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Sample records for strongest inter-molecular contacts

  1. Analysis and Ranking of Protein-Protein Docking Models Using Inter-Residue Contacts and Inter-Molecular Contact Maps

    KAUST Repository

    Oliva, Romina

    2015-07-01

    In view of the increasing interest both in inhibitors of protein-protein interactions and in protein drugs themselves, analysis of the three-dimensional structure of protein-protein complexes is assuming greater relevance in drug design. In the many cases where an experimental structure is not available, protein-protein docking becomes the method of choice for predicting the arrangement of the complex. However, reliably scoring protein-protein docking poses is still an unsolved problem. As a consequence, the screening of many docking models is usually required in the analysis step, to possibly single out the correct ones. Here, making use of exemplary cases, we review our recently introduced methods for the analysis of protein complex structures and for the scoring of protein docking poses, based on the use of inter-residue contacts and their visualization in inter-molecular contact maps. We also show that the ensemble of tools we developed can be used in the context of rational drug design targeting protein-protein interactions.

  2. Diffusive versus Displacive Contact Plasticity of Nanoscale Asperities: Temperature- and Velocity-Dependent Strongest Size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Wei; Wang, Zhao; Li, Ju

    2015-10-14

    We predict a strongest size for the contact strength when asperity radii of curvature decrease below 10 nm. The reason for such strongest size is found to be correlated with the competition between the dislocation plasticity and surface diffusional plasticity. The essential role of temperature is calculated and illustrated in a comprehensive asperity size-strength-temperature map taking into account the effect of contact velocity. Such a map should be essential for various phenomena related to nanoscale contacts such as nanowire cold welding, self-assembly of nanoparticles and adhesive nanopillar arrays, as well as the electrical, thermal, and mechanical properties of macroscopic interfaces.

  3. Transient process spectroscopy for the direct observation of inter-molecular photo-dissociation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sena Hashimoto

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Transient process spectroscopy has previously been thought to be applicable only to the analysis of intra-molecular processes. Two metal ion bridges used in the present work have allowed us to visualize real-time variations of the molecular vibration frequencies during photo-disproportionation inside bimolecule aggregates, which directly shows transient inter-molecular reactions.

  4. The strongest magnetic fields in the universe

    CERN Document Server

    Balogh, A; Falanga, M; Lyutikov, M; Mereghetti, S; Piran, T; Treumann, RA

    2016-01-01

    This volume extends the ISSI series on magnetic fields in the Universe into the domain of what are by far the strongest fields in the Universe, and stronger than any field that could be produced on Earth. The chapters describe the magnetic fields in non-degenerate strongly magnetized stars, degenerate stars (such as white dwarfs and neutron stars), exotic members called magnetars, and in their environments, as well as magnetic fields in the environments of black holes. These strong fields have a profound effect on the behavior of matter, visible in particular in highly variable processes like radiation in all known wavelengths, including Gamma-Ray bursts. The generation and structure of such strong magnetic fields and effects on the environment are also described.

  5. The Strongest Magnetic Field in Sunspots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, J.; Sakurai, T.

    2017-12-01

    Sunspots are concentrations of magnetic fields on the solar surface. Generally, the strongest magnetic field in each sunspot is located in the dark umbra in most cases. A typical field strength in sunspots is around 3,000 G. On the other hand, some exceptions also have been found in complex sunspots with bright regions such as light bridges that separate opposite polarity umbrae, for instance with a strength of 4,300 G. However, the formation mechanism of such strong fields outside umbrae is still puzzling. Here we report an extremely strong magnetic field in a sunspot, which was located in a bright region sandwiched by two opposite-polarity umbrae. The strength is 6,250 G, which is the largest ever observed since the discovery of magnetic field on the Sun in 1908 by Hale. We obtained 31 scanned maps of the active region observed by Hinode/SOT/SP with a cadence of 3 hours over 5 days (February 1-6, 2014). Considering the spatial and temporal evolution of the vector magnetic field and the Doppler velocity in the bright region, we suggested that this strong field region was generated as a result of compression of one umbra pushed by the outward flow from the other umbra (Evershed flow), like the subduction of the Earth's crust in plate tectonics.

  6. Inter-molecular β-sheet structure facilitates lung-targeting siRNA delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jihan; Li, Dong; Wen, Hao; Zheng, Shuquan; Su, Cuicui; Yi, Fan; Wang, Jue; Liang, Zicai; Tang, Tao; Zhou, Demin; Zhang, Li-He; Liang, Dehai; Du, Quan

    2016-03-01

    Size-dependent passive targeting based on the characteristics of tissues is a basic mechanism of drug delivery. While the nanometer-sized particles are efficiently captured by the liver and spleen, the micron-sized particles are most likely entrapped within the lung owing to its unique capillary structure and physiological features. To exploit this property in lung-targeting siRNA delivery, we designed and studied a multi-domain peptide named K-β, which was able to form inter-molecular β-sheet structures. Results showed that K-β peptides and siRNAs formed stable complex particles of 60 nm when mixed together. A critical property of such particles was that, after being intravenously injected into mice, they further associated into loose and micron-sized aggregates, and thus effectively entrapped within the capillaries of the lung, leading to a passive accumulation and gene-silencing. The large size aggregates can dissociate or break down by the shear stress generated by blood flow, alleviating the pulmonary embolism. Besides the lung, siRNA enrichment and targeted gene silencing were also observed in the liver. This drug delivery strategy, together with the low toxicity, biodegradability, and programmability of peptide carriers, show great potentials in vivo applications.

  7. Salomon: '97 E and P looking strongest in 9 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1997-01-01

    Based on companies' disclosed spending plans, 1997 is shaping up to be the strongest year-ahead outlook in 9 years, according to Salomon Bros. Inc. Salomon Bros.' conclusion stems from its 15th annual survey of worldwide oil and gas exploration and production spending. The survey, released last month, included 125 US independents, 97 Canadian companies, 103 companies outside the US and Canada, and 15 majors. Significantly, when the 15% growth experienced in 1996 is combined with the 1997 outlook, it represents the strongest indicator of 2-year activity in the past 15 years, said Salomon Bros. Double-digit spending growth is projected in all regions for 1997, the analyst said. Salomon Bros. said a higher percentage of companies' E and P budgets are being allocated to offshore projects, driven in part by attractive prospects, 3D seismic technology, and increased operational efficiencies

  8. Propagator formalism and computer simulation of restricted diffusion behaviors of inter-molecular multiple-quantum coherences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai Congbo; Chen Zhong; Cai Shuhui; Zhong Jianhui

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, behaviors of single-quantum coherences and inter-molecular multiple-quantum coherences under restricted diffusion in nuclear magnetic resonance experiments were investigated. The propagator formalism based on the loss of spin phase memory during random motion was applied to describe the diffusion-induced signal attenuation. The exact expression of the signal attenuation under the short gradient pulse approximation for restricted diffusion between two parallel plates was obtained using this propagator method. For long gradient pulses, a modified formalism was proposed. The simulated signal attenuation under the effects of gradient pulses of different width based on the Monte Carlo method agrees with the theoretical predictions. The propagator formalism and computer simulation can provide convenient, intuitive and precise methods for the study of the diffusion behaviors

  9. Considering body mass differences, who are the world's strongest women?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderburgh, P M; Dooman, C

    2000-01-01

    Allometric modeling (AM) has been used to determine the world's strongest body mass-adjusted man. Recently, however, AM was shown to demonstrate body mass bias in elite Olympic weightlifting performance. A second order polynomial (2OP) provided a better fit than AM with no body mass bias for men and women. The purpose of this study was to apply both AM and 2OP models to women's world powerlifting records (more a function of pure strength and less power than Olympic lifts) to determine the optimal model approach as well as the strongest body mass-adjusted woman in each event. Subjects were the 36 (9 per event) current women world record holders (as of Nov., 1997) for bench press (BP), deadlift (DL), squat (SQ), and total (TOT) lift (BP + DL + SQ) according to the International Powerlifting Federation (IPF). The 2OP model demonstrated the superior fit and no body mass bias as indicated by the coefficient of variation and residuals scatterplot inspection, respectively, for DL, SQ, and TOT. The AM for these three lifts, however, showed favorable bias toward the middle weight classes. The 2OP and AM yielded an essentially identical fit for BP. Although body mass-adjusted world records were dependent on the model used, Carrie Boudreau (U.S., 56-kg weight class), who received top scores in TOT and DL with both models, is arguably the world's strongest woman overall. Furthermore, although the 2OP model provides a better fit than AM for this elite population, a case can still be made for AM use, particularly in light of theoretical superiority.

  10. The Strength of the Strongest Ties in Collaborative Problem Solving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Montjoye, Yves-Alexandre; Stopczynski, Arkadiusz; Shmueli, Erez

    2014-01-01

    Complex problem solving in science, engineering, and business has become a highly collaborative endeavor. Teams of scientists or engineers collaborate on projects using their social networks to gather new ideas and feedback. Here we bridge the literature on team performance and information networks...... by studying teams' problem solving abilities as a function of both their within-team networks and their members' extended networks. We show that, while an assigned team's performance is strongly correlated with its networks of expressive and instrumental ties, only the strongest ties in both networks have......-significant in the statistical analysis. Our results have consequences for the organization of teams of scientists, engineers, and other knowledge workers tackling today's most complex problems....

  11. Genetic plasticity of the Shigella virulence plasmid is mediated by intra- and inter-molecular events between insertion sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilla, Giulia; McVicker, Gareth; Tang, Christoph M

    2017-09-01

    Acquisition of a single copy, large virulence plasmid, pINV, led to the emergence of Shigella spp. from Escherichia coli. The plasmid encodes a Type III secretion system (T3SS) on a 30 kb pathogenicity island (PAI), and is maintained in a bacterial population through a series of toxin:antitoxin (TA) systems which mediate post-segregational killing (PSK). The T3SS imposes a significant cost on the bacterium, and strains which have lost the plasmid and/or genes encoding the T3SS grow faster than wild-type strains in the laboratory, and fail to bind the indicator dye Congo Red (CR). Our aim was to define the molecular events in Shigella flexneri that cause loss of Type III secretion (T3S), and to examine whether TA systems exert positional effects on pINV. During growth at 37°C, we found that deletions of regions of the plasmid including the PAI lead to the emergence of CR-negative colonies; deletions occur through intra-molecular recombination events between insertion sequences (ISs) flanking the PAI. Furthermore, by repositioning MvpAT (which belongs to the VapBC family of TA systems) near the PAI, we demonstrate that the location of this TA system alters the rearrangements that lead to loss of T3S, indicating that MvpAT acts both globally (by reducing loss of pINV through PSK) as well as locally (by preventing loss of adjacent sequences). During growth at environmental temperatures, we show for the first time that pINV spontaneously integrates into different sites in the chromosome, and this is mediated by inter-molecular events involving IS1294. Integration leads to reduced PAI gene expression and impaired secretion through the T3SS, while excision of pINV from the chromosome restores T3SS function. Therefore, pINV integration provides a reversible mechanism for Shigella to circumvent the metabolic burden imposed by pINV. Intra- and inter-molecular events between ISs, which are abundant in Shigella spp., mediate plasticity of S. flexneri pINV.

  12. Rational design of viscosity reducing mutants of a monoclonal antibody: hydrophobic versus electrostatic inter-molecular interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Pilarin; Li, Li; Kumar, Sandeep; Buck, Patrick M; Singh, Satish K; Goswami, Sumit; Balthazor, Bryan; Conley, Tami R; Sek, David; Allen, Martin J

    2015-01-01

    High viscosity of monoclonal antibody formulations at concentrations ≥100 mg/mL can impede their development as products suitable for subcutaneous delivery. The effects of hydrophobic and electrostatic intermolecular interactions on the solution behavior of MAB 1, which becomes unacceptably viscous at high concentrations, was studied by testing 5 single point mutants. The mutations were designed to reduce viscosity by disrupting either an aggregation prone region (APR), which also participates in 2 hydrophobic surface patches, or a negatively charged surface patch in the variable region. The disruption of an APR that lies at the interface of light and heavy chain variable domains, VH and VL, via L45K mutation destabilized MAB 1 and abolished antigen binding. However, mutation at the preceding residue (V44K), which also lies in the same APR, increased apparent solubility and reduced viscosity of MAB 1 without sacrificing antigen binding or thermal stability. Neutralizing the negatively charged surface patch (E59Y) also increased apparent solubility and reduced viscosity of MAB 1, but charge reversal at the same position (E59K/R) caused destabilization, decreased solubility and led to difficulties in sample manipulation that precluded their viscosity measurements at high concentrations. Both V44K and E59Y mutations showed similar increase in apparent solubility. However, the viscosity profile of E59Y was considerably better than that of the V44K, providing evidence that inter-molecular interactions in MAB 1 are electrostatically driven. In conclusion, neutralizing negatively charged surface patches may be more beneficial toward reducing viscosity of highly concentrated antibody solutions than charge reversal or aggregation prone motif disruption.

  13. Vibrational Spectra of β″-Type BEDT-TTF Salts: Relationship between Conducting Property, Time-Averaged Site Charge and Inter-Molecular Distance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Yamamoto

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between the conducting behavior and the degree of charge fluctuation in the β″-type BEDT-TTF salts is reviewed from the standpoints of vibrational spectroscopy and crystal structure. A group of β″-type ET salts demonstrates the best model compounds for achieving the above relationship because the two-dimensional structure is simple and great diversity in conducting behavior is realized under ambient pressure. After describing the requirement for the model compound, the methodology for analyzing the results of the vibrational spectra is presented. Vibrational spectroscopy provides the time-averaged molecular charge, the charge distribution in the two-dimensional layer, and the inter-molecular interactions, etc. The experimental results applied to 2/3-filled and 3/4-filled β″-type ET salts are reported. These experimental results suggest that the conducting property, the difference in the time-averaged molecular charges between the ionic and neutral-like sites, the alternation in the inter-molecular distances and the energy levels in the charge distributions are relevant to one another. The difference in the time-averaged molecular charges, ∆ρ, is a useful criterion for indicating conducting behavior. All superconductors presented in this review are characterized as small but finite ∆ρ.

  14. Strongest Tropical cyclones: 1980-2009: A 30-year collage of Hurricane Satellite (HURSAT) data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Strongest Tropical Cyclones: 1980-2009 poster - a 30-year collage of Hurricane Satellite (HURSAT) data. This poster depicts a series of 5 degree grids where within...

  15. Caregiver burden: the strongest predictor of self-rated health in caregivers of patients with dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdollahpour, Ibrahim; Nedjat, Saharnaz; Noroozian, Maryam; Salimi, Yahya; Majdzadeh, Reza

    2014-09-01

    People having dementia need help and supervision to perform their activities of daily living. This responsibility is usually imposed on family members who endure a great burden, leading to undesirable health outcomes. The aims of our study were to measure caregivers' health as well as identify its adjusted relevant predictors. One hundred and fifty three registered patients and their caregivers from Iranian Alzheimer Association were included in this cross-sectional study through sequential sampling. Self-rated health (SRH) was measured using a single question with Likert-type scale ranging from very bad (1) to very good (5). The multiple linear regression model was applied to determine the adjusted associations between independent variables under study and SRH. The mean caregiver SRH level was 3.03. Of the participant caregivers, 29% were either unsatisfied or very unsatisfied with their health level. In the final regression model, SRH showed a direct significant association with the patient's number of children but an inverse significant association with the marital status (married patients), patient's age, and caregiver burden. Caregiver burden was not only significantly associated with poor SRH after removing the effect of the other covariates but it was also recognized as the strongest predictor of caregivers' SRH. Therefore, it seems that development of intervention programs, in order to reduce caregiver burden, can be considered as important step in promoting caregivers' health level. © The Author(s) 2014.

  16. ON POTENTIAL REPRESENTATIONS OF THE DISTRIBUTION LAW OF RARE STRONGEST EARTHQUAKES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Rodkin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Assessment of long-term seismic hazard is critically dependent on the behavior of tail of the distribution function of rare strongest earthquakes. Analyses of empirical data cannot however yield the credible solution of this problem because the instrumental catalogs of earthquake are available only for a rather short time intervals, and the uncertainty in estimations of magnitude of paleoearthquakes is high. From the available data, it was possible only to propose a number of alternative models characterizing the distribution of rare strongest earthquakes. There are the following models: the model based on theGuttenberg – Richter law suggested to be valid until a maximum possible seismic event (Мmах, models of 'bend down' of earthquake recurrence curve, and the characteristic earthquakes model. We discuss these models from the general physical concepts supported by the theory of extreme values (with reference to the generalized extreme value (GEV distribution and the generalized Pareto distribution (GPD and the multiplicative cascade model of seismic regime. In terms of the multiplicative cascade model, seismic regime is treated as a large number of episodes of avalanche-type relaxation of metastable states which take place in a set of metastable sub-systems.The model of magnitude-unlimited continuation of the Guttenberg – Richter law is invalid from the physical point of view because it corresponds to an infinite mean value of seismic energy and infinite capacity of the process generating seismicity. A model of an abrupt cut of this law by a maximum possible event, Мmах is not fully logical either.A model with the 'bend-down' of earthquake recurrence curve can ensure both continuity of the distribution law and finiteness of seismic energy value. Results of studies with the use of the theory of extreme values provide a convincing support to the model of 'bend-down' of earthquakes’ recurrence curve. Moreover they testify also that the

  17. Annona muricata leaves have strongest cytotoxic activity against breast cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susi Endrini

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background Plant-derived herbal compounds have a long history of clinical use, better patient tolerance and acceptance. They are freely available natural compounds that can be safely used to prevent various ailments. Plants have been the basis of traditional medicine throughout the world for thousands of years and are providing mankind with new remedies. The objective of this study was to determine the cytotoxicity of soursop (Anona muricata Linn leaves and pearl grass (Hedyotis corymbosa (L. Lam. on the hormone-dependent human breast carcinoma Michigan Cancer Foundation-7 (MCF-7 cell line. Methods This study used two types of solvents (water and ethanol in the extraction process and two incubation times (24 hours and 48 hours in the MTT assays to analyze the cytotoxic effects of both plants. Results Preliminary results showed that the ethanolic extract of soursop leaves (SE displayed cytotoxic effects against MCF-7 on 24- and 48-hour incubation times with IC50 values of 88.788 ìg/ml and 14.678 mg/ml, respectively. Ethanolic pearl grass extract (PE showed similar results, with IC50 values of 65.011 mg/ml on 24-hour incubation time and 52.329 mg/ml on 48-hour incubation time against MCF-7 cell line. However, the water extract of both plants displayed lower cytotoxic effect against MCF-7 cell line. Conclusion The ethanolic extract of both plants displayed cytotoxic effect against MCF-7. Soursop (Anona muricata Linn leaves have the strongest cytotoxic activity against MCF-7 breast cancer cell line.

  18. Annona muricata leaves have strongest cytotoxic activity against breast cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susi Endrini

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Plant-derived herbal compounds have a long history of clinical use, better patient tolerance and acceptance. They are freely available natural compounds that can be safely used to prevent various ailments. Plants have been the basis of traditional medicine throughout the world for thousands of years and are providing mankind with new remedies. The objective of this study was to determine the cytotoxicity of soursop (Anona muricata Linn leaves and pearl grass (Hedyotis corymbosa (L. Lam. on the hormone-dependent human breast carcinoma Michigan Cancer Foundation-7 (MCF-7 cell line. METHODS This study used two types of solvents (water and ethanol in the extraction process and two incubation times (24 hours and 48 hours in the MTT assays to analyze the cytotoxic effects of both plants. RESULTS Preliminary results showed that the ethanolic extract of soursop leaves (SE displayed cytotoxic effects against MCF-7 on 24- and 48-hour incubation times with IC50 values of 88.788 μg/ml and 14.678 μg/ml, respectively. Ethanolic pearl grass extract (PE showed similar results, with IC50 values of 65.011 μg/ ml on 24-hour incubation time and 52.329 μg/ml on 48-hour incubation time against MCF-7 cell line. However, the water extract of both plants displayed lower cytotoxic effect against MCF-7 cell line. CONCLUSION The ethanolic extract of both plants displayed cytotoxic effect against MCF-7. Soursop (Anona muricata Linn leaves have the strongest cytotoxic activity against MCF-7 breast cancer cell line.

  19. Timed Stair Climbing is the Single Strongest Predictor of Perioperative Complications in Patients Undergoing Abdominal Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Sushanth; Contreras, Carlo M; Singletary, Brandon; Bradford, T Miller; Waldrop, Mary G; Mims, Andrew H; Smedley, W Andrew; Swords, Jacob A; Thomas N, Wang; Martin J, Heslin

    2016-01-01

    Background Current methods to predict patients' peri-operative morbidity utilize complex algorithms with multiple clinical variables focusing primarily on organ-specific compromise. The aim of the present study is to determine the value of a timed stair climb (SC) in predicting peri-operative complications for patients undergoing abdominal surgery. Study Design From March 2014 to July 2015, 362 patients attempted SC while being timed prior to undergoing elective abdominal surgery. Vital signs were measured before and after SC. Ninety day post-operative complications were assessed by the Accordion Severity Grading System. The prognostic value of SC was compared to the ACS NSQIP risk calculator. Results A total of 264 (97.4%) patients were able to complete SC. SC time directly correlated to changes in both mean arterial pressure and heart rate as an indicator of stress. An Accordion grade 2 or higher complication occurred in 84 (25%) patients. There were 8 mortalities (2.4%). Patients with slower SC times had an increased complication rate (P<0.0001). In multivariable analysis SC time was the single strongest predictor of complications (OR=1.029, P<0.0001), and no other clinical co-morbidity reached statistical significance. Receiver operative characteristic curves predicting post-operative morbidity by SC time was superior to that of the ACS risk calculator (AUC 0.81 vs. 0.62, P<0.0001). Additionally slower patients had a greater deviation from predicted length of hospital stay (P=0.034) Conclusions SC provides measurable stress, accurately predicts post-operative complications, and is easy to administer in patients undergoing abdominal surgery. Larger patient populations with a diverse group of operations will be needed to further validate the use of SC in risk prediction models. PMID:26920993

  20. Education is the strongest socio-economic predictor of smoking in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Härkönen, Juho; Lindberg, Matti; Karlsson, Linnea; Karlsson, Hasse; Scheinin, Noora M

    2018-01-14

    To investigate socio-economic disparities in smoking in pregnancy (SIP) by the mother's education, occupational class and current economic conditions. Cross-sectional analysis with linked survey and register data. South-western Finland. A total of 2667 pregnant women [70% of the original sample (n = 3808)] from FinnBrain, a prospective pregnancy cohort study. The outcome was smoking during the first pregnancy trimester, measured from the Finnish Medical Birth Register. Education and occupational class were linked from population registers. Income support recipiency and subjective economic wellbeing were questionnaire-based measures of current economic conditions. These were adjusted for age, partnership status, residential area type, parental separation, parity, childhood socio-economic background, childhood adversities (the Trauma and Distressing Events During Childhood scale) and antenatal stress (Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale). Logistic regressions and attributable fractions (AF) were estimated. Mother's education was the strongest socio-economic predictor of SIP. Compared with university education, adjusted odds ratios (aORs) of SIP were: 2.2 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.2-3.9; P = 0.011] for tertiary vocational education, 4.4 (95% CI = 2.1-9.0; P education, 2.9 (95% CI = 1.4-6.1; P = 0.006) for general secondary education, 9.5 (95% CI 5.0-18.2; P education and 14.4 (95% CI = 6.3-33.0; P education was 0.5. Adjusted for the other variables, occupational class and subjective economic wellbeing did not predict SIP. Income support recipiency was associated positively with SIP (aOR = 1.8; 95% CI = 1.1-3.1; P = 0.022). Antenatal stress predicted SIP (aOR = 2.0; 95% CI = 1.4-2.8; P pregnancy are attributable primarily to differences in the mother's educational level (low versus high) and orientation (vocational versus general). © 2018 The Authors. Addiction published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society for the Study

  1. Innovation: Contact

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Principal Contact. Ruth Hoskins Editor University of KwaZulu-Natal, Information Studies Programme Email: hoskinsr@ukzn.ac.za. Support Contact. Gita Ramdass Email: ramdass@ukzn.ac.za. ISSN: 1025-8892. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More ...

  2. Contact hysteroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baggish, M S; Barbot, J

    1983-06-01

    In 1907 innovations in optics and illumination made by Maximilian Nitze were applied to hysteroscopy by Charles David, who wrote a treatise of hysteroscopy. David improved illumination by placing an electric incandescent bulb at the intrauterine end of his endoscope and also sealed the distal end of the tube with a piece of glass. The history of the contact endoscope that the authors personally used is connected to the invention by Vulmiere (1952) of a revolutionary illumination process in endoscopy--the "cold light" process. The components of cold light consist of a powerful external light source that is transmitted via a special optical guide into the endometrial cavity. The 1st application of his principle (1963) was an optical trochar contained in a metallic sheath. This simple endoscope was perfected, and in 1973 Barbot and Parent, in France, began to use it to examine the uterine cavity. Discussion focuses on methods, instrumentation, method for examination (grasping the instrument, setup, light source, anesthesia, dilatation, technique, and normal endometrium); cervical neoplasia; nonneoplastic lesions of the endometrium (endometrial polyp, submucous myoma, endometrial hyperplasia); intrauterine device localization; neoplastic lesions of the endometrium; precursors (adenocarcinoma); hysteroscopy in pregnancy (embryoscopy, hydatidiform mole, postpartum hemorrhage, incomplete abortion, spontaneous abortion, induced abortions, and amnioscopy); and examinations of children and infants. The contact endoscope must make light contact with the structure to be viewed. The principles of contact endoscopy depend on an interpretation of color, contour, vascular pattern, and a sense of touch. These are computed together and a diagnosis is made on the basis of previously learned clinical pathologic correlations. The contact endoscope is composed of 3 parts: an optical guide; a cylindric chamber that collects and traps ambient light; and a magnifying eyepiece. The phase of

  3. Impact of scaling on the performance and reliability degradation of metal-contacts in NEMS devices

    KAUST Repository

    Dadgour, Hamed F.

    2011-04-01

    Nano-electro-mechanical switches (NEMS) offer new possibilities for the design of ultra energy-efficient systems; however, thus far, all the fabricated NEMS devices require high supply voltages that limit their applicability for logic designs. Therefore, research is being conducted to lower the operating voltages by scaling down the physical dimensions of these devices. However, the impact of device scaling on the electrical and mechanical properties of metal contacts in NEMS devices has not been thoroughly investigated in the literature. Such a study is essential because metal contacts play a critical role in determining the overall performance and reliability of NEMS. Therefore, the comprehensive analytical study presented in this paper highlights the performance and reliability degradations of such metal contacts caused by scaling. The proposed modeling environment accurately takes into account the impact of roughness of contact surfaces, elastic/plastic deformation of contacting asperities, and various inter-molecular forces between mating surfaces (such as Van der Waals and capillary forces). The modeling results are validated and calibrated using available measurement data. This scaling analysis indicates that the key contact properties of gold contacts (resistance, stiction and wear-out) deteriorate "exponentially" with scaling. Simulation results demonstrate that reliable (stiction-free) operation of very small contact areas (≈ 6nm x 6nm) will be a daunting task due to the existence of strong surface forces. Hence, contact degradation is identified as a major problem to the scaling of NEMS transistors. © 2011 IEEE.

  4. Prioritized Contact Transport Stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Walter Lee, Jr. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A detection process, contact recognition process, classification process, and identification process are applied to raw sensor data to produce an identified contact record set containing one or more identified contact records. A prioritization process is applied to the identified contact record set to assign a contact priority to each contact record in the identified contact record set. Data are removed from the contact records in the identified contact record set based on the contact priorities assigned to those contact records. A first contact stream is produced from the resulting contact records. The first contact stream is streamed in a contact transport stream. The contact transport stream may include and stream additional contact streams. The contact transport stream may be varied dynamically over time based on parameters such as available bandwidth, contact priority, presence/absence of contacts, system state, and configuration parameters.

  5. Levothyroxine therapy and impaired clearance are the strongest contributors to small intestinal bacterial overgrowth: Results of a retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brechmann, Thorsten; Sperlbaum, Andre; Schmiegel, Wolff

    2017-02-07

    To identify a set of contributors, and weight and rank them on a pathophysiological basis. Patients who have undergone a lactulose or glucose hydrogen breath test to rule out small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) for various clinical symptoms, including diarrhoea, weight loss, abdominal pain, cramping or bloating, were seen as eligible for inclusion in a retrospective single-centre study. Clinical data such as co-morbidities, medication, laboratory parameters and other possible risk factors have been identified from the electronic data system. Cases lacking or with substantially incomplete clinical data were excluded from the analysis. Suspected contributors were summarised under four different pathophysiological pathways (impaired gastric acid barrier, impaired intestinal clearance, immunosuppression and miscellaneous factors including thyroid gland variables) and investigated using the χ 2 test, Student's t -test and logistic regression models. A total of 1809 patients who had undergone hydrogen breath testing were analysed. Impairment of the gastric acid barrier (gastrectomy, odds ratio: OR = 3.5, PPI therapy OR = 1.4), impairment of intestinal clearance (any resecting gastric surgery OR = 2.6, any colonic resection OR = 1.9, stenosis OR = 3.4, gastroparesis OR = 3.4, neuropathy 2.2), immunological factors (any drug-induced immunosuppression OR = 1.8), altered thyroid gland metabolism (hypothyroidism OR = 2.6, levothyroxine therapy OR = 3.0) and diabetes mellitus (OR = 1.9) were associated significantly to SIBO. Any abdominal surgery, ileocecal resection, vagotomy or IgA-deficiency did not have any influence, and a history of appendectomy decreased the risk of SIBO. Multivariate analysis revealed gastric surgery, stenoses, medical immunosuppression and levothyroxine to be the strongest predictors. Levothyroxine therapy was the strongest contributor in a simplified model (OR = 3.0). The most important contributors for the development of SIBO in ascending

  6. EDITORIAL: Close contact Close contact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demming, Anna

    2010-07-01

    The development of scanning probe techniques, such as scanning tunnelling microscopy [1], has often been touted as the catalyst for the surge in activity and progress in nanoscale science and technology. Images of nanoscale structural detail have served as an invaluable investigative resource and continue to fascinate with the fantastical reality of an intricate nether world existing all around us, but hidden from view of the naked eye by a disparity in scale. As is so often the case, the invention of the scanning tunnelling microscope heralded far more than just a useful new apparatus, it demonstrated the scope for exploiting the subtleties of electronic contact. The shrinking of electronic devices has been a driving force for research into molecular electronics, in which an understanding of the nature of electronic contact at junctions is crucial. In response, the number of experimental techniques in molecular electronics has increased rapidly in recent years. Scanning tunnelling microscopes have been used to study electron transfer through molecular films on a conducting substrate, and the need to monitor the contact force of scanning tunnelling electrodes led to the use of atomic force microscopy probes coated in a conducting layer as studied by Cui and colleagues in Arizona [2]. In this issue a collaboration of researchers at Delft University and Leiden University in the Netherlands report a new device architecture for the independent mechanical and electrostatic tuning of nanoscale charge transport, which will enable thorough studies of molecular transport in the future [3]. Scanning probes can also be used to pattern surfaces, such as through spatially-localized Suzuki and Heck reactions in chemical scanning probe lithography. Mechanistic aspects of spatially confined Suzuki and Heck chemistry are also reported in this issue by researchers in Oxford [4]. All these developments in molecular electronics fabrication and characterization provide alternative

  7. Do nonphysical punishments reduce antisocial behavior more than spanking? a comparison using the strongest previous causal evidence against spanking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cox Ronald B

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The strongest causal evidence that customary spanking increases antisocial behavior is based on prospective studies that control statistically for initial antisocial differences. None of those studies have investigated alternative disciplinary tactics that parents could use instead of spanking, however. Further, the small effects in those studies could be artifactual due to residual confounding, reflecting child effects on the frequency of all disciplinary tactics. This study re-analyzes the strongest causal evidence against customary spanking and uses these same methods to determine whether alternative disciplinary tactics are more effective in reducing antisocial behavior. Methods This study re-analyzed a study by Straus et al.1 on spanking and antisocial behavior using a sample of 785 children who were 6 to 9 years old in the 1988 cohort of the American National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. The comprehensiveness and reliability of the covariate measure of initial antisocial behavior were varied to test for residual confounding. All analyses were repeated for grounding, privilege removal, and sending children to their room, and for psychotherapy. To account for covarying use of disciplinary tactics, the analyses were redone first for the 73% who had reported using at least one discipline tactic and second by controlling for usage of other disciplinary tactics and psychotherapy. Results The apparently adverse effect of spanking on antisocial behavior was replicated using the original trichotomous covariate for initial antisocial behavior. A similar pattern of adverse effects was shown for grounding and psychotherapy and partially for the other two disciplinary tactics. All of these effects became non-significant after controlling for latent comprehensive measures of externalizing behavior problems. Conclusions These results are consistent with residual confounding, a statistical artifact that makes all corrective actions by

  8. Gamma band plasticity in sensory cortex is a signature of the strongest memory rather than memory of the training stimulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberger, Norman M; Miasnikov, Alexandre A; Bieszczad, Kasia M; Chen, Jemmy C

    2013-09-01

    Gamma oscillations (∼30-120Hz) are considered to be a reflection of coordinated neuronal activity, linked to processes underlying synaptic integration and plasticity. Increases in gamma power within the cerebral cortex have been found during many cognitive processes such as attention, learning, memory and problem solving in both humans and animals. However, the specificity of gamma to the detailed contents of memory remains largely unknown. We investigated the relationship between learning-induced increased gamma power in the primary auditory cortex (A1) and the strength of memory for acoustic frequency. Adult male rats (n=16) received three days (200 trials each) of pairing a tone (3.66 kHz) with stimulation of the nucleus basalis, which implanted a memory for acoustic frequency as assessed by associatively-induced disruption of ongoing behavior, viz., respiration. Post-training frequency generalization gradients (FGGs) revealed peaks at non-CS frequencies in 11/16 cases, likely reflecting normal variation in pre-training acoustic experiences. A stronger relationship was found between increased gamma power and the frequency with the strongest memory (peak of the difference between individual post- and pre-training FGGs) vs. behavioral responses to the CS training frequency. No such relationship was found for the theta/alpha band (4-15 Hz). These findings indicate that the strength of specific increased neuronal synchronization within primary sensory cortical fields can determine the specific contents of memory. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Perception and the strongest sensory memory trace of multi-stable displays both form shortly after the stimulus onset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastukhov, Alexander

    2016-02-01

    We investigated the relation between perception and sensory memory of multi-stable structure-from-motion displays. The latter is an implicit visual memory that reflects a recent history of perceptual dominance and influences only the initial perception of multi-stable displays. First, we established the earliest time point when the direction of an illusory rotation can be reversed after the display onset (29-114 ms). Because our display manipulation did not bias perception towards a specific direction of illusory rotation but only signaled the change in motion, this means that the perceptual dominance was established no later than 29-114 ms after the stimulus onset. Second, we used orientation-selectivity of sensory memory to establish which display orientation produced the strongest memory trace and when this orientation was presented during the preceding prime interval (80-140 ms). Surprisingly, both estimates point towards the time interval immediately after the display onset, indicating that both perception and sensory memory form at approximately the same time. This suggests a tighter integration between perception and sensory memory than previously thought, warrants a reconsideration of its role in visual perception, and indicates that sensory memory could be a unique behavioral correlate of the earlier perceptual inference that can be studied post hoc.

  10. The dynamics of competitive activity performance of the strongest athletes in the world during the Olympic year

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabin Muhammad Fahmi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper scrutinizes the annual dynamics of competitive activity performance of prize winners in track and field of the Games of the XXXI Olympiad in Rio de Janeiro. The studies performed allow to identify two basic strategies of participation of elite athletes in the competitions. The first implies a strong focus on achieving the best results in major competitions of the year. It is used by most of the strongest athletes in the world. The second focuses the athlete on the effective combination of competitive activity in major competitions of the year (the Olympics and World Championships and in the Diamond League. As shown by the experience of the best sports practice, only a limited number of athletes manage to implement the latter strategy. The methodological approaches to planning competitive activity during the year are identified. The first involves the rational allocation of the optimal number of competitions throughout the year, the second focuses on preparatory competitive activities of a fairly high intensity, and the third involves the use of a small number of competitions in the system of annual training.

  11. The 100 strongest radio point sources in the field of the Large Magellanic Cloud at 1.4 GHz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Payne J.L.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the 100 strongest 1.4 GHz point sources from a new mosaic image in the direction of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC. The observations making up the mosaic were made using Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA over a ten year period and were combined with Parkes single dish data at 1.4 GHz to complete the image for short spacing. An initial list of co-identifications within 1000 at 0.843, 4.8 and 8.6 GHz consisted of 2682 sources. Elimination of extended objects and artifact noise allowed the creation of a refined list containing 1988 point sources. Most of these are presumed to be background objects seen through the LMC; a small portion may represent compact H ii regions, young SNRs and radio planetary nebulae. For the 1988 point sources we find a preliminary average spectral index (α of -0.53 and present a 1.4 GHz image showing source location in the direction of the LMC.

  12. The 100 Strongest Radio Point Sources in the Field of the Large Magellanic Cloud at 1.4 GHz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Payne, J. L.

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available We present the 100 strongest 1.4~GHz point sources from a new mosaicimage in the direction of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC. The observationsmaking up the mosaic were made using Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCAover a ten year period and were combined with Parkes single dish data at 1.4 GHz to complete the image for short spacing. An initial list of co-identifications within 10arcsec at 0.843, 4.8 and 8.6 GHz consisted of 2682 sources. Elimination of extended objects and artifact noise allowed the creation of a refined list containing 1988 point sources. Most of these are presumed to be background objects seen through the LMC; a small portion may represent compact HII regions, young SNRs and radio planetary nebulae. For the 1988 point sources we find a preliminary average spectral index ($alpha$ of -0.53 and present a 1.4 GHz image showing source locationin the direction of the LMC.

  13. Muscle quality and relative adiposity are the strongest predictors of lower-extremity physical function in older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straight, Chad R; Brady, Anne O; Evans, Ellen M

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the relative contributions of physical activity, adiposity, lean mass and muscle quality to lower-extremity physical function (LEPF) in older women. Cross-sectional analysis at a university research laboratory. Community-dwelling older women (n=96, 73.9 ± 5.6 years, BMI=26.5 ± 4.7 kg/m(2)) were assessed for body composition via dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, leg extension power using the Nottingham power rig, muscle quality (W/kg) as the ratio of leg extension power (W) to lower-body mineral free lean mass (kg) and moderate-intensity physical activity via questionnaire. A composite measure of LEPF was calculated by summing Z-scores of the 6-min walk, 8-foot up-and-go and 30-s chair stand tests. Muscle quality and physical activity were associated with all measures of LEPF (all p0.05). Hierarchical linear regression analyses revealed that muscle quality (standardized β=0.47, pquality and relative adiposity are the strongest independent predictors of LEPF in older women. These findings suggest that maintaining muscle quality, especially relative to adiposity, may be a critical target for interventions to prevent declines in physical function in older women. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Evidence for the strongest version of the 4d a-theorem via a-maximization along RG flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, Edwin; Intriligator, Ken; Wecht, Brian; Wright, Jason

    2004-01-01

    In earlier work, we (KI and BW) gave a two line 'almost proof' (for supersymmetric RG flows) of the weakest form of the conjectured 4d a-theorem, that aIRaUV, using our result that the exact superconformal R-symmetry of 4d SCFTs maximizes a=3TrR3-TrR. The proof was incomplete because of two identified loopholes: theories with accidental symmetries, and the fact that it is only a local maximum of a. Here we discuss and extend a proposal of Kutasov (which helps close the latter loophole) in which a-maximization is generalized away from the endpoints of the RG flow, with Lagrange multipliers that are conjectured to be identified with the running coupling constants. a-maximization then yields a monotonically decreasing 'a-function' along the RG flow to the IR. As we discuss, this proposal in fact suggests the strongest version of the a-theorem: that 4d RG flows are gradient flows of an a-function, with positive-definite metric. In the perturbative limit, the RG flow metric thus obtained is shown to agree precisely with that found by very different computations by Osborn and collaborators. As examples, we discuss a new class of 4d SCFTs, along with their dual descriptions and IR phases, obtained from SQCD by coupling some of the flavors to added singlets

  15. The Strongest Acceleration of >40 keV Electrons by ICME-driven Shocks at 1 au

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Liu; Wang, Linghua; Li, Gang; Wimmer-Schweingruber, Robert F.; He, Jiansen; Tu, Chuanyi; Tian, Hui; Bale, Stuart D.

