WorldWideScience

Sample records for strongest negative correlation

  1. AP diameter shows the strongest correlation with CTDI and DLP in abdominal and chest CT.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Zarb, Francis

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationships among cross-sectional diameters, weight and computed tomography (CT) dose descriptors (CTDI and DLP) to identify which is best used as a measure for the establishment of DRLs in CT. Data (gender, weight, cross-sectional diameters, dose descriptors) from 56 adult patients attending for either a CT examination of the abdomen or chest was obtained from two spiral CT units using automatic milliampere modulation. The AP diameter was demonstrated as the main contributing factor influencing the dose in CT (CTDI: r(2) = 0.269, p-value < or =0.001; DLP: r(2) = 0.260, p-value < or =0.001) since it has a greater correlation with radiation dose than body weight and can thus be its substitute in dose-reduction strategies and establishment of DRLs. The advantages of using the AP diameter are that it can easily be measured prior to scanning or retrospectively from previous CT images. However, further studies on the practicality of this approach are recommended.

  2. AP diameter shows the strongest correlation with CTDI and DLP in abdominal and chest CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarb, F.; Rainford, L.; McEntee, M. F.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationships among cross-sectional diameters, weight and computed tomography (CT) dose descriptors (CTDI and DLP) to identify which is best used as a measure for the establishment of DRLs in CT. Data (gender, weight, cross-sectional diameters, dose descriptors) from 56 adult patients attending for either a CT examination of the abdomen or chest was obtained from two spiral CT units using automatic milli-ampere modulation. The AP diameter was demonstrated as the main contributing factor influencing the dose in CT (CTDI: r 2 = 0.269, p-value ≤0.001; DLP: r 2 = 0.260, p-value ≤0.001) since it has a greater correlation with radiation dose than body weight and can thus be its substitute in dose-reduction strategies and establishment of DRLs. The advantages of using the AP diameter are that it can easily be measured prior to scanning or retrospectively from previous CT images. However, further studies on the practicality of this approach are recommended. (authors)

  3. Circulating steroids negatively correlate with tinnitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrbolka, Pavel; Palúch, Zoltán; Hill, Martin; Alušík, Štefan

    2017-07-01

    While not a disease entity in itself; symptoms of tinnitus (from Latin tinnio - clink) accompany a number of diseases. Tinnitus prevalence increases with age, deteriorates one's quality of life, and may even result in suicidal behavior. Tinnitus develops in response to a variety of risk factors, otoxic substances, noise exposure, hearing disorders, and psychological alterations. Tinnitus is closely related to mood, depression, and psychological state. In the present study, we focused on alterations of the steroid metabolome and particularly neuroactive, neuroprotective, and immunomodulatory steroids in patients with tinnitus. The study group consisted of 28 patients without evidence of an organic cause of tinnitus as well as without associated diseases or the effect of ototoxic medications. All patients underwent a complete audiological assessment and laboratory tests including routine biochemical markers and quantification of circulating steroids using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and immunoassays. To rule out a pathology in the cerebellopontine angle area, CT scan or MRI were performed. To diagnose stem lesions, evoked potentials were also measured. Pearson's correlations and multivariate regression were used to assess any links between tinnitus intensity and frequency on the one hand, and steroid levels on the other. Results indicated a significant and consistent negative correlation between tinnitus indices and intensity of adrenal steroidogenesis. The circulating steroid metabolome including hormones and neuroactive, neuroprotective, and immunomodulatory steroids negatively correlates with the degree of tinnitus due to hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis malfunction. Our results may help explain the pathophysiology of tinnitus and improve its diagnosis. However, further studies are needed to verify our postulation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Negatively correlated local and global stock externalities: tax or subsidy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zili Yang

    2006-01-01

    Fossil fuel combustion generates both CO 2 and SO 2 . CO 2 is the most important greenhouse gas; SO 2 can cause serious local pollution. But it can alleviate the potential global warming because of negative radiative forcing. Such a phenomenon can be characterized as negatively correlated local and global stock externalities. In this paper, we set up an optimal control problem of negatively correlated local and global stock externality provision. The efficiency conditions for this problem are derived. These conditions modify the Samuelson rules for optimal provision of externalities. In addition, we examine several policy related scenarios of negatively correlated local and global stock externality provisions. Finally, we discuss policy implications and limitation of the theoretical results derived in this paper. We also indicate applications of the theoretical results here to empirical research, particularly to economic analysis of multiple-gas issues in climate change. (Author)

  5. Confidence and memory: assessing positive and negative correlations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roediger, Henry L; DeSoto, K Andrew

    2014-01-01

    The capacity to learn and remember surely evolved to help animals solve problems in their quest to reproduce and survive. In humans we assume that metacognitive processes also evolved, so that we know when to trust what we remember (i.e., when we have high confidence in our memories) and when not to (when we have low confidence). However this latter feature has been questioned by researchers, with some finding a high correlation between confidence and accuracy in reports from memory and others finding little to no correlation. In two experiments we report a recognition memory paradigm that, using the same materials (categorised lists), permits the study of positive correlations, zero correlations, and negative correlations between confidence and accuracy within the same procedure. We had subjects study words from semantic categories with the five items most frequently produced in norms omitted from the list; later, subjects were given an old/new recognition test and made confidence ratings on their judgements. Although the correlation between confidence and accuracy for studied items was generally positive, the correlation for the five omitted items was negative in some methods of analysis. We pinpoint the similarity between lures and targets as creating inversions between confidence and accuracy in memory. We argue that, while confidence is generally a useful indicant of accuracy in reports from memory, in certain environmental circumstances even adaptive processes can foster illusions of memory. Thus understanding memory illusions is similar to understanding perceptual illusions: Processes that are usually adaptive can go awry under certain circumstances.

  6. Negative Correlation Learning for Customer Churn Prediction: A Comparison Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faris, Hossam

    2015-01-01

    Recently, telecommunication companies have been paying more attention toward the problem of identification of customer churn behavior. In business, it is well known for service providers that attracting new customers is much more expensive than retaining existing ones. Therefore, adopting accurate models that are able to predict customer churn can effectively help in customer retention campaigns and maximizing the profit. In this paper we will utilize an ensemble of Multilayer perceptrons (MLP) whose training is obtained using negative correlation learning (NCL) for predicting customer churn in a telecommunication company. Experiments results confirm that NCL based MLP ensemble can achieve better generalization performance (high churn rate) compared with ensemble of MLP without NCL (flat ensemble) and other common data mining techniques used for churn analysis. PMID:25879060

  7. Negative correlates of computer game play in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colwell, J; Payne, J

    2000-08-01

    There is some concern that playing computer games may be associated with social isolation, lowered self-esteem, and aggression among adolescents. Measures of these variables were included in a questionnaire completed by 204 year eight students at a North London comprehensive school. Principal components analysis of a scale to assess needs fulfilled by game play provided some support for the notion of 'electronic friendship' among boys, but there was no evidence that game play leads to social isolation. Play was not linked to self-esteem in girls, but a negative relationship was obtained between self-esteem and frequency of play in boys. However, self-esteem was not associated with total exposure to game play. Aggression scores were not related to the number of games with aggressive content named among three favourite games, but they were positively correlated with total exposure to game play. A multiple regression analysis revealed that sex and total game play exposure each accounted for a significant but small amount of the variance in aggression scores. The positive correlation between playing computer games and aggression provides some justification for further investigation of the causal hypothesis, and possible methodologies are discussed.

  8. Growth rate correlates negatively with protein turnover in Arabidopsis accessions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishihara, Hirofumi; Moraes, Thiago Alexandre; Pyl, Eva-Theresa; Schulze, Waltraud X; Obata, Toshihiro; Scheffel, André; Fernie, Alisdair R; Sulpice, Ronan; Stitt, Mark

    2017-08-01

    Previous studies with Arabidopsis accessions revealed that biomass correlates negatively to dusk starch content and total protein, and positively to the maximum activities of enzymes in photosynthesis. We hypothesized that large accessions have lower ribosome abundance and lower rates of protein synthesis, and that this is compensated by lower rates of protein degradation. This would increase growth efficiency and allow more investment in photosynthetic machinery. We analysed ribosome abundance and polysome loading in 19 accessions, modelled the rates of protein synthesis and compared them with the observed rate of growth. Large accessions contained less ribosomes than small accessions, due mainly to cytosolic ribosome abundance falling at night in large accessions. The modelled rates of protein synthesis resembled those required for growth in large accessions, but were up to 30% in excess in small accessions. We then employed 13 CO 2 pulse-chase labelling to measure the rates of protein synthesis and degradation in 13 accessions. Small accessions had a slightly higher rate of protein synthesis and much higher rates of protein degradation than large accessions. Protein turnover was negligible in large accessions but equivalent to up to 30% of synthesised protein day -1 in small accessions. We discuss to what extent the decrease in growth in small accessions can be quantitatively explained by known costs of protein turnover and what factors may lead to the altered diurnal dynamics and increase of ribosome abundance in small accessions, and propose that there is a trade-off between protein turnover and maximisation of growth rate. © 2017 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. The strongest magnetic fields in the universe

    CERN Document Server

    Balogh, A; Falanga, M; Lyutikov, M; Mereghetti, S; Piran, T; Treumann, RA

    2016-01-01

    This volume extends the ISSI series on magnetic fields in the Universe into the domain of what are by far the strongest fields in the Universe, and stronger than any field that could be produced on Earth. The chapters describe the magnetic fields in non-degenerate strongly magnetized stars, degenerate stars (such as white dwarfs and neutron stars), exotic members called magnetars, and in their environments, as well as magnetic fields in the environments of black holes. These strong fields have a profound effect on the behavior of matter, visible in particular in highly variable processes like radiation in all known wavelengths, including Gamma-Ray bursts. The generation and structure of such strong magnetic fields and effects on the environment are also described.

  10. Parental Reactions to Toddlers' Negative Emotions and Child Negative Emotionality as Correlates of Problem Behavior at the Age of Three

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engle, Jennifer M.; McElwain, Nancy L.

    2011-01-01

    Parent-reported reactions to children's negative emotions and child negative emotionality were investigated as correlates of internalizing and externalizing behaviors. Children (N = 107) and their parents participated in a short-term longitudinal study of social development. Mothers and fathers independently completed questionnaires assessing…

  11. The Strongest Magnetic Field in Sunspots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, J.; Sakurai, T.

    2017-12-01

    Sunspots are concentrations of magnetic fields on the solar surface. Generally, the strongest magnetic field in each sunspot is located in the dark umbra in most cases. A typical field strength in sunspots is around 3,000 G. On the other hand, some exceptions also have been found in complex sunspots with bright regions such as light bridges that separate opposite polarity umbrae, for instance with a strength of 4,300 G. However, the formation mechanism of such strong fields outside umbrae is still puzzling. Here we report an extremely strong magnetic field in a sunspot, which was located in a bright region sandwiched by two opposite-polarity umbrae. The strength is 6,250 G, which is the largest ever observed since the discovery of magnetic field on the Sun in 1908 by Hale. We obtained 31 scanned maps of the active region observed by Hinode/SOT/SP with a cadence of 3 hours over 5 days (February 1-6, 2014). Considering the spatial and temporal evolution of the vector magnetic field and the Doppler velocity in the bright region, we suggested that this strong field region was generated as a result of compression of one umbra pushed by the outward flow from the other umbra (Evershed flow), like the subduction of the Earth's crust in plate tectonics.

  12. Negative Correlation between Fetuin-A and Indices of Vascular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Fetuin-A, a systemic calcification inhibitor, has been negatively related to vascular calcification (VC) and cardiovascular mortality. In this study we investigated the association between fetuin-A levels and atherosclerotic vascular complications in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients with and without ...

  13. Characterizing quantum correlations. The genuine multiparticle negativity as entanglement monotone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmann, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Multiparticle entanglement is a useful resource in quantum information processing. It is involved in some quantum key distribution protocols, quantum metrology and many other physical applications and phenomena and can be experimentally observed in various quantum systems. Having said this, its classification, detection and especially its quantification is quite challenging. To this day there exists no general mixed state measure for genuine multiparticle entanglement, which can be computed and analytically treated at the same time. In this thesis the analytical characterisation of genuine multiparticle entanglement in quantum systems using the computable genuine multiparticle negativity as entanglement measure is provided. Furthermore, the notion of stabiliser states, which are families of symmetric genuine multiparticle entangled states, is generalised and a useful method to exploit local symmetries to speed up the computation of the investigated entanglement measure is provided. In the first part, after a short introduction, the genuine multiparticle negativity, which is defined as an optimisation problem known as semidefinite programming problem, is investigated. It is discussed, how this entanglement measure can be characterised in an analytical way. First, it is shown that the genuine multiparticle negativity with an appropriate renormalisation can be considered as coming from a mixed convex roof construction. Using this result, its analytical value for generalised n-qubit Greenberger-Horne-Zeilingerdiagonal states and four-qubit cluster-diagonal states is determined. In the second part of this thesis, the genuine multiparticle negativity is used to study the scaling and spatial distribution of genuine multiparticle entanglement in three- and four-spin reduced states of a onedimensional spin model at its quantum phase transition. At the quantum phase transition of the one dimensional XY -model, which can be studied with analytic rigour, a logarithmic

  14. Social jetlag negatively correlates with academic performance in undergraduates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haraszti, Réka Ágnes; Ella, Krisztina; Gyöngyösi, Norbert; Roenneberg, Till; Káldi, Krisztina

    2014-06-01

    Discrepancies between sleep timing on workdays and weekends, also known as social jetlag (SJL), affect the majority of the population and have been found to be associated with increased health risk and health-impairing behaviors. In this study, we explored the relationship between SJL and academic performance in a sample of undergraduates of the Semmelweis University. We assessed SJL and other sleep-related parameters with the Munich ChronoType Questionnaire (MCTQ) (n = 753). Academic performance was measured by the average grade based on weekly test results as well as scores acquired on the final test (n = 247). The average mid-sleep point on free days in the Hungarian sample fits well the regression line plotted for longitudes within the Central European Time Zone and chronotypes, confirming that sunlight has a major impact on chronotype. Multivariate analysis showed negative effect of SJL on the weekly average grade (p = 0.028, n = 247) during the lecture term with its highly regular teaching schedules, while this association disappeared in the exam period (p = 0.871, n = 247) when students had no scheduled obligations (lower SJL). We also analyzed the relationship between the time of the weekly tests and academic performance and found that students with later sleep times on free days achieved worse in the morning (p = 0.017, n = 129), while the inverse tendency was observed for the afternoon test-takers (p = 0.10, n = 118). We did not find significant association between academic performance and sleep duration or sleep debt on work days. Our data suggest that circadian misalignment can have a significant negative effect on academic performance. One possible reason for this misalignment is socially enforced sleep times.

  15. The Strength of the Strongest Ties in Collaborative Problem Solving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Montjoye, Yves-Alexandre; Stopczynski, Arkadiusz; Shmueli, Erez

    2014-01-01

    Complex problem solving in science, engineering, and business has become a highly collaborative endeavor. Teams of scientists or engineers collaborate on projects using their social networks to gather new ideas and feedback. Here we bridge the literature on team performance and information networks...... by studying teams' problem solving abilities as a function of both their within-team networks and their members' extended networks. We show that, while an assigned team's performance is strongly correlated with its networks of expressive and instrumental ties, only the strongest ties in both networks have......-significant in the statistical analysis. Our results have consequences for the organization of teams of scientists, engineers, and other knowledge workers tackling today's most complex problems....

  16. Negative Expression of Melanoma Cell Adhesion Molecule (MCAM Correlated with Axillary Lymph Node Metastasis in Triple Negative Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sartika Nurwenda

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC is breast cancer that demonstrate the absence of estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2. TNBC has an aggressive behaviour, high frequency of metastasis to the axillary lymph nodes and recurrence, and poor prognosis. Metastasis to the axillary lymph nodes will affect the rate of survival and recurrence in TNBC. Melanoma cell adhession molecule (MCAM is a membrane glycoprotein of the immunoglobulin superfamily, which is involved in the cells binding, which later became known as the marker for the progression and metastasis of melanoma and carcinoma of the prostate. However, MCAM role in mammary carcinoma still controversial. The aim of this study was to assess correlation between MCAM expression with incidence of metastatic to axillary lymph nodes in TNBC. This research was conducted during January 1st 2010–April 31st 2015 at Pathology Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Padjadjaran. This study used a cross-sectional design, using lambda correlation test. MCAM immunohistochemical staining performed on 56 samples of paraffin blocks of TNBC group that did not metastasized and has metastasized to the axillary lymph nodes. A total of 22 of 28 (78.6% of TNBC metastatic to axillary lymph nodes have histoskor MCAM value <4 (negative, whereas 16 of 28 (57.1% of TNBC non-metastatic have histoskor value ≥ 4 (positive. Negative expression of MCAM correlated with TNBC that had metastasized to axillary lymph nodes, although not the only factor that influenced them.

  17. High Correlated Paternity Leads to Negative Effects on Progeny Performance in Two Mediterranean Shrub Species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Nora

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic habitat deterioration can promote changes in plant mating systems that subsequently may affect progeny performance, thereby conditioning plant recruitment for the next generation. However, very few studies yet tested mating system parameters other than outcrossing rates; and the direct effects of the genetic diversity of the pollen received by maternal plants (i.e. correlated paternity has often been overlooked. In this study, we investigated the relation between correlated paternity and progeny performance in two common Mediterranean shrubs, Myrtus communis and Pistacia lentiscus. To do so, we collected open-pollinated progeny from selected maternal plants, calculated mating system parameters using microsatellite genotyping and conducted sowing experiments under greenhouse and field conditions. Our results showed that some progeny fitness components were negatively affected by the high correlated paternity of maternal plants. In Myrtus communis, high correlated paternity had a negative effect on the proportion and timing of seedling emergence in the natural field conditions and in the greenhouse sowing experiment, respectively. In Pistacia lentiscus, seedling emergence time under field conditions was also negatively influenced by high correlated paternity and a progeny survival analysis in the field experiment showed greater mortality of seedlings from maternal plants with high correlated paternity. Overall, we found effects of correlated paternity on the progeny performance of Myrtus communis, a self-compatible species. Further, we also detected effects of correlated paternity on the progeny emergence time and survival in Pistacia lentiscus, an obligate outcrossed species. This study represents one of the few existing empirical examples which highlight the influence that correlated paternity may exert on progeny performance in multiple stages during early seedling growth.

  18. Analysis of the enhanced negative correlation between electron density and electron temperature related to earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, X. H.; Zhang, X.; Liu, J.; Zhao, S. F.; Yuan, G. P.

    2015-04-01

    Ionospheric perturbations in plasma parameters have been observed before large earthquakes, but the correlation between different parameters has been less studied in previous research. The present study is focused on the relationship between electron density (Ne) and temperature (Te) observed by the DEMETER (Detection of Electro-Magnetic Emissions Transmitted from Earthquake Regions) satellite during local nighttime, in which a positive correlation has been revealed near the equator and a weak correlation at mid- and low latitudes over both hemispheres. Based on this normal background analysis, the negative correlation with the lowest percent in all Ne and Te points is studied before and after large earthquakes at mid- and low latitudes. The multiparameter observations exhibited typical synchronous disturbances before the Chile M8.8 earthquake in 2010 and the Pu'er M6.4 in 2007, and Te varied inversely with Ne over the epicentral areas. Moreover, statistical analysis has been done by selecting the orbits at a distance of 1000 km and ±7 days before and after the global earthquakes. Enhanced negative correlation coefficients lower than -0.5 between Ne and Te are found in 42% of points to be connected with earthquakes. The correlation median values at different seismic levels show a clear decrease with earthquakes larger than 7. Finally, the electric-field-coupling model is discussed; furthermore, a digital simulation has been carried out by SAMI2 (Sami2 is Another Model of the Ionosphere), which illustrates that the external electric field in the ionosphere can strengthen the negative correlation in Ne and Te at a lower latitude relative to the disturbed source due to the effects of the geomagnetic field. Although seismic activity is not the only source to cause the inverse Ne-Te variations, the present results demonstrate one possibly useful tool in seismo-electromagnetic anomaly differentiation, and a comprehensive analysis with multiple parameters helps to

  19. Reliability of environmental sampling culture results using the negative binomial intraclass correlation coefficient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aly, Sharif S; Zhao, Jianyang; Li, Ben; Jiang, Jiming

    2014-01-01

    The Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC) is commonly used to estimate the similarity between quantitative measures obtained from different sources. Overdispersed data is traditionally transformed so that linear mixed model (LMM) based ICC can be estimated. A common transformation used is the natural logarithm. The reliability of environmental sampling of fecal slurry on freestall pens has been estimated for Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis using the natural logarithm transformed culture results. Recently, the negative binomial ICC was defined based on a generalized linear mixed model for negative binomial distributed data. The current study reports on the negative binomial ICC estimate which includes fixed effects using culture results of environmental samples. Simulations using a wide variety of inputs and negative binomial distribution parameters (r; p) showed better performance of the new negative binomial ICC compared to the ICC based on LMM even when negative binomial data was logarithm, and square root transformed. A second comparison that targeted a wider range of ICC values showed that the mean of estimated ICC closely approximated the true ICC.

  20. Diffusive versus Displacive Contact Plasticity of Nanoscale Asperities: Temperature- and Velocity-Dependent Strongest Size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Wei; Wang, Zhao; Li, Ju

    2015-10-14

    We predict a strongest size for the contact strength when asperity radii of curvature decrease below 10 nm. The reason for such strongest size is found to be correlated with the competition between the dislocation plasticity and surface diffusional plasticity. The essential role of temperature is calculated and illustrated in a comprehensive asperity size-strength-temperature map taking into account the effect of contact velocity. Such a map should be essential for various phenomena related to nanoscale contacts such as nanowire cold welding, self-assembly of nanoparticles and adhesive nanopillar arrays, as well as the electrical, thermal, and mechanical properties of macroscopic interfaces.

  1. Radar correlated imaging for extended target by the combination of negative exponential restraint and total variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Tingting; Wang, Lianlian; Lu, Guanghua

    2017-07-01

    Radar correlated imaging (RCI) introduces the optical correlated imaging technology to traditional microwave imaging, which has raised widespread concern recently. Conventional RCI methods neglect the structural information of complex extended target, which makes the quality of recovery result not really perfect, thus a novel combination of negative exponential restraint and total variation (NER-TV) algorithm for extended target imaging is proposed in this paper. The sparsity is measured by a sequential order one negative exponential function, then the 2D total variation technique is introduced to design a novel optimization problem for extended target imaging. And the proven alternating direction method of multipliers is applied to solve the new problem. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm could realize high resolution imaging efficiently for extended target.

  2. Negative moods correlate with craving in female methamphetamine users enrolled in compulsory detoxification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shen Wenwen

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Methamphetamine (METH use, especially in females, has become a growing public health concern in China. In this study, we aimed to characterize the factors that contributed to drug craving in female METH users under isolated compulsory detoxification. We characterized factors contributing to craving such as duration of detoxification, history of drug use and self-reported mood state. Methods Subjects (N=113 undergoing a 1- to 3-year METH detoxification program were recruited from the Zhejiang Compulsory Detoxification Center for Women. The Questionnaire of METH-use Urge (QMU was used to evaluate the level of craving for METH. The Abbreviate Profile of Mood States (A-POMS was applied as an assessment for the negative mood disturbances. Results The participants were at a mean age of 25.2, primarily lowly educated and unemployed, and single. Smoking was the only route of METH administration at an average dose of 0.5 g/day, and 4 times/week. The reported craving level was positively correlated with the negative mood disturbances and the weekly dose of METH, but independent of the duration of detoxification. Furthermore, all five aspects of negative mood disturbances, including fatigue, bewilderment, anxiety, depression and hostility, were shown to positively correlate to the self-reported craving level after controlling for weekly dose of METH. Conclusions The data demonstrate a robust correlation between mood distress and craving for METH. Our results call for close evaluation of mood distress in treatment of METH users in China.

  3. Serum acylated ghrelin is negatively correlated with the insulin resistance in the CODING study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peyvand Amini

    Full Text Available Ghrelin is a 28-amino acid orexigenic peptide synthesized mainly in the stomach. Acute administration of ghrelin has been found to decrease insulin secretion. However, little data is available regarding whether ghrelin contributes to the long-term regulation of insulin resistance at the population level. The aim of this study is to investigate the association between circulating ghrelin and insulin resistance in a large population based study.A total of 2082 CODING study (Complex Diseases in the Newfoundland population: Environment and Genetics subjects were assessed. Subjects were of at least third generation Newfoundland descent, between the ages of 20 and 79 years, and had no serious metabolic, cardiovascular, or endocrine diseases. Ghrelin was measured with an Enzyme Immunoassay method. Insulin and fasting glucose were measured by Immulite 2500 autoanalyzer and Lx20 clinical chemistry analyzer, respectively. Homeostatic Model Assessment of β cell function (HOMA-β and Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR and Quantitative Insulin-sensitivity Check Index (QUICKI were used for measurement of insulin resistance.Partial correlation analyses showed a significant negative correlation between circulating ghrelin and insulin level and insulin resistance in the entire cohort and also in men and women separately. The aforementioned correlation was independent of age, percentage of trunk fat and HDL-cholesterol. According to menopausal status, only pre-menopausal women revealed negative correlations.Our results suggest that except for postmenopausal women, high circulating ghrelin level is associated with lower insulin resistance in the general population.

  4. The neural correlates of regulating positive and negative emotions in medication-free major depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greening, Steven G; Osuch, Elizabeth A; Williamson, Peter C; Mitchell, Derek G V

    2014-05-01

    Depressive cognitive schemas play an important role in the emergence and persistence of major depressive disorder (MDD). The current study adapted emotion regulation techniques to reflect elements of cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) and related psychotherapies to delineate neurocognitive abnormalities associated with modulating the negative cognitive style in MDD. Nineteen non-medicated patients with MDD and 19 matched controls reduced negative or enhanced positive feelings elicited by emotional scenes while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging. Although both groups showed significant emotion regulation success as measured by subjective ratings of affect, the controls were significantly better at modulating both negative and positive emotion. Both groups recruited regions of dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC) when regulating negative emotions. Only in controls was this accompanied by reduced activity in sensory cortices and amygdala. Similarly, both groups showed enhanced activity in VLPFC and ventral striatum when enhancing positive affect; however, only in controls was ventral striatum activity correlated with regulation efficacy. The results suggest that depression is associated with both a reduced capacity to achieve relief from negative affect despite recruitment of ventral and dorsal prefrontal cortical regions implicated in emotion regulation, coupled with a disconnect between activity in reward-related regions and subjective positive affect.

  5. The neural correlates of regulating positive and negative emotions in medication-free major depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greening, Steven G.; Osuch, Elizabeth A.; Williamson, Peter C.

    2014-01-01

    Depressive cognitive schemas play an important role in the emergence and persistence of major depressive disorder (MDD). The current study adapted emotion regulation techniques to reflect elements of cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) and related psychotherapies to delineate neurocognitive abnormalities associated with modulating the negative cognitive style in MDD. Nineteen non-medicated patients with MDD and 19 matched controls reduced negative or enhanced positive feelings elicited by emotional scenes while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging. Although both groups showed significant emotion regulation success as measured by subjective ratings of affect, the controls were significantly better at modulating both negative and positive emotion. Both groups recruited regions of dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC) when regulating negative emotions. Only in controls was this accompanied by reduced activity in sensory cortices and amygdala. Similarly, both groups showed enhanced activity in VLPFC and ventral striatum when enhancing positive affect; however, only in controls was ventral striatum activity correlated with regulation efficacy. The results suggest that depression is associated with both a reduced capacity to achieve relief from negative affect despite recruitment of ventral and dorsal prefrontal cortical regions implicated in emotion regulation, coupled with a disconnect between activity in reward-related regions and subjective positive affect. PMID:23482626

  6. Analysis of the enhanced negative correlation between electron density and electron temperature related to earthquakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. H. Shen

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Ionospheric perturbations in plasma parameters have been observed before large earthquakes, but the correlation between different parameters has been less studied in previous research. The present study is focused on the relationship between electron density (Ne and temperature (Te observed by the DEMETER (Detection of Electro-Magnetic Emissions Transmitted from Earthquake Regions satellite during local nighttime, in which a positive correlation has been revealed near the equator and a weak correlation at mid- and low latitudes over both hemispheres. Based on this normal background analysis, the negative correlation with the lowest percent in all Ne and Te points is studied before and after large earthquakes at mid- and low latitudes. The multiparameter observations exhibited typical synchronous disturbances before the Chile M8.8 earthquake in 2010 and the Pu'er M6.4 in 2007, and Te varied inversely with Ne over the epicentral areas. Moreover, statistical analysis has been done by selecting the orbits at a distance of 1000 km and ±7 days before and after the global earthquakes. Enhanced negative correlation coefficients lower than −0.5 between Ne and Te are found in 42% of points to be connected with earthquakes. The correlation median values at different seismic levels show a clear decrease with earthquakes larger than 7. Finally, the electric-field-coupling model is discussed; furthermore, a digital simulation has been carried out by SAMI2 (Sami2 is Another Model of the Ionosphere, which illustrates that the external electric field in the ionosphere can strengthen the negative correlation in Ne and Te at a lower latitude relative to the disturbed source due to the effects of the geomagnetic field. Although seismic activity is not the only source to cause the inverse Ne–Te variations, the present results demonstrate one possibly useful tool in seismo-electromagnetic anomaly differentiation, and a comprehensive analysis with multiple

  7. Negative Mood States Correlate with Laterobasal Amygdala in Collegiate Football Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Byul Cho

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A number of studies have suggested that sports-related concussion (SRC may place individuals at increased risk for depression and negative outcomes including suicide. However, the mechanisms underlying a potential relationship between brain integrity and mood remain unclear. The current study is aimed at examining the association between amygdala shape, mood state, and postconcussion symptoms in collegiate football players. Thirty members of 1 football team completed the Profile of Mood States (POMS, the postconcussion symptom scale (PCSS, and an MRI protocol during preseason camp. T1-weighted images were acquired and three-dimensional amygdala and probabilistic maps were created for shape analysis. Correlation analyses between POMS and PCSS and the relationship between POMS and amygdala shape were completed. In the amygdala, the left laterobasal subregion showed a positive relationship with the POMS total score and subscales scores. No significant relationship between PCSS and amygdala shape was found. Significant positive correlations were found between POMS subscales and PCSS. These results indicate that amygdala structure may be more closely associated with negative mood states than postconcussion symptoms. These findings suggest that premorbid individual differences in effect may provide critical insight into the relationship between negative mood and outcomes in collegiate football players with SRC.

  8. Functional brain-imaging correlates of negative affectivity and the onset of first-episode depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davey, C G; Whittle, S; Harrison, B J; Simmons, J G; Byrne, M L; Schwartz, O S; Allen, N B

    2015-04-01

    The amygdala and subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sACC) are key brain regions for the generation of negative affect. In this longitudinal fMRI study of adolescents we investigated how amygdala-sACC connectivity was correlated with negative affectivity (NA) both cross-sectionally and longitudinally, and examined its relationship to the onset of first-episode depression. Fifty-six adolescents who were part of a larger longitudinal study of adolescent development were included. They had no history of mental illness at the time of their baseline scan (mean age 16.5 years) and had a follow-up scan 2 years later (mean age 18.8 years). We used resting-state functional-connectivity MRI to investigate whether cross-sectional and change measures of amygdala-sACC connectivity were (i) correlated with NA and its change over time, and (ii) related to the onset of first-episode depression. The magnitude of amygdala connectivity with sACC showed significant positive correlation with NA at both time-points. Further analysis confirmed that change in amygdala-sACC connectivity between assessments was correlated with change in NA. Eight participants developed a first episode of depression between the baseline and follow-up assessments: they showed increased amygdala-sACC connectivity at follow-up. Amygdala-sACC connectivity is associated with NA in adolescence, with change in connectivity between these regions showing positive correlation with change in NA. Our observation that the onset of depression was associated with an increase in connectivity between the regions provides support for the neurobiological 'scar' hypothesis of depression.

  9. The Anterior Prefrontal Cortex and the Hippocampus Are Negatively Correlated during False Memories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brittany M. Jeye

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available False memories commonly activate the anterior/dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (A/DLPFC and the hippocampus. These regions are assumed to work in concert during false memories, which would predict a positive correlation between the magnitudes of activity in these regions across participants. However, the A/DLPFC may also inhibit the hippocampus, which would predict a negative correlation between the magnitudes of activity in these regions. In the present functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI study, during encoding, participants viewed abstract shapes in the left or right visual field. During retrieval, participants classified each old shape as previously in the “left” or “right” visual field followed by an “unsure”–“sure”–“very sure” confidence rating. The contrast of left-hits and left-misses produced two activations in the hippocampus and three activations in the left A/DLPFC. For each participant, activity associated with false memories (right–“left”–“very sure” responses from the two hippocampal regions was plotted as a function of activity in each A/DLPFC region. Across participants, for one region in the left anterior prefrontal cortex, there was a negative correlation between the magnitudes of activity in this region and the hippocampus. This suggests that the anterior prefrontal cortex might inhibit the hippocampus during false memories and that participants engage either the anterior prefrontal cortex or the hippocampus during false memories.

  10. The Anterior Prefrontal Cortex and the Hippocampus Are Negatively Correlated during False Memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeye, Brittany M; Karanian, Jessica M; Slotnick, Scott D

    2017-01-23

    False memories commonly activate the anterior/dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (A/DLPFC) and the hippocampus. These regions are assumed to work in concert during false memories, which would predict a positive correlation between the magnitudes of activity in these regions across participants. However, the A/DLPFC may also inhibit the hippocampus, which would predict a negative correlation between the magnitudes of activity in these regions. In the present functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, during encoding, participants viewed abstract shapes in the left or right visual field. During retrieval, participants classified each old shape as previously in the "left" or "right" visual field followed by an "unsure"-"sure"-"very sure" confidence rating. The contrast of left-hits and left-misses produced two activations in the hippocampus and three activations in the left A/DLPFC. For each participant, activity associated with false memories (right-"left"-"very sure" responses) from the two hippocampal regions was plotted as a function of activity in each A/DLPFC region. Across participants, for one region in the left anterior prefrontal cortex, there was a negative correlation between the magnitudes of activity in this region and the hippocampus. This suggests that the anterior prefrontal cortex might inhibit the hippocampus during false memories and that participants engage either the anterior prefrontal cortex or the hippocampus during false memories.

  11. Salomon: '97 E and P looking strongest in 9 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1997-01-01

    Based on companies' disclosed spending plans, 1997 is shaping up to be the strongest year-ahead outlook in 9 years, according to Salomon Bros. Inc. Salomon Bros.' conclusion stems from its 15th annual survey of worldwide oil and gas exploration and production spending. The survey, released last month, included 125 US independents, 97 Canadian companies, 103 companies outside the US and Canada, and 15 majors. Significantly, when the 15% growth experienced in 1996 is combined with the 1997 outlook, it represents the strongest indicator of 2-year activity in the past 15 years, said Salomon Bros. Double-digit spending growth is projected in all regions for 1997, the analyst said. Salomon Bros. said a higher percentage of companies' E and P budgets are being allocated to offshore projects, driven in part by attractive prospects, 3D seismic technology, and increased operational efficiencies

  12. Testosterone levels in healthy men correlate negatively with serotonin 4 receptor binding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perfalk, Erik; Cunha-Bang, Sofi da; Holst, Klaus K.

    2017-01-01

    receptor (5-HT4R) indexes central serotonergic tonus, which may be related to endogenous sex-steroid levels in the mentally healthy state even though this remains elusive. Here we evaluate if peripheral levels of estradiol and testosterone are associated with 5-HT4R binding as imaged by [11C]SB207145...... positron emission tomography in a group of 41 healthy men. We estimated global 5-HT4R binding using a latent variable model framework, which models shared correlation between 5-HT4R across multiple brain regions (hippocampus, amygdala, posterior and anterior cingulate, thalamus, pallidostriatum...... and neocortex). We tested whether testosterone and estradiol predict global 5-HT4R, adjusting for age. We found that testosterone, but not estradiol, correlated negatively with global 5-HT4R levels (p = 0.02) suggesting that men with high levels of testosterone have higher cerebral serotonergic tonus. Our...

  13. Considering body mass differences, who are the world's strongest women?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderburgh, P M; Dooman, C

    2000-01-01

    Allometric modeling (AM) has been used to determine the world's strongest body mass-adjusted man. Recently, however, AM was shown to demonstrate body mass bias in elite Olympic weightlifting performance. A second order polynomial (2OP) provided a better fit than AM with no body mass bias for men and women. The purpose of this study was to apply both AM and 2OP models to women's world powerlifting records (more a function of pure strength and less power than Olympic lifts) to determine the optimal model approach as well as the strongest body mass-adjusted woman in each event. Subjects were the 36 (9 per event) current women world record holders (as of Nov., 1997) for bench press (BP), deadlift (DL), squat (SQ), and total (TOT) lift (BP + DL + SQ) according to the International Powerlifting Federation (IPF). The 2OP model demonstrated the superior fit and no body mass bias as indicated by the coefficient of variation and residuals scatterplot inspection, respectively, for DL, SQ, and TOT. The AM for these three lifts, however, showed favorable bias toward the middle weight classes. The 2OP and AM yielded an essentially identical fit for BP. Although body mass-adjusted world records were dependent on the model used, Carrie Boudreau (U.S., 56-kg weight class), who received top scores in TOT and DL with both models, is arguably the world's strongest woman overall. Furthermore, although the 2OP model provides a better fit than AM for this elite population, a case can still be made for AM use, particularly in light of theoretical superiority.

  14. Natural variation for seed longevity and seed dormancy are negatively correlated in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thu-Phuong; Keizer, Paul; van Eeuwijk, Fred; Smeekens, Sjef; Bentsink, Leónie

    2012-12-01

    Dormancy is a state of metabolic arrest that facilitates the survival of organisms during environmental conditions incompatible with their regular course of life. Many organisms have deep dormant stages to promote an extended life span (increased longevity). In contrast, plants have seed dormancy and seed longevity described as two traits. Seed dormancy is defined as a temporary failure of a viable seed to germinate in conditions that favor germination, whereas seed longevity is defined as seed viability after dry storage (storability). In plants, the association of seed longevity with seed dormancy has not been studied in detail. This is surprising given the ecological, agronomical, and economic importance of seed longevity. We studied seed longevity to reveal its genetic regulators and its association with seed dormancy in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Integrated quantitative trait locus analyses for seed longevity, in six recombinant inbred line populations, revealed five loci: Germination Ability After Storage1 (GAAS1) to GAAS5. GAAS loci colocated with seed dormancy loci, Delay Of Germination (DOG), earlier identified in the same six recombinant inbred line populations. Both GAAS loci and their colocation with DOG loci were validated by near isogenic lines. A negative correlation was observed, deep seed dormancy correlating with low seed longevity and vice versa. Detailed analysis on the collocating GAAS5 and DOG1 quantitative trait loci revealed that the DOG1-Cape Verde Islands allele both reduces seed longevity and increases seed dormancy. To our knowledge, this study is the first to report a negative correlation between seed longevity and seed dormancy.

  15. Negative Correlation between the Diffusion Coefficient and Transcriptional Activity of the Glucocorticoid Receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikuni, Shintaro; Yamamoto, Johtaro; Horio, Takashi; Kinjo, Masataka

    2017-08-25

    The glucocorticoid receptor (GR) is a transcription factor, which interacts with DNA and other cofactors to regulate gene transcription. Binding to other partners in the cell nucleus alters the diffusion properties of GR. Raster image correlation spectroscopy (RICS) was applied to quantitatively characterize the diffusion properties of EGFP labeled human GR (EGFP-hGR) and its mutants in the cell nucleus. RICS is an image correlation technique that evaluates the spatial distribution of the diffusion coefficient as a diffusion map. Interestingly, we observed that the averaged diffusion coefficient of EGFP-hGR strongly and negatively correlated with its transcriptional activities in comparison to that of EGFP-hGR wild type and mutants with various transcriptional activities. This result suggests that the decreasing of the diffusion coefficient of hGR was reflected in the high-affinity binding to DNA. Moreover, the hyper-phosphorylation of hGR can enhance the transcriptional activity by reduction of the interaction between the hGR and the nuclear corepressors.

  16. Free fatty acid has a negative correlation with myocardial uptake of FDG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eo, Jae Seon; Lee, Won Woo; Park, Eun Kyung; So, Young; Lee, Dong Soo; Chung, June Key; Lee, Myung Chul; Kim, Sang Eun

    2004-01-01

    Free fatty acid (FFA) is a marker of insulin resistance. Myocardial uptake of FDG is influenced by insulin resistance. We investigated the correlation of FFA and myocardial uptake of FDG in whole body PET. We measured serum FFA levels in consecutive 112 patients who underwent whole body FDG PET due to malignancy work up. Twelve patients with diabetes. 13 with liver disease, 4 with suspicious ischemic heart disease. 1 with steroid therapy, and 10 with final diagnosis of benign disease were excluded. After fasting of diet or beverages for at least 6 hours, blood was aspirated at peripheral vein for measurement of FFA and glucose in serum. FDG was injected as a dose of 0.14 mCi/kg body weight. Fifty minutes later, whole body PET scan was performed from skull base to upper thigh. Maximum SUV (maxSUV) using lean body weight was obtained in heart. liver, cerebellum, muscle and malignant tissues. Finally 72 patients (M:F 45:27, age 56.9±15.8 years) were enrolled. There were 27 non small cell lung cancer, 14 lymphoma, 10 esophageal cancer, 3 breast cancer, 3 colon cancer, 3 renal cell cancer, 2 melanoma, and 10 other cancers. Serum glucose level was 96.6±14.3 mg/dL. Serum FFA level was 720.0±315.2 uEq/L. MaxSUV of main malignant tissue ranged from 0.7 to 11.5 (mean 4.9±2.6). MaxSUV of each organs were 1.0 to 14.6 (mean 4.0±3.0) in heart, 2.7 to 6.4 (mean 3.9±0.6) in cerebellum, 1.0 to 2.6 (mean 1.9±0.3) in liver, and 0.6 to 1.1 (mean 0.8±0.1) in gluteal muscle. FFA and maxSUV of heart had a negative correlation. The best fitting line was MaxSUV of Heart = -4.4583 x In(FF A) + 32.964. But FFA had no correlation with any other parameters like serum glucose level, and MaxSUV of cerebellum, muscle, liver and malignant tissues. We found a negative correlation between FFA levels and myocardial uptake of FDG. FFA modifying drugs such as nicotinic acid derivatives may have influence on myocardial uptake of FDG

  17. Mitochondrial Spare Respiratory Capacity Is Negatively Correlated with Nuclear Reprogramming Efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yan, Zhou; Al-Saaidi, Rasha Abdelkadhem; Fernandez Guerra, Paula

    2017-01-01

    Nuclear reprogramming efficiency has been shown to be highly variable among different types of somatic cells and different individuals, yet the underlying mechanism remains largely unknown. Several studies have shown that reprogramming of fibroblasts into induced pluripotent stem cells (i...... extracellular energy flux analyzer, we measured oxygen consumption rate (OCR) profiles of the cells, along with their nuclear reprogramming efficiency into iPSCs. Our results showed that fibroblasts with the lowest mitochondrial spare respiratory capacity (SRC) had the highest nuclear reprogramming efficiency...... of the modified fibroblasts and impaired reprogramming efficiency. Our findings indicate a negative correlation between high mitochondrial SRC in somatic cells and low reprogramming efficiencies. This type of analysis potentially allows screening and predicting reprogramming efficiency before reprogramming...

  18. Male provisioning is negatively correlated with attempted extrapair copulation frequency in the stitchbird (or hihi).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewen; Armstrong

    2000-10-01

    In species with biparental care of offspring and high levels of extrapair parentage, paired males may suffer reduced fitness by investing in offspring that are not their own. In such instances, males are predicted to evolve some form of discrimination between kin and nonkin and vary investment accordingly. One simple form of discrimination is to follow behavioural cues to paternity. We investigated paternal contribution to chick rearing in a socially monogamous population of stitchbirds, Notiomystis cincta, with high levels of extrapair copulation (EPC) and extrapair paternity. The relative contribution of the male to chick provisioning was negatively correlated with attempted EPC frequency. Because the majority of EPC attempts are forced and conspicuous in stitchbirds they are an obvious cue for males to use. Copyright 2000 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour.

  19. Wolbachia infections in natural Anopheles populations affect egg laying and negatively correlate with Plasmodium development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, W Robert; Marcenac, Perrine; Childs, Lauren M; Buckee, Caroline O; Baldini, Francesco; Sawadogo, Simon P; Dabiré, Roch K; Diabaté, Abdoulaye; Catteruccia, Flaminia

    2016-05-31

    The maternally inherited alpha-proteobacterium Wolbachia has been proposed as a tool to block transmission of devastating mosquito-borne infectious diseases like dengue and malaria. Here we study the reproductive manipulations induced by a recently identified Wolbachia strain that stably infects natural mosquito populations of a major malaria vector, Anopheles coluzzii, in Burkina Faso. We determine that these infections significantly accelerate egg laying but do not induce cytoplasmic incompatibility or sex-ratio distortion, two parasitic reproductive phenotypes that facilitate the spread of other Wolbachia strains within insect hosts. Analysis of 221 blood-fed A. coluzzii females collected from houses shows a negative correlation between the presence of Plasmodium parasites and Wolbachia infection. A mathematical model incorporating these results predicts that infection with these endosymbionts may reduce malaria prevalence in human populations. These data suggest that Wolbachia may be an important player in malaria transmission dynamics in Sub-Saharan Africa.

  20. Neural correlates of three types of negative life events during angry face processing in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gollier-Briant, Fanny; Paillère-Martinot, Marie-Laure; Lemaitre, Hervé; Miranda, Ruben; Vulser, Hélène; Goodman, Robert; Penttilä, Jani; Struve, Maren; Fadai, Tahmine; Kappel, Viola; Poustka, Luise; Grimmer, Yvonne; Bromberg, Uli; Conrod, Patricia; Banaschewski, Tobias; Barker, Gareth J; Bokde, Arun L W; Büchel, Christian; Flor, Herta; Gallinat, Juergen; Garavan, Hugh; Heinz, Andreas; Lawrence, Claire; Mann, Karl; Nees, Frauke; Paus, Tomas; Pausova, Zdenka; Frouin, Vincent; Rietschel, Marcella; Robbins, Trevor W; Smolka, Michael N; Schumann, Gunter; Martinot, Jean-Luc; Artiges, Eric

    2016-12-01

    Negative life events (NLE) contribute to anxiety and depression disorders, but their relationship with brain functioning in adolescence has rarely been studied. We hypothesized that neural response to social threat would relate to NLE in the frontal-limbic emotional regions. Participants (N = 685) were drawn from the Imagen database of 14-year-old community adolescents recruited in schools. They underwent functional MRI while viewing angry and neutral faces, as a probe to neural response to social threat. Lifetime NLEs were assessed using the 'distress', 'family' and 'accident' subscales from a life event dimensional questionnaire. Relationships between NLE subscale scores and neural response were investigated. Links of NLE subscales scores with anxiety or depression outcomes at the age of 16 years were also investigated. Lifetime 'distress' positively correlated with ventral-lateral orbitofrontal and temporal cortex activations during angry face processing. 'Distress' scores correlated with the probabilities of meeting criteria for Generalized Anxiety Disorder or Major Depressive Disorder at the age of 16 years. Lifetime 'family' and 'accident' scores did not relate with neural response or follow-up conditions, however. Thus, different types of NLEs differentially predicted neural responses to threat during adolescence, and differentially predicted a de novo internalizing condition 2 years later. The deleterious effect of self-referential NLEs is suggested. © The Author (2016). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Correlates of trading sex for methamphetamine in a sample of HIV-negative heterosexual methamphetamine users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semple, Shirley J; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Zians, Jim; Patterson, Thomas L

    2011-01-01

    While many studies have examined correlates of trading sex for money, few have examined factors associated with exclusive trading of sex for drugs. We identified sociodemographic, behavioral, and psychological correlates of trading sex for methamphetamine in a sample of HIV-negative heterosexual men and women who were enrolled in a sexual risk reduction intervention in San Diego, California. Of 342 participants, 26% overall (21% of males and 31% of females) reported trading sex for methamphetamine in the past two months. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that recently trading sex for methamphetamine was independently associated with being female, homeless, binging on methamphetamine, sexual victimization in the past two months, engaging in anal sex 24 or more times in the past two months, and higher sexual compulsivity scores. Effective interventions for this high-risk population should consider gender-focused counseling for sexual abuse, motivational enhancement therapy, social-cognitive skills training, as well as enhanced access and utilization of social services, including drug treatment.

  2. Preserved serotonin transporter binding in de novo Parkinson's disease: negative correlation with the dopamine transporter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strecker, Karl; Wegner, Florian; Hesse, Swen; Becker, Georg-Alexander; Patt, Marianne; Meyer, Philipp M; Lobsien, Donald; Schwarz, Johannes; Sabri, Osama

    2011-01-01

    Recent imaging and neuropathological studies indicate reduced serotonin transporter (SERT) in advanced Parkinson's disease (PD). However, data on SERT in early PD patients are sparse. Following the hypothesis that the serotonergic system is damaged early in PD, the aim of our study was to investigate SERT availability by means of PET imaging. Since the loss of dopaminergic neurons is the pathologic hallmark of PD and SERT might be associated with psychiatric co-morbidity, we further sought to correlate SERT availability with the availability of dopamine transporter (DAT) and depressive or motor symptoms in early PD. We prospectively recruited nine early PD patients (4 female, 5 male; 42-76 years) and nine age matched healthy volunteers (5 female, 4 male; 42-72 years). Diagnosis of PD was confirmed by the UK brain bank criteria and DAT imaging. SERT availability was measured by means of [11C]DASB PET. For neuropsychiatric assessment done on the day of PET we applied UPDRS parts I, II and III, Beck's Depression Inventory, Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression, Mini-Mental State Examination and Demtect. SERT was not reduced in any of 14 investigated regions of interest in the nine PD patients compared to healthy controls (p>0.13). SERT was negatively associated with DAT in the striatum (r=-0.69; p=0.04) but not within the midbrain. There was no correlation of SERT availability with depressive symptoms. No alteration of SERT binding in our patients suggests that the serotonergic system is remarkably preserved in early PD. Correlation with DAT might point to a compensatory regulation of the serotonergic system in early stages of PD.

  3. Correlation of regional cerebral blood flow and positive/negative symptoms in schizophrenic patients: covariate SPM analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Ki Chun; Kim, J. S.; Kim, C. Y.; Lee, H. K.; Moon, D. H.

    2002-01-01

    We investigated the relations between rCBF and psychopathology in schizophrenic patients using a SPM99. Thirty-two patients(M/F:22/10, 25±5,6yr) with active symptoms of schizophrenia and 15 age matched normal controls underwent Tc-99m ECD brain perfusion SPECT. Psychopathology of all patients were also assessed according to PANSS (positive and negative syndrome scale in schizophrenia). By covariate SPM analysis, specific areas where rCBF correlated with sum scores of positive/negative synptoms were identified. Regional CBF of schizophrenics was different in several cortical regions from normal controls. Sum scores of positive symptoms were positively correlated with rCBF of both rectal and inferior frontal gyri and right transverse temporal gyrus, and negatively correlated with rCBF of left lingual and right middle temporal gyri (p<0.01). Sum scores of negative symptoms were positively correlated with rCBF of both middle temporal gyri and negatively correlated with rCBF of right superior parietal lobule and medial frontal gyrus (p<0.01). Positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia were correlated with rCBF change in different regions of cerebral association cortex

  4. Correlation of regional cerebral blood flow and positive/negative symptoms in schizophrenic patients: covariate SPM analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Ki Chun; Kim, J. S.; Kim, C. Y.; Lee, H. K.; Moon, D. H. [Ulsan University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-07-01

    We investigated the relations between rCBF and psychopathology in schizophrenic patients using a SPM99. Thirty-two patients(M/F:22/10, 25{+-}5,6yr) with active symptoms of schizophrenia and 15 age matched normal controls underwent Tc-99m ECD brain perfusion SPECT. Psychopathology of all patients were also assessed according to PANSS (positive and negative syndrome scale in schizophrenia). By covariate SPM analysis, specific areas where rCBF correlated with sum scores of positive/negative synptoms were identified. Regional CBF of schizophrenics was different in several cortical regions from normal controls. Sum scores of positive symptoms were positively correlated with rCBF of both rectal and inferior frontal gyri and right transverse temporal gyrus, and negatively correlated with rCBF of left lingual and right middle temporal gyri (p<0.01). Sum scores of negative symptoms were positively correlated with rCBF of both middle temporal gyri and negatively correlated with rCBF of right superior parietal lobule and medial frontal gyrus (p<0.01). Positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia were correlated with rCBF change in different regions of cerebral association cortex.

  5. Transient negative biochar effects on plant growth are strongest after microbial species loss

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hol, (Gera) W.H.G.; Vestergård, M.; Ten Hooven, F.C.; Duyts, H.; Van de Voorde, T.F.J.; Bezemer, T. Martijn

    2017-01-01

    Biochar has been explored as an organic amendment to improve soil quality and benefit plant growth. The overall positive effects of biochar on crop yields are generally attributed to abiotic changes, while the alternative causal pathway via changes in soil biota is unexplored. We compared plant

  6. Negative correlation between age of subjects and length of the appendix in Bangladeshi males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakar, Sheikh Muhammad Abu; Shamim, Manjare; Alam, Gazi Mahabubul

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The anatomy of the vermiform appendix shows variations in its macroscopic dimensions some of which have potential to influence the clinical aspects of the appendix. Anatomical studies on the appendix using people in Bangladesh as a sample are limited and fall short of producing any standardized anthropometric data. This study is predominantly a cross-sectional observational study which also uses some statistical analysis to understand the relationships amongst variables. Material and methods Fifty-six adult male postmortem appendices and adnexa were examined for macroscopic features. Possible interrelationships among the variables were assessed through statistical analysis. The age of the samples ranged from 18 to 67 years. The most common position of the appendix was retrocolic (53.57%) followed by pelvic (30.35%), postileal (12.5%), and subcaecal (3.5%). Results In most cases (62.5%) the mesoappendix did not reach the tip of the appendix. The appendicular length varied from 6.00 cm to 16.30 cm with mean (± SD) and median value of 10.21 ±2.50 cm and 10.00 cm respectively. The base of the appendix was 1.90 to 3.80 cm away from the ileocaecal junction. The other macroscopic measurements of the appendix were taken at the base, at the midzone and at the tip of the appendix and the mean of the three measurements was considered as the overall value. Thus, the overall external diameter varied between 0.32 cm and 0.83 cm. Assessment of possible correlations amongst different variables revealed a significant negative correlation between the age of the subjects and the length of the appendix. Conclusions The data of the present study may provide a baseline along with some previous data in the standardization of the anthropometric information regarding the vermiform appendix of Bangladeshi males. PMID:23515519

  7. Data for default network reduced functional connectivity in meditators, negatively correlated with meditation expertise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aviva Berkovich-Ohana

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available FMRI data described here was recorded during resting-state in Mindfulness Meditators (MM and control participants (see “Task-induced activity and resting-state fluctuations undergo similar alterations in visual and DMN areas of long-term meditators” Berkovich-Ohana et al. (2016 [1] for details. MM participants were also scanned during meditation. Analyses focused on functional connectivity within and between the default mode network (DMN and visual network (Vis. Here we show data demonstrating that: 1 Functional connectivity within the DMN and the Visual networks were higher in the control group than in the meditators; 2 Data show an increase for the functional connectivity between the DMN and the Visual networks in the meditators compared to controls; 3 Data demonstrate that functional connectivity both within and between networks reduces during meditation, compared to the resting-state; and 4 A significant negative correlation was found between DMN functional connectivity and meditation expertise. The reader is referred to Berkovich-Ohana et al. (2016 [1] for further interpretation and discussion.

  8. Connectivity in gene coexpression networks negatively correlates with rates of molecular evolution in flowering plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masalia, Rishi R; Bewick, Adam J; Burke, John M

    2017-01-01

    Gene coexpression networks are a useful tool for summarizing transcriptomic data and providing insight into patterns of gene regulation in a variety of species. Though there has been considerable interest in studying the evolution of network topology across species, less attention has been paid to the relationship between network position and patterns of molecular evolution. Here, we generated coexpression networks from publicly available expression data for seven flowering plant taxa (Arabidopsis thaliana, Glycine max, Oryza sativa, Populus spp., Solanum lycopersicum, Vitis spp., and Zea mays) to investigate the relationship between network position and rates of molecular evolution. We found a significant negative correlation between network connectivity and rates of molecular evolution, with more highly connected (i.e., "hub") genes having significantly lower nonsynonymous substitution rates and dN/dS ratios compared to less highly connected (i.e., "peripheral") genes across the taxa surveyed. These findings suggest that more centrally located hub genes are, on average, subject to higher levels of evolutionary constraint than are genes located on the periphery of gene coexpression networks. The consistency of this result across disparate taxa suggests that it holds for flowering plants in general, as opposed to being a species-specific phenomenon.

  9. Increased Frontal Gyrification Negatively Correlates with Executive Function in Patients with First-Episode Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasabayashi, Daiki; Takayanagi, Yoichiro; Nishiyama, Shimako; Takahashi, Tsutomu; Furuichi, Atsushi; Kido, Mikio; Nishikawa, Yumiko; Nakamura, Mihoko; Noguchi, Kyo; Suzuki, Michio

    2017-04-01

    Previous neuroimaging studies of gyrification, a possible marker of early neurodevelopment, in schizophrenia patients have reported inconsistent results. In addition, it remains unclear whether aberrant gyrification in schizophrenia patients, if present, is associated with cognitive impairment, which is one of the core features of schizophrenia. Magnetic resonance images were obtained from 62 patients with first-episode schizophrenia and 57 healthy control subjects. Using FreeSurfer software, local gyrification index (LGI) of the entire cortex was compared between the groups. The relationship between LGI and performance in the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) was also examined in a subgroup of patients (n= 28). Compared with the controls, the patients showed a significantly higher LGI in a wide range of bilateral frontal regions as well as in the right inferior parietal and bilateral occipital regions. The number of WCST categories archived in patients was negatively correlated with the LGI mainly in the rostral middle frontal and anterior cingulate regions in the right hemisphere. Our findings suggested a widespread hypergyrification pattern in schizophrenia patients, which supported early neurodevelopmental abnormalities. Our results also suggested that executive dysfunction in schizophrenia patients may be at least partly related to aberrant neurodevelopment, especially in the right frontal regions. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Toward a Molecular Understanding of Protein Solubility: Increased Negative Surface Charge Correlates with Increased Solubility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Ryan M.; Shende, Varad R.; Motl, Nicole; Pace, C. Nick; Scholtz, J. Martin

    2012-01-01

    Protein solubility is a problem for many protein chemists, including structural biologists and developers of protein pharmaceuticals. Knowledge about how intrinsic factors influence solubility is limited due to the difficulty of obtaining quantitative solubility measurements. Solubility measurements in buffer alone are difficult to reproduce, because gels or supersaturated solutions often form, making it impossible to determine solubility values for many proteins. Protein precipitants can be used to obtain comparative solubility measurements and, in some cases, estimations of solubility in buffer alone. Protein precipitants fall into three broad classes: salts, long-chain polymers, and organic solvents. Here, we compare the use of representatives from two classes of precipitants, ammonium sulfate and polyethylene glycol 8000, by measuring the solubility of seven proteins. We find that increased negative surface charge correlates strongly with increased protein solubility and may be due to strong binding of water by the acidic amino acids. We also find that the solubility results obtained for the two different precipitants agree closely with each other, suggesting that the two precipitants probe similar properties that are relevant to solubility in buffer alone. PMID:22768947

  11. Negative emotion differentiation: its personality and well-being correlates and a comparison of different assessment methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erbas, Yasemin; Ceulemans, Eva; Lee Pe, Madeline; Koval, Peter; Kuppens, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has shown that individual differences in negative emotion differentiation may play a prominent role in well-being. Yet, many basic questions about negative emotion differentiation remain unanswered, including how it relates and overlaps with related and known dimensions of individual differences and what its possible underlying processes are. To answer these questions, in the current article we present three correlational studies that chart the nomological network of individual differences in negative emotion differentiation in terms of personality, difficulties in identifying and describing feelings, and several indicators of well-being, propose a novel paradigm to assess it in the lab, and explore relationships with a possible underlying mechanism in terms of the motivation to approach or avoid emotions. The results affirm consistent relations between negative emotion differentiation and indicators of adjustment like negative affect, self-esteem, neuroticism, depression and meta-knowledge about one's emotions, and show how it is related to the motivation to experience affective states.

  12. Social cognitive impairments and negative symptoms in schizophrenia: are there subtypes with distinct functional correlates?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Morris D; Corbera, Silvia; Johannesen, Jason K; Fiszdon, Joanna M; Wexler, Bruce E

    2013-01-01

    Social cognitive impairments and negative symptoms are core features of schizophrenia closely associated with impaired community functioning. However, little is known about whether these are independent dimensions of illness and if so, whether individuals with schizophrenia can be meaningfully classified based on these dimensions (SANS) and potentially differentially treated. Five social cognitive measures plus Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS) and Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) scores in a sample of 77 outpatients produced 2 distinct factors--a social cognitive factor and a negative symptom factor. Factor scores were used in a cluster analysis, which yielded 3 well-defined groupings--a high negative symptom group (HN) and 2 low negative symptom groups, 1 with higher social cognition (HSC) and 1 with low social cognition (LSC). To make these findings more practicable for research and clinical settings, a rule of thumb for categorizing using only the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test and PANSS negative component was created and produced 84.4% agreement with the original cluster groups. An additional 63 subjects were added to cross validate the rule of thumb. When samples were combined (N = 140), the HSC group had significantly better quality of life and Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) scores, higher rates of marriage and more hospitalizations. The LSC group had worse criminal and substance abuse histories. With 2 common assessment instruments, people with schizophrenia can be classified into 3 subgroups that have different barriers to community integration and could potentially benefit from different treatments.

  13. The neural correlates of regulating positive and negative emotions in medication-free major depression

    OpenAIRE

    Greening, Steven G.; Osuch, Elizabeth A.; Williamson, Peter C.; Mitchell, Derek G. V.

    2013-01-01

    Depressive cognitive schemas play an important role in the emergence and persistence of major depressive disorder (MDD). The current study adapted emotion regulation techniques to reflect elements of cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) and related psychotherapies to delineate neurocognitive abnormalities associated with modulating the negative cognitive style in MDD. Nineteen non-medicated patients with MDD and 19 matched controls reduced negative or enhanced positive feelings elicited by emo...

  14. Negative stereotype activation alters interaction between neural correlates of arousal, inhibition and cognitive control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Chad E; Cox, Christine L; Schmader, Toni; Ryan, Lee

    2012-10-01

    Priming negative stereotypes of African Americans can bias perceptions toward novel Black targets, but less is known about how these perceptions ultimately arise. Examining how neural regions involved in arousal, inhibition and control covary when negative stereotypes are activated can provide insight into whether individuals attempt to downregulate biases. Using fMRI, White egalitarian-motivated participants were shown Black and White faces at fast (32 ms) or slow (525 ms) presentation speeds. To create a racially negative stereotypic context, participants listened to violent and misogynistic rap (VMR) in the background. No music (NM) and death metal (DM) were used as control conditions in separate blocks. Fast exposure of Black faces elicited amygdala activation in the NM and VMR conditions (but not DM), that also negatively covaried with activation in prefrontal regions. Only in VMR, however, did amygdala activation for Black faces persist during slow exposure and positively covary with activation in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex while negatively covarying with activation in orbitofrontal cortex. Findings suggest that contexts that prime negative racial stereotypes seem to hinder the downregulation of amygdala activation that typically occurs when egalitarian perceivers are exposed to Black faces.

  15. Personality, negative affect coping, and drinking alone: a structural equation modeling approach to examine correlates of adolescent solitary drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creswell, Kasey G; Chung, Tammy; Wright, Aidan G C; Clark, Duncan B; Black, Jessica J; Martin, Christopher S

    2015-05-01

    This study examined the personality traits of negative emotionality and constraint and the ability to resist drinking during negative affective states as correlates of solitary drinking in adolescence. We hypothesized that higher levels of negative emotionality and lower levels of constraint would predict solitary drinking and that these relationships would be mediated by the ability to resist drinking in response to negative emotions. Structural equation modeling was used to fit a path model from the personality traits of negative emotionality and constraint to solitary drinking status through intermediate effects on the ability to resist drinking during negative emotions using cross-sectional data. Clinical and community settings in Pennsylvania, USA. The sample included 761 adolescent drinkers (mean age = 17.1). Adolescents completed the Lifetime Drinking History, the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire, the Constructive Thinking Inventory and the Situational Confidence Questionnaire. The path model provided a good fit to the data. The association between trait negative emotionality and solitary drinking was fully mediated by adolescents' ability to resist drinking during negative affective states (b = 0.05, P = 0.01). In contrast, constraint had a direct effect on solitary drinking (odds ratio (OR) = 0.79, b = -0.23, P<0.01), as well as an indirect effect through the ability to resist drinking during negative affective states (b = -0.03, P = 0.02). The ability to resist drinking while experiencing negative feelings or emotions may be an important underlying mechanism linking trait negative emotionality (a tendency toward depression, anxiety and poor reaction to stress) and constraint (lack of impulsiveness) to adolescent solitary drinking. © 2015 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  16. Positive schizotypy scores correlate with left visual field interference for negatively valenced emotional words: A lateralized emotional Stroop study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Strien, Jan W; Van Kampen, Dirk

    2009-10-30

    Fourteen men scoring high and 14 men scoring low on a positive schizotypy scale participated in a lateralized emotional Stroop task. Vocal reaction times for color naming of neutral, positive and negative emotional words were recorded. Across participants, the color naming of neutral and emotional words was slightly faster to right than to left visual field presentations. In men with high scores on positive schizotypy, the presentation of negative words to the left visual field (right hemisphere) resulted in significant affective interference with color naming, which was significantly larger than in men with low scores. Correlational analysis also showed that positive schizotypy was significantly associated with emotional interference in response to LVF negative words. The outcome is discussed in terms of right hemispheric engagement in negative emotions in high positive schizotypic men.

