predictors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background A natural and cheap way of increasing children’s physical activity is stimulating unstructured outside play. Purpose This study examined whether characteristics of the family and perceived physical environment were associated with the duration of children’s outside play. Methods Parents participating in the “Be Active, Eat Right” cluster RCT control group (N = 2007) provided information on potential predictors of outside play (i.e. family and perceived physical environment) of their 5-year-old child by questionnaire. Child outside play was assessed by parental reports both at five and seven years. Linear regression analyses, adjusted for seasonality, were performed to evaluate associations between potential predictors and child outside play. Linear mixed models were fitted to evaluate the relationship between potential predictors and the development of outside play over two years, with season entered as a random factor. Results Family environment was the strongest construct predicting child outside play, while parent perceived physical environment had no significant association with child outside play. Parental habit strength and the presence of rules were the strongest predictors of increased outside play. Parent perceived difficulty in improving child outside play was the strongest predictor of decreased outside play. Conclusion Family environment predicted child outside play and not perceived physical environment. Parental rules and habit strength regarding improving outside play were associated with an improvement of child’s engagement in outside play. PMID:24934086

  17. Pyramiding of Ryd2 and Ryd3 conferring tolerance to a German isolate of Barley yellow dwarf virus-PAV (BYDV-PAV-ASL-1) leads to quantitative resistance against this isolate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riedel, C.; Habekuss, A.; Schliephake, E.; Niks, R.E.; Broer, I.; Ordon, F.

    2011-01-01

    Barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV) is an economically important pathogen of barley, which may become even more important due to global warming. In barley, several loci conferring tolerance to BYDV-PAV-ASL-1 are known, e.g. Ryd2, Ryd3 and a quantitative trait locus (QTL) on chromosome 2H. The aim of

  18. Biological and Psychosocial Predictors of Postpartum Depression: Systematic Review and Call for Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner Stapleton, Lynlee R.; Guardino, Christine M.; Hahn-Holbrook, Jennifer; Schetter, Christine Dunkel

    2017-01-01

    Postpartum depression (PPD) adversely affects the health and well being of many new mothers, their infants, and their families. A comprehensive understanding of biopsychosocial precursors to PPD is needed to solidify the current evidence base for best practices in translation. We conducted a systematic review of research published from 2000 through 2013 on biological and psychosocial factors associated with PPD and postpartum depressive symptoms. Two hundred fourteen publications based on 199 investigations of 151,651 women in the first postpartum year met inclusion criteria. The biological and psychosocial literatures are largely distinct, and few studies provide integrative analyses. The strongest PPD risk predictors among biological processes are hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal dysregulation, inflammatory processes, and genetic vulnerabilities. Among psychosocial factors, the strongest predictors are severe life events, some forms of chronic strain, relationship quality, and support from partner and mother. Fully integrated biopsychosocial investigations with large samples are needed to advance our knowledge of PPD etiology. PMID:25822344

  19. The 9.2 ka event in Asian summer monsoon area: the strongest millennial scale collapse of the monsoon during the Holocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenchao; Yan, Hong; Dodson, John; Cheng, Peng; Liu, Chengcheng; Li, Jianyong; Lu, Fengyan; Zhou, Weijian; An, Zhisheng

    2018-04-01

    Numerous Holocene paleo-proxy records exhibit a series of centennial-millennial scale rapid climatic events. Unlike the widely acknowledged 8.2 ka climate anomaly, the likelihood of a significant climate excursion at around 9.2 cal ka BP, which has been notably recognized in some studies, remains to be fully clarified in terms of its magnitude and intensity, as well as its characteristics and spatial distributions in a range of paleoclimatic records. In this study, a peat sediment profile from the Dajiuhu Basin in central China was collected with several geochemical proxies and a pollen analysis carried out to help improve understanding of the climate changes around 9.2 cal ka BP. The results show that the peat development was interrupted abruptly at around 9.2 cal ka BP, when the chemical weathering strength decreased and the tree-pollen declined. This suggests that a strong drier regional climatic event occurred at around 9.2 cal ka BP in central China, which was, in turn, probably connected to the rapid 9.2 ka climate event co-developing worldwide. In addition, based on the synthesis of our peat records and the other Holocene hydrological records from Asian summer monsoon (ASM) region, we further found that the 9.2 ka event probably constituted the strongest abrupt collapse of the Asian monsoon system during the full Holocene interval. The correlations between ASM and the atmospheric 14C production rate, the North Atlantic drift ice records and Greenland temperature indicated that the weakened ASM event at around 9.2 cal ka BP could be interpreted by the co-influence of external and internal factors, related to the changes of the solar activity and the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC).

  20. The 9.2 ka event in Asian summer monsoon area: the strongest millennial scale collapse of the monsoon during the Holocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenchao; Yan, Hong; Dodson, John; Cheng, Peng; Liu, Chengcheng; Li, Jianyong; Lu, Fengyan; Zhou, Weijian; An, Zhisheng

    2017-06-01

    Numerous Holocene paleo-proxy records exhibit a series of centennial-millennial scale rapid climatic events. Unlike the widely acknowledged 8.2 ka climate anomaly, the likelihood of a significant climate excursion at around 9.2 cal ka BP, which has been notably recognized in some studies, remains to be fully clarified in terms of its magnitude and intensity, as well as its characteristics and spatial distributions in a range of paleoclimatic records. In this study, a peat sediment profile from the Dajiuhu Basin in central China was collected with several geochemical proxies and a pollen analysis carried out to help improve understanding of the climate changes around 9.2 cal ka BP. The results show that the peat development was interrupted abruptly at around 9.2 cal ka BP, when the chemical weathering strength decreased and the tree-pollen declined. This suggests that a strong drier regional climatic event occurred at around 9.2 cal ka BP in central China, which was, in turn, probably connected to the rapid 9.2 ka climate event co-developing worldwide. In addition, based on the synthesis of our peat records and the other Holocene hydrological records from Asian summer monsoon (ASM) region, we further found that the 9.2 ka event probably constituted the strongest abrupt collapse of the Asian monsoon system during the full Holocene interval. The correlations between ASM and the atmospheric 14C production rate, the North Atlantic drift ice records and Greenland temperature indicated that the weakened ASM event at around 9.2 cal ka BP could be interpreted by the co-influence of external and internal factors, related to the changes of the solar activity and the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC).

  1. Predictors of psychotherapy outcome for children at a community mental health center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, R M; Glenwick, D S; Stephens, M A

    1986-11-01

    This study assessed the utility of multiple predictors of outcome for 268 child clients and their families who received psychotherapy at a community mental health center for children. Outcome was measured by the number of therapy sessions attended, the length of therapy, and improvement ratings of the child and family made by independent judges. Regression analyses revealed that the strongest predictors of outcome were previous exposure to therapy, therapist type (permanent professional staff vs. intern), family constellation, therapist experience, and referral source. Implications for treatment planning and future research are discussed.

  2. Altering Practices to Include Bimodal-bilingual (ASL-Spoken English) Programming at a Small School for the Deaf in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priestley, Karen; Enns, Charlotte; Arbuckle, Shauna

    2018-01-01

    Bimodal-bilingual programs are emerging as one way to meet broader needs and provide expanded language, educational and social-emotional opportunities for students who are deaf and hard of hearing (Marschark, M., Tang, G. & Knoors, H. (Eds). (2014). Bilingualism and bilingual Deaf education. New York, NY: Oxford University Press; Paludneviciene & Harris, R. (2011). Impact of cochlear implants on the deaf community. In Paludneviciene, R. & Leigh, I. (Eds.), Cochlear implants evolving perspectives (pp. 3-19). Washington, DC: Gallaudet University Press). However, there is limited research on students' spoken language development, signed language growth, academic outcomes or the social-emotional factors associated with these programs (Marschark, M., Tang, G. & Knoors, H. (Eds). (2014). Bilingualism and bilingual Deaf education. New York, NY: Oxford University Press; Nussbaum, D & Scott, S. (2011). The cochlear implant education center: Perspectives on effective educational practices. In Paludneviciene, R. & Leigh, I. (Eds.) Cochlear implants evolving perspectives (pp. 175-205). Washington, DC: Gallaudet University Press. The cochlear implant education center: Perspectives on effective educational practices. In Paludnevicience & Leigh (Eds). Cochlear implants evolving perspectives (pp. 175-205). Washington, DC: Gallaudet University Press; Spencer, P. & Marschark, M. (Eds.) (2010). Evidence-based practice in educating deaf and hard-of-hearing students. New York, NY: Oxford University Press). The purpose of this case study was to look at formal and informal student outcomes as well as staff and parent perceptions during the first 3 years of implementing a bimodal-bilingual (ASL and spoken English) program within an ASL milieu at a small school for the deaf. Speech and language assessment results for five students were analyzed over a 3-year period and indicated that the students made significant positive gains in all areas, although results were variable. Staff and parent

  3. Predictors of BMI Vary along the BMI Range of German Adults – Results of the German National Nutrition Survey II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Kilson; Krems, Carolin; Heuer, Thorsten; Roth, Alexander; Hoffmann, Ingrid

    2017-01-01

    Objective The objective of the study was to identify predictors of BMI in German adults by considering the BMI distribution and to determine whether the association between BMI and its predictors varies along the BMI distribution. Methods The sample included 9,214 adults aged 18–80 years from the German National Nutrition Survey II (NVS II). Quantile regression analyses were conducted to examine the association between BMI and the following predictors: age, sports activities, socio-economic status (SES), healthy eating index-NVS II (HEI-NVS II), dietary knowledge, sleeping duration and energy intake as well as status of smoking, partner relationship and self-reported health. Results Age, SES, self-reported health status, sports activities and energy intake were the strongest predictors of BMI. The important outcome of this study is that the association between BMI and its predictors varies along the BMI distribution. Especially, energy intake, health status and SES were marginally associated with BMI in normal-weight subjects; this relationships became stronger in the range of overweight, and were strongest in the range of obesity. Conclusions Predictors of BMI and the strength of these associations vary across the BMI distribution in German adults. Consequently, to identify predictors of BMI, the entire BMI distribution should be considered. PMID:28219069

  4. Prevalence and predictors of concurrent sexual partnerships in a predominantly African American population in Jackson, Mississippi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunn, Amy; MacCarthy, Sarah; Barnett, Nancy; Rose, Jennifer; Chan, Philip; Yolken, Annajane; Cornwall, Alexandra; Chamberlain, Nicholas; Barnes, Arti; Riggins, Reginald; Moore, Elya; Simmons, Dantrell; Parker, Sharon; Mena, Leandro

    2014-01-01

    Concurrent sexual partnerships, or sexual partnerships that overlap in time, have been associated with HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STI) infection. How best to measure concurrency and the personal characteristics and predictors of concurrency are not yet well understood. We compared two frequently used concurrency definitions, including a self-reported measure based on participant response regarding overlapping sex with partners, and the UNAIDS measure based on overlapping dates of last sex and intention to have sex again. We performed multivariable logistic regression analyses to identify socio-demographic, behavioral, and structural predictors of concurrency among 1,542 patients at an urban STI clinic in Jackson, Mississippi. Nearly half (44%) reported concurrency based on self-reported sex with other partners, and 26% reported concurrency according to the UNAIDS concurrency measure. Using the self-reported concurrency measure, the strongest predictors of concurrency were perceived partner concurrency, drug use at last sex, having more than 10 lifetime partners, and being recently incarcerated. Strongest predictors of concurrency using the UNAIDS measure were lifetime number of partners and perceived partner concurrency. Concurrency is highly prevalent in this population in the Deep South and social, structural and behavioral factors were important predictors of concurrency for both measures. Future research should use time anchored data collection methods and biomarkers to assess whether both definitions of concurrency are associated with HIV outcomes. PMID:24803130

  5. Highly time-resolved measurements of refractory black carbon and associated coatings over the Tibetan Plateau (4730m a.s.l) in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, X.; Wang, J.; Zhang, Q.; Collier, S.; Zhou, S.; Xu, J.; Chen, M.

    2016-12-01

    In this work, we report the first real-time measurement results on refractory black carbon (rBC) particles and associated coating species at Nam Co (4730 m, a.s.l) on the Tibetan Plateau. Measurements were performed at the Comprehensive Observation Station of China Academy of Science in the summer of 2015 using an Aerodyne soot particle aerosol mass spectrometer (SP-AMS) with the oven removed, thus the instrument selectively measured rBC-containing particles only, along with their associated coatings. Results show that the average mass concentration of rBC particles was 0.119 μgm-3 across the sampling period, and the temporal variation of rBC determined by SP-AMS agrees well with collocated absorption measurements. The SP-AMS collection efficiency was relatively stable with a mass ratio of coatings-to-rBC of 4-14. Organics dominated the composition followed by sulfate and rBC. The size distribution of all species exhibited an accumulation mode, suggesting they were internally mixed. Positive matrix factorization (PMF) of the organic aerosol (OA) species coated on rBC yielded a semi-volatile OOA (SVOOA), a low-volatility OOA (LVOOA), a regional background OA (RBOA) and a biomass burning OA (BBOA) factor. Our findings reveal that the rBC particles were heavily coated by species from various sources and processes, which may have significant influences on evaluating the climate effects of absorbing particles over the Tibetan Plateau.

  6. Double positivity for HPV-DNA/p16ink4ais the biomarker with strongest diagnostic accuracy and prognostic value for human papillomavirus related oropharyngeal cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mena, Marisa; Taberna, Miren; Tous, Sara; Marquez, Sandra; Clavero, Omar; Quiros, Beatriz; Lloveras, Belen; Alejo, Maria; Leon, Xavier; Quer, Miquel; Bagué, Silvia; Mesia, Ricard; Nogués, Julio; Gomà, Montserrat; Aguila, Anton; Bonfill, Teresa; Blazquez, Carmen; Guix, Marta; Hijano, Rafael; Torres, Montserrat; Holzinger, Dana; Pawlita, Michael; Pavon, Miguel Angel; Bravo, Ignacio G; de Sanjosé, Silvia; Bosch, Francesc Xavier; Alemany, Laia

    2018-03-01

    The etiologic role of human papillomaviruses (HPV) in oropharyngeal cancer (OPC) is well established. Nevertheless, information on survival differences by anatomic sub-site or treatment remains scarce, and it is still unclear the HPV-relatedness definition with best diagnostic accuracy and prognostic value. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of all patients diagnosed with a primary OPC in four Catalonian hospitals from 1990 to 2013. Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded cancer tissues were subjected to histopathological evaluation, DNA quality control, HPV-DNA detection, and p16 INK4a /pRb/p53/Cyclin-D1 immunohistochemistry. HPV-DNA positive and a random sample of HPV-DNA negative cases were subjected to HPV-E6*I mRNA detection. Demographic, tobacco/alcohol use, clinical and follow-up data were collected. Multivariate models were used to evaluate factors associated with HPV positivity as defined by four different HPV-relatedness definitions. Proportional-hazards models were used to compare the risk of death and recurrence among HPV-related and non-related OPC. 788 patients yielded a valid HPV-DNA result. The percentage of positive cases was 10.9%, 10.2%, 8.5% and 7.4% for p16 INK4a , HPV-DNA, HPV-DNA/HPV-E6*I mRNA, and HPV-DNA/p16 INK4a , respectively. Being non-smoker or non-drinker was consistently associated across HPV-relatedness definitions with HPV positivity. A suggestion of survival differences between anatomic sub-sites and treatments was observed. Double positivity for HPV-DNA/p16 INK4a showed strongest diagnostic accuracy and prognostic value. Double positivity for HPV-DNA/p16 INK4a , a test that can be easily implemented in the clinical practice, has optimal diagnostic accuracy and prognostic value. Our results have strong clinical implications for patients' classification and handling and also suggest that not all the HPV-related OPC behave similarly. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. American Sign Language and Academic English: Factors Influencing the Reading of Bilingual Secondary School Deaf and Hard of Hearing Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Jessica A; Hoffmeister, Robert J

    2017-01-01

    For many years, researchers have sought to understand the reading development of deaf and hard of hearing (DHH) students. Guided by prior research on DHH and hearing students, in this study we investigate the hypothesis that for secondary school DHH students enrolled in American Sign Language (ASL)/English bilingual schools for the deaf, academic English proficiency would be a significant predictor of reading comprehension alongside ASL proficiency. Using linear regression, we found statistically significant interaction effects between academic English knowledge and word reading fluency in predicting the reading comprehension scores of the participants. However, ASL remained the strongest and most consistent predictor of reading comprehension within the sample. Findings support a model in which socio-demographic factors, ASL proficiency, and word reading fluency are primary predictors of reading comprehension for secondary DHH students. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@.com.

  8. Predictors and prognostic impact of recurrent myocardial infarction in patients with left ventricular dysfunction, heart failure, or both following a first myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thune, Jens Jakob; Signorovitch, James E; Kober, Lars

    2011-01-01

    days (quartiles 35-361 days), with a declining rate of recurrent MI within the first 3 months. The strongest predictors of recurrent MI were reduced estimated glomerular filtration rate, unstable angina, diabetes, and age. Mortality was markedly elevated (20.5%) within the first 7 days of a recurrent...

  9. Body image flexibility: A predictor and moderator of outcome in transdiagnostic outpatient eating disorder treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellizzer, Mia L; Waller, Glenn; Wade, Tracey D

    2018-04-01

    Predictors of attrition and predictors and moderators of outcome were explored in a transdiagnostic sample of patients who received ten-session cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT-T) for nonunderweight eating disorders. Body image flexibility, a protective positive body image construct, was hypothesized to be a significant moderator. Data from two case series were combined to form a sample of 78 participants who received CBT-T. Baseline measures of body image, negative affect, personality, and motivation (readiness to change and self-efficacy) were included as potential predictors. Global eating disorder psychopathology at each assessment point (baseline, mid- and post-treatment, 1- and 3-month follow-up) was the outcome variable. Predictors of attrition were assessed using logistic regression, and multilevel modeling was applied for predictors and moderators of outcome. Body image flexibility emerged as the strongest predictor and moderator of global eating disorder psychopathology, followed by body image avoidance. Body checking, negative affect, personality beliefs, and self-efficacy were significant predictors of global eating disorder psychopathology. Higher body image flexibility predicted lower global eating disorder psychopathology at every assessment point. Further research is required to replicate findings and explore the benefit of focusing on positive body image in treatment. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. The first twenty years (1994–2014 of ozone soundings from Rapa Nui (27°S, 109°W, 51 m a.s.l.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Gallardo

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Ozone (O3 soundings have been performed on Easter Island or Rapa Nui (27 °S, 109 °W, 51 m a.s.l. since 1994 as part of the Global Atmospheric Watch Programme of the World Meteorological Organization. In this work, we analyse 260 soundings compiled over the period 1994–2014, and make the data available for the international community. We characterise O3 profiles over this remote area of the Pacific by means of statistical analyses that consider, on the one hand, a traditional climatology that describes the data in terms of seasonal cycles based on monthly averages and, on the other hand, a process-oriented analysis based on self-organising maps. Our analyses show the influence of both tropical and subtropical/mid-latitude air masses at Rapa Nui. The former occurs in summer and fall when convective conditions prevail, and the latter in late winter and spring when subsiding conditions are recurrent. The occurrence of stratospheric intrusions in late winter and spring in connection with deep troughs and the presence of the subtropical jet stream is also apparent in the data set. The tropospheric ozone column is in good agreement with the corresponding data derived from satellites but with a systematic overestimate of summer and fall values. There is evidence of an upward trend in ozone near the surface, which suggests the impact of local pollution. We look forward to an enhancement of the Rapa Nui observing site, given its location that offers a privileged position to observe climate change over the sparsely sampled and vast South Pacific Ocean.

  11. Sensitivity estimations for cloud droplet formation in the vicinity of the high-alpine research station Jungfraujoch (3580 m a.s.l.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, E.; Bukowiecki, N.; Luo, B. P.; Lohmann, U.; Marcolli, C.; Weingartner, E.; Baltensperger, U.; Hoyle, C. R.

    2015-09-01

    Aerosol radiative forcing estimates suffer from large uncertainties as a result of insufficient understanding of aerosol-cloud interactions. The main source of these uncertainties is dynamical processes such as turbulence and entrainment but also key aerosol parameters such as aerosol number concentration and size distribution, and to a much lesser extent, the composition. From June to August 2011 a Cloud and Aerosol Characterization Experiment (CLACE2011) was performed at the high-alpine research station Jungfraujoch (Switzerland, 3580 m a.s.l.) focusing on the activation of aerosol to form liquid-phase clouds (in the cloud base temperature range of -8 to 5 °C). With a box model the sensitivity of the effective peak supersaturation (SSpeak), an important parameter for cloud activation, to key aerosol and dynamical parameters was investigated. The updraft velocity, which defines the cooling rate of an air parcel, was found to have the greatest influence on SSpeak. Small-scale variations in the cooling rate with large amplitudes can significantly alter CCN activation. Thus, an accurate knowledge of the air parcel history is required to estimate SSpeak. The results show that the cloud base updraft velocities estimated from the horizontal wind measurements made at the Jungfraujoch can be divided by a factor of approximately 4 to get the updraft velocity required for the model to reproduce the observed SSpeak. The aerosol number concentration and hygroscopic properties were found to be less important than the aerosol size in determining SSpeak. Furthermore turbulence is found to have a maximum influence when SSpeak is between approximately 0.2 and 0.4 %. Simulating the small-scale fluctuations with several amplitudes, frequencies and phases, revealed that independently of the amplitude, the effect of the frequency on SSpeak shows a maximum at 0.46 Hz (median over all phases) and at higher frequencies, the maximum SSpeak decreases again.

  12. Influence of open vegetation fires on black carbon and ozone variability in the southern Himalayas (NCO-P, 5079 m a.s.l.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Putero, D.; Landi, T.C.; Cristofanelli, P.; Marinoni, A.; Laj, P.; Duchi, R.; Calzolari, F.; Verza, G.P.; Bonasoni, P.

    2014-01-01

    We analysed the variability of equivalent black carbon (BC) and ozone (O 3 ) at the global WMO/GAW station Nepal Climate Observatory-Pyramid (NCO-P, 5079 m a.s.l.) in the southern Himalayas, for evaluating the possible contribution of open vegetation fires to the variability of these short-lived climate forcers/pollutants (SLCF/SLCP) in the Himalayan region. We found that 162 days (9% of the data-set) were characterised by acute pollution events with enhanced BC and O 3 in respect to the climatological values. By using satellite observations (MODIS fire products and the USGS Land Use Cover Characterization) and air mass back-trajectories, we deduced that 56% of these events were likely to be affected by emissions from open fires along the Himalayas foothills, the Indian Subcontinent and the Northern Indo-Gangetic Plain. These results suggest that open fire emissions are likely to play an important role in modulating seasonal and inter-annual BC and O 3 variability over south Himalayas. -- Highlights: • Continuous black carbon (BC) and ozone (O 3 ) are measured at Nepali Himalayas (5079 m). • From March 2006 to June 2011, acute pollution events occurred for 162 days. • We examine the influence of open vegetation fires on BC and O 3 variability. • 56% of acute pollution events in Himalayas can be tagged to open vegetation fires. • Influence of regional fires emissions are maximized during pre-monsoon season. -- Open fire emissions play an important role in modulating black carbon and ozone variability over south Himalayas

  13. Personality predictors of happiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neto, F

    2001-06-01

    The Oxford Happiness Inventory and a battery of personality measures were completed by 171 subjects. The results showed predicted positive correlations for happiness with satisfaction with life, self-esteem, and sociability and negative correlations of happiness with embarrassability, loneliness, shyness, and social anxiety. Four predictors (satisfaction with life, shyness, loneliness, and sociability) accounted for 58% of the variance in happiness scores. These results support previous research as well as validate the Portuguese version of the happiness inventory.

  14. Predictors of maternal responsiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Emily E; Humenick, Sharron S; Amankwaa, Linda; Younger, Janet; Roux, Gayle

    2007-01-01

    To explore maternal responsiveness in the first 2 to 4 months after delivery and to evaluate potential predictors of maternal responsiveness, including infant feeding, maternal characteristics, and demographic factors such as age, socioeconomic status, and educational level. A cross-sectional survey design was used to assess the variables of maternal responsiveness, feeding patterns, and maternal characteristics in a convenience sample of 177 mothers in the first 2 to 4 months after delivery. The 60-item self-report instrument included scales to measure maternal responsiveness, self-esteem, and satisfaction with life as well as infant feeding questions and sociodemographic items. An online data-collection strategy was used, resulting in participants from 41 U.S. states. Multiple regression analysis showed that satisfaction with life, self-esteem, and number of children, but not breastfeeding, explained a significant portion of the variance in self-reported maternal responsiveness scores. In this analysis, sociodemographic variables such as age, education, income, and work status showed little or no relationship to maternal responsiveness scores. This study provides additional information about patterns of maternal behavior in the transition to motherhood and some of the variables that influence that transition. Satisfaction with life was a new predictor of maternal responsiveness. However, with only 15% of the variance explained by the predictors in this study, a large portion of the variance in maternal responsiveness remains unexplained. Further research in this area is needed.

  15. Sugar sulfates are not hydrolyzed by the acid-inducible sulfatase AslA from Salmonella enterica Enteritidis NalRand Kentucky 3795 at pH 5.5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganguly, Arpeeta; Joerger, Rolf D

    2017-08-01

    The open reading frames SEN0085 and SeKA_A4361, from Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis Nal R and serovar Kentucky 3795, respectively, corresponding to the acid-inducible sulfatase gene aslA from Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, were previously suggested by microarray analysis to be differentially expressed under acid conditions. However, growth and enzyme activity tests in the present study demonstrated that both wild-type strains exhibited sulfatase activity with 4-nitrophenyl sulfate and 5-bromo-4-chloro-3 indolyl sulfate at pH 5.5. The acid sulfatase does not appear to be involved in sugar sulfate, tyrosine sulfate, 4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenylglycol sulfate, heparin sulfate, or chondroitin sulfate hydrolysis at pH 5.5. Adhesion and invasion assays did not reveal differences between the serotypes and their corresponding aslA deletion mutants. Thus, the role and substrate(s) of AslA, a protein unique to salmonella and encoded in all sequenced Salmonella strains, remain elusive.

  16. Prevalence, predictors and correlates of insomnia in US army soldiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klingaman, Elizabeth A; Brownlow, Janeese A; Boland, Elaine M; Mosti, Caterina; Gehrman, Philip R

    2017-10-11

    The objective of this study was to investigate the rates, predictors and correlates of insomnia in a national sample of US Army soldiers. Data were gathered from the cross-sectional survey responses of the All-Army Study, of the Army Study to Assess Risk and Resilience in Service members. Participants were a representative sample of 21 499 US Army soldiers who responded to the All-Army Study self-administered questionnaire between 2011 and 2013. Insomnia was defined by selected DSM-5 criteria using the Brief Insomnia Questionnaire. The results highlight significant functional difficulties associated with insomnia among US soldiers, as well as insights into predictors of insomnia specific to this population. Insomnia was present in 22.76% of the sample. Predictors of insomnia status in logistic regression included greater number of current mental health disorders, less perceived open lines of communication with leadership, less unit member support and less education. Insomnia had global, negative associations with health, social functioning, support, morale, work performance and Army career intentions. The results provide the strongest evidence to-date that insomnia is common in a military population, and is associated with a wide array of negative factors in the domains of health, military readiness and intentions to remain in military careers. © 2017 European Sleep Research Society.

  17. Predictors of excellent early outcome after total hip arthroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith George H

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Not all patients gain the same degree of improvement from total hip replacement and the reasons for this are not clear. Many investigators have assessed predictors of general outcome after hip surgery. This study is unique in its quest for the predictors of the best possible early outcome. Methods We prospectively collected data on 1318 total hip replacements. Prior to surgery patient characteristics, demographics and co-morbidities were documented. Hip function and general health was assessed using the Harris Hip score (HHS and the Short-Form 36 respectively. The HHS was repeated at three years. We took a maximal HHS of 100 to represent an excellent outcome (102 patients. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to identify independent predictors of excellent outcome. Results The two strongest predictive factors in achieving an excellent result were young age and a high pre-operative HHS (p = 0.001. Conclusions It was the young and those less disabled from their arthritis that excelled at three years. When making a decision about the timing of hip arthroplasty surgery it is important to take into account the age and pre-operative function of the patient. Whether these patients continue to excel however will be the basis of future research.

  18. Field observations at different scales for understanding hydrological processes in microcatchments at 2000m a.s.l. in Southern Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, F.; Huwe, B.

    2009-04-01

    In the Andes of Southern Ecuador at 2000m a.s.l. we investigate the hydrological behaviour of three steep microcatchments featuring nature and secondary forest as well as actively grazed pasture. Further locations are two landslides of different age. Within these microcatchments and sites we conducted dye tracer experiments to investigate potential lateral flow paths at pedon scale, monitored the soil water dynamic at plot scale and installed weirs to obtain discharge data from zero order catchments. Furthermore, Ksat measurements all over the microcatchments and sites were made to find dependencies on the topography. A special issue of the forested microcatchments is an organic layer mainly composed of fine roots emerging up to several dm. Composition, thickness and hydrological behaviour of this layer depends on the composition of the tree stand which in turn depends on the topographic position. Until now we have determined the organic layer hydrological parameters of a primary and a secondary forest by a laboratory irrigation device and inverse modelling. Most of the soils situated within the steep slopes were derived from shallow landslides and generally feature high rock fragment contents. Vertical percolation predominates in these soils, that seems to be controlled by the size distribution of the rock fragments. In this regard the effect of landslides on soil properties depends on the type of the landslide, the depth of the displaced material and the type of displacement. However, even at smaller scale soil properties on landslides can vary due to a heterogeneous mixture of substrates occurring with the landslide formation. Soils situated on ridges, plateaus and rotational landslides are denser with lower drainable porosities impeding vertical percolation in benefit for overland flow and lateral subsurface flow. Aims of the investigation are to assess the heterogeneity at the different scales and to find generalities, i.e. hydrological units to establish a

  19. Extreme UV index and solar exposures at Plateau Rosà (3500 m a.s.l.) in Valle d’Aosta Region, Italy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casale, Giuseppe R. [Sapienza Università di Roma, Department of Physics, p.le A. Moro 2, I-00185 Rome (Italy); Siani, Anna Maria, E-mail: annamaria.siani@uniroma1.it [Sapienza Università di Roma, Department of Physics, p.le A. Moro 2, I-00185 Rome (Italy); Diémoz, Henri [Sapienza Università di Roma, Department of Physics, p.le A. Moro 2, I-00185 Rome (Italy); ARPA Valle d' Aosta (Aosta Valley Regional Environmental Protection Agency), Saint-Christophe-Aosta (Italy); Agnesod, Giovanni [ARPA Valle d' Aosta (Aosta Valley Regional Environmental Protection Agency), Saint-Christophe-Aosta (Italy); Parisi, Alfio V. [University of Southern Queensland, Toowoomba 4350 Australia (Australia); Colosimo, Alfredo [Sapienza Università di Roma, Department SAIMLAL, Via A. Borelli 50, I-00185 Rome (Italy)

    2015-04-15

    The purpose of this study is to assess personal exposures of skiers at the Alpine site of Plateau Rosà (45.9°N, 7.7°E, 3500 m a.s.l.), in the Valle d'Aosta region, Italy. The campaign was carried out on July 12th, 2011 during the summer ski season. A peak UVI value of 12.3, among the highest in Europe, was recorded on that day. Personal exposures (PE) were quantified using both polysulphone (PS) and poly-dimethyl phenylene oxide (PPO) dosimeters attached vertically to the cap because it is representative of the vertically oriented face of skiers. Exposure ratio (ER) defined as the ratio between PE and the corresponding ambient dose (i.e. erythemally weighted dose received by a horizontal surface) measured by a broad-band radiometer during the same exposure time of the subjects, was used to compare the results with previous studies. Skin color was also measured on the inner upper arm and on the cheek and differences in ITA (Individual Typology Angle) and a* (redness) values before and after exposure, were statistically analyzed. During the exposure period, the median PE (with PS) was 1.47 kJ m{sup −2} and that obtained by PPO was 1.15 kJ m{sup −2}. The median of the ERs was 0.65 (min: 0.50, max: 0.83) considering the cumulative PS exposure and 0.46 (min: 0.29, max: 0.95) for PPO. An increase in ITAs on the exposed site (i.e. the skin became lighter) was observed after exposure. These results indicate that: a) for some skiers, the exposures were similar to those received on the horizontal plane; and b) the targeted population showed exposures above the occupational threshold limit value (TLV) defined by ICNIRP; c) the use of physical sunscreens which tend to leave a white cast, might have reduced skin color change. Nevertheless possible visible sun-induced skin-color changes could be observed after longer time intervals after exposure. - Highlights: • PS and PPO dosimeters measure UV exposures over short/prolonged periods, respectively. • Large UV

  20. Recent temperature trends in the South Central Andes reconstructed from sedimentary chrysophyte stomatocysts in Laguna Escondida (1742 m a.s.l., 38°28 S, Chile)

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Jong, R.; Schneider, T.; Hernández-Almeida, I.; Grosjean, M.

    2016-02-01

    In this study we present a quantitative, high resolution reconstruction of past austral winter length in the Chilean Andes at 38°S from AD 1920 to 2009. For Laguna Escondida, a nearly pristine lake situated on the flanks of the Andes at 1740 m above sea level, past variability in the duration of the winter season (Days T4 °C) was reconstructed. Because high elevation meteorological stations are absent in this region, the reconstruction provides novel insights into recent temperature trends in the central-southern Andes. As a cold-season temperature proxy, we used chrysophyte stomatocysts. This novel proxy for cold season temperature was so far applied successfully in the European Alps and Pyrenees but has not yet been tested in the Southern Hemisphere. The reconstruction in this study was based on a newly developed Transfer Function to estimate Days T4 °C (number of consecutive days with surface water temperatures at or below 4 °C) from sedimentary stomatocyst assemblages (R2boot = 0.8, RMSEPboot = 28.7 days (= half the standard deviation)). To develop a high quality TF model, sediment traps and thermistors were placed in thirty remote lakes along an altitude gradient (420-2040 m a.s.l.). Complete materials and data were collected in 24 lakes after one year. Detailed statistical analyses indicate that modern stomatocysts primarily respond to the length of the cold season. The TF model was then applied to the sedimentary stomatocysts from a 210Pb-dated short core of L. Escondida. Comparison to independent reanalysis data showed that reconstructed changes in Days T4°C provides detailed information on winter-spring temperature variability since AD 1920. The reconstruction shows that recent warming (onset in AD 1980) in the southern Chilean Andes was not exceptional in the context of the past century. This is in strong contrast to studies from the Northern Hemisphere. The finding is also in contrast to the cooling temperature trends which were detected using

  1. Halogenated greenhouse gases at the Swiss High Alpine Site of Jungfraujoch (3580 m asl): Continuous measurements and their use for regional European source allocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimann, Stefan; Schaub, Daniel; Stemmler, Konrad; Folini, Doris; Hill, Matthias; Hofer, Peter; Buchmann, Brigitte; Simmonds, Peter G.; Greally, Brian R.; O'Doherty, Simon

    2004-03-01

    At the high Alpine site of Jungfraujoch (3580 m asl), 23 halogenated greenhouse gases are measured quasi-continuously by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GCMS). Measurement data from the years 2000-2002 are analyzed for trends and pollution events. Concentrations of the halogenated trace gases, which are already controlled in industrialized countries by the Montreal Protocol (e.g., CFCs) were at least stable or declining. Positive trends in the background concentrations were observed for substances which are used as CFC-substitutes (hydrofluorocarbons, hydrochlorofluorocarbons). Background concentrations of the hydrofluorocarbons at the Jungfraujoch increased from January 2000 until December 2002 as follows: HFC 134a (CF3CH2F) from 15 to 27 ppt, HFC 125 (CF3CHF2) from 1.4 to 2.8 ppt, and HFC 152a (CHF2CH3) from 2.3 to 3.2 ppt. For HFC 152a, a distinct increase of its concentration magnitude during pollution events was observed from 2000 to 2002, indicating rising European emissions for this compound. Background concentrations of all measured compounds were in good agreement with similar measurements at Mace Head, Ireland. On the other hand, peak concentrations were significantly higher at the Jungfraujoch. This finding is due to the proximity to potent European sources, foremost in southern Europe. The average ratio of halocarbons versus carbon monoxide (CO) concentrations above their baseline values was used to estimate source strengths for the part of Europe which most influences the Jungfraujoch during pollution events. HFCs emission estimates from Jungfraujoch tend to be higher than figures at Mace Head (Ireland) from the end of the 1990s, which either reflects the increased use of these compounds or the closer location of Jungfraujoch to major southern European sources. Transport of polluted European boundary layer air masses to the high Alpine site was observed especially during frontal passages, foehn events, and thermal lifting of air masses in summer

  2. Climatic belt dynamics on a tropical mountain under strong anthropogenic and zoogenic impact: Mt Tsebet (3946 m a.s.l.) in East Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyssen, Jan; Frankl, Amaury; Gebrehiwot, Kindeya; Yirga, Gidey; Guyassa, Etafa; de Mûelenaere, Stephanie; Poesen, Jean; Hemp, Andreas; Haile, Mitiku

    2010-05-01

    The links between decreasing size and volume of the glaciers in East Africa's tropical mountains and the position of climatic belts on the one hand and global warming on the other have led to various interpretations on the occurrence of global warming and its magnitude and impacts in this part of the world. Here, we investigate the existence of temperature changes in East Africa and their impacts in high mountain regions by analyzing the position of climatically determined vegetation belts on Mt. Tsebet (12°52'N, 39°30'E, 3946 m a.s.l.) in northern Ethiopia between 1986 and 2010. This 27 km² massif, which was first surveyed and photographed in 1868, was chosen as a study area because, unlike Simien Mountains or Bale Mts. (Ethiopia), the antropogenic and zoogenic impact on the environment has not been reduced through time. By choosing Tsebet, we avoided areas that have become recently protected (such as the above-mentioned national parks); there, trees that newly grow more upslope might be ascribed to the protected status. In protected areas, the position of upper cropland limits may be controlled by regulations that prevent farmers from expanding farmlands upslope, even if climatic and topographic conditions would allow doing so. On Tsebet, where direct human and zoogenic impact exists up to the highest elevations, we will establish the position of two temperature-linked vegetation limits (i.e. Erica arborea and Hordeum vulgare or barley) in 1986, 1994 and 2010, through fieldwork (February 2010) and aerial photo interpretation. Changes in population density in the villages around Mt. Tsebet will be analysed through house counting on aerial photographs. The fieldwork will include a stay in mountain villages, during which interviews will be done on dates and reasons for shifting of the cultivation limit. The results will be analysed through geostatistical methods and will provide a better understanding of the magnitude of air temperature and possibly precipitation

  3. Long-term real-time chemical characterization of submicron aerosols at Montsec (southern Pyrenees, 1570 m a.s.l.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripoll, A.; Minguillón, M. C.; Pey, J.; Jimenez, J. L.; Day, D. A.; Sosedova, Y.; Canonaco, F.; Prévôt, A. S. H.; Querol, X.; Alastuey, A.

    2015-03-01

    Real-time measurements of inorganic (sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, chloride and black carbon (BC)) and organic submicron aerosols (particles with an aerodynamic diameter of less than 1 μm) from a continental background site (Montsec, MSC, 1570 m a.s.l.) in the western Mediterranean Basin (WMB) were conducted for 10 months (July 2011-April 2012). An aerosol chemical speciation monitor (ACSM) was co-located with other online and offline PM1 measurements. Analyses of the hourly, diurnal, and seasonal variations are presented here, for the first time, for this region. Seasonal trends in PM1 components are attributed to variations in evolution of the planetary boundary layer (PBL) height, air mass origin, and meteorological conditions. In summer, the higher temperature and solar radiation increases convection, enhancing the growth of the PBL and the transport of anthropogenic pollutants towards high altitude sites. Furthermore, the regional recirculation of air masses over the WMB creates a continuous increase in the background concentrations of PM1 components and causes the formation of reservoir layers at relatively high altitudes. The combination of all these atmospheric processes results in a high variability of PM1 components, with poorly defined daily patterns, except for the organic aerosols (OA). OA was mostly composed (up to 90%) of oxygenated organic aerosol (OOA), split in two types: semivolatile (SV-OOA) and low-volatility (LV-OOA), the rest being hydrocarbon-like OA (HOA). The marked diurnal cycles of OA components regardless of the air mass origin indicates that they are not only associated with anthropogenic and long-range-transported secondary OA (SOA) but also with recently produced biogenic SOA. Very different conditions drive the aerosol phenomenology in winter at MSC. The thermal inversions and the lower vertical development of the PBL leave MSC in the free troposphere most of the day, being affected by PBL air masses only after midday, when the

  4. Predictors of retention among African American and Hispanic older adult research participants in the Well Elderly 2 randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Mike; Jackson, Jeanne; Mandel, Deborah; Blanchard, Jeanine; Holguin, Jess; Lai, Mei-Ying; Marterella, Abbey; Vigen, Cheryl; Gleason, Sarah; Lam, Claudia; Azen, Stan; Clark, Florence

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to document predictors of long-term retention among minority participants in the Well Elderly 2 Study, a randomized controlled trial of a lifestyle intervention for community-dwelling older adults. The primary sample included 149 African American and 92 Hispanic men and women aged 60 to 95 years, recruited at senior activity centers and senior residences. Chi-square and logistic regression procedures were undertaken to examine study-based, psychosocial and health-related predictors of retention at 18 months following study entry. For both African Americans and Hispanics, intervention adherence was the strongest predictor. Retention was also related to high active coping and average (vs. high or low) levels of activity participation among African Americans and high social network strength among Hispanics. The results suggest that improved knowledge of the predictors of retention among minority elders can spawn new retention strategies that can be applied at individual, subgroup, and sample-wide levels.

  5. The effects of American Sign Language as an assessment accommodation for students who are deaf or hard of hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cawthon, Stephanie W; Winton, Samantha M; Garberoglio, Carrie Lou; Gobble, Mark E

    2011-01-01

    Students who are deaf or hard of hearing (SDHH) often need accommodations to participate in large-scale standardized assessments. One way to bridge the gap between the language of the test (English) and a student's linguistic background (often including American Sign Language [ASL]) is to present test items in ASL. The specific aim of this project was to measure the effects of an ASL accommodation on standardized test scores for SDHH in reading and mathematics. A total of 64 fifth- to eighth-grade (ages 10-15) SDHH from schools for the deaf in the United States participated in this study. There were no overall differences in the mean percent of items students scored correctly in the standard vs. ASL-accommodated conditions for reading or mathematics. We then conducted hierarchical linear regression analyses to analyze whether measures of exposure to ASL (home and classroom) and student proficiency in the subject area predicted student performance in ASL-accommodated assessments. The models explained up to half of the variance in the scores, with subject area proficiency (mathematics or reading) as the strongest predictor. ASL exposure was not significant with the exception of ASL classroom instruction as a predictor of mathematics scores.

  6. Predictors of male microchimerism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamper-Jørgensen, Mads; Mortensen, Laust Hvas; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo

    2012-01-01

    confounding and reverse causation. To address the issue of confounding, we conducted an analysis of predictors of male microchimerism in 272 female participants of the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health cohort. Buffy coat DNA was tested for Y chromosome presence as a marker of male microchimerism. First, we used...... logistic regression and thereafter random forest modeling to evaluate the ability of a range of reproductive, lifestyle, hospital or clinic visit history, and other variables to predict whether women tested positive for male microchimerism. We found some indication that current use of contraceptive pills...... and hormone replacement therapy reduced the odds of testing positive for male microchimerism. However, prediction of male microchimerism presence was poor based on the available variables. Studies of the possible role of male microchimerism in maternal health and disease are therefore unlikely to be heavily...

  7. MMPI-2 as a predictor of change in PTSD symptom clusters: a further analysis of the Forbes et al. (2002) data set.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, David; Creamer, Mark; Allen, Nicholas; McHugh, Tony; Debenham, Paul; Hopwood, Malcolm

    2003-10-01

    In this study, we reanalyzed the Forbes et al. (2002) data set to examine the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI-2; Butcher, Dahlstrom, Graham, Tellegen, & Kaemmer, 1989) as a differential predictor of change across posttraumatic stress disorder symptom clusters following treatment in 141 Vietnam veterans. A series of partial correlation and linear multivariate regression analyses, controlling for initial symptom severity, identified several scales predictive of symptom change. None of the MMPI-2 scales, however, emerged as predictors of change in reexperiencing symptoms. Social alienation and marital distress were the most potent predictors for avoidance symptoms. Anger, alcohol use, and hypomania were the most potent predictors for the hyperarousal symptoms. Of the personality disorders, borderline personality was the strongest predictor of change in the avoidance and hyperarousal clusters. Further replication of the findings of this article and those reported by Forbes et al. (2002) is required.

  8. Trace elements in South America aerosol during 20th century inferred from a Nevado Illimani ice core, Eastern Bolivian Andes (6350 m asl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Correia

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A 137 m ice core drilled in 1999 from Eastern Bolivian Andes at the summit of Nevado Illimani (16º 37' S, 67º 46' W, 6350 m asl was analyzed at high temporal resolution, allowing a characterization of trace elements in Andean aerosol trapped in the ice during the 20th century. The upper 50 m of the ice core were dated by multi-proxy analysis of stable isotopes (d18O and d2H, 137Cs and Ca+2 content, electrical conductivity, and insoluble microparticle content, together with reference historical horizons from atmospheric nuclear tests and known volcanic eruptions. This 50 m section corresponds to a record of environmental variations spanning about 80 years from 1919 to 1999. It was cut in 744 sub-samples under laminar flow in a clean bench, which were analyzed by Ion Chromatography for major ionic concentration, by a particle counter for insoluble aerosol content, and by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS for the concentration of 45 chemical species from Li to U. This paper focuses on results of trace element concentrations measured by ICP-MS. The high temporal resolution used in the analyses allowed classifying samples as belonging to dry or wet seasons. During wet season elemental concentrations are low and samples show high crustal enrichment factors. During dry seasons the situation is opposite, with high elemental concentrations and low crustal enrichments. For example, with salt lakes as main sources in the region, average Li concentration during the 20th century is 0.035 and 0.90 ng g-1 for wet and dry seasons, respectively. Illimani average seasonal concentration ranges cover the spectrum of elemental concentration measurements at another Andean ice core site (Sajama for most soil-related elements. Regional crustal dust load in the deposits was found to be overwhelming during dry season, obfuscating the contribution of biomass burning material. Marked temporal trends from the onset of 20th century to more recent years

  9. Subjective well-being among Episcopal priests: predictors and comparisons to non-clinical norms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart-Sicking, Joseph A

    2012-01-01

    Few studies of the clergy have examined emotional well-being using normed measures. This study examined subjective well-being among 1,581 non-retired Episcopal priests. Subjective well-being was measured with the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (Watson, Clark, & Tellegen, 1988) and the Satisfaction with Life Scale (Diener, Emmons, Larsen, & Griffin, 1985). Predictors of subjective well-being were measured with the Dispositional Hope Scale (Snyder et al., 1991) and scales of personal practices, social support, congregational dynamics, fit, and economic satisfaction. Participants reported more positive affect (Hedges's g = 1.19), more negative affect (Hedges's g = 0.61) and more satisfaction with life (Hedges's g = 0.73) than nonclinical norms. Hope agency was the strongest predictor for positive affect and satisfaction with life; stress was the strongest predictor for negative affect and partially mediated the effect of congregational dynamics and fit on this outcome. Results suggest that prevention programs must focus on all aspects of subjective well-being and consider the direct effects of different levels of the ecosystem to be effective.

  10. Predictors for antibiotic prescribing in patients with exacerbations of COPD in general practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Llor, Carl; Bjerrum, Lars; Munck, Anders

    2013-01-01

    and purulence) and the results of the CRP test. RESULTS: A total of 617 GPs registered 1233 patients with AECOPD. A total of 970 patients (79%) were prescribed antibiotics, varying from 49% (Denmark) to 93% (Russia). The presence of purulent sputum was the strongest predictor for antibiotic treatment (odds...... testing. CRP values had a strong influence on the antibiotic prescribing rate. CONCLUSIONS: Antibiotic treatment for AECOPD is very high. This study shows that GPs performing CRP rapid tests prescribe fewer antibiotics than those who do not....

  11. Attachment as a predictor of non response to CBT treatment in children with anxiety disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walczak, Monika Anna; Esbjørn, Barbara Hoff; Breinholst, Sonja

    2017-01-01

    Children’s and parents’ attachment patterns have been linked with the presence of pediatric anxiety disorders. The present study examined the role of attachment in predicting cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) treatment outcomes. A total of 69 children aged 7–13 years were assessed using a semi...... not significantly differ with regard to child’s attachment to parent. Maternal attachment anxiety was found to be the strongest predictor of treatment outcome, remaining significant after controlling for symptoms severity. Results suggest that clinicians should pay more attention to how the relationships formed...

  12. Predictors of women's positive childbirth pain experience: Findings from an Icelandic national study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsdottir, Sigfridur Inga; Sveinsdottir, Herdis; Kristjansdottir, Hildur; Aspelund, Thor; Olafsdottir, Olof Asta

    2017-09-21

    Pain in childbirth has been identified as one of the major components in the childbirth experience and an important topic that needs to be addressed during pregnancy, birth and the after-birth period. The aim of the study was to describe women's childbirth pain experience and to identify predictors of women's positive childbirth pain experience. A population-based cross-sectional cohort study design was implemented, with convenient consecutive sampling, stratified according to residency. Pregnant women were recruited through 26 health care centers. Participants were sent a questionnaire by mail during early pregnancy and another one five to six months after childbirth. A multiple regression analysis was done, with women's childbirth pain experiences as the dependent variable. Altogether 726 women participated in the study, with a response rate of 68%. The strongest predictors for women's positive childbirth pain experience were positive attitude to childbirth during pregnancy; support from midwife during childbirth; use of epidural analgesia and low intensity of pain in childbirth. The majority of the women in the study experienced childbirth pain as a positive experience, which is in line with studies that have demonstrated that pain in childbirth is different from other kinds of pain. In addition to epidural use as a predictor for positive childbirth pain experience, many other strong predictors exist and must be acknowledged. When planning pregnancy and childbirth services, predictors of positive experience of childbirth pain should be considered and investigated further. Copyright © 2017 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Neurocognitive predictors of social cognition in remitted schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Urvakhsh Meherwan; Bhagyavathi, Haralahalli D; Thirthalli, Jagadisha; Kumar, Keshav J; Gangadhar, Bangalore N

    2014-10-30

    Knowledge of how specific neurocognition (NC) abilities predict social cognition (SC) in schizophrenia has potential to guide novel integrated cognitive-remediation therapies. The scope of studies conducted in this field is limited as they have not examined a comprehensive set of SC domains and they employ small sample sizes of heterogeneous patient groups. We studied a broad range of NC (sustained attention, processing speed, verbal/visual memory and visual processing/encoding, cognitive flexibility and planning) and SC [different levels of theory of mind (ToM)], attributional bias, emotion recognition and social perception] abilities in 170 remitted schizophrenia patients. Multivariate regression analyses revealed attention and planning as predictors of 1st order ToM. Memory encoding was the strongest predictor of 2nd order ToM. Faux-pas recognition, social perception and emotion recognition were influenced by a combination of cognitive flexibility and memory encoding abilities. Overall, NC predicted anywhere between ~4% and 40% of variance observed in specific SC sub-dimensions of attributional bias (4%), 1st order (19%) and 2nd order (12%) theory of mind, faux-pas recognition (28%), social perception (29%) and emotion recognition (39%). Individual SC abilities are predicted by distinctive as well as shared NC abilities. These findings have important implications for integrated cognitive remediation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Stroke Location Is an Independent Predictor of Cognitive Outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munsch, Fanny; Sagnier, Sharmila; Asselineau, Julien; Bigourdan, Antoine; Guttmann, Charles R; Debruxelles, Sabrina; Poli, Mathilde; Renou, Pauline; Perez, Paul; Dousset, Vincent; Sibon, Igor; Tourdias, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    On top of functional outcome, accurate prediction of cognitive outcome for stroke patients is an unmet need with major implications for clinical management. We investigated whether stroke location may contribute independent prognostic value to multifactorial predictive models of functional and cognitive outcomes. Four hundred twenty-eight consecutive patients with ischemic stroke were prospectively assessed with magnetic resonance imaging at 24 to 72 hours and at 3 months for functional outcome using the modified Rankin Scale and cognitive outcome using the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA). Statistical maps of functional and cognitive eloquent regions were derived from the first 215 patients (development sample) using voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping. We used multivariate logistic regression models to study the influence of stroke location (number of eloquent voxels from voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping maps), age, initial National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale and stroke volume on modified Rankin Scale and MoCA. The second part of our cohort was used as an independent replication sample. In univariate analyses, stroke location, age, initial National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale, and stroke volume were all predictive of poor modified Rankin Scale and MoCA. In multivariable analyses, stroke location remained the strongest independent predictor of MoCA and significantly improved the prediction compared with using only age, initial National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale, and stroke volume (area under the curve increased from 0.697-0.771; difference=0.073; 95% confidence interval, 0.008-0.155). In contrast, stroke location did not persist as independent predictor of modified Rankin Scale that was mainly driven by initial National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (area under the curve going from 0.840 to 0.835). Similar results were obtained in the replication sample. Stroke location is an independent predictor of cognitive outcome (MoCA) at 3

  15. The MMPI-2 as a predictor of symptom change following treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, David; Creamer, Mark; Allen, Nicholas; Elliott, Peter; McHugh, Tony; Debenham, Paul; Hopwood, Malcolm

    2002-10-01

    This study sought to examine the impact of personality factors on symptom change following treatment for 141 Vietnam veterans with chronic combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) using the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (Butcher, Dahlstrom, Graham, Tellegen, & Kaemmer, 1989). A series of partial correlation and linear multivariate regression analyses identified social alienation, associated with anger and substance use, as the most potent negative predictor of symptom change. Of the scales assessing personality disorder, Borderline Personality was identified as the strongest negative predictor of outcome. Regression analyses examining the most salient scales identified 5 items that contributed 14% of the variance in the prediction of change scores independently of the 21% accounted for by pretreatment PTSD severity.