    2018-01-01

    We present two case studies of the in-situ electron acceleration during the 2000 February 11 shock and the 2004 July 22 shock, with the strongest electron flux enhancement at 40 keV across the shock, among all the quasi-perpendicular and quasi-parallel ICME-driven shocks observed by the WIND 3DP instrument from 1995 through 2014 at 1 au. We find that for this quasi-perpendicular (quasi-parallel) shock on 2000 February 11 (2004 July 22), the shocked electron differential fluxes at ∼0.4–50 keV in the downstream generally fit well to a double-power-law spectrum, J ∼ E ‑β , with an index of β ∼ 3.15 (4.0) at energies below a break at ∼3 keV (∼1 keV) and β ∼ 2.65 (2.6) at energies above. For both shock events, the downstream electron spectral indices appear to be similar for all pitch angles, which are significantly larger than the index prediction by diffusive shock acceleration. In addition, the downstream electron pitch-angle distributions show the anisotropic beams in the anti-sunward-traveling direction, while the ratio of the downstream over ambient fluxes appears to peak near 90° pitch angles, at all energies of ∼0.4–50 keV. These results suggest that in both shocks, shock drift acceleration likely plays an important role in accelerating electrons in situ at 1 au. Such ICME-driven shocks could contribute to the formation of solar wind halo electrons at energies ≲2 keV, as well as the production of solar wind superhalo electrons at energies ≳2 keV in interplanetary space.

  16. Hemoglobin to Hematocrit Ratio: The Strongest Predictor of Femoral Head Osteonecrosis in Children With Sickle Cell Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worrall, Douglas; Smith-Whitley, Kim; Wells, Lawrence

    2016-03-01

    Femoral head osteonecrosis (ON) secondary to sickle cell disease (SCD) often progresses to femoral head collapse, requiring total hip arthroplasty. However, this treatment has a limited durability and patients with SCD have higher rates of complications, requiring multiple revision operations. Identifying risk factors linked to ON in SCD can facilitate earlier precollapse diagnosis and surgical treatment aimed at preservation of the native hip joint. Fifty-nine children treated at our institution between January 2001 and April 2012 with SCD and ON, as diagnosed by magnetic resonance imaging or radiographic imaging, were compared with age-matched and sickle cell phenotype-matched (SS, SC, Sβ, Sβ) controls with no evidence of ON. Two sided t-tests assuming unequal variances determined statistically risk factors and threshold values were assigned to calculate odds ratios. Systolic blood pressure (P=1.2×10, OR=3.68), diastolic blood pressure (P=0.0084, OR=1.41), weight in the SCD-SS population (P=0.04, OR=1.85), and hemoglobin (Hb) in the SCD-SS population (P=0.036, OR=2.56) were elevated in cases. Curiously, dividing the Hb by the hematocrit to serve as a clinical proxy for the mean corpuscular Hb concentration (MCHC) produced an excellent predictor of ON (P=2.06×10, OR=5.17), which was especially pronounced in the SCD-SS subpopulation (P=2.28×10, OR=8.65). Among children with SCD, the overall prevalence of ON was 9% (59/658) and the phenotype with the highest prevalence of ON was Sβ thalassemia with an ON prevalence of 11.1%. There was no observed correlation between ON and height, body mass index, cholesterol, mean corpuscular volume, hematocrit, or glucocorticoid use. These data support a novel clinical marker, the MCHC proxy, as the strongest predictor of ON in children with SCD. High-risk children should receive hip magnetic resonance imaging to diagnose early ON and facilitate interventions focused on hip preservation, forestalling, or possibly preventing

  17. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

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    Full Text Available ... One Use Facts About Colored Contacts and Halloween Safety Colored Contact Lens Facts Over-the-Counter Costume ... Costume Contact Lenses Can Ruin Vision Eye Makeup Safety In fact, it is illegal to sell colored ...

  18. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

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    Full Text Available ... with Colored Contact Lenses Julian: Teenager Blinded In One Eye By Non-Prescription Contact Lens Laura: Vision ... Robyn: Blurry Vision and Daily Eye Drops After One Use Facts About Colored Contacts and Halloween Safety ...

  19. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

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    Full Text Available ... One Use Facts About Colored Contacts and Halloween Safety Colored Contact Lens Facts Over-the-Counter Costume ... use of colored contact lenses , from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Are the colored lenses ...

  20. T47D Cells Expressing Myeloperoxidase Are Able to Process, Traffic and Store the Mature Protein in Lysosomes: Studies in T47D Cells Reveal a Role for Cys319 in MPO Biosynthesis that Precedes Its Known Role in Inter-Molecular Disulfide Bond Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laura, Richard P.; Dong, David; Reynolds, Wanda F.; Maki, Richard A.

    2016-01-01

    Among the human heme-peroxidase family, myeloperoxidase (MPO) has a unique disulfide-linked oligomeric structure resulting from multi-step processing of the pro-protein monomer (proMPO) after it exits the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Related family members undergo some, but not all, of the processing steps involved with formation of mature MPO. Lactoperoxidase has its pro-domain proteolytically removed and is a monomer in its mature form. Eosinophil peroxidase undergoes proteolytic removal of its pro-domain followed by proteolytic separation into heavy and light chains and is a heterodimer. However, only MPO undergoes both these proteolytic modifications and then is further oligomerized into a heterotetramer by a single inter-molecular disulfide bond. The details of how and where the post-ER processing steps of MPO occur are incompletely understood. We report here that T47D breast cancer cells stably transfected with an MPO expression plasmid are able to efficiently replicate all of the processing steps that lead to formation of the mature MPO heterotetramer. MPO also traffics to the lysosome granules of T47D cells where it accumulates, allowing in-depth immunofluorescent microscopy studies of MPO trafficking and storage for the first time. Using this novel cell model we show that formation of MPO’s single inter-molecular disulfide bond can occur normally in the absence of the proteolytic events that lead to separation of the MPO heavy and light chains. We further demonstrate that Cys319, which forms MPO’s unique inter-molecular disulfide bond, is important for events that precede this step. Mutation of this residue alters the glycosylation and catalytic activity of MPO and blocks its entry into the endocytic pathway where proteolytic processing and disulfide bonding occur. Finally, using the endocytic trafficking of lysosomal hydrolases as a guide, we investigate the role of candidate receptors in the endocytic trafficking of MPO. PMID:26890638

  1. T47D Cells Expressing Myeloperoxidase Are Able to Process, Traffic and Store the Mature Protein in Lysosomes: Studies in T47D Cells Reveal a Role for Cys319 in MPO Biosynthesis that Precedes Its Known Role in Inter-Molecular Disulfide Bond Formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard P Laura

    Full Text Available Among the human heme-peroxidase family, myeloperoxidase (MPO has a unique disulfide-linked oligomeric structure resulting from multi-step processing of the pro-protein monomer (proMPO after it exits the endoplasmic reticulum (ER. Related family members undergo some, but not all, of the processing steps involved with formation of mature MPO. Lactoperoxidase has its pro-domain proteolytically removed and is a monomer in its mature form. Eosinophil peroxidase undergoes proteolytic removal of its pro-domain followed by proteolytic separation into heavy and light chains and is a heterodimer. However, only MPO undergoes both these proteolytic modifications and then is further oligomerized into a heterotetramer by a single inter-molecular disulfide bond. The details of how and where the post-ER processing steps of MPO occur are incompletely understood. We report here that T47D breast cancer cells stably transfected with an MPO expression plasmid are able to efficiently replicate all of the processing steps that lead to formation of the mature MPO heterotetramer. MPO also traffics to the lysosome granules of T47D cells where it accumulates, allowing in-depth immunofluorescent microscopy studies of MPO trafficking and storage for the first time. Using this novel cell model we show that formation of MPO's single inter-molecular disulfide bond can occur normally in the absence of the proteolytic events that lead to separation of the MPO heavy and light chains. We further demonstrate that Cys319, which forms MPO's unique inter-molecular disulfide bond, is important for events that precede this step. Mutation of this residue alters the glycosylation and catalytic activity of MPO and blocks its entry into the endocytic pathway where proteolytic processing and disulfide bonding occur. Finally, using the endocytic trafficking of lysosomal hydrolases as a guide, we investigate the role of candidate receptors in the endocytic trafficking of MPO.

  2. T47D Cells Expressing Myeloperoxidase Are Able to Process, Traffic and Store the Mature Protein in Lysosomes: Studies in T47D Cells Reveal a Role for Cys319 in MPO Biosynthesis that Precedes Its Known Role in Inter-Molecular Disulfide Bond Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laura, Richard P; Dong, David; Reynolds, Wanda F; Maki, Richard A

    2016-01-01

    Among the human heme-peroxidase family, myeloperoxidase (MPO) has a unique disulfide-linked oligomeric structure resulting from multi-step processing of the pro-protein monomer (proMPO) after it exits the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Related family members undergo some, but not all, of the processing steps involved with formation of mature MPO. Lactoperoxidase has its pro-domain proteolytically removed and is a monomer in its mature form. Eosinophil peroxidase undergoes proteolytic removal of its pro-domain followed by proteolytic separation into heavy and light chains and is a heterodimer. However, only MPO undergoes both these proteolytic modifications and then is further oligomerized into a heterotetramer by a single inter-molecular disulfide bond. The details of how and where the post-ER processing steps of MPO occur are incompletely understood. We report here that T47D breast cancer cells stably transfected with an MPO expression plasmid are able to efficiently replicate all of the processing steps that lead to formation of the mature MPO heterotetramer. MPO also traffics to the lysosome granules of T47D cells where it accumulates, allowing in-depth immunofluorescent microscopy studies of MPO trafficking and storage for the first time. Using this novel cell model we show that formation of MPO's single inter-molecular disulfide bond can occur normally in the absence of the proteolytic events that lead to separation of the MPO heavy and light chains. We further demonstrate that Cys319, which forms MPO's unique inter-molecular disulfide bond, is important for events that precede this step. Mutation of this residue alters the glycosylation and catalytic activity of MPO and blocks its entry into the endocytic pathway where proteolytic processing and disulfide bonding occur. Finally, using the endocytic trafficking of lysosomal hydrolases as a guide, we investigate the role of candidate receptors in the endocytic trafficking of MPO.

  3. [Correct contact lens hygiene].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blümle, S; Kaercher, T; Khaireddin, R

    2013-06-01

    Although contact lenses have long been established in ophthalmology, practical aspects of handling contact lenses is becoming increasingly less important in the clinical training as specialist for ophthalmology. Simultaneously, for many reasons injuries due to wearing contact lenses are increasing. In order to correct this discrepancy, information on contact lenses and practical experience with them must be substantially increased from a medical perspective. This review article deals with the most important aspects for prevention of complications, i.e. contact lens hygiene.

  4. Heart and/or soul : reality and fiction in the association between the two strongest contributors to the global burden of disease - ischemic heart disease and depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jonge, Peter

    Depression and heart disease are the strongest contributors to the global burden of disease and are often intertwined: depression is a risk factor for heart disease and vice versa. Moreover, depression in patients with established heart disease is associated with cardiovascular disease progression.

  5. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

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    Full Text Available ... One Use Facts About Colored Contacts and Halloween Safety Colored Contact Lens Facts Over-the-Counter Costume ... new application of artificial intelligence shows whether a patient’s eyes point to high blood pressure or risk ...

  6. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

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    Full Text Available ... sell contacts without a prescription are breaking the law, and may be fined $11,000 per violation. " ... wear any kind of contact lens. In Butler's case, the lenses caused an infection and left her ...

  7. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

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    Full Text Available ... One Use Facts About Colored Contacts and Halloween Safety Colored Contact Lens Facts Over-the-Counter Costume ... Academy Jobs at the Academy Financial Relationships with Industry Medical Disclaimer Privacy Policy Terms of Service For ...

  8. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

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    Full Text Available ... in a pair of colored contact lenses, Laura Butler of Parkersburg, W.Va., had "extreme pain in ... to wear any kind of contact lens. In Butler's case, the lenses caused an infection and left ...

  9. Contact Angle Goniometer

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description:The FTA32 goniometer provides video-based contact angle and surface tension measurement. Contact angles are measured by fitting a mathematical expression...

  10. Multiple Josephson contact interferometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zappe, H.H.

    1978-01-01

    The interferometer (quantum interference between two parallel contacts) displays a mid connector and contacts of the same size, or contacts at which the middle one is twice the size as the other two, or a double connector and three contacts by which the middle contact carries twice the current as the other two. Also there can be provided interferometers with three and four contacts as well as with symmetrical double current connectors and the same largest Josephson current through all contacts. Because all contacts display the same phase state in the voltage free switching state, the amplification property can be increased and current dissipation can be decreased in a way that logic circuits with high integration degree and high switching velocities can be designed. (DG) [de

  11. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

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    Full Text Available ... Cleveland. "This is far from the truth." Real People, Real Problems with Colored Contact Lenses Julian: Teenager ... the lenses. Never share contact lenses with another person. Get follow up exams with your eye care ...

  12. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

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    Full Text Available ... popping touch. But colored contact lenses are popular year-round, not just at Halloween. But few know the ... also available in Spanish . Follow The Academy Professionals: Education Guidelines News Multimedia Public & Patients: Contact Us About ...

  13. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

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    Full Text Available ... Contact Lens Facts Over-the-Counter Costume Contacts May Contain Chemicals Harmful to Eyes Four Ways Over- ... without a prescription are breaking the law, and may be fined $11,000 per violation. "Many of ...

  14. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

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    Full Text Available ... Costume Contacts May Contain Chemicals Harmful to Eyes Four Ways Over-the-Counter Costume Contact Lenses Can ... was in severe pain and on medication for four weeks, and couldn't see well enough to ...

  15. Corporate Consumer Contact API

    Data.gov (United States)

    General Services Administration — The data in the Corporate Consumer Contact API is based on the content you can find in the Corporate Consumer Contact listing in the Consumer Action Handbook (PDF)....

  16. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

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    Full Text Available ... not require the same level of care or consideration as a standard contact lens because they can ... sell contacts without a prescription are breaking the law, and may be fined $11,000 per violation. " ...

  17. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

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    Full Text Available ... lens because they can be purchased over-the-counter or on the Internet," says Thomas Steinemann, MD, ... Halloween Safety Colored Contact Lens Facts Over-the-Counter Costume Contacts May Contain Chemicals Harmful to Eyes ...

  18. Contact Us about Asbestos

    Science.gov (United States)

    How to contact EPA for more information on asbestos, including state and regional contacts, EPA’s Asbestos Abatement/Management Ombudsman and the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) Assistance Information Service (TSCA Hotline).

  19. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

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    Full Text Available ... like a suction cup." Halloween is a popular time for people to use colored contact lenses to ... wear costume contact lenses for Halloween or any time of year, follow these guidelines: Get an eye ...

  20. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

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    Full Text Available ... One Use Facts About Colored Contacts and Halloween Safety Colored Contact Lens Facts Over-the-Counter Costume ... an ophthalmologist — an eye medical doctor — who will measure each eye and talk to you about proper ...

  1. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... contact lenses , from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Are the colored lenses you are considering ... Follow The Academy Professionals: Education Guidelines News Multimedia Public & Patients: Contact Us About the Academy Jobs at ...

  2. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

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    Full Text Available ... prescription. Follow the contact lens care directions for cleaning, disinfecting, and wearing the lenses. Never share contact ... with Industry Medical Disclaimer Privacy Policy Terms of Service For Advertisers For Media Ophthalmology Job Center © American ...

  3. Contact lens in keratoconus

    OpenAIRE

    Rathi, Varsha M; Mandathara, Preeji S; Dumpati, Srikanth

    2013-01-01

    Contact lenses are required for the visual improvement in patients with keratoconus. Various contact lens options, such as rigid gas permeable (RGP) lenses, soft and soft toric lenses, piggy back contact lenses (PBCL), hybrid lenses and scleral lenses are availble. This article discusses about selection of a lens depending on the type of keratoconus and the fitting philosophies of various contact lenses including the starting trial lens. A Medline search was carried out for articles in the En...

  4. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

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    Full Text Available ... Ophthalmologist Patient Stories Español Eye Health / News Halloween Hazard: The Hidden Dangers of Buying Decorative Contact Lenses ... One Use Facts About Colored Contacts and Halloween Safety Colored Contact Lens Facts Over-the-Counter Costume ...

  5. New Cosmetic Contact Allergens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    An Goossens

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Allergic and photo-allergic contact dermatitis, and immunologic contact urticaria are potential immune-mediated adverse effects from cosmetics. Fragrance components and preservatives are certainly the most frequently observed allergens; however, all ingredients must be considered when investigating for contact allergy.

  6. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

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    Full Text Available ... an Ophthalmologist Patient Stories Español Eye Health / News Halloween Hazard: The Hidden Dangers of Buying Decorative Contact ... After One Use Facts About Colored Contacts and Halloween Safety Colored Contact Lens Facts Over-the-Counter ...

  7. Hydrogenation of passivated contacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nemeth, William; Yuan, Hao-Chih; LaSalvia, Vincenzo; Stradins, Pauls; Page, Matthew R.

    2018-03-06

    Methods of hydrogenation of passivated contacts using materials having hydrogen impurities are provided. An example method includes applying, to a passivated contact, a layer of a material, the material containing hydrogen impurities. The method further includes subsequently annealing the material and subsequently removing the material from the passivated contact.

  8. Usability Testing of Guided Internet-based Parent Training for Challenging Behavior in Children with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (Strongest Families FASD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hundert, Amos S; Huguet, Anna; Green, Courtney R; Hewitt, Amy J; Mushquash, Christopher J; Muhajarine, Nazeem; Sourander, Andre; Caughey, Heather; Lingley-Pottie, Patricia; McGrath, Patrick J; Reynolds, James N

    2016-01-01

    In order to meet the need for accessible interventions and support for families affected by fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD), we have developed an Internet-based, distance intervention for caregivers of children with FASD between the ages of four and twelve, called Strongest Families™ FASD. To evaluate the usability of the Strongest Families FASD program content and website in terms of learnability, efficiency and acceptability. A remote usability testing approach was conducted in two iterative cycles of participants. Synchronous online usability testing sessions were conducted, followed by asynchronous testing. A total of 18 participants were included, comprised of both health care professionals with expertise in FASD and caregivers of children with FASD. The data collected in each cycle was examined for commonalities and results were used to inform changes to the website and content after each cycle. Participants rated the website as appealing and relatively easy and fast to use. Nevertheless, several usability problems were identified such as difficulty navigating between sections of content on the website, displaying too much content per page, and the relevance and appropriateness of the content as it related to FASD. The identification of usability problems was an important step in refining the Strongest Families FASD program before its effectiveness is evaluated in a randomized controlled trial.

  9. Contact lens in keratoconus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varsha M Rathi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Contact lenses are required for the visual improvement in patients with keratoconus. Various contact lens options, such as rigid gas permeable (RGP lenses, soft and soft toric lenses, piggy back contact lenses (PBCL, hybrid lenses and scleral lenses are availble. This article discusses about selection of a lens depending on the type of keratoconus and the fitting philosophies of various contact lenses including the starting trial lens. A Medline search was carried out for articles in the English language with the keywords keratoconus and various contact lenses such as Rose k lens, RGP lens, hybrid lens, scleral lens and PBCL.

  10. Contact lens in keratoconus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathi, Varsha M; Mandathara, Preeji S; Dumpati, Srikanth

    2013-01-01

    Contact lenses are required for the visual improvement in patients with keratoconus. Various contact lens options, such as rigid gas permeable (RGP) lenses, soft and soft toric lenses, piggy back contact lenses (PBCL), hybrid lenses and scleral lenses are availble. This article discusses about selection of a lens depending on the type of keratoconus and the fitting philosophies of various contact lenses including the starting trial lens. A Medline search was carried out for articles in the English language with the keywords keratoconus and various contact lenses such as Rose k lens, RGP lens, hybrid lens, scleral lens and PBCL. PMID:23925325

  11. Remote population-based intervention for disruptive behavior at age four: study protocol for a randomized trial of Internet-assisted parent training (Strongest Families Finland-Canada).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, Patrick J; Sourander, Andre; Lingley-Pottie, Patricia; Ristkari, Terja; Cunningham, Charles; Huttunen, Jukka; Filbert, Katharine; Aromaa, Minna; Corkum, Penny; Hinkka-Yli-Salomäki, Susanna; Kinnunen, Malin; Lampi, Katja; Penttinen, Anne; Sinokki, Atte; Unruh, Anita; Vuorio, Jenni; Watters, Carolyn

    2013-10-21

    Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) is characterized by angry and noncompliant behaviour. It is the most common disruptive behaviour disorder (DBD), with prevalence estimates of 6-9% for preschoolers and is closely linked to several long-term difficulties, including disorders of conduct, mood, anxiety, impulse-control, and substance abuse. ODD in children is related to parental depression, family dysfunction, and impairments in parental work performance. Children displaying early DBDs exhibit more symptoms of greater severity, more frequent offences, and commit more serious crimes later in life. The goal of the Strongest Families Finland Canada (SFFC) Smart Website intervention research program is to develop and evaluate an affordable, accessible, effective secondary prevention parent training program for disruptive behaviour in preschoolers to prevent the negative sequelae of ODD. Strongest Families is an 11-session program with two booster sessions that focuses on teaching skills to: strengthen parent-child relationships; reinforce positive behaviour; reduce conflict; manage daily transitions; plan for potentially problematic situations; promote emotional regulation and pro-social behaviour and decrease antisocial behaviour. This protocol paper describes an ongoing population-based randomized controlled trial (RCT) of high-risk 4 year-olds attending well-child clinics in Turku, Finland and environs to examine the effectiveness of the Strongest Families Smart Website intervention compared to an Education Control condition. Randomization consists of a 1:1 ratio for intervention versus the education group, stratified by the child's sex. The participants randomized to the intervention group receive access to the Strongest Families Smart Website and weekly telephone coaching sessions. The participants randomized to the Education Control condition receive access to a static website with parenting tips. Children are followed using parental and daycare teacher measures

  12. Strongest magnet in the cosmos

    CERN Document Server

    Zane, S

    2003-01-01

    In November 1996 a NASA satellite called the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) was monitoring a rare type of pulsar some 40 000 light-years from Earth. The star, called SGR 1806-20, is one of just four known 'soft gamma repeaters' - rotating neutron stars that periodically emit huge bursts of gamma rays. Now an international team of astrophysicists studying the RXTE data has found evidence for what is known as a magnetar - the most magnetic object in the universe. (U.K.)

  13. Household contact with pets and birds and risk of lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellizzi, Saverio; Cocco, Pierluigi; Zucca, Mariagrazia; D'Andrea, Ileana; Sesler, Simonetta; Monne, Maria; Onida, Angela; Piras, Giovanna; Uras, Antonella; Angelucci, Emanuele; Gabbas, Attilio; Rais, Marco; Nitsch, Dorothea; Ennas, Maria G

    2011-02-01

    Contact with household pets has been suggested to be inversely associated with lymphoma risk. We tested the hypothesis in a case-control study of lymphoma in the Sardinia region of Italy. Cases were 326 patients, first diagnosed with lymphoma in 1999-2003. Controls were 464 population controls, frequency matched to cases by age, gender, and area of residence. In person interviews included self-reported household contact with pets and birds, type of pet(s), and age at starting contact. Frequent contact with birds was inversely associated with lymphoma, and particularly B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (odds ratio [OR] = 0.6, 95% confidence interval [95% CI]: 0.4, 0.9). Contact with chickens accounted for this inverse association, which was strongest for first contact occurring at age ≤8 years (OR = 0.4, 95% CI: 0.2, 1.0). No association was observed when first contact occurred at age 9 or older. Contact with any pets was inversely associated with risk of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (OR = 0.4, 95% CI: 0.2, 1.0), but not other lymphoma subtypes. Our results support the hypothesis that early-life exposure to pets, birds and particularly with chickens might be associated with a reduced risk of lymphoma.

  14. Animal Research International: Contact

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Principal Contact. Dr. J. E. Eyo Dr. Department of Zoology, University of Nig Department of Zoology, POBox 3146, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Enugu State, Nigeria. Phone: 234 42 308030. Email: joseph.eyo@unn.edu.ng. Support Contact. N. S. Oluah Phone: +234-83732127. Email: ndubusioluah@yahoo.com.

  15. Contact Hamiltonian mechanics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bravetti, Alessandro, E-mail: alessandro.bravetti@iimas.unam.mx [Instituto de Investigaciones en Matemáticas Aplicadas y en Sistemas, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, A. P. 70543, México, DF 04510 (Mexico); Cruz, Hans, E-mail: hans@ciencias.unam.mx [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, A. P. 70543, México, DF 04510 (Mexico); Tapias, Diego, E-mail: diego.tapias@nucleares.unam.mx [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, A.P. 70543, México, DF 04510 (Mexico)

    2017-01-15

    In this work we introduce contact Hamiltonian mechanics, an extension of symplectic Hamiltonian mechanics, and show that it is a natural candidate for a geometric description of non-dissipative and dissipative systems. For this purpose we review in detail the major features of standard symplectic Hamiltonian dynamics and show that all of them can be generalized to the contact case.

  16. Discovery and Innovation: Contact

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Principal Contact. Prof. Keto Mshigeni Editor-in-Chief Academy Science Publishers. PO Box 14798-00200. Nairobi. Kenya. Phone: 254 (20) 884401-5. Fax: 254 (20) 884406. Email: aas@aasciences.org. Support Contact. Prof. Keto Mshigeni Email: aas@aasciences.org. ISSN: 1015-079X. AJOL African Journals Online.

  17. LBS Management Review: Contact

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Principal Contact. Dr Obinna Muogboh Managing Editor Lagos Business School Pan African University 2 Ahmed Onibudo Street, P.O. Box 73688, Victoria Island, Lagos, NIGERIA Email: omuogboh@lbs.edu.ng. Support Contact. Editor Email: omuogboh@lbs.edu.ng. ISSN: 1118-3713. AJOL African Journals Online.

  18. African Health Sciences: Contact

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Principal Contact. Dr James Tumwine Editor-in-Chief. Makerere University Medical School P. O. Box 7072 Kampala Uganda. Phone: 256-41-530020/1. Email: kabaleimc@gmail.com. Support Contact. Pauline Salamula Email: paulinesalamula@gmail.com. ISSN: 1680-6905. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE ...

  19. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Get follow up exams with your eye care provider. If you notice redness, swelling, excessive discharge, pain or discomfort from wearing contact lenses, remove the lenses and seek immediate medical attention from an ophthalmologist. Related resources: Learn how to properly care for contact lenses . ...

  20. Contact Quality in Participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Jesper; Jensen, Olav Storm

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the concept of participation from the perspective of quality of the contact in the communicative interactions between participants. We argue for the need for an academic-personal competence that qualifies the human contact central in all Participatory Design (PD) activities as a wa...

  1. Electric contact arcing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuthrell, R.E.

    1976-01-01

    Electrical contacts must function properly in many types of components used in nuclear weapon systems. Design, application, and testing of these components require detailed knowledge of chemical and physical phenomena associated with stockpile storage, stockpile testing, and operation. In the past, investigation of these phenomena has led to significant discoveries on the effects of surface contaminants, friction and wear, and the mechanics of closure on contact performance. A recent investigation of contact arcing phenomena which revealed that, preceding contact closure, arcs may occur at voltages lower than had been previously known is described. This discovery is important, since arcing may damage contacts, and repetitive testing of contacts performed as part of a quality assurance program might produce cumulative damage that would yield misleading life-test data and could prevent proper operation of the contacts at some time in the future. This damage can be avoided by determining the conditions under which arcing occurs, and ensuring that these conditions are avoided in contact testing

  2. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Eye Health A-Z Symptoms Glasses & Contacts Tips & Prevention News Ask an Ophthalmologist Patient Stories Español Eye ... colored contact lenses , from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Are the colored lenses you are ...

  3. Sciences & Nature: Contact

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Principal Contact. Ehouan Etienne Ehile Professor University of Abobo-Adjamé 02 BP 801 Abidjan 02. Phone: (+225) 2030 4201. Fax: (+225) 2030 4203. Email: eh_ehile@yahoo.fr. Support Contact. Irie Zoro Bi Email: banhiakalou@yahoo.fr. ISSN: 1812-0741. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL.

  4. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... in Cleveland. "This is far from the truth." Real People, Real Problems with Colored Contact Lenses Julian: Teenager Blinded ... use of colored contact lenses , from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Are the colored lenses ...

  5. African Zoology: Contact

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Principal Contact. Lester Isaacs Phone: +27466229698. Fax: +2746 622 9550. Email: lester@nisc.co.za. Support Contact. NISC office. Email: info@nisc.co.za. ISSN: 2224-073X. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners ...

  6. Factor XII Contact Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naudin, Clément; Burillo, Elena; Blankenberg, Stefan; Butler, Lynn; Renné, Thomas

    2017-11-01

    Contact activation is the surface-induced conversion of factor XII (FXII) zymogen to the serine protease FXIIa. Blood-circulating FXII binds to negatively charged surfaces and this contact to surfaces triggers a conformational change in the zymogen inducing autoactivation. Several surfaces that have the capacity for initiating FXII contact activation have been identified, including misfolded protein aggregates, collagen, nucleic acids, and platelet and microbial polyphosphate. Activated FXII initiates the proinflammatory kallikrein-kinin system and the intrinsic coagulation pathway, leading to formation of bradykinin and thrombin, respectively. FXII contact activation is well characterized in vitro and provides the mechanistic basis for the diagnostic clotting assay, activated partial thromboplastin time. However, only in the past decade has the critical role of FXII contact activation in pathological thrombosis been appreciated. While defective FXII contact activation provides thromboprotection, excess activation underlies the swelling disorder hereditary angioedema type III. This review provides an overview of the molecular basis of FXII contact activation and FXII contact activation-associated disease states. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  7. Afrika Statistika: Contact

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Principal Contact. Prof. Gane Samb Lo Editor Université Gaston Berger BP 234, Université Saint-Louis Sénégal Phone: 221 961 23 40. Fax: 221 961 53 38. Email: ganesamblo@yahoo.com. Support Contact. Mamadou Camara Email: mdoucamara@gmail.com. ISSN: 2316-090X. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO ...

  8. Nigerian Food Journal: Contact

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigerian Food Journal. ... Nigerian Food Journal: Contact. Journal Home > About the Journal > Nigerian Food Journal: Contact. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... Mailing Address. Department of Food Science and Technology University of Agriculture, Makurdi, Nigeria ...

  9. Lettuce contact allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, Evy; Andersen, Klaus E

    2016-01-01

    degradability of lettuce allergens, it is recommended to patch test with freshly cut lettuce stem and supplement this with Compositae mix. As contact urticaria and protein contact dermatitis may present as dermatitis, it is important to perform prick-prick tests, and possibly scratch patch tests as well. Any...

  10. Contact materials for nanoelectronics

    KAUST Repository

    Alshareef, Husam N.

    2011-02-01

    In this article, we review current research activities in contact material development for electronic and nanoelectronic devices. A fundamental issue in contact materials research is to understand and control interfacial reactions and phenomena that modify the expected device performance. These reactions have become more challenging and more difficult to control as new materials have been introduced and as device sizes have entered the deep nanoscale. To provide an overview of this field of inquiry, this issue of MRS Bulletin includes articles on gate and contact materials for Si-based devices, junction contact materials for Si-based devices, and contact materials for alternate channel substrates (Ge and III-V), nanodevices. © 2011 Materials Research Society.

  11. Contacts to semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tove, P.A.

    1975-08-01

    Contacts to semiconductors play an important role in most semiconductor devices. These devices range from microelectronics to power components, from high-sensitivity light or radiation detectors to light-emitting of microwave-generating components. Silicon is the dominating material but compound semiconductors are increasing in importance. The following survey is an attempt to classify contact properties and the physical mechanisms involved, as well as fabrication methods and methods of investigation. The main interest is in metal-semiconductor type contacts where a few basic concepts are dealt with in some detail. (Auth.)

  12. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... be purchased over-the-counter or on the Internet," says Thomas Steinemann, MD, professor of ophthalmology at ... ask for a prescription. There is no such thing as a "one size fits all" contact lens. ...

  13. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... also available in Spanish . Follow The Academy Professionals: Education Guidelines News Multimedia Public & Patients: Contact Us About the Academy Jobs at the Academy Financial Relationships with Industry Medical ...

  14. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... seek immediate medical attention from an ophthalmologist. Related resources: Learn how to properly care for contact lenses . ... woman from Oregon made history as the first human host for an eye worm that previously had ...

  15. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... colored contact lenses to enhance their costumes. From blood-drenched vampire eyes to glow-in-the-dark ... properly fitted may scratch the eye or cause blood vessels to grow into the cornea. Even if ...

  16. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... people with high myopia? Mar 29, 2017 New Technology Helps the Legally Blind Be More Independent Oct ... Multimedia Public & Patients: Contact Us About the Academy Jobs at the Academy Financial Relationships with Industry Medical ...

  17. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... had not been properly fitted by an eye care professional, the lenses stuck to my eye like ... lenses do not require the same level of care or consideration as a standard contact lens because ...

  18. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... use of colored contact lenses , from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Are the colored lenses ... 2018 By Dan T. Gudgel Do you know what the difference is between ophthalmologists and optometrists? A ...

  19. Ergonomics SA: Contact

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Principal Contact. Mrs June McDougall. Rhodes University. Department of Human Kinetics and Ergonomics. P.O. Box 94. Rhodes University. Grahamstown. 6140. Phone: +27 46 6038471. Email: j.mcdougall@ru.ac.za ...

  20. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... sell contacts without a prescription are breaking the law, and may be fined $11,000 per violation. " ... 13, 2017 Histoplasmosis Diagnosis Sep 01, 2017 How common is retinal detachment for people with high myopia? ...

  1. Tomato contact dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, Evy; Christensen, Lars P; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    2012-01-01

    The tomato plant (Solanum lycopersicum) is an important crop worldwide. Whereas immediate-type reactions to tomato fruits are well known, contact dermatitis caused by tomatoes or tomato plants is rarely reported. The aims of this study were to present new data on contact sensitization to tomato...... plants and review the literature on contact dermatitis caused by both plants and fruits. An ether extract of tomato plants made as the original oleoresin plant extracts, was used in aimed patch testing, and between 2005 and 2011. 8 of 93 patients (9%) tested positive to the oleoresin extracts....... This prevalence is in accordance with the older literature that reports tomato plants as occasional sensitizers. The same applies to tomato fruits, which, in addition, may cause protein contact dermatitis. The allergens of the plant are unknown, but both heat-stable and heat-labile constituents seem...

  2. Fragrance allergic contact dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Judy; Zug, Kathryn A

    2014-01-01

    Fragrances are a common cause of allergic contact dermatitis in Europe and in North America. They can affect individuals at any age and elicit a spectrum of reactions from contact urticaria to systemic contact dermatitis. Growing recognition of the widespread use of fragrances in modern society has fueled attempts to prevent sensitization through improved allergen identification, labeling, and consumer education. This review provides an overview and update on fragrance allergy. Part 1 discusses the epidemiology and evaluation of suspected fragrance allergy. Part 2 reviews screening methods, emerging fragrance allergens, and management of patients with fragrance contact allergy. This review concludes by examining recent legislation on fragrances and suggesting potential additions to screening series to help prevent and detect fragrance allergy.

  3. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cleveland. "This is far from the truth." Real People, Real Problems with Colored Contact Lenses Julian: Teenager ... About the Academy Jobs at the Academy Financial Relationships with Industry Medical Disclaimer Privacy Policy Terms of ...

  4. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Follow The Academy Professionals: Education Guidelines News Multimedia Public & Patients: Contact Us About the Academy Jobs at the Academy Financial Relationships with Industry Medical Disclaimer Privacy Policy Terms of Service For Advertisers For Media Ophthalmology ...

  5. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... about the members of the eye-care team . Consumer warning about the improper use of colored contact ... About the Academy Jobs at the Academy Financial Relationships with Industry Medical Disclaimer Privacy Policy Terms of ...

  6. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... an impulsive buy from a souvenir shop, but 10 hours after she first put in a pair ... Prescription Contact Lens Laura: Vision Loss After Just 10 Hours Robyn: Blurry Vision and Daily Eye Drops ...

  7. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... in beauty salons, novelty shops or in pop-up Halloween stores are not FDA-approved and are ... share contact lenses with another person. Get follow up exams with your eye care provider. If you ...

  8. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... videos on your website Promotional materials for eye health observances EyeSmart resources are also available in Spanish . Follow The Academy Professionals: Education Guidelines News Multimedia Public & Patients: Contact Us About the Academy Jobs at ...

  9. GAS-FOVEAL CONTACT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alberti, Mark; la Cour, Morten

    2018-01-01

    PURPOSE: To compare gas-foveal contact in face-down positioning (FDP) and nonsupine positioning (NSP), to analyze causes of gas-foveal separation and to determine how gas-foveal contact affects clinical outcome after idiopathic macular hole repair. METHODS: Single center, randomized controlled...... study. Participants with an idiopathic macular hole were allocated to either FDP or NSP. Primary outcome was gas-foveal contact, calculated by analyzing positioning in relation to intraocular gas fill. Positioning was measured with an electronic device recording positioning for 72 hours postoperatively....... RESULTS: Positioning data were available for 33/35 in the FDP group and 35/37 in the NSP group, thus results are based on 68 analyzed participants. Median gas-foveal contact was 99.82% (range 73.6-100.0) in the FDP group and 99.57% (range 85.3-100.0) in the NSP group (P = 0.22). In a statistical model...

  10. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Health A-Z Symptoms Glasses & Contacts Tips & Prevention News Ask an Ophthalmologist Patient Stories Español Eye Health / News Halloween Hazard: The Hidden Dangers of Buying Decorative ...

  11. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... medical attention from an ophthalmologist. Related resources: Learn how to properly care for contact lenses . Learn about ... Shape of the Eclipse Itself Dec 08, 2017 How long does it take the eye to go ...

  12. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

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  13. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Purchase the colored contact lenses from an eye product retailer who asks for a prescription. Follow the ... for people with high myopia? Mar 29, 2017 New Technology Helps the Legally Blind Be More Independent ...

  14. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

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  15. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

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  16. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... be purchased over-the-counter or on the Internet," says Thomas Steinemann, MD, professor of ophthalmology at ... are being sold illegally," Dr. Steinemann said. Never buy colored contact lenses from a retailer that does ...