  17. False Negative Mammogram of Breast Cancer : Analysis of Mammographic and Sonographic Findings and Correlation with Clinical Findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kil Jun; Lee, Ji Yeon; Han, Sung Nim; Jeong, Seong Ki; Tae, Seok; Shin, Kyoung Ja; Lee, Sang Chun

    1995-01-01

    Recent mammographic equipment have been of good quality and yielded high diagnostic accuracy for the detection of breast cancer. However, negative mammogram does not necessarily rule out breast cancer. Therefore were viewed cause of false negative mammography in confirmed breast cancer to improve diagnostic accuracy and for adequate clinical approach. We reviewed 19 cases of confirmed breast cancer, which showed false negative mammography with positive sonographic findings. Retrospective analysis was done by correlating the patient's age, sonographic finding and mass size, mammographic breast pattern and cause of false negative mammogram, and clinical symptoms. Among the 5 patients below 35 years in age, mass was not visible due to dense breast in 4 and due to small size in 1 case. In 14 patients over 35 years in age, 11 had normal mammographic findings, 4 had dense breast, and 7 had small sized mass. Remaining 3 cases showed asymmetric density in 2 and architecture distortion in 1 case. All showed mass lesion in sonography : ill defined malignant appearance in 14,well defined malignant appearance in 2, and well defined benign in 3 cases. Negative mammogram should be correlated with sonography in case of dense breast, below 35 years in age with palpable mass and under risk for breast cancer

  18. Neural correlates of preparatory and regulatory control over positive and negative emotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Dongju; Olman, Cheryl A; Haut, Kristen M; Sinha, Rajita; MacDonald, Angus W; Patrick, Christopher J

    2014-04-01

    This study used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate brain activation during preparatory and regulatory control while participants (N = 24) were instructed either to simply view or decrease their emotional response to, pleasant, neutral or unpleasant pictures. A main effect of emotional valence on brain activity was found in the right precentral gyrus, with greater activation during positive than negative emotion regulation. A main effect of regulation phase was evident in the bilateral anterior prefrontal cortex (PFC), precuneus, posterior cingulate cortex, right putamen and temporal and occipital lobes, with greater activity in these regions during preparatory than regulatory control. A valence X regulation interaction was evident in regions of ventromedial PFC and anterior cingulate cortex, reflecting greater activation while regulating negative than positive emotion, but only during active emotion regulation (not preparation). Conjunction analyses revealed common brain regions involved in differing types of emotion regulation including selected areas of left lateral PFC, inferior parietal lobe, temporal lobe, right cerebellum and bilateral dorsomedial PFC. The right lateral PFC was additionally activated during the modulation of both positive and negative valence. Findings demonstrate significant modulation of brain activity during both preparation for, and active regulation of positive and negative emotional states.

  19. Correlation between low-proficiency in English and negative perceptions of what it means to be an English speaker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavarljit Kaur Gill

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Learning another language is very much affected by positive or negative connotations attached to the new language by the language learner. Entering Malaysian public universities there are many students with a low proficiency in English, despite spending eleven years studying English in schools. Could it be that the lack of progress among these students could be attributed to a negative view of what it means to be a speaker of English? This study investigated the perceptions of students at a public university, to determine whether there is a correlation between low-proficiency and negative perceptions of what it means to be an English speaker. Analysis of the results showed that Malaysian students have a very positive perception of what it means to be an English speaker.

  20. Distinct Neuropsychological Correlates in Positive and Negative Formal Thought Disorder Syndromes: The Thought and Language Disorder Scale in Endogenous Psychoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagels, Arne; Fährmann, Paul; Stratmann, Mirjam; Ghazi, Sayed; Schales, Christian; Frauenheim, Michael; Turner, Lena; Hornig, Tobias; Katzev, Michael; Müller-Isberner, Rüdiger; Grosvald, Michael; Krug, Axel; Kircher, Tilo

    2016-01-01

    The correlation of formal thought disorder (FTD) symptoms and subsyndromes with neuropsychological dimensions is as yet unclear. Evidence for a dysexecutive syndrome and semantic access impairments has been discussed in positive FTD, albeit focusing mostly on patients with schizophrenia. We investigated the correlation of the full range of positive and negative as well as subjective and objective FTD with neuropsychological domains in different patient groups. Patients with ICD-10 schizophrenia (n = 51), depression (n = 51), and bipolar mania (n = 18), as well as healthy subjects (n = 60), were interviewed with the Rating Scale for the Assessment of Objective and Subjective Formal Thought and Language Disorder (TALD) and assessed using a multidimensional neuropsychological test battery (executive function, semantic and lexical verbal fluency, attention, working memory, and abstract thinking). Partial correlation analysis, controlling for age and word knowledge, revealed significant results for the objective positive FTD dimension and executive dysfunctions. Objective negative FTD was associated with deficits in lexico-semantic retrieval, as well as attention and working memory dysfunctions. The results suggest that different neuropsychological substrates correlate with the multidimensional and phenomenologically different FTD syndromes. FTD is a complex, multidimensional syndrome with a variety of neuropsychological impairments, which should be accounted for in future studies investigating the pathogenesis of FTD. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Correlations among Psychological Resilience, Self-Efficacy, and Negative Emotion in Acute Myocardial Infarction Patients after Percutaneous Coronary Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Neng; Liu, Shaohui; Yu, Nan; Peng, Yunhua; Wen, Yumei; Tang, Jie; Kong, Lingyu

    2018-01-01

    We investigated the influencing factors of the psychological resilience and self-efficacy of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) patients after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and the relationships of psychological resilience and self-efficacy with negative emotion. Eighty-eight participants were enrolled. Psychological resilience, self-efficacy, and negative emotion were assessed with the Psychological Resilience Scale, Self-Efficacy Scale, Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS), and Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS), respectively. Furthermore, the relationships of psychological resilience and self-efficacy with negative emotion were investigated. The average scores of psychological resilience, self-efficacy, anxiety, and depression were 70.08 ± 13.26, 21.56 ± 9.66, 53.68 ± 13.10, and 56.12 ± 12.37, respectively. The incidences of anxiety and depression were 23.90% (21/88) and 28.40% (25/88), respectively. The psychological resilience and self-efficacy scores of AMI patients after PCI varied significantly with age and economic status. SAS scores and SDS scores were significantly negatively correlated with psychological resilience and self-efficacy. Negative emotions in AMI patients after PCI are closely related to psychological resilience and self-efficacy. Therefore, anxiety and depression could be alleviated by improving the psychological resilience and self-efficacy of patients undergoing PCI, thus improving patients' quality of life.

  2. A RNA transcript (Heg) in mononuclear cells is negatively correlated with CD14 mRNA and TSH receptor autoantibodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Habekost, G.; Bratholm, P.; Christensen, Niels Juel

    2008-01-01

    of the poly A(-) transcript (designated Heg) in mononuclear cells was correlated with CD14 mRNA in normal subjects and with CD14 mRNA and TSH receptor autoantibodies in patients with acute and untreated Graves' disease. mRNA was expressed in amol/mu g DNA. The main study groups were: (i) normal subjects; (ii......During a study of gene expression of foxp3 in blood mononuclear cells we observed a DNA product of an unknown RNA fragment. The area of this peak correlated with CD14 mRNA in a small group of subjects. The sequence was localized to chromosome 1. We tested the hypothesis that gene expression......) patients with early and untreated Graves' disease; and (iii) patients with Graves' disease studied after treatment. In 18 normal subjects and in 20 patients with treated Graves' disease CD14 mRNA was negatively correlated with Heg (P

  3. Valosin-containing protein (VCP/p97-expression correlates with prognosis of HPV- negative oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moritz F Meyer

    Full Text Available Valosin-containing protein (VCP/p97 has been shown to be associated with antiapoptotic function via activation of the nuclear factor-[Formula: see text]B (NF[Formula: see text]B signaling pathway and with metastasizing of tumors in several studies. VCP is located on chromosome 9p13-p12, a region often deleted in oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC. The clinical significance of VCP expression in OSCC however remains unclear. In this study, expression of VCP was determined in 106 patients (77 male (71.3% and 31 female (28.7%; age-range: 34-79 years (mean age 57 years by immunohistochemistry and in a subset of 15 patients by quantitative PCR. HPV-DNA was detected by polymerase chain reaction and p16INK4a immunohistochemistry. The experimental findings were correlated with clinico-pathological data and survival parameters. 47.2% of all OSCC specimens were analyzed as negative or weak staining intensity for VCP. 52.8% of all specimens showed a high staining intensity for VCP. 73.1% of all patients were tested HPV-negative, 26.9% were HPV-positive. The 5-year disease-free and overall survival probabilities of all patients were 71.2% and 55.7%, respectively. No correlation could be found between HPV-status and VCP expression. VCP overexpression in HPV-negative patients was associated with significantly better 5-year disease-free survival (86.4% vs., 45.6%, p = 0.017. The level of VCP-intensity determined by immunohistochemistry could be an additional prognostic marker in HPV-negative OSCC. VCP expression seems not to correlate with the HPV-status.

  4. Moessbauer studies of two-electron centers with negative correlation energy in crystalline and amorphous semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bordovsky, G. A. [Alexander Herzen State Pedagogical University of Russia (Russian Federation); Nemov, S. A. [St Petersburg State Polytechnical University (Russian Federation); Marchenko, A. V.; Seregin, P. P., E-mail: ppseregin@mail.ru [Alexander Herzen State Pedagogical University of Russia (Russian Federation)

    2012-01-15

    The results of the study of donor U{sup -}-centers of tin and germanium in lead chalcogenides by Moessbauer emission spectroscopy are discussed. The published data regarding the identification of amphoteric U{sup -}-centers of tin in glassy binary arsenic and germanium chalcogenides using Moessbauer emission spectroscopy, and in multicomponent chalcogenide glasses using Moessbauer absorption spectroscopy are considered. Published data concerning the identification of two-atom U{sup -}-centers of copper in lattices of semimetal copper oxides by Moessbauer emission spectroscopy are analyzed. The published data on the detection of spatial inhomogeneity of the Bose-Einstein condensate in superconducting semiconductors and semimetal compounds, and on the existence of the correlation between the electron density in lattice sites and the superconducting transition temperature are presented. The principal possibility of using Moessbauer U{sup -}-centers as a tool for studying the Bose-Einstein condensation of electron pairs during the superconducting phase transition in semiconductors and semimetals is considered.

  5. Growth rate is negatively correlated with hatch date in Black Brant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedinger, James S.; Flint, Paul L.

    1991-01-01

    Arctic geese nest in a highly seasonal environment in which ungrazed plants reach peak nitrogen concentrations when goslings hatch (Sedinger and Raveling 1986). Grazing by geese prolongs peak nutrient concentrations but reduces food availability. This should cause nutrient availability to decline seasonally. Here, we test the hypothesis that late-hatching goslings of Black Brant (Branta bernicla nigricans) grow more slowly than those hatching early. We substracted the sizes of wild goslings from those of captive-reared goslings of the same age and regressed the differences against hatch date. Differences between wild- and captive-reared goslings for body mass, tarsus length, and culmen length were significantly negatively related to hatch date; i.e., late-hatching wild goslings were smaller than those hatching early, after accounting for age. We detected no between-year difference in gosling size, but male goslings were larger than females of the same age for all measures. Egg size was only weakly associated with size of goslings 1 mo after hatching, but we detected no effect of other brood characteristics on growth. Seasonal variation in gosling growth rate may favor early nesting in arctic geese.

  6. Expression of the hypoxia-inducible monocarboxylate transporter MCT4 is increased in triple negative breast cancer and correlates independently with clinical outcome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doyen, J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Centre A. Lacassagne, Nice (France); Trastour, C. [Department of Gynecology, Archet II Hospital, 06202 Nice (France); Ettore, F.; Peyrottes, I.; Toussant, N. [Department of Pathology, Centre A. Lacassagne, Nice (France); Gal, J. [Department of Medical Statistics, Centre A. Lacassagne, Nice (France); Ilc, K.; Roux, D. [Institute for Research on Cancer and Aging (IRCAN), University of Nice, Centre A. Lacassagne, 06189 Nice (France); Parks, S.K. [Centre Scientifique de Monaco (CSM) (Monaco); Ferrero, J.M. [Department of Medical Oncology, Centre A. Lacassagne, Nice (France); Pouysségur, J., E-mail: jacques.pouyssegur@unice.fr [Institute for Research on Cancer and Aging (IRCAN), University of Nice, Centre A. Lacassagne, 06189 Nice (France); Centre Scientifique de Monaco (CSM) (Monaco)

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: • Glycolytic markers are highly expressed in triple negative breast cancers. • Lactate/H{sup +} symporter MCT4 demonstrated the strongest deleterious impact on survival. • MCT4 should serve as a new prognostic factor in node-negative breast cancers. - Abstract: Background: {sup 18}Fluor-deoxy-glucose PET-scanning of glycolytic metabolism is being used for staging in many tumors however its impact on prognosis has never been studied in breast cancer. Methods: Glycolytic and hypoxic markers: glucose transporter (GLUT1), carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX), monocarboxylate transporter 1 and 4 (MCT1, 4), MCT accessory protein basigin and lactate-dehydrogenase A (LDH-A) were assessed by immunohistochemistry in two cohorts of breast cancer comprising 643 node-negative and 127 triple negative breast cancers (TNBC) respectively. Results: In the 643 node-negative breast tumor cohort with a median follow-up of 124 months, TNBC were the most glycolytic (≈70%), followed by Her-2 (≈50%) and RH-positive cancers (≈30%). Tumoral MCT4 staining (without stromal staining) was a strong independent prognostic factor for metastasis-free survival (HR = 0.47, P = 0.02) and overall-survival (HR = 0.38, P = 0.002). These results were confirmed in the independent cohort of 127 cancer patients. Conclusion: Glycolytic markers are expressed in all breast tumors with highest expression occurring in TNBC. MCT4, the hypoxia-inducible lactate/H{sup +} symporter demonstrated the strongest deleterious impact on survival. We propose that MCT4 serves as a new prognostic factor in node-negative breast cancer and can perhaps act soon as a theranostic factor considering the current pharmacological development of MCT4 inhibitors.

  7. Expression of the hypoxia-inducible monocarboxylate transporter MCT4 is increased in triple negative breast cancer and correlates independently with clinical outcome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doyen, J.; Trastour, C.; Ettore, F.; Peyrottes, I.; Toussant, N.; Gal, J.; Ilc, K.; Roux, D.; Parks, S.K.; Ferrero, J.M.; Pouysségur, J.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Glycolytic markers are highly expressed in triple negative breast cancers. • Lactate/H + symporter MCT4 demonstrated the strongest deleterious impact on survival. • MCT4 should serve as a new prognostic factor in node-negative breast cancers. - Abstract: Background: 18 Fluor-deoxy-glucose PET-scanning of glycolytic metabolism is being used for staging in many tumors however its impact on prognosis has never been studied in breast cancer. Methods: Glycolytic and hypoxic markers: glucose transporter (GLUT1), carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX), monocarboxylate transporter 1 and 4 (MCT1, 4), MCT accessory protein basigin and lactate-dehydrogenase A (LDH-A) were assessed by immunohistochemistry in two cohorts of breast cancer comprising 643 node-negative and 127 triple negative breast cancers (TNBC) respectively. Results: In the 643 node-negative breast tumor cohort with a median follow-up of 124 months, TNBC were the most glycolytic (≈70%), followed by Her-2 (≈50%) and RH-positive cancers (≈30%). Tumoral MCT4 staining (without stromal staining) was a strong independent prognostic factor for metastasis-free survival (HR = 0.47, P = 0.02) and overall-survival (HR = 0.38, P = 0.002). These results were confirmed in the independent cohort of 127 cancer patients. Conclusion: Glycolytic markers are expressed in all breast tumors with highest expression occurring in TNBC. MCT4, the hypoxia-inducible lactate/H + symporter demonstrated the strongest deleterious impact on survival. We propose that MCT4 serves as a new prognostic factor in node-negative breast cancer and can perhaps act soon as a theranostic factor considering the current pharmacological development of MCT4 inhibitors

  8. FA1 immunoreactivity in endocrine tumours and during development of the human fetal pancreas; negative correlation with glucagon expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tornehave, D; Jensen, Charlotte Harken; Teisner, B

    1996-01-01

    tumours. A negative correlation between FA1 and glucagon immunoreactants in these tumours prompted a reexamination of FA1 immunoreactants during fetal pancreatic development. At the earliest stages of development, FA1 was expressed by most of the non-endocrine parenchymal cells and, with ensuing......Fetal antigen 1 (FA1) is a glycoprotein containing six epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like repeats. It is closely similar to the protein translated from the human delta-like (dlk) cDNA and probably constitutes a proteolytically processed form of dlk. dlk is homologous to the Drosophila homeotic...... development, gradually disappeared from these cells and became restricted to insulin-producing beta cells. Throughout development FA1 was not detected in endocrine glucagon, somatostatin or pancreatic polypeptide cells. Moreover, developing insulin cells that coexpressed glucagon were negative for FA1. Thus...

  9. Hormonal and psychosocial correlates of psychological well-being and negative affectivity in young gynecological-endocrinological patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watrowski, Rafal; Rohde, Anke; Maciejewska-Jeske, Marzena; Meczekalski, Blazej

    2016-01-01

    To study the relationship between hormones, psychosocial factors and psychological well-being or negative affectivity (NA), 102 women (aged 15-31) responded to the 12-item well-being questionnaire (W-BQ12), with subscales for positive well-being (PWB), negative well-being (NWB) and energy (ENE); the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), consisting of depression (HADS-D) and anxiety (HADS-A) subscales; the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and the Hamilton Depression Scale (HAMD). The univariate analysis revealed significant negative correlations between luteinizing hormone (LH) and HADS-T, HADS-D and HADS-A, and between follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and HADS-A. Positive correlations were shown for thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), HADS-T, and HADS-A. Cortisol and prolactin levels strongly correlated with BDI and HAMD scores, respectively. In a multivariate analysis, TSH significantly predicted the mood impairment in HADS-T (β = 0.68) and HADS-A (β = 0.68), while economic status predicted the general well-being (β = 0.75), NWB (β = -0.83), ENE (β = 0.89), and HADS-A (β = -0.63). We could not detect any significant differences in NA or well-being in patients with versus without PCOS or with versus without hirsutism, but almost all psychometric parameters differed significantly according to the economic status. In conclusion, TSH was the only hormonal predictor of overall NA and anxiety, and low-economic status overtrumped the impact of hormones on the psychological well-being.

  10. Developmental Associations between Short-Term Variability and Long-Term Changes: Intraindividual Correlation of Positive and Negative Affect in Daily Life and Cognitive Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hülür, Gizem; Hoppmann, Christiane A.; Ram, Nilam; Gerstorf, Denis

    2015-01-01

    Conceptual notions and empirical evidence suggest that the intraindividual correlation (iCorr) of positive affect (PA) and negative affect (NA) is a meaningful characteristic of affective functioning. PA and NA are typically negatively correlated within-person. Previous research has found that the iCorr of PA and NA is relatively stable over time…

  11. Body mass index correlates negatively with white matter integrity in the fornix and corpus callosum: a diffusion tensor imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jiansong; Li, Yang; Lin, Haiqun; Sinha, Rajita; Potenza, Marc N

    2013-05-01

    Overweight or obese body habitus is associated with cognitive deficits, impaired brain function, gray matter atrophy, and white matter (WM) hyperintensities. However, few diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies have assessed WM integrity in relation to overweight or obese status. This study assessed relationships between body mass index (BMI) and values of DTI parameters among 51 normal weight (lean), overweight, and obese participants who were otherwise healthy. BMI correlated negatively with fractional anisotropy and axial eigenvalues (λ(1)) in the body of corpus callosum (CC), positively with mean diffusivity and radial eigenvalues (See figure in text) in the fornix and splenium of CC, and positively with λ(1) in the right corona radiata (CR) and superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF). These data indicate that BMI correlates negatively with WM integrity in the fornix and CC. Furthermore, the different patterns of BMI-related differences in DTI parameters at the fornix, body, and splenium of the CC, and the right CR and SLF suggest that different biological processes may underlie BMI-related impairments of WM integrity in different brain regions. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Nogo-B receptor expression correlates negatively with malignancy grade and ki-67 antigen expression in invasive ductal breast carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pula, Bartosz; Olbromski, Mateusz; Owczarek, Tomasz; Ambicka, Aleksandra; Witkiewicz, Wojciech; Ugorski, Maciej; Rys, Janusz; Zabel, Maciej; Dziegiel, Piotr; Podhorska-Okolow, Marzena

    2014-09-01

    Nogo-B receptor (NgBR) has been shown to be involved in endothelial cell chemotaxis and morphogenesis. However, few studies analyzing its expression in cancer cells have been performed. We examined NgBR expression in 233 patients with invasive ductal breast carcinoma (IDC) and corresponding non-malignant breast tissues (NMBT) on mRNA (real-time polymerase chain reaction) and protein levels (immunohistochemistry; IHC and western-blot analysis). NgBR expression was found also analyzed in breast cancer cell lines of varying invasiveness. NgBR expression was increased in IDC compared to NMBT on the mRNA (p=0.0007) and protein level (p=0.018). NgBR expression decreased significantly with IDC malignancy grade and correlated negatively with the Ki-67 antigen expression (r=-0.18; p=0.0005). High NgBR mRNA expression was associated with estrogen receptor negativity (p=0.0023) and the triple-negative phenotype of the tumors (p=0.0129). NgBR may be involved in IDC development, however, its role in its progression requires further research. Copyright© 2014 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  13. Natural Variation for Seed Longevity and Seed Dormancy Are Negatively Correlated in Arabidopsis1[W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thu-Phuong; Keizer, Paul; van Eeuwijk, Fred; Smeekens, Sjef; Bentsink, Leónie

    2012-01-01

    Dormancy is a state of metabolic arrest that facilitates the survival of organisms during environmental conditions incompatible with their regular course of life. Many organisms have deep dormant stages to promote an extended life span (increased longevity). In contrast, plants have seed dormancy and seed longevity described as two traits. Seed dormancy is defined as a temporary failure of a viable seed to germinate in conditions that favor germination, whereas seed longevity is defined as seed viability after dry storage (storability). In plants, the association of seed longevity with seed dormancy has not been studied in detail. This is surprising given the ecological, agronomical, and economic importance of seed longevity. We studied seed longevity to reveal its genetic regulators and its association with seed dormancy in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Integrated quantitative trait locus analyses for seed longevity, in six recombinant inbred line populations, revealed five loci: Germination Ability After Storage1 (GAAS1) to GAAS5. GAAS loci colocated with seed dormancy loci, Delay Of Germination (DOG), earlier identified in the same six recombinant inbred line populations. Both GAAS loci and their colocation with DOG loci were validated by near isogenic lines. A negative correlation was observed, deep seed dormancy correlating with low seed longevity and vice versa. Detailed analysis on the collocating GAAS5 and DOG1 quantitative trait loci revealed that the DOG1-Cape Verde Islands allele both reduces seed longevity and increases seed dormancy. To our knowledge, this study is the first to report a negative correlation between seed longevity and seed dormancy. PMID:23085841

  14. PTEN negative correlates with miR-181a in tumour tissues of non-obese endometrial cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geletina, Nadezhda S; Kobelev, Vyacheslav S; Babayants, Ekaterina V; Feng, Li; Pustylnyak, Vladimir O; Gulyaeva, Lyudmila F

    2018-05-20

    The effects of microRNAs on PTEN levels are characteristic for many types of cancer. However, the picture of the correlation between the expression levels of PTEN and its targeting microRNAs in endometrial cancer is not fully presented. Our study investigated and analysed the expression levels of PTEN and PTEN-targeting miR-21, miR-181a, miR-214, miR-301a, and miR-1908 in total of 78 samples, out of which 26 samples were from normal endometrium, whereas the 52 samples were from endometrial cancer samples. Our results demonstrated a high variability of individual endometrial cancer samples in the levels of PTEN. The level of miR-181a showed significant increment in endometrial cancer tissues in comparison with normal endometrium. We did not observe any statistically significant correlation between levels of microRNAs and PTEN in a heterogeneous cohort of patients. At the same time, in samples collected from endometrial cancer patients, it was found out that the relationship between PTEN expression and body mass index had significant positive correlation. Moreover, our data demonstrated that the expression of PTEN was significantly decreased, whereas expression of miR-181a was significantly over-expressed in non-obese compared to obese endometrial cancer patients. Additionally, we observed the relationship between PTEN levels and miR-181a related to the cancerous tissues for non-obese patients was established to be negatively correlated. Our findings suggest that decrease of PTEN via increase of miR-181a may be important contributor to endometrial cancer in non-obese patients. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Strongest Tropical cyclones: 1980-2009: A 30-year collage of Hurricane Satellite (HURSAT) data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Strongest Tropical Cyclones: 1980-2009 poster - a 30-year collage of Hurricane Satellite (HURSAT) data. This poster depicts a series of 5 degree grids where within...

  16. Adolescent Age Moderates Genetic and Environmental Influences on Parent-Adolescent Positivity and Negativity: Implications for Genotype-Environment Correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marceau, Kristine; Knopik, Valerie S.; Neiderhiser, Jenae M.; Lichtenstein, Paul; Spotts, Erica L.; Ganiban, Jody M.; Reiss, David

    2015-01-01

    In the present study we examined how genotype-environment correlation processes differ as a function of adolescent age. We tested whether adolescent age moderates genetic and environmental influences on positivity and negativity in mother-adolescent and father-adolescent relationships using parallel samples of twin parents from the Twin and Offspring Study in Sweden and twin/sibling adolescents from the Nonshared Environment in Adolescent Development Study. We inferred differences in the role of passive and non-passive genotype-environment correlation based on biometric moderation findings. Findings indicated that non-passive rGE played a stronger role for positivity in mother- and father- adolescent relationships in families with older adolescents than families with younger adolescents, and that passive rGE played a stronger role for positivity in the mother-adolescent relationship in families with younger adolescents than in families with older adolescents. Implications of these findings for the timing and targeting of interventions on family relationships are discussed. PMID:25924807

  17. Striatal Atrophy in the Behavioural Variant of Frontotemporal Dementia: Correlation with Diagnosis, Negative Symptoms and Disease Severity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew D Macfarlane

    Full Text Available Behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD is associated with changes in dorsal striatal parts of the basal ganglia (caudate nucleus and putamen, related to dysfunction in the cortico-striato-thalamic circuits which help mediate executive and motor functions. We aimed to determine whether the size and shape of striatal structures correlated with diagnosis of bvFTD, and measures of clinical severity, behaviour and cognition.Magnetic resonance imaging scans from 28 patients with bvFTD and 26 healthy controls were manually traced using image analysis software (ITK-SNAP. The resulting 3-D objects underwent volumetric analysis and shape analysis, through spherical harmonic description with point distribution models (SPHARM-PDM. Correlations with size and shape were sought with clinical measures in the bvTFD group, including Frontal Behavioural Inventory, Clinical Dementia Rating for bvFTD, Color Word Interference, Hayling part B and Brixton tests, and Trail-Making Test.Caudate nuclei and putamina were significantly smaller in the bvFTD group compared to controls (left caudate 16% smaller, partial eta squared 0.173, p=0.003; right caudate 11% smaller, partial eta squared 0.103, p=0.023; left putamen 18% smaller, partial eta squared 0.179, p=0.002; right putamen 12% smaller, partial eta squared 0.081, p=0.045, with global shape deflation in the caudate bilaterally but no localised shape change in putamen. In the bvFTD group, shape deflations on the left, corresponding to afferent connections from dorsolateral prefrontal mediofrontal/anterior cingulate and orbitofrontal cortex, correlated with worsening disease severity. Global shape deflation in the putamen correlated with Frontal Behavioural Inventory scores-higher scoring on negative symptoms was associated with the left putamen, while positive symptoms were associated with the right. Other cognitive tests had poor completion rates.Behavioural symptoms and severity of bvFTD are correlated

  18. Timed Stair Climbing is the Single Strongest Predictor of Perioperative Complications in Patients Undergoing Abdominal Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Sushanth; Contreras, Carlo M; Singletary, Brandon; Bradford, T Miller; Waldrop, Mary G; Mims, Andrew H; Smedley, W Andrew; Swords, Jacob A; Thomas N, Wang; Martin J, Heslin

    2016-01-01

    Background Current methods to predict patients' peri-operative morbidity utilize complex algorithms with multiple clinical variables focusing primarily on organ-specific compromise. The aim of the present study is to determine the value of a timed stair climb (SC) in predicting peri-operative complications for patients undergoing abdominal surgery. Study Design From March 2014 to July 2015, 362 patients attempted SC while being timed prior to undergoing elective abdominal surgery. Vital signs were measured before and after SC. Ninety day post-operative complications were assessed by the Accordion Severity Grading System. The prognostic value of SC was compared to the ACS NSQIP risk calculator. Results A total of 264 (97.4%) patients were able to complete SC. SC time directly correlated to changes in both mean arterial pressure and heart rate as an indicator of stress. An Accordion grade 2 or higher complication occurred in 84 (25%) patients. There were 8 mortalities (2.4%). Patients with slower SC times had an increased complication rate (P<0.0001). In multivariable analysis SC time was the single strongest predictor of complications (OR=1.029, P<0.0001), and no other clinical co-morbidity reached statistical significance. Receiver operative characteristic curves predicting post-operative morbidity by SC time was superior to that of the ACS risk calculator (AUC 0.81 vs. 0.62, P<0.0001). Additionally slower patients had a greater deviation from predicted length of hospital stay (P=0.034) Conclusions SC provides measurable stress, accurately predicts post-operative complications, and is easy to administer in patients undergoing abdominal surgery. Larger patient populations with a diverse group of operations will be needed to further validate the use of SC in risk prediction models. PMID:26920993

  19. The Neural Correlates of Anomalous Habituation to Negative Emotional Pictures in Borderline and Avoidant Personality Disorder Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenigsberg, Harold W.; Denny, Bryan T.; Fan, Jin; Liu, Xun; Guerreri, Stephanie; Jo Mayson, Sarah; Rimsky, Liza; New, Antonia S.; Goodman, Marianne; Siever, Larry J

    2013-01-01

    Objective Extreme emotional reactivity is a defining feature of borderline personality disorder, yet the neural-behavioral mechanisms underlying this affective instability are poorly understood. One possible contributor would be diminished ability to engage the mechanism of emotional habituation. We tested this hypothesis by examining behavioral and neural correlates of habituation in borderline patients, healthy controls, and a psychopathological control group of avoidant personality disorder patients. Method During fMRI scan acquisition, borderline patients, healthy controls and avoidant personality disorder patients viewed novel and repeated pictures, providing valence ratings at each presentation. Statistical parametric maps of the contrasts of activation during repeat versus novel negative picture viewing were compared between groups. Psychophysiological interaction analysis was employed to examine functional connectivity differences between groups. Results Unlike healthy controls, neither borderline nor avoidant personality disorder participants showed increased activity in dorsal anterior cingulate cortex when viewing repeat versus novel pictures. This failure to increase dorsal anterior cingulate activity was associated with greater affective instability in borderline participants. In addition, borderline and avoidant participants showed smaller insula-amygdala connectivity increases than healthy participants and did not show habituation in ratings of the emotional intensity of the images as did healthy participants. Borderline patients differed from avoidant patients in insula-ventral anterior cingulate connectivity during habituation. Conclusions Borderline patients fail to habituate to negative pictures as do healthy participants and differ from both healthy controls and avoidant patients in neural activity during habituation. A failure to effectively engage emotional habituation processes may contribute to affective instability in borderline patients

  20. The neural correlates of anomalous habituation to negative emotional pictures in borderline and avoidant personality disorder patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenigsberg, Harold W; Denny, Bryan T; Fan, Jin; Liu, Xun; Guerreri, Stephanie; Mayson, Sarah Jo; Rimsky, Liza; New, Antonia S; Goodman, Marianne; Siever, Larry J

    2014-01-01

    Extreme emotional reactivity is a defining feature of borderline personality disorder, yet the neural-behavioral mechanisms underlying this affective instability are poorly understood. One possible contributor is diminished ability to engage the mechanism of emotional habituation. The authors tested this hypothesis by examining behavioral and neural correlates of habituation in borderline patients, healthy comparison subjects, and a psychopathological comparison group of patients with avoidant personality disorder. During fMRI scanning, borderline patients, healthy subjects, and avoidant personality disorder patients viewed novel and repeated pictures, providing valence ratings at each presentation. Statistical parametric maps of the contrasts of activation during repeated versus novel negative picture viewing were compared between groups. Psychophysiological interaction analysis was employed to examine functional connectivity differences between groups. Unlike healthy subjects, neither borderline nor avoidant personality disorder patients exhibited increased activity in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex when viewing repeated versus novel pictures. This lack of an increase in dorsal anterior cingulate activity was associated with greater affective instability in borderline patients. In addition, borderline and avoidant patients exhibited smaller increases in insula-amygdala functional connectivity than healthy subjects and, unlike healthy subjects, did not show habituation in ratings of the emotional intensity of the images. Borderline patients differed from avoidant patients in insula-ventral anterior cingulate functional connectivity during habituation. Unlike healthy subjects, borderline patients fail to habituate to negative pictures, and they differ from both healthy subjects and avoidant patients in neural activity during habituation. A failure to effectively engage emotional habituation processes may contribute to affective instability in borderline

  1. Negative correlation of cortical thickness with the severity and duration of abdominal pain in Asian women with irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, Chian Sem; Bai, Chyi-Huey; Shiao, Chen-Yu; Hsu, Chien-Yeh; Cheng, Chiao-Wen; Yang, Kuo-Ching; Chiu, Hung-Wen; Hsu, Jung-Lung

    2017-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) manifests as chronic abdominal pain. One pathophysiological theory states that the brain-gut axis is responsible for pain control in the intestine. Although several studies have discussed the structural changes in the brain of IBS patients, most of these studies have been conducted in Western populations. Different cultures and sexes experience different pain sensations and have different pain responses. Accordingly, we aimed to identify the specific changes in the cortical thickness of Asian women with IBS and to compare these data to those of non-Asian women with IBS. Thirty Asian female IBS patients (IBS group) and 39 healthy individuals (control group) were included in this study. Brain structural magnetic resonance imaging was performed. We used FreeSurfer to analyze the differences in the cortical thickness and their correlations with patient characteristics. The left cuneus, left rostral middle frontal cortex, left supramarginal cortex, right caudal anterior cingulate cortex, and bilateral insula exhibited cortical thinning in the IBS group compared with those in the controls. Furthermore, the brain cortical thickness correlated negatively the severity as well as duration of abdominal pain. Some of our findings differ from those of Western studies. In our study, all of the significant brain regions in the IBS group exhibited cortical thinning compared with those in the controls. The differences in cortical thickness between the IBS patients and controls may provide useful information to facilitate regulating abdominal pain in IBS patients. These findings offer insights into the association of different cultures and sexes with differences in cortical thinning in patients with IBS.

  2. Amygdala Reactivity and Negative Emotionality: Divergent Correlates of Antisocial Personality and Psychopathy Traits in a Community Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, Luke W.; Byrd, Amy L.; Votruba-Drzal, Elizabeth; Hariri, Ahmad R.; Manuck, Stephen B.

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have emphasized that antisocial personality disorder (APD) and psychopathy overlap highly but differ critically in several features, notably negative emotionality (NEM) and possibly amygdala reactivity to social signals of threat and distress. Here we examined whether dimensions of psychopathy and APD correlate differentially with NEM and amygdala reactivity to emotional faces. Testing these relationships among healthy individuals, dimensions of psychopathy and APD were generated by the profile matching technique of Lynam and Widiger (2001), using facet scales of the NEO Personality Inventory-Revised, and amygdala reactivity was measured using a well-established emotional faces task, in a community sample of 103 men and women. Higher psychopathy scores were associated with lower NEM and lower amygdala reactivity, whereas higher APD scores were related to greater NEM and greater amygdala reactivity, but only after overlapping variance in APD and psychopathy was adjusted for in the statistical model. Amygdala reactivity did not mediate the relationship of APD and psychopathy scores to NEM. Supplemental analyses also compared other measures of factors within psychopathy in predicting NEM and amygdala reactivity and found that Factor 2 psychopathy was positively related to NEM and amygdala reactivity across measures of psychopathy. The overall findings replicate seminal observations on NEM in psychopathy by Hicks and Patrick (2006) and extend this work to neuroimaging in a normative population. They also suggest that one critical way in which APD and psychopathy dimensions may differ in their etiology is through their opposing levels of NEM and amygdala reactivity to threat. PMID:24661171

  3. The Sluggishness of Early-Stage Face Processing (N170 is Correlated with Negative and General Psychiatric Symptoms in Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingjun Zheng

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Patients with schizophrenia exhibit consistent abnormalities in face-evoked N170. However, the relation between face-specific N170 abnormalities in schizophrenic patients and schizophrenia clinical characters, which probably based on common neural mechanisms, is still rarely discovered. Using event-related potentials (ERPs recording in both schizophrenic patients and healthy controls, the amplitude and latency of N170 were recorded when participants were passively watching face and non-face (table pictures. The results showed a face-specific N170 latency sluggishness in schizophrenic patients, i.e., the N170 latencies of schizophrenic patients were significantly longer than those of healthy controls under both upright face and inverted face conditions. Importantly, the face-related N170 latencies of the left temporo-occipital electrodes (P7 and PO7 were positively correlated with negative symptoms and general psychiatric symptoms. Besides the analysis of latencies, the N170 amplitudes became weaker in schizophrenic patients under both inverted face and inverted table conditions, with a left hemisphere dominant. More interestingly, the FIEs (the difference of N170 amplitudes between upright and inverted faces were absent in schizophrenic patients, which suggested the abnormality of holistic face processing. These results above revealed a marked symptom-relevant neural sluggishness of face-specific processing in schizophrenic patients, supporting the demyelinating hypothesis of schizophrenia.

  4. Negative Correlation between miR-200c and Decorin Plays an Important Role in the Pathogenesis of Colorectal Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ren-Yi Tang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To demonstrate the regulatory role of miRNA in colorectal carcinoma (CRC and reveal the transcript markers that may be associated with CRC clinical outcomes. Method. Herein, we analyzed both mRNA and miRNA gene expression profiles of 255 CRC tumor samples from The Cancer Genome Atlas project to reveal the regulatory association between miRNA and mRNA. Also, the potential role of gene coexpression network in CRC has been explored. Results. The negative correlation between miR-200c and DCN (Decorin was calculated in CRC, indicating that DCN could be a potential target of miR-200c. Clinical features indicated that colon polyp history and overall survival were significantly related to the expression level of miR-200c. Three coexpression networks have been constructed, and genes involved in the networks are related to cell cycle, NOTCH, and mTOR signaling pathways. Conclusion. Our result provides a new insight into cancer related mRNA coexpression network in CRC research.

  5. Correlation of Positive and Negative Reciprocity Fails to Confer an Evolutionary Advantage: Phase Transitions to Elementary Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attila Szolnoki

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Economic experiments reveal that humans value cooperation and fairness. Punishing unfair behavior is therefore common, and according to the theory of strong reciprocity, it is also directly related to rewarding cooperative behavior. However, empirical data fail to confirm that positive and negative reciprocity are correlated. Inspired by this disagreement, we determine whether the combined application of reward and punishment is evolutionarily advantageous. We study a spatial public goods game, where in addition to the three elementary strategies of defection, rewarding, and punishment, a fourth strategy that combines the latter two competes for space. We find rich dynamical behavior that gives rise to intricate phase diagrams where continuous and discontinuous phase transitions occur in succession. Indirect territorial competition, spontaneous emergence of cyclic dominance, as well as divergent fluctuations of oscillations that terminate in an absorbing phase are observed. Yet, despite the high complexity of solutions, the combined strategy can survive only in very narrow and unrealistic parameter regions. Elementary strategies, either in pure or mixed phases, are much more common and likely to prevail. Our results highlight the importance of patterns and structure in human cooperation, which should be considered in future experiments.

  6. Water spray-induced grooming is negatively correlated with depressive behavior in the forced swimming test in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiota, Noboru; Narikiyo, Kimiya; Masuda, Akira; Aou, Shuji

    2016-05-01

    Rodents show grooming, a typical self-care behavior, under stress and non-stress conditions. Previous studies revealed that grooming under stress conditions such as the open-field test (OFT) or the elevated plus-maze test (EPM) is associated with anxiety, but the roles of grooming under non-stress conditions are not well understood. Here, we examined spray-induced grooming as a model of grooming under a non-stress condition to investigate the relationship between this grooming and depression-like behavior in the forced swim test (FST) and tail suspension test, and we compared spray-induced grooming with OFT- and EPM-induced grooming. The main finding was that the duration of spray-induced grooming, but not that of OFT/EPM-induced grooming, was negatively correlated with the duration of immobility in the FST, an index of depression-like behavior. The results suggest that spray-induced grooming is functionally different from the grooming in the OFT and EPM and is related to reduction of depressive behavior.

  7. Amygdala reactivity and negative emotionality: divergent correlates of antisocial personality and psychopathy traits in a community sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, Luke W; Byrd, Amy L; Votruba-Drzal, Elizabeth; Hariri, Ahmad R; Manuck, Stephen B

    2014-02-01

    Previous studies have emphasized that antisocial personality disorder (APD) and psychopathy overlap highly but differ critically in several features, notably negative emotionality (NEM) and possibly amygdala reactivity to social signals of threat and distress. Here we examined whether dimensions of psychopathy and APD correlate differentially with NEM and amygdala reactivity to emotional faces. Testing these relationships among healthy individuals, dimensions of psychopathy and APD were generated by the profile matching technique of Lynam and Widiger (2001), using facet scales of the NEO Personality Inventory-Revised, and amygdala reactivity was measured using a well-established emotional faces task, in a community sample of 103 men and women. Higher psychopathy scores were associated with lower NEM and lower amygdala reactivity, whereas higher APD scores were related to greater NEM and greater amygdala reactivity, but only after overlapping variance in APD and psychopathy was adjusted for in the statistical model. Amygdala reactivity did not mediate the relationship of APD and psychopathy scores to NEM. Supplemental analyses also compared other measures of factors within psychopathy in predicting NEM and amygdala reactivity and found that Factor 2 psychopathy was positively related to NEM and amygdala reactivity across measures of psychopathy. The overall findings replicate seminal observations on NEM in psychopathy by Hicks and Patrick (2006) and extend this work to neuroimaging in a normative population. They also suggest that one critical way in which APD and psychopathy dimensions may differ in their etiology is through their opposing levels of NEM and amygdala reactivity to threat. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  8. D90: The Strongest Contributor to Setting Time in Mineral Trioxide Aggregate and Portland Cement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, William N; Bentz, Dale P; Kahler, Bill; Walsh, Laurence J

    2015-07-01

    The setting times of commercial mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) and Portland cements vary. It was hypothesized that much of this variation was caused by differences in particle size distribution. Two gram samples from 11 MTA-type cements were analyzed by laser diffraction to determine their particle size distributions characterized by their percentile equivalent diameters (the 10th percentile, the median, and the 90th percentile [d90], respectively). Setting time data were received from manufacturers who performed indentation setting time tests as specified by the standards relevant to dentistry, ISO 6786 (9 respondents) or ISO 9917.1 (1 respondent), or not divulged to the authors (1 respondent). In a parallel experiment, 6 samples of different size graded Portland cements were produced using the same cement clinker. The measurement of setting time for Portland cement pastes was performed using American Society for Testing and Materials C 191. Cumulative heat release was measured using isothermal calorimetry to assess the reactions occurring during the setting of these pastes. In all experiments, linear correlations were assessed between setting times, heat release, and the 3 particle size parameters. Particle size varied considerably among MTA cements. For MTA cements, d90 was the particle size characteristic showing the highest positive linear correlation with setting time (r = 0.538). For Portland cement, d90 gave an even higher linear correlation for the initial setting time (r = 0.804) and the final setting time (r = 0.873) and exhibited a strong negative linear correlation for cumulative heat release (r = 0.901). Smaller particle sizes result in faster setting times, with d90 (the largest particles) being most closely correlated with the setting times of the samples. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Endodontists. All rights reserved.

  9. Neural Correlates of Biased Responses: The Negative Method Effect in the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale Is Associated with Right Amygdala Volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yinan; Kong, Feng; Huang, Lijie; Liu, Jia

    2016-10-01

    Self-esteem is a widely studied construct in psychology that is typically measured by the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES). However, a series of cross-sectional and longitudinal studies have suggested that a simple and widely used unidimensional factor model does not provide an adequate explanation of RSES responses due to method effects. To identify the neural correlates of the method effect, we sought to determine whether and how method effects were associated with the RSES and investigate the neural basis of these effects. Two hundred and eighty Chinese college students (130 males; mean age = 22.64 years) completed the RSES and underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Behaviorally, method effects were linked to both positively and negatively worded items in the RSES. Neurally, the right amygdala volume negatively correlated with the negative method factor, while the hippocampal volume positively correlated with the general self-esteem factor in the RSES. The neural dissociation between the general self-esteem factor and negative method factor suggests that there are different neural mechanisms underlying them. The amygdala is involved in modulating negative affectivity; therefore, the current study sheds light on the nature of method effects that are related to self-report with a mix of positively and negatively worded items. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Staging primary breast cancer. Are there tumour pathological features that correlate with a false-negative axillary ultrasound?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, S.; Brown, S.; Porter, G.; Steel, J.; Paisley, K.; Watkins, R.; Holgate, C.

    2011-01-01

    Aim: To investigate whether the histopathological characteristics of primary breast cancer tumours could predict the likelihood of false-negative axillary ultrasound. Materials and methods: Screening and symptomatic patients were identified from pathology records and imaging and pathology records reviewed. True and false-negative axillary staging ultrasound groups were compared statistically in terms of tumour size, pathological type and grade, lymphovascular invasion, and oestrogen receptor (ER) status. Results: Of 155 women with normal ultrasounds, 45 (29%) were node positive at axillary surgery. Breast tumour size was significantly different with the average size smaller in the true-negative group: 21 versus 30 mm (p < 0.02). The histological type varied significantly between the groups, with more lobular carcinomas in the false-negative group [6/110 (5%) versus 6/45 (13%), p < 0.001]. The false-negative group was also more likely to show lymphovascular invasion in the breast [6/110 (5%) versus 14/45 (31%), p < 0.001]. There was no significant difference in tumour grade or ER status. Conclusion: The present study has found significant differences in tumour characteristics between women with true-negative and false-negative axillary staging ultrasound in terms of size, primary tumour histological type and presence of lymphovascular invasion. In particular, axillary ultrasound in primary lobular carcinoma may be less accurate and a negative result is more likely to be spurious than with primary ductal carcinomas.

  11. Family Correlates of Children's Social and Physical Aggression with Peers: Negative Interparental Conflict Strategies and Parenting Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, Marion K.; Beron, Kurt J.; Gentsch, Joanna K.; Galperin, Mikal B.; Risser, Scott D.

    2008-01-01

    This investigation examines whether negative interparental conflict strategies (stonewalling, triangulation, verbal aggression, and physical aggression) and parenting styles are related to social and physical aggression with peers for children followed longitudinally from age 9 to 10 (N = 256). Parents reported on negative conflict strategies and…

  12. Suicide triggers as sex-specific threats in domains of evolutionary import: negative correlation between global male-to-female suicide ratios and average per capita gross national income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saad, Gad

    2007-01-01

    From an evolutionary perspective, suicide is a paradoxical phenomenon given its fatal consequences on one's reproductive fitness. That fact notwithstanding, evolutionists have typically used kin and group selection arguments in proposing that suicide might indeed be viewed as an adaptive behavioral response. The current paper posits that in some instances, suicide might be construed as the ultimate maladaptive response to "crushing defeats" in domains of great evolutionary import (e.g., mating). Specifically, it is hypothesized that numerous sex-specific triggers of suicide are universally consistent because they correspond to dire sex-specific attacks on one's reproductive fitness (e.g., loss of occupational status is much more strongly linked to male suicides). More generally, it is proposed that many epidemiological aspects of suicide are congruent with Darwinian-based frameworks. These include the near-universal finding that men are much more likely to commit suicide (sexual selection theory), the differential motives that drive men and women to commit suicide (evolutionary psychology), and the shifting patterns of suicide across the life span (life-history theory). Using data from the World Health Organization and the World Bank, several evolutionary-informed hypotheses, regarding the correlation between male-to-female suicide ratios and average per capita Gross National Income, are empirically tested. Overall, the findings are congruent with Darwinian-based expectations namely as economic conditions worsen the male-to-female suicide ratio is exacerbated, with the negative correlation being the strongest for the "working age" brackets. The hypothesized evolutionary outlook provides a consilient framework in comprehending universal sex-specific triggers of suicide. Furthermore, it allows suicidologists to explore new research avenues that might remain otherwise untapped if one were to restrict their research interests on the identification of proximate causes

  13. Impact of negative emotion on the neural correlates of long-term recognition in younger and older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grégoria eKalpouzos

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Some studies have suggested that the memory advantage for negative emotional information over neutral information (negativity effect is reduced in aging. Besides the fact that most findings are based on immediate retrieval, the neural underpinnings of long-term emotional memory in aging have so far not been investigated. To address these issues, we assessed recognition of neutral and negative scenes after one- and 3-week retention intervals in younger and older adults using fMRI. We further used an event-related design in order to disentangle successful, false and true recognition. This study revealed 4 key findings: 1 Increased retention interval induced an increased rate of false recognitions for negative scenes, cancelling out the negativity effect (present for hit rates only on discrimination in both younger and older adults; 2 In younger, but not older, adults, reduced activity of the medial temporal lobe was observed over time for neutral scenes, but not for negative scenes, where stable or increased activity was seen; 3 Engagement of amygdala was observed in older adults after a 3-week delay during successful recognition of negative scenes (hits versus misses in comparison with neutral scenes, which may indicate engagement of automatic processes, but engagement of ventrolateral prefrontal cortex was unrelated to amygdala activity and performance; and 4 After 3 weeks, but not after one week, true recognition of negative scenes was characterized by more activity in left hippocampus and lateral occipito-temporal regions (hits versus false alarms. As these regions are known to be related to consolidation mechanisms, the observed pattern may indicate the presence of delayed consolidation of true memories. Nonetheless, older adults’ low performance in discrimination of negative scenes could reflect the fact that overall, after long delays of retention, they rely more on general information rather than on perceptual detail in making

  14. An Investigation of the Relationship between the Fear of Receiving Negative Criticism and of Taking Academic Risk through Canonical Correlation Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetin, Bayram; Ilhan, Mustafa; Yilmaz, Ferat

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between the fear of receiving negative criticism and taking academic risk through canonical correlation analysis-in which a relational model was used. The participants of the study consisted of 215 university students enrolled in various programs at Dicle University's Ziya Gökalp Faculty of…

  15. Negative Mood State Enhances the Susceptibility to Unpleasant Events: Neural Correlates from a Music-Primed Emotion Classification Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jiajin; Chen, Jie; Yang, Jiemin; Ju, Enxia; Norman, Greg J.; Ding, Nanxiang

    2014-01-01

    Background Various affective disorders are linked with enhanced processing of unpleasant stimuli. However, this link is likely a result of the dominant negative mood derived from the disorder, rather than a result of the disorder itself. Additionally, little is currently known about the influence of mood on the susceptibility to emotional events in healthy populations. Method Event-Related Potentials (ERP) were recorded for pleasant, neutral and unpleasant pictures while subjects performed an emotional/neutral picture classification task during positive, neutral, or negative mood induced by instrumental Chinese music. Results Late Positive Potential (LPP) amplitudes were positively related to the affective arousal of pictures. The emotional responding to unpleasant pictures, indicated by the unpleasant-neutral differences in LPPs, was enhanced during negative compared to neutral and positive moods in the entire LPP time window (600–1000 ms). The magnitude of this enhancement was larger with increasing self-reported negative mood. In contrast, this responding was reduced during positive compared to neutral mood in the 800–1000 ms interval. Additionally, LPP reactions to pleasant stimuli were similar across positive, neutral and negative moods except those in the 800–900 ms interval. Implications Negative mood intensifies the humans' susceptibility to unpleasant events in healthy individuals. In contrast, music-induced happy mood is effective in reducing the susceptibility to these events. Practical implications of these findings were discussed. PMID:24587070

  16. Negative mood state enhances the susceptibility to unpleasant events: neural correlates from a music-primed emotion classification task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jiajin; Chen, Jie; Yang, Jiemin; Ju, Enxia; Norman, Greg J; Ding, Nanxiang

    2014-01-01

    Various affective disorders are linked with enhanced processing of unpleasant stimuli. However, this link is likely a result of the dominant negative mood derived from the disorder, rather than a result of the disorder itself. Additionally, little is currently known about the influence of mood on the susceptibility to emotional events in healthy populations. Event-Related Potentials (ERP) were recorded for pleasant, neutral and unpleasant pictures while subjects performed an emotional/neutral picture classification task during positive, neutral, or negative mood induced by instrumental Chinese music. Late Positive Potential (LPP) amplitudes were positively related to the affective arousal of pictures. The emotional responding to unpleasant pictures, indicated by the unpleasant-neutral differences in LPPs, was enhanced during negative compared to neutral and positive moods in the entire LPP time window (600-1000 ms). The magnitude of this enhancement was larger with increasing self-reported negative mood. In contrast, this responding was reduced during positive compared to neutral mood in the 800-1000 ms interval. Additionally, LPP reactions to pleasant stimuli were similar across positive, neutral and negative moods except those in the 800-900 ms interval. Negative mood intensifies the humans' susceptibility to unpleasant events in healthy individuals. In contrast, music-induced happy mood is effective in reducing the susceptibility to these events. Practical implications of these findings were discussed.

  17. Negative mood state enhances the susceptibility to unpleasant events: neural correlates from a music-primed emotion classification task.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiajin Yuan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Various affective disorders are linked with enhanced processing of unpleasant stimuli. However, this link is likely a result of the dominant negative mood derived from the disorder, rather than a result of the disorder itself. Additionally, little is currently known about the influence of mood on the susceptibility to emotional events in healthy populations. METHOD: Event-Related Potentials (ERP were recorded for pleasant, neutral and unpleasant pictures while subjects performed an emotional/neutral picture classification task during positive, neutral, or negative mood induced by instrumental Chinese music. RESULTS: Late Positive Potential (LPP amplitudes were positively related to the affective arousal of pictures. The emotional responding to unpleasant pictures, indicated by the unpleasant-neutral differences in LPPs, was enhanced during negative compared to neutral and positive moods in the entire LPP time window (600-1000 ms. The magnitude of this enhancement was larger with increasing self-reported negative mood. In contrast, this responding was reduced during positive compared to neutral mood in the 800-1000 ms interval. Additionally, LPP reactions to pleasant stimuli were similar across positive, neutral and negative moods except those in the 800-900 ms interval. IMPLICATIONS: Negative mood intensifies the humans' susceptibility to unpleasant events in healthy individuals. In contrast, music-induced happy mood is effective in reducing the susceptibility to these events. Practical implications of these findings were discussed.

  18. Overnight emotional adaptation to negative stimuli is altered by REM sleep deprivation and is correlated with intervening dream emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara-Carrasco, Jessica; Nielsen, Tore A; Solomonova, Elizaveta; Levrier, Katia; Popova, Ani

    2009-06-01

    Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep and dreaming may be implicated in cross-night adaptation to emotionally negative events. To evaluate the impact of REM sleep deprivation (REMD) and the presence of dream emotions on a possible emotional adaptation (EA) function, 35 healthy subjects randomly assigned to REMD (n = 17; mean age 26.4 +/- 4.3 years) and control (n = 18; mean age 23.7 +/- 4.4 years) groups underwent a partial REMD and control nights in the laboratory, respectively. In the evening preceding and morning following REMD, subjects rated neutral and negative pictures on scales of valence and arousal and EA scores were calculated. Subjects also rated dream emotions using the same scales and a 10-item emotions list. REMD was relatively successful in decreasing REM% on the experimental night, although a mean split procedure was applied to better differentiate subjects high and low in REM%. High and low groups differed - but in a direction contrary to expectations. Subjects high in REMD% showed greater adaptation to negative pictures on arousal ratings than did those low in REMD% (P dream negativity (P dream sadness (P emotional intensities of the morning dream and the morning picture ratings supports a possible emotional carry-over effect. REM sleep may enhance morning reactivity to negative emotional stimuli. Further, REM sleep and dreaming may be implicated in different dimensions of cross-night adaptation to negative emotions.

  19. Serotonin transporter binding in the hypothalamus correlates negatively with tonic heat pain ratings in healthy subjects: A [11C]DASB PET study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kupers, Ron; Frokjaer, Vibe G.; Erritzoe, David

    2010-01-01

    ) tonic noxious heat stimulus. PET data were analyzed using both volume-of-interest (VOI) and voxel-based approaches. VOI analysis revealed a significant negative correlation between tonic pain ratings and SERT binding in the hypothalamus (r = −0.59; p = 0.008), a finding confirmed by the parametric...... analysis revealed a positive correlation between pain tolerance and SERT binding in the hypothalamus (r = 0.53; p = 0.02) although this was not seen in the parametric analysis. These data extend our earlier observation that cortical 5-HT receptors co-determine responses to tonic but not to phasic pain....... The negative correlation between SERT binding in the hypothalamus and insula with tonic pain ratings suggests a possible serotonergic control of the role of these areas in the modulation or in the affective appreciation of pain....

  20. Correlation of LMP10 expression and clinical outcome in Human Papillomavirus (HPV positive and HPV-Negative tonsillar and base of tongue cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaos Tertipis

    Full Text Available To examine LMP10 expression and its possible impact on clinical outcome in human papillomavirus (HPV positive and HPV-negative tonsillar and base of tongue squamous cell carcinoma (TSCC and BOTSCC.Outcome is better in HPV-positive TSCC and BOTSCC compared to matching HPV-negative tumours, with roughly 80% vs. 40% 5-year disease free survival (DFS with less aggressive treatment than today's chemoradiotherapy. Since current treatment often results in harmful side effects, less intensive therapy, with sustained patient survival would be an attractive alternative. However, other markers together with HPV status are necessary to select patients and for this purpose LMP10 expression is investigated here in parallel to HPV status and clinical outcome.From 385 patients diagnosed between 2000 and 2007 at the Karolinska University Hospital, 278 formalin fixed paraffin embedded TSCC and BOTSCC biopsies, with known HPV DNA status, were tested for LMP10 nuclear and cytoplasmic expression (fraction of positive cells and staining intensity. The data was then correlated to clinical outcome.An absent/low compared to a moderate/high LMP10 nuclear fraction of positive cells was correlated to a better 3-year DFS in the HPV-positive group of patients (log-rank p = 0.005, but not in the HPV-negative group. In the HPV-negative group of patients, in contrast to the HPV-positive group, moderate/high LMP10 cytoplasmic fraction and weak/moderate/high LMP10 cytoplasmic intensity correlated to a better 3-year DFS (p = 0.003 and p = 0.001 and 3-year overall survival (p = 0.001 and 0.009.LMP10 nuclear expression in the HPV-positive group and LMP10 cytoplasmic expression in the HPV-negative group of patients correlated to better clinical outcome.

  1. Correlation of LMP10 expression and clinical outcome in Human Papillomavirus (HPV) positive and HPV-Negative tonsillar and base of tongue cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tertipis, Nikolaos; Haeggblom, Linnea; Nordfors, Cecilia; Grün, Nathalie; Näsman, Anders; Vlastos, Andrea; Dalianis, Tina; Ramqvist, Torbjörn

    2014-01-01

    To examine LMP10 expression and its possible impact on clinical outcome in human papillomavirus (HPV) positive and HPV-negative tonsillar and base of tongue squamous cell carcinoma (TSCC and BOTSCC). Outcome is better in HPV-positive TSCC and BOTSCC compared to matching HPV-negative tumours, with roughly 80% vs. 40% 5-year disease free survival (DFS) with less aggressive treatment than today's chemoradiotherapy. Since current treatment often results in harmful side effects, less intensive therapy, with sustained patient survival would be an attractive alternative. However, other markers together with HPV status are necessary to select patients and for this purpose LMP10 expression is investigated here in parallel to HPV status and clinical outcome. From 385 patients diagnosed between 2000 and 2007 at the Karolinska University Hospital, 278 formalin fixed paraffin embedded TSCC and BOTSCC biopsies, with known HPV DNA status, were tested for LMP10 nuclear and cytoplasmic expression (fraction of positive cells and staining intensity). The data was then correlated to clinical outcome. An absent/low compared to a moderate/high LMP10 nuclear fraction of positive cells was correlated to a better 3-year DFS in the HPV-positive group of patients (log-rank p = 0.005), but not in the HPV-negative group. In the HPV-negative group of patients, in contrast to the HPV-positive group, moderate/high LMP10 cytoplasmic fraction and weak/moderate/high LMP10 cytoplasmic intensity correlated to a better 3-year DFS (p = 0.003 and p = 0.001) and 3-year overall survival (p = 0.001 and 0.009). LMP10 nuclear expression in the HPV-positive group and LMP10 cytoplasmic expression in the HPV-negative group of patients correlated to better clinical outcome.

  2. Event-Related Potential Correlates of Visual Identity Negative Priming Unbiased by Trial-by-Trial Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinojosa, J. A.; Pozo, M. A.; Mendez-Bertolo, C.; Luna, D.

    2009-01-01

    Negative priming (NP) refers to slowed reaction times and/or less accurate responses in people responding to a target that was ignored on a previous trial. Although extensive research with behavioral measures has been conducted, little is known about the electrophysiological mechanisms underlying this effect. The few previous studies carried out…

  3. Positive schizotypy scores correlate with left visual field interference for negatively valenced emotional words: A lateralized emotional stroop study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strien, J.W.; van Kampen, D.

    2010-01-01

    Fourteen men scoring high and 14 men scoring low on a positive schizotypy scale participated in a lateralized emotional Stroop task. Vocal reaction times for color naming of neutral, positive and negative emotional words were recorded. Across participants, the color naming of neutral and emotional

  4. Siblings of Individuals with Smith-Magenis Syndrome: An Investigation of the Correlates of Positive and Negative Behavioural Traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moshier, M. S.; York, T. P.; Silberg, J. L.; Elsea, S. H.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder that affects approximately one out of 25 000 births worldwide. To date, no research has been conducted to investigate how having an individual with SMS in a family is a positive or negative influence on siblings. Methods: To investigate this question we conducted a study…

  5. Brain oscillatory correlates of altered executive functioning in positive and negative symptomatic schizophrenia patients and healthy controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara eBerger

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Working Memory and executive functioning deficits are core characteristics of patients suffering from schizophrenia. Electrophysiological research indicates that altered patterns of neural oscillatory mechanisms underpinning executive functioning are associated with the psychiatric disorder. Such brain oscillatory changes have been found in local amplitude differences at gamma and theta frequencies in task-specific cortical areas. Moreover, interregional interactions are also disrupted as signified by decreased phase coherence of fronto-posterior theta activity in schizophrenia patients. However, schizophrenia is not a one-dimensional psychiatric disorder but has various forms and expressions. A common distinction is between positive and negative symptomatology but most patients have both negative and positive symptoms to some extent. Here, we examined three groups – healthy controls, predominantly negative and predominantly positive symptomatic schizophrenia patients – when performing a working memory task with increasing cognitive demand and increasing need for executive control. We analysed brain oscillatory activity in the three groups separately and investigated how predominant symptomatology might explain differences in brain oscillatory patterns. Our results indicate that differences in task specific fronto-posterior network activity (i.e. executive control network expressed by interregional phase synchronisation are able to account for working memory dysfunctions between groups. Local changes in the theta and gamma frequency range also show differences between patients and healthy controls, and more importantly, between the two patient groups. We conclude that differences in oscillatory brain activation patterns related to executive processing can be an indicator for positive and negative symptomatology in schizophrenia. Furthermore, changes in cognitive and especially executive functioning in patients are expressed by alterations in

  6. A RNA transcript (Heg) in mononuclear cells is negatively correlated with CD14 mRNA and TSH receptor autoantibodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Habekost, G.; Bratholm, P.; Christensen, Niels Juel

    2008-01-01

    During a study of gene expression of foxp3 in blood mononuclear cells we observed a DNA product of an unknown RNA fragment. The area of this peak correlated with CD14 mRNA in a small group of subjects. The sequence was localized to chromosome 1. We tested the hypothesis that gene expression...

  7. A Negative Correlation Between Blood Glucose and Acetone Measured in Healthy and Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus Patient Breath.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rydosz, Artur

    2015-07-01

    Exhaled acetone analysis has long been recognized as a supplementary tool for diagnosis and monitoring diabetes, especially type 1 diabetes. It is essential, therefore to determine the relationship between exhaled acetone concentration and glucose in blood. Usually, a direct linear correlation between this both compounds has been expected. However, in some cases we can observe a reverse correlation. When blood glucose was increasing, breath acetone declined. The breath analysis as a supplementary tool for diagnosing and monitoring diabetes makes sense only in case of utilization of portable analyzers. This need has created a market for gas sensors. However, commercially available acetone gas sensors are developed for measuring samples at several tens part per million. The exhaled acetone concentration was measured using commercial acetone gas sensor (TGS 822, 823 Figaro, Arlington Heights, IL, USA Inc) with micropreconcentrator in low temperature cofired ceramics. The reference analyzer-mass spectrometry (HPR-20 QIC, Hiden Analytical, Warrington, UK) was used. Twenty-two healthy volunteers with no history of any respiratory disease participated in the research, as did 31 patients diagnosed with type 1 diabetes. Respectively, 3 healthy volunteer and 5 type 1 diabetes mellitus subjects with reverse trend were selected. The linear fitting coefficient various from 0.1139 to 0.9573. Therefore, it is necessary to determine the correlation between blood glucose concentrations and under different conditions, for example, insulin levels, as well as correlate the results with clinical tests, for example, Hb1Ac. It is well known that the concentration of acetone is strongly influenced by diet, insulin treatment, and so on. Therefore, much more complex analysis with long-term measurements are required. Thus, presented results should be regarded as tentative, and validation studies with the analysis of clinical test and in a large number of patients, including control groups

  8. Methylation at a transcription factor-binding site on the 5-HT1A receptor gene correlates with negative symptom treatment response in first episode schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Hao; Dalton, Caroline F; Srisawat, Umarat; Zhang, Zhi Jun; Reynolds, Gavin P

    2014-04-01

    Individual variability and inadequate response of negative symptoms are major limitations of antipsychotic treatment in schizophrenia. A functional polymorphism, rs6295, in the 5-HT1A-receptor gene (HTR1A) contributes to this variability in negative symptom response. The DNA sequence containing rs6295 is rich in cytosine methylation (CpG) sites; CpG methylation is an epigenetic factor that, like rs6295, can modify transcriptional control. To investigate whether DNA methylation influences response to antipsychotic treatment, we determined methylation at CpG sites close to rs6295 in DNA from 82 Chinese subjects with a first psychotic episode. Methylation of one CpG site within a recognition sequence for HES transcriptional repressors was found to correlate with changes in total PANSS score (p = 0.006) and negative factor sub-score (p factor score (p = 0.019); the effect on symptom change remained after correction for this baseline score. An effect of rs6295 on negative symptom response was not seen in this sample, which may not have provided sufficient power for the pharmacogenetic association. These preliminary results indicate that epigenetic modification of transcriptional regulation by specific cytosine methylation may modulate HTR1A expression, resulting in effects on emotional dysfunction and negative symptom response to antipsychotic treatment.