  16. Distillation Column Flooding Predictor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George E. Dzyacky

    2010-11-23

    The Flooding Predictor™ is a patented advanced control technology proven in research at the Separations Research Program, University of Texas at Austin, to increase distillation column throughput by over 6%, while also increasing energy efficiency by 10%. The research was conducted under a U. S. Department of Energy Cooperative Agreement awarded to George Dzyacky of 2ndpoint, LLC. The Flooding Predictor™ works by detecting the incipient flood point and controlling the column closer to its actual hydraulic limit than historical practices have allowed. Further, the technology uses existing column instrumentation, meaning no additional refining infrastructure is required. Refiners often push distillation columns to maximize throughput, improve separation, or simply to achieve day-to-day optimization. Attempting to achieve such operating objectives is a tricky undertaking that can result in flooding. Operators and advanced control strategies alike rely on the conventional use of delta-pressure instrumentation to approximate the column’s approach to flood. But column delta-pressure is more an inference of the column’s approach to flood than it is an actual measurement of it. As a consequence, delta pressure limits are established conservatively in order to operate in a regime where the column is never expected to flood. As a result, there is much “left on the table” when operating in such a regime, i.e. the capacity difference between controlling the column to an upper delta-pressure limit and controlling it to the actual hydraulic limit. The Flooding Predictor™, an innovative pattern recognition technology, controls columns at their actual hydraulic limit, which research shows leads to a throughput increase of over 6%. Controlling closer to the hydraulic limit also permits operation in a sweet spot of increased energy-efficiency. In this region of increased column loading, the Flooding Predictor is able to exploit the benefits of higher liquid

  17. Predictors of health plan satisfaction among employees in an academic setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dembe, Allard E; Lu, Bo; Sieck, Cynthia J

    2010-01-01

    This study's goal was to identify the strongest predictors of satisfaction with a health plan offered to employees at a large university in the Midwestern United States. Survey responses from 1533 employees were analyzed (response rate of 51.2%). Unadjusted odds ratios (ORs) were calculated to identify factors that were statistically associated with plan satisfaction. Multivariate logistic regression analyses followed by likelihood ratio testing were conducted to assess the predictive value of particular variables. The strongest predictors of satisfaction with the health plan were the perceived quality of the plan's wellness and prevention services (OR = 3.69), having a personal doctor or nurse (OR = 2.70), being satisfied with the cost of the health plan (OR = 2.18), and having claims handled correctly (OR = 1.90). The factors that have the greatest individual effect on these findings were the quality of the plan's prevention and wellness services and how effectively the plan communicated how much particular services or visits would cost.

  18. Longitudinal predictors of early language in infants with Down syndrome: A preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason-Apps, Emily; Stojanovik, Vesna; Houston-Price, Carmel; Buckley, Sue

    2018-01-09

    Children with Down syndrome (DS) typically have marked delays in language development relative to their general cognitive development, with particular difficulties in expressive compared to receptive language. Although early social communication skills, including gestures and joint attention, have been shown to be related to later language outcomes in DS, knowledge is limited as to whether these factors exclusively predict outcomes, or whether other factors (e.g. perceptual and non-verbal skills) are involved. This study addressed this question. Longitudinal data for a group of infants with DS (n = 14) and a group of typically-developing (TD) infants (n = 35) were collected on measures that have been shown to predict language in TD infants and/or those with developmental delays. These included: non-verbal mental ability, speech segmentation skills, and early social communication skills (initiating and responding to joint attention, initiating behavioural requests). Linear regression analyses showed that speech segmentation and initiating joint attention were the strongest predictors of later language in the TD group, whereas non-verbal mental ability and responding to joint attention were the strongest predictors of later language for infants with DS. Speech segmentation ability may not determine language outcomes in DS, and language acquisition may be more constrained by social communication and general cognitive skills. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Pyramiding of Ryd2 and Ryd3 conferring tolerance to a German isolate of Barley yellow dwarf virus-PAV (BYDV-PAV-ASL-1) leads to quantitative resistance against this isolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedel, Christine; Habekuss, Antje; Schliephake, Edgar; Niks, Rients; Broer, Inge; Ordon, Frank

    2011-06-01

    Barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV) is an economically important pathogen of barley, which may become even more important due to global warming. In barley, several loci conferring tolerance to BYDV-PAV-ASL-1 are known, e.g. Ryd2, Ryd3 and a quantitative trait locus (QTL) on chromosome 2H. The aim of the present study was to get information whether the level of tolerance against this isolate of BYDV in barley can be improved by combining these loci. Therefore, a winter and a spring barley population of doubled haploid (DH) lines were genotyped by molecular markers for the presence of the susceptibility or the resistance encoding allele at respective loci (Ryd2, Ryd3, QTL on chromosome 2H) and were tested for their level of BYDV-tolerance after inoculation with viruliferous (BYDV-PAV-ASL-1) aphids in field trials. In DH-lines carrying the combination Ryd2 and Ryd3, a significant reduction of the virus titre was detected as compared to lines carrying only one of these genes. Furthermore, spring barley DH-lines with this allele combination also showed a significantly higher relative grain yield as compared to lines carrying only Ryd2 or Ryd3. The QTL on chromosome 2H had only a small effect on the level of tolerance in those lines carrying only Ryd2, or Ryd3 or a combination of both, but the effect in comparison to lines carrying no tolerance allele was significant. Overall, these results show that the combination of Ryd2 and Ryd3 leads to quantitative resistance against BYDV-PAV instead of tolerance.

  20. The Rofental: a high Alpine research basin (1890-3770 m a.s.l.) in the Ötztal Alps (Austria) with over 150 years of hydrometeorological and glaciological observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strasser, Ulrich; Marke, Thomas; Braun, Ludwig; Escher-Vetter, Heidi; Juen, Irmgard; Kuhn, Michael; Maussion, Fabien; Mayer, Christoph; Nicholson, Lindsey; Niedertscheider, Klaus; Sailer, Rudolf; Stötter, Johann; Weber, Markus; Kaser, Georg

    2018-01-01

    A comprehensive hydrometeorological and glaciological data set is presented, originating from a multitude of glaciological, meteorological, hydrological and laser scanning recordings at research sites in the Rofental (1891-3772 m a.s.l., Ötztal Alps, Austria). The data sets span a period of 150 years and hence represent a unique time series of rich high-altitude mountain observations. Their collection was originally initiated to support scientific investigation of the glaciers Hintereisferner, Kesselwandferner and Vernagtferner. Annual mass balance, glacier front variation, flow velocities and photographic records of the status of these glaciers were recorded. Later, additional measurements of meteorological and hydrological variables were undertaken, and over time a number of autonomous weather stations and runoff gauges were brought into operation; the available data now comprise records of temperature, relative humidity, short- and longwave radiation, wind speed and direction, air pressure, precipitation, and river water levels. Since 2001, a series of distributed (airborne and terrestrial) laser scans is available, along with associated digital surface models. In 2016 a permanent terrestrial laser scanner was installed on Im hintern Eis (3244 m a.s.l.) to continuously observe almost the entire area of Hintereisferner. The data and research undertaken at the sites of investigation in the Rofental area enable combined research of cryospheric, atmospheric and hydrological processes in complex terrain, and support the development of several state-of-the-art glacier mass balance and hydroclimatological models. The institutions taking part in the Rofental research framework promote their site in several international research initiatives. In INARCH (International Network for Alpine Research Catchment Hydrology, http://words.usask.ca/inarch), all original research data sets are now provided to the scientific community according to the Creative Commons Attribution

  1. PREDICTORS OF SOCIAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL ADAPTATION OF THE UNEMPLOYED AND PEOPLE WITH REGULAR EMPLOYMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rail M Shamionov

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the results of a study on the socio-psychological adaptation predictors of the unemployed in relation to people with regular employment. It is assumed that adaptation of the employed and the unemployed is determined by various socio-psychological phenomena; definition of the phenomena will allow to develop programmes of adaptation for the unemployed with preservation of motivation for self-realization. In total, 362 people (33% of whom were male took part in the study, including 196 unemployed. Standardized methods and scales developed by the authors for assessing the subject position characteristics and adaptive readiness of a person were used. It was found that the unemployed are characterized by lower indicators of socio-psychological adaptation and characteristics that are of paramount importance for adaptation - self-acceptance, acceptance of others, emotional comfort. Socio-demographic characteristics, scales of subjective position, adaptive readiness, subjective well-being and values were consistently introduced to the regression equation. It is shown that adaptive readiness and values are the strongest predictors for the employed, while indicators of subjective well-being and value are more significant for the unemployed. The general predictors of adaptation are the level of education, happiness (positively and negative affect (negatively. In other cases, the predictors are strictly differentiated.

  2. Predictors of labor satisfaction an subjective well-being of Health professionals

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    Laura Paris

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyze the predictors of job satisfaction and subjective well-being in health professionals. We worked with a sample of 99 nurses and 97 doctors from Rosario city (Argentina. The subjects completed a questionnaire of personal data, two scales developed for this study (Care Stressors, and Coping with Care Stress, Job Satisfaction Scale (Shouksmith, 1990, and Subjective Well-being Inventory (Nacpal & Shell, 1992. Number of weekly working hours, problem-solving coping, satisfaction with life, and some dimensions of well-being (such as correspondence between expectations and achievements, the adequate mental management, and emotional support of family group, emerged as the strongest predictors of work satisfaction. Differences in function of the profession showed that, the best predictors, among physicians, are family and organizational support, and coherence between expectations and achievements (regarding salaries and promotion opportunities. In contrast, among nurses, only highlighted the use of cooperative coping as an explanatory variable. In relation to subjective well-being, the results showed that the best predictors are the following: having children, working more hours per week, perceiving organizational justice, using problem-solving coping, and being satisfied with their development of skills and capacities. The only difference in function of the profession shows that nurses respond to stressors using emotional distance and recreational leisure more often than doctors do.

  3. Predictors for glucose change in hypertensive participants following short-term treatment with atenolol or hydrochlorothiazide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Mariellen J; Gong, Yan; Hou, Wei; Hall, Karen; Schmidt, Siegfried O F; Curry, Robert Whitney; Beitelshees, Amber L; Chapman, Arlene; Turner, Stephen T; Schwartz, Gary L; Bailey, Kent; Boerwinkle, Eric; Gums, John G; Cooper-DeHoff, Rhonda M; Johnson, Julie A

    2014-11-01

    To develop and validate a predictive model for glucose change and risk for new-onset impaired fasting glucose in hypertensive participants following treatment with atenolol or hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ). Randomized multicenter clinical trial. A total of 735 white or African-American men and women with uncomplicated hypertension. Pharmacogenomic Evaluation of Antihypertensive Responses (PEAR) is a randomized clinical trial to assess the genetic and nongenetic predictors of blood pressure response and adverse metabolic effects following treatment with atenolol or HCTZ. To develop and validate predictive models for glucose change, PEAR participants were randomly divided into a derivation cohort of 367 and a validation cohort of 368. Linear and logistic regression modeling were used to build models of drug-associated glucose change and impaired fasting glucose (IFG), respectively, in the derivation cohorts. These models were then evaluated in the validation cohorts. For glucose change after atenolol or HCTZ treatment, baseline glucose was a significant (p<0.0001) predictor, explaining 13% of the variability in glucose change after atenolol and 12% of the variability in glucose change after HCTZ. Baseline glucose was also the strongest and most consistent predictor (p<0.0001) for development of IFG after atenolol or HCTZ monotherapy. The area under the receiver operating curve was 0.77 for IFG after atenolol and 0.71 after HCTZ treatment, respectively. Baseline glucose is the primary predictor of atenolol or HCTZ-associated glucose increase and development of IFG after treatment with either drug. © 2014 Pharmacotherapy Publications, Inc.

  4. Predictors of Institutionalization of Dementia Patients in Mild and Moderate Stages: A 4-Year Prospective Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eska, Kathrin; Graessel, Elmar; Donath, Carolin; Schwarzkopf, Larissa; Lauterberg, Joerg; Holle, Rolf

    2013-01-01

    Background Institutionalization is the most important milestone in the care of dementia patients. This study was aimed at identifying relevant predictors of institutionalization in a broad empirical context and interpreting them on the basis of the predictor model proposed by Luppa et al. [Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord 2008;26:65-78]. Methods At the start of this study, 357 patients with mild to moderate dementia were examined by their general practitioners, and a telephone interview was conducted with their caregivers. Four years later, the outcomes ‘institutionalization’ and ‘death’ were determined from health insurance data. Forty-one variables were examined for their predictive influence by univariate and multivariate Cox regression. Results The risk of institutionalization increased significantly (p ≤ 0.05) with older ages of patients [hazard ratio (HR) = 1.05] and caregivers (HR = 1.03), a higher educational level of the caregiver (HR = 1.83), greater use of community health services (HR = 1.59), greater caregiver burden (HR = 1.02), and when the caregiver and patient lived apart (HR = 1.97). Conclusion The results show that there is a multifactorial influence on institutionalization of dementia patients by sociodemographic, health-related, and psychological aspects as well as the care situation, thus validating the predictor model by Luppa et al. [Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord 2008;26:65-78]. Caregiver burden was found to be the strongest predictor accessible to interventions. PMID:24348504

  5. Predictors of Students' Academic Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makar, Kathryn K.

    2013-01-01

    Research conclusions concerning predictors of academic success have been, at best, less than convincing. In fact, these conclusions are more conflicting or mixed when emotional constructs are used. As a result, modern curriculum developers as well as classroom instructors seem to deemphasize, if not ignore, the role of the affective domain in…

  6. Genomic predictors for recurrence patterns of hepatocellular carcinoma: model derivation and validation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Hoon Kim

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Typically observed at 2 y after surgical resection, late recurrence is a major challenge in the management of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC. We aimed to develop a genomic predictor that can identify patients at high risk for late recurrence and assess its clinical implications. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Systematic analysis of gene expression data from human liver undergoing hepatic injury and regeneration revealed a 233-gene signature that was significantly associated with late recurrence of HCC. Using this signature, we developed a prognostic predictor that can identify patients at high risk of late recurrence, and tested and validated the robustness of the predictor in patients (n = 396 who underwent surgery between 1990 and 2011 at four centers (210 recurrences during a median of 3.7 y of follow-up. In multivariate analysis, this signature was the strongest risk factor for late recurrence (hazard ratio, 2.2; 95% confidence interval, 1.3-3.7; p = 0.002. In contrast, our previously developed tumor-derived 65-gene risk score was significantly associated with early recurrence (p = 0.005 but not with late recurrence (p = 0.7. In multivariate analysis, the 65-gene risk score was the strongest risk factor for very early recurrence (<1 y after surgical resection (hazard ratio, 1.7; 95% confidence interval, 1.1-2.6; p = 0.01. The potential significance of STAT3 activation in late recurrence was predicted by gene network analysis and validated later. We also developed and validated 4- and 20-gene predictors from the full 233-gene predictor. The main limitation of the study is that most of the patients in our study were hepatitis B virus-positive. Further investigations are needed to test our prediction models in patients with different etiologies of HCC, such as hepatitis C virus. CONCLUSIONS: Two independently developed predictors reflected well the differences between early and late recurrence of HCC at the molecular level and provided new

  7. Measures for Predictors of Innovation Adoption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chor, Ka Ho Brian; Wisdom, Jennifer P.; Olin, Su-Chin Serene; Hoagwood, Kimberly E.; Horwitz, Sarah M.

    2014-01-01

    Building on a narrative synthesis of adoption theories by Wisdom et al. (2013), this review identifies 118 measures associated with the 27 adoption predictors in the synthesis. The distribution of measures is uneven across the predictors and predictors vary in modifiability. Multiple dimensions and definitions of predictors further complicate measurement efforts. For state policymakers and researchers, more effective and integrated measurement can advance the adoption of complex innovations such as evidence-based practices. PMID:24740175

  8. Measures for Predictors of Innovation Adoption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chor, Ka Ho Brian; Wisdom, Jennifer P; Olin, Su-Chin Serene; Hoagwood, Kimberly E; Horwitz, Sarah M

    2015-09-01

    Building on a narrative synthesis of adoption theories by Wisdom et al. (2013), this review identifies 118 measures associated with the 27 adoption predictors in the synthesis. The distribution of measures is uneven across the predictors and predictors vary in modifiability. Multiple dimensions and definitions of predictors further complicate measurement efforts. For state policymakers and researchers, more effective and integrated measurement can advance the adoption of complex innovations such as evidence-based practices.

  9. Predictors of smoking among the secondary high school boy students based on the health belief model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samira Mohammadi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Smoking is one of the most important risk factors for health and also health problems, such as heart diseases, especially for young people. This study aimed to investigate the effect of factors related to smoking among the secondary high school students in the city of Marivan (Kurdistan-Iran, in 2015, based on the constructs of health belief model (HBM. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in 470 secondary high school students in Marivan in 2015. The samples were selected by random cluster sampling. A question with four sections was used to collect data (demographic questions, knowledge section, attitude section, and questions related to e constructs of HBM. Results: According to the results, the correlation of smoking was stronger with attitude (r = 0.269 and odds ratio = 0.89 but weaker with perceived barriers (r = 0.101. There was not a significant correlation between smoking behavior and knowledge of the harms of smoking (r = −0.005. Moreover, Cues to action was effective predictor of smoking behavior (r = 0.259. Conclusions: The findings of this study show that the prevalence of smoking in the studied sample is somewhat lower than other regions of Iran, but it should be noted that if no interventions are done to prevent smoking in this age group. The findings of the study also showed that the structure of attitudes, self-efficacy, and Cues to action are the strongest predictors of smoking among students. Albeit, attitude was strongest predictor of smoking that shows the prevalence of smoking can be reduced by focusing in this part. Considering the mean age of participants (16/2 ± 0.25 years, that shows the riskiest period for smoking is 16 years and authorities can make change in policies of cigarette selling only for over 18 years.

  10. Predictors of Smoking among the Secondary High School Boy Students Based on the Health Belief Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Samira; Ghajari, Haydeh; Valizade, Rohollah; Ghaderi, Naseh; Yousefi, Fayegh; Taymoori, Parvaneh; Nouri, Bejan

    2017-01-01

    Smoking is one of the most important risk factors for health and also health problems, such as heart diseases, especially for young people. This study aimed to investigate the effect of factors related to smoking among the secondary high school students in the city of Marivan (Kurdistan-Iran), in 2015, based on the constructs of health belief model (HBM). This cross-sectional study was conducted in 470 secondary high school students in Marivan in 2015. The samples were selected by random cluster sampling. A question with four sections was used to collect data (demographic questions, knowledge section, attitude section, and questions related to e constructs of HBM). According to the results, the correlation of smoking was stronger with attitude ( r = 0.269 and odds ratio = 0.89) but weaker with perceived barriers ( r = 0.101). There was not a significant correlation between smoking behavior and knowledge of the harms of smoking ( r = -0.005). Moreover, Cues to action was effective predictor of smoking behavior ( r = 0.259). The findings of this study show that the prevalence of smoking in the studied sample is somewhat lower than other regions of Iran, but it should be noted that if no interventions are done to prevent smoking in this age group. The findings of the study also showed that the structure of attitudes, self-efficacy, and Cues to action are the strongest predictors of smoking among students. Albeit, attitude was strongest predictor of smoking that shows the prevalence of smoking can be reduced by focusing in this part. Considering the mean age of participants (16/2 ± 0.25 years), that shows the riskiest period for smoking is 16 years and authorities can make change in policies of cigarette selling only for over 18 years.

  11. Predictors of sociocultural adjustment among sojourning Malaysian students in Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swami, Viren

    2009-08-01

    The process of cross-cultural migration may be particularly difficult for students travelling overseas for further or higher education, especially where qualitative differences exist between the home and host nations. The present study examined the sociocultural adjustment of sojourning Malaysian students in Britain. Eighty-one Malay and 110 Chinese students enrolled in various courses answered a self-report questionnaire that examined various aspects of sociocultural adjustment. A series of one-way analyses of variance showed that Malay participants experienced poorer sociocultural adjustment in comparison with their Chinese counterparts. They were also less likely than Chinese students to have contact with co-nationals and host nationals, more likely to perceive their actual experience in Britain as worse than they had expected, and more likely to perceive greater cultural distance and greater discrimination. The results of regression analyses showed that, for Malay participants, perceived discrimination accounted for the greatest proportion of variance in sociocultural adjustment (73%), followed by English language proficiency (10%) and contact with host nationals (4%). For Chinese participants, English language proficiency was the strongest predictor of sociocultural adjustment (54%), followed by expectations of life in Britain (18%) and contact with host nationals (3%). By contrast, participants' sex, age, and length of residence failed to emerge as significant predictors for either ethnic group. Possible explanations for this pattern of findings are discussed, including the effects of Islamophobia on Malay-Muslims in Britain, possible socioeconomic differences between Malay and Chinese students, and personality differences between the two ethnic groups. The results are further discussed in relation to practical steps that can be taken to improve the sociocultural adjustment of sojourning students in Britain.

  12. Acute Predictors of Social Integration Following Mild Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Frances M; Harris, Darren W; Olver, John H; Davis, Stephen M; Disler, Peter B

    2018-04-01

    Despite an acknowledged need to accurately predict stroke outcome, there is little empirical evidence regarding acute predictors of participation restriction post stroke. The current study examines prediction of social integration following mild stroke, using combinations of acute poststroke factors. In a prospective, longitudinal study, a cohort of 60 stroke survivors was followed up at 6 months post stroke. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses were employed to evaluate the value of acute poststroke variables in predicting social integration at 6 months post stroke. A combination of age, number of comorbidities, stroke severity, social support factors, and general self-efficacy in the acute poststroke period accounted for 42% of the variance in 6-month social integration. The largest amount of variance (20%) was explained by inclusion of social support factors, including number and types of support. Post hoc analysis was conducted to establish whether marital status was the mediating variable through which early poststroke social support factors exerted influence upon subsequent social integration. The new combination of acute variables accounted for 48% of the variance in 6-month social integration. Results suggested that subjects with partners perceived higher levels of functional social support and lower levels of participation restriction. Stroke survivors with partners may receive greater amounts of companionship and encouragement from their partners, which enhances self-esteem and confidence. Such individuals are possibly more able to participate in and maintain relationships, thus improving social integration. Social support factors, mediated via marital status, are the strongest predictors of subsequent social integration following mild stroke. Copyright © 2018 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Handwashing, sanitation and family planning practices are the strongest underlying determinants of child stunting in rural indigenous communities of Jharkhand and Odisha, Eastern India: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxton, Jennifer; Rath, Shibanand; Nair, Nirmala; Gope, Rajkumar; Mahapatra, Rajendra; Tripathy, Prasanta; Prost, Audrey

    2016-10-01

    The World Health Organisation has called for global action to reduce child stunting by 40% by 2025. One third of the world's stunted children live in India, and children belonging to rural indigenous communities are the worst affected. We sought to identify the strongest determinants of stunting among indigenous children in rural Jharkhand and Odisha, India, to highlight key areas for intervention. We analysed data from 1227 children aged 6-23.99 months and their mothers, collected in 2010 from 18 clusters of villages with a high proportion of people from indigenous groups in three districts. We measured height and weight of mothers and children, and captured data on various basic, underlying and immediate determinants of undernutrition. We used Generalised Estimating Equations to identify individual determinants associated with children's height-for-age z-score (HAZ; p family planning, reducing diarrhoeal infections, improving handwashing practices, increasing access to income and strengthening health and sanitation infrastructure. © 2016 The Authors. Maternal & Child Nutrition published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Predictors of cervical lymph node metastasis in salivary gland cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ettl, Tobias; Gosau, Martin; Brockhoff, Gero; Schwarz-Furlan, Stephan; Agaimy, Abbas; Reichert, Torsten E; Rohrmeier, Christian; Zenk, Johannes; Iro, Heinrich

    2014-04-01

    This study compares clinicopathological parameters with novel molecular markers for predicting cervical lymph node metastasis in salivary gland cancer. Three hundred sixteen salivary gland carcinomas were included in this study. Genomic epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN), and hepatocyte growth factor receptor (MET) was determined by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Chi-square tests, multivariate regression, and Kaplan-Meier survival analysis were used for statistics. Nodal staging determines long-term survival. Clinicopathological parameters associated with positive neck nodes are advanced age (p = .006), T3/T4 classification, histological high-grade malignancy, and diagnosis of salivary duct carcinoma (p < .001 each). Neck node metastases also correlate with copy number gain of EGFR (p = .004) and HER2, aberration of MET, and deletion of PTEN (p < .001 each). Multivariate analysis showed SDC (p = .002) to be the strongest predictor of lymph node metastasis, followed by MET aberration (p = .009), T3/T4 classification (p = .017), PTEN deletion (p = .042), and adenocarcinoma not otherwise specified (NOS; p = .047). The histological subtype is crucial for decisions regarding neck dissection. New molecular parameters may also indicate elective treatment of the neck. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Psychological predictors of cultural diversity support at work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiemstra, Annemarie M F; Derous, Eva; Born, Marise Ph

    2017-07-01

    As diversity management activities become more prominent worldwide it is important to understand psychological reactions to them to ensure success, but empirical evidence is lacking. This study investigated employees' and managers' intentions and behavior to promote cultural diversity at work in a variety of organizations in the Netherlands, using Ajzen's theory of planned behavior. Predictors of intentions to promote cultural diversity at work (N = 670) and actual behavior after 6 months were assessed among managers and employees using self-reports in a 2-wave survey design. Participants' average age at Time 1 was 38.26 years (SD = 11.86), 56% was female, and there were 78.1% Dutch ethnic majority and 21.9% ethnic minority participants. Attitude to cultural diversity promotion at work and perceived behavioral control (PBC) related positively to both individuals' intentions to promote cultural diversity at work, which in turn predicted behavior. The strongest driver, however, was attitude. Managers' reported PBC and behavior were higher compared to employees. This study supported the applicability of the theory of planned behavior to predict intentions and behavior to promote cultural diversity at work. With an increasingly diverse workforce, this study aimed to advance our understanding of drivers of individual reactions and behavior to support cultural diversity at work. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Predictors of Participation of Sophomore Medical Students in a Health-Promoting Intervention: An Observational Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Kötter

    Full Text Available Medical students and doctors have to be particularly stress-resilient, as both medical education and practice are considered very stressful. Specific stressors can lead to increased risks of developing, for example, depression, anxiety and burnout. Relaxation techniques have proven to be effective for the prevention of these outcomes in student populations. However, only a very few medical students practice relaxation techniques regularly early on in their studies. Furthermore, it is unclear which students make use of stress-management offers and hence whether vulnerable students are generally reachable. Therefore, the aim of our study was to explore predictors of participating in a voluntary stress management course for sophomore medical students. One cohort of freshmen at a German medical school was surveyed at the end of the freshman year [t1] and at the end of the sophomore year [t2]. In addition to sociodemographic information, we captured perceived study stress, self-rated general health and mental health and dimensions of study-related behaviour and experience as potential predictors of participation at t1. During the sophomore year, we offered the participants a progressive muscle relaxation (PMR beginners' course. At t2, we registered participation status. We used binary logistic regression analyses in order to assess correlations between potential predictors and participation. About one third of the whole class took part in the course. The main reason for non-participation was "no time". Being female and higher levels of anxiety were the strongest predictors of course participation. Career ambition (the higher, the less likely to participate and emotional distancing (the higher, the more likely to participate were further significant predictors. Future interventions should be attractive to both male and female medical students. Ideally, for every hour of stress management teaching, the curriculum should be cut by at least the same

  17. Academic and non-academic predictors of student psychological distress: the role of social identity and loneliness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Jason C; Worsley, Joanne; Corcoran, Rhiannon; Harrison Woods, Paula; Bentall, Richard P

    2018-02-13

    University students experience high rates of stress and mental illness; however, few studies have comprehensively examined the impact of academic and non-academic stressors on student mental health. Similarly, there has been little focus on the role of social groups in protecting against mental distress in this young adult group. To identify the key social determinants of mental health symptoms in a student population. Using an online survey, we administered measures of social connectedness and mental health symptoms alongside academic and non-academic stressors to a large sample of UK university students. Loneliness was the strongest overall predictor of mental distress, while assessment stress was the most important academic predictor. Strong identification with university friendship groups was most protective against distress relative to other social identities, and the beneficial impact of identification on symptoms was mediated by reduced loneliness. The study highlights the benefits of establishing strong social connections at university and the importance of minimising stress associated with assessment tasks.

  18. Compulsive buying--a growing concern? An examination of gender, age, and endorsement of materialistic values as predictors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittmar, Helga

    2005-11-01

    Compulsive buying is an understudied, but growing, dysfunctional consumer behaviour with harmful psychological and financial consequences. Clinical perspectives treat it as a psychiatric disorder, whereas recent proposals emphasize the increasing endorsement of materialistic values as a cause of uncontrolled buying (e.g. Dittmar, 2004b; Kasser & Kanner, 2004). The present research aims to improve understanding of compulsive buying through examining gender, age, and endorsement of materialistic values as key predictors in three UK questionnaire studies, which sampled individuals who had contacted a self-help organization and residentially matched 'controls' (N = 330), consumer panelists from a multinational corporation (N = 250), and 16- to 18-year-old adolescents (N = 195). The results confirmed previously documented gender differences, and showed that younger people are more prone to compulsive buying. The central findings were that materialistic value endorsement emerged as the strongest predictor of individuals' compulsive buying, and that it significantly mediated the observed age differences.

  19. Predictors of response to CBT and IPT for depression; the contribution of therapy process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Janet D; Crowe, Marie T; Jordan, Jennifer; McIntosh, Virginia V W; Frampton, Christopher; Joyce, Peter R

    2015-11-01

    Little is known about the factors that contribute to a positive psychotherapy outcome. There is still considerable debate as to whether specific factors (e.g. severity of symptoms, comorbidity) or nonspecific factors (e.g. alliance, therapy process) are most important in influencing outcome. This study examined the additional contribution that therapeutic process and alliance made to previously identified specific predictors of response to CBT and IPT for depression over the course of therapy. The previously identified specific factors were belief that childhood reasons caused the depression, recurrent depression, perceptions about how logical therapy was and comorbid personality disorder symptoms. One hundred and sixty five adult outpatients with major depression were treated for depression in a randomised clinical trial examining predictors of response to Cognitive Behavior Therapy and Interpersonal Psychotherapy. All therapy sessions were audiorecorded to enable objective ratings of therapeutic process and alliance. Process factors - patient psychic distress, patient participation and patient alliance had the strongest associations with outcome. The early and middle stage of therapy process did not account for any additional variance other than that previously identified by the patient predictors, however, at the end stage of therapy process contributed a further 14%. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Academic engagement and disengagement as predictors of performance in pathophysiology among nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamonson, Yenna; Andrew, Sharon; Everett, Bronwyn

    2009-01-01

    Connecting students with learning activities to promote academic engagement has been a focus of higher education over the past decade, partly driven by an increasing rate of student participation in part-time employment, and a growing concern about the quality of the student experience. Using a prospective survey design, this study selected three elements of academic engagement (homework completion, lecture attendance, and study hours) and academic disengagement (part-time work), to identify predictors of academic performance in a pathophysiology subject in 126 second year nursing students. Homework completion emerged as the strongest positive predictor of academic performance, followed by lecture attendance; however, time spent studying was not a significant predictor of academic performance. Of concern was the finding that the amount of part-time work had a significant and negative impact on academic performance. Combining all elements of academic engagement and disengagement, and controlling for age and ethnicity, the multiple regression model accounted for 34% of the variance in the academic performance of second year nursing students studying pathophysiology. Results from these findings indicate the importance of active learning engagement in influencing academic success, and provide some direction for nursing academics to design effective learning approaches to promote academic engagement of nursing students.

  1. Assessing predictors of science grades and career goals in university undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patanella, Daniel Francis

    The utility of traditional predictors of both science grades and career goals (SAT and GPA) was compared to psychological predictors such as Piagetian stage (as measured by the Group Assessment of Logical Thinking), sex-role schema (as measured by the Bem Sex-Role Inventory, and self-schema in students enrolled in either psychology classes (n = 123) or biology classes (n = 56). While the overall predictive ability of the model was high (R = .73), the strongest predictors of grade in science class were traditional variables and not psychological ones as predicted. Prediction of career goal, while more modest (R = .19), was best served by the psychological variable of self-schema. Subsequent analyses indicated that Piagetian stage was best conceptualized as a mediating variable and that sex-role schema as measured played almost no role in either grade or career goal, as well as verifying the internal validity of the self-schema measure used. Biology students were more likely to possess a science self-schema than psychology students (chi2 (1,179) = 7.34, p < .01) and outperformed psychology students on the Piagetian questions (t(177) = 3.01, p < .01). Response latency was recorded for all participants' answer to the Piagetian questions; contrary to prediction however, the inclusion of response latency did not add to the predictive ability of the Piagetian measure used.

  2. Automated computer-based CT stratification as a predictor of outcome in hypersensitivity pneumonitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacob, Joseph; Mak, S.M.; Mok, W.; Hansell, D.M. [Royal Brompton and Harefield NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Radiology, Royal Brompton Hospital, London (United Kingdom); Bartholmai, B.J. [Mayo Clinic Rochester, Division of Radiology, Rochester, MN (United States); Rajagopalan, S.; Karwoski, R. [Mayo Clinic Rochester, Biomedical Imaging Resource, Rochester, MN (United States); Della Casa, G. [Universita degli Studi di Modena e Reggio Emilia, Modena, Emilia-Romagna (Italy); Sugino, K. [Toho University Omori Medical Centre, Tokyo (Japan); Walsh, S.L.F. [Kings College Hospital, London (United Kingdom); Wells, A.U. [Royal Brompton and Harefield NHS Foundation Trust, Interstitial Lung Disease Unit, Royal Brompton Hospital, London (United Kingdom)

    2017-09-15

    Hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) has a variable clinical course. Modelling of quantitative CALIPER-derived CT data can identify distinct disease phenotypes. Mortality prediction using CALIPER analysis was compared to the interstitial lung disease gender, age, physiology (ILD-GAP) outcome model. CALIPER CT analysis of parenchymal patterns in 98 consecutive HP patients was compared to visual CT scoring by two radiologists. Functional indices including forced vital capacity (FVC) and diffusion capacity for carbon monoxide (DLco) in univariate and multivariate Cox mortality models. Automated stratification of CALIPER scores was evaluated against outcome models. Univariate predictors of mortality included visual and CALIPER CT fibrotic patterns, and all functional indices. Multivariate analyses identified only two independent predictors of mortality: CALIPER reticular pattern (p = 0.001) and DLco (p < 0.0001). Automated stratification distinguished three distinct HP groups (log-rank test p < 0.0001). Substitution of automated stratified groups for FVC and DLco in the ILD-GAP model demonstrated no loss of model strength (C-Index = 0.73 for both models). Model strength improved when automated stratified groups were combined with the ILD-GAP model (C-Index = 0.77). CALIPER-derived variables are the strongest CT predictors of mortality in HP. Automated CT stratification is equivalent to functional indices in the ILD-GAP model for predicting outcome in HP. (orig.)

  3. Automated computer-based CT stratification as a predictor of outcome in hypersensitivity pneumonitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacob, Joseph; Mak, S.M.; Mok, W.; Hansell, D.M.; Bartholmai, B.J.; Rajagopalan, S.; Karwoski, R.; Della Casa, G.; Sugino, K.; Walsh, S.L.F.; Wells, A.U.

    2017-01-01

    Hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) has a variable clinical course. Modelling of quantitative CALIPER-derived CT data can identify distinct disease phenotypes. Mortality prediction using CALIPER analysis was compared to the interstitial lung disease gender, age, physiology (ILD-GAP) outcome model. CALIPER CT analysis of parenchymal patterns in 98 consecutive HP patients was compared to visual CT scoring by two radiologists. Functional indices including forced vital capacity (FVC) and diffusion capacity for carbon monoxide (DLco) in univariate and multivariate Cox mortality models. Automated stratification of CALIPER scores was evaluated against outcome models. Univariate predictors of mortality included visual and CALIPER CT fibrotic patterns, and all functional indices. Multivariate analyses identified only two independent predictors of mortality: CALIPER reticular pattern (p = 0.001) and DLco (p < 0.0001). Automated stratification distinguished three distinct HP groups (log-rank test p < 0.0001). Substitution of automated stratified groups for FVC and DLco in the ILD-GAP model demonstrated no loss of model strength (C-Index = 0.73 for both models). Model strength improved when automated stratified groups were combined with the ILD-GAP model (C-Index = 0.77). CALIPER-derived variables are the strongest CT predictors of mortality in HP. Automated CT stratification is equivalent to functional indices in the ILD-GAP model for predicting outcome in HP. (orig.)

  4. Behavioural activation as predictor of substance use: mediating and moderating role of attitudes and social relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knyazev, Gennadij G

    2004-09-06

    Alcohol, tobacco, and drug use were investigated in 4,501 Russian youths aged 14-25 years. The participants also filled out the short forms of the Gray-Wilson Personality Questionnaire and the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire along with questions about attitudes and social relationships. Behavioural Activation (BAS) was the best personality predictor of substance use. Its influence was mediated by disobedience to adults, affiliation with peers (Outings) and tolerant attitude toward illegal activity. BAS was negatively associated with subjective well-being and educational aspiration (Learn). Extraversion was the second strongest predictor of substance use with its influence being mostly mediated by Outings. Besides, Extraversion was positively associated with some protective factors such as subjective well-being, Learn and good relationship with parents. Effects of Neuroticism and Behavioural Inhibition (BIS) on substance use were weak and gender-specific. In females BIS provided a degree of protection while in males it increased the risk of substance use. The personality factors interacted so that BAS and Extraversion tended to mutually increase the impact of each other, while BIS diminished the effect of BAS. Among attitude variables, Outings acted as the most potent predictor of substance use. Relationship with parents was a protective factor, which acted most strongly in adolescents with higher Psychoticism and Extraversion.

  5. Increased Energy Drink Use as a Predictor of Illicit Prescription Stimulant Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolsey, Conrad L; Williams, Ronald D; Jacobson, Bert H; Housman, Jeff M; McDonald, Jason D; Swartz, Julie H; Evans, Marion W; Sather, Thomas E; Barry, Adam E; Davidson, Robert T

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine energy drink usage patterns and to investigate the relationship between energy drink use and illicit use of prescription stimulants among college students. A sample of 605 undergraduate and graduate students (mean age±SD: 21.96±4.216) from a large midwestern university voluntarily participated in the study. Of the participants, 48.9% (n=296) reported using energy drinks in the past 30 days, whereas 25.3% (n=153) reported using prescription stimulant drugs in the past 30 days. Among prescription stimulant users without a valid medical prescription, Mann-Whitney U tests and logistic regression analysis revealed that the frequency of energy drink consumption was a significant predictor of illicit prescription stimulant use, with the odds for use increasing by 14% with each additional day of energy drink use (odds ratio for using=1.143, P≤.001). Analyses revealed statistically significant differences (Pstimulant users and nonusers for all energy drink use variables, with the strongest predictors of prescription stimulant use being the number of days using energy drinks in the past 30 days and number of energy drink binges in the past 30 days. Results indicate that the frequency of energy drink use was a significant predictor of the illicit use of prescription stimulants.

  6. Predictors of Acquisition of Competitive Employment for People Enrolled in Supported Employment Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbière, Marc; Lecomte, Tania; Reinharz, Daniel; Kirsh, Bonnie; Goering, Paula; Menear, Matthew; Berbiche, Djamal; Genest, Karine; Goldner, Elliot M

    2017-04-01

    This study aims at assessing the relative contribution of employment specialist competencies working in supported employment (SE) programs and client variables in determining the likelihood of obtaining competitive employment. A total of 489 persons with a severe mental illness and 97 employment specialists working in 24 SE programs across three Canadian provinces were included in the study. Overall, 43% of the sample obtained competitive work. Both client variables and employment specialist competencies, while controlling for the quality of SE programs implementation, predicted job acquisition. Multilevel analyses further indicated that younger client age, shorter duration of unemployment, and client use of job search strategies, as well as the working alliance perceived by the employment specialist, were the strongest predictors of competitive employment for people with severe mental illness, with 51% of variance explained. For people with severe mental illness seeking employment, active job search behaviors, relational abilities, and employment specialist competencies are central contributors to acquisition of competitive employment.

  7. From Attitudes to Actions: Predictors of Lion Killing by Maasai Warriors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazzah, Leela; Bath, Alistair; Dolrenry, Stephanie; Dickman, Amy; Frank, Laurence

    2017-01-01

    Despite legal protection, deliberate killing by local people is one of the major threats to the conservation of lions and other large carnivores in Africa. Addressing this problem poses particular challenges, mainly because it is difficult to uncover illicit behavior. This article examined two groups of Maasai warriors: individuals who have killed African lions (Panthera leo) and those who have not. We conducted interviews to explore the relationship between attitudes, intentions and known lion killing behavior. Factor analysis and logistic regression revealed that lion killing was mainly determined by: (a) general attitudes toward lions, (b) engagement in traditional customs, (c) lion killing intentions to defend property, and (d) socio-cultural killing intentions. Our results indicated that general attitudes toward lions were the strongest predictor of lion killing behavior. Influencing attitudes to encourage pro-conservation behavior may help reduce killing.

  8. Attachment as a predictor of non response to CBT treatment in children with anxiety disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walczak, Monika Anna; Esbjørn, Barbara Hoff; Breinholst, Sonja

    2017-01-01

    Children’s and parents’ attachment patterns have been linked with the presence of pediatric anxiety disorders. The present study examined the role of attachment in predicting cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) treatment outcomes. A total of 69 children aged 7–13 years were assessed using a semi......-structured interview, and treated with CBT. Differences between responders and nonresponders with regard to pretreatment characteristics were explored, and the predictive power of factors significantly different between groups was assessed using binominal logistic regression. Responders and nonresponders did...... not significantly differ with regard to child’s attachment to parent. Maternal attachment anxiety was found to be the strongest predictor of treatment outcome, remaining significant after controlling for symptoms severity. Results suggest that clinicians should pay more attention to how the relationships formed...

  9. Lipoprotein predictors of cardiovascular events in statin-treated patients with coronary heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holme, Ingar; Cater, Nilo B; Faergeman, Ole

    2008-01-01

    the relationships between on-treatment levels of lipoprotein components to subsequent major coronary events (MCE). FINDINGS: Variables related to low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) carried more predictive information than those related to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), but LDL-C was less...... predictive than both non-HDL-C and apoB. The ratio of apoB to apoA-1 was most strongly related to MCE. However, for estimating differences in relative risk reduction between the treatment groups, apoB and non-HDL-C were the strongest predictors. INTERPRETATION: The on-treatment level of apoB/apoA-1...

  10. Social Cognitive Predictors of Breakfast Consumption in Primary School’s Male Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzaei, Amin; Ghofranipour, Fazlollah; Ghazanfari, Zeinab

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This study aimed to test the usefulness of social cognitive theory (SCT) in explaining breakfast consumption in a sample of primary male students. Methods: Participants in this cross-sectional study were 358 male students (3rd, 4th and 5th grades) from eight public primary schools of Ilam city. Data were collected by a self-administered questionnaire based on components of SCT. Bivariate correlations and multiple logistic regression analysis using an Enter method were used to identify social cognitive correlates and determinants of breakfast consumption. Results: A total of 358 participants ranging in age from 8-12 years (M = 10.06) were studied. The result of the study showed that the SCT significantly predicted breakfast consumption. SCT variables explained 41.4% of the variance in breakfast consumption behaviors, though, self-regulation was found to be the strongest predictor of breakfast consumption behaviors. There was the strongest correlation between behaviors and self-regulation, (r=0.561; P breakfast consumption behaviors. These results suggest an essential role for self-regulation, self-efficacy and social support in the breakfast consumption behaviors of primary male students. PMID:26234965

  11. Social Cognitive Predictors of Breakfast Consumption in Primary School's Male Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzaei, Amin; Ghofranipour, Fazlollah; Ghazanfari, Zeinab

    2015-05-17

    This study aimed to test the usefulness of social cognitive theory (SCT) in explaining breakfast consumption in a sample of primary male students. Participants in this cross-sectional study were 358 male students (3rd, 4th and 5th grades) from eight public primary schools of Ilam city. Data were collected by a self-administered questionnaire based on components of SCT. Bivariate correlations and multiple logistic regression analysis using an Enter method were used to identify social cognitive correlates and determinants of breakfast consumption. A total of 358 participants ranging in age from 8-12 years (M=10.06) were studied. The result of the study showed that the SCT significantly predicted breakfast consumption. SCT variables explained 41.4% of the variance in breakfast consumption behaviors, though, self-regulation was found to be the strongest predictor of breakfast consumption behaviors. There was the strongest correlation between behaviors and self-regulation, (r=0.561; Pbreakfast consumption behaviors. These results suggest an essential role for self-regulation, self-efficacy and social support in the breakfast consumption behaviors of primary male students.

  12. Selection criteria for a radiography programme in South Africa: Predictors for academic success in the first year of study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol A. Kridiotis

    2016-10-01

    Aims and objectives: The aim of the study was to identify which selection criteria were predictors of academic success in the first year of study. As a four year Bachelor's degree in Radiography (480 credits was to replace the three year National Diploma (NDip in Radiography (360 credits, selection criteria would come under review. Design and method: Data from 130 students were gathered in a retrospective quantitative study. Data were edited, categorised and summarised. A statistical analysis was undertaken to identify which selection criteria predicted academic success in the first year of study. Results: Statistics showed that the matriculation Admission Points Score (National Senior Certificate/NCS APS and core matriculation subject results in Mathematics, Physical Sciences and English were adequate predictors for first-year academic success, and the subjects Life Sciences for the NSC and Biology for the Senior Certificate (SC, showed strong predictive values for first-year academic success. According to the statistical analysis, the GSAT and SDS Questionnaire did not contribute any significant information which could predict academic success. Conclusion: Matriculation marks and NSC APS were adequate predictors for academic success, with a focus on Life Sciences or Biology marks as the strongest predictor. The usefulness of the GSAT and SDS Questionnaire could be questioned, and a recommendation was made to replace these tests with alternative student selection methods.

  13. Interpersonal predictors of stress generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberhart, Nicole K; Hammen, Constance L

    2009-05-01

    Hammen (1991) provided evidence for a stress generation process in which individuals with a history of depression contributed to the occurrence of stressors, especially interpersonal and conflict events. However, few studies have examined the factors contributing to stress generation. This study examines aspects of individuals' interpersonal style, operationalized as attachment, dependency, and reassurance seeking, as predictors of conflict stress generation within romantic relationships. These effects were examined both prospectively over a 4-week period and cross-sectionally using a 14-day daily diary in a sample of female college students. Overall, there was significant evidence that interpersonal style contributes to the occurrence of interpersonal stressors. Specifically, anxious attachment and reassurance seeking prospectively predicted romantic conflict stress over a 4-week period, and a variety of interpersonal behaviors were associated with romantic conflict stressors on a daily basis. These results are interpreted in relation to previous literature, and limitations and directions for future research are discussed.

  14. Predictors of impaired work functioning in employees with major depression in remission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Gabe; Koeter, Maarten W J; Nieuwenhuijsen, Karen; Hees, Hiske L; Schene, Aart H

    2015-10-01

    This study aims to (i) assess work functioning in employees returning to work with a major depression in remission, (ii) study the predictors of impaired work functioning. Participants diagnosed with major depressive disorder (MDD), on long term sick leave (mean 27 weeks) and treated in a specialized mental healthcare setting, were selected from an intervention study sample. They were eligible for this study if they were remitted from their depression and had returned to work for at least 50% of their contract hours at 18 month follow-up. Work functioning was assessed with the Work Limitations Questionnaire (WLQ) and the Need For Recovery scale (NFR). Potential predictors of impaired work functioning were demographic characteristics (assessed at baseline), health characteristics (assessed at baseline, six and twelve month follow-up), and personality- and work characteristics (assessed at 18 month follow-up). After their return to work with MDD in remission, employees were on average still impaired in their work functioning. Personality characteristics were the strongest predictor of this impaired work functioning, followed by health and work characteristics. In the final prediction model, only a passive reaction coping style remained as predictor. We used self-report data with respect to work functioning and work characteristics and not an assessment by a supervisor. Personality trait, coping style, and ability to manage the work environment should be addressed in mental health and return-to-work interventions. Subsequent improved work functioning may be beneficial for mental health and may reduce societal costs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Patterns and predictors of conversion to bipolar disorder in 91 587 individuals diagnosed with unipolar depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musliner, K L; Østergaard, S D

    2018-05-01

    Conversion from unipolar depression (UD) to bipolar disorder (BD) is a clinically important event that should lead to treatment modifications. Unfortunately, recognition of this transition is often delayed. Therefore, the objective of this study was to identify predictors of diagnostic conversion from UD to BD. Historical prospective cohort study based on 91 587 individuals diagnosed with UD in Danish hospital psychiatry between 1995 and 2016. The association between a series of potential predictors and the conversion from UD to BD during follow-up (702 710 person-years) was estimated by means of Cox regression with death as competing risk. During follow-up, 3910 individuals with UD developed BD. The cumulative incidence of conversion was slightly higher in females (8.7%, 95% CI: 8.2-9.3) compared to males (7.7%, 95% CI: 7.0-8.4). The strongest predictor of conversion from UD to BD was parental history of BD (adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) = 2.60, 95% CI: 2.20-3.07)). Other predictors included psychotic depression at the index UD episode (aHR = 1.73, 95% CI: 1.48-2.02), a prior/concomitant non-affective psychosis (aHR = 1.73, 95% CI: 1.51-1.99), and in-patient treatment at the index episode (aHR = 1.76, 95% CI: 1.63-1.91). Diagnostic conversion from UD to BD is predicted by severe depression requiring in-patient treatment, psychotic symptomatology, and parental history of BD. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Parents' Primary Professional Sources of Parenting Advice Moderate Predictors of Parental Attitudes toward Corporal Punishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Catherine A; McKasson, Sarah; Hoy, Guenevere; DeJong, William

    2017-02-01

    Despite the risk it poses to children's mental and physical health, approval and use of corporal punishment (CP) remains high in the United States. Informed by the Theory of Planned Behavior, we examined potential predictors of attitudes supportive of CP while assessing the moderating effects of parents' (N=500) chosen primary professional source of advice regarding child discipline: pediatricians (47.8%), religious leaders (20.8%), mental health professionals (MHPs) (n=18.4%), or other identified professionals (13.0%). We conducted a random-digit-dial telephone survey among parents ages 18 and over within New Orleans, LA. The main outcome measure was derived from the Attitudes Toward Spanking scale (ATS). The main "predictors" were: perceived injunctive norms (i.e., perceived approval of CP by professionals; and by family and friends), perceived descriptive norms of family and friends regarding CP, and expected outcomes of CP use. We used multivariate OLS models to regress ATS scores on the predictor variables for each subset of parents based on their chosen professional source of advice. Perceived approval of CP by professionals was the strongest predictor of parental attitudes supportive of CP, except for those seeking advice from MHPs. Perceived injunctive and descriptive norms of family and friends were important, but only for those seeking advice from pediatricians or religious leaders. Positive expected outcomes of CP mattered, but only for those seeking advice from religious leaders or MHPs. In conclusion, the strength and relevance of variables predicting attitudes toward CP varied according to the professional from which the parent was most likely to seek advice.

  17. Predictors of treatment failure among pulmonary tuberculosis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Early identification of Tuberculosis (TB) treatment failure using cost effective means is urgently needed in developing nations. The study set out to describe affordable predictors of TB treatment failure in an African setting. Objective: To determine the predictors of treatment failure among patients with sputum ...

  18. Predictors of Transience among Homeless Emerging Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Kristin M.; Bender, Kimberly; Thompson, Sanna J.