  17. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... also available in Spanish . Follow The Academy Professionals: Education Guidelines News Multimedia Public & Patients: Contact Us About the Academy Jobs at the Academy Financial Relationships with Industry Medical Disclaimer Privacy Policy Terms ...

  18. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Patient Stories Español Eye Health / News Halloween Hazard: The Hidden Dangers of Buying Decorative Contact Lenses Without ... been properly fitted by an eye care professional, the lenses stuck to my eye like a suction ...

  19. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Español Eye Health / News Halloween Hazard: The Hidden Dangers of Buying Decorative Contact Lenses Without a Prescription ... people with high myopia? Mar 29, 2017 New Technology Helps the Legally Blind Be More Independent Oct ...

  20. Contact Lens Risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tap and distilled water have been associated with Acanthamoeba keratitis, a corneal infection that is resistant to ... to: Advice for Patients With Soft Contact Lenses: Acanthamoeba Keratitis Infections Related to Complete® MoisturePlus Multi Purpose ...

  1. Contact Heat Exchanger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, M. L.; Stalmach, D. D.; Cox, R. L.

    1985-01-01

    Fluid pressure controls contact between heat pipe and heat exchanger. Heat exchanger system in cross section provides contact interface between fluid system and heat pipe with easy assembly/disassembly of heat-pipe/ pumped-liquid system. Originally developed for use in space, new device applicable on Earth where fluid system is linked with heat pipe, where rapid assembly/disassembly required, or where high pressures or corrosive fluids used.

  2. Patients with multiple contact allergies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Berit Christina; Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Menné, Torkil

    2008-01-01

    Patients with multiple contact allergies, also referred to as polysensitized, are more frequent than predicted from prevalence of single sensitivities. The understanding of why some people develop multiple contact allergies, and characterization of patients with multiple contact allergies...... of developing multiple contact allergies. Evidence of allergen clusters among polysensitized individuals is also reviewed. The literature supports the idea that patients with multiple contact allergies constitute a special entity within the field of contact allergy. There is no generally accepted definition...... of patients with multiple contact allergies. We suggest that contact allergy to 3 or more allergens are defined as multiple contact allergies....

  3. Metal-Semiconductor Contacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugh, D. I.

    Metal-semiconductor contacts display a range of electrical characteristics from strongly rectifying to ohmic, each having its own applications. The rectifying properties of metal points on metallic sulphides were used extensively as detectors in early radio experiments, while during the second world war the rectifying point contact diode became important as a frequency detector and low level microwave radar detector [1]. Since 1945 the development of metal semiconductor contacts has been stimulated by the intense activity in the field of semiconductor physics and has remained vital in the ohmic connection of semiconductor devices with the outside world. The developments in surface science and the increased use of Schottky barriers in microelectronics has lead to much research with the aim of obtaining a full understanding of the physics of barrier formation and of current transport across the metal-semiconductor interface. Large gain spin electronic devices are possible with appropriate designs by incorporating ferromagnetic layers with semiconductors such as silicon [2]. This inevitably leads to metal-semiconductor contacts, and the impact of such junctions on the device must be considered. In this section we aim to look simply at the physical models that can be used to understand the electrical properties that can arise from these contacts, and then briefly discuss how deviations of these models can occur in practical junctions.

  4. ALLERGIC CONTACT DERMATITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trisna Yuliharti Tersinanda

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE Allergic contact dermatitis is an immunologic reaction that tends to involve the surrounding skin and may even spread beyond affected sites. This skin disease is one of the more frequent, and costly dermatologic problems. Recent data from United Kingdom and United States suggest that the percentage of occupational contact dermatitis due to allergy may be much higher, thus raising the economic impact of occupational allergic contact dermatitis. There is not enough data about the epidemiology of allergic contact dermatitis in Indonesia, however based on research that include beautician in Denpasar, about 27,6 percent had side effect of cosmetics, which is 25,4 percent of it manifested as allergic contact dermatitis. Diagnosis of allergic contact dermatitis is based on anamnesis, physical examination, patch test, and this disease should be distinguished from other eczematous skin disease. The management is prevention of allergen exposure, symptomatic treatment, and physicochemical barrier /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0in; mso-para-margin-right:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0in; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;}

  5. [Computers and contact dermatitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dooms-Goossens, A

    1989-01-01

    A computerized database with the complete composition of pharmaceutical products and some cosmetics helps the patient with an allergic contact dermatitis reaction to avoid his specific allergens. Together with a database with patient information (12000 cases) this product, file serves as the basis for an expert system that assists the dermatologist during his every day clinical practice. The use of the computer in the field of contact dermatitis has gained much interest in the course of the last decade. In fact, the computer can be a particularly helpful tool in: 1. The storage of large amounts of data that can help to identify the patient's allergen microenvironment: --literature: articles related to contact dermatitis problems; --product information such as, for example, the composition of pharmaceutical, cosmetics, and industrial materials; --the dermatologist: the filling in of a standardized anamnesis from also helps to assure that relevant clinical data is not overlooked. 2. The diagnosis of allergic contact dermatitis: on the basis of all these data stored, an expert system can be developed to provide targeted information to assist the physician with the anamnesis of a new patient. Depending on the profile of the patient, several factors that could be at the source of the contact dermatitis, such as the patient's profession, hobbies, and use of pharmaceutical products and cosmetics, can be considered, thus increasing the efficiency of the allergological examination considerably. 3. Research in contact dermatitis: --The data can be used for epidemiological analyses in behalf of the patients, the medical profession, the industry, and the authorities.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  6. Contact Patterns in a High School: A Comparison between Data Collected Using Wearable Sensors, Contact Diaries and Friendship Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastrandrea, Rossana; Fournet, Julie; Barrat, Alain

    2015-01-01

    of friendships, and we investigate the correlations between the number of neighbors of individuals in the three networks. Overall, diaries and surveys tend to yield a correct picture of the global structural organization of the contact network, albeit with much less links, and give access to a sort of backbone of the contact network corresponding to the strongest links, i.e., the contacts of longest cumulative durations.

  7. Contact Patterns in a High School: A Comparison between Data Collected Using Wearable Sensors, Contact Diaries and Friendship Surveys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossana Mastrandrea

    -reported contacts and of friendships, and we investigate the correlations between the number of neighbors of individuals in the three networks. Overall, diaries and surveys tend to yield a correct picture of the global structural organization of the contact network, albeit with much less links, and give access to a sort of backbone of the contact network corresponding to the strongest links, i.e., the contacts of longest cumulative durations.

  8. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... A medical degree and many more years of training, for starters. A recent article from U.S. News and World Report explains what ophthalmologists are and how they can help you look after ... Contact Us About the Academy Jobs at the Academy Financial Relationships with Industry Medical ...

  9. Nigeria Agricultural Journal: Contact

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Principal Contact. Prof. J.A. Mbanasor Editor in Chief Head of Department, Agribusiness and Management College of Agribusiness and Financial Management Michael Okpara University of Agriculture Office of the Head of Department. Agribusiness and Management. College of Agribusiness and Financial Management.

  10. Language Contact and Bilingualism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Appel, René; Muysken, Pieter

    2006-01-01

    What happens - sociologically, linguistically, educationally, politically - when more than one language is in regular use in a community? How do speakers handle these languages simultaneously, and what influence does this language contact have on the languages involved? Although most people in the

  11. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... prescription. There is no such thing as a "one size fits all" contact lens. Lenses that are not properly fitted may scratch the eye or cause blood vessels to grow into the cornea. Even if you have perfect vision, you need to get an eye exam and a prescription ...

  12. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... contact lenses , from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Are the colored lenses you are considering ... woman from Oregon made history as the first human host for an eye worm that previously had been reported only in cattle. ... Policy Free EyeSmart Resources for Professionals Link your website to EyeSmart Embed ...

  13. Mathematics Connection: Contact

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Principal Contact. Dr. Kofi Mereku Executive Editor Department of Mathematics Education, UCE Mathematical Association of Ghana, C/o Department of Mathematics Education University College of Education of Winneba P. O. Box 25, Winneba, Ghana Phone: +233244961318. Email: dkmereku@uew.edu.gh ...

  14. Contact: Releasing the news

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinotti, Roberto

    The problem of mass behavior after man's future contacts with other intelligences in the universe is not only a challenge for social scientists and political leaders all over the world, but also a cultural time bomb as well. In fact, since the impact of CETI (Contact with Extraterrestrial Intelligence) on human civilization, with its different cultures, might cause a serious socio-anthropological shock, a common and predetermined worldwide strategy is necessary in releasing the news after the contact, in order to keep possible manifestations of fear, panic and hysteria under control. An analysis of past studies in this field and of parallel historical situations as analogs suggests a definite "authority crisis" in the public as a direct consequence of an unexpected release of the news, involving a devastating "chain reaction" process (from both the psychological and sociological viewpoints) of anomie and maybe the collapse of today's society. The only way to prevent all this is to prepare the world's public opinion concerning contact before releasing the news, and to develop a long-term strategy through the combined efforts of scientists, political leaders, intelligence agencies and the mass media, in order to create the cultural conditions in which a confrontation with ETI won't affect mankind in a traumatic way. Definite roles and tasks in this multi-level model are suggested.

  15. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... wear any kind of contact lens. In Butler's case, the lenses caused an infection and left her with a corneal ... A recent article from U.S. News and World Report explains what ophthalmologists are and how they can ...

  16. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Health / News Halloween Hazard: The Hidden Dangers of Buying Decorative Contact Lenses Without a Prescription Leer en Español: Peligros asociados con los lentes de contacto de color Sep. 26, 2013 It started as an impulsive buy from a souvenir shop, but 10 hours ...

  17. Zoologist (The): Contact

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Principal Contact. Prof. A.B. Odaibo Editor-in-Chief University of Ibadan, Ibadan. Nigeria. Hydrobiology & Fisheries Unit, Department of Zoology, University of Ibadan, Ibadan. Oyo State. Nigeria. West Africa. Alternative Email Address: adebakar19@yahoo.com. Phone: +234-(0)- 803-049-74. Fax: +234-02-8103043

  18. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Tips & Prevention News Ask an Ophthalmologist Patient Stories Español Eye Health / News Halloween Hazard: The Hidden Dangers ... Decorative Contact Lenses Without a Prescription Leer en Español: Peligros asociados con los lentes de contacto de ...

  19. Open Veterinary Journal: Contact

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Principal Contact. Dr. Ibrahim Eldaghayes Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tripoli Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tripoli, P. O. Box 13662, Tripoli, Libya Phone: +218 21 462 8422. Fax: +218 21 462 8421. Email: ibrahim.eldaghayes@vetmed.edu.ly ...

  20. Have Confidence in Contact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crisp, Richard J.; Turner, Rhiannon N.

    2010-01-01

    In an article in the May-June 2009 "American Psychologist," we discussed a new approach to reducing prejudice and encouraging more positive intergroup relations (Crisp & Turner, 2009). We named the approach imagined intergroup contact and defined it as "the mental simulation of a social interaction with a member or members of an outgroup category"…

  1. Disproportionate Minority Contact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fix, Rebecca L; Cyperski, Melissa A; Burkhart, Barry R

    2017-04-01

    The overrepresentation of racial/ethnic minorities within the criminal justice system relative to their population percentage, a phenomenon termed disproportionate minority contact, has been examined within general adult and adolescent offender populations; yet few studies have tested whether this phenomenon extends to juvenile sexual offenders (JSOs). In addition, few studies have examined whether offender race/ethnicity influences registration and notification requirements, which JSOs are subject to in some U.S. states. The present study assessed for disproportionate minority contact among general delinquent offenders and JSOs, meaning it aimed to test whether the criminal justice system treats those accused of sexual and non-sexual offenses differently by racial/ethnic group. Furthermore, racial/ethnic group differences in risk, legal classification, and sexual offending were examined for JSOs. Results indicated disproportionate minority contact was present among juveniles with non-sexual offenses and JSOs in Alabama. In addition, offense category and risk scores differed between African American and European American JSOs. Finally, registration classifications were predicted by offending characteristics, but not race/ethnicity. Implications and future directions regarding disproportionate minority contact among JSOs and social and legal policy affecting JSOs are discussed.

  2. Lubrication Of Nonconformal Contacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeng, Yeau-Ren

    1991-01-01

    Report discusses advances in knowledge of lubrication of nonconformal contacts in bearings and other machine elements. Reviews previous developments in theory of lubrication, presents advances in theory of lubrication to determine minimum film thickness, and describes experiments designed to investigate one of regimes of lubrication for ball bearings.

  3. CODESRIA Bulletin: Contact

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Principal Contact. Francis B. Nyamnjoh Editor-in-Chief CODESRIA Avenue Cheikh Anta Diop x Canal 4. BP 3304. Dakar SENEGAL. ISSN: 0850-8712. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions of Use ...

  4. Ghana Mining Journal: Contact

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Principal Contact. Professor Daniel Mireku-Gyimah Editor-in-Chief University of Mines & Technology Ghana Mining Journal University of Mines & Technology P. O. BOX 237 Tarkwa Ghana Phone: +233 362 20280/20324. Fax: +233 362 20306. Email: dm.gyimah@umat.edu.gh ...

  5. Contact allergy to spices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. Van den Akker Th. (W.); I.D. Roesyanto-Mahadi (I.); A.W. van Toorenenbergen (Albert); Th. van Joost (Theo)

    1990-01-01

    textabstractA group of 103 patients suspected of contact allergy was tested with the European standard series, wood tars and spices; paprika, cinnamon, laurel, celery seed, nutmeg, curry, black pepper, cloves, while pepper, coriander, cacao and garlic. 32 patients (Group I) were selected on the

  6. Duality based contact shape optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vondrák, Vít; Dostal, Zdenek; Rasmussen, John

    2001-01-01

    An implementation of semi-analytic method for the sensitivity analysis in contact shape optimization without friction is described. This method is then applied to the contact shape optimization.......An implementation of semi-analytic method for the sensitivity analysis in contact shape optimization without friction is described. This method is then applied to the contact shape optimization....

  7. Electrical contacts principles and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Slade, Paul G

    2013-01-01

    Covering the theory, application, and testing of contact materials, Electrical Contacts: Principles and Applications, Second Edition introduces a thorough discussion on making electric contact and contact interface conduction; presents a general outline of, and measurement techniques for, important corrosion mechanisms; considers the results of contact wear when plug-in connections are made and broken; investigates the effect of thin noble metal plating on electronic connections; and relates crucial considerations for making high- and low-power contact joints. It examines contact use in switch

  8. Contact Graph Routing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burleigh, Scott C.

    2011-01-01

    Contact Graph Routing (CGR) is a dynamic routing system that computes routes through a time-varying topology of scheduled communication contacts in a network based on the DTN (Delay-Tolerant Networking) architecture. It is designed to enable dynamic selection of data transmission routes in a space network based on DTN. This dynamic responsiveness in route computation should be significantly more effective and less expensive than static routing, increasing total data return while at the same time reducing mission operations cost and risk. The basic strategy of CGR is to take advantage of the fact that, since flight mission communication operations are planned in detail, the communication routes between any pair of bundle agents in a population of nodes that have all been informed of one another's plans can be inferred from those plans rather than discovered via dialogue (which is impractical over long one-way-light-time space links). Messages that convey this planning information are used to construct contact graphs (time-varying models of network connectivity) from which CGR automatically computes efficient routes for bundles. Automatic route selection increases the flexibility and resilience of the space network, simplifying cross-support and reducing mission management costs. Note that there are no routing tables in Contact Graph Routing. The best route for a bundle destined for a given node may routinely be different from the best route for a different bundle destined for the same node, depending on bundle priority, bundle expiration time, and changes in the current lengths of transmission queues for neighboring nodes; routes must be computed individually for each bundle, from the Bundle Protocol agent's current network connectivity model for the bundle s destination node (the contact graph). Clearly this places a premium on optimizing the implementation of the route computation algorithm. The scalability of CGR to very large networks remains a research topic

  9. The 9.2 ka event in Asian summer monsoon area: the strongest millennial scale collapse of the monsoon during the Holocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenchao; Yan, Hong; Dodson, John; Cheng, Peng; Liu, Chengcheng; Li, Jianyong; Lu, Fengyan; Zhou, Weijian; An, Zhisheng

    2018-04-01

    Numerous Holocene paleo-proxy records exhibit a series of centennial-millennial scale rapid climatic events. Unlike the widely acknowledged 8.2 ka climate anomaly, the likelihood of a significant climate excursion at around 9.2 cal ka BP, which has been notably recognized in some studies, remains to be fully clarified in terms of its magnitude and intensity, as well as its characteristics and spatial distributions in a range of paleoclimatic records. In this study, a peat sediment profile from the Dajiuhu Basin in central China was collected with several geochemical proxies and a pollen analysis carried out to help improve understanding of the climate changes around 9.2 cal ka BP. The results show that the peat development was interrupted abruptly at around 9.2 cal ka BP, when the chemical weathering strength decreased and the tree-pollen declined. This suggests that a strong drier regional climatic event occurred at around 9.2 cal ka BP in central China, which was, in turn, probably connected to the rapid 9.2 ka climate event co-developing worldwide. In addition, based on the synthesis of our peat records and the other Holocene hydrological records from Asian summer monsoon (ASM) region, we further found that the 9.2 ka event probably constituted the strongest abrupt collapse of the Asian monsoon system during the full Holocene interval. The correlations between ASM and the atmospheric 14C production rate, the North Atlantic drift ice records and Greenland temperature indicated that the weakened ASM event at around 9.2 cal ka BP could be interpreted by the co-influence of external and internal factors, related to the changes of the solar activity and the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC).

  10. The 9.2 ka event in Asian summer monsoon area: the strongest millennial scale collapse of the monsoon during the Holocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenchao; Yan, Hong; Dodson, John; Cheng, Peng; Liu, Chengcheng; Li, Jianyong; Lu, Fengyan; Zhou, Weijian; An, Zhisheng

    2017-06-01

    Numerous Holocene paleo-proxy records exhibit a series of centennial-millennial scale rapid climatic events. Unlike the widely acknowledged 8.2 ka climate anomaly, the likelihood of a significant climate excursion at around 9.2 cal ka BP, which has been notably recognized in some studies, remains to be fully clarified in terms of its magnitude and intensity, as well as its characteristics and spatial distributions in a range of paleoclimatic records. In this study, a peat sediment profile from the Dajiuhu Basin in central China was collected with several geochemical proxies and a pollen analysis carried out to help improve understanding of the climate changes around 9.2 cal ka BP. The results show that the peat development was interrupted abruptly at around 9.2 cal ka BP, when the chemical weathering strength decreased and the tree-pollen declined. This suggests that a strong drier regional climatic event occurred at around 9.2 cal ka BP in central China, which was, in turn, probably connected to the rapid 9.2 ka climate event co-developing worldwide. In addition, based on the synthesis of our peat records and the other Holocene hydrological records from Asian summer monsoon (ASM) region, we further found that the 9.2 ka event probably constituted the strongest abrupt collapse of the Asian monsoon system during the full Holocene interval. The correlations between ASM and the atmospheric 14C production rate, the North Atlantic drift ice records and Greenland temperature indicated that the weakened ASM event at around 9.2 cal ka BP could be interpreted by the co-influence of external and internal factors, related to the changes of the solar activity and the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC).

  11. HTSC-Josephson step contacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrmann, K.

    1994-03-01

    In this work the properties of josephson step contacts are investigated. After a short introduction into Josephson step contacts the structure, properties and the Josphson contacts of YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-x high-T c superconductors is presented. The fabrication of HTSC step contacts and the microstructure is discussed. The electric properties of these contacts are measured together with the Josephson emission and the magnetic field dependence. The temperature dependence of the stationary transport properties is given. (WL)

  12. Contact dynamics math model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaese, John R.; Tobbe, Patrick A.

    1986-01-01

    The Space Station Mechanism Test Bed consists of a hydraulically driven, computer controlled six degree of freedom (DOF) motion system with which docking, berthing, and other mechanisms can be evaluated. Measured contact forces and moments are provided to the simulation host computer to enable representation of orbital contact dynamics. This report describes the development of a generalized math model which represents the relative motion between two rigid orbiting vehicles. The model allows motion in six DOF for each body, with no vehicle size limitation. The rotational and translational equations of motion are derived. The method used to transform the forces and moments from the sensor location to the vehicles' centers of mass is also explained. Two math models of docking mechanisms, a simple translational spring and the Remote Manipulator System end effector, are presented along with simulation results. The translational spring model is used in an attempt to verify the simulation with compensated hardware in the loop results.

  13. Contact allergy to cosmetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Held, E; Johansen, J D; Agner, T

    1999-01-01

    .4%) had doubtfully positive reaction(s) and 31 (5.8%) had irritant reaction(s). Skin-care products were tested most frequently and were also found to cause most positive, doubtfully positive and irritant reactions, 80% of the patients with positive reactions to their own products had no history of contact......In a 2-year period, 1527 patients with contact dermatitis were investigated in the patch-test clinic. In 531 patients, allergy to cosmetics was suspected from the history and they were tested with their own cosmetic products. 40 (7.5%) (of the 531 patients) had 1 or more positive reactions, 82 (15...... of common cosmetic ingredients. Fragrance mix and formaldehyde were found to be the ingredients most often responsible and were significantly more frequent in patients with positive reactions to their own products, compared to a control group of eczema patients also seen in the patch-test clinic....

  14. Critical Points of Contact

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.; Morelli, Nicola

    2011-01-01

    In contemporary urban societies multiple networks and systems interact, overlap, exist in parallel, converge, conflict etc. creating unforeseen complexity and less transparency. By exploring how layered networks of physical movement, service information, goods delivery, commercial communication etc....... are connected (and disconnected) we get a much better understanding of how to design and intervene regardless if we are thinking about public spaces in the city or new systems of service design. The many networks orchestrating and facilitating contemporary everyday life are dependent on the strategic sites...... where the networks meet and establish contact. Thus we argue for the usefulness of the notion of Critical Point of Contact (CPC) to deepen our understanding of the actual life within networks. En route to this notion we draw upon theories within as diverse realms such as interaction design, service...

  15. Contact allergy to lanolin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fransen, Marloes; Overgaard, Line E K; Johansen, Jeanne D

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Lanolin has been tested as lanolin alcohols (30% pet.) in baseline patch test series since 1969, and this has shown clinically relevant allergic contact dermatitis cases. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the temporal development of lanolin allergy (i.e. positive reaction to lanolin alcohols...... and/or Amerchol™ L-101), and the association between contact allergy to lanolin and patient characteristics from the MOAHLFA index. METHODS: A retrospective observational study of consecutively patch tested dermatitis patients (n = 9577) between 1 January 2004 and 31 December 2015 with lanolin...... alcohols 30% pet. and Amerchol™ L-101 50% pet. was performed. RESULTS: The prevalence of lanolin allergy increased from 0.45% in 2004 to 1.81% in 2015. In age-adjusted and sex-adjusted analyses, weak, significant associations were found between atopic dermatitis and lanolin and lanolin alcohols allergy...

  16. Contact stress sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotovsky, Jack [Oakland, CA

    2012-02-07

    A contact stress sensor includes one or more MEMS fabricated sensor elements, where each sensor element of includes a thin non-recessed portion, a recessed portion and a pressure sensitive element adjacent to the recessed portion. An electric circuit is connected to the pressure sensitive element. The circuit includes a thermal compensator and a pressure signal circuit element configured to provide a signal upon movement of the pressure sensitive element.

  17. Paraben Contact Hypersensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A K Bajaj

    1985-01-01

    Full Text Available One hundred patients suspected to be having contact hypersensitivity to topical medicaments were patch tested with methly and propyl parabens along with commercially available topical medicaments. Six patients showed positive reactions to parabens. Two patients each were positive to methyl paraben and propyl paraben and two showed positive reactions to both of these. Three patients each showed positive reactions to soframycin, econazole and nitrofurazone also.

  18. Pediatric contact dermatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Vinod

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD in children, until recently, was considered rare. ACD was considered as a disorder of the adult population and children were thought to be spared due to a lack of exposure to potential allergens and an immature immune system. Prevalence of ACD to even the most common allergens in children, like poison ivy and parthenium, is relatively rare as compared to adults. However, there is now growing evidence of contact sensitization of the pediatric population, and it begins right from early childhood, including 1-week-old neonates. Vaccinations, piercing, topical medicaments and cosmetics in younger patients are potential exposures for sensitization. Nickel is the most common sensitizer in almost all studies pertaining to pediatric contact dermatitis. Other common allergens reported are cobalt, fragrance mix, rubber, lanolin, thiomersol, neomycin, gold, mercapto mix, balsum of Peru and colophony. Different factors like age, sex, atopy, social and cultural practices, habit of parents and caregivers and geographic changes affect the patterns of ACD and their variable clinical presentation. Patch testing should be considered not only in children with lesions of a morphology suggestive of ACD, but in any child with dermatitis that is difficult to control.

  19. Prolonging contact lens wear and making contact lens wear safer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foulks, Gary N

    2006-02-01

    To summarize the present status of safety and efficacy of contact lens wear. Literature review. Ovid Medline searches were performed on records from 1966 through 2005 using keywords: keratitis, contact lens complications, extended-wear contact lenses, and silicone-hydrogel contact lenses. Patients desire comfort, clarity of vision, and prolonged contact lens wear when contact lenses are used to correct refractive error. Practitioners desire patient satisfaction but also require maintenance of the integrity of the eye and no complications that jeopardize vision or health of the eye. Improvements in the oxygen permeability of the contact lens materials, design of the contact lens and its surface, and solutions for the maintenance of the lens have reduced but not eliminated the risks of infection, inflammation, and conjunctival papillary reaction associated with contact lens wear. The lessons of past and recent history suggest that patient education and practitioner participation in the management of contact lens wear continue to be critical factors for patient satisfaction and safety in the extended wear of contact lenses. The availability of highly oxygen permeable contact lenses has increased the tolerance and safety of extended contact lens wear, but patient instruction and education in proper use and care of lenses is required and caution is advised.

  20. Mechanical Contact Experiments and Simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Chris Valentin; Martins, P; Zhang, W.

    2011-01-01

    . The overall investigation serves for testing and validating the numerical implementation of the mechanical contact, which is one of the main contributions to a system intended for 3D simulation of resistance welding. Correct modelling of contact between parts to be welded, as well as contact with electrodes...... geometries and different materials are analyzed including contact between dissimilar materials. The numerical implementation is performed with a finite element computer program based on the irreducible flow formulation, and contact between deformable objects is modelled by applying the penalty method......, is crucial for satisfactory modelling of the resistance welding process. The resistance heating at the contact interfaces depends on both contact area and pressure, and as the contact areas develop dynamically, the presented tests are relevant for assessing the validity and accuracy of the mechanical contact...

  1. Mechanical Contact Experiments and Simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Chris Valentin; Martins, P; Zhang, W.

    2011-01-01

    Mechanical contact is studied under dynamic development by means of a combined numerical and experimental investigation. The experiments are designed to allow dynamical development of non-planar contact areas with significant expansion in all three directions as the load is increased. Different....... The overall investigation serves for testing and validating the numerical implementation of the mechanical contact, which is one of the main contributions to a system intended for 3D simulation of resistance welding. Correct modelling of contact between parts to be welded, as well as contact with electrodes......, is crucial for satisfactory modelling of the resistance welding process. The resistance heating at the contact interfaces depends on both contact area and pressure, and as the contact areas develop dynamically, the presented tests are relevant for assessing the validity and accuracy of the mechanical contact...

  2. Double positivity for HPV-DNA/p16ink4ais the biomarker with strongest diagnostic accuracy and prognostic value for human papillomavirus related oropharyngeal cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mena, Marisa; Taberna, Miren; Tous, Sara; Marquez, Sandra; Clavero, Omar; Quiros, Beatriz; Lloveras, Belen; Alejo, Maria; Leon, Xavier; Quer, Miquel; Bagué, Silvia; Mesia, Ricard; Nogués, Julio; Gomà, Montserrat; Aguila, Anton; Bonfill, Teresa; Blazquez, Carmen; Guix, Marta; Hijano, Rafael; Torres, Montserrat; Holzinger, Dana; Pawlita, Michael; Pavon, Miguel Angel; Bravo, Ignacio G; de Sanjosé, Silvia; Bosch, Francesc Xavier; Alemany, Laia

    2018-03-01

    The etiologic role of human papillomaviruses (HPV) in oropharyngeal cancer (OPC) is well established. Nevertheless, information on survival differences by anatomic sub-site or treatment remains scarce, and it is still unclear the HPV-relatedness definition with best diagnostic accuracy and prognostic value. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of all patients diagnosed with a primary OPC in four Catalonian hospitals from 1990 to 2013. Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded cancer tissues were subjected to histopathological evaluation, DNA quality control, HPV-DNA detection, and p16 INK4a /pRb/p53/Cyclin-D1 immunohistochemistry. HPV-DNA positive and a random sample of HPV-DNA negative cases were subjected to HPV-E6*I mRNA detection. Demographic, tobacco/alcohol use, clinical and follow-up data were collected. Multivariate models were used to evaluate factors associated with HPV positivity as defined by four different HPV-relatedness definitions. Proportional-hazards models were used to compare the risk of death and recurrence among HPV-related and non-related OPC. 788 patients yielded a valid HPV-DNA result. The percentage of positive cases was 10.9%, 10.2%, 8.5% and 7.4% for p16 INK4a , HPV-DNA, HPV-DNA/HPV-E6*I mRNA, and HPV-DNA/p16 INK4a , respectively. Being non-smoker or non-drinker was consistently associated across HPV-relatedness definitions with HPV positivity. A suggestion of survival differences between anatomic sub-sites and treatments was observed. Double positivity for HPV-DNA/p16 INK4a showed strongest diagnostic accuracy and prognostic value. Double positivity for HPV-DNA/p16 INK4a , a test that can be easily implemented in the clinical practice, has optimal diagnostic accuracy and prognostic value. Our results have strong clinical implications for patients' classification and handling and also suggest that not all the HPV-related OPC behave similarly. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Brief Report: Lopinavir Hair Concentrations Are the Strongest Predictor of Viremia in HIV-Infected Asian Children and Adolescents on Second-Line Antiretroviral Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pintye, Jillian; Bacchetti, Peter; Teeraananchai, Sirinya; Kerr, Stephen; Prasitsuebsai, Wasana; Singtoroj, Thida; Kuncze, Karen; Louie, Alexander; Koss, Catherine A; Jin, Chengshi; Phung, Nhi; Horng, Howard; Sohn, Annette H; Gandhi, Monica

    2017-12-01

    Children/adolescents display suboptimal antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence and outcomes versus adults. Hair ART concentrations are objective adherence measures that predict viremia in adults but longitudinal data on hair levels in pediatric populations is limited. We assessed the predictive utility of hair lopinavir (LPV) levels on viremia among youth on second-line ART. We examined predictors of viremia (HIV-1 RNA >400 and >1000 copies/mL) at least 24 weeks after switch to LPV-based second-line ART in a cohort of HIV-infected Asian children followed between 2011 and 2014. Small hair samples, HIV-1 RNA, and self-reported adherence were collected biannually. Hair concentrations of LPV were measured through liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry using validated methods. Time-to-first viremia was examined using discrete-time Cox models. Overall, 244 children met the inclusion criteria for the present analysis. Approximately half (55%) were boys and the median age 10 years [interquartile range (IQR) 7-13]; 40% were older than 11 years. At switch to second-line ART, median CD4 count was 300 (IQR 146-547) cells/mm and median HIV-RNA level was 5.0 (IQR 4.3-5.6) log10/mL. Median time of study follow-up was 48 weeks and a median of 3 (range 1-5) hair samples were collected from each participant. Adjusting for age, sex, country, self-reported adherence, CD4, and HIV-RNA, higher LPV hair concentrations were the strongest predictor of lower odds of viremia (HIV-RNA >400 copies/mL adjusted odds ratio = 0.41 per doubling in hair concentration, 95% confidence interval: 0.29 to 0.58, P 1000 copies/mL, adjusted odds ratio = 0.54, 95% confidence interval: 0.45 to 0.65, P Hair concentrations predict viremia among children with HIV on second-line ART and could guide clinical decisions for this population.

  4. Multiscale electrical contact resistance in clustered contact distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sangyoung; Cho, Hyun; Jang, Yong Hoon

    2009-08-01

    For contact between rough surfaces of conductors in which a clustered contact spot distribution is dominant through a multiscale process, electrical contact resistance (ECR) is analysed using a smoothed version of Greenwood's model (Jang and Barber 2003 J. Appl. Phys. 94 7215), which is extended to estimate the statistical distribution of contact spots considering the size and the location simultaneously. The application of this statistical method to a contact spot distribution, generated by the finite element method using a fractal surface defined by the random midpoint displacement algorithm, identifies the effect of the clustered contact distribution on ECR, showing that including a finer scale in the fractal contact surface causes the predicted resistance to approach a finite limit. It is also confirmed that the results are close to that of Barber's analogy (Barber 2003 Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A 459 53) regarding incremental stiffness and conductance for elastic contact.

  5. Contact-induced doping in aluminum-contacted molybdenum disulfide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimazu, Yoshihiro; Arai, Kensuke; Iwabuchi, Tatsuya

    2018-01-01

    The interface between two-dimensional semiconductors and metal contacts is an important topic of research of nanoelectronic devices based on two-dimensional semiconducting materials such as molybdenum disulfide (MoS2). We report transport properties of thin MoS2 flakes in a field-effect transistor geometry with Ti/Au and Al contacts. In contrast to widely used Ti/Au contacts, the conductance of flakes with Al contacts exhibits a smaller gate-voltage dependence, which is consistent with a substantial electron doping effect of the Al contacts. The temperature dependence of two-terminal conductance for the Al contacts is also considerably smaller than for the Ti/Au contacts, in which thermionic emission and thermally assisted tunneling play a dominant role. This result is explained in terms of the assumption that the carrier injection mechanism at an Al contact is dominated by tunneling that is not thermally activated.

  6. Contextualizing Intergroup Contact: Do Political Party Cues Enhance Contact Effects?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sønderskov, Kim Mannemar; Thomsen, Jens Peter Frølund

    2015-01-01

    This article examines intergroup contact effects in different political contexts. We expand on previous efforts of social psychologists by incorporating the messages of political parties as a contextual trigger of group membership awareness in contact situations. We argue that the focus among......,000 individuals confirms that the ability of intergroup contact to reduce antiforeigner sentiment increases when political parties focus intensively on immigration issues and cultural differences. Specifically, both workplace contact and interethnic friendship become more effective in reducing antiforeigner...

  7. Contact Control, Version 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-07-21

    The contact control code is a generalized force control scheme meant to interface with a robotic arm being controlled using the Robot Operating System (ROS). The code allows the user to specify a control scheme for each control dimension in a way that many different control task controllers could be built from the same generalized controller. The input to the code includes maximum velocity, maximum force, maximum displacement, and a control law assigned to each direction and the output is a 6 degree of freedom velocity command that is sent to the robot controller.

  8. Thermal contact conductance

    CERN Document Server

    Madhusudana, Chakravarti V

    2013-01-01

    The work covers both theoretical and practical aspects of thermal contact conductance. The theoretical discussion focuses on heat transfer through spots, joints, and surfaces, as well as the role of interstitial materials (both planned and inadvertent). The practical discussion includes formulae and data that can be used in designing heat-transfer equipment for a variety of joints, including special geometries and configurations. All of the material has been updated to reflect the latest advances in the field.

  9. Contact ionization ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashmi, N.; Van Der Houven Van Oordt, A.J.

    1975-01-01

    An ion source in which an apertured or foraminous electrode having a multiplicity of openings is spaced from one or more active surfaces of an ionisation electrode, the active surfaces comprising a material capable of ionising by contact ionization a substance to be ionized supplied during operation to the active surface or surfaces comprises means for producing during operation a magnetic field which enables a stable plasma to be formed in the space between the active surface or surfaces and the apertured electrode, the field strength of the magnetic field being preferably in the range between 2 and 8 kilogauss. (U.S.)

  10. Precision contact level gauge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krejci, M.; Pilat, M.; Stulik, P.

    1977-01-01

    Equipment was developed measuring the heavy water level in the TR-0 reactor core within an accuracy of several hundredths of a millimeter in a range of around 3.5 m and at a temperature of up to 90 degC. The equipment uses a vibrating needle contact as a high sensitivity level gauge and a servomechanical system with a motion screw carrying the gauge for monitoring and measuring the level in the desired range. The advantage of the unique level gauge consists in that that the transducer converts the measured level position to an electric signal, ie., pulse width, with high sensitivity and without hysteresis. (Kr)

  11. Contact dermatitis to methylisothiazolinone*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherrer, Maria Antonieta Rios; Rocha, Vanessa Barreto; Andrade, Ana Regina Coelho

    2015-01-01

    Methylisothiazolinone (MI) is a preservative found in cosmetic and industrial products. Contact dermatitis caused by either methylchloroisothiazolinone/methylisothiazolinone (MCI/MI or Kathon CG) or MI has shown increasing frequency. The latter is preferably detected through epicutaneous testing with aqueous MI 2000 ppm, which is not included in the Brazilian standard tray. We describe a series of 23 patients tested using it and our standard tray. A case with negative reaction to MCI/MI and positive to MI is emphasized. PMID:26734880

  12. Optimal contact definition for reconstruction of Contact Maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stehr Henning

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Contact maps have been extensively used as a simplified representation of protein structures. They capture most important features of a protein's fold, being preferred by a number of researchers for the description and study of protein structures. Inspired by the model's simplicity many groups have dedicated a considerable amount of effort towards contact prediction as a proxy for protein structure prediction. However a contact map's biological interest is subject to the availability of reliable methods for the 3-dimensional reconstruction of the structure. Results We use an implementation of the well-known distance geometry protocol to build realistic protein 3-dimensional models from contact maps, performing an extensive exploration of many of the parameters involved in the reconstruction process. We try to address the questions: a to what accuracy does a contact map represent its corresponding 3D structure, b what is the best contact map representation with regard to reconstructability and c what is the effect of partial or inaccurate contact information on the 3D structure recovery. Our results suggest that contact maps derived from the application of a distance cutoff of 9 to 11Å around the Cβ atoms constitute the most accurate representation of the 3D structure. The reconstruction process does not provide a single solution to the problem but rather an ensemble of conformations that are within 2Å RMSD of the crystal structure and with lower values for the pairwise average ensemble RMSD. Interestingly it is still possible to recover a structure with partial contact information, although wrong contacts can lead to dramatic loss in reconstruction fidelity. Conclusions Thus contact maps represent a valid approximation to the structures with an accuracy comparable to that of experimental methods. The optimal contact definitions constitute key guidelines for methods based on contact maps such as structure prediction through

  13. Systemic contact dermatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daria Nowak

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Systemic contact dermatitis (SCD is a skin inflammation occurring in a patient after systemic administration of a hapten, which previously caused an allergic contact skin reaction in the same person. Most frequently, hypersensitivity reactions typical for SCD occur after absorption of haptens with food or inhalation. Haptens occur mainly in the forms of metals and compounds present in natural resins, preservatives, food thickeners, flavorings and medicines. For many years, several studies have been conducted on understanding the pathogenesis of SCD in which both delayed type hypersensitivity (type IV and immediate type I are observed. Components of the complement system are also suspected to attend there. Helper T cells (Th (Th1 and Th2, cytotoxic T lymphocytes (Tc, and NK cells play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of SCD. They secrete a number of pro-inflammatory cytokines. In addition, regulatory T cells (Tregs have an important role. They control and inhibit activity of the immune system during inflammation. Tregs release suppressor cytokines and interact directly with a target cell through presentation of immunosuppressive particles at the cell surface. Diagnostic methods are generally the patch test, oral provocation test, elimination diet and lymphocyte stimulation test. There are many kinds of inflammatory skin reactions caused by systemic haptens’ distribution. They are manifested in a variety of clinical phenotypes of the disease.