  9. Positive expression of LSD1 and negative expression of E-cadherin correlate with metastasis and poor prognosis of colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jie, Ding; Zhongmin, Zhang; Guoqing, Liao; Sheng, Liu; Yi, Zhang; Jing, Wen; Liang, Zeng

    2013-06-01

    The first identified lysine-specific demethylase, LSD1, plays an important role in the metastatic progression of several types of cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate LSD1, E-cadherin, and N-cadherin expression in colon cancer specimens and their clinical significance. The expression of LSD1, E-cadherin, and N-cadherin in colon cancer specimens was determined by immunohistochemistry, and the relationship between the expression of the respective molecules and clinicopathological characteristics was analyzed. The positive expression rates of LSD1, E-cadherin, and N-cadherin in colon cancer specimens were 66.7 % (72/108), 85.2 % (92/108), and 41.7 % (45/108), respectively. LSD1 was significantly more highly expressed in colon cancer specimens classified as high TNM stage lesions and with distant metastasis (P colon cancer specimens classified as high TNM stage lesions and with distant metastasis (P clinical and pathological characteristics (P > 0.05). Correlation analysis revealed that LSD1 expression was negatively correlated with E-cadherin expression (r s = -0.318, P = 0.001), but not evidently correlated with N-cadherin expression (r s = 0.182, P = 0.06). Colon cancer specimens with positive LSD1 expression and negative E-cadherin expression were correlated with significantly lower overall survival. LSD1 showed a significantly higher expression, in contrast to the significantly lower expression of E-cadherin, in colon cancer specimens classified as high TNM stage lesions and with distant metastasis. Positive expression of LSD1 and negative expression of E-cadherin may be predictors of a worse colon cancer prognosis.

  10. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition in breast cancer correlates with high histological grade and triple-negative phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Hoiseon; Ryu, Young-joon; An, Jungsuk; Lee, Youngseok; Kim, Aeree

    2012-05-01

      Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is characterized by a loss of epithelial nature and the acquisition of a mesenchymal form. The aim of this study was to assess the role of EMT in human mammary carcinogenesis, by performing immunohistochemical studies of EMT markers with tissue microarrays.   A total of 492 cases were evaluated and classified as hormone receptor (HR)-positive type, HER2 type and triple-negative (TN) type by the use of immunohistochemistry and in-situ hybridization. We compared these groups in terms of epithelial and mesenchymal marker expression patterns. Of the 102 cases of TN-type breast cancer, 24.5% expressed vimentin, 13.7% expressed N-cadherin, and 9.8% expressed smooth muscle actin (SMA). Of the 221 cases of HR-type breast cancer, 4.1% expressed vimentin, 5.9% expressed N-cadherin, and 0.4% expressed SMA. Regarding epithelial markers, decreased expression was seen in 16.7% of cases for E-cadherin, in 45.1% for cytokeratin (CK)19 and in 60.8% for CK8 and CK18 (CAM5.2) in TN-type breast cancer cases. Decreased expression was seen in 11.8% of cases for E-cadherin, in 6.8% for CK19 and in 3.2% for CAM5.2 in HR-type cases.   EMT features were particularly seen in TN-type breast cancer (P grade (P < 0.001). © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. Perception and the strongest sensory memory trace of multi-stable displays both form shortly after the stimulus onset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastukhov, Alexander

    2016-02-01

    We investigated the relation between perception and sensory memory of multi-stable structure-from-motion displays. The latter is an implicit visual memory that reflects a recent history of perceptual dominance and influences only the initial perception of multi-stable displays. First, we established the earliest time point when the direction of an illusory rotation can be reversed after the display onset (29-114 ms). Because our display manipulation did not bias perception towards a specific direction of illusory rotation but only signaled the change in motion, this means that the perceptual dominance was established no later than 29-114 ms after the stimulus onset. Second, we used orientation-selectivity of sensory memory to establish which display orientation produced the strongest memory trace and when this orientation was presented during the preceding prime interval (80-140 ms). Surprisingly, both estimates point towards the time interval immediately after the display onset, indicating that both perception and sensory memory form at approximately the same time. This suggests a tighter integration between perception and sensory memory than previously thought, warrants a reconsideration of its role in visual perception, and indicates that sensory memory could be a unique behavioral correlate of the earlier perceptual inference that can be studied post hoc.

  12. Child-evoked maternal negativity from 9 to 27 months: Evidence of gene-environment correlation and its moderation by marital distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fearon, R M Pasco; Reiss, David; Leve, Leslie D; Shaw, Daniel S; Scaramella, Laura V; Ganiban, Jody M; Neiderhiser, Jenae M

    2015-11-01

    Past research has documented pervasive genetic influences on emotional and behavioral disturbance across the life span and on liability to adult psychiatric disorder. Increasingly, interest is turning to mechanisms of gene-environment interplay in attempting to understand the earliest manifestations of genetic risk. We report findings from a prospective adoption study, which aimed to test the role of evocative gene-environment correlation in early development. Included in the study were 561 infants adopted at birth and studied between 9 and 27 months, along with their adoptive parents and birth mothers. Birth mother psychiatric diagnoses and symptoms scales were used as indicators of genetic influence, and multiple self-report measures were used to index adoptive mother parental negativity. We hypothesized that birth mother psychopathology would be associated with greater adoptive parent negativity and that such evocative effects would be amplified under conditions of high adoptive family adversity. The findings suggested that genetic factors associated with birth mother externalizing psychopathology may evoke negative reactions in adoptive mothers in the first year of life, but only when the adoptive family environment is characterized by marital problems. Maternal negativity mediated the effects of genetic risk on child adjustment at 27 months. The results underscore the importance of genetically influenced evocative processes in early development.

  13. Does the prevalence of latent toxoplasmosis and frequency of Rhesus-negative subjects correlate with the nationwide rate of traffic accidents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flegr, Jaroslav; Dama, Madhukar

    2014-12-01

    Latent toxoplasmosis is probably the most common protistan parasitic disease with many indirect negative impacts on human health. One of the important impacts is impaired psychomotor function leading to reduced driving efficiency in Toxoplasma-seropositive subjects. Numerous case-control studies have established a positive relation between the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii (Nicolle et Manceaux, 1908) and probability of traffic accidents in study populations. The prevalence of toxoplasmosis varies between populations according to local geographical conditions, hygienic practices and kitchen habits. Similarly, we see a striking variation in the incidence of traffic accidents across countries. Hence, we compiled the largest ever data set on the seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis and tried to understand its role in traffic accident-related deaths and disabilities across 87 countries. Simple non-parametric analysis showed a positive and strong relation of T. gondii seroprevalence and traffic accident related disabilities. Further, we conducted multivariate analysis to control for confounding factors. After controlling for wealth, geographical latitude, health of population, length of roads and number of vehicles, the correlation disappeared. When the frequency of RhD negativity and its interaction with toxoplasmosis were included into the model, the effects of toxoplasmosis seemingly returned. However, the analysed data suffered from the problem of multicollinearity. When a proper method of analysis, ridge regression, was applied, the effects of toxoplasmosis prevalence and RhD negativity frequency disappeared again. The existence of a strong correlation between the prevalence of toxoplasmosis and health of population in particular countries, which was the probable cause of multicollinearity and possible reason for the negative result of the present study, suggests that 'asymptomatic' latent toxoplasmosis could have a large impact on public health.

  14. Negative Correlation between Individual-Insect-Level Virulence and Colony-Level Virulence of Paenibacillus larvae, the Etiological Agent of American Foulbrood of Honeybees▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauch, Sandra; Ashiralieva, Ainura; Hedtke, Kati; Genersch, Elke

    2009-01-01

    Paenibacillus larvae is the etiological agent of American foulbrood (AFB) in honeybees. Recently, different genotypes of P. larvae (ERIC I to ERIC IV) were defined, and it was shown that these genotypes differ inter alia in their virulence on the larval level. On the colony level, bees mitigate AFB through the hygienic behavior of nurse bees. Therefore, we investigated how the hygienic behavior shapes P. larvae virulence on the colony level. Our results indicate that P. larvae virulence on the larval level and that on the colony level are negatively correlated. PMID:19304833

  15. Caregiver burden: the strongest predictor of self-rated health in caregivers of patients with dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdollahpour, Ibrahim; Nedjat, Saharnaz; Noroozian, Maryam; Salimi, Yahya; Majdzadeh, Reza

    2014-09-01

    People having dementia need help and supervision to perform their activities of daily living. This responsibility is usually imposed on family members who endure a great burden, leading to undesirable health outcomes. The aims of our study were to measure caregivers' health as well as identify its adjusted relevant predictors. One hundred and fifty three registered patients and their caregivers from Iranian Alzheimer Association were included in this cross-sectional study through sequential sampling. Self-rated health (SRH) was measured using a single question with Likert-type scale ranging from very bad (1) to very good (5). The multiple linear regression model was applied to determine the adjusted associations between independent variables under study and SRH. The mean caregiver SRH level was 3.03. Of the participant caregivers, 29% were either unsatisfied or very unsatisfied with their health level. In the final regression model, SRH showed a direct significant association with the patient's number of children but an inverse significant association with the marital status (married patients), patient's age, and caregiver burden. Caregiver burden was not only significantly associated with poor SRH after removing the effect of the other covariates but it was also recognized as the strongest predictor of caregivers' SRH. Therefore, it seems that development of intervention programs, in order to reduce caregiver burden, can be considered as important step in promoting caregivers' health level. © The Author(s) 2014.

  16. ON POTENTIAL REPRESENTATIONS OF THE DISTRIBUTION LAW OF RARE STRONGEST EARTHQUAKES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Rodkin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Assessment of long-term seismic hazard is critically dependent on the behavior of tail of the distribution function of rare strongest earthquakes. Analyses of empirical data cannot however yield the credible solution of this problem because the instrumental catalogs of earthquake are available only for a rather short time intervals, and the uncertainty in estimations of magnitude of paleoearthquakes is high. From the available data, it was possible only to propose a number of alternative models characterizing the distribution of rare strongest earthquakes. There are the following models: the model based on theGuttenberg – Richter law suggested to be valid until a maximum possible seismic event (Мmах, models of 'bend down' of earthquake recurrence curve, and the characteristic earthquakes model. We discuss these models from the general physical concepts supported by the theory of extreme values (with reference to the generalized extreme value (GEV distribution and the generalized Pareto distribution (GPD and the multiplicative cascade model of seismic regime. In terms of the multiplicative cascade model, seismic regime is treated as a large number of episodes of avalanche-type relaxation of metastable states which take place in a set of metastable sub-systems.The model of magnitude-unlimited continuation of the Guttenberg – Richter law is invalid from the physical point of view because it corresponds to an infinite mean value of seismic energy and infinite capacity of the process generating seismicity. A model of an abrupt cut of this law by a maximum possible event, Мmах is not fully logical either.A model with the 'bend-down' of earthquake recurrence curve can ensure both continuity of the distribution law and finiteness of seismic energy value. Results of studies with the use of the theory of extreme values provide a convincing support to the model of 'bend-down' of earthquakes’ recurrence curve. Moreover they testify also that the

  17. Low Preoperative albumin-to-globulin ratio Predict Poor Survival and Negatively Correlated with Fibrinogen in Resectable Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao-Hui; Gu, Wen-Shen; Wang, Xue-Ping; Lin, Jian-Hua; Zheng, Xin; Zhang, Lin; Kang, Ting; Zhang, Zhi-Xian; Liu, Wan-li

    2017-01-01

    Background: Although various inflammation-based indexes in esophageal carcinoma have been documented, but the prognostic value of the albumin-to-globulin ratio(AGR) and its correlation with fibrinogen in resectable ESCC remain unknown. Methods: The levels of pre-treatment serum common acute phase proteins (including CRP, albumin and fribrinogen) were retrospectively analyzed in 447 patients with ESCC who underwent surgical resection at our department. The prognostic value was explored by univariate and multivariate cox hazard analysis. The correlation between AGR and acute phase proteins were also analyzed. Results: Patients with decreased levels of AGR and increased CRP had significantly lower 5-year survival rates than those with higher AGR, not only in the whole ESCC cohort but also in the subgroups stratified according to the disease T, N classifications, and metastasis, whereas the other acute phase proteins were not independent prognostic factors for ESCC. In addition, a lower AGR level was observed more often in patients with a high fibrinogen level than in those with a low fibrinogen level. Spearman's rank correlation analysis revealed that the AGR level presented a negative correlation with the fibrinogen level (r =-0.317, pacute phase reactants. PMID:28819381

  18. Neural correlates of the use of psychological distancing to regulate responses to negative social cues: a study of patients with borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenigsberg, Harold W; Fan, Jin; Ochsner, Kevin N; Liu, Xun; Guise, Kevin G; Pizzarello, Scott; Dorantes, Christine; Guerreri, Stephanie; Tecuta, Lucia; Goodman, Marianne; New, Antonia; Siever, Larry J

    2009-11-01

    Emotional instability is a defining feature of borderline personality disorder (BPD); yet, little is understood about its underlying neural correlates. One possible contributing factor to emotional instability is a failure to adequately employ adaptive cognitive regulatory strategies such as psychological distancing. To determine whether there are differences in neural dynamics underlying this control strategy between BPD patients and healthy control (HC) subjects, blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging signals were acquired as 18 BPD and 16 HC subjects distanced from or simply looked at pictures depicting social interactions. Contrasts in signal between distance and look conditions were compared between groups. Borderline personality disorder patients showed a different pattern of activation compared with HC subjects when looking at negative versus neutral pictures. When distancing versus looking at negative pictures, both groups showed decreased negative affect ratings and increased activation of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, areas near/along the intraparietal sulcus (IPS), ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, and posterior cingulate/precuneus regions. However, the BPD group showed less BOLD signal change in dorsal anterior cingulate cortex and IPS, less deactivation in the amygdala, and greater activation in the superior temporal sulcus and superior frontal gyrus. Borderline personality disorder and HC subjects display different neural dynamics while passively viewing social emotional stimuli. In addition, BPD patients do not engage the cognitive control regions to the extent that HCs do when employing a distancing strategy to regulate emotional reactions, which may be a factor contributing to the affective instability of BPD.

  19. {sup 1}H MR spectroscopic imaging in patients with MRI-negative extratemporal epilepsy: correlation with ictal onset zone and histopathology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krsek, Pavel; Komarek, Vladimir [Charles University, Department of Pediatric Neurology, Second Medical School, Motol Hospital, Prague (Czech Republic); Hajek, Milan [Institute for Clinical and Experimental Medicine, MR Unit, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Prague (Czech Republic); Institute for Clinical and Experimental Medicine, MR Spectroscopy, Prague 4 (Czech Republic); Dezortova, Monika; Jiru, Filip; Skoch, Antonin [Institute for Clinical and Experimental Medicine, MR Unit, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Prague (Czech Republic); Marusic, Petr [Charles University, Department of Neurology, Second Medical School, Motol Hospital, Prague (Czech Republic); Zamecnik, Josef [Charles University, Department of Pathology and Molecular Medicine, Second Medical School, Motol Hospital, Prague (Czech Republic); Kyncl, Martin [Charles University, Department of Radiology, Second Medical School, Motol Hospital, Prague (Czech Republic); Tichy, Michal [Charles University, Department of Pediatric Neurosurgery, Second Medical School, Motol Hospital, Prague (Czech Republic)

    2007-08-15

    Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ({sup 1}H MRS) is beneficial in the lateralization of the epileptogenic zone in temporal lobe epilepsy; however, its role in extratemporal and, especially, MRI-negative epilepsy has not been established. This study seeks to verify how {sup 1}H MRS could help in localizing the epileptogenic zone in patients with MRI-negative extratemporal epilepsy. Seven patients (8-23 years) with MRI-negative refractory focal epilepsy were studied using {sup 1}H MRS on a 1.5T MR system. Chemical shift imaging sequence in the transversal plane was directed towards the suspected epileptogenic zone localized by seizure semiology, scalp video/EEG, ictal SPECT and {sup 18}FDG-PET. Spectra were evaluated using the program CULICH, and the coefficient of asymmetry was used for quantitative lateralization. MRS detected lateralization in all patients and was able to localize pathology in five. The most frequent findings were decreased ratios of N-acetylaspartate to choline compounds characterized by increasing choline concentration. The localization of the {sup 1}H MRS abnormality correlated well with ictal SPECT and subdural mapping. In all cases, histopathological analysis revealed MRI-undetected focal cortical dysplasias. {sup 1}H MRS could be more sensitive for the detection of discrete malformations of cortical development than conventional MRI. It is valuable in the presurgical evaluation of patients without MRI-apparent lesions. (orig.)

  20. Annona muricata leaves have strongest cytotoxic activity against breast cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susi Endrini

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background Plant-derived herbal compounds have a long history of clinical use, better patient tolerance and acceptance. They are freely available natural compounds that can be safely used to prevent various ailments. Plants have been the basis of traditional medicine throughout the world for thousands of years and are providing mankind with new remedies. The objective of this study was to determine the cytotoxicity of soursop (Anona muricata Linn leaves and pearl grass (Hedyotis corymbosa (L. Lam. on the hormone-dependent human breast carcinoma Michigan Cancer Foundation-7 (MCF-7 cell line. Methods This study used two types of solvents (water and ethanol in the extraction process and two incubation times (24 hours and 48 hours in the MTT assays to analyze the cytotoxic effects of both plants. Results Preliminary results showed that the ethanolic extract of soursop leaves (SE displayed cytotoxic effects against MCF-7 on 24- and 48-hour incubation times with IC50 values of 88.788 ìg/ml and 14.678 mg/ml, respectively. Ethanolic pearl grass extract (PE showed similar results, with IC50 values of 65.011 mg/ml on 24-hour incubation time and 52.329 mg/ml on 48-hour incubation time against MCF-7 cell line. However, the water extract of both plants displayed lower cytotoxic effect against MCF-7 cell line. Conclusion The ethanolic extract of both plants displayed cytotoxic effect against MCF-7. Soursop (Anona muricata Linn leaves have the strongest cytotoxic activity against MCF-7 breast cancer cell line.

  1. Annona muricata leaves have strongest cytotoxic activity against breast cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susi Endrini

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Plant-derived herbal compounds have a long history of clinical use, better patient tolerance and acceptance. They are freely available natural compounds that can be safely used to prevent various ailments. Plants have been the basis of traditional medicine throughout the world for thousands of years and are providing mankind with new remedies. The objective of this study was to determine the cytotoxicity of soursop (Anona muricata Linn leaves and pearl grass (Hedyotis corymbosa (L. Lam. on the hormone-dependent human breast carcinoma Michigan Cancer Foundation-7 (MCF-7 cell line. METHODS This study used two types of solvents (water and ethanol in the extraction process and two incubation times (24 hours and 48 hours in the MTT assays to analyze the cytotoxic effects of both plants. RESULTS Preliminary results showed that the ethanolic extract of soursop leaves (SE displayed cytotoxic effects against MCF-7 on 24- and 48-hour incubation times with IC50 values of 88.788 μg/ml and 14.678 μg/ml, respectively. Ethanolic pearl grass extract (PE showed similar results, with IC50 values of 65.011 μg/ ml on 24-hour incubation time and 52.329 μg/ml on 48-hour incubation time against MCF-7 cell line. However, the water extract of both plants displayed lower cytotoxic effect against MCF-7 cell line. CONCLUSION The ethanolic extract of both plants displayed cytotoxic effect against MCF-7. Soursop (Anona muricata Linn leaves have the strongest cytotoxic activity against MCF-7 breast cancer cell line.

  2. Plasma bile acids show a positive correlation with body mass index and are negatively associated with cognitive restraint of eating in obese patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip ePrinz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Bile acids may be involved in the regulation of food intake and energy metabolism. The aim of the study was to investigate the association of plasma bile acids with body mass index (BMI and the possible involvement of circulating bile acids in the modulation of physical activity and eating behavior. Blood was obtained in a group of hospitalized patients with normal weight (BMI 18.5-25 kg/m2, underweight (anorexia nervosa, BMI 50 kg/m2, n=14-15/group and plasma bile acid concentrations assessed. Physical activity and plasma bile acids were measured in a group of patients with anorexia nervosa (BMI 14.6±0.3 kg/m2, n=43. Lastly, in a population of obese patients (BMI 48.5±0.9 kg/m2, n=85, psychometric parameters related to disordered eating and plasma bile acids were assessed. Plasma bile acids showed a positive correlation with BMI (r=0.26, p=0.03 in the population of patients with broad range of BMI (9-85 kg/m2, n=74. No associations were observed between plasma bile acids and different parameters of physical activity in anorexic patients (p>0.05. Plasma bile acids were negatively correlated with cognitive restraint of eating (r=-0.30, p=0.008, while no associations were observed with other psychometric eating behavior-related parameters (p>0.05 in obese patients. In conclusion, these data may point towards a role of bile acids in the regulation of body weight. Since plasma bile acids are negatively correlated with the cognitive restraint of eating in obese patients, this may represent a compensatory adaptation to prevent further overeating.

  3. Remote population-based intervention for disruptive behavior at age four: study protocol for a randomized trial of Internet-assisted parent training (Strongest Families Finland-Canada).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, Patrick J; Sourander, Andre; Lingley-Pottie, Patricia; Ristkari, Terja; Cunningham, Charles; Huttunen, Jukka; Filbert, Katharine; Aromaa, Minna; Corkum, Penny; Hinkka-Yli-Salomäki, Susanna; Kinnunen, Malin; Lampi, Katja; Penttinen, Anne; Sinokki, Atte; Unruh, Anita; Vuorio, Jenni; Watters, Carolyn

    2013-10-21

    Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) is characterized by angry and noncompliant behaviour. It is the most common disruptive behaviour disorder (DBD), with prevalence estimates of 6-9% for preschoolers and is closely linked to several long-term difficulties, including disorders of conduct, mood, anxiety, impulse-control, and substance abuse. ODD in children is related to parental depression, family dysfunction, and impairments in parental work performance. Children displaying early DBDs exhibit more symptoms of greater severity, more frequent offences, and commit more serious crimes later in life. The goal of the Strongest Families Finland Canada (SFFC) Smart Website intervention research program is to develop and evaluate an affordable, accessible, effective secondary prevention parent training program for disruptive behaviour in preschoolers to prevent the negative sequelae of ODD. Strongest Families is an 11-session program with two booster sessions that focuses on teaching skills to: strengthen parent-child relationships; reinforce positive behaviour; reduce conflict; manage daily transitions; plan for potentially problematic situations; promote emotional regulation and pro-social behaviour and decrease antisocial behaviour. This protocol paper describes an ongoing population-based randomized controlled trial (RCT) of high-risk 4 year-olds attending well-child clinics in Turku, Finland and environs to examine the effectiveness of the Strongest Families Smart Website intervention compared to an Education Control condition. Randomization consists of a 1:1 ratio for intervention versus the education group, stratified by the child's sex. The participants randomized to the intervention group receive access to the Strongest Families Smart Website and weekly telephone coaching sessions. The participants randomized to the Education Control condition receive access to a static website with parenting tips. Children are followed using parental and daycare teacher measures

  4. Silicon nitride grids are compatible with correlative negative staining electron microscopy and tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy for use in the detection of micro-organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lausch, V; Hermann, P; Laue, M; Bannert, N

    2014-06-01

    Successive application of negative staining transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (TERS) is a new correlative approach that could be used to rapidly and specifically detect and identify single pathogens including bioterrorism-relevant viruses in complex samples. Our objective is to evaluate the TERS-compatibility of commonly used electron microscopy (EM) grids (sample supports), chemicals and negative staining techniques and, if required, to devise appropriate alternatives. While phosphortungstic acid (PTA) is suitable as a heavy metal stain, uranyl acetate, paraformaldehyde in HEPES buffer and alcian blue are unsuitable due to their relatively high Raman scattering. Moreover, the low thermal stability of the carbon-coated pioloform film on copper grids (pioloform grids) negates their utilization. The silicon in the cantilever of the silver-coated atomic force microscope tip used to record TERS spectra suggested that Si-based grids might be employed as alternatives. From all evaluated Si-based TEM grids, the silicon nitride (SiN) grid was found to be best suited, with almost no background Raman signals in the relevant spectral range, a low surface roughness and good particle adhesion properties that could be further improved by glow discharge. Charged SiN grids have excellent particle adhesion properties. The use of these grids in combination with PTA for contrast in the TEM is suitable for subsequent analysis by TERS. The study reports fundamental modifications and optimizations of the negative staining EM method that allows a combination with near-field Raman spectroscopy to acquire a spectroscopic signature from nanoscale biological structures. This should facilitate a more precise diagnosis of single viral particles and other micro-organisms previously localized and visualized in the TEM. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  5. Education is the strongest socio-economic predictor of smoking in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Härkönen, Juho; Lindberg, Matti; Karlsson, Linnea; Karlsson, Hasse; Scheinin, Noora M

    2018-01-14

    To investigate socio-economic disparities in smoking in pregnancy (SIP) by the mother's education, occupational class and current economic conditions. Cross-sectional analysis with linked survey and register data. South-western Finland. A total of 2667 pregnant women [70% of the original sample (n = 3808)] from FinnBrain, a prospective pregnancy cohort study. The outcome was smoking during the first pregnancy trimester, measured from the Finnish Medical Birth Register. Education and occupational class were linked from population registers. Income support recipiency and subjective economic wellbeing were questionnaire-based measures of current economic conditions. These were adjusted for age, partnership status, residential area type, parental separation, parity, childhood socio-economic background, childhood adversities (the Trauma and Distressing Events During Childhood scale) and antenatal stress (Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale). Logistic regressions and attributable fractions (AF) were estimated. Mother's education was the strongest socio-economic predictor of SIP. Compared with university education, adjusted odds ratios (aORs) of SIP were: 2.2 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.2-3.9; P = 0.011] for tertiary vocational education, 4.4 (95% CI = 2.1-9.0; P education, 2.9 (95% CI = 1.4-6.1; P = 0.006) for general secondary education, 9.5 (95% CI 5.0-18.2; P education and 14.4 (95% CI = 6.3-33.0; P education was 0.5. Adjusted for the other variables, occupational class and subjective economic wellbeing did not predict SIP. Income support recipiency was associated positively with SIP (aOR = 1.8; 95% CI = 1.1-3.1; P = 0.022). Antenatal stress predicted SIP (aOR = 2.0; 95% CI = 1.4-2.8; P pregnancy are attributable primarily to differences in the mother's educational level (low versus high) and orientation (vocational versus general). © 2018 The Authors. Addiction published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society for the Study

  6. Correlation between {sup 18}F-FDG uptake on PET/CT and prognostic factors in triple-negative breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koo, Hye Ryoung [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, 28 Yongon-dong, Chongno-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Hanyang University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jeong Seon [Hanyang University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Keon Wook [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Han, Wonshik [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Surgery, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, In Ae [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Pathology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Woo Kyung [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, 28 Yongon-dong, Chongno-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-11-15

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether a correlation exists between {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake and prognostic factors in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). Between January 2009 and December 2013, 103 patients (mean age, 50.6 years) with primary TNBC (mean, 2.6 cm; range, 1.0-6.5 cm) underwent {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT for initial staging. Correlations between maximum standardized uptake value (SUV{sub max}) on PET/CT and prognostic factors including tumour size, nodal status, histological grade, Ki-67 proliferation index, tumour suppressor p53, and 'basal-like' markers (epidermal growth factor receptor and CK 5/6) were assessed. The mean SUV{sub max} of the 103 tumours was 10.94 ± 5.25 (range: 2-32.8). There was a positive correlation between SUV{sub max} and Ki-67 (Spearman's rho = 0.29, P = 0.003) and tumour size (Spearman's rho = 0.27, P = 0.006), whereas this relationship was not observed in the nodal status, histological grade, p53 status and 'basal-like' phenotypes. In a multivariate regression analysis, Ki-67 (P < 0.001) and tumour size (P = 0.009) were significantly associated with SUV{sub max} in TNBCs. Increased {sup 18}F-FDG uptake on PET/CT was correlated with a high Ki-67 proliferation index and larger tumour size in TNBC. These results suggest a potential role of {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT in identifying TNBC with more aggressive behaviour. (orig.)

  7. Correlation between frequencies of blood monocytic myeloid-derived suppressor cells, regulatory T cells and negative prognostic markers in patients with castration-resistant metastatic prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Idorn, Manja; Køllgaard, Tania; Kongsted, Per

    2014-01-01

    in establishing an immune suppressive environment in patients with PC. Moreover, correlation of M-MDSC frequency with known prognostic markers and the observed impact on OS could reflect a possible role in tumor progression. Further insight into the generation and function of MDSC and their interplay with Tregs......Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) are believed to play a role in immune suppression and subsequent failure of T cells to mount an efficient anti-tumor response, by employing both direct T-cell inhibition as well as induction of regulatory T cells (Tregs). Investigating the frequency...... with known negative prognostic markers in patients with PC including elevated levels of lactate dehydrogenase and prostate-specific antigen. Accordingly, high levels of M-MDSC were associated with a shorter median overall survival. Our data strongly suggest that M-MDSC, possibly along with Tregs, play a role...

  8. Negative correlation between nuptial throat colour and blood parasite load in male European green lizards supports the Hamilton-Zuk hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnár, Orsolya; Bajer, Katalin; Mészáros, Boglárka; Török, János; Herczeg, Gábor

    2013-06-01

    During female mate choice, conspicuous male sexual signals are used to infer male quality and choose the best sire for the offspring. The theory of parasite-mediated sexual selection (Hamilton-Zuk hypothesis) presumes that parasite infection can influence the elaboration of sexual signals: resistant individuals can invest more energy into signal expression and thus advertise their individual quality through signal intensity. By preferring these males, females can provide resistance genes for their offspring. Previous research showed that nuptial throat colour of male European green lizard, Lacerta viridis, plays a role in both inter- and intrasexual selections as a condition-dependent multiple signalling system. The aim of this study was to test the predictions of the Hamilton-Zuk hypothesis on male European green lizards. By blood sampling 30 adult males during the reproductive season, we found members of the Haemogregarinidae family in all but one individual (prevalence = 96 %). The infection intensity showed strong negative correlation with the throat and belly colour brightness in line with the predictions of the Hamilton-Zuk hypothesis. In addition, we found other correlations between infection intensity and other fitness-related traits, suggesting that parasite load has a remarkable effect on individual fitness. This study shows that throat patch colour of the European green lizards not only is a multiple signalling system but also possibly acts as an honest sexual signal of health state in accordance with the Hamilton-Zuk hypothesis.

  9. ERBB2 in Cat Mammary Neoplasias Disclosed a Positive Correlation between RNA and Protein Low Expression Levels: A Model for erbB-2 Negative Human Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu, Rui M. V.; Bastos, Estela; Amorim, Irina; Gut, Ivo G.; Gärtner, Fátima; Chaves, Raquel

    2013-01-01

    Human ERBB2 is a proto-oncogene that codes for the erbB-2 epithelial growth factor receptor. In human breast cancer (HBC), erbB-2 protein overexpression has been repeatedly correlated with poor prognosis. In more recent works, underexpression of this gene has been described in HBC. Moreover, it is also recognised that oncogenes that are commonly amplified or deleted encompass point mutations, and some of these are associated with HBC. In cat mammary lesions (CMLs), the overexpression of ERBB2 (27%–59.6%) has also been described, mostly at the protein level and although cat mammary neoplasias are considered to be a natural model of HBC, molecular information is still scarce. In the present work, a cat ERBB2 fragment, comprising exons 10 to 15 (ERBB2_10–15) was achieved for the first time. Allelic variants and genomic haplotype analyses were also performed, and differences between normal and CML populations were observed. Three amino acid changes, corresponding to 3 non-synonymous genomic sequence variants that were only detected in CMLs, were proposed to damage the 3D structure of the protein. We analysed the cat ERBB2 gene at the DNA (copy number determination), mRNA (expression levels assessment) and protein levels (in extra- and intra protein domains) in CML samples and correlated the last two evaluations with clinicopathological features. We found a positive correlation between the expression levels of the ERBB2 RNA and erbB-2 protein, corresponding to the intracellular region. Additionally, we detected a positive correlation between higher mRNA expression and better clinical outcome. Our results suggest that the ERBB2 gene is post-transcriptionally regulated and that proteins with truncations and single point mutations are present in cat mammary neoplastic lesions. We would like to emphasise that the recurrent occurrence of low erbB-2 expression levels in cat mammary tumours, suggests the cat mammary neoplasias as a valuable model for erbB-2 negative HBC

  10. ERBB2 in cat mammary neoplasias disclosed a positive correlation between RNA and protein low expression levels: a model for erbB-2 negative human breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Sara; Baptista, Cláudia S; Abreu, Rui M V; Bastos, Estela; Amorim, Irina; Gut, Ivo G; Gärtner, Fátima; Chaves, Raquel

    2013-01-01

    Human ERBB2 is a proto-oncogene that codes for the erbB-2 epithelial growth factor receptor. In human breast cancer (HBC), erbB-2 protein overexpression has been repeatedly correlated with poor prognosis. In more recent works, underexpression of this gene has been described in HBC. Moreover, it is also recognised that oncogenes that are commonly amplified or deleted encompass point mutations, and some of these are associated with HBC. In cat mammary lesions (CMLs), the overexpression of ERBB2 (27%-59.6%) has also been described, mostly at the protein level and although cat mammary neoplasias are considered to be a natural model of HBC, molecular information is still scarce. In the present work, a cat ERBB2 fragment, comprising exons 10 to 15 (ERBB2_10-15) was achieved for the first time. Allelic variants and genomic haplotype analyses were also performed, and differences between normal and CML populations were observed. Three amino acid changes, corresponding to 3 non-synonymous genomic sequence variants that were only detected in CMLs, were proposed to damage the 3D structure of the protein. We analysed the cat ERBB2 gene at the DNA (copy number determination), mRNA (expression levels assessment) and protein levels (in extra- and intra protein domains) in CML samples and correlated the last two evaluations with clinicopathological features. We found a positive correlation between the expression levels of the ERBB2 RNA and erbB-2 protein, corresponding to the intracellular region. Additionally, we detected a positive correlation between higher mRNA expression and better clinical outcome. Our results suggest that the ERBB2 gene is post-transcriptionally regulated and that proteins with truncations and single point mutations are present in cat mammary neoplastic lesions. We would like to emphasise that the recurrent occurrence of low erbB-2 expression levels in cat mammary tumours, suggests the cat mammary neoplasias as a valuable model for erbB-2 negative HBC.

  11. Hemoglobin to Hematocrit Ratio: The Strongest Predictor of Femoral Head Osteonecrosis in Children With Sickle Cell Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worrall, Douglas; Smith-Whitley, Kim; Wells, Lawrence

    2016-03-01

    Femoral head osteonecrosis (ON) secondary to sickle cell disease (SCD) often progresses to femoral head collapse, requiring total hip arthroplasty. However, this treatment has a limited durability and patients with SCD have higher rates of complications, requiring multiple revision operations. Identifying risk factors linked to ON in SCD can facilitate earlier precollapse diagnosis and surgical treatment aimed at preservation of the native hip joint. Fifty-nine children treated at our institution between January 2001 and April 2012 with SCD and ON, as diagnosed by magnetic resonance imaging or radiographic imaging, were compared with age-matched and sickle cell phenotype-matched (SS, SC, Sβ, Sβ) controls with no evidence of ON. Two sided t-tests assuming unequal variances determined statistically risk factors and threshold values were assigned to calculate odds ratios. Systolic blood pressure (P=1.2×10, OR=3.68), diastolic blood pressure (P=0.0084, OR=1.41), weight in the SCD-SS population (P=0.04, OR=1.85), and hemoglobin (Hb) in the SCD-SS population (P=0.036, OR=2.56) were elevated in cases. Curiously, dividing the Hb by the hematocrit to serve as a clinical proxy for the mean corpuscular Hb concentration (MCHC) produced an excellent predictor of ON (P=2.06×10, OR=5.17), which was especially pronounced in the SCD-SS subpopulation (P=2.28×10, OR=8.65). Among children with SCD, the overall prevalence of ON was 9% (59/658) and the phenotype with the highest prevalence of ON was Sβ thalassemia with an ON prevalence of 11.1%. There was no observed correlation between ON and height, body mass index, cholesterol, mean corpuscular volume, hematocrit, or glucocorticoid use. These data support a novel clinical marker, the MCHC proxy, as the strongest predictor of ON in children with SCD. High-risk children should receive hip magnetic resonance imaging to diagnose early ON and facilitate interventions focused on hip preservation, forestalling, or possibly preventing

  12. Strongest model-independent bound on the lifetime of Dark Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Audren, Benjamin; Mangano, Gianpiero; Serpico, Pasquale Dario; Tram, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Dark Matter is essential for structure formation in the late Universe so it must be stable on cosmological time scales. But how stable exactly? Only assuming decays into relativistic particles, we report an otherwise model independent bound on the lifetime of Dark Matter using current cosmological data. Since these decays affect only the low-$\\ell$ multipoles of the CMB, the Dark Matter lifetime is expected to correlate with the tensor-to-scalar ratio $r$ as well as curvature $\\Omega_k$. We consider two models, including $r$ and $r+\\Omega_k$ respectively, versus data from Planck, WMAP, WiggleZ and Baryon Acoustic Oscillations, with or without the BICEP2 data (if interpreted in terms of primordial gravitational waves). This results in a lower bound on the lifetime of CDM given by 160Gyr (without BICEP2) or 200Gyr (with BICEP2) at 95% confidence level.

  13. Persistent Negative Symptoms in First-Episode Psychosis: Early Cognitive and Social Functioning Correlates and Differences Between Early and Adult Onset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puig, Olga; Baeza, Immaculada; de la Serna, Elena; Cabrera, Bibiana; Mezquida, Gisela; Bioque, Miquel; Lobo, Antonio; González-Pinto, Ana; Parellada, Mara; Corripio, Iluminada; Vieta, Eduard; Bobes, Julio; Usall, Judith; Contreras, Fernando; Cuesta, Manuel J; Bernardo, Miquel; Castro-Fornieles, Josefina

    To characterize the early cognitive and social functioning characteristics of a sample of first-episode psychosis patients with and without persistent negative symptoms (PNS) and to examine the prevalence and cognitive and functional correlates of PNS in patients with early-onset versus adult-onset first-episode psychosis. Participants were 235 patients with first-episode psychosis (51 early-onset, 184 adult-onset) and 240 healthy controls from a multicenter longitudinal study (recruited between 2009 and 2011). Standard instruments were used to evaluate symptoms, cognition, and social functioning. Diagnoses were determined according to DSM-IV criteria. PNS proxy was derived from clinical assessments (Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale and Montgomery-Asberg Depression Scale) at 2-, 6-, and 12-month follow-up. Association tests were used to compare the prevalence of PNS in the early-onset versus adult-onset groups. Multivariate analysis of variance was used to examine differences in early cognitive and social functioning (at the 2-month assessment) between patients with and without PNS and between early-onset and adult-onset patients with PNS. Thirty-eight patients (16.2%) met criteria for PNS during the first year. This PNS group showed a selective deficit in executive functions and in global, community, and occupational functioning (P cognitive (P social deficits. There was an early, detectable, social and executive dysfunction associated with PNS in first-episode psychosis and a high risk of having PNS in early-onset first-episode psychosis, which in turn was associated with more widespread cognitive impairment. Specific therapeutic interventions for PNS in early-onset first-episode psychosis might be needed. © Copyright 2017 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  14. Quantitative analyses of schizophrenia-associated metabolites in serum: serum D-lactate levels are negatively correlated with gamma-glutamylcysteine in medicated schizophrenia patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi Fukushima

    Full Text Available The serum levels of several metabolites are significantly altered in schizophrenia patients. In this study, we performed a targeted analysis of 34 candidate metabolites in schizophrenia patients (n = 25 and compared them with those in age- and gender-matched healthy subjects (n = 27. Orthogonal partial least square-discriminant analysis revealed that complete separation between controls and patients was achieved based on these metabolites. We found that the levels of γ-glutamylcysteine (γ-GluCys, linoleic acid, arachidonic acid, D-serine, 3-hydroxybutyrate, glutathione (GSH, 5-hydroxytryptamine, threonine, and tyrosine were significantly lower, while D-lactate, tryptophan, kynurenine, and glutamate levels were significantly higher in schizophrenia patients compared to controls. Using receiver operating characteristics (ROC curve analysis, the sensitivity, specificity, and the area under curve of γ-GluCys, a precursor of GSH, and D-lactate, a terminal metabolite of methylglyoxal, were 88.00%, 81.48%, and 0.8874, and 88.00%, 77.78%, and 0.8415, respectively. In addition, serum levels of D-lactate were negatively correlated with γ-GluCys levels in patients, but not in controls. The present results suggest that oxidative stress-induced damage may be involved in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia.

  15. Gremlin-1 Overexpression in Mouse Lung Reduces Silica-Induced Lymphocyte Recruitment - A Link to Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis through Negative Correlation with CXCL10 Chemokine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katri Koli

    Full Text Available Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF is characterized by activation and injury of epithelial cells, the accumulation of connective tissue and changes in the inflammatory microenvironment. The bone morphogenetic protein (BMP inhibitor protein gremlin-1 is associated with the progression of fibrosis both in human and mouse lung. We generated a transgenic mouse model expressing gremlin-1 in type II lung epithelial cells using the surfactant protein C (SPC promoter and the Cre-LoxP system. Gremlin-1 protein expression was detected specifically in the lung after birth and did not result in any signs of respiratory insufficiency. Exposure to silicon dioxide resulted in reduced amounts of lymphocyte aggregates in transgenic lungs while no alteration in the fibrotic response was observed. Microarray gene expression profiling and analyses of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid cytokines indicated a reduced lymphocytic response and a downregulation of interferon-induced gene program. Consistent with reduced Th1 response, there was a downregulation of the mRNA and protein expression of the anti-fibrotic chemokine CXCL10, which has been linked to IPF. In human IPF patient samples we also established a strong negative correlation in the mRNA expression levels of gremlin-1 and CXCL10. Our results suggest that in addition to regulation of epithelial-mesenchymal crosstalk during tissue injury, gremlin-1 modulates inflammatory cell recruitment and anti-fibrotic chemokine production in the lung.

  16. Gremlin-1 Overexpression in Mouse Lung Reduces Silica-Induced Lymphocyte Recruitment - A Link to Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis through Negative Correlation with CXCL10 Chemokine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koli, Katri; Sutinen, Eva; Rönty, Mikko; Rantakari, Pia; Fortino, Vittorio; Pulkkinen, Ville; Greco, Dario; Sipilä, Petra; Myllärniemi, Marjukka

    2016-01-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is characterized by activation and injury of epithelial cells, the accumulation of connective tissue and changes in the inflammatory microenvironment. The bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) inhibitor protein gremlin-1 is associated with the progression of fibrosis both in human and mouse lung. We generated a transgenic mouse model expressing gremlin-1 in type II lung epithelial cells using the surfactant protein C (SPC) promoter and the Cre-LoxP system. Gremlin-1 protein expression was detected specifically in the lung after birth and did not result in any signs of respiratory insufficiency. Exposure to silicon dioxide resulted in reduced amounts of lymphocyte aggregates in transgenic lungs while no alteration in the fibrotic response was observed. Microarray gene expression profiling and analyses of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid cytokines indicated a reduced lymphocytic response and a downregulation of interferon-induced gene program. Consistent with reduced Th1 response, there was a downregulation of the mRNA and protein expression of the anti-fibrotic chemokine CXCL10, which has been linked to IPF. In human IPF patient samples we also established a strong negative correlation in the mRNA expression levels of gremlin-1 and CXCL10. Our results suggest that in addition to regulation of epithelial-mesenchymal crosstalk during tissue injury, gremlin-1 modulates inflammatory cell recruitment and anti-fibrotic chemokine production in the lung.

  17. Tumor-infiltrating CD8+ and FOXP3+ lymphocytes in triple-negative breast cancer: its correlation with pathological complete response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyashita, Minoru; Sasano, Hironobu; Tamaki, Kentaro; Chan, Monica; Hirakawa, Hisashi; Suzuki, Akihiko; Tada, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Go; Nemoto, Noriko; Nakagawa, Saki; Ishida, Takanori; Ohuchi, Noriaki

    2014-12-01

    The anti-tumor immune response was recently reported to play a critical role in the chemotherapeutic sensitivity of breast cancer. Therefore, we investigated the correlation between CD8+ and FOXP3+ tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes and the pathological complete response (pCR) following neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC), in conjunction with neoangiogenesis, basal and proliferation markers. CD8+ and FOXP3+ lymphocytes were assessed in biopsy specimens by double-staining immunohistochemistry, in combination with immunostaining of vasohibin-1, CD31, EGFR, CK5/6, and Ki-67. Earlier age, pre-menopausal status, smaller tumor size, and high Ki-67 were significantly associated with pCR, as in high CD8+, high CD8+/FOXP3+ ratio, and low vasohibin-1 positive ratio. Multivariate analysis did reveal that a high CD8+/FOXP3+ ratio was a strong predictor of pCR with an odds ratio of 5.32 (P = 0.005). High Ki-67 was also significantly associated with pCR (P = 0.002). TNBCs with a high CD8+/FOXP3+ ratio and high Ki-67 had the highest pCR rate (70%) following NAC. However, the pCR rate of the patients with low CD8+/FOXP3+ ratio and low Ki-67 was only 5%. The pCR rates of a high CD8+/FOXP3+ ratio and low Ki-67 patients and those with a low CD8+/FOXP3+ ratio and high Ki-67 were 24 and 21%, respectively. TNBCs with a high CD8+/FOXP3+ ratio were more sensitive to anthracycline and taxane-based chemotherapeutic regimens, and the CD8+/FOXP3+ ratio in conjunction with Ki-67 could predict pCR following NAC in TNBC. This predictor may represent a new surrogate for testing the efficacy of investigational agents in the neoadjuvant setting.

  18. Negative life events, coping and mental health in middle childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwona Grzegorzewska

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background In the period of middle childhood, social experiences (both educational and social may constitute a critical moment in time for the ultimate results of development in the case of an individual. Negative life events and coping skills may guarantee a positive or negative direction of development, exerting an influence on the mental health of children. In the study, a four-factor model of mental health was adopted, taking into consideration psychopathological symptoms within the scope of externalizing and internalizing disorders, the level of the performance of developmental tasks, and the sense of life satisfaction. The present study investigated the correlation between stress, coping and mental health in children in middle childhood. Participants and procedure The study included 182 individuals aged between 9 and 12 years. The following aspects were subjected to assessment: the level of mental health, the number and severity of negative life events, and the strategies of coping with stress. In order to determine the strongest predictors of the four dimensions of mental health of children, hierarchical regression analysis was applied. Results It was found that the strongest predictor of mental health of children in the period of middle childhood was individual and accumulated negative stress events. Lower significance was found for the subjective assessment of the severity of events being experienced. It was found that a factor protecting against disorders was active methods of coping. Conclusions The study suggests that it is not only psychopathological symptoms that constitute the negative consequence of the effect of stress. Negative stress events influence the positive dimensions of mental health, including the level of performance of developmental tasks and the sense of life satisfaction in children in the period of middle childhood. The obtained results show the specific character of the discussed period of development. However

  19. Spontaneous Desorption time-of-flight Mass Spectrometry (SDMS): Time correlated emission of electrons and negative ions in a constant electric field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Della Negra, Serge; Le Beyec, Yvon; Håkansson, Per

    1985-04-01

    A very simple time of flight mass spectrometer has been used to measure mass spectra for the negative ions of organic compounds in the mass range up to 3000 u. Desorbed ions were obtained by applying a constant negative voltage to a flat metallic surface, coated with a few micrograms of organic material. We show that electrons and negative ions are emitted simultaneously from the same point on the surface. Mass spectra obtained by this technique are compared to mass spectra for the same compounds, obtained with 252Cf fission fragment ionization.

  20. Positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia as correlates of help-seeking behaviour and the duration of untreated psychosis in south-east Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Chigozie Odinka

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background. Duration of untreated psychosis (DUP has been widely recognised in recent years as a potentially important predictor of illness outcome, and the manifestations of schizophrenia have been known to influence its early recognition as a mental illness.  Objective. To assess the association between the positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia, help-seeking and DUP.  Methods. We performed a cross-sectional study of 360 patients with schizophrenia, who had had no previous contact with Western mental health services. The Sociodemographic Questionnaire, World Health Organization Pathway Encounter Form and a questionnaire to establish DUP were used. The positive and negative syndrome scale and Composite International Diagnostic Interview were used for the assessment of mental disorders and to diagnose. Results. Respondents who had predominant positive symptoms and who had a median DUP of 8 weeks or 24 weeks, tended to use psychiatric hospitals and other Western medical facilities, respectively, as their first treatment options. However, those who had predominant negative symptoms and who had a median DUP of 144 weeks or 310 weeks, tended to use faith healers and traditional healers, respectively, as first treatment options. Conclusion. The predominance of negative symptoms could militate against early presentation among people with schizophrenia, probably because negative symptoms are poorly recognised as indicating mental illness in Nigeria, as they could be interpreted as deviant behaviour or spiritual problems that would require spiritual solutions.

  1. Positive affect and negative affect correlate differently with distress and health-related quality of life in patients with cardiac conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spindler, Helle; Denollet, Johan; Kruse, Charlotte

    2009-01-01

    The Global Mood Scale (GMS), assessing negative affect (NA) and positive affect (PA), is sensitive to tapping treatment-related changes in patients with cardiac conditions. We examined the psychometric properties of the Danish GMS and the influence of NA and PA on distress and health-related qual......-related quality of life (HRQL).......The Global Mood Scale (GMS), assessing negative affect (NA) and positive affect (PA), is sensitive to tapping treatment-related changes in patients with cardiac conditions. We examined the psychometric properties of the Danish GMS and the influence of NA and PA on distress and health...

  2. Levothyroxine therapy and impaired clearance are the strongest contributors to small intestinal bacterial overgrowth: Results of a retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brechmann, Thorsten; Sperlbaum, Andre; Schmiegel, Wolff

    2017-02-07

    To identify a set of contributors, and weight and rank them on a pathophysiological basis. Patients who have undergone a lactulose or glucose hydrogen breath test to rule out small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) for various clinical symptoms, including diarrhoea, weight loss, abdominal pain, cramping or bloating, were seen as eligible for inclusion in a retrospective single-centre study. Clinical data such as co-morbidities, medication, laboratory parameters and other possible risk factors have been identified from the electronic data system. Cases lacking or with substantially incomplete clinical data were excluded from the analysis. Suspected contributors were summarised under four different pathophysiological pathways (impaired gastric acid barrier, impaired intestinal clearance, immunosuppression and miscellaneous factors including thyroid gland variables) and investigated using the χ 2 test, Student's t -test and logistic regression models. A total of 1809 patients who had undergone hydrogen breath testing were analysed. Impairment of the gastric acid barrier (gastrectomy, odds ratio: OR = 3.5, PPI therapy OR = 1.4), impairment of intestinal clearance (any resecting gastric surgery OR = 2.6, any colonic resection OR = 1.9, stenosis OR = 3.4, gastroparesis OR = 3.4, neuropathy 2.2), immunological factors (any drug-induced immunosuppression OR = 1.8), altered thyroid gland metabolism (hypothyroidism OR = 2.6, levothyroxine therapy OR = 3.0) and diabetes mellitus (OR = 1.9) were associated significantly to SIBO. Any abdominal surgery, ileocecal resection, vagotomy or IgA-deficiency did not have any influence, and a history of appendectomy decreased the risk of SIBO. Multivariate analysis revealed gastric surgery, stenoses, medical immunosuppression and levothyroxine to be the strongest predictors. Levothyroxine therapy was the strongest contributor in a simplified model (OR = 3.0). The most important contributors for the development of SIBO in ascending

  3. Correlates of Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Sexually Transmitted Infection (HIV/STI) Testing and Disclosure among HIV-Negative Collegiate Men Who Have Sex with Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkerson, J. Michael; Fuchs, Erika L.; Brady, Sonya S.; Jones-Webb, Rhonda; Rosser, B. R. Simon

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the extent to which personal, behavioral, and environmental factors are associated with human immunodeficiency virus/sexually transmitted infection (HIV/STI) testing and disclosure. Participants: Nine hundred thirty HIV-negative collegiate men who have sex with men (MSM) who completed an online survey about alcohol use and…

  4. Repeat Targeted Prostate Biopsy under Guidance of Multiparametric MRI-Correlated Real-Time Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound for Patients with Previous Negative Biopsy and Elevated Prostate-Specific Antigen: A Prospective Study

    OpenAIRE

    Jang, Dong Ryul; Jung, Dae Chul; Oh, Young Taik; Noh, Songmi; Han, Kyunghwa; Kim, Kiwook; Rha, Koon-Ho; Choi, Young Deuk; Hong, Sung Joon

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To prospectively determine whether multi-parametric MRI (mpMRI) - contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) correlated, imaging-guided target biopsy (TB) method could improve the detection of prostate cancer in re-biopsy setting of patients with prior negative biopsy. Methods From 2012 to 2014, a total of 42 Korean men with a negative result from previous systematic biopsy (SB) and elevated prostate-specific antigen underwent 3T mpMRI and real-time CEUS guided TB. Target lesions were det...

  5. When negation is not negation

    OpenAIRE

    Milicevic, Nataša

    2008-01-01

    In this paper I will discuss the formation of different types of yes/no questions in Serbian (examples in (1)), focusing on the syntactically and semantically puzzling example (1d), which involves the negative auxiliary inversion. Although there is a negative marker on the fronted auxiliary, the construction does not involve sentential negation. This coincides with the fact that the negative quantifying NPIs cannot be licensed. The question formation and sentential negation have similar synta...

  6. Defective interleukin-4/Stat6 activity correlates with increased constitutive expression of negative regulators SOCS-3, SOCS-7, and CISH in colon cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao Hong; Xu, Shuang Bing; Yuan, Jia; Li, Ben Hui; Zhang, Yan; Yuan, Qin; Li, Pin Dong; Li, Feng; Zhang, Wen Jie

    2009-12-01

    Interleukin-4 (IL-4)-induced Stat6 activities (phenotypes) vary among human cancer cells, of which the HT-29 cell line carries an active Stat6(high) phenotype, while Caco-2 carries a defective Stat6(null) phenotype, respectively. Cancer cells with Stat6(high) show resistance to apoptosis and exaggerated metastasis, suggesting the clinical significance of Stat6 phenotypes. We previously showed that Stat6(high) HT-29 cells exhibited low constitutive expression of Stat6-negative regulators SOCS-1 and SHP-1 because of gene hypermethylation. This study further examined the constitutive expression of other closely related SOCS family numbers including SOCS-3, SOCS-5, SOCS-7, and CISH using RT-PCR. Similar to SOCS-1 and SHP-1, Stat6(high) HT-29 cells expressed low constitutive mRNA of SOCS-3, SOCS-7, and CISH than Stat6(null) Caco-2 cells. Interestingly, DNA demethylation using 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine in HT-29 cells up-regulated mRNA expression of the above genes, indicating a hypermethylation status, which was confirmed by methylation-specific sequencing in selected SOCS-3 gene. Furthermore, defective Stat6(null) Caco-2 exhibited impaired phosphorylation of Stat6 after IL-4 stimulation by flow cytometry, in keeping with the notion of an over-performed negative regulation. The findings that IL-4/Stat6 phenotypes show differential expression of multiple negative regulators suggest a model that a collective force of powerful negative regulators, directly and indirectly, acts on Stat6 activation, which may result in differential Stat6 phenotypes.

  7. Negative Staining for COL4A5 Correlates With Worse Prognosis and More Severe Ultrastructural Alterations in Males With Alport Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samar M. Said

    2017-01-01

    Discussion: Thus, the COL4A5 expression pattern has an important prognostic value and it correlates with the severity of ultrastructural glomerular basement membrane alterations in males with AS. Loss of COL4A5 staining is uncommon in patients with AS diagnosed in their adulthood.

  8. Do nonphysical punishments reduce antisocial behavior more than spanking? a comparison using the strongest previous causal evidence against spanking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cox Ronald B

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The strongest causal evidence that customary spanking increases antisocial behavior is based on prospective studies that control statistically for initial antisocial differences. None of those studies have investigated alternative disciplinary tactics that parents could use instead of spanking, however. Further, the small effects in those studies could be artifactual due to residual confounding, reflecting child effects on the frequency of all disciplinary tactics. This study re-analyzes the strongest causal evidence against customary spanking and uses these same methods to determine whether alternative disciplinary tactics are more effective in reducing antisocial behavior. Methods This study re-analyzed a study by Straus et al.1 on spanking and antisocial behavior using a sample of 785 children who were 6 to 9 years old in the 1988 cohort of the American National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. The comprehensiveness and reliability of the covariate measure of initial antisocial behavior were varied to test for residual confounding. All analyses were repeated for grounding, privilege removal, and sending children to their room, and for psychotherapy. To account for covarying use of disciplinary tactics, the analyses were redone first for the 73% who had reported using at least one discipline tactic and second by controlling for usage of other disciplinary tactics and psychotherapy. Results The apparently adverse effect of spanking on antisocial behavior was replicated using the original trichotomous covariate for initial antisocial behavior. A similar pattern of adverse effects was shown for grounding and psychotherapy and partially for the other two disciplinary tactics. All of these effects became non-significant after controlling for latent comprehensive measures of externalizing behavior problems. Conclusions These results are consistent with residual confounding, a statistical artifact that makes all corrective actions by

  9. Nothing a hot bath won't cure: infection rates of amphibian chytrid fungus correlate negatively with water temperature under natural field settings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J Forrest

    Full Text Available Dramatic declines and extinctions of amphibian populations throughout the world have been associated with chytridiomycosis, an infectious disease caused by the pathogenic chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd. Previous studies indicated that Bd prevalence correlates with cooler temperatures in the field, and laboratory experiments have demonstrated that Bd ceases growth at temperatures above 28°C. Here we investigate how small-scale variations in water temperature correlate with Bd prevalence in the wild. We sampled 221 amphibians, including 201 lowland leopard frogs (Rana [Lithobates] yavapaiensis, from 12 sites in Arizona, USA, and tested them for Bd. Amphibians were encountered in microhabitats that exhibited a wide range of water temperatures (10-50°C, including several geothermal water sources. There was a strong inverse correlation between the water temperature in which lowland leopard frogs were captured and Bd prevalence, even after taking into account the influence of year, season, and host size. In locations where Bd was known to be present, the prevalence of Bd infections dropped from 75-100% in water 30°C. A strong inverse correlation between Bd infection status and water temperature was also observed within sites. Our findings suggest that microhabitats where water temperatures exceed 30°C provide lowland leopard frogs with significant protection from Bd, which could have important implications for disease dynamics, as well as management applications.There must be quite a few things a hot bath won't cure, but I don't know many of them--Sylvia Plath, "The Bell Jar" (1963.

  10. Gamma band plasticity in sensory cortex is a signature of the strongest memory rather than memory of the training stimulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberger, Norman M; Miasnikov, Alexandre A; Bieszczad, Kasia M; Chen, Jemmy C

    2013-09-01

    Gamma oscillations (∼30-120Hz) are considered to be a reflection of coordinated neuronal activity, linked to processes underlying synaptic integration and plasticity. Increases in gamma power within the cerebral cortex have been found during many cognitive processes such as attention, learning, memory and problem solving in both humans and animals. However, the specificity of gamma to the detailed contents of memory remains largely unknown. We investigated the relationship between learning-induced increased gamma power in the primary auditory cortex (A1) and the strength of memory for acoustic frequency. Adult male rats (n=16) received three days (200 trials each) of pairing a tone (3.66 kHz) with stimulation of the nucleus basalis, which implanted a memory for acoustic frequency as assessed by associatively-induced disruption of ongoing behavior, viz., respiration. Post-training frequency generalization gradients (FGGs) revealed peaks at non-CS frequencies in 11/16 cases, likely reflecting normal variation in pre-training acoustic experiences. A stronger relationship was found between increased gamma power and the frequency with the strongest memory (peak of the difference between individual post- and pre-training FGGs) vs. behavioral responses to the CS training frequency. No such relationship was found for the theta/alpha band (4-15 Hz). These findings indicate that the strength of specific increased neuronal synchronization within primary sensory cortical fields can determine the specific contents of memory. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The dynamics of competitive activity performance of the strongest athletes in the world during the Olympic year

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabin Muhammad Fahmi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper scrutinizes the annual dynamics of competitive activity performance of prize winners in track and field of the Games of the XXXI Olympiad in Rio de Janeiro. The studies performed allow to identify two basic strategies of participation of elite athletes in the competitions. The first implies a strong focus on achieving the best results in major competitions of the year. It is used by most of the strongest athletes in the world. The second focuses the athlete on the effective combination of competitive activity in major competitions of the year (the Olympics and World Championships and in the Diamond League. As shown by the experience of the best sports practice, only a limited number of athletes manage to implement the latter strategy. The methodological approaches to planning competitive activity during the year are identified. The first involves the rational allocation of the optimal number of competitions throughout the year, the second focuses on preparatory competitive activities of a fairly high intensity, and the third involves the use of a small number of competitions in the system of annual training.

  12. The 100 strongest radio point sources in the field of the Large Magellanic Cloud at 1.4 GHz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Payne J.L.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the 100 strongest 1.4 GHz point sources from a new mosaic image in the direction of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC. The observations making up the mosaic were made using Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA over a ten year period and were combined with Parkes single dish data at 1.4 GHz to complete the image for short spacing. An initial list of co-identifications within 1000 at 0.843, 4.8 and 8.6 GHz consisted of 2682 sources. Elimination of extended objects and artifact noise allowed the creation of a refined list containing 1988 point sources. Most of these are presumed to be background objects seen through the LMC; a small portion may represent compact H ii regions, young SNRs and radio planetary nebulae. For the 1988 point sources we find a preliminary average spectral index (α of -0.53 and present a 1.4 GHz image showing source location in the direction of the LMC.

  13. The 100 Strongest Radio Point Sources in the Field of the Large Magellanic Cloud at 1.4 GHz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Payne, J. L.

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available We present the 100 strongest 1.4~GHz point sources from a new mosaicimage in the direction of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC. The observationsmaking up the mosaic were made using Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCAover a ten year period and were combined with Parkes single dish data at 1.4 GHz to complete the image for short spacing. An initial list of co-identifications within 10arcsec at 0.843, 4.8 and 8.6 GHz consisted of 2682 sources. Elimination of extended objects and artifact noise allowed the creation of a refined list containing 1988 point sources. Most of these are presumed to be background objects seen through the LMC; a small portion may represent compact HII regions, young SNRs and radio planetary nebulae. For the 1988 point sources we find a preliminary average spectral index ($alpha$ of -0.53 and present a 1.4 GHz image showing source locationin the direction of the LMC.

  14. Muscle quality and relative adiposity are the strongest predictors of lower-extremity physical function in older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straight, Chad R; Brady, Anne O; Evans, Ellen M

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the relative contributions of physical activity, adiposity, lean mass and muscle quality to lower-extremity physical function (LEPF) in older women. Cross-sectional analysis at a university research laboratory. Community-dwelling older women (n=96, 73.9 ± 5.6 years, BMI=26.5 ± 4.7 kg/m(2)) were assessed for body composition via dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, leg extension power using the Nottingham power rig, muscle quality (W/kg) as the ratio of leg extension power (W) to lower-body mineral free lean mass (kg) and moderate-intensity physical activity via questionnaire. A composite measure of LEPF was calculated by summing Z-scores of the 6-min walk, 8-foot up-and-go and 30-s chair stand tests. Muscle quality and physical activity were associated with all measures of LEPF (all p0.05). Hierarchical linear regression analyses revealed that muscle quality (standardized β=0.47, pquality and relative adiposity are the strongest independent predictors of LEPF in older women. These findings suggest that maintaining muscle quality, especially relative to adiposity, may be a critical target for interventions to prevent declines in physical function in older women. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Evidence for the strongest version of the 4d a-theorem via a-maximization along RG flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, Edwin; Intriligator, Ken; Wecht, Brian; Wright, Jason

    2004-01-01

    In earlier work, we (KI and BW) gave a two line 'almost proof' (for supersymmetric RG flows) of the weakest form of the conjectured 4d a-theorem, that aIRaUV, using our result that the exact superconformal R-symmetry of 4d SCFTs maximizes a=3TrR3-TrR. The proof was incomplete because of two identified loopholes: theories with accidental symmetries, and the fact that it is only a local maximum of a. Here we discuss and extend a proposal of Kutasov (which helps close the latter loophole) in which a-maximization is generalized away from the endpoints of the RG flow, with Lagrange multipliers that are conjectured to be identified with the running coupling constants. a-maximization then yields a monotonically decreasing 'a-function' along the RG flow to the IR. As we discuss, this proposal in fact suggests the strongest version of the a-theorem: that 4d RG flows are gradient flows of an a-function, with positive-definite metric. In the perturbative limit, the RG flow metric thus obtained is shown to agree precisely with that found by very different computations by Osborn and collaborators. As examples, we discuss a new class of 4d SCFTs, along with their dual descriptions and IR phases, obtained from SQCD by coupling some of the flavors to added singlets

  16. The Strongest Acceleration of >40 keV Electrons by ICME-driven Shocks at 1 au

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Liu; Wang, Linghua; Li, Gang; Wimmer-Schweingruber, Robert F.; He, Jiansen; Tu, Chuanyi; Tian, Hui; Bale, Stuart D.