    2014-01-01

    This study identified predictors of transience among homeless emerging adults in three cities. A total of 601 homeless emerging adults from Los Angeles, Austin, and Denver were recruited using purposive sampling. Ordinary least squares regression results revealed that significant predictors of greater transience include White ethnicity, high…

  19. Predictors of Burnout Among Nurses in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Huan-Fang; Yen, Miaofen; Fetzer, Susan; Chien, Tsair Wei

    2015-08-01

    Nurse burnout is a crucial issue for health care professionals and impacts nurse turnover and nursing shortages. Individual and situational factors are related to nurse burnout with predictors of burnout differing among cultures and health care systems. The predictors of nurse burnout in Asia, particularly Taiwan, are unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate the predictors of burnout among a national sample of nurses in Taiwan. A secondary data analysis of a nationwide database investigated the predictors of burnout among 1,846 nurses in Taiwan. Hierarchical regression analysis determined the relationship between predictors and burnout. Predictors of Taiwanese nurse burnout were age, physical/psychological symptoms, job satisfaction, work engagement, and work environment. The most significant predictors were physical/psychological symptoms and work engagement. The variables explained 35, 39, and 18 % of the emotional exhaustion, personal accomplishment, and depersonalization variance for 54 % of the total variance of burnout. Individual characteristics and nurse self-awareness, especially work, engagement can impact Taiwanese nurses' burnout. Nurse burnout predictors provide administrators with information to develop strategies including education programs and support services to reduce nurse burnout.

  20. Some Predictors of Yugoslavian Adolescents' Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lackovic-Grgin, Katica; Dekovic, Maja

    1991-01-01

    Examined contribution of personal, interpersonal, and demographic variables to prediction of adolescents' problems among 391 Yugoslavian adolescents. Found personal and interpersonal variables to be better predictors of adolescents' problems than were demographic variables. Best predictors were neuroticism (personal variable) and nurture of father…

  1. Incidence and predictors of coronary stent thrombosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'Ascenzo, Fabrizio; Bollati, Mario; Clementi, Fabrizio

    2013-01-01

    Stent thrombosis remains among the most feared complications of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with stenting. However, data on its incidence and predictors are sparse and conflicting. We thus aimed to perform a collaborative systematic review on incidence and predictors of stent...... thrombosis....

  2. A smart predictor for material property testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Wilson; Kanneg, Derek

    2008-01-01

    A reliable predictor is very useful for real-world industrial applications to forecast the future behavior of dynamic systems. A smart predictor, based on a novel recurrent neural fuzzy (RNF) scheme, is developed in this paper for multi-step-ahead prediction of material properties. A systematic investigation based on two benchmark data sets is conducted in terms of performance and efficiency. Analysis results reveal that, of the data-driven forecasting schemes, predictors based on step input patterns outperform those based on sequential input patterns; the RNF predictor outperforms those based on recurrent neural networks and ANFIS schemes in multi-step-ahead prediction of nonlinear time series. An adaptive Levenberg–Marquardt training technique is adopted to improve the robustness and convergence of the RNF predictor. Furthermore, the proposed smart predictor is implemented for material property testing. Investigation results show that the developed RNF predictor is a reliable forecasting tool for material property testing; it can capture and track the system's dynamic characteristics quickly and accurately. It is also a robust predictor to accommodate different system conditions

  3. Prevalence and Predictors of Hypertension History among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Hypertension is one of the leading causes of mortality and morbidity around the world and has become a public health problem. Meanwhile, information on predictors of hypertension in Ghana seldom focuses on men. This study, therefore, sought to determine the prevalence and predictors of hypertension ...

  4. Electrical Signs predictors of malignant ventricular arrhythmias

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleman Fernandez, Ailema Amelia; Dorantes Sanchez, Margarita

    2012-01-01

    Recurrence of malignant ventricular arrhythmia is frequent in cardioverter-defibrillators related patients. The risk stratification is difficult, there are numerous electrocardiographic predictors but his sensibility and specificity are not absolute. The limit between normal and pathological is not defined, besides the complexity of ventricular arrhythmias. We expose different electrocardiographic predictors that can help to better individual risk stratification

  5. Comparative Analysis and Predictors of 10-year Tumor Necrosis Factor Inhibitors Drug Survival in Patients with Spondyloarthritis: First-year Response Predicts Longterm Drug Persistence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flouri, Irini D; Markatseli, Theodora E; Boki, Kyriaki A; Papadopoulos, Ioannis; Skopouli, Fotini N; Voulgari, Paraskevi V; Settas, Loukas; Zisopoulos, Dimitrios; Iliopoulos, Alexios; Geborek, Pierre; Drosos, Alexandros A; Boumpas, Dimitrios T; Sidiropoulos, Prodromos

    2018-04-01

    To evaluate the 10-year drug survival of the first tumor necrosis factor inhibitor (TNFi) administered to patients with spondyloarthritis (SpA) overall and comparatively between SpA subsets, and to identify predictors of drug retention. Patients with SpA in the Hellenic Registry of Biologic Therapies, a prospective multicenter observational cohort, starting their first TNFi between 2004-2014 were analyzed. Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox regression models were used. Overall, 404 out of 1077 patients (37.5%) discontinued treatment (followup: 4288 patient-yrs). Ten-year drug survival was 49%. In the unadjusted analyses, higher TNFi survival was observed in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) compared to undifferentiated SpA and psoriatic arthritis [PsA; significant beyond the first 2.5 (p = 0.003) years and 7 years (p < 0.001), respectively], and in patients treated for isolated axial versus peripheral arthritis (p = 0.001). In all multivariable analyses, male sex was a predictor for longer TNFi survival. Use of methotrexate (MTX) was a predictor in PsA and in patients with peripheral arthritis. Absence of peripheral arthritis and use of a monoclonal antibody (as opposed to non-antibody TNFi) independently predicted longer TNFi survival in axial disease because of lower rates of inefficacy. Achievement of major responses during the first year in either axial or peripheral arthritis was the strongest predictor of longer therapy retention (HR 0.33, 95% CI 0.26-0.41 for Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Score inactive disease, and HR 0.35, 95% CI 0.24-0.50 for 28-joint Disease Activity Score remission). The longterm retention of the first TNFi administered to patients with SpA is high, especially for males with axial disease. The strongest predictor of longterm TNFi survival is a major response within the first year of treatment.

  6. Predictors of seasonal influenza vaccination among older adults in Thailand.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabda Praphasiri

    Full Text Available In advance of a large influenza vaccine effectiveness (VE cohort study among older adults in Thailand, we conducted a population-based, cross-sectional survey to measure vaccine coverage and identify factors associated with influenza vaccination among older Thai adults that could bias measures of vaccine effectiveness.We selected adults ≥65 years using a two-stage, stratified, cluster sampling design. Functional status was assessed using the 10-point Vulnerable Elders Survey (VES; scores ≥3 indicated vulnerability. Questions about attitudes towards vaccination were based on the Health Belief Model. The distance between participants' households and the nearest vaccination clinic was calculated. Vaccination status was determined using national influenza vaccination registry. Prevalence ratios (PR and 95% confidence intervals (CIs were calculated using log-binomial multivariable models accounting for the sampling design.We enrolled 581 participants, of whom 60% were female, median age was 72 years, 41% had at least one chronic underlying illness, 24% met the criteria for vulnerable, and 23% did not leave the house on a daily basis. Influenza vaccination rate was 34%. In multivariable models, no variable related to functional status was associated with vaccination. The strongest predictors of vaccination were distance to the nearest vaccination center (PR 3.0, 95% CI 1.7-5.1 for participants in the closest quartile compared to the furthest, and high levels of a perception of benefits of influenza vaccination (PR 2.8, 95% CI 1.4-5.6 and cues to action (PR 2.7, 95% CI 1.5-5.1.Distance to vaccination clinics should be considered in analyses of influenza VE studies in Thailand. Strategies that emphasize benefits of vaccination and encourage physicians to recommend annual influenza vaccination could improve influenza vaccine uptake among older Thai adults. Outreach to more distant and less mobile older adults may also be required to improve influenza

  7. Fourteen months of on-line measurements of the non-refractory submicron aerosol at the Jungfraujoch (3580 m a.s.l.) - chemical composition, origins and organic aerosol sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fröhlich, R.; Cubison, M. J.; Slowik, J. G.; Bukowiecki, N.; Canonaco, F.; Croteau, P. L.; Gysel, M.; Henne, S.; Herrmann, E.; Jayne, J. T.; Steinbacher, M.; Worsnop, D. R.; Baltensperger, U.; Prévôt, A. S. H.

    2015-10-01

    Chemically resolved (organic, nitrate, sulfate, ammonium) data of non-refractory submicron (NR-PM1) aerosol from the first long-term deployment (27 July 2012 to 02 October 2013) of a time-of-flight aerosol chemical speciation monitor (ToF-ACSM) at the Swiss high-altitude site Jungfraujoch (JFJ; 3580 m a.s.l.) are presented. Besides total mass loadings, diurnal variations and relative species contributions during the different meteorological seasons, geographical origin and sources of organic aerosol (OA) are discussed. Backward transport simulations show that the highest (especially sulfate) concentrations of NR-PM1 were measured in air masses advected to the station from regions south of the JFJ, while lowest concentrations were seen from western regions. OA source apportionment for each season was performed using the Source Finder (SoFi) interface for the multilinear engine (ME-2). OA was dominated in all seasons by oxygenated OA (OOA, 71-88 %), with lesser contributions from local tourism-related activities (7-12 %) and hydrocarbon-like OA related to regional vertical transport (3-9 %). In summer the OOA can be separated into a background low-volatility OA (LV-OOA I, possibly associated with long-range transport) and a slightly less oxidised low-volatility OA (LV-OOA II) associated with regional vertical transport. Wood burning-related OA associated with regional transport was detected during the whole winter 2012/2013 and during rare events in summer 2013, in the latter case attributed to small-scale transport for the surrounding valleys. Additionally, the data were divided into periods with free tropospheric (FT) conditions and periods with planetary boundary layer (PBL) influence, enabling the assessment of the composition for each. Most nitrate and part of the OA are injected from the regional PBL, while sulfate is mainly produced in the FT. The south/north gradient of sulfate is also pronounced in FT air masses (sulfate mass fraction from the south: 45

  8. Self-Report Study of Predictors of Physician Wellness, Burnout, and Quality of Patient Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckleberry-Hunt, Jodie; Kirkpatrick, Heather; Taku, Kanako; Hunt, Ronald

    2017-04-01

    The goal of this self-report study was to examine the relation of work variables, self-rated health and mental health status, and perceived social support to physician wellness, physician burnout, and quality of patient care. We administered a demographics questionnaire, the Physician Wellness Inventory, the Maslach Burnout Inventory, and the Patient Care Scale to a random sample of full physician members of the American Academy of Family Physicians. We performed regression analyses on self-reported health status, work variables, and social support data as predictor variables and the subscales from the Physician Wellness Inventory, Maslach Burnout Inventory, and Patient Care Scale as the outcome variables. The response rate was 22%. Self-reported mental health status significantly predicted all of the wellness scales, the burnout scales, and the quality of patient care. The ability to manage the workload was the second strongest predictor of multiple scales. More work should be done to explore the factors related to physicians' self-ratings of mental health status and what that means to them. Also, it is important to study whether self-rated mental health status is related to objective patient care quality measures.

  9. Rates and Predictors of Suicidal Ideation During the First Year After Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bombardier, Charles H.; Fann, Jesse R.; Temkin, Nancy R.; Barber, Jason K.; Dikmen, Sureyya S.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We examined rates of suicidal ideation (SI) after traumatic brain injury (TBI) and investigated whether demographic characteristics, preinjury psychiatric history, or injury-related factors predicted SI during the first year after injury. Methods. We followed a cohort of 559 adult patients who were admitted to Harborview Medical Center in Seattle, Washington, with a complicated mild to severe TBI between June 2001 and March 2005. Participants completed structured telephone interviews during months 1 through 6, 8, 10, and 12 after injury. We assessed SI using item 9 of the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). Results. Twenty-five percent of the sample reported SI during 1 or more assessment points. The strongest predictor of SI was the first PHQ-8 score (i.e., PHQ-9 with item 9 excluded) after injury. Other significant multivariate predictors included a history of a prior suicide attempt, a history of bipolar disorder, and having less than a high school education. Conclusions. Rates of SI among individuals who have sustained a TBI exceed those found among the general population. Increased knowledge of risk factors for SI may assist health care providers in identifying patients who may be vulnerable to SI after TBI. PMID:24832143

  10. Socio-cultural and cognitive predictors of eating disorder symptoms in young girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, C; Cooper, M J

    2005-12-01

    There is some evidence for a relationship between socio-cultural variables and the development of disordered eating or concerns. However, the role of individual cognition in adding to this relationship has not yet been investigated. The current study therefore had two main questions. Firstly, which of the socio-cultural factors investigated (parental, peers and the media) predict girls' eating disorder related symptoms? Secondly, do individuals' cognitions add to this prediction? Thirty-eight girls participated in the study. They completed the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT), Eating Disorder Belief Questionnaire (EDBQ), measures of parental, peer and media influence, and a measure of their awareness and internalisation of societal standards of attractiveness. The results indicated that several of the socio-cultural factors were related to girls' EAT score. The belief that being thinner would make boys like them more was the most significant predictor in the whole sample (and in younger girls). Individual cognitions added significantly to this prediction in the whole sample but not in the younger girls. For older girls, the importance of magazines as a source of information about beauty and ideals was the strongest predictor of EAT score, and their cognitions added significantly to this prediction. It is concluded that peer and media influences are important determinants of girls' eating disorder related symptoms. However, individual cognitions add to this relationship, particularly in older girls. The implications and limitations of the study are discussed.

  11. Sleepiness, long distance commuting and night work as predictors of driving performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Milia, Lee; Rogers, Naomi L; Åkerstedt, Torbjörn

    2012-01-01

    Few studies have examined the effect of working night shift and long distance commuting. We examined the association between several sleep related and demographic variables, commuting distance, night work and use of mobile phones on driving performance. We used a prospective design to recruit participants and conducted a telephone survey (n = 649). The survey collected demographic and journey details, work and sleep history and driving performance concerning the day the participant was recruited. Participants also completed the Karolinska Sleepiness Scale and the Epworth Sleepiness Scale. Night workers reported significantly more sleepiness, shorter sleep duration and commuting longer distances. Seven variables were significant predictors of lane crossing. The strongest predictor was acute sleepiness (OR = 5.25, CI, 1.42-19.49, psleep in the previous 48 hours (OR = 2.58, CI, 1.03-6.46, pmobile phones during the journey (OR = 1.90, CI, 1.10-3.27, pSleep related variables, long-distance commuting and night work have a major impact on lane crossing. Several interventions should be considered to reduce the level of sleepiness in night workers.

  12. Distribution and Predictors of Pesticides in the Umbilical Cord Blood of Chinese Newborns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica K. Silver

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Rates of pesticide use in Chinese agriculture are five times greater than the global average, leading to high exposure via the diet. Many are neurotoxic, making prenatal pesticide exposure a concern. Previous studies of prenatal exposure in China focused almost entirely on organochlorines. Here the study goals were to characterize the exposure of Chinese newborns to all classes of pesticides and identify predictors of those exposures. Eighty-four pesticides and 12 metabolites were measured in the umbilical cord plasma of 336 infants. Composite variables were created for totals detected overall and by class. Individual pesticides were analyzed as dichotomous or continuous, based on detection rates. Relationships between demographic characteristics and pesticides were evaluated using generalized linear regression. Seventy-five pesticides were detected. The mean number of detects per sample was 15.3. Increased pesticide detects were found in the cord blood of infants born in the summer (β = 2.2, p = 0.01, particularly in July (β = 4.0, p = 0.03. Similar trends were observed for individual insecticide classes. Thus, a summer birth was the strongest predictor of pesticide evidence in cord blood. Associations were more striking for overall pesticide exposure than for individual pesticides, highlighting the importance of considering exposure to mixtures of pesticides, rather than individual agents or classes.

  13. Knowledge Is Power for Medical Assistants: Crystallized and Fluid Intelligence As Predictors of Vocational Knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moehring, Anne; Schroeders, Ulrich; Wilhelm, Oliver

    2018-01-01

    Medical education research has focused almost entirely on the education of future physicians. In comparison, findings on other health-related occupations, such as medical assistants, are scarce. With the current study, we wanted to examine the knowledge-is-power hypothesis in a real life educational setting and add to the sparse literature on medical assistants. Acquisition of vocational knowledge in vocational education and training (VET) was examined for medical assistant students ( n = 448). Differences in domain-specific vocational knowledge were predicted by crystallized and fluid intelligence in the course of VET. A multiple matrix design with 3 year-specific booklets was used for the vocational knowledge tests of the medical assistants. The unique and joint contributions of the predictors were investigated with structural equation modeling. Crystallized intelligence emerged as the strongest predictor of vocational knowledge at every stage of VET, while fluid intelligence only showed weak effects. The present results support the knowledge-is-power hypothesis, even in a broad and more naturalistic setting. This emphasizes the relevance of general knowledge for occupations, such as medical assistants, which are more focused on learning hands-on skills than the acquisition of academic knowledge.

  14. Neurocognitive predictors of performance-based functional capacity in bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Daniel N; Bello, Danielle T; Thaler, Nicholas S

    2015-09-01

    Neurocognitive impairment can predict functional capacity in individuals with bipolar disorder, though little research has examined whether different neurocognitive domains impact specific types of tasks. This study examined the relationship between several neurocognitive variables and the UCSD Performance-Based Skills Assessment (UPSA; Patterson et al., 2011) to identify the domains and tests that best predict the performance across the subscales. Forty-seven euthymic participants who were diagnosed with either Bipolar I or Bipolar II were recruited and assessed on a battery of neuropsychological measures and the UPSA. Correlational and regression analyses were run to identify neurocognitive predictors of UPSA subscales. Per the literature, verbal learning and memory and executive function composites were first examined. Verbal learning and memory predicted the Communication subscale and Total score variables above and beyond the estimated FSIQ and symptom rating scales. In a secondary exploratory analysis, the Benton Judgment of Line Orientation subtest predicted the Finance subscale while the California Verbal Learning Test predicted the UPSA total score. Verbal learning and memory emerged as the strongest predictor of functional capacity, suggesting that this domain should be investigated in future mediational and longitudinal studies with the UPSA. © 2014 The British Psychological Society.

  15. Predictors of reading comprehension ability in primary school-aged children who have pragmatic language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freed, Jenny; Adams, Catherine; Lockton, Elaine

    2015-01-01

    Children who have pragmatic language impairment (CwPLI) have difficulties with the use of language in social contexts and show impairments in above-sentence level language tasks. Previous studies have found that typically developing children's reading comprehension (RC) is predicted by reading accuracy and spoken sentence level comprehension (SLC). This study explores the predictive ability of these factors and above-sentence level comprehension (ASLC) on RC skills in a group of CwPLI. Sixty nine primary school-aged CwPLI completed a measure of RC along with measures of reading accuracy, spoken SLC and both visual (pictorially presented) and spoken ASLC tasks. Regression analyses showed that reading accuracy was the strongest predictor of RC. Visual ASLC did not explain unique variance in RC on top of spoken SLC. In contrast, a measure of spoken ASLC explained unique variance in RC, independent from that explained by spoken SLC. A regression model with nonverbal intelligence, reading accuracy, spoken SLC and spoken ASLC as predictors explained 74.2% of the variance in RC. Findings suggest that spoken ASLC may measure additional factors that are important for RC success in CwPLI and should be included in routine assessments for language and literacy learning in this group. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Predictors of emotional and physical dating violence in a sample of serious juvenile offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeten, Gary; Larson, Matthew; Piquero, Alex R

    2016-10-01

    We estimate group-based dating violence trajectories and identify the adolescent risk factors that explain membership in each trajectory group. Using longitudinal data from the Pathways to Desistance Study, which follows a sample of 1354 serious juvenile offenders from Philadelphia, Pennsylvania and Phoenix, Arizona between mid-adolescence and early adulthood, we estimate group-based trajectory models of both emotional dating violence and physical dating violence over a span of five years in young adulthood. We then estimate multinomial logistic regression models to identify theoretically motivated risk factors that predict membership in these groups. We identified three developmental patterns of emotional dating violence: none (33%), low-level (59%) and high-level decreasing (8%). The best-fitting model for physical dating violence also had three groups: none (73%), low-level (24%) and high-level (3%). Race/ethnicity, family and psychosocial variables were among the strongest predictors of both emotional and physical dating violence. In addition, delinquency history variables predicted emotional dating violence and relationship variables predicted physical dating violence. Dating violence is quite prevalent in young adulthood among serious juvenile offenders. Numerous predictors distinguish between chronic dating violence perpetrators and other groups. These may suggest points of intervention for reducing future violence. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Predictors for clinical trial participation in the rare lung disease lymphangioleiomyomatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinder, Brent W; Sherman, A C; Young, L R; Hagaman, J T; Oprescu, N; Byrnes, S; McCormack, Francis X

    2010-04-01

    Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a rare, progressive and frequently lethal cystic lung disease that almost exclusively affects women and has no proven therapies. An improved understanding of the pathogenesis has identified promising molecular targets for clinical trials. Although barriers, modifiers, and benefits for clinical trial participation in common diseases such as cancer have been studied, we are unaware of such evaluations concerning rare diseases. We performed a survey of a population-based registry of 780 LAM subjects in North America to identify predictors of trial participation. Logistic regression analysis evaluated the association of demographic and clinical features with trial participation. 41 of 263 (16%) LAM patient respondents in North America had participated in a clinical trial. Age, disease duration, lack of any college education, use of oxygen therapy, and presentation without chest pain were associated with trial participation in unadjusted analyses. Multivariate analyses indicate that patient age was the strongest independent predictor for trial participation (OR=2.07, p=0.004 per decade greater of patient age). Common reasons reported against trial participation included not meeting enrollment criteria (44%), drug toxicity (25%), and stable disease (20%). The most frequent reason reported for trial participation was to help future patients (85%). Study entry criteria, drug toxicity, and stability of disease are barriers to trial enrollment among subjects with LAM. Older LAM patients and those with more advanced disease are more likely to have participated in clinical trials. Altruism is commonly a motivating factor. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Predictors of sexual risk behaviour among adolescents from welfare institutions in Malaysia: a cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farid, Nik Daliana Nik; Rus, Sulaiman Che'; Dahlui, Maznah; Al-Sadat, Nabilla; Aziz, Norlaili Abdul

    2014-01-01

    In welfare institutions, it is essential to address the health-related needs of adolescent populations who often engage in sexual activities. This study examines the association between individual and interpersonal factors concerning sexual risk behaviour (SRB) among adolescents in welfare institutions in Malaysia. Data were derived from a cross-sectional study of 1082 adolescents in 22 welfare institutions located across Peninsular Malaysia in 2009. Using supervised self-administered questionnaires, adolescents were asked to assess their self-esteem and to complete questions on pubertal onset, substance use, family structure, family connectedness, parental monitoring, and peer pressure. SRB was measured through scoring of five items: sexual initiation, age of sexual debut, number of sexual partners, condom use, and sex with high-risk partners. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to examine the various predictors of sexual risk behaviour. The study showed that 55.1% (95%CI = 52.0-58.2) of the total sample was observed to practice sexual risk behaviours. Smoking was the strongest predictor of SRB among male adolescents (OR = 10.3, 95%CI = 1.25-83.9). Among females, high family connectedness (OR = 3.13, 95%CI = 1.64-5.95) seemed to predict the behaviour. There were clear gender differences in predicting SRB. Thus, a gender-specific sexual and reproductive health intervention for institutionalised adolescents is recommended.

  19. Risk-stratification of severity for infants with CDH: Prenatal versus postnatal predictors of outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinkuotu, Adesola C; Cruz, Stephanie M; Abbas, Paulette I; Lee, Timothy C; Welty, Stephen E; Olutoye, Oluyinka O; Cassady, Christopher I; Mehollin-Ray, Amy R; Ruano, Rodrigo; Belfort, Michael A; Cass, Darrell L

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the predication accuracy of a newly described postnatally-based clinical prediction model to fetal imaging-based predictors of mortality for infants with CDH. We performed a retrospective review of all CDH patients treated at a comprehensive fetal care center from January 2004 to January 2014. Prenatal data reviewed included lung-to-head ratio (LHR), observed/expected-total fetal lung volume (O/E-TFLV), and percent liver herniation (%LH). Based on the postnatal prediction model, neonates were categorized as low, intermediate, and high risk of death. The primary outcome was 6-month mortality. Of 176 CDH patients, 58 had a major cardiac anomaly, and 28 had a genetic anomaly. Patients with O/E-TFLV 20% were at increased risk for mortality (44% and 36%, respectively). There was a significant difference in mortality between low, intermediate, and high-risk groups (4% vs. 22% vs. 51%; pCDH Study Group postnatal predictive model provides good discrimination among three risk groups in our patient cohort. The prenatal MRI-based O/E-TFLV is the strongest prenatal predictor of 6-month mortality in infants with CDH and will help guide prenatal counseling and discussions regarding fetal intervention and perinatal management. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Reporting of adverse drug reactions: predictors of under-reporting in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Zoriah; Siang, Tan Ching; Badarudin, Nurul Suhaida

    2007-02-01

    Malaysia like many other countries worldwide uses spontaneous reporting systems as a mean of collecting data on suspected adverse drug reaction (ADR). However, compared to other countries, which use the system, the reporting rate in Malaysia is very low. Why some physicians do not report ADRs is not well understood. To identify factors, which would predict physicians' failure to send ADR reports. Face-to-face interview using a structured questionnaire involving physicians working at the University of Malaya Medical Centre, Malaysia. About a third of the physicians in the Centre participated. Sixty-five of the 415 approached refused to participate. A high proportion of the respondents (81.4%) indicated that they had suspected an ADR but did not report it, while about 40% of the respondents were not aware of the existence of the national reporting system in Malaysia. Logistic regression modelling identified the variable 'ADR considered to be too trivial or too well known to report' as the strongest predictor of not reporting, followed by physicians' category and uncertainty that the reaction had been definitely caused by a drug. Important predictor variables, which limit physicians from reporting ADR in Malaysia, were related to uncertainty of types of reaction to report, lack of awareness about the existence, function and purpose of national ADR reporting. The findings could be useful for planning strategies to improve the reporting rate.

  1. Demographic Predictors of Students' Science Participation over the Age of 16: an Australian Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Grant; Berry, Amanda; Baglin, James

    2018-01-01

    Using the Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth (LSAY) data, this paper aimed to examine if, and to what extent, demographic factors predict students' participation in science over the age of 16 (post-16). While all the students participating in this study are attending Australian schools, the comprehensiveness of these datasets, together with inclusion of studies from around the world provides a useful reference point for an international audience. Over 7000 students are included in the analysis of this paper. Characteristics of focus in this paper include groups who have been identified as being underrepresented in past studies including Indigenous students, those from lower-socio-economic status (SES) backgrounds, sex differences and immigrants. Among the factors tested, Indigenous status was the strongest negative predictor of post-16 science participation. SES was also a relatively strong predictor of post-16 science participation. Compared to students categorised with an Australian-ancestry, first-generation and foreign-background students were more likely to participate in post-16 science. The findings of this study contribute to existing research on debates about equity and trends in science participation.

  2. Predictors of Long-Term Care Utilization by Dutch Hospital Patients aged 65+

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elderkamp-de Groot Rianne

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Long-term care is often associated with high health care expenditures. In the Netherlands, an ageing population will likely increase the demand for long-term care within the near future. The development of risk profiles will not only be useful for projecting future demand, but also for providing clues that may prevent or delay long-term care utilization. Here, we report our identification of predictors of long-term care utilization in a cohort of hospital patients aged 65+ following their discharge from hospital discharge and who, prior to hospital admission, were living at home. Methods The data were obtained from three national databases in the Netherlands: the national hospital discharge register, the long-term care expenses register and the population register. Multinomial logistic regression was applied to determine which variables were the best predictors of long-term care utilization. The model included demographic characteristics and several medical diagnoses. The outcome variables were discharge to home with no formal care (reference category, discharge to home with home care, admission to a nursing home and admission to a home for the elderly. Results The study cohort consisted of 262,439 hospitalized patients. A higher age, longer stay in the hospital and absence of a spouse were found to be associated with a higher risk of all three types of long-term care. Individuals with a child had a lower risk of requiring residential care. Cerebrovascular diseases [relative risk ratio (RRR = 11.5] were the strongest disease predictor of nursing home admission, and fractures of the ankle or lower leg (RRR = 6.1 were strong determinants of admission to a home for the elderly. Lung cancer (RRR = 4.9 was the strongest determinant of discharge to the home with home care. Conclusions These results emphasize the impact of age, absence/presence of a spouse and disease on long-term care utilization. In an era of demographic and

  3. Personality variables as predictors of Facebook usage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caci, Barbara; Cardaci, Maurizio; Tabacchi, Marco E; Scrima, Fabrizio

    2014-04-01

    This study investigates the role of personality factors as predictors of Facebook usage. Data concerning Facebook usage and personality factors from 654 Facebook users were gathered using a web survey. Using path analysis, the results showed Openness was a predictor of Facebook early adoption, Conscientiousness with sparing use, Extraversion with long sessions and abundant friendships, and Neuroticism with high frequency of sessions. The possible role of Agreeableness in predicting low session frequency and friendships needs further validation.

  4. PSIONplus: Accurate Sequence-Based Predictor of Ion Channels and Their Types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jianzhao; Cui, Wei; Sheng, Yajun; Ruan, Jishou; Kurgan, Lukasz

    2016-01-01

    Ion channels are a class of membrane proteins that attracts a significant amount of basic research, also being potential drug targets. High-throughput identification of these channels is hampered by the low levels of availability of their structures and an observation that use of sequence similarity offers limited predictive quality. Consequently, several machine learning predictors of ion channels from protein sequences that do not rely on high sequence similarity were developed. However, only one of these methods offers a wide scope by predicting ion channels, their types and four major subtypes of the voltage-gated channels. Moreover, this and other existing predictors utilize relatively simple predictive models that limit their accuracy. We propose a novel and accurate predictor of ion channels, their types and the four subtypes of the voltage-gated channels called PSIONplus. Our method combines a support vector machine model and a sequence similarity search with BLAST. The originality of PSIONplus stems from the use of a more sophisticated machine learning model that for the first time in this area utilizes evolutionary profiles and predicted secondary structure, solvent accessibility and intrinsic disorder. We empirically demonstrate that the evolutionary profiles provide the strongest predictive input among new and previously used input types. We also show that all new types of inputs contribute to the prediction. Results on an independent test dataset reveal that PSIONplus obtains relatively good predictive performance and outperforms existing methods. It secures accuracies of 85.4% and 68.3% for the prediction of ion channels and their types, respectively, and the average accuracy of 96.4% for the discrimination of the four ion channel subtypes. Standalone version of PSIONplus is freely available from https://sourceforge.net/projects/psion/.

  5. Predictors of condom use and refusal among the population of Free State province in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandran, Thoovakkunon Moorkoth; Berkvens, Dirk; Chikobvu, Perpetual; Nöstlinger, Christiana; Colebunders, Robert; Williams, Brian Gerard; Speybroeck, Niko

    2012-05-28

    This study investigated the extent and predictors of condom use and condom refusal in the Free State province in South Africa. Through a household survey conducted in the Free Sate province of South Africa, 5,837 adults were interviewed. Univariate and multivariate survey logistic regressions and classification trees (CT) were used for analysing two response variables 'ever used condom' and 'ever refused condom'. Eighty-three per cent of the respondents had ever used condoms, of which 38% always used them; 61% used them during the last sexual intercourse and 9% had ever refused to use them. The univariate logistic regression models and CT analysis indicated that a strong predictor of condom use was its perceived need. In the CT analysis, this variable was followed in importance by 'knowledge of correct use of condom', condom availability, young age, being single and higher education. 'Perceived need' for condoms did not remain significant in the multivariate analysis after controlling for other variables. The strongest predictor of condom refusal, as shown by the CT, was shame associated with condoms followed by the presence of sexual risk behaviour, knowing one's HIV status, older age and lacking knowledge of condoms (i.e., ability to prevent sexually transmitted diseases and pregnancy, availability, correct and consistent use and existence of female condoms). In the multivariate logistic regression, age was not significant for condom refusal while affordability and perceived need were additional significant variables. The use of complementary modelling techniques such as CT in addition to logistic regressions adds to a better understanding of condom use and refusal. Further improvement in correct and consistent use of condoms will require targeted interventions. In addition to existing social marketing campaigns, tailored approaches should focus on establishing the perceived need for condom-use and improving skills for correct use. They should also incorporate

  6. Parents’ Primary Professional Sources of Parenting Advice Moderate Predictors of Parental Attitudes toward Corporal Punishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Catherine A.; McKasson, Sarah; Hoy, Guenevere; DeJong, William

    2016-01-01

    Despite the risk it poses to children’s mental and physical health, approval and use of corporal punishment (CP) remains high in the United States. Informed by the Theory of Planned Behavior, we examined potential predictors of attitudes supportive of CP while assessing the moderating effects of parents’ (N=500) chosen primary professional source of advice regarding child discipline: pediatricians (47.8%), religious leaders (20.8%), mental health professionals (MHPs) (n=18.4%), or other identified professionals (13.0%). We conducted a random-digit-dial telephone survey among parents ages 18 and over within New Orleans, LA. The main outcome measure was derived from the Attitudes Toward Spanking scale (ATS). The main “predictors” were: perceived injunctive norms (i.e., perceived approval of CP by professionals; and by family and friends), perceived descriptive norms of family and friends regarding CP, and expected outcomes of CP use. We used multivariate OLS models to regress ATS scores on the predictor variables for each subset of parents based on their chosen professional source of advice. Perceived approval of CP by professionals was the strongest predictor of parental attitudes supportive of CP, except for those seeking advice from MHPs. Perceived injunctive and descriptive norms of family and friends were important, but only for those seeking advice from pediatricians or religious leaders. Positive expected outcomes of CP mattered, but only for those seeking advice from religious leaders or MHPs. In conclusion, the strength and relevance of variables predicting attitudes toward CP varied according to the professional from which the parent was most likely to seek advice. PMID:28529440

  7. Sex-typed personality traits and gender identity as predictors of young adults' career interests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinella, Lisa M; Fulcher, Megan; Weisgram, Erica S

    2014-04-01

    Gender segregation of careers is still prominent in the U.S. workforce. The current study was designed to investigate the role of sex-typed personality traits and gender identity in predicting emerging adults' interests in sex-typed careers. Participants included 586 university students (185 males, 401 females). Participants reported their sex-typed personality traits (masculine and feminine traits), gender identities (gender typicality, contentment, felt pressure to conform, and intergroup bias), and interests in sex-typed careers. Results indicated both sex-typed personality traits and gender identity were important predictors of young adults' career interests, but in varying degrees and differentially for men and women. Men's sex-typed personality traits and gender typicality were predictive of their masculine career interests even more so when the interaction of their masculine traits and gender typicality were considered. When gender typicality and sex-typed personality traits were considered simultaneously, gender typicality was negatively related to men's feminine career interests and gender typicality was the only significant predictor of men's feminine career interests. For women, sex-typed personality traits and gender typicality were predictive of their sex-typed career interests. The level of pressure they felt to conform to their gender also positively predicted interest in feminine careers. The interaction of sex-typed personality traits and gender typicality did not predict women's career interests more than when these variables were considered as main effects. Results of the multidimensional assessment of gender identity confirmed that various dimensions of gender identity played different roles in predicting career interests and gender typicality was the strongest predictor of career interests.

  8. Persistent Snoring in Preschool Children: Predictors and Behavioral and Developmental Correlates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rausch, Joseph; Byars, Kelly C.; Lanphear, Bruce; Yolton, Kimberly

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To clarify whether persistent snoring in 2- to 3-year-olds is associated with behavioral and cognitive development, and to identify predictors of transient and persistent snoring. METHODS: Two hundred forty-nine mother/child pairs participated in a prospective birth cohort study. Based upon parental report of loud snoring ≥2 times weekly at 2 and 3 years of age, children were designated as nonsnorers, transient snorers (snored at 2 or 3 years of age, but not both), or persistent snorers (snored at both ages). We compared groups by using validated measures of behavioral and cognitive functioning. Potential predictors of snoring included child race and gender, socioeconomic status (parent education and income), birth weight, prenatal tobacco exposure (maternal serum cotinine), childhood tobacco exposure (serum cotinine), history and duration of breast milk feeding, and body mass relative to norms. RESULTS: In multivariable analyses, persistent snorers had significantly higher reported overall behavior problems, particularly hyperactivity, depression, and inattention. Nonsnorers had significantly stronger cognitive development than transient and persistent snorers in unadjusted analyses, but not after demographic adjustment. The strongest predictors of the presence and persistence of snoring were lower socioeconomic status and the absence or shorter duration of breast milk feeding. Secondary analyses suggested that race may modify the association of childhood tobacco smoke exposure and snoring. CONCLUSIONS: Persistent, loud snoring was associated with higher rates of problem behaviors. These results support routine screening and tracking of snoring, especially in children from low socioeconomic backgrounds; referral for follow-up care of persistent snoring in young children; and encouragement and facilitation of infant breastfeeding. PMID:22891224

  9. Socio-Demographic Indicators, Intelligence, and Locus of Control as Predictors of Adult Financial Well-Being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Furnham

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The current study investigated a longitudinal data set of 4790 adults examining a set of socio-demographic and psychological factors that influence adult financial well-being. Parental social status (at birth, childhood intelligence and self-esteem (at age 10, locus of control (at age 16, psychological distress (age 30, educational qualifications (age 34, current occupation, weekly net income, house ownership status, and number of rooms (all measured at age 38 years were examined. Structural Equation Modelling showed that childhood intelligence, locus of control, education and occupation were all independent predictors of adult financial well-being for both men and women. Parental social status and psychological distress were also significant predictors of the outcome variable for men, but not for women. Whereas for women, in comparison to men, the effects of current occupation and childhood intelligence on the outcome variable appeared to be stronger. The strongest predictor of adult financial well-being was current occupational prestige, followed by educational achievement. The gender deferential of financial well-being indicators and its implications are discussed.

  10. Predictors of Payer Mix and Financial Performance Among Safety Net Hospitals Prior to the Affordable Care Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommers, Benjamin D; Stone, Juliana; Kane, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to use audited hospital financial statements to identify predictors of payer mix and financial performance in safety net hospitals prior to the Affordable Care Act. We analyzed the 2010 financial statements of 98 large, urban safety net hospital systems in 34 states, supplemented with data on population demographics, hospital features, and state policies. We used multivariate regression to identify independent predictors of three outcomes: 1) Medicaid-reliant payer mix (hospitals for which at least 25% of hospital days are paid for by Medicaid); 2) safety net revenue-to-cost ratio (Medicaid and Medicare Disproportionate Share Hospital payments and local government transfers, divided by charity care costs and Medicaid payment shortfall); and 3) operating margin. Medicaid-reliant payer mix was positively associated with more inclusive state Medicaid eligibility criteria and more minority patients. More inclusive Medicaid eligibility and higher Medicaid reimbursement rates positively predicted safety net revenue-to-cost ratio. University governance was the strongest positive predictor of operating margin. Safety net hospital financial performance varied considerably. Academic hospitals had higher operating margins, while more generous Medicaid eligibility and reimbursement policies improved hospitals' ability to recoup costs. Institutional and state policies may outweigh patient demographics in the financial health of safety net hospitals. © The Author(s) 2015.

  11. A Longitudinal Study of the Predictors of Perceived Procedural Justice in Australian University Staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pignata, Silvia; Winefield, Anthony H; Provis, Chris; Boyd, Carolyn M

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the factors that predict employees' perceptions of procedural justice in university settings. The paper also reviews the ethical aspects of justice and psychological contracts within employment relationships. The study examined the predictors of perceived procedural justice in a two-wave longitudinal sample of 945 employees from 13 universities by applying the Job Demands-Resources theoretical model of stress. The proposed predictors were classified into two categories: Job demands of work pressure and work-home conflict; and job resources of job security, autonomy, trust in senior management, and trust in supervisor. The predictor model also examined job satisfaction and affective organizational commitment, demographic (age, gender, tenure, role) and individual characteristics (negative affectivity, job involvement) as well as Time 1 (T1) perceptions of procedural justice to ensure that tests were rigorous. A series of hierarchical multiple regression analyses found that job satisfaction at T1 was the strongest predictor of perceived procedural justice at Time 2. Employees' trust in senior management, and their length of tenure also positively predicted justice perceptions. There were also differences between academic and non-academic staff groups, as non-academic employees' level of job satisfaction, trust in senior management, and their length of organizational tenure predicted procedural justice perceptions, whereas for academics, only job satisfaction predicted perceived justice. For the "all staff" category, job satisfaction was a dominant and enduring predictor of justice, and employees' trust in senior management also predicted justice. Results highlight the importance of workplace factors in enhancing fair procedures to encourage reciprocity from employees. As perceived procedural justice is also conceptually linked to the psychological contract between employees-employers, it is possible that employees' levels of job satisfaction and

  12. A Longitudinal Study of the Predictors of Procedural Justice in Australian University Staff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Pignata

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose - This study examined the factors that predict employees’ perceptions of procedural justice in university settings. The paper also reviews the ethical aspects of justice and psychological contracts within employment relationships. Design/Methodology/Approach - The study examined the predictors of perceived procedural justice in a two-wave longitudinal sample of 945 employees from 13 universities by applying the Job Demands-Resources theoretical model of stress. The proposed predictors were classified into two categories: job demands of work pressure and work-home conflict; and job resources of job security, autonomy, trust in senior management, and trust in supervisor. The predictor model also examined job satisfaction and affective organizational commitment, demographic (age, gender, tenure, role and individual characteristics (negative affectivity, job involvement as well as Time 1 (T1 perceptions of procedural justice to ensure that tests were rigorous. Findings - A series of hierarchical multiple regression analyses found that job satisfaction at T1 was the strongest predictor of perceived procedural justice at Time 2. Employees' trust in senior management, and their length of tenure also positively predicted justice perceptions. There were also differences between academic and non-academic staff groups, as non-academic employees' level of job satisfaction, trust in senior management and their length of organizational tenure predicted procedural justice perceptions, whereas for academics, only job satisfaction predicted perceived justice. For the all staff category, job satisfaction was a dominant and enduring predictor of justice, and employees' trust in senior management also predicted justice. Research limitations/implications - Results highlight the importance of workplace factors in enhancing fair procedures to encourage reciprocity from employees. As perceived procedural justice is also conceptually linked to the

  13. A Longitudinal Study of the Predictors of Perceived Procedural Justice in Australian University Staff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pignata, Silvia; Winefield, Anthony H.; Provis, Chris; Boyd, Carolyn M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the factors that predict employees' perceptions of procedural justice in university settings. The paper also reviews the ethical aspects of justice and psychological contracts within employment relationships. Design/Methodology/Approach: The study examined the predictors of perceived procedural justice in a two-wave longitudinal sample of 945 employees from 13 universities by applying the Job Demands-Resources theoretical model of stress. The proposed predictors were classified into two categories: Job demands of work pressure and work-home conflict; and job resources of job security, autonomy, trust in senior management, and trust in supervisor. The predictor model also examined job satisfaction and affective organizational commitment, demographic (age, gender, tenure, role) and individual characteristics (negative affectivity, job involvement) as well as Time 1 (T1) perceptions of procedural justice to ensure that tests were rigorous. Findings: A series of hierarchical multiple regression analyses found that job satisfaction at T1 was the strongest predictor of perceived procedural justice at Time 2. Employees' trust in senior management, and their length of tenure also positively predicted justice perceptions. There were also differences between academic and non-academic staff groups, as non-academic employees' level of job satisfaction, trust in senior management, and their length of organizational tenure predicted procedural justice perceptions, whereas for academics, only job satisfaction predicted perceived justice. For the “all staff” category, job satisfaction was a dominant and enduring predictor of justice, and employees' trust in senior management also predicted justice. Research limitations/implications: Results highlight the importance of workplace factors in enhancing fair procedures to encourage reciprocity from employees. As perceived procedural justice is also conceptually linked to the psychological contract

  14. A cross-sectional examination of psychological distress, positive mental health and their predictors in medical students in their clinical clerkships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dijk, Inge; Lucassen, Peter L B J; van Weel, Chris; Speckens, Anne E M

    2017-11-17

    Medical students can experience the transition from theory to clinical clerkships as stressful. Scientific literature on the mental health of clinical clerkship students is scarce and mental health is usually defined as absence of psychological distress without assessing psychological, emotional and social wellbeing, together called 'positive mental health'. This cross-sectional study examines the prevalence of psychological distress and positive mental health and explores possible predictors in a Dutch sample of clinical clerkship students. Fourth-year medical students in their first year of clinical clerkships were invited to complete an online questionnaire assessing demographics, psychological distress (Brief Symptom Inventory), positive mental health (Mental Health Continuum- SF), dysfunctional cognitions (Irrational Beliefs Inventory) and dispositional mindfulness skills (Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire). Multiple linear regression analysis was used to explore relationships between psychological distress, positive mental health (dependent variables) and demographics, dysfunctional cognitions and dispositional mindfulness skills (predictors). Of 454 eligible students, 406 (89%) completed the assessment of whom 21% scored in the clinical range of psychological distress and 41% reported a flourishing mental health. These proportions partially overlap each other. Female students reported a significantly higher mean level of psychological distress than males. In the regression analysis the strongest predictors of psychological distress were 'acting with awareness' (negative) and 'worrying' (positive). Strongest predictors of positive mental health were 'problem avoidance' (negative) and 'emotional irresponsibility' (negative). The prevalence of psychopathology in our sample of Dutch clinical clerkship students is slightly higher than in the general population. Our results support conclusions of previous research that psychological distress and positive mental

  15. A cross-sectional examination of psychological distress, positive mental health and their predictors in medical students in their clinical clerkships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inge van Dijk

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Medical students can experience the transition from theory to clinical clerkships as stressful. Scientific literature on the mental health of clinical clerkship students is scarce and mental health is usually defined as absence of psychological distress without assessing psychological, emotional and social wellbeing, together called ‘positive mental health’. This cross-sectional study examines the prevalence of psychological distress and positive mental health and explores possible predictors in a Dutch sample of clinical clerkship students. Methods Fourth-year medical students in their first year of clinical clerkships were invited to complete an online questionnaire assessing demographics, psychological distress (Brief Symptom Inventory, positive mental health (Mental Health Continuum- SF, dysfunctional cognitions (Irrational Beliefs Inventory and dispositional mindfulness skills (Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to explore relationships between psychological distress, positive mental health (dependent variables and demographics, dysfunctional cognitions and dispositional mindfulness skills (predictors. Results Of 454 eligible students, 406 (89% completed the assessment of whom 21% scored in the clinical range of psychological distress and 41% reported a flourishing mental health. These proportions partially overlap each other. Female students reported a significantly higher mean level of psychological distress than males. In the regression analysis the strongest predictors of psychological distress were ‘acting with awareness’ (negative and ‘worrying’ (positive. Strongest predictors of positive mental health were ‘problem avoidance’ (negative and ‘emotional irresponsibility’ (negative. Conclusions The prevalence of psychopathology in our sample of Dutch clinical clerkship students is slightly higher than in the general population. Our results support

  16. Predictors of life disability in trichotillomania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tung, Esther S; Flessner, Christopher A; Grant, Jon E; Keuthen, Nancy J

    2015-01-01

    Limited research has investigated disability and functional impairment in trichotillomania (TTM) subjects. This study examined the relationships between hair pulling (HP) style and severity and disability while controlling for mood severity. Disability was measured in individual life areas (work, social, and family/home life) instead of as a total disability score as in previous studies. One hundred fifty three adult hair pullers completed several structured interviews and self-report instruments. HP style and severity, as well as depression, anxiety, and stress were correlated with work, social, and family/home life impairment on the Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS). Multiple regression analyses were performed to determine significant predictors of life impairment. Depressive severity was a significant predictor for all SDS life areas. In addition, interference/avoidance associated with HP was a predictor for work and social life disability. Distress from HP was a significant predictor of social and family/home life disability. Focused HP score and anxiety were significant predictors of family/home life disability. As expected, depression in hair pullers predicted disability across life domains. Avoiding work and social situations can seriously impair functioning in those life domains. Severity of distress and worry about HP may be most elevated in social situations with friends and family and thus predict impairment in those areas. Finally, since HP often occurs at home, time spent in focused hair pulling would have a greater negative impact on family and home responsibilities than social and work life. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. 5 year mortality predictors in 498,103 UK Biobank participants: a prospective population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganna, Andrea; Ingelsson, Erik

    2015-08-08

    To our knowledge, a systematic comparison of predictors of mortality in middle-aged to elderly individuals has not yet been done. We investigated predictors of mortality in UK Biobank participants during a 5 year period. We aimed to investigate the associations between most of the available measurements and 5 year all-cause and cause-specific mortality, and to develop and validate a prediction score for 5 year mortality using only self-reported information. Participants were enrolled in the UK Biobank from April, 2007, to July, 2010, from 21 assessment centres across England, Wales, and Scotland with standardised procedures. In this prospective population-based study, we assessed sex-specific associations of 655 measurements of demographics, health, and lifestyle with all-cause mortality and six cause-specific mortality categories in UK Biobank participants using the Cox proportional hazard model. We excluded variables that were missing in more than 80% of the participants and all cardiorespiratory fitness test measurements because summary data were not available. Validation of the prediction score was done in participants enrolled at the Scottish centres. UK life tables and census information were used to calibrate the score to the overall UK population. About 500,000 participants were included in the UK Biobank. We excluded participants with more than 80% variables missing (n=746). Of 498,103 UK Biobank participants included (54% of whom were women) aged 37-73 years, 8532 (39% of whom were women) died during a median follow-up of 4·9 years (IQR 4·33-5·22). Self-reported health (C-index including age 0·74 [95% CI 0·73-0·75]) was the strongest predictor of all-cause mortality in men and a previous cancer diagnosis (0·73 [0·72-0·74]) was the strongest predictor of all-cause mortality in women. When excluding individuals with major diseases or disorders (Charlson comorbidity index >0; n=355 043), measures of smoking habits were the strongest predictors of

  18. ASL TALK. An Investigation of Authentic Spiritual Leadership (ASL): A Discursive Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bünger, Y.

    2011-01-01

    This study explores how a global network of people construct an idea(l) of leadership, by combining authenticity, spirituality and leadership in (con-)text of current socio-cultural movements, CSR, 'ethical profit', and stages of leadership history. The concept of a unity of authenticity,

  19. Predictors of transformational leadership of nurse managers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echevarria, Ilia M; Patterson, Barbara J; Krouse, Anne

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the relationships among education, leadership experience, emotional intelligence and transformational leadership of nurse managers. Nursing leadership research provides limited evidence of predictors of transformational leadership style in nurse managers. A predictive correlational design was used with a sample of nurse managers (n = 148) working in varied health care settings. Data were collected using the Genos Emotional Intelligence Inventory, the Multi-factor Leadership Questionnaire and a demographic questionnaire. Simple linear and multiple regression analyses were used to examine relationships. A statistically significant relationship was found between emotional intelligence and transformational leadership (r = 0.59, P leadership. Nurse managers should be well informed of the predictors of transformational leadership in order to pursue continuing education and development opportunities related to those predictors. The results of this study emphasise the need for emotional intelligence continuing education, leadership development and leader assessment programmes. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Predictors of turnover intention in nurse faculty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gormley, Denise K; Kennerly, Susan

    2011-04-01

    Turnover of nurse faculty is an increasingly important issue in nursing as the available number of qualified faculty continues to decrease. Understanding the factors that contribute to turnover is important to academic administrators to retain and recruit qualified nursing faculty. The purpose of this study was to examine predictors of turnover intention in nurse faculty working in departments and schools of nursing in Carnegie Doctoral/Research Universities-Extensive, public and private, not-for-profit institutions. The multidimensional model of organizational commitment was used to frame this study. The predictor variables explored were organizational climate, organizational commitment, work role balance, role ambiguity, and role conflict. The work roles examined were research, teaching, and service. Logistical regression was performed to examine the predictors of turnover intention. Organizational climate intimacy and disengagement, affective and continuance organizational commitment, and role ambiguity were shown to predict turnover intention in nurse faculty. Copyright 2011, SLACK Incorporated.

  1. HIV Risk Behaviors in the U.S. Transgender Population: Prevalence and Predictors in a Large Internet Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Jamie; Romine, Rebecca Swinburne; Bockting, Walter O.