  14. The importance of contact quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Bakel, Marian; Gerritsen, Marinel; van Oudenhoven, Jan Pieter

    Establishing contact between expatriates and a local host has been found to reap benefits with regard to Interaction Adjustment, Host National Social Support, Open-mindedness, and Social Initiative. This longitudinal study examines the role of the quality of contact for these four aspects. Expatr......, the more benefit the expatriate experienced. Moreover, expatriates with low-quality contact did not experience a detrimental effect.......Establishing contact between expatriates and a local host has been found to reap benefits with regard to Interaction Adjustment, Host National Social Support, Open-mindedness, and Social Initiative. This longitudinal study examines the role of the quality of contact for these four aspects....... Expatriates in the Netherlands were randomly divided into an experimental group (n = 33) of which 21 developed high-quality contact with their host, and a control group (n = 32) without host. The results show that contact quality plays an important role and suggest that the higher the quality of the contact...

  15. Contact Center Manager Administration (CCMA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — CCMA is the server that provides a browser-based tool for contact center administrators and supervisors. It is used to manage and configure contact center resources...

  16. [The adaptation to contact lenses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koos, D; Koos, M J

    1992-01-01

    The indications of contact lens adaptation in optical purpose are widely large, starting, with refractive errors [correction of vices], unilateral and bilateral aphakia, myopia, anisometropia and astigmatism, together with the use of contact lens in esthetic purpose. We have been presented the adaptation techniques, the supervise, and maintenance of contact lens.

  17. Contact Binary Asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieger, Samantha

    2015-05-01

    Recent observations have found that some contact binaries are oriented such that the secondary impacts with the primary at a high inclination. This research investigates the evolution of how such contact binaries came to exist. This process begins with an asteroid pair, where the secondary lies on the Laplace plane. The Laplace plane is a plane normal to the axis about which the pole of a satellites orbit precesses, causing a near constant inclination for such an orbit. For the study of the classical Laplace plane, the secondary asteroid is in circular orbit around an oblate primary with axial tilt. This system is also orbiting the Sun. Thus, there are two perturbations on the secondarys orbit: J2 and third body Sun perturbations. The Laplace surface is defined as the group of orbits that lie on the Laplace plane at varying distances from the primary. If the secondary is very close to the primary, the inclination of the Laplace plane will be near the equator of the asteroid, while further from the primary the inclination will be similar to the asteroid-Sun plane. The secondary will lie on the Laplace plane because near the asteroid the Laplace plane is stable to large deviations in motion, causing the asteroid to come to rest in this orbit. Assuming the secondary is asymmetrical in shape and the bodys rotation is synchronous with its orbit, the secondary will experience the BYORP effect. BYORP can cause secular motion such as the semi-major axis of the secondary expanding or contracting. Assuming the secondary expands due to BYORP, the secondary will eventually reach the unstable region of the Laplace plane. The unstable region exists if the primary has an obliquity of 68.875 degrees or greater. The unstable region exists at 0.9 Laplace radius to 1.25 Laplace radius, where the Laplace radius is defined as the distance from the central body where the inclination of the Laplace plane orbit is half the obliquity. In the unstable region, the eccentricity of the orbit

  18. Fragrance contact allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Jeanne D

    2003-01-01

    typically have a history of rash to a fine fragrance or scented deodorants. Chemical analysis has revealed that well known allergens from the fragrance mix are present in 15-100% of cosmetic products, including deodorants and fine fragrances, and most often in combinations of three to four allergens......Most people in modern society are exposed daily to fragrance ingredients from one or more sources. Fragrance ingredients are also one of the most frequent causes of contact allergic reactions. The diagnosis is made by patch testing with a mixture of fragrance ingredients, the fragrance mix....... This gives a positive patch-test reaction in about 10% of tested patients with eczema, and the most recent estimates show that 1.7-4.1% of the general population are sensitized to ingredients of the fragrance mix. Fragrance allergy occurs predominantly in women with facial or hand eczema. These women...

  19. Fragrance contact allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Jeanne D

    2003-01-01

    Most people in modern society are exposed daily to fragrance ingredients from one or more sources. Fragrance ingredients are also one of the most frequent causes of contact allergic reactions. The diagnosis is made by patch testing with a mixture of fragrance ingredients, the fragrance mix....... This gives a positive patch-test reaction in about 10% of tested patients with eczema, and the most recent estimates show that 1.7-4.1% of the general population are sensitized to ingredients of the fragrance mix. Fragrance allergy occurs predominantly in women with facial or hand eczema. These women...... typically have a history of rash to a fine fragrance or scented deodorants. Chemical analysis has revealed that well known allergens from the fragrance mix are present in 15-100% of cosmetic products, including deodorants and fine fragrances, and most often in combinations of three to four allergens...

  20. Cosmetic Contact Allergens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    An Goossens

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This article presents trends in the frequency of cosmetics as causal factors of allergic contact dermatitis during a 26-year period in 14,911 patients patch-tested between 1990 and 2014, and discusses the cosmetic allergens identified during the last six years (2010–2015 in 603 patients out of 3105 tested. The data were retrieved from, and evaluated with, a patient database developed in-house. The results show the increasing importance of cosmetic allergies, up to 25% of the patients tested during the last five-year period. As expected, fragrance materials, preservatives, and hair dyes were the most frequent culprits, but a great variety of other allergenic ingredients were involved as well. This underlines the need of additional and extensive patch testing with the patient’s products used and their ingredients.

  1. Fragrance contact allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Jeanne D

    2003-01-01

    in the same products. This means that it is difficult to avoid exposure, as products labelled as 'fragrance free' have also been shown to contain fragrance ingredients, either because of the use of fragrance ingredients as preservatives or masking perfumes, or the use of botanicals. About 2500 different...... fragrance ingredients are currently used in the composition of perfumes and at least 100 of these are known contact allergens. Therefore, it is advisable to supplement standard patch testing with the patient's own stay-on cosmetic products, as well as the fragrance chemical hydroxyisohexyl-3-cyclohexane...... carboxaldehyde, which on its own gives responses in 1-3% of tested patients. The focus in recent years on the ingredients of the fragrance mix will probably result in the fragrance industry changing the composition of perfumes, and thus make the current diagnostic test less useful. New diagnostic tests are under...

  2. Hair dye contact allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søsted, Heidi; Rastogi, Suresh Chandra; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    2004-01-01

    Colouring of hair can cause severe allergic contact dermatitis. The most frequently reported hair dye allergens are p-phenylenediamine (PPD) and toluene-2,5-diamine, which are included in, respectively, the patch test standard series and the hairdressers series. The aim of the present study...... was to identify dye precursors and couplers in hair dyeing products causing clinical hair dye dermatitis and to compare the data with the contents of these compounds in a randomly selected set of similar products. The patient material comprised 9 cases of characteristic clinical allergic hair dye reaction, where...... exposure history and patch testing had identified a specific hair dye product as the cause of the reaction. The 9 products used by the patients were subjected to chemical analysis. 8 hair dye products contained toluene-2,5-diamine (0.18 to 0.98%). PPD (0.27%) was found in 1 product, and m-aminophenol (0...

  3. Mechanoluminescent Contact Type Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Yefremov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Mechanoluminescent sensing elements convert mechanical stress into optical radiation. Advantages of such sensors are the ability to generate an optical signal, solid-state, simple structure, and resistance to electromagnetic interference. Mechanoluminescent sensor implementations can possess the concentrated and distributed sensitivity, thereby allowing us to detect the field of mechanical stresses distributed across the area and in volume. Most modern semiconductor photo-detectors can detect mechanoluminescent radiation, so there are no difficulties to provide its detection when designing the mechanoluminescent sensing devices. Mechanoluminescent substances have especial sensitivity to shock loads, and this effect can be used to create a fuse the structure of which includes a target contact type sensor with a photosensitive actuator. The paper briefly describes the theoretical basics of mechanoluminiscence: a light signal emerges from the interaction of crystalline phosphor luminescence centers with electrically charged dislocations, moving due to the deformation of the crystal. A mathematical model of the mechanoluminescent conversion is represented as a functional interaction between parameters of the mechanical shock excitation and the sensor light emission. Examples of computing the optical mechanoluminescent output signal depending on the duration and peak level of impulse load are given. It is shown that the luminous flux, generated by mechanoluminescent sensing element when there is an ammunition-target collision causes the current emerging in photo-detector (photodiode that is sufficient for a typical actuator of the fuse train to operate. The potential possibility to create a contact target type sensor based on the light-sensitive mechanoluminescent sensor was proved by the calculation and simulation results.

  4. Contact and Non-contact Measurements of Grinding Pins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdziak Marek

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of contact and non-contact measurements of external profiles of selected grinding pins. The measurements were conducted in order to choose the appropriate measuring technique in the case of the considered measurement task. In the case of contact measurements the coordinate measuring machine ACCURA II was applied. The used coordinate measuring machine was equipped with the contact scanning probe VAST XT and the Calypso inspection software. Contact coordinate measurements were performed by using of different measurement strategies. The applied strategies included different scanning velocities and distances between measured points. Non-contact measurements were conducted by means of the tool presetter produced by the Mahr company. On the basis of gained results the guidelines concerning measurements of grinding pins were formulated. The measurements of analyzed grinding pins performed by means of the non-contact measuring system are characterized by higher reproducibility than the contact measurements. The low reproducibility of contact measurements may be connected with the inaccuracy of the selected coordinate measuring machine and the measuring probe, the measurement parameters and environmental conditions in the laboratory where the coordinate measuring machine is located. Moreover, the paper presents the possible application of results of conducted investigations. The results of non-contact measurements can be used in the simulation studies of grinding processes. The simulations may reduce the costs of machining processes.

  5. Homotopy classification of contact foliations on open contact manifolds

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    64

    Abstract. We give a homotopy classification of foliations on open contact manifolds whose leaves are contact ... The inverse images of FN under an f ∈ Trα(M, FN ), namely f−1FN , is a contact foliation on (M,α). ..... Let Γ be the graph of H; then the image of ϕ is contained in Γ. By Lemma 3.2 there exists a diffeomorphism Φ ...

  6. [Vital contact with reality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravagnan, L M

    1976-12-01

    From the standpoint of existential phenomenology, the contact with reality lies in the very phocus of theory, being closely related to another basic conception: that of being-in-the-world. In order to ratify those conceptions, the author reviews some concepts imported from Kurt Lewin's Field Theory, among which: a) vital psychological space, embedding the subject and in close interchange with him; b) intrapsychic regions, having, to a certain extent, autonomous functions, but being related to each other and integrated into the higher unity of the subject. As both systems are interdependent, any modification of the equilibrium of one of them reverberates into the other's, and changes the general conditions of both of them. Reviewing, at the same time, Minkowski's views on schizophrenia, the author sets forth the production of an inner world that becomes autonomous and possesses a degree of reality that overwhelms the true outer world. There is not only the splitting from reality, but the creation of a whole fantastic field, in which the individual participates with all his vital availability. Both views lead to a similar contention: that in some pathological states, the primal link man-real world, is replaced by a new inner correspondence, focused on the imaginary and having effects similar to those of the real world.

  7. Contact sport and osteoarthritis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Molloy, Michael G

    2011-04-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common joint disease in the world and the single largest cause of disability for those over 18 years. It affects more than twice as many people as does cardiac disease, and increases in incidence and prevalence with age. Animal and human studies have shown no evidence of increased risk of hip or knee OA with moderate exercise and in the absence of traumatic injury, sporting activity has a protective effect. One age-matched case control study found recreational runners who ran 12-14 miles per week for up to 40 years had no increase in radiological or symptomatic hip or knee OA. However, higher rates of hip OA occur in contact sports than in age-matched controls, with the highest rate in professional players. Soccer players with torn anterior cruciate ligaments (ACL) are more likely to develop knee OA than those with intact ACL. Early ACL repair reduces the risk of knee OA, but does not prevent it. Established injury prevention programmes have been refined to prevent injuries such as ACL rupture.

  8. Contact Lens Related Corneal Ulcer

    OpenAIRE

    Loh, KY; Agarwal, P

    2010-01-01

    A corneal ulcer caused by infection is one of the major causes of blindness worldwide. One of the recent health concerns is the increasing incidence of corneal ulcers associated with contact lens user especially if the users fail to follow specific instruction in using their contact lenses. Risk factors associated with increased risk of contact lens related corneal ulcers are: overnight wear, long duration of continuous wear, lower socio-economic classes, smoking, dry eye and poor hygiene. Th...

  9. Emotional Satisfaction of Customer Contacts

    OpenAIRE

    Güngör, Hüseyin

    2007-01-01

    For marketing and customer services researchers and professionals who are interested in customer contacts, customer satisfaction and loyalty issues. Contact centers are playing a pivotal role in customer services of the 21st century. Nevertheless, despite their growing importance and presence, contact centers are increasingly becoming the center for customer frustration, and frequently associated with negative comments in the media. Therefore, this research explores the Emotional, Cognitive, ...

  10. African Journal of Psychiatry: Contact

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Principal Contact. Andrew Thomas Division of Psychiatry, Department of Neurosciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, SOUTH AFRICA Email: inhouse@iafrica.com ...

  11. Mitigation of epidemics in contact networks through optimal contact adaptation *

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youssef, Mina; Scoglio, Caterina

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an optimal control problem formulation to minimize the total number of infection cases during the spread of susceptible-infected-recovered SIR epidemics in contact networks. In the new approach, contact weighted are reduced among nodes and a global minimum contact level is preserved in the network. In addition, the infection cost and the cost associated with the contact reduction are linearly combined in a single objective function. Hence, the optimal control formulation addresses the tradeoff between minimization of total infection cases and minimization of contact weights reduction. Using Pontryagin theorem, the obtained solution is a unique candidate representing the dynamical weighted contact network. To find the near-optimal solution in a decentralized way, we propose two heuristics based on Bang-Bang control function and on a piecewise nonlinear control function, respectively. We perform extensive simulations to evaluate the two heuristics on different networks. Our results show that the piecewise nonlinear control function outperforms the well-known Bang-Bang control function in minimizing both the total number of infection cases and the reduction of contact weights. Finally, our results show awareness of the infection level at which the mitigation strategies are effectively applied to the contact weights. PMID:23906209

  12. Mitigation of epidemics in contact networks through optimal contact adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youssef, Mina; Scoglio, Caterina

    2013-08-01

    This paper presents an optimal control problem formulation to minimize the total number of infection cases during the spread of susceptible-infected-recovered SIR epidemics in contact networks. In the new approach, contact weighted are reduced among nodes and a global minimum contact level is preserved in the network. In addition, the infection cost and the cost associated with the contact reduction are linearly combined in a single objective function. Hence, the optimal control formulation addresses the tradeoff between minimization of total infection cases and minimization of contact weights reduction. Using Pontryagin theorem, the obtained solution is a unique candidate representing the dynamical weighted contact network. To find the near-optimal solution in a decentralized way, we propose two heuristics based on Bang-Bang control function and on a piecewise nonlinear control function, respectively. We perform extensive simulations to evaluate the two heuristics on different networks. Our results show that the piecewise nonlinear control function outperforms the well-known Bang-Bang control function in minimizing both the total number of infection cases and the reduction of contact weights. Finally, our results show awareness of the infection level at which the mitigation strategies are effectively applied to the contact weights.

  13. Electrokinetics of polar liquids in contact with nonpolar surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chih-Hsiu; Ferguson, Gregory S; Chaudhury, Manoj K

    2013-06-25

    Zeta potentials of several polar protic (water, ethylene glycol, and formamide) as well as polar aprotic (dimethyl sulfoxide) liquids were measured in contact with three nonpolar surfaces using closed-cell electroosmosis. The test surfaces were chemisorbed monolayers of alkyl siloxanes, fluoroalkyl siloxanes, and polydimethylsiloxanes (PDMS) grafted on glass slides. All these liquids exhibited substantial electrokinetics in contact with the nonpolar surfaces with these observations: the electrokinetic effect on the fluorocarbon-coated surface is the strongest and on a PDMS grafted surface, the effect is the weakest. Even though these hygroscopic liquids contain small amounts of water, the current models of charging based on the adsorption of hydroxide ions at the interface or the dissociation of pre-existing functionalities (e.g., silanol groups) appear to be insufficient to account for the various facets of the experimental observations. The results illustrate how ubiquitous the phenomenon of electrokinetics is with polar liquids contacting such apparently passive nonpolar surfaces. We hope that these results will inspire further experimental and theoretical studies in this important area of research that has potential practical implications.

  14. African Crop Science Journal: Contact

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Principal Contact. Dr. J.S. Tenywa Editor-in-Chief Faculty of Agriculture. Makerere University PO Box 7062 Kampala Uganda. Alternative email address: acsj@caes.mak.ac.ug. Email: acss@caes.mak.ac.ug. Support Contact. Editor Email: johntenywa@gmail.com. ISSN: 2072-6589. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO ...

  15. Focusing on Contact Lens Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... their practices. Decorative contacts (also called “costume,” colored,” “fashion,” or “plano” contacts). The FDA has often warned ... State & Local Officials Consumers Health Professionals Science & Research Industry Scroll back to top Popular Content Home Latest ...

  16. Journal of Business Research: Contact

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Principal Contact. Goski Alabi Mrs Institute of Professional Studies (IPS) P. 0 Box 149 Institute Of Professional Studies (IPS) Legon, Accra Ghana Phone: +233 24 64 52798. Fax: +233 21 513539. Email: goskia@yahoo.com. Support Contact. Anthony Afeadie. Phone: +233 21 500171. Email: ipsjournal@yahoo.com.

  17. Pan African Medical Journal: Contact

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Principal Contact. Dr Raoul Kamadjeu Editor-in-Chief The Pan African Medical Journal Phone: +254 714 606 223. Email: raoul.kamadjeu@gmail.com. Support Contact. Editor Email: editor@panafrican-med-journal.com. ISSN: 1937-8688. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians ...

  18. Contacts between grandparents and grandchildren

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Oppelaar (Janneke); P.A. Dykstra (Pearl)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractHow much contact do Dutch grandparents have with their grandchildren, and how can differences in contact frequency by explained? In the 1992 NESTOR-LSN survey of 'Older adults living arrangements and social networks', a random group of 976 grandparents answered questions on the frequency

  19. Aluminum break-point contacts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heinemann, Martina; Groot, R.A. de

    1997-01-01

    Ab initio molecular dynamics is used to study the contribution of a single Al atom to an aluminum breakpoint contact during the final stages of breaking and the initial stages of the formation of such a contact. A hysteresis effect is found in excellent agreement with experiment and the form of the

  20. Contact Allergy to Neem Oil.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, Anton; Jagtman, Berend A; Woutersen, Marjolijn

    2018-01-01

    A case of allergic contact dermatitis from neem oil is presented. Neem oil (synonyms: Melia azadirachta seed oil [INCI name], nim oil, margosa oil) is a vegetable (fixed) oil obtained from the seed of the neem tree Azadirachta indica by cold pressing. Contact allergy to neem oil has been described

  1. Emotional Satisfaction of Customer Contacts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Güngör, Hüseyin

    2007-01-01

    For marketing and customer services researchers and professionals who are interested in customer contacts, customer satisfaction and loyalty issues. Contact centers are playing a pivotal role in customer services of the 21st century. Nevertheless, despite their growing importance and presence,

  2. Drops, contact lines, and electrowetting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    't Mannetje, Dieter

    2013-01-01

    In this work, we study the behaviour of drops and contact lines under the influence of electric fields, and how these can answer fundamental and industrial questions. Our focus is on studying the varying balance of the electric field, hysteresis forces and inertia as the speed of a contact line

  3. Archives of Ibadan Medicine: Contact

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Principal Contact. Editor BookBuilders Editions Africa 2, Awosika Avenue Bodija Estate Ibadan Nigeria Phone: +234 810 1113. Email: ibadanpgmed@yahoo.com. Support Contact. BookBuilders Editions Email: bookbuildersafrica@yahoo.com. ISSN: 1467-6958. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL.

  4. Ghana Journal of Geography: Contact

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Principal Contact. Joseph A. Yaro Professor University of Ghana, Legon. Department of Geography and Resource Development. P. O. Box LG 59. Legon. Ghana. Alternative email address: jayaro@ug.edu.gh. Phone: +233244038915. Email: jayaro@ug.edu.gh ...

  5. Nordic project food contact materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Ågot; Tesdal Håland, Julie; Petersen, Jens Højslev

    countries have had a limited focus on the FCM area with the exception of Denmark and Finland. The aim of the project was therefore to control establishments producing, importing or using plastic food contact materials as well as to increase the knowledge of the inspectors performing these controls......Denmark, Finland, Faroe Islands, Iceland, Norway and Sweden have in 2013––2015 conducted a Nordic project on food contact materials. Food contact materials are used in all stages of food production and can be a general source of contamination. The food safety authorities in most of the Nordic....... The focus of the inspections was to control the declaration of compliance (DoC) for plastic food contact materials. The requirement for a Doc is mandatory in order to ensure that the FCM complies with the legislation. In addition some products were analyzed for phthalates....

  6. Animal Production Research Advances: Contact

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Principal Contact. Dr I Charles Okoli Editor-in-Chief Federal University of Technology Department of Animal Science and Technology PMB 1526 Owerri Nigeria Phone: +2348056647100. Email: dr_charleso@yahoo.com ...

  7. Scalable algorithms for contact problems

    CERN Document Server

    Dostál, Zdeněk; Sadowská, Marie; Vondrák, Vít

    2016-01-01

    This book presents a comprehensive and self-contained treatment of the authors’ newly developed scalable algorithms for the solutions of multibody contact problems of linear elasticity. The brand new feature of these algorithms is theoretically supported numerical scalability and parallel scalability demonstrated on problems discretized by billions of degrees of freedom. The theory supports solving multibody frictionless contact problems, contact problems with possibly orthotropic Tresca’s friction, and transient contact problems. It covers BEM discretization, jumping coefficients, floating bodies, mortar non-penetration conditions, etc. The exposition is divided into four parts, the first of which reviews appropriate facets of linear algebra, optimization, and analysis. The most important algorithms and optimality results are presented in the third part of the volume. The presentation is complete, including continuous formulation, discretization, decomposition, optimality results, and numerical experimen...

  8. Research in Hospitality Management: Contact

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Principal Contact. Dr Sjoerd A Gehrels Editor-in-Chief Stenden Hotel Management School, Academy of International Hospitality Research, Leeuwarden, The Netherlands Email: sjoerd.gehrels@stenden.com ...

  9. Transition metal contacts to graphene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Politou, Maria, E-mail: Maria.Politou@imec.be; De Gendt, Stefan; Heyns, Marc [KU Leuven, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); imec, Kapeldreef 75, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Asselberghs, Inge; Radu, Iuliana; Conard, Thierry; Richard, Olivier; Martens, Koen; Huyghebaert, Cedric; Tokei, Zsolt [imec, Kapeldreef 75, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Lee, Chang Seung [SAIT, Samsung Electronics Co., Suwon 443-803 (Korea, Republic of); Sayan, Safak [imec, Kapeldreef 75, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Intel Corporation, 2200 Mission College Blvd, Santa Clara, California 95054 (United States)

    2015-10-12

    Achieving low resistance contacts to graphene is a common concern for graphene device performance and hybrid graphene/metal interconnects. In this work, we have used the circular Transfer Length Method (cTLM) to electrically characterize Ag, Au, Ni, Ti, and Pd as contact metals to graphene. The consistency of the obtained results was verified with the characterization of up to 72 cTLM structures per metal. Within our study, the noble metals Au, Ag and Pd, which form a weaker bond with graphene, are shown to result in lower contact resistance (Rc) values compared to the more reactive Ni and Ti. X-ray Photo Electron Spectroscopy and Transmission Electron Microscopy characterization for the latter have shown the formation of Ti and Ni carbides. Graphene/Pd contacts show a distinct intermediate behavior. The weak carbide formation signature and the low Rc values measured agree with theoretical predictions of an intermediate state of weak chemisorption of Pd on graphene.

  10. Allergic contact stomatitis from colophony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Paul R

    2006-09-01

    Colophony is an ubiquitous contact sensitizer which may be present in dental materials, such as periodontal dressings, impression materials, cements, fix adhesives and varnishes. Exposure to a sensitizer in a hypersensitive person may initiate an allergic contact dermatitis/stomatitis. This usually occurs after direct skin/mucosa contact with the sensitizer. This paper reports the case of a colophony hypersensitive male who developed contact stomatitis after dental treatment with a colophony-containing product. Sensitizing colophony is present in Duraphat 2.26%F varnish, a fluoride varnish used all over the world. A case of hypersensitivity to Duraphat 2.26%F varnish is presented in a patient who, at the initial visit, indicated only an allergy to sticking plasters.

  11. Metal semiconductor contacts and devices

    CERN Document Server

    Cohen, Simon S; Einspruch, Norman G

    1986-01-01

    VLSI Electronics Microstructure Science, Volume 13: Metal-Semiconductor Contacts and Devices presents the physics, technology, and applications of metal-semiconductor barriers in digital integrated circuits. The emphasis is placed on the interplay among the theory, processing, and characterization techniques in the development of practical metal-semiconductor contacts and devices.This volume contains chapters that are devoted to the discussion of the physics of metal-semiconductor interfaces and its basic phenomena; fabrication procedures; and interface characterization techniques, particularl

  12. Embodied Archives as Contact Zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judit Vidiella

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes a reflection about affective politics from locating some theoretical and conceptual genealogies like «emotion», «affection», «zones of contact»…, that understand them as action and force fields. These contributions allow us to rethink the relation of affects with politics and strategies of archive linked to performance, and understood as zones of friction, collision, circulation and contact: performative writing, repertoire, memes…

  13. Clinical update on contact allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uter, Wolfgang; Johansen, Jeanne Duus; Orton, David I

    2005-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The aim of this article is to review recent findings in contact allergy, regarding clinical research. RECENT FINDINGS: The biocide methyldibromo glutaronitrile was identified to be an important sensitizer. Subsequently, it was banned from leave-on cosmetics in the European Union...... studies have demonstrated broad individual variation of elicitation thresholds, dependent on the allergen concentration during induction, and other factors. Some unsuspected routes of exposure to allergens include oral, inhalational, connubial or airborne contact. Experimental studies provide...

  14. [Contact lens care and maintenance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloise, L

    2017-04-01

    All contact lenses with replacement schedules longer than daily must be maintained. At each step of their use, the lenses may be contaminated. Contact lens solutions perform the essential functions of cleaning, decontaminating and preserving the lenses to prevent infectious problems and improve wearing comfort. Contact lens contamination essentially comes from hands, cleaning solutions, cases, water and the environment. The pathogenic microorganisms are mainly Gram-negative bacteria, fungi and amoebae. Contact lens deposits may or may not have an organic origin. Their presence increases the risk of infection because they serve as a nutrient matrix for microbes, and they are responsible for wearing discomfort. Contact lens solutions differ in their composition, their mechanism of action and the concentration of the various agents. To prescribe the best lens care system to each wearer and for each material, it is necessary to be very familiar with them. Maintenance is the main cause of discomfort with contact lenses, either through improper use, solution-material incompatibility, or a reaction of the wearer to the components. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. [Contact allergy to henna tattoos].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinkjer, Bjarte; Stangeland, Katarina Zak; Mikkelsen, Carsten Sauer

    2011-03-18

    Tattoos with henna colours have become very popular and the prevalence of contact allergy seems to increase. This is a short review article based on our own clinical experience and literature identified through a search in PubMed with the words "henna", "paraphenylendiamin" and "allergic contact dermatitis." A case report is included. It is well documented that many experience skin reactions after henna tattoos. The cause is almost always contact allergy to the azo compound paraphenylendiamin, which is added to speed up the process and make the colour darker. Most people, including children, get henna tattoos during vacations in Asia or the Mediterranean. Established contact allergy is permanent. Many hair-colour products contain paraphenylendiamin, and persons with contact allergy against the product may develop a very strong contact allergic eczema by use of such substances. Acute reactions are treated with local cortisone products, or with systemic steroids. Cross reaction to substances with a similar chemical structure may occur. Tattoos with paraphenylendiamin-containing henna colours should be avoided.

  16. Crane-Load Contact Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youngquist, Robert; Mata, Carlos; Cox, Robert

    2005-01-01

    An electronic instrument has been developed as a prototype of a portable crane-load contact sensor. Such a sensor could be helpful in an application in which the load rests on a base in a horizontal position determined by vertical alignment pins (see Figure 1). If the crane is not positioned to lift the load precisely vertically, then the load can be expected to swing once it has been lifted clear of the pins. If the load is especially heavy, large, and/or fragile, it could hurt workers and/or damage itself and nearby objects. By indicating whether the load remains in contact with the pins when it has been lifted a fraction of the length of the pins, the crane-load contact sensor helps the crane operator determine whether it is safe to lift the load clear of the pins: If there is contact, then the load is resting against the sides of the pins and, hence, it may not be safe to lift; if contact is occasionally broken, then the load is probably not resting against the pins, so it should be safe to lift. It is assumed that the load and base, or at least the pins and the surfaces of the alignment holes in the load, are electrically conductive, so the instrument can use electrical contact to indicate mechanical contact. However, DC resistance cannot be used as an indicator of contact for the following reasons: The load and the base are both electrically grounded through cables (the load is grounded through the lifting cable of the crane) to prevent discharge of static electricity. In other words, the DC resistance between the load and the pins is always low, as though they were always in direct contact. Therefore, instead of DC resistance, the instrument utilizes the AC electrical impedance between the pins and the load. The signal frequency used in the measurement is high enough (.1 MHz) that the impedance contributed by the cables and the electrical ground network of the building in which the crane and the base are situated is significantly greater than the contact

  17. Quaternionic contact Einstein structures and the quaternionic contact Yamabe problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, S.; Minchev, I.; Vassilev, D.

    2006-12-01

    The paper is a study of the conformal geometry of quaternionic contact manifolds with the associated Biquard connection. We give a partial solution of the quaternionic contact Yamabe problem on the quaternionic sphere. It is shown that the torsion of the Biquard connection vanishes exactly when the trace-free part of the horizontal Ricci tensor of the Biquard connection is zero and this occurs precisely on 3-Sasakian manifolds. In particular, the scalar curvature of the Biquard connection with vanishing torsion is a global constant. We consider interesting classes of functions on hypercomplex manifold and their restrictions to hypersurfaces. We show a '3-Hamiltonian form' of infinitesimal automorphisms of quaternionic contact structures and transformations preserving the trace-free part of the horizontal Ricci tensor of the Biquard connection. All conformal deformations sending the standard flat torsion-free quaternionic contact structure on the quaternionic Heisenberg group to a quaternionic contact structure with vanishing trace-free part of the horizontal Ricci tensor of the Biquard connection are explicitly described. (author)

  18. Contact investigation for active tuberculosis among child contacts in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaganath, Devan; Zalwango, Sarah; Okware, Brenda; Nsereko, Mary; Kisingo, Hussein; Malone, LaShaunda; Lancioni, Christina; Okwera, Alphonse; Joloba, Moses; Mayanja-Kizza, Harriet; Boom, W Henry; Stein, Catherine; Mupere, Ezekiel

    2013-12-01

    Tuberculosis is a large source of morbidity and mortality among children. However, limited studies characterize childhood tuberculosis disease, and contact investigation is rarely implemented in high-burden settings. In one of the largest pediatric tuberculosis contact investigation studies in a resource-limited setting, we assessed the yield of contact tracing on childhood tuberculosis and indicators for disease progression in Uganda. Child contacts aged tuberculosis disease via clinical, radiographic, and laboratory methods for up to 24 months. Seven hundred sixty-one child contacts were included in the analysis. Prevalence of tuberculosis in our child population was 10%, of which 71% were culture-confirmed positive. There were no cases of disseminated tuberculosis, and 483 of 490 children (99%) started on isoniazid preventative therapy did not develop disease. Multivariable testing suggested risk factors including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) status (odds ratio [OR], 7.90; P children aged ≤5 years (OR, 0.23; P children in high-burden settings is able to identify a large percentage of culture-confirmed positive tuberculosis cases before dissemination of disease, while suggesting factors for disease progression to identify who may benefit from targeted screening.

  19. Solar cell with back side contacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielson, Gregory N; Okandan, Murat; Cruz-Campa, Jose Luis; Resnick, Paul J; Wanlass, Mark Woodbury; Clews, Peggy J

    2013-12-24

    A III-V solar cell is described herein that includes all back side contacts. Additionally, the positive and negative electrical contacts contact compoud semiconductor layers of the solar cell other than the absorbing layer of the solar cell. That is, the positive and negative electrical contacts contact passivating layers of the solar cell.

  20. Reduced contact resistance in top-contact organic field-effect transistors by interface contact doping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Ji-Ling; Kasemann, Daniel; Widmer, Johannes; Günther, Alrun A.; Lüssem, Björn; Leo, Karl

    2016-03-01

    Emerging organic integrated electronics require capability of high speed and the compatibility with high-resolution structuring processes such as photolithography. When downscaling the channel length, the contact resistance is known to limit the performance of the short channel devices. In this report, orthogonal photolithography is used for the patterning of the source/drain electrodes of the organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) as well as the interface dopant insertion layers for further modifications of the contact resistance. Bottom-gate top-contact pentacene OFETs with different thicknesses of the p-dopant 2,2'-(perfluoronaphthalene-2,6-diylidene)dimalononitrile under the Au electrodes show a significant decrease in threshold voltage from -2.2 V to -0.8 V and in contact resistance from 55 k Ω cm to 10 k Ω cm by adding a 1 nm thin dopant interlayer. The influence of doping on charge carrier injection is directly visible in the temperature-dependent output characteristics and a charge-transfer activation energy of ˜20 meV is obtained. Our results provide a systematic study of interface contact doping and also show the connection between interface contact doping and improved charge carrier injection by the activation of charge transfer process.

  1. Antibacterial surface design - Contact kill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Rajbir; Liu, Song

    2016-08-01

    Designing antibacterial surfaces has become extremely important to minimize Healthcare Associated Infections which are a major cause of mortality worldwide. A previous biocide-releasing approach is based on leaching of encapsulated biocides such as silver and triclosan which exerts negative impacts on the environment and potentially contributes to the development of bacterial resistance. This drawback of leachable compounds led to the shift of interest towards a more sustainable and environmentally friendly approach: contact-killing surfaces. Biocides that can be bound onto surfaces to give the substrates contact-active antibacterial activity include quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs), quaternary phosphoniums (QPs), carbon nanotubes, antibacterial peptides, and N-chloramines. Among the above, QACs and N-chloramines are the most researched contact-active biocides. We review the engineering of contact-active surfaces using QACs or N-chloramines, the modes of actions as well as the test methods. The charge-density threshold of cationic surfaces for desired antibacterial efficacy and attempts to combine various biocides for the generation of new contact-active surfaces are discussed in detail. Surface positive charge density is identified as a key parameter to define antibacterial efficacy. We expect that this research field will continue to attract more research interest in view of the potential impact of self-disinfective surfaces on healthcare-associated infections, food safety and corrosion/fouling resistance required on industrial surfaces such as oil pipes and ship hulls.

  2. Marine Bioinspired Underwater Contact Adhesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clancy, Sean K; Sodano, Antonio; Cunningham, Dylan J; Huang, Sharon S; Zalicki, Piotr J; Shin, Seunghan; Ahn, B Kollbe

    2016-05-09

    Marine mussels and barnacles are sessile biofouling organisms that adhere to a number of surfaces in wet environments and maintain remarkably strong bonds. Previous synthetic approaches to mimic biological wet adhesive properties have focused mainly on the catechol moiety, present in mussel foot proteins (mfps), and especially rich in the interfacial mfps, for example, mfp-3 and -5, found at the interface between the mussel plaque and substrate. Barnacles, however, do not use Dopa for their wet adhesion, but are instead rich in noncatecholic aromatic residues. Due to this anomaly, we were intrigued to study the initial contact adhesion properties of copolymerized acrylate films containing the key functionalities of barnacle cement proteins and interfacial mfps, for example, aromatic (catecholic or noncatecholic), cationic, anionic, and nonpolar residues. The initial wet contact adhesion of the copolymers was measured using a probe tack testing apparatus with a flat-punch contact geometry. The wet contact adhesion of an optimized, bioinspired copolymer film was ∼15.0 N/cm(2) in deionized water and ∼9.0 N/cm(2) in artificial seawater, up to 150 times greater than commercial pressure-sensitive adhesive (PSA) tapes (∼0.1 N/cm(2)). Furthermore, maximum wet contact adhesion was obtained at ∼pH 7, suggesting viability for biomedical applications.

  3. Contact Estimation in Robot Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo D'Ippolito

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In the paper, safety issues are examined in a scenario in which a robot manipulator and a human perform the same task in the same workspace. During the task execution, the human should be able to physically interact with the robot, and in this case an estimation algorithm for both interaction forces and a contact point is proposed in order to guarantee safety conditions. The method, starting from residual joint torque estimation, allows both direct and adaptive computation of the contact point and force, based on a principle of equivalence of the contact forces. At the same time, all the unintended contacts must be avoided, and a suitable post-collision strategy is considered to move the robot away from the collision area or else to reduce impact effects. Proper experimental tests have demonstrated the applicability in practice of both the post-impact strategy and the estimation algorithms; furthermore, experiments demonstrate the different behaviour resulting from the adaptation of the contact point as opposed to direct calculation.

  4. Methylisothiazolinone contact allergy - A review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundov, M D; Krongaard, Teddy; L Menné, T

    2011-01-01

    In the early 2000s the preservative methylisothiazolinone (MI) was released as an individual preservative for industrial products and in 2005 permitted for use in cosmetic products. Up till then MI had only been used in combination with methylcholoroisthiazolinone (MCI). MCI/MI is one of the most...... allergy could be the first sign of an epidemic of MI contact allergy. The development in prevalence of MI contact allergy should be closely monitored by including MI in the European Baseline Series at 2000ppm....... frequent causes of preservative contact allergy and early studies showed that both MI and MCI are sensitizers. The prevalence of MI contact allergy is already around 1·5% and sources of exposure are associated with occupation, cosmetic products or household products. Use of MI in industrial products...... is not restricted and cases of occupational contact allergy to MI e.g. in painters are reported. The frequency of use of MI in cosmetics is low, around 1%, while up to 16·5% of household products were preserved with MI. We found 19 (1·5%) out of 1272 cosmetic products labelled with MI, primarily rinse-off products...

  5. Minimal contact triangulations of 3-manifolds

    OpenAIRE

    Datta, Basudeb; Kulkarni, Dheeraj

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we explore minimal contact triangulations on contact 3-manifolds. We give many explicit examples of contact triangulations that are close to minimal ones. The main results of this article say that on any closed oriented 3-manifold the number of vertices for minimal contact triangulations for overtwisted contact structures grows at most linearly with respect to the relative $d^3$ invariant. We conjecture that this bound is optimal. We also discuss, in great details, contact tria...