    2018-01-01

    We present two case studies of the in-situ electron acceleration during the 2000 February 11 shock and the 2004 July 22 shock, with the strongest electron flux enhancement at 40 keV across the shock, among all the quasi-perpendicular and quasi-parallel ICME-driven shocks observed by the WIND 3DP instrument from 1995 through 2014 at 1 au. We find that for this quasi-perpendicular (quasi-parallel) shock on 2000 February 11 (2004 July 22), the shocked electron differential fluxes at ∼0.4–50 keV in the downstream generally fit well to a double-power-law spectrum, J ∼ E ‑β , with an index of β ∼ 3.15 (4.0) at energies below a break at ∼3 keV (∼1 keV) and β ∼ 2.65 (2.6) at energies above. For both shock events, the downstream electron spectral indices appear to be similar for all pitch angles, which are significantly larger than the index prediction by diffusive shock acceleration. In addition, the downstream electron pitch-angle distributions show the anisotropic beams in the anti-sunward-traveling direction, while the ratio of the downstream over ambient fluxes appears to peak near 90° pitch angles, at all energies of ∼0.4–50 keV. These results suggest that in both shocks, shock drift acceleration likely plays an important role in accelerating electrons in situ at 1 au. Such ICME-driven shocks could contribute to the formation of solar wind halo electrons at energies ≲2 keV, as well as the production of solar wind superhalo electrons at energies ≳2 keV in interplanetary space.

  17. Negative ... concord?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giannakidou, A

    The main claim of this paper is that a general theory of negative concord (NC) should allow for the possibility of NC involving scoping of a universal quantifier above negation. I propose that Greek NC instantiates this option. Greek n-words will be analyzed as polarity sensitive universal

  18. Decreased plasma DEK Oncogene Levels Correlate with p16-Negative Disease and Advanced Tumor Stage in a Case–Control Study of Patients with Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trisha Wise-Draper

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Head and neck cancer (HNC remains the sixth most common malignancy worldwide and survival upon recurrence and/or metastasis remains poor. HNSCC has traditionally been associated with alcohol and nicotine use, but more recently the Human Papilloma Virus (HPV has emerged as a favorable prognostic risk factor for oropharyngeal HNSCC. However, further stratification with additional biomarkers to predict patient outcome continues to be essential. One candidate biomarker is the DEK oncogenic protein, which was previously detected in the urine of patients with bladder cancer and is known to be secreted by immune cells such as macrophages. Here, we investigated if DEK could be detected in human plasma and if DEK levels correlated with clinical and pathological variables of HNSCC. Plasma was separated from the peripheral blood of newly diagnosed, untreated HNSCC patients or age-matched normal healthy controls and analyzed for DEK protein using ELISA. Plasma concentrations of DEK protein were lower in p16-negative tumors compared to both normal controls and patients with p16-positive tumors. Patients with lower plasma concentrations of DEK were also more likely to have late stage tumors and a lower white blood cell count. Contrary to previously published work demonstrating a poor prognosis with high intratumoral DEK levels, we show for the first time that decreased concentrations of DEK in patient plasma correlates with poor prognostic factors, including HPV-negative status as determined by negative p16 expression and advanced tumor stage.

  19. CTCF-KDM4A complex correlates with histone modifications that negatively regulate CHD5 gene expression in cancer cell lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra-Calderas, Lissania; González-Barrios, Rodrigo; Patiño, Carlos César; Alcaraz, Nicolás; Salgado-Albarrán, Marisol; de León, David Cantú; Hernández, Clementina Castro; Sánchez-Pérez, Yesennia; Maldonado-Martínez, Héctor Aquiles; De la Rosa-Velazquez, Inti A.; Vargas-Romero, Fernanda; Herrera, Luis A.; García-Carrancá, Alejandro; Soto-Reyes, Ernesto

    2018-01-01

    Histone demethylase KDM4A is involved in H3K9me3 and H3K36me3 demethylation, which are epigenetic modifications associated with gene silencing and RNA Polymerase II elongation, respectively. KDM4A is abnormally expressed in cancer, affecting the expression of multiple targets, such as the CHD5 gene. This enzyme localizes at the first intron of CHD5, and the dissociation of KDM4A increases gene expression. In vitro assays showed that KDM4A-mediated demethylation is enhanced in the presence of CTCF, suggesting that CTCF could increase its enzymatic activity in vivo, however the specific mechanism by which CTCF and KDM4A might be involved in the CHD5 gene repression is poorly understood. Here, we show that CTCF and KDM4A form a protein complex, which is recruited into the first intron of CHD5. This is related to a decrease in H3K36me3/2 histone marks and is associated with its transcriptional downregulation. Depletion of CTCF or KDM4A by siRNA, triggered the reactivation of CHD5 expression, suggesting that both proteins are involved in the negative regulation of this gene. Furthermore, the knockout of KDM4A restored the CHD5 expression and H3K36me3 and H3K36me2 histone marks. Such mechanism acts independently of CHD5 promoter DNA methylation. Our findings support a novel mechanism of epigenetic repression at the gene body that does not involve promoter silencing. PMID:29682202

  20. The 9.2 ka event in Asian summer monsoon area: the strongest millennial scale collapse of the monsoon during the Holocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenchao; Yan, Hong; Dodson, John; Cheng, Peng; Liu, Chengcheng; Li, Jianyong; Lu, Fengyan; Zhou, Weijian; An, Zhisheng

    2018-04-01

    Numerous Holocene paleo-proxy records exhibit a series of centennial-millennial scale rapid climatic events. Unlike the widely acknowledged 8.2 ka climate anomaly, the likelihood of a significant climate excursion at around 9.2 cal ka BP, which has been notably recognized in some studies, remains to be fully clarified in terms of its magnitude and intensity, as well as its characteristics and spatial distributions in a range of paleoclimatic records. In this study, a peat sediment profile from the Dajiuhu Basin in central China was collected with several geochemical proxies and a pollen analysis carried out to help improve understanding of the climate changes around 9.2 cal ka BP. The results show that the peat development was interrupted abruptly at around 9.2 cal ka BP, when the chemical weathering strength decreased and the tree-pollen declined. This suggests that a strong drier regional climatic event occurred at around 9.2 cal ka BP in central China, which was, in turn, probably connected to the rapid 9.2 ka climate event co-developing worldwide. In addition, based on the synthesis of our peat records and the other Holocene hydrological records from Asian summer monsoon (ASM) region, we further found that the 9.2 ka event probably constituted the strongest abrupt collapse of the Asian monsoon system during the full Holocene interval. The correlations between ASM and the atmospheric 14C production rate, the North Atlantic drift ice records and Greenland temperature indicated that the weakened ASM event at around 9.2 cal ka BP could be interpreted by the co-influence of external and internal factors, related to the changes of the solar activity and the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC).

  1. The 9.2 ka event in Asian summer monsoon area: the strongest millennial scale collapse of the monsoon during the Holocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenchao; Yan, Hong; Dodson, John; Cheng, Peng; Liu, Chengcheng; Li, Jianyong; Lu, Fengyan; Zhou, Weijian; An, Zhisheng

    2017-06-01

    Numerous Holocene paleo-proxy records exhibit a series of centennial-millennial scale rapid climatic events. Unlike the widely acknowledged 8.2 ka climate anomaly, the likelihood of a significant climate excursion at around 9.2 cal ka BP, which has been notably recognized in some studies, remains to be fully clarified in terms of its magnitude and intensity, as well as its characteristics and spatial distributions in a range of paleoclimatic records. In this study, a peat sediment profile from the Dajiuhu Basin in central China was collected with several geochemical proxies and a pollen analysis carried out to help improve understanding of the climate changes around 9.2 cal ka BP. The results show that the peat development was interrupted abruptly at around 9.2 cal ka BP, when the chemical weathering strength decreased and the tree-pollen declined. This suggests that a strong drier regional climatic event occurred at around 9.2 cal ka BP in central China, which was, in turn, probably connected to the rapid 9.2 ka climate event co-developing worldwide. In addition, based on the synthesis of our peat records and the other Holocene hydrological records from Asian summer monsoon (ASM) region, we further found that the 9.2 ka event probably constituted the strongest abrupt collapse of the Asian monsoon system during the full Holocene interval. The correlations between ASM and the atmospheric 14C production rate, the North Atlantic drift ice records and Greenland temperature indicated that the weakened ASM event at around 9.2 cal ka BP could be interpreted by the co-influence of external and internal factors, related to the changes of the solar activity and the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC).

  2. Variation in attraction to host plant odors in an invasive moth has a genetic basis and is genetically negatively correlated with fecundity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najar-Rodriguez, A; Schneeberger, M; Bellutti, N; Dorn, S

    2012-07-01

    Lepidopteran insects are major pests of agricultural crops, and mated female moths exploit plant volatiles to locate suitable hosts for oviposition. We investigated the heritability of odor-guided host location behavior and fecundity in the cosmopolitan oriental fruit moth Grapholita (Cydia) molesta, an oligophagous herbivore that attacks fruit trees. We used a full-sib/half-sib approach to estimate the heritability and the genetic correlation between these two traits. Results document a considerable genetic basis for olfactory attraction of females (h ( 2 ) = 0.37 ± 0.17) and their fecundity (h ( 2 ) = 0.32 ± 0.13), as well as a genetic trade-off between female attraction and fecundity (r ( g ) = -0.85 ± 0.21). These estimations were empirically corroborated by comparing two strains maintained in the laboratory for different numbers of generations. The long-term reared strain lost its olfactory discrimination ability but achieved significantly higher fecundity compared with the short-term reared strain. Our results highlight that genetic studies are relevant for understanding the evolution of odor-guided behavior in herbivore insects and for judging the promise of pest management strategies involving behavioral manipulation with plant volatiles.

  3. The Long Intron 1 of Growth Hormone Gene from Reeves' Turtle (Chinemys reevesii) Correlates with Negatively Regulated GH Expression in Four Cell Lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wen-Sheng; Ma, Jing-E; Li, Wei-Xia; Zhang, Jin-Ge; Wang, Juan; Nie, Qing-Hua; Qiu, Feng-Fang; Fang, Mei-Xia; Zeng, Fang; Wang, Xing; Lin, Xi-Ran; Zhang, Li; Chen, Shao-Hao; Zhang, Xi-Quan

    2016-04-12

    Turtles grow slowly and have a long lifespan. Ultrastructural studies of the pituitary gland in Reeves' turtle (Chinemys reevesii) have revealed that the species possesses a higher nucleoplasmic ratio and fewer secretory granules in growth hormone (GH) cells than other animal species in summer and winter. C. reevesii GH gene was cloned and species-specific similarities and differences were investigated. The full GH gene sequence in C. reevesii contains 8517 base pairs (bp), comprising five exons and four introns. Intron 1 was found to be much longer in C. reevesii than in other species. The coding sequence (CDS) of the turtle's GH gene, with and without the inclusion of intron 1, was transfected into four cell lines, including DF-1 chicken embryo fibroblasts, Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, human embryonic kidney 293FT cells, and GH4C1 rat pituitary cells; the turtle growth hormone (tGH) gene mRNA and protein expression levels decreased significantly in the intron-containing CDS in these cell lines, compared with that of the corresponding intronless CDS. Thus, the long intron 1 of GH gene in Reeves' turtle might correlate with downregulated gene expression.

  4. Glycogen synthase kinase-3beta (GSK3beta) negatively regulates PTTG1/human securin protein stability, and GSK3beta inactivation correlates with securin accumulation in breast tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora-Santos, Mar; Limón-Mortés, M Cristina; Giráldez, Servando; Herrero-Ruiz, Joaquín; Sáez, Carmen; Japón, Miguel Á; Tortolero, Maria; Romero, Francisco

    2011-08-26

    PTTG1, also known as securin, is an inactivating partner of separase, the major effector for chromosome segregation during mitosis. At the metaphase-to-anaphase transition, securin is targeted for proteasomal destruction by the anaphase-promoting complex or cyclosome, allowing activation of separase. In addition, securin is overexpressed in metastatic or genomically instable tumors, suggesting a relevant role for securin in tumor progression. Stability of securin is regulated by phosphorylation; some phosphorylated forms are degraded out of mitosis, by the action of the SKP1-CUL1-F-box protein (SCF) complex. The kinases targeting securin for proteolysis have not been identified, and mechanistic insight into the cause of securin accumulation in human cancers is lacking. Here, we demonstrate that glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK3β) phosphorylates securin to promote its proteolysis via SCF(βTrCP) E3 ubiquitin ligase. Importantly, a strong correlation between securin accumulation and GSK3β inactivation was observed in breast cancer tissues, indicating that GSK3β inactivation may account for securin accumulation in breast cancers.

  5. The Long Intron 1 of Growth Hormone Gene from Reeves’ Turtle (Chinemys reevesii Correlates with Negatively Regulated GH Expression in Four Cell Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Sheng Liu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Turtles grow slowly and have a long lifespan. Ultrastructural studies of the pituitary gland in Reeves’ turtle (Chinemys reevesii have revealed that the species possesses a higher nucleoplasmic ratio and fewer secretory granules in growth hormone (GH cells than other animal species in summer and winter. C. reevesii GH gene was cloned and species-specific similarities and differences were investigated. The full GH gene sequence in C. reevesii contains 8517 base pairs (bp, comprising five exons and four introns. Intron 1 was found to be much longer in C. reevesii than in other species. The coding sequence (CDS of the turtle’s GH gene, with and without the inclusion of intron 1, was transfected into four cell lines, including DF-1 chicken embryo fibroblasts, Chinese hamster ovary (CHO cells, human embryonic kidney 293FT cells, and GH4C1 rat pituitary cells; the turtle growth hormone (tGH gene mRNA and protein expression levels decreased significantly in the intron-containing CDS in these cell lines, compared with that of the corresponding intronless CDS. Thus, the long intron 1 of GH gene in Reeves’ turtle might correlate with downregulated gene expression.

  6. Identifying a size-specific hazard of silica nanoparticles after intravenous administration and its relationship to the other hazards that have negative correlations with the particle size in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handa, Takayuki; Hirai, Toshiro; Izumi, Natsumi; Eto, Shun-ichi; Tsunoda, Shin-ichi; Nagano, Kazuya; Higashisaka, Kazuma; Yoshioka, Yasuo; Tsutsumi, Yasuo

    2017-03-01

    Many of the beneficial and toxic biological effects of nanoparticles have been shown to have a negative correlation with particle size. However, few studies have demonstrated biological effects that only occur at specific nanoparticle sizes. Further elucidation of the size-specific biological effects of nanoparticles may reveal not only unknown toxicities, but also novel benefits of nanoparticles. We used surface-unmodified silica particles with a wide range of diameters and narrow size intervals between the diameters (10, 30, 50, 70, 100, 300, and 1000 nm) to investigate the relationship between particle size and acute toxicity after intravenous administration in mice. Negative correlations between particle size and thrombocytopenia, liver damage, and lethal toxicity were observed. However, a specific size-effect was observed for the severity of hypothermia, where silica nanoparticles with a diameter of 50 nm induced the most severe hypothermia. Further investigation revealed that this hypothermia was mediated not by histamine, but by platelet-activating factor, and it was independent of the thrombocytopenia and the liver damage. In addition, macrophages/Kupffer cells and platelets, but not neutrophils, play a critical role in the hypothermia. The present results reveal that silica nanoparticles have particle size-specific toxicity in mice, suggesting that other types of nanoparticles may also have biological effects that only manifest at specific particle sizes. Further study of the size-specific effects of nanoparticles is essential for safer and more effective nanomedicines.

  7. Double positivity for HPV-DNA/p16ink4ais the biomarker with strongest diagnostic accuracy and prognostic value for human papillomavirus related oropharyngeal cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mena, Marisa; Taberna, Miren; Tous, Sara; Marquez, Sandra; Clavero, Omar; Quiros, Beatriz; Lloveras, Belen; Alejo, Maria; Leon, Xavier; Quer, Miquel; Bagué, Silvia; Mesia, Ricard; Nogués, Julio; Gomà, Montserrat; Aguila, Anton; Bonfill, Teresa; Blazquez, Carmen; Guix, Marta; Hijano, Rafael; Torres, Montserrat; Holzinger, Dana; Pawlita, Michael; Pavon, Miguel Angel; Bravo, Ignacio G; de Sanjosé, Silvia; Bosch, Francesc Xavier; Alemany, Laia

    2018-03-01

    The etiologic role of human papillomaviruses (HPV) in oropharyngeal cancer (OPC) is well established. Nevertheless, information on survival differences by anatomic sub-site or treatment remains scarce, and it is still unclear the HPV-relatedness definition with best diagnostic accuracy and prognostic value. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of all patients diagnosed with a primary OPC in four Catalonian hospitals from 1990 to 2013. Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded cancer tissues were subjected to histopathological evaluation, DNA quality control, HPV-DNA detection, and p16 INK4a /pRb/p53/Cyclin-D1 immunohistochemistry. HPV-DNA positive and a random sample of HPV-DNA negative cases were subjected to HPV-E6*I mRNA detection. Demographic, tobacco/alcohol use, clinical and follow-up data were collected. Multivariate models were used to evaluate factors associated with HPV positivity as defined by four different HPV-relatedness definitions. Proportional-hazards models were used to compare the risk of death and recurrence among HPV-related and non-related OPC. 788 patients yielded a valid HPV-DNA result. The percentage of positive cases was 10.9%, 10.2%, 8.5% and 7.4% for p16 INK4a , HPV-DNA, HPV-DNA/HPV-E6*I mRNA, and HPV-DNA/p16 INK4a , respectively. Being non-smoker or non-drinker was consistently associated across HPV-relatedness definitions with HPV positivity. A suggestion of survival differences between anatomic sub-sites and treatments was observed. Double positivity for HPV-DNA/p16 INK4a showed strongest diagnostic accuracy and prognostic value. Double positivity for HPV-DNA/p16 INK4a , a test that can be easily implemented in the clinical practice, has optimal diagnostic accuracy and prognostic value. Our results have strong clinical implications for patients' classification and handling and also suggest that not all the HPV-related OPC behave similarly. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Heart and/or soul : reality and fiction in the association between the two strongest contributors to the global burden of disease - ischemic heart disease and depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jonge, Peter

    Depression and heart disease are the strongest contributors to the global burden of disease and are often intertwined: depression is a risk factor for heart disease and vice versa. Moreover, depression in patients with established heart disease is associated with cardiovascular disease progression.

  9. 18q loss of heterozygosity in microsatellite stable colorectal cancer is correlated with CpG island methylator phenotype-negative (CIMP-0 and inversely with CIMP-low and CIMP-high

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirkner Gregory J

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: The CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP with widespread promoter methylation is a distinct epigenetic phenotype in colorectal cancer, associated with microsatellite instability-high (MSI-high and BRAF mutations. 18q loss of heterozygosity (LOH commonly present in colorectal cancer with chromosomal instability (CIN is associated with global hypomethylation in tumor cell. A recent study has shown an inverse correlation between CIN and CIMP (determined by MINTs, p16, p14 and MLH1 methylation in colorectal cancer. However, no study has examined 18q LOH in relation to CIMP-high, CIMP-low (less extensive promoter methylation and CIMP-0 (CIMP-negative, determined by quantitative DNA methylation analysis. Methods: Utilizing MethyLight technology (real-time PCR, we quantified DNA methylation in 8 CIMP-specific promoters {CACNA1G, CDKN2A (p16, CRABP1, IGF2, MLH1, NEUROG1, RUNX3 and SOCS1} in 758 non-MSI-high colorectal cancers obtained from two large prospective cohorts. Using four 18q microsatellite markers (D18S55, D18S56, D18S67 and D18S487 and stringent criteria for 18q LOH, we selected 374 tumors (236 LOH-positive tumors with ≥ 2 markers showing LOH; and 138 LOH-negative tumors with ≥ 3 informative markers and no LOH. Results: CIMP-0 (0/8 methylated promoters was significantly more common in 18q LOH-positive tumors (59% = 139/236, p = 0.002 than 18q LOH-negative tumors (44% = 61/138, while CIMP-low/high (1/8–8/8 methylated promoters was significantly more common (56% in 18q LOH-negative tumors than 18q LOH-positive tumors (41%. These relations persisted after stratification by sex, location, or the status of MSI, p53 expression (by immunohistochemistry, or KRAS/BRAF mutation. Conclusion: 18q LOH is correlated positively with CIMP-0 and inversely with CIMP-low and CIMP-high. Our findings provide supporting evidence for relationship between CIMP-0 and 18q LOH as well as a molecular difference between CIMP-0 and CIMP-low in

  10. Performance-based interpretation bias in clinically anxious youths: relationships with attention, anxiety, and negative cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozenman, Michelle; Amir, Nader; Weersing, V Robin

    2014-09-01

    This preliminary investigation sought to examine basic interpretive biases, as assessed via performance-based means, in the context of anxious symptomatology, attention, and negative cognition in children and adolescents. At a single assessment, 26 youths diagnosed with primary separation anxiety, social phobia, or generalized anxiety disorder completed performance-based assessments of interpretation and attention. Youths and parents also completed diagnostic interviews and youths completed a measure of negative self-statements. Components of interpretation (threat-valence judgments and speed of responding) were examined, and interpretation was explored as a correlate of youth anxiety, attention bias, and negative self-statements. Results found percentage of negative interpretations endorsed as the strongest predictor of anxiety symptoms; this index was also correlated with attention bias. Slower rejection of benign interpretations was also associated with youth-reported negative self-statements.This initial investigation provides support for a relationship between interpretation bias and anxiety and preliminary evidence for a relationship between attention and interpretation biases. Continued research dismantling the stages of basic cognition within the chain of information processing may provide a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying anxiety disorders in youths and lead to continued development and refinement of cognitive interventions. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Usability Testing of Guided Internet-based Parent Training for Challenging Behavior in Children with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (Strongest Families FASD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hundert, Amos S; Huguet, Anna; Green, Courtney R; Hewitt, Amy J; Mushquash, Christopher J; Muhajarine, Nazeem; Sourander, Andre; Caughey, Heather; Lingley-Pottie, Patricia; McGrath, Patrick J; Reynolds, James N

    2016-01-01

    In order to meet the need for accessible interventions and support for families affected by fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD), we have developed an Internet-based, distance intervention for caregivers of children with FASD between the ages of four and twelve, called Strongest Families™ FASD. To evaluate the usability of the Strongest Families FASD program content and website in terms of learnability, efficiency and acceptability. A remote usability testing approach was conducted in two iterative cycles of participants. Synchronous online usability testing sessions were conducted, followed by asynchronous testing. A total of 18 participants were included, comprised of both health care professionals with expertise in FASD and caregivers of children with FASD. The data collected in each cycle was examined for commonalities and results were used to inform changes to the website and content after each cycle. Participants rated the website as appealing and relatively easy and fast to use. Nevertheless, several usability problems were identified such as difficulty navigating between sections of content on the website, displaying too much content per page, and the relevance and appropriateness of the content as it related to FASD. The identification of usability problems was an important step in refining the Strongest Families FASD program before its effectiveness is evaluated in a randomized controlled trial.

  12. Third generation cephalosporin resistant Enterobacteriaceae and multidrug resistant gram-negative bacteria causing bacteremia in febrile neutropenia adult cancer patients in Lebanon, broad spectrum antibiotics use as a major risk factor, and correlation with poor prognosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rima eMoghnieh

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Bacteremia remains a major cause of life-threatening complications in patients receiving anticancer chemotherapy. The spectrum and susceptibility profiles of causative microorganisms differ with time and place. Data from Lebanon are scarce. We aim at evaluating the epidemiology of bacteremia in cancer patients in a university hospital in Lebanon, emphasizing antibiotic resistance and risk factors of multi-drug resistant organism (MDRO-associated bacteremia.This is a retrospective study of 75 episodes of bacteremia occurring in febrile neutropenic patients admitted to the hematology-oncology unit at Makassed General Hospital, Lebanon, from October 2009-January 2012.It corresponds to epidemiological data on bacteremia episodes in febrile neutropenic cancer patients including antimicrobial resistance and identification of risk factors associated with third generation cephalosporin resistance (3GCR and MDRO-associated bacteremia. Out of 75 bacteremias, 42.7% were gram-positive (GP, and 57.3% were gram-negative (GN. GP bacteremias were mostly due to methicillin-resistant coagulase negative staphylococci (28% of total bacteremias and 66% of GP bacteremias. Among the GN bacteremias, Escherichia coli (22.7% of total, 39.5% of GN organisms and Klebsiellapneumoniae(13.3% of total, 23.3% of GN organisms were the most important causative agents. GN bacteremia due to 3GC sensitive (3GCS bacteria represented 28% of total bacteremias, while 29% were due to 3GCR bacteria and 9% were due to carbapenem-resistant organisms. There was a significant correlation between bacteremia with MDRO and subsequent intubation, sepsis and mortality. Among potential risk factors, only broad spectrum antibiotic intake >4 days before bacteremia was found to be statistically significant for acquisition of 3GCR bacteria. Using carbapenems or piperacillin/ tazobactam>4 days before bacteremia was significantly associated with the emergence of MDRO (p value<0.05.

  13. Water use efficiency and shoot biomass production under water limitation is negatively correlated to the discrimination against13C in the C3grasses Dactylis glomerata, Festuca arundinacea and Phalaris arundinacea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mårtensson, Linda-Maria; Carlsson, Georg; Prade, Thomas; Kørup, Kirsten; Lærke, Poul Erik; Jensen, Erik Steen

    2017-04-01

    Climate change impacts rainfall patterns which may lead to drought stress in rain-fed agricultural systems. Crops with higher drought tolerance are required on marginal land with low precipitation or on soils with low water retention used for biomass production. It is essential to obtain plant breeding tools, which can identify genotypes with improved drought tolerance and water use efficiency (WUE). In C 3 plant species, the variation in discrimination against 13 C (Δ 13 C) during photosynthesis has been shown to be a potential indicator for WUE, where discrimination against 13 C and WUE were negatively correlated. The aim of this study was to determine the variation in the discrimination against 13 C between species and cultivars of three perennial C 3 grasses (Dactylis glomerata (cocksfoot), Festuca arundinacea (tall fescue) and Phalaris arundinacea (reed canary grass)) and test the relationships between discrimination against 13 C, season-long water use WUE B , shoot and root biomass production in plants grown under well-watered and water-limited conditions. The grasses were grown in the greenhouse and exposed to two irrigation regimes, which corresponded to 25% and 60% water holding capacity, respectively. We found negative relationships between discrimination against 13 C and WUE B and between discrimination against 13 C and shoot biomass production, under both the well-watered and water-limited growth conditions (p biomass production, where the cocksfoot cultivars showed lowest and the reed canary grass cultivars highest values of discrimination against 13 C. Cocksfoot cultivars also showed highest WUE B , shoot biomass production and potential tolerance to water limitation. We conclude that discrimination against 13 C appears to be a useful indicator, when selecting C 3 grass crops for biomass production under drought conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Strongest magnet in the cosmos

    CERN Document Server

    Zane, S

    2003-01-01

    In November 1996 a NASA satellite called the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) was monitoring a rare type of pulsar some 40 000 light-years from Earth. The star, called SGR 1806-20, is one of just four known 'soft gamma repeaters' - rotating neutron stars that periodically emit huge bursts of gamma rays. Now an international team of astrophysicists studying the RXTE data has found evidence for what is known as a magnetar - the most magnetic object in the universe. (U.K.)

  15. Comparison of TiO2 and ZnO nanoparticles for photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue and the correlated inactivation of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, Robert J.; Molina, Rodrigo; Xu Jianbin; Dobson, Peter J.; Thompson, Ian P.

    2013-01-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) and zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles are important photocatalysts and as such have been extensively studied for the removal of organic compounds from contaminated air and water and for microbial disinfection. Despite much research on the effect of TiO 2 and ZnO nanoparticles on different bacterial species, uncertainties remain about which bacteria are more sensitive to these compounds. Very few studies have directly compared the toxicity of ZnO to TiO 2 under both light and dark conditions. In addition, authors investigating the photocatalytic inactivation of TiO 2 and ZnO nanoparticles on bacteria have failed to investigate the reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation of the nanoparticles, making it difficult to correlate killing action with the generation of ROS. In this study, three types of metal nanoparticle (ZnO 2 ) have been characterised and ROS production assessed through the degradation of methylene blue (MB). The photocatalytic killing potential of three nanoparticle concentrations (0.01, 0.1 and 1 g/L) was then assessed on four representative bacteria: two gram-positive (S. aureus and B. subtilis) and two gram-negative (E. coli and P. aeruginosa). Results showed that out of the three nanoparticles tested, the TiO 2 nanoparticles generated more ROS than the ZnO nanoparticles, corresponding to a greater photocatalytic inactivation of three of the four species of bacteria examined. The MB decomposition results correlated well with the bacterial inactivation results with higher TiO 2 nanoparticle concentrations leading to greater ROS production and increased loss of cell viability. Although producing less ROS than the TiO 2 nanoparticles under ultraviolet light, the ZnO nanoparticles were toxic to two of the bacterial species even under dark conditions. In this study, no correlation between cell wall type and bacterial inactivation was observed for any of the nanoparticles tested although both gram-positive bacteria were sensitive to

  16. Comparison of TiO2 and ZnO nanoparticles for photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue and the correlated inactivation of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Robert J.; Molina, Rodrigo; Xu, Jianbin; Dobson, Peter J.; Thompson, Ian P.

    2013-02-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) and zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles are important photocatalysts and as such have been extensively studied for the removal of organic compounds from contaminated air and water and for microbial disinfection. Despite much research on the effect of TiO2 and ZnO nanoparticles on different bacterial species, uncertainties remain about which bacteria are more sensitive to these compounds. Very few studies have directly compared the toxicity of ZnO to TiO2 under both light and dark conditions. In addition, authors investigating the photocatalytic inactivation of TiO2 and ZnO nanoparticles on bacteria have failed to investigate the reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation of the nanoparticles, making it difficult to correlate killing action with the generation of ROS. In this study, three types of metal nanoparticle (ZnO killing potential of three nanoparticle concentrations (0.01, 0.1 and 1 g/L) was then assessed on four representative bacteria: two gram-positive ( S. aureus and B. subtilis) and two gram-negative ( E. coli and P. aeruginosa). Results showed that out of the three nanoparticles tested, the TiO2 nanoparticles generated more ROS than the ZnO nanoparticles, corresponding to a greater photocatalytic inactivation of three of the four species of bacteria examined. The MB decomposition results correlated well with the bacterial inactivation results with higher TiO2 nanoparticle concentrations leading to greater ROS production and increased loss of cell viability. Although producing less ROS than the TiO2 nanoparticles under ultraviolet light, the ZnO nanoparticles were toxic to two of the bacterial species even under dark conditions. In this study, no correlation between cell wall type and bacterial inactivation was observed for any of the nanoparticles tested although both gram-positive bacteria were sensitive to ROS production. P. aeruginosa cells were resistant to all types of treatment and highlight a potential limitation to the

  17. Third generation cephalosporin resistant Enterobacteriaceae and multidrug resistant gram-negative bacteria causing bacteremia in febrile neutropenia adult cancer patients in Lebanon, broad spectrum antibiotics use as a major risk factor, and correlation with poor prognosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghnieh, Rima; Estaitieh, Nour; Mugharbil, Anas; Jisr, Tamima; Abdallah, Dania I; Ziade, Fouad; Sinno, Loubna; Ibrahim, Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    Bacteremia remains a major cause of life-threatening complications in patients receiving anticancer chemotherapy. The spectrum and susceptibility profiles of causative microorganisms differ with time and place. Data from Lebanon are scarce. We aim at evaluating the epidemiology of bacteremia in cancer patients in a university hospital in Lebanon, emphasizing antibiotic resistance and risk factors of multi-drug resistant organism (MDRO)-associated bacteremia. This is a retrospective study of 75 episodes of bacteremia occurring in febrile neutropenic patients admitted to the hematology-oncology unit at Makassed General Hospital, Lebanon, from October 2009-January 2012. It corresponds to epidemiological data on bacteremia episodes in febrile neutropenic cancer patients including antimicrobial resistance and identification of risk factors associated with third generation cephalosporin resistance (3GCR) and MDRO-associated bacteremia. Out of 75 bacteremias, 42.7% were gram-positive (GP), and 57.3% were gram-negative (GN). GP bacteremias were mostly due to methicillin-resistant coagulase negative staphylococci (28% of total bacteremias and 66% of GP bacteremias). Among the GN bacteremias, Escherichia coli (22.7% of total, 39.5% of GN organisms) and Klebsiella pneumoniae(13.3% of total, 23.3% of GN organisms) were the most important causative agents. GN bacteremia due to 3GC sensitive (3GCS) bacteria represented 28% of total bacteremias, while 29% were due to 3GCR bacteria and 9% were due to carbapenem-resistant organisms. There was a significant correlation between bacteremia with MDRO and subsequent intubation, sepsis and mortality. Among potential risk factors, only broad spectrum antibiotic intake >4 days before bacteremia was found to be statistically significant for acquisition of 3GCR bacteria. Using carbapenems or piperacillin/tazobactam>4 days before bacteremia was significantly associated with the emergence of MDRO (p < 0.05). Our findings have major

  18. Correlates of walking to school and implications for public policies: survey results from parents of elementary school children in Austin, Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xuemei; Lee, Chanam

    2009-01-01

    Walking can be a healthy, sustainable, and equitable mode of transportation, but is not widely used for children's school travel. This study identifies multi-level correlates of walking to/from school and relevant policy implications. We surveyed parents/guardians of 2,695 students from 19 elementary schools in Austin, Texas, which featured diverse sociodemographic and environmental characteristics. Among the personal and social factors, negative correlates were parents' education, car ownership, personal barriers, and school bus availability; positive correlates were parents' and children's positive attitude and regular walking behavior, and supportive peer influences. Of physical environmental factors, the strongest negative correlates were distance and safety concerns, followed by the presence of highways/freeways, convenience stores, office buildings, and bus stops en route. Our findings suggest that society should give high priority to lower socioeconomic status populations and to multi-agency policy interventions that facilitate environmental changes, safety improvements, and educational programs targeting both parents and children.

  19. Correlations and functional connections in a population of grid cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Benjamin; Mørreaunet, Maria; Roudi, Yasser

    2015-02-01

    We study the statistics of spike trains of simultaneously recorded grid cells in freely behaving rats. We evaluate pairwise correlations between these cells and, using a maximum entropy kinetic pairwise model (kinetic Ising model), study their functional connectivity. Even when we account for the covariations in firing rates due to overlapping fields, both the pairwise correlations and functional connections decay as a function of the shortest distance between the vertices of the spatial firing pattern of pairs of grid cells, i.e. their phase difference. They take positive values between cells with nearby phases and approach zero or negative values for larger phase differences. We find similar results also when, in addition to correlations due to overlapping fields, we account for correlations due to theta oscillations and head directional inputs. The inferred connections between neurons in the same module and those from different modules can be both negative and positive, with a mean close to zero, but with the strongest inferred connections found between cells of the same module. Taken together, our results suggest that grid cells in the same module do indeed form a local network of interconnected neurons with a functional connectivity that supports a role for attractor dynamics in the generation of grid pattern.

  20. Global alteration of the drug-binding pocket of human P-glycoprotein (ABCB1) by substitution of fifteen conserved residues reveals a negative correlation between substrate size and transport efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahedi, Shahrooz; Chufan, Eduardo E; Ambudkar, Suresh V

    2017-11-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp), an ATP-dependent efflux pump, is linked to the development of multidrug resistance in cancer cells. However, the drug-binding sites and translocation pathways of this transporter are not yet well-characterized. We recently demonstrated the important role of tyrosine residues in regulating P-gp ATP hydrolysis via hydrogen bond formations with high affinity modulators. Since tyrosine is both a hydrogen bond donor and acceptor, and non-covalent interactions are key in drug transport, in this study we investigated the global effect of enrichment of tyrosine residues in the drug-binding pocket on the drug binding and transport function of P-gp. By employing computational analysis, 15 conserved residues in the drug-binding pocket of human P-gp that interact with substrates were identified and then substituted with tyrosine, including 11 phenylalanine (F72, F303, F314, F336, F732, F759, F770, F938, F942, F983, F994), two leucine (L339, L975), one isoleucine (I306), and one methionine (M949). Characterization of the tyrosine-rich P-gp mutant in HeLa cells demonstrated that this major alteration in the drug-binding pocket by introducing fifteen additional tyrosine residues is well tolerated and has no measurable effect on total or cell surface expression of this mutant. Although the tyrosine-enriched mutant P-gp could transport small to moderate size (transport large (>1000 Daltons) substrates such as NBD-cyclosporine A, Bodipy-paclitaxel and Bodipy-vinblastine was significantly decreased. This was further supported by the physico-chemical characterization of seventeen tested substrates, which revealed a negative correlation between drug transport and molecular size for the tyrosine-enriched P-gp mutant. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Negative Attitudes, Network and Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennett, Patrick; la Cour, Lisbeth; Larsen, Birthe

    use Danish register data to find a signficant positive correlation between negative attitudes towards immigrants and high school attendance and find a positive impact of networking on high school attendance. In both the macro and the micro-econometric analysis we run the same regressions for natives......We consider the impact of negative attitudes against immigrants and immigration on educational choice in a search and wage bargaining model including networking. We consider two cases in terms of the importance of negative attitudes againts immigrants for high and low educated individuals and find...... that more negative attitudes against immigrants has a positive impact on education in one case and a negative impact in the other and has no impact on natives. Immigration improves employment perspectives for immigrants and thereby increases immigrant education whereas endogenous negative attitudes lead...

  2. Built environmental correlates of physical activity in China: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Kristen

    2016-06-01

    China faces growing levels of physical inactivity and obesity, associated with increasing urbanization and changing lifestyles in recent years. China is expanding its cities to accommodate a growing urban population. This paper identifies built environment factors that are associated with physical activity in China. Findings can inform urban design and development in China to support increased physical activity. This paper is modeled on a review of built environment correlates of walking by Saelens and Handy (2008). Saelens and Handy reviewed research in developed countries. The present paper reviews 42 empirical studies that were conducted in China and were published between 2006 and 2014. Results discuss the association of built environment features and physical activity for transportation, recreation and work. Studies focus on adults and on major cities. Data on the built environment is typically self-reported. Strongest evidence was found for the positive association of physical activity with proximal non-residential locations, pedestrian infrastructure, aesthetics, and non-park physical activity facilities, and for the negative association of physical activity with urban residence. In terms of physical activity for transportation, evidence is strongest for associations between physical activity for transportation and proximal non-residential locations. More research is needed on the built environment and physical activity, especially including research on significant features of Chinese cities, such as air pollution, high density levels, traffic safety, and others. Research on associations between built environment features and physical activity should consider the specific social and built environment contexts of Chinese cities.

  3. Correlates of gender and achievement in introductory algebra based physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Rachel Clara

    The field of physics is heavily male dominated in America. Thus, half of the population of our country is underrepresented and underserved. The identification of factors that contribute to gender disparity in physics is necessary for educators to address the individual needs of students, and, in particular, the separate and specific needs of female students. In an effort to determine if any correlations could be established or strengthened between sex, gender identity, social network, algebra skill, scientific reasoning ability, and/or student attitude, a study was performed on a group of 82 students in an introductory algebra based physics course. The subjects each filled out a survey at the beginning of the semester of their first semester of algebra based physics. They filled out another survey at the end of that same semester. These surveys included physics content pretests and posttests, as well as questions about the students' habits, attitudes, and social networks. Correlates of posttest score were identified, in order of significance, as pretest score, emphasis on conceptual learning, preference for male friends, number of siblings (negatively correlated), motivation in physics, algebra score, and parents' combined education level. Number of siblings was also found to negatively correlate with, in order of significance, gender identity, preference for male friends, emphasis on conceptual learning, and motivation in physics. Preference for male friends was found to correlate with, in order of significance, emphasis on conceptual learning, gender identity, and algebra score. Also, gender identity was found to correlate with emphasis on conceptual learning, the strongest predictor of posttest score other than pretest score.

  4. Brief Report: Lopinavir Hair Concentrations Are the Strongest Predictor of Viremia in HIV-Infected Asian Children and Adolescents on Second-Line Antiretroviral Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pintye, Jillian; Bacchetti, Peter; Teeraananchai, Sirinya; Kerr, Stephen; Prasitsuebsai, Wasana; Singtoroj, Thida; Kuncze, Karen; Louie, Alexander; Koss, Catherine A; Jin, Chengshi; Phung, Nhi; Horng, Howard; Sohn, Annette H; Gandhi, Monica

    2017-12-01

    Children/adolescents display suboptimal antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence and outcomes versus adults. Hair ART concentrations are objective adherence measures that predict viremia in adults but longitudinal data on hair levels in pediatric populations is limited. We assessed the predictive utility of hair lopinavir (LPV) levels on viremia among youth on second-line ART. We examined predictors of viremia (HIV-1 RNA >400 and >1000 copies/mL) at least 24 weeks after switch to LPV-based second-line ART in a cohort of HIV-infected Asian children followed between 2011 and 2014. Small hair samples, HIV-1 RNA, and self-reported adherence were collected biannually. Hair concentrations of LPV were measured through liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry using validated methods. Time-to-first viremia was examined using discrete-time Cox models. Overall, 244 children met the inclusion criteria for the present analysis. Approximately half (55%) were boys and the median age 10 years [interquartile range (IQR) 7-13]; 40% were older than 11 years. At switch to second-line ART, median CD4 count was 300 (IQR 146-547) cells/mm and median HIV-RNA level was 5.0 (IQR 4.3-5.6) log10/mL. Median time of study follow-up was 48 weeks and a median of 3 (range 1-5) hair samples were collected from each participant. Adjusting for age, sex, country, self-reported adherence, CD4, and HIV-RNA, higher LPV hair concentrations were the strongest predictor of lower odds of viremia (HIV-RNA >400 copies/mL adjusted odds ratio = 0.41 per doubling in hair concentration, 95% confidence interval: 0.29 to 0.58, P 1000 copies/mL, adjusted odds ratio = 0.54, 95% confidence interval: 0.45 to 0.65, P Hair concentrations predict viremia among children with HIV on second-line ART and could guide clinical decisions for this population.

  5. Tissue distribution and correlation profiles of heavy-metal accumulation in the freshwater crayfish Astacus leptodactylus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunca, Evren; Ucuncu, Esra; Ozkan, Alper Devrim; Ulger, Zeynep Ergul; Tekinay, Turgay

    2013-05-01

    The present work details the analysis of heavy-metal and metalloid concentrations in exoskeleton, gill, hepatopancreas, and abdominal muscle tissues of 60 crayfish (Astacus leptodactylus) specimens collected from Lake Hirfanlı, a dam lake located in Kırşehir (Turkey) with a low metal-contamination profile. Concentrations of 11 metals (aluminum [Al], chromium [Cd], manganese [Mn], cobalt [Co], nickel [Ni], copper [Cu], molybdenum [Mo], silver [Ag], cadmium [Cd], mercury [Hg], and lead [Pb]) and a metalloid (arsenic [As]) were measured by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry, and the relative frequencies of the most abundant isotopes of Cr, Cu, Ag, Cd, Hg, and Pb were evaluated. Three correlation trends were evaluated between the following: (1) different elements in the each individual tissue, (2) individual elements in different tissues, and (3) different elements in different tissues. In addition, correlation rates of growth parameters (weight, cephalothorax length, and total length) with heavy-metal and metalloid concentrations in each tissue were investigated. Our results suggest that substantial differences in metal and metalloid-accumulation levels exist between male and female specimens, with stronger correlations between the heavy-metal concentrations observed in the male cohort. It is notable that correlation trends of Co, Cu, (52)As, Cr, and Ni in exoskeleton of the male specimens display strong similarities. Likewise, a very strong correlation is present in Ni-Cd and Ni-Pb accumulations in abdominal muscle of the male specimens; a similar trend is present between Cd and Pb concentrations in the same tissue of female specimens. For correlation rates of different heavy metals and metalloid in different tissues, the strongest positive association observed was between (63)Cu in gill and As in hepatopancreas, whereas the strongest negative correlation was between accumulated Ni in abdominal muscle and As in exoskeleton. Strong correlations between

  6. [Social anxiety and self-esteem: Hungarian validation of the "Brief Fear of Negative Evaluation Scale - Straightforward Items"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perczel-Forintos, Dóra; Kresznerits, Szilvia

    2017-06-01

    Although social anxiety disorder (SAD) is the third most frequent emotional disorder with 13-15% prevalence rate, it remains unrecognized very often. Social phobia is associated with low self-esteem, high self-criticism and fear of negative evaluation by others. It shows high comorbidity with depression, alcoholism, drug addiction and eating disorders. To adapt the widely used "Fear of Negative Evaluation" (FNE) social phobia questionnaire. Anxiety and mood disorder patients (n = 255) completed the Fear of Negative Evaluation Scale (30, 12 and 8 item-versions) as well as social cognition, anxiety and self-esteem questionnaires. All the three versions of the FNE have strong internal validity (α>0.83) and moderate significant correlation with low self-esteem, negative social cognitions and anxiety. The short 8-item BFNE-S has the strongest disciminative value in differentiating patients with social phobia and with other emotional disorders. The Hungarian version of the BFNE-S is an effective tool for the quick recognition of social phobia. Orv Hetil. 2017; 158(22): 843-850.

  7. Correlation between oro and hypopharynx shape and position with endotracheal intubation difficulty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daher Rabadi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective: Prediction of intubation difficulty can save patients from major preoperative morbidity or mortality. The purpose of this paper is to assess the correlation between oro-hypo pharynx position, neck size, and length with endotracheal intubation difficulty. The study also explored the diagnostic value of Friedman Staging System in prediction cases with difficult intubation. Method: The consecutive 500 ASA (I, II adult patients undergoing elective surgery were evaluated for oro and hypopharynx shape and position by modified Mallampati, Cormack and Lehane score as well as Friedman obstructive sleep apnea classification systems. Neck circumference and length were also measured. All cases were intubated by a single anesthesiologist who was uninformed of the above evaluation and graded intubation difficulty in visual analog score. Correlation between these findings and difficulty of intubation was assessed. Sensitivity, Specificity, Positive and Negative Predictive Values were also reported. Results: Cormack-Lehane grade had the strongest correlation with difficulty of intubation followed by Friedman palate position. Friedman palate position was the most sensitive and had higher positive and negative predictive values than modified Mallampati classification. Cormack-Lehane grade was found to be the most specific with the highest negative predictive value among the four studied classifications. Conclusion: Friedman palate position is a more useful, valuable and sensitive test compared to the modified Mallampati screening test for pre-anesthetic prediction of difficult intubation where its involvement in Multivariate model may raise the accuracy and diagnostic value of preoperative assessment of difficult airway.

  8. [Negative symptoms and cerebral imaging].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaladjian, A; Belzeaux, R; Adida, M; Azorin, J-M

    2015-12-01

    A number of neuroanatomical and neurofonctional abnormalities have been evidenced by cerebral imaging studies in patients suffering from schizophrenia. Nevertheless, those specifically associated with the negative symptoms of this disease are still insufficiently known. This work is a review of selected studies that have assessed the brain correlates of negative symptoms in schizophrenia. Approaches using structural imaging have highlighted reduction of gray matter density or cortical thickness associated with negative symptoms, which is rather sparsely distributed within the frontal and temporal regions, localized nevertheless more particularly in the frontal medial and orbitofrontal areas, as well as the amygdalo-hippocampic complex. These deficits are concurrent with a loss of integrity of the principal paths of white matter tracts between frontal and limbic regions. On the other hand, neurofonctional abnormalities associated with negative symptoms involve especially the frontal areas and limbic striatum. A disturbed functioning within the fronto-striatal loops, related to a striatal dopaminergic deficit, may represent a potential explanatory hypothesis of the negative symptoms of schizophrenia, as suggested by studies using Positron Emission Tomography on this topic or neuroimaging studies on the effects of antipsychotics. A better identification of the cerebral abnormalities associated with the negative dimension of schizophrenia, with regard to the lateralization of these abnormalities or to their changes during the course of the disease, could offer new therapeutic modalities for the treatment of this dimension which, until now, remains few responsive to conventional pharmacological treatments. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Intercorporate Security Event Correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. O. Kovalev

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Security controls are prone to false positives and false negatives which can lead to unwanted reputation losses for the bank. The reputational database within the security operations center (SOC and intercorporate correlation of security events are offered as a solution to increase attack detection fidelity. The theses introduce the definition and structure of the reputation, architectures of reputational exchange and the place of intercorporate correlation in overall SOC correlation analysis.

  10. The association of perseverative negative thinking with depression, anxiety and emotional distress in people with long term conditions: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trick, Leanne; Watkins, Edward; Windeatt, Stacey; Dickens, Chris

    2016-12-01

    Depression is common in people with long term conditions, and is associated with worse medical outcomes. Previous research shows perseverative negative thinking (e.g. worry, rumination) predicts subsequent depression and worse medical outcomes, suggesting interventions targeting perseverative negative thinking could improve depression and medical outcomes. Previous studies recruited healthy individuals, however. This review aimed to determine the temporal relationship and strength of prospective association of perseverative negative thinking with depression, anxiety and emotional distress in people with long term conditions. Four electronic databases were searched for studies including standardised measures of perseverative negative thinking and depression, anxiety or emotional distress, and which presented prospective associations. Findings were narratively synthesized. Thirty studies were identified in a range of long term conditions. Perseverative negative thinking and subsequent depression, anxiety or emotional distress were significantly correlated in the majority of studies (bivariate r=0.23 to r=0.73). 25 studies controlled for confounders, and in 15 perseverative negative thinking predicted subsequent depression, anxiety or emotional distress. Results varied according to condition and study quality. Six of 7 studies found bivariate associations between depression, anxiety or emotional distress and subsequent perseverative negative thinking, though 2 studies controlling for key covariates found no association. Few studies assessed the impact of perseverative negative thinking on medical outcomes. Strongest evidence supported perseverative negative thinking predicting subsequent depression, anxiety and emotional distress in people with long term conditions. Further prospective research is warranted to clarify the association of perseverative negative thinking with subsequent poor medical outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. [Correlation analysis on normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) of different vegetations and climatic factors in Southwest China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuan-Dong; Zhang, Xiao-He; Liu, Shi-Rong

    2011-02-01

    Based on the 1982-2006 NDVI remote sensing data and meteorological data of Southwest China, and by using GIS technology, this paper interpolated and extracted the mean annual temperature, annual precipitation, and drought index in the region, and analyzed the correlations of the annual variation of NDVI in different vegetation types (marsh, shrub, bush, grassland, meadow, coniferous forest, broad-leaved forest, alpine vegetation, and cultural vegetation) with corresponding climatic factors. In 1982-2006, the NDVI, mean annual temperature, and annual precipitation had an overall increasing trend, and the drought index decreased. Particularly, the upward trend of mean annual temperature was statistically significant. Among the nine vegetation types, the NDVI of bush and mash decreased, and the downward trend was significant for bush. The NDVI of the other seven vegetation types increased, and the upward trend was significant for coniferous forest, meadow, and alpine vegetation, and extremely significant for shrub. The mean annual temperature in the areas with all the nine vegetation types increased significantly, while the annual precipitation had no significant change. The drought index in the areas with marsh, bush, and cultural vegetation presented an increasing trend, that in the areas with meadow and alpine vegetation decreased significantly, and this index in the areas with other four vegetation types had an unobvious decreasing trend. The NDVI of shrub and coniferous forest had a significantly positive correlation with mean annual temperature, and that of shrub and meadow had significantly negative correlation with drought index. Under the conditions of the other two climatic factors unchanged, the NDVI of coniferous forest, broad-leaved forest, and alpine vegetation showed the strongest correlation with mean annual temperature, that of grass showed the strongest correlation with annual precipitation, and the NDVI of mash, shrub, grass, meadow, and cultural

  12. Negating the Verum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørsnes, Bjarne

    2012-01-01

    an (aboutness-)topic. The negation of a verum predicate explains why preposed negation—like other constructions with verum-focus—fails to license strong negative polarity items and fails to rule out positive ones. The lack of a topic explains why preposed negation is preferred with non-referential subjects...

  13. Sentential Negation in English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mowarin, Macaulay

    2009-01-01

    This paper undertakes a detailed analysis of sentential negation in the English language with Chomsky's Government-Binding theory of Transformational Grammar as theoretical model. It distinguishes between constituent and sentential negation in English. The essay identifies the exact position of Negation phrase in an English clause structure. It…

  14. Negative ion sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, Junzo; Takagi, Toshinori

    1983-01-01

    Negative ion sources have been originally developed at the request of tandem electrostatic accelerators, and hundreds of nA to several μA negative ion current has been obtained so far for various elements. Recently, the development of large current hydrogen negative ion sources has been demanded from the standpoint of the heating by neutral particle beam injection in nuclear fusion reactors. On the other hand, the physical properties of negative ions are interesting in the thin film formation using ions. Anyway, it is the present status that the mechanism of negative ion action has not been so fully investigated as positive ions because the history of negative ion sources is short. In this report, the many mechanisms about the generation of negative ions proposed so far are described about negative ion generating mechanism, negative ion source plasma, and negative ion generation on metal surfaces. As a result, negative ion sources are roughly divided into two schemes, plasma extraction and secondary ion extraction, and the former is further classified into the PIG ion source and its variation and Duoplasmatron and its variation; while the latter into reflecting and sputtering types. In the second half of the report, the practical negative ion sources of each scheme are described. If the mechanism of negative ion generation will be investigated more in detail and the development will be continued under the unified know-how as negative ion sources in future, the development of negative ion sources with which large current can be obtained for any element is expected. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  15. Polemic and Descriptive Negations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horslund, Camilla Søballe

    2011-01-01

    as such may be more or less central to the meaning of the utterance. The present paper investigates the role of morphosyntactic and prosodic prominence as well as register and social setting on the interpretation of negations. It seems plausible to expect that if the negation as such is central to the meaning...... of the utterance (as in polemic negations), the negation will be articulated prominently in order to emphasise this importance. Likewise, if the negation is not central to the meaning of the utterance, it should not be articulated prominently. Moreover, it is plausible to expect descriptive negations to be more...... common in certain social context or genres, while polemic negations are more likely to come up in other genres and social settings. Previous studies have shown a relation between articulatory prominence and register, which may further inform the analysis. Hence, the paper investigates how articulatory...

  16. Correlates of Social Exclusion and Negative Labeling and Devaluation of People Living with HIV/AIDS in Rural Settings: Evidence from a General Household Survey in Zambézia Province, Mozambique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukolo, Abraham; Blevins, Meridith; Victor, Bart; Vaz, Lara M. E.; Sidat, Mohsin; Vergara, Alfredo

    2013-01-01

    Background Increased HIV/AIDS knowledge and access to antiretroviral treatment (ART) have been hypothesized to decrease HIV stigma. However, stigma persists as a barrier to HIV services uptake. We studied the relationship between stigma, knowledge and attitudes towards HIV and its treatment, and confidence in the legal system (legal rights certitude). Methods We analyzed data from a household survey of 3749 randomly sampled female heads of households in 259 enumeration areas across 14 districts of Zambézia Province, Mozambique. The questionnaire included questions about beliefs, attitudes and behavior towards PLWHA, HIV transmission knowledge, treatment-related beliefs, and legal rights certitude. Factor analysis distinguished two stigma constructs: Negative labeling and devaluation (NLD) and social exclusion (SoE). Multivariable linear regression was used to determine the association between stigma, knowledge of HIV/AIDS, treatment-related beliefs, and legal rights certitude, while controlling for variance in socio-demographics. Results A 4-point increase in knowledge about HIV transmission was associated with more than a 3 unit decrease in NLD and SoE stigma scores (pstigma (pstigma. Knowing at least one HIV positive person was associated with lower SoE (−3.17, 95% CI: −5.78, −0.56); no association with NLD (p = 0.1) was detected. ART efficacy belief was associated with higher NLD and lower SoE (2.90 increase and 6.94 decrease, respectively; p≤0.001). Conclusion Increasing knowledge about HIV transmission and access to ART are likely to reduce stigma, but neither of the two is a panacea. Raising community awareness of the legal rights of PLWHA might improve the efficacy of stigma reduction efforts. Strategies that focus on specific domains of stigma might be more effective than generic stigma reduction strategies. PMID:24146771

  17. Negative Correlation between Circulating CD4+FOXP3+CD127− Regulatory T Cells and Subsequent Antibody Responses to Infant Measles Vaccine but Not Diphtheria–Tetanus–Pertussis Vaccine Implies a Regulatory Role

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorjoh Ndure

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Regulatory T cells (Tregs play a key homeostatic role by suppressing immune responses. They have been targeted in mouse and human cancer studies to improve vaccine immunogenicity and tumor clearance. A number of commercially available drugs and experimental vaccine adjuvants have been shown to target Tregs. Infants have high numbers of Tregs and often have poor responses to vaccination, yet the role Tregs play in controlling vaccine immunogenicity has not been explored in this age group. Herein, we explore the role of CD4+FOXP3+CD127− Tregs in controlling immunity in infant males and females to vaccination with diphtheria–tetanus–whole cell pertussis (DTP and/or measles vaccine (MV. We find correlative evidence that circulating Tregs at the time of vaccination suppress antibody responses to MV but not DTP; and Tregs 4 weeks after DTP vaccination may suppress vaccine-specific cellular immunity. This opens the exciting possibility that Tregs may provide a future target for improved vaccine responses in early life, including reducing the number of doses of vaccine required. Such an approach would need to be safe and the benefits outweigh the risks, thus further research in this area is required.

  18. Negative correlation between enhanced crossover temperature and fluctuation-free critical current of the second switch in Bi2Sr2CaCu2O{}_{8+\\delta } intrinsic Josephson junction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Y.; Okamoto, R.; Kakeya, I.

    2017-10-01

    We have investigated the switching dynamics of the first and second switches in intrinsic Josephson junctions (IJJs) of Bi2Sr2CaCu2O{}8+δ with different maximum Josephson current density J c to reveal the doping evolution of interaction between IJJs. For the second switch, the crossover temperature between temperature-independent switching similar to quantum tunneling and thermally activated switching {T}2{nd}* is remarkably higher than that for the first switch. Moreover, {T}2{nd}* slightly decreases with increasing J c, which violates the conventional relation between the crossover temperature and the critical current density. These features can be explained not by a change in the Josephson coupling energy but by a change in the charging energy of the Josephson junction. We argue that the capacitive coupling model explains the increase in the fluctuation in the quantum regime of the second switch and the anti-correlation between {T}2{nd}* and J c. Furthermore, inductive coupling does not contribute to these peculiar phenomena in the switching dynamics of stacked IJJs.

  19. Prevalence, predictors and correlates of insomnia in US army soldiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klingaman, Elizabeth A; Brownlow, Janeese A; Boland, Elaine M; Mosti, Caterina; Gehrman, Philip R

    2017-10-11

    The objective of this study was to investigate the rates, predictors and correlates of insomnia in a national sample of US Army soldiers. Data were gathered from the cross-sectional survey responses of the All-Army Study, of the Army Study to Assess Risk and Resilience in Service members. Participants were a representative sample of 21 499 US Army soldiers who responded to the All-Army Study self-administered questionnaire between 2011 and 2013. Insomnia was defined by selected DSM-5 criteria using the Brief Insomnia Questionnaire. The results highlight significant functional difficulties associated with insomnia among US soldiers, as well as insights into predictors of insomnia specific to this population. Insomnia was present in 22.76% of the sample. Predictors of insomnia status in logistic regression included greater number of current mental health disorders, less perceived open lines of communication with leadership, less unit member support and less education. Insomnia had global, negative associations with health, social functioning, support, morale, work performance and Army career intentions. The results provide the strongest evidence to-date that insomnia is common in a military population, and is associated with a wide array of negative factors in the domains of health, military readiness and intentions to remain in military careers. © 2017 European Sleep Research Society.

  20. Giant negative linear compression positively coupled to massive thermal expansion in a metal-organic framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Weizhao; Katrusiak, Andrzej

    2014-07-04

    Materials with negative linear compressibility are sought for various technological applications. Such effects were reported mainly in framework materials. When heated, they typically contract in the same direction of negative linear compression. Here we show that this common inverse relationship rule does not apply to a three-dimensional metal-organic framework crystal, [Ag(ethylenediamine)]NO3. In this material, the direction of the largest intrinsic negative linear compression yet observed in metal-organic frameworks coincides with the strongest positive thermal expansion. In the perpendicular direction, the large linear negative thermal expansion and the strongest crystal compressibility are collinear. This seemingly irrational positive relationship of temperature and pressure effects is explained and the mechanism of coupling of compressibility with expansivity is presented. The positive coupling between compression and thermal expansion in this material enhances its piezo-mechanical response in adiabatic process, which may be used for designing new artificial composites and ultrasensitive measuring devices.

  1. Spatial and temporal variation of correlation between the Arctic total ozone and atmospheric temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Fuxiang; Ren, suling; Han, Shuangshuang; Zheng, xiangdong; Deng, xuejiao

    2017-04-01

    and temperature have a strong negative correlation in spring and autumn, while presenting a weak negative correlation or no correlation in winter and summer. Figure 2 shows the spatial and temporal variation of the correlation coefficient between the atmospheric ozone and temperature at 500hPa. From figure 2, it can be seen that in the Arctic troposphere, the atmospheric ozone and tropospheric temperature mainly have a negative correlation. In winter and summer, a weak negative correlation is shown overall, but more than a third of the regions show no correlation. In spring, the negative correlation is the strongest between the ozone and temperature. Especially in Greenland - Queen Elizabeth Islands and southern New Siberian Islands, the correlation is the highest, with a correlation coefficient of -0.9 and above, followed by a negative correlation in autumn. Except for a small number of low-latitude scattered regions with weak correlation, the correlation coefficients of most regions are ranged between -0.5 and -0.7. At 300 hPa near the tropopause, the horizontal distribution and seasonal change of the correlation between the Arctic total ozone and atmospheric temperature are as shown in Fig. 3.At the height near the Arctic tropopause, the atmospheric ozone mainly has no correlation to temperature, especially in winter and summer, when no correlation exists in the majority of regions, while weak positive or negative correlation occurs in a small number of areas. In the majority of regions during spring, a weak negative correlation is shown, while no correlation appears in Western Greenland - Queen Elizabeth Islands. In autumn, most regions show no correlation, while weak negative correlation is presented in Eastern Greenland, Norwegian Sea - Barents Sea, and other locations. From figure 1-3, we can see a significant difference exists from the common law of positive correlation in the lower stratosphere and negative correlation in the troposphere at mid-low latitudes

  2. Determination of partition coefficients n-octanol/water for treosulfan and its epoxy-transformers: an example of a negative correlation between lipophilicity of unionized compounds and their retention in reversed-phase chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Główka, Franciszek K; Romański, Michał; Siemiątkowska, Anna

    2013-04-01

    For the last decade an alkylating agent treosulfan (TREO) has been successfully applied in clinical trials in conditioning prior to hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Pharmacological activity of the pro-drug depends on its epoxy-transformers, monoepoxide (S,S-EBDM) and diepoxide (S,S-DEB), which are formed in a non-enzymatic consecutive reaction accompanied by a release of methanesulfonic acid. In the present study partition coefficient n-octanol/water (POW) of TREO as well as its biologically active epoxy-transformers was determined empirically (applying a classical shake-flask method) and in silico for the first time. In vitro the partition was investigated at 37°C in the system composed of the pre-saturated n-octanol and 0.05 M acetate buffer pH 4.4 adjusted with sodium and potassium chloride to ionic strength of 0.16 M. Concentration of the analytes was quantified by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) method in which retention time increased from S,S-DEB to TREO. It was shown that neither association nor dissociation of the tested compounds in the applied phases occurred. Calculated logPOW (TREO: -1.58±0.04, S,S-EBDM: -1.18±0.02, S,S-DEB: -0.40±0.03) indicate the hydrophilic character of the all three entities, corresponding to its pharmacokinetic parameters described in the literature. Experimentally determined logPOW of the compounds were best comparable to the values predicted by algorithm ALOGPs. Interestingly, the POW values determined in vitro as well as in silico were inversely correlated with the retention times observed in the endcapped RP-HPLC column. It might be explained by the fact that a cleavage of methansulfonic acid from a small molecule of TREO generates significant changes in the molecular structure. Consequently, despite the common chemical origin, TREO, S,S-EBDM and S,S-DEB do not constitute a 'congeneric' series of compounds. We concluded that this might occur in other low-weight species, therefore

  3. Negative Ion Density Fronts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igor Kaganovich

    2000-01-01

    Negative ions tend to stratify in electronegative plasmas with hot electrons (electron temperature Te much larger than ion temperature Ti, Te > Ti ). The boundary separating a plasma containing negative ions, and a plasma, without negative ions, is usually thin, so that the negative ion density falls rapidly to zero-forming a negative ion density front. We review theoretical, experimental and numerical results giving the spatio-temporal evolution of negative ion density fronts during plasma ignition, the steady state, and extinction (afterglow). During plasma ignition, negative ion fronts are the result of the break of smooth plasma density profiles during nonlinear convection. In a steady-state plasma, the fronts are boundary layers with steepening of ion density profiles due to nonlinear convection also. But during plasma extinction, the ion fronts are of a completely different nature. Negative ions diffuse freely in the plasma core (no convection), whereas the negative ion front propagates towards the chamber walls with a nearly constant velocity. The concept of fronts turns out to be very effective in analysis of plasma density profile evolution in strongly non-isothermal plasmas

  4. Negative thermal expansion materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, J.S.O.

    1997-01-01

    The recent discovery of negative thermal expansion over an unprecedented temperature range in ZrW 2 O 8 (which contracts continuously on warming from below 2 K to above 1000 K) has stimulated considerable interest in this unusual phenomenon. Negative and low thermal expansion materials have a number of important potential uses in ceramic, optical and electronic applications. We have now found negative thermal expansion in a large new family of materials with the general formula A 2 (MO 4 ) 3 . Chemical substitution dramatically influences the thermal expansion properties of these materials allowing the production of ceramics with negative, positive or zero coefficients of thermal expansion, with the potential to control other important materials properties such as refractive index and dielectric constant. The mechanism of negative thermal expansion and the phase transitions exhibited by this important new class of low-expansion materials will be discussed. (orig.)