    2014-01-01

    To study the influence of gender on HIV risk, a sample of the U.S. transgender population (N = 1,229) was recruited via the Internet. HIV risk and prevalence were lower than reported in prior studies of localized, urban samples, but higher than the overall U.S. population. Findings suggest that gender nonconformity alone does not itself result in markedly higher HIV risk. Sex with nontransgender men emerged as the strongest independent predictor of unsafe sex for both male-to-female (MtF) and female-to-male (FtM) participants. These sexual relationships constitute a process that may either affirm or problematize gender identity and sexual orientation, with different emphases for MtFs and FtMs, respectively. PMID:25022491

  2. Gender, g, Gender Identity Concepts, and Self-Constructs as Predictors of the Self-Estimated IQ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storek, Josephine

    2013-01-01

    In all 102 participants completed 2 intelligence tests, a self-estimated domain-masculine (DMIQ) intelligence rating (which is a composite of self-rated mathematical–logical and spatial intelligence), a measure of self-esteem, and of self-control. The aim was to confirm and extend previous findings about the role of general intelligence and gender identity in self-assessed intelligence. It aimed to examine further correlates of the Hubris–Humility Effect that shows men believe they are more intelligent than women. The DMIQ scores were correlated significantly with gender, psychometrically assessed IQ, and masculinity but not self-esteem or self-control. Stepwise regressions indicated that gender and gender role were the strongest predictors of DMIQ accounting for a third of the variance. PMID:24303578

  3. Gender, g, gender identity concepts, and self-constructs as predictors of the self-estimated IQ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storek, Josephine; Furnham, Adrian

    2013-01-01

    In all 102 participants completed 2 intelligence tests, a self-estimated domain-masculine (DMIQ) intelligence rating (which is a composite of self-rated mathematical-logical and spatial intelligence), a measure of self-esteem, and of self-control. The aim was to confirm and extend previous findings about the role of general intelligence and gender identity in self-assessed intelligence. It aimed to examine further correlates of the Hubris-Humility Effect that shows men believe they are more intelligent than women. The DMIQ scores were correlated significantly with gender, psychometrically assessed IQ, and masculinity but not self-esteem or self-control. Stepwise regressions indicated that gender and gender role were the strongest predictors of DMIQ accounting for a third of the variance.

  4. DRREP: deep ridge regressed epitope predictor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sher, Gene; Zhi, Degui; Zhang, Shaojie

    2017-10-03

    The ability to predict epitopes plays an enormous role in vaccine development in terms of our ability to zero in on where to do a more thorough in-vivo analysis of the protein in question. Though for the past decade there have been numerous advancements and improvements in epitope prediction, on average the best benchmark prediction accuracies are still only around 60%. New machine learning algorithms have arisen within the domain of deep learning, text mining, and convolutional networks. This paper presents a novel analytically trained and string kernel using deep neural network, which is tailored for continuous epitope prediction, called: Deep Ridge Regressed Epitope Predictor (DRREP). DRREP was tested on long protein sequences from the following datasets: SARS, Pellequer, HIV, AntiJen, and SEQ194. DRREP was compared to numerous state of the art epitope predictors, including the most recently published predictors called LBtope and DMNLBE. Using area under ROC curve (AUC), DRREP achieved a performance improvement over the best performing predictors on SARS (13.7%), HIV (8.9%), Pellequer (1.5%), and SEQ194 (3.1%), with its performance being matched only on the AntiJen dataset, by the LBtope predictor, where both DRREP and LBtope achieved an AUC of 0.702. DRREP is an analytically trained deep neural network, thus capable of learning in a single step through regression. By combining the features of deep learning, string kernels, and convolutional networks, the system is able to perform residue-by-residue prediction of continues epitopes with higher accuracy than the current state of the art predictors.

  5. Predictors of overall satisfaction of cancer patients undergoing radiation therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Becker-Schiebe M

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Martina Becker-Schiebe,1,2 Uwe Pinkert,1 Tahera Ahmad,1 Christof Schäfer,3 Wolfgang Hoffmann,1 Heiko Franz4 1Department of Radiotherapy and Radio-Oncology, Städtisches Klinikum Braunschweig gGmbH, Braunschweig, 2Radiation Oncology, Hannover Medical School, Hannover, 3Radiation Oncology Straubing, University of Regensburg, Regensburg, 4Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Städtisches Klinikum Braunschweig gGmbH, Braunschweig, Germany Background: Reporting the experiences and satisfaction of patients, as well as their quality of care scores is an emerging recommendation in health care systems. Many aspects of patients’ experience determine their overall satisfaction. The aim of this evaluation was to define the main factors contributing to the satisfaction of patients undergoing radiotherapy in an outpatient setting. Patients and methods: A total of 1,710 patients with a histologically proven cancer, who were treated in our department between 2012 and 2014, were recruited for this prospective evaluation. At the end of therapy, each patient was asked to grade the skills and the care provided by radiation therapists, physicians, and physician’s assistants, as well as the overall satisfaction during therapy. Statistical analysis was performed to determine which parameters had the greatest influence on overall satisfaction. Results: Overall satisfaction with the provided care was high with a mean satisfaction score of 1.4. Significant correlations were found between overall satisfaction and each of the following survey items: courtesy, protection of privacy, professional skills and care provided by the radiation therapists and physicians, accuracy of provided information, and cleanliness. Linear regression analysis demonstrated that courteous behavior and the protection of privacy were the strongest predictors for overall satisfaction (P<0.001, followed by care and skills of physicians and radiation therapists. Patients suffering from head

  6. Visceral fat area is a strong predictor of leukocyte cell-derived chemotaxin 2, a potential biomarker of dyslipidemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanisawa, Kumpei; Taniguchi, Hirokazu; Sun, Xiaomin; Ito, Tomoko; Kawakami, Ryoko; Sakamoto, Shizuo; Higuchi, Mitsuru

    2017-01-01

    Leukocyte cell-derived chemotaxin 2 (LECT2) is a hepatokine linking obesity to skeletal muscle insulin resistance. Although previous studies reported that obesity was associated with high levels of circulating LECT2 in human, the associations of detailed body fat distribution with LECT2 levels have not been examined. Furthermore, although animal study suggested that exercise decreased circulating LECT2 levels, it remains unknown whether physical fitness is associated with LECT2 levels in human. We therefore examined the relationship of plasma LECT2 levels with various adiposity indices and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) in middle-aged and elderly Japanese men. Furthermore, we examined the relationship of LECT2 levels with the presence of metabolic syndrome, hypertension, insulin resistance and dyslipidemia to determine the clinical significance of measuring circulating LECT2. This was a cross-sectional study of 143 Japanese men (age: 30-79 years). Participants' plasma LECT2 levels were measured by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. To assess their abdominal fat distributions, visceral fat area (VFA) and subcutaneous fat area (SFA) were measured using magnetic resonance imaging. CRF was assessed by measuring peak oxygen uptake ([Formula: see text]). All adiposity indices measured in this study were positively correlated with plasma LECT2 levels, while [Formula: see text] was negatively correlated with LECT2 levels after adjustment for age. The correlations, except for VFA were no longer significant with further adjustment for VFA. Stepwise multiple linear regression analysis revealed that VFA was the strongest predictor of plasma LECT2 levels. Plasma LECT2 levels differed based on the presence of metabolic syndrome and dyslipidemia, but not hypertension and insulin resistance. Logistic regression analyses revealed that plasma LECT2 levels were significantly associated with dyslipidemia independently of VFA; VFA was not significantly associated with dyslipidemia

  7. Research utilisation and critical thinking among newly graduated nurses: predictors for research use. A quantitative cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wangensteen, Sigrid; Johansson, Inger S; Björkström, Monica E; Nordström, Gun

    2011-09-01

    The aim was to describe research utilisation among newly graduated nurses and to explore critical thinking dispositions and other individual and contextual factors as possible predictors for research use. Nurses are expected to be research users, and variations in research utilisation are explained by individual and contextual factors. To our knowledge, critical thinking dispositions have not earlier been explored as predictors for research use. A cross-sectional design was chosen. Data collection was carried out from October 2006 to April 2007 using the Research Utilization Questionnaire (RUQ) and the California Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory (CCTDI). The response rate was 33% (n =617). Pearson's chi-square test and regression analyses were used for statistical calculations. The respondents reported a positive attitude towards research, but only 24% (n = 148) were defined as research users. A significantly higher proportion of research users reported high critical thinking scores. Critical thinking explained 20% of the variance in attitude towards research and 11% of the variance in research use. Availability and support to implement research findings was the second strongest predictor for research use. Critical thinking, a significant predictor for attitude towards research and for the use of research, should be recognised and strengthened in nursing education and clinical practice. Contextual factors seem to be important for newly graduated nurses' use of research. Nurse leaders play an important role in nurturing newly graduated nurses' critical thinking and assisting them in transferring their positive attitude towards research into research use. Nurse educators play a significant role in supporting, challenging and supervising nursing students to be critical thinkers and strong believers in research utilisation. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. Toward the Definition of a Bipolar Prodrome: Dimensional Predictors of Bipolar Spectrum Disorders in At-Risk Youths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafeman, Danella M; Merranko, John; Axelson, David; Goldstein, Benjamin I; Goldstein, Tina; Monk, Kelly; Hickey, Mary Beth; Sakolsky, Dara; Diler, Rasim; Iyengar, Satish; Brent, David; Kupfer, David; Birmaher, Boris

    2016-07-01

    The authors sought to assess dimensional symptomatic predictors of new-onset bipolar spectrum disorders in youths at familial risk of bipolar disorder ("at-risk" youths). Offspring 6-18 years old of parents with bipolar I or II disorder (N=359) and community comparison offspring (N=220) were recruited. At baseline, 8.4% of the offspring of bipolar parents had a bipolar spectrum disorder. Over 8 years, 14.7% of offspring for whom follow-up data were available (44/299) developed a new-onset bipolar spectrum disorder (15 with bipolar I or II disorder). Measures collected at baseline and follow-up were reduced using factor analyses, and factors (both at baseline and at the visit prior to conversion or last contact) were assessed as predictors of new-onset bipolar spectrum disorders. Relative to comparison offspring, at-risk and bipolar offspring had higher baseline levels of anxiety/depression, inattention/disinhibition, externalizing, subsyndromal manic, and affective lability symptoms. The strongest predictors of new-onset bipolar spectrum disorders were baseline anxiety/depression, baseline and proximal affective lability, and proximal subsyndromal manic symptoms (prisk of conversion. While youths without anxiety/depression, affective lability, and mania (and with a parent with older age at mood disorder onset) had a 2% predicted chance of conversion to a bipolar spectrum disorder, those with all risk factors had a 49% predicted chance of conversion. Dimensional measures of anxiety/depression, affective lability, and mania are important predictors of new-onset bipolar spectrum disorders in at-risk youths. These symptoms emerged from among numerous other candidates, underscoring the potential clinical and research utility of these findings.

  9. Longitudinal Predictors of High School Completion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Melissa; Reschly, Amy L.

    2012-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined predictors of dropout assessed in elementary school. Student demographic data, achievement, attendance, and ratings of behavior from the Behavior Assessment System for Children were used to predict dropout and completion. Two models, which varied on student sex and race, predicted dropout at rates ranging from 75%…

  10. Demographic and dispositional characteristics as predictors of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined workers' personal factors and personality characteristics as predictors of Organizational Citizenship Behaviour (OCB). The study employed Ex-Post-Facto within-participants randomized group design. Data were collected from five hundred and four employees of private and public human service ...

  11. PREVALENCE AND PREDICTORS OF PREDIABETES AMONG ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to find the prevalence of prediabetes and to determine its predictors among administrative staff of ... Conclusion: There was a high prevalence of prediabetes among the administrative staff of University College ..... Riddell M, Fowles J. How to treat prediabetes with exercise effectively. Diabetes 2010 ...

  12. Predictors of Youth Violence. Juvenile Justice Bulletin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, J. David; Herrenkohl, Todd I.; Farrington, David P.; Brewer, Devon; Catalano, Richard F.; Harachi, Tracy W.; Cothern, Lynn

    This Bulletin describes the strength and duration of changeable risk and protective factors for youth violence at points in youth development when they appear most salient. These predictors are potential targets for prevention and intervention. The quantitative results of a large number of studies were synthesized using meta-analysis procedures.…

  13. Predictors of Homophobia in Female College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basow, Susan A.; Johnson, Kelly

    2000-01-01

    Investigated how self-esteem, self-discrepancy, and gender-attribute importance related to homophobia in predominantly white college women, noting sex role attitudes, authoritarian attitudes, and extent of contact with homosexuals. The only significant predictor of homophobia was authoritarian attitudes. Other correlations included belief in sex…

  14. Predictors of Mortality in Older Homeless Veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schinka, John A; Curtiss, Glenn; Leventhal, Katherine; Bossarte, Robert M; Lapcevic, William; Casey, Roger

    2017-10-01

    In this analysis of a cohort of older homeless veterans, we examined psychosocial, health, housing, and employment characteristics to identify predictors of mortality. Our sample of 3,620 older veterans entered Veteran Affairs homeless programs in years 2000-2003. Fifteen variables from a structured interview described this sample and served as predictors. National Death Index data for years 2000-2011 were used to ascertain death. Survival table analyses were conducted to estimate and plot cumulative survival functions. To determine predictors and estimate hazard functions, Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was conducted. Five variables (presence of a serious health issue, hospitalization for alcohol abuse, alcohol dependency, unemployment for 3 years, and age 60+) were associated with increased risk of death; three (non-White, drug dependency, and dental problems) were associated with reduced risk. A risk score, based on total unit-weighted risk for all eight predictors, was used to identify three groups that were found to differ significantly in mortality. These analyses underline the jeopardy faced by older homeless veterans in terms of early death. We were able to identify several variables associated with mortality; more importantly, we were able to show that a risk score based on status for these variables was significantly related to survival. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America 2016. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  15. Recurrence of anxiety disorders and its predictors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholten, Willemijn D.; Batelaan, Neeltje M.; van Balkom, Anton J. L. M.; Penninx, Brenda; Smit, Johannes H.; van Oppen, Patricia

    Background: The chronic course of anxiety disorders and its high burden of disease are partly due to the recurrence of anxiety disorders after remission. However, knowledge about recurrence rates and predictors of recurrence is scarce. This article reports on recurrence rates of anxiety disorders

  16. The Offspring of Alcoholics: Outcome Predictors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    el-Guebaly, Nady

    1982-01-01

    Reviews risk of psychosocial problems related to drinking among "grown-up" children of alcoholics. Argues that genetic predisposition is best predictor available; this may be more influential near severe end of alcoholism spectrum, may be less influential in females, and may lead to differences in symptomatology and management.…

  17. Morbidities, concordance, and predictors of preterm premature ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-12-05

    Dec 5, 2015 ... accompany PPROM include prematurity, umbilical cord prolapse and compression, neonatal sepsis, respiratory. Morbidities, concordance, and predictors of preterm premature rupture of membranes among pregnant women at the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital. (UNTH), Enugu, Nigeria. TC Okeke ...

  18. Early Predictors of High School Mathematics Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegler, Robert S.; Duncan, Greg J.; Davis-Kean, Pamela E.; Duckworth, Kathryn; Claessens, Amy; Engel, Mimi; Susperreguy, Maria Ines; Meichu, Chen

    2012-01-01

    Identifying the types of mathematics content knowledge that are most predictive of students' long-term learning is essential for improving both theories of mathematical development and mathematics education. To identify these types of knowledge, we examined long-term predictors of high school students' knowledge of algebra and overall mathematics…

  19. Developmental Predictors of Fraction Concepts and Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Nancy C.; Hansen, Nicole; Fuchs, Lynn S.; Siegler, Robert S.; Gersten, Russell; Micklos, Deborah

    2013-01-01

    Developmental predictors of children's fraction concepts and procedures at the end of fourth grade were investigated in a 2-year longitudinal study. Participants were 357 children who started the study in third grade. Attentive behavior, language, nonverbal reasoning, number line estimation, calculation fluency, and reading fluency each…

  20. Types, Magnitude, Predictors and Controlling Mechanisms of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Questionnaire that contained items on socio-demographic variables, scales on aggression, scales on parenting styles and scales on personality variables was used by ... Regarding the predictors of aggression, scores on the measure of perceived parental affection/warm and agreeableness negatively predicted physical ...

  1. Predictors of distress and anxiety during pregnancy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    psychobiological changes associated with pregnancy.31. Finally, lower perceived social support was significantly associated with distress and anxiety at trimester 2 and 3. Level of social support has previously been found to be a predictor of anxiety during pregnancy.12 Studies have shown an association of inadequate ...

  2. Microcomputer Selection of a Predictor Weighting Algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, John D.

    An empirical method called Predicted Error Sum of Squares (PRESS) is advanced and studied. This method is used to examine the cross-validated prediction accuracies of some popular algorithms for weighted predictor variables. The weighting methods that were considered were ordinary least squares, ridge regression, regression on principal…

  3. Recurrence of anxiety disorders and its predictors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholten, W.D.; Batelaan, N.M.; van Balkom, A.J.L.M.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.; Smit, J.H.; van Oppen, P.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The chronic course of anxiety disorders and its high burden of disease are partly due to the recurrence of anxiety disorders after remission. However, knowledge about recurrence rates and predictors of recurrence is scarce. This article reports on recurrence rates of anxiety disorders

  4. Liver transplantation for Hepatocellular carcinoma: Predictors of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Liver transplantation for Hepatocellular carcinoma: Predictors of recurrence in our study. HD Smith. Abstract. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is an aggressive malignancy mostly complicating some underlying liver pathology that has lead to cirrhosis. Some of the epidemiological factors were summarized by the 54th ...

  5. Preoperative predictors of thrombocytopenia in Caesarean delivery ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preoperative predictors of thrombocytopenia in Caesarean delivery: is routine platelet count testing necessary? ... moderate thrombocytopenia. All asymptomatic patients, including those who were HIV positive, had platelet counts > 70 000/μl. Keywords: Caesarean delivery, HIV, obstetrics, pregnancy, thrombocytopenia ...

  6. Predictors of Ramadan fasting during pregnancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Bilsen, Lily A.; Savitri, Ary I.; Amelia, Dwirani; Baharuddin, Mohammad; Grobbee, Diederick E.; Uiterwaal, Cuno S P M

    2016-01-01

    Although the health effects of Ramadan fasting during pregnancy are still unclear, it is important to identify the predictors and motivational factors involved in women's decision to observe the fast. We investigated these factors in a cross sectional study of 187 pregnant Muslim women who attended

  7. Predictors of Arab American Adolescent Tobacco Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Virginia Hill; Weglicki, Linda S.; Templin, Thomas; Hammad, Adnan; Jamil, Hikmet; Kulwicki, Anahid

    2006-01-01

    This study examined personal, psychosocial, sociocultural, and environmental predictors in tobacco use for 1,671 Arab American adolescents. Cigarette smoking in the past 30 days was 6.9%. This increased from 1% at age 14 to 14% at age 18. Twenty-nine percent of the youths reported having ever smoked cigarettes. Experimentation with narghile was…

  8. Predictors of vaccine management practices among primary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: Worldwide, vaccines are becoming more expensive as new ones are being introduced to the immunization schedule. Inspite of this, researches have revealed poor vaccine management practices among health workers. This study aimed to determine the predictors of vaccine management practices among ...

  9. IQ and Neuropsychological Predictors of Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayes, Susan Dickerson; Calhoun, Susan L.; Bixler, Edward O.; Zimmerman, Dennis N.

    2009-01-01

    Word reading and math computation scores were predicted from Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence Full Scale IQ, 10 neuropsychological tests, and parent attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) ratings in 214 general population elementary school children. IQ was the best single predictor of achievement. In addition, Digit Span…

  10. Predictor variable resolution governs modeled soil types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil mapping identifies different soil types by compressing a unique suite of spatial patterns and processes across multiple spatial scales. It can be quite difficult to quantify spatial patterns of soil properties with remotely sensed predictor variables. More specifically, matching the right scale...

  11. Predictors of readmission after outpatient plastic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mioton, Lauren M; Buck, Donald W; Rambachan, Aksharananda; Ver Halen, Jon; Dumanian, Gregory A; Kim, John Y S

    2014-01-01

    Hospital readmissions have become a topic of focus for quality care measures and cost-reduction efforts. However, no comparative multi-institutional data on plastic surgery outpatient readmission rates currently exist. The authors endeavored to investigate hospital readmission rates and predictors of readmission following outpatient plastic surgery. The 2011 National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database was reviewed for all outpatient procedures. Unplanned readmission rates were calculated for all 10 tracked surgical specialties (i.e., general, thoracic, vascular, cardiac, orthopedics, otolaryngology, plastics, gynecology, urology, and neurosurgery). Multivariate logistic regression models were used to determine predictors of readmission for plastic surgery. A total of 7005 outpatient plastic surgery procedures were isolated. Outpatient plastic surgery had a low associated readmission rate (1.94 percent) compared with other specialties. Seventy-five patients were readmitted with a complication. Multivariate regression analysis revealed obesity (body mass index ≥ 30), wound infection within 30 days of the index surgery, and American Society of Anesthesiologists class 3 or 4 physical status as significant predictors for unplanned readmission. Unplanned readmission after outpatient plastic surgery is infrequent and compares favorably to rates of readmission among other specialties. Obesity, wound infection within 30 days of the index operation, and American Society of Anesthesiologists class 3 or 4 physical status are independent predictors of readmission. As procedures continue to transition into outpatient settings and the drive to improve patient care persists, these findings will serve to optimize outpatient surgery use.

  12. Analysis Of Entrepreneurial Attributes As Predictors Of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Entrepreneurial attributes such as desire for achievement, locus of control, risk taking propensity, proactiveness, tolerance for ambiguity, creativity and others have been viewed by several researchers as predictors of entrepreneurial actions. Relating these attributes to youth's entrepreneurship, this paper is aimed to ...

  13. Predictors of Headache Before, During, and After Pregnancy: A Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Dana P.; Smitherman, Todd A.; Eisenach, James C.; Penzien, Donald B.; Houle, Timothy T.

    2011-01-01

    Objective The present study endeavored to identify predictors of headache during pregnancy, shortly after delivery, and at 8-week follow-up. Background Many women suffer from headaches during pregnancy and the postpartum period. However, little is known about factors that predict headache surrounding childbirth. Methods Secondary analysis of longitudinal cohort study of 2434 parturients hospitalized for cesarean or vaginal delivery in four university hospitals in the United States and Europe. Data were gathered from interviews and review of medical records shortly after delivery; 972 of the women were contacted 8 weeks later to assess persistent headache. The primary outcome measures were experiencing headache during pregnancy, headache within 72 hours after delivery, and headache at 8 weeks after delivery. Results Of the parturients, 10% experienced headache during pregnancy, 3.7% within 72 hours after delivery, and 3.6% at 8 weeks post delivery. Compared to those without a history of headache, a history of headache prior to pregnancy was the strongest predictor of headache during pregnancy (9.8% versus 23.5%; RR 2.4; 95% CI: 1.4 to 4.0). Experiencing headache during pregnancy (adjusted HR 3.8; 95% CI: 2.4 to 6.2) and receiving needle-based regional anesthesia for pain treatment (adjusted HR 2.2; 95% CI: 1.1 to 4.5) were independently associated with headache within 72 hours after delivery with event rates of 11.1% and 10.5%, respectively. Compared to those without such a history, headache before pregnancy was significantly associated with experiencing headache 8 weeks after delivery (4.0% versus 23.8%; RR = 6.0; 95% CI: 2.0 to 8.0), but headache during pregnancy or shortly after delivery was not. Several other psychosocial predictors (e.g., somatization, smoking before pregnancy) were statistically associated with at least one headache outcome. Conclusions A history of headache prior to pregnancy is a strong predictor of headache during and after pregnancy, the

  14. Predictors of headache before, during, and after pregnancy: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Dana P; Smitherman, Todd A; Eisenach, James C; Penzien, Donald B; Houle, Timothy T

    2012-03-01

    The present study endeavored to identify predictors of headache during pregnancy, shortly after delivery, and at 8-week follow-up. Many women suffer from headaches during pregnancy and the post-partum period. However, little is known about factors that predict headache surrounding childbirth. Secondary analysis of longitudinal cohort study of 2434 parturients hospitalized for cesarean or vaginal delivery in 4 university hospitals in the United States and Europe. Data were gathered from interviews and review of medical records shortly after delivery; 972 of the women were contacted 8 weeks later to assess persistent headache. The primary outcome measures were experiencing headache during pregnancy, headache within 72 hours after delivery, and headache at 8 weeks after delivery. Of the parturients, 10% experienced headache during pregnancy, 3.7% within 72 hours after delivery, and 3.6% at 8 weeks postdelivery. Compared to those without a history of headache, a history of headache prior to pregnancy was the strongest predictor of headache during pregnancy (9.8% vs 23.5%; risk ratio 2.4; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.4 to 4.0). Experiencing headache during pregnancy (adjusted hazard ratio HR 3.8; 95% CI: 2.4 to 6.2) and receiving needle-based regional anesthesia for pain treatment (adjusted hazard ratio 2.2; 95% CI: 1.1 to 4.5) were independently associated with headache within 72 hours after delivery with event rates of 11.1% and 10.5%, respectively. Compared to those without such a history, headache before pregnancy was significantly associated with experiencing headache 8 weeks after delivery (4.0% vs 23.8%; risk ratio = 6.0; 95% CI: 2.0 to 8.0), but headache during pregnancy or shortly after delivery was not. Several other psychosocial predictors (eg, somatization, smoking before pregnancy) were statistically associated with at least 1 headache outcome. A history of headache prior to pregnancy is a strong predictor of headache during and after pregnancy, the

  15. Predictors of mental health in female teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seibt, Reingard; Spitzer, Silvia; Druschke, Diana; Scheuch, Klaus; Hinz, Andreas

    2013-12-01

    Teaching profession is characterised by an above-average rate of psychosomatic and mental health impairment due to work-related stress. The aim of the study was to identify predictors of mental health in female teachers. A sample of 630 female teachers (average age 47 ± 7 years) participated in a screening diagnostic inventory. Mental health was surveyed with the General Health Questionnaire GHQ-12. The following parameters were measured: specific work conditions (teacher-specific occupational history), scales of the Effort-Reward-Imbalance (ERI) Questionnaire as well as cardiovascular risk factors, physical complaints (BFB) and personal factors such as inability to recover (FABA), sense of coherence (SOC) and health behaviour. First, mentally fit (MH(+)) and mentally impaired teachers (MH(-)) were differentiated based on the GHQ-12 sum score (MH(+): teachers showed evidence of mental impairment. There were no differences concerning work-related and cardiovascular risk factors as well as health behaviour between MH(+) and MH(-). Binary logistic regressions identified 4 predictors that showed a significant effect on mental health. The effort-reward-ratio proved to be the most relevant predictor, while physical complaints as well as inability to recover and sense of coherence were identified as advanced predictors (explanation of variance: 23%). Contrary to the expectations, classic work-related factors can hardly contribute to the explanation of mental health. Additionally, cardiovascular risk factors and health behaviour have no relevant influence. However, effort-reward-ratio, physical complaints and personal factors are of considerable influence on mental health in teachers. These relevant predictors should become a part of preventive arrangements for the conservation of teachers' health in the future.

  16. Predictors of mental health in female teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reingard Seibt

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Teaching profession is characterised by an above-average rate of psychosomatic and mental health impairment due to work-related stress. The aim of the study was to identify predictors of mental health in female teachers. Material and Methods: A sample of 630 female teachers (average age 47±7 years participated in a screening diagnostic inventory. Mental health was surveyed with the General Health Questionnaire GHQ-12. The following parameters were measured: specific work conditions (teacher-specific occupational history, scales of the Effort-Reward-Imbalance (ERI Questionnaire as well as cardiovascular risk factors, physical complaints (BFB and personal factors such as inability to recover (FABA, sense of coherence (SOC and health behaviour. Results: First, mentally fit (MH+ and mentally impaired teachers (MH- were differentiated based on the GHQ-12 sum score (MH+: < 5; MH-: ≥ 5; 18% of the teachers showed evidence of mental impairment. There were no differences concerning work-related and cardiovascular risk factors as well as health behaviour between MH+ and MH-. Binary logistic regressions identified 4 predictors that showed a significant effect on mental health. The effort-reward-ratio proved to be the most relevant predictor, while physical complaints as well as inability to recover and sense of coherence were identified as advanced predictors (explanation of variance: 23%. Conclusion: Contrary to the expectations, classic work-related factors can hardly contribute to the explanation of mental health. Additionally, cardiovascular risk factors and health behaviour have no relevant influence. However, effort-reward-ratio, physical complaints and personal factors are of considerable influence on mental health in teachers. These relevant predictors should become a part of preventive arrangements for the conservation of teachers' health in the future.

  17. Predictors of agitation in critically ill adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burk, Ruth S; Grap, Mary Jo; Munro, Cindy L; Schubert, Christine M; Sessler, Curtis N

    2014-09-01

    Agitation in critically ill adults is a frequent complication of hospitalization and results in multiple adverse outcomes. Potential causes of agitation are numerous; however, data on factors predictive of agitation are limited. To identify predictors of agitation by examining demographic and clinical characteristics of critically ill patients. A medical record review was performed. Documentation of agitation was indicated by scores on the Richmond Agitation-Sedation Scale or the use of an agitation keyword. Records of 200 patients from 1 medical and 1 surgical intensive care unit were used for the study. Risk factors were determined for 2 points in time: admission to the intensive care unit and within 24 hours before the first episode of agitation. Data on baseline demographics, preadmission risk factors, and clinical data were collected and were evaluated by using logistic multivariable regression to determine predictors of agitation. Predictors of agitation on admission to intensive care were history of use of illicit substances, height, respiratory and central nervous system subscores on the Sequential Organ Failure Assessment, and use of restraints. Predictors of agitation within 24 hours before the onset of agitation were history of psychiatric diagnosis, height, score on the Sequential Organ Failure Assessment, ratio of Pao2 to fraction of inspired oxygen less than 200, serum pH, percentage of hours with restraints, percentage of hours of mechanical ventilation, pain, and presence of genitourinary catheters. Predictors of agitation on admission and within 24 hours before the onset of agitation were primarily clinical variables. ©2014 American Association of Critical-Care Nurses.

  18. Evaluation of Common Predictors for Selection of Postdoctoral Dental Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handelman, Stanley; And Others

    1983-01-01

    The relative value of academic standing, letters of recommendation, and personal interview impressions as predictors of performance during general dentistry training programs was assessed. Academic standing was the best predictor, with personal interview and recommendation letters next. (MSE)

  19. The Philippine tobacco industry: "the strongest tobacco lobby in Asia"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alechnowicz, K; Chapman, S

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To highlight revelations from internal tobacco industry documents about the conduct of the industry in the Philippines since the 1960s. Areas explored include political corruption, health, employment of consultants, resisting pack labelling, and marketing and advertising. Methods: Systematic keyword Minnesota depository website searches of tobacco industry internal documents made available through the Master Settlement Agreement. Results: The Philippines has long suffered a reputation for political corruption where collusion between state and business was based on the exchange of political donations for favourable economic policies. The tobacco industry was able to limit the effectiveness of proposed anti-tobacco legislation. A prominent scientist publicly repudiated links between active and passive smoking and disease. The placement of health warning labels was negotiated to benefit the industry, and the commercial environment allowed it to capitalise on their marketing freedoms to the fullest potential. Women, children, youth, and the poor have been targeted. Conclusion: The politically laissez faire Philippines presented tobacco companies with an environment ripe for exploitation. The Philippines has seen some of the world's most extreme and controversial forms of tobacco promotion flourish. Against international standards of progress, the Philippines is among the world's slowest nations to take tobacco control seriously. PMID:15564224

  20. Blandford's argument: The strongest continuous gravitational wave signal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knispel, Benjamin; Allen, Bruce

    2008-01-01

    For a uniform population of neutron stars whose spin-down is dominated by the emission of gravitational radiation, an old argument of Blandford states that the expected gravitational-wave amplitude of the nearest source is independent of the deformation and rotation frequency of the objects. Recent work has improved and extended this argument to set upper limits on the expected amplitude from neutron stars that also emit electromagnetic radiation. We restate these arguments in a more general framework, and simulate the evolution of such a population of stars in the gravitational potential of our galaxy. The simulations allow us to test the assumptions of Blandford's argument on a realistic model of our galaxy. We show that the two key assumptions of the argument (two dimensionality of the spatial distribution and a steady-state frequency distribution) are in general not fulfilled. The effective scaling dimension D of the spatial distribution of neutron stars is significantly larger than two, and for frequencies detectable by terrestrial instruments the frequency distribution is not in a steady state unless the ellipticity is unrealistically large. Thus, in the cases of most interest, the maximum expected gravitational-wave amplitude does have a strong dependence on the deformation and rotation frequency of the population. The results strengthen the previous upper limits on the expected gravitational-wave amplitude from neutron stars by a factor of 6 for realistic values of ellipticity.

  1. The Philippine tobacco industry: "the strongest tobacco lobby in Asia"

    OpenAIRE

    Alechnowicz, K; Chapman, S

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To highlight revelations from internal tobacco industry documents about the conduct of the industry in the Philippines since the 1960s. Areas explored include political corruption, health, employment of consultants, resisting pack labelling, and marketing and advertising.

  2. The Philippine tobacco industry: "the strongest tobacco lobby in Asia".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alechnowicz, K; Chapman, S

    2004-12-01

    To highlight revelations from internal tobacco industry documents about the conduct of the industry in the Philippines since the 1960s. Areas explored include political corruption, health, employment of consultants, resisting pack labelling, and marketing and advertising. Systematic keyword Minnesota depository website searches of tobacco industry internal documents made available through the Master Settlement Agreement. The Philippines has long suffered a reputation for political corruption where collusion between state and business was based on the exchange of political donations for favourable economic policies. The tobacco industry was able to limit the effectiveness of proposed anti-tobacco legislation. A prominent scientist publicly repudiated links between active and passive smoking and disease. The placement of health warning labels was negotiated to benefit the industry, and the commercial environment allowed it to capitalise on their marketing freedoms to the fullest potential. Women, children, youth, and the poor have been targeted. The politically laissez faire Philippines presented tobacco companies with an environment ripe for exploitation. The Philippines has seen some of the world's most extreme and controversial forms of tobacco promotion flourish. Against international standards of progress, the Philippines is among the world's slowest nations to take tobacco control seriously.

  3. The origin of the strongest magnetic fields in dwarfs

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sky Survey (SDSS) but none of these shows sufficient evidence for Zeeman splitting of hydrogen lines for a magnetic field in ... to be done and hence the electrons exert a pressure. Chandrasekhar [2] ..... Three methods have been used to estimate masses for suitable magnetic white dwarfs. First, if the field strength is of ...

  4. Highly Charged Protein Ions: The Strongest Organic Acids to Date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenaidee, Muhammad A; Leeming, Michael G; Zhang, Fangtong; Funston, Toby T; Donald, William A

    2017-07-10

    The basicity of highly protonated cytochrome c (cyt c) and myoglobin (myo) ions were investigated using tandem mass spectrometry, ion-molecule reactions (IMRs), and theoretical calculations as a function of charge state. Surprisingly, highly charged protein ions (HCPI) can readily protonate non-polar molecules and inert gases, including Ar, O 2 , and N 2 in thermal IMRs. The most HCPIs that can be observed are over 130 kJ mol -1 less basic than the least basic neutral organic molecules known (tetrafluoromethane and methane). Based on theoretical calculations, it is predicted that protonated cyt c and myo ions should spontaneously lose a proton to vacuum for charge states in which every third residue is protonated. In this study, HCPIs are formed where every fourth residue on average is protonated. These results indicate that protein ions in higher charge states can be formed using a low-pressure ion source to reduce proton-transfer reactions between protein ions and gases from the atmosphere. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. The origin of the strongest magnetic fields in dwarfs

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Thus, we deduce that the origin of such high magnetic fields must be intimately tied to the formation of cataclysmic variables (CVs). The formation of a CV must involve orbital shrinkage from giant star to main-sequence star dimensions. It is believed that this shrinkage occurs as the low-mass companion and the white dwarf ...

  6. Some psychosocial predictors of anxiety disorder in epilepsy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Some psychosocial predictors of anxiety disorder in epilepsy. A A Adesina, O A Afolabi, R O Ohwojero. Abstract. This study was designed to expose the variables or predictors that mediate in anxiety disorders among epileptics in Nigeria. Such variables or predictors are age, level of social support and perceived level of ...

  7. Adams Predictor-Corrector Systems for Solving Fuzzy Differential Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dequan Shang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A predictor-corrector algorithm and an improved predictor-corrector (IPC algorithm based on Adams method are proposed to solve first-order differential equations with fuzzy initial condition. These algorithms are generated by updating the Adams predictor-corrector method and their convergence is also analyzed. Finally, the proposed methods are illustrated by solving an example.

  8. A longitudinal study of predictors of suicide attempts among lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustanski, Brian; Liu, Richard T

    2013-04-01

    This short-term prospective study examined general and lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT)-specific risk and protective factors for suicide attempts in an ethnically diverse sample of LGBT youth (N = 237, 47.7 % male). A structured psychiatric interview assessed clinical depression and conduct disorder symptoms, as well as past and prospective suicide attempts over a 1-year follow-up period (91 % retention). Participants completed questionnaires measuring general risk factors for suicide attempts, including hopelessness, impulsiveness, and perceived social support. They also completed measures of LGBT-specific suicide risk factors, including gender nonconformity, age of first same-sex attraction, and LGBT victimization. Correlation and multivariate regression analyses were conducted to examine the relations between predictors and suicide attempt, and to identify mediators. Of nine variables examined, seven were related to lifetime history of attempted suicide: hopelessness, depression symptoms, conduct disorder symptoms, impulsivity, victimization, age of first same-sex attraction, and low family support. Depressive symptoms and hopelessness mediated the relation between multiple risk and resilience factors and suicide attempts. Suicide attempt history was the strongest predictor of prospective suicide attempts. Participants who previously attempted suicide (31.6 % of the sample) had more than 10 times greater odds of making another attempt in the 1-year follow-up period than were those who had made no previous attempt. These results highlight the need for suicide prevention programs for LGBT youth and suggest the importance of addressing depression and hopelessness as proximal determinants and family support and victimization, which have more distal effects.

  9. Workplace engagement and workers' compensation claims as predictors for patient safety culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorp, Jonathon; Baqai, Waheed; Witters, Dan; Harter, Jim; Agrawal, Sangeeta; Kanitkar, Kirti; Pappas, James

    2012-12-01

    Demonstrate the relationship between employee engagement and workplace safety for predicting patient safety culture. Patient safety is an issue for the U.S. health-care system, and health care has some of the highest rates of nonfatal workplace injuries. Understanding the types of injuries sustained by health-care employees, the type of safety environment employees of health-care organizations work in, and how employee engagement affects patient safety is vital to improving the safety of both employees and patients. The Gallup Q survey and an approved, abbreviated, and validated subset of questions from the Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture were administered to staff at a large tertiary academic medical center in 2007 and 2009. After controlling for demographic variables, researchers conducted a longitudinal, hierarchical linear regression analysis to study the unique contributions of employee engagement, changes in employee engagement, and employee safety in predicting patient safety culture. Teams with higher baseline engagement, more positive change in engagement, fewer workers' compensation claims, and fewer part-time associates in previous years had stronger patient safety cultures in 2009. Baseline engagement and change in engagement were the strongest independent predictors of patient safety culture in 2009. Engagement and compensation claims were additive and complimentary predictors, independent of other variables in the analysis, including the demographic composition of the workgroups in the study. A synergistic effect exists between employee engagement and decreased levels of workers' compensation claims for improving patient safety culture. Organizations can improve engagement and implement safety policies, procedures, and devices for employees with an ultimate effect of improving patient safety culture.

  10. Predictors of persistence of comorbid generalized anxiety disorder among veterans with major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal, Dinesh; Fortney, John C; Pyne, Jeffrey M; Wetherell, Julie L

    2011-11-01

    A limited number of randomized clinical trials show that efficacious pharmacologic treatments exist for comorbid major depressive disorder (MDD) and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). The aims of this effectiveness study were to describe the impact of a depression care management intervention on the persistence of comorbid GAD symptoms in a sample of primary care patients with MDD and to identify risk factors for persistent GAD. Data were collected from April 2003 to September 2005 for the Telemedicine-Enhanced Antidepressant Management (TEAM) study, a multisite, randomized effectiveness trial targeting US Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) primary care patients with depression. Veterans aged 26.59-88.36 years received either the TEAM intervention or usual care in small VA community-based outpatient clinics. The TEAM care management intervention focused on optimizing antidepressant therapy through patient education and activation, symptom monitoring, adherence promotion, and side-effect management. Veterans who screened positive for MDD using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (based on DSM-IV criteria) and who met the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview criteria (maintaining consistency with DSM-IV-TR) for comorbid GAD at baseline were selected for the present study (N = 168). The primary outcome was persistence of GAD at 6 months and 12 months. All predictors available in the TEAM study data that were described in the literature to be associated with influencing GAD outcomes were examined. Persistence of depression was the strongest predictor of persistence of comorbid GAD at both 6 months (OR = 5.75; 95% CI, 2.38-13.86; P Insomnia was a significant protective factor for persistence of GAD at 6 months (OR = 0.66; 95% CI, 0.44-0.99; P < .05). Early screening for presence of comorbid GAD among those with MDD may be valuable both for further research and for enhancing clinical management of GAD and MDD comorbidity. © Copyright 2011 Physicians

  11. Depression Change Profiles in Adolescents Treated for Comorbid Depression/Substance Abuse and Profile Membership Predictors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohde, Paul; Turner, Charles W; Waldron, Holly B; Brody, Janet L; Jorgensen, Jenel

    2016-02-18

    Using data from a randomized trial in which adolescents with depressive and substance use disorders (SUD) received treatments for both disorders in either a sequenced or coordinated manner, we (a) determine the number and nature of depression response profiles through 1-year posttreatment and (b) examine whether 8 previously identified factors predict profile membership. There were 170 adolescents (M age = 16.4 years; 22% female; 28% Hispanic, 61% Non-Hispanic White) with comorbid depressive disorder/SUD randomized to one of three sequences of receiving the Adolescent Coping With Depression Course and Functional Family Therapy for SUD (depression treatment followed by SUD treatment; SUD treatment followed by depression treatment; coordinated treatment). Depression was assessed at 7 points from baseline to 1-year follow-up. A 4-class solution fit the data best, with groups labeled Mildly Depressed Responders (57.1%), Depressed Responders (18.8%), Depressed Non-Responders (12.9%), and Depressed with Recurrence (11.2%). The 4 change profiles differed on indices of all but 1 predictor (age); most differences were driven by lower scores among Mildly Depressed Responders. Profile membership was most strongly predicted by depression severity, cognitive distortions, hopelessness, and global functioning. The strongest predictor of Nonresponse was low family cohesion, whereas Recurrence was associated with hopelessness, suicide attempts, and starting treatment near the end of the school year. Most depressed adolescents experienced a positive response that was maintained. Understanding the most common profiles of depression change during and following treatment and the variables that predict change can help improve treatment outcomes and advance tailoring efforts.

  12. Trajectories of quality of life in early-stage dementia: individual variations and predictors of change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clare, Linda; Woods, Robert T; Nelis, Sharon M; Martyr, Anthony; Marková, Ivana S; Roth, Ilona; Whitaker, Christopher J; Morris, Robin G

    2014-06-01

    Little evidence is available about how quality of life (QoL) changes as dementia progresses. We explored QoL trajectories over a 20-month period and examined what predicted change in QoL. Fifty-one individuals with a diagnosis of Alzheimer's, vascular or mixed dementia (people with dementia (PwD)) participating in the Memory Impairment and Dementia Awareness Study rated their QoL using the QoL-Alzheimer's Disease Scale at baseline and at 20-month follow-up. PwD also rated their mood and quality of relationship with the carer. In each case, the carer rated his or her level of stress and perceived quality of relationship with the PwD. There was no change in mean QoL score. Nearly one-third of PwD rated QoL more positively at 20-month follow-up and nearly one-third rated QoL more negatively. These changes could be regarded as reliable in one-quarter of the sample. Participants taking acetylcholinesterase-inhibiting medication at baseline were more likely to show a decline in QoL score. There were no other significant differences between those whose scores increased, decreased or stayed the same on any demographic or disease-related variables, or in mood or perceived quality of relationship with the carer. Whereas baseline QoL score was the strongest predictor of QoL at 20 months, the quality of relationship with the carer as perceived by the PwD was also independently a significant predictor. There is a degree of individual variation in QoL trajectories. Use of acetylcholinesterase-inhibiting medication appears linked to decline in QoL score, whereas positive relationships with carers play an important role in maintaining QoL in early-stage dementia. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Environmental and organismal predictors of intraspecific variation in the stoichiometry of a neotropical freshwater fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sabaawi, Rana W; Kohler, Tyler J; Zandoná, Eugenia; Travis, Joseph; Marshall, Michael C; Thomas, Steven A; Reznick, David N; Walsh, Matthew; Gilliam, James F; Pringle, Catherine; Flecker, Alexander S

    2012-01-01

    The elemental composition of animals, or their organismal stoichiometry, is thought to constrain their contribution to nutrient recycling, their interactions with other animals, and their demographic rates. Factors that affect organismal stoichiometry are generally poorly understood, but likely reflect elemental investments in morphological features and life history traits, acting in concert with the environmental availability of elements. We assessed the relative contribution of organismal traits and environmental variability to the stoichiometry of an insectivorous Neotropical stream fish, Rivulus hartii. We characterized the influence of body size, life history phenotype, stage of maturity, and environmental variability on organismal stoichiometry in 6 streams that differ in a broad suite of environmental variables. The elemental composition of R. hartii was variable, and overlapped with the wide range of elemental composition documented across freshwater fish taxa. Average %P composition was ∼3.2%(±0.6), average %N∼10.7%(±0.9), and average %C∼41.7%(±3.1). Streams were the strongest predictor of organismal stoichiometry, and explained up to 18% of the overall variance. This effect appeared to be largely explained by variability in quality of basal resources such as epilithon N:P and benthic organic matter C:N, along with variability in invertebrate standing stocks, an important food source for R. hartii. Organismal traits were weak predictors of organismal stoichiometry in this species, explaining when combined up to 7% of the overall variance in stoichiometry. Body size was significantly and positively correlated with %P, and negatively with N:P, and C:P, and life history phenotype was significantly correlated with %C, %P, C:P and C:N. Our study suggests that spatial variability in elemental availability is more strongly correlated with organismal stoichiometry than organismal traits, and suggests that the stoichiometry of carnivores may not be

  14. Environmental and organismal predictors of intraspecific variation in the stoichiometry of a neotropical freshwater fish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rana W El-Sabaawi

    Full Text Available The elemental composition of animals, or their organismal stoichiometry, is thought to constrain their contribution to nutrient recycling, their interactions with other animals, and their demographic rates. Factors that affect organismal stoichiometry are generally poorly understood, but likely reflect elemental investments in morphological features and life history traits, acting in concert with the environmental availability of elements. We assessed the relative contribution of organismal traits and environmental variability to the stoichiometry of an insectivorous Neotropical stream fish, Rivulus hartii. We characterized the influence of body size, life history phenotype, stage of maturity, and environmental variability on organismal stoichiometry in 6 streams that differ in a broad suite of environmental variables. The elemental composition of R. hartii was variable, and overlapped with the wide range of elemental composition documented across freshwater fish taxa. Average %P composition was ∼3.2%(±0.6, average %N∼10.7%(±0.9, and average %C∼41.7%(±3.1. Streams were the strongest predictor of organismal stoichiometry, and explained up to 18% of the overall variance. This effect appeared to be largely explained by variability in quality of basal resources such as epilithon N:P and benthic organic matter C:N, along with variability in invertebrate standing stocks, an important food source for R. hartii. Organismal traits were weak predictors of organismal stoichiometry in this species, explaining when combined up to 7% of the overall variance in stoichiometry. Body size was significantly and positively correlated with %P, and negatively with N:P, and C:P, and life history phenotype was significantly correlated with %C, %P, C:P and C:N. Our study suggests that spatial variability in elemental availability is more strongly correlated with organismal stoichiometry than organismal traits, and suggests that the stoichiometry of carnivores

  15. Predictors of Wellness and American Indians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, Felicia S.; Nandy, Karabi

    2012-01-01

    Wellness is an important American Indian (AI) concept, understood as being in balance with one’s body, mind, and environment. Wellness predictors are reported in this paper within the context of health. A cross-sectional randomized household survey of 457 AI adults at 13 rural health care sites in California was conducted. Measures included wellness perceptions, barriers, health status/health conditions, spirituality, cultural connectivity, high-risk behaviors and abuse history. Statistical analysis obtained the best predictive model for wellness. Predictors of wellness were general health status perception, participation in AI cultural practices and suicide ideation. Significant differences in wellness status were observed depending on experience of adverse events in childhood and adulthood (neglect, physical abuse, and sexual abuse). Cultural connectivity (speaking tribal language, participating in AI practices, and feeling connected to community) was also associated with perceptions of wellness. Recommendations are for culturally-appropriate education and interventions emphasizing community and cultural connectivity for improving wellness status. PMID:21841279

  16. The Job Demands-Resources model as predictor of work identity and work engagement: A comparative analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roslyn De Braine

    2011-05-01

    Research purpose: This study explored possible differences in the Job Demands-Resources model (JD-R as predictor of overall work engagement, dedication only and work-based identity, through comparative predictive analyses. Motivation for the study: This study may shed light on the dedication component of work engagement. Currently no literature indicates that the JD-R model has been used to predict work-based identity. Research design: A census-based survey was conducted amongst a target population of 23134 employees that yielded a sample of 2429 (a response rate of about 10.5%. The Job Demands- Resources scale (JDRS was used to measure job demands and job resources. A work-based identity scale was developed for this study. Work engagement was studied with the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES. Factor and reliability analyses were conducted on the scales and general multiple regression models were used in the predictive analyses. Main findings: The JD-R model yielded a greater amount of variance in dedication than in work engagement. It, however, yielded the greatest amount of variance in work-based identity, with job resources being its strongest predictor. Practical/managerial implications: Identification and work engagement levels can be improved by managing job resources and demands. Contribution/value-add: This study builds on the literature of the JD-R model by showing that it can be used to predict work-based identity.

  17. Some aspects of executive functions as predictors of understanding textual mathematical tasks in students with mild intellectual disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Japundža-Milisavljević Mirjana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The most significant segment during the process of solving mathematical tasks is translation from mathematical to native language, in the basis o which, among others, are the following factors: resistance to distraction and forming adequate verbal strategies. The goal of this research is to evaluate the contribution of some aspects of executive functions in explaining the variance of solving illustrative mathematical tasks in students with mild intellectual disability. The sample consists of 90 students with mild intellectual disability aged from 12 to 16 (M=14.7; SD=1.6, of both sexes (44.4% boys and 55.6% girls. The Twenty questions test and the Stroop test were used to estimate the executive functions. Verbal problem tasks were used for the purpose of understanding mathematical language The obtained results show that the estimated aspects of executive functions are significant predictors of understanding mathematical language in students with intellectual disabilities. The strongest predictor is distraction resistance (p=0.01.

  18. Predictors of English Health Literacy among U.S. Hispanic Immigrants: The importance of language, bilingualism and sociolinguistic environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Holly E; Hund, Lauren; Soto Mas, Francisco

    In the United States, data confirm that Spanish-speaking immigrants are particularly affected by the negative health outcomes associated with low health literacy. Although the literature points to variables such as age, educational background and language, only a few studies have investigated the factors that may influence health literacy in this group. Similarly, the role that bilingualism and/or multilingualism play in health literacy assessment continues to be an issue in need of further research. The purpose of this study was to examine the predictors of English health literacy among adult Hispanic immigrants whose self-reported primary language is Spanish, but who live and function in a bilingual community. It also explored issues related to the language of the instrument. An analysis of data collected through a randomized controlled study was conducted. Results identified English proficiency as the strongest predictor of health literacy (p sociolinguistic environment affect health literacy in language minority adults; proposes language approaches that may be more appropriate for measuring health literacy in these populations; and recommends further place-based research to determine whether the connection between language proficiency and health is generalizable to border communities.