  6. Occupational contact dermatitis in hairdressers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwensen, Jakob F; Johansen, Jeanne D; Veien, Niels K

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Occupational contact dermatitis among hairdressers is frequent, owing to daily exposure to irritants and allergens. OBJECTIVES: To identify sensitization to the most common allergens associated with the occupation of hairdressing. METHODS: Patch test results of 399 hairdressers and 1995...... matched controls with contact dermatitis, registered by the Danish Contact Dermatitis Group between January 2002 and December 2011, were analysed. All patients were patch tested with the European baseline series, and hairdressers were additionally tested with the hairdressing series. RESULTS: Occupational...... with a statistically significant association with the occupation of hairdressing were p-phenylenediamine, thiuram mix, and benzocaine. Frequent sensitizers from the hairdressing series were ammonium persulfate, toluene-2,5-diamine, 3-aminophenol, and 4-aminophenol. Cysteamine hydrochloride and chloroacetamide emerged...

  7. All-graphene edge contacts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Kåre Wedel; Falkenberg, Jesper Toft; Papior, Nick Rübner

    2016-01-01

    Using ab-initio methods we investigate the possibility of three-terminalgraphene "T-junction" devices and show that these all-graphene edge contactsare energetically feasible when the 1D interface itself is free from foreignatoms. We examine the energetics of various junction structures as a func......Using ab-initio methods we investigate the possibility of three-terminalgraphene "T-junction" devices and show that these all-graphene edge contactsare energetically feasible when the 1D interface itself is free from foreignatoms. We examine the energetics of various junction structures...... to be in therange of 1-10 kΩμm which is comparable to the best contact resistance reportedfor edge-contacted graphene-metal contacts. We conclude that conductingall-carbon T-junctions should be feasible....

  8. Exploring the relationships between fear-related xenophobia, perceptions of out-group entitativity, and social contact in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ommundsen, Reidar; Van der Veer, Kees; Yakushko, Oksana; Ulleberg, Pål

    2013-02-01

    An internet-related survey distributed to Norwegian students explored predictors of fear-related xenophobia toward immigrants. Specifically, this study examined a new social construct called "entitativity" (i.e., the extent to which out-group members are perceived as bonded together in a cohesive or organized unit), as well as frequency of informal social contact and valence of a recent encounter in relation to certain xenophobic attitudes. Correlational and multiple regression analyses indicated that perceived out-group entitativity was a moderate predictor of fear-related xenophobia. Voluntary informal contact was a weak predictor of fear-related xenophobia, whereas negative evaluation of an encounter in the recent past was a strong predictor. Further analysis indicated that the effect of entitativity on xenophobia was strongest when informal social contact was low. Moreover, analysis indicated that the effect of valenced contact was partly mediated through perception of entitativity.

  9. 75 FR 6032 - National Contact Center; Submission for OMB Review; National Contact Center Customer Evaluation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-05

    ... for OMB Review; National Contact Center Customer Evaluation Survey AGENCY: Citizen Services and... collection requirement regarding the National Contact Center customer evaluation survey. A request for public..., National Contact Center Customer Evaluation Survey, in all correspondence. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT...

  10. Measles-mumps-rubella vaccination and respiratory syncytial virus-associated hospital contact

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørup, Signe; Benn, Christine Stabell; Stensballe, Lone Graff

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The live measles vaccine has been associated with lower non-measles mortality and admissions in low-income countries. The live measles-mumps-rubella vaccine has also been associated with lower rate of admissions with any type of infection in Danish children; the association...... was strongest for admissions with lower respiratory infections. OBJECTIVE: To examine whether measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccination was associated with reduced rate of hospital contact related to respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) in a high-income country. METHODS: Nationwide cohort study of laboratory...

  11. [Contact allergy to Kathon CG].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frosch, P J; Schulze-Dirks, A

    1987-07-01

    Among 671 consecutive patients who underwent the patch test with Kathon CG (100 ppm active ingredient), 23 (3.43%) showed a positive reaction (87% females). In 52.2% of these cases the clinical relevance of these reactions was considered to be proven. Most of the patients were suffering from contact dermatitis of the face or hands. Cosmetics were found to be the major cause of sensitization. In view of the widespread use of this preservative, testing with Kathon CG is recommended in all cases of contact dermatitis.

  12. Superstring amplitudes and contact interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greensite, J.

    1987-08-01

    We show that scattering amplitudes computed from light-cone superstring field theory are divergent at tree level. The divergences can be eliminated, and supersymmetry restored, by the addition of certain counter terms to the light-cone Hamiltonian. These counter terms have the form of local contact interactions, whose existence we had previously deduced on grounds of vacuum stability, and closure of the super-Poincare algebra. The quartic contact interactions required in Type I and Type IIB superstring theories are constructed in detail. (orig.)

  13. Clinical update on contact allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uter, Wolfgang; Johansen, Jeanne Duus; Orton, David I

    2005-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The aim of this article is to review recent findings in contact allergy, regarding clinical research. RECENT FINDINGS: The biocide methyldibromo glutaronitrile was identified to be an important sensitizer. Subsequently, it was banned from leave-on cosmetics in the European Union......, and cutting fluid components. SUMMARY: Constant awareness for new allergens, confirmed by critical evaluation, standardization of patch test materials, and the identification of temporal patterns and subgroups at risk will improve both the diagnosis and prevention of allergic contact dermatitis....

  14. International Journal of Educational Research: Contact

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    International Journal of Educational Research: Contact. Journal Home > About the Journal > International Journal of Educational Research: Contact. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  15. CONTACT LENS RELATED CORNEAL ULCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AGARWAL P

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A corneal ulcer caused by infection is one of the major causes of blindness worldwide. One of the recent health concerns is the increasing incidence of corneal ulcers associated with contact lens user especially if the users fail to follow specific instruction in using their contact lenses. Risk factors associated with increased risk of contact lens related corneal ulcers are:overnight wear, long duration of continuous wear, lower socio-economic classes, smoking, dry eye and poor hygiene. The presenting symptoms of contact lens related corneal ulcers include eye discomfort, foreign body sensation and lacrimation. More serious symptoms are redness (especially circum-corneal injection, severe pain, photophobia, eye discharge and blurring of vision. The diagnosis is established by a thorough slit lamp microscopic examination with fluorescein staining and corneal scraping for Gram stain and culture of the infective organism. Delay in diagnosing and treatment can cause permanent blindness, therefore an early referral to ophthalmologist and commencing of antimicrobial therapy can prevent visual loss.

  16. Town and Regional Planning: Contact

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    @ufs.ac.za. University of the Free State P.O. Box 339. Bloemfontein 9300. South Africa. Phone: (+27) 0514012893. Email: steynjj@ufs.ac.za. Support Contact. Deputy Editor: Alna Beukes Email: BeukesA@ufs.ac.za. ISSN: 2415-0495.

  17. Contact Lenses for Vision Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to eyeglasses when used with proper care and maintenance. Related How to Choose the Glasses Frame Material That's Right for You Feb 28, 2018 Contact Lens Cleaning Solution Basics Nov 30, 2017 Tips for Choosing the Right Reading Glasses Oct 30, ...

  18. Stellenbosch Papers in Linguistics: Contact

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mailing Address. Editors SPiL. Department of General Linguistics University of Stellenbosch Private Bag X1 Matieland, 7602. Stellenbosch South Africa. Principal Contact. Dr Kate Huddlestone Journal Manager Department of General Linguistics. University of Stellenbosch. Private Bag X1. Matieland, 7602. Stellenbosch.

  19. Contact allergy to toothpaste flavors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    1978-01-01

    Toothpaste flavors are fragrance mixtures. Oil of peppermint and spearmint, carvone and anethole are ingredients with a low sensitizing potential, but they are used in almost every brand of toothpaste and caused seven cases of contact allergy in a 6-year period at Gentofte Hospital. Toothpaste...

  20. Almost contact metric 3-submersions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bill Watson

    1984-01-01

    Full Text Available An almost contact metric 3-submersion is a Riemannian submersion, π from an almost contact metric manifold (M4m+3,(φi,ξi,ηii=13,g onto an almost quaternionic manifold (N4n,(Jii=13,h which commutes with the structure tensors of type (1,1;i.e., π*φi=Jiπ*, for i=1,2,3. For various restrictions on ∇φi, (e.g., M is 3-Sasakian, we show corresponding limitations on the second fundamental form of the fibres and on the complete integrability of the horizontal distribution. Concommitantly, relations are derived between the Betti numbers of a compact total space and the base space. For instance, if M is 3-quasi-Saskian (dΦ=0, then b1(N≤b1(M. The respective φi-holomorphic sectional and bisectional curvature tensors are studied and several unexpected results are obtained. As an example, if X and Y are orthogonal horizontal vector fields on the 3-contact (a relatively weak structure total space of such a submersion, then the respective holomorphic bisectional curvatures satisfy: Bφi(X,Y=B′J′i(X*,Y*−2. Applications to the real differential geometry of Yarg-Milis field equations are indicated based on the fact that a principal SU(2-bundle over a compactified realized space-time can be given the structure of an almost contact metric 3-submersion.

  1. Induction of formaldehyde contact sensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Boman, A; Vølund, A

    1985-01-01

    , and formaldehyde 1% and 0.1% was used for challenge. The incidence of contact sensitivity depended on the intradermal, but not on the topical induction dose. Statistical analyses showed a non-monotonous (non-linear) dose response relationship. The estimated maximal sensitization rate in Copenhagen was 80% after...

  2. Frictional heating of tribological contacts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, Johannes

    1995-01-01

    Wherever friction occurs, mechanical energy is transformed into heat. The tem­ perature rise associated with this heating can have an important influence on the tribological behaviour of the contacting components. Apart from determining per­ formance, thermal phenomena affect reliability and may

  3. Contact symmetries and Hamiltonian thermodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bravetti, A.; Lopez-Monsalvo, C.S.; Nettel, F.

    2015-01-01

    It has been shown that contact geometry is the proper framework underlying classical thermodynamics and that thermodynamic fluctuations are captured by an additional metric structure related to Fisher’s Information Matrix. In this work we analyse several unaddressed aspects about the application of contact and metric geometry to thermodynamics. We consider here the Thermodynamic Phase Space and start by investigating the role of gauge transformations and Legendre symmetries for metric contact manifolds and their significance in thermodynamics. Then we present a novel mathematical characterization of first order phase transitions as equilibrium processes on the Thermodynamic Phase Space for which the Legendre symmetry is broken. Moreover, we use contact Hamiltonian dynamics to represent thermodynamic processes in a way that resembles the classical Hamiltonian formulation of conservative mechanics and we show that the relevant Hamiltonian coincides with the irreversible entropy production along thermodynamic processes. Therefore, we use such property to give a geometric definition of thermodynamically admissible fluctuations according to the Second Law of thermodynamics. Finally, we show that the length of a curve describing a thermodynamic process measures its entropy production

  4. Contact metallurgy optimization for ohmic contacts to InP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Thomas; Pedersen, Arne Skyggebjerg; Leistiko, Otto

    1991-01-01

    AuGeNi and AuZnNi metallizations to n- and p-InP were studied as a function of the annealing temperature in a Rapid Thermal Annealing (RTA) system. For n-InP (S:8×1018cm-3) a broad minimum existed from 385°C to 500°C, in which the specific contact resistance, rc, was about 10-7 ¿cm2. The lowe...

  5. Disposable contact lenses vs. contact lens maintenance for extended wear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josephson, J E; Caffery, B E; Campbell, I; Slomovic, A R

    1990-01-01

    We compared a disposable extended wear contact lens modality with conventional extended wear over a 6-week period. To do so, we refit 31 patients who had successfully worn conventional extended wear contact lenses for more than 1 year. One eye was fit with the AcuvueR disposable contact lens, and a new extended wear lens of the type the patient had been wearing was placed on the other eye. At weekly intervals the disposable lens was discarded and a new disposable lens inserted. At the same time, the conventional lens on the fellow eye was cleaned, disinfected, and reinserted. After 6 weeks the ocular response, subjective impressions, and condition of the lenses in the two eyes were compared. Both lenses were then cultured. Three subjects had to discontinue disposable lens wear because of adverse reactions to trapped cellular debris and corneal microcysts. Although the results were not statistically significant, the Acuvue lens appeared to perform better than or equal to the conventional lens in biomicroscopic observation, visual acuity measurement, and subjective patient preference. Eighty-seven percent of patients preferred to continue with the disposable system. There were no differences found in the type or degree of microbial contamination of the lenses.

  6. Straylight Measurements in Contact Lens Wear

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meulen, Ivanka J. E.; Engelbrecht, Leonore A.; van Vliet, Johannes M. J.; Lapid-Gortzak, Ruth; Nieuwendaal, Carla P.; Mourits, Maarten P.; Schlingemann, Reinier O.; van den Berg, Thomas J. T. P.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: (1) To quantify the effect of contact lens wear on straylight in rigid and soft contact lens wearers and (2) to relate findings to morphological changes and subjective complaints. Methods: Straylight was measured using the Oculus C-Quant during contact lens wear and after contact lens

  7. PREFACE: Non-contact AFM Non-contact AFM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giessibl, Franz J.; Morita, Seizo

    2012-02-01

    This special issue is focussed on high resolution non-contact atomic force microscopy (AFM). Non-contact atomic force microscopy was established approximately 15 years ago as a tool to image conducting and insulating surfaces with atomic resolution. Since 1998, an annual international conference has taken place, and although the proceedings of these conferences are a useful source of information, several key developments warrant devoting a special issue to this subject. In the theoretic field, the possibility of supplementing established techniques such as scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and Kelvin probe microscopy with atomically resolved force micrsoscopy poses many challenges in the calculation of contrast and contrast reversal. The surface science of insulators, self-assembled monolayers and adsorbates on insulators is a fruitful field for the application of non-contact AFM: several articles in this issue are devoted to these subjects. Atomic imaging and manipulation have been pioneered using STM, but because AFM allows the measurement of forces, AFM has had a profound impact in this field as well. Three-dimensional force spectroscopy has allowed many important insights into surface science. In this issue a combined 3D tunneling and force microscopy is introduced. Non-contact AFM typically uses frequency modulation to measure force gradients and was initially used mainly in a vacuum. As can be seen in this issue, frequency modulation is now also used in ambient conditions, allowing better spatial and force resolution. We thank all of the contributors for their time and efforts in making this special issue possible. We are also very grateful to the staff of IOP Publishing for handling the administrative aspects and for steering the refereeing process. Non-contact AFM contents Relation between the chemical force and the tunnelling current in atomic point contacts: a simple model Pavel Jelínek, Martin Ondrácek and Fernando Flores Theoretical simulation of

  8. Contact allergy epidemics and their controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, Jacob Pontoppidan; Johansen, Jeanne Duus; Menné, Torkil

    2007-01-01

    Contact dermatitis can be severe and lead to sick leave as well as significant healthcare expenses. The aim of this review is to present the published knowledge on 6 historical epidemics of contact allergy to apply this knowledge on the prevention and control of future contact allergy epidemics...... to prevent contact allergy epidemics. It is essential that dermatologist, scientists, administrators, and consumers organize and structure known methods to accelerate the control of emerging contact allergens....

  9. Contact Angle Measurement in Lattice Boltzmann Method

    OpenAIRE

    Wen, Binghai; Huang, Bingfang; Qin, Zhangrong; Wang, Chunlei; Zhang, Chaoying

    2017-01-01

    Contact angle is an essential characteristic in wetting, capillarity and moving contact line; however, although contact angle phenomena are effectively simulated, an accurate and real-time measurement for contact angle has not been well studied in computational fluid dynamics, especially in dynamic environments. Here, we design a geometry-based mesoscopic scheme to onthesport measure the contact angle in the lattice Boltzmann method. The computational results without gravity effect are in exc...

  10. Sensing with Superconducting Point Contacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Argo Nurbawono

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Superconducting point contacts have been used for measuring magnetic polarizations, identifying magnetic impurities, electronic structures, and even the vibrational modes of small molecules. Due to intrinsically small energy scale in the subgap structures of the supercurrent determined by the size of the superconducting energy gap, superconductors provide ultrahigh sensitivities for high resolution spectroscopies. The so-called Andreev reflection process between normal metal and superconductor carries complex and rich information which can be utilized as powerful sensor when fully exploited. In this review, we would discuss recent experimental and theoretical developments in the supercurrent transport through superconducting point contacts and their relevance to sensing applications, and we would highlight their current issues and potentials. A true utilization of the method based on Andreev reflection analysis opens up possibilities for a new class of ultrasensitive sensors.

  11. Contact microscopy with synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panessa-Warren, B.J.

    1985-10-01

    Soft x-ray contact microscopy with synchrotron radiation offers the biologist and especially the microscopist, a way to morphologically study specimens that could not be imaged by conventional TEM, STEM or SEM methods (i.e. hydrated samples, samples easily damaged by an electron beam, electron dense samples, thick specimens, unstained low contrast specimens) at spatial resolutions approaching those of the TEM, with the additional possibility to obtain compositional (elemental) information about the sample as well. Although flash x-ray sources offer faster exposure times, synchrotron radiation provides a highly collimated, intense radiation that can be tuned to select specific discrete ranges of x-ray wavelengths or specific individual wavelengths which optimize imaging or microanalysis of a specific sample. This paper presents an overview of the applications of x-ray contact microscopy to biological research and some current research results using monochromatic synchrotron radiation to image biological samples. 24 refs., 10 figs.

  12. Heat transport through atomic contacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosso, Nico; Drechsler, Ute; Menges, Fabian; Nirmalraj, Peter; Karg, Siegfried; Riel, Heike; Gotsmann, Bernd

    2017-05-01

    Heat transport and dissipation at the nanoscale severely limit the scaling of high-performance electronic devices and circuits. Metallic atomic junctions serve as model systems to probe electrical and thermal transport down to the atomic level as well as quantum effects that occur in one-dimensional (1D) systems. Whereas charge transport in atomic junctions has been studied intensively in the past two decades, heat transport remains poorly characterized because it requires the combination of a high sensitivity to small heat fluxes and the formation of stable atomic contacts. Here we report heat-transfer measurements through atomic junctions and analyse the thermal conductance of single-atom gold contacts at room temperature. Simultaneous measurements of charge and heat transport reveal the proportionality of electrical and thermal conductance, quantized with the respective conductance quanta. This constitutes a verification of the Wiedemann-Franz law at the atomic scale.

  13. Contact angles on stretched solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mensink, Liz; Snoeijer, Jacco

    2017-11-01

    The surface energy of solid interfaces plays a central role in wetting, as they dictate the liquid contact angle. Yet, it has been challenging to measure the solid surface energies independently, without making use of Young's law. Here we present Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations by which we measure the surface properties for all interfaces, including the solids. We observe change in contact angles upon stretching the solid substrates, showing that the surface energy is actually strain dependent. This is clear evidence of the so-called Shuttleworth effect, making it necessary to distinguish surface energy from surface tension. We discuss how this effect gives rise to a new class of elasto-capillary phenomena. ERC Consolidator Grant No. 616918.

  14. Device including a contact detector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    The present invention relates to a probe for determining an electrical property of an area of a surface of a test sample, the probe is intended to be in a specific orientation relative to the test sample. The probe may comprise a supporting body defining a first surface. A plurality of cantilever...... of cantilever arms (12) contacting the surface of the test sample when performing the movement....... arms (12) may extend from the supporting body in co-planar relationship with the first surface. The plurality of cantilever arms (12) may extend substantially parallel to each other and each of the plurality of cantilever arms (12) may include an electrical conductive tip for contacting the area...

  15. Forces in Liquid Metal Contacts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duggen, Lars; Mátéfi-Tempfli, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Using rather well known theory about capillary bridges between two electrodes we calculate the tensile force that can be applied to liquid metal contacts in the micrometer regime. Assuming circular symmetry, full wetting of the electrodes, and neglecting gravity, we present a brief review of the ...... of the necessary theory and find numerically the forces to be in the 100μN range for liquid metals as mercury and liquid Gallium suspended between electrodes of 20μm radius....

  16. Contact allergens in oral antihistamines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEnery-Stonelake, Melissa; Silvestri, Dianne L

    2014-01-01

    Excipients in various formulations of active drugs occasionally include known contact allergens. Their ingestion may trigger dermatitis or cause it to become widespread or refractory to therapy. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of common contact allergens among the excipients of oral antihistamines available in this country. We gathered the complete ingredient lists of 2119 different preparations of 12 oral antihistamines from the National Library of Medicine data bank and entered them into an electronic database for analysis. More than half the formulations (55.0%) contained at least 1 member of the 10 allergen families assessed. Most brompheniramine and doxepin preparations included potentially allergenic excipients, whereas fexofenadine was most often free of them. Sorbitan group members, azo dyes, and propylene glycol were the allergens found most frequently in the antihistamines, each present in over 25% of the products. Elixirs, liquids, solutions, suspensions, and syrups were more likely than nonchewable caplets, capsules, and tablets to contain the allergens tabulated (100% vs 39.3%, respectively). Chewable pills frequently contained azo dyes. Ingestion of antihistamines could precipitate a systemic contact dermatitis in a patient sensitized to an allergen present as an excipient in the medicine.

  17. Immunotherapy of allergic contact dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiewak, Radoslaw

    2011-08-01

    The term 'immunotherapy' refers to treating diseases by inducing, enhancing or suppressing immune responses. As allergy is an excessive, detrimental immune reaction to otherwise harmless environmental substances, immunotherapy of allergic disease is aimed at the induction of tolerance toward sensitizing antigens. This article focuses on the historical developments, present state and future outlook for immunotherapy with haptens as a therapeutic modality for allergic contact dermatitis. Inspired by the effectiveness of immunotherapy in respiratory allergies, attempts were undertaken at curing allergic contact dermatitis by means of controlled administration of the sensitizing haptens. Animal and human experiments confirmed that tolerance to haptens can be induced most effectively when the induction of tolerance precedes attempted sensitization. In real life, however, therapy is sought by people who are already sensitized and an effective reversal of hypersensitivity seems more difficult to achieve. Decades of research on Rhus hypersensitivity led to a conclusion that immunotherapy can suppress Rhus dermatitis, however, only to a limited degree, for a short period of time, and at a high risk of side effects, which makes this method therapeutically unprofitable. Methodological problems with most available studies of immunotherapy of contact allergy to nickel make any definite conclusions impossible at this stage.

  18. Space time manifolds and contact structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. L. Duggal

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available A new class of contact manifolds (carring a global non-vanishing timelike vector field is introduced to establish a relation between spacetime manifolds and contact structures. We show that odd dimensional strongly causal (in particular, globally hyperbolic spacetimes can carry a regular contact structure. As examples, we present a causal spacetime with a non regular contact structure and a physical model [Gödel Universe] of Homogeneous contact manifold. Finally, we construct a model of 4-dimensional spacetime of general relativity as a contact CR-submanifold.

  19. Dancing in the 'Contact Zone'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Wulff

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available In October 2002 I performed and exhibited Troppo Obscura: A Peepshow of Historical Perversity at the Performance Space as part of the multicultural Arts festival, Carnivale, in Sydney, Australia. Troppo Obscura is a multimedia installation that explores some aspects of the complex relationships between the West and Asia. The work looks at a large range of possibilities, from the colonial gaze through to personal relationships forged through artistic endeavor. This paper—the first of two extended mediations on the topic—focuses on one such personal relationship addressed in the installation, namely that between traditional master mask dancer Ibu Sawitri from Cirebon on the West coast of Java, Indonesia and myself, a Sydney based contemporary dancer and performance artist. Between 1992 and 1999, the year Ibu Sawitri passed away, I spent many long-term visits learning dance and living in Ibu Sawitri’s house in Losari. This essay focuses on Ibu Sawitri’s family and dance background and how she, the younger generation of dancers, the dance context, and the dance itself, have been transformed over time as a result of rapidly changing socio-historical conditions. In the second half of this paper I move the discussion to the broader issues of cross-cultural encounters in what Pratt terms the ‘contact zone’ (1992. This includes looking at dance as an embodied practice and its function in the ‘contact zone’ as well as dealing with Spivak’s debates about the subaltern voice in reference to my telling of Ibu Sawitri’s story, both in the installation and in text. A closer analysis of the dynamics of my dance with Ibu Sawitri in the ‘contact zone’ is addressed here.

  20. DIGITAL CONTACT POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE PROBE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. U. Pantsialeyeu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays the technique of analog contact potential difference probes well developed. Due to the influence of various parasitic factors, analog probes has substantial errors. The integration time for automatic CPD compensation should be at least several seconds to achieve high accuracy measurements. The speed and the accuracy are essential, for example, for Scanning Kelvin Probes. The purpose of this paper is to develop a digital contact potential difference probe, with a higher accuracy and speed of measurements as compared to analog probe. The digital probe made on base of 32-bit microprocessor with a Cortex M4 core. Measuring cycle consists of at least two successive determinations of the output signal amplitude at different compensation voltage generated by the microcontroller. It allows synchronizing of the generated oscillations and reading of the measuring signals. Data arrays processed in real time of the Digital Signal Processing by microprocessor. In this case is possible computation of the root mean square value or determination of the desired spectral line of the signal after fast Fourier transformation. Both methods permit eliminate of random noise and spurious harmonics. The method provides the digital contact potential difference probe operation in large signal mode and with a large signal/noise ratio. This eliminates the error associated with the zero signal finding. Also the integration time for automatic CPD compensation of the measured value is not necessary, which significantly reduces the measurement time and eliminates errors of compensation and DAC. In addition, the microcontroller could control the movement of the probe during scanning and transfer data to the host computer on interface USB, etc.

  1. Contact dermatitis from compositae plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S C Sharma

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available Eighty patients (58 males and 22 females suspected of compositae contact dermatitis and 22 controls were investigated using ethanolic plants extracts., Fifty four (68% patients and none of the controls had positive patch tests. Forty five (56% of these patients showed positive reactions with, extracts of only a single Compositae plant. Parthenium hysterophorus produced positive reactions in 51%, Chrysanthemum morifolium in 23%, Dahlia pinnata in 9% and Tagetes indica in 4% patients. The highest number (84% of patients with positive patch tests were exposed to these plants during their occupation.

  2. Contact allergy to oak moss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernard, Guillaume; Giménez-Arnau, Elena; Rastogi, Suresh Chandra

    2003-01-01

    In addition to pure synthetic fragrance materials several natural extracts are still in use in the perfume industry. Among them oak moss absolute, prepared from the lichen Evernia prunastri (L.) Arch., is considered a major contact sensitizer and is therefore included in the fragrance mix used...... for diagnosing perfume allergy. The process of preparing oak moss absolute has changed during recent years and, even though several potential sensitizers have been identified from former benzene extracts, its present constituents and their allergenic status are not clear. In the study reported here, we applied...

  3. Contact Dermatitis Due to Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A K Bajaj

    1982-01-01

    Full Text Available Forty-seven cases of suspected plant dermatitis were patch tested with extracts of various plants. Twenty-six showed positive patch tests to one or more plant antigens. Parthenium sensitivity was observed in nine cases. Trianthema monogyna, Carissa, carandus, Amaranthus viridis, Amaranthus spinosus, Euphorbia hirta, Euphorbia thymibolia, Salvia plebia, lantana camera and pennisetum typhoides were other important plants founds to be responsible for contact sensitivity. Majority of the patients were from rural areas and most of them showed exacerbation of the dermatitis during rainy season. Males and females were equally affected.

  4. Rubber contact mechanics: adhesion, friction and leakage of seals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, A; Dorogin, L; Tahir, M; Stöckelhuber, K W; Heinrich, G; Espallargas, N; Persson, B N J

    2017-12-13

    We study the adhesion, friction and leak rate of seals for four different elastomers: Acrylonitrile Butadiene Rubber (NBR), Ethylene Propylene Diene (EPDM), Polyepichlorohydrin (GECO) and Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). Adhesion between smooth clean glass balls and all the elastomers is studied both in the dry state and in water. In water, adhesion is observed for the NBR and PDMS elastomers, but not for the EPDM and GECO elastomers, which we attribute to the differences in surface energy and dewetting. The leakage of water is studied with rubber square-ring seals squeezed against sandblasted glass surfaces. Here we observe a strongly non-linear dependence of the leak rate on the water pressure ΔP for the elastomers exhibiting adhesion in water, while the leak rate depends nearly linearly on ΔP for the other elastomers. We attribute the non-linearity to some adhesion-related phenomena, such as dewetting or the (time-dependent) formation of gas bubbles, which blocks fluid flow channels. Finally, rubber friction is studied at low sliding speeds using smooth glass and sandblasted glass as substrates, both in the dry state and in water. The measured friction coefficients are compared to theory, and the origin of the frictional shear stress acting in the area of real contact is discussed. The NBR rubber, which exhibits the strongest adhesion both in the dry state and in water, also shows the highest friction both in the dry state and in water.

  5. Participation in HIV research: the importance of clinic contact factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worthington, Catherine A; Gill, M John

    2008-08-01

    Recruiting minority populations living with HIV to many types of clinic-based HIV research is a concern. This study examined an expanded range of predictors of HIV research participation (clinic contact, clinical, and personal characteristics) to investigate observed ethnocultural differences in HIV research participation. Research participation was defined as participation in any of diagnostic, pathogenesis, drug trial or survey research. Logistic regression modeling was used to predict research participation of 657 eligible patients (93% of the patient population) who began care between January 1997 and the end of September 2003 at a regional outpatient HIV care program in Calgary, Canada. Approximately one third (32%) were non-white, including 18% Aboriginal, 9% black, 4% Asian, and 1% Hispanic individuals. Twenty-nine percent (187/657) of the patients participated in at least one study of any kind. Multivariate analysis indicated that the strongest predictors of any research participation (including diagnostic, pathogenesis, drug trial, or survey studies) are clinical (including nadir CD4 count [odds ratio {OR} = 0.132, p percentage of appointments kept [OR = 1.022, p service use shown by these groups that may influence research participation. To attract under researched populations, attention should shift from the "who" of research participation to the "how" of clinical interactions.

  6. Building and maintaining media contacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fenton, Bob

    2000-01-01

    This presentation is answering the question: 'how does British Energy build and maintain its relationships with journalists in so many areas', not only the basic industrial correspondents that you would expect to have to deal with an industry British Energy, but those dealing with science and technology, the environment, personnel and training, city and financial, political, and on and on, and that is just the national press. Then add the local and regional media around power station sites - literally hundreds of contacts and you start to get an idea about the size of our media contact database. But it is managed it rather well. Every six months British Energy takes part in a survey run by one of the UK's leading market research companies who conducts a poll among journalists and then rate each company's performance. In the last three years British Energy has not been outside the top five in most categories, and in the top two in several. The answer is a lot of work over a long period of time. You cannot expect to build trusting relationships with a journalist overnight. At British Energy the key is being open and honest, and always available. Of course good media relations is not a one-way street, and there has to be some element of compromise if you are to achieve a relationship based on mutual trust

  7. Contact dermatitis from a prosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz, Carla A; Gaspari, Anthony; Goldner, Ronald

    2008-01-01

    Patients wearing a prosthesis face a wide variety of medical problems. Skin complications have long been recognized, but their prevalence is still unknown. The most frequently reported disorders are allergic contact dermatitis (ACD), acroangiodermatitis, epidermoid cysts, epidermal hyperplasia, follicular hyperkeratosis, verrucous hyperplasia, bullous diseases, hyperhidrosis, infections, malignancies, and ulcerations. Contact dermatitis represents one-third of the dermatoses in amputees wearing prostheses. All patients who are suspected of having ACD should be patch tested with standard allergen series as well as materials from the patient's own prosthesis, topical medicaments, moisturizers, and cosmetics. We report a patient with an ACD to mixed dialkyl thiourea present in the rubber parts of his below-the-knee prosthesis. Thiourea derivates are used as accelerators in the manufacture of chloroprene rubber and as fixatives in photography and photocopy paper. Allergy to thiourea is relatively uncommon; different studies have shown a prevalence of 0.7% up to 2.4% in patch-tested patients. Thiourea derivates are often the allergic sources in ACD involving high-grade rubber products made of neoprene such as diving suits, protective goggles, knee braces, and continuous positive airway pressure masks. They are also present in the rubber material of prostheses, as in the case of our patient.

  8. Rolling Contact Fatigue of Ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wereszczak, Andrew A [ORNL; Wang, W. [Bournemouth University, Bournemouth, United Kingdom; Wang, Y. [Bournemouth University, Bournemouth, United Kingdom; Hadfield, M. [Bournemouth University, Bournemouth, United Kingdom; Kanematsu, W. [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Japan; Kirkland, Timothy Philip [ORNL; Jadaan, Osama M. [University of Wisconsin, Platteville

    2006-09-01

    High hardness, low coefficient of thermal expansion and high temperature capability are properties also suited to rolling element materials. Silicon nitride (Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}) has been found to have a good combination of properties suitable for these applications. However, much is still not known about rolling contact fatigue (RCF) behavior, which is fundamental information to assess the lifetime of the material. Additionally, there are several test techniques that are employed internationally whose measured RCF performances are often irreconcilable. Due to the lack of such information, some concern for the reliability of ceramic bearings still remains. This report surveys a variety of topics pertaining to RCF. Surface defects (cracks) in Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} and their propagation during RCF are discussed. Five methods to measure RCF are then briefly overviewed. Spalling, delamination, and rolling contact wear are discussed. Lastly, methods to destructively (e.g., C-sphere flexure strength testing) and non-destructively identify potential RCF-limiting flaws in Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} balls are described.

  9. Clean Cities Program Contacts (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-03-01

    This fact sheet provides contact information for program staff of the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program, as well as contact information for the nearly 100 local Clean Cities coalitions across the country.

  10. Eastern Africa Social Science Research Review: Contact

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eastern Africa Social Science Research Review: Contact. Journal Home > About the Journal > Eastern Africa Social Science Research Review: Contact. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  11. Chromosomal contact permits transcription between coregulated genes

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Fanucchi, Stephanie

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Transcription of coregulated genes occurs in the context of long-range chromosomal contacts that form multigene complexes. Such contacts and transcription are lost in knockout studies of transcription factors and structural chromatin proteins...

  12. Reliability growth of thin film resistors contact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lugin A. N.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Necessity of resistive layer growth under the contact and in the contact zone of resistive element is shown in order to reduce peak values of current flow and power dissipation in the contact of thin film resistor, thereby to increase the resistor stability to parametric and catastrophic failures.

  13. Association between Contact allergy and Psoriasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bangsgaard, Nannie

    2011-01-01

    6. SUMMERY 6.1 Summery in English Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) and psoriasis are the two most prevalent skin diseases in the western world. ACD is the clinical manifestation of contact allergy. Contact allergy and psoriasis are both due to inflammatory mechanisms involving the innate...

  14. Contact fatigue in rolling-element bearings

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Fernandes, PJL

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available Surface contact fatigue is a common cause of failure in rolling-element bearings. The extent of damage observed depends on the contact loads, the curvature of the rolling elements, and the relative motion between the contacting surfaces...

  15. Distance upon contact: Determination from roughness profile

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zwol, P.J.; Svetovoy, Vitaly; Palasantzas, G.

    2009-01-01

    The point at which two random rough surfaces make contact takes place at the contact of the highest asperities. The distance upon contact d0 in the limit of zero load has crucial importance for determination of dispersive forces. Using gold films as an example we demonstrate that for two parallel

  16. New aspects in allergic contact dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørtz, Charlotte G; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    2008-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To give selected new information on contact allergy and allergic contact dermatitis with focus on diagnostic procedures and pitfalls. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent studies dealing with common contact allergens have improved our understanding of the relationship between positive patch...

  17. Allergic contact dermatitis to plastic banknotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, M; Delaney, T A; Horton, J J

    1999-08-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis to ultraviolet (UV) cured acrylates occurs predominantly in occupationally exposed workers. Two men presented with dermatitis coinciding with the location of banknotes in their pockets. Patch testing confirmed allergic contact dermatitis to multiple acrylates and Australian plastic banknotes. This is the first report of contact allergy to acrylates present in Australian plastic banknotes.

  18. Moving droplets : The measurement of contact lines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poelma, C.; Franken, M.J.Z.; Kim, H.; Westerweel, J.

    2014-01-01

    Contact lines are the locations where a gas, liquid and a solid meet. From everyday experience we know that such contact lines can be mobile, for example in the case of a water droplet sliding over a glass surface. However, the continuum description of the flow towards or away from a contact line

  19. Handwashing, sanitation and family planning practices are the strongest underlying determinants of child stunting in rural indigenous communities of Jharkhand and Odisha, Eastern India: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxton, Jennifer; Rath, Shibanand; Nair, Nirmala; Gope, Rajkumar; Mahapatra, Rajendra; Tripathy, Prasanta; Prost, Audrey

    2016-10-01

    The World Health Organisation has called for global action to reduce child stunting by 40% by 2025. One third of the world's stunted children live in India, and children belonging to rural indigenous communities are the worst affected. We sought to identify the strongest determinants of stunting among indigenous children in rural Jharkhand and Odisha, India, to highlight key areas for intervention. We analysed data from 1227 children aged 6-23.99 months and their mothers, collected in 2010 from 18 clusters of villages with a high proportion of people from indigenous groups in three districts. We measured height and weight of mothers and children, and captured data on various basic, underlying and immediate determinants of undernutrition. We used Generalised Estimating Equations to identify individual determinants associated with children's height-for-age z-score (HAZ; p family planning, reducing diarrhoeal infections, improving handwashing practices, increasing access to income and strengthening health and sanitation infrastructure. © 2016 The Authors. Maternal & Child Nutrition published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Evaluation of anti-tuberculosis antibodies in healthy contact and non-contacts persons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aziz, N; Bukhari, M.H; Muneer, M; Tayyab, M; Chaudhry, N.A.

    2006-01-01

    This study was conducted to see the presence of the antimycobacterial antibodies in healthy household contacts of tuberculosis patients and healthy normal subjects who have never been in contact with tuberculosis patients. A total of 200 subjects, 120 with history of household contact and 80 without such history were included in the study. Routine Haematological investigations were performed and all the sera of 200 subjects were tested who 19M, 19G and IgA anti tuberculosis antibodies using ELISA technique. There was no difference in the average age of the household contacts and non-contacts. The complaints of pyrexia, night sweats and loss of weight was more in house hold contacts as compared to non-contacts. The awareness about BCG vaccination was equal among the household contacts and non-contacts. The combined serological positivity of the household contacts was 65.8% and the combined serological positivity for non-contacts was 34.1%. There was no statistically significant difference in the presence of 19M among household contacts as compared to non-contacts. However both IgG and 19A were present in significantly higher number of household contacts as compared to non contacts. This study concludes that the persons living in the house with a patient suffering from active pulmonary tuberculosis (household contact) have more chances of being infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis as compared to the healthy non-contacts. (author)

  1. Contact lenses, migraine, and allodynia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozgur Bulent Timucin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Clinical trials and electrophysiologic studies demonstrated increased perceptual sensitivity in patients suffering from migraines. At least, one triggering factor is described in 85% of migraine patients. The aim of this report was to investigate the relationship between contact lens (CL usage and migraine attacks in two cases. Two patients who were diagnosed with migraine reported that the frequency of migraine attacks increased after they switched to using CL with different base curves (BCs. These two patients, who began using CL with different BCs experienced discomfort and dryness of the eye. The ocular complaints were followed by migraine attacks. CL intolerance was also developed during migraine attack in one of the cases. The frequency of migraine attacks decreased and allodynia relieved significantly when flatter BCs were selected. CL related stimulus could have triggered the migraine attack. CLs should be well fitted in migraine patients with allodynia.