  5. Generation of negative slow muon beam in J-PARC muon facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamura, Naritoshi; Masuda, Tetsuya; Strasser, Patrick; Miyake, Yasuhiro

    2010-01-01

    The world strongest pulsed muon facility has been operated since 2008 in J-PARC (Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex). This facility utilizes 3-GeV proton to produce muon beam, and thus the negative pion and also negative muon yields are superior to the other meson factories in the world. We try to slow down these negative muons. Negative slow muon beam is desired to check the standard model and search a new physical rule, as well as various applications in material science.

  6. Sensitivity of negative subsequent memory and task-negative effects to age and associative memory performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Chastelaine, Marianne; Mattson, Julia T; Wang, Tracy H; Donley, Brian E; Rugg, Michael D

    2015-07-01

    The present fMRI experiment employed associative recognition to investigate the relationships between age and encoding-related negative subsequent memory effects and task-negative effects. Young, middle-aged and older adults (total n=136) were scanned while they made relational judgments on visually presented word pairs. In a later memory test, the participants made associative recognition judgments on studied, rearranged (items studied on different trials) and new pairs. Several regions, mostly localized to the default mode network, demonstrated negative subsequent memory effects in an across age-group analysis. All but one of these regions also demonstrated task-negative effects, although there was no correlation between the size of the respective effects. Whereas negative subsequent memory effects demonstrated a graded attenuation with age, task-negative effects declined markedly between the young and the middle-aged group, but showed no further reduction in the older group. Negative subsequent memory effects did not correlate with memory performance within any age group. By contrast, in the older group only, task-negative effects predicted later memory performance. The findings demonstrate that negative subsequent memory and task-negative effects depend on dissociable neural mechanisms and likely reflect distinct cognitive processes. The relationship between task-negative effects and memory performance in the older group might reflect the sensitivity of these effects to variations in amount of age-related neuropathology. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Memory. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Negative thermal expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrera, G D; Bruno, J A O; Barron, T H K; Allan, N L

    2005-01-01

    There has been substantial renewed interest in negative thermal expansion following the discovery that cubic ZrW 2 O 8 contracts over a temperature range in excess of 1000 K. Substances of many different kinds show negative thermal expansion, especially at low temperatures. In this article we review the underlying thermodynamics, emphasizing the roles of thermal stress and elasticity. We also discuss vibrational and non-vibrational mechanisms operating on the atomic scale that are responsible for negative expansion, both isotropic and anisotropic, in a wide range of materials. (topical review)

  8. Lecture Evaluations by Medical Students: Concepts That Correlate With Scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jen, Aaron; Webb, Emily M; Ahearn, Bren; Naeger, David M

    2016-01-01

    The didactic lecture remains one of the most popular teaching formats in medical education; yet, factors that most influence lecturing success in radiology education are unknown. The purpose of this study is to identify patterns of narrative student feedback that are associated with relatively higher and lower evaluation scores. All student evaluations from our core radiology elective during 1 year were compiled. All evaluation comments were tagged, to identify discrete descriptive concepts. Correlation coefficients were calculated, for each tag with mean evaluation scores. Tags that were the most strongly associated with the highest- versus lowest-rated (> or < 1 SD) lectures were identified. A total of 3,262 comments, on 273 lectures, rated by 77 senior medical students, were analyzed. The mean lecture score was 8.96 ± 0.62. Three tags were significantly positively correlated with lecture score: "interactive"; "fun/engaging"; and "practical/important content" (r = 0.39, r = 0.34, and r = 0.32, respectively; all P < .001). More tags (n = 12) were significantly negatively correlated with score; the three tags with the strongest such correlation were: "not interactive"; "poorly structured or unevenly paced"; and "content too detailed or abundant" (r = -0.44, r = -0.39, and r = -0.36, respectively; all P < .001). Analysis of only the highest- and lowest-rated lectures yielded similar results. Several factors were identified that were strongly associated with lecture score. Among the actionable characteristics, interactive lectures with appropriately targeted content (ie, practical/useful) were the most highly rated. Copyright © 2016 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Isotropic Single Negative Metamaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Protiva

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the application of simple, and therefore cheap, planar resonators for building 3D isotropic metamaterials. These resonators are: a broadside-coupled split ring resonator with a magnetic response providing negative permeability; an electric dipole terminated by a loop inductor together with a double H-shaped resonator with an electric response providing negative permittivity. Two kinds of 3D isotropic single negative metamaterials are reported. The first material consists of unit cells in the form of a cube bearing on its faces six equal planar resonators with tetrahedral symmetry. In the second material, the planar resonators boxed into spherical plastic shells and randomly distributed in a hosting material compose a real 3D volumetric metamaterial with an isotropic response. In both cases the metamaterial shows negative permittivity or permeability, according to the type of resonators that are used. The experiments prove the isotropic behavior of the cells and of the metamaterial specimens.

  10. Positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia as correlates of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Duration of untreated psychosis (DUP) has been widely recognised in recent years as a potentially important predictor of illness outcome, and the manifestations of schizophrenia have been known to influence its early recognition as a mental illness. Objective. To assess the association between the positive ...

  11. NEGATION AFFIXES IN ENGLISH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dedy Subandowo -

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This research entitled "Negation Affixes in English". This study is aimed to describe the various negation affixes in English, morphological process, morphophonemic and meaning. The research data were taken from various sources of English grammar book, morphology, research journal and the book which relatees to the research. English grammar books used in this study are written by Otto Jesperson, Marcella Frank, Greenbaum and Geoffrey Leech.  The method used in this research is the descriptive-qualitative method. While the data collection techniques are performed by using jot-down method. And the results of analysis are presented in tabular form and descriptive method. The result of the research shows that English has six types of negative affixes which are categorized by the intensity of its appearance, such as dis-, in-, non-, un-, anti- and -less. Based on the function, negation affixes are divided into several categories such as adjectives, nouns, verbs, and adverbs. The morphophonemic affix in- has four allomorphs, they are in-, im-, il- and ir- . While the analysis revealed that negation affixes have some basic meanings, such as ‘not’, ‘without’, and ‘anti’.

  12. Negative cognitive errors and positive illusions for negative divorce events: predictors of children's psychological adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazur, E; Wolchik, S A; Sandler, I N

    1992-12-01

    This study examined the relations among negative cognitive errors regarding hypothetical negative divorce events, positive illusions about those same events, actual divorce events, and psychological adjustment in 38 8- to 12-year-old children whose parents had divorced within the previous 2 years. Children's scores on a scale of negative cognitive errors (catastrophizing, overgeneralizing, and personalizing) correlated significantly with self-reported symptoms of anxiety and self-esteem, and with maternal reports of behavior problems. Children's scores on a scale measuring positive illusions (high self-regard, illusion of personal control, and optimism for the future) correlated significantly with less self-reported aggression. Both appraisal types accounted for variance in some measures of symptomatology beyond that explained by actual events. There was no significant association between children's negative cognitive errors and positive illusions. The implications of these results for theories of negative cognitive errors and of positive illusions, as well as for future research, are discussed.

  13. Nedtrykt af negative nyheder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovsgaard, Morten; Søberg, Pernille Frantz

    2016-01-01

    I adskillige år er det blevet debatteret, hvorvidt nyhedernes negative fokus har konsekvenser for borgerne, og om det i sid-ste ende får flere til at vende ryggen til nyhederne. Vores viden om effekterne af positive og negative nyheder er dog begrænset, og derfor undersøges det i denne artikel......, hvordan henholdsvis positive og negative tv-nyheder påvirker seernes humør, hukom-melse af information fra indslaget og lyst til at se yderligere tv-nyheder. Det gør vi i et survey-eksperiment (N=204), hvor tre grupper så enten et originalt indslag eller det samme indslag klippet med henholdsvis et...

  14. On Various Negative Translations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilda Ferreira

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Several proof translations of classical mathematics into intuitionistic mathematics have been proposed in the literature over the past century. These are normally referred to as negative translations or double-negation translations. Among those, the most commonly cited are translations due to Kolmogorov, Godel, Gentzen, Kuroda and Krivine (in chronological order. In this paper we propose a framework for explaining how these different translations are related to each other. More precisely, we define a notion of a (modular simplification starting from Kolmogorov translation, which leads to a partial order between different negative translations. In this derived ordering, Kuroda and Krivine are minimal elements. Two new minimal translations are introduced, with Godel and Gentzen translations sitting in between Kolmogorov and one of these new translations.

  15. Negative ion sourcery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Os, C.F.A. van.

    1989-01-01

    The work described in this thesis is involved by current research programs in the field of nuclear-fusion. A brief introduction to fusion is given, anticipated problems related to current drive of the fusion plasma are pinpointed and probable suggestions to overcome these problems are described. One probable means for current drive is highlighted; Neutral Beam Injection (NBI). This is based on injecting a 1 MeV neutral hydrogen or deuterium beam into a fusion plasma. Negative ions are needed as primary particles because they can easily be neutralized at 1 MeV. The two current schemes for production of negative ions are described, volume production and negative surface ionization. The latter method is extensively studied in this thesis. (author). 171 refs.; 55 figs.; 7 tabs

  16. Depressionens negative spiral

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Karen

    2006-01-01

    Artiklen formidler resultater fra en longitudinel undersøgelse af det selvforstærkende, negative samspil imellem udvikling og vedligeholdelse af alderdomsdepression via primære miljøbelastninger og via  den deprimerede ældre som belastning for miljøet, som i sin tur "svarer negativt" på lidelsen og...

  17. Quantum logic without negation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zapatrin, R.R. (Dept. of Mathematics, SPb UEF, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation))

    1994-05-01

    The algebraic tools based on generating semigroups are suggested to describe property lattices possessing the relation of exclusivity rather than the operation of negation. The reduction to standard situation of orthocomplemented and orthomodular lattices is described. As an example of non-orthocomplementable property lattice that of a hypothetical ''topologymeter'' is studied. (orig.)

  18. The Negative Repetition Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, Neil W.; Peterson, Daniel J.

    2013-01-01

    A fundamental property of human memory is that repetition enhances memory. Peterson and Mulligan (2012) recently documented a surprising "negative repetition effect," in which participants who studied a list of cue-target pairs twice recalled fewer targets than a group who studied the pairs only once. Words within a pair rhymed, and…

  19. Prevalence and correlates of posttrauma distorted beliefs: evaluating DSM-5 PTSD expanded cognitive symptoms in a national sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Keith S; Resnick, Heidi S; Kilpatrick, Dean G

    2014-06-01

    The fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5; American Psychiatric Association [APA], 2013) modified the diagnostic criteria for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), including expanding the scope of dysfunctional, posttrauma changes in belief (symptoms D2-persistent negative beliefs and expectations about oneself or the world, and D3-persistent distorted blame of self or others for the cause or consequences of the traumatic event). D2 and D3 were investigated using a national sample of U.S. adults (N = 2,498) recruited from an online panel. The prevalence of D2 and D3 was substantially higher among those with lifetime PTSD than among trauma-exposed individuals without lifetime PTSD (D2: 74.6% vs 23.9%; D3: 80.6% vs 35.7%). In multivariate analyses, the strongest associates of D2 were interpersonal assault (OR = 2.39), witnessing interpersonal assault (OR = 1.63), gender (female, OR = 2.11), and number of reported traumatic events (OR = 1.88). The strongest correlates of D3 were interpersonal assault (OR = 3.08), witnessing interpersonal assault (OR = 1.57), gender (female, OR = 2.30), and number of reported traumatic events (OR = 1.91). The findings suggested the expanded cognitive symptoms in the DSM-5 diagnostic criteria better capture the cognitive complexity of PTSD than those of the DSM-IV. Copyright © 2014 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.

  20. Score Correlation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fabián, Zdeněk

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 6 (2010), s. 793-798 ISSN 1210-0552 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/09/1079 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : score function * correlation * rank correlation coefficient * heavy tails Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research Impact factor: 0.511, year: 2010

  1. [Correlation between oro and hypopharynx shape and position with endotracheal intubation difficulty].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabadi, Daher; Baker, Ahmad Abu; Al-Qudah, Mohannad

    2014-01-01

    Prediction of intubation difficulty can save patients from major preoperative morbidity or mortality. The purpose of this paper is to assess the correlation between oro-hypo pharynx position, neck size, and length with endotracheal intubation difficulty. The study also explored the diagnostic value of Friedman Staging System in prediction cases with difficult intubation. The consecutive 500 ASA (I, II) adult patients undergoing elective surgery were evaluated for oro and hypopharynx shape and position by modified Mallampati, Cormack and Lehane score as well as Friedman obstructive sleep apnea classification systems. Neck circumference and length were also measured. All cases were intubated by a single anesthesiologist who was uninformed of the above evaluation and graded intubation difficulty in visual analog score. Correlation between these findings and difficulty of intubation was assessed. Sensitivity, Specificity, Positive and Negative Predictive Values were also reported. Cormack-Lehane grade had the strongest correlation with difficulty of intubation followed by Friedman palate position. Friedman palate position was the most sensitive and had higher positive and negative predictive values than modified Mallampati classification. Cormack-Lehane grade was found to be the most specific with the highest negative predictive value among the four studied classifications. Friedman palate position is a more useful, valuable and sensitive test compared to the modified Mallampati screening test for pre-anesthetic prediction of difficult intubation where its involvement in Multivariate model may raise the accuracy and diagnostic value of preoperative assessment of difficult airway. Copyright © 2013 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  2. Negative power spectra in quantum field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsiang, Jen-Tsung; Wu, Chun-Hsien; Ford, L.H.

    2011-01-01

    We consider the spatial power spectra associated with fluctuations of quadratic operators in field theory, such as quantum stress tensor components. We show that the power spectrum can be negative, in contrast to most fluctuation phenomena where the Wiener-Khinchin theorem requires a positive power spectrum. We show why the usual argument for positivity fails in this case, and discuss the physical interpretation of negative power spectra. Possible applications to cosmology are discussed. -- Highlights: → Wiener-Khinchin theorem usually implies a positive power spectrum of fluctuations. → We show this is not always the case in quantum field theory. → Quantum stress tensor fluctuations can have a negative power spectrum. → Negative power interchanges correlations and anticorrelations.

  3. Hardness/intensity correlations among BATSE bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paciesas, William S.; Pendleton, Geoffrey N.; Kouveliotou, Chryssa; Fishman, Gerald J.; Meegan, Charles A.; Wilson, Robert B.

    1992-01-01

    Conclusions about the nature of gamma-ray bursts derived from the size-frequency distribution may be altered if a significant correlation exists between burst intensity and spectral shape. Moreover, if gamma-ray bursts have a cosmological origin, such a correlation may be expected to result from the expansion of the universe. We have performed a rudimentary search of the BATSE bursts for hardness/intensity correlations. The range of spectral shapes was determined for each burst by computing the ratio of the intensity in the range 100-300 keV to that in 55-300 keV. We find weak evidence for the existence of a correlation, the strongest effect being present when comparing the maximum hardness ratio for each burst with its maximum rate.

  4. Negative leave balances

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Department

    2005-01-01

    Members of the personnel entitled to annual leave and, where appropriate, saved leave and/or compensatory leave are requested to take note of the new arrangements described below, which were recommended by the Standing Concertation Committee (SCC) at its meeting on 1Â September 2005 and subsequently approved by the Director-General. The changes do not apply to members of the personnel participating in the Progressive Retirement Programme (PRP) or the Part-time Work as a pre-retirement measure, for whom the specific provisions communicated at the time of joining will continue to apply. Â Negative balances in annual leave, saved leave and/or compensatory leave accounts at the end of the leave year (30th September) and on the date on which bonuses are credited to the saved leave account (31st December): Where members of the personnel have a leave account with a negative balance on 30Â September and/or 31Â December, leave will automatically be transferred from one account to another on the relevant dates i...

  5. Negative leave balances

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Department

    2005-01-01

    Members of the personnel entitled to annual leave and, where appropriate, saved leave and/or compensatory leave are requested to take note of the new arrangements described below, which were recommended by the Standing Concertation Committee (SCC) at its meeting on 1 September 2005 and subsequently approved by the Director-General. The changes do not apply to members of the personnel participating in the Progressive Retirement Programme (PRP) or the Part-time Work as a pre-retirement measure, for whom the specific provisions communicated at the time of joining will continue to apply.  Negative balances in annual leave, saved leave and/or compensatory leave accounts at the end of the leave year (30th September) and on the date on which bonuses are credited to the saved leave account (31st December): Where members of the personnel have a leave account with a negative balance on 30 September and/or 31 December, leave will automatically be transferred from one account to another on the relevant dates in or...

  6. [Negative pressure therapy: NPT].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maillard, H

    2015-01-01

    Negative pressure therapy or treatment (NPT) is used very frequently in hospitals in both surgical and medical departments. NPT consists of maintaining the wound surface at a pressure below ambient atmospheric pressure by means of a specially designed dressing attached to a depressurisation device as well as a system to drain exudate. NPT has been shown to be beneficial in increasing blood flow, thanks to feedback resulting from the decreased oxygen pressure, angiogenesis and reduction of the wound surface area. The French Health Authority (HAS) has issued recommendations for good use in a specific and limited series of applications. NPT may be used in post-traumatic or post-surgical wounds, burns, and in chronic wounds, such as bedsores and ulcers. It is also effective as an adjuvant treatment for infected wounds. In recent years, various different NPT devices have become commercially available. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Xenoestrogens diethylstilbestrol and zearalenone negatively influence pubertal rat's testis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filipiak, Eliza; Walczak-Jedrzejowska, Renata; Oszukowska, Elzbieta; Guminska, Anna; Marchlewska, Katarzyna; Kula, Krzysztof; Slowikowska-Hilczer, Jolanta

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the impact of xenoestrogens: diethylstilbestrol (DES) and zearalenone (ZEA) on rat's pubertal testis and to compare it with the effect of natural estrogen - 17beta-estradiol (E). Male Wistar rats were daily, subcutaneously injected at 5th-15th postnatal days (p.d.) with E (1.25 or 12.5 mug) or DES (1.25 or 12.5 mug) or ZEA (4 or 40 mug) or vehicle. At 16th p.d. testes were dissected, weighted, and paraffin embedded. Following parameters were assessed: diameter and length of seminiferous tubule, numbers of spermatogonia A+intermediate+B (A/In/B), preleptotene spermatocytes (PL), leptotene+zygotene+pachytene spermatocytes (L/Z/PA) and Sertoli cells per testis. Testes weight, seminiferous tubule diameter and length were decreased by both doses of E, DES and ZEA. DES effect was the strongest, but its influence on testis weight and seminiferous tubule length, on the contrary to E and ZEA, was not dose-dependent. Similarly, DES in both doses had the most severe negative impact on the number of germ and Sertoli cells. The negative influence of E on germ cells was less pronounced. The negative effect of ZEA was seen only after administration of the higher dose on spermatogonia number, while DES and E decreased A/In/B number more evidently. Sertoli cell number were decreased after both doses of E. ZEA40 decreased Sertoli cell number while ZEA4 had no effect. exposure of prepubertal male rat to DES has the strongest detrimental effect on the developing testis in comparison to E and ZEA. Both, E and DES, decreased number of germ and Sertoli cells, diminished seminiferous tubule diameter, length and testis weight. ZEA had much more weaker effect than the potent estrogens.

  8. Xenoestrogens diethylstilbestrol and zearalenone negatively influence pubertal rat's testis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Marchlewska

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the impact of xenoestrogens: diethylstilbestrol (DES and zearalenone (ZEA on rat's pubertal testis and to compare it with the effect of natural estrogen - 17beta-estradiol (E. Male Wistar rats were daily, subcutaneously injected at 5th-15th postnatal days (p.d. with E (1.25 or 12.5 mug or DES (1.25 or 12.5 mug or ZEA (4 or 40 mug or vehicle. At 16th p.d. testes were dissected, weighted, and paraffin embedded. Following parameters were assessed: diameter and length of seminiferous tubule, numbers of spermatogonia A+intermediate+B (A/In/B, preleptotene spermatocytes (PL, leptotene+zygotene+pachytene spermatocytes (L/Z/PA and Sertoli cells per testis. Testes weight, seminiferous tubule diameter and length were decreased by both doses of E, DES and ZEA. DES effect was the strongest, but its influence on testis weight and seminiferous tubule length, on the contrary to E and ZEA, was not dose-dependent. Similarly, DES in both doses had the most severe negative impact on the number of germ and Sertoli cells. The negative influence of E on germ cells was less pronounced. The negative effect of ZEA was seen only after administration of the higher dose on spermatogonia number, while DES and E decreased A/In/B number more evidently. Sertoli cell number were decreased after both doses of E. ZEA40 decreased Sertoli cell number while ZEA4 had no effect. Conclusion: exposure of prepubertal male rat to DES has the strongest detrimental effect on the developing testis in comparison to E and ZEA. Both, E and DES, decreased number of germ and Sertoli cells, diminished seminiferous tubule diameter, length and testis weight. ZEA had much more weaker effect than the potent estrogens.

  9. Statistical Inference for a Class of Multivariate Negative Binomial Distributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rubak, Ege H.; Møller, Jesper; McCullagh, Peter

    This paper considers statistical inference procedures for a class of models for positively correlated count variables called -permanental random fields, and which can be viewed as a family of multivariate negative binomial distributions. Their appealing probabilistic properties have earlier been...

  10. Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilmann, Christine; Peters, Georg

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY The definition of the heterogeneous group of coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) is still based on diagnostic procedures that fulfill the clinical need to differentiate between Staphylococcus aureus and those staphylococci classified historically as being less or nonpathogenic. Due to patient- and procedure-related changes, CoNS now represent one of the major nosocomial pathogens, with S. epidermidis and S. haemolyticus being the most significant species. They account substantially for foreign body-related infections and infections in preterm newborns. While S. saprophyticus has been associated with acute urethritis, S. lugdunensis has a unique status, in some aspects resembling S. aureus in causing infectious endocarditis. In addition to CoNS found as food-associated saprophytes, many other CoNS species colonize the skin and mucous membranes of humans and animals and are less frequently involved in clinically manifested infections. This blurred gradation in terms of pathogenicity is reflected by species- and strain-specific virulence factors and the development of different host-defending strategies. Clearly, CoNS possess fewer virulence properties than S. aureus, with a respectively different disease spectrum. In this regard, host susceptibility is much more important. Therapeutically, CoNS are challenging due to the large proportion of methicillin-resistant strains and increasing numbers of isolates with less susceptibility to glycopeptides. PMID:25278577

  11. Microdosimetry of negative pions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amols, H.I.; Dicello, J.F.; Lane, T.F.

    1976-01-01

    The radiation quality of negative and positive pions of initial momentum 168MeV/c has been determined at eight different depths in a liquid phantom. The measurements were made with a 2.5cm diameter spherical proportional counter with Shonka A-150 neutron tissue equivalent plastic walls. The gas pressure in the sensitive volume was chosen to stimulate a diameter of 2μm in unit density material. Dose distributions as a function of lineal energy change slowly in the entrance and plateau regions with a dose mean lineal energy of 6-8keV/μm. Less than 3% of the dose is delivered in excess of 50keV/μm in this region. In the Bragg peak region the distributions change rapidly as a function of depth with the dose mean lineal energy increasing to 38keV/μm at the peak and to 57keV/μm just beyond the peak. On the basis of these microdosimetric data predictions of RBE and OER have been made with the use of both the theory of dual radiation action and also the delta ray theory of cell survival. The former has been used to predict biological response at low doses and the latter at high doses. A comparison is made between the two theories at intermediate doses. The results of these calculations are not inconsistant with recent biological data

  12. Personal, social, and environmental correlates of walking to school behaviors: case study in Austin, Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xuemei; Arch, B; Lee, Chanam

    2008-09-21

    Walking is an affordable and environmentally clean mode of transportation that can bring additional benefits as healthy physical activity. This cross-sectional study examines the prevalence and correlates of walking to or from school in eight elementary schools in Austin, Texas, which have high percentages of low-income, Hispanic students. A survey of 1,281 parents was conducted, including questions about personal, social, and environmental factors that may influence their decisions on the children's school transportation. Binary logistic regressions were used to estimate the odds of choosing walking as the children's typical school travel mode. The results showed that walking was a typical mode for 28 and 34% of trips to and from school, respectively, and mostly accompanied by an adult. Parents' education level, family's car ownership, children's and parents' personal barriers, and having the school bus service reduced the likelihood of walking, while positive peer influences encouraged walking. Among the physical environmental factors, living close to school was the strongest positive predictor; safety concerns and the presence of highway or freeway en route were negative correlates. We concluded that the location of school is a key, as it determines the travel distance and the presence of highway or freeway en route. In addition to environmental improvements, educational and other assistance programs are needed for both parents and children to overcome their personal barriers and safety concerns. Health and disparity issues require further attention, as many underprivileged children have no other means of school transportation but walking in unsafe and poor environments.

  13. Meaning of the negative impedance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conciauro, G.; Puglisi, M.

    1981-06-01

    It is shown that the negative real part of an input impedance does not mean instability of the related circuit. A negative real part of the input impedance means only that the concerned circuit is active.

  14. Meaning of the negative impedance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conciauro, G.; Puglisi, M.

    1981-06-01

    It is shown that the negative real part of an input impedance does not mean instability of the related circuit. A negative real part of the input impedance means only that the concerned circuit is active

  15. Negative index in chiral metamaterials

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, S.; Plum, E.; Menzel, C.; Rockstuhl, C.; Zheludev, N.; Zhang, W.

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate that planar metamaterial lacking of mirror symmetry shows asymmetric transmission of terahertz waves and bands of positive, negative and zero phase and group velocities indicating a polarization sensitive negative index and slow-light media.

  16. Correlation of body mass index Z-scores with glucose and lipid profiles among overweight and obese children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira-de-Almeida, Carlos Alberto; Mello, Elza Daniel de

    2017-09-04

    To evaluate the prevalence of abnormalities in plasma lipid and glucose profiles among overweight and obese children and adolescents, and to assess the presence of a correlation between body mass index Z-scores and indicators of comorbidities related to both profiles. This was a multicenter cross-sectional study conducted at two outpatient clinics. The study included all 417 comers for the first visit from 2008 to 2012, aged between 7 and 18 years, with BMI above the Z-score +1. Anthropometry and blood sampling were obtained. The prevalence of dyslipidemias, hyperglycemia, and insulin resistance were evaluated, together with the correlations of these variables with the increase of Z-BMI. Dyslipidemia was observed in 43.4% of the boys and 66.1% of the girls, with no difference between genders. High glucose levels were detected in 6.2% of the individuals. Insulin resistance was present in 32.3% and 41.7% of the cases, with no statistical significance between boys and girls. Correlations between the Z-BMI were noted for triglycerides in the entire group and among girls; for HDL-c, only among girls; for glucose, a correlation was observed for the entire group, but not when stratified by gender. The indicators of insulin resistance were all correlated with Z-BMI, even when corrected for age. Overweight and obesity give origin to a high prevalence of dyslipidemia and insulin resistance. BMI Z-scores showed a weak positive correlation with glucose and triglyceride, and negative with HDL-c. In turn, the strongest positive correlation was found with insulin resistance indicators. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  17. Negative dimensional integrals. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halliday, I.G.; Ricotta, R.M.

    1987-01-01

    We propose a new method of evaluating integrals based on negative dimensional integration. We compute Feynman graphs by considering analytic extensions. Propagators are raised to negative integer powers and integrated over negative integer dimensions. We are left with the problem of computing polynomial integrals and summing finite series. (orig.)

  18. Thermodynamics of negative absolute pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lukacs, B.; Martinas, K.

    1984-03-01

    The authors show that the possibility of negative absolute pressure can be incorporated into the axiomatic thermodynamics, analogously to the negative absolute temperature. There are examples for such systems (GUT, QCD) processing negative absolute pressure in such domains where it can be expected from thermodynamical considerations. (author)

  19. Negative chemical ionization mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smit, A.L.C.

    1979-01-01

    This thesis describes some aspects of Negative Chemical Ionization (NCI) mass spectrometry. The reasons for the growing interest in NCI are: (i) to extend the basic knowledge of negative ions and their reactions in the gas phase; (ii) to investigate whether or not this knowledge of negative ions can be used successfully to elucidate the structure of molecules by mass spectrometry. (Auth.)

  20. Handwashing, sanitation and family planning practices are the strongest underlying determinants of child stunting in rural indigenous communities of Jharkhand and Odisha, Eastern India: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxton, Jennifer; Rath, Shibanand; Nair, Nirmala; Gope, Rajkumar; Mahapatra, Rajendra; Tripathy, Prasanta; Prost, Audrey

    2016-10-01

    The World Health Organisation has called for global action to reduce child stunting by 40% by 2025. One third of the world's stunted children live in India, and children belonging to rural indigenous communities are the worst affected. We sought to identify the strongest determinants of stunting among indigenous children in rural Jharkhand and Odisha, India, to highlight key areas for intervention. We analysed data from 1227 children aged 6-23.99 months and their mothers, collected in 2010 from 18 clusters of villages with a high proportion of people from indigenous groups in three districts. We measured height and weight of mothers and children, and captured data on various basic, underlying and immediate determinants of undernutrition. We used Generalised Estimating Equations to identify individual determinants associated with children's height-for-age z-score (HAZ; p family planning, reducing diarrhoeal infections, improving handwashing practices, increasing access to income and strengthening health and sanitation infrastructure. © 2016 The Authors. Maternal & Child Nutrition published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Validation of expression patterns for nine miRNAs in 204 lymph-node negative breast cancers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin Jonsdottir

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Although lymph node negative (LN- breast cancer patients have a good 10-years survival (∼85%, most of them still receive adjuvant therapy, while only some benefit from this. More accurate prognostication of LN- breast cancer patient may reduce over- and under-treatment. Until now proliferation is the strongest prognostic factor for LN- breast cancer patients. The small molecule microRNA (miRNA has opened a new window for prognostic markers, therapeutic targets and/or therapeutic components. Previously it has been shown that miR-18a/b, miR-25, miR-29c and miR-106b correlate to high proliferation. METHODS: The current study validates nine miRNAs (miR-18a/b miR-25, miR-29c, miR-106b, miR375, miR-424, miR-505 and let-7b significantly correlated with established prognostic breast cancer biomarkers. Total RNA was isolated from 204 formaldehyde-fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE LN- breast cancers and analyzed with quantitative real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction (qPCR. Independent T-test was used to detect significant correlation between miRNA expression level and the different clinicopathological features for breast cancer. RESULTS: Strong and significant associations were observed for high expression of miR-18a/b, miR-106b, miR-25 and miR-505 to high proliferation, oestrogen receptor negativity and cytokeratin 5/6 positivity. High expression of let-7b, miR-29c and miR-375 was detected in more differentiated tumours. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed that patients with high miR-106b expression had an 81% survival rate vs. 95% (P = 0.004 for patients with low expression. CONCLUSION: High expression of miR-18a/b are strongly associated with basal-like breast cancer features, while miR-106b can identify a group with higher risk for developing distant metastases in the subgroup of Her2 negatives. Furthermore miR-106b can identify a group of patients with 100% survival within the otherwise considered high risk group of patients with

  2. The clinicopathologic characteristics and prognostic significance of triple-negativity in node-negative breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhee, Jiyoung; Kim, Tae-You; Han, Sae-Won; Oh, Do-Youn; Kim, Jee Hyun; Im, Seock-Ah; Han, Wonshik; Ae Park, In; Noh, Dong-Young; Bang, Yung-Jue

    2008-01-01

    Triple-negative (TN) breast cancer, which is defined as being negative for the estrogen receptor (ER), the progesterone receptor (PR), and the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER-2), represents a subset of breast cancer with different biologic behaviour. We investigated the clinicopathologic characteristics and prognostic indicators of lymph node-negative TN breast cancer. Medical records were reviewed from patients with node-negative breast cancer who underwent curative surgery at Seoul National University Hospital between Jan. 2000 and Jun. 2003. Clinicopathologic variables and clinical outcomes were evaluated. Among 683 patients included, 136 had TN breast cancer and 529 had non-TN breast cancer. TN breast cancer correlated with younger age (< 35 y, p = 0.003), and higher histologic and nuclear grade (p < 0.001). It also correlated with a molecular profile associated with biological aggressiveness: negative for bcl-2 expression (p < 0.001), positive for the epidermal growth factor receptor (p = 0.003), and a high level of p53 (p < 0.001) and Ki67 expression (p < 0.00). The relapse rates during the follow-up period (median, 56.8 months) were 14.7% for TN breast cancer and 6.6% for non-TN breast cancer (p = 0.004). Relapse free survival (RFS) was significantly shorter among patients with TN breast cancer compared with those with non-TN breast cancer (4-year RFS rate 85.5% vs. 94.2%, respectively; p = 0.001). On multivariate analysis, young age, close resection margin, and triple-negativity were independent predictors of shorter RFS. TN breast cancer had higher relapse rate and more aggressive clinicopathologic characteristics than non-TN in node-negative breast cancer. Thus, TN breast cancer should be integrated into the risk factor analysis for node-negative breast cancer

  3. The case for negative senescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaupel, James W; Baudisch, Annette; Dölling, Martin

    2004-01-01

    Negative senescence is characterized by a decline in mortality with age after reproductive maturity, generally accompanied by an increase in fecundity. Hamilton (1966) ruled out negative senescence: we adumbrate the deficiencies of his model. We review empirical studies of various plants and some...... kinds of animals that may experience negative senescence and conclude that negative senescence may be widespread, especially in indeterminate-growth species for which size and fertility increase with age. We develop optimization models of life-history strategies that demonstrate that negative senescence...

  4. Correlation spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Michael B [Albuquerque, NM; Pfeifer, Kent B [Los Lunas, NM; Flemming, Jeb H [Albuquerque, NM; Jones, Gary D [Tijeras, NM; Tigges, Chris P [Albuquerque, NM

    2010-04-13

    A correlation spectrometer can detect a large number of gaseous compounds, or chemical species, with a species-specific mask wheel. In this mode, the spectrometer is optimized for the direct measurement of individual target compounds. Additionally, the spectrometer can measure the transmission spectrum from a given sample of gas. In this mode, infrared light is passed through a gas sample and the infrared transmission signature of the gasses present is recorded and measured using Hadamard encoding techniques. The spectrometer can detect the transmission or emission spectra in any system where multiple species are present in a generally known volume.

  5. The clinicopathologic characteristics and prognostic significance of triple-negativity in node-negative breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Wonshik

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Triple-negative (TN breast cancer, which is defined as being negative for the estrogen receptor (ER, the progesterone receptor (PR, and the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER-2, represents a subset of breast cancer with different biologic behaviour. We investigated the clinicopathologic characteristics and prognostic indicators of lymph node-negative TN breast cancer. Methods Medical records were reviewed from patients with node-negative breast cancer who underwent curative surgery at Seoul National University Hospital between Jan. 2000 and Jun. 2003. Clinicopathologic variables and clinical outcomes were evaluated. Results Among 683 patients included, 136 had TN breast cancer and 529 had non-TN breast cancer. TN breast cancer correlated with younger age (p = 0.003, and higher histologic and nuclear grade (p p p = 0.003, and a high level of p53 (p p p = 0.004. Relapse free survival (RFS was significantly shorter among patients with TN breast cancer compared with those with non-TN breast cancer (4-year RFS rate 85.5% vs. 94.2%, respectively; p = 0.001. On multivariate analysis, young age, close resection margin, and triple-negativity were independent predictors of shorter RFS. Conclusion TN breast cancer had higher relapse rate and more aggressive clinicopathologic characteristics than non-TN in node-negative breast cancer. Thus, TN breast cancer should be integrated into the risk factor analysis for node-negative breast cancer.

  6. Hopelessness and positive and negative future thinking in parasuicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLeod, Andrew K; Tata, Philip; Tyrer, Peter; Schmidt, Ulrike; Davidson, Kate; Thompson, Simon

    2005-11-01

    Hopelessness about the future is a key element in suicidal behaviour. The aim of the present study was to examine possible components of hopelessness, in particular, to contrast positive and negative future thinking and to examine separately number, expectancy, and value of anticipated positive and negative future experiences. A correlational design. Repeat parasuicide patients (N = 441) were administered the Beck Hopelessness Scale, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and the future thinking task, a measure of future positive and negative thinking that assesses number, perceived likelihood, and perceived value of anticipated future positive and negative events. Consistent with predictions, hopelessness correlated more strongly with lack of positive thoughts about the future than it did with presence of negative thoughts. Both positive and negative future thinking showed a relationship to hopelessness over and above their relationships to depression (positive future thinking) and anxiety (negative future thinking). Number and likelihood of positive events and likelihood and value of negative events showed both simple and partial relationships to hopelessness. Number of negative events related to hopelessness but only after the other future thinking variables had been controlled for and value of positive events no longer related to hopelessness after controlling for the other variables. Hopelessness about the future in suicidal individuals is a multi-faceted construct but lack of positive future thinking is more important than presence of negative future thinking.

  7. Negative snakes in JET: evidence for negative shear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gill, R.D.; Alper, B.; Edwards, A.W.

    1994-01-01

    The signature of the negative snakes from the soft X-ray cameras is very similar to the more usual snakes except that the localised region of the snake has, compared with its surroundings, decreased rather than increased emission. Circumstances where negative snakes have been seen are reviewed. The negative snake appears as a region of increased resistance and of increased impurity density. The relationship between the shear and the current perturbation is shown, and it seem probable that the magnetic shear is reversed at the point of the negative snake, i.e. that q is decreasing with radius. 6 refs., 6 figs

  8. Correlation of Alzheimer's disease death rates with historical per capita personal income in the USA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dariusz Stępkowski

    Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease (AD is a progressive degenerating disease of complex etiology. A variety of risk factors contribute to the chance of developing AD. Lifestyle factors, such as physical, mental and social activity, education, and diet all affect the susceptibility to developing AD. These factors are in turn related to the level of personal income. Lower income usually coincides with lower level of education, lesser mental, leisure-social and physical activity, and poorer diet. In the present paper, we have analyzed the correlation of historical (1929-2011 per capita personal income (PCPI for all states of the USA with corresponding age-adjusted AD death rates (AADR for years 2000, 2005 and 2008. We found negative correlations in all cases, the highest one (R ≈ -0.65 for the PCPIs in the year 1970 correlated against the AADRs in 2005. From 1929 to 2005 the R value varies in an oscillatory manner, with the strongest correlations in 1929, 1970, 1990 and the weakest in 1950, 1980, 1998. Further analysis indicated that this oscillatory behavior of R is not artificially related to the economic factors but rather to delayed biological consequences associated with personal income. We conclude that the influence of the income level on the AD mortality in 2005 was the highest in the early years of life of the AD victims. Overall, the income had a significant, lifelong, albeit constantly decreasing, influence on the risk of developing AD. We postulate that the susceptibility of a population to late-onset AD (LOAD is determined to a large extent by the history of income-related modifiable lifestyle risk factors. Among these risk factors, inappropriate diet has a significant contribution.

  9. Anti-citrullinated peptide antibodies are the strongest predictor of clinically relevant radiographic progression in rheumatoid arthritis patients achieving remission or low disease activity: A post hoc analysis of a nationwide cohort in Japan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomohiro Koga

    Full Text Available To determine prognostic factors of clinically relevant radiographic progression (CRRP in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA achieving remission or low disease activity (LDA in clinical practice.Using data from a nationwide, multicenter, prospective study in Japan, we evaluated 198 biological disease-modifying antirheumatic drug (bDMARD-naïve RA patients who were in remission or had LDA at study entry after being treated with conventional synthetic DMARDs (csDMARDs. CRRP was defined as the yearly progression of modified total Sharp score (mTSS >3.0 U. We performed a multiple logistic regression analysis to explore the factors to predict CRRP at 1 year. We used receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve to estimate the performance of relevant variables for predicting CRRP.The mean Disease Activity Score in 28 joints-erythrocyte sedimentation rate (DAS28-ESR was 2.32 ± 0.58 at study entry. During the 1-year observation, remission or LDA persisted in 72% of the patients. CRRP was observed in 7.6% of the patients. The multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that the independent variables to predict the development of CRRP were: anti-citrullinated peptide antibodies (ACPA positivity at baseline (OR = 15.2, 95%CI 2.64-299, time-integrated DAS28-ESR during the 1 year post-baseline (7.85-unit increase, OR = 1.83, 95%CI 1.03-3.45, and the mTSS at baseline (13-unit increase, OR = 1.22, 95%CI 1.06-1.42.ACPA positivity was the strongest independent predictor of CRRP in patients with RA in remission or LDA. Physicians should recognize ACPA as a poor-prognosis factor regarding the radiographic outcome of RA, even among patients showing a clinically favorable response to DMARDs.

  10. Prostate volume is strongest predictor of cancer diagnosis at transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy with prostate-specific antigen values between 2.0 and 9.0 ng/mL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Azab, Rami; Toi, Ants; Lockwood, Gina; Kulkarni, Girish S; Fleshner, Neil

    2007-01-01

    Data have suggested benign prostatic hyperplasia, and not cancer, as the major reason for elevated prostate-specific antigen (PSA) values between 2.0 and 9.0 ng/mL. If this hypothesis were correct, within these ranges, a smaller prostate volume would be a stronger predictor of cancer than the PSA level itself (the relative contribution from cancer is greater in smaller glands). We examined our institutional data set of transrectal ultrasound-guided procedures from 2000 to 2003. We studied patients who presented for their first prostate biopsy with a PSA level of 2.0 to 9.0 ng/mL. The indications for biopsy were elevated age-specific PSA level or abnormal digital rectal examination findings. Other covariates included patient age, abnormal transrectal ultrasound findings, transrectal ultrasound volume, and biopsy sampling scheme. Univariate analyses were used to assess the association between each variable and cancer diagnosis. Multivariate logistic regression modeling was then used to determine the adjusted risk factors for cancer at biopsy. On univariate analyses, all measured covariates were predictive of cancer. On multivariate modeling, the significant risk factors (in order of strength) for positive biopsy findings were smaller prostate volume (odds ratio [OR] 0.26, P <0.001), increasing age (OR 1.72, P <0.001), increasing PSA (OR 1.64, P <0.001), and the presence of hypoechoic lesions (OR 2.42, P <0.001). When the PSA level is in the 2.0 to 9.0 ng/mL range, a smaller prostate volume is the strongest predictor of cancer detection. These data support previous studies suggesting the amount of benign prostatic hyperplasia, and not cancer, as the major factor responsible for elevated PSA.

  11. Two pion correlation from SPACER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Csoergoe, T.; Zimanyi, J.; Pratt, S.

    1989-12-01

    The correlation function for neutral and negative pions produced in ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions was calculated without free parameters based on a space-time version of the LUND model, called SPACER: Simulation of Phase space distribution of Atomic nuclear Collisions in Energetic Reactions. This method includes the effect of Bose correlations for the emitted pion pair. Effects arising from correlations between space-time and momentum space distributions are investigated. The results are compared to the data of two different experiments. The role and interpretation of the chaocity parameter are discussed. (D.G.) 14 refs.; 4 figs

  12. Circumplex Models for Correlation Matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, Michael W.

    1992-01-01

    Structural models that yield circumplex inequality patterns are reviewed, focusing on a model developed by T. W. Anderson (1960). A modification is proposed to this model to allow for negative correlations. This model may be reparameterized as a factor analysis model with nonlinear constraints on the factor loadings. (SLD)

  13. Correlations Between Clinical Parameters and Health-Related Quality of Life in Postmenopausal Osteoporotic Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grbovic Vesna

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to assess the correlation between health-related quality of life (HRQoL and clinically relevant osteodensitometric and biochemical parameters in postmenopausal osteoporotic women. Bone mineral density (BMD and T scores of the lumbar vertebrae and femoral neck were assessed in 100 osteoporotic women (56 without previous fractures and 44 with previous fractures using dual x-ray absorptiometry. The Fracture Risk Assessment Tool (FRAX index for major osteoporotic and hip fractures was calculated based on demographic data and hip BMD. Venous blood samples were taken from each subject for biochemical analysis (serum calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase and vitamin D levels. HRQoL was assessed using the QUALEFFO-41 questionnaire (domains: Health perception, Pain, and Physical, Social and Mental function. Basic participant characteristics (age, menopause length, body mass index, smoking habits, hereditary tendency towards fracture, fracture history correlated with some of the QUALEFFO-41 domains, but the correlation coefficients were low (r<0.3, except in the case of the correlation between Pain and fracture history (r=0.638. Of the six variables included in the multiple regression model, fracture history was shown to be the most significant predictor with respect to the following three QUALEFFO-41 domains: Pain (b=20.511, Social function (b=2.548 and Health perception (b=3.185. Correlation analysis showed that after adjustment for basic characteristics, BMD and T score of the femoral neck and Pain (r=0.331 and r=0.449, respectively, Social function (r=0.422 and r=0.419 and Health perception (r=0.434 for T score of the femoral neck exhibited the strongest correlations. Vitamin D was negatively correlated with Mental function, while the other biochemical parameters exhibited variable correlations with the QUALEFFO- 41 domains (r≈0.2-0.5. Our study confirmed the previously established relationship between BMD of the

  14. Wages, Amenities and Negative Attitudes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waisman, Gisela; Larsen, Birthe

    We exploit the regional variation in negative attitudes towards immigrants to Sweden in order to analyse the consequences of the attitudes on immigrants welfare. We find that attitudes towards immigrants are of importance: they both affect their labour market outcomes and their quality of life. We...... interpret the negative effect on wages as evidence of labour market discrimination. We estimate the welfare effects of negative attitudes, through their wage and local amenities, for immigrants with different levels of skills, origin, gender and age....

  15. On Negation as Mitigation: The Case of Negative Irony

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giora, Rachel; Fein, Ofer; Ganzi, Jonathan; Levi, Natalie Alkeslassy; Sabah, Hadas

    2005-01-01

    Four experiments support the view of negation as mitigation (Giora, Balaban, Fein, & Alkabets, 2004). They show that when irony involves some sizable gap between what is said and what is criticized (He is exceptionally bright said of an idiot), it is rated as highly ironic (Giora, 1995). A negated version of that overstatement (He is not…

  16. Intense negative heavy ion sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Yoshiharu; Takagi, Akira; Ikegami, Kiyoshi; Ueno, Akira; Fukumoto, Sadayoshi

    1990-08-01

    Negative ion sources based on plasma-surface interactions (BLAKE ion source) have been developed at KEK for producing negative heavy ions. The first negative heavy ion source (BLAKE-II) was developed by modifying the ordinary negative hydrogen ion source with converter (BLAKE-I) placed into the plasma. It generates various species of negative heavy ions with intense beam currents. For example, a more than 10 mA Au- ion beam was obtained from the ion source. Recently, the large scaled negative heavy ion source (BLAKE-III) has been developed and in the preliminary test experiment, more than 100 mA Cu- ion beam has been stably obtained with a 10% duty factor in pulsed operation. The BLAKE-II ion source was attached to the BNL 15 MV and Tsukuba University TANDEM accelerators and large current negative heavy ion beams were successfully accelerated in pulsed mode operation. Also, it was found that the space charge effect should be carefully considered for such a large current acceleration in a tandem accelerator, especially at the injection beam line and low energy end. In order to examine the negative ion formation process fundamentally, negative ion production probability related on sputtered particle velocity was measured and the results showed exponential dependence of the production probability on particle velocity as Norskov and Lindquist's theory predicted.

  17. Prestarlike functions with negative coefficients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Silverman

    1979-01-01

    Full Text Available The extreme points for prestarlike functions having negative coefficients are determined. Coefficient, distortion and radii of univalence, starlikeness, and convexity theorems are also obtained.

  18. Negative ions of polyatomic molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christophorou, LG.

    1980-01-01

    In this paper general concepts relating to, and recent advances in, the study of negative ions of polyatomic molecules are discussed with emphasis on halocarbons. The topics dealt with in the paper are as follows: basic electron attachment processes, modes of electron capture by molecules, short-lived transient negative ions, dissociative electron attachment to ground-state molecules and to hot molecules (effects of temperature on electron attachment), parent negative ions, effect of density, nature, and state of the medium on electron attachment, electron attachment to electronically excited molecules, the binding of attached electrons to molecules (electron affinity), and the basic and the applied significance of negative-ion studies

  19. Clinical Significance of CK19 Negative Breast Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujisue, Mamiko, E-mail: nishimura.reiki@cityhosp-kumamoto.jp; Nishimura, Reiki; Okumura, Yasuhiro [Department of Breast and Endocrine Surgery, Kumamoto City Hospital, 1-1-60 Kotoh, Kumamoto City, Kumamoto 862-8505 (Japan); Tashima, Rumiko [Department of Surgery, Kumamoto City Hospital, 1-1-60 Kotoh, Kumamoto City, Kumamoto 862-8505 (Japan); Nishiyama, Yasuyuki; Osako, Tomofumi [Department of Breast and Endocrine Surgery, Kumamoto City Hospital, 1-1-60 Kotoh, Kumamoto City, Kumamoto 862-8505 (Japan); Toyozumi, Yasuo; Arima, Nobuyuki [Department of Pathology, Kumamoto City Hospital, 1-1-60 Kotoh, Kumamoto City, Kumamoto 862-8505 (Japan)

    2012-12-21

    Analysis of sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) by means of One-Step Nucleic Acid Amplification (OSNA) is gaining widespread use as a quick and accurate method. This assay detects the expression level of cytokeratin 19 (CK19) which is present in some but not all breast tumors. In this study, the clinical significance of negative CK19 was investigated in 219 cases of primary breast cancer. In 179 patients with clinically negative nodes, OSNA and imprint smear cytology of SLN were performed simultaneously. The OSNA revealed a node-positive rate of 24.6%. Negative CK19 correlated significantly with negative ER/PgR and higher Ki-67 values, and marginally with higher nuclear grade and p53 overexpression. The triple negative subtype showed lower CK19 expression. OSNA revealed that one of the negative CK19 cases was actually a false negative but this was corrected with the use of the imprint smear cytology. In conclusion, CK19 negativity reflected the aggressiveness of primary breast cancer. OSNA assay used to analyze SLN was useful, but there is a possibility that it will mistakenly detect false negatives in CK19 negative tumors. Therefore, in tumors with negative CK19, the imprint smear cytology may be more useful in cases with macrometastasis.

  20. Clinical Significance of CK19 Negative Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuyuki Arima

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs by means of One-Step Nucleic Acid Amplification (OSNA is gaining widespread use as a quick and accurate method. This assay detects the expression level of cytokeratin 19 (CK19 which is present in some but not all breast tumors. In this study, the clinical significance of negative CK19 was investigated in 219 cases of primary breast cancer. In 179 patients with clinically negative nodes, OSNA and imprint smear cytology of SLN were performed simultaneously. The OSNA revealed a node-positive rate of 24.6%. Negative CK19 correlated significantly with negative ER/PgR and higher Ki-67 values, and marginally with higher nuclear grade and p53 overexpression. The triple negative subtype showed lower CK19 expression. OSNA revealed that one of the negative CK19 cases was actually a false negative but this was corrected with the use of the imprint smear cytology. In conclusion, CK19 negativity reflected the aggressiveness of primary breast cancer. OSNA assay used to analyze SLN was useful, but there is a possibility that it will mistakenly detect false negatives in CK19 negative tumors. Therefore, in tumors with negative CK19, the imprint smear cytology may be more useful in cases with macrometastasis.

  1. Double-Negative Mechanical Metamaterials Displaying Simultaneous Negative Stiffness and Negative Poisson’s Ratio Properties

    OpenAIRE

    Hewage, Trishan A.M.; Alderson, Kim L; Alderson, Andrew; Scarpa, Fabrizio

    2016-01-01

    Intuitively, materials become both shorter and wider when compressed along their length. Here we show how a composite material or structure can display a simultaneous reversal in the direction of deformation for both the axial and transverse dimensions, corresponding to negative values of effective stiffness and effective Poisson’s ratio, respectively. A negative Poisson’s ratio[1] (NPR or auxetic[2]) host assembly stabilising (otherwise unstable) embedded negative stiffness[3] (NS) elements ...

  2. Negative supervisionsoplevelser og deres konsekvenser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jan

    2011-01-01

    in evaluation. First part of the paper explores negative experience in supervision in general. The second part, focusing on negative experience in supervision caused by evaluation, is explored and discussed in relation to the key concept of supervisory alliance (Bordin, 1983), perceiving evaluation...

  3. Research priorities for negative emissions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fuss, S.; Jones, C. D.; Kraxner, F.; Peters, G. P.; Smith, P.; Tavoni, M.; van Vuuren, Detlef; Canadell, J. G.; Jackson, R. B.; Milne, J.; Moreira, J. R.; Nakicenovic, N.; Sharifi, A.; Yamagata, Y.

    2016-01-01

    Carbon dioxide removal from the atmosphere (CDR) - also known as 'negative emissions' - features prominently in most 2 °C scenarios and has been under increased scrutiny by scientists, citizens, and policymakers. Critics argue that 'negative emission technologies' (NETs) are insufficiently mature to

  4. Income, Amenities and Negative Attitudes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waisman, Gisela; Larsen, Birthe

    2016-01-01

    We exploit the regional variation in negative attitudes towards immigrants to Sweden in order to analyse the consequences of negative attitudes on refugees’ utility from labour income and amenities. We find that attitudes towards immigrants are important: while they affect mainly the refugees...

  5. Question tags and sentential negativity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brasoveanu, A.; De Clercq, K.; Farkas, D.; Roelofsen, F.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an experiment that is designed to quantify the negativity of sentences with different types of negative operators (n-words like never and downward entailing operators like rarely) in different syntactic positions (adverb, subject, and direct object). In the experiment,

  6. Isotropic Negative Thermal Expansion Metamaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lingling; Li, Bo; Zhou, Ji

    2016-07-13

    Negative thermal expansion materials are important and desirable in science and engineering applications. However, natural materials with isotropic negative thermal expansion are rare and usually unsatisfied in performance. Here, we propose a novel method to achieve two- and three-dimensional negative thermal expansion metamaterials via antichiral structures. The two-dimensional metamaterial is constructed with unit cells that combine bimaterial strips and antichiral structures, while the three-dimensional metamaterial is fabricated by a multimaterial 3D printing process. Both experimental and simulation results display isotropic negative thermal expansion property of the samples. The effective coefficient of negative thermal expansion of the proposed models is demonstrated to be dependent on the difference between the thermal expansion coefficient of the component materials, as well as on the circular node radius and the ligament length in the antichiral structures. The measured value of the linear negative thermal expansion coefficient of the three-dimensional sample is among the largest achieved in experiments to date. Our findings provide an easy and practical approach to obtaining materials with tunable negative thermal expansion on any scale.

  7. self concept and personality correlates amongst homosexuals

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-01-31

    Jan 31, 2014 ... will be high scores in negative physical and psychological self concept. It was also hypothesized that no ... significant correlation was found between self concept and personality; and there were high scores in negative physical and psychological self ... discussed topic in psychology. Years-long researches.

  8. Negative Attitudes, Network and Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennett, Patrick; la Cour, Lisbeth; Larsen, Birthe

    This paper explores potential explanations behind the educational gap between young natives and immigrants using two measures, negative attitudes towards immigrants and networking, which may influence natives and immigrants differently. The paper considers, both theoretically and empirically......, the impact of negative attitudes and networking taking into account that these parameters may influence high and uneducated workers as well as immigrants and natives differently, creating different incentives to acquire education for the two ethnic groups. Using rich Danish administrative data, this paper...... finds evidence that greater negative attitudes increase incentives for males to acquire education and that networking also increases immigrant education....

  9. Mazindol treatment of negative symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, W T; Breier, A; Buchanan, R W; Kirkpatrick, B; Shepard, P; Weiner, E

    2000-10-01

    Hypodopaminergic and hyponoradrenergic pathophysiology may be a basis for primary and/or secondary negative symptoms in schizophrenia. The hypothesis that enhanced neurotransmission in these systems would be therapeutic for negative symptoms was tested by comparing mazindol and placebo in a double-blind, cross-over design trial. Outcome following mazindol supplementation was comparable to placebo supplementation (F(1,30) = 0.9; p = .57). Results for deficit and non-deficit schizophrenia subjects were similar, and were not affected by whether concurrent the antipsychotic drug treatment was clozapine, fluphenazine, or haloperidol. The efficacy hypothesis was not supported for either primary or secondary negative symptoms.

  10. [APPLICATION OF NEGATIVE PRESSURE THERAPY].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laginja, S; Marinović, M

    2016-01-01

    Negative pressure therapy is gradually taking an increasingly important role in the treatment of chronic wound healing because of its simple application in hospital or outpatient setting and good comfort with no pain for the patient. Chronic wound healing is accelerated in comparison with other conservative treatments. The level of negative pressure is between 40 and 125 mm Hg below ambient. Direct and indirect effect of the negative pressure therapy helps in wound healing and provides good preparation for definitive surgical management of wounds.

  11. Physical Fitness, Physical Activity, Sedentary Behavior, or Diet—What Are the Correlates of Obesity in Polish School Children?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanisław H. Czyż

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available There is substantial evidence of rising prevalence of overweight and obesity and its co-morbidities among children in western-high income developed countries. In the European Union, the prevalence of overweight and obesity is increasing fastest among Polish children. Yet, there is paucity of evidence on the relationship of behavioral factors with body weight status of children in Poland. This study examined the association of obesity with physical fitness, physical activity, sedentary behavior and diet among Polish children. A total of 641 children (10–15 years recruited from the Lower Silesia region of Poland participated in this cross-sectional study. Participants’ anthropometrics, physical fitness, physical activity, sedentary behavior and dietary intake were assessed. Outcome variables were weight categories (according to body mass index [BMI], waist-to-hip ratio [WHR], and percentage body fat [% BF]. The strongest negative correlation was found between VO2max and %BF (r = −0.39, p <0.05. Significant negative correlation was also found between VO2max and weight categories (r = −0.15. Results of the multinomial logit analysis showed that VO2max increased in groups of overweight, normal weight and underweight children by 13%, 26% and 19%, respectively as compared to the group of obese children. VO2max and weight and obesity indices were strongly correlated in both gender and age groups. Education and intervention programs to increase physical fitness (VO2max through aerobic training are recommended for Physical Education teachers, parents and children in order to reduce the rate of overweight and obesity among children in the Lower Silesia region of Poland.

  12. Relationship between mental health and spiritual wellbeing among hemodialysis patients: a correlation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Bertolaccini Martinez

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: The stress of living with a terminal disease has a negative impact on the mental health of hemodialysis (HD patients. Spirituality is a potential coping mechanism for stressful experiences. Studies on the relationship between spirituality and mental health among HD patients are scarce. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between mental health and spiritual well-being among HD patients. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional observational study on hemodialysis patients at a single center in Brazil, between January and December 2011. METHODS : Mental health was assessed using the General Health Questionnaire and spiritual wellbeing was assessed using the Spiritual Wellbeing Scale; 150 HD patients participated in the study. RESULTS : A significant correlation was found between mental health and spiritual wellbeing (P = 0.001. Spiritual wellbeing was the strongest predictor of mental health, psychological distress, sleep disturbance and psychosomatic complaints. CONCLUSION: Poor mental health was associated with lower spiritual wellbeing. This has important implications for delivery of palliative care to HD patients.

  13. Physical Fitness, Physical Activity, Sedentary Behavior, or Diet—What Are the Correlates of Obesity in Polish School Children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czyż, Stanisław H.; Toriola, Abel L.; Starościak, Wojciech; Lewandowski, Marek; Paul, Yvonne; Oyeyemi, Adewale L.

    2017-01-01

    There is substantial evidence of rising prevalence of overweight and obesity and its co-morbidities among children in western-high income developed countries. In the European Union, the prevalence of overweight and obesity is increasing fastest among Polish children. Yet, there is paucity of evidence on the relationship of behavioral factors with body weight status of children in Poland. This study examined the association of obesity with physical fitness, physical activity, sedentary behavior and diet among Polish children. A total of 641 children (10–15 years) recruited from the Lower Silesia region of Poland participated in this cross-sectional study. Participants’ anthropometrics, physical fitness, physical activity, sedentary behavior and dietary intake were assessed. Outcome variables were weight categories (according to body mass index [BMI], waist-to-hip ratio [WHR], and percentage body fat [% BF]). The strongest negative correlation was found between VO2max and %BF (r = −0.39, p children by 13%, 26% and 19%, respectively as compared to the group of obese children. VO2max and weight and obesity indices were strongly correlated in both gender and age groups. Education and intervention programs to increase physical fitness (VO2max) through aerobic training are recommended for Physical Education teachers, parents and children in order to reduce the rate of overweight and obesity among children in the Lower Silesia region of Poland. PMID:28632175

  14. Physical Fitness, Physical Activity, Sedentary Behavior, or Diet-What Are the Correlates of Obesity in Polish School Children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czyż, Stanisław H; Toriola, Abel L; Starościak, Wojciech; Lewandowski, Marek; Paul, Yvonne; Oyeyemi, Adewale L

    2017-06-20

    There is substantial evidence of rising prevalence of overweight and obesity and its co-morbidities among children in western-high income developed countries. In the European Union, the prevalence of overweight and obesity is increasing fastest among Polish children. Yet, there is paucity of evidence on the relationship of behavioral factors with body weight status of children in Poland. This study examined the association of obesity with physical fitness, physical activity, sedentary behavior and diet among Polish children. A total of 641 children (10-15 years) recruited from the Lower Silesia region of Poland participated in this cross-sectional study. Participants' anthropometrics, physical fitness, physical activity, sedentary behavior and dietary intake were assessed. Outcome variables were weight categories (according to body mass index [BMI], waist-to-hip ratio [WHR], and percentage body fat [% BF]). The strongest negative correlation was found between VO₂max and %BF ( r = -0.39, p children by 13%, 26% and 19%, respectively as compared to the group of obese children. VO₂max and weight and obesity indices were strongly correlated in both gender and age groups. Education and intervention programs to increase physical fitness (VO₂max) through aerobic training are recommended for Physical Education teachers, parents and children in order to reduce the rate of overweight and obesity among children in the Lower Silesia region of Poland.

  15. Molecular imaging correlates of tryptophan metabolism via the kynurenine pathway in human meningiomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosnyák, Edit; Kamson, David O; Guastella, Anthony R; Varadarajan, Kaushik; Robinette, Natasha L; Kupsky, William J; Muzik, Otto; Michelhaugh, Sharon K; Mittal, Sandeep; Juhász, Csaba

    2015-09-01

    Increased tryptophan metabolism via the kynurenine pathway (KP) is a key mechanism of tumoral immune suppression in gliomas. However, details of tryptophan metabolism in meningiomas have not been elucidated. In this study, we evaluated in vivo tryptophan metabolism in meningiomas and compared it with gliomas using α-[(11)C]-methyl-L-tryptophan (AMT)-PET. We also explored expression patterns of KP enzymes in resected meningiomas. Forty-seven patients with MRI-detected meningioma (n = 16) and glioma (n = 31) underwent presurgical AMT-PET scanning. Tumoral AMT uptake and tracer kinetic parameters (including K and k3' evaluating unidirectional uptake and trapping, respectively) were measured, correlated with meningioma grade, and compared between meningiomas and gliomas. Patterns of KP enzyme expression were assessed by immunohistochemistry in all meningiomas. Meningioma grade showed a positive correlation with AMT k3' tumor/cortex ratio (r = 0.75, P = .003), and this PET parameter distinguished grade I from grade II/III meningiomas with 92% accuracy. Kinetic AMT parameters could differentiate meningiomas from both low-grade gliomas (97% accuracy by k3' ratios) and high-grade gliomas (83% accuracy by K ratios). Among 3 initial KP enzymes (indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1/2, and tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase 2 [TDO2]), TDO2 showed the strongest immunostaining, particularly in grade I meningiomas. TDO2 also showed a strong negative correlation with AMT k3' ratios (P = .001). PET imaging of tryptophan metabolism can provide quantitative imaging markers for differentiating grade I from grade II/III meningiomas. TDO2 may be an important driver of in vivo tryptophan metabolism in these tumors. These results can have implications for pharmacological targeting of the KP in meningiomas. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Neuro-Oncology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Adjective metaphors evoke negative meanings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maki Sakamoto

    Full Text Available Previous metaphor studies have paid much attention to nominal metaphors and predicative metaphors, but little attention has been given to adjective metaphors. Although some studies have focused on adjective metaphors, they only examined differences in the acceptability of various types of adjective metaphors. This paper explores the cognitive effects evoked by adjective metaphors. Three psychological experiments revealed that (1 adjective metaphors, especially those modified by color adjectives, tend to evoke negative effect; (2 although the meanings of metaphors are basically affected by the meanings of their vehicles, when a vehicle has a neutral meaning, negative meanings are evoked most frequently for adjective metaphors compared to nominal and predicative metaphors; (3 negative meanings evoked by adjective metaphors are related to poeticness, and poetic metaphors evoke negative meanings more easily than less poetic metaphors. Our research sheds new light on studies of the use of metaphor, which is one of the most basic human cognitive abilities.