  19. The Predictors of Healthy Eating Behavior among Pregnant Women: An Application of the Theory of Planned Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aynaz Chitsaz

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background It has been documented that maternal nutrition is associated with positive birth outcomes. This study was aimed at determining the predictors of healthy eating behavior among pregnant women in Qazvin, Iran in the context of the theory of planned behavior (TBP. Materials and Methods In this longitudinal study, 182 pregnant women who were referred to teaching hospitals in Qazvin in 2016 were recruited for participation. Data were obtained using TPB-specific questionnaires at baseline. The same pregnant women were asked to complete a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ 3 months later. A series of hierarchical regression analysis was conducted to examine factors associated with healthy eating behavior among pregnant women.   Results The pregnant women reported low amounts of whole grain consumption and low-fat dairy product consumption. All TPB variables significantly predicted healthy eating behaviors at three-month follow-up. Perceived behavioral control (PBC and behavioral intention were found to be the strongest predictors of healthy eating behaviors among pregnant women. The pregnant women’s subjective norms had the weakest relationship with healthy eating behaviors. The TPB model together with age provided a moderate to high explanation of consumptions in low-fat dairy products (R2=0.57, P

  20. Predictors of C-reactive protein in Tsimane' 2 to 15 year-olds in lowland Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDade, T W; Leonard, W R; Burhop, J; Reyes-García, V; Vadez, V; Huanca, T; Godoy, R A

    2005-12-01

    Infectious disease is a major global determinant of child morbidity and mortality, and energetic investment in immune defenses (even in the absence of overt disease) is an important life-history variable, with implications for human growth and development. This study uses a biomarker of immune activation (C-reactive protein) to investigate an important aspect of child health among the Tsimane', a relatively isolated Amerindian population in lowland Bolivia. Our objectives are twofold: 1) to describe the distribution of CRP by age and gender in a cross-sectional sample of 536 2-15-year-olds; and 2) to explore multiple measures of pathogen exposure, economic resources, and acculturation as predictors of increased CRP. The median blood-spot CRP concentration was 0.73 mg/l, with 12.9% of the sample having concentrations greater than 5 mg/L, indicating a relatively high degree of immune activation in this population. Age was the strongest predictor of CRP, with the highest concentrations found among younger individuals. Increased CRP was also associated with higher pathogen exposure, lower household economic resources, and increased maternal education and literacy. The measurement of CRP offers a direct, objective indicator of immune activation, and provides insights into a potentially important pathway through which environmental quality may shape child growth and health. 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  1. Sex-specific predictors of hearing-aid use in older persons: The age, gene/environment susceptibility - Reykjavik study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Diana E.; Li, Chuan-Ming; Hoffman, Howard J.; Chiu, May S.; Themann, Christa L.; Petersen, Hannes; Jonsson, Palmi V.; Jonsson, Helgi; Jonasson, Fridbert; Sverrisdottir, Johanna Eyrun; Launer, Lenore J.; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Cotch, Mary Frances

    2015-01-01

    Objective We estimate the prevalence of hearing-aid use in Iceland and identify sex-specific factors associated with use. Design Population-based cohort study. Study sample A total of 5172 age, gene/environment susceptibility - Reykjavik study (AGES-RS) participants, aged 67 to 96 years (mean age 76.5 years), who completed air-conduction and pure-tone audiometry. Results Hearing-aid use was reported by 23.0% of men and 15.9% of women in the cohort, although among participants with at least moderate hearing loss in the better ear (pure-tone average [PTA] of thresholds at 0.5, 1, 2, and 4 kHz ≥ 35 dB hearing level [HL]) it was 49.9% and did not differ by sex. Self-reported hearing loss was the strongest predictor of hearing-aid use in men [OR: 2.68 (95% CI: 1.77, 4.08)] and women [OR: 3.07 (95% CI: 1.94, 4.86)], followed by hearing loss severity based on audiometry. Having diabetes or osteoarthritis were significant positive predictors of use in men, whereas greater physical activity and unimpaired cognitive status were important in women. Conclusions Hearing-aid use was comparable in Icelandic men and women with moderate or greater hearing loss. Self-recognition of hearing loss was the factor most predictive of hearing-aid use; other influential factors differed for men and women. PMID:25816699

  2. Amniotic Fluid Arginine from Gestational Weeks 13 to 15 Is a Predictor of Birth Weight, Length, and Head Circumference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astrid Bjørke-Jenssen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Arginine is a constituent of proteins and a precursor for polyamines and nitric oxide, and is essential for placentation, angiogenesis, and growth. Maternal plasma arginine concentrations are found to be lower in pregnancies complicated by fetal growth restriction, and arginine supplementation in later pregnancy is reported to increase birth weight. We measured arginine and the metabolites asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA and symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA in the amniotic fluid obtained in pregnancy weeks 13 to 15 from 363 pregnancies with a documented normal outcome and related the concentrations to birth weight, length, and head circumference. Arginine was higher in the amniotic fluid from female (mean 40.8 (SD 10.6 µmol/L compared to male fetuses (37.4 (SD 11.2 µmol/L, p = 0.003. Despite the gender difference, arginine in the amniotic fluid from gestational weeks 13–15 was the strongest predictor for birth weight, length, and head circumference. ADMA was a strong predictor for birth weight and length, SDMA for birth weight, while Arg/ADMA and Arg/SDMA only predicted head circumference in multiple linear regression models. Due to increased arginine demands, pregnancy is considered a state of relative arginine deficiency. Our findings reflect the importance of a good maternal arginine status in early pregnancy, an observation that should be evaluated in an intervention study.

  3. Predictors of English Health Literacy among U.S. Hispanic Immigrants: The importance of language, bilingualism and sociolinguistic environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holly E. Jacobson

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In the United States, data confirm that Spanish-speaking immigrants are particularly affected by the negative health outcomes associated with low health literacy. Although the literature points to variables such as age, educational background and language, only a few studies have investigated the factors that may influence health literacy in this group. Similarly, the role that bilingualism and/or multilingualism play in health literacy assessment continues to be an issue in need of further research. The purpose of this study was to examine the predictors of English health literacy among adult Hispanic immigrants whose self-reported primary language is Spanish, but who live and function in a bilingual community. It also explored issues related to the language of the instrument. An analysis of data collected through a randomized controlled study was conducted. Results identified English proficiency as the strongest predictor of health literacy (p < 0.001. The results further point to the importance of primary and secondary language in the assessment of heath literacy level. This study raises many questions in need of further investigation to clarify how language proficiency and sociolinguistic environment affect health literacy in language minority adults; proposes language approaches that may be more appropriate for measuring health literacy in these populations; and recommends further place-based research to determine whether the connection between language proficiency and health is generalizable to border communities.

  4. Sex-specific predictors of hearing-aid use in older persons: The age, gene/environment susceptibility - Reykjavik study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Diana E; Li, Chuan-Ming; Hoffman, Howard J; Chiu, May S; Themann, Christa L; Petersen, Hannes; Jonsson, Palmi V; Jonsson, Helgi; Jonasson, Fridbert; Sverrisdottir, Johanna Eyrun; Launer, Lenore J; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Cotch, Mary Frances

    2015-01-01

    We estimate the prevalence of hearing-aid use in Iceland and identify sex-specific factors associated with use. Population-based cohort study. A total of 5172 age, gene/environment susceptibility - Reykjavik study (AGES-RS) participants, aged 67 to 96 years (mean age 76.5 years), who completed air-conduction and pure-tone audiometry. Hearing-aid use was reported by 23.0% of men and 15.9% of women in the cohort, although among participants with at least moderate hearing loss in the better ear (pure-tone average [PTA] of thresholds at 0.5, 1, 2, and 4 kHz ≥ 35 dB hearing level [HL]) it was 49.9% and did not differ by sex. Self-reported hearing loss was the strongest predictor of hearing-aid use in men [OR: 2.68 (95% CI: 1.77, 4.08)] and women [OR: 3.07 (95% CI: 1.94, 4.86)], followed by hearing loss severity based on audiometry. Having diabetes or osteoarthritis were significant positive predictors of use in men, whereas greater physical activity and unimpaired cognitive status were important in women. Hearing-aid use was comparable in Icelandic men and women with moderate or greater hearing loss. Self-recognition of hearing loss was the factor most predictive of hearing-aid use; other influential factors differed for men and women.

  5. Predictors for trismus in patients receiving radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Geer, S Joyce; Kamstra, Jolanda I; Roodenburg, Jan L N; van Leeuwen, Marianne; Reintsema, Harry; Langendijk, Johannes A; Dijkstra, Pieter U

    2016-11-01

    Trismus, a restricted mouth opening in head and neck cancer patients may be caused by tumor infiltration in masticatory muscles, radiation-induced fibrosis or scarring after surgery. It may impede oral functioning severely. The aims of our study were to determine: (1) the incidence of trismus at various time points; and (2) the patient, tumor, and treatment characteristics that predict the development of trismus after radiotherapy in head and neck cancer patients using a large database (n = 641). Maximal mouth opening was measured prior to and 6, 12, 18, 24, 36, and 48 months after radiotherapy. Patient, tumor, and treatment characteristics were analyzed as potential predictors for trismus using a multivariable logistic regression analysis. At six months after radiotherapy, 28.1% of the patients without trismus prior to radiotherapy developed trismus for the first time. At subsequent time points the incidence declined. Over a total period of 48 months after radiotherapy, the incidence of trismus was 3.6 per 10 person years at risk. Patients who had tumors located in the oral cavity, oropharynx or nasopharynx, and the salivary glands or ear, and who had a longer overall treatment time of radiotherapy, were more likely to develop trismus in the first six months after radiotherapy. Maximal mouth opening was a predictor for developing trismus at all time points. Incidence of trismus is 3.6 per 10 person years at risk. Tumor localization and overall treatment time of radiotherapy are predictors for developing trismus the first six months after radiotherapy. Maximal mouth opening is a significant predictor for developing trismus at all time points. Regular measurements of maximal mouth opening are needed to predict trismus.

  6. [Predictors of Family Dysfunction among Adolescent Students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Bustamante, Edna Margarita; Castillo-Ávila, Irma; Cogollo, Zuleima

    2013-03-01

    Determination of family dysfunction predictors in adolescent students of Cartagena, Colombia. A cross-sectional analytical research was conducted by means of a probabilistic sample per conglomerate of high-school students. Participation of students between 13 and 17 years was requested. Family dysfunction was identified through the family APGAR scale. Predictors were adjusted by binary logistic regression. A total of 1,730 students agreed to participate, mean age was 14.7 years (SD=1.2), and 52.7% were girls. The family APGAR scale showed a Cronbach alpha of 0.78. A group of 896 students (51.8%) reported family dysfunction. Predictors of family dysfunction were: clinically significant depressive symptoms (OR=3.61; IC 95%: 2.31-5.63), low religiosity (OR=1.73; CI 95%: 1.41-2.13), non-nuclear family (OR=1.71, CI 95% 1.71-2.09) (OR=1.73, 95% CI 1.41-2.13), non-nuclear family (OR=1.71, 95%: CI 1.41-2.09), consumption of any illegal substance in their lives (OR=1.67, CI 95%: 1.15-2.13), residents of depressed neighborhoods (OR = 1.49; CI 95%: 1.19-1.87), and poor academic performance (OR=1.43; CI 95%: 1.15-1.76). Clinically significant depressive symptoms, low religiosity and non-nuclear family are the main predictors of family dysfunction among adolescent students in Cartagena, Colombia. The association is possibly bidirectional. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  7. Procrastination as a Predictor of Job Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-09-01

    4-5 4-6. Response Frequencies - Work Procrastination Scale .............................................. 4-7 4-7. Intercorrelation Matrix for the... procrastination . Ellis and Knaus (1977) proposed in their book, Overcoming Procrastination , that delays in completing isolated tasks are a universal... PROCRASTINATION AS A PREDICTOR OF JOB PERFORMANCE THESIS -I STEVEN L. DUTSCHMANN CC CAPTAIN, USAF AFITIGTMILAPJ96S-5 Z DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE

  8. Individual predictors of adolescents’ vocational interest stabilities

    OpenAIRE

    Hirschi, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    The study investigated the predictive utility of interest profile differentiation, coherence, elevation, congruence, and vocational identity commitment and career maturity (career planning and exploration) on the 10-month interest stability of 292 Swiss eighth-grade students: profile, rank, and level stabilities were assessed. Controlling for socio-demographic and vocational interest type variables, measures of differentiated and coherent vocational interests were significant predictors of pr...

  9. Crowdsourcing novel childhood predictors of adult obesity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsten E Bevelander

    Full Text Available Effective and simple screening tools are needed to detect behaviors that are established early in life and have a significant influence on weight gain later in life. Crowdsourcing could be a novel and potentially useful tool to assess childhood predictors of adult obesity. This exploratory study examined whether crowdsourcing could generate well-documented predictors in obesity research and, moreover, whether new directions for future research could be uncovered. Participants were recruited through social media to a question-generation website, on which they answered questions and were able to pose new questions that they thought could predict obesity. During the two weeks of data collection, 532 participants (62% female; age  =  26.5±6.7; BMI  =  29.0±7.0 registered on the website and suggested a total of 56 unique questions. Nineteen of these questions correlated with body mass index (BMI and covered several themes identified by prior research, such as parenting styles and healthy lifestyle. More importantly, participants were able to identify potential determinants that were related to a lower BMI, but have not been the subject of extensive research, such as parents packing their children's lunch to school or talking to them about nutrition. The findings indicate that crowdsourcing can reproduce already existing hypotheses and also generate ideas that are less well documented. The crowdsourced predictors discovered in this study emphasize the importance of family interventions to fight obesity. The questions generated by participants also suggest new ways to express known predictors.

  10. Crowdsourcing novel childhood predictors of adult obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevelander, Kirsten E; Kaipainen, Kirsikka; Swain, Robert; Dohle, Simone; Bongard, Josh C; Hines, Paul D H; Wansink, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Effective and simple screening tools are needed to detect behaviors that are established early in life and have a significant influence on weight gain later in life. Crowdsourcing could be a novel and potentially useful tool to assess childhood predictors of adult obesity. This exploratory study examined whether crowdsourcing could generate well-documented predictors in obesity research and, moreover, whether new directions for future research could be uncovered. Participants were recruited through social media to a question-generation website, on which they answered questions and were able to pose new questions that they thought could predict obesity. During the two weeks of data collection, 532 participants (62% female; age  =  26.5±6.7; BMI  =  29.0±7.0) registered on the website and suggested a total of 56 unique questions. Nineteen of these questions correlated with body mass index (BMI) and covered several themes identified by prior research, such as parenting styles and healthy lifestyle. More importantly, participants were able to identify potential determinants that were related to a lower BMI, but have not been the subject of extensive research, such as parents packing their children's lunch to school or talking to them about nutrition. The findings indicate that crowdsourcing can reproduce already existing hypotheses and also generate ideas that are less well documented. The crowdsourced predictors discovered in this study emphasize the importance of family interventions to fight obesity. The questions generated by participants also suggest new ways to express known predictors.

  11. Predictors of intuitive eating in adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew, Rachel; Tiggemann, Marika; Clark, Levina

    2015-02-01

    To examine proposed predictors of intuitive eating, including social appearance comparison, and to test a modified acceptance model of intuitive eating in adolescent girls. Participants were 400 adolescent girls aged 12-16 years who completed measures of body acceptance by others, self-objectification, social appearance comparison, body appreciation, and intuitive eating. Correlations showed that all proposed predictors were related to intuitive eating in the expected direction. In particular, social appearance comparison was negatively related to body appreciation and intuitive eating. After controlling for other predictors, social appearance comparison was shown to explain unique variance in intuitive eating. Using structural equation modeling, an integrated modified acceptance model of intuitive eating yielded an overall good fit to the data. Mediation analyses showed that there was a significant indirect effect of body acceptance by others on both body appreciation and intuitive eating through social appearance comparison and self-objectification. The findings extend the acceptance model of intuitive eating to adolescent girls but also identify social comparison as an important mechanism in this process. Practically, the findings highlight several areas that may be targeted to foster adaptive eating patterns in girls. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Seasonal variation and predictors of epistaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purkey, Matthew R; Seeskin, Zachary; Chandra, Rakesh

    2014-09-01

    To examine the incidence of epistaxis as a function of season and age and to determine predictors of episodes within the epistaxis patient population presenting to a tertiary hospital system. Retrospective cohort study. Electronic medical record charts of patients presenting to the Northwestern Emergency Department, admitted to an inpatient ward, or seen in an outpatient setting between 2008 and 2012 were reviewed and selected for an International Classifications of Disease-Ninth Revision epistaxis code of 784.7. Season of presentation, demographic factors (age, race, gender, insurance status), medication use (including anticoagulants and topical nasal steroid administration), and several comorbidities were analyzed as potential predictors of episodes. A total of 2,405 patients were identified with a total of 3,666 individual epistaxis episodes over 5 years. Multivariate analysis identified allergic rhinitis (AR), chronic sinusitis (CRS), coagulopathy, hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT), hematologic malignancy, and hypertension (HTN) as predictors of a higher number of cases. Epistaxis occurred more frequently during colder months and in older patients. Epistaxis occurs more commonly during the winter and in older patients. AR, CRS, coagulopathy, HHT, hematologic malignancy, and HTN are associated with increased epistaxis incidence. © 2014 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  13. Neuropsychiatric Predictors of Cognitive Decline in Parkinson Disease: A Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirogovsky-Turk, Eva; Moore, Raeanne C; Filoteo, J Vincent; Litvan, Irene; Song, David D; Lessig, Stephanie L; Schiehser, Dawn M

    2017-03-01

    To examine the relationship between anxiety, depression, apathy, and cognitive decline in Parkinson disease (PD). Longitudinal study design to assess whether specific neuropsychiatric, demographic, and clinical features predict future cognitive decline. Veterans Affairs San Diego Medical Center and the University of California, San Diego. PD patients (N = 68) and healthy controls (N = 30). Participants were administered self-report measures of depression (Geriatric Depression Scale), anxiety (State Trait Anxiety Scale), and apathy (Apathy Scale), and a comprehensive neuropsychological battery assessing attention, language, visuospatial function, verbal and visual learning and memory, and executive function. Participants were tested at baseline and after an approximate 2-year period. Anxiety and depression at baseline were the strongest predictors of longitudinal decline on measures of verbal and visual learning, over and above other clinical and demographic characteristics. However, baseline neuropsychiatric symptoms did not significantly correlate with decline in other cognitive domains. No significant correlations were detected between neuropsychiatric symptoms and cognition in the healthy control group. These results suggest that anxiety and depression in PD may be risk factors for subsequent declines in learning. Emerging evidence suggests nonmotor symptoms are critical determinants of PD prognosis, and the results of this study highlight the importance of assessment of depression and anxiety early in PD. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Predictors of patrol officer interest in cybercrime training and investigation in selected United States police departments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Thomas J; Bossler, Adam M

    2012-09-01

    Cybercrime has created substantial challenges for law enforcement, particularly at the local level. Most scholars and police administrators believe that patrol officers need to become more effective first responders to cybercrime calls. The evidence illustrates, however, that many patrol officers are neither adequately prepared nor strongly interested in taking an active role in addressing cybercrime at the local level. This study, therefore, examined the factors that predicted patrol officer interest in cybercrime training and investigations in two southeastern U.S. cities. The study specifically examined the relationship between demographics, cybercrime exposure, computer training, computer proficiency, Internet and cybercrime perceptions, and views on policing cybercrime with officer interest in cybercrime investigation training and conducting cybercrime investigations in the future. Officer views on policing cybercrime, particularly whether they valued cybercrime investigations and believed that cybercrime would dramatically change policing, along with their computer skills, were the strongest predictors of interest in cybercrime efforts. Officers who had received previous computer training were less interested in additional training and conducting investigations. These findings support the argument that more command and departmental meetings focusing on the value of investigating these types of crime need to be held in order to increase officer interest.

  15. Varus-valgus stress radiograph as a predictor for extensive medial release in total knee arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Ji Hyun; Lee, Sung Hyun; Yang, Tae Yeong

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the risk factors for predicting the reduction osteotomy as extensive medial release during total knee arthroplasty (TKA) using multivariate logistic regression. A total of 404 TKAs were enrolled and sorted into two groups according to the extent of medial release and then analysed for the statistical significance of various risk factors including age, gender, body mass index (BMI), pre-operative knee mechanical axis angle (KMAA), mechanical varus stress angle (MVrSA), mechanical valgus stress angle (MVgSA), and sum of the mechanical varus and valgus stress angles (SMVVA) with use of multivariate logistic regression analysis. SMVVA to a more varus direction was found to be a significant risk factor for the reduction osteotomy (p varus direction were also significant risk factors (p = 0.010, adjusted OR = 1.189 with 95 % CI 1.041-1.357, and p = 0.005, adjusted OR = 1.401 with 95 % CI 1.109-1.767). The other variables were not significant risk factors. The overall results suggest that careful attention should be given to the need for extensive medial release and failure of the conventional soft tissue release technique during TKA in patients with a greater varus angle in the pre-operative SMVVA, MVgSA, and KMAA, especially with a greater varus SMVVA, which was the strongest predictor of reduction osteotomy. Level III, retrospective comparative study.

  16. Clinical predictors of fever in stroke patients: relevance of nasogastric tube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscari, A; Puddu, G M; Conte, C; Falcone, R; Kolce, B; Lega, M V; Zoli, M

    2015-09-01

    Fever frequently occurs in stroke patients and worsens their prognosis. However, only few studies have assessed the determinants of fever in acute stroke, and no study has specifically addressed the possible prediction of the development of fever. This investigation included 536 patients with acute stroke and a body temperature =37.5°C starting after 24 h). Among the clinical variables available during the first 24 h from admission, those predictive of the subsequent appearance of fever were searched for. One hundred further patients had a temperature >37°C during the first 24 h. In univariate analysis, many variables were predictive of the subsequent development of fever, but in multivariate analysis, only the following four predictors remained significant (odds ratio [95% confidence interval], P value): nasogastric tube (4.0 [2.2-7.4], 37°C during the first 24 h were as follows: National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (P nasogastric tube was the strongest and most significant one. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Cognitive and behavioural predictors of adolescents' communicative perspective-taking and social relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsen, Elizabeth S; Bacso, Sarah A

    2017-04-01

    Given the pivotal role that social interactions play for adolescents' well-being, understanding the factors that influence communication is key. The present study examined relations between adolescents' communicative perspective-taking, executive function skills, and ADHD traits and explored the role communicative perspective-taking plays in peer relations. Data was collected from a community sample of 15 to 19-years-olds (N = 46) in Waterloo, Canada. Two communicative perspective-taking tasks required participants to infer speakers' communicative intentions. A battery of tasks assessed adolescents' working memory and inhibitory control. Elevated ADHD traits were associated with weaker working memory, inhibitory control, and communicative perspective-taking. Working memory was the strongest predictor of communicative perspective-taking. Highlighting the importance of communicative perspective-taking for social interactions, adolescents with weaker skills in this area reported worse peer relations. Findings underscore the importance of communicative perspective-taking for adolescents' social relations and have relevance for understanding the social difficulties faced by adolescents with elevated ADHD traits. Copyright © 2017 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Leisure activity participation as predictor of quality of life in Korean urban-dwelling elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joo Hyun; Lee, Ji Hyun; Park, Soo Hyun

    2014-09-01

    This study investigated participation in leisure activities in urban-dwelling elderly persons in Korea and its role in predicting quality of life. The participated activities over a 48-hour period were recorded by each participant, and amount of participated time for each activity was calculated. Correlational analysis examined the relationship between the degree of participation in domains of leisure activity and quality of life. Multiple regression analysis was conducted to determine which leisure activity participation predicted quality of life. The results indicated that the participants spent the most time in "use of media". Quality of life showed a positive correlation with "use of media", "sports and outdoor leisure activity" and "hobby and other leisure activity". The results of hierarchical multiple regression analysis found that use of media, "religious activity", sports and outdoor leisure activity and hobby and other leisure activity significantly predicted quality of life after controlling for the effects of demographic variables. Of these variables, hobby and other leisure activity was the strongest predictor of quality of life. The results will augment treatment planning and activity management in enhancing quality of life by allied health professionals, especially occupational therapists. The findings are limited in that the sample consisted of urban-dwelling elderly primarily with a religious affiliation. It is recommended that a cross-cultural investigation using standard assessment measures be conducted to validate whether there is indeed similarities in time use and leisure activity participation in the elderly in different cultures. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Predictors of Obstructive Sleep Apnea Risk among Blacks with Metabolic Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, A; Ravenell, J; Donat, M; Sexias, A; Ogedegbe, C; McFarlane, S I; Jean-Louis, G

    Identification of risk factors for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is important to enable comprehensive intervention to reduce OSA-related cardiovascular disease (CVD). The metabolic syndrome outcome study (MetSO) provides a unique opportunity to address these factors. This study investigated risk of OSA among blacks with metabolic syndrome. The present study utilized data from MetSO, an NIH-funded cohort study of blacks with metabolic syndrome. A total of 1,035 patients provided data for the analysis. These included sociodemographic factors, health risks, and medical history. Physician-diagnosed conditions were obtained using an electronic medical record system (Allscripts, Sunrise Enterprise). Patients were diagnosed with metabolic syndrome using criteria articulated in the joint interim statement for harmonizing the metabolic syndrome. Patients with a score ≥6 on the Apnea Risk Evaluation System (ARES) questionnaire were considered at risk for OSA. Obesity is defined by body mass index (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m 2 ). Of the 1,035 patients screened in the MetSO cohort, 48.9% were at high risk for OSA. Using multivariate-adjusted logistic regression analysis, we observed that obesity was the strongest predictor of OSA risk (OR=1.59, 95%CI=1.24-2.04, pmetabolic syndrome.

  20. Physical neglect in childhood as a predictor of violent behavior in adolescent males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuigan, William M; Luchette, Jack A; Atterholt, Roxanne

    2018-05-01

    Research has established that childhood maltreatment experiences are associated with negative outcomes in adolescence, including violent and antisocial behavior (Chapple et al., 2005). Neglect is the most prevalent form of childhood maltreatment (U.S. DHHS, 2012), the consequences of which require further investigation. This study used archival data to explore whether childhood physical neglect increased the likelihood of violent behavior in a random sample of 85 males between the ages of 12-19 held at a long-term detention facility in the Northeastern United States. An anonymous survey gathered background information and data regarding childhood physical neglect and violent behavior in adolescence. A step-wise hierarchal regression model controlled for the effects of age, self-esteem, personal competency, depression, chemical drug use, family violence and a childhood history of physical abuse. Results showed that a history of childhood physical neglect was the strongest predictor of violent adolescent behavior in this sample when the data was tested for all moderator and mediator effects. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Predictors of early growth in academic achievement: the head-toes-knees-shoulders task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClelland, Megan M; Cameron, Claire E; Duncan, Robert; Bowles, Ryan P; Acock, Alan C; Miao, Alicia; Pratt, Megan E

    2014-01-01

    Children's behavioral self-regulation and executive function (EF; including attentional or cognitive flexibility, working memory, and inhibitory control) are strong predictors of academic achievement. The present study examined the psychometric properties of a measure of behavioral self-regulation called the Head-Toes-Knees-Shoulders (HTKS) by assessing construct validity, including relations to EF measures, and predictive validity to academic achievement growth between prekindergarten and kindergarten. In the fall and spring of prekindergarten and kindergarten, 208 children (51% enrolled in Head Start) were assessed on the HTKS, measures of cognitive flexibility, working memory (WM), and inhibitory control, and measures of emergent literacy, mathematics, and vocabulary. For construct validity, the HTKS was significantly related to cognitive flexibility, working memory, and inhibitory control in prekindergarten and kindergarten. For predictive validity in prekindergarten, a random effects model indicated that the HTKS significantly predicted growth in mathematics, whereas a cognitive flexibility task significantly predicted growth in mathematics and vocabulary. In kindergarten, the HTKS was the only measure to significantly predict growth in all academic outcomes. An alternative conservative analytical approach, a fixed effects analysis (FEA) model, also indicated that growth in both the HTKS and measures of EF significantly predicted growth in mathematics over four time points between prekindergarten and kindergarten. Results demonstrate that the HTKS involves cognitive flexibility, working memory, and inhibitory control, and is substantively implicated in early achievement, with the strongest relations found for growth in achievement during kindergarten and associations with emergent mathematics.

  2. Child Modifiability as a Predictor of Language Abilities in Deaf Children Who Use American Sign Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Wolfgang; Peña, Elizabeth D; Morgan, Gary

    2015-08-01

    This research explored the use of dynamic assessment (DA) for language-learning abilities in signing deaf children from deaf and hearing families. Thirty-seven deaf children, aged 6 to 11 years, were identified as either stronger (n = 26) or weaker (n = 11) language learners according to teacher or speech-language pathologist report. All children received 2 scripted, mediated learning experience sessions targeting vocabulary knowledge—specifically, the use of semantic categories that were carried out in American Sign Language. Participant responses to learning were measured in terms of an index of child modifiability. This index was determined separately at the end of the 2 individual sessions. It combined ratings reflecting each child's learning abilities and responses to mediation, including social-emotional behavior, cognitive arousal, and cognitive elaboration. Group results showed that modifiability ratings were significantly better for stronger language learners than for weaker language learners. The strongest predictors of language ability were cognitive arousal and cognitive elaboration. Mediator ratings of child modifiability (i.e., combined score of social-emotional factors and cognitive factors) are highly sensitive to language-learning abilities in deaf children who use sign language as their primary mode of communication. This method can be used to design targeted interventions.

  3. Perceived usefulness and culture as predictors of teachers attitudes towards educational technology in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha Anne Hart

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The use of educational technology (ET worldwide is increasing rapidly, and South Africa is no exception. Grouped amongst the emerging economies of the world, South Africa's information and communication technology (ICT infrastructure is often mentioned as one of the key factors leading to the growth of the country. Integrating ICT into education has become a priority for the South African government. However, it is necessary to move beyond merely providing physical access to ICT's in order for integration to be successful. The integration of ET in schools is greatly influenced by teachers' attitudes towards the technology. The aim of this study was to investigate teachers' attitudes towards educational technology and the factors that are thought to influence teachers' attitudes, namely, perceived usefulness, perceived cultural relevance, perceived competence and access to ET. A convenience sample of 117 teachers in the Johannesburg area, from both public and private schools, across foundation, intermediate and senior phase, completed the Attitudes Towards Computer Scale. Teachers' attitudes were generally positive. The strongest predictor of teachers' attitudes was perceived usefulness followed by perceived cultural relevance. Thus, it is evident that when integrating ET into schools, attention must be paid to teachers perceptions of the utility of ET in order for integration to be successful. Having access to ET and the competence to use ET are not enough for the successful integration of ET in schools.

  4. Predictors of Early Growth in Academic Achievement: The Head-Toes-Knees-Shoulders Task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan M. McClelland

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Children’s behavioral self-regulation and executive function (EF; including attentional or cognitive flexibility, working memory, and inhibitory control are strong predictors of academic achievement. The present study examined the psychometric properties of a measure of behavioral self-regulation called the Head-Toes-Knees-Shoulders (HTKS by assessing construct validity, including relations to EF measures, and predictive validity to academic achievement growth between prekindergarten and kindergarten. In the fall and spring of prekindergarten and kindergarten, 208 children (51% enrolled in Head Start were assessed on the HTKS, measures of cognitive flexibility, working memory (WM, and inhibitory control, and measures of emergent literacy, mathematics, and vocabulary. For construct validity, the HTKS was significantly related to cognitive flexibility, working memory, and inhibitory control in prekindergarten and kindergarten. For predictive validity in prekindergarten, a random effects model indicated that the HTKS significantly predicted growth in mathematics, whereas a cognitive flexibility task significantly predicted growth in mathematics and vocabulary. In kindergarten, the HTKS was the only measure to significantly predict growth in all academic outcomes. An alternative conservative analytical approach, a fixed effects analysis (FEA model, also indicated that growth in both the HTKS and measures of EF significantly predicted growth in mathematics over four time points between prekindergarten and kindergarten. Results demonstrate that the HTKS involves cognitive flexibility, working memory, and inhibitory control, and is substantively implicated in early achievement, with the strongest relations found for growth in achievement during kindergarten and associations with emergent mathematics.

  5. Predictors of the Effectiveness of Management Accounting Function in Nigerian Firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oyewo Babajide

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the influence of six contingent variables – firm size, age, sector, existence of management accounting department, affiliation to foreign entity and public-quotation status – on the effectiveness of management accounting function in Nigerian firms. Stratified random sampling technique was deployed to obtain the views of 131 Finance Officers with oversight role across major sectors of the Nigerian economy. Statistical tools used in analysis were descriptive statistics, factor-analysis, Kruskal Wallis Test and binary logistic regression. Whilst detecting that contextual variables such as size, age, sector, existence of management accounting department and public-quotation status significantly affect the effectiveness of the management accounting function, affiliation to foreign entity was found not to exert significant influence. The strongest predictor of the likelihood of operating a very effective management accounting function was the existence of management accounting department. Organisations are encouraged to have separate management accounting department because of additional benefits imbued by specialist management accounting skills.

  6. Prevalence and predictors of help-seeking for women exposed to spousal violence in India - a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonardsson, Malin; San Sebastian, Miguel

    2017-11-03

    Spousal violence against women is prevalent in India (29%). Studies from various countries have shown that few women exposed to intimate partner violence or spousal violence seek help, especially in low-income countries. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence and predictors of help-seeking among women in India who have experienced various types of spousal violence. Cross-sectional data on 19,125 married, separated, divorced or widowed women in India who had experienced physical or sexual violence at the hands of their husbands were obtained from the India National Family Health Survey III 2005-2006. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were carried out. Less than one fourth (23.7%) of married, separated, divorced or widowed women in India who had experienced some form of physical or sexual spousal violence had sought help, but only 1% had sought help from formal institutions. Help-seeking was most prevalent in women who had been exposed to a combination of physical, sexual and emotional abuse (48.8%) and the least prevalent in women who had experienced sexual violence only (1.5%). Experience of severe violence and violence resulting in injury were the strongest predictors of help-seeking. Having education, being Christian or an acknowledged adherent of another minority religion - mainly Buddhism and Sikhism (Islam not included), getting married after the age of 21 and living in the South region were also associated with seeking help. Women in the North and Northeast regions were less likely to seek help, as were women with children and women who thought that a husband could be justified in hitting his wife. Very few Indian women who experience spousal violence seek help. The characteristics of the violence are the strongest predictors of help-seeking, but sociodemographic factors are also influential. We recommend efforts to ensure educational attainment for girls, prevention of child marriages, and that police officers and

  7. Different predictors of right and left ventricular metabolism in healthy middle-aged men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marja eHeiskanen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Dysfunction of the right ventricle (RV plays a crucial role in the outcome of various cardiovascular diseases. Previous studies on RV metabolism are sparse although evidence implies it may differ from left ventricular (LV metabolism. Therefore, the aims of this study were 1 to determine predictors of RV glucose uptake (GU and free fatty acid uptake (FFAU and 2 to compare them to predictors of LV metabolism in healthy middle-aged men. Altogether 28 healthy, sedentary, middle-aged (40-55 years men were studied. Insulin-stimulated GU and fasting FFAU were measured by positron emission tomography and RV and LV structural and functional parameters by cardiac magnetic resonance. Several parameters related to whole-body health were also measured. Predictors of RV and LV metabolism were determined by pairwise correlation analysis, lasso regression models, and variable clustering using heatmap. RVGU was most strongly predicted by age and moderately by RV ejection fraction (EF. The strongest determinants of RVFFAU were exercise capacity (peak oxygen uptake, resting heart rate, LVEF, and whole-body insulin-stimulated glucose uptake rate. When considering LV metabolism, age and RVEF were associated also with LVGU. In addition, LVGU was strongly, and negatively, influenced by whole-body insulin-stimulated glucose uptake rate. LVFFAU was predicted only by LVEF. This study shows that while RV and LV metabolism have shared characteristics, they also have unique properties. Age of the subject should be taken into account when measuring myocardial glucose utilization. Ejection fraction is related to myocardial metabolism, and even so that RVEF may be more closely related to GU of both ventricles and LVEF to FFAU of both ventricles, a finding supporting the ventricular interdependence. However, only RV fatty acid utilization associates with exercise capacity so that better physical fitness in a relatively sedentary population is related with decreased RV fat

  8. Predictors of condom use and refusal among the population of Free State province in South Africa

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    Chandran Thoovakkunon

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study investigated the extent and predictors of condom use and condom refusal in the Free State province in South Africa. Methods Through a household survey conducted in the Free Sate province of South Africa, 5,837 adults were interviewed. Univariate and multivariate survey logistic regressions and classification trees (CT were used for analysing two response variables ‘ever used condom’ and ‘ever refused condom’. Results Eighty-three per cent of the respondents had ever used condoms, of which 38% always used them; 61% used them during the last sexual intercourse and 9% had ever refused to use them. The univariate logistic regression models and CT analysis indicated that a strong predictor of condom use was its perceived need. In the CT analysis, this variable was followed in importance by ‘knowledge of correct use of condom’, condom availability, young age, being single and higher education. ‘Perceived need’ for condoms did not remain significant in the multivariate analysis after controlling for other variables. The strongest predictor of condom refusal, as shown by the CT, was shame associated with condoms followed by the presence of sexual risk behaviour, knowing one’s HIV status, older age and lacking knowledge of condoms (i.e., ability to prevent sexually transmitted diseases and pregnancy, availability, correct and consistent use and existence of female condoms. In the multivariate logistic regression, age was not significant for condom refusal while affordability and perceived need were additional significant variables. Conclusions The use of complementary modelling techniques such as CT in addition to logistic regressions adds to a better understanding of condom use and refusal. Further improvement in correct and consistent use of condoms will require targeted interventions. In addition to existing social marketing campaigns, tailored approaches should focus on establishing the perceived need

  9. Longitudinal Predictors of Child Sexual Abuse in a Large Community-Based Sample of South African Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinck, Franziska; Cluver, Lucie Dale; Boyes, Mark Edward

    2015-07-29

    Sexual abuse has severe negative impacts on children's lives, but little is known about risk factors for sexual abuse victimization in sub-Saharan Africa. This study examined prospective predictors of contact sexual abuse in a random community-based sample of children aged 10 to 17 years (N = 3,515, 56.6% female) in South Africa. Self-report questionnaires using validated scales were completed at baseline and at 1-year follow-up (96.8% retention rate). Cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between hypothesized factors and sexual abuse were examined. For girls, previous sexual abuse (odds ratio [OR] = 3.44, 95% confidence interval [CI] = [2.03, 5.60]), baseline school dropout (OR = 2.76, 95% CI = [1.00, 6.19]), and physical assault in the community (OR = 2.17, 95% CI = [1.29, 3.48]) predicted sexual abuse at follow-up. Peer social support (OR = 0.84, 95% CI = [0.74, 0.98]) acted as a protective factor. Previous contact sexual abuse was the strongest predictor of subsequent sexual abuse victimization. In addition, peer support moderated the relationship between baseline assault and subsequent sexual abuse. For boys, no longitudinal predictors for sexual abuse victimization were identified. These results indicate that the most vulnerable girls-those not in school and with a history of victimization-are at higher risk for sexual abuse victimization. High levels of peer support reduced the risk of sexual abuse victimization and acted as a moderator for those who had experienced physical assault within the community. Interventions to reduce school drop-out rates and revictimization may help prevent contact sexual abuse of girls in South Africa. © The Author(s) 2015.

  10. Clinical and sociodemographic predictors of oral pain and eating problems among adult and senior Spaniards in the national survey performed in 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero, Javier; Bravo, Manuel; López-Valverde, Antonio; Llodra, Juan-Carlos

    2015-07-01

    Pain and chewing difficulties have been identified as the strongest predictors of oral disadvantage. The aim of this study is to analyze and quantify the sociodemographic, behavioural and clinical factors modulating the oral pain and eating difficulties reported by Spanish adults and elderly Spanish people in the last National Oral Health Survey performed in 2010. Data concerning pain and chewing difficulties were acquired on a Likert‑scale format from a representative sample of the Spanish general population with ages between 35-44 years (n=391) and 65‑74 years (n=405). Risk factors were identified using bivariate analysis, after which the crude association between risk factors (sociodemographic, behavioural and clinical) and outcome variables (pain and eating problems) was assessed by adjusted odds ratios, calculated by means of multivariate logistic regression. Eating problems and oral pain were mainly associated with prosthetic and caries treatment needs as clinical predictors, but female sex was also seen to be a relevant and significant risk factor for suffering pain and eating restrictions. Paradoxically, after taking into account all the aforementioned predictors, the adults had an almost two‑fold higher risk of reporting pain or eating difficulties than the elderly subjects. In agreement with the results from the last national oral health survey, prosthetic and caries treatment needs should be considered key factors in determining the oral well‑being of the Spanish population. In sociodemographic terms, the women and adults were seen to be at a significantly higher risk of suffering pain and eating restrictions.

  11. Predictors of teachers' intention to refer students with ADHD to mental health professionals: comparison of U.S. and South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ji-yeon

    2014-12-01

    A teacher's intention to refer students to mental health professionals is important to the early identification of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and prevention of further problems. The theory of planned behavior (TPB) was used to determine the strongest belief-related predictors of a teacher's intentions to refer students with ADHD symptoms to a mental health professional in the U.S. and South Korea. Perceived stigma and knowledge of ADHD were additional predictors in examining the role of culture in a teacher's perceptions of the public's stigma toward ADHD and a teachers' knowledge of ADHD. Cross-cultural differences exist. U.S. teachers' (n = 235) intentions to refer were predicted by all TPB variables (i.e., attitudes about referral, beliefs about whether important others would approve of making a referral, and perceived behavioral control in making a referral). However, among South Korean teachers (n = 144), behavioral control and perceived stigma were the only predictors. The results imply the importance of considering the cultural context in understanding a teacher's referral behaviors. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  12. Meta-Analyses of Predictors of Hope in Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarcheski, Adela; Mahon, Noreen E

    2016-03-01

    The purposes of this study were to identify predictors of hope in the literature reviewed, to use meta-analysis to determine the mean effect size (ES) across studies between each predictor and hope, and to examine four moderators on each predictor-hope relationship. Using preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA) guidelines for the literature reviewed, 77 published studies or doctoral dissertations completed between 1990 and 2012 met the inclusion criteria. Eleven predictors of hope were identified and each predictor in relation to hope was subjected to meta-analysis. Five predictors (positive affect, life satisfaction, optimism, self-esteem, and social support) of hope had large mean ESs, 1 predictor (depression) had a medium ES, 4 predictors (negative affect, stress, academic achievement, and violence) had small ESs, and 1 predictor (gender) had a trivial ES. Findings are interpreted for the 11 predictors in relation to hope. Limitations and conclusions are addressed; future studies are recommended. © The Author(s) 2014.

  13. Systematic review of kidney transplantation functional predictors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miret Alomar, E; Trilla Herrera, E; Lorente Garcia, D; Regis Placido, L; López Del Campo, R; Cuadras Solé, M; Pont Castellana, T; Moreso Mateos, F; Serón Micas, D; Morote Robles, J

    2017-08-10

    Kidney transplantation from donors with expanded criteria has increased the pool of kidneys at the cost of a higher risk of short and long-term graft dysfunction. The main issue lies in determining which kidneys will offer acceptable function and survival compared with the risk represented by surgery and subsequent immunosuppression. The objective of our article is to review the current evidence on the tools for predicting the functionality of kidney transplantation from cadaveric donors with expanded criteria and determining the validity for their use in standard practice. We conducted a systematic literature review according to the PRISM criteria, through Medline (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov) and using the keywords (in isolation or in conjunction) "cadaveric renal transplantation; kidney graft function appraisal, graft function predictors". We selected prospective and retrospective series and review articles. A total of 375 articles were analysed, 39 of which were ultimately selected for review. The predictors of functionality include the following: The donor risk indices; the calculation of the renal functional weight or the assessment of the nephronic mass; the measurement of vascular resistances during perfusion in hypothermia; the measurement of the donor's biomarkers in urine and in the perfusion liquid; the measurement of functional and reperfusion parameters in normothermia; and the measurement of morphological parameters (microscopic and macroscopic) of the target organ. In this article, we present an explanatory summary of each of these parameters, as well as their most recent evidence on this issue. None of the reviewed parameters in isolation could reliably predict renal function and graft survival. There is a significant void in terms of the macroscopic assessment of kidney transplantation. We need to continue developing predictors of renal functionality to accurately define the distribution of each currently available donor kidney. Copyright © 2017

  14. Predictors of Readmission after Inpatient Plastic Surgery

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    Umang Jain

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Understanding risk factors that increase readmission rates may help enhance patient education and set system-wide expectations. We aimed to provide benchmark data on causes and predictors of readmission following inpatient plastic surgery. Methods The 2011 National Surgical Quality Improvement Program dataset was reviewed for patients with both "Plastics" as their recorded surgical specialty and inpatient status. Readmission was tracked through the "Unplanned Readmission" variable. Patient characteristics and outcomes were compared using chi-squared analysis and Student's t-tests for categorical and continuous variables, respectively. Multivariate regression analysis was used for identifying predictors of readmission. Results A total of 3,671 inpatient plastic surgery patients were included. The unplanned readmission rate was 7.11%. Multivariate regression analysis revealed a history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD (odds ratio [OR], 2.01; confidence interval [CI], 1.12-3.60; P=0.020, previous percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI (OR, 2.69; CI, 1.21-5.97; P=0.015, hypertension requiring medication (OR, 1.65; CI, 1.22-2.24; P<0.001, bleeding disorders (OR, 1.70; CI, 1.01-2.87; P=0.046, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA class 3 or 4 (OR, 1.57; CI, 1.15-2.15; P=0.004, and obesity (body mass index ≥30 (OR, 1.43; CI, 1.09-1.88, P=0.011 to be significant predictors of readmission. Conclusions Inpatient plastic surgery has an associated 7.11% unplanned readmission rate. History of COPD, previous PCI, hypertension, ASA class 3 or 4, bleeding disorders, and obesity all proved to be significant risk factors for readmission. These findings will help to benchmark inpatient readmission rates and manage patient and hospital system expectations.

  15. Clinical Predictors of Resistance to Antidepressant Therapy

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    Nargiza F. Yadgarova

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to identify the predictors of treatment-resistant depression (TRD with positive affectivity. The article presents the results of the examination of 96 patients with TRD. The studied patients were divided into two groups: in the first group consisted of patients with TRD having positive affectivity (n=59, in the second group consisted of patients with curable depression (n=37. The study had shown the highest correlation value of such factors as frequency of depressive episodes, duration and severity of the first depressive episode, the quality of remission after the first depressive episode.

  16. Predictors of Airway Hyperresponsiveness in Elite Athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toennesen, Louise L; Porsbjerg, Celeste; Pedersen, Lars

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Elite athletes frequently experience asthma and airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR). We aimed to investigate predictors of airway pathophysiology in a group of unselected elite summer-sport athletes, training for the summer 2008 Olympic Games, including markers of airway inflammation......, systemic inflammation, and training intensity. METHODS: Fifty-seven Danish elite summer-sport athletes with and without asthma symptoms all gave a blood sample for measurements of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-8 (IL-8), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF...

  17. Predictor combination in binary decision-making situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, Robert E

    2008-09-01

    Professional psychologists are often confronted with the task of making binary decisions about individuals, such as predictions about future behavior or employee selection. Test users familiar with linear models and Bayes's theorem are likely to assume that the accuracy of decisions is consistently improved by combination of outcomes across valid predictors. However, neither statistical method accurately estimates the increment in accuracy that results from use of additional predictors in the typical applied setting. It was demonstrated that the best single predictor often can perform better than do multiple predictors when the predictors are combined using methods common in applied settings. This conclusion is consistent with previous findings concerning G. Gigerenzer and D. Goldstein's (1996) "take the best" heuristic. Furthermore, the information needed to ensure an increment in fit over the best single predictor is rarely available. (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved.

  18. Predictors for oral cancer in Brazil

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    Isabella Lima Arrais RIBEIRO

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The incidence of lip, oral cavity and oropharynx cancer in Brazil is one of the highest worldwide. Objective This study aimed to identify predictors for oral cancer in Brazil between 2010 and 2013. Method Through a time series study in which 14,959 primary head and neck cancer diagnoses were evaluated. The variables of interest were gender, age, race, education level, family history of cancer, alcohol consumption, smoking, and previous cancer diagnosis. The outcome variable was divided into “oral cancer” and “cancer of other head and neck regions.” The data were analysed by multiple binary logistic regression; α=5%. Result The protective factor was: approximately 12 years of education (OR = 0.85. The risk factors were: being an ex-consumer (OR=1.19 or consumer (OR=1.11 of alcohol, tobacco use (OR=1.35 and a prior diagnosis of cancer that went untreated (OR=1.21. Conclusion Was concluded that the oral cancer had the following predictors compared to other types of head and neck cancer during the same period: approximately 12 years of education (protective factor and ex-consumer or consumer of alcohol, smoking and previous diagnosis of cancer that went untreated (risk factors.

  19. Predictors of tonic immobility during traumatic events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Bados

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Tonic immobility (TI is a possible reaction to danger that is facilitated by intense fear, physical restraint and perceived inability to escape. Other variables that could affect TI, such as the type and characteristics of traumatic events and personal characteristics have been little or no studied. The present study evaluated the power of these variables to predict TI in a sample of 273 college students who had experienced at least one traumatic event. Of the sample, 7.7% and 13.2% responded with TI according to the two stricter definitions adopted. Most of the variables were significantly associated with TI in univariate analyses. However, in a multiple regression analysis, only certain features of the events (occurrence of physical/sexual abuse, number of different types of events experienced and certain reactions to them (perception of how traumatic were the events, severe fear response were significant predictors of TI. Since these predictors explained only 25% of the variance, the influence of other variables -such as neuroticism, negative affectivity and perceived lack of personal control or resources to cope with traumatic events- should be investigated.

  20. Predictors of Readmission after Inpatient Plastic Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Umang; Salgado, Christopher; Mioton, Lauren; Rambachan, Aksharananda

    2014-01-01

    Background Understanding risk factors that increase readmission rates may help enhance patient education and set system-wide expectations. We aimed to provide benchmark data on causes and predictors of readmission following inpatient plastic surgery. Methods The 2011 National Surgical Quality Improvement Program dataset was reviewed for patients with both "Plastics" as their recorded surgical specialty and inpatient status. Readmission was tracked through the "Unplanned Readmission" variable. Patient characteristics and outcomes were compared using chi-squared analysis and Student's t-tests for categorical and continuous variables, respectively. Multivariate regression analysis was used for identifying predictors of readmission. Results A total of 3,671 inpatient plastic surgery patients were included. The unplanned readmission rate was 7.11%. Multivariate regression analysis revealed a history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (odds ratio [OR], 2.01; confidence interval [CI], 1.12-3.60; P=0.020), previous percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) (OR, 2.69; CI, 1.21-5.97; P=0.015), hypertension requiring medication (OR, 1.65; CI, 1.22-2.24; Pplastic surgery has an associated 7.11% unplanned readmission rate. History of COPD, previous PCI, hypertension, ASA class 3 or 4, bleeding disorders, and obesity all proved to be significant risk factors for readmission. These findings will help to benchmark inpatient readmission rates and manage patient and hospital system expectations. PMID:24665418

  1. Morphometric Predictors of Morbidity after Pancreatectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaap, Kathryn; Hunsinger, Marie; Dove, James; McGinty, Katrina; Stefanowicz, Edward; Fera, Jillian; Wild, Jeffrey; Shabahang, Mohsen; Blansfield, Joseph

    2016-12-01

    Pancreatic surgery has historically been associated with high morbidity and mortality. One model that could predict outcomes is the assessment of preoperative morphometrics. The objective of this study was to compare different clinical and morphometric features of patients undergoing pancreatectomy to predict morbidity. This is a retrospective chart review of patients undergoing pancreatectomy from December 2004 to October 2013. Morphometric parameters on preoperative CT scans were measured and patients were grouped to examine their association with postoperative morbidity. A total of 180 patients were included in this study (90 males and 90 females). At the time of diagnosis, patients had an average age of 66.7 years (range = 24-90), and median body mass index of 27.4 kg/m2 (range = 16-58 kg/m2). Sixty-one patients (33.9%) experienced surgical complications. Of the individual morphometric variables examined, sarcopenia was the best predictor of length of stay and surgical complications. On multivariate analysis, there was a strong statistically significant correlation of sarcopenia with surgical complications (odds ratio = 3.524, P = 0.0049). No other morphometric variables predicted morbidity. Sarcopenia is a useful predictor for postoperative morbidity after pancreatectomy. The results of this study suggest that noninvasive preoperative testing can be used to quantify postoperative complications after pancreatic surgery.

  2. Predictors of Mortality in Staphylococcus aureus Bacteremia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Slade O.; Vaska, Vikram L.; Espedido, Björn A.; Paterson, David L.; Gosbell, Iain B.

    2012-01-01

    Summary: Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia (SAB) is an important infection with an incidence rate ranging from 20 to 50 cases/100,000 population per year. Between 10% and 30% of these patients will die from SAB. Comparatively, this accounts for a greater number of deaths than for AIDS, tuberculosis, and viral hepatitis combined. Multiple factors influence outcomes for SAB patients. The most consistent predictor of mortality is age, with older patients being twice as likely to die. Except for the presence of comorbidities, the impacts of other host factors, including gender, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and immune status, are unclear. Pathogen-host interactions, especially the presence of shock and the source of SAB, are strong predictors of outcomes. Although antibiotic resistance may be associated with increased mortality, questions remain as to whether this reflects pathogen-specific factors or poorer responses to antibiotic therapy, namely, vancomycin. Optimal management relies on starting appropriate antibiotics in a timely fashion, resulting in improved outcomes for certain patient subgroups. The roles of surgery and infectious disease consultations require further study. Although the rate of mortality from SAB is declining, it remains high. Future international collaborative studies are required to tease out the relative contributions of various factors to mortality, which would enable the optimization of SAB management and patient outcomes. PMID:22491776

  3. Predictors of empathy in health science students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Ted; Boyle, Malcolm; Williams, Brett; Molloy, Andrew; Palermo, Claire; McKenna, Lisa; Molloy, Liz

    2011-01-01

    The significance of both empathy and effective communication as key components in the provision of health care services is widely acknowledged. It is important, therefore, to promote those communication styles which facilitate an empathetic understanding among health science students. To explores whether listening and communication styles are predictive of empathy among health science students. A cross-sectional study of 860 undergraduate health science students (response rate, 59%) using paper-based versions of the Jefferson Scale of Physician Empathy-Health Professional Version, Listening Styles Profile, Communicator Styles Measure, and a brief demographic questionnaire. Two stepwise linear regression analyses were completed using the empathy construct as the dependent/criterion variable and listening and communication styles as the two sets of independent/predictor variables. As there was a statistically significant difference in empathy between males and females, gender was controlled for in both regression models. In first model, the People and Time listening styles were found to be predictive of empathy, accounting for 20.3% of the total variance. In the second model, both the Friendly and Relaxed communication styles were predictive of empathy, accounting for 9.7% of the total variance. The findings indicate that People and Time listening styles and the Friendly and Relaxed communication styles were significant predictors of empathy in health science students. The findings suggest that promoting effective communication among health science students may improve their ability to empathize.