  2. Single-contact tunneling thermometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksymovych, Petro

    2016-02-23

    A single-contact tunneling thermometry circuit includes a tunnel junction formed between two objects. Junction temperature gradient information is determined based on a mathematical relationship between a target alternating voltage applied across the junction and the junction temperature gradient. Total voltage measured across the junction indicates the magnitude of the target alternating voltage. A thermal gradient is induced across the junction. A reference thermovoltage is measured when zero alternating voltage is applied across the junction. An increasing alternating voltage is applied while measuring a thermovoltage component and a DC rectification voltage component created by the applied alternating voltage. The target alternating voltage is reached when the thermovoltage is nullified or doubled by the DC rectification voltage depending on the sign of the reference thermovoltage. Thermoelectric current and current measurements may be utilized in place of the thermovoltage and voltage measurements. The system may be automated with a feedback loop.

  3. Contact kinematics of biomimetic scales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, Ranajay; Ebrahimi, Hamid; Vaziri, Ashkan, E-mail: vaziri@coe.neu.edu [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Northeastern University, Boston, Massachusetts 02115 (United States)

    2014-12-08

    Dermal scales, prevalent across biological groups, considerably boost survival by providing multifunctional advantages. Here, we investigate the nonlinear mechanical effects of biomimetic scale like attachments on the behavior of an elastic substrate brought about by the contact interaction of scales in pure bending using qualitative experiments, analytical models, and detailed finite element (FE) analysis. Our results reveal the existence of three distinct kinematic phases of operation spanning linear, nonlinear, and rigid behavior driven by kinematic interactions of scales. The response of the modified elastic beam strongly depends on the size and spatial overlap of rigid scales. The nonlinearity is perceptible even in relatively small strain regime and without invoking material level complexities of either the scales or the substrate.

  4. Nature Contacts: Employee Wellness in Healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trau, Deborah; Keenan, Kimberly A; Goforth, Meggan; Large, Vernon

    2016-04-01

    This study was designed to ascertain the amount of outdoor, indoor, and indirect nature contact exposures hospital employees have in a workweek. Hospital employees have been found particularly vulnerable to work-related stress. Increasing the nature contact exposure for hospital employees can reduce perceived stress; stress-related health behaviors; and stress-related health outcomes from outdoor, indoor, and indirect exposures to nature. Staff on the fourth floor postsurgical unit of a large hospital (N = 42) were ask to participate in an employee questionnaire "nature contact questionnaire". This 16-item nature environment questionnaire measures the amount and types of nature contact exposures employees have during a workweek. Majority of employees reported few, if any, nature contact exposures, specifically in the area of outdoor nature contacts with limited indoor and indirect contacts. These results indicated that employees on the fourth floor postsurgical floor have limited ability to reduce stress through nature contact exposures which could impact their perceived levels of work stress and stress-related behaviors and health outcomes. Nature contact exposures are both a relatively easy and an inexpensive way to improve employee stress. These findings indicate limitations to employees' exposure to nature contacts. Healthcare environments would benefit from a concerted effort to provide increased outdoor, indoor, and indirect nature contact exposures for employees. © The Author(s) 2015.

  5. Contact lens surface by electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Jung Hyuck; Lee, Suk Ju; Hwang, Kwang Ha; Jeon Jin

    2011-01-01

    Contact lens materials needs good biocompatibility, high refractive index, high optical transparency, high water content etc. Surface treat method by using plasma and radiation can modify the physical and/or chemical properties of the contact lens surface. Radiation technology such as electron beam irradiation can apply to polymerization reaction and enhance the functionality of the polymer.The purpose of this study is to modify of contact lens surface by using Eb irradiation technology. Electron beam was irradiated to the contact lens surface which was synthesized thermal polymerization method and commercial contact lens to modify physical and chemical properties. Ft-IR, XP, UV-vis spectrophotometer, water content, oxygen trans-metastability were used to characterize the surface state, physicochemical, and optical property of the contact lens treated with Eb. The water content and oxygen transmissibility of the contact lens treated with Eb were increased due to increase in the hydrophilic group such as O-C=O and OH group on the contact lens surface which could be produced by possible reaction between carbon and oxygen during the Eb irradiation. All of the lenses showed the high optical transmittance above 90%. In this case of B/Es, TES, Ti contact lens, the optical transmittance decreased about 5% with increasing Eb dose in the wavelength of UV-B region. The contact lens modified by Eb irradiation could improve the physical properties of the contact lens such as water content and oxygen transmissibility

  6. Contact radiotherapy. Report of technological assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortholan, Cecile; Melin, Nicole; Lee-Robin, Sun Hae; David, Denis Jean; Pages, Frederique; Devaud, Christine; Noel, Georges; Biga, Julie; Moty-Monnereau, Celine; Canet, Philippe; Lascols, Sylvie; Lamas, Muriel; Ramdine, Jessica; Tuil, Louise

    2008-10-01

    This report aims at assessing safety, indications, the role in therapeutic strategy, and efficiency of contact radiotherapy. It also aims at answering questions like: is the contact radiotherapy technique validated? What are the indications for contact radiotherapy? What about the efficiency and safety of contact radiotherapy? After a presentation of preliminary notions on radiotherapy (radiation types, dose, and irradiation techniques), the report presents this specific technique of contact radiotherapy: definition, devices, use recommendations, issues of radiation protection, modalities of performance of a contact radiotherapy session, and concerned pathologies. Then, based on a literature survey, this report addresses the various concerned tumours (skin, rectum, brain, breast), indicates some general information about these tumours (epidemiological data, anatomy and classification, therapeutic options, radiotherapy), and proposes an assessment of the efficiency and safety of contact radiotherapy

  7. 78 FR 14549 - National Contact Center; Information Collection; National Contact Center Customer Evaluation Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-06

    ...] National Contact Center; Information Collection; National Contact Center Customer Evaluation Survey AGENCY... National Contact Center customer evaluation surveys. In this request, the previously approved surveys have... several months. These temporary surveys will allow the National Contact Center to compare its customer...

  8. 78 FR 30303 - National Contact Center; Submission for OMB Review; National Contact Center Customer Evaluation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-22

    ...] National Contact Center; Submission for OMB Review; National Contact Center Customer Evaluation Survey... regarding the National Contact Center customer evaluation surveys. In this request, the previously approved... customer service levels to those of private industry contact centers. A notice was published in the Federal...

  9. Estimating the Contact Endurance of the AISI 321 Stainless Steel Under Contact Gigacycle Fatigue Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savrai, R. A.; Makarov, A. V.; Osintseva, A. L.; Malygina, I. Yu.

    2018-02-01

    Mechanical testing of the AISI 321 corrosion resistant austenitic steel for contact gigacycle fatigue has been conducted with the application of a new method of contact fatigue testing with ultrasonic frequency of loading according to a pulsing impact "plane-to-plane" contact scheme. It has been found that the contact endurance (the ability to resist the fatigue spalling) of the AISI 321 steel under contact gigacycle fatigue loading is determined by its plasticity margin and the possibility of additional hardening under contact loading. It is demonstrated that the appearance of localized deep and long areas of spalling on a material surface can serve as a qualitative characteristic for the loss of the fatigue strength of the AISI 321 steel under impact contact fatigue loading. The value of surface microhardness measured within contact spots and the maximum depth of contact damages in the peripheral zone of contact spots can serve as quantitative criteria for that purpose.

  10. Anti-citrullinated peptide antibodies are the strongest predictor of clinically relevant radiographic progression in rheumatoid arthritis patients achieving remission or low disease activity: A post hoc analysis of a nationwide cohort in Japan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomohiro Koga

    Full Text Available To determine prognostic factors of clinically relevant radiographic progression (CRRP in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA achieving remission or low disease activity (LDA in clinical practice.Using data from a nationwide, multicenter, prospective study in Japan, we evaluated 198 biological disease-modifying antirheumatic drug (bDMARD-naïve RA patients who were in remission or had LDA at study entry after being treated with conventional synthetic DMARDs (csDMARDs. CRRP was defined as the yearly progression of modified total Sharp score (mTSS >3.0 U. We performed a multiple logistic regression analysis to explore the factors to predict CRRP at 1 year. We used receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve to estimate the performance of relevant variables for predicting CRRP.The mean Disease Activity Score in 28 joints-erythrocyte sedimentation rate (DAS28-ESR was 2.32 ± 0.58 at study entry. During the 1-year observation, remission or LDA persisted in 72% of the patients. CRRP was observed in 7.6% of the patients. The multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that the independent variables to predict the development of CRRP were: anti-citrullinated peptide antibodies (ACPA positivity at baseline (OR = 15.2, 95%CI 2.64-299, time-integrated DAS28-ESR during the 1 year post-baseline (7.85-unit increase, OR = 1.83, 95%CI 1.03-3.45, and the mTSS at baseline (13-unit increase, OR = 1.22, 95%CI 1.06-1.42.ACPA positivity was the strongest independent predictor of CRRP in patients with RA in remission or LDA. Physicians should recognize ACPA as a poor-prognosis factor regarding the radiographic outcome of RA, even among patients showing a clinically favorable response to DMARDs.

  11. Prostate volume is strongest predictor of cancer diagnosis at transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy with prostate-specific antigen values between 2.0 and 9.0 ng/mL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Azab, Rami; Toi, Ants; Lockwood, Gina; Kulkarni, Girish S; Fleshner, Neil

    2007-01-01

    Data have suggested benign prostatic hyperplasia, and not cancer, as the major reason for elevated prostate-specific antigen (PSA) values between 2.0 and 9.0 ng/mL. If this hypothesis were correct, within these ranges, a smaller prostate volume would be a stronger predictor of cancer than the PSA level itself (the relative contribution from cancer is greater in smaller glands). We examined our institutional data set of transrectal ultrasound-guided procedures from 2000 to 2003. We studied patients who presented for their first prostate biopsy with a PSA level of 2.0 to 9.0 ng/mL. The indications for biopsy were elevated age-specific PSA level or abnormal digital rectal examination findings. Other covariates included patient age, abnormal transrectal ultrasound findings, transrectal ultrasound volume, and biopsy sampling scheme. Univariate analyses were used to assess the association between each variable and cancer diagnosis. Multivariate logistic regression modeling was then used to determine the adjusted risk factors for cancer at biopsy. On univariate analyses, all measured covariates were predictive of cancer. On multivariate modeling, the significant risk factors (in order of strength) for positive biopsy findings were smaller prostate volume (odds ratio [OR] 0.26, P <0.001), increasing age (OR 1.72, P <0.001), increasing PSA (OR 1.64, P <0.001), and the presence of hypoechoic lesions (OR 2.42, P <0.001). When the PSA level is in the 2.0 to 9.0 ng/mL range, a smaller prostate volume is the strongest predictor of cancer detection. These data support previous studies suggesting the amount of benign prostatic hyperplasia, and not cancer, as the major factor responsible for elevated PSA.

  12. Technology Transfer: A Contact Sport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paynter, Nina P.

    1995-01-01

    Technology transfer is a dynamic process, involving dynamic people as the bridge between NASA Langley Research Center and the outside world. This bridge, for nonaerospace applications, is known as the Technology Applications Group. The introduction of new innovations and expertise where they are needed occurs through a 'push' and 'pull' process. A 'push' occurs when a new technology is first developed with high commercial potential and then a company is found to licence or further develop the technology. The 'pull' process occurs through problem statements. A company or group will submit a written statement of what they need and the shortcomings of commercially available technology. The Technology Transfer Team (T3) reviews these problem statements and decides where NASA LaRC can offer assistance. A researcher or group of researchers are then identified who can help solve the problem and they are put in contact with the company. Depending upon the situation in either method, a Space Act Agreement (SAA), or outline of the responsibilities for each party, is developed.

  13. Contact double-contrast cholangiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hishida, Y

    1979-05-01

    Recently operative cholangiography has become an essential step in biliary surgery. However, an usual technique in which x-ray film is set beneath the patient has its limitation in visualization of fine changes. The author devised a new technique to resolve this problem. A triangular mammography film designed for good positioning is vaccum-packed, coupled with an intensifying screen of the same size, and then is sterilized in advance. Barium solution mixed with Gascon drop (a defoaming agent) is used as contrast material. The duodenum and head of the pancreas are mobilized. Usual cholangiography is performed at first, introducing angiographic media through a catheter placed into the catheter placed into the common duct via the cystic duct. After this study a triangle film pack is set beneath the second part of the duodenum. Two to three milliliters of barium, 1 to 2 ml of Gascon, and 15 ml of air are pushed in; thus a contact double-contrast cholangiogram is obtained. This technique promises clear demonstration of the distal bile duct without risk, and even fine mucosal plicae may be discernible in the film.

  14. Contact allergy to rubber accelerators remains prevalent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwensen, J F; Menné, T; Johansen, J D

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Chemicals used for the manufacturing of rubber are known causes of allergic contact dermatitis on the hands. Recent European studies have suggested a decrease in thiuram contact allergy. Moreover, while an association with hand dermatitis is well established, we have recently observed...... several clinical cases with allergic facial dermatitis to rubber. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate temporal trends of contact allergy to rubber accelerators from the European baseline series in a tertiary patch test clinic in Denmark, and examine associations with anatomical locations of dermatitis. METHODS: Patch.......0%, mercaptobenzothiazole 2.0% and mercapto mix 1.0%. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of contact allergy to rubber accelerators was 3.1% with no significant change during the study period (Ptrend = 0.667). Contact allergy to thiuram mix was the most prevalent and was significantly associated with occupational contact...

  15. Association between Contact allergy and Psoriasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bangsgaard, Nannie

    2011-01-01

    6. SUMMERY 6.1 Summery in English Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) and psoriasis are the two most prevalent skin diseases in the western world. ACD is the clinical manifestation of contact allergy. Contact allergy and psoriasis are both due to inflammatory mechanisms involving the innate...... and adaptive immune system. Psoriasis is conceived to be an autoimmune disease. Recent studies have suggested an inverse relation between contact allergy and autoimmune diseases. The association between contact allergy and psoriasis could reveal mechanistic insights into both inflammatory processes....... The overall aim of this PhD study was to investigate the association between contact allergy and autoimmune disease, with focus on psoriasis. The work was done in three study parts. Part I Epidemiological studies. Part II Sensitization study and Part III Experimental studies. In part I the association between...

  16. Complications Caused by Contact Lens Wearing

    OpenAIRE

    Beljan, Jasna; Beljan, Kristina; Beljan, Zdravko

    2013-01-01

    Complications in wearing contact lenses are very rare and caused by poor maintenance, over-extended wear and wearing of contact lenses in a polluted environment. Regular control by a professional person can efficiently reduce the number of complications. This paper describes the most common risks factors for complications, and complications of wearing contact lenses with the classification according to the anatomic parts of the eye: eyelids, tear film, limbus, corneal epithelium, corneal stro...

  17. Improvements To Micro Contact Performance And Reliability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-22

    Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy Tod V. Laurvick, B.S.E.E., M.S.E.E. Major, USAF 22 December 2016 DISTRIBUTION...complete customization of each device if desired. Another crucial fabrication characteristic of micro-contacts involves the thin- films used as a contact...surface. This work demonstrates that integration iv of thin- film spreading resistance theory into the most advanced contact resistance models to date

  18. Multiple application delayed onset contact urticaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Maibach, H I

    1984-01-01

    An unusual type of contact urticaria to formalin is described, based on 4 patients and experiments in 14 volunteers. The contact urticaria appeared on healthy skin only following repeated open applications or after a single application on slightly diseased skin. The possible relation...... of this phenomenon for patients claiming textile intolerance is discussed. Further tests are required to reveal the mechanism of this delayed onset contact urticaria to formalin....

  19. Pulsed Current Static Electrical Contact Experiment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jones, Harry N; Neri, Jesse M; Boyer, Craig N; Cooper, Khershed P; Meger, Robert A

    2006-01-01

    Railguns involve both static and sliding electrical contacts, which must transmit the large transient electrical currents necessary to impart high forces onto a projectile for acceleration to hypervelocity...

  20. [Acanthamoeba isolation from contact lens solution of contact lens wearers without keratitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, R; Ishibashi, Y; Hommura, S; Ishii, K

    1994-05-01

    Acanthamoeba keratitis seems to be associated with wearing contact lenses. As controls, we surveyed contact lens wearers without keratitis. Contact lens solutions of 93 persons were examined in order to identify risk factors for contamination by Acanthamoeba. Therefore, the contact lens disinfection system and storage schedules were studied in each case. Acanthamoeba organisms were isolated from 4 specimens (4.3%). The incidence of Acanthamoeba was higher in specimens of soft contact lens solution than in those of hard contact lens solution, and all the Acanthamoeba positive cases had been using tap water.

  1. Direct measurement of graphene contact resistivity to pre-deposited metal in buried contact test structure

    KAUST Repository

    Qaisi, Ramy M.

    2013-08-01

    We demonstrate a buried contact based novel test structure for direct contact resistivity measurement of graphene-metal interfaces. We also observe excellent contact resistivity 1 μO-cm2 without any additional surface modification suggesting that the intrinsic Au-graphene contact is sufficient for achieving devices with low contact resistance. The chemical mechanical polishing less test structure and data described herein highlights an ideal methodology for systematic screening and engineering of graphene-metal contact resistivity to enable low power high speed carbon electronics. © 2013 IEEE.

  2. Contact interaction of a circular stamp with a layer under nonideal thermal contact.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.S. Okrepkyi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Solution of the axis-symmetric contact task of thermo-elasticity of the hot cylinder circular punch stress on the elastic isotropic layer taking into account a non-ideal heat contact between punch and layer is built. Formulas for determination of the temperature field and normal stress in the contact area are obtained. The effect of the contact elasticity on the temperature and normal stress distribution is investigated. Investigation was made on the influence of the contact conductivity on distributing of the temperature fields and normal stress in the area of contact of two bodies.

  3. Measuring social contacts in the emergency department.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas W Lowery-North

    Full Text Available Infectious individuals in an emergency department (ED bring substantial risks of cross infection. Data about the complex social and spatial structure of interpersonal contacts in the ED will aid construction of biologically plausible transmission risk models that can guide cross infection control.We sought to determine the number and duration of contacts among patients and staff in a large, busy ED. This prospective study was conducted between 1 July 2009 and 30 June 2010. Two 12-hour shifts per week were randomly selected for study. The study was conducted in the ED of an urban hospital. There were 81 shifts in the planned random sample of 104 (78% with usable contact data, during which there were 9183 patient encounters. Of these, 6062 (66% were approached to participate, of which 4732 (78% agreed. Over the course of the year, 88 staff members participated (84%. A radiofrequency identification (RFID system was installed and the ED divided into 89 distinct zones structured so copresence of two individuals in any zone implied a very high probability of contact <1 meter apart in space. During study observation periods, patients and staff were given RFID tags to wear. Contact events were recorded. These were further broken down with respect to the nature of the contacts, i.e., patient with patient, patient with staff, and staff with staff. 293,171 contact events were recorded, with a median of 22 contact events and 9 contacts with distinct individuals per participant per shift. Staff-staff interactions were more numerous and longer than patient-patient or patient-staff interactions.We used RFID to quantify contacts between patients and staff in a busy ED. These results are useful for studies of the spread of infections. By understanding contact patterns most important in potential transmission, more effective prevention strategies may be implemented.

  4. Contact and Repellent Activities of the Essential Oil from Juniperus formosana against Two Stored Product Insects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanshan Guo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition of the essential oil from Juniperus formosana leaves and its contact and repellent activities against Tribolium castaneum and Liposcelis bostrychophila adults were investigated. The essential oil of J. formosana leaves was obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC-MS. A total of 28 components were identified and the main compounds in the essential oil were α-pinene (21.66%, 4-terpineol (11.25%, limonene (11.00% and β-phellandrene (6.63%. The constituents α-pinene, 4-terpineol and d-limonene were isolated from the essential oil. It was found that the essential oil exhibited contact activity against T. castaneum and L. bostrychophila adults (LD50 = 29.14 μg/adult and 81.50 µg/cm2, respectively. The compound 4-terpineol exhibited the strongest contact activity (LD50 = 7.65 μg/adult. In addition, data showed that at 78.63 nL/cm2, the essential oil and the three isolated compounds strongly repelled T. castaneum adults. The compounds α-pinene and d-limonene reached the same level (Class V of repellency as DEET (p = 0.396 and 0.664 against L. bostrychophila at 63.17 nL/cm2 after 2 h treatment. The results indicate that the essential oil and the isolated compounds have potential to be developed into natural insecticides and repellents to control insects in stored products.

  5. In vitro effects of selected contact lens care solutions on Acanthamoeba castellanii strains in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padzik, Marcin; Chomicz, Lidia; Szaflik, Jacek P; Chruścikowska, Agnieszka; Perkowski, Konrad; Szaflik, Jerzy

    2014-11-01

    Free-living, cosmopolitan amoebae of the Acanthamoeba genus may be the causative agents of Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK) - a progressive, vision-threatening infection of the human cornea described particularly among contact lens wearers. Use of contact lens care solutions, effective against these organisms, is important in preventing AK infections. 3 different strains of Acanthamoeba castellanii of the T4 genotype (Neff strain and two others, isolated from patients with AK) were exposed to 4 selected multipurpose contact lens care solutions available in Poland: Ciba Vision AoSept Plus, Bausch & Lomb ReNu MultiPlus, Alcon Opti-Free, Ciba Vision Solo Care Aqua. No amoebicidal effect was observed. The strongest amoebostatic effect was visible after 24h of exposition to Opti-Free and ReNu solution and associated with percentage increase of rounded, motionless forms. This is significantly longer than minimum disinfection time recommended by manufacturers of all tested multipurpose solutions. Surprisingly, no clear induction of the encystation process was observed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Beta atomic contacts: identifying critical specific contacts in protein binding interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qian; Kwoh, Chee Keong; Hoi, Steven C H

    2013-01-01

    Specific binding between proteins plays a crucial role in molecular functions and biological processes. Protein binding interfaces and their atomic contacts are typically defined by simple criteria, such as distance-based definitions that only use some threshold of spatial distance in previous studies. These definitions neglect the nearby atomic organization of contact atoms, and thus detect predominant contacts which are interrupted by other atoms. It is questionable whether such kinds of interrupted contacts are as important as other contacts in protein binding. To tackle this challenge, we propose a new definition called beta (β) atomic contacts. Our definition, founded on the β-skeletons in computational geometry, requires that there is no other atom in the contact spheres defined by two contact atoms; this sphere is similar to the van der Waals spheres of atoms. The statistical analysis on a large dataset shows that β contacts are only a small fraction of conventional distance-based contacts. To empirically quantify the importance of β contacts, we design βACV, an SVM classifier with β contacts as input, to classify homodimers from crystal packing. We found that our βACV is able to achieve the state-of-the-art classification performance superior to SVM classifiers with distance-based contacts as input. Our βACV also outperforms several existing methods when being evaluated on several datasets in previous works. The promising empirical performance suggests that β contacts can truly identify critical specific contacts in protein binding interfaces. β contacts thus provide a new model for more precise description of atomic organization in protein quaternary structures than distance-based contacts.

  7. Effects of contact cap dimension on dry adhesion of bioinspired mushroom-shaped surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yue; Shao, Jinyou; Ding, Yucheng; Li, Xiangming; Tian, Hongmiao; Hu, Hong

    2015-03-01

    Dry adhesion observed in small creatures, such as spiders, insects, and geckos, has many great advantages such as repeatability and strong adhesiveness. In order to mimic these unique performances, fibrillar surface with a mushroom shaped end has drawn lots of attentions because of its advantage in efficiently enhancing adhesion compared with other sphere or simple flat ends. Here, in order to study the effects of contact cap dimension on adhesion strength, patterned surfaces of mushroom-shaped micropillars with differing cap diameters are fabricated based on the conventional photolithography and molding. The normal adhesion strength of these dry adhesives with varying cap diameters is measured with home-built equipment. The strength increases with the rise of cap diameter, and interestingly it becomes strongest when the mushroom caps join together.

  8. Continuous chemical processes in centrifugal contact separators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kwant, Gerard J.; Heeres, Hero

    2008-01-01

    The invention relates to the use of a centrifugal contact-separator for carrying out a non-radioactive reaction in a liquid-liquid emulsion formed from two immiscible liquids. The invention also relates to a process for carrying out a reaction in a centrifugal contact-separator, and to a process for

  9. Cohesive frictional powders: Contact models for tension.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luding, Stefan

    2008-01-01

    The contacts between cohesive, frictional particles with sizes in the range 0.1–10 μm are the subject of this study. Discrete element model (DEM) simulations rely on realistic contact force models—however, too much details make both implementation and interpretation prohibitively difficult. A rather

  10. 2 CFR 225.55 - Information contact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... information concerning this part may be obtained by contacting the Office of Federal Financial Management, Financial Standards and Reporting Branch, Office of Management and Budget, Washington, DC 20503, telephone... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Information contact. 225.55 Section 225.55...

  11. Running-in of rolling contacts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jamari, Jamari

    2006-01-01

    This thesis deals with running-in of the pure rolling contact situation operating in the boundary lubrication regime, so that normal plastic deformation due to the contact between asperities is the main aspect. The change of the surface topography during the running-in process and the run-in

  12. The contact polytope of the leech lattice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sikiric, M.D.; Schürmann, A.; Vallentin, F.

    2010-01-01

    The contact polytope of a lattice is the convex hull of its shortest vectors. In this paper we classify the facets of the contact polytope of the Leech lattice up to symmetry. There are 1, 197, 362, 269, 604, 214, 277, 200 many facets in 232 orbits.

  13. The contact polytope of the Leech lattice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Dutour Sikiric; A. Schuermann; F. Vallentin (Frank)

    2010-01-01

    htmlabstractThe contact polytope of a lattice is the convex hull of its shortest vectors. In this paper we classify the facets of the contact polytope of the Leech lattice up to symmetry. There are 1,197,362,269,604,214,277,200 many facets in 232 orbits.

  14. The contact polytope of the Leech lattice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Dutour Sikiric; A. Schuermann; F. Vallentin (Frank)

    2009-01-01

    htmlabstractThe contact polytope of a lattice is the convex hull of its shortest vectors. In this paper we classify the facets of the contact polytope of the Leech lattice up to symmetry. There are 1,197,362,269,604,214,277,200 many facets in 232 orbits.

  15. A Study on Graphene—Metal Contact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyu Yu

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The contact resistance between graphene and metal electrodes is crucial for the achievement of high-performance graphene devices. In this study, we review our recent study on the graphene–metal contact characteristics from the following viewpoints: (1 metal preparation method; (2 asymmetric conductance; (3 annealing effect; (4 interfaces impact.

  16. African Journal of Health Professions Education: Contact

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Principal Contact. Claudia Naidu Managing Editor Health and Medical Publishing Group Private Bag X1 Pinelands 7430 Cape Town South Africa Phone: + 27 (21) 532 1281. Email: claudian@hmpg.co.za. Support Contact. Getrude Fani Phone: +27 (21) 532 1281. Email: publishing@hmpg.co.za · AJOL African Journals ...

  17. Global Journal of Mathematical Sciences: Contact

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Global Journal of Mathematical Sciences. ... Global Journal of Mathematical Sciences: Contact. Journal Home > About the Journal > Global Journal of Mathematical Sciences: Contact. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... Mailing Address. Department of Mathematics, Statistics and Computer Science ...

  18. Modified suturing contact lens for penetrating keratoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, S G; Stewart, H L

    1978-11-01

    The authors have previously described a suturing contact lens that protects the corneal endothelium by aiding in the maintenance of the anterior chamber during penetrating keratoplasty. This report describes structural modifications of the suturing contact lens, which improve its stability and effectiveness. An additional configuration for use in corneal lacerations is presented.

  19. Negative intergroup contact is more influential, but positive intergroup contact is more common: Assessing contact prominence and contact prevalence in five Central European countries

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Graf, Sylvie; Paolini, S.; Rubin, M.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 44, č. 96 (2014), 536–547 ISSN 0046-2772 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-25656S Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : intergroup contact * negative contact * outgroup attitudes Subject RIV: AN - Psychology Impact factor: 1.712, year: 2014

  20. [The occlusal contact mode during lateral excursion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugawara, N

    2000-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to clarify the occlusal contact mode between the upper and lower molars on the working side of group function occlusion during lateral excursion. After the intercuspal position (IP) and two lateral positions (L1, the middle point between IP and L2; L2, the edge-to-edge occlusal position of the molars) on the Gothic arch were defined, occlusal contact relations in these three occlusal positions were recorded, using black silicone. Digital data of real occlusal contacts and visualized data of close (less than 30 microns) occlusal areas, by computer image processing, were analyzed. The conclusions are as follows: 1. Although the numbers of real occlusal contacts and the visualized occlusal area tend to decrease toward L2 during lateral excursion, the former, in some cases, goes up and down. 2. Functional cusps play an important part in occlusal contact at the intercuspal position. 3. Occlusal contact points are on the functional cusps of the upper and lower molars, which can be clinically regarded as certain points, and these points slide on the inclining non-functional cusps of antagonistic teeth during lateral excursion. 4. Each upper and lower molar has 2 to 6 occlusal contact points near the top functional cusps at the intercuspal position, and some of them contact continuously during lateral excursion.

  1. HTS Teologiese Studies / Theological Studies: Contact

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Principal Contact. Andries G. van Aarde Professor Phone: +27 21 975 2602. Fax: +27 86 685 1577. Email: editor@hts.org.za. Support Contact. HTS administrator. Email: Publishing@aosis.co.za. ISSN: 2072-8050. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's ...

  2. South African Journal of Psychiatry: Contact

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Principal Contact. Prof Jonathan Burns Editor- In- Chief Phone: +27 21 975 2602. Fax: +27 86 685 1577. Email: editor@sajp.org.za. Support Contact. SAJPsy administrator. Phone: +27 21 975 2602. Email: Publishing@aosis.co.za. ISSN: 2078-6786. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for ...

  3. Contact area measurements on structured surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kücükyildiz, Ömer Can; Jensen, Sebastian Hoppe Nesgaard; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    In connection with the use of brass specimens featuring structured surfaces in a tribology test, an algorithm was developed for automatic measurement of the contact area by optical means.......In connection with the use of brass specimens featuring structured surfaces in a tribology test, an algorithm was developed for automatic measurement of the contact area by optical means....

  4. Global Journal of Engineering Research: Contact

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Global Journal of Engineering Research. ... Global Journal of Engineering Research: Contact. Journal Home > About the Journal > Global Journal of Engineering Research: Contact. Log in or Register to get access to full text ... Mailing Address. Department of Petroleum Engineering University of Harcourt NIGERIA ...

  5. African Journal of Management Research: Contact

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Principal Contact. Prof. Anthony Q. Q. Aboagye Editor University of Ghana Business School. University of Ghana Business School P.O. Box LG 78. Legon Accra Ghana. Phone: +233-24-425-2596. Email: qaboagye@ug.edu.gh. Support Contact. Sylvia Ahudzo (Editorial Assistant) Phone: +233-24-318-7075

  6. Contact chain measurements for ultrathin conducting films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenland, A.W.; Wolters, Robertus A.M.; Kovalgin, Alexeij Y.; Schmitz, Jurriaan

    2009-01-01

    Test structures for the electrical characterization of ultrathin conductive (ALD) films are presented based on electrodes on which the ultrathin film is deposited. The contact resistance of the buried electrodes to the ultrathin ALD TiN films is investigated using contact chain structures. This work

  7. On contact numbers in random rod packings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouterse, A.; Luding, Stefan; Philipse, A.P.

    2009-01-01

    Random packings of non-spherical granular particles are simulated by combining mechanical contraction and molecular dynamics, to determine contact numbers as a function of density. Particle shapes are varied from spheres to thin rods. The observed contact numbers (and packing densities) agree well

  8. Data Qualification Report: Borehole Stratigraphic Contacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    R.W. Clayton; C. Lum

    2000-01-01

    The data set considered here is the borehole stratigraphic contacts data (DTN: M09811MWDGFM03.000) used as input to the Geologic Framework Model. A Technical Assessment method used to evaluate these data with a two-fold approach: (1) comparison to the geophysical logs on which the contacts were, in part, based; and (2) evaluation of the data by mapping individual units using the entire data set. Qualification of the geophysical logs is being performed in a separate activity. A representative subset of the contacts data was chosen based on importance of the contact and representativeness of that contact in the total data set. An acceptance window was established for each contact based on the needs of the data users. Data determined to be within the acceptance window were determined to be adequate for their intended use in three-dimensional spatial modeling and were recommended to be Qualified. These methods were chosen to provide a two-pronged evaluation that examines both the origin and results of the data. The result of this evaluation is a recommendation to qualify all contacts. No data were found to lie outside the pre-determined acceptance window. Where no geophysical logs are available, data were evaluated in relation to surrounding data and by impact assessment. These data are also recommended to be qualified. The stratigraphic contact data contained in this report (Attachment VII; DTN: M00004QGFMPICK.000) are intended to replace the source data, which will remain unqualified

  9. Are there contact transformations for discrete equations?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levi, Decio [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Elettronica, Universita degli Studi Roma Tre and Sezione INFN, Roma Tre, Via della Vasca Navale, 84, 00146 Roma (Italy); Thomova, Zora [Department of Engineering, Sciences and Mathematics, SUNY Institute of Technology, 100 Seymour Road, Utica, NY 13502 (United States); Winternitz, Pavel, E-mail: Zora.Thomova@sunyit.edu [Centre de Recherche Mathematiques and Departement de mathematiques et de Statistique, Universite de Montreal, Case postale 6128, succ. centre-ville, Montreal, Quebec, H3C 3J7 (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    We define infinitesimal contact transformations for ordinary difference schemes as transformations that depend on K + 1 lattice points (K {>=} 1) and can be integrated to form a local or global Lie group. We then prove that such contact transformations do not exist.

  10. Journal of Medical Laboratory Science: Contact

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Principal Contact. Prof. Francis Useh Editor. National Open University of Nigeria. 14/16 Ahmadu Bello Way. Victoria. Lagos. Nigeria. Additional Contact: Prof. Okoronkwo (Editor-in-Chief): okoronkwo@gmail.com. Phone: +2348035925974. Email: francisuse@yahoo.co.uk ...

  11. Nigerian Journal of Animal Science: Contact

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Principal Contact. Professor A. A. Odunsi Editor-in-Chief. c/o Editorial Office, ASAN National Secretariat, No. 27, Acme Road, Agidingbi, Ikeja, Lagos. Alternative email address: yodunsi@yahoo.com. Email: njas2011@gmail.com. Support Contact. Dr Demo Kalla J. Usman (Deputy Editor-in-Chief)

  12. African Journal of Oral Health Sciences: Contact

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Principal Contact. Dr ML Chindia Editor OCRA P O Box 20970 Nairobi Kenya Phone: +254-2-713618. Email: omfsuon@wananchi.com. Support Contact. Editor Email: omfsuon@wananchi.com. ISSN: 1608-7232. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More ...

  13. Complications caused by contact lens wearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beljan, Jasna; Beljan, Kristina; Beljan, Zdravko

    2013-04-01

    Complications in wearing contact lenses are very rare and caused by poor maintenance, over-extended wear and wearing of contact lenses in a polluted environment. Regular control by a professional person can efficiently reduce the number of complications. This paper describes the most common risks factors for complications, and complications of wearing contact lenses with the classification according to the anatomic parts of the eye: eyelids, tear film, limbus, corneal epithelium, corneal stroma and corneal endothelium. Every complication has been described by the characteristic signs and symptoms, etiology and pathology, as well as therapy and prognosis. The paper describes how to select adequate customers as contact lens users, with proper education in order to ensure minimal incidence of complications due to contact lens wear, thus attracting a lot of satisfied and healthy customers.

  14. Incremental stiffness and electrical contact conductance in the contact of rough finite bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, J. R.

    2013-01-01

    If two half spaces are in contact, there exists a formal mathematical relation between the electrical contact resistance and the incremental elastic compliance. Here, this relation is extended to the contact of finite bodies. In particular, it is shown that the additional resistance due to roughness of the contacting surfaces (the interface resistance) bears a similar relation to the additional compliance as that obtained for the total resistance in the half-space problem.

  15. Microbial contamination of soft contact lenses & accessories in asymptomatic contact lens users

    OpenAIRE

    Deeksha V Thakur; Ujjwala N Gaikwad

    2014-01-01

    Background & objectives: With increasing use of soft contact lenses the incidence of contact lens induced infections is also increasing. This study was aimed to assess the knowledge of new and existing contact lens users about the risk of microbial contamination associated with improper use and maintenance of contact lenses, type of microbial flora involved and their potential to cause ophthalmic infections. Methods: Four samples each from 50 participants (n=200) were collected from the l...

  16. Effect of Contact Pressure on the Resistance Contact Value and Temperature Changes in Copper Busbar Connection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agus Risdiyanto

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper discussed the influence of tightness or contacts pressure on copper busbar joints to determine changes in the value of the initial contact resistance and the maximum temperature at the joint due to high current load. The test sample was copper busbar 3 x 30 mm with configuration of bolted overlapping joint. Increasing contact pressure at the joint was measured to find out its effect on the value of contact resistance. The applied pressure was 6 to 36 MPa. Procedure of contact resistance measurement refer to the ASTM B539 standard using four-wire method. The sample subsequently loaded with the current of 350 A for 60 minutes and the maximum temperature at the joint was measured. The result showed that increasing contact pressure at the busbar joint will reduce the contact resistance and maximum temperature. The increase of contact pressure from 6 to 30 MPa causes decreasing contact resistance from 16 μΩ to 11 μΩ. Further increasing of contact pressure more than 30 MPa did not affect the contact resistance significantly. The lowest temperatur of busbar joint of 54°C was reached at a contact pressure of 36 Mpa.

  17. Contact resistance evolution of highly cycled, lightly loaded micro-contacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stilson, Christopher; Coutu, Ronald

    2014-03-01

    Reliable microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) switches are critical for developing high performance radio frequency circuits like phase shifters. Engineers have attempted to improve reliability and lifecycle performance using novel contact metals, unique mechanical designs and packaging. Various test fixtures including: MEMS devices, atomic force microscopes (AFM) and nanoindentors have been used to collect resistance and contact force data. AFM and nanoindentor test fixtures allow direct contact force measurements but are severely limited by low resonance sensors, and therefore low data collection rates. This paper reports the contact resistance evolution results and fabrication of thin film, sputtered and evaporated gold, micro-contacts dynamically tested up to 3kHz. The upper contact support structure consists of a gold surface micromachined, fix-fix beam designed with sufficient restoring force to overcome adhesion. The hemisphere-upper and planar-lower contacts are mated with a calibrated, external load resulting in approximately 100μN of contact force and are cycled in excess of 106 times or until failure. Contact resistance is measured, in-situ, using a cross-bar configuration and the entire apparatus is isolated from external vibration and housed in an enclosure to minimize contamination due to ambient environment. Additionally, contact cycling and data collection are automated using a computer and LabVIEW. Results include contact resistance measurements of 6 and 8 μm radius contact bumps and lifetime testing up to 323.6 million cycles.