  17. Ferroelectric Negative Capacitance Domain Dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Hoffmann, Michael; Khan, Asif Islam; Serrao, Claudy; Lu, Zhongyuan; Salahuddin, Sayeef; Pešić, Milan; Slesazeck, Stefan; Schroeder, Uwe; Mikolajick, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Transient negative capacitance effects in epitaxial ferroelectric Pb(Zr$_{0.2}$Ti$_{0.8}$)O$_3$ capacitors are investigated with a focus on the dynamical switching behavior governed by domain nucleation and growth. Voltage pulses are applied to a series connection of the ferroelectric capacitor and a resistor to directly measure the ferroelectric negative capacitance during switching. A time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau approach is used to investigate the underlying domain dynamics. The transien...

  18. Negative magnetic relaxation in superconductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krasnoperov E.P.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available It was observed that the trapped magnetic moment of HTS tablets or annuli increases in time (negative relaxation if they are not completely magnetized by a pulsed magnetic field. It is shown, in the framework of the Bean critical-state model, that the radial temperature gradient appearing in tablets or annuli during a pulsed field magnetization can explain the negative magnetic relaxation in the superconductor.

  19. Use of Negation in Search

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    as of May 2010, produced a large number of images of Volkswagen Beetles as shown in Figure 8. After indicating they were ready to proceed... Volkswagen 1 beetle -VW -car 1 beetle –car - Volkswagen 1 beetle -VW - Volkswagen 1 beetle -VW -car - Volkswagen 1 black beetle Not within first 30...that had many Volkswagen Beetles in the results, why did you choose not to use negation?] 9. [Do you think that negation would have been useful in

  20. SM-1 negative ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Zhenjun; Wang Jianzhen

    1987-01-01

    The working principle and characteristics of SM-1 Negative Ion Source is mainly introduced. In the instrument, there is a device to remove O 3 . This instrument can keep high density of negative ions which is generated by the electrical coronas setting out electricity at negative high voltage and can remove the O 3 component which is harmful to the human body. The density of negative ions is higher than 2.5 x 10 6 p./cm 3 while that of O 3 components is less than 1 ppb at the distance of 50 cm from the panel of the instrument. The instrument sprays negative ions automatically without the help of electric fan, so it works noiselessly. It is widely used in national defence, industry, agriculture, forestry, stock raising, sidelines and in the places with an equipment of low density of negative ion or high concentration of O 3 components. Besides, the instrument may also be used to treat diseases, to prevent against rot, to arrest bacteria, to purify air and so on

  1. Correlations between humor styles and loneliness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampes, William P

    2005-06-01

    In a previous study, a significant negative correlation between shyness with affiliative humor and a significant positive one with self-defeating humor were reported. Since shyness and loneliness share many of the same characteristics, poor social skills and negative affect, for example, significant negative correlations of loneliness with affiliative and self-enhancing humor and a significant positive one with self-defeating humor were hypothesized. 106 community college students (34 men, 72 women) ranging in age from 17 to 52 years (M=23.5, SD=7.7) were tested. The hypotheses were supported. Interrelationships among humor, shyness, and loneliness should be examined within one study.

  2. The Relationship between Negative Affect and Reported Cognitive Failures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tabitha W. Payne

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to expand our understanding of the range of negative affect associated with reported problems with everyday functions and activities, measured by the cognitive failures questionnaire (CFQ. Evidence from previous research indicates that individuals meeting criteria for mood disorders, such as major depression or seasonal affective disorder, experience cognitive deficits in memory and attention that can lead to problems with everyday activities reported in the CFQ. The Positive and Negative Affect Scale (PANAS was used to assess potential correlations with a wider range of negative emotions. Findings for a sample of 129 college students revealed that negative affective experiences were significantly correlated with failures of memory and attention on the CFQ (fear = .41, hostility = .38, sadness = .28, and guilt = .43. Conversely, positive affect was negatively correlated with distractibility (r=−.21. Additional affective scales on the PANAS (e.g., shyness and fatigue were also associated with higher reports of cognitive failures. The results provide converging evidence of a relationship between negative affective experiences and reported frequency of problems on the cognitive failures questionnaire.

  3. Correlations and Correlated Responses in Upland Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Echekwu, CA.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Plant breeders must be concerned with the total array of economic characters in their efforts to develop a crop variety acceptable to farmers. Their selection endeavours must therefore take into consideration how changes in one trait affect, simultaneously changes in other economic attributes. The importance of correlations and correlated responses is therefore self evident in plant breeding endeavours. In this study F3 progenies from a cross between two cotton lines SAMCOT-9 x Y422 were evaluated for two years and performance data were used to obtain correlations between nine agronomic and fibre quality traits in upland cotton. The results indicated that plant helght was significantly and positively correlated with seed cotton yield, number of sympodial and monopodial branches, seed index, fibre length and micronaire index. Positive and significant correlations were also obtained between : seed cotton yield, tint percent and fibre strength and fibre length. Significant negative correlations were obtained between : plant height and lint percent ; number of monopodial branches, sympodial branches and lint percent ; fibre length, fibre strength and micronaire index. The correlated responses in the other eight traits when selection was practiced for seed cotton yield in the present study shows that it might be more profitable to practice direct selection for seed cotton yield compared to selecting for seed cotton yield through any of the other traits.

  4. Negative circular polarization as a universal property of quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, Matthew W.; Spencer, Peter; Murray, Ray [The Blackett Laboratory, Department of Physics, Imperial College London, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

    2015-03-23

    This paper shows that negative circular polarization, a spin flip of polarized carriers resulting in emission of opposite helicity, can be observed in undoped, n-doped, and p-doped InAs/GaAs quantum dots. These results contradict the usual interpretation of the effect. We show using power dependent and time resolved spectroscopy that the generation of negative circular polarization correlates with excited state emission. Furthermore, a longer spin lifetime of negatively polarized excitons is observed where emission is largely ground state in character.

  5. Significance of negative ion formation in sputtering and SIMS analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuomo, J.J.; Gambino, R.J.; Harper, J.M.E.; Kuptsis, J.D.; Webber, J.C.

    1978-01-01

    An unexpected substrate etching phenomenon during the sputtering of certain intermetallic compounds has been found to be caused by a large flux of negative metal ions from the sputtering target. The substrates directly under the target in a diode geometry are etched (eroded) rather than coated with a film. The occurrence of this substrate etching has been correlated with negative ion yields measured by secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS). We find a high yield of negative metal ions from several intermetallic compounds in addition to the highly ionic compounds previously reported. A model based on electron charge transfer is presented which predicts when negative ion formation will be important, and the dependence of etch rate on target voltage is also treated. We predict that negative ion effects will be found in the sputtering of a wide range of compounds

  6. Negative symptoms and social cognition: identifying targets for psychological interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lincoln, Tania M; Mehl, Stephanie; Kesting, Marie-Luise; Rief, Winfried

    2011-09-01

    How to improve treatment for negative symptoms is a continuing topic of debate. Suggestions have been made to advance psychological understanding of negative symptoms by focusing on the social cognitive processes involved in symptom formation and maintenance. Following the recommendations by the National Institute of Mental Health workshop on social cognition in schizophrenia, this study investigated associations between negative symptoms and various aspects of social cognition including Theory of Mind (ToM), attribution, empathy, self-esteem, and interpersonal self-concepts in 75 patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders and 75 healthy controls. Negative symptoms were significantly associated with difficulties in ToM, less readiness to be empathic, lower self-esteem, less self-serving bias, negative self-concepts related to interpersonal abilities, and dysfunctional acceptance beliefs. Different aspects of social cognition were mildly to moderately correlated and interacted in their impact on negative symptoms: Difficulties in ToM were associated with negative symptoms in persons with low but not in persons with medium or high levels of self-esteem. Taken together, the social cognition variables and their hypothesized interaction explained 39% of the variance in negative symptoms after controlling for neurocognition and depression. The results highlight the relevance of self-concepts related to social abilities, dysfunctional beliefs, and global self-worth alone and in interaction with ToM deficits for negative symptoms and thereby provide a helpful basis for advancing psychosocial interventions.

  7. Correlated binomial models and correlation structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hisakado, Masato; Kitsukawa, Kenji; Mori, Shintaro

    2006-01-01

    We discuss a general method to construct correlated binomial distributions by imposing several consistent relations on the joint probability function. We obtain self-consistency relations for the conditional correlations and conditional probabilities. The beta-binomial distribution is derived by a strong symmetric assumption on the conditional correlations. Our derivation clarifies the 'correlation' structure of the beta-binomial distribution. It is also possible to study the correlation structures of other probability distributions of exchangeable (homogeneous) correlated Bernoulli random variables. We study some distribution functions and discuss their behaviours in terms of their correlation structures

  8. e+-e- hadronic multiplicity distributions: negative binomial or Poisson

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carruthers, P.; Shih, C.C.

    1986-01-01

    On the basis of fits to the multiplicity distributions for variable rapidity windows and the forward backward correlation for the 2 jet subset of e + e - data it is impossible to distinguish between a global negative binomial and its generalization, the partially coherent distribution. It is suggested that intensity interferometry, especially the Bose-Einstein correlation, gives information which will discriminate among dynamical models. 16 refs

  9. Incisional Negative Pressure Wound Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyldig, Nana; Birke-Sorensen, Hanne; Kruse, Marie

    Aim: Postoperative wound complications make many surgical procedures unnecessarily complex, particularly in high-risk patients. Negative Pressure Wound Therapy is well recognized in the management of open wounds. In recent years, it has been introduced as well in the management of closed surgical...... incisions to reduce postoperative wound complications, though the evidence base to support this intervention is limited. The aim of this study was to assess if Negative Pressure Wound Therapy (NPWT) reduces postoperative complications when applied on closed surgical incisions. Method: A systematic review...

  10. Negative Attitudes, Networks and Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennett, Patrick; la Cour, Lisbeth; Larsen, Birthe

    This paper theoretically and empirically assesses the potential explanations behind the educational gap between young natives and immigrants using two measures, negative attitudes towards immigrants and networking. The paper considers that two these parameters may influence high and uneducated...... workers as well as immigrants and natives differently, creating different incentives to acquire education for the two groups. Using rich Danish administrative data, this paper finds suggestive evidence rejecting the theoretical case where negative attitudes decrease 1st generation immigrant education...... and indications that quality of networks seems to matter more for immigrants than the quantity of individuals in a potential network....

  11. Production of negative helium ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toledo, A.S. de; Sala, O.

    1977-01-01

    A negative helium ion source using potassium charge exchange vapor has been developed to be used as an injector for the Pelletron accelerator. 3 He and α beam currents of up to 2μA have been extracted with 75% particle transmission through the machine [pt

  12. Temporal correlation analysis between malaria and meteorological factors in Motuo County, Tibet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tang Linhua

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria has been endemic in Linzhi Prefecture in the Tibet Autonomous Region (TAR over the past 20 years, especially in Motou County with a highest incidence in the country in recent years. Meteorological factors, such as rainfall, temperature and relative humidity in Motou County were unique compared to other areas in Tibet as well as other parts of China, thus the objective of this work was to analyse the temporal correlation between malaria incidence and meteorological factors in Motou County, in order to seek the particular interventions for malaria control. Methods The meteorological and malaria data during 1986-2009 in Motuo County were studied to analyse the statistical relationship between meteorological data time series and malaria incidence data series. Temporal correlation between malaria incidence and meteorological factors were analyzed using several statistical methods. Spearman correlation analysis was conducted to examine the association between monthly malaria incidence and meteorological variables. Cross-correlation analysis of monthly malaria incidence series and monthly meteorological data time series revealed the time lag(s of meteorological factors preceding malaria at which the series showed strongest correlation. Multiplicative seasonal auto-regressive integrated moving average (SARIMA models were used in the cross-correlation analysis with pre-whitening which remove seasonality and auto-correlation of meteorological data series. Differenced data analysis which called inter-annual analysis was carried out to find underlying relationship between malaria data series and meteorological data series. Results It has been revealed that meteorological variables, such as temperature, relative humidity and rainfall were the important environmental factors in the transmission of malaria. Spearman correlation analysis demonstrated relative humidity was greatest relative to malaria incidence and the correlation

  13. Unimode metamaterials exhibiting negative linear compressibility and negative thermal expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dudek, Krzysztof K; Attard, Daphne; Caruana-Gauci, Roberto; Grima, Joseph N; Wojciechowski, Krzysztof W

    2016-01-01

    Unimode metamaterials made from rotating rigid triangles are analysed mathematically for their mechanical and thermal expansion properties. It is shown that these unimode systems exhibit positive Poisson’s ratios irrespective of size, shape and angle of aperture, with the Poisson’s ratio exhibiting giant values for certain conformations. When the Poisson’s ratio in one loading direction is larger than +1, the systems were found to exhibit the anomalous property of negative linear compressibility along this direction, that is, the systems expand in this direction when hydrostatically compressed. Also discussed are the thermal expansion properties of these systems under the assumption that the units exhibit increased rotational agitation once subjected to an increase in temperature. The effect of the geometric parameters on the aforementioned thermo-mechanical properties of the system, are discussed, with the aim of identifying negative behaviour. (paper)

  14. An Exploratory Path Model of the Relationships between Positive and Negative Adaptation to Cancer on Quality of Life among non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Sophia K.; Zimmer, Catherine; Crandell, Jamie; Jenerette, Coretta M.; Bailey, Donald E.; Zimmerman, Sheryl; Mayer, Deborah K.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Adaptation is an ongoing, cognitive process with continuous appraisal of the cancer experience by the survivor. This exploratory study tested a path model examining the personal (demographic, disease, and psychosocial) characteristics associated with quality of life (QOL) and whether or not adaptation to living with cancer may mediate these effects. Methods This study employed path analysis to estimate adaptation to cancer. A cross sectional sample of NHL survivors (N=750) was used to test the model. Eligible participants were ≥18 years, at least two years post-diagnosis, and living with or without active disease. Results 68% of the variance was accounted for in QOL. The strongest effect (−0.596) was direct by negative adaptation, approximately three times that of positive adaptation (0.193). The strongest demographic total effects on QOL were age and social support; adaptation compared to those ≥65. Of the disease characteristics, comorbidity score had the strongest direct effect on QOL; each additional comorbidity was associated with a 0.309 standard deviation decline on QOL. There were no fully mediated effects through positive adaptation alone. Our exploratory findings support the coexistence of positive and negative adaptations perception as mediators of personal characteristics of the cancer experience. Negative adaptation can affect QOL in a positive way. Cancer survivorship is simultaneously shaped by both positive and negative adaptation with future research and implications for practice aimed at improving QOL. PMID:25751114

  15. Statistical inference for a class of multivariate negative binomial distributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rubak, Ege Holger; Møller, Jesper; McCullagh, Peter

    This paper considers statistical inference procedures for a class of models for positively correlated count variables called α-permanental random fields, and which can be viewed as a family of multivariate negative binomial distributions. Their appealing probabilistic properties have earlier been...

  16. Negative-assortative mating for color in wolves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedrick, Philip W; Smith, Douglas W; Stahler, Daniel R

    2016-04-01

    There is strong negative-assortative mating for gray and black pelage color in the iconic wolves in Yellowstone National Park. This is the first documented case of significant negative-assortative mating in mammals and one of only a very few cases in vertebrates. Of 261 matings documented from 1995 to 2015, 63.6% were between gray and black wolves and the correlation between mates for color was -0.266. There was a similar excess of matings of both gray males × black females and black males × gray females. Using the observed frequency of negative-assortative mating in a model with both random and negative-assortative mating, the estimated proportion of negative-assortative mating was 0.430. The estimated frequency of black wolves in the population from 1996 to 2014 was 0.452 and these frequencies appear stable over this 19-year period. Using the estimated level of negative-assortative mating, the predicted equilibrium frequency of the dominant allele was 0.278, very close to the mean value of 0.253 observed. In addition, the patterns of genotype frequencies, that is, the observed proportion of black homozygotes and the observed excess of black heterozygotes, are consistent with negative-assortative mating. Importantly these results demonstrate that negative-assortative mating could be entirely responsible for the maintenance of this well-known color polymorphism. © 2016 The Author(s). Evolution © 2016 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  17. Corporate Negative Equity: The Evidence from the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Mokhova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available After the Global Financial Crisis the frequency of reported losses of companies has increased significantly in countries of the European Union. Moreover, the financial leverage of companies have increased and even exceeded 100% in several countries. The reason of this development is negative equity that companies find themselves to report. At first sight negative equities are caused by accumulated losses from prior periods. However, there are some other reasons that can result in increasing negative equities in companies. They remain adequate as long as a company is able to pay its bills. Nevertheless, a company with negative equity is exposed to risks. This paper investigates whether the corporate negative equity is a sign of the future failure of a company. We examine non-financial manufactured companies from selected countries of the European Union within the period 2005–2012 from database Amadeus (Czech Republic, Slovakia, Hungary, Poland and Germany. By the means of comparison between negative and positive equities we applied descriptive statistics and Pearson correlation analysis. We find that in all surveyed countries the size positively influences the equity of companies. Other factors as profitability and growth opportunities do not influence the corporate equity. In addition the binary logistic regression analysis has been conducted based on the evidence from Czech companies. Our results indicate that negative equities are not a sign of bankruptcy or insolvency of a company. But the low profitability or low business activities (that are predictors of bankruptcy might lead to negative equities in the balance sheet.

  18. Manifold Regularized Correlation Object Tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Hongwei; Ma, Bo; Shen, Jianbing; Shao, Ling

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, we propose a manifold regularized correlation tracking method with augmented samples. To make better use of the unlabeled data and the manifold structure of the sample space, a manifold regularization-based correlation filter is introduced, which aims to assign similar labels to neighbor samples. Meanwhile, the regression model is learned by exploiting the block-circulant structure of matrices resulting from the augmented translated samples over multiple base samples cropped from both target and nontarget regions. Thus, the final classifier in our method is trained with positive, negative, and unlabeled base samples, which is a semisupervised learning framework. A block optimization strategy is further introduced to learn a manifold regularization-based correlation filter for efficient online tracking. Experiments on two public tracking data sets demonstrate the superior performance of our tracker compared with the state-of-the-art tracking approaches.

  19. Personal, Social, and Environmental Correlates of Walking to School Behaviors: Case Study in Austin, Texas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuemei Zhu

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Walking is an affordable and environmentally clean mode of transportation that can bring additional benefits as healthy physical activity. This cross-sectional study examines the prevalence and correlates of walking to or from school in eight elementary schools in Austin, Texas, which have high percentages of low-income, Hispanic students. A survey of 1,281 parents was conducted, including questions about personal, social, and environmental factors that may influence their decisions on the children's school transportation. Binary logistic regressions were used to estimate the odds of choosing walking as the children's typical school travel mode. The results showed that walking was a typical mode for 28 and 34% of trips to and from school, respectively, and mostly accompanied by an adult. Parents' education level, family's car ownership, children's and parents' personal barriers, and having the school bus service reduced the likelihood of walking, while positive peer influences encouraged walking. Among the physical environmental factors, living close to school was the strongest positive predictor; safety concerns and the presence of highway or freeway en route were negative correlates. We concluded that the location of school is a key, as it determines the travel distance and the presence of highway or freeway en route. In addition to environmental improvements, educational and other assistance programs are needed for both parents and children to overcome their personal barriers and safety concerns. Health and disparity issues require further attention, as many underprivileged children have no other means of school transportation but walking in unsafe and poor environments.

  20. Warmth and legitimacy beliefs contextualize adolescents' negative reactions to parental monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaFleur, Laura K; Zhao, Yinan; Zeringue, Megan M; Laird, Robert D

    2016-08-01

    This study sought to identify conditions under which parents' monitoring behaviors are most strongly linked to adolescents' negative reactions (i.e., feelings of being controlled and invaded). 242 adolescents (49.2% male; M age = 15.4 years) residing in the United States of America reported parental monitoring and warmth, and their own feelings of being controlled and invaded and beliefs in the legitimacy of parental authority. Analyses tested whether warmth and legitimacy beliefs moderate and/or suppress the link between parents' monitoring behaviors and adolescents' negative reactions. Monitoring was associated with more negative reactions, controlling for legitimacy beliefs and warmth. More monitoring was associated with more negative reactions only at weaker levels of legitimacy beliefs, and at lower levels of warmth. The link between monitoring and negative reactions is sensitive to the context within which monitoring occurs with the strongest negative reactions found in contexts characterized by low warmth and weak legitimacy beliefs. Copyright © 2016 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Mismatch negativity, social cognition, and functional outcomes in patients after traumatic brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-yan Sun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mismatch negativity is generated automatically, and is an early monitoring indicator of neuronal integrity impairment and functional abnormality in patients with brain injury, leading to decline of cognitive function. Antipsychotic medication cannot affect mismatch negativity. The present study aimed to explore the relationships of mismatch negativity with neurocognition, daily life and social functional outcomes in patients after brain injury. Twelve patients with traumatic brain injury and 12 healthy controls were recruited in this study. We examined neurocognition with the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised China, and daily and social functional outcomes with the Activity of Daily Living Scale and Social Disability Screening Schedule, respectively. Mismatch negativity was analyzed from electroencephalogram recording. The results showed that mismatch negativity amplitudes decreased in patients with traumatic brain injury compared with healthy controls. Mismatch negativity amplitude was negatively correlated with measurements of neurocognition and positively correlated with functional outcomes in patients after traumatic brain injury. Further, the most significant positive correlations were found between mismatch negativity in the fronto-central region and measures of functional outcomes. The most significant positive correlations were also found between mismatch negativity at the FCz electrode and daily living function. Mismatch negativity amplitudes were extremely positively associated with Social Disability Screening Schedule scores at the Fz electrode in brain injury patients. These experimental findings suggest that mismatch negativity might efficiently reflect functional outcomes in patients after traumatic brain injury.

  2. Mismatch negativity, social cognition, and functional outcomes in patients after traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hui-Yan; Li, Qiang; Chen, Xi-Ping; Tao, Lu-Yang

    2015-04-01

    Mismatch negativity is generated automatically, and is an early monitoring indicator of neuronal integrity impairment and functional abnormality in patients with brain injury, leading to decline of cognitive function. Antipsychotic medication cannot affect mismatch negativity. The present study aimed to explore the relationships of mismatch negativity with neurocognition, daily life and social functional outcomes in patients after brain injury. Twelve patients with traumatic brain injury and 12 healthy controls were recruited in this study. We examined neurocognition with the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised China, and daily and social functional outcomes with the Activity of Daily Living Scale and Social Disability Screening Schedule, respectively. Mismatch negativity was analyzed from electroencephalogram recording. The results showed that mismatch negativity amplitudes decreased in patients with traumatic brain injury compared with healthy controls. Mismatch negativity amplitude was negatively correlated with measurements of neurocognition and positively correlated with functional outcomes in patients after traumatic brain injury. Further, the most significant positive correlations were found between mismatch negativity in the fronto-central region and measures of functional outcomes. The most significant positive correlations were also found between mismatch negativity at the FCz electrode and daily living function. Mismatch negativity amplitudes were extremely positively associated with Social Disability Screening Schedule scores at the Fz electrode in brain injury patients. These experimental findings suggest that mismatch negativity might efficiently reflect functional outcomes in patients after traumatic brain injury.

  3. Positive and Negative Affect More Concurrent among Blacks than Whites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lankarani, Maryam Moghani; Assari, Shervin

    2017-08-01

    While positive and negative affect are inversely linked, people may experience and report both positive and negative emotions simultaneously. However, it is unknown if race alters the magnitude of the association between positive and negative affect. The current study compared Black and White Americans for the association between positive and negative affect. We used data from MIDUS (Midlife in the United States), a national study of Americans with an age range of 25 to 75. A total number of 7108 individuals were followed for 10 years from 1995 to 2004. Positive and negative affect was measured at baseline (1995) and follow-up (2004). Demographic (age and gender), socioeconomic (education and income) as well as health (self-rated health, chronic medical conditions, and body mass index) factors measured at baseline were covariates. A series of linear regressions were used to test the moderating effect of race on the reciprocal association between positive and negative affect at baseline and over time, net of covariates. In the pooled sample, positive and negative affect showed inverse correlation at baseline and over time, net of covariates. Blacks and Whites differed in the magnitude of the association between positive and negative affect, with weaker inverse associations among Blacks compared to Whites, beyond all covariates. Weaker reciprocal association between positive and negative affect in Blacks compared to Whites has implications for cross-racial measurement of affect and mood, including depression. Depression screening programs should be aware that race alters the concordance between positive and negative affect domains and that Blacks endorse higher levels of positive affect compared to Whites in the presence of high negative affect.

  4. A Two-Factor Model Better Explains Heterogeneity in Negative Symptoms: Evidence from the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Seon-Kyeong; Choi, Hye-Im; Park, Soohyun; Jaekal, Eunju; Lee, Ga-Young; Cho, Young Il; Choi, Kee-Hong

    2016-01-01

    Acknowledging separable factors underlying negative symptoms may lead to better understanding and treatment of negative symptoms in individuals with schizophrenia. The current study aimed to test whether the negative symptoms factor (NSF) of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) would be better represented by expressive and experiential deficit factors, rather than by a single factor model, using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Two hundred and twenty individuals with schizophrenia spectrum disorders completed the PANSS; subsamples additionally completed the Brief Negative Symptom Scale (BNSS) and the Motivation and Pleasure Scale-Self-Report (MAP-SR). CFA results indicated that the two-factor model fit the data better than the one-factor model; however, latent variables were closely correlated. The two-factor model's fit was significantly improved by accounting for correlated residuals between N2 (emotional withdrawal) and N6 (lack of spontaneity and flow of conversation), and between N4 (passive social withdrawal) and G16 (active social avoidance), possibly reflecting common method variance. The two NSF factors exhibited differential patterns of correlation with subdomains of the BNSS and MAP-SR. These results suggest that the PANSS NSF would be better represented by a two-factor model than by a single-factor one, and support the two-factor model's adequate criterion-related validity. Common method variance among several items may be a potential source of measurement error under a two-factor model of the PANSS NSF.

  5. Clustering Coefficients for Correlation Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoki Masuda

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Graph theory is a useful tool for deciphering structural and functional networks of the brain on various spatial and temporal scales. The clustering coefficient quantifies the abundance of connected triangles in a network and is a major descriptive statistics of networks. For example, it finds an application in the assessment of small-worldness of brain networks, which is affected by attentional and cognitive conditions, age, psychiatric disorders and so forth. However, it remains unclear how the clustering coefficient should be measured in a correlation-based network, which is among major representations of brain networks. In the present article, we propose clustering coefficients tailored to correlation matrices. The key idea is to use three-way partial correlation or partial mutual information to measure the strength of the association between the two neighboring nodes of a focal node relative to the amount of pseudo-correlation expected from indirect paths between the nodes. Our method avoids the difficulties of previous applications of clustering coefficient (and other measures in defining correlational networks, i.e., thresholding on the correlation value, discarding of negative correlation values, the pseudo-correlation problem and full partial correlation matrices whose estimation is computationally difficult. For proof of concept, we apply the proposed clustering coefficient measures to functional magnetic resonance imaging data obtained from healthy participants of various ages and compare them with conventional clustering coefficients. We show that the clustering coefficients decline with the age. The proposed clustering coefficients are more strongly correlated with age than the conventional ones are. We also show that the local variants of the proposed clustering coefficients (i.e., abundance of triangles around a focal node are useful in characterizing individual nodes. In contrast, the conventional local clustering coefficients

  6. How quantum are non-negative wavefunctions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastings, M. B.

    2016-01-01

    We consider wavefunctions which are non-negative in some tensor product basis. We study what possible teleportation can occur in such wavefunctions, giving a complete answer in some cases (when one system is a qubit) and partial answers elsewhere. We use this to show that a one-dimensional wavefunction which is non-negative and has zero correlation length can be written in a "coherent Gibbs state" form, as explained later. We conjecture that such holds in higher dimensions. Additionally, some results are provided on possible teleportation in general wavefunctions, explaining how Schmidt coefficients before measurement limit the possible Schmidt coefficients after measurement, and on the absence of a "generalized area law" [D. Aharonov et al., in Proceedings of Foundations of Computer Science (FOCS) (IEEE, 2014), p. 246; e-print arXiv.org:1410.0951] even for Hamiltonians with no sign problem. One of the motivations for this work is an attempt to prove a conjecture about ground state wavefunctions which have an "intrinsic" sign problem that cannot be removed by any quantum circuit. We show a weaker version of this, showing that the sign problem is intrinsic for commuting Hamiltonians in the same phase as the double semion model under the technical assumption that TQO-2 holds [S. Bravyi et al., J. Math. Phys. 51, 093512 (2010)].

  7. How quantum are non-negative wavefunctions?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hastings, M. B. [Station Q, Microsoft Research, Santa Barbara, California 93106-6105, USA and Quantum Architectures and Computation Group, Microsoft Research, Redmond, Washington 98052 (United States)

    2016-01-15

    We consider wavefunctions which are non-negative in some tensor product basis. We study what possible teleportation can occur in such wavefunctions, giving a complete answer in some cases (when one system is a qubit) and partial answers elsewhere. We use this to show that a one-dimensional wavefunction which is non-negative and has zero correlation length can be written in a “coherent Gibbs state” form, as explained later. We conjecture that such holds in higher dimensions. Additionally, some results are provided on possible teleportation in general wavefunctions, explaining how Schmidt coefficients before measurement limit the possible Schmidt coefficients after measurement, and on the absence of a “generalized area law” [D. Aharonov et al., in Proceedings of Foundations of Computer Science (FOCS) (IEEE, 2014), p. 246; e-print arXiv.org:1410.0951] even for Hamiltonians with no sign problem. One of the motivations for this work is an attempt to prove a conjecture about ground state wavefunctions which have an “intrinsic” sign problem that cannot be removed by any quantum circuit. We show a weaker version of this, showing that the sign problem is intrinsic for commuting Hamiltonians in the same phase as the double semion model under the technical assumption that TQO-2 holds [S. Bravyi et al., J. Math. Phys. 51, 093512 (2010)].

  8. Proclus’ View about Negative Theology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Rahimiyan

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Negative theology is a modern theological approach that idiomatically implies those theological doctrines which are based on the negative premises and concepts for describing God. Among Greeks, this approach was on its climax in Neo-Platonism. Proclus is one of the Neo-Platonists who lived in fifth century (A.D and was in charge of Athena academy for years. He was the most important Neo-Platonist after Plotinus. In his philosophical system, on the one hand, it is impossible to recognize the first source and, on the other hand, the existence of some principles like the relationship between the creator and the universe, reversion and the way of emanation receiving, requires the knowledge of the first source. It seems that such paradox can be resolved by separating the stages of existence order.

  9. Negation switching invariant signed graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepa Sinha

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A signed graph (or, $sigraph$ in short is a graph G in which each edge x carries a value $\\sigma(x \\in \\{-, +\\}$ called its sign. Given a sigraph S, the negation $\\eta(S$ of the sigraph S is a sigraph obtained from S by reversing the sign of every edge of S. Two sigraphs $S_{1}$ and $S_{2}$ on the same underlying graph are switching equivalent if it is possible to assign signs `+' (`plus' or `-' (`minus' to vertices of $S_{1}$ such that by reversing the sign of each of its edges that has received opposite signs at its ends, one obtains $S_{2}$. In this paper, we characterize sigraphs which are negation switching invariant and also see for what sigraphs, S and $\\eta (S$ are signed isomorphic.

  10. Negative ion detachment cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Champion, R.L.; Doverspike, L.D.

    1992-10-01

    The authors have measured absolute cross sections for electron detachment and charge exchange for collision of O and S with atomic hydrogen, have investigated the sputtering and photodesorption of negative ions from gas covered surfaces, and have begun an investigation of photon-induced field emission of electrons from exotic structures. Brief descriptions of these activities as well as future plans for these projects are given below

  11. Weak negation in inquisitive semantics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Punčochář, Vít

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 3 (2015), s. 323-355 ISSN 0925-8531 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-21076S Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : inquisitive semantics * negation * possible worlds * Fitch-style natural deduction * denial Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion Impact factor: 0.450, year: 2015 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10849-015-9219-2

  12. EFFECTS OF MEDICAL DISPUTES ON INTERNET COMMUNICATIONS OF NEGATIVE EMOTIONS AND NEGATIVE ONLINE WORD-OF-MOUTH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yi-Chih; Wu, Wei-Li

    2015-08-01

    Emotions play an important role in human behavior. Negative emotions resulting from medical disputes are problems for medical personnel to solve but also have a significant impact on a hospital's reputation and people's trust in the hospital. One medical dispute case was chosen from an Internet news source to assess the correlation between people's negative emotions and negative online word-of-mouth. Convenience sampling was used in school faculties and university students who had shared their medical treatment experiences online were the research participants. A total of 221 Taiwanese participants volunteered (158 women, 63 men; ages: 26.7% under 19, 22.6% 20-29, 30.8% 30-39,19.9% over 40). Four negative emotions were measured using rating scales: uncertainty, anger, disappointment, and sadness. Four negative online word-of-mouth measures were: venting, advice search, helping receiver, and revenge. A modeled relationship was assessed by partial least square method (PLS). Then, people's positive emotions were further analyzed to assess changes after spreading negative word-of-mouth. The results showed that uncertainty had a positive effect on venting and advice search. People who felt anger or regret spread word-of-mouth in order to help the receiver. Disappointment may trigger the revenge behavior of negative word-of-mouth. Negative emotions could be relieved after engaging in the behavior of helping the receiver.

  13. A Semantic Analysis of Negative Concord

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouden van der, Ton; Zwarts, Frans

    1993-01-01

    It is not uncommon in natural languages that negation seems to behave in an illogical manner. The general term for the many cases where multiple occurrences of morphologically negative constituents express a single semantic negation is negative concord (Labov 1979). Negative concord may take either

  14. Life and Negativity. The inner Teleology in Hegels Philosophy of Nature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Brencio

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of my paper is to show that the issue of death is central in Hegels philosophy and it has a strong relationship with the notion of negativity, which is not intended as a trick of the system, but as a moment of life, that is a central concept in his meditation. At a later stage, I will shed light on the inner teleology into every organic nature, understanding that this allows Hegel to preserve the notion of negativity through the concept of lacking being (die Tätigkeit des Mangels. In this sense, the strive to connect Philosophy of Nature and Logic shows that in the Hegelian system there is no place for the long night of nothingness, but only for the Life that becomes Spirit: the promise of philosophy is the path the lead from the deepest desperation to the strongest Hope.

  15. Oxidative stress negatively affects human sperm mitochondrial respiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferramosca, Alessandra; Pinto Provenzano, Sara; Montagna, Daniela Domenica; Coppola, Lamberto; Zara, Vincenzo

    2013-07-01

    To correlate the level of oxidative stress in serum and seminal fluid and the level of sperm deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) fragmentation with sperm mitochondrial respiratory efficiency. Sperm mitochondrial respiratory activity was evaluated with a polarographic assay of oxygen consumption carried out in hypotonically treated sperm cells. A possible relationship between sperm mitochondrial respiratory efficiency, the level of oxidative stress, and the level of sperm DNA fragmentation was investigated. Sperm motility was positively correlated with mitochondrial respiration but negatively correlated with oxidative stress and DNA fragmentation. Interestingly, sperm mitochondrial respiratory activity was negatively affected by oxidative stress and DNA fragmentation. Our data indicate that sperm mitochondrial respiration is decreased in patients with high levels of reactive oxygen species by an uncoupling between electron transport and adenosine triphosphate synthesis. This reduction in mitochondrial functionality might be 1 of the reasons responsible for the decrease in spermatozoa motility. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Research priorities for negative emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuss, S.; Jones, C. D.; Kraxner, F.; Peters, G. P.; Smith, P.; Tavoni, M.; van Vuuren, D. P.; Canadell, J. G.; Jackson, R. B.; Milne, J.; Moreira, J. R.; Nakicenovic, N.; Sharifi, A.; Yamagata, Y.

    2016-11-01

    Carbon dioxide removal from the atmosphere (CDR)—also known as ‘negative emissions’—features prominently in most 2 °C scenarios and has been under increased scrutiny by scientists, citizens, and policymakers. Critics argue that ‘negative emission technologies’ (NETs) are insufficiently mature to rely on them for climate stabilization. Some even argue that 2 °C is no longer feasible or might have unacceptable social and environmental costs. Nonetheless, the Paris Agreement endorsed an aspirational goal of limiting global warming to even lower levels, arguing that climate impacts—especially for vulnerable nations such as small island states—will be unacceptably severe in a 2 °C world. While there are few pathways to 2 °C that do not rely on negative emissions, 1.5 °C scenarios are barely conceivable without them. Building on previous assessments of NETs, we identify some urgent research needs to provide a more complete picture for reaching ambitious climate targets, and the role that NETs can play in reaching them.

  17. Negative Reflecting Meta-Mirrors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Rui; Li, Dong; Gao, Dongxing; Zhang, Aofang; Hu, Bowei; Yang, Pei; Lei, Zhenya; Li, Jiacheng

    2017-07-18

    Using the gradient phase discontinuities that meta-mirrors provide, we show that the incident wave can be reflected anomalously with a broad angle range of negative reflections. Such reversed behaviors promote the immediate applications for the planar meta-mirrors to steer the signals more arbitrarily and the convex meta-mirrors to focus and collimate electromagnetic fields. We practically implement these negative reflecting meta-mirrors through an arrangement of subwavelength ring patches and generate the desired phase distribution by also considering the incident angle. Finally, the experiments are carried out to verify the functionality of the convex meta-mirror firstly, and the performances of the planar meta-mirror are also tested by further building up a dual reflector system with the demonstration of obtaining the plane wave from the convex meta-mirror and then having the well collimated beam negative reflected by the planar meta-mirror. The proposed design should be readily applicable to a wide range of electromagnetic problems, especially for devising smart planar illusion devices, and highly directive antennas mounting on convex surfaces of various platforms.

  18. Negative-Pressure Pulmonary Edema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Mallar; Kallet, Richard H; Ware, Lorraine B; Matthay, Michael A

    2016-10-01

    Negative-pressure pulmonary edema (NPPE) or postobstructive pulmonary edema is a well-described cause of acute respiratory failure that occurs after intense inspiratory effort against an obstructed airway, usually from upper airway infection, tumor, or laryngospasm. Patients with NPPE generate very negative airway pressures, which augment transvascular fluid filtration and precipitate interstitial and alveolar edema. Pulmonary edema fluid collected from most patients with NPPE has a low protein concentration, suggesting hydrostatic forces as the primary mechanism for the pathogenesis of NPPE. Supportive care should be directed at relieving the upper airway obstruction by endotracheal intubation or cricothyroidotomy, institution of lung-protective positive-pressure ventilation, and diuresis unless the patient is in shock. Resolution of the pulmonary edema is usually rapid, in part because alveolar fluid clearance mechanisms are intact. In this review, we discuss the clinical presentation, pathophysiology, and management of negative-pressure or postobstructive pulmonary edema. Copyright © 2016 American College of Chest Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Two negations for the price of one

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosalind Thornton

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Standard English is typically described as a double negation language. In double negation ­languages, each negative marker contributes independent semantic force. Two negations in the same clause usually cancel each other out, resulting in an affirmative sentence. Other dialects of English permit negative concord. In negative concord sentences, the two negative markers yield a single semantic negation. This paper explores how English-speaking children interpret sentences with more than one negative element, in order to assess whether their early grammar allows negative concord. According to Zeijlstra’s (2004 typological generalization, if a language has a negative syntactic head, it will be a negative concord language. Since Standard English is often analysed as having a negative head, it represents an apparent exception to Zeijlstra’s ­generalization. This raises the intriguing possibility that initially, children recognize that English has a negative head (i.e., 'n’t' and, therefore, assign negative concord interpretations to sentences with two negations, despite the absence of evidence for this interpretation in the adult input. The present study investigated this possibility in a comprehension study with 20 3- to 5-year-old ­children and a control group of 15 adults. The test sentences were presented in contexts that made them amenable to either a double negation or a negative concord interpretation. As expected, the adult participants assigned the double negation interpretation of the test sentences the majority of the time. In contrast, the child participants assigned the alternative, negative concord interpretation the majority of the time. Children must jettison the negative concord interpretation of sentences with two negative markers, and acquire a double negation interpretation. We propose that the requisite positive evidence is the appearance of negative expressions like 'nothing 'in object position. Because such

  20. Correlates of cognitive function scores in elderly outpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangione, C M; Seddon, J M; Cook, E F; Krug, J H; Sahagian, C R; Campion, E W; Glynn, R J

    1993-05-01

    To determine medical, ophthalmologic, and demographic predictors of cognitive function scores as measured by the Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status (TICS), an adaptation of the Folstein Mini-Mental Status Exam. A secondary objective was to perform an item-by-item analysis of the TICS scores to determine which items correlated most highly with the overall scores. Cross-sectional cohort study. The Glaucoma Consultation Service of the Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary. 472 of 565 consecutive patients age 65 and older who were seen at the Glaucoma Consultation Service between November 1, 1987 and October 31, 1988. Each subject had a standard visual examination and review of medical history at entry, followed by a telephone interview that collected information on demographic characteristics, cognitive status, health status, accidents, falls, symptoms of depression, and alcohol intake. A multivariate linear regression model of correlates of TICS score found the strongest correlates to be education, age, occupation, and the presence of depressive symptoms. The only significant ocular condition that correlated with lower TICS score was the presence of surgical aphakia (model R2 = .46). Forty-six percent (216/472) of patients fell below the established definition of normal on the mental status scale. In a logistic regression analysis, the strongest correlates of an abnormal cognitive function score were age, diabetes, educational status, and occupational status. An item analysis using step-wise linear regression showed that 85 percent of the variance in the TICS score was explained by the ability to perform serial sevens and to repeat 10 items immediately after hearing them. Educational status correlated most highly with both of these items (Kendall Tau R = .43 and Kendall Tau R = .30, respectively). Education, occupation, depression, and age were the strongest correlates of the score on this new screening test for assessing cognitive status. These factors were

  1. [Alexithymia in negative symptom and non-negative symptom schizophrenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkam, I; Langlois-Thery, S; Dollfus, S; Petit, M

    1997-01-01

    Coined by Sifneos in 1972, alexithymia refers to a relative narrowing in emotional functioning, an inability to find appropriate words to describe their emotions and, a poverty of fantasy life. Although initially described in the context of psychosomatic illness, alexithymic characteristics may be observed in patients with a wide range of medical and psychiatric disorders: Parkinson disease, depression, anxiety, substance abuse and eating disorders. Flattening of affect and poverty of speech, major negative symptoms, referred to chronic schizophrenia: there is a lack of outward display of emotion. Accordingly, some disturbances of alexithymia's scores would be expected in schizophrenic patients. The purpose of this study was to estimate and compare the prevalence of alexithymia in deficit and non-deficit schizophrenia. The term "deficit symptoms" may be used as Carpenter, to refer specifically to those negative symptoms that are not considered secondary. The influence of patients' symptoms has also been studied on alexithymia scores: negative and positive symptoms of schizophrenia, depression, anxiety, anhedonia and effects of neuroleptics. Twenty-five patients, meeting DSM III-R criteria for schizophrenia have been studied. All of them treated by neuroleptics, were in a stable clinical status for at least one month. The patients have been categorized into deficit (n = 12) and non-deficit (n = 13) subgroups by one trained psychiatrist (SD), using the Schedule for the Deficit Syndrome. The subjects have been assessed by the same rater (IN), blind to deficit status, using six rating scales: Beth Israel Questionnaire (BIQ) and Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS) for alexithymia, Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), Montgomery and Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS), revised Physical Anhedonia Scale (PAS), and finally, Extrapyramidal Symptom Rating Scale (ESRS). Using TAS, alexithymic characteristics were more prevalent in the deficit subgroup as compared to

  2. Electron detachment from negative ions in a short laser pulse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shearer, S. F. C.; Smyth, M. C.; Gribakin, G. F.

    2011-01-01

    We present an efficient and accurate method to study electron detachment from negative ions by a few-cycle linearly polarized laser pulse. The adiabatic saddle-point method of Gribakin and Kuchiev [Phys. Rev. A 55, 3760 (1997)] is adapted to calculate the transition amplitude for a short laser pulse. Its application to a pulse with N optical cycles produces 2(N+1) saddle points in complex time, which form a characteristic 'smile.' Numerical calculations are performed for H - in a 5-cycle pulse with frequency 0.0043 a.u. and intensities of 10 10 , 5x10 10 , and 10 11 W/cm 2 , and for various carrier-envelope phases. We determine the spectrum of the photoelectrons as a function of both energy and emission angle, as well as the angle-integrated energy spectra and total detachment probabilities. Our calculations show that the dominant contribution to the transition amplitude is given by 5-6 central saddle points, which correspond to the strongest part of the pulse. We examine the dependence of the photoelectron angular distributions on the carrier-envelope phase and show that measuring such distributions can provide a way of determining this phase.

  3. Negative pragmatic transfer in Chinese students' complimentary speech acts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Juanjuan; Gao, Xiaofang

    2012-02-01

    Summary.-This study was designed to examine negative pragmatic transfer of the speech act of English compliments by Chinese who learn English as a foreign language and to estimate the correlation between the amount of negative pragmatic transfer and English proficiency of the Chinese learners. Frequencies of students' performance showed that both in the favored compliments and the response strategies, differences were evident between Chinese English learners and native English speakers. This indicated that Chinese learners had trouble with the "slang" or "idioms" of the target language and tended to transfer negatively their L1 pragmatic norms to their L2 communication. Moreover, the favored compliment response strategies used by two groups of Chinese learners--who had different levels of English proficiency--differed, and negative pragmatic transfer decreased as proficiency in English increased.

  4. The earliest electrophysiological correlate of visual awareness?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koivisto, Mika; Lähteenmäki, Mikko; Sørensen, Thomas Alrik

    2008-01-01

    To examine the neural correlates and timing of human visual awareness, we recorded event-related potentials (ERPs) in two experiments while the observers were detecting a grey dot that was presented near subjective threshold. ERPs were averaged for conscious detections of the stimulus (hits......) and nondetections (misses) separately. Our results revealed that hits, as compared to misses, showed a negativity around 180-350 ms at occipital and posterior temporal sites. It was followed by a positive wave after 400-500 ms, peaking at parietal sites. These correlates were not affected by a manipulation...... of attention. The early negativity, called 'visual awareness negativity' (VAN), may be a general, primary electrophysiological correlate of visual awareness. The present data show that it can be observed in response to appearance of a stimulus in visual awareness and that it generalizes across different...

  5. Understanding volatility correlation behavior with a magnitude cross-correlation function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Woo Cheol; Oh, Gabjin; Kim, Seunghwan

    2006-06-01

    We propose an approach for analyzing the basic relation between correlation properties of the original signal and its magnitude fluctuations by decomposing the original signal into its positive and negative fluctuation components. We use this relation to understand the following phenomenon found in many naturally occurring time series: the magnitude of the signal exhibits long-range correlation, whereas the original signal is short-range correlated. The applications of our approach to heart rate variability signals and high-frequency foreign exchange rates reveal that the difference between the correlation properties of the original signal and its magnitude fluctuations is induced by the time organization structure of the correlation function between the magnitude fluctuations of positive and negative components. We show that this correlation function can be described well by a stretched-exponential function and is related to the nonlinearity and the multifractal structure of the signals.

  6. [Diagnostic significance of multiparametric MRI combined with US-fusion guided biopsy of the prostate in patients with increased PSA levels and negative standard biopsy results to detect significant prostate cancer - Correlation with the Gleason score. Korrelation mit dem Gleason Score].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Manuela; Hoffmann, Manuela A; Wieler, Helmut J; Jakobs, Frank M; Taymoorian, Kasra; Gerhards, Arnd; Miederer, Matthias; Schreckenberger, Mathias

    2017-08-14

    To increase diagnostic precision and to reduce overtreatment of low-risk malignant disease, multiparametric MRI (mpMRI) combined with ultrasound (US) fusion guided biopsy of the prostate were performed. In 99 male patients with increased PSA plasma levels and previous negative standard biopsy procedures, mpMRI was carried out followed by US fusion guided perineal biopsy. PI-RADS-Data (PS) of mpMRI and histopathological Gleason score (GS) were categorized and statistically compared. Lesions in 72/99 (73 %) of patients were determined to be suspect of malignancy, based on a PS 4 or 5. In 33/99 (33 %) of patients, malignancy could not be confirmed by histopathology. With regard to the remaining 66 patients with previous negative biopsy results, 42 (64 %) were diagnosed with a low-grade carcinoma (GS 6, 7a) and 24 (36 %) with a high-grade carcinoma (GS ≥ 7b). The proportion of corresponding results in mpMRI (PS 4-5) when a high-grade carcinoma had been detected, was 21/24 (88 %), which related to a sensitivity of 88 % and a negative predictive value (NPV) of 85 % (p = 0,002). In addition, 35 of 42 patients (83%), graded PS 4-5 in mpMRI, were diagnosed with low-grade carcinoma-positive (p < 0,001). Sensitivity to differentiation between low- and high-grade carcinomas (GS ≤ 7a vs. ≥ 7b) by means of PS was 88 % with a NPV of 70 % (p = 0,74). Our results suggest that mpMRI combined with US-fusion guided biopsy is able to detect considerably higher rates of clinically relevant prostate malignancies compared to conventional diagnostic procedures. However, no statistical significance could be shown regarding the differentiation between high- and low-grade carcinomas. It is hoped that the hybrid methods PSMA-PET/CT or PSMA-PET/MRI will lead to the next optimization step in the differentiation between high- and low-grade carcinomas which so far has been unsatisfactory.

  7. MRI vertebral corner inflammation followed by fat deposition is the strongest contributor to the development of new bone at the same vertebral corner: a multilevel longitudinal analysis in patients with ankylosing spondylitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Pedro M; Baraliakos, Xenofon; van der Heijde, Désirée; Braun, Jürgen; Landewé, Robert

    2016-08-01

    To study the sequential relationship between MRI vertebral corner inflammation (VCI), vertebral corner fat deposition (VCFD) and the development/growth of radiographic syndesmophytes at the same vertebral corner (VC). Baseline, 24 and 102 weeks spinal MRIs were assessed for the presence/absence of VCI and VCFD. Anterior VCs of lateral radiographs of the cervical and lumbar spine (baseline and 102 weeks) were assessed for the development of new bone (syndesmophyte formation or syndesmophyte formation/growth combined). Data from 161 to 177 patients were analysed at the VC level using two-way and multilevel analyses adjusting for within-patient correlation and MRI reader (generalised estimating equations for binomial outcomes). The presence of VCI (adjusted (adj) OR 1.75 to 1.98) as well as the presence of VCFD (adjOR 1.60 to 2.32) at any time point (TP) were significantly associated with the development of new bone. The combination of VCI and VCFD at the same VC increased the strength of the association, both for the sequential or simultaneous presence of VCI and VCFD across the three TPs (adjOR 2.12 to 2.73), as well as for the development of new VCFD preceded by VCI at a previous TP (adjOR 2.12 to 3.01). The complete absence of both VCI and VCFD across the three TPs 'protected' against new bone formation (adjOR 0.45 to 0.62). However, 40-66% of new bone still developed in VCs without MRI inflammation or fat degeneration at any of the three TPs. Both VCI and VCFD contribute to new bone formation in ankylosing spondylitis (AS), especially if VCI precedes VCFD. However, VCI, VCFD and this particular sequence of events only partially explain the development of new bone in AS. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  8. Negative Experiences on Facebook and Depressive Symptoms Among Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, Samantha R; Buka, Stephen L; Marshall, Brandon D L; Carey, Kate B; Clark, Melissa A

    2016-11-01

    To examine whether negative Facebook (FB) experiences were independently associated with depressive symptoms among young adults in a longitudinal family cohort. Negative FB experiences were measured by type (e.g., bullying or meanness, unwanted contact, misunderstandings, or any), recency, number of experiences, and severity of upset. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the 10-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. Generalized estimating equations were used to account for sibling correlation; adjusted models were constructed for each negative FB experience measure accounting for sex, race/ethnicity, social support, adolescent depressive symptoms, parental psychological distress, average monthly income, educational attainment, and employment. In a sample of 264 young adults, all negative FB experience measures were significantly associated with depressive symptoms. There is a clear association between negative FB experience and depressive symptoms. Future work should examine: (1) whether negative FB experiences cause incident depression or exacerbate preexisting depression; and (2) who is most prone to being upset by negative FB experiences. With further research, recommendations for limiting or altering FB use among high-risk subpopulations could be useful in reducing depressive symptoms. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Superluminal travel requires negative energies

    OpenAIRE

    Olum, Ken D.

    1998-01-01

    I investigate the relationship between faster-than-light travel and weak-energy-condition violation, i.e., negative energy densities. In a general spacetime it is difficult to define faster-than-light travel, and I give an example of a metric which appears to allow superluminal travel, but in fact is just flat space. To avoid such difficulties, I propose a definition of superluminal travel which requires that the path to be traveled reach a destination surface at an earlier time than any neig...

  10. Imagery mismatch negativity in musicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herholz, Sibylle C; Lappe, Claudia; Knief, Arne; Pantev, Christo

    2009-07-01

    The present study investigated musical imagery in musicians and nonmusicians by means of magnetoencephalography (MEG). We used a new paradigm in which subjects had to continue familiar melodies in their mind and then judged if a further presented tone was a correct continuation of the melody. Incorrect tones elicited an imagery mismatch negativity (iMMN) in musicians but not in nonmusicians. This finding suggests that the MMN component can be based on an imagined instead of a sensory memory trace and that imagery of music is modulated by musical expertise.

  11. The negation phenomenon. Aquiring French negation by Romanian native speakers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana-Sonia IONESCU

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper sets out some guidelines for a strategy based on the comparison ofRomanian and French and outlines some ways of learning the French negation by the nativespeakers of Romanian; the paper also points out a number of difficulties they face in assimilatingnegation in French. By highlighting some difficulties in assimilating the new language, based on thecontrastive analysis, these must be taken into consideration and ameliorated, to prevent theoccurrence of the default errors.The process of mastering a language is highly conditioned by the practicing of the studiedlanguage, i.e. a system of applications / structural exercises based on similarity and oppositionwithin a language, to allow the formation of spontaneous speech and understanding skills.

  12. Optimization of negative ion accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pamela, J.

    1991-01-01

    We have started to study negative ion extraction and acceleration systems in view of designing a 1 MeV D - accelerator. This study is being made with a two-Dimensional code that has been specifically developed in our laboratory and validated by comparison to three sets of experimental data. We believe that the criteria for negative ion accelerator design optimization should be: (i) to provide the best optics; (ii) to reduce the power load on the extraction grid; (iii) to allow operation with low electric fields in order to reduce the problem of breakdowns. We show some results of optics calculations performed for two systems that will be operational in the next months: the CEA-JAERI collaboration at Cadarache and the european DRAGON experiment at Culham. Extrapolations to higher energies of 500 to 1100 keV have also been conducted. All results indicate that the overall accelerator length, whatever be the number of gaps, is constrained by space charge effects (Child-Langmuir). We have combined this constraint with high-voltage hold-off empirical laws. As a result, it appears that accelerating 10 mA/cm 2 of D - at 1 MeV with good optics, as required for NET or ITER, is close to the expected limit of high-voltage hold-off

  13. Negative regulators of cell proliferation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, T. C.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1994-01-01

    Cell proliferation is governed by the influence of both mitogens and inhibitors. Although cell contact has long been thought to play a fundamental role in cell cycling regulation, and negative regulators have long been suspected to exist, their isolation and purification has been complicated by a variety of technical difficulties. Nevertheless, over recent years an ever-expanding list of putative negative regulators have emerged. In many cases, their biological inhibitory activities are consistent with density-dependent growth inhibition. Most likely their interactions with mitogenic agents, at an intracellular level, are responsible for either mitotic arrest or continued cell cycling. A review of naturally occurring cell growth inhibitors is presented with an emphasis on those factors shown to be residents of the cell surface membrane. Particular attention is focused on a cell surface sialoglycopeptide, isolated from intact bovine cerebral cortex cells, which has been shown to inhibit the proliferation of an unusually wide range of target cells. The glycopeptide arrest cells obtained from diverse species, both fibroblasts and epithelial cells, and a broad variety of transformed cells. Signal transduction events and a limited spectrum of cells that are refractory to the sialoglycopeptide have provided insight into the molecular events mediated by this cell surface inhibitor.

  14. Serotonin, inhibition, and negative mood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Dayan

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Pavlovian predictions of future aversive outcomes lead to behavioral inhibition, suppression, and withdrawal. There is considerable evidence for the involvement of serotonin in both the learning of these predictions and the inhibitory consequences that ensue, although less for a causal relationship between the two. In the context of a highly simplified model of chains of affectively charged thoughts, we interpret the combined effects of serotonin in terms of pruning a tree of possible decisions, (i.e., eliminating those choices that have low or negative expected outcomes. We show how a drop in behavioral inhibition, putatively resulting from an experimentally or psychiatrically influenced drop in serotonin, could result in unexpectedly large negative prediction errors and a significant aversive shift in reinforcement statistics. We suggest an interpretation of this finding that helps dissolve the apparent contradiction between the fact that inhibition of serotonin reuptake is the first-line treatment of depression, although serotonin itself is most strongly linked with aversive rather than appetitive outcomes and predictions.

  15. Developmental constraint through negative pleiotropy in the zygomatic arch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J. Percival

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous analysis suggested that the relative contribution of individual bones to regional skull lengths differ between inbred mouse strains. If the negative correlation of adjacent bone lengths is associated with genetic variation in a heterogeneous population, it would be an example of negative pleiotropy, which occurs when a genetic factor leads to opposite effects in two phenotypes. Confirming negative pleiotropy and determining its basis may reveal important information about the maintenance of overall skull integration and developmental constraint on skull morphology. Results We identified negative correlations between the lengths of the frontal and parietal bones in the midline cranial vault as well as the zygomatic bone and zygomatic process of the maxilla, which contribute to the zygomatic arch. Through gene association mapping of a large heterogeneous population of Diversity Outbred (DO mice, we identified a quantitative trait locus on chromosome 17 driving the antagonistic contribution of these two zygomatic arch bones to total zygomatic arch length. Candidate genes in this region were identified and real-time PCR of the maxillary processes of DO founder strain embryos indicated differences in the RNA expression levels for two of the candidate genes, Camkmt and Six2. Conclusions A genomic region underlying negative pleiotropy of two zygomatic arch bones was identified, which provides a mechanism for antagonism in component bone lengths while constraining overall zygomatic arch length. This type of mechanism may have led to variation in the contribution of individual bones to the zygomatic arch noted across mammals. Given that similar genetic and developmental mechanisms may underlie negative correlations in other parts of the skull, these results provide an important step toward understanding the developmental basis of evolutionary variation and constraint in skull morphology.

  16. Positive and negative emotions underlie motivation for L2 learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter D. MacIntyre

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The role of basic emotions in SLA has been underestimated in both research and pedagogy. The present article examines 10 positive emotions (joy, gratitude, serenity, interest, hope, pride, amusement, inspiration, awe, and love and 9 negative emotions (anger, contempt, disgust, embarrassment, guilt, hate, sadness, feeling scared, and being stressed. The emotions are correlated with core variables chosen from three well-known models of L2 motivation: Gardner’s integrative motive, Clément’s social-contextual model, and Dörnyei’s L2 self system. Respondents came from Italian secondary schools, and most participants were from monolingual Italian speaking homes. They described their motivation and emotion with respect to learning German in a region of Italy (South Tyrol that features high levels of contact between Italians and Germans. Results show that positive emotions are consistently and strongly correlated with motivation-related variables. Correlations involving negative emotions are weaker and less consistently implicated in motivation. The positivity ratio, that is, the relative prevalence of positive over negative emotion, showed strong correlations with all of the motivation constructs. Regression analysis supports the conclusion that a variety of emotions, not just one or two key ones, are implicated in L2 motivation processes in this high-contact context.

  17. Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen correlations and Bell correlations in the simplest scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, Quan; Zhu, Huangjun; Fan, Heng; Yang, Wen-Li

    2017-06-01

    Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) steering is an intermediate type of quantum nonlocality which sits between entanglement and Bell nonlocality. A set of correlations is Bell nonlocal if it does not admit a local hidden variable (LHV) model, while it is EPR nonlocal if it does not admit a local hidden variable-local hidden state (LHV-LHS) model. It is interesting to know what states can generate EPR-nonlocal correlations in the simplest nontrivial scenario, that is, two projective measurements for each party sharing a two-qubit state. Here we show that a two-qubit state can generate EPR-nonlocal full correlations (excluding marginal statistics) in this scenario if and only if it can generate Bell-nonlocal correlations. If full statistics (including marginal statistics) is taken into account, surprisingly, the same scenario can manifest the simplest one-way steering and the strongest hierarchy between steering and Bell nonlocality. To illustrate these intriguing phenomena in simple setups, several concrete examples are discussed in detail, which facilitates experimental demonstration. In the course of study, we introduce the concept of restricted LHS models and thereby derive a necessary and sufficient semidefinite-programming criterion to determine the steerability of any bipartite state under given measurements. Analytical criteria are further derived in several scenarios of strong theoretical and experimental interest.

  18. The prognostic value of the proliferation marker phosphohistone H3 (PPH3) in luminal, basal-like and triple negative phenotype invasive lymph node-negative breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skaland, Ivar; Janssen, Emiel A M; Gudlaugsson, Einar; Hui Ru Guo, Lydia; Baak, Jan P A

    2009-01-01

    Prognostic comparison of phosphohistone-H3 (PPH3) with Cytokeratin 5/6 and/or 14 positive (=basal-CK), triple (ER, PR, HER2)-negative (=TNP) and basal-like (=TNP and basal-CK positive) phenotype in invasive breast cancers. Classical variables, PPH3, ER, PR, basal-CK and HER2 in 240 T1-2N0M0 patients under 71 years. TNP and basal-like cancers had higher PPH3 expression than the other cancers (mean 48 versus 11, Pbasal-like cancers recurred. With multivariate analysis, PPH3or=13 (n=84=35% of all cases) was the strongest and only prognosticator (10-year survival 96% and 64%, Pbasal-like T1-2N0M0 invasive breast cancers.

  19. Snapping Sharks, Maddening Mindreaders, and Interactive Images: Teaching Correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Mark L.

    Understanding correlation coefficients is difficult for students. A free computer program that helps introductory psychology students distinguish between positive and negative correlation, and which also teaches them to understand the differences between correlation coefficients of different size is described in this paper. The program is…

  20. Heritability and correlates of maize yield ( Zea mays L .) under ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Heritability and correlates of maize yield ( Zea mays L .) under varying drought conditions. ... Nigeria Agricultural Journal ... Correlation analysis revealed that days to 50% tasseling and silking under non-stress, ASI and leaf senescence under severe stress exhibited negative and significant correlations with grain yield.

  1. Entanglement negativity in the multiverse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanno, Sugumi [Department of Theoretical Physics and History of Science, University of the Basque Country UPV/EHU, 48080 Bilbao (Spain); IKERBASQUE, Basque Foundation for Science, Maria Diaz de Haro 3, 48013, Bilbao (Spain); Laboratory for Quantum Gravity & Strings and Astrophysics, Cosmology & Gravity Center, Department of Mathematics & Applied Mathematics, University of Cape Town, Private Bag, Rondebosch 7701 (South Africa); Shock, Jonathan P. [Laboratory for Quantum Gravity & Strings and Astrophysics, Cosmology & Gravity Center, Department of Mathematics & Applied Mathematics, University of Cape Town, Private Bag, Rondebosch 7701 (South Africa); National Institute for Theoretical Physics, Private Bag X1, Matieland, 7602 (South Africa); Soda, Jiro [Department of Physics, Kobe University, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan)

    2015-03-10

    We explore quantum entanglement between two causally disconnected regions in the multiverse. We first consider a free massive scalar field, and compute the entanglement negativity between two causally separated open charts in de Sitter space. The qualitative feature of it turns out to be in agreement with that of the entanglement entropy. We then introduce two observers who determine the entanglement between two causally disconnected de Sitter spaces. When one of the observers remains constrained to a region of the open chart in a de Sitter space, we find that the scale dependence enters into the entanglement. We show that a state which is initially maximally entangled becomes more entangled or less entangled on large scales depending on the mass of the scalar field and recovers the initial entanglement in the small scale limit. We argue that quantum entanglement may provide some evidence for the existence of the multiverse.

  2. Entanglement negativity in the multiverse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanno, Sugumi [Department of Theoretical Physics and History of Science, University of the Basque Country UPV/EHU, 48080 Bilbao (Spain); Shock, Jonathan P. [Laboratory for Quantum Gravity and Strings and Astrophysics, Cosmology and Gravity Center, Department of Mathematics and Applied Mathematics, University of Cape Town, Private Bag, Rondebosch 7701 (South Africa); Soda, Jiro, E-mail: sugumi.kanno@ehu.es, E-mail: jonathan.shock@uct.ac.za, E-mail: jiro@phys.sci.kobe-u.ac.jp [Department of Physics, Kobe University, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan)

    2015-03-01

    We explore quantum entanglement between two causally disconnected regions in the multiverse. We first consider a free massive scalar field, and compute the entanglement negativity between two causally separated open charts in de Sitter space. The qualitative feature of it turns out to be in agreement with that of the entanglement entropy. We then introduce two observers who determine the entanglement between two causally disconnected de Sitter spaces. When one of the observers remains constrained to a region of the open chart in a de Sitter space, we find that the scale dependence enters into the entanglement. We show that a state which is initially maximally entangled becomes more entangled or less entangled on large scales depending on the mass of the scalar field and recovers the initial entanglement in the small scale limit. We argue that quantum entanglement may provide some evidence for the existence of the multiverse.