  4. [Longitudinal Predictors of the Need for Care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajek, A; Brettschneider, C; Ernst, A; Posselt, T; Mamone, S; Wiese, B; Weyerer, S; Werle, J; Pentzek, M; Fuchs, A; Stein, J; Luck, T; Bickel, H; Mösch, E; Kleineidam, L; Heser, K; Maier, W; Scherer, M; Riedel-Heller, S G; König, H-H

    2017-02-01

    Background: Little is known about the longitudinal predictors of the need for care in old age. However, the knowledge of these factors is important for developing strategies for prevention or delay the need for care. Thus, we aimed at investigating the factors affecting the need for care in old age. Methods: In this population-based prospective cohort study (AgeCoDe, with n=3 217 individuals aged 75 years and above at baseline), the need for care was observed over 4.5 years. The need for care was quantified by the care level defined by the German Law (§ 15 SGB XI). Longitudinal predictors (sociodemographic variables, impairment in mobility/hearing/vision, dementia and depression) of the need for care were examined by using Random Effects Logit regressions. Results: Longitudinal regression analysis revealed that the probability of the need for care significantly increased with the occurrence of dementia (OR: 48.2), mobility impairments (aggravated walking, OR: 26.4; disability of walking, OR: 747.9) and age (e. g. 90 years and above vs.impairment and depression on need for care was markedly smaller, and the effect of hearing impairments did not achieve statistical significance. Conclusion: In order to prevent or delay the need for care in old age, treatments should aim at preserving mobility and cognition. Due to demographic ageing, developing such programs is of major importance for health policy. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  5. Longitudinal Predictors of Institutionalization in Old Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajek, André; Brettschneider, Christian; Lange, Carolin; Posselt, Tina; Wiese, Birgitt; Steinmann, Susanne; Weyerer, Siegfried; Werle, Jochen; Pentzek, Michael; Fuchs, Angela; Stein, Janine; Luck, Tobias; Bickel, Horst; Mösch, Edelgard; Wagner, Michael; Jessen, Frank; Maier, Wolfgang; Scherer, Martin; Riedel-Heller, Steffi G; König, Hans-Helmut

    2015-01-01

    To investigate time-dependent predictors of institutionalization in old age using a longitudinal approach. In a representative survey of the German general population aged 75 years and older predictors of institutionalization were observed every 1.5 years over six waves. Conditional fixed-effects logistic regressions (with 201 individuals and 960 observations) were performed to estimate the effects of marital status, depression, dementia, and physical impairments (mobility, hearing and visual impairments) on the risk of admission to old-age home or nursing home. By exploiting the longitudinal data structure using panel econometric models, we were able to control for unobserved heterogeneity such as genetic predisposition and personality traits. The probability of institutionalization increased significantly with occurrence of widowhood, depression, dementia, as well as walking and hearing impairments. In particular, the occurrence of widowhood (OR = 78.3), dementia (OR = 154.1) and substantial mobility impairment (OR = 36.7) were strongly associated with institutionalization. Findings underline the strong influence of loss of spouse as well as dementia on institutionalization. This is relevant as the number of old people (a) living alone and (b) suffering from dementia is expected to increase rapidly in the next decades. Consequently, it is supposed that the demand for institutionalization among the elderly will increase considerably. Practitioners as well as policy makers should be aware of these upcoming challenges.

  6. Longitudinal Predictors of Institutionalization in Old Age.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Hajek

    Full Text Available To investigate time-dependent predictors of institutionalization in old age using a longitudinal approach.In a representative survey of the German general population aged 75 years and older predictors of institutionalization were observed every 1.5 years over six waves. Conditional fixed-effects logistic regressions (with 201 individuals and 960 observations were performed to estimate the effects of marital status, depression, dementia, and physical impairments (mobility, hearing and visual impairments on the risk of admission to old-age home or nursing home. By exploiting the longitudinal data structure using panel econometric models, we were able to control for unobserved heterogeneity such as genetic predisposition and personality traits.The probability of institutionalization increased significantly with occurrence of widowhood, depression, dementia, as well as walking and hearing impairments. In particular, the occurrence of widowhood (OR = 78.3, dementia (OR = 154.1 and substantial mobility impairment (OR = 36.7 were strongly associated with institutionalization.Findings underline the strong influence of loss of spouse as well as dementia on institutionalization. This is relevant as the number of old people (a living alone and (b suffering from dementia is expected to increase rapidly in the next decades. Consequently, it is supposed that the demand for institutionalization among the elderly will increase considerably. Practitioners as well as policy makers should be aware of these upcoming challenges.

  7. Childhood cardiovascular risk factors, a predictor of late adolescent overweight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Kalantari

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Increased CVD risk factors are predictors of future overweight in childhood and adolescent and increased weight is linked significantly with dyslipidemia and hypertension in this age group.

  8. Predictors of Metastatic Disease After Prostate Brachytherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forsythe, Kevin [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States); Burri, Ryan [Department of Radiation Oncology, New York-Presbyterian Hospital, New York, NY (United States); Stone, Nelson [Department of Urology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States); Stock, Richard G., E-mail: richard.stock@moutsinai.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States)

    2012-06-01

    Purpose: To identify predictors of metastatic disease after brachytherapy treatment for prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: All patients who received either brachytherapy alone (implant) or brachytherapy in combination with external beam radiation therapy for treatment of localized prostate cancer at The Mount Sinai Hospital between June 1990 and March 2007 with a minimum follow-up of 2 years were included. Univariate and multivariable analyses were performed on the following variables: risk group, Gleason score (GS), clinical T stage, pretreatment prostate-specific antigen level, post-treatment prostate-specific antigen doubling time (PSA-DT), treatment type (implant vs. implant plus external beam radiation therapy), treatment era, total biological effective dose, use of androgen deprivation therapy, age at diagnosis, and race. PSA-DT was analyzed in the following ordinate groups: 0 to 90 days, 91 to 180 days, 180 to 360 days, and greater than 360 days. Results: We included 1,887 patients in this study. Metastases developed in 47 of these patients. The 10-year freedom from distant metastasis (FFDM) rate for the entire population was 95.1%. Median follow-up was 6 years (range, 2-15 years). The only two significant predictors of metastatic disease by multivariable analyses were GS and PSA-DT (p < 0.001 for both variables). Estimated 10-year FFDM rates for GS of 6 or less, GS of 7, and GS of 8 or greater were 97.9%, 94.3%, and 76.1%, respectively (p < 0.001). Estimated FFDM rates for PSA-DT of 0 to 90 days, 91 to 180 days, 181 to 360 days, and greater than 360 days were 17.5%, 67.9%, 74%, and 94.8%, respectively (p < 0.001). Estimated 10-year FFDM rates for the low-, intermediate-, and high-risk groups were 98.6%, 96.2%, and 86.7%, respectively. A demographic shift to patients presenting with higher-grade disease in more recent years was observed. Conclusions: GS and post-treatment PSA-DT are both statistically significant independent predictors of metastatic

  9. Gender differences in predictors of self-rated health in Armenia: a population-based study of an economy in transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirchyan, Anahit; Petrosyan, Varduhi; Thompson, Michael E

    2012-11-14

    Self-rated health is a widely used health outcome measure that strongly correlates with physical and mental health status and predicts mortality. This study identified the set of predictors of fair/poor self-rated health in adult female and male populations of Armenia during a period of long-lasting socio-economic transition to a market economy. Differences in self-rated health were analyzed along three dimensions: socioeconomic, behavioral/attitudinal, and psychosocial. The study utilized data from a 2006 nationwide household health survey that used a multi-stage probability proportional to size cluster sampling with a combination of interviewer-administered and self-administered surveys. Both female and male representatives of a household aged 18 and over completed the self-administered survey. Multivariate odds ratios (OR) for fair/poor self-rated health were calculated for different sets of variables and logistic regression models fitted separately for women and men to identify the determinants of fair/poor self-rated health. Overall, 2310 women and 462 men participated in the survey. The rate of fair/poor self-rated health was 61.8% among women and 59.7% among men. For women, the set of independent predictors of fair/poor self-rated health included age, unemployment, poverty, low affordability of healthcare, depression, and weak social support. For men, the set included age, lower education, depression, weak social support, and drinking alcohol less than once a week. For both genders, depression and weak social support demonstrated the strongest independent association with fair/poor self-rated health. The prevalence of fair/poor self-rated health was similar among men and women in this study, but the sets of independent predictors of perceived health differed somewhat, possibly, reflecting lifestyle differences between men and women in Armenia. Nevertheless, psychosocial variables were the strongest predictors of fair/poor self-rated health for both genders

  10. Gender differences in predictors of self-rated health in Armenia: a population-based study of an economy in transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demirchyan Anahit

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Self-rated health is a widely used health outcome measure that strongly correlates with physical and mental health status and predicts mortality. This study identified the set of predictors of fair/poor self-rated health in adult female and male populations of Armenia during a period of long-lasting socio-economic transition to a market economy. Methods Differences in self-rated health were analyzed along three dimensions: socioeconomic, behavioral/attitudinal, and psychosocial. The study utilized data from a 2006 nationwide household health survey that used a multi-stage probability proportional to size cluster sampling with a combination of interviewer-administered and self-administered surveys. Both female and male representatives of a household aged 18 and over completed the self-administered survey. Multivariate odds ratios (OR for fair/poor self-rated health were calculated for different sets of variables and logistic regression models fitted separately for women and men to identify the determinants of fair/poor self-rated health. Results Overall, 2310 women and 462 men participated in the survey. The rate of fair/poor self-rated health was 61.8% among women and 59.7% among men. For women, the set of independent predictors of fair/poor self-rated health included age, unemployment, poverty, low affordability of healthcare, depression, and weak social support. For men, the set included age, lower education, depression, weak social support, and drinking alcohol less than once a week. For both genders, depression and weak social support demonstrated the strongest independent association with fair/poor self-rated health. Conclusions The prevalence of fair/poor self-rated health was similar among men and women in this study, but the sets of independent predictors of perceived health differed somewhat, possibly, reflecting lifestyle differences between men and women in Armenia. Nevertheless, psychosocial variables were the

  11. Predictors of undiagnosed prevalent type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heltberg, Andreas Søndergaard; Andersen, John Sahl; Sandholdt, Håkon

    2018-01-01

    AIMS: To investigate how self-reported risk factors (including socioeconomic status) predict undiagnosed, prevalent type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). To externally validate Leicester Risk Assessment Score (LRAS), Finnish Diabetes Risk Score (FINDRISC) and Danish Diabetes Risk Score (DDRS...... prediction models reporting ROC-curves for undiagnosed T2DM, pre-diabetes and SCORE. RESULTS: More than 20% of people with T2DM were undiagnosed. The 7 most important self-rated predictors in sequential order were high BMI, antihypertensive-therapy, age, cardiovascular disease, waist-circumference, fitness...... are important risk factors for undiagnosed T2DM. LRAS performed better than DDRS and FINDRISC in prediction of undiagnosed T2DM and SCORE≥5%. SCORE performed best in predicting pre-diabetes. Copyright © 2017 Primary Care Diabetes Europe. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserve...

  12. Sports concussion: management and predictors of outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Cara Camiolo; Collins, Michael W

    2009-01-01

    Interest in sports concussion has grown widely in the last two decades among laypersons and medical professionals. Significant contributions of evidence-based research have led to a better understanding of this multifaceted, but still often elusive, injury. This information has transformed all aspects of concussion management, from on-field evaluation through return-to-play guidelines. The aim of this article is to highlight important research regarding predictors of outcome and treatment protocols. This research has been the basis of the paradigm shift from traditional concussion grading scales to individualized care. Today, concussion management requires a patient-centered approach with individualized assessment, including risk factor analysis, neurocognitive testing, and a thorough symptom evaluation.

  13. Psychological predictors of problem mobile phone use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Adriana; Phillips, James G

    2005-02-01

    Mobile phone use is banned or illegal under certain circumstances and in some jurisdictions. Nevertheless, some people still use their mobile phones despite recognized safety concerns, legislation, and informal bans. Drawing potential predictors from the addiction literature, this study sought to predict usage and, specifically, problematic mobile phone use from extraversion, self-esteem, neuroticism, gender, and age. To measure problem use, the Mobile Phone Problem Use Scale was devised and validated as a reliable self-report instrument, against the Addiction Potential Scale and overall mobile phone usage levels. Problem use was a function of age, extraversion, and low self-esteem, but not neuroticism. As extraverts are more likely to take risks, and young drivers feature prominently in automobile accidents, this study supports community concerns about mobile phone use, and identifies groups that should be targeted in any intervention campaigns.

  14. Predictors of Resourcefulness in Preadolescent Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ya-Fen; Zauszniewski, Jaclene A

    2017-03-01

    Resourcefulness is a set of cognitive-behavioral self-control skills for coping with stress to maintain quality of life. However, research examining precursors in the development of resourcefulness in preadolescents is scant. A cross-sectional approach was used to investigate hypothesized predicting effects of intrinsic contextual factors (children's age, gender, and school performance), extrinsic contextual factors (parents' age, gender, education, income, and resourcefulness), and process regulators (academic stress and dispositional optimism) in a convenience sample of 361 preadolescent-parent dyads. Results show that preadolescents' process regulators, academic stress, and dispositional optimism were significant predictors of resourcefulness. The findings suggest that preadolescents' resourcefulness was greatly influenced by process regulators, which are cognitive perceptions intervening the use of resourcefulness. Further research with various study designs is needed to examine additional factors that may influence resourcefulness in large and more diverse child-parent samples.

  15. Predictors of media multitasking in Chinese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaohui; Zhu, Liqi

    2016-12-01

    We examined predictors of media multitasking in Chinese adolescents from 3 contexts: characteristics of the media user, types of media use and family media contexts. Three hundred and twenty adolescents, 11-18 years of age, completed questionnaires to measure media use, impulsivity, sensation seeking, time management disposition and family media environment. The results showed that media multitasking was positively correlated with age and total media use time. Participants with high levels of impulsivity and sensation seeking reported more multitasking behaviour. Multitasking was negatively correlated with time management. Children from media-oriented families often engage in more multitasking. What's more, social networking sites use and music use can mediate the effect of individual and family factors on media multitasking. © 2015 International Union of Psychological Science.

  16. Infant SES as a predictor of personality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flensborg-Madsen, Trine; Mortensen, Erik Lykke

    2014-01-01

    revealed no direct effect of infant SES on any of the adult personality traits, but only indirect effects mediated by intelligence and years of education, with intelligence being the main mediating factor. CONCLUSION: Only weak associations were observed between infant SES and personality in young...... adulthood, and the observed associations were mediated by adult intelligence and educational level. Thus, factors associated with infant SES or family background appears to have weak direct effects on personality development.......BACKGROUND: Although research into the continuity and change of personality traits during a lifespan has been fairly extensive, little research has been conducted on childhood predictors of adult personality. PURPOSE: We aimed to investigate the association between infant socioeconomic status (SES...

  17. Predictors of excellent response to lithium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, Lars Vedel; Hellmund, Gunnar; Andersen, Per Kragh

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify sociodemographic and clinical predictors of excellent response, that is, 'cure' of future affective episodes, to lithium in monotherapy. We used nationwide registers to identify all patients with a diagnosis of bipolar disorder in psychiatric hospital settings...... who were prescribed lithium from 1995 to 2006 in Denmark (N=3762). Excellent lithium responders were defined as patients who after a stabilization lithium start-up period of 6 months, continued lithium in monotherapy without getting hospitalized. The rate of excellent response to lithium...... with somatic comorbidity had increased rates of non-response to lithium compared with patients without somatic comorbidity (HR=1.23, 95% CI: 1.00-1.52).It is concluded that the prevalence of excellent response to lithium monotherapy is low and such patients are characterized by few earlier psychiatric...

  18. Early predictors of high school mathematics achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegler, Robert S; Duncan, Greg J; Davis-Kean, Pamela E; Duckworth, Kathryn; Claessens, Amy; Engel, Mimi; Susperreguy, Maria Ines; Chen, Meichu

    2012-07-01

    Identifying the types of mathematics content knowledge that are most predictive of students' long-term learning is essential for improving both theories of mathematical development and mathematics education. To identify these types of knowledge, we examined long-term predictors of high school students' knowledge of algebra and overall mathematics achievement. Analyses of large, nationally representative, longitudinal data sets from the United States and the United Kingdom revealed that elementary school students' knowledge of fractions and of division uniquely predicts those students' knowledge of algebra and overall mathematics achievement in high school, 5 or 6 years later, even after statistically controlling for other types of mathematical knowledge, general intellectual ability, working memory, and family income and education. Implications of these findings for understanding and improving mathematics learning are discussed.

  19. Multiple predictor smoothing methods for sensitivity analysis.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helton, Jon Craig; Storlie, Curtis B.

    2006-08-01

    The use of multiple predictor smoothing methods in sampling-based sensitivity analyses of complex models is investigated. Specifically, sensitivity analysis procedures based on smoothing methods employing the stepwise application of the following nonparametric regression techniques are described: (1) locally weighted regression (LOESS), (2) additive models, (3) projection pursuit regression, and (4) recursive partitioning regression. The indicated procedures are illustrated with both simple test problems and results from a performance assessment for a radioactive waste disposal facility (i.e., the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant). As shown by the example illustrations, the use of smoothing procedures based on nonparametric regression techniques can yield more informative sensitivity analysis results than can be obtained with more traditional sensitivity analysis procedures based on linear regression, rank regression or quadratic regression when nonlinear relationships between model inputs and model predictions are present.

  20. Heteroscedasticity generated by errors in predictors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Downing, D.J.; Fedorov, V.V.; Nanstad, R.K.

    1995-11-01

    The heteroscedasticity or changing variance observed ``raw`` data may be the result of randomness or uncertainty in the predictor variables. As an example we consider ``Charpy Test`` experiments widely used to characterize the ductile-brittle toughness of steels such as those used for nuclear pressure vessels. While this type of experiment is of interest in itself, our main objective is to show that the use of a proper statistical technique may help to avoid the use of more complicated physical models to explain the heteroscedasticity of the observations. We also extend the existing method of regression analysis with errors in controllable variables to the case when the variances of the response and the controllable variables are both unknown.

  1. Desire thinking as a predictor of gambling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernie, Bruce A; Caselli, Gabriele; Giustina, Lucia; Donato, Gilda; Marcotriggiani, Antonella; Spada, Marcantonio M

    2014-04-01

    Desire thinking is a voluntary cognitive process involving verbal and imaginal elaboration of a desired target. A desired target can relate to an object, an internal state or an activity, such as gambling. This study investigated the role of desire thinking in gambling in a cohort of participants recruited from community and clinical settings. Ninety five individuals completed a battery of self-report measures consisting of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), the Gambling Craving Scale (GCS), the Desire Thinking Questionnaire (DTQ) and the South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS). Correlation analyses revealed that gender, educational level, recruitment source, anxiety and depression, craving and desire thinking were correlated with gambling. A hierarchical multiple regression analysis revealed that both recruitment source and desire thinking were the only independent predictors of gambling when controlling for all other study variables, including craving. These findings are discussed in the light of metacognitive therapy (MCT). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Early Predictors of Eating Problems in Preadolescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munkholm, Anja; Olsen, Else Marie; Rask, Charlotte Ulrikka

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The epidemiology of childhood eating problems is far from being fully described. The present study aims to explore early predictors of eating behavior problems in preadolescence. Methods: The study sample comprised 1,939 children from the birth cohort study, the Copenhagen Child Cohort...... (CCC2000). Logistic regression models were used to investigate associations among infancy health, developmental and relational factors, maternal mental health problems, socioeconomic factors, parental reported eating behavior patterns in preschool age and eating behavior problems in preadolescence....... Results: A number of factors expressing socioeconomic disadvantage across childhood were associated with an increased risk of eating behavior problems at age 11–12 years. In addition, overeating patterns at age 5–7 years predicted restrained eating in preadolescence (odds ratio [OR] = 2.77; 95% confidence...

  3. Performance of HADDOCK and a simple contact-based protein-ligand binding affinity predictor in the D3R Grand Challenge 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurkcuoglu, Zeynep; Koukos, Panagiotis I.; Citro, Nevia; Trellet, Mikael E.; Rodrigues, J. P. G. L. M.; Moreira, Irina S.; Roel-Touris, Jorge; Melquiond, Adrien S. J.; Geng, Cunliang; Schaarschmidt, Jörg; Xue, Li C.; Vangone, Anna; Bonvin, A. M. J. J.

    2018-01-01

    We present the performance of HADDOCK, our information-driven docking software, in the second edition of the D3R Grand Challenge. In this blind experiment, participants were requested to predict the structures and binding affinities of complexes between the Farnesoid X nuclear receptor and 102 different ligands. The models obtained in Stage1 with HADDOCK and ligand-specific protocol show an average ligand RMSD of 5.1 Å from the crystal structure. Only 6/35 targets were within 2.5 Å RMSD from the reference, which prompted us to investigate the limiting factors and revise our protocol for Stage2. The choice of the receptor conformation appeared to have the strongest influence on the results. Our Stage2 models were of higher quality (13 out of 35 were within 2.5 Å), with an average RMSD of 4.1 Å. The docking protocol was applied to all 102 ligands to generate poses for binding affinity prediction. We developed a modified version of our contact-based binding affinity predictor PRODIGY, using the number of interatomic contacts classified by their type and the intermolecular electrostatic energy. This simple structure-based binding affinity predictor shows a Kendall's Tau correlation of 0.37 in ranking the ligands (7th best out of 77 methods, 5th/25 groups). Those results were obtained from the average prediction over the top10 poses, irrespective of their similarity/correctness, underscoring the robustness of our simple predictor. This results in an enrichment factor of 2.5 compared to a random predictor for ranking ligands within the top 25%, making it a promising approach to identify lead compounds in virtual screening.

  4. Predictors and Outcomes of Childhood Primary Enuresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessel, Ellen M; Allmann, Anna E S; Goldstein, Brandon L; Finsaas, Megan; Dougherty, Lea R; Bufferd, Sara J; Carlson, Gabrielle A; Klein, Daniel N

    2017-03-01

    Although enuresis is relatively common in early childhood, research exploring its antecedents and implications is surprisingly limited, perhaps because the condition typically remits in middle childhood. We examined the prevalence, predictors, prognostic factors, and outcomes of primary enuresis in a large (N = 559) multi-method, multi-informant prospective study with a community-based sample of children followed from age 3 years to age 9 years. We found that 12.7% of our sample met criteria for lifetime enuresis, suggesting that it is a commonly occurring childhood disorder. Males were more than twice as likely as females to have a lifetime diagnosis. Significant age 3 predictors of developing primary enuresis by age 9 included child anxiety and low positive affectivity, maternal history of anxiety, and low authoritative parenting. In addition, poorer global functioning and more depressive and anxiety symptoms at age 3 years predicted a greater likelihood of persistence through age 9. By age 9 years, 77% of children who had received a diagnosis of primary enuresis were in remission and continent. However, children who had remitted exhibited a higher rate of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and greater ADHD and depressive symptoms at age 9 compared to children with no lifetime history of enuresis. Results of the present study underscore the clinical significance of primary enuresis and demonstrate that it shows both strong antecedent and prospective associations with psychopathology. The findings also highlight the possible role of parenting in the development of enuresis. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Predictors of hyperparathyroidism in renal transplant recipients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houssaini, T.S.; Arrayahani, M.; Rhou, H.; Amar, Y.; Benamar, L.; Ouzeddoun, N.; Bayahia, R.

    2008-01-01

    The changes in parathyroid hormone secretion after successful renal transplantation remain to be clearly elucidated. Our study was aimed at identifying the predictors of hyperparathyroidism in renal transplant recipients. A retrospective single center study involving 37 renal transplant recipients, with a follow-up of at least one year, was performed. All transplants were performed using kidneys from living related donors. The average age of study patients was 30+-10 years, with a male-female ratio of 1.31. The mean duration on hemodialysis (HD) prior to transplantation was 25+-18 months. All the grafts but one were functional after a mean follow-up of 41+-21 months. We noted a rapid reduction of the mean parathyroid hormone (iPTH) level from 383+-265 pg/ml before transplantation to 125+-67 pg/ml at one year and 108+-66 pg/ml at two years after transplantation (p=0.01). Bivariate analysis revealed that the level of iPTH obtained during follow-up correlated with the duration on HD (p=0.03), the serum creatinine at 24-months (p=0.013), and to the level of iPTH in the first year post transplantation (P=<0.001). Other clinical or laboratory parameters were not predictive of hyperparathyroidism after kidney transplantation. Liner regression showed that only the serum creatinine at 24-months independently correlated with the level of iPTH at last follow-up (p=0.02). Our study suggests that short duration on HD and a functional graft are the main predictors of correction of hyperparathyroidism after renal transplantation. (author)

  6. Predictors of maternal mortality among critically ill obstetric patients

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    et al.,15 that absence of prenatal care was a predictor of maternal mortality in critically ill obstetric patients, the booking status in this study was not a predictor of mortality. This could be because the delay in recognition of the need for ICU care and delays in presentation could have removed the otherwise expected beneficial ...

  7. Predictors of Outcomes in a Performance Ladder Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dicks, Robert H.; McHenry, James D.

    1985-01-01

    Investigated variables from initial inmate evaluations at a state penitentiary as predictors of inmate success in behavioral ladder program. Results indicated that academic test variables were best predictors of overall success level, attitudes, and work habits. Personality variables and one interview observation variable were also found to be…

  8. Mathematical and Verbal Reasoning as Predictors of Science Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustin, William C.; Corazza, Luciano

    1994-01-01

    Analysis of the relative contribution of age, gender, and verbal and mathematical reasoning abilities (measured by subtests of the Scholastic Aptitude Test) as predictors of success in accelerated secondary science courses found that a composite of verbal and mathematical reasoning ability was the most powerful predictor and verbal reasoning…

  9. Some psychosocial predictors of anxiety disorder in epilepsy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was designed to expose the variables or predictors that mediate in anxiety disorders among epileptics in Nigeria. Such variables or predictors are age, level of social support and perceived level of stigmatization were examined with reference to their roles in causing anxiety disorder among epileptics in Nigeria.

  10. Cancer-related fatigue : Predictors and effects of rehabilitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Weert, Ellen; Hoekstra-Weebers, Josette; Otter, Renee; Postema, Klaas; Sanderman, Robbert; van der Schans, Cees

    Background. The aims of the study were to examine the effects of a multidimensional rehabilitation program on cancer-related fatigue, to examine concurrent predictors of fatigue, and to investigate whether change in fatigue over time was associated with change in predictors. Methods. Sample: 72

  11. Predictors of treatment success in smoking cessation with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Identification of the predictors of treatment success in smoking cessation may help healthcare workers to improve the effectiveness of attempts at quitting. Objective. To identify the predictors of success in a randomised controlled trial comparing varenicline alone or in combination with nicotine replacement ...

  12. Nonlinear Forecasting With Many Predictors Using Kernel Ridge Regression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Exterkate, Peter; Groenen, Patrick J.F.; Heij, Christiaan

    This paper puts forward kernel ridge regression as an approach for forecasting with many predictors that are related nonlinearly to the target variable. In kernel ridge regression, the observed predictor variables are mapped nonlinearly into a high-dimensional space, where estimation of the predi...

  13. Prevalence patterns and predictors of alcohol use and abuse among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence patterns and predictors of alcohol use and abuse among secondary school students in southern KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa: demographic factors and the influence of parents and peers. ... predictors and influence of peers and parents on students' alcohol use and binge drinking. Results: About 54% of students ...

  14. Job Involvement as a Predictor of Academic Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batlis, Nick C.

    1978-01-01

    A job involvement measure was altered to reflect academic involvement and was employed as a predictor of academic performance. Contrary to the findings of prior industrial research, involvement was found to be correlated neither with age nor with course satisfaction; however, it did prove an efficacious predictor of course grade. (Author/JKS)

  15. Selecting candidate predictor variables for the modelling of post ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Selecting candidate predictor variables for the modelling of post-discharge mortality from sepsis: a protocol development project. Afri. Health Sci. .... Initial list of candidate predictor variables, N=17. Clinical. Laboratory. Social/Demographic. Vital signs (HR, RR, BP, T). Hemoglobin. Age. Oxygen saturation. Blood culture. Sex.

  16. Personal And Organisational Variables As Predictors Of Unethical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It was hypothesized that gender, family size, age, reward system, length of service and job security are not viable predictors of unethical behaviour in workplace environments. Results showed that gender, family size, job insecurity and perceived underpayment are viable predictors of unethical behaviour. Male employees ...

  17. Predictors of Reading Disability in Third through Fifth Grade Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnuson, Cynthia L.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this dissertation was to explore the presence of predictors of reading disability in third through fifth grade students. This study used a quantitative methodology to analyze the relationship between the predictor variables of nonword repetition, vocabulary, syntax, morphology, and family history and the criterion variable of…

  18. Psychological Predictors of Anabolic Steroid Use: An Exploratory Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwerin, Michael J.; Corcoran, Kevin J.; LaFleur, Bonnie J.; Fisher, Leslee; Patterson, David; Olrich, Tracy

    1997-01-01

    Examined social physique anxiety, upper body esteem, social anxiety, and body dissatisfaction as possible predictors of anabolic steroid (AS) use. Results based on 185 AS-using bodybuilders and various control groups indicated that the upper body strength subscale of two measures, along with age, were significant predictors of AS use. (RJM)

  19. Bayesian modeling of measurement error in predictor variables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fox, Gerardus J.A.; Glas, Cornelis A.W.

    2003-01-01

    It is shown that measurement error in predictor variables can be modeled using item response theory (IRT). The predictor variables, that may be defined at any level of an hierarchical regression model, are treated as latent variables. The normal ogive model is used to describe the relation between

  20. Prevalence and predictors of smoking in Butajira town, Ethiopia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusions: Socio-demographic predictors of cigarette smoking in Butajira Ethiopia are different to those found in high income countries. The predictors found here suggest that increased taxation may be the most effective tobacco control measure in this low income country setting. Ethiopian Journal of Health Development ...

  1. Stroke mortality and its predictors in a Nigerian teaching hospital

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Background: Stroke is the third leading cause of death worldwide. Stroke mortality has been noted to be higher in blacks in biracial studies. There have been few studies on stroke mortality and its predictors in Nigeria. This study examines mortality of stroke and its predictors in a Northern Nigerian teaching hospital.

  2. Stroke mortality and its predictors in a Nigerian teaching hospital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Stroke is the third leading cause of death worldwide. Stroke mortality has been noted to be higher in blacks in biracial studies. There have been few studies on stroke mortality and its predictors in Nigeria. This study examines mortality of stroke and its predictors in a Northern Nigerian teaching hospital.

  3. Prevalence and predictors of smoking in Butajira town, Ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    Abstract. Background: In order to design effective tobacco control policy in low income countries, it is essential to understand smoking prevalence and predictors. In Ethiopia, most of what is known on the prevalence of smoking comes from studies in larger towns. Little is known about predictors of smoking in any Ethiopian ...

  4. Predictors of Vitamin D Deficiency in Predialysis Patients with Stage ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-12-05

    Dec 5, 2017 ... Female gender, hypoalbuminemia with serum albumin level <30.0 g/L, and severe damaged renal function with eGFR <30 ml/min/1.73 m2 are independent predictors of Vitamin D deficiency in predialysis patients with Stage 3–5 CKD. KEYWORDS: Chronic kidney disease, predialysis, predictors, Vitamin D ...

  5. Predictors of Sleep Quantity and Quality in College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Eric S.

    2012-01-01

    Whereas sleep is often thought of as a common health issue among college students, few, if any, researchers have comprehensively evaluated correlates and predictors of sleep quality and quantity within this population. Most often, studies of this type are used by researchers to assess particular categories of correlates and predictors (e.g.,…

  6. Predictors of Service Utilization among Youth Diagnosed with Mood Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendenhall, Amy N.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, I investigated patterns and predictors of service utilization for children with mood disorders. The Behavioral Model for Health Care Utilization was used as an organizing framework for identifying predictors of the number and quality of services utilized. Hierarchical regression was used in secondary data analyses of the…

  7. Clinical and psychosocial predictors of community reintegration of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: There appears to be a dearth of published literature on the biopsychosocial predictors of community reintegration (CR) among stroke survivors. This study aims to investigate the clinical and psychosocial predictors of CR among stroke survivors three months post in-hospital discharge. Methods: Fifty-two stroke ...

  8. Predictors of Attitudes toward Seeking Counseling among International Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komiya, Noboru; Eells, Gregory T.

    2001-01-01

    Investigates predictors of international students' (N=121) attitudes toward seeking counseling. Results indicate that being female, having greater openness to emotions, and having had prior counseling experience were significant predictors of more open attitudes toward seeking counseling. (Contains 27 references.) (GCP)

  9. Social predictors of caesarean section births in Italy | Kambale ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Caesarean section birth is a frequent mode of delivery worldwide. Several social factors have been demonstrated to be strong predictors of caesarean births. Objectives: To identify possible social predictors of caesarean section births in Italy. Methods: Data for this study were drawn from the Italian Institute of ...

  10. Mean phase predictor for maximum a posteriori demodulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altes, Richard A. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    A system and method for optimal maximum a posteriori (MAP) demodulation using a novel mean phase predictor. The mean phase predictor conducts cumulative averaging over multiple blocks of phase samples to provide accurate prior mean phases, to be input into a MAP phase estimator.

  11. Predictors of Diabetic Retinopathy in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Microalbuminuria is an independent predictor of retinopathy, so absence of microalbuminuria may tend clinician not to screen for diabetic retinopathy (DR). Aim: The aim of our study was to estimate prevalence of DR in patients with type 2 diabetes who have normoalbuminuria, and to study predictors for DR, ...

  12. Nonlinear Forecasting with Many Predictors using Kernel Ridge Regression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Exterkate (Peter); P.J.F. Groenen (Patrick); C. Heij (Christiaan); D.J.C. van Dijk (Dick)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThis paper puts forward kernel ridge regression as an approach for forecasting with many predictors that are related nonlinearly to the target variable. In kernel ridge regression, the observed predictor variables are mapped nonlinearly into a high-dimensional space, where estimation of

  13. Predictors of Stress in Nigerian Executives | Adeoye | Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    prospects were the best predictor of stress in the executives, while \\"role\\" was the least. Also a combination of career prospects on one hand and home and private life on another hand resulted in more stress for the executives than any other combination. Middle - level managers were much affected by the predictor variable ...

  14. Predictors and protective factors for adolescent Internet victimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helweg-Larsen, Karin; Schütt, Nina; Larsen, Helmer Bøving

    2012-01-01

    To examine the rate of Internet victimization in a nationally representative sample of adolescents aged 14-17 and to analyze predictors and protective factors for victimization.......To examine the rate of Internet victimization in a nationally representative sample of adolescents aged 14-17 and to analyze predictors and protective factors for victimization....

  15. Rates and predictors of depression status among caregivers of patients with COPD hospitalized for acute exacerbations: a prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernabeu-Mora R

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Roberto Bernabeu-Mora,1–3 Gloria García-Guillamón,2 Joaquina Montilla-Herrador,2,3 Pilar Escolar-Reina,2,3 José Antonio García-Vidal,2 Francesc Medina-Mirapeix2,3 1Division of Pneumology, Hospital Morales Meseguer, 2Department of Physical Therapy, University of Murcia, 3Physiotherapy and Disability Research Group, Instituto Murciano de Investigación Biosanitaria Virgen de la Arrixaca (IMIB, Murcia, Spain Background: Hospitalization is common for acute exacerbation of COPD, but little is known about its impact on the mental health of caregivers. Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the rates and predictors of depressive symptoms in caregivers at the time of hospitalization for acute exacerbation of COPD and to identify the probability and predictors of subsequent changes in depressive status 3 months after discharge. Materials and methods: This was a prospective study. Depression symptoms were measured in 87 caregivers of patients hospitalized for exacerbation at hospitalization and 3 months after discharge. We measured factors from four domains: context of care, caregiving demands, caregiver resources, and patient characteristics. Univariate and multivariate multiple logistic regressions were used to determine the predictors of depression at hospitalization and subsequent changes at 3 months. Results: A total of 45 caregivers reported depression at the time of hospitalization. After multiple adjustments, spousal relationship, dyspnea, and severe airflow limitation were the strongest independent predictors of depression at hospitalization. Of these 45 caregivers, 40% had a remission of their depression 3 months after discharge. In contrast, 16.7% of caregivers who were not depressive at hospitalization became depressive at 3 months. Caregivers caring >20 hours per week for patients with dependencies had decreased odds of remission, and patients having dependencies after discharge increased the odds of caregivers becoming

  16. Tourette syndrome in a longitudinal perspective. Clinical course of tics and comorbidities, coexisting psychopathologies, phenotypes and predictors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groth, Camilla

    2018-04-01

    adolescence and early adulthood. Childhood tics, OCD and ADHD severity were the strongest predictors for future symptoms of the respectively diagnoses. Comorbidities and coexisting psychopathologies were found in 63% at follow-up, whereas 37% had pure TS.
 Conclusion: The clinical course of TS during adolescence was confirmed, with solid evidence, with decline in tics, OCD and ADHD severity. We provide evidence of considerable coexisting psychopathologies requiring clinical support and partial remissions and subthreshold symptoms requiring monitoring and clinical guidance to assist the young adults in promoting a healthy transition into early adulthood. Furthermore we provide predictors for the clinical course of TS to be used in the preventive efforts, early intervention and allocation of resources improving quality of life for the children and their families.

  17. Predictor feedback for delay systems implementations and approximations

    CERN Document Server

    Karafyllis, Iasson

    2017-01-01

    This monograph bridges the gap between the nonlinear predictor as a concept and as a practical tool, presenting a complete theory of the application of predictor feedback to time-invariant, uncertain systems with constant input delays and/or measurement delays. It supplies several methods for generating the necessary real-time solutions to the systems’ nonlinear differential equations, which the authors refer to as approximate predictors. Predictor feedback for linear time-invariant (LTI) systems is presented in Part I to provide a solid foundation on the necessary concepts, as LTI systems pose fewer technical difficulties than nonlinear systems. Part II extends all of the concepts to nonlinear time-invariant systems. Finally, Part III explores extensions of predictor feedback to systems described by integral delay equations and to discrete-time systems. The book’s core is the design of control and observer algorithms with which global stabilization, guaranteed in the previous literature with idealized (b...

  18. Prevalence and predictors of exposure to multiple metals in preschool children from Montevideo, Uruguay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kordas, Katarzyna, E-mail: Kxk48@psu.edu [Department of Nutritional Sciences, Pennsylvania State University, 110 Chandlee Laboratory, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Queirolo, Elena I. [Center for Research, Catholic University of Uruguay, Montevideo (Uruguay); Clinic for Environmental Contaminants, Pereira Rossell Hospital, Montevideo (Uruguay); Ettinger, Adrienne S.; Wright, Robert O. [Department of Environmental Health, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA (United States); Stoltzfus, Rebecca J. [Division of Nutritional Sciences, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY (United States)

    2010-09-15

    The extent of children's exposure to multiple toxic metals is not well described in many developing countries. We examined metal exposures in young children (6-37 months) from Montevideo, Uruguay and their mothers (15-47 years) participating in a community-based study. Hair samples collected from 180 children and their mothers were analyzed for: lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), manganese (Mn), and arsenic (As) concentration using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Median metal levels ({mu}g/g) were: Pb 13.69, Mn 1.45, Cd 0.17, and As 0.09 for children and Pb 4.27, Mn 1.42, Cd 0.08, and As 0.02 for mothers. Of the child and maternal samples, 1.7% and 2.9% were below the limit of detection (LOD) for Cd, and 21.3% and 38.5% were below the LOD for As, respectively. Correlations between maternal and child levels ranged 0.38-0.55 (p < 0.01). Maternal hair metal levels were the strongest predictors of metal concentrations in children's hair. Girls had significantly lower As levels than boys (p < 0.01) but did not differ on other metals. In addition, in bivariate logistic regressions predicting the likelihood that the child would be exposed to multiple metals, hemoglobin < 10.5 g/dL (OR = 2.12, p < 0.05), blood lead (OR = 1.17, p < 0.01), and the mother being exposed to two or more metals (OR = 3.34, p < 0.01) were identified as significant predictors of increased likelihood of multiple metal exposure. Older child age (OR = 0.96, p < 0.05), higher maternal education (OR = 0.35, p < 0.01), and higher number of household possessions (OR = 0.83, p < 0.01) were significantly associated with decreased likelihood of multiple metal exposure. Preschool children in Uruguay are exposed to multiple metals at levels that in other studies have been associated with cognitive and behavioral deficits. Sources of exposure, as well as cognitive and behavioral consequences of multiple metal exposure, should be investigated in this population.

  19. Prevalence and predictors of exposure to multiple metals in preschool children from Montevideo, Uruguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kordas, Katarzyna; Queirolo, Elena I.; Ettinger, Adrienne S.; Wright, Robert O.; Stoltzfus, Rebecca J.

    2010-01-01

    The extent of children's exposure to multiple toxic metals is not well described in many developing countries. We examined metal exposures in young children (6-37 months) from Montevideo, Uruguay and their mothers (15-47 years) participating in a community-based study. Hair samples collected from 180 children and their mothers were analyzed for: lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), manganese (Mn), and arsenic (As) concentration using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Median metal levels (μg/g) were: Pb 13.69, Mn 1.45, Cd 0.17, and As 0.09 for children and Pb 4.27, Mn 1.42, Cd 0.08, and As 0.02 for mothers. Of the child and maternal samples, 1.7% and 2.9% were below the limit of detection (LOD) for Cd, and 21.3% and 38.5% were below the LOD for As, respectively. Correlations between maternal and child levels ranged 0.38-0.55 (p < 0.01). Maternal hair metal levels were the strongest predictors of metal concentrations in children's hair. Girls had significantly lower As levels than boys (p < 0.01) but did not differ on other metals. In addition, in bivariate logistic regressions predicting the likelihood that the child would be exposed to multiple metals, hemoglobin < 10.5 g/dL (OR = 2.12, p < 0.05), blood lead (OR = 1.17, p < 0.01), and the mother being exposed to two or more metals (OR = 3.34, p < 0.01) were identified as significant predictors of increased likelihood of multiple metal exposure. Older child age (OR = 0.96, p < 0.05), higher maternal education (OR = 0.35, p < 0.01), and higher number of household possessions (OR = 0.83, p < 0.01) were significantly associated with decreased likelihood of multiple metal exposure. Preschool children in Uruguay are exposed to multiple metals at levels that in other studies have been associated with cognitive and behavioral deficits. Sources of exposure, as well as cognitive and behavioral consequences of multiple metal exposure, should be investigated in this population.

  20. Predictors of caregiver burden across the home-based palliative care trajectory in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerriere, Denise; Husain, Amna; Zagorski, Brandon; Marshall, Denise; Seow, Hsien; Brazil, Kevin; Kennedy, Julia; Burns, Sheri; Brooks, Heather; Coyte, Peter C

    2016-07-01

    Family caregivers of patients enrolled in home-based palliative care programmes provide unpaid care and assistance with daily activities to terminally ill family members. Caregivers often experience caregiver burden, which is an important predictor of anxiety and depression that can extend into bereavement. We conducted a longitudinal, prospective cohort study to comprehensively assess modifiable and non-modifiable patient and caregiver factors that account for caregiver burden over the palliative care trajectory. Caregivers (n = 327) of patients with malignant neoplasm were recruited from two dedicated home-based palliative care programmes in Southern Ontario, Canada from 1 July 2010 to 31 August 2012. Data were obtained from bi-weekly telephone interviews with caregivers from study admission until death, and from palliative care programme and home-care agency databases. Information collected comprised patient and caregiver demographics, utilisation of privately and publicly financed resources, patient clinical status and caregiver burden. The average age of the caregivers was 59.0 years (SD: 13.2), and almost 70% were female. Caregiver burden increased over time in a non-linear fashion from study admission to patient death. Increased monthly unpaid care-giving time costs, monthly public personal support worker costs, emergency department visits and low patient functional status were associated with higher caregiver burden. Greater use of hospice care was associated with lower burden. Female caregivers tended to report more burden compared to men as death approached, and burden was higher when patients were male. Low patient functional status was the strongest predictor of burden. Understanding the influence of modifiable and non-modifiable factors on the experience of burden over the palliative trajectory is essential for the development and targeting of programmes and policies to support family caregivers and reduce burden. Supporting caregivers can have

  1. Ambulatory screening of diabetic neuropathy and predictors of its severity in outpatient settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, M S; Iqbal, M; Zahoor, S; Ali, J; Javed, M U

    2017-04-01

    Diabetic neuropathy is one of the most common causes of chronic neuropathic symptomatology and the most disabling and difficult-to-treat diabetic microangiopathic complication. The neuropathies associated with diabetes are typically classified into generalized, focal and multifocal varieties. There exists a scarcity of literature studying the correlation of different patient- and disease-related variables with severity of neuropathy. This study aims to delineate the prevalence of diabetic neuropathy in type 2 diabetes, describe its characteristics and find out predictors of its severity. Eight hundred consecutive diabetic patients presenting to outpatient department (OPD) of Khan Research Labs (KRL) General Hospital and Centre for Diabetes and Liver diseases, Islamabad, during March-June, 2015 were made to complete a self-administered questionnaire (Michigan Neuropathy Screening Instrument-MNSI) and underwent a thorough physical examination according to MNSI protocols. A score of >2 was considered to be diagnostic for DPN. Patient and disease variables were noted. MNSI score was used as an index of severity of diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN). Correlation of several patient- and disease-related variables with the severity of DPN was determined using multivariate regression. Out of a total 800 patients screened, 90 (11.25%) were found to have diabetic neuropathy. Of these 90, 45.5% were males, the median age was 54.47 ± 10.87 years and the median duration of diabetes was 11.12 ± 9.8 years. The most common symptom was found to be numbness (63.6%) followed by generalized body weakness (61.5%). The common findings on physical examination were dry skin/callus (38.7%) and deformities (14.7%). Duration of diabetes was found to be the strongest predictor for development and severity of diabetic neuropathy followed by glycemic controls (HbA1c values) and age. Duration of diabetes rather than diabetic controls predicts better the development and severity of

  2. Interacting Social and Environmental Predictors for the Spatial Distribution of Conservation Lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Robert F.; Leonard, Paul B.

    2015-01-01

    Conservation decisions should be evaluated for how they meet conservation goals at multiple spatial extents. Conservation easements are land use decisions resulting from a combination of social and environmental conditions. An emerging area of research is the evaluation of spatial distribution of easements and their spatial correlates. We tested the relative influence of interacting social and environmental variables on the spatial distribution of conservation easements by ownership category and conservation status. For the Appalachian region of the United States, an area with a long history of human occupation and complex land uses including public-private conservation, we found that settlement, economic, topographic, and environmental data associated with spatial distribution of easements (N = 4813). Compared to random locations, easements were more likely to be found in lower elevations, in areas of greater agricultural productivity, farther from public protected areas, and nearer other human features. Analysis of ownership and conservation status revealed sources of variation, with important differences between local and state government ownerships relative to non-governmental organizations (NGOs), and among U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) GAP program status levels. NGOs were more likely to have easements nearer protected areas, and higher conservation status, while local governments held easements closer to settlement, and on lands of greater agricultural potential. Logistic interactions revealed environmental variables having effects modified by social correlates, and the strongest predictors overall were social (distance to urban area, median household income, housing density, distance to land trust office). Spatial distribution of conservation lands may be affected by geographic area of influence of conservation groups, suggesting that multi-scale conservation planning strategies may be necessary to satisfy local and regional needs for reserve networks. Our

  3. Contemporary Trends and Predictors of Postacute Service Use and Routine Discharge Home After Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prvu Bettger, Janet; McCoy, Lisa; Smith, Eric E.; Fonarow, Gregg C.; Schwamm, Lee H.; Peterson, Eric D.

    2015-01-01

    Background Returning home after the hospital is a primary aim for healthcare; however, additional postacute care (PAC) services are sometimes necessary for returning stroke patients to their pre‐event status. Recent trends in hospital discharge disposition specifying PAC use have not been examined across age groups or health insurance types. Methods and Results We examined trends in discharge to inpatient rehabilitation facilities (IRFs), skilled nursing facilities (SNFs), home with home health (HH), and home without services for 849 780 patients ≥18 years of age with ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke at 1687 hospitals participating in Get With The Guidelines—Stroke. Multivariable analysis was used to identify factors associated with discharge to any PAC (IRF, SNF, or HH) versus discharge home without services. From 2003 to 2011, there was a 2.1% increase (unadjusted P=0.001) in PAC use after a stroke hospitalization. Change was greatest in SNF use, an 8.3% decrease over the period. IRF and HH increased 6.9% and 3.6%, respectively. The 2 strongest clinical predictors of PAC use after acute care were patients not ambulating on the second day of their hospital stay (ambulation odds ratio [OR], 3.03; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.86 to 3.23) and those who failed a dysphagia screen or had an order restricting oral intake (OR, 2.48; 95% CI, 2.37 to 2.59). Conclusions Four in 10 stroke patients are discharged home without services. Although little has changed overall in PAC use since 2003, further research is needed to explain the shift in service use by type and its effect on outcomes. PMID:25713291

  4. Predictors of olfactory dysfunction in rhinosinusitis using the brief smell identification test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alt, Jeremiah A; Mace, Jess C; Buniel, Maria C F; Soler, Zachary M; Smith, Timothy L

    2014-07-01

    Associations between olfactory function to quality-of-life (QOL) and disease severity in patients with rhinosinusitis is poorly understood. We sought to evaluate and compare olfactory function between subgroups of patients with rhinosinusitis using the Brief Smell Identification Test (B-SIT). Cross-sectional evaluation of a multicenter cohort. Patients with recurrent acute sinusitis and chronic rhinosinusitis with and without nasal polyposis were prospectively enrolled from three academic tertiary care sites. Each subject completed the B-SIT, in addition to measures of disease-specific QOL. Patient demographics, comorbidities, and clinical measures of disease severity were compared between patients with normal (BSIT≥9) and abnormal (BSIT<9) olfaction scores. Regression modeling was used to identify potential risk factors associated with olfactory impairment. Patients with rhinosinusitis (n=445) were found to suffer olfactory dysfunction as measured by the B-SIT (28.3%). Subgroups of rhinosinusitis differed in the degree of olfactory dysfunction reported. Worse disease severity, measured by computed tomography and nasal endoscopy, correlated to worse olfaction. Olfactory scores did not consistently correlate with the Rhinosinusitis Disability Index or Sinonasal Outcome Test scores. Regression models demonstrated nasal polyposis was the strongest predictor of olfactory dysfunction. Recalcitrant disease and aspirin intolerance were strongly predictive of worse olfactory function. Olfactory dysfunction is a complex, multifactorial process found to be differentially expressed within subgroups of rhinosinusitis. Olfaction was associated with disease severity as measured by imaging and endoscopy, with only weak associations to disease-specific QOL measures. 2b. © 2014 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  5. Patterns of care, predictors and outcomes of chemotherapy for uterine carcinosarcoma: a National Cancer Database analysis.

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    Rauh-Hain, J Alejandro; Starbuck, Kristen D; Meyer, Larissa A; Clemmer, Joel; Schorge, John O; Lu, Karen H; Del Carmen, Marcela G

    2015-10-01

    Evaluate rates of chemotherapy and radiotherapy delivery in the treatment of uterine carcinosarcoma, and compare clinical outcomes of treated and untreated patients. The National Cancer Database was queried to identify patients diagnosed with uterine carcinosarcoma between 2003 and 2011. The impact of chemotherapy on survival was analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method. Factors predictive of outcome were compared using the Cox proportional hazards model. A total of 10,609 patients met study eligibility criteria. Stages I, II, III, and IV disease accounted for 2997 (28.2%), 642 (6.1%), 2037 (19.2%), and 1316 (12.4%) of the study population, respectively. Most patients (91.0%) underwent definitive surgery, and lymphadenectomy was performed in 68.7% of the patients. Chemotherapy was administered in 2378 (22.4%) patients, radiotherapy to 2196 (20.7%), adjuvant chemo-radiation to 1804 (17.0%), and 4231 (39.9%) of women did not received adjuvant therapy. Utilization of chemotherapy became more frequent over time. Over the entire study period, after adjusting for race, period of diagnosis, facility location, facility type, insurance provider, stage, age, treatment modality, lymph node dissection, socioeconomic status, and comorbidity index, there was an association between treatment modality and survival. The lowest hazard ratio observed was in patients that received chemo-radiation. The strongest quantitative predictor of death was stage at the time of diagnosis. In addition, surgical treatment, lymph node dissection, most recent time-periods, lower comorbidity index, and higher socioeconomic status were associated with improved survival. The overall rates of chemotherapy use have increased over time. Adjuvant chemotherapy and chemo-radiation were associated with improved survival. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. An isoinertial predictor for maximal acceptable lifting weights of Chinese male subjects.