  18. Plastic deformation and contact area of an elastic-plastic contact of ellipsoid bodies after unloading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jamari, Jamari; Schipper, Dirk J.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents theoretical and experimental results of the residual or plastic deformation and the plastic contact area of an elastic–plastic contact of ellipsoid bodies after unloading. There are three regime responses of the deformation and contact area: elastic, elastic–plastic and fully

  19. Relationship between the real contact area and contact force in pre-sliding regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Baojiang; Yan Shaoze

    2017-01-01

    The pre-sliding regime is typically neglected in the dynamic modelling of mechanical systems. However, the change in contact state caused by static friction may decrease positional accuracy and control precision. To investigate the relationship between contact status and contact force in pre-sliding friction, an optical experimental method is presented in this paper. With this method, the real contact state at the interface of a transparent material can be observed based on the total reflection principle of light by using an image processing technique. A novel setup, which includes a pair of rectangular trapezoidal blocks, is proposed to solve the challenging issue of accurately applying different tangential and normal forces to the contact interface. The improved Otsu’s method is used for measurement. Through an experimental study performed on polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA), the quantity of contact asperities is proven to be the dominant factor that affects the real contact area. The relationship between the real contact area and the contact force in the pre-sliding regime is studied, and the distribution of static friction at the contact interface is qualitatively discussed. New phenomena in which the real contact area expands along with increasing static friction are identified. The aforementioned relationship is approximately linear at the contact interface under a constant normal pressure, and the distribution of friction stress decreases from the leading edge to the trailing edge. (paper)

  20. Applicability of contact angle techniques used in the analysis of contact lenses, part 1: comparative methodologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Darren; Carnell, Sarah Maria; Eden, Russell John

    2013-05-01

    Contact angle, as a representative measure of surface wettability, is often employed to interpret contact lens surface properties. The literature is often contradictory and can lead to confusion. This literature review is part of a series regarding the analysis of hydrogel contact lenses using contact angle techniques. Here we present an overview of contact angle terminology, methodology, and analysis. Having discussed this background material, subsequent parts of the series will discuss the analysis of contact lens contact angles and evaluate differences in published laboratory results. The concepts of contact angle, wettability and wetting are presented as an introduction. Contact angle hysteresis is outlined and highlights the advantages in using dynamic analytical techniques over static methods. The surface free energy of a material illustrates how contact angle analysis is capable of providing supplementary surface characterization. Although single values are able to distinguish individual material differences, surface free energy and dynamic methods provide an improved understanding of material behavior. The frequently used sessile drop, captive bubble, and Wilhelmy plate techniques are discussed. Their use as both dynamic and static methods, along with the advantages and disadvantages of each technique, is explained. No single contact angle technique fully characterizes the wettability of a material surface, and the application of complimenting methods allows increased characterization. At present, there is not an ISO standard method designed for soft materials. It is important that each contact angle technique has a standard protocol, as small protocol differences between laboratories often contribute to a variety of published data that are not easily comparable.

  1. Issues of contact etching and pre-treatment in Schottky contact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Haksun; Shin, Kyoungsub; Cho, Nammyun; Min, Gyungjin; Kang, Changjin; Han, Woosung; Moon, Jootae

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports on the process dependence of contact resistance of silicide/n+ Si and silicide/p+ Si contact. Three processes such as contact etching, Si treatment and pre-treatment are investigated with contact resistance point of view. Only silicide/p+ Si contact resistance has been changed as etching time of contact increases while silicide/n+ Si contact resistance has been regularly maintained. We have modeled that fluorine used in contact etching can scavenge or deactivate boron in p+ Si, resulting in degradation of silicide/p+ Si contact resistance. In order to confirm the model, two different gases (hydro carbon fluoride/carbon fluoride) during Si treatment right after contact etching were applied. As a result, the silicide/p+ Si contact resistance was increased in carbon fluoride case, which has higher fluorine ratio to carbon than hydro carbon fluoride case. It is also observed that the silicide/p+ Si contact resistance was increased proportionally with time of fluorine-based pre-treatment before silicide formation.

  2. Projecting social contact matrices in 152 countries using contact surveys and demographic data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prem, Kiesha; Cook, Alex R; Jit, Mark

    2017-09-01

    Heterogeneities in contact networks have a major effect in determining whether a pathogen can become epidemic or persist at endemic levels. Epidemic models that determine which interventions can successfully prevent an outbreak need to account for social structure and mixing patterns. Contact patterns vary across age and locations (e.g. home, work, and school), and including them as predictors in transmission dynamic models of pathogens that spread socially will improve the models' realism. Data from population-based contact diaries in eight European countries from the POLYMOD study were projected to 144 other countries using a Bayesian hierarchical model that estimated the proclivity of age-and-location-specific contact patterns for the countries, using Markov chain Monte Carlo simulation. Household level data from the Demographic and Health Surveys for nine lower-income countries and socio-demographic factors from several on-line databases for 152 countries were used to quantify similarity of countries to estimate contact patterns in the home, work, school and other locations for countries for which no contact data are available, accounting for demographic structure, household structure where known, and a variety of metrics including workforce participation and school enrolment. Contacts are highly assortative with age across all countries considered, but pronounced regional differences in the age-specific contacts at home were noticeable, with more inter-generational contacts in Asian countries than in other settings. Moreover, there were variations in contact patterns by location, with work-place contacts being least assortative. These variations led to differences in the effect of social distancing measures in an age structured epidemic model. Contacts have an important role in transmission dynamic models that use contact rates to characterize the spread of contact-transmissible diseases. This study provides estimates of mixing patterns for societies for which

  3. Projecting social contact matrices in 152 countries using contact surveys and demographic data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiesha Prem

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Heterogeneities in contact networks have a major effect in determining whether a pathogen can become epidemic or persist at endemic levels. Epidemic models that determine which interventions can successfully prevent an outbreak need to account for social structure and mixing patterns. Contact patterns vary across age and locations (e.g. home, work, and school, and including them as predictors in transmission dynamic models of pathogens that spread socially will improve the models' realism. Data from population-based contact diaries in eight European countries from the POLYMOD study were projected to 144 other countries using a Bayesian hierarchical model that estimated the proclivity of age-and-location-specific contact patterns for the countries, using Markov chain Monte Carlo simulation. Household level data from the Demographic and Health Surveys for nine lower-income countries and socio-demographic factors from several on-line databases for 152 countries were used to quantify similarity of countries to estimate contact patterns in the home, work, school and other locations for countries for which no contact data are available, accounting for demographic structure, household structure where known, and a variety of metrics including workforce participation and school enrolment. Contacts are highly assortative with age across all countries considered, but pronounced regional differences in the age-specific contacts at home were noticeable, with more inter-generational contacts in Asian countries than in other settings. Moreover, there were variations in contact patterns by location, with work-place contacts being least assortative. These variations led to differences in the effect of social distancing measures in an age structured epidemic model. Contacts have an important role in transmission dynamic models that use contact rates to characterize the spread of contact-transmissible diseases. This study provides estimates of mixing patterns for

  4. Contact conductance between graphene and quantum wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Haidong; Zheng Yisong

    2009-01-01

    The contact conductance between graphene and two quantum wires which serve as the leads to connect graphene and electron reservoirs is theoretically studied. Our investigation indicates that the contact conductance depends sensitively on the graphene-lead coupling configuration. When each quantum wire couples solely to one carbon atom, the contact conductance vanishes at the Dirac point if the two carbon atoms coupling to the two leads belong to the same sublattice of graphene. We find that such a feature arises from the chirality of the Dirac electron in graphene. Such a chirality associated with conductance zero disappears when a quantum wire couples to multiple carbon atoms. The general result irrelevant to the coupling configuration is that the contact conductance decays rapidly with the increase of the distance between the two leads. In addition, in the weak graphene-lead coupling limit, when the distance between the two leads is much larger than the size of the graphene-lead contact areas and the incident electron energy is close to the Dirac point, the contact conductance is proportional to the square of the product of the two graphene-lead contact areas, and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between the two leads

  5. New aspects in allergic contact dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortz, Charlotte Gotthard; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    2008-10-01

    To give selected new information on contact allergy and allergic contact dermatitis with focus on diagnostic procedures and pitfalls. Recent studies dealing with common contact allergens have improved our understanding of the relationship between positive patch tests and the clinical interpretation and consequences for the patient. Nickel allergy is still the most common contact allergy in Europe in spite of full implementation of the EU Nickel Directive in 2001. Contact allergens in cosmetics and topical drugs are another common cause of allergic contact dermatitis. The main culprits include fragrance chemicals, preservatives, and hair dyes. We are all more or less exposed to cosmetics and topical drugs on a daily basis. The labelling requirements given in the Cosmetics Directive is of great help in tracing the causative allergenic ingredients. Most of the components present in cosmetic products are also occurring in household and industrial products, often under other trade names. Patients with multiple contact allergies constitute a special problem because their quality of life is severely affected by the multitude of eliciting products in the environment. We still lack a good understanding of why these patients become so easily sensitized.

  6. Epidemic contact tracing via communication traces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrahi, Katayoun; Emonet, Rémi; Cebrian, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Traditional contact tracing relies on knowledge of the interpersonal network of physical interactions, where contagious outbreaks propagate. However, due to privacy constraints and noisy data assimilation, this network is generally difficult to reconstruct accurately. Communication traces obtained by mobile phones are known to be good proxies for the physical interaction network, and they may provide a valuable tool for contact tracing. Motivated by this assumption, we propose a model for contact tracing, where an infection is spreading in the physical interpersonal network, which can never be fully recovered; and contact tracing is occurring in a communication network which acts as a proxy for the first. We apply this dual model to a dataset covering 72 students over a 9 month period, for which both the physical interactions as well as the mobile communication traces are known. Our results suggest that a wide range of contact tracing strategies may significantly reduce the final size of the epidemic, by mainly affecting its peak of incidence. However, we find that for low overlap between the face-to-face and communication interaction network, contact tracing is only efficient at the beginning of the outbreak, due to rapidly increasing costs as the epidemic evolves. Overall, contact tracing via mobile phone communication traces may be a viable option to arrest contagious outbreaks.

  7. Epidemic contact tracing via communication traces.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katayoun Farrahi

    Full Text Available Traditional contact tracing relies on knowledge of the interpersonal network of physical interactions, where contagious outbreaks propagate. However, due to privacy constraints and noisy data assimilation, this network is generally difficult to reconstruct accurately. Communication traces obtained by mobile phones are known to be good proxies for the physical interaction network, and they may provide a valuable tool for contact tracing. Motivated by this assumption, we propose a model for contact tracing, where an infection is spreading in the physical interpersonal network, which can never be fully recovered; and contact tracing is occurring in a communication network which acts as a proxy for the first. We apply this dual model to a dataset covering 72 students over a 9 month period, for which both the physical interactions as well as the mobile communication traces are known. Our results suggest that a wide range of contact tracing strategies may significantly reduce the final size of the epidemic, by mainly affecting its peak of incidence. However, we find that for low overlap between the face-to-face and communication interaction network, contact tracing is only efficient at the beginning of the outbreak, due to rapidly increasing costs as the epidemic evolves. Overall, contact tracing via mobile phone communication traces may be a viable option to arrest contagious outbreaks.

  8. Protein contact order prediction from primary sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wishart David S

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Contact order is a topological descriptor that has been shown to be correlated with several interesting protein properties such as protein folding rates and protein transition state placements. Contact order has also been used to select for viable protein folds from ab initio protein structure prediction programs. For proteins of known three-dimensional structure, their contact order can be calculated directly. However, for proteins with unknown three-dimensional structure, there is no effective prediction method currently available. Results In this paper, we propose several simple yet very effective methods to predict contact order from the amino acid sequence only. One set of methods is based on a weighted linear combination of predicted secondary structure content and amino acid composition. Depending on the number of components used in these equations it is possible to achieve a correlation coefficient of 0.857–0.870 between the observed and predicted contact order. A second method, based on sequence similarity to known three-dimensional structures, is able to achieve a correlation coefficient of 0.977. We have also developed a much more robust implementation for calculating contact order directly from PDB coordinates that works for > 99% PDB files. All of these contact order predictors and calculators have been implemented as a web server (see Availability and requirements section for URL. Conclusion Protein contact order can be effectively predicted from the primary sequence, at the absence of three-dimensional structure. Three factors, percentage of residues in alpha helices, percentage of residues in beta strands, and sequence length, appear to be strongly correlated with the absolute contact order.

  9. Allergic contact dermatitis: Patient management and education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mowad, Christen M; Anderson, Bryan; Scheinman, Pamela; Pootongkam, Suwimon; Nedorost, Susan; Brod, Bruce

    2016-06-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis is a common diagnosis resulting from exposure to a chemical or chemicals in a patient's personal care products, home, or work environment. Once patch testing has been performed, the education and management process begins. After the causative allergens have been identified, patient education is critical to the proper treatment and management of the patient. This must occur if the dermatitis is to resolve. Detailed education is imperative, and several resources are highlighted. Photoallergic contact dermatitis and occupational contact dermatitis are other considerations a clinician must keep in mind. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Gas-liquid contacting in mixing vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mann, R.

    1983-01-01

    This report by Dr. R. Mann of UMIST presents a critical survey of literature on the contacting of gases with liquids in stirred vessels. Research undertaken in the last fifteen years in analysed, and promising areas for future research are identified. The report deals with physical contacting, mass transfer between the gas and liquid phases and the utilisation of the stirred vessel as a gas-liquid reactor. Three sections are given on gas-liquid contacting: physical aspects; interphase mass transfer; and chemical reactions. It also discusses recent new approaches and includes a summary of conclusions, nomenclature and references

  11. Hybrid emitter all back contact solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loscutoff, Paul; Rim, Seung

    2016-04-12

    An all back contact solar cell has a hybrid emitter design. The solar cell has a thin dielectric layer formed on a backside surface of a single crystalline silicon substrate. One emitter of the solar cell is made of doped polycrystalline silicon that is formed on the thin dielectric layer. The other emitter of the solar cell is formed in the single crystalline silicon substrate and is made of doped single crystalline silicon. The solar cell includes contact holes that allow metal contacts to connect to corresponding emitters.

  12. Association between atopic dermatitis and contact sensitization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamann, Carsten R; Hamann, Dathan; Egeberg, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    risk. OBJECTIVE: To perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of the association between AD and contact sensitization. METHODS: The PubMed/Medline, Embase, and Cochrane databases were searched for articles that reported on contact sensitization in individuals with and without AD. RESULTS......: The literature search yielded 10,083 citations; 417 were selected based on title and abstract screening and 74 met inclusion criteria. In a pooled analysis, no significant difference in contact sensitization between AD and controls was evident (random effects model odds ratio [OR] = 0.891; 95% confidence...

  13. Evaluation of metal–nanowire electrical contacts by measuring contact end resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Hongsik; Beresford, Roderic; Xu, Jimmy; Ha, Ryong; Choi, Heon-Jin; Shin, Hyunjung

    2012-01-01

    It is known, but often unappreciated, that the performance of nanowire (NW)-based electrical devices can be significantly affected by electrical contacts between electrodes and NWs, sometimes to the extent that it is really the contacts that determine the performance. To correctly understand and design NW device operation, it is thus important to carefully measure the contact resistance and evaluate the contact parameters, specific contact resistance and transfer length. A four-terminal pattern or a transmission line model (TLM) pattern has been widely used to measure contact resistance of NW devices and the TLM has been typically used to extract contact parameters of NW devices. However, the conventional method assumes that the electrical properties of semiconducting NW regions covered by a metal are not changed after electrode formation. In this study, we report that the conventional methods for contact evaluation can give rise to considerable errors because of an altered property of the NW under the electrodes. We demonstrate that more correct contact resistance can be measured from the TLM pattern rather than the four-terminal pattern and correct contact parameters including the effects of changed NW properties under electrodes can be evaluated by using the contact end resistance measurement method. (paper)

  14. Characteristics of the Sliding Electric Contact of Pantograph/Contact Wire Systems in Electric Railways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangning Wu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The sliding electric contact of pantograph/contact wire systems plays a significant part in the current collection stability and operation life of pantograph/contact wire systems. This paper addresses the evolutionary process of sliding electric contact of pantograph/contact wire systems by analyzing three key characteristics including contact resistance, temperature distribution and microstructure. The influence of electric current on contact resistance was interpreted. Furthermore, the evolution of the spatial temperature distribution of the carbon strip was obtained in the zigzag movement, while the dominant role of electric effect in temperature rise was demonstrated. In the end, the wear morphology differences under pure friction and current-carrying conditions were analyzed. The formation of radial cracks was illustrated and its influenced on the wear process was discussed.

  15. Determination of Contact Angle from Contact Area of Liquid Droplet Spreading on Solid Substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhoda H. GUMUS

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Both complete and incomplete wetting were considered for the spreading of liquid drops on solid substrate. The liquid droplets were silicone oil, glycerine and hexadecane and the solid substrates are glass, polystyrene and polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA. Wetting was characterized by measuring the contact angle formed between the liquid drop and solid surface. Small droplets of constant volume were used for the measurements in order to minimize gravitational effects. The contact radius was obtained as a function of time by an image analysis system and used for the calculation of the contact area. The contact area was then used to determine the contact angle. The contact angles calculated from contact area are in good agreement with the experimental values.

  16. Contact allergy and allergic contact dermatitis in adolescents: prevalence measures and associations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørtz, Charlotte G; Lauritsen, Jens Martin; Bindslev-Jensen, Carsten

    2002-01-01

    allergy to a standard series allergen was found in 15.2% of schoolchildren. The point prevalence of allergic contact dermatitis was 0.7% and the lifetime prevalence 7.2%, predominantly in girls. The most common contact allergens were nickel (8.6%) and fragrance mix (1.8%). Nickel allergy was clinically......The aims of this cross-sectional study were to establish the prevalence measures of contact allergy and allergic contact dermatitis in 8th grade schoolchildren (aged 12-16 years) in Odense, Denmark, and to examine the associations with atopic dermatitis, inhalant allergy and hand eczema. Contact...... relevant in 69% and fragrance allergy in 29% of cases. A significant association was found between contact allergy and hand eczema while no association was found between contact allergy and atopic dermatitis or inhalant allergy. In the future this cohort of schoolchildren will be followed with regard...

  17. Contact conditions in skin-pass rolling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kijima, Hideo; Bay, Niels

    2007-01-01

    The special contact conditions in skin-pass rolling of steel strip is analysed by studying plane strain upsetting of thin sheet with low reduction applying long narrow tools and dry friction conditions. An extended sticking region is estimated by an elasto-plastic FEM analysis of the plane strain...... upsetting. This sticking region causes a highly inhomogeneous elasto-plastic deformation with large influence of work-hardening and friction. A numerical analysis of skin-pass rolling shows the same contact conditions, i.e. an extended sticking region around the center of the contact zone. The calculated...... size of the sticking region with varying contact length and pressure/reduction is experimentally verified by plane strain upsetting tests measuring the local surface deformation of the work pieces after unloading....

  18. Modeling Epidemics Spreading on Social Contact Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhaoyang; Wang, Honggang; Wang, Chonggang; Fang, Hua

    2015-09-01

    Social contact networks and the way people interact with each other are the key factors that impact on epidemics spreading. However, it is challenging to model the behavior of epidemics based on social contact networks due to their high dynamics. Traditional models such as susceptible-infected-recovered (SIR) model ignore the crowding or protection effect and thus has some unrealistic assumption. In this paper, we consider the crowding or protection effect and develop a novel model called improved SIR model. Then, we use both deterministic and stochastic models to characterize the dynamics of epidemics on social contact networks. The results from both simulations and real data set conclude that the epidemics are more likely to outbreak on social contact networks with higher average degree. We also present some potential immunization strategies, such as random set immunization, dominating set immunization, and high degree set immunization to further prove the conclusion.

  19. Egyptian Journal of Natural History: Contact

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Principal Contact. Professor Ahmed Shoukry Editor Zoology Department Faculty of Science Suez Canal University Ismailia Egypt Phone: 0020 (64) 381 799. Fax: 0020 (64) 322 381. Email: smzalat@ccis.suez.eun.eg ...

  20. Egyptian Journal of Medical Laboratory Sciences: Contact

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Principal Contact. Prof.Ossama Rasslan Editor Egyptian Journal of Medical Laboratory Sciences Cairo Medical Syndicate Dar El-Hekma, 42 Kasr El-Aini Street. Cairo EGYPT Email: orasslaneg@hotmail.com ...

  1. Allergic contact dermatitis in children and adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørtz, Charlotte G; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    1999-01-01

    From a clinical point of view, the prevalence of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) among children and adolescents seems to be low. However, many children have dermatitis, most often atopic dermatitis. In selected cases, ACD is suspected, and the child is tested. The question remains, whether...... the prevalence of ACD in children really is low or whether the possibility of ACD is not sufficiently considered. During the last decade, reports have appeared on series of children and adolescents with contact allergy and ACD. Few cases have been reported in infants, but the development of contact allergy...... and ACD increases with age. Most studies include selected groups of children and adolescents with suspected ACD. Few studies have examined unselected populations, and most consider only the prevalence of contact allergy without evaluating the clinical relevance, e.g., the prevalence of ACD. Furthermore...

  2. University of Mauritius Research Journal: Contact

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Principal Contact. Prof K R M Morgan Editor-in-Chief University of Mauritius. 7th Floor, New Academic Complex. University of Mauritius. Mauritius. Phone: (230) 4037415. Fax: (230) 4037900. Email: rjuom@uom.ac.mu ...

  3. Sokoto Journal of Veterinary Sciences: Contact

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Principal Contact. Prof. B. M. Agaie Editor-in-Chief Usmanu Danfodiyo University. Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, UDUS City Campus. P. M. B. 2346. Sokoto- Nigeria. Phone: +2348035073563. Email: agaie1992@gmail.com ...

  4. Extension contact and professional competencies needed by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Extension contact and professional competencies needed by extension agents in the Central Region of Ghana for effective transfer of fish-processing technologies to small-scale women in fish processing - Provisional Communication.

  5. International Journal of Community Research: Contact

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Principal Contact. Nwaopara Anthony Obioma (Dr) Managing Editor. University of Medical Sciences,. Laje Road, Ondo City. Ondo State. Nigeria. Alternative email address: nwaoparaao@yahoo.com. Phone: +2348037441401. Email: anthoservpub@yahoo.com ...

  6. Scopus: Journal of East African Ornithology: Contact

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Principal Contact. Darcy Ogada Dr Bird Committee of the East Africa Natural History Society. Editors,. Scopus,. c/o Nature Kenya,. P.O. Box 44486,. G.P.O. 00100,. Nairobi, Kenya. Email: scopus@naturekenya.org ...

  7. Identity Theft: A Study in Contact Centres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moir, Iain; Weir, George R. S.

    This paper explores the recent phenomenon of identity theft. In particular, it examines the contact centre environment as a mechanism for this to occur. Through a survey that was conducted amongst forty-five contact centre workers in the Glasgow area we determined that contact centres can and do provide a mechanism for identity theft. Specifically, we found a particularly high incidence of agents who had previously dealt with phone calls that they considered suspicious. Furthermore, there are agents within such environments who have previously been offered money in exchange for customers' details, or who know of fellow workers who received such offers. Lastly, we identify specific practices within contact centres that may contribute to the likelihood of identity theft.

  8. Quantitative Risk Assessment of Contact Sensitization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Api, Anne Marie; Belsito, Donald; Bickers, David

    2010-01-01

    Background: Contact hypersensitivity quantitative risk assessment (QRA) for fragrance ingredients is being used to establish new international standards for all fragrance ingredients that are potential skin sensitizers. Objective: The objective was to evaluate the retrospective clinical data...

  9. Mathematical models for quantum point contact spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exner, P.; Seba, P.

    1986-01-01

    Two mathematical models intended to describe the point contact spectroscopical experiments are constructed. It adds a new item to the list of recently discovered applications of the self-adjoint extension theory

  10. Global Journal of Geological Sciences: Contact

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Principal Contact. Prof . Barth N. Ekwueme MANAGING EDITOR Global Journal Series Department of Geology, University of Calabar, P. O. Box 3561 Unical P.O. Calabar Cross River State Nigeria Email: bachudo@yahoo.com ...

  11. Third sound dissipation at a point contact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, F M; Eddinger, J D

    2009-01-01

    Third sound on a planar geometry at low temperatures is characterized by a rapidly diminishing thermal dissipation. Direct mechanical dissipation is limited to that associated with defects in the system. This includes interaction with pinned vortices, critical flow at surface defect sites, and unintentional acoustic coupling. Dissipation of this latter type is possible in the parallel plate geometry of capacitively detected third sound. We calculate the coupling of a third sound wave across a contacting bridge to a parallel plane, and investigate the energy transfer out of the wave and flow properties of the film in the vicinity of the contact. The presence of various mirror waves on the contacting plane is also considered. Experimental dissipation is observed in both geometries and it is shown that a single contact is capable of accounting for the dissipation as well as an unusually low observed critical velocity.

  12. Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice: Contact

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Principal Contact. Prof Stanley N.C. Anyanwu Editor Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital Department of Surgery Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital PMB 5025 Nnewi Nigeria Email: sncanyanwu@yahoo.com ...

  13. Journal of Meteorology and Climate Science: Contact

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Principal Contact. Dr. K.O Ogunjobi Editor-in-Chief Federal University of Technology, Akure (FUTA) Department of Meteorology Federal University of Technology Akure, Ondo State Nigeria Phone: +234-7031145866. Email: jobik2000@yahoo.com ...

  14. Contact Allergy in Danish Healthcare Workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwensen, Jakob F; Menné, Torkil; Sommerlund, Mette

    2016-01-01

    Contact dermatitis in healthcare workers is a pan-European problem. We conducted a retrospective observational study of the patch-test results of 1402 healthcare workers and 1402 matched controls with contact dermatitis who were treated at 3 hospitals departments in Denmark between 2007 and 2014....... on the use of rubber accelerators in, for example, protective gloves, which are widely used by healthcare professionals....

  15. Compliance among soft contact lens wearers.

    OpenAIRE

    Kuzman, Tomislav; Barišić Kutija, Marija; Masnec, Sanja; Jandroković, Sonja; Mrazovac, Danijela; Jurišić, Darija; Škegro, Ivan; Kalauz, Miro; Kordić, Rajko

    2014-01-01

    Contact lens compliance is proven to be crucial for preventing lens wear-related complications because of the interdependence of the steps in lens care regime and their influence on lens system microbial contamination. Awareness of the patients' lens handling compliance as well as correct recognition of non-compliant behaviours is the basis for creating more targeted strategies for patient education. The aim of this study was to investigate compliance among soft contact lens (SCL) wearers in ...

  16. Contractual considerations in contact lens practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Classé, J G

    1986-03-01

    The use of forms in contact lens practice can save time, promote patient education, and reduce the opportunity for legal or economic disputes. The most commonly employed forms are those for contact lens fitting agreements, instructions for care and maintenance of lenses, prepaid service agreements, clinical investigations of investigatory lenses or solutions, and for extended wear patients. Sample forms are utilized for purposes of illustration.

  17. Persistence of contact allergy among Danish adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, N H; Linneberg, A; Menné, T

    2001-01-01

    , the persistence of allergic contact sensitivity, defined as 1 or more positive patch tests in both surveys, was 71% (37 out of 52 subjects). Nickel allergy persisted in 79% (19 out of 24 subjects), while 60% (21 out of 35 subjects) had a positive patch test reaction to 1 or more allergens, other than nickel...... at least 1 positive patch test. Nickel allergy persisted in 79%. Allergen avoidance should probably be lifelong to prevent elicitation of contact dermatitis....

  18. Allergic contact dermatitis caused by dorzolamide eyedrops

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Seung-Jun; Kim, Moosang

    2015-01-01

    Seung-Jun Lee, Moosang KimDepartment of Ophthalmology, School of Medicine, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon, KoreaAbstract: The side effects of topical dorzolamide hydrochloride, such as conjunctivitis, eyelid edema, and eye lid irritation, are well known. However, allergic contact dermatitis due to dorzolamide is rare, although the product has been commonly used worldwide in patients with glaucoma. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of allergic contact dermatitis ca...

  19. A Continuous Approach of the Contact Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petre P.Teodorescu

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Ther paper is devoted to the analysis of a sonic composite under dynamic contact with friction loading, by using LISA (local interaction simulation approach. LISA is an an efficient tool for the numerical simulation of the acoustic wave propagation in heterogeneous material specimens, in particular those with sharp boundaries between different materials, like in sonic composites. Boundary conditions are introduced to contain contact interfaces with frictional slips.

  20. Moving contact lines on vibrating surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomenko, Zlatko; Spelt, Peter; Scott, Julian

    2017-11-01

    Large-scale simulations of flows with moving contact lines for realistic conditions generally requires a subgrid scale model (analyses based on matched asymptotics) to account for the unresolved part of the flow, given the large range of length scales involved near contact lines. Existing models for the interface shape in the contact-line region are primarily for steady flows on homogeneous substrates, with encouraging results in 3D simulations. Introduction of complexities would require further investigation of the contact-line region, however. Here we study flows with moving contact lines on planar substrates subject to vibrations, with applications in controlling wetting/dewetting. The challenge here is to determine the change in interface shape near contact lines due to vibrations. To develop further insight, 2D direct numerical simulations (wherein the flow is resolved down to an imposed slip length) have been performed to enable comparison with asymptotic theory, which is also developed further. Perspectives will also be presented on the final objective of the work, which is to develop a subgrid scale model that can be utilized in large-scale simulations. The authors gratefully acknowledge the ANR for financial support (ANR-15-CE08-0031) and the meso-centre FLMSN for use of computational resources. This work was Granted access to the HPC resources of CINES under the allocation A0012B06893 made by GENCI.

  1. Contact angle measurement with a smartphone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, H.; Muros-Cobos, Jesus L.; Amirfazli, A.

    2018-03-01

    In this study, a smartphone-based contact angle measurement instrument was developed. Compared with the traditional measurement instruments, this instrument has the advantage of simplicity, compact size, and portability. An automatic contact point detection algorithm was developed to allow the instrument to correctly detect the drop contact points. Two different contact angle calculation methods, Young-Laplace and polynomial fitting methods, were implemented in this instrument. The performance of this instrument was tested first with ideal synthetic drop profiles. It was shown that the accuracy of the new system with ideal synthetic drop profiles can reach 0.01% with both Young-Laplace and polynomial fitting methods. Conducting experiments to measure both static and dynamic (advancing and receding) contact angles with the developed instrument, we found that the smartphone-based instrument can provide accurate and practical measurement results as the traditional commercial instruments. The successful demonstration of use of a smartphone (mobile phone) to conduct contact angle measurement is a significant advancement in the field as it breaks the dominate mold of use of a computer and a bench bound setup for such systems since their appearance in 1980s.

  2. Contact angle measurement with a smartphone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, H; Muros-Cobos, Jesus L; Amirfazli, A

    2018-03-01

    In this study, a smartphone-based contact angle measurement instrument was developed. Compared with the traditional measurement instruments, this instrument has the advantage of simplicity, compact size, and portability. An automatic contact point detection algorithm was developed to allow the instrument to correctly detect the drop contact points. Two different contact angle calculation methods, Young-Laplace and polynomial fitting methods, were implemented in this instrument. The performance of this instrument was tested first with ideal synthetic drop profiles. It was shown that the accuracy of the new system with ideal synthetic drop profiles can reach 0.01% with both Young-Laplace and polynomial fitting methods. Conducting experiments to measure both static and dynamic (advancing and receding) contact angles with the developed instrument, we found that the smartphone-based instrument can provide accurate and practical measurement results as the traditional commercial instruments. The successful demonstration of use of a smartphone (mobile phone) to conduct contact angle measurement is a significant advancement in the field as it breaks the dominate mold of use of a computer and a bench bound setup for such systems since their appearance in 1980s.

  3. Microbial contamination of contact lens storage cases and domestic tap water of contact lens wearers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Üstüntürk, Miray; Zeybek, Zuhal

    2012-11-01

    Contact lenses have been widely used as an alternative to spectacles both in developed and developing countries. However, under certain circumstances, adverse responses can occur during contact lens wear and several microorganisms--including bacteria, fungi, and free living amoebae--can cause several eye infections in wearers. Extended wear of contact lenses is the major risk factor of eye infections such as microbial keratitis, besides contaminated contact lens storage case, contaminated lens care solutions, and inaccurate contact lens handling. In this study, we collected contact lens storage case and domestic tap water samples from 50 asymptomatic contact lens wearers. We determined that total aerobic mesophilic bacteria were isolated in 45 (90 %), Gram negative rod bacteria were isolated in 20 (40 %), Pseudomonas spp. were isolated in 2 (4 %) and fungi were isolated in 18 (36 %) out of 50 contact lens storage cases. Free living amoebae were not detected in investigated contact lens storage cases. At the same time, out of 50, total aerobic mesophilic bacteria were isolated in 34 (68 %), fungi were isolated in 15 (30 %) and free living amoebae were isolated in 15 (30 %) domestic tap water samples. No Gram-negative rod bacteria and Pseudomonas spp. were detected in investigated water samples. Two contact lens case samples and two tap water samples were excluded from the analysis for Pseudomonas spp. for technical reasons. According to our findings, inadequate contact lens maintenance during lens wear may result in the contamination of contact lens storage cases. This situation can lead to severe eye infections in contact lens wearers over time.

  4. [Eye contact effects: A therapeutic issue?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltazar, M; Conty, L

    2016-12-01

    The perception of a direct gaze - that is, of another individual's gaze directed at the observer that leads to eye contact - is known to influence a wide range of cognitive processes and behaviors. We stress that these effects mainly reflect positive impacts on human cognition and may thus be used as relevant tools for therapeutic purposes. In this review, we aim (1) to provide an exhaustive review of eye contact effects while discussing the limits of the dominant models used to explain these effects, (2) to illustrate the therapeutic potential of eye contact by targeting those pathologies that show both preserved gaze processing and deficits in one or several functions that are targeted by the eye contact effects, and (3) to propose concrete ways in which eye contact could be employed as a therapeutic tool. (1) We regroup the variety of eye contact effects into four categories, including memory effects, activation of prosocial behavior, positive appraisals of self and others and the enhancement of self-awareness. We emphasize that the models proposed to account for these effects have a poor predictive value and that further descriptions of these effects is needed. (2) We then emphasize that people with pathologies that affect memory, social behavior, and self and/or other appraisal, and self-awareness could benefit from eye contact effects. We focus on depression, autism and Alzheimer's disease to illustrate our proposal. To our knowledge, no anomaly of eye contact has been reported in depression. Patients suffering from Alzheimer disease, at the early and moderate stage, have been shown to maintain a normal amount of eye contact with their interlocutor. We take into account that autism is controversial regarding whether gaze processing is preserved or altered. In the first view, individuals are thought to elude or omit gazing at another's eyes while in the second, individuals are considered to not be able to process the gaze of others. We adopt the first stance

  5. How to measure separation and angles between inter-molecular fluorescent markers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flyvbjerg, Henrik

    Structure and function of an individual biomolecule can be explored with minimum two fluorescent markers of different colors. Since the light of such markers can be spec- trally separated and imaged simultaneously, the markers can be colocalized. Here, we describe the method used for such two......-color colocalization microscopy. Then we extend it to fluorescent markers with fixed orientations and in intramolecular proximity. Our benchmarking of this extension produced two extra results: (a) we established short double-labeled DNA molecules as probes of 3D orientation of anything to which one can attach them...

  6. Definition and detection of contact in atomistic simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Solhjoo, Soheil; Vakis, Antonis I.

    2015-01-01

    In atomistic simulations, contact depends on the accurate detection of contacting atoms as well as their contact area. While it is common to define contact between atoms based on the so-called ‘contact distance’ where the interatomic potential energy reaches its minimum, this discounts, for example,

  7. Gas fireplace contact burns in young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zettel, Julie C; Khambalia, Amina; Barden, Wendy; Murthy, Trisha; Macarthur, Colin

    2004-01-01

    Contact burns from domestic appliances are common in young children. Recently, gas fireplaces have been recognized as a potential cause of contact burns in young children. We sought to quantify the frequency of gas fireplace contact burns in young children, to identify the etiology of contact, to describe the clinical presentation, and to describe clinical outcomes. Children with gas fireplace contact burn injuries presenting to The Hospital for Sick Children in Toronto (1999-2002) were identified using three data sources: the Canadian Hospitals Injury Reporting and Prevention Program Database, the Burn Unit Registry, and the Rehabilitation Services Database. Demographic, clinical, and outcomes data were collected on all children. During the 4-year study period, 27 children presented to the hospital because of a gas fireplace contact burn (approximately 9% of all contact burns). The median age of the children was 14 months (range, 8-36 months), with 16 boys (59%). Most children were burned in their own home. With regard to etiology, 10 children (37%) lost their balance near the fireplace, 2 (7%) walked too close to the glass front, and 8 (30%) touched the glass front out of curiosity. Almost half (44%) of the children burned the palms and digits of both hands. The median total burn surface area was 1% (range, 0.2-2.5%). In total, 30% of children were admitted to hospital, and 11% required skin grafts. All children had full wound closure after 4 to 43 days. Given the etiology of these burns (loss of balance or curiosity), passive prevention, such as barriers or changes in the composition of glass panels, may be the most effective approach to combat them.

  8. Jet Fuel-Associated Occupational Contact Dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contestable, James J

    2017-03-01

    Occupational contact dermatitis is a ubiquitous problem. Sailors onboard U.S. Navy vessels are at high risk given the multitude of potential workplace exposures. Solvents, petrochemicals, and fuels are abundant and can cause irritant or allergic contact dermatitis. Symptoms of contact dermatitis can cause inability to work and, if chronic, may require a change in rating or job. Prevention of this issue requires patient education about the risks and correct personnel protective equipment. Even with preventative strategies in place, exposures and cases of contact dermatitis will occur. Treatment consists of topical steroids and immunomodulators, as well as barrier creams and emollients. The goal of treatment is to fully restore the skin's natural barrier and prevent further exposure. A classic case of jet fuel-associated contact dermatitis is reviewed. A literature review utilizing PubMed, Google Scholar, and Google Search was conducted to elucidate our understanding of this issue, current occupational health guidelines, preventative approaches, and treatments. This case report provides guidance and recommendations for providers who encounter contact dermatitis related to petrochemicals, such as jet fuel. The literature review revealed limited knowledge surrounding in vivo human skin effects of jet fuel, specifically JP-5. Even larger gaps were found in our understanding of, and guidelines for, protective modalities against jet fuel exposure and dermatitis. A case is presented to facilitate recognition of jet fuel contact dermatitis and guidance for treatment and prevention. Given our current limited knowledge and guidelines concerning protective equipment and skin protectants, multiple proposals for future studies are suggested. Reprint & Copyright © 2017 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  9. Contact dermatitis from Eriodictyon parryi: a novel cause of contact dermatitis in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czaplicki, Christopher D

    2013-09-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis caused by Eriodictyon parryi, better known as poodle-dog bush, is a growing cause of contact dermatitis in California. Blooming after a large fire, E parryi is a threat to reforestation workers as well as countless outdoor enthusiasts across the state. This paper focuses on the epidemiology, identification, immunochemistry, pathophysiology, prevention, and treatment of contact dermatitis from this little-researched plant. Copyright © 2013 Wilderness Medical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Contact Resistance Evolution and Degradation of Highly Cycled Micro-Contacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-27

    to predict accurate and complex calculations of circular and rectangular contact spreading resistances [17]. The method was to solve the three... mico -contact lasted twice as long as the the contacts with the softer Au as the cathode. On 96 the RuO2 10% the same conclusion can be drawn where the...Hoppe and W. Pilz, "Microfabrication of complex surface topographies using grey-tone lithography," Sensors and Actuators A: Physical, vol. 46, pp

  11. Prosthetic soft contact lenses in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanemoto, Masumi; Toshida, Hiroshi; Takahiro, Itagaki; Murakami, Akira

    2007-11-01

    To investigate the use of the prosthetic iris-tinted soft contact lens, the SEED Opaque, during the past 5 years. The records of 42 outpatients (48 eyes) for whom the prosthetic soft contact lens was prescribed in the contact lens clinic of Juntendo University Hospital from July 2001 to June 2005 were investigated. An investigation was conducted in regard to the tint patterns of the prosthetic soft contact lens and the presence or absence of a transparent part in the middle, as a brown iris with a clear pupil or a solid pupil. The diagnosis, purpose of prescription, age when that lens was prescribed, complications, and changes in corrected visual acuities were analyzed retrospectively from the medical records. The mean age at the first prescription, total number of years of wearing prosthetic contact lenses, total number of prescriptions, and mean period to use each SEED Opaque lens were compared. The mean age at the first prescription of solid-pupil lens wearers was significantly younger than that for clear-pupil lens wearers (Ppossible to adjust the color and size of the cosmetic part and the pupil diameter. Further, corrected visual acuities could improve with the clear-pupil type for patients who had prescribed for improvement of visual function.