  3. Congenital nystagmus and negative electroretinography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roussi M

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Mirella Roussi, Hélène Dalens, Jean Jacques Marcellier, Franck BacinDepartment of Ophthalmology, Clermont-Ferrand University, Clermont-Ferrand, FranceAbstract: Congenital nystagmus is a pathologic oculomotor state appearing at about three to four months of age. The precise diagnosis requires detailed clinical examination and electrophysiological findings. This case report presents two male patients with congenital nystagmus examined longitudinally from the age of six months until 17-18 years of age. Clinical and electrophysiological protocols were detailed. The first results showed electronegative electroretinography in the two cases and examination combined with electroretinographic findings helped us to make the diagnosis of Congenital Night Stationary Blindness (CSNB. This diagnosis was confirmed by genetic studies. CSNB is interesting to study because through electrophysiological findings, it enables a better understanding of the physiology of neural transmission in the outer part of the retina.Keywords: Congenital nystagmus, negative electroretinography, congenital night stationary blindness

  4. Incisional Negative Pressure Wound Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyldig, Nana

    a randomised controlled trial in two tertiary and three teaching hospitals in three regions of Denmark, the Happy Belly Study, investigating the effectiveness of iNPWT in a population of obese women after caesarean section. The Happy Belly Study has demonstrated that prophylactic iNPWT significantly reduced......-risk population of obese women giving birth by caesarean section. The Happy Belly Study is ongoing and thus this thesis presents preliminary results based on data from the first two-thirds of the scheduled study participants. Nonetheless, the results in this thesis are convincing. Accordingly, i......Women with a pre-gestational body mass index (BMI) above 30 kg/m2 giving birth by caesarean section are at high risk of surgical wound infection compared with women with a BMI below 30 kg/m2. Incisional Negative Pressure Wound Therapy (iNPWT) is one strategy to reduce the rate of surgical wound...

  5. Negative screenings in Liouville theory

    CERN Document Server

    Schnittger, Jens

    1996-01-01

    We demonstrate how negative powers of screenings arise as a nonperturbative effect within the operator approach to Liouville theory. This explains the origin of the corresponding poles in the exact Liouville three point function proposed by Dorn/Otto and (\\hbox{Zamolodchikov })^2 (DOZZ) and leads to a consistent extension of the operator approach to arbitrary integer numbers of screenings of both types. The general Liouville three point function in this setting is computed without any analytic continuation procedure, and found to support the DOZZ conjecture. We point out the importance of the concept of free field expansions with adjustable monodromies - recently advocated by Petersen, Rasmussen and Yu - in the present context, and show that it provides a unifying interpretation for two types of previously constructed local observables.

  6. Mondialization: The negation of territory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorđević Dejan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to present some weaknesses and inconsistence of the mondialization/globalization concept, especially regarding obvious negation of territoriality as a principle and a crude reality of uneven spatial distribution of resources, wealth and population on global scale. The domination of the globalism and neo-liberalism in the spheres of economy, society, culture and even language leads toward greater differences, in such intensity that some authors describe it as a "clash of civilizations". Loosing territoriality means loosing "raison d’etre" of spatial planning. Some efforts to introduce participation as a planning solution for the beginning of the new century is actually a Trojan horse and a step in the wrong direction.

  7. Conspecific negative density dependence in American beech

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin S. Ramage

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background One of the most important drivers of forest biodiversity is conspecific negative density dependence (CNDD, a reduction in performance when conspecific densities are high. While the majority of CNDD research has focused on tropical forests, evidence is mounting that CNDD may also play an important role in temperate forests. To further explore the potential reach of this phenomenon, we investigated CNDD in American beech (Fagus grandifolia in a mature mid-Atlantic forest. Methods We used bivariate point pattern analyses to examine spatial relationships between large beech trees and conspecific saplings, and we also contrasted these patterns with comparable patterns for heterospecifics. In addition, to address the possibility of dispersal limitation and the associated effects on spatial patterns, we analyzed seedling density as a function of adult conspecific abundance. Results We found that beech saplings were more repelled from large conspecifics than large heterospecifics, despite the fact that beech seedling density was positively correlated with beech basal area. However, saplings of other canopy tree species were also repelled from adult beech trees, suggesting a general suppressive effect. Nonetheless, the discrepancy between beech seedling and sapling densities beneath adult conspecifics suggests that beech seedling survival rates were reduced in vicinity of conspecific adults. Conclusions Regardless of the extent to which beech inhibits heterospecific trees, a negative effect on conspecific recruits may be critical for biodiversity maintenance. Without this conspecific suppression, a dense layer of shade-tolerant beech saplings could form beneath adult beech trees. If this were to occur, beech would have a substantial head-start following canopy disturbance, and this late-successional species could potentially dominate a stand in perpetuity, through repeated disturbance cycles.

  8. Geometric correlations and multifractals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amritkar, R.E.

    1991-07-01

    There are many situations where the usual statistical methods are not adequate to characterize correlations in the system. To characterize such situations we introduce mutual correlation dimensions which describe geometric correlations in the system. These dimensions allow us to distinguish between variables which are perfectly correlated with or without a phase lag, variables which are uncorrelated and variables which are partially correlated. We demonstrate the utility of our formalism by considering two examples from dynamical systems. The first example is about the loss of memory in chaotic signals and describes auto-correlations while the second example is about synchronization of chaotic signals and describes cross-correlations. (author). 19 refs, 6 figs

  9. Photon correlation holography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naik, Dinesh N; Singh, Rakesh Kumar; Ezawa, Takahiro; Miyamoto, Yoko; Takeda, Mitsuo

    2011-01-17

    Unconventional holography called photon correlation holography is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. Using photon correlation, i.e. intensity correlation or fourth order correlation of optical field, a 3-D image of the object recorded in a hologram is reconstructed stochastically with illumination through a random phase screen. Two different schemes for realizing photon correlation holography are examined by numerical simulations, and the experiment was performed for one of the reconstruction schemes suitable for the experimental proof of the principle. The technique of photon correlation holography provides a new insight into how the information is embedded in the spatial as well as temporal correlation of photons in the stochastic pseudo thermal light.

  10. Hyperbolic spaces are of strictly negative type

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Poul G.; Kokkendorff, Simon L.; Markvorsen, Steen

    2002-01-01

    We study finite metric spaces with elements picked from, and distances consistent with, ambient Riemannian manifolds. The concepts of negative type and strictly negative type are reviewed, and the conjecture that hyperbolic spaces are of strictly negative type is settled, in the affirmative....... The technique of the proof is subsequently applied to show that every compact manifold of negative type must have trivial fundamental group, and to obtain a necessary criterion for product manifolds to be of negative type....

  11. Strong and Weak Readings in the Domain of Worlds: A Negative Polar Modal and Children's Scope Assignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koring, Loes; Meroni, Luisa; Moscati, Vincenzo

    2018-03-22

    This study investigates children's interpretation of sentences with two logical operators: Dutch universal modal hoeven and negation (niet). In adult Dutch, hoeven is an NPI that necessarily scopes under negation, giving rise to a NOT > NECESSARY reading. The findings from a hidden-object task with 5- and 6-year-old children showed that children's performance is suggestive of an interpretation of sentences with hoeft niet in which the modal scopes over negation (NECESSARY > NOT). This is in line with the Semantic Subset Principle that dictates that children should opt for the strongest possible reading in case of potential scope ambiguities. The full pattern of results, however, seems to be determined, in addition, by a particular strategy children use when facing uncertainty called Premature Closure.

  12. Hadron correlations from recombination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fries, Rainer J [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Quark recombination is a successful model to describe the hadronization of a deconfined quark gluon plasma. Jet-like dihadron correlations measured at RHIC provide a challenge for this picture. We discuss how correlations between hadrons can arise from correlations between partons before hadronization. An enhancement of correlations through the recombination process, similar to the enhancement of elliptic flow is found. Hot spots from completely or partially quenched jets are a likely source of such parton correlations.

  13. Body image related negative interpretation bias in anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockmeyer, Timo; Anderle, Alisa; Schmidt, Hagen; Febry, Stephanie; Wünsch-Leiteritz, Wally; Leiteritz, Andreas; Friederich, Hans-Christoph

    2018-03-14

    A distorted body image and pronounced body dissatisfaction are hallmarks of anorexia nervosa (AN) that typically result in dietary restraint and compensatory behaviours. Cognitive biases such as negative interpretation bias are considered key maintaining factors of these maladaptive cognitions and behaviours. However, little attention has been paid to empirical tests whether negative interpretation bias exists in AN and to what degree it is associated with symptom severity. Participants in the present study were 40 women with AN and 40 healthy women with no history of an eating disorder. Body-related negative interpretation bias (i.e., a tendency to interpret ambiguous information about the own body in a negative way) was measured by a Scrambled Sentences Task. Patients with AN showed a stronger body-related negative interpretation bias than healthy controls. Within both groups, negative interpretation bias correlated strongly and positively with AN symptom severity and these effects were not moderated by levels of depressive symptoms. The findings support the idea that biased interpretation of body-related information is associated with the specific psychopathology of AN. Targeted, computerised interventions (e.g. interpretation bias modification) may help to alter these dysfunctional cognitive schemas that lie at the heart of AN. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Cultural correlates of youth suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckersley, Richard; Dear, Keith

    2002-12-01

    Youth suicide has risen in most developed nations over the past 50 years, especially among males, but the increase remains to be explained. Statistical analyses were used to examine associations between youth suicide rates in 11-21 mainly Western, developed nations and 32 socio-economic and cultural variables. The central hypothesis was that suicide rates would be correlated with various cultural measures of social attachment and integration, especially individualism. Socio-economic variables were included in the analysis to demonstrate the relative strength of the cultural associations. The study found a strong positive correlation between male youth suicide rates and subjective measures of health, optimism, and several indices of individualism, including personal freedom and control. Correlations between female youth suicide and individualism were smaller, attaining significance in only one instance. Male youth suicide and individualism were negatively correlated with older people's sense of parental duty. Correlations between suicide and other possibly relevant cultural variables--tolerance of suicide, belief in God and national pride--were not significant. The analysis of socio-economic variables yielded only one significant, but doubtful, correlation. The findings can be interpreted as supporting two very different hypotheses: that youth suicide represents "an island of misery in an ocean of happiness" or "the tip of an iceberg of suffering". In favouring the latter interpretation, and consistent with Durkheim's theories on suicide, it is argued that increased youth suicide reflects a failure of Western societies to provide appropriate sites or sources of social identity and attachment, and, conversely, a tendency to promote unrealistic or inappropriate expectations of individual freedom and autonomy.

  15. CORRELATION BETWEEN CAFFEINE CONTENTS OF GREEN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT. Caffeine contents of 45 green coffee bean samples collected from coffee plants grown at different altitudes in Southwest Ethiopia was determined by UV-Vis spectrophotometry. The caffeine contents were found in the range of 0.62 - 1.2% (w/w). A moderate negative correlation (R = 0.5463) was found between ...

  16. The variable heart: High frequency and very low frequency correlates of depressive symptoms in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blood, Julia D; Wu, Jia; Chaplin, Tara M; Hommer, Rebecca; Vazquez, Lauren; Rutherford, Helena J V; Mayes, Linda C; Crowley, Michael J

    2015-11-01

    Work examining the link between lower heart rate variability (HRV) and depression in children and adolescents is lacking, especially in light of the physiological changes that occur during pubertal development. We investigated the association between spectral measures of resting HRV and depressive symptoms among 127 children and adolescents, ages 10-17. Using spectral analysis, we evaluated (1) the association between relative high frequency (HF) HRV and depressive symptoms; (2) the predictive power of relative HF HRV for depressive symptoms in the context of relative low frequency (LF) and relative very low frequency (VLF) HRV; and (3) the relationship between relative HF, LF, and VLF band activity, age and pubertal maturation. Consistent with previous work, results revealed that relative HF HRV was negatively associated with self-reported depressive symptoms. As well, relative VLF HRV was positively associated with depressive symptoms. Regression analyses revealed that relative HF HRV and relative VLF HRV significantly predicted self-report depressive symptoms while controlling for age, sex and pubertal maturation, with relative VLF HRV emerging as the strongest indicator of depressive symptoms. Developmental findings also emerged. Age and pubertal maturation were negatively associated with relative HF HRV and positively correlated with relative VLF HRV. Results provide support for the relationship between HRV and depression and suggest that both HF and VLF HRV are relevant to depression symptom severity. Findings also reinforce the importance of considering pubertal development when investigating HRV-depression associations in children and adolescents. Influences on cardiac control including physical activity levels and exercise patterns could be controlled in future work. Our data speak to a depressive symptom dimension and relative spectral power HRV. Thus, we cannot make strong claims about relative spectral power HRV and clinical depression. Copyright

  17. The doubly negative matrix completion problem

    OpenAIRE

    Araújo, C. Mendes; Torregrosa, Juan R.; Urbano, Ana M.

    2005-01-01

    An $n\\times n$ matrix over the field of real numbers is a doubly negative matrix if it is symmetric, negative definite and entry-wise negative. In this paper, we are interested in the doubly negative matrix completion problem, that is when does a partial matrix have a doubly negative matrix completion. In general, we cannot guarantee the existence of such a completion. In this paper, we prove that every partial doubly negative matrix whose associated graph is a $p$-chorda...

  18. Negative ion sources for tandem accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minehara, Eisuke

    1980-08-01

    Four kinds of negative ion sources (direct extraction Duoplasmatron ion source, radial extraction Penniing ion source, lithium charge exchange ion source and Middleton-type sputter ion source) have been installed in the JAERI tandem accelerator. The ion sources can generate many negative ions ranging from Hydrogen to Uranium with the exception of Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe and Rn. Discussions presented in this report include mechanisms of negative ion formation, electron affinity and stability of negative ions, performance of the ion sources and materials used for negative ion production. Finally, the author will discuss difficult problems to be overcome in order to get any negative ion sufficiently. (author)

  19. Correlations between technical skills and behavioral skills in simulated neonatal resuscitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, T; Leonard, D; Sierocka-Castaneda, A; Chan, D; Thompson, M

    2014-10-01

    Neonatal resuscitation requires both technical and behavioral skills. Key behavioral skills in neonatal resuscitation have been identified by the Neonatal Resuscitation Program. Correlations and interactions between technical skills and behavioral skills in neonatal resuscitation were investigated. Behavioral skills were evaluated via blinded video review of 45 simulated neonatal resuscitations using a validated assessment tool. These were statistically correlated with previously obtained technical skill performance data. Technical skills and behavioral skills were strongly correlated (ρ=0.48; P=0.001). The strongest correlations were seen in distribution of workload (ρ=0.60; P=0.01), utilization of information (ρ=0.55; P=0.03) and utilization of resources (ρ=0.61; P=0.01). Teams with superior behavioral skills also demonstrated superior technical skills, and vice versa. Technical and behavioral skills were highly correlated during simulated neonatal resuscitations. Individual behavioral skill correlations are likely dependent on both intrinsic and extrinsic factors.

  20. Flame Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Ionization Coupled with Negative Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry for Ion Molecule Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Sy-Chyi; Bhat, Suhail Muzaffar; Shiea, Jentaie

    2017-07-01

    Flame atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (FAPCI) combined with negative electrospray ionization (ESI) mass spectrometry was developed to detect the ion/molecule reactions (IMRs) products between nitric acid (HNO3) and negatively charged amino acid, angiotensin I (AI) and angiotensin II (AII), and insulin ions. Nitrate and HNO3-nitrate ions were detected in the oxyacetylene flame, suggesting that a large quantity of nitric acid (HNO3) was produced in the flame. The HNO3 and negatively charged analyte ions produced by a negative ESI source were delivered into each arm of a Y-shaped stainless steel tube where they merged and reacted. The products were subsequently characterized with an ion trap mass analyzer attached to the exit of the Y-tube. HNO3 showed the strongest affinity to histidine and formed (Mhistidine-H+HNO3)- complex ions, whereas some amino acids did not react with HNO3 at all. Reactions between HNO3 and histidine residues in AI and AII resulted in the formation of dominant [MAI-H+(HNO3)]- and [MAII-H+(HNO3)]- ions. Results from analyses of AAs and insulin indicated that HNO3 could not only react with basic amino acid residues, but also with disulfide bonds to form [M-3H+(HNO3)n]3- complex ions. This approach is useful for obtaining information about the number of basic amino acid residues and disulfide bonds in peptides and proteins.

  1. Flame Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Ionization Coupled with Negative Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry for Ion Molecule Reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Sy-Chyi; Bhat, Suhail Muzaffar; Shiea, Jentaie

    2017-07-01

    Flame atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (FAPCI) combined with negative electrospray ionization (ESI) mass spectrometry was developed to detect the ion/molecule reactions (IMRs) products between nitric acid (HNO 3 ) and negatively charged amino acid, angiotensin I (AI) and angiotensin II (AII), and insulin ions. Nitrate and HNO 3 -nitrate ions were detected in the oxyacetylene flame, suggesting that a large quantity of nitric acid (HNO 3 ) was produced in the flame. The HNO 3 and negatively charged analyte ions produced by a negative ESI source were delivered into each arm of a Y-shaped stainless steel tube where they merged and reacted. The products were subsequently characterized with an ion trap mass analyzer attached to the exit of the Y-tube. HNO 3 showed the strongest affinity to histidine and formed (M histidine -H+HNO 3 ) - complex ions, whereas some amino acids did not react with HNO 3 at all. Reactions between HNO 3 and histidine residues in AI and AII resulted in the formation of dominant [M AI -H+(HNO 3 )] - and [M AII -H+(HNO 3 )] - ions. Results from analyses of AAs and insulin indicated that HNO 3 could not only react with basic amino acid residues, but also with disulfide bonds to form [M-3H+(HNO 3 ) n ] 3- complex ions. This approach is useful for obtaining information about the number of basic amino acid residues and disulfide bonds in peptides and proteins. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  2. The Philippine tobacco industry: "the strongest tobacco lobby in Asia"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alechnowicz, K; Chapman, S

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To highlight revelations from internal tobacco industry documents about the conduct of the industry in the Philippines since the 1960s. Areas explored include political corruption, health, employment of consultants, resisting pack labelling, and marketing and advertising. Methods: Systematic keyword Minnesota depository website searches of tobacco industry internal documents made available through the Master Settlement Agreement. Results: The Philippines has long suffered a reputation for political corruption where collusion between state and business was based on the exchange of political donations for favourable economic policies. The tobacco industry was able to limit the effectiveness of proposed anti-tobacco legislation. A prominent scientist publicly repudiated links between active and passive smoking and disease. The placement of health warning labels was negotiated to benefit the industry, and the commercial environment allowed it to capitalise on their marketing freedoms to the fullest potential. Women, children, youth, and the poor have been targeted. Conclusion: The politically laissez faire Philippines presented tobacco companies with an environment ripe for exploitation. The Philippines has seen some of the world's most extreme and controversial forms of tobacco promotion flourish. Against international standards of progress, the Philippines is among the world's slowest nations to take tobacco control seriously. PMID:15564224

  3. Blandford's argument: The strongest continuous gravitational wave signal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knispel, Benjamin; Allen, Bruce

    2008-01-01

    For a uniform population of neutron stars whose spin-down is dominated by the emission of gravitational radiation, an old argument of Blandford states that the expected gravitational-wave amplitude of the nearest source is independent of the deformation and rotation frequency of the objects. Recent work has improved and extended this argument to set upper limits on the expected amplitude from neutron stars that also emit electromagnetic radiation. We restate these arguments in a more general framework, and simulate the evolution of such a population of stars in the gravitational potential of our galaxy. The simulations allow us to test the assumptions of Blandford's argument on a realistic model of our galaxy. We show that the two key assumptions of the argument (two dimensionality of the spatial distribution and a steady-state frequency distribution) are in general not fulfilled. The effective scaling dimension D of the spatial distribution of neutron stars is significantly larger than two, and for frequencies detectable by terrestrial instruments the frequency distribution is not in a steady state unless the ellipticity is unrealistically large. Thus, in the cases of most interest, the maximum expected gravitational-wave amplitude does have a strong dependence on the deformation and rotation frequency of the population. The results strengthen the previous upper limits on the expected gravitational-wave amplitude from neutron stars by a factor of 6 for realistic values of ellipticity.

  4. The Philippine tobacco industry: "the strongest tobacco lobby in Asia"

    OpenAIRE

    Alechnowicz, K; Chapman, S

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To highlight revelations from internal tobacco industry documents about the conduct of the industry in the Philippines since the 1960s. Areas explored include political corruption, health, employment of consultants, resisting pack labelling, and marketing and advertising.

  5. The Philippine tobacco industry: "the strongest tobacco lobby in Asia".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alechnowicz, K; Chapman, S

    2004-12-01

    To highlight revelations from internal tobacco industry documents about the conduct of the industry in the Philippines since the 1960s. Areas explored include political corruption, health, employment of consultants, resisting pack labelling, and marketing and advertising. Systematic keyword Minnesota depository website searches of tobacco industry internal documents made available through the Master Settlement Agreement. The Philippines has long suffered a reputation for political corruption where collusion between state and business was based on the exchange of political donations for favourable economic policies. The tobacco industry was able to limit the effectiveness of proposed anti-tobacco legislation. A prominent scientist publicly repudiated links between active and passive smoking and disease. The placement of health warning labels was negotiated to benefit the industry, and the commercial environment allowed it to capitalise on their marketing freedoms to the fullest potential. Women, children, youth, and the poor have been targeted. The politically laissez faire Philippines presented tobacco companies with an environment ripe for exploitation. The Philippines has seen some of the world's most extreme and controversial forms of tobacco promotion flourish. Against international standards of progress, the Philippines is among the world's slowest nations to take tobacco control seriously.

  6. The origin of the strongest magnetic fields in dwarfs

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sky Survey (SDSS) but none of these shows sufficient evidence for Zeeman splitting of hydrogen lines for a magnetic field in ... to be done and hence the electrons exert a pressure. Chandrasekhar [2] ..... Three methods have been used to estimate masses for suitable magnetic white dwarfs. First, if the field strength is of ...

  7. Highly Charged Protein Ions: The Strongest Organic Acids to Date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenaidee, Muhammad A; Leeming, Michael G; Zhang, Fangtong; Funston, Toby T; Donald, William A

    2017-07-10

    The basicity of highly protonated cytochrome c (cyt c) and myoglobin (myo) ions were investigated using tandem mass spectrometry, ion-molecule reactions (IMRs), and theoretical calculations as a function of charge state. Surprisingly, highly charged protein ions (HCPI) can readily protonate non-polar molecules and inert gases, including Ar, O 2 , and N 2 in thermal IMRs. The most HCPIs that can be observed are over 130 kJ mol -1 less basic than the least basic neutral organic molecules known (tetrafluoromethane and methane). Based on theoretical calculations, it is predicted that protonated cyt c and myo ions should spontaneously lose a proton to vacuum for charge states in which every third residue is protonated. In this study, HCPIs are formed where every fourth residue on average is protonated. These results indicate that protein ions in higher charge states can be formed using a low-pressure ion source to reduce proton-transfer reactions between protein ions and gases from the atmosphere. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. The origin of the strongest magnetic fields in dwarfs

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Thus, we deduce that the origin of such high magnetic fields must be intimately tied to the formation of cataclysmic variables (CVs). The formation of a CV must involve orbital shrinkage from giant star to main-sequence star dimensions. It is believed that this shrinkage occurs as the low-mass companion and the white dwarf ...

  9. Nutritional, functional and psychosocial correlates of disability among older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, C S J; Mahon, A; McLeod, W

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the nutritional, functional and psychosocial correlates of disability among 54 older adults aged 65 years of age or older. Using validated questionnaires and tests, nutritional risk (Mini-Nutritional Assessment), functional capacity (mobility, balance, endurance, grip strength and lower extremity strength), the psychosocial factors (life satisfaction, depression, and social support) and level of disability of the participants were examined. The study showed that functional mobility was the strongest correlate of disability, even after controlling for age, gender and residential living status (pnutrition risk had marginal significance as being related to disability. The results of the present study have implications for the development of evidence-based health promotion interventions for older adults.

  10. Correlates of housing affordability stress among older Australians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temple, Jeromey B

    2008-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence and correlates of housing affordability stress among community-dwelling older Australians. The 2002 ABS General Social Survey was used to measure the prevalence of housing affordability stress. Rare event logistic regression was used to measure the potential correlates of housing affordability stress. Almost 5% of Australians aged 55 years and older, and 20% of those younger than 55 years, are estimated to experience housing affordability stress. Men and women living alone are more likely to experience affordability stress when compared to couples. Low-income earners, those with a consumer debt or who do not hold assets, are at a heightened risk of such stress. Home ownership, regardless of income, is the strongest buffer against housing affordability problems in old age. Although the prevalence of housing affordability stress is low among older Australians when compared to the younger population, a definite social gradient exists in those at risk.

  11. Further Investigating Method Effects Associated with Negatively Worded Items on Self-Report Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiStefano, Christine; Motl, Robert W.

    2006-01-01

    This article used multitrait-multimethod methodology and covariance modeling for an investigation of the presence and correlates of method effects associated with negatively worded items on the Rosenberg Self-Esteem (RSE) scale (Rosenberg, 1989) using a sample of 757 adults. Results showed that method effects associated with negative item phrasing…

  12. Angular correlation methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferguson, A.J.

    1974-01-01

    An outline of the theory of angular correlations is presented, and the difference between the modern density matrix method and the traditional wave function method is stressed. Comments are offered on particular angular correlation theoretical techniques. A brief discussion is given of recent studies of gamma ray angular correlations of reaction products recoiling with high velocity into vacuum. Two methods for optimization to obtain the most accurate expansion coefficients of the correlation are discussed. (1 figure, 53 references) (U.S.)

  13. Prevalence, correlates, and comorbidities of four DSM-IV specific phobia subtypes: results from the Korean Epidemiological Catchment Area study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Subin; Sohn, Jee Hoon; Hong, Jin Pyo; Chang, Sung Man; Lee, Young Moon; Jeon, Hong Jin; Cho, Seong-Jin; Bae, Jae Nam; Lee, Jun Young; Son, Jung-Woo; Cho, Maeng Je

    2013-10-30

    Although several studies have detected differences in clinical features among specific phobias, there is a shortage of detailed national data on the on the DSM-IV SP subtypes, particularly in the Asian population. To examine the prevalence, demographic and other correlates, and co-morbidities of DSM-IV SP subtypes in a nationwide sample of Korean adults. We recruited 6510 participants aged 18-64 years for this study. Lay interviewers used the Composite International Diagnostic Interview to assess participants. We analyzed socio-demographics, health-related correlates and frequencies of comorbid mental disorders among participants with SP and each subtypes compared to unaffected adults. The prevalence of lifetime DSM-IV SP was 3.8%, and animal phobias were the most prevalent type of SP. Blood-injection-injury phobia was negatively associated with education, whereas situational phobia was positively associated with education. The strongest mental disorder comorbidity was associated with situational phobia; there is a higher probability of comorbid mood (OR=5.73, 95% CI=2.09-15.73), anxiety (OR=7.54, 95% CI=2.34-24.28), and somatoform disorders (OR=7.61, 95% CI=1.64-35.22) with this subtype. Blood-injection-injury phobia was highly associated with alcohol dependence (OR=9.02, 95% CI=3.54-23.02). Specific phobias are heterogeneous with respect to socio-demographic characteristics and comorbidity pattern. Implications of the usefulness of current subtype categories should continue to be investigated. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. 14 CFR 23.943 - Negative acceleration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Negative acceleration. 23.943 Section 23... Negative acceleration. No hazardous malfunction of an engine, an auxiliary power unit approved for use in... the airplane is operated at the negative accelerations within the flight envelopes prescribed in § 23...

  15. 14 CFR 25.943 - Negative acceleration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Negative acceleration. 25.943 Section 25... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant General § 25.943 Negative acceleration. No... the negative accelerations within the flight envelopes prescribed in § 25.333. This must be shown for...

  16. On multiphase negative flash for ideal solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yan, Wei; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    2012-01-01

    There is a recent interest to solve multiphase negative flash problems where the phase amounts can be negative for normal positive feed composition. Solving such a negative flash problem using successive substitution needs an inner loop for phase distribution calculation at constant fugacity...

  17. Hyperbolic spaces are of strictly negative type

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Poul G.; Kokkendorff, Simon L.; Markvorsen, Steen

    2002-01-01

    We study finite metric spaces with elements picked from, and distances consistent with, ambient Riemannian manifolds. The concepts of negative type and strictly negative type are reviewed, and the conjecture that hyperbolic spaces are of strictly negative type is settled, in the affirmative...

  18. Emphatic multiple negative expressions in Dutch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeijlstra, H.

    2010-01-01

    Double Negation languages like Dutch and German still exhibit constructions, such as Dutch 'niemand niet' ‘nobody not’ or 'nooit geen' ‘nothing no’, that seem to have a Negative Concord reading. Since these constructions normally have an emphatic reading, they are called Emphatic Multiple Negative

  19. Negative creep in nickel base superalloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Kristian Vinter; Hald, John

    2004-01-01

    Negative creep describes the time dependent contraction of a material as opposed to the elongation seen for a material experiencing normal creep behavior. Negative creep occurs because of solid state transformations that results in lattice contractions. For most applications negative creep will h...

  20. How increasing CO2 leads to an increased negative greenhouse effect in Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmithüsen, Holger; Notholt, Justus; König-Langlo, Gert; Lemke, Peter; Jung, Thomas

    2015-12-01

    CO2 is the strongest anthropogenic forcing agent for climate change since preindustrial times. Like other greenhouse gases, CO2 absorbs terrestrial surface radiation and causes emission from the atmosphere to space. As the surface is generally warmer than the atmosphere, the total long-wave emission to space is commonly less than the surface emission. However, this does not hold true for the high elevated areas of central Antarctica. For this region, the emission to space is higher than the surface emission; and the greenhouse effect of CO2 is around zero or even negative, which has not been discussed so far. We investigated this in detail and show that for central Antarctica an increase in CO2 concentration leads to an increased long-wave energy loss to space, which cools the Earth-atmosphere system. These findings for central Antarctica are in contrast to the general warming effect of increasing CO2.

  1. Correlations in Werner States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Shunlong; Li Nan

    2008-01-01

    Werner states are paradigmatic examples of quantum states and play an innovative role in quantum information theory. In investigating the correlating capability of Werner states, we find the curious phenomenon that quantum correlations, as quantified by the entanglement of formation, may exceed the total correlations, as measured by the quantum mutual information. Consequently, though the entanglement of formation is so widely used in quantifying entanglement, it cannot be interpreted as a consistent measure of quantum correlations per se if we accept the folklore that total correlations are measured (or rather upper bounded) by the quantum mutual information.

  2. Trait emotional intelligence and somatic complaints with reference to positive and negative mood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei Federica

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the relationship between trait emotional intelligence (trait EI and somatic complaints after controlling for positive and negative affect (PA and NA. 362 volunteers (222 males completed the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire-Short Form (TEIQue-SF, the Somatic Complaint List (SCL, and the Positive Affect and Negative Affect Scales (PANAS. Results showed that high trait EI is positively correlated to PA and negatively correlated to NA and somatic complaints, but that it can predict somatic complaints over and above PA and NA. These findings highlight the protective role of trait EI in mental and physical health.

  3. AMBIGUITY, NEGATION, AND C-COMMAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rerisson Cavalcante de Araújo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I analyze negative scope ambiguity in sentences with cause, temporal and purpose adjuncts, in which negation can take scope either over the predicate or over the adjunct. I discuss Huang (1982, Takubo (1985 and Johnston’s (1994 analyses, which propose that the ambiguity is derived from different c-command relations between negation and adjunct, due to an optionality of adjunction to VP or IP. Against this view, I show a set of facts which are problematic for any analysis based only in c-command, i.e., several syntactic contexts where negation should c-command the adjunct, but where the ambiguity surprisingly still holds. Based on this, I argue that c-command is a necessary, but not sufficient condition to establish negative scope. And I suggest that the availability of predicate negation and adjunct negation results from an optionality of the operation of Labeling in adjunction, according Hornstein and Nunes (2008.

  4. Cascade of negative muons in atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akylas, V.R.

    1978-01-01

    A study is made of the evolution of a negative muon captured in an atom and the formalism of energy loss associated with the muonic atom. The principal goals are to calculate reliability the muon x-ray intensities, given the initial population of the muonic orbits, to invert the problem and deduce the initial distribution from the x-ray intensities, to provide a reasonably simple and convenient tool to correlate observations, and finally, to systematize some questions of theoretical interest. The early part of the history of the muon in matter, including the atomic capture and classical phase of the atomic cascade are reviewed. In the quantal treatment of the transition rates, both radiative and electron Auger transitions are considered. In general, multipolarities up to E3 and K, L, and M electronic shells are fully investigated. Multipole radiation is treated in the conventinal way and pesents no special problems. Magnetic type transitions between states with different principal quantum numbers are shown to be small. Auger electron ejection rates are more complicated and several approximations have been adopted. The basic results have been computed in terms of elemetary functions. In the Auger transitions we have shown that magnetic multipoles can be safety neglected. The relative sizes of the rates corresponding to different multipoles are systematically studied. A comparison of results is made with atomic photoelectric effect data and with the nuclear internal conversion coefficients. A general agreement is found, except around shell thresholds. The existing data of muonic x-ray intensities in iron and thallium are analyzed in a systematic way. It is found that for Fe the initial l-distribution is almost flat, whereas that for T1 is weighted towards the high l values, sharper than statistical. As a result of the investigations and in order to make our findings usable, a computer program has been developed. 36 references

  5. Zeroing in on the dark side of the American Dream: a closer look at the negative consequences of the goal for financial success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickerson, Carol; Schwarz, Norbert; Diener, Ed; Kahneman, Daniel

    2003-11-01

    Recent research has demonstrated that aspiring to the American Dream of financial success has negative consequences for various aspects of psychological well-being. The present longitudinal study examining the relation between the goal for financial success, attainment of that goal, and satisfaction with various life domains found that the negative impact of the goal for financial success on overall life satisfaction diminished as household income increased. The negative consequences of the goal for financial success seemed to be limited to those specific life domains that either concerned relationships with other people or involved income-producing activities, such as one's job; satisfactions with two of those life domains, however, were among the strongest predictors of overall life satisfaction in this sample of well-educated respondents in their late 30s. The negative consequences were particularly severe for the domain of family life; the stronger the goal for financial success, the lower the satisfaction with family life, regardless of household income.

  6. [Citohistologic and colposcopic correlation in perimenopausal women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Zamora, R; Vera-Gaspar, D; Álvarez-Goris, M del P; Rojas-Sánchez, T M R; Peña-Jiménez A E

    2016-02-01

    This study was conducted to compare the correlation between the Pap smear and colposcopy findings in postmenopausal Mexican women. Observational, Retroelective, longitudinal, descriptive study, all menopausal women who consulted for pap smears and colposcopy performed was studied. 119 patients were evaluated. 72 % of pap smears were negative to human papilloma virus, 29 (24%) had a low-grade lesion and 4 (4%) had a high-grade lesions. In the colposcopic study: 31 studies (26%) report low-grade intraepithelial lesion and 2 cases (2%) high-grade lesion. The histopathological biopsy reported one invasive cervical cancer (2.43%) and 20 cases of low-grade lesions (48.7%). cytology had a sensitivity of 85.3% and specificity of 56.09% with a false negative rate of 14.3%, a positive predictive value of 66.03 % and a negative predictive value of 79.31%. Colposcopy: sensitivity= 82.92%, specificity = 56.09% with a false negative rate of 17.07% positive predictive value of 65.38% and a negative predictive value of 76.66%. The correlation between Pap smear and colposcopy shows that the diagnosis of low and high grade lesions differs only by 2%, therefore indicates adequate sensitivity for diagnosis. In this population of women routine gynecological tests most be performed.

  7. Empathy for positive and negative emotions in social anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Amanda S; Mateen, Maria A; Brozovich, Faith A; Zaki, Jamil; Goldin, Philippe R; Heimberg, Richard G; Gross, James J

    2016-12-01

    Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is associated with elevated negative and diminished positive affective experience. However, little is known about the way in which individuals with SAD perceive and respond emotionally to the naturally-unfolding negative and positive emotions of others, that is, cognitive empathy and affective empathy, respectively. In the present study, participants with generalized SAD (n = 32) and demographically-matched healthy controls (HCs; n = 32) completed a behavioral empathy task. Cognitive empathy was indexed by the correlation between targets' and participants' continuous ratings of targets' emotions, whereas affective empathy was indexed by the correlation between targets' and participants' continuous self-ratings of emotion. Individuals with SAD differed from HCs only in positive affective empathy: they were less able to vicariously share others' positive emotions. Mediation analyses revealed that poor emotional clarity and negative interpersonal perceptions among those with SAD might account for this finding. Future research using experimental methodology is needed to examine whether this finding represents an inability or unwillingness to share positive affect. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Correlation Reconstruction Tomographic PIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Foy, Roderick; Vlachos, Pavlos

    2017-11-01

    A new volumetric Particle Image Velocimetry technique was developed that outputs accurate velocity measurements up to very high seeding densities while requiring lower computational expenditure. This technique combines the tomographic and cross-correlation steps by directly reconstructing the 3D cross-correlation volumes. Since many particles contribute to a single correlation peak, this decreases the noise contributions from ghost reconstructions, allowing accurate velocity measurements to be made at exceptionally high seeding densities. Additionally the overall computational cost is lowered by combining the reconstruction and cross-correlation steps. Results comparing the errors of the new technique applied to both simulated and experimental data will be presented.

  9. Particle Correlations at LEP

    CERN Document Server

    Kress, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    Particle correlations are extensively studied to obtain information about the dynamics of hadron production. From 1989 to 2000 the four LEP collaborations recorded more than 16 million hadronic Z0 decays and several thousand W+W- events. In Z0 decays, two-particle correlations were analysed in detail to study Bose-Einstein and Fermi-Dirac correlations for various particle species. In fully-hadronic W+W- decays, particle correlations were used to study whether the two W bosons decay independently. A review of selected results is presented.

  10. Correlation engine prototype

    CERN Document Server

    Pose, V

    2003-01-01

    The CERN monitoring prototype, part of the fabric management work package (WP4) of the DataGrid project, task Monitoring, collects monitoring data from farm nodes in CERN into a central monitoring database. Performing correlations on the data in the monitoring database should help to foresee exceptions on individual nodes or node groups and to analyze performance of the farm. The Correlation Engine Prototype has been developed to provide easy adding of new correlations of monitoring data and actions triggered in case of exceptions. The current prototype is written in Perl. The results of the correlation engine can be accessed through a web-interface.

  11. Correlated Electromagnetic Levitation Actuator

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Approach is to first characterize the capabilities of correlated electromagnets by developing a prototype with readily available materials and manufacturing...

  12. Learning efficient correlated equilibria

    KAUST Repository

    Borowski, Holly P.

    2014-12-15

    The majority of distributed learning literature focuses on convergence to Nash equilibria. Correlated equilibria, on the other hand, can often characterize more efficient collective behavior than even the best Nash equilibrium. However, there are no existing distributed learning algorithms that converge to specific correlated equilibria. In this paper, we provide one such algorithm which guarantees that the agents\\' collective joint strategy will constitute an efficient correlated equilibrium with high probability. The key to attaining efficient correlated behavior through distributed learning involves incorporating a common random signal into the learning environment.

  13. Negative Pressure Wound Therapy in Maxillofacial Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam J. Mellott

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Negative pressure wound therapy has greatly advanced the field of wound healing for nearly two decades, by providing a robust surgical adjunct technique for accelerating wound closure in acute and chronic wounds. However, the application of negative pressure wound therapy in maxillofacial applications has been relatively under utilized as a result of the physical articulations and contours of the head and neck that make it challenging to obtain an airtight seal for different negative pressure wound therapy systems. Adapting negative pressure wound therapies for maxillofacial applications could yield significant enhancement of wound closure in maxillofacial applications. The current review summarizes the basic science underlying negative pressure wound therapy, as well as specific maxillofacial procedures that could benefit from negative pressure wound therapy.

  14. Zero-truncated negative binomial - Erlang distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodhisuwan, Winai; Pudprommarat, Chookait; Bodhisuwan, Rujira; Saothayanun, Luckhana

    2017-11-01

    The zero-truncated negative binomial-Erlang distribution is introduced. It is developed from negative binomial-Erlang distribution. In this work, the probability mass function is derived and some properties are included. The parameters of the zero-truncated negative binomial-Erlang distribution are estimated by using the maximum likelihood estimation. Finally, the proposed distribution is applied to real data, the number of methamphetamine in the Bangkok, Thailand. Based on the results, it shows that the zero-truncated negative binomial-Erlang distribution provided a better fit than the zero-truncated Poisson, zero-truncated negative binomial, zero-truncated generalized negative-binomial and zero-truncated Poisson-Lindley distributions for this data.

  15. Current Correlations in a Majorana Beam Splitter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haim, Arbel; Berg, Erez; von Oppen, Felix; Oreg, Yuval

    We study current correlations in a T-junction composed of a grounded topological superconductor and of two normal-metal leads which are biased at a voltage V. We show that the existence of an isolated Majorana zero mode in the junction dictates a universal behavior for the cross correlation of the currents through the two normal-metal leads of the junction. The cross correlation is negative and approaches zero at high bias voltages as - 1 / V . This behavior is robust in the presence of disorder and multiple transverse channels, and persists at finite temperatures. In contrast, an accidental low-energy Andreev bound state gives rise to non-universal behavior of the cross correlation. We employ numerical transport simulations to corroborate our conclusions.

  16. Analyzing negative ties in social networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mankirat Kaur

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Online social networks are a source of sharing information and maintaining personal contacts with other people through social interactions and thus forming virtual communities online. Social networks are crowded with positive and negative relations. Positive relations are formed by support, endorsement and friendship and thus, create a network of well-connected users whereas negative relations are a result of opposition, distrust and avoidance creating disconnected networks. Due to increase in illegal activities such as masquerading, conspiring and creating fake profiles on online social networks, exploring and analyzing these negative activities becomes the need of hour. Usually negative ties are treated in same way as positive ties in many theories such as balance theory and blockmodeling analysis. But the standard concepts of social network analysis do not yield same results in respect of each tie. This paper presents a survey on analyzing negative ties in social networks through various types of network analysis techniques that are used for examining ties such as status, centrality and power measures. Due to the difference in characteristics of flow in positive and negative tie networks some of these measures are not applicable on negative ties. This paper also discusses new methods that have been developed specifically for analyzing negative ties such as negative degree, and h∗ measure along with the measures based on mixture of positive and negative ties. The different types of social network analysis approaches have been reviewed and compared to determine the best approach that can appropriately identify the negative ties in online networks. It has been analyzed that only few measures such as Degree and PN centrality are applicable for identifying outsiders in network. For applicability in online networks, the performance of PN measure needs to be verified and further, new measures should be developed based upon negative clique concept.

  17. Art, Terrorism and the Negative Sublime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnold Berleant

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The range of the aesthetic has expanded to cover not only a wider range of objects and situations of daily life but also to encompass the negative. This includes terrorism, whose aesthetic impact is central to its use as a political tactic. The complex of positive and negative aesthetic values in terrorism are explored, introducing the concept of the sublime as a negative category to illuminate the analysis and the distinctive aesthetic of terrorism.

  18. Intakes of Vegetables and Fruits are Negatively Correlated with Risk of Stroke in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hariri, Mitra; Darvishi, Leila; Maghsoudi, Zahra; Khorvash, Fariborz; Aghaei, Mahmud; Iraj, Bijan; Ghiasvand, Reza; Askari, Gholamreza

    2013-05-01

    Stroke is a leading cause of death. Current therapeutic strategies have been unsuccessful. Several studies have reported benefits on reducing stroke risk and improving the poststroke associated functional declines in patients who ate foods rich in fruits and vegetables. Their potential protective effects may be due to their antioxidants, calcium, potassium, riboflavine, peridoxin, riboflavin contents. Folic acid, peridoxin, and riboflavin are all cofactors in hyperhomocysteinemia as a stroke risk factor.Studies suggest that oxidative stress plays important roles in pathogenesis of ischemic cerebral injury and higher intake of antioxidants has been associated with a lower stroke risk. The aim of this study was to examine if the dietary intake of vegetables and fruits in patients with stroke were comparatively worse than those in patients without stroke. In this case control study, 93 stroke patients admitted to Alzahra hospital were matched for age and sex with 60 patients who were not affected with acute cerebrovascular diseases and did not have a history of stroke. Dietary intake was assessed with a validated food frequency questionnaire.Food intakes were compared between two groups and with recommended value. Mean daily intake of vegetable and fruits was more in male with stroke than male without stroke as well as calorie intake from vegetables and fruit was higher in male with stroke.Mean daily intake of vegetable and fruits were lower in women with stroke than women without stroke as well as calorie intake from vegetables and fruit was lower in women with stroke. Our findings suggest that increased vegetable and fruits intake may be associated with decreased risk of stroke.

  19. Intakes of Vegetables and Fruits are Negatively Correlated with Risk of Stroke in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Hariri, Mitra; Darvishi, Leila; Maghsoudi, Zahra; Khorvash, Fariborz; Aghaei, Mahmud; Iraj, Bijan; Ghiasvand, Reza; Askari, Gholamreza

    2013-01-01

    Background: Stroke is a leading cause of death. Current therapeutic strategies have been unsuccessful. Several studies have reported benefits on reducing stroke risk and improving the poststroke associated functional declines in patients who ate foods rich in fruits and vegetables. Their potential protective effects may be due to their antioxidants, calcium, potassium, riboflavine, peridoxin, riboflavin contents. Folic acid, peridoxin, and riboflavin are all cofactors in hyperhomocysteinemia ...

  20. Fast learning in free-foraging bumble bees is negatively correlated with lifetime resource collection

    OpenAIRE

    Evans, Lisa J.; Smith, Karen E.; Raine, Nigel E.

    2017-01-01

    Despite widespread interest in the potential adaptive value of individual differences in cognition, few studies have attempted to address the question of how variation in learning and memory impacts their performance in natural environments. Using a novel split-colony experimental design we evaluated visual learning performance of foraging na?ve bumble bees (Bombus terrestris) in an ecologically relevant associative learning task under controlled laboratory conditions, before monitoring the l...

  1. Fast learning in free-foraging bumble bees is negatively correlated with lifetime resource collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Lisa J; Smith, Karen E; Raine, Nigel E

    2017-03-29

    Despite widespread interest in the potential adaptive value of individual differences in cognition, few studies have attempted to address the question of how variation in learning and memory impacts their performance in natural environments. Using a novel split-colony experimental design we evaluated visual learning performance of foraging naïve bumble bees (Bombus terrestris) in an ecologically relevant associative learning task under controlled laboratory conditions, before monitoring the lifetime foraging performance of the same individual bees in the field. We found appreciable variation among the 85 workers tested in both their learning and foraging performance, which was not predicted by colony membership. However, rather than finding that foragers benefited from enhanced learning performance, we found that fast and slow learners collected food at comparable rates and completed a similar number of foraging bouts per day in the field. Furthermore, bees with better learning abilities foraged for fewer days; suggesting a cost of enhanced learning performance in the wild. As a result, slower learning individuals collected more resources for their colony over the course of their foraging career. These results demonstrate that enhanced cognitive traits are not necessarily beneficial to the foraging performance of individuals or colonies in all environments.

  2. Testosterone levels in healthy men correlate negatively with serotonin 4 receptor binding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perfalk, Erik; Cunha-Bang, Sofi da; Holst, Klaus K

    2017-01-01

    The serotonergic system integrates sex steroid information and plays a central role in mood and stress regulation, cognition, appetite and sleep. This interplay may be critical for likelihood of developing depressive episodes, at least in a subgroup of sensitive individuals. The serotonin 4...... findings corroborate the link between sex hormone levels and serotonin signalling. Future longitudinal studies in clinical relevant populations are needed to elucidate the potential importance of testosterone in the pathophysiology of e.g. major depression and its treatment....

  3. Why there is no negative correlation between egg size and number in the Common Pochard?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hořák, D.; Klvaňa, P.; Albrecht, Tomáš

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 33, č. 2 (2008), s. 197-202 ISSN 1146-609X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA6093403; GA MŠk LC06073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : Egg size number trade-off * Energy allocation * Breeding attempt * Birds Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.456, year: 2008

  4. Natural variation for seed longevity and seed dormancy are negatively correlated in Arabidopsis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, T.P.; Keizer, L.C.P.; Eeuwijk, van F.; Smeekens, S.C.M.; Bentsink, L.

    2012-01-01

    Dormancy is a state of metabolic arrest that facilitates the survival of organisms during environmental conditions incompatible with their regular course of life. Many organisms have deep dormant stages to promote an extended life span (increased longevity). In contrast, plants have seed dormancy

  5. Antioxidant Vitamin Levels Do Not Exhibit Negative Correlation with the Extent of Acute Myocardial Infarction

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mužáková, V.; Vojtíšek, P.; Meloun, M.; Vaňková, Radomíra; Toušar, T.; Červinková, Z.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 54, č. 6 (2005), s. 623-629 ISSN 0862-8408 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511; MSM0021627502 Keywords : Antioxidant vitamin s * α-Tocopherol * β-Carotene Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 1.806, year: 2005

  6. Endotoxin levels correlate positively with a sedentary lifestyle and negatively with highly trained subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oyama Lila M

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction A sedentary lifestyle increases the risk of developing cardiovascular disease, obesity, and diabetes. This phenomenon is supported by recent studies suggesting a chronic, low-grade inflammation status. Endotoxin derived from gut flora may be key to the development of inflammation by stimulating the secretion of inflammatory factors. This study aimed to examine plasma inflammatory markers and endotoxin levels in individuals with a sedentary lifestyle and/or in highly trained subjects at rest. Methods: Fourteen male subjects (sedentary lifestyle n = 7; highly trained subjects n = 7 were recruited. Blood samples were collected after an overnight fast (~12 h. The plasmatic endotoxin, plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1 (PAI-1, monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP1, ICAM/CD54, VCAM/CD106 and lipid profile levels were determined. Results Endotoxinemia was lower in the highly trained subject group relative to the sedentary subjects (p Conclusion These results indicate that a lifestyle associated with high-intensity and high-volume exercise induces favorable changes in chronic low-grade inflammation markers and may reduce the risk for diseases such as obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular diseases.

  7. Elevated serum 25(OH)-vitamin D levels are negatively correlated with molar-incisor hypomineralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühnisch, J; Thiering, E; Kratzsch, J; Heinrich-Weltzien, R; Hickel, R; Heinrich, J

    2015-02-01

    To date, the precise etiology of molar-incisor hypomineralization (MIH) is uncertain. Vitamin D plays a key role in hard tissue formation. Therefore, this study aimed to analyze the relationship between serum 25-hydroxy-vitamin D (25(OH)D) status and dental health data obtained from 1,048 children in a 10-year follow-up of the Munich GINIplus and LISAplus birth cohorts. The dental examination included the diagnosis of MIH and recording of (non-)cavitated caries lesions in primary and permanent teeth. Serum 25(OH)D concentrations were taken from blood samples of the 10-year investigation and measured with a fully automated, modular system. Different logistic regression and Poisson hurdle models were calculated. MIH was diagnosed in 13.6% of the study population. Approximately 16.4% of the children demonstrated caries-related defects (D3-4MFS > 0). The mean season-adjusted concentration of 25(OH)D was 75.8 nmol/l (standard deviation 22.0 nmol/l). After adjusting for sex, age, body mass index, parental education, equivalent income, and television/personal computer (TV/PC) viewing hours, a 10 nmol/l increase in serum 25(OH)D concentrations was significantly associated with a lower odds ratio of having MIH (OR = 0.89; P = 0.006). Furthermore, higher 25(OH)D values were associated with a lower number of caries-affected permanent teeth. It is concluded that elevated serum 25(OH)D concentrations were associated with better dental health parameters. © International & American Associations for Dental Research 2014.

  8. Mitochondrial Spare Respiratory Capacity Is Negatively Correlated with Nuclear Reprogramming Efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yan, Zhou; Al-Saaidi, Rasha Abdelkadhem; Fernandez Guerra, Paula

    2017-01-01

    PSCs) requires remodeling of mitochondria and a metabolic shift from an oxidative state to a more glycolytic state. In this study, we evaluated the nuclear reprogramming efficiency in relation to mitochondrial bioenergetic parameters of fibroblasts from seven different human individuals. Using the Seahorse...

  9. Positive Correlation of Serum Adiponectin with Lipid Profile in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus is Affected by Metabolic Syndrome Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eslamian, Mohammad; Mohammadinejad, Payam; Aryan, Zahra; Nakhjavani, Manouchehr; Esteghamati, Alireza

    2016-04-01

    Type-2 diabetes mellitus (DM) and Metabolic syndrome (MetS) are both associated with dyslipidemia which may lead to development of vascular complications. Adiponectin is an anti-inflammatory protein synthesized by the adipose tissue. There is controversy regarding the association of adiponectin with lipid profile. To evaluate the correlation between serum adiponectin concentration and metabolic profile in patients with type-2 DM. A single center cross-sectional study was conducted on 173 patients with type-2 DM (82 males and 91 females). Plasma adiponectin concentration, lipid profile, glucose profile, and anthropometric features were investigated. Insulin resistance was determined using Homeostasis model assessment (HOMA). Correlation of serum adiponectin with lipid profile of patients with type-2 DM was assessed. Adiponectin was negatively correlated with waist circumference (r = -0.16, P = 0.06) and positively with HbA1c (r = 0.19, P = 0.032), total cholesterol (r = 0.23, P = 0.017), LDL (r = 0.30, P = 0.001), SD-LDL (r = 0.41, P < 0.001), and SD-LDL/LDL (r = 0.22, P = 0.023). We found a positive correlation between adiponectin and total cholesterol (r = 0.27, P = 0.055), LDL (r = 0.34, P = 0.026) and SD-LDL (r = 0.41, P = 0.006) in patients with at least 3 components of MetS criteria. Correlation of adiponectin with LDL and SD-LDL remained positively significant with increasing the number of MetS components. In patients with 5 components of MetS, serum adiponectin was significantly correlated with serum triglyceride (r = 0.89). Significant interaction was observed between adiponectin and metabolic syndrome in relation to serum lipid profile. The results of the present study suggest that in patients with type-2 DM and MetS, lipid profile is strongly correlated with blood concentration of adiponectin. The strongest association was observed between serum adiponectin and LDL.

  10. Negative creep in nickel base superalloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Kristian Vinter; Hald, John

    2004-01-01

    Negative creep describes the time dependent contraction of a material as opposed to the elongation seen for a material experiencing normal creep behavior. Negative creep occurs because of solid state transformations that results in lattice contractions. For most applications negative creep...... will have no practical implications but under certain conditions it may become critical. For bolts and fasteners, which are highly constrained during service, negative creep may lead to dramatically increased stresses and eventually to failure. The article was inspired by a recent failure of Nimonic 80A...

  11. Variation, correlation and heritability of interest characters for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Variation, correlation and heritability of interest characters for selection of African eggplant. ... a positive association with fruit diameter and thickness. The fifty percent flowering cycle registered positive correlations with plant height and fruit diameter. Fruit number showed a negative association with fruit weight and diameter, ...

  12. Octupole correlations in superdeformed nuclei; Correlations octupolaires dans les noyaux superdeformes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dancer, H.; Meyer, J.; Perries, S. [Inst.. de Physique Nucleaire, Lyon-1 Univ., 69 - Villeurbanne (France); Bonche, P. [Service de Physique Theorique, CEA Centre d`Etudes de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Flocard, H. [Inst. de Physique Nucleaire, Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France); Heenen, P.H. [Universite Libre de Bruxelles (Belgium)

    1998-12-31

    Octupole correlations have been investigated within the Generator Coordinate Method based upon Hartree-Fock plus BCS wavefunctions. GCM states corresponding to the q{sub 30} and q{sub 32} modes have been built up to describe the SD excited bands which have been recently observed as negative parity bands. (authors) 4 refs., 1 fig. Short communication

  13. Correlates of Academic Procrastination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milgram, Norman A.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Investigated concurrent correlates of academic procrastination in Israeli college preparatory students (n=113). Procrastination in one course of study was found to be moderately correlated with procrastination in another but not to procrastination in routine tasks of daily living. Procrastination was weakly related to emotional upset about it and…

  14. Does negative auto-regulation increase gene duplicability?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lercher Martin J

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A prerequisite for a duplication to spread through and persist in a given population is retaining expression of both gene copies. Yet changing a gene's dosage is frequently detrimental to fitness. Consequently, dosage-sensitive genes are less likely to duplicate. However, in cases where the level of gene product is controlled, via negative feedback, by its own abundance, an increase in gene copy number can in principle be decoupled from an increase in protein while both copies remain expressed. Using data from the transcriptional networks of E. coli and S. cerevisiae, we test the hypothesis that genes under negative auto-regulation show enhanced duplicability. Results Controlling for several known correlates of duplicability, we find no statistically significant support in either E. coli or S. cerevisiae that transcription factors under negative auto-regulation hold a duplicability advantage over transcription factors with no auto-regulation. Conclusion Based on the analysis of transcriptional networks in E. coli and S. cerevisiae, there is no evidence that negative auto-regulation has contributed, on a genome-wide scale, to the variability in gene family sizes in these species.

  15. Neural effects of positive and negative incentives during marijuana withdrawal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca M Filbey

    Full Text Available In spite of evidence suggesting two possible mechanisms related to drug-seeking behavior, namely reward-seeking and harm avoidance, much of the addiction literature has focused largely on positive incentivization mechanisms associated with addiction. In this study, we examined the contributing neural mechanisms of avoidance of an aversive state to drug-seeking behavior during marijuana withdrawal. To that end, marijuana users were scanned while performing the monetary incentive delay task in order to assess positive and negative incentive processes. The results showed a group x incentive interaction, such that marijuana users had greater response in areas that underlie reward processes during positive incentives while controls showed greater response in the same areas, but to negative incentives. Furthermore, a negative correlation between withdrawal symptoms and response in the amygdala during negative incentives was found in the marijuana users. These findings suggest that although marijuana users have greater reward sensitivity and less harm avoidance than controls, that attenuated amygdala response, an area that underlies fear and avoidance, was present in marijuana users with greater marijuana withdrawal symptoms. This is concordant with models of drug addiction that involve multiple sources of reinforcement in substance use disorders, and suggests the importance of strategies that focus on respective mechanisms.

  16. Increased suppression of negative and positive emotions in major depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beblo, Thomas; Fernando, Silvia; Klocke, Sabrina; Griepenstroh, Julia; Aschenbrenner, Steffen; Driessen, Martin

    2012-12-10

    Patients with major depression (MDD) show increased suppression of negative emotions. Emotion suppression is related to depressive symptoms such as depressive mood and anhedonia. It is not clear whether MDD patients also suppress positive emotions. In the present study we aim to investigate suppression of both negative and positive emotions in MDD patients as well as the relation between emotion suppression and depressive symptoms. In addition, we suggest that emotion suppression might be associated with fear of emotions. 39 MDD patients and 41 matched healthy control subjects were investigated for emotion suppression and fear of emotions with the Emotion Acceptance Questionnaire (EAQ). In addition, we applied additional questionnaires to validate emotion suppression findings and to assess depressive symptoms. MDD patients reported increased suppression of both negative and positive emotions. Suppression of negative and positive emotions was related to depressive symptoms. Patients also reported more fear of emotions than healthy subjects and this fear was related to emotion suppression in both study samples. Due to the cross-sectional and correlational study design, causal directions between the variables tested cannot be stated. Fear of emotion might be one reason why MDD patients suppress emotions. With regard to positive emotions, our results strongly suggest that therapeutic approaches should not only encourage patients to participate in potentially enjoyable situations but that patients may also benefit from practicing the allowance of pleasant emotions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Quantum correlation games

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iqbal, Azhar; Weigert, Stefan

    2004-01-01

    A new approach to play games quantum mechanically is proposed. We consider two players who perform measurements in an EPR-type setting. The payoff relations are defined as functions of correlations, i.e. without reference to classical or quantum mechanics. Classical bi-matrix games are reproduced if the input states are classical and perfectly anti-correlated, that is, for a classical correlation game. However, for a quantum correlation game, with an entangled singlet state as input, qualitatively different solutions are obtained. For example, the Prisoners' Dilemma acquires a Nash equilibrium if both players apply a mixed strategy. It appears to be conceptually impossible to reproduce the properties of quantum correlation games within the framework of classical games

  18. Quantum correlation games

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iqbal, Azhar; Weigert, Stefan [HuMP-Hull Mathematical Physics, Department of Mathematics, University of Hull (United Kingdom)

    2004-06-04

    A new approach to play games quantum mechanically is proposed. We consider two players who perform measurements in an EPR-type setting. The payoff relations are defined as functions of correlations, i.e. without reference to classical or quantum mechanics. Classical bi-matrix games are reproduced if the input states are classical and perfectly anti-correlated, that is, for a classical correlation game. However, for a quantum correlation game, with an entangled singlet state as input, qualitatively different solutions are obtained. For example, the Prisoners' Dilemma acquires a Nash equilibrium if both players apply a mixed strategy. It appears to be conceptually impossible to reproduce the properties of quantum correlation games within the framework of classical games.

  19. Spatial correlation between weed species densities and soil properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walter, Mette; Christensen, Svend; Simmelsgaard, Svend Erik

    2002-01-01

    The spatial cross-correlation between weed species densities and six soil properties within fields was analysed using cross-semivariograms. The survey was carried out in three successive years in two fields. The most consistent relationship between weed species density (numbers m−2) and soil...... properties was negative cross-correlation between the density of Viola arvensis Murray and clay content. This correlation was found in both fields; however, the range of spatial dependence varied between fields. In one of the fields, the density of Lamium purpureum L. was positively cross......-correlated with the phosphorus content in the soil in all years. The density of Veronica spp. and Poa annua L. was negatively cross-correlated with pH in all three years. Other spatial cross-correlations that were found in this study were inconsistent over time or field site. The densities of some of the weed species were...

  20. Chrysalis and negative pigment network in Spitz nevi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botella-Estrada, Rafael; Requena, Celia; Traves, Victor; Nagore, Eduardo; Guillen, Carlos

    2012-04-01

    Chrysalis, also named shiny white streaks, are white, linear structures only visible with polarized dermoscopy. They have been reported in several tumors included melanomas and Spitz nevi, and their histological substrate is believed to be dermal fibrosis. We have performed a correlation study between the dermoscopic and the histopathological features of 9 Spitz nevi. Chrysalis were present in 4 Spitz nevi (44%) and in all of them there was a high degree of fibroplasia. In one case, chrysalis, evident at the center of the lesion, progressively merged with negative pigment network at the periphery. We suggest that chrysalis and negative pigment network are manifestations of the same histopathological finding: increased collagen occurring at different levels of the dermis.

  1. Experiments on Metamaterials with Negative Effective Static Compressibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingyuan Qu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The volume of ordinary materials decreases in response to a pressure increase exerted by a surrounding gas or liquid, i.e., the material volume compressibility is positive. Recently, poroelastic metamaterial architectures have been suggested theoretically that allow for an unusual negative effective static volume compressibility—which appears to be forbidden for reasons of energy conservation at first sight. The challenge in the three-dimensional (3D fabrication of these blueprints lies in the necessary many hollow 3D crosses sealed by thin membranes, which we realize in this work by using 3D laser microlithography combined with a serendipitous mechanism. By using optical-microscopy cross-correlation analysis, we determine an extraordinarily large negative metamaterial effective volume compressibility of κ_{eff}=-0.8%  bar^{-1}=-80  GPa^{-1} under pressure control.

  2. Array enhanced stochastic resonance and spatially correlated noises

    OpenAIRE

    Gora, P. F.

    2003-01-01

    We discuss the role of spatial correlations of the noise in the array enhanced stochastic resonance. We show numerically that the noises with negative correlations between different sites lead to significantly larger values of the signal-to-noise ratio than the uncorrelated noises or noises with positive correlations. If the noise is global, the system displays only the conventional stochastic resonance, without any array enhancement.

  3. Brilliant but Cruel: Perceptions of Negative Evaluators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amabile, Teresa M.

    Two studies examined the hypothesis that negative evaluators will be perceived as more intelligent than positive evalutors. Two types of stimuli were used: excerpts from actual negative and positive book reviews, and versions of those excerpts that were edited so that the balance of the reviews varied but the content did not. The results strongly…

  4. Bootstrapping Visual Categorization with Relevant Negatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, X.; Snoek, C.G.M.; Worring, M.; Koelma, D.; Smeulders, A.W.M.

    Learning classifiers for many visual concepts are important for image categorization and retrieval. As a classifier tends to misclassify negative examples which are visually similar to positive ones, inclusion of such misclassified and thus relevant negatives should be stressed during learning.

  5. A Negative Permeability Material at Red Light

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuan, Hsiao-Kuan; Chettiar, Uday K.; Cai, Wenshan

    2007-01-01

    A negative permeability in a periodic array of pairs of thin silver strips is demonstrated experimentally for two distinct samples. The effect of the strip surface roughness on negative permeability is evaluated. The first sample, Sample A, is fabricated of thinner strips with a root mean square ...

  6. Negative Automaintenance Omission Training Is Effective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanabria, Federico; Sitomer, Matthew T.; Killeen, Peter R.

    2006-01-01

    Twelve pigeons were exposed to negative automaintenance contingencies for 17-27 sessions immediately after brief (14-16 sessions) or extended (168-237 sessions) exposure to positive automaintenance contingencies, or after 4-10 sessions of instrumental training. In all conditions, negative automaintenance contingencies virtually eliminated…

  7. Aspects of Negation in Classical Greek.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Daniel J.

    1972-01-01

    Traditional grammars are criticized as having obscured or omitted many significant features of negation patterns in classical Greek. The author demonstrates that negation in Greek extensively involves semantic and syntactic factors. Certain of the factors are thoroughly embedded in the traditional approach to grammar, while others are derived from…

  8. Negative social effects of global business

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milanović-Golubović Vesna

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper wants to prove that negative social effects of global business are reasons for growing social welfare. Negative social effects of global business are reflected through the rise of unemployment, fall of life standard and decrease of life quality and culture, particularly in less developed societies.

  9. Criticism and the Ethics of Negative Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper is an attempt to work through my own angst at a negative review of my "Education, Philosophy and Politics," reviewed recently by Ian Stronach for the "British Educational Research Journal," and to provide a therapeutic reading of the ethics of negative reviews. What of "shots in the dark" and should there…

  10. Negative appendicectomy: evaluation of ultrasonography and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: High negative appendicectomy rates are no longer acceptable with improvements in imaging techniques and clinical prediction rules. The use of ultrasound and CT scan in addition to clinical assessment and blood investigations has greatly reduced the negative appendicectomy rate to less than 10%.