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    Lee, Y H; Chen, Y L

    1996-05-01

    The practicality of using restrained as well as standard isoinertial strength tests in predicting the maximum acceptable weight of lift (MAWL) of Chinese male subjects was examined using a restrained strength test, which allows the subject to pull on the load in front of the body and to apply force in a functional free posture. Prediction models were constructed and evaluated under task conditions of two lifting ranges, two box sizes, and three lifting frequencies. The following measurements were taken for each subject in each test: (1) the body posture and joint angles, and (2) electromyographic activities of the arm muscles (biceps brachii), back muscles (erector spinae), and leg muscles (rectus femoris). Results indicate that the restrained knuckle height isoinertial strength (RK) was related significantly to the MAWL for all tasks, and the correlation coefficients ranged from 0.42 to 0.69. A step-wise multiple regression analysis based on data from the 22 subjects showed that RK, chest circumference, and thigh length accounted for 90 to 94% of the variance. A validation effort on a different sample (N = 10) showed that the MAWLs can be predicted within an absolute mean (SD) error of 0.84 (3.30) kg. Percentages of muscle activation levels indicated that, other than strength from the erector spinae, the strongest contribution to the RK value was that of biceps brachii strength. Since the strength of the body's upper extremity was also recruited, the weak upper extremity strength of Chinese subjects was better reflected. Evidence for the existence of a close match between MAWL and RK values, and the conditions of the existence, suggest that RK is good predictor for the MAWL.

  7. Predictors of incident and persistent neck/shoulder pain in Iranian workers: a cohort study.

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    Farideh Sadeghian

    Full Text Available Pain in the neck and shoulder has been linked with various psychosocial risk factors, as well as with occupational physical activities. However, most studies to date have been cross-sectional, making it difficult to exclude reverse causation. Moreover, they have been carried out largely in northern Europe, and the relationship to psychosocial factors might be different in other cultural environments.To explore causes of neck/shoulder pain, we carried out a longitudinal study in Iranian nurses and office workers. Participants (n =383 completed a baseline questionnaire about neck/shoulder pain in the past month and possible risk factors, and were again asked about pain 12 months later. Associations with pain at follow-up were explored by Poisson regression and summarised by prevalence rate ratios (PRRs.After adjustment for other risk factors, new pain at follow-up was more frequent in office workers than nurses (PRR 1.9, 95%CI 1.3-2.8, among those with worst mental health (PRR 1.8, 95%CI 1.0-3.0, in those who reported incentives from piecework or bonuses (PRR1.4, 95%CI 1.0-2.0, and in those reporting job dissatisfaction (PRR 1.5, 95%CI 1.0-2.1. The strongest predictor of pain persistence was somatising tendency.Our findings are consistent with a hazard of neck/shoulder pain from prolonged use of computer keyboards, although it is possible that the association is modified by health beliefs and expectations. They also indicate that the association of low mood with neck/shoulder pain extends to non-European populations, and is not entirely attributable to reverse causation. Psychosocial aspects of work appeared to have relatively weak impact.

  8. Predictors of root resorption associated with maxillary canine impaction in panoramic images.

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    Alqerban, Ali; Jacobs, Reinhilde; Fieuws, Steffen; Willems, Guy

    2016-06-01

    The aim was to identify a prediction model for root resorption (RR) caused by impacted canines based on radiographic variables assessed on 2D panoramic radiographs with the intention to reduce the need for additional cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) imaging. Three hundred and six patients (188 female, 118 male; mean age, 14.7 years; standard deviation, 5.6; range, 8.4-47.2 years) were included in the study. In total, 406 impacted maxillary canines were studied, from 206 patients with unilateral impaction and from 100 patients with bilateral impaction. Initial 2D panoramic radiography was available, and 3D CBCT imaging was obtained upon clinical indication. The generated radiographic variables and specific features investigated were collected on 2D panoramic imaging and were correlated to the presence/absence of RR detected on CBCT. A validation sample consisting of 55 canines from 45 patients with maxillary canine impactions was collected to validate the outcome of the present study. The incidence of RR of the adjacent teeth was 33.8%. A prediction model using panoramic images for the possible presence of RR was established [area under the curve (AUC) = 0.74, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.69-0.79] and validated by applying leave-one-out cross-validation (AUC = 0.71, 95% CI: 0.66-0.77). For the subgroup of presence of severe RR the discriminative ability increased to 0.80. In this prediction model, patient gender, canine apex, vertical canine crown position, and canine magnification were the strongest predictors for RR. The final prediction model for RR based on available panoramic radiographs could be a helpful tool in justifying the need of additional CBCT examination. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Orthodontic Society 2015. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  9. Predictors of Chemotherapy Patients' Intentions to Engage in Medical Error Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wernli, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Background. Patients can make contributions to the safety of chemotherapy administration but little is known about their motivations to participate in safety-enhancing strategies. The theory of planned behavior was applied to analyze attitudes, norms, behavioral control, and chemotherapy patients' intentions to participate in medical error prevention. Methods. A quantitative, cross-sectional survey study among chemotherapy patients treated at the oncology/hematology department of a large regional hospital was conducted. Confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling were used to investigate the relationship between patients' responses to measures of attitudes, norms, and behavioral control and their intentions. Results. Four hundred seventy-nine patients completed the survey (52% response rate). Attitudes, perceived behavioral control, and subjective norms explained 62% of the variance in intentions to engage in error monitoring and reporting. Perceived behavioral control (β = 0.476), norms relating to patients' relatives (β = 0.343), and instrumental attitudes (β = 0.281) were the strongest (direct) predictors of patients' intentions. Experiential attitudes had the smallest effect on intentions (β = 0.178). Subjective norms relating to expectations attributed to oncology staff had strong direct and indirect effects on patients' intentions (total effect, 0.382). Conclusions. Patients acknowledge the benefit of error monitoring and reporting and anticipate positive outcomes of involvement, but their valuations of the process of engaging in error prevention are less positive. Behavioral control and perceptions of staff approval are central for patients. Involvement of cancer patients in safety requires oncologists to address their patients' normative and control beliefs through education and proactive approval of patient engagement. PMID:20682607

  10. Potential early predictors for outcomes of experimental hemorrhagic shock induced by uncontrolled internal bleeding in rats.

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    Zaid A Abassi

    Full Text Available Uncontrolled hemorrhage, resulting from traumatic injuries, continues to be the leading cause of death in civilian and military environments. Hemorrhagic deaths usually occur within the first 6 hours of admission to hospital; therefore, early prehospital identification of patients who are at risk for developing shock may improve survival. The aims of the current study were: 1. To establish and characterize a unique model of uncontrolled internal hemorrhage induced by massive renal injury (MRI, of different degrees (20-35% unilateral nephrectomy in rats, 2. To identify early biomarkers those best predict the outcome of severe internal hemorrhage. For this purpose, male Sprague Dawley rats were anesthetized and cannulas were inserted into the trachea and carotid artery. After abdominal laparotomy, the lower pole of the kidney was excised. During 120 minutes, hematocrit, pO2, pCO2, base excess, potassium, lactate and glucose were measured from blood samples, and mean arterial pressure (MAP was measured through arterial tracing. After 120 minutes, blood loss was determined. Statistical prediction models of mortality and amount of blood loss were performed. In this model, the lowest blood loss and mortality rate were observed in the group with 20% nephrectomy. Escalation of the extent of nephrectomy to 25% and 30% significantly increased blood loss and mortality rate. Two phases of hemodynamic and biochemical response to MRI were noticed: the primary phase, occurring during the first 15 minutes after injury, and the secondary phase, beginning 30 minutes after the induction of bleeding. A Significant correlation between early blood loss and mean arterial pressure (MAP decrements and survival were noted. Our data also indicate that prediction of outcome was attainable in the very early stages of blood loss, over the first 15 minutes after the injury, and that blood loss and MAP were the strongest predictors of mortality.

  11. Predictors of obesity in childhood, adolescence, and adulthood in a birth cohort.

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    Rooney, Brenda L; Mathiason, Michelle A; Schauberger, Charles W

    2011-11-01

    To determine how characteristics of pregnancy, birth, and early infancy are related to offspring obesity at three critical developmental periods. Mothers were followed through pregnancy and 10-15 years after. Offspring data were obtained through medical record review. Maternal and offspring characteristics were examined to predict obesity in childhood (ages 4-5 years), adolescence (ages 9-14 years), and early adulthood (ages 19-20 years). The original cohort included 802 children born to 795 women. Children who were twins, who had died, or whose mothers had died were excluded (n=25). Medical records of 68.5% of the remaining 777 children documented a height and weight at childhood, adolescence, or early adulthood. Relative risks (RRs) to predict obesity at early adulthood were 12.3 for childhood and 45.1 at adolescence. RRs were also significant to predict obesity at early adulthood between the mother's obesity at prepregnancy (RR=6.4), 4-5 years postpregnancy (RR=6.3), and 10-15 years postpregnancy (RR=6.2). Excluding these variables from the multivariate models and adjusting by gender, birth insurance, and mother's marital status at delivery, the best model to predict obesity at childhood included birth weight, weight gain in infancy, and delivery type. At adolescence, it included maternal pregnancy smoking status, gestational weight gain, and weight gain in infancy, and in early adulthood, included maternal pregnancy smoking status, gestational weight gain, and birth weight. Maternal pregnancy smoking status, gestational weight gain, and weight gain in infancy have long-term effects on offspring. Maternal obesity is the strongest predictor of obesity at all times studied.

  12. Quadriceps isometric strength as a predictor of exercise capacity in coronary artery disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamiya, Kentaro; Mezzani, Alessandro; Hotta, Kazuki; Shimizu, Ryosuke; Kamekawa, Daisuke; Noda, Chiharu; Yamaoka-Tojo, Minako; Matsunaga, Atsuhiko; Masuda, Takashi

    2014-10-01

    Quadriceps strength is related to exercise capacity in normal subjects and different patient populations, but the relationship between maximal quadriceps isometric strength (QIS) and different exercise capacity levels in coronary artery disease (CAD) patients has not been systematically evaluated yet. We studied 621 patients (60.6 ± 9.9 years, 538 males) with recent coronary artery bypass grafting or myocardial infarction, who underwent treadmill exercise testing, maximal QIS measurement (hand-held dynamometry), and coronary arteriography. Maximal QIS was expressed as absolute value (kg), %bodyweight, and %predicted maximum. Logistic regression was used to assess the relationship of maximal QIS, age, sex, number of diseased coronary vessels, peak systolic blood pressure, peak heart rate, brain natriuretic peptide, and left ventricular ejection fraction with 5, 7, and 10 estimated metabolic equivalents (eMETs) exercise capacity levels. Maximal QIS %bodyweight was the strongest predictor of exercise capacity in each eMETs category. Receiver-operating characteristics curves identified maximal QIS of 46, 51, and 59 % bodyweight as the best predictive cut offs for 5, 7 and 10 eMETs, respectively, with positive predictive values of 0.72, 0.66, and 0.67, respectively. Maximal QIS is related with eMETs levels reached at exercise testing in CAD patients, and identified maximal QIS cut-off values for eMETs prediction may be used to set strength training goals according to patients' needs with regard to habitual physical activity level. Hand-held dynamometry may meet the need of easiness of use and low cost required for strength evaluation in large-scale clinical trials. © The European Society of Cardiology 2013 Reprints and permissions sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  13. Predictors for secondary procedures in walking DDH.

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    Gholve, Purushottam A; Flynn, John M; Garner, Matthew R; Millis, Michael B; Kim, Young-Jo

    2012-01-01

    Persistent or recurrent hip dysplasia and/or loss of reduction can complicate the treatment of developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) in walking children. In this study, we identify predictors for secondary procedures after open reduction of the hip in walking children with DDH. We performed a retrospective study of walking children with idiopathic DDH treated with open reduction of the hip and followed up for >5 years. Perioperative factors were analyzed to investigate predictors of reoperation. Factors associated with the need for secondary procedures were identified. Acetabular remodeling was analyzed with a graphical plot of serial (0, 6 and 12 mo, and yearly) mean acetabular index and SD. There were 49 open reductions of the hip in 42 patients (34 female, 8 male) at a mean age of 31.3 months (range, 15.3 to 92.6 mo), with a mean follow-up of 9.7 years (5 to 16.9 y). Twelve (24%) patients had open reduction only, 15 (31%) had concurrent pelvic osteotomy, 4 (8%) had femoral osteotomy, and 18 (37%) had both femoral and pelvic osteotomy. Four (8%) patients required repeat open reduction at a mean of 5.1 months (range, 4 to 7.5 mo) after index surgery. Twenty-four (49%) patients had at least 1 secondary surgery for dysplasia at a mean of 3.2 years after index surgery. Six of the 24 (25%) had 2 and 2/24 (8.3%) had 3 additional operations. Of the 27 patients who did not have concurrent femoral osteotomy at index surgery, 19/27 (73%) required a secondary procedure; this significantly predicted the need for reoperation (P<0.001). Only 5/22 patients with femoral osteotomy at index surgery required a secondary procedure. Maximum acetabular remodeling was observed in the first 4 years after primary reduction, and the mean acetabular index remodeled from 43.9 to 20.3 degrees during this period. Forty-nine percent of the patients in this cohort required secondary procedures to treat hip dysplasia. Open reduction without concurrent femoral osteotomy strongly predicted the

  14. ToPs: Ensemble Learning With Trees of Predictors

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    Yoon, Jinsung; Zame, William R.; van der Schaar, Mihaela

    2018-04-01

    We present a new approach to ensemble learning. Our approach constructs a tree of subsets of the feature space and associates a predictor (predictive model) - determined by training one of a given family of base learners on an endogenously determined training set - to each node of the tree; we call the resulting object a tree of predictors. The (locally) optimal tree of predictors is derived recursively; each step involves jointly optimizing the split of the terminal nodes of the previous tree and the choice of learner and training set (hence predictor) for each set in the split. The feature vector of a new instance determines a unique path through the optimal tree of predictors; the final prediction aggregates the predictions of the predictors along this path. We derive loss bounds for the final predictor in terms of the Rademacher complexity of the base learners. We report the results of a number of experiments on a variety of datasets, showing that our approach provides statistically significant improvements over state-of-the-art machine learning algorithms, including various ensemble learning methods. Our approach works because it allows us to endogenously create more complex learners - when needed - and endogenously match both the learner and the training set to the characteristics of the dataset while still avoiding over-fitting.

  15. Heart rate as a predictor of stroke in high-risk, hypertensive patients with previous stroke or transient ischemic attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandset, Else Charlotte; Berge, Eivind; Kjeldsen, Sverre E; Julius, Stevo; Holzhauer, Björn; Krarup, Lars-Henrik; Hua, Tsushung A

    2014-01-01

    Risk factors for first stroke are well established, but less is known about risk factors for recurrent stroke. In the present analysis, we aimed to assess the effect of heart rate and other possible predictors of stroke in a hypertensive population with previous stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA). The Valsartan Antihypertensive Long-Term Use Evaluation trial was a multicentre, double-masked, randomized controlled, parallel group trial comparing the effects of an angiotensin receptor blocker (valsartan) and a calcium channel blocker (amlodipine) in patients with hypertension and high cardiovascular risk. We used Cox proportional hazard models to investigate the effect of baseline variables on the risk of stroke. Quadratic terms of the continuous variables were entered in the models to test for linearity. Of 15,245 patients included in the trial, 3014 had a previous stroke or TIA at baseline and were included in the present analysis. Stroke recurrence occurred in 239 patients (7.9%) during a median of 4.5 years of follow-up. Resting heart rate (per 10 beats per minute; hazard ratio [HR], 2.78; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.18-6.58) and diabetes mellitus at baseline (HR, 1.47; 95% CI, 1.03-2.10) were significantly associated with an increased risk of stroke recurrence in the multivariable analysis. In high-risk, hypertensive patients with previous stroke or TIA, resting heart rate was the strongest predictor of recurrent stroke. Copyright © 2014 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Epigenetic Signature: A New Player as Predictor of Clinically Significant Prostate Cancer (PCa) in Patients on Active Surveillance (AS).

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    Ferro, Matteo; Ungaro, Paola; Cimmino, Amelia; Lucarelli, Giuseppe; Busetto, Gian Maria; Cantiello, Francesco; Damiano, Rocco; Terracciano, Daniela

    2017-05-27

    Widespread prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing notably increased the number of prostate cancer (PCa) diagnoses. However, about 30% of these patients have low-risk tumors that are not lethal and remain asymptomatic during their lifetime. Overtreatment of such patients may reduce quality of life and increase healthcare costs. Active surveillance (AS) has become an accepted alternative to immediate treatment in selected men with low-risk PCa. Despite much progress in recent years toward identifying the best candidates for AS in recent years, the greatest risk remains the possibility of misclassification of the cancer or missing a high-risk cancer. This is particularly worrisome in men with a life expectancy of greater than 10-15 years. The Prostate Cancer Research International Active Surveillance (PRIAS) study showed that, in addition to age and PSA at diagnosis, both PSA density (PSA-D) and the number of positive cores at diagnosis (two compared with one) are the strongest predictors for reclassification biopsy or switching to deferred treatment. However, there is still no consensus upon guidelines for placing patients on AS. Each institution has its own protocol for AS that is based on PRIAS criteria. Many different variables have been proposed as tools to enrol patients in AS: PSA-D, the percentage of freePSA, and the extent of cancer on biopsy (number of positive cores or percentage of core involvement). More recently, the Prostate Health Index (PHI), the 4 Kallikrein (4K) score, and other patient factors, such as age, race, and family history, have been investigated as tools able to predict clinically significant PCa. Recently, some reports suggested that epigenetic mapping differs significantly between cancer patients and healthy subjects. These findings indicated as future prospect the use of epigenetic markers to identify PCa patients with low-grade disease, who are likely candidates for AS. This review explores literature data about the potential of

  17. Predictors of body mass index in female parents whose children participate in a competitive, creative, problem-solving program

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    Naima Moustaid-Moussa

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recent findings from our research indicate that children participating in a creative afterschool program exhibit overall healthier lifestyle practices compared to the average US pediatric population. This observation led us to investigate the prevalence of overweight/obesity and lifestyle practices of their parents. Objective: To determine the strongest predictors of weight status for female parents whose children were participating in such creative afterschool program. Design: Surveyed subjects were parents of children who competed in the 2008 and 2009 Destination ImagiNation® Global Finals in Knoxville, Tennessee. A total of 4,608 children participated in data collection, with parental consent. For the combined 2 years, 1,118 parents, 87% of whom were females (n=1,032 completed online questionnaires, which were based on the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System and included self-reported height, weight, dietary intake, physical activity, and socioeconomic status. The majority of this population was white, and less than 5% were African American or Hispanic. Results: We report here results obtained for the female parents. Only 45.2% of these female parents were overweight/obese, compared to a national average of 64.1% reported by the National Health Nutrition Examination Surveys for 2007—2008. Furthermore, this population was significantly more physically active compared to national average. Most parents (76% had completed a college degree and reported high incomes. Parents with the lowest income were the most obese in this population. Finally, we found a significant association between parent and child weight status. Conclusions: These studies demonstrate that female parents of children who have healthy lifestyles were physically active, which likely accounts for the parents’ lower overweight/obesity rates. In addition to physical activity, income and percentage of calories from fat were all predictors of weight status.

  18. Predictors of Recovery After Conservative Treatment of AO-Type A Thoracolumbar Spine Fractures Without Neurological Deficit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorlat, Peter; Leirs, Geert; Tajdar, Farhad; Hulsmans, Heinz; De Boeck, Hugo; Vaes, Peter

    2018-01-15

    Prospective, correlational, exploratory, clinical research. To identify the factors determining a patient's recovery after conservative treatment of compression fractures of the thoracolumbar spine. The reported results of compression fractures are poor. These results are not influenced by the severity of compression, the fracture site, or the residual deformity. Otherwise, the factors that determine a patient's recovery are unknown. In 48 conservatively treated patients the preinjury versus the 12-month follow-up differences (Δ) in back pain (visual analogue scale for pain), Oswestry disability index (ODI), and the Greenough and Fraser low back outcome scale were prospectively recorded. For these differences and for time lost from work and satisfaction, multiple linear regressions with combinations of 16 factors were performed. At 1 year, patients with an income-insurance were 9% (P = 0.096) more disabled than those without. They reported a 15% less favorable global outcome and 27% less participation. Smokers were 13% (P = 0.010) more disabled and 11% (P = 0.044) less satisfied. With each increase of the AO-fracture type from A1 to A3 the disability was 8% worse. Patients with pre-existent chronic low back pain (CLBP) returned two points (on a visual analogue scale [VAS] pain total of 10) more closely (P = 0.041) to their preinjury pain level than those without but were 21% (P = 0.001) less satisfied. Our model offers an explanation for more than 25% of the variability of ΔODI and of the satisfaction. For sick leave, no significant predictors were found. Smoking and insurance status are the strongest negative predictors for recovery. LBP patients returned more closely to their preinjury back pain level, but were less satisfied. The AO fracture type had a marked influence on disability, the sagittal deformity had not. The time lost from work did not depend on patient or injury-related factors. N/A.

  19. Elderly outpatient profile and predictors of falls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Grace Angélica de Oliveira; Cintra, Fernanda Aparecida; Batista, Fernanda Sotelo; Neri, Anita Liberalesso; Guariento, Maria Elena; Sousa, Maria da Luz Rosario de; D'Elboux, Maria José

    2013-01-01

    CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVES Falls are a serious public health problem and are one of the biggest reasons for hospitalization, morbidity and mortality among elderly people. Moreover, few studies on predictors of falls have been conducted in low and middle income countries. The aim here was to identify elderly outpatient profiles according to sociodemographic, clinical, physical and functional variables and correlate them with occurrences of falls among these subjects. DESIGN AND SETTING Cross-sectional descriptive study forming part of the project "Quality of Life of Frail Elderly People", carried out in Campinas, Brazil. METHODS The subjects were 145 elderly individuals (76.3 ± 7.8 years old), of whom 65% were women, who were living in the city of Campinas or nearby and were attended at the geriatric outpatient clinic of a University Hospital. Sociodemographic, clinical, physical and functional data, as well as fall occurrence data, were gathered. Cluster analyses and comparisons between groups were carried out. RESULTS Cluster analysis identified two distinct groups related to the study variables, and the determinants for this distinction were: gender, marital status, physical performance, handgrip strength and functional independence. These groups were compared according to occurrences of falls over the last year, and significant differences between them were found. CONCLUSIONS The results showed that greater occurrences of falls were associated with a profile of elderly people comprising female gender, single status, lower muscle strength and physical performance regarding balance and gait, and lower independence in motor tasks for activities of daily living.

  20. Elderly outpatient profile and predictors of falls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace Angélica de Oliveira Gomes

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVESFalls are a serious public health problem and are one of the biggest reasons for hospitalization, morbidity and mortality among elderly people. Moreover, few studies on predictors of falls have been conducted in low and middle income countries. The aim here was to identify elderly outpatient profiles according to sociodemographic, clinical, physical and functional variables and correlate them with occurrences of falls among these subjects.DESIGN AND SETTINGCross-sectional descriptive study forming part of the project “Quality of Life of Frail Elderly People”, carried out in Campinas, Brazil.METHODSThe subjects were 145 elderly individuals (76.3 ± 7.8 years old, of whom 65% were women, who were living in the city of Campinas or nearby and were attended at the geriatric outpatient clinic of a University Hospital. Sociodemographic, clinical, physical and functional data, as well as fall occurrence data, were gathered. Cluster analyses and comparisons between groups were carried out.RESULTSCluster analysis identified two distinct groups related to the study variables, and the determinants for this distinction were: gender, marital status, physical performance, handgrip strength and functional independence. These groups were compared according to occurrences of falls over the last year, and significant differences between them were found.CONCLUSIONSThe results showed that greater occurrences of falls were associated with a profile of elderly people comprising female gender, single status, lower muscle strength and physical performance regarding balance and gait, and lower independence in motor tasks for activities of daily living.

  1. Use of Postpartum Care: Predictors and Barriers

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    Jessica N. DiBari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to identify actual and perceived barriers to postpartum care among a probability sample of women who gave birth in Los Angeles County, California in 2007. Survey data from the 2007 Los Angeles Mommy and Baby (LAMB study (N = 4,075 were used to identify predictors and barriers to postpartum care use. The LAMB study was a cross-sectional, population-based study that examined maternal and child health outcomes during the preconception, prenatal, and postpartum periods. Multivariable analyses identified low income, being separated/divorced and never married, trying hard to get pregnant or trying to prevent pregnancy, Medi-Cal insurance holders, and lack of prenatal care to be risk factors of postpartum care nonuse, while Hispanic ethnicity was protective. The most commonly reported barriers to postpartum care use were feeling fine, being too busy with the baby, having other things going on, and a lack of need. Findings from this study can inform the development of interventions targeting subgroups at risk for not obtaining postpartum care. Community education and improved access to care can further increase the acceptability of postpartum visits and contribute to improvements in women’s health. Postpartum care can serve as a gateway to engage underserved populations in the continuum of women’s health care.

  2. Predictors of malignancy in primary aldosteronism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agha, Ayman; Hornung, Matthias; Iesalnieks, Igors; Schreyer, Andreas; Jung, Ernst Michael; Haneya, Assad; Schlitt, Hans J

    2014-01-01

    Primary aldosteronism (PA, also Conn syndrome) is a benign disease in majority of cases. However, malignant transformation has been described. Present study reports on three cases of aldosterone producing adrenocortical carcinoma (APAC) in comparison to patients with benign PA. Data of patients undergoing adrenalectomy for benign PA were compared to patients with APAC. Retrospective chart analysis was performed. All patients received spironolactone for 6-8 weeks preoperatively. Seventy-four patients underwent adrenalectomy for PA between 1994 and 2011. Three of them revealed an APAC. Patients with APAC presented with a significantly lower serum potassium level (1.7 mmol/l vs. 3.4 mmol/l, p = 0.001) and significant larger tumors (5.2 vs. 1.8 cm, p = 0.002). In addition, aldosterone/renin (A/R) ratio 675 in patients with APAC as compared to 74 in patients with benign PA (p = 0.0001). Sixty-eight of 71 patients with benign PA underwent minimal invasive surgery, whereas all three patients with APAC were operated conventionally. All patients with APAC developed disease recurrence 6-18 months postoperatively. Tumor size >4 cm and a very high A/R ratio seems to predictors of malignancy in patients with PA. If these criteria are present, open adrenalectomy should be performed instead of endoscopic procedure.

  3. Spirituality: an overlooked predictor of placebo effects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohls, Nikola; Sauer, Sebastian; Offenbächer, Martin; Giordano, James

    2011-06-27

    Empirical findings have identified spirituality as a potential health resource. Whereas older research has associated such effects with the social component of religion, newer conceptualizations propose that spiritual experiences and the intrapersonal effects that are facilitated by regular spiritual practice might be pivotal to understanding potential salutogenesis. Ongoing studies suggest that spiritual experiences and practices involve a variety of neural systems that may facilitate neural 'top-down' effects that are comparable if not identical to those engaged in placebo responses. As meaningfulness seems to be both a hallmark of spirituality and placebo reactions, it may be regarded as an overarching psychological concept that is important to engaging and facilitating psychophysiological mechanisms that are involved in health-related effects. Empirical evidence suggests that spirituality may under certain conditions be a predictor of placebo response and effects. Assessment of patients' spirituality and making use of various resources to accommodate patients' spiritual needs reflect our most current understanding of the physiological, psychological and socio-cultural aspects of spirituality, and may also increase the likelihood of eliciting self-healing processes. We advocate the position that a research agenda addressing responses and effects of both placebo and spirituality could therefore be (i) synergistic, (ii) valuable to each phenomenon on its own, and (iii) contributory to an extended placebo paradigm that is centred around the concept of meaningfulness.

  4. Use of postpartum care: predictors and barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiBari, Jessica N; Yu, Stella M; Chao, Shin M; Lu, Michael C

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to identify actual and perceived barriers to postpartum care among a probability sample of women who gave birth in Los Angeles County, California in 2007. Survey data from the 2007 Los Angeles Mommy and Baby (LAMB) study (N = 4,075) were used to identify predictors and barriers to postpartum care use. The LAMB study was a cross-sectional, population-based study that examined maternal and child health outcomes during the preconception, prenatal, and postpartum periods. Multivariable analyses identified low income, being separated/divorced and never married, trying hard to get pregnant or trying to prevent pregnancy, Medi-Cal insurance holders, and lack of prenatal care to be risk factors of postpartum care nonuse, while Hispanic ethnicity was protective. The most commonly reported barriers to postpartum care use were feeling fine, being too busy with the baby, having other things going on, and a lack of need. Findings from this study can inform the development of interventions targeting subgroups at risk for not obtaining postpartum care. Community education and improved access to care can further increase the acceptability of postpartum visits and contribute to improvements in women's health. Postpartum care can serve as a gateway to engage underserved populations in the continuum of women's health care.

  5. Dyspnea as an Independent Predictor of Mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesola, Gene R.; Ahsan, Habibul

    2014-01-01

    Background Dyspnea is a common and easily elicited presenting complaint in patients seen by physicians who evaluate and take care of chronic respiratory disorders. Although dyspnea is subjective and tends to increase with age or reduced lung function, it appears to be reproducible as a symptom and often signifies serious underlying disease. Methods Systematic review of longitudinal studies with dyspnea as the exposure and mortality as the outcome; age, smoking, and lung function had to be controlled for to be included in the review. In addition, a minimum sample size at baseline of 500 subjects was required for each study. Results From over 3,000 potential references ten longitudinal studies met all criteria and were included. All ten studies suggested that dyspnea was an independent predictor of mortality with point estimates by odds ratio, rate ratio, or hazard ratios ranging from 1.3 up to 2.9-fold greater than baseline. All ten studies had actual or implied 95% confidence interval bands greater than the null value of one. Conclusion Dyspnea, a symptom, predicts mortality and is a proxy for underlying diseases, most often of heart and lung. Therefore, chronic dyspnea needs to be evaluated as to etiology to allow for treatment to minimize morbidity and mortality when possible. PMID:25070878

  6. Preschool Predictors of Kindergarten Language Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Walk

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study is to explore a variety of cognitive and social variables which are most relevant to children’s linguistic success in an educational setting. The study examines kindergarten English language outcomes in classrooms containing monolingual English speaking children and bilingual children who speak English and one other language. Data from the National Center for Early Development and Learning Multistate Study of Pre-Kindergarten (2001-2003 regarding classroom and student characteristics were used for bilingual (N = 120 and monolingual (N = 534 children. Hierarchical regression analysis (Study 1 and path analysis (Study 2 were conducted to determine the cognitive and social variables present in preschool that are most predictive of English skills in kindergarten. The results of the studies demonstrate that social variables were important for both monolingual and bilingual children. Personality variables were more predictive for monolingual children, whereas teacher relationship variables were more important for bilingual children. Simple and routine adult interaction was predictive of English skills in both groups, which may indicate the importance of implicit learning over explicit instruction in early language acquisition. The present studies found different predictors of English language skills for monolingual and bilingual kindergarteners.

  7. Predictors of slow colonic transit in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridha, Zainab; Quinn, Rakesh; Croaker, Geoffrey David Hain

    2015-02-01

    Slow transit constipation (STC) and functional fecal retention (FFR) are two forms of severe intractable constipation in childhood diagnosed by nuclear transit studies (NTS). This retrospective study aims to identify the predicting factors for STC and FFR by looking at the association with neuropsychiatric disorders (NPD), obesity, family history of constipation and atopic disease. A retrospective chart review was conducted on children with intractable constipation referred for NTS between 1st April 2003 and 1st April 2014. Comparisons were made between STC, FFR and normal transit patients with regards to NPD, obesity (BMI z score >95th percentile), family history of constipation in first and second-degree relatives and atopic disease which included food allergy, asthma and eczema. Between 2003 and 2014, 97 patients were referred for a NTS. Out of 36 patients with NPD, 21 (58.3 %) had STC and 13 (36.1 %) had FFR (p < 0.05). 15.8 % of patients with constipation were obese, compared to 6.4 % in the general Australian paediatric population (p < 0.05). There was no significant association between constipation and atopic disease or family history. Neuropsychiatric disorders, in particular autism, are useful predictors of STC and FFR in children. Obesity may be associated with a higher risk of developing chronic constipation.

  8. Predictors of Stress in College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Dalia; Camart, Nathalie; Romo, Lucia

    2017-01-01

    University students often face different stressful situations and preoccupations: the first contact with the university, the freedom of schedule organization, the selection of their master's degree, very selective fields, etc. The purpose of this study is to evaluate a model of vulnerability to stress in French college students. Stress factors were evaluated by a battery of six scales that was accessible online during 3 months. A total of 483 students, aged between 18 and 24 years (Mean = 20.23, standard deviation = 1.99), was included in the study. The results showed that 72.9, 86.3, and 79.3% of them were suffering from psychological distress, anxiety and depressive symptoms, respectively. More than half the sample was also suffering from low self-esteem (57.6%), little optimism (56.7%), and a low sense of self-efficacy (62.7%). Regression analyses revealed that life satisfaction, self-esteem, optimism, self-efficacy and psychological distress were the most important predictors of stress. These findings allow us to better understand stress-vulnerability factors in students and drive us to substantially consider them in prevention programs.

  9. Socioeconomic factors as predictors of organ donation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Malay B; Vilchez, Valery; Goble, Adam; Daily, Michael F; Berger, Jonathan C; Gedaly, Roberto; DuBay, Derek A

    2018-01-01

    Despite numerous initiatives to increase solid organs for transplant, the gap between donors and recipients widens. There is little in the literature identifying socioeconomic predictors for donation. We evaluate the correlation between socioeconomic factors and familial authorization for donation. A retrospective analysis of adult potential donor referrals between 2007 and 2012 to our organ procurement organization (OPO) was performed. Potential donor information was obtained from the OPO database, death certificates, and the US Census Report. Data on demographics, education, residence, income, registry status, cause and manner of death, as well as OPO assessments and approach for donation were collected. End point was familial authorization for donation. A total of 1059 potential donors were included, with an overall authorization rate of 47%. The majority was not on the donor registry (73%). Younger donors (18-39 y: odds ratio [OR] = 4.9, P donation first mentioned by the local health care provider (OR = 1.8, P = 0.01) were also independently associated with higher authorization rates. Donor registration correlated most strongly with the highest authorization rates. These results indicate that public educational efforts in populations with unfavorable socioeconomic considerations may be beneficial in improving donor registration. Collaborations with local providers as well as OPO in-hospital assessments and approach techniques can help with improving authorization rates. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Spirituality: an overlooked predictor of placebo effects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohls, Nikola; Sauer, Sebastian; Offenbächer, Martin; Giordano, James

    2011-01-01

    Empirical findings have identified spirituality as a potential health resource. Whereas older research has associated such effects with the social component of religion, newer conceptualizations propose that spiritual experiences and the intrapersonal effects that are facilitated by regular spiritual practice might be pivotal to understanding potential salutogenesis. Ongoing studies suggest that spiritual experiences and practices involve a variety of neural systems that may facilitate neural ‘top-down’ effects that are comparable if not identical to those engaged in placebo responses. As meaningfulness seems to be both a hallmark of spirituality and placebo reactions, it may be regarded as an overarching psychological concept that is important to engaging and facilitating psychophysiological mechanisms that are involved in health-related effects. Empirical evidence suggests that spirituality may under certain conditions be a predictor of placebo response and effects. Assessment of patients' spirituality and making use of various resources to accommodate patients' spiritual needs reflect our most current understanding of the physiological, psychological and socio-cultural aspects of spirituality, and may also increase the likelihood of eliciting self-healing processes. We advocate the position that a research agenda addressing responses and effects of both placebo and spirituality could therefore be (i) synergistic, (ii) valuable to each phenomenon on its own, and (iii) contributory to an extended placebo paradigm that is centred around the concept of meaningfulness. PMID:21576141

  11. Prevalence and predictors of Axis I disorders in a large sample of treatment-seeking victims of sexual abuse and incest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eoin McElroy

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Childhood sexual abuse (CSA is a common occurrence and a robust, yet non-specific, predictor of adult psychopathology. While many demographic and abuse factors have been shown to impact this relationship, their common and specific effects remain poorly understood. Objective: This study sought to assess the prevalence of Axis I disorders in a large sample of help-seeking victims of sexual trauma, and to examine the common and specific effects of demographic and abuse characteristics across these different diagnoses. Method: The participants were attendees at four treatment centres in Denmark that provide psychological therapy for victims of CSA (N=434. Axis I disorders were assessed using the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III (MCMI-III. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to examine the associations between CSA characteristics (age of onset, duration, number of abusers, number of abusive acts and 10 adult clinical syndromes. Results: There was significant variation in the prevalence of disorders and the abuse characteristics were differentially associated with the outcome variables. Having experienced sexual abuse from more than one perpetrator was the strongest predictor of psychopathology. Conclusions: The relationship between CSA and adult psychopathology is complex. Abuse characteristics have both unique and shared effects across different diagnoses.

  12. The importance of campaign saliency as a predictor of attitude and behavior change: A pilot evaluation of social marketing campaign Fat Talk Free Week.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnett, Bernice Raveche; Buelow, Robert; Franko, Debra L; Becker, Carolyn; Rodgers, Rachel F; Austin, S Bryn

    2014-01-01

    Fat Talk Free Week (FTFW), a social marketing campaign designed to decrease self-disparaging talk about body and weight, has not yet been evaluated. We conducted a theory-informed pilot evaluation of FTFW with two college samples using a pre- and posttest design. Aligned with the central tenets of the Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM), we investigated the importance of FTFW saliency as a predictor of fat talk behavior change. Our analytic sample consisted of 118 female participants (83% of original sample). Approximately 76% of the sample was non-Hispanic White, 14% Asian, and 8% Hispanic. At baseline, more than 50% of respondents reported engaging in frequent self fat talk; at posttest, this number dropped to 34% of respondents. Multivariable regression models supported campaign saliency as the single strongest predictor of a decrease in self fat talk. Our results support the social diffusion of campaign messages among shared communities, as we found significant decreases in fat talk among campaign attenders and nonattenders. FTFW may be a promising short-term health communication campaign to reduce fat talk, as campaign messages are salient among university women and may encourage interpersonal communication.

  13. Part 1: The influence of personal and situational predictors on nurses' aspirations to management roles: preliminary findings of a national survey of Canadian nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laschinger, Heather K Spence; Wong, Carol A; MacDonald-Rencz, Sandra; Burkoski, Vanessa; Cummings, Greta; D'Amour, Danielle; Grinspun, Doris; Gurnham, Mary-Ellen; Huckstep, Sherri; Leiter, Michael; Perkin, Karen; MacPhee, Maura; Matthews, Sue; O'Brien-Pallas, Linda; Ritchie, Judith; Ruffolo, Maurio; Vincent, Leslie; Wilk, Piotr; Almost, Joan; Purdy, Nancy; Daniels, Frieda; Grau, Ashley

    2013-03-01

    To examine the influence of personal and situational factors on direct-care nurses' interests in pursuing nursing management roles. Nursing managers are ageing and nurses do not appear to be interested in nursing management roles, raising concerns about a nursing leadership shortage in the next decade. Little research has focused on factors influencing nurses' career aspirations to nursing management roles. A national survey of nurses from nine Canadian provinces was conducted (n = 1241). Multiple regression was used to test a model of personal and situational predictors of nurses' career aspirations to management roles. Twenty-four per cent of nurses expressed interest in pursuing nursing management roles. Personal and situational factors explained 60.2% of nurses' aspirations to management roles. Age, educational preparation, feasibility of further education, leadership self-efficacy, career motivation, and opportunity to motivate others were the strongest predictors of aspirations for management roles. Personal factors were more strongly associated with career aspirations than situational factors. There is a steady decline in interest in management roles with increasing age. Nursing leadership training to develop leadership self-efficacy (particularly for younger nurses) and organizational support for pursuing advanced education may encourage nurses to pursue nursing management roles. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. Prevalence and predictors of Axis I disorders in a large sample of treatment-seeking victims of sexual abuse and incest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElroy, Eoin; Shevlin, Mark; Elklit, Ask; Hyland, Philip; Murphy, Siobhan; Murphy, Jamie

    2016-01-01

    Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is a common occurrence and a robust, yet non-specific, predictor of adult psychopathology. While many demographic and abuse factors have been shown to impact this relationship, their common and specific effects remain poorly understood. This study sought to assess the prevalence of Axis I disorders in a large sample of help-seeking victims of sexual trauma, and to examine the common and specific effects of demographic and abuse characteristics across these different diagnoses. The participants were attendees at four treatment centres in Denmark that provide psychological therapy for victims of CSA (N=434). Axis I disorders were assessed using the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III (MCMI-III). Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to examine the associations between CSA characteristics (age of onset, duration, number of abusers, number of abusive acts) and 10 adult clinical syndromes. There was significant variation in the prevalence of disorders and the abuse characteristics were differentially associated with the outcome variables. Having experienced sexual abuse from more than one perpetrator was the strongest predictor of psychopathology. The relationship between CSA and adult psychopathology is complex. Abuse characteristics have both unique and shared effects across different diagnoses.

  15. Identifying Domain-General and Domain-Specific Predictors of Low Mathematics Performance: A Classification and Regression Tree Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J. Purpura

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Many children struggle to successfully acquire early mathematics skills. Theoretical and empirical evidence has pointed to deficits in domain-specific skills (e.g., non-symbolic mathematics skills or domain-general skills (e.g., executive functioning and language as underlying low mathematical performance. In the current study, we assessed a sample of 113 three- to five-year old preschool children on a battery of domain-specific and domain-general factors in the fall and spring of their preschool year to identify Time 1 (fall factors associated with low performance in mathematics knowledge at Time 2 (spring. We used the exploratory approach of classification and regression tree analyses, a strategy that uses step-wise partitioning to create subgroups from a larger sample using multiple predictors, to identify the factors that were the strongest classifiers of low performance for younger and older preschool children. Results indicated that the most consistent classifier of low mathematics performance at Time 2 was children’s Time 1 mathematical language skills. Further, other distinct classifiers of low performance emerged for younger and older children. These findings suggest that risk classification for low mathematics performance may differ depending on children’s age.

  16. Predictors of effective leadership in industry - should engineering education focus on traditional intelligence, personality, or emotional intelligence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lappalainen, Pia

    2015-03-01

    Despite the changing global and industrial conditions requiring new approaches to leadership, management training as part of higher engineering education still remains understudied. The subsequent gap in engineering education calls for research on today's leader requirements and pedagogy supporting the inclusion of management competence in higher engineering education. Previous organisation and management studies have, on a general level, established the importance of managerial qualities for industrial performance, but the nature and make-up of these qualifications has not been adequately analysed. To fill the related research gap, the present work embarked on a quantitative empirical effort to identify predictors of successful leadership in engineering. In particular, this study investigated relationships between perceived leader performance and three dimensions of managerial capability: (1) mathematical-logical intelligence, (2) personality, and (3) socio-emotional intelligence. This work complemented previous research by resorting to both self-reports and other-reports: the results acquired from the managerial sample were compared to subordinate perceptions as measured through an emotive intelligence other-report and a general managerial competence multi-source appraisal. The sample comprised 80 superiors and 354 subordinates operating in seven organisations in engineering industries. The results from the quantitative measurements signalled the strongest correlation for socio-emotional intelligence and certain personality dimensions with successful leadership. Mathematical-logical intelligence demonstrated no correlation with subordinate perceptions of good leadership. These findings lay the foundation for the incorporation of socio-emotive skills into higher engineering education.

  17. Predictors of Erectile Dysfunction in Men with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Referred to a Tertiary Healthcare Centre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theophilus Ugwu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The frequency of erectile dysfunction (ED complicating diabetes mellitus (DM is reportedly high. However, its risk factors have not been well studied. Methods. This was a cross-sectional study of 160 male type 2 DM adults, aged 30–70 years, attending a tertiary healthcare clinic. Demographic and relevant clinical information was documented. Erectile function was assessed using an abridged version of the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-5. All subjects were evaluated for central obesity, glycemic control, peripheral arterial disease (PAD, autonomic neuropathy, dyslipidemia, and testosterone deficiency. Results. 152 (95% patients with a mean age of 60.3 ± 8.8 years completed the study. 71.1% had varying degrees of ED, while 58.3% suffered from a moderate-to-severe form. Independent predictors of ED [presented as adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence interval] were longer duration of DM, 1.14 (1.02–1.28, PAD, 3.87 (1.28–11.67, autonomic neuropathy, 3.51 (1.82–6.79, poor glycemic control, 7.12 (2.49–20.37, and testosterone deficiency, 6.63 (2.61–16.83. Conclusion. The prevalence of ED and its severe forms was high in this patient population. Poor glycemic control and testosterone deficiency were the strongest risk factors for ED, making it possibly a preventable condition.

  18. Conscientiousness, openness to experience and extraversion as predictors of nursing work performance: a facet-level analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellershaw, Julia; Fullarton, Christie; Rodwell, John; Mcwilliams, John

    2016-03-01

    This study examined the relationships between the personality traits of conscientiousness, openness and extraversion at trait and facet-levels and three indicators of work role performance; proficiency, 'adaptivity' and proactivity measured at individual, team and organisational levels. This is one of the first studies to explore the relationship between personality, measured at trait and facet-level and performance using a comprehensive range of performance indicators. An online survey of 393 nurses from health-care organisations across Australia was conducted to test hypothesised relationships. Path analyses revealed numerous relationships between personality, measured at both trait and facet-levels, and work role performance. Conscientiousness was highlighted as the strongest driver of work role performance across all the indicators, with extraversion also strongly associated with work role performance. Openness to experience, previously considered a week predictor of performance, was, when examined at the facet-level, related to all of the work role performance indicators. Results suggests a bandwidth effect, where the personality traits drive global performance while the facets drive specific performance. Better understanding of the relationship between personality and work role performance will help nurse managers to foster the fit between individual and organisation, improving job satisfaction, engagement, retention and performance in role. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Predictors of externalizing behavior problems in early elementary-aged children: the role of family and home environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Joseph M; Chiapa, Amanda; Walsh, Natalia Escobar

    2013-01-01

    As children enter elementary school they display behavioral orientations that reveal potential developmental trajectories. Developmental transitions offer unique opportunities for examining developmental pathways and the factors that influence emerging pathways. The primary goal of this investigation was to examine characteristics of family and home contexts in predicting externalizing behavior problems among children transitioning into elementary school. Dimensions of the family and home environments of maltreated and nonmaltreated children (N = 177) were examined and used to predict externalizing behavior problems. Maltreatment was assessed using case file information, characteristics of the family and home environment were rated by interviewers, and externalizing behavior was assessed by mother's ratings on the Child Behavior Checklist. Relative to nonmaltreated children, the family environments of physically abused children were characterized by higher levels of negative social interactions. Also, in comparison to nonmaltreated children, the home environments of children who experienced neglect were characterized as less organized and clean. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that physical abuse was the strongest predictor of externalizing behavior. After controlling for the contribution of physical abuse, mother's negative behavior toward the focal child, aggression between siblings, and the lack of an organized and clean home were each predictive of externalizing behavior.

  20. Video game characteristics, happiness and flow as predictors of addiction among video game players: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, Damien C; Williams, Glenn A; Griffiths, Mark D

    2013-09-01

    Video games provide opportunities for positive psychological experiences such as flow-like phenomena during play and general happiness that could be associated with gaming achievements. However, research has shown that specific features of game play may be associated with problematic behaviour associated with addiction-like experiences. The study was aimed at analysing whether certain structural characteristics of video games, flow, and global happiness could be predictive of video game addiction. A total of 110 video game players were surveyed about a game they had recently played by using a 24-item checklist of structural characteristics, an adapted Flow State Scale, the Oxford Happiness Questionnaire, and the Game Addiction Scale. The study revealed decreases in general happiness had the strongest role in predicting increases in gaming addiction. One of the nine factors of the flow experience was a significant predictor of gaming addiction - perceptions of time being altered during play. The structural characteristic that significantly predicted addiction was its social element with increased sociability being associated with higher levels of addictive-like experiences. Overall, the structural characteristics of video games, elements of the flow experience, and general happiness accounted for 49.2% of the total variance in Game Addiction Scale levels. Implications for interventions are discussed, particularly with regard to making players more aware of time passing and in capitalising on benefits of social features of video game play to guard against addictive-like tendencies among video game players.

  1. Truncated predictor feedback for time-delay systems

    CERN Document Server

    Zhou, Bin

    2014-01-01

    This book provides a systematic approach to the design of predictor based controllers for (time-varying) linear systems with either (time-varying) input or state delays. Differently from those traditional predictor based controllers, which are infinite-dimensional static feedback laws and may cause difficulties in their practical implementation, this book develops a truncated predictor feedback (TPF) which involves only finite dimensional static state feedback. Features and topics: A novel approach referred to as truncated predictor feedback for the stabilization of (time-varying) time-delay systems in both the continuous-time setting and the discrete-time setting is built systematically Semi-global and global stabilization problems of linear time-delay systems subject to either magnitude saturation or energy constraints are solved in a systematic manner Both stabilization of a single system and consensus of a group of systems (multi-agent systems) are treated in a unified manner by applying the truncated pre...

  2. The University Matriculation Examination as a Predictor of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The University Matriculation Examination as a Predictor of Performance in Post University Matriculation Examination: a Model for Educational development in the 21st Century. SO Uhunmwuangho, O Ogunbadeniyi ...

  3. Multiple Imputation of Predictor Variables Using Generalized Additive Models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Roel; van Buuren, Stef; Spiess, Martin

    2016-01-01

    The sensitivity of multiple imputation methods to deviations from their distributional assumptions is investigated using simulations, where the parameters of scientific interest are the coefficients of a linear regression model, and values in predictor variables are missing at random. The

  4. Patterns and predictors of exclusive breastfeeding among mothers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Patterns and predictors of exclusive breastfeeding among mothers in Ile Ife, Nigeria. Funmito O. Fehintola, Akintunde O. Fehintola, Olorunfemi Ogundele, Olumuyiwa A. Ogunlaja, Timothy O. Awotunde, Olufemi Aworinde, Idowu P. Ogunlaja ...

  5. Importance of predictor variables for models of chemical function

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Importance of random forest predictors for all classification models of chemical function. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Isaacs , K., M....

  6. Circulating cell free DNA as a predictor of systemic lupus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Circulating cell free DNA as a predictor of systemic lupus erythematosus severity and monitoring of therapy. Olfat M. Hendy, Tawfik Abdel Motalib, Mona A. El Shafie, Fatma A. Khalaf, Sobhy E. Kotb, Aziza Khalil, Salwa R. Ali ...

  7. Gender and distance influence performance predictors in young swimmers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Victor Mezzaroba

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Predictors of performance in adult swimmers are constantly changing during youth especially because the training routine begins even before puberty in the modality. Therefore this study aimed to determine the group of parameters that best predict short and middle swimming distance performances of young swimmers of both genders. Thirty-three 10-to 16-years-old male and female competitive swimmers participated in the study. Multiple linear regression (MLR was used considering mean speed of maximum 100, 200 and 400 m efforts as dependent variables, and five parameters groups as possible predictors (anthropometry, body composition, physiological and biomechanical parameters, chronological age/pubic hair. The main results revealed explanatory powers of almost 100% for both genders and all performances, but with different predictors entered in MLR models of each parameter group or all variables. Thus, there are considerable differences in short and middle swimming distance, and males and females predictors that should be considered in training programs.

  8. Post-operative pain prevalence, predictors, management practices ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MWASHAMBWA

    range= 14–80 years). The prevalence ... delayed wound healing, transition to chronic pain, reduced vital capacity and alveolar ventilation, pneumonia ... The most common predictors of severe pain reported include female sex, young age, high.

  9. Executive functions as predictors of math learning disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toll, S.W.M.; van der Ven, S.H.G.; Kroesbergen, E.H.; van Luit, J.E.H.

    2011-01-01

    In the past years, an increasing number of studies have investigated executive functions as predictors of individual differences in mathematical abilities. The present longitudinal study was designed to investigate whether the executive functions shifting, inhibition, and working memory differ

  10. Microalbuminuria in pregnancy as a predictor of preeclampsia and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Microalbuminuria in pregnancy as a predictor of preeclampsia and eclampsia. Babatunde L. Salako, Oladapo Olayemi, Akin-Tunde A. Odukogbe, Kayode S. Adedapo, Chris O. Aimakhu, Francis E. Alu, Bola Ola ...

  11. Predictors of severe complications in intracranial meningioma surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartek, Jiri; Sjåvik, Kristin; Förander, Petter

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate predictors of complications after intracranial meningioma resection using a standardized reporting system for adverse events. METHODS: A retrospective review was conducted in a Scandinavian population-based cohort of 979 adult operations for intracranial meningioma perfo...

  12. Clinical Profile and Predictors of Severe Illness in young South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    -drawing are useful predictors of severity of illness as well as effective and safe tools for triaging o f young infants for urgent hospital management at primary care centres. Neonatal hyperbilirubinaemia, pneumonia and sepsis are the common

  13. Echocardiographic predictors of atrial fibrillation after mitral valve replacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Shimaa Mohamed Sabry

    2017-12-01

    Conclusion: LA systolic strain and LV global longitudinal strain were significant predictors of POAF. Echocardiographic parameters can identify patients at greater risk of developing POAF who can benefit from preventive measure and guide the selection of prosthesis.

  14. Admission Hyperglycemia an Independent Predictor of Outcome in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-05-22

    May 22, 2017 ... Hyperglycemia at stroke onset without prior history of diabetes mellitus have particularly poor prognosis, than those with hyperglycemia in known diabetes. KEYWORDS: Acute ischemic stroke, diabetes mellitus, stress hyperglycemia. Admission Hyperglycemia an Independent Predictor of Outcome in.

  15. Diabetic retinopathy: A predictor of coronary artery disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fawzia El Demerdash

    2012-06-01

    Conclusion: Diabetic retinopathy is a good predictor of coronary artery disease that exceeds the conventional risk factors. Diabetics with retinopathy would benefit from early coronary angiography and diabetic retinocoronary clinics are warranted.

  16. Noninvasive Ventilation Intolerance: Characteristics, Predictors, and Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jinhua; Duan, Jun; Bai, Linfu; Zhou, Lintong

    2016-03-01

    Noninvasive ventilation (NIV) intolerance is one reason for NIV failure. However, the characteristics, predictors, and outcomes of NIV intolerance are unclear. A prospective observational study was performed in the respiratory intensive care unit of a teaching hospital. Subjects with acute respiratory failure who used NIV were enrolled. Initially, continuous use of NIV was encouraged. However, if the subject could not tolerate NIV, it was used intermittently. NIV intolerance was defined as termination of NIV due to subject refusal to receive it because of discomfort, even after intermittent use was attempted. A total of 961 subjects were enrolled in the study. Of these, 50 subjects (5.2%) experienced NIV intolerance after a median 2.4 h of NIV support. Age (OR = 0.98, 95% CI 0.963-0.996) and heart rate (OR = 1.02, 95% CI 1.006-1.030) measured before NIV were 2 independent risk factors of NIV intolerance. After 1-2 h of NIV, independent risk factors of NIV intolerance were heart rate (OR = 1.03, 95% CI 1.016-1.044) and breathing frequency (OR = 1.06, 95% CI 1.027-1.099). Intolerant subjects had no improvement in mean arterial pressure, heart rate, or breathing frequency after the NIV intervention. Moreover, intolerant subjects had a higher intubation rate (44.0% vs 25.8%, P = .008) and higher mortality (34.0% vs 22.4%, P = .08). The three most common complaints were that NIV worsened subjects' distress (46%), that NIV resulted in dyspnea (26%), and that the flow or pressure of NIV was too strong to bear (16%). NIV intolerance worsened subjects' outcomes. Younger subjects with a high heart rate and breathing frequency may be more likely to experience NIV intolerance. Copyright © 2016 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  17. Predictors of Nondiagnostic Ultrasound for Appendicitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Christine; Wang, Nancy E; Imler, Daniel L; Vasanawala, Shreyas S; Bruzoni, Matias; Quinn, James V

    2017-03-01

    Ionizing radiation and cost make ultrasound (US), when available, the first imaging study for the diagnosis of suspected pediatric appendicitis. US is less sensitive and specific than computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans, which are often performed after nondiagnostic US. We sought to determine predictors of nondiagnostic US in order to guide efficient ordering of imaging studies. A prospective cohort study of consecutive patients 4 to 30 years of age with suspected appendicitis took place at an emergency department with access to 24/7 US, MRI, and CT capabilities. Patients with US as their initial study were identified. Clinical (i.e., duration of illness, highest fever, and right lower quadrant pain) and demographic (i.e., age and sex) variables were collected. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated based on Centers for Disease Control and Prevention criteria; BMI >85th percentile was categorized as overweight. Patients were followed until day 7. Univariate and stepwise multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed. Over 3 months, 106 patients had US first for suspected appendicitis; 52 (49%) had nondiagnostic US results. Eighteen patients had appendicitis, and there were no missed cases after discharge. On univariate analysis, male sex, a yearly increase in age, and overweight BMI were associated with nondiagnostic US (p appendicitis, and it may be more efficient to consider alternatives to US first for these patients. Also, this information about the accuracy of US to diagnose suspected appendicitis may be useful to clinicians who wish to engage in shared decision-making with the parents or guardians of children regarding imaging options for children with acute abdominal pain. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Cognitive predictors of success in learning Russian.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verbitskaya, L.A.

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the role of cognitive characteristics in the success in learning Russian, assessed through teachers’ grades and test scores on standardized state exams. This paper examines the relationship between cognitive characteristics, such as nonverbal intelligence, working memory and speed of information processing, and the results of the Unified State Exam for 11th grade students, the Basic State Exam for 9th grade students and the traditional assessment of Russian language learning. This study involved students in the 9th and 11th grades from four educational institutions in the Moscow and St. Petersburg regions; 427 students were studying in the 9th grade (50.3% were boys and 398 students were studying in the 11th grade (44.8% were boys. This study concluded that expert assessment of Russian language learning is more associated with successful test scores on the Unified State Exam (r = 0.71, p < 0.01 than with the results of the Basic State Exam (r = 0.46, р < 0.01. This study showed that at the lower and upper levels of secondary education, nonverbal intelligence is a significant predictor of success in learning the Russian language according to expert estimates. In addition, we found differences in the relationship between cognitive performance and success in learning the Russian language as assessed by tests. Nonverbal intelligence contributes significantly to individual differences in scores for the Unified State Exam in Russian, while the contribution of cognitive characteristics on the Basic State Exam is not statistically significant.

  19. Ketogenic diet: Predictors of seizure control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Nitin; Arkilo, Dimitrios; Farooq, Osman; Gillogly, Cynthia; Kavak, Katelyn S; Weinstock, Arie

    2017-01-01

    Background: The ketogenic diet is an effective non-pharmacologic treatment for medically resistant epilepsy. The aim of this study was to identify any predictors that may influence the response of ketogenic diet. Methods: A retrospective chart review for all patients with medically resistant epilepsy was performed at a tertiary care epilepsy center from 1996 to 2012. Patient- and diet-related variables were evaluated with respect to seizure reduction at 1, 3, 6, 9 and 12-month intervals and divided into four possible outcome classes. Results: Sixty-three patients met inclusion. Thirty-seven (59%) reported >50% seizure reduction at 3 months with 44% and 37% patients benefiting at 6-month and 12-month follow up, respectively. A trend toward significant seizure improvement was noted in 48% patients with seizure onset >1 year at 12-month (p = 0.09) interval and in 62% patients with >10 seizure/day at 6-month interval (p = 0.054). An ordinal logistic regression showed later age of seizure to have higher odds of favorable response at 1-month (p = 0.005) and 3-month (p = 0.013) follow up. Patients with non-fasting diet induction were more likely to have a favorable outcome at 6 months (p = 0.008) as do females (p = 0.037) and those treated with higher fat ratio diet (p = 0.034). Conclusion: Our study reports the effectiveness of ketogenic diet in children with medically resistant epilepsy. Later age of seizure onset, female gender, higher ketogenic diet ratio and non-fasting induction were associated with better odds of improved seizure outcome. A larger cohort is required to confirm these findings. PMID:28620490

  20. Predictors of Ramadan fasting during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Bilsen, Lily A; Savitri, Ary I; Amelia, Dwirani; Baharuddin, Mohammad; Grobbee, Diederick E; Uiterwaal, Cuno S P M

    2016-12-01

    Although the health effects of Ramadan fasting during pregnancy are still unclear, it is important to identify the predictors and motivational factors involved in women's decision to observe the fast. We investigated these factors in a cross sectional study of 187 pregnant Muslim women who attended antenatal care visits in the Budi Kemuliaan Hospital, Jakarta, Indonesia. The odds of adherence to fasting were reduced by 4% for every week increase in gestational age during Ramadan [odds ratio (OR) 0.96; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.92, 1.00; p=0.06] and increased by 10% for every one unit increase of women's prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) (OR 1.10; 95% CI 0.99, 1.23; p=0.08). Nonparticipation was associated with opposition from husbands (OR 0.34; 95% CI 0.14, 0.82; p=0.02) and with women's fear of possible adverse effects of fasting on their own or the baby's health (OR 0.47; 95% CI 0.22, 1.01; p=0.05 and OR 0.43; 95% CI 0.21, 0.89; p=0.02, respectively), although they were attenuated in multivariable analysis. Neither age, income, education, employment, parity, experience of morning sickness, nor fasting during pregnancy outside of Ramadan determined fasting during pregnancy. Linear regression analysis within women who fasted showed that the number of days fasted were inversely associated with women's gestational age, fear of possible adverse effects of fasting on their own or the fetal health, and with opposition from husbands. In conclusion, earlier gestational age during Ramadan, husband's opinion and possibly higher prepregnancy BMI, influence women's adherence to Ramadan fasting during pregnancy. Fear of adverse health effects of Ramadan fasting is common in both fasting and non-fasting pregnant women. Copyright © 2016 Ministry of Health, Saudi Arabia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Predictors of stroke - associated mortality in Africans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo-Mbenza, B; Tonduangu, K; Muyeno, K; Phanzu, M; Kebolo Baku, A; Muvova, D; Lelo, T; Odio, W; Lukoki, L; Bikangi Nkiabungu, F; Kilembe, M; Tshiamala, P; Katalay, L; Mwema, M; Muyembe, T

    2000-01-01

    The objective of the study was to examine the association of the stroke-related mortality with gender, age, ethnicity, social class, blood pressure, fibrinogen, selected clinical data and meteorologic parameters in hospitalized Africans. A series of 1032 consecutively hospitalized incident cases of acute stroke between 1987 and 1991 was studied. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to estimate the risk (odds ratio=OR) of stroke mortality for meteorologic parameters on the month before the accident onset and selected sociodemophysiological variables on the day of admission. The variables significantly associated with stroke mortality in multivariate analysis were male sex (OR= 2.3 [1.3 - 4.1]), low social class (OR= 2.0 [1.2 - 4.0]), migrant tribes (OR= 1.7 [1.5 - 1.8]), ischemic stroke (OR= 1.4 [1.2 - 1.6]), heart rate >=100 bpm (OR= 1.1 [1.0 - 1.2]), age > or =60 years (OR= 1.03 [1.01 - 1.06]), systolic blood pressure> 160 mmHg (OR= 1. 02 [1.01 - 1.03]), and fibrinogen > or =400 mg/dl (OR= 1.01 [1.002 - 1. 02]). However, diastolic blood pressure > 90 mmHg and global radiation< 340 Cal/cm(2)/day were significantly (p< 0.05) and inversely associated with stroke mortality. Our results indicate that male sex, older age, low social class, migration, ischemic stroke and higher baseline levels of heart rate, systolic blood pressure and fibrinogen are significant predictors of stroke mortality, but lower global radiation and higher diastolic blood pressure are inversely linked.

  2. Predictors of successful cancer prevention programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porzsolt, Franz; Kirner, Anita; Kaplan, Robert M

    2009-01-01

    Finding the optimal use of health-care resources requires the reliable estimation of costs and consequences. Acquiring these estimates may not be difficult for some common treatments. More difficult is the optimization of resources in the area of diagnostics. Only a few attempts have been made to optimize the use of resources in the area of prevention. Several aspects have to be considered when optimizing the resources for prevention: (1) participation rates in structured prevention programs are low, (2), acquiring data on follow-up and outcomes is difficult, (3) there are concerns about the quality of information available to public, and (4), the public is often unaware of scientific assessments of prevention programs. As prevention programs are costly long-term projects, a strategy to select these programs according to possible predictors of success might be useful. The few analyses of cancer prevention in the literature have been directed towards the most common malignant diseases (as assessed by incidence) such as cancer of the breast, colon, lung and prostate. We argue that incidence is a poor marker for selecting secondary prevention programs. Incidence may be a misleading indicator for two reasons: incidence of disease does not predict efficiency of management or good health outcomes, and incidence does not separate clinically significant from non-significant disease. The traditional strategy is based on the assumption that more screening increases the chance of cure. We propose an alternative outcomes model that suggests better disease management justifies new prevention programs. Indicators for better disease management are effective and efficient treatments as well as high-quality screening (sensitivity and specificity) techniques and possibly "side-effects of prevention programs," which provide early signs of success to motivate the patient's participation, to keep up with the program and finally to succeed.

  3. Ketogenic diet: Predictors of seizure control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Nitin; Arkilo, Dimitrios; Farooq, Osman; Gillogly, Cynthia; Kavak, Katelyn S; Weinstock, Arie

    2017-01-01

    The ketogenic diet is an effective non-pharmacologic treatment for medically resistant epilepsy. The aim of this study was to identify any predictors that may influence the response of ketogenic diet. A retrospective chart review for all patients with medically resistant epilepsy was performed at a tertiary care epilepsy center from 1996 to 2012. Patient- and diet-related variables were evaluated with respect to seizure reduction at 1, 3, 6, 9 and 12-month intervals and divided into four possible outcome classes. Sixty-three patients met inclusion. Thirty-seven (59%) reported >50% seizure reduction at 3 months with 44% and 37% patients benefiting at 6-month and 12-month follow up, respectively. A trend toward significant seizure improvement was noted in 48% patients with seizure onset >1 year at 12-month (p = 0.09) interval and in 62% patients with >10 seizure/day at 6-month interval (p = 0.054). An ordinal logistic regression showed later age of seizure to have higher odds of favorable response at 1-month (p = 0.005) and 3-month (p = 0.013) follow up. Patients with non-fasting diet induction were more likely to have a favorable outcome at 6 months (p = 0.008) as do females (p = 0.037) and those treated with higher fat ratio diet (p = 0.034). Our study reports the effectiveness of ketogenic diet in children with medically resistant epilepsy. Later age of seizure onset, female gender, higher ketogenic diet ratio and non-fasting induction were associated with better odds of improved seizure outcome. A larger cohort is required to confirm these findings.

  4. Predictors of treatment failure for pneumatic retinopexy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rootman, Dan B; Luu, Shelly; M Conti, Stephen; Mandell, Mark; Devenyi, Robert; Lam, Wai-Ching; Kertes, Peter J

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to define the overall anatomic success rate in pneumatic retinopexy and to identify morphologic features that may be predictive of treatment failure in pneumatic retinopexy. Prospective consecutive interventional case series of patients with new-onset primary rhegmatogenous retinal detachments treated with pneumatic retinopexy. In this interventional case series, consecutive patients with new-onset primary rhegmatogenous retinal detachments were treated with pneumatic retinopexy and followed prospectively. Morphologic data were collected on 3-colour fundus drawings. The primary outcome measure was treatment failure, defined as requirement for scleral buckle or vitrectomy within the follow-up period. Rates of failure for each morphologic feature were compared and a logistic regression model was fit. A total of 113 eyes were included in the study. Anatomic success was achieved in 69.6% of patients. Morphologic criteria including the position and number of breaks, position and extent of lattice degeneration, size of the detached area, and macular status were all found not to be significantly related to failure. In multivariate analysis, only 3 predictors, pseudophakic status (p < 0.05, odds ratio [OR] 2.9, 95% CI, 1.06-7.88), presence of retinal break greater than 1 clock-hour (p < 0.05, OR 3.41, 1.06-11.02), and presence of grade C or D proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) (p < 0.01, OR 31.83, 95% CI, 3.59-282.24), gained statistical significance. Only pseudophakia, a large retinal break, and/or PVR was associated with an increased likelihood of failure. Copyright © 2013 Canadian Ophthalmological Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Teens' distracted driving behavior: Prevalence and predictors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershon, Pnina; Zhu, Chunming; Klauer, Sheila G; Dingus, Tom; Simons-Morton, Bruce

    2017-12-01

    Teen drivers' over-involvement in crashes has been attributed to a variety of factors, including distracted driving. With the rapid development of in-vehicle systems and portable electronic devices, the burden associated with distracted driving is expected to increase. The current study identifies predictors of secondary task engagement among teenage drivers and provides basis for interventions to reduce distracted driving behavior. We described the prevalence of secondary tasks by type and driving conditions and evaluated the associations between the prevalence of secondary task engagement, driving conditions, and selected psychosocial factors. The private vehicles of 83 newly-licensed teenage drivers were equipped with Data Acquisition Systems (DAS), which documented driving performance measures, including secondary task engagement and driving environment characteristics. Surveys administered at licensure provided psychosocial measures. Overall, teens engaged in a potentially distracting secondary task in 58% of sampled road clips. The most prevalent types of secondary tasks were interaction with a passenger, talking/singing (no passenger), external distraction, and texting/dialing the cell phone. Secondary task engagement was more prevalent among those with primary vehicle access and when driving alone. Social norms, friends' risky driving behaviors, and parental limitations were significantly associated with secondary task prevalence. In contrast, environmental attributes, including lighting and road surface conditions, were not associated with teens' engagement in secondary tasks. Our findings indicated that teens engaged in secondary tasks frequently and poorly regulate their driving behavior relative to environmental conditions. Practical applications: Peer and parent influences on secondary task engagement provide valuable objectives for countermeasures to reduce distracted driving among teenage drivers. Copyright © 2017 National Safety Council and

  6. Vaccination in oncology practice and predictors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkan, Ali; Karcı, Ebru; Yaşar, Arzu; Tuncay, Gülseren; Köksoy, Elif Berna; Ürün, Muslih; Şenler, Filiz Çay; Demirkazık, Ahmet; Utkan, Güngör; Akbulut, Hakan; Ürün, Yüksel

    2017-09-01

    Despite, vaccination is a highly effective and widely recommended for prevention of certain infections, vaccination coverage is very low. The purposes of this study were to evaluate the attitudes of medical oncologists towards vaccination and to identify predictors of intention to recommend vaccination in patients with cancer. A structured questionnaire is formed to evaluate the daily practice of vaccination. Turkish medical oncologists were invited to this study via email, SMS, or phone call. Questionnaire was filled out and the data were stored in an online survey platform. Two hundred seventy-three medical oncologists participated in the survey. Influenza, Pneumococcus, and hepatitis B were the most commonly recommended vaccines (87.1, 72.8, 67.0%, respectively). Patients with lung cancer, lymphoma and breast cancer were the main malignancies that medical oncologists suggest vaccination (68.1, 68.1, 24.6%, respectively). The most common times for vaccination were during remission/follow-up period (68.4%) or before beginning chemotherapy (64.1%). Only 23.4% of the physicians thought that their recommendation for vaccination was efficient and adequate. Lack of time and lack of knowledge or experience about vaccination are the most common limitations. There is a positive correlation between experience in the field and evaluating patients for vaccination (r = 0.390, p vaccination (r = -0.080, p = 0.18). Experience with autologous or allogeneic bone marrow transplant patients is related with more tendency to evaluate patients for vaccination (p vaccination practice in oncology. The frequency of recommendation increases with degree of experience, knowledge, and visit time per patient.

  7. Identification of common predictors of surgical outcomes for epilepsy surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang J

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Jing Zhang,1 Weifang Liu,1 Hui Chen,1 Hong Xia,1 Zhen Zhou,1 Shanshan Mei,2 Qingzhu Liu,2 Yunlin Li21School of Biomedical Engineering, Capital Medical University, 2Department of Functional Neurology and Neurosurgery, Beijing Haidian Hospital, Beijing, People's Republic of ChinaAbstract: Although epilepsy surgery is an effective treatment for patients with drug-resistant epilepsy, surgical outcomes vary across patient groups and studies. Identification of reliable prognostic factors for surgical outcome is important for outcome research. In this study, recent systematic reviews and meta-analyses on prediction of seizure outcome have been analyzed, and common predictors of seizure outcome or unrelated factors for temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE, lesional extratemporal lobe epilepsy (ETLE, and tuberous sclerosis complex have been identified. Clinical factors such as lesional epilepsy, abnormal magnetic resonance imaging, partial seizures, and complete resection were found to be common positive predictors, and factors such as nonlesional epilepsy, poorly defined and localized epileptic focus, generalized seizures, and incomplete resection are common negative predictors, while factors such as age at surgery and side of surgery are unrelated to seizure outcome for TLE and lesional ETLE. In addition, diagnostic neuroimaging and resection are among the most important predictors of seizure outcome. However, common predictors of seizure outcome could not be identified in nonlesional ETLE because no predictors were found to be significant in adult patients (by meta-analysis, and outcome prediction is difficult in this case. Meta-analysis of other outcomes, such as neuropsychologic outcomes, is rare due to lack of evaluation standards. Further studies on identification of reliable predictors of surgical outcomes are needed.Keywords: neuroimaging, epilepsy surgery, outcome prediction, common predictors

  8. Nonlinear Forecasting with Many Predictors using Kernel Ridge Regression

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Exterkate; Patrick J.F. Groenen; Christiaan Heij; Dick van Dijk

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThis paper puts forward kernel ridge regression as an approach for forecasting with many predictors that are related nonlinearly to the target variable. In kernel ridge regression, the observed predictor variables are mapped nonlinearly into a high-dimensional space, where estimation of the predictive regression model is based on a shrinkage estimator to avoid overfitting. We extend the kernel ridge regression methodology to enable its use for economic time-series forecasting, by ...

  9. Camp Invention ASL: Inclusive, Relevant, Family-Focused Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santini, Joseph

    2017-01-01

    Among the fields that particularly lack images of diverse participants are those of science, technology, engineering, and math, fields captured under the acronym STEM. Often in STEM fields, images and experiences of deaf and hard of hearing children, children of color, and young women are rare or absent altogether, with the result that these…

  10. ASL: Comparison of presaturation and RF pulse optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, David; Sidaros, Karam

    2005-01-01

    In arterial spin labelling, the difference between the tag and control image is on the order of 1% of the equilibrium magnetization. A small offset between the images not related to perfusion, can therefore lead to large errors in the measured perfusion. One source of error is non-ideal RF pulses...... resulting in the inversion pulse affecting the acquired signal from the imaging area. This systematic error can be reduced by increasing the gap between the inversion and imaging regions, by using optimized inversion pulses e.g. FOCI1 or by saturating the signal from static tissue in the imaging area prior...

  11. Quantifiers and Variables: Insights from Sign Language (ASL and LSF)

    OpenAIRE

    Philippe Schlenker

    2010-01-01

    In standard logical systems, quantifiers and variables are essential to express complex relations among objects. Natural language has expressions that have an analogous function: some noun phrases play the role of quantifiers (e.g. every man), and some pronouns play the role of variables (e.g. him, as in Every man likes people who admire him). Since the 1980’s, there has been a vibrant debate in linguistics about the way in which pronouns come to depend on their antecedents. According to one ...

  12. Quantifiers and Variables: Insights from Sign Language (ASL and LSF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Schlenker

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In standard logical systems, quantifiers and variables are essential to express complex relations among objects. Natural language has expressions that have an analogous function: some noun phrases play the role of quantifiers (e.g. every man, and some pronouns play the role of variables (e.g. him, as in Every man likes people who admire him. Since the 1980’s, there has been a vibrant debate in linguistics about the way in which pronouns come to depend on their antecedents. According to one view, natural language is governed by a ‘dynamic’ logic which allows for dependencies that are far more flexible than those of standard (classical logic. According to a competing view, the treatment of variables in classical logic does not have to be fundamentally revised to be applied to natural language. While the debate centers around the nature of the formal links that connect pronouns to their antecedents, these links are not overtly expressed in spoken language, and the debate has remained open. In sign language, by contrast, the connection between pronouns and their antecedents is often made explicit by pointing. We argue that data from French and American Sign Language provide crucial evidence for the dynamic approach over one of its main classical competitors; and we explore further sign language data that can help choose among competing dynamic analyses.ReferencesBahan, B., Kegl, J., MacLaughlin, D. & Neidle, C. 1995. ‘Convergent Evidence for the Structure of Determiner Phrases in American Sign Language’. In L. Gabriele, D. Hardison & R. Westmoreland (eds. ‘FLSM VI, Proceedings of the Sixth Annual Meeting of the Formal Linguistics Society of Mid-America, Volume Two’, 1–12. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Linguistics Club Publications.Brasoveanu, A. 2006. Structured Nominal and Modal Reference. Ph.D. thesis, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey.Brasoveanu, A. 2010. ‘Decomposing Modal Quantification’. Journal of Semantics 27, no. 4: 129–209.Chomsky, N. 1957. Syntactic Structures. The Hague/Paris: Mouton.Chomsky, N. 1965. Aspects of the Theory of Syntax. Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press.Chomsky, N. 1981/1993. Lectures on Government and Binding: The Pisa Lectures. Mouton de Gruyter.Dekker, P. 2004. ‘Cases, adverbs, situations and events’. In H. Kamp & B. Partee (eds. ‘Context-dependence in the Analysis of Linguistic Meaning’, 383–404. Elsevier.Elbourne, Paul. 2005. Situations and Individuals. MIT Press.Emmorey, K. 2002. Language, cognition, and the brain: Insights from sign language research. Erlbaum.Evans, G. 1980. ‘Pronouns’. Linguistic Inquiry 11: 337–362.Fox, D. 2003. ‘On Logical Form’. In H. Randall (ed. ‘Minimalist Syntax’, 82–123. Blackwell.Gamut, L. T. F. 1991. Logic, Language and Meaning. Chicago University Press.Geach, P. 1962. Reference and Generality: An Examination of Some Medieval and Modern Theories. Ithaca, New York: Cornell University Press.Groenendijk, J. & Stokhof, M. 1991. ‘Dynamic Predicate Logic’. Linguistics and Philosophy 14, no. 1: 39–100.http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00628304Heim, I. 1982. The Semantics of Definite and Indefinite Noun Phrases. Ph.D. thesis, University of Massachusetts Amherst. Heim, I. 1990. ‘E-Type Pronouns and Donkey Anaphora’. Linguistics and Philosophy 13: 137–177.http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00630732Heim, I. & Kratzer, A. 1998. Semantics in Generative Grammar. Blackwell.Kamp, H. 2003. ‘A Theory of Truth and Semantic Representation’. In J. Groenendijk,T. Janssen & M. Stokhof (eds. ‘Minimalist Syntax’, 277–322. Dordrecht. Reprint.Kamp, H. & Reyle, U. 1993. From Discourse to Logic. D. Reidel, Dordrecht.Lasnik, H. 1989. Essays on anaphora. Dordrecht: Reidel.Lillo-Martin, D. 1991. Universal Grammar and American Sign Language: Setting the Null Argument Parameters. Kluwer Academic, Boston, MA.http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-94-011-3468-2May, R. 1985. Logical Form. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Montague, R. 1974. Formal Philosophy. Selected Papers by Richard Montague. New Haven. Edited by R. Thomason.Neidle, C., Kegl, J., MacLaughling, D., Bahan, B. & Lee, R. G. 2000. The Syntax of American Sign Language: Functional Categories and Hierarchical Structure. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Nouwen, R. 2003. ‘Plural pronominal anaphora in context’. Number 84 in Netherlands Graduate School of Linguistics Dissertations, LOT, Utrecht.Quine, W. V. O. 1987. ‘Variables’. In ‘Quiddities. An Intermittently Philosophical Dictionary’, Belknap Press.Reinhart, T. 1976. The Syntactic Domain of Anaphora. Ph.D. thesis, MIT.Sandler, W. & Lillo-Martin, D. 2006. Sign Language and Linguistic Universals. Cambridge University Press.Schlenker, P. to appear. ‘Donkey Anaphora: the View from Sign Language’. Accepted for publication with minor revisions in Linguistics & Philosophy.Sinha, S. 2009. A Grammar of Indian Sign Language. Ph.D. thesis, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi, India.Stone, M. 1992. ‘Or and Anaphora’. Proceedings of SALT 2 367–385.van den Berg, M. 1996. Some aspects of the internal structure of discourse: the dynamics of nominal anaphora. Ph.D. thesis, ILLC, Universiteit van Amsterdam.

  13. Predictors of reaching a serum uric acid goal in patients with gout and treated with febuxostat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheer R

    2017-10-01

    .06.Conclusions: Among febuxostat users diagnosed with gout in a real-world setting, adherence to febuxostat and lower baseline sUA level were the strongest predictors of attaining sUA goal. These findings may help clinicians to identify appropriate patients most likely to benefit from febuxostat treatment, and underscore the importance of medication adherence in this challenging patient population. Keywords: hyperuricemia, xanthine oxidase inhibitors, logistic regression, linear regression, urate, sUA

  14. Technique for ranking potential predictor layers for use in remote sensing analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew Lister; Mike Hoppus; Rachel Riemann

    2004-01-01

    Spatial modeling using GIS-based predictor layers often requires that extraneous predictors be culled before conducting analysis. In some cases, using extraneous predictor layers might improve model accuracy but at the expense of increasing complexity and interpretability. In other cases, using extraneous layers can dilute the relationship between predictors and target...

  15. Predictors of success of a lifestyle intervention in relation to weight loss and improvement in glucose tolerance among individuals at high risk for type 2 diabetes: the FIN-D2D project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rautio, Nina; Jokelainen, Jari; Saaristo, Timo; Oksa, Heikki; Keinänen-Kiukaanniemi, Sirkka; Peltonen, Markku; Vanhala, Mauno; Korpi-Hyövälti, Eeva; Moilanen, Leena; Saltevo, Juha; Niskanen, Leo; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Uusitupa, Matti

    2013-01-01

    The authors assessed the predictors of success of a lifestyle intervention (weight loss ≥ 5% and improved glucose tolerance) in individuals at high risk for type 2 diabetes in a 1-year follow-up in a primary health care setting. High-risk individuals for type 2 diabetes were identified by opportunistic screening in the implementation of the Finnish National Diabetes Prevention Program (FIN-D2D). All together, 3880 individuals participated in the 1-year follow-up. Sociodemographic characteristics, health status and behavior, family history of diabetes, clinical factors, and health care provider were considered possible predictors of lifestyle intervention success. In sum, 19.3% of individuals lost at least 5% of weight, and 32.6% with abnormal glucose tolerance at baseline showed improvement in glucose tolerance. Abnormal glucose tolerance was the strongest predictor of weight loss and improvement in glucose tolerance. High attendance at lifestyle intervention visits, being outside of labor force, and high body mass index at baseline were also related to weight loss, and high education was related to improvement in glucose tolerance. In "real-life settings," glucose tolerance status, number of intervention visits, employment status, education, and body mass index explained the success of lifestyle intervention. These factors may help in targeting interventions, although they may not be generalized to other cultural settings.

  16. CRADA Final Report: Weld Predictor App

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Billings, Jay Jay [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2018-01-25

    application software tool “WeldPredictor” ( https://eweldpredictor.ewi.org ). About 1400 users have tested this application. This project marked the beginning of development on the next version of WeldPredictor that addresses many outstanding features of the original, including 3D models, allow more material hardening laws, model material phase transformation, and uses open source finite element solvers to quickly solve problems (as opposed to expensive commercial tools).

  17. Predictors of trips to food destinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerr Jacqueline

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Food environment studies have focused on ethnic and income disparities in food access. Few studies have investigated distance travelled for food and did not aim to inform the geographic scales at which to study the relationship between food environments and obesity. Further, studies have not considered neighborhood design as a predictor of food purchasing behavior. Methods Atlanta residents (N = 4800 who completed a travel diary and reported purchasing or consuming food at one of five food locations were included in the analyses. A total of 11,995 food-related trips were reported. Using mixed modeling to adjust for clustering of trips by participants and households, person-level variables (e.g. demographics, neighborhood-level urban form measures, created in GIS, and trip characteristics (e.g. time of day, origin and destination were investigated as correlates of distance travelled for food and frequency of grocery store and fast food outlet trips. Results Mean travel distance for food ranged from 4.5 miles for coffee shops to 6.3 miles for superstores. Type of store, urban form, type of tour, day of the week and ethnicity were all significantly related to distance travelled for food. Origin and destination environment, type of tour, day of week, age, gender, income, ethnicity, vehicle access and obesity status were all significantly related to visiting a grocery store. Home neighborhood environment, day of week, type of tour, gender, income, education level, age, and obesity status were all significantly related to likelihood of visiting a fastfood outlet. Conclusions The present study demonstrated that people travel sizeable distances for food and this distance is related to urban. Results suggest that researchers need to employ different methods to characterize food environments than have been used to assess urban form in studies of physical activity. Food is most often purchased while traveling from locations other

  18. Electricity curtailment behaviors in Greek households: Different behaviors, different predictors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botetzagias, Iosif; Malesios, Chrisovaladis; Poulou, Dimitra

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We study the self-reported energy (electricity) curtailment behaviors of Greek households (N=285). • We find that the curtailment behaviors are distinct and should be studied/analyzed separately. • ‘Age’, ‘Gender’ and ‘Perceived Behavioral Control’ are statistically significant predictors of most behaviors. • The demographic/structural and the psychological predictors contribute significantly explain the variance of the behaviors. • The cluster of moral predictors does not contribute statistically significantly to the explained variance. - Abstract: This paper argues that electricity ‘curtailment’ behaviors (i.e. frequent and/or low cost or free energy saving behaviors) in households are distinct from one another and they thus should be analyzed and promoted. We test this claim with data from telephone interviews with Greek households in the capital city of Athens (N=285), analyzing the impact of a number of demographical/structural, psychological (based on the Theory of Planned Behavior) and moral (based on norms’ activation) predictors though hierarchical binary logistic regression modeling. We find that that each electricity curtailment behavior depends on a different mix of predictors with ‘Age’, ‘Gender’ and ‘Perceived Behavioral Control’ being statistically significant for most behaviors. Overall, the psychological and the demographical/structural clusters of variables substantially contribute to the explained variance of electricity curtailment behaviors. The moral cluster's contribution is not statistically significant since moral concerns are largely interwoven in the psychological constructs

  19. Can You Hack It? Validating Predictors for IT Boot Camps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gear, Courtney C.

    Given the large number of information technology jobs open and lack of qualified individuals to fill them, coding boot camps have sprung up in response to this skill gap by offering a specialized training program in an accelerated format. This fast growth has created a need to measure these training programs and understand their effectiveness. In the present study, a series of analyses examined whether specific or combinations of predictors were valid for training performance in this coding academy. Self-rated, daily efficacy scores were used as outcome variables of training success and correlation results showed a positive relationship with efficacy scores and the logic test score as a predictor. Exploratory analyses indicated a Dunning-Kruger effect where students with lower education levels experience higher overall mood during the training program. Limitations of the study included small sample size, severe range restriction in predictor scores, lack of variance in predictor scores, and low variability in training program success. These limitations made identifying jumps between training stages difficult to identify. By identifying which predictors matter most for each stage of skill acquisition, further research should consider more objective variables such as instructor scores which can serve as a guideline to better asses what stage learners join at and how to design curriculum and assignments accordingly (Honken, 2013).

  20. Personality as significant predictor of post-stroke anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solgajová, Andrea; Sollár, Tomáš; Vörösová, Gabriela; Zrubcová, Dana

    2017-08-01

    Anxiety in stroke patients is very frequent. It negatively influences the whole recovery process. The study objective is to study personality traits, age, gender, and type of stroke as predictors of anxiety in stroke patients. Research presents a prospective cross-sectional descriptive study. The sample consisted of 74 hospitalized stroke patients. The data collection methods were the HADS for anxiety measurement and the Mini IPIP for evaluation of five personality factors. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis was used to study the relationship between anxiety and personality variables, gender, age, and type of stroke. We found three statistically significant predictors of anxiety in stroke patients. Neuroticism and low Agreeableness explain 50% of the variability of anxiety. Another statistically significant predictor was age; higher-level anxiety relates to lower age. Other personality traits (Extraversion, Openness to experience, and Conscientiousness), gender, and type of stroke do not appear as significant predictors of post-stroke anxiety. Anxiety in stroke patients is predicted mostly by the personality traits and young age of patients. Knowing these predictors can result in early detection and management of emotional consequences of disease, and thus influence the whole recovery process.

  1. CLINICAL AND ULTRASONOGRAPHIC PREDICTORS OF FOETAL MACROSOMIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suneetha Kalam

    2017-01-01

    and odds ratio was found out. For statistical evaluation, a two-tailed probability value less than 0.05 was considered significant. RESULTS 87% of the study population were less than 30 years. More than half were multigravida. Among them, 24.5% had macrosomic babies while among the primigravida only 14% had macrosomic babies. About 30% had gestational diabetes mellitus. Previous history of macrosomic foetus was present in 18.44%. Among 110 macrosomic babies, 74 mothers of those babies had BMI more than 25. In ultrasonography, 45 babies had BPD more than 96 mm (90th percentile, 40 had HC more than 354 mm (90th percentile, 92 had AC more than 346 mm (90th percentile and 85 had FL more than 74 mm (90th percentile. Estimated foetal weight was more than 4000 grams in 86 patients. CONCLUSION Foetal macrosomia is more common among multigravida. There is significant association between the incidence of macrosomia and gestational diabetes mellitus. Previous macrosomic birth and high body mass index have influence over macrosomia. Biparietal diameter and head circumference are poor predictors of macrosomia. Estimated foetal weight is the best individual ultrasound parameter in predicting macrosomia followed by abdominal circumference.

  2. Genetic predictors of response to antidepressants in the GENDEP project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uher, Rudolf; Huezo-Diaz, Patricia; Perroud, Nader

    2009-01-01

    ) for 12 weeks in an open-label part-randomized multicenter study. The effect of genetic variants on change in depressive symptoms was evaluated using mixed linear models. Several variants in a serotonin receptor gene (HTR2A) predicted response to escitalopram with one marker (rs9316233) explaining 1...... testing. A false discovery rate of 0.106 for the three strongest associations indicated that the multiple findings are unlikely to be false positives. The pattern of associations indicated a degree of specificity with variants in genes encoding proteins in serotonin signaling influencing response...... proportion of variance in response to antidepressants, indicating a need for a multivariate approach to prediction....

  3. Predictors of Symptomatic Change and Adherence in Internet-Based Cognitive Behaviour Therapy for Social Anxiety Disorder in Routine Psychiatric Care.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samir El Alaoui

    Full Text Available A central goal of health care is to improve patient outcomes. Although several studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of therapist guided internet-based cognitive behaviour therapy (ICBT for social anxiety disorder (SAD, a significant proportion of patients do not respond to treatment. Consequently, the aim of this study was to identify individual characteristics and treatment program related factors that could help clinicians predict treatment outcomes and adherence for individuals with SAD.The sample comprised longitudinal data collected during a 4-year period of adult individuals (N = 764 treated for SAD at a public service psychiatric clinic. Weekly self-rated Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS-SR scores were provided. Rates of symptomatic change during treatment and adherence levels were analysed using multilevel modelling. The following domains of prognostic variables were examined: (a socio-demographic variables; (b clinical characteristics; (c family history of mental illness; and (d treatment-related factors.Higher treatment credibility and adherence predicted a faster rate of improvement during treatment, whereas higher overall functioning level evidenced a slower rate of improvement. Treatment credibility was the strongest predictor of greater adherence. Having a family history of SAD-like symptoms was also associated with greater adherence, whereas Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD-like symptoms, male gender, and family history of minor depression predicted lower adherence. Also, the amount of therapist time spent per treatment module was negatively associated with adherence.Results from a large clinical sample indicate that the credibility of ICBT is the strongest prognostic factor explaining individual differences in both adherence level and symptomatic improvement. Early screening of ADHD-like symptoms may help clinicians identify patients who might need extra support or an adjusted treatment. Therapist

  4. Predictors of Adult Retention in HIV Care: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulsara, Shiraze M; Wainberg, Milton L; Newton-John, Toby R O

    2018-03-01

    A systematic literature review was conducted to identify predictors of poor adult retention in HIV medical care in developed and developing countries. An electronic search was conducted with MEDLINE (OVID), PubMED, EBSCO, SCOPUS, and Cochrane databases, as well as manual searches. Original, quantitative, adult studies in English, published between 1995 and 2015 were included. Only those with a focus on predictors of retention in care were reported on. Of the 345 articles identified, thirty were included following an independent assessment by two raters. In developed countries, the most frequently cited predictors of poor retention were active substance use and demographic factors. In developing countries, physical health factors were most frequently associated with poor retention in care. The results from this review suggests primary concerns for poor retention include substance use and physical health factors. Other psychosocial factors, such as psychiatric illness and social/welfare factors, were also found to be relevant.

  5. Radiographic Predictors for Mechanical Failure After Adult Spinal Deformity Surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallager, Dennis W; Karstensen, Sven; Bukhari, Naeem

    2017-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study at a single institution. OBJECTIVE: We aimed at estimating the rate of revision procedures and identify radiographic predictors of mechanical failure after adult spinal deformity surgery. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Mechanical failure rates after adult......°, the role of radiographic sagittal spine parameters and alignment targets as predictors for mechanical failure remains uncertain. METHODS: A consecutive cohort of adult spinal deformity patients who underwent corrective surgery with at least 5 levels of instrumentation between January 2008 and December 2012...... at a single tertiary spine unit were followed for at least 2 years. Time to death or failure was recorded and cause-specific Cox regressions were applied to evaluate predictors for mechanical failure or death. RESULTS: A total of 138 patients with median age of 61 years were included for analysis. Follow up...

  6. [Predictors of competence in family caregivers of dementia patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Tzu-Chung; Shyu, Yea-Ing Lotus; Chen, Min-Chi; Chiu, Yi-Chen; Huang, Huei-Ling

    2012-12-01

    Differences in dementia symptoms at different dementia stages increase the burden of caregiving. The inability of family caregivers to meet patient needs not only influences the health of the patient, but also impacts negatively on their personal physical and mental health. This study explores predictors of competence in family caregivers of dementia patients. We designed a cross-sectional study to examine 123 participant groups. Each group included one individual diagnosed with dementia and one family caregiver. Predictors of caregiver competence included few / no caregiver chronic diseases, relatively high level of caregiver education, and lack of comorbidities in the care recipient. These predictors explained 26.7% of total variance. We recommend that nurses evaluate caregivers' care competency in order to provide appropriate health information and assistance. Guidance provided should take into consideration the caregivers' educational background. Apart from providing information related to dementia behavior, nurses should also provide caregiver guidance information related to the effects of comorbidities on dementia, as appropriate.

  7. High-Order Sparse Linear Predictors for Audio Processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giacobello, Daniele; van Waterschoot, Toon; Christensen, Mads Græsbøll

    2010-01-01

    Linear prediction has generally failed to make a breakthrough in audio processing, as it has done in speech processing. This is mostly due to its poor modeling performance, since an audio signal is usually an ensemble of different sources. Nevertheless, linear prediction comes with a whole set...... of interesting features that make the idea of using it in audio processing not far fetched, e.g., the strong ability of modeling the spectral peaks that play a dominant role in perception. In this paper, we provide some preliminary conjectures and experiments on the use of high-order sparse linear predictors...... in audio processing. These predictors, successfully implemented in modeling the short-term and long-term redundancies present in speech signals, will be used to model tonal audio signals, both monophonic and polyphonic. We will show how the sparse predictors are able to model efficiently the different...

  8. Post-Operative Psychosocial Predictors of Outcome in Bariatric Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheets, Carrie S.; Peat, Christine M.; Berg, Kelly C.; White, Emily K.; Bocchieri-Ricciardi, Lindsey; Chen, Eunice Y.; Mitchell, James E.

    2015-01-01

    Although there are several recent reviews of the pre-operative factors that influence treatment outcome for bariatric surgery, commensurate efforts to identify and review the predictive validity of post-operative variables are lacking. This review describes the post-operative psychosocial predictors of weight loss in bariatric surgery. Results suggest empirical support for post-operative binge eating, uncontrolled eating/grazing, and presence of a depressive disorder as negative predictors of weight loss outcomes; whereas, adherence to dietary and physical activity guidelines emerged as positive predictors of weight loss. With the exception of depression, psychological comorbidities were not consistently associated with weight loss outcomes. Results highlight the need for post-operative assessment of disordered eating and depressive disorder, further research on the predictive value of post-operative psychosocial factors, and development of targeted interventions. PMID:25381119

  9. Predictors of frequent visits to a psychiatric emergency room

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Jørgen; Aagaard, Andreas; Buus, Niels

    2014-01-01

    and social support. RESULTS: The study identified two overall trends of predictors of frequent use of the psychiatric emergency room. High use of psychiatric services: ≥5 visits to the psychiatric emergency room, ≥3 admissions or ≥60 bed days during the year, was and continued to be predictive of high use...... to psychiatric emergency services. OBJECTIVES: To identify predictors of frequent use of a psychiatric emergency room at a Danish University Psychiatric Hospital through a 12-year period (1995-2007) and to speculate on how changes in the mental healthcare services affect predictors of frequent use through time....... DESIGN: A large-scale register based logistic regression analysis combined with a small-scale explorative, interpretative interview study. Register data were drawn from the Danish Central Psychiatric Research Register. Four-year cohorts (1995, 1998, 2001 and 2004) of patients with at least one visit...

  10. Exploring the Predictors of Organizational Preparedness for Natural Disasters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadiq, Abdul-Akeem; Graham, John D

    2016-05-01

    There is an extensive body of research on the determinants of disaster preparedness at the individual and household levels. The same cannot be said for the organizational level. Hence, the purpose of this study is to shed light on the predictors of organizational preparedness for natural disasters. Since leaders of organizations have an incentive to overstate their level of preparedness and because surveys of organizational leaders suffer from selection bias and low response rates, we take the novel approach of interviewing employees about the organizations that employ them. Using an online survey, we collected information from a national sample of 2,008 U.S. employees and estimated the predictors of preparedness at the organizational level. We find, among other results, that organization size (facility level) is a consistent predictor of preparedness at the organizational level. We conclude with policy recommendations and outline an agenda for future research on organizational preparedness for natural disasters. © 2015 Society for Risk Analysis.

  11. Characteristic Equation of the Modified Smith predictor to MIMO Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge A. Herrera-Cuartas

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The delay in control systems is a feature frequently in real systems due to the transport of objects or information, a series connection of multiple systems or own processing and sensors delay, among others. Recently there have been several studies to identify the external delay MIMO systems, these works are focused on identification and on-line control of MIMO systems and use a multimodel structure based on modified Smith predictor using different search method. It is clear that for the implementation of the algorithm, and to obtain the convergence and stability analysis, it is necessary to have closed-loop equations of modified Smith predictor. However, in these works is not presented the analytical procedure, not be the main object, displaying only the closed loop equations without the procedure for obtaining it. Therefore, to respond, in this paper, we present an analytical way to derive the closed-loop equations of a modified Smith predictor.  

  12. Gender-specific predictors of posttraumatic stress disorder in adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Donbaek, Dagmar Feddern; Elklit, Ask

    2015-01-01

    Gender is an important risk factor for both posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and substance use disorders (SUD) in adolescents; however, little is known about the influence of gender when considering their common co-occurrence. This study examined whether problematic substance use, attachment...... that drug abuse and avoidant attachment to best friends were significant predictors of PTSD severity in male adolescents, whereas alcohol abuse and the absence of posttraumatic social support from parents remained significant predictors for female adolescents. The results support the influence of gender......-specific substance abuse patterns and dysfunctional interpersonal relationships on the PTSD severity of traumatized adolescents....

  13. Sex differences in predictors of ischemic stroke: current perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samai, Alyana A; Martin-Schild, Sheryl

    2015-01-01

    Globally, stroke is a significant public health concern affecting more than 33 million individuals. Of growing importance are the differences between males and females in the predictors and overall risk of stroke. Given that women have a higher lifetime risk for stoke and account for more than half of all stroke deaths, sex-specific stroke risk factors merit investigation and may help target public health interventions. This review aims to discuss the current body of knowledge regarding sex-specific predictors of ischemic stroke including both modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors, as well as specific pathologies known to increase stroke risk. PMID:26251609

  14. Prevalence and Predictors of Depression and Anxiety among Korean Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Eun

    2018-01-01

    Despite the significant growth of the Asian population in the United States, current knowledge on their mental health and service utilization behaviors is very limited. The study examined the prevalence and predictors of depression and anxiety among Korean Americans in the Washington, D.C. metropolitan area. A total of 602 Koreans completed a self-administered survey on physical and mental well-being, and the study found that 18.2% and 16.9% of the participants had severe symptoms of depression and anxiety, respectively. Acculturative stress and perceived social support were common predictors for depression and anxiety, and the effects of demographic factors were minimal.

  15. Concurrent sexual partners-A predictor of Chlamydia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Marianne Johansson; Olesen, Frede; Maindal, Helle Terkildsen

    2013-01-01

    Background:Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common sexually transmitted bacterial infection among young Danes and the spread is highly dependent on the population’s sexual behavior. Previous studies have found concurrent partnerships to be a possible predictor for C. trachomatis, but the signifi......Background:Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common sexually transmitted bacterial infection among young Danes and the spread is highly dependent on the population’s sexual behavior. Previous studies have found concurrent partnerships to be a possible predictor for C. trachomatis...

  16. Psychosocial predictors of treatment outcome for trauma-affected refugees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Charlotte; Carlsson, Jessica; Bech, Per

    2016-01-01

    situation. The primary outcome measure was PTSD symptoms measured on the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire (HTQ). Other outcome measures included the Hopkins Symptom Check List-25, the WHO-5 Well-being Index, Sheehan Disability Scale, Hamilton Depression and Anxiety Scales, the somatisation scale of the Symptoms...... Checklist-90, Global Assessment of Functioning scales, and pain rated on visual analogue scales. The relations between treatment outcomes and the total score as well as subscores of the CTP Predictor Index were analysed. RESULTS: Overall, the total score of the CTP Predictor Index was significantly...

  17. Psychosocial predictors of treatment outcome for trauma-affected refugees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Charlotte; Carlsson, Jessica; Bech, Per

    2016-01-01

    situation. The primary outcome measure was PTSD symptoms measured on the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire (HTQ). Other outcome measures included the Hopkins Symptom Check List-25, the WHO-5 Well-being Index, Sheehan Disability Scale, Hamilton Depression and Anxiety Scales, the somatisation scale of the Symptoms...... Checklist-90, Global Assessment of Functioning scales, and pain rated on visual analogue scales. The relations between treatment outcomes and the total score as well as subscores of the CTP Predictor Index were analysed. Results Overall, the total score of the CTP Predictor Index was significantly...

  18. Psychosocial predictors of treatment outcome for trauma-affected refugees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Charlotte Kærgaard; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Carlsson, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    Background The effects of treatment in trials with trauma-affected refugees vary considerably not only between studies but also between patients within a single study. However, we know little about why some patients benefit more from treatment, as few studies have analysed predictors of treatment...... outcome. Objective The objective of the study was to examine possible psychosocial predictors of treatment outcome for trauma-affected refugees. Method The participants were 195 adult refugees with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) who were enrolled in a 6- to 7-month treatment programme...

  19. Predictors of Happiness and Emotional Intelligence in Secondary Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Pulido Acosta

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed predictors of happiness and emotional intelligence taking into account age, sex, culture and status and the relationship among these variables. 811 persons participated; 71.6% were Muslims and 28.4% Christians, with 46.1% males and 53.9% females. One questionnaire was used to evaluate happiness and another to evaluate emotional intelligence. The results indicate that predictors of happiness are age, culture, status and sex, while those of emotional intelligence are age, culture and sex. The study found that there is a statistically significant and direct correlation between happiness and emotional intelligence.

  20. Predictors of high-intensity running capacity in collegiate women during a soccer game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormack, William P; Stout, Jeffrey R; Wells, Adam J; Gonzalez, Adam M; Mangine, Gerald T; Fragala, Maren S; Hoffman, Jay R

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine which physiological assessments best predicted high-intensity running (HIR) performance during a women's collegiate soccer game. A secondary purpose was to examine the relationships among physiological performance measures including muscle architecture on soccer performance (distance covered, HIR, and sprints during the game) during a competitive collegiate women's soccer game. Ten National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I women soccer players performed physiological assessments within a 2-week period before a competitive regulation soccer game performed during the spring season. Testing consisted of height, body mass, ultrasound measurement of dominant (DOMleg), and nondominant leg (NDOMleg) vastus lateralis for muscle thickness (MT) and pennation angle (PA), VO2max, running economy, and Wingate anaerobic test (WAnT) for peak power (PP), mean power (MP), and fatigue rate (FR). During the game, distance run, HIR, and sprints were measured using a 10-Hz global positioning system. Stepwise regression revealed that VO2max, dominant leg thickness, and dominant leg PA were the strongest predictors of HIR distance during the game (R = 0.989, SEE = 115.5 m, p = 0.001). V[Combining Dot Above]O2max was significantly correlated with total distance run (r = 0.831; p = 0.003), HIR (r = 0.755; p = 0.012), WAnTPP (r = -0.737; p = 0.015), WAnTPP·kg (r = -0.706; p = 0.022), and WAnTFR (r = -0.713; p = 0.021). DOMlegMT was significantly correlated with WAnTFR (r = 0.893; p = 0.001). DOMlegPA was significantly correlated with WAnTFR (r = 0.740; p = 0.023). The NDOMlegPA was significantly correlated to peak running velocity (r = 0.781; p = 0.013) and WAnT MP·kg (r = 0.801; p = 0.01). Results of this study indicate that V[Combining Dot Above]O2max and muscle architecture are important characteristics of NCAA Division I women soccer players and may predict HIR distance during a competitive contest.