  11. Chat-Line Interaction and Negative Feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasaki, Junko; Oliver, Rhonda

    2003-01-01

    Examines communicative interactions between native speakers (NSs) and nonnative speakers (NNSs) of Japanese on Internet relay chat, with a special focus on implicit negative feedback in the interactions. Reports that NSs of Japanese gave implicit negative feedback to their NNS partners and NNSs used the feedback in their subsequent production, but…

  12. Negative Priming in Free Recall Reconsidered

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanczakowski, Maciej; Beaman, C. Philip; Jones, Dylan M.

    2016-01-01

    Negative priming in free recall is the finding of impaired memory performance when previously ignored auditory distracters become targets of encoding and retrieval. This negative priming has been attributed to an aftereffect of deploying inhibitory mechanisms that serve to suppress auditory distraction and minimize interference with learning and…

  13. Repetitive negative thinking as a transdiagnostic process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ehring, T.; Watkins, E.R.

    2008-01-01

    The current paper provides an updated review of repetitive negative thinking as a transdiagnostic process. It is shown that elevated levels of repetitive negative thinking are present across a large range of Axis I disorders and appear to be causally involved in the maintenance of emotional

  14. Appendicitis: A Study of Negative Appendicectomies | Kpolugbo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Post-operative complications were noted in 3% of the negative appendicectomy group but in the positive appendicectomy group complications were much more common particularly when the appendix was ruptured. (Key Words: Negative appendicectomy, perforated appendix and postoperative complications.) Sahel Med.

  15. Veillonella, Firmicutes: Microbes disguised as Gram negatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesth, Tammi Camilla; Ozen, Asli; Andersen, Sandra Christine

    2013-01-01

    related to Gram-negative species. Though the Negativicutes stain Gram-negative and possess two membranes, the genome and proteome analysis presented here confirm their place within the (mainly) Gram positive phylum of the Firmicutes. Further studies are required to unveil the evolutionary history...

  16. On correlations in IMRT planning aims

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Arkajyoti; Das, Indra J.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose was to study correlations amongst IMRT DVH evaluation points and how their relaxation impacts the overall plan. 100 head‐and‐neck cancer cases, using the Eclipse treatment planning system with the same protocol, are statistically analyzed for PTV, brainstem, and spinal cord. To measure variations amongst the plans, we use (i) interquartile range (IQR) of volume as a function of dose, (ii) interquartile range of dose as a function of volume, and (iii) dose falloff. To determine correlations for institutional and ICRU goals, conditional probabilities and medians are computed. We observe that most plans exceed the median PTV dose (average D50 = 104% prescribed dose). Furthermore, satisfying D50 reduced the probability of also satisfying D98, constituting a negative correlation of these goals. On the other hand, satisfying D50 increased the probability of satisfying D2, suggesting a positive correlation. A positive correlation is also observed between the PTV V105 and V110. Similarly, a positive correlation between the brainstem V45 and V50 is measured by an increase in the conditional median of V45, when V50 is violated. Despite the imposed institutional and international recommendations, significant variations amongst DVH points can occur. Even though DVH aims are evaluated independently, sizable correlations amongst them are possible, indicating that some goals cannot be satisfied concurrently, calling for unbiased plan criteria. PACS number(s): 87.55.dk, 87.53.Bn, 87.55.Qr, 87.55.de. PMID:27929480

  17. Theoretical considerations on the performance of negative sputter ion sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alton, G.D.

    1981-01-01

    Theoretical analyses of experimentally observed negative ion yield data from cesium rich plasma discharge sources such as those based on the University of Aarhus source concept appear to correlate experiment and theory through surface ionization mechanisms for many species. The agreement between experiment and theory is rather remarkable considering the idealistic model used. A few atomic species appear to overproduce relative to the simple theoretical model. These deviations suggest that still other mechanisms may be important for certain elements such as the affinity level mechanism recently reported

  18. Local lattice dynamics and negative thermal expansion in crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fornasini, P [Dip. di Fisica, Universita di Trento, Via Sommarive 14, I-38050 Povo (Trento) (Italy); Sanson, A [Ist. di Fotonica e Nanotecnologie del CNR, Sezione di Trento, I-38050 Povo (Trento) (Italy); Vaccari, M [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Grenoble (France); Artioli, G [Dip. di Geoscienze, University di Padova, via Giotto 1, I-35137 Padova (Italy); Dapiaggi, M [Dip. di Scienze della Terra, Universita di Milano, via Botticelli 23, I-20133 Milan (Italy)

    2007-12-15

    The investigations on the origin of negative thermal expansion (NTE) in crystals can greatly benefit from the joint use of Bragg diffraction and extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS). In this paper, the relative merits of the two techniques are critically discussed, and recent results on CuCl (zincblende structure) and Cu{sub 2}O and Ag{sub 2}O (cuprite structure) are compared. The tension effect giving rise to NTE can be correlated to the anisotropy of the mean square relative displacements.

  19. Ionization phenomena and sources of negative ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alton, G.D.

    1983-01-01

    Negative ion source technology has rapidly advanced during the past several years as a direct consequence of the discovery of Krohn that negative ion yields can be greatly enhanced by sputtering in the presence of Group IA elements. Today, most negative ion sources use this discovery directly or the principles implied to effect negative ion formation through surface ionization. As a consequence, the more traditional direct extraction plasma and charge exchange sources are being used less frequently. However, the charge exchange generation mechanism appears to be as universal, is very competitive in terms of efficiency and has the advantage in terms of metastable ion formation. In this review, an attempt has been made to briefly describe the principal processes involved in negative ion formation and sources which are representative of a particular principle. The reader is referred to the literature for specific details concerning the operational characteristics, emittances, brightnesses, species and intensity capabilities of particular sources. 100 references

  20. EEG Correlates of Ten Positive Emotions

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Xin; Yu, Jianwen; Song, Mengdi; Yu, Chun; Wang, Fei; Sun, Pei; Wang, Daifa; Zhang, Dan

    2017-01-01

    Compared with the well documented neurophysiological findings on negative emotions, much less is known about positive emotions. In the present study, we explored the EEG correlates of ten different positive emotions (joy, gratitude, serenity, interest, hope, pride, amusement, inspiration, awe, and love). A group of 20 participants were invited to watch 30 short film clips with their EEGs simultaneously recorded. Distinct topographical patterns for different positive emotions were found for th...

  1. Modeling the Structure of the Relationship Between Emotion Regulation Difficulties, Positive and Negative affect Sleep Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Amiri

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract   Background & aim: Poor quality sleep is very common in modern societies and has a significant negative impact on psychological and physiological Dimensions. The purpose of the present study was to investigate correlational relationships and draw up a positive and negative affect mediation model between the difficulty in regulation of emotion and quality of sleep.   Methods: In this descriptive-correlational study, the participants of the study were selected through multi-stage cluster sampling. Then, the difficulty questionnaire was distributed in emotion regulation, affective and negative and sleep quality among the participants . Collected data was analyzed for descriptive, correlation, structural equation modeling to investigate the research objectives.   Results: The results showed that there was a significant positive correlation between the difficulty components of emotion regulation and negative emotion with poor sleep quality and positive correlation between positive affection and high sleep quality (p <0.01. Also, the pattern of structural equation modeling indicates the role of mediating positive and negative affects in the relationship between the difficulty in regulation of emotion and sleep quality . Conclusions: The results supported the hypothesis that the difficulty in regulation of emotion interferes with the quality of sleep, and positive affection can have a moderating role in this regard.    

  2. Misery Has More Company Than People Think: Underestimating the Prevalence of Others’ Negative Emotions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Alexander H.; Monin, Benoît; Dweck, Carol S.; Lovett, Benjamin J.; John, Oliver P.; Gross, James J.

    2014-01-01

    Four studies document underestimations of the prevalence of others’ negative emotions, and suggest causes and correlates of these erroneous perceptions. In Study 1A, participants reported that their negative emotions were more private or hidden than their positive emotions; in Study 1B, participants underestimated the peer prevalence of common negative, but not positive, experiences described in Study 1A. In Study 2, people underestimated negative emotions and overestimated positive emotions even for well-known peers, and this effect was partially mediated by the degree to which those peers reported suppression of negative (vs. positive) emotions. Study 3 showed that lower estimations of the prevalence of negative emotional experiences predicted greater loneliness and rumination and lower life satisfaction, and that higher estimations for positive emotional experiences predicted lower life satisfaction. Taken together, these studies suggest that people may think they are more alone in their emotional difficulties than they really are. PMID:21177878

  3. Relationship between Beliefs and Basic School Teachers’ Coping with Negative Emotions in the Classroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zita Šimonka

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Clinging excessively to the myths about the ideal teacher leads into teacher’s excessive expectations, which in consequence leads to burnout and the emergence of negative feelings (Bečaj, 1990. The purpose of this paper is to examine the connection between agreeing with the myths about good teacher and negative emotional experiences and the correlation between self-assessed fitness to the myth of the good teacher and negative emotional experiences. The study involved 137 teachers in basic school. The results showed that teachers excessively cling to myths about good teacher and that on average they all to a certain extent experience negative emotions in the classroom. They most frequently look for reasons of the negative emotions in student behaviour. In the discussion we have suggested some possible solutions that could help teachers cope with negative emotions in the classroom.

  4. Electron correlation in molecules

    CERN Document Server

    Wilson, S

    2007-01-01

    Electron correlation effects are of vital significance to the calculation of potential energy curves and surfaces, the study of molecular excitation processes, and in the theory of electron-molecule scattering. This text describes methods for addressing one of theoretical chemistry's central problems, the study of electron correlation effects in molecules.Although the energy associated with electron correlation is a small fraction of the total energy of an atom or molecule, it is of the same order of magnitude as most energies of chemical interest. If the solution of quantum mechanical equatio

  5. Spectral analysis by correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fauque, J.M.; Berthier, D.; Max, J.; Bonnet, G.

    1969-01-01

    The spectral density of a signal, which represents its power distribution along the frequency axis, is a function which is of great importance, finding many uses in all fields concerned with the processing of the signal (process identification, vibrational analysis, etc...). Amongst all the possible methods for calculating this function, the correlation method (correlation function calculation + Fourier transformation) is the most promising, mainly because of its simplicity and of the results it yields. The study carried out here will lead to the construction of an apparatus which, coupled with a correlator, will constitute a set of equipment for spectral analysis in real time covering the frequency range 0 to 5 MHz. (author) [fr

  6. Entropic Nonsignaling Correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaves, Rafael; Budroni, Costantino

    2016-06-01

    We introduce the concept of entropic nonsignaling correlations, i.e., entropies arising from probabilistic theories that are compatible with the fact that we cannot transmit information instantaneously. We characterize and show the relevance of these entropic correlations in a variety of different scenarios, ranging from typical Bell experiments to more refined descriptions such as bilocality and information causality. In particular, we apply the framework to derive the first entropic inequality testing genuine tripartite nonlocality in quantum systems of arbitrary dimension and also prove the first known monogamy relation for entropic Bell inequalities. Further, within the context of complex Bell networks, we show that entropic nonlocal correlations can be activated.

  7. PDE11A negatively regulates lithium responsivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, G.; Agostino, M.J.; Bishara, K.; Capell, W.R.; Fisher, J.L.; Hegde, S.; Ibrahim, B.A.; Pilarzyk, Kaitlyn; Sabin, C.; Tuczkewycz, Taras; Wilson, Steven; Kelly, M.P.

    2016-01-01

    Lithium responsivity in patients with bipolar disorder has been genetically associated with Phosphodiesterase 11A (PDE11A), and lithium decreases PDE11A mRNA in IPSC-derived hippocampal neurons originating from lithium responsive patients. PDE11 is an enzyme uniquely enriched in the hippocampus that breaks down cAMP and cGMP. Here, we determined if decreasing PDE11A expression is sufficient to increase lithium responsivity in mice. In dorsal hippocampus (DHIPP) and ventral hippocampus (VHIPP), lithium-responsive C57BL/6J and 129S6/SvEvTac mice show decreased PDE11A4 protein expression relative to lithium-unresponsive BALB/cJ mice. In VHIPP, C57BL/6J mice also show differences in PDE11A4 compartmentalization relative to BALB/cJ mice. In contrast, neither PDE2A nor PDE10A expression differ among the strains. The compartment-specific differences in PDE11A4 protein expression are explained by a coding SNP at amino acid 499, which falls within the GAF-B homodimerization domain. Relative to the BALB/cJ 499T, the C57BL/6J 499A decreases PDE11A4 homodimerization, which removes PDE11A4 from the membrane. Consistent with the observation that lower PDE11A4 expression correlates with better lithium responsiveness, we found that Pde11a KO mice given 0.4% lithium chow for 3+ weeks exhibit greater lithium responsivity relative to WT littermates in tail suspension, an antidepressant predictive assay, and amphetamine hyperlocomotion, an anti-manic predictive assay. Reduced PDE11A4 expression may represent a lithium-sensitive pathophysiology, because both C57BL/6J and Pde11a KO mice show increased expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-6 relative to BALB/cJ and PDE11A WT mice, respectively. Our finding that PDE11A4 negatively regulates lithium responsivity in mice suggests that the PDE11A SNPs identified in patients may be functionally relevant. PMID:27646265

  8. Negative permeability from random particle composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hussain, Shahid, E-mail: shussain2@qinetiq.com

    2017-04-15

    Artificial media, such as those composed of periodically-spaced wires for negative permittivity and split ring resonators for negative permeability have been extensively investigated for negative refractive index (NRI) applications (Smith et al., 2004; Pendry et al., 1999) [1,2]. This paper presents an alternative method for producing negative permeability: granular (or particulate) composites incorporating magnetic fillers. Artificial media, such as split-ring resonators, are designed to produce a magnetic resonance feature, which results in negative permeability over a narrow frequency range about the resonance frequency. The position of the feature is dependent upon the size of the inclusion. The material in this case is anisotropic, such that the feature is only observable when the materials are orientated in a specific direction relative to the applied field. A similar resonance can be generated in magnetic granular (particulate) materials: ferromagnetic resonance from the natural spin resonance of particles. Although the theoretical resonance profiles in granular composites shows the permeability dipping to negative values, this is rarely observed experimentally due to resonance damping effects. Results are presented for iron in spherical form and in flake form, dispersed in insulating host matrices. The two particle shapes show different permeability performance, with the magnetic flakes producing a negative contribution. This is attributed to the stronger coupling with the magnetic field resulting from the high aspect ratio of the flakes. The accompanying ferromagnetic resonance is strong enough to overcome the effects of damping and produce negative permeability. The size of random particle composites is not dictated by the wavelength of the applied field, so the materials are potentially much thinner than other, more traditional artificial composites at microwave frequencies. - Highlights: • Negative permeability from random particle composites is

  9. Family burden in schizophrenia: the influence of age of onset and negative symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas M. Mantovani

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives: To investigate the determinants of family burden in a sample of patients with schizophrenia and their caregivers. Methods: Thirty-one stable patients with schizophrenia and their main caregivers were recruited. Sociodemographic variables were assessed in a semi-structured interview, and positive and negative symptoms were assessed with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS. Cognitive performance was assessed with the Schizophrenia Cognition Rating Scale (SCoRS. Levels of burden on caregivers were assessed with the Family Burden Interview Schedule (FBIS. Interactions among variables were analyzed using Pearson correlations and linear regression analysis. Results: Objective and subjective FBIS scores were 1.9 (standard deviation [SD] = 0.5 and 2.4 (SD = 0.6 respectively. Objective burden correlated positively with positive and negative symptoms, and cognitive impairment. Subjective burden correlated positively with positive symptoms and negatively with mean age of disease onset. Positive, negative and cognitive symptoms accounted for 47.6% of the variance of objective burden, with negative symptoms accounting independently for 30.3%. Age of onset, parents as caregivers and positive symptoms accounted for 28% of the variance of subjective burden, with age of onset independently explaining 20.3%. Conclusion: Patients' clinical and sociodemographic variables are important determinants of family burden in schizophrenia. Objective burden is predicted by symptoms, particularly negative ones. Subjective burden is predicted by symptoms and sociodemographic variables, particularly age of disease onset.

  10. Image annotation based on positive-negative instances learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kai; Hu, Jiwei; Liu, Quan; Lou, Ping

    2017-07-01

    Automatic image annotation is now a tough task in computer vision, the main sense of this tech is to deal with managing the massive image on the Internet and assisting intelligent retrieval. This paper designs a new image annotation model based on visual bag of words, using the low level features like color and texture information as well as mid-level feature as SIFT, and mixture the pic2pic, label2pic and label2label correlation to measure the correlation degree of labels and images. We aim to prune the specific features for each single label and formalize the annotation task as a learning process base on Positive-Negative Instances Learning. Experiments are performed using the Corel5K Dataset, and provide a quite promising result when comparing with other existing methods.

  11. Metabolic correlates of temperament factors of personality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Hyun Soo; Cho, Sang Soo; Yoon, Eun Jin; Bang, Seong Ae; Kim, Yu Kyeong; Kim, Sang Eun

    2007-01-01

    Gender differences in personality are considered to have biological bases. In an attempt to understand the gender differences of personality on neurobiological bases, we conducted correlation analyses between regional brain glucose metabolism and temperament factors of personality in males and females. Thirty-six healthy right-handed volunteers (18 males, 33.8 ± 17.6 y;18 females, 36.2 ± 20.4 y) underwent FDG PET at resting state. Three temperament factors of personality (novelty seeking (NS), harm avoidance (HA), reward dependence (RD)) were assessed using Cloninger's 240-item Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) within 10 days of FDG PET scan. Correlation between regional glucose metabolism and each temperament factor was tested using SPM2. In males, a significant negative correlation between NS score and glucose metabolism was observed in the bilateral superior temporal gyri, the hippocampus and the insula, while it was found in the bilateral middle frontal gyri, the right superior temporal gyrus and the left cingulate cortex and the putamen in females. A positive HA correlation was found in the right midbrain and the left cingulate gyrus in males, but in the bilateral basal ganglia in females. A negative RD correlation was observed in the right middle frontal and the left middle temporal gyri in males, while the correlation was found in the bilateral middle frontal gyri and the right basal ganglia and the superior temporal gyrus in females. These data demonstrate different cortical and subcortical metabolic correlates of temperament factors of personality between males and females. These results may help understand biological substrate of gender differences in personality and susceptibility to neuropsychiatric illnesses

  12. Metabolic correlates of temperament factors of personality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hyun Soo; Cho, Sang Soo; Yoon, Eun Jin; Bang, Seong Ae; Kim, Yu Kyeong; Kim, Sang Eun [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-08-15

    Gender differences in personality are considered to have biological bases. In an attempt to understand the gender differences of personality on neurobiological bases, we conducted correlation analyses between regional brain glucose metabolism and temperament factors of personality in males and females. Thirty-six healthy right-handed volunteers (18 males, 33.8 {+-} 17.6 y;18 females, 36.2 {+-} 20.4 y) underwent FDG PET at resting state. Three temperament factors of personality (novelty seeking (NS), harm avoidance (HA), reward dependence (RD)) were assessed using Cloninger's 240-item Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) within 10 days of FDG PET scan. Correlation between regional glucose metabolism and each temperament factor was tested using SPM2. In males, a significant negative correlation between NS score and glucose metabolism was observed in the bilateral superior temporal gyri, the hippocampus and the insula, while it was found in the bilateral middle frontal gyri, the right superior temporal gyrus and the left cingulate cortex and the putamen in females. A positive HA correlation was found in the right midbrain and the left cingulate gyrus in males, but in the bilateral basal ganglia in females. A negative RD correlation was observed in the right middle frontal and the left middle temporal gyri in males, while the correlation was found in the bilateral middle frontal gyri and the right basal ganglia and the superior temporal gyrus in females. These data demonstrate different cortical and subcortical metabolic correlates of temperament factors of personality between males and females. These results may help understand biological substrate of gender differences in personality and susceptibility to neuropsychiatric illnesses.

  13. A radial map of multi-whisker correlation selectivity in the rat barrel cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estebanez, Luc; Bertherat, Julien; Shulz, Daniel E; Bourdieu, Laurent; Léger, Jean-François

    2016-11-21

    In the barrel cortex, several features of single-whisker stimuli are organized in functional maps. The barrel cortex also encodes spatio-temporal correlation patterns of multi-whisker inputs, but so far the cortical mapping of neurons tuned to such input statistics is unknown. Here we report that layer 2/3 of the rat barrel cortex contains an additional functional map based on neuronal tuning to correlated versus uncorrelated multi-whisker stimuli: neuron responses to uncorrelated multi-whisker stimulation are strongest above barrel centres, whereas neuron responses to correlated and anti-correlated multi-whisker stimulation peak above the barrel-septal borders, forming rings of multi-whisker synchrony-preferring cells.

  14. Negated bio-events: analysis and identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nawaz Raheel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Negation occurs frequently in scientific literature, especially in biomedical literature. It has previously been reported that around 13% of sentences found in biomedical research articles contain negation. Historically, the main motivation for identifying negated events has been to ensure their exclusion from lists of extracted interactions. However, recently, there has been a growing interest in negative results, which has resulted in negation detection being identified as a key challenge in biomedical relation extraction. In this article, we focus on the problem of identifying negated bio-events, given gold standard event annotations. Results We have conducted a detailed analysis of three open access bio-event corpora containing negation information (i.e., GENIA Event, BioInfer and BioNLP’09 ST, and have identified the main types of negated bio-events. We have analysed the key aspects of a machine learning solution to the problem of detecting negated events, including selection of negation cues, feature engineering and the choice of learning algorithm. Combining the best solutions for each aspect of the problem, we propose a novel framework for the identification of negated bio-events. We have evaluated our system on each of the three open access corpora mentioned above. The performance of the system significantly surpasses the best results previously reported on the BioNLP’09 ST corpus, and achieves even better results on the GENIA Event and BioInfer corpora, both of which contain more varied and complex events. Conclusions Recently, in the field of biomedical text mining, the development and enhancement of event-based systems has received significant interest. The ability to identify negated events is a key performance element for these systems. We have conducted the first detailed study on the analysis and identification of negated bio-events. Our proposed framework can be integrated with state-of-the-art event

  15. Scanning image correlation spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Digman, Michelle A; Gratton, Enrico

    2012-05-01

    Molecular interactions are at the origin of life. How molecules get at different locations in the cell and how they locate their partners is a major and partially unresolved question in biology that is paramount to signaling. Spatio-temporal correlations of fluctuating fluorescently tagged molecules reveal how they move, interact, and bind in the different cellular compartments. Methods based on fluctuations represent a remarkable technical advancement in biological imaging. Here we discuss image analysis methods based on spatial and temporal correlation of fluctuations, raster image correlation spectroscopy, number and brightness, and spatial cross-correlations that give us information about how individual molecules move in cells and interact with partners at the single molecule level. These methods can be implemented with a standard laser scanning microscope and produce a cellular level spatio-temporal map of molecular interactions. Copyright © 2012 WILEY Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Sensory correlations in autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, Janet K; Trivedi, Madhukar H; Grannemann, Bruce D; Garver, Carolyn R; Johnson, Danny G; Andrews, Alonzo A; Savla, Jayshree S; Mehta, Jyutika A; Schroeder, Jennifer L

    2007-03-01

    This study examined the relationship between auditory, visual, touch, and oral sensory dysfunction in autism and their relationship to multisensory dysfunction and severity of autism. The Sensory Profile was completed on 104 persons with a diagnosis of autism, 3 to 56 years of age. Analysis showed a significant correlation between the different processing modalities using total scores. Analysis also showed a significant correlation between processing modalities for both high and low thresholds, with the exception that auditory high threshold processing did not correlate with oral low threshold or touch low threshold processing. Examination of the different age groups suggests that sensory disturbance correlates with severity of autism in children, but not in adolescents and adults. Evidence from this study suggests that: all the main modalities and multisensory processing appear to be affected; sensory processing dysfunction in autism is global in nature; and sensory processing problems need to be considered part of the disorder.

  17. Principles of correlation counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, J.W.

    1975-01-01

    A review is given of the various applications which have been made of correlation techniques in the field of nuclear physics, in particular for absolute counting. Whereas in most cases the usual coincidence method will be preferable for its simplicity, correlation counting may be the only possible approach in such cases where the two radiations of the cascade cannot be well separated or when there is a longliving intermediate state. The measurement of half-lives and of count rates of spurious pulses is also briefly discussed. The various experimental situations lead to different ways the correlation method is best applied (covariance technique with one or with two detectors, application of correlation functions, etc.). Formulae are given for some simple model cases, neglecting dead-time corrections

  18. Gas-correlation lidar

    OpenAIRE

    Edner, H; Svanberg, Sune; Uneus, L; Wendt, W

    1984-01-01

    Basic principles for the extension of gas-correlation techniques to the lidar situation are discussed. Favorable signal-to-noise ratios and relaxed laser requirements characterize the technique. Preliminary experiments on atomic mercury are reported.

  19. Emerging Correlation Optics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angelsky, Oleg V.; Gbur, Gregory J.; Polyanskii, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This feature issue of Applied Optics contains a series of selected papers reflecting the state-of-the-art of correlation optics and showing synergetics between the theoretical background and experimental techniques.......This feature issue of Applied Optics contains a series of selected papers reflecting the state-of-the-art of correlation optics and showing synergetics between the theoretical background and experimental techniques....

  20. Information Filtering Based on Users' Negative Opinions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Qiang; Li, Yang; Liu, Jian-Guo

    2013-05-01

    The process of heat conduction (HC) has recently found application in the information filtering [Zhang et al., Phys. Rev. Lett.99, 154301 (2007)], which is of high diversity but low accuracy. The classical HC model predicts users' potential interested objects based on their interesting objects regardless to the negative opinions. In terms of the users' rating scores, we present an improved user-based HC (UHC) information model by taking into account users' positive and negative opinions. Firstly, the objects rated by users are divided into positive and negative categories, then the predicted interesting and dislike object lists are generated by the UHC model. Finally, the recommendation lists are constructed by filtering out the dislike objects from the interesting lists. By implementing the new model based on nine similarity measures, the experimental results for MovieLens and Netflix datasets show that the new model considering negative opinions could greatly enhance the accuracy, measured by the average ranking score, from 0.049 to 0.036 for Netflix and from 0.1025 to 0.0570 for Movielens dataset, reduced by 26.53% and 44.39%, respectively. Since users prefer to give positive ratings rather than negative ones, the negative opinions contain much more information than the positive ones, the negative opinions, therefore, are very important for understanding users' online collective behaviors and improving the performance of HC model.

  1. Negative HPV screening test predicts low cervical cancer risk better than negative Pap test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Based on a study that included more than 1 million women, investigators at NCI have determined that a negative test for HPV infection compared to a negative Pap test provides greater safety, or assurance, against future risk of cervical cancer.

  2. Finite Metric Spaces of Strictly negative Type

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Poul G.

    If a finite metric space is of strictly negative type then its transfinite diameter is uniquely realized by an infinite extent (“load vector''). Finite metric spaces that have this property include all trees, and all finite subspaces of Euclidean and Hyperbolic spaces. We prove that if the distance...... matrix of a finite metric space is both hypermetric and regular, then it is of strictly negative type. We show that the strictly negative type finite subspaces of spheres are precisely those which do not contain two pairs of antipodal points....

  3. Does Negative Type Characterize the Round Sphere?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kokkendorff, Simon Lyngby

    2007-01-01

    We discuss the measure theoretic metric invariants extent, mean distance and symmetry ratio and their relation to the concept of negative type of a metric space. A conjecture stating that a compact Riemannian manifold with symmetry ratio 1 must be a round sphere, was put forward in a previous paper....... We resolve this conjecture in the class of Riemannian symmetric spaces by showing, that a Riemannian manifold with symmetry ratio 1 must be of negative type and that the only compact Riemannian symmetric spaces of negative type are the round spheres....

  4. Opposing effects of negative emotion on amygdalar and hippocampal memory for items and associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisby, James A; Horner, Aidan J; Hørlyck, Lone D; Burgess, Neil

    2016-06-01

    Although negative emotion can strengthen memory of an event it can also result in memory disturbances, as in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). We examined the effects of negative item content on amygdalar and hippocampal function in memory for the items themselves and for the associations between them. During fMRI, we examined encoding and retrieval of paired associates made up of all four combinations of neutral and negative images. At test, participants were cued with an image and, if recognised, had to retrieve the associated (target) image. The presence of negative images increased item memory but reduced associative memory. At encoding, subsequent item recognition correlated with amygdala activity, while subsequent associative memory correlated with hippocampal activity. Hippocampal activity was reduced by the presence of negative images, during encoding and correct associative retrieval. In contrast, amygdala activity increased for correctly retrieved negative images, even when cued by a neutral image. Our findings support a dual representation account, whereby negative emotion up-regulates the amygdala to strengthen item memory but down-regulates the hippocampus to weaken associative representations. These results have implications for the development and treatment of clinical disorders in which diminished associations between emotional stimuli and their context contribute to negative symptoms, as in PTSD. © The Author (2016). Published by Oxford University Press.

  5. Capillary dysfunction in Alzheimer’s disease correlates with cognitive decline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eskildsen, Simon Fristed; Gyldensted, Louise; Nagenthiraja, Kartheeban

    , the temporal pole, and posterior cingulate gyrus in patients. In addition we found widespread negative correlations between RTH and mini-mental state examination (MMSE) scores in all major lobes except the occipital lobe (figure). Conclusions: The widespread negative correlation between RTH and MMSE...

  6. The chameleonic nature of French ni : negative coordination in a negative concord language

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doetjes, Jenny

    2005-01-01

    The main goal of this paper is to defend the claim that ni, the French counterpart of neither and nor is always a negative conjunction which takes part in the negative concord system of French. The interpretation one seems to get for this negative concord ni varies depending on the environment where

  7. Perceived Social Competence, Negative Social Interactions, and Negative Cognitive Style Predict Depressive Symptoms during Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Adabel; Hankin, Benjamin L.; Mermelstein, Robin J.

    2010-01-01

    The current study examined whether negative interactions with parents and peers would mediate the longitudinal association between perceived social competence and depressive symptoms and whether a negative cognitive style would moderate the longitudinal association between negative interactions with parents and increases in depressive symptoms.…

  8. The role of a tool in measuring negative consequences of workaholism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Chodkiewicz

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Analyzes of negative consequences of workaholism are ambiguous, and various studies have been conducted with different measurement tools. Thus, the objective of the current research was to find the answer to the question about relationships between workaholism measured with varied tools and mental health, stress experienced in life and at work, negative affect, and work–family conflicts. Material and Methods: The study was conducted in a group of 178 subjects (71 men, 107 women, aged 23–66, with a minimum work experience of 4 years. To measure workaholism 4 different research tools, based on different conceptualization of this construct, were used: Workaholism Battery (Work-Bat by Spence and Robbins, Work Addiction Risk Test (WART by Robinson, Scale of Workaholism as Behavioral Tendencies (SWBT by Mudrack and Naughton, and The Scale of Being Absorbed by Work (SZAP by Golińska. To measure possible consequences of workaholism the following tools were employed: General Health Questionnaire-28 (GHQ-28 by Goldberg, Scale of Work–Family/Family–Work Conflict (WFC/FWC by Netemeyer et al., Perceived Stress Scale (PSS by Cohen et al., Brief Scale of Vocational Stress (BSVS by Stanton et al. and Mood Scale by Wojciszke and Baryła. Results: The strongest relationships between workaholism and its negative consequences for the functioning of the unit can be observed using 2 diagnostic methods, respectively: WART and SZAP adapted by Golińska. Other diagnostic tools (Work-Bat and SWBT have insignificant relationships with possible negative consequences of workaholism. Conclusions: The applied method of measuring workaholism seems to be of great importance in predicting possible consequences-different conceptualizations of phenomena leading to different results, which is important for researchers and practitioners involved in the issue of workaholism. There is a need for further work on the conceptualization and operationalization of the

  9. Emotion dysregulation and negative affect: association with psychiatric symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Bekh; DeFife, Jared A; Guarnaccia, Clifford; Phifer, Justine; Fani, Negar; Ressler, Kerry J; Westen, Drew

    2011-05-01

    A growing body of research focuses on the development and correlates of emotion dysregulation, or deficits in the ability to regulate intense and shifting emotional states. Current models of psychopathology have incorporated the construct of emotion dysregulation, suggesting its unique and interactive contributions, along with childhood disruptive experiences and negative affect, in producing symptomatic distress. Some researchers have suggested that emotion dysregulation is simply a variant of high negative affect. The aim of this study was to assess the construct and incremental validity of self-reported emotion dysregulation over and above childhood trauma and negative affect in predicting a range of psychopathology. Five hundred thirty individuals aged 18 to 77 years (62% female) were recruited from the waiting areas of the general medical and obstetric/gynecologic clinics in an urban public hospital in Atlanta, Georgia. Participants completed a battery of self-report measures obtained by interview, including the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule, and the Emotion Dysregulation Scale. Regression analyses examined the unique and incremental associations of these self-report measurements of childhood traumatic experiences, negative affect, and emotion dysregulation with concurrent structured interview-based measurements of psychiatric distress and history of self-destructive behaviors. These measures included the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale, the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test, the Short Drug Abuse Screening Test, the Beck Depression Inventory, and the Global Adaptive Functioning Scale from the Longitudinal Interval Follow-Up Evaluation. The presented data were collected between 2005 and 2009. Regression models including age, gender, childhood trauma, negative affect, and emotion dysregulation were significantly (P ≤ .001) associated with each of the study's criterion variables, accounting for large

  10. T100. NICOTINE USE IMPACTS NEGATIVE SYMPTOMS SEVERITY IN SCHIZOPHRENIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Hianna; Coutinho, Luccas; Higuchi, Cinthia; Noto, Cristiano; Bressan, Rodrigo; Gadelha, Ary

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Background Nicotine use is higher among patients with schizophrenia (50–98%) than in general population (25–30%). This association can reflect a non-specific liability to substance use or specific effects of tobacco on symptoms severity or side effects. Studies about nicotine use and schizophrenia symptoms dimensions are controversial. Some of them showed a relation between severe nicotine use and higher positive symptoms and others presented a correlation between lower negative symptoms and nicotine use. That is why we aimed to verify whether nicotine use is associated with symptoms dimensions in patients with schizophrenia. Methods Two hundred and seven outpatients were enrolled from the Programa de Esquizofrenia da Universidade Federal de São Paulo (PROESQ/UNIFESP). Schizophrenia diagnosis was confirmed by Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders (SCID-I). Dimensional psychopathology was assessed with Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence. The PANSS items were grouped in five dimensions: positive, negative, disorganized/cognitive, mood/depression and excitement/hostility. The total score of Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence was the index used for severity in nicotine dependence. We used Wilcoxon-mann- whitney test to compare the means of PANSS dimensions between nicotine users versus non nicotine use. Results The patients mean age was 36.75 (SD 10.648), 69.1% were male, 48.3% reported lifetime tobacco use and 34.3% reported current tobacco use. Lower scores on negative dimension were associated with nicotine use (W = 5642.5, p-value = 0.046, effect size = 0.446). All p-values were corrected by Bonferroni test. Tests that evaluated the relationship between nicotine use and the total PANSS score or other dimensions were not statistically significant. Discussion This study shows that nicotine use impacts negative symptoms of schizophrenia. Increase in hepatic metabolism leading

  11. Influence of self-esteem and negative affectivity on oral health-related quality of life in patients with partial tooth loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özhayat, Esben B

    2013-10-01

    To meaningfully interpret oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) measures, the influence of personality traits must be investigated. To investigate and quantify the influence of self-esteem and negative affectivity (NA) on OHRQoL. It was hypothesized that low self-esteem and high NA would be associated with worse OHRQoL. OHRQoL measured by the Oral Health Impact Profile 49 (OHIP-49), self-esteem measured by the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES), NA measured by the Eysenck Personality Inventory Questionnaire (EPI-Q), global oral rating of oral comfort and controlling variables (gender, age, number of teeth, experience of wearing removable dental prostheses (RDP), location of missing teeth and zone of missing teeth) were collected from 81 patients with partial tooth loss, signed in for treatment with RDP. Bivariate analyses showed that the EPI-Q score had the highest correlation with OHIP-49 score (R = 0.5). Both EPI-Q and RSES score had a stronger correlation with psychosocial items than physical/functional items of the OHIP-49. In the multivariate analyses, the controlling variables alone explained 17.75% of the variance in OHIP-49 score, while addition of EPI-Q score, RSES score and both EPI-Q and RSES score explained additionally 11.64%, 6.07% and 14.12%, respectively. For each unit increase in EPI-Q score, the OHIP-49 score increased 5.1 units and for each unit increase in RSES score, the OHIP-49 score decreased 1.1. NA was statistically and clinically significantly higher and self-esteem was statistically significantly lower in patients reporting worse oral comfort. NA had the strongest and most clinically meaningful influence, but both NA and self-esteem was found to influence OHRQoL; low self-esteem and high NA was associated with worse OHRQoL. This indicates the possibility to explain some of the impact of tooth loss on OHRQoL based on personality traits. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Production of negatively charged radioactive ion beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y.; Stracener, D. W.; Stora, T.

    2017-08-01

    Beams of short-lived radioactive nuclei are needed for frontier experimental research in nuclear structure, reactions, and astrophysics. Negatively charged radioactive ion beams have unique advantages and allow for the use of a tandem accelerator for post-acceleration, which can provide the highest beam quality and continuously variable energies. Negative ion beams can be obtained with high intensity and some unique beam purification techniques based on differences in electronegativity and chemical reactivity can be used to provide beams with high purity. This article describes the production of negative radioactive ion beams at the former holifield radioactive ion beam facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory and at the CERN ISOLDE facility with emphasis on the development of the negative ion sources employed at these two facilities. ).

  13. 40 CFR 52.222 - Negative declarations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... County Air Pollution Control District. (i) Industrial Wastewater, Plastic Parts Coating: Business... Pollution Control District. (i) Aerospace Coatings; Industrial Waste Water Treatment; Plastic Parts Coating... following air pollution control districts submitted negative declarations for volatile organic compound...

  14. Doped Chiral Polymer Negative Index Materials (DCPNIM)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Doped Chiral Polymer-Negative Index Materials (DCP-NIM) with tunable resonance frequencies are developed by adding various plasmonic nanoinclusions into chiral...

  15. Negative ion formation processes: A general review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alton, G.D.

    1990-01-01

    The principal negative ion formation processes will be briefly reviewed. Primary emphasis will be placed on the more efficient and universal processes of charge transfer and secondary ion formation through non-thermodynamic surface ionization. 86 refs., 20 figs.

  16. The strategic significance of negative externalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    Negative externalities have competitive relevance in a market when they have selective impacts as, for : example, when a product in use imposes greater costs on consumers of rival products than on other people. : Because managers have discretion ...

  17. Behavioral Assessment of the Negative Emotion Aspect of Distress Tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veilleux, Jennifer C; Pollert, Garrett A; Zielinski, Melissa J; Shaver, Jennifer A; Hill, Morgan A

    2017-01-01

    The current behavioral tasks assessing distress tolerance measure tolerance to frustration and tolerance to physical discomfort, but do not explicitly assess tolerance to negative emotion. We closely evaluated the conceptual distinctions between current behavioral tasks and self-report tasks assessing distress tolerance, and then developed a new behavioral distress tolerance task called the Emotional Image Tolerance (EIT) task. The EIT task retains elements of existing behavioral tasks (e.g., indices of persistence) while augmenting the reliability and content sufficiency of existing measures by including multiple trials, including a variety of negative affect stimuli, and separating overall task persistence from task persistence after onset of distress. In a series of three studies, we found that the EIT correlated with extant behavioral measures of distress tolerance, the computerized mirror-tracing task and a physical cold pressor task. Across all of the studies, we also evaluated whether the EIT correlated with self-report measures of distress tolerance and measures of psychopathology (e.g., depression, anxiety, and binge eating). Implications for the refinement of the distress tolerance construct are discussed.

  18. Negative psychological consequences of breast cancer among recently diagnosed ethnically diverse women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejeda, Silvia; Stolley, Melinda R; Vijayasiri, Ganga; Campbell, Richard T; Estwing Ferrans, Carol; Warnecke, Richard B; Rauscher, Garth H

    2017-12-01

    Breast cancer has psychological consequences that impact quality of life. We examined factors associated with negative psychological consequences of a breast cancer diagnosis, in a diverse sample of 910 recently diagnosed patients (378 African American, 372 white, and 160 Latina). Patients completed an in-person interview as part of the Breast Cancer Care in Chicago study within an average of 4 months from diagnosis. The Cockburn negative psychological consequences of breast cancer screening scale was revised to focus on a breast cancer diagnosis. Path analysis assessed predictors of psychological consequences and potential mediators between race/ethnicity and psychological consequences. Compared to white counterparts, bivariate analysis showed African American (β = 1.4, P psychological consequences. Strongest predictors (P psychological consequences was unmet social support. African American and Latina women reported greater psychological consequences related to their breast cancer diagnosis; this disparity was mediated by differences in unmet social support. Social support represents a promising point of intervention. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Negative permeability from random particle composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Shahid

    2017-04-01

    Artificial media, such as those composed of periodically-spaced wires for negative permittivity and split ring resonators for negative permeability have been extensively investigated for negative refractive index (NRI) applications (Smith et al., 2004; Pendry et al., 1999) [1,2]. This paper presents an alternative method for producing negative permeability: granular (or particulate) composites incorporating magnetic fillers. Artificial media, such as split-ring resonators, are designed to produce a magnetic resonance feature, which results in negative permeability over a narrow frequency range about the resonance frequency. The position of the feature is dependent upon the size of the inclusion. The material in this case is anisotropic, such that the feature is only observable when the materials are orientated in a specific direction relative to the applied field. A similar resonance can be generated in magnetic granular (particulate) materials: ferromagnetic resonance from the natural spin resonance of particles. Although the theoretical resonance profiles in granular composites shows the permeability dipping to negative values, this is rarely observed experimentally due to resonance damping effects. Results are presented for iron in spherical form and in flake form, dispersed in insulating host matrices. The two particle shapes show different permeability performance, with the magnetic flakes producing a negative contribution. This is attributed to the stronger coupling with the magnetic field resulting from the high aspect ratio of the flakes. The accompanying ferromagnetic resonance is strong enough to overcome the effects of damping and produce negative permeability. The size of random particle composites is not dictated by the wavelength of the applied field, so the materials are potentially much thinner than other, more traditional artificial composites at microwave frequencies.

  20. Negative ion formation and neutralization processes, (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugiura, Toshio

    1982-01-01

    This review has been made preliminary for the purpose of contribute to the plasma heating by ''negative ion based neutral beam injection'' in the magnetic confinement fusion reactor. A compilation includes the survey of the general processes of negative ion formation, the data of the cross section of H - ion formation and the neutralization of H - ion, and some of new processes of H - ion formation. The data of cross section are mainly experimental, but partly include the results of theoretical calculation. (author)

  1. Negative thermal expansion in framework compounds

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-11-27

    Nov 27, 2015 ... We have studied negative thermal expansion (NTE) compounds with chemi- cal compositions of NX2O8 and NX2O7 (N=Zr, Hf and X=W, Mo, V) and M2O (M=Cu, Ag) using the techniques of inelastic neutron scattering and lattice dynamics. There is a large variation in the negative thermal expansion ...

  2. Negative pressure pulmonary oedema after septoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García de Hombre, Alina M; Cuffini, Alejandro; Bonadeo, Alejandro

    2013-01-01

    Negative pressure pulmonary oedema (NPPO) is an anaesthetic complication due to acute obstruction of the upper airway, whose main cause is laryngospasm. The pathophysiology involves a strong negative intrapleural pressure during inspiration against a closed glottis, which triggers excessive pressure in the pulmonary microvasculature. Although its diagnosis can be difficult, its recognition helps to minimise morbidity and mortality. This article presents a case of NPPO due to postextubation laryngospasm. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  3. Negative capacitance in multidomain ferroelectric superlattices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubko, Pavlo; Wojdeł, Jacek C; Hadjimichael, Marios; Fernandez-Pena, Stéphanie; Sené, Anaïs; Luk'yanchuk, Igor; Triscone, Jean-Marc; Íñiguez, Jorge

    2016-06-23

    The stability of spontaneous electrical polarization in ferroelectrics is fundamental to many of their current applications, which range from the simple electric cigarette lighter to non-volatile random access memories. Research on nanoscale ferroelectrics reveals that their behaviour is profoundly different from that in bulk ferroelectrics, which could lead to new phenomena with potential for future devices. As ferroelectrics become thinner, maintaining a stable polarization becomes increasingly challenging. On the other hand, intentionally destabilizing this polarization can cause the effective electric permittivity of a ferroelectric to become negative, enabling it to behave as a negative capacitance when integrated in a heterostructure. Negative capacitance has been proposed as a way of overcoming fundamental limitations on the power consumption of field-effect transistors. However, experimental demonstrations of this phenomenon remain contentious. The prevalent interpretations based on homogeneous polarization models are difficult to reconcile with the expected strong tendency for domain formation, but the effect of domains on negative capacitance has received little attention. Here we report negative capacitance in a model system of multidomain ferroelectric-dielectric superlattices across a wide range of temperatures, in both the ferroelectric and paraelectric phases. Using a phenomenological model, we show that domain-wall motion not only gives rise to negative permittivity, but can also enhance, rather than limit, its temperature range. Our first-principles-based atomistic simulations provide detailed microscopic insight into the origin of this phenomenon, identifying the dominant contribution of near-interface layers and paving the way for its future exploitation.

  4. The Peculiar Negative Greenhouse Effect Over Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sejas, S.; Taylor, P. C.; Cai, M.

    2017-12-01

    Greenhouse gases warm the climate system by reducing the energy loss to space through the greenhouse effect. Thus, a common way to measure the strength of the greenhouse effect is by taking the difference between the surface longwave (LW) emission and the outgoing LW radiation. Based on this definition, a paradoxical negative greenhouse effect is found over the Antarctic Plateau, which suprisingly indicates that greenhouse gases enhance energy loss to space. Using 13 years of NASA satellite observations, we verify the existence of the negative greenhouse effect and find that the magnitude and sign of the greenhouse effect varies seasonally and spectrally. A previous explanation attributes the negative greenhouse effect solely to stratospheric CO2 and warmer than surface stratospheric temperatures. However, we surprisingly find that the negative greenhouse effect is predominantly caused by tropospheric water vapor. A novel principle-based explanation provides the first complete account of the Antarctic Plateau's negative greenhouse effect indicating that it is controlled by the vertical variation of temperature and greenhouse gas absorption strength. Our findings indicate that the strong surface-based temperature inversion and scarcity of free tropospheric water vapor over the Antarctic Plateau cause the negative greenhouse effect. These are climatological features uniquely found in the Antarctic Plateau region, explaining why the greenhouse effect is positive everywhere else.

  5. The mobility of negative ions in superfluid 3He

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solomaa, M.

    1982-01-01

    This article reviews recent experimental and theoretical work on the mobility of negative ions in the superfluid A and B phases of liquid 3 He. In the normal Fermi liquid at temperatures below approximately 50 mK and also in the superfluid close to the superfluid transition temperature, Tsub(c), the mobility of a negative ion may simply be considered as limited by the elastic scattering of 3 He quasiparticles. This explains the constancy of the ion mobility in the normal phase. However, underlying the rapid increase of the measured mobility in the superfluid phases there is a subtle quantum-mechanical scattering effect. Detailed solutions of the 3 He quasiparticle-negative ion scattering process in the pair-correlated state provide a simple physical picture of an energy-dependent forward-peaking phenomenon. This yields quantitative theoretical results for the ion mobility in the quasi-isotropic B phase and for the ion mobility tensor in the anisotropic A phase which agree with the experimental data. (author)

  6. Muscular Strength and Power Correlates of Tackling Ability in Semiprofessional Rugby League Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speranza, Michael J A; Gabbett, Tim J; Johnston, Rich D; Sheppard, Jeremy M

    2015-08-01

    This study investigated the relationship between muscular strength and power and tackling ability in semiprofessional rugby league players. Thirty-six semiprofessional (mean ± SD age, 23.1 ± 3.6 years) rugby league players, from 3 distinct playing divisions (first grade, second grade, and under 20s), underwent tests of upper-body strength (3 repetition maximum [RM] bench press), lower-body strength (3RM squat), upper-body power (plyometric push-up [PPU]), and lower-body power (countermovement jump). Muscular strength relative to body mass was also calculated. Tackling ability of the players was tested using video analysis of a standardized one-on-one tackling drill. For all players, the strongest correlates of tackling ability were squat (r = 0.67), bench press (r = 0.58), relative squat (r = 0.41), and PPU (r = 0.56). The strongest correlates of tackling ability in first grade players were squat (r = 0.72), bench press (r = 0.72), relative squat (r = 0.86), and PPU (r = 0.70). For second grade players, only relative squat (r = 0.60) and PPU (r = 0.67) were associated with tackling ability. The strongest correlates of tackling ability in under 20s players were squat (r = 0.77), bench press (r = 0.70), and PPU (r = 0.65). The findings of this study demonstrate that muscular strength and upper-body power contribute to tackling ability in semiprofessional rugby league players. Therefore, as long as the technical aspects of tackling technique are adequately coached and practiced, then enhancements in muscular strength and power may serve as foundational components to underpin improvement in tackling ability.

  7. Pair Correlation Function Integrals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wedberg, Nils Hejle Rasmus Ingemar; O'Connell, John P.; Peters, Günther H.J.

    2011-01-01

    We describe a method for extending radial distribution functions obtained from molecular simulations of pure and mixed molecular fluids to arbitrary distances. The method allows total correlation function integrals to be reliably calculated from simulations of relatively small systems. The long-d...... distribution function has structure beyond the sampling limit imposed by the system size, the integration is more reliable, and usually more accurate, than simple integral truncation.......We describe a method for extending radial distribution functions obtained from molecular simulations of pure and mixed molecular fluids to arbitrary distances. The method allows total correlation function integrals to be reliably calculated from simulations of relatively small systems. The long......, and J. Abildskov, Mol. Simul. 36, 1243 (2010); Fluid Phase Equilib. 302, 32 (2011)], but describe here its theoretical basis more thoroughly and derive long-distance approximations for the direct correlation functions. We describe the numerical implementation of the method in detail, and report...

  8. Evaluating Serum Markers for Hormone Receptor-Negative Breast Cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michèl Schummer

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer and the leading cause of cancer death in females worldwide. Death rates have been declining, largely as a result of early detection through mammography and improved treatment, but mammographic screening is controversial because of over-diagnosis of breast disease that might not require treatment, and under-diagnosis of cancer in women with dense breasts. Breast cancer screening could be improved by pairing mammography with a tumor circulating marker, of which there are currently none. Given genomic similarities between the basal breast cancer subtype and serous ovarian cancer, and given our success in identifying circulating markers for ovarian cancer, we investigated the performance in hormone receptor-negative breast cancer detection of both previously identified ovarian serum markers and circulating markers associated with transcripts that were differentially expressed in breast cancer tissue compared to healthy breast tissue from reduction mammaplasties.We evaluated a total of 15 analytes (13 proteins, 1 miRNA, 1 autoantibody in sera drawn at or before breast cancer surgery from 43 breast cancer cases (28 triple-negative-TN-and 15 hormone receptor-negative-HRN-/ HER2-positive and 87 matched controls.In the analysis of our whole cohort of breast cancer cases, autoantibodies to TP53 performed significantly better than the other selected 14 analytes showing 25.6% and 34.9% sensitivity at 95% and 90% specificity respectively with AUC: 0.7 (p<0.001. The subset of 28 TN cancers showed very similar results. We observed no correlation between anti-TP53 and the 14 other markers; however, anti-TP53 expression correlated with Body-Mass-Index. It did not correlate with tumor size, positive lymph nodes, tumor stage, the presence of metastases or recurrence.None of the 13 serum proteins nor miRNA 135b identified women with HRN or TN breast cancer. TP53 autoantibodies identified women with HRN breast

  9. Entropy, energy and negativity in Fermi-resonance coupled states of substituted methanes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou Xiwen; Wan Mingfang; Ma Zhongqi

    2010-01-01

    Several measures of entanglement have attracted considerable interest in the relationship of a measure of entanglement with other quantities. The dynamics of entropy, energy and negativity is studied for Fermi-resonance coupled vibrations in substituted methanes with three kinds of initial mixed states, which are the mixed density matrices of binomial states, thermal states and squeezed states on two vibrational modes, respectively. It is demonstrated that for mixed binomial states and mixed thermal states with small magnitudes the entropies of the stretch and the bend are anti-correlated in the same oscillatory frequency, so do the energies for each kind of state with small magnitudes, whereas the entropies exhibit positive correlations with the corresponding energies. Furthermore, for small magnitudes quantum mutual entropy is positively correlated with the interacting energy. Analytic forms of entropies and energies are provided with initial conditions in which they are stationary, and the agreement between analytic and numerical simulations is satisfactory. The dynamical entanglement measured by negativity is examined for those states and conditions. It is shown that negativity displays a sudden death for mixed binomial states and mixed thermal states with small magnitudes, and the time-averaged negativity has the minimal value under the conditions of stationary entropies and energies. Moreover, negativity is positively correlated with the mutual entropy and the interacting energy just for mixed squeezed states with small magnitudes. Those are useful for molecular quantum information processing and dynamical entanglement.

  10. Using temporal detrending to observe the spatial correlation of traffic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Ermagun

    Full Text Available This empirical study sheds light on the spatial correlation of traffic links under different traffic regimes. We mimic the behavior of real traffic by pinpointing the spatial correlation between 140 freeway traffic links in a major sub-network of the Minneapolis-St. Paul freeway system with a grid-like network topology. This topology enables us to juxtapose the positive and negative correlation between links, which has been overlooked in short-term traffic forecasting models. To accurately and reliably measure the correlation between traffic links, we develop an algorithm that eliminates temporal trends in three dimensions: (1 hourly dimension, (2 weekly dimension, and (3 system dimension for each link. The spatial correlation of traffic links exhibits a stronger negative correlation in rush hours, when congestion affects route choice. Although this correlation occurs mostly in parallel links, it is also observed upstream, where travelers receive information and are able to switch to substitute paths. Irrespective of the time-of-day and day-of-week, a strong positive correlation is witnessed between upstream and downstream links. This correlation is stronger in uncongested regimes, as traffic flow passes through consecutive links more quickly and there is no congestion effect to shift or stall traffic. The extracted spatial correlation structure can augment the accuracy of short-term traffic forecasting models.

  11. Spatial correlated games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Sanz, Ramón

    2017-11-01

    This article studies correlated two-person games constructed from games with independent players as proposed in Iqbal et al. (2016 R. Soc. open sci. 3 , 150477. (doi:10.1098/rsos.150477)). The games are played in a collective manner, both in a two-dimensional lattice where the players interact with their neighbours, and with players interacting at random. Four game types are scrutinized in iterated games where the players are allowed to change their strategies, adopting that of their best paid mate neighbour. Particular attention is paid in the study to the effect of a variable degree of correlation on Nash equilibrium strategy pairs.

  12. Correlation ion mobility spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeifer, Kent B [Los Lunas, NM; Rohde, Steven B [Corrales, NM

    2008-08-26

    Correlation ion mobility spectrometry (CIMS) uses gating modulation and correlation signal processing to improve IMS instrument performance. Closely spaced ion peaks can be resolved by adding discriminating codes to the gate and matched filtering for the received ion current signal, thereby improving sensitivity and resolution of an ion mobility spectrometer. CIMS can be used to improve the signal-to-noise ratio even for transient chemical samples. CIMS is especially advantageous for small geometry IMS drift tubes that can otherwise have poor resolution due to their small size.

  13. The Effects of Companies’ Social Irresponsibility on the Consumers’ Negative Emotions toward the Brand and Their Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyed Mohammad Tabataba’i Nasab

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Consumers’ negative emotions could be the main cause of behaviors such as Complaining, negative word of mouth and, brand switching. In this regard, factors other than brand can produce negative or positive emotions toward a brand. One of such factor is the Corporate Social Irresponsibility (CSIR. This study seeks to extract negative emotions toward a particular brand (auto brand. The results show that consumers’ negative emotions toward the auto brand are mainly characterized by Anxiety, discontent and anger. Also, the study model indicates a significant positive correlation between consumers’ negative emotions and their behavioral approaches (Complaining, negative word of mouth and brand switching. On the other hand, it represents the mediating role of negative word of mouth in the brand switching. Fi- nally, this study investigates the moderating role of the CSIR and shows that it can increase the possibility of brand switching in consumers up to 40 percent.

  14. Correlations between histology and neuronal activity recorded by microelectrodes implanted chronically in the cerebral cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCreery, Douglas; Cogan, Stuart; Kane, Sheryl; Pikov, Victor

    2016-06-01

    Objective. To quantify relations between the neuronal activity recorded with chronically-implanted intracortical microelectrodes and the histology of the surrounding tissue, using radial distance from the tip sites and time after array implantation as parameters. Approach. ‘Utah’-type intracortical microelectrode arrays were implanted into cats’ sensorimotor cortex for 275-364 days. The brain tissue around the implants was immuno-stained for the neuronal marker NeuN and for the astrocyte marker GFAP. Pearson’s product-moment correlations were used to quantify the relations between these markers and the amplitudes of the recorded neuronal action potentials (APs) and their signal-to-noise ratios (S/N). Main results. S/N was more stable over post-implant time than was AP amplitude, but its increased correlation with neuronal density after many months indicates ongoing loss of neurons around the microelectrodes. S/N was correlated with neuron density out to at least 140 μm from the microelectrodes, while AP amplitude was correlated with neuron density and GFAP density within ˜80 μm. Correlations between AP amplitude and histology markers (GFAP and NeuN density) were strongest immediately after implantation, while correlation between the neuron density and S/N was strongest near the time the animals were sacrificed. Unlike AP amplitude, there was no significant correlation between S/N and density of GFAP around the tip sites. Significance. Our findings indicate an evolving interaction between changes in the tissue surrounding the microelectrodes and the microelectrode’s electrical properties. Ongoing loss of neurons around recording microelectrodes, and the interactions between their delayed electrical deterioration and early tissue scarring around the tips appear to pose the greatest threats to the microelectrodes’ long-term functionality.

  15. Neurodevelopmental correlates in schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivković Maja

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary aetiopathogenetic considerations, based on neuro-imaging genetic and developmental neurobiology studies, suggest neurodevelopmental origin of schizophrenia. Several lines of evidence including structural abnormalities on in vivo brain imaging, the excess of prenatal and obstetric complications and the association of congenital and minor physical anomalies with schizophrenia, strongly indicate the neurodevelopmental pathogenesis of schizophrenia. On the other hand, controversial concept of psychotic continuum suggests schizophrenia and depression sharing the same genetic contribution to the pathogenesis. If this would be the case, depression could also be considered as neuro developmental disorder. The aims of the study were to investigate the association between: a pregnancy and birth complications (PBC, and b minor physical anomalies (MPA and schizophrenia or depression. Experimental groups consisted of 60 schizophrenic, 28 major depression patients and 30 healthy controls. All patients were diagnosed according to DSM-IV. Schizophrenic group was divided with regard to PANSS score into positive (n=32 and negative form (n=28 subgroups. PBC information were gathered from maternal recall while MPA were examined by using Waldrop scale for adults. The results showed that negative and positive schizophrenic subgroups had significantly more PBC than depressive group (p<0,05, as well than controls (p<0,001; p<0,05; respectively. There was no significant trend for more PBC in negative than in positive subgroup. All schizophrenic patients had higher rates of MPA than depressives (p<0,05. This trend for more MPA was not significant in comparison with healthy controls. These findings suggest that schizophrenia, especially its negative forms, could be considered as a member of the spectrum of neuro developmental disorders, which does not seem to be the case with depression. PBC and MPA could also be valuable in evaluation of risks for

  16. Coagulase negative staphylococci - a fast emerging threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latif, Mahwish; Usman, Javaid; Gilani, Mehreen; Munir, Tehmina; Mushtaq, Maria; Anjum, Rabia

    2015-03-01

    To determine the frequency of isolation of coagulase-negative staphylococci and their resistance to methicillin over a period of time. The descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out at Army Medical College, Rawalpindi, from June 2009 to May 2012, and comprised clinical samples mostly from patients admitted to the intensive care unit. They were inoculated onto appropriate culture media depending upon the specimen. After 24-hour incubation at 35°C, coagulase-negative staphylococci were identified on the basis of colony morphology, gram staining, a positive catalase and a negative tube coagulase test.Methicillin resistance among the isolated staphylococci was determined using a 30µg Cefoxitin disc as per the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute protocol. Number of coagulase-negative staphylococci for each year and their methicillin resistance rates were calculated. A comparison was made with methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureus) isolated during the same period. Of the total 1331 specimens studies over three years, 581(43.65%) were coagulase-negative staphylococci. The rate of coagulase-negative staphylococci and methicillin resistance was higher each year; 110(26.6%) in May 2009-Jun 2010, 134(36.5%) in 2011, and 337(61%) in 2012. Methicillin resistance rates also increased from 25(22.7%) to 46(34.3%) and then to 201(59.6%) in 2012.Maximum isolated specimens came from blood 311(53.5%), followed by pus/swabs 204(35.1%). The frequency of isolation of coagulase-negative staphylococci and its methicillin resistance among hospitalised patients is on the rise.

  17. [Negative hallucination, self-onsciousness and ageing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazif-Thomas, C; Stephan, F; Walter, M; Thomas, P

    2015-04-01

    Negative hallucinations are characterized by a defect in perception of an object or a person, or a denial of the existence of their perception. Negative hallucinations create blank spaces, due to both an impossible representation and an incapability of investment in reality. They have a close relationship with Cotard's syndrome, delusional theme of organ denial observed in melancholic syndromes in the elderly. Phenomenological approach. The phenomenology of negative hallucinations provides quite an amount of information on the origin of the psychotic symptoms when one is rather old. The connections between hallucinations, mood disorders and negative symptoms are often difficult to live with for the nearest and dearest. Negative hallucinations require a strict approach to identify their expression that is crucial because a wide heterogeneity exists within the pathological pictures, as in Cotard's syndrome. Although the negative hallucination has an anti traumatic function in elderly people fighting against mental pain, it still represents a deficiency in symbolization. The prevalence of this symptom is without doubt underestimated, although its presence often underlines thymic suffering that is more striking. These hallucinatory symptoms have an important impact on the patients' daily life, and they appear to be prisoners of a suffering, which cannot be revealed. We propose in this article to review the clinical symptoms of negative hallucinations in the elderly and the way to manage them. The medicinal approaches are not always effective. A greater place must be given to what is in connection with the body, aiming at a strong impact and thus to offer non-pharmacological approaches, such as somatic ones, which can be either invasive (electroconvulsive therapy) or not (transcranial magnetic stimulation). Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  18. Correlation of nuclear morphometry with pathologic parameters in ductal carcinoma in situ of the breast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, P H; Goh, B B; Chiang, G; Bay, B H

    2001-10-01

    Morphometric features of nuclear perimeter, nuclear area, feret ratio, and feret circle were studied in a series of 64 cases of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) of the breast in Singapore women. The results were compared with pathologic parameters of tumor size, nuclear grade, necrosis, cell polarization, and architectural pattern. There was statistically significant correlation between nuclear perimeter and area with all the pathologic parameters, with the strongest association observed for nuclear grade (P parameters and feret ratio or circle, indicating that nuclear roundness or lack of it did not factor as a significant component in the pathologic assessment.

  19. Negative binomial mixed models for analyzing microbiome count data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xinyan; Mallick, Himel; Tang, Zaixiang; Zhang, Lei; Cui, Xiangqin; Benson, Andrew K; Yi, Nengjun

    2017-01-03

    Recent advances in next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology enable researchers to collect a large volume of metagenomic sequencing data. These data provide valuable resources for investigating interactions between the microbiome and host environmental/clinical factors. In addition to the well-known properties of microbiome count measurements, for example, varied total sequence reads across samples, over-dispersion and zero-inflation, microbiome studies usually collect samples with hierarchical structures, which introduce correlation among the samples and thus further complicate the analysis and interpretation of microbiome count data. In this article, we propose negative binomial mixed models (NBMMs) for detecting the association between the microbiome and host environmental/clinical factors for correlated microbiome count data. Although having not dealt with zero-inflation, the proposed mixed-effects models account for correlation among the samples by incorporating random effects into the commonly used fixed-effects negative binomial model, and can efficiently handle over-dispersion and varying total reads. We have developed a flexible and efficient IWLS (Iterative Weighted Least Squares) algorithm to fit the proposed NBMMs by taking advantage of the standard procedure for fitting the linear mixed models. We evaluate and demonstrate the proposed method via extensive simulation studies and the application to mouse gut microbiome data. The results show that the proposed method has desirable properties and outperform the previously used methods in terms of both empirical power and Type I error. The method has been incorporated into the freely available R package BhGLM ( http://www.ssg.uab.edu/bhglm/ and http://github.com/abbyyan3/BhGLM ), providing a useful tool for analyzing microbiome data.

  20. The relationships of coping, negative thinking, life satisfaction, social support, and selected demographics with anxiety of young adult college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Jihan S R; Staten, Ruth Topsy; Lennie, Terry A; Hall, Lynne A

    2015-05-01

    Understanding young adults' anxiety requires applying a multidimensional approach to assess the psychosocial, behavioral, and cognitive aspects of this phenomenon. A hypothesized model of the relationships among coping style, thinking style, life satisfaction, social support, and selected demographics and anxiety among college students was tested using path analysis. A total of 257 undergraduate students aged 18-24 years completed an online survey. The independent variables were measured using the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, the Brief Students' Multidimensional Life Satisfaction Scale, the Brief COPE Inventory, the Positive Automatic Thoughts Questionnaire, and the Cognition Checklist-Anxiety. The outcome, anxiety, was measured using the Anxiety subscale of the 21-item Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale. Only negative thinking and maladaptive coping had a direct relationship with anxiety. Negative thinking was the strongest predictor of both maladaptive coping and anxiety. These findings suggest that helping undergraduates manage their anxiety by reducing their negative thinking is critical. Designing and testing interventions to decrease negative thinking in college students is recommended for future research. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.