  12. Surface coating for blood-contacting devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Ajit Kumar Balakrishnan

    The major problems always encountered with the blood-contacting surfaces are their compatibility, contact blood damage, and thrombogenicity. Titanium nitride (TiN) is a hard, inert, ceramic material that is widely used in the engineering industry. TiN has been proven to be a good biomaterial in its crystalline form, in orthopedic, and in tissue implant applications. This dissertation describes a method to coat amorphous TiN on the blood-contacting surfaces of certain medical devices using the room-temperature sputtering process and to characterize, to test, and to evaluate the coating for a reliable, durable, and compatible blood-contacting surface The blood-compatibility aspects were evaluated with standard, established protocols and procedures to prove the feasibility. An amorphous TiN coating is developed, characterized, tested, and blood compatibility evaluated by applying to the blood-contacting surfaces of stainless steel, catheters, and blood filters. The flexibility characteristics were proven by applying it to the diaphragms of the pulsatile pneumatic ventricular assist device. The results show that amorphous titanium nitride is flexible and adherent to polymeric substrates like polyurethane and polyester. Blood compatibility evaluation showed comparable results with catheters and superior behavior with stainless steel and polyester filters. It is concluded that amorphous titanium nitride can be considered to be applied to the surfaces of some of the medical devices in order to improve blood compatibility.

  13. The Contact Dynamics method: A nonsmooth story

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, Frédéric; Acary, Vincent; Jean, Michel

    2018-03-01

    When velocity jumps are occurring, the dynamics is said to be nonsmooth. For instance, in collections of contacting rigid bodies, jumps are caused by shocks and dry friction. Without compliance at the interface, contact laws are not only non-differentiable in the usual sense but also multi-valued. Modeling contacting bodies is of interest in order to understand the behavior of numerous mechanical systems such as flexible multi-body systems, granular materials or masonry. These granular materials behave puzzlingly either like a solid or a fluid and a description in the frame of classical continuous mechanics would be welcome though far to be satisfactory nowadays. Jean-Jacques Moreau greatly contributed to convex analysis, functions of bounded variations, differential measure theory, sweeping process theory, definitive mathematical tools to deal with nonsmooth dynamics. He converted all these underlying theoretical ideas into an original nonsmooth implicit numerical method called Contact Dynamics (CD); a robust and efficient method to simulate large collections of bodies with frictional contacts and impacts. The CD method offers a very interesting complementary alternative to the family of smoothed explicit numerical methods, often called Distinct Elements Method (DEM). In this paper developments and improvements of the CD method are presented together with a critical comparative review of advantages and drawbacks of both approaches. xml:lang="fr"

  14. Non-compliance in contact lens wear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claydon, B E; Efron, N

    1994-10-01

    Non-compliance is emerging as a critical issue in the contact lens field. This problem has been studied at depth in general health care situations and is seen as the responsibility of both practitioner and patient (client) working in a health care partnership. The contact lens practitioner and patient present a specific case for the study of non-compliance in areas such as hygiene, solution use, appointment attendance and wearing times. From 40 to 91% of contact lens patients have been reported as non-complaint in the use of recommended care and maintenance regimens and many of these are confused or ignorant about their behaviour. In order to arrive at a general set of conclusions from the studies published to date, it is important to understand the methodology of each study, it purpose, the definition of non-compliance used and the way the results were analysed and described. This review summarizes the research into non-compliance in the contact lens field to data. A set of general conclusions is drawn and a model for compliance in the context of contact lens practice is proposed.

  15. Contact engineering for nano-scale CMOS

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2012-09-10

    High performance computation with longer battery lifetime is an essential component in our today\\'s digital electronics oriented life. To achieve these goals, field effect transistors based complementary metal oxide semiconductor play the key role. One of the critical requirements of transistor structure and fabrication is efficient contact engineering. To catch up with high performance information processing, transistors are going through continuous scaling process. However, it also imposes new challenges to integrate good contact materials in a small area. This can be counterproductive as smaller area results in higher contact resistance thus reduced performance for the transistor itself. At the same time, discovery of new one or two-dimensional materials like nanowire, nanotube, or atomic crystal structure materials, introduces new set of challenges and opportunities. In this paper, we are reviewing them in a synchronized fashion: fundamentals of contact engineering, evolution into non-planar field effect transistors, opportunities and challenges with one and two-dimensional materials and a new opportunity of contact engineering from device architecture perspective. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Power operated contact apparatus for superconductive circuit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woods, D.C.; Efferson, K.R.

    1989-10-10

    This patent describes a power operated contact apparatus for extending and retracting one or more electrical leads into and out of a cryostat for making and breaking, at a cryogenic temperature, electrical contact with a superconductive circuit. It comprises at least one rigid elongated lead for extending into a cold space of the cryostat which is at or near a cryogenic temperature. The lead having an inner end and a outer end; a connector fixed at the inner end of the lead for making electrical contact in the cold space with a connector of the superconductive circuit; guide means journaling the lead for allowing the lead to move axially relative to the guide means and sealing against the lead; a foundation for sealed attachment to the cryostat and to the guide means so that the connector on the inner end of the lead is extendable into making electrical contact with the connector of the superconductive circuit in the cold space; power operated means mounted on the foundation and fixed to the outer end of the lead for extending and retracting the lead to and from making electrical contact with the superconductive circuit in the cold space; and means for de-icing the exterior of the leads and guide means when the leads are connected to the superconducting circuit.

  17. Examining Citizens’ Contact to Local Public Institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florina Bente

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective - This study aims to explore the communication process within local public administration as a determinant of citizens` satisfaction. Prior work - Several authors had examined if having contact with certain service providers will affect people’s attitudes toward the service quality, but the researchers have not focused yet on the effect of citizens` contact to local authorities on satisfaction. Approach - This research seeks to address this field using an exploratory approach. Following a quantitative methodological approach, a survey was applied to a sample of 380 citizens within Western Romanian. Findings - By analyzing data it was possible to determine citizen satisfaction and to assess its relationship with costumer contact. In addition it was revealed that in Crisana Region city hall is the most frequented local public institution. Implications – The results showed a negative effect of frequency of access to local authorities on overall customer satisfaction. The effect of citizens` contact to local authorities received less attention from the academic researchers, as a need in the literature is to expand this field. Value - This research is the first to specifically examine the contact to local authorities and the effect of frequency of addressing on citizen satisfaction within Crisana Region.

  18. Airborne chemicals cause respiratory symptoms in individuals with contact allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elberling, J; Linneberg, A; Mosbech, H

    2005-01-01

    Exposure to fragrance chemicals causes various eye and airway symptoms. Individuals with perfume contact allergy report these symptoms more frequently than individuals with nickel allergy or no contact allergies. However, the associations between contact allergy and respiratory symptoms elicited...

  19. Proposed ICDRG Classification of the Clinical Presentation of Contact Allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pongpairoj, Korbkarn; Ale, Iris; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    2016-01-01

    The International Contact Dermatitis Research Group proposes a classification for the clinical presentation of contact allergy. The classification is based primarily on the mode of clinical presentation. The categories are direct exposure/contact dermatitis, mimicking or exacerbation of preexisting...

  20. Contact and contagion: Probability of transmission given contact varies with demographic state in bighorn sheep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manlove, Kezia R.; Cassirer, E. Frances; Plowright, Raina K.; Cross, Paul C.; Hudson, Peter J.

    2017-01-01

    Understanding both contact and probability of transmission given contact are key to managing wildlife disease. However, wildlife disease research tends to focus on contact heterogeneity, in part because the probability of transmission given contact is notoriously difficult to measure. Here, we present a first step towards empirically investigating the probability of transmission given contact in free-ranging wildlife.We used measured contact networks to test whether bighorn sheep demographic states vary systematically in infectiousness or susceptibility to Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae, an agent responsible for bighorn sheep pneumonia.We built covariates using contact network metrics, demographic information and infection status, and used logistic regression to relate those covariates to lamb survival. The covariate set contained degree, a classic network metric describing node centrality, but also included covariates breaking the network metrics into subsets that differentiated between contacts with yearlings, ewes with lambs, and ewes without lambs, and animals with and without active infections.Yearlings, ewes with lambs, and ewes without lambs showed similar group membership patterns, but direct interactions involving touch occurred at a rate two orders of magnitude higher between lambs and reproductive ewes than between any classes of adults or yearlings, and one order of magnitude higher than direct interactions between multiple lambs.Although yearlings and non-reproductive bighorn ewes regularly carried M. ovipneumoniae, our models suggest that a contact with an infected reproductive ewe had approximately five times the odds of producing a lamb mortality event of an identical contact with an infected dry ewe or yearling. Consequently, management actions targeting infected animals might lead to unnecessary removal of young animals that carry pathogens but rarely transmit.This analysis demonstrates a simple logistic regression approach for testing

  1. Contact and contagion: Probability of transmission given contact varies with demographic state in bighorn sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manlove, Kezia R; Cassirer, E Frances; Plowright, Raina K; Cross, Paul C; Hudson, Peter J

    2017-07-01

    Understanding both contact and probability of transmission given contact are key to managing wildlife disease. However, wildlife disease research tends to focus on contact heterogeneity, in part because the probability of transmission given contact is notoriously difficult to measure. Here, we present a first step towards empirically investigating the probability of transmission given contact in free-ranging wildlife. We used measured contact networks to test whether bighorn sheep demographic states vary systematically in infectiousness or susceptibility to Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae, an agent responsible for bighorn sheep pneumonia. We built covariates using contact network metrics, demographic information and infection status, and used logistic regression to relate those covariates to lamb survival. The covariate set contained degree, a classic network metric describing node centrality, but also included covariates breaking the network metrics into subsets that differentiated between contacts with yearlings, ewes with lambs, and ewes without lambs, and animals with and without active infections. Yearlings, ewes with lambs, and ewes without lambs showed similar group membership patterns, but direct interactions involving touch occurred at a rate two orders of magnitude higher between lambs and reproductive ewes than between any classes of adults or yearlings, and one order of magnitude higher than direct interactions between multiple lambs. Although yearlings and non-reproductive bighorn ewes regularly carried M. ovipneumoniae, our models suggest that a contact with an infected reproductive ewe had approximately five times the odds of producing a lamb mortality event of an identical contact with an infected dry ewe or yearling. Consequently, management actions targeting infected animals might lead to unnecessary removal of young animals that carry pathogens but rarely transmit. This analysis demonstrates a simple logistic regression approach for testing a priori

  2. Sensitivity of medial and lateral knee contact force predictions to frontal plane alignment and contact locations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saliba, Christopher M; Brandon, Scott C E; Deluzio, Kevin J

    2017-05-24

    Musculoskeletal models are increasingly used to estimate medial and lateral knee contact forces, which are difficult to measure in vivo. The sensitivity of contact force predictions to modeling parameters is important to the interpretation and implication of results generated by the model. The purpose of this study was to quantify the sensitivity of knee contact force predictions to simultaneous errors in frontal plane knee alignment and contact locations under different dynamic conditions. We scaled a generic musculoskeletal model for N=23 subjects' stature and radiographic knee alignment, then perturbed frontal plane alignment and mediolateral contact locations within experimentally-possible ranges of 10° to -10° and 10 to -10mm, respectively. The sensitivity of first peak, second peak, and mean medial and lateral knee contact forces to knee adduction angle and contact locations was modeled using linear regression. Medial loads increased, and lateral loads decreased, by between 3% and 6% bodyweight for each degree of varus perturbation. Shifting the medial contact point medially increased medial loads and decreased lateral loads by between 1% and 4% bodyweight per millimeter. This study demonstrates that realistic measurement errors of 5mm (contact distance) or 5° (frontal plane alignment) could result in a combined 50% BW error in subject specific contact force estimates. We also show that model sensitivity varies between subjects as a result of differences in gait dynamics. These results demonstrate that predicted knee joint contact forces should be considered as a range of possible values determined by model uncertainty. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. 5th Contact Mechanics International Symposium

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Contact mechanics is an active research area with deep theoretical and numerical roots. The links between nonsmooth analysis and optimization with mechanics have been investigated intensively during the last decades, especially in Europe. The study of complementarity problems, variational -, quasivariational- and hemivariational inequalities arising in contact mechanics and beyond is a hot topic for interdisciplinary research and cooperation. The needs of industry for robust solution algorithms suitable for large scale applications and the regular updates of the respective elements in major commercial computational mechanics codes, demonstrate that this interaction is not restricted to the academic environment. The contributions of this book have been selected from the participants of the CMIS 2009 international conference which took place in Crete and continued a successful series of specialized contact mechanics conferences.

  4. Disposable contact lenses in penetrating keratoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, R; Gupta, S; Taneja, M; Raina, U K; Mehta, D K

    2000-07-01

    To evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of disposable contact lenses in management of complications after keratoplasty. Twenty-eight patients with various post keratoplasty complications were fit with disposable contact lenses (45% Vifilcon A and 55% water content). Indications for lens use included persistent epithelial defects, wound leak, graft edema, dry eye and protection of normal corneal epithelium. Success was obtained with the therapeutic use of disposable lenses in 20 of the 28 cases. The best results were seen in maintenance and restoration of healthy ocular surface and small wound leaks. Stromal graft edema with no epithelial involvement was the major area of therapeutic failure. Disposable contact lenses are an attractive low cost option in the management of complications after keratoplasty. They are particularly useful in maintaining a healthy ocular surface, providing symptomatic relief and avoiding resurgery in patients with small wound leaks.

  5. Contact stiffness of randomly rough surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohrt, Roman; Popov, Valentin L

    2013-11-21

    We investigate the contact stiffness of an elastic half-space and a rigid indenter with randomly rough surface having a power spectrum C2D(q)proportional q(-2H-2), where q is the wave vector. The range of H[symbol: see text] is studied covering a wide range of roughness types from white noise to smooth single asperities. At low forces, the contact stiffness is in all cases a power law function of the normal force with an exponent α. For H > 2, the simple Hertzian behavior is observed . In the range of 0 dimensional contact mechanics and the method of dimensionality reduction (MDR). The influence of the long wavelength roll-off is investigated and discussed.

  6. Steel surface modifications in magnetised sliding contact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paulmier, D. [CNRS, 54 - Vandoeuvre les Nancy (France). Lab. de Physique et Mecanique des Materiaux; Zaidi, H. [CNRS, 54 - Vandoeuvre les Nancy (France). Lab. de Physique et Mecanique des Materiaux; Bedri, R. [CNRS, 54 - Vandoeuvre les Nancy (France). Lab. de Physique et Mecanique des Materiaux; Kadiri, E.K. [CNRS, 54 - Vandoeuvre les Nancy (France). Lab. de Physique et Mecanique des Materiaux; Pan, L. [Beijing Metall. Management Inst. (China); Jiang, Q. [Beijing Metall. Management Inst. (China)

    1995-12-01

    Modifications in the mechanical properties of a ferromagnetic steel surface in sliding contact under the influence of a d.c. magnetic field were investigated. A magnetic field was applied to the steel pin, remaining constant during each test. Experiments were conducted at ambient temperature under different applied normal loads, sliding velocities and magnetic field ensities. Experimental results show that at ambient temperature the application of a magnetic field decreases the fluctuations in the friction coefficient and wear rate and increases the microhardness of the sliding surfaces. The dislocation density increases in the thin coating of the magnetised sliding contact erface. A simple model for the agglomeration of dislocations on the sliding contact is proposed. The results were erpreted by observation and analysis of the surface. Optical microscopy shows that when a magnetic field was applied the sliding surface was covered with thin black particles. The magnetic field promoted the oxidation of the surface. (orig.)

  7. Rapidly moving contact lines and damping contributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Yi; Daniel, Susan; Steen, Paul

    2017-11-01

    Contact angle varies dynamically with contact line (CL) speed when a liquid moves across a solid support, as when a liquid spreads rapidly. For sufficiently rapid spreading, inertia competes with capillarity to influence the interface shape near the support. We use resonant-mode plane-normal support oscillations of droplets to drive lateral contact-line motion. Reynolds numbers based on CL speeds are high and capillary numbers are low. These are inertial-capillary motions. By scanning the driving frequency, we locate the frequency at peak amplification (resonance), obtain the scaled peak height (amplification factor) and a measure of band-width (damping ratio). We report how a parameter for CL mobility depends on these scanning metrics, with the goal of distinguishing contributions from the bulk- and CL-dissipation to overall damping.

  8. Acanthamoeba keratitis and contact lens wear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Richard G; Watters, Grant; Johnson, Richard; Ormonde, Susan E; Snibson, Grant R

    2007-09-01

    Acanthamoeba keratitis is a rare but serious complication of contact lens wear that may cause severe visual loss. The clinical picture is usually characterised by severe pain, sometimes disproportionate to the signs, with an early superficial keratitis that is often misdiagnosed as herpes simplex virus (HSV) keratitis. Advanced stages of the infection are usually characterised by central corneal epithelial loss and marked stromal opacification with subsequent loss of vision. In this paper, six cases of contact lens-related Acanthamoeba keratitis that occurred in Australia and New Zealand over a three-year period are described. Three of the patients were disposable soft lens wearers, two were hybrid lens wearers and one was a rigid gas permeable lens wearer. For all six cases, the risk factors for Acanthamoeba keratitis were contact lens wear with inappropriate or ineffective lens maintenance and exposure of the contact lenses to tap or other sources of water. All six patients responded well to medical therapy that involved topical use of appropriate therapeutic agents, most commonly polyhexamethylene biguanide and propamidine isethionate, although two of the patients also subsequently underwent deep lamellar keratoplasty due to residual corneal surface irregularity and stromal scarring. Despite the significant advances that have been made in the medical therapy of Acanthamoeba keratitis over the past 10 years, prevention remains the best treatment and patients who wear contact lenses must be thoroughly educated about the proper use and care of the lenses. In particular, exposure of the contact lenses to tap water or other sources of water should be avoided.

  9. Fungal Infections From Human and Animal Contact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis J. Baumgardner

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Fungal infections in humans resulting from human or animal contact are relatively uncommon, but they include a significant proportion of dermatophyte infections. Some of the most commonly encountered diseases of the integument are dermatomycoses. Human or animal contact may be the source of all types of tinea infections, occasional candidal infections, and some other types of superficial or deep fungal infections. This narrative review focuses on the epidemiology, clinical features, diagnosis and treatment of anthropophilic dermatophyte infections primarily found in North America. Other human-acquired and zoonotic fungal infections also are discussed in brief.

  10. Contact allergy in children with atopic dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, A. B.; Johansen, J. D.; Deleuran, M.

    2017-01-01

    The importance of contact allergy in children with atopic dermatitis is frequently debated. Previously, patients with atopic dermatitis were believed to have a reduced ability to produce a type IV immunological response. However, this belief has been challenged and authors have highlighted the risk...... frequencies of positive patch test reactions in children with atopic dermatitis. We identified 436 manuscripts of which 31 met the inclusion criteria. Although the literature is conflicting, it is evident that contact allergy is a common problem in children with atopic dermatitis....

  11. Sterilization potential of contact lens solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dada Vijay

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available In a dynamic field of Contact Lens Solutions maintenance of high standards of anti-microbial activity is a must Resterilization Activity Time′ is a universally accepted yardstick for such an evaluation. In this study eight brands of indigenous popular solutions alongwith two FDA approved solutions were tested for their sterilization efficacy: Standardized suspensions of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Candida albicans and Aspergillus fumigatus were used for the purpose. It was observed that the contact lens solutions available ir, the domestic market were not upto the mark Suggestions for improvement have also been made.

  12. Modern scleral contact lenses : a review

    OpenAIRE

    van der Worp, Eef; Bornman, Dina; Ferreira, Daniela Lopes; Ribeiro, Miguel Faria; Garcia-Porta, Nery; González-Méijome, José Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Scleral contact lenses (ScCL) have gained renewed interest during the last decade. Originally, they wereprimarily used for severely compromised eyes. Corneal ectasia and exposure conditions were the primaryindications. However, the indication range of ScCL in contact lens practices seems to be expanding, andit now increasingly includes less severe and even non-compromised eyes, too.All lenses that partly or entirely rest on the sclera are included under the name ScCL in this paper;although th...

  13. Local address and emergency contact details

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    The HR Department would like to remind members of the personnel that they are responsible for ensuring that their personal data concerning local address and preferred emergency contact details remains valid and up-to-date.   Both are easily accessible via the links below: Local address: https://edh.cern.ch/Document/Personnel/LocalAddressChange   Emergency contacts: https://edh.cern.ch/Document/Personnel/EC   Please take a few minutes to check your details and modify if necessary. Thank you in advance. HR Department Head Office

  14. Expatriate contact with a local host

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Bakel, Marian; van Oudenhoven, Jan Pieter; Gerritsen, Marinel

    2017-01-01

    Social capital is a crucial factor for expatriates to employ as they cope with the demands of an international assignment. This longitudinal study used a mixed method approach to examine the social support benefits of expatriate contact with a local host. Western expatriates in the Netherlands were...... a host. This study shows that HRD professionals may develop the social capital of expatriates by bringing them into contact with a local host, which can produce more social support from host nationals. Increased social capital may lead to a higher performance at both the individual and organisational...

  15. Resistance switching in silver - manganite contacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez-Marlasca, F; Levy, P

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the electric pulse induced resistance switching in a transition metal oxide-metal contact at room temperature - a non volatile, reversible and multilevel memory device. Using a simple multiterminal configuration, we find that the complementary effect -in which the contact resistance of each pulsed electrode displays variations of opposite sign- is strongly influenced by the history of the pulsing procedure. Loops performed by varying the magnitude and sign of the stimulus at each pulsed electrode allow to disentangle their sole contribution at different stages of the process. Electromigration of oxygen ions and vacancies is discussed as participating at the core of the underlying mechanisms for resistance switching.

  16. Spreading depression analysis of contact behaviour of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikal, K

    1977-08-01

    Social contact behaviour induced by spreading cortical depression was studied in rats. The controls looked for and remained in contact, whereas between the rats with spreading cortical depression and their other partners there was no contact. This phenomenon is due mainly to the absence of an active urge for contact. The contact behaviour of rats is evidently controlled by the cerebral cortex or by subcortical areas of the brain which are inhibited after the elicitation of spreading depression. The experiments show that the contact behaviour of rats has at least two components - an active urge for contact and passive tolerance of contact.

  17. Contact Lens Use in the Civil Airman Population

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nakagawara, Van

    2002-01-01

    ...) aeromedical certificate. Although contact lens technology has advanced dramatically in recent years, the aviation environment may still have adverse effects on contact lens performance in some flight situations...

  18. Totally Contact Umbilical Lightlike Hypersurfaces of Indefinite -Manifolds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachna Rani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We study totally contact umbilical lightlike hypersurfaces of indefinite -manifolds and prove the nonexistence of totally contact umbilical lightlike hypersurface in indefinite -space form.

  19. The Touch "Taboo" and the Art of Contact: An Exploration of Contact Improvisation for Prisoners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston, Sara

    2009-01-01

    The article examines the experience of participating in Contact Improvisation by male prisoners. It specifically focuses on issues of touch for this participant group and how inmates can learn different ways of acting from acquiring Contact skills, contributing to their rehabilitation. The paper looks at the culture in prisons that propagates a…

  20. Bias dependent specic contact resistance of phase change material to metal contacts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roy, Deepu; in 't Zandt, Micha; Wolters, Robertus A.M.

    2010-01-01

    Knowledge of contact resistance of phase change materials (PCM) to metal electrodes is important for scaling, device modeling and optimization of phase change random access memory (PCRAM) cells. In this article, we report the systematic determination of the speci_c contact resistance (_c) with

  1. Equal Status Contact and Modification of Racial Prejudice: A Re-examination of the Contact Hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Jerry W.; Preston, James D.

    1976-01-01

    Concludes that many interracial contact situations that are perceived as being of equal status by whites are not perceived in the same manner by blacks, suggesting a modification of the traditional equal status contact hypothesis as well as having direct implications for policy making in school desegregation. (Author/AM)

  2. FreeContact: fast and free software for protein contact prediction from residue co-evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaján, László; Hopf, Thomas A; Kalaš, Matúš; Marks, Debora S; Rost, Burkhard

    2014-03-26

    20 years of improved technology and growing sequences now renders residue-residue contact constraints in large protein families through correlated mutations accurate enough to drive de novo predictions of protein three-dimensional structure. The method EVfold broke new ground using mean-field Direct Coupling Analysis (EVfold-mfDCA); the method PSICOV applied a related concept by estimating a sparse inverse covariance matrix. Both methods (EVfold-mfDCA and PSICOV) are publicly available, but both require too much CPU time for interactive applications. On top, EVfold-mfDCA depends on proprietary software. Here, we present FreeContact, a fast, open source implementation of EVfold-mfDCA and PSICOV. On a test set of 140 proteins, FreeContact was almost eight times faster than PSICOV without decreasing prediction performance. The EVfold-mfDCA implementation of FreeContact was over 220 times faster than PSICOV with negligible performance decrease. EVfold-mfDCA was unavailable for testing due to its dependency on proprietary software. FreeContact is implemented as the free C++ library "libfreecontact", complete with command line tool "freecontact", as well as Perl and Python modules. All components are available as Debian packages. FreeContact supports the BioXSD format for interoperability. FreeContact provides the opportunity to compute reliable contact predictions in any environment (desktop or cloud).

  3. New antimony(III) halide complexes with dithiocarbamate ligands derived from thiuram degradation: The effect of the molecule's close contacts on in vitro cytotoxic activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urgut, O.S. [Department of Chemistry, Namık Kemal University, 59030, Tekirdag (Turkey); Ozturk, I.I., E-mail: iiozturk@nku.edu.tr [Department of Chemistry, Namık Kemal University, 59030, Tekirdag (Turkey); Banti, C.N., E-mail: cbanti@cc.uoi.gr [Section of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, University of Ioannina, 45110 Ioannina (Greece); Kourkoumelis, N., E-mail: nkourkou@uoi.gr [Medical Physics Laboratory, Medical School, University of Ioannina, Ioannina, 45110 (Greece); Manoli, M.; Tasiopoulos, A.J. [Department of Chemistry, University of Cyprus, Nicosia (Cyprus); Hadjikakou, S.K., E-mail: shadjika@uoi.gr [Section of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, University of Ioannina, 45110 Ioannina (Greece)

    2016-01-01

    abstract: The in vitro cytotoxic activity of 1–3 against human adenocarcinoma cells: breast (MCF-7) and cervix (HeLa) cells and non-cancerous cells: MRC-5 (normal human fetal lung fibroblast cells) was evaluated with trypan blue (TB) and sulforhodamine B (SRB) assays. Among antimony(III) compounds with sulfur containing ligand, those of dithiocarbamates exhibit significant cytotoxic activity. Hirshfeld surface volumes were analyzed to clarify the nature of the intermolecular interactions by the 2D fingerprint plot. Molecules with lower H-all atoms inter-molecular interactions exhibit the higher activity against MCF-7 cells. The in vivo genotoxicity of 1–3 was evaluated by the mean of Allium cepa test. Alterations in the mitotic index values due to the chromosomal aberrations were observed in the case of complexes 2 and 3. Since, no such alteration caused by 1 makes this compound candidate for further study as potential drug. - Highlights: • antimony chemistry • Structure–activity relationship. • Correlation of the log(IC50) of the materials against MCF-7 cells versus the close contacts of all inside elements with the outside hydrogen atoms.

  4. Contact activation of blood-plasma coagulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golas, Avantika

    Surface engineering of biomaterials with improved hemocompatibility is an imperative, given the widespread global need for cardiovascular devices. Research summarized in this dissertation focuses on contact activation of FXII in buffer and blood plasma frequently referred to as autoactivation. The extant theory of contact activation imparts FXII autoactivation ability to negatively charged, hydrophilic surfaces. According to this theory, contact activation of plasma involves assembly of proteins comprising an "activation complex" on activating surfaces mediated by specific chemical interactions between complex proteins and the surface. This work has made key discoveries that significantly improve our core understanding of contact activation and unravel the existing paradigm of plasma coagulation. It is shown herein that contact activation of blood factor XII (FXII, Hageman factor) in neat-buffer solution exhibits a parabolic profile when scaled as a function of silanized-glass-particle activator surface energy (measured as advancing water adhesion tension t°a=g° Iv costheta in dyne/cm, where g°Iv is water interfacial tension in dyne/cm and theta is the advancing contact angle). Nearly equal activation is observed at the extremes of activator water-wetting properties --36 < t°a < 72 dyne/cm (O° ≤ theta < 120°), falling sharply through a broad minimum within the 20 < t°a < 40 dyne/cm (55° < theta < 75°). Furthermore, contact activation of FXII in buffer solution produces an ensemble of protein fragments exhibiting either procoagulant properties in plasma (proteolysis of blood factor XI or prekallikrein), amidolytic properties (cleavage of s-2302 chromogen), or the ability to suppress autoactivation through currently unknown biochemistry. The relative proportions of these fragments depend on activator surface chemistry/energy. We have also discovered that contact activation is moderated by adsorption of plasma proteins unrelated to coagulation through an

  5. Simulation Study of AC Contactor Dynamic Contacts Contact Pressure Based on ADAMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gu Yungao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A multi-body dynamics simulation model of CJ20-25 AC contactor was established with Pro/E(Pro/Engineerin this paper. A coupling simulation with machine, electric, magnetic on the contactor has been achieved in this model. Dynamic parameters which were called use the secondary development technology of ADAMS. The dynamic contact pressure signal of an AC contactor was obtained with ADAMS’s own simultaneous solution such as electromagnetic suction, kinematics and dynamics equations. The simulation results and actual measurement of contactor contact pressure signals are very similar. However, the complexity of the measured contacts vibration is greater than the simulation results because the actual working condition is more complex. This result provides a theoretical foundation to the dynamic contacts contact pressure test.

  6. Contact angle and contact angle hysteresis measurements using the capillary bridge technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restagno, Frédéric; Poulard, Christophe; Cohen, Céline; Vagharchakian, Laurianne; Léger, Liliane

    2009-09-15

    A new experimental technique is proposed to easily measure both advancing and receding contact angles of a liquid on a solid surface, with unprecedented accuracy. The technique is based on the analysis of the evolution of a capillary bridge formed between a liquid bath and a solid surface (which needs to be spherical) when the distance between the surface and the liquid bath is slowly varied. The feasibility of the technique is demonstrated using a low-energy perfluorinated surface with two different test liquids (water and hexadecane). A detailed description of both experimental procedures and computational modeling are given, allowing one to determine contact angle values. It is shown that the origin of the high accuracy of this technique relies on the fact that the contact angles are automatically averaged over the whole periphery of the contact. This method appears to be particularly adapted to the characterization of surfaces with very low contact angle hysteresis.

  7. Contact with turf algae alters the coral microbiome: contact versus systemic impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratte, Zoe A.; Longo, Guilherme O.; Burns, Andrew S.; Hay, Mark E.; Stewart, Frank J.

    2018-03-01

    Coral reefs are degrading to algae-dominated reefs worldwide, with alterations of coral microbiomes commonly co-occurring with reef demise. The severe thermal anomaly during the 2016 El Niño event in the South Pacific killed many corals and stressed others. We examined the microbiome of turf algae and of the coral Porites sp. in contact with turf during this thermal event to investigate algal turf effects on the coral microbiome during a period of environmental stress. The microbial composition of turf did not differ between coral-contacted and non-contacted turfs. However, microbiomes of corals in direct contact with turf were similar to those of the turf microbiome, but differed significantly from coral portions 5 cm from the point of turf/coral contact and from portions of the coral that looked most healthy, regardless of location. Although the majority of significant differences occurred in coral samples at the point of contact, a small subset of microbial taxa was enriched in coral tissues taken 5 cm from turf contact compared to all other sample types, including samples from areas of the coral that appeared most healthy. These results suggest that the coral microbiome is susceptible to colonization by microbes from turf, but not vice versa. Results also suggest that algal contact elicits a subtle shift in the coral microbiome just beyond the contact site. The combination of turf microbiome stability and coral microbiome vulnerability at areas of contact may contribute to the continued decline in coral cover and increase in algal cover associated with coral-algae phase shifts.

  8. PRESSURE ANALYSIS AND FLUID CONTACT PREDICTION FOR ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As pressure data was not acquired in the water leg of the reservoir, pressure gradient analysis was done with the field-wide hydrostatic profile for contact and fluid prediction. Also, an evaluation of the possibility of having an oil rim within the region of fluid-type uncertainty was carried out. The predicted results revealed that ...

  9. Nigerian Journal of Animal Production: Contact

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Principal Contact. Dr. Olajide A.ADEYEMI Editor-in-Chief (NJAP) Department of Animal Production and Health Federal University of Agriulture. Department of Animal Production and Health. Federal University of Agriulture. PMB 2040, Aeokuta. Ogun State. Nigeria. Alternative Email: adeyemioa@funaab.edu.ng.

  10. Controlled contact to a C-60 molecule

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neel, N.; Kröger, J.; Limot, L.

    2007-01-01

    The tip of a low-temperature scanning tunneling microscope is approached towards a C-60 molecule adsorbed at a pentagon-hexagon bond on Cu(100) to form a tip-molecule contact. The conductance rapidly increases to approximate to 0.25 conductance quanta in the transition region from tunneling...... the tip-molecule distance....

  11. Predictive models for moving contact line flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rame, Enrique; Garoff, Stephen

    2003-01-01

    Modeling flows with moving contact lines poses the formidable challenge that the usual assumptions of Newtonian fluid and no-slip condition give rise to a well-known singularity. This singularity prevents one from satisfying the contact angle condition to compute the shape of the fluid-fluid interface, a crucial calculation without which design parameters such as the pressure drop needed to move an immiscible 2-fluid system through a solid matrix cannot be evaluated. Some progress has been made for low Capillary number spreading flows. Combining experimental measurements of fluid-fluid interfaces very near the moving contact line with an analytical expression for the interface shape, we can determine a parameter that forms a boundary condition for the macroscopic interface shape when Ca much les than l. This parameter, which plays the role of an "apparent" or macroscopic dynamic contact angle, is shown by the theory to depend on the system geometry through the macroscopic length scale. This theoretically established dependence on geometry allows this parameter to be "transferable" from the geometry of the measurement to any other geometry involving the same material system. Unfortunately this prediction of the theory cannot be tested on Earth.

  12. Nigerian Journal of Technological Research: Contact

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Principal Contact. Prof. OOA Fasanya Editor-in-Chief Federal University of Technology, Minna, Niger State, Nigeria Journal Office, Federal University of Technology, P.M.B. 65, Minna, Niger State, Nigeria Phone: +234 81313 45053. Email: njtrfutminna@gmail.com ...

  13. Contact | Information | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Contact information. For general queries. N. Maheshchandra Executive Secretary Indian Academy of Sciences Off. Tel.: 080 2266 1203. Mob: 09008032004. Fax: 080 2361 6094. Email: execsec@ias.ac.in. C. S. Ravikumar Assistant Executive Secretary Indian Academy of Sciences Off. Tel.: 080 2266 1207

  14. South African Journal of Philosophy: Contact

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Principal Contact. Prof Andrea Hurst Editor Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University (NMMU). South African Journal of Philosophy, Department of Philosophy, University of Fort Hare, 50 Church Street, East London 5201. Phone: +27 41 504 4848. Email: Andrea.Hurst@nmmu.ac.za ...

  15. Social Contact in Virtual Learning Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heilesen, Simon

    2013-01-01

    A common question is whether technology will replace social contact. In this article it is argued that it will not, provided that we learn to use the characteristics of new media constructively in designing for learning. The term “social”, in this context is taken to mean “purposeful communicatio...

  16. Coating with colloids by receding contact line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berteloot, Guillaume; Laurent, Limat; Francois, Lequeux; Pham, Chi-Tuong; Daerr, Adrian; Receveur, Mathieu

    2008-11-01

    Many coating processes use evaporation. But such coatings are usually inhomogeneous because of the evaporation singularity at the contact line. We are thus investigating the effect of this singularity on dip-coating. In dip-coating, two flows are in competition: one inwards due to the receding contact line, the other outwards due to evaporation, and the equiibrium of thes flows predicts the thicknes of the deposit. There are two dip-coating regimes: one controlled by evaporation, and the known Landau-Levich regime. A minimum deposit thickness is expected between these two regimes. Using different microscopy techniques, we found out that there was a minimum in the deposit thickness, but that the actual mesoscopic order strongly varies depending on the contact line velocity. In the stick-slip regime, we can also link the spatial frequency of the stick-slip motion with the contact line velocity. Eventually, the thinnest deposits exhibits iridescence, which means that we are close to a photonic cristal structure.

  17. Human water contact activities and associated urogenital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is much evidence that peoples' behaviour affects agents, host, and the environment and that behaviour can also either increase or decrease the risk of a disease. This study was conducted in a schistosomiasis-endemic area of Nkalagu in order to observe the different water-contact activities capable of promoting ...

  18. Adhesive contact of randomly rough surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastewka, Lars; Robbins, Mark

    2012-02-01

    The contact area, stiffness and adhesion between rigid, randomly rough surfaces and elastic substrates is studied using molecular statics and continuum simulations. The surfaces are self-affine with Hurst exponent 0.3 to 0.8 and different short λs and long λL wavelength cutoffs. The rms surface slope and the range and strength of the adhesive potential are also varied. For parameters typical of most solids, the effect of adhesion decreases as the ratio λL/λs increases. In particular, the pull-off force decreases to zero and the area of contact Ac becomes linear in the applied load L. A simple scaling argument is developed that describes the increase in the ratio Ac/L with increasing adhesion and a corresponding increase in the contact stiffness [1]. The argument also predicts a crossover to finite contact area at zero load when surfaces are exceptionally smooth or the ratio of surface tension to bulk modulus is unusually large, as for elastomers. Results that test this prediction will be presented and related to the Maugis-Dugdale [2] theories for individual asperities and the more recent scaling theory of Persson [3]. [1] Akarapu, Sharp, Robbins, Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 204301 (2011) [2] Maugis, J. Colloid Interface Sci. 150, 243 (1992) [3] Persson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 75420 (2006)

  19. International Tourism, Ethnic Contact, and Attitude Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amir, Yehuda; Ben-Ari, Rachel

    1985-01-01

    Evaluates a book about Egypt, designed to improve the ethnic attitudes of Israel tourists who were about to visit that country as a cognitive intervention. Reports that the intervention was successful only in moderating negative attitudinal changes, and that the intergroup contact provided by tourism does not guarantee positive attitude change.…

  20. Nigerian Journal of Nutritional Sciences: Contact

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Principal Contact. Dr. Folake Samuel Editor-in-Chief, Nigerian Journal of Nutritional Sciences Department of Human Nutrition Faculty of Public Health University of Ibadan Nigeria njns2013@gmail.com. Editor-in-Chief - NJNS. Department of Human Nutrition. Faculty of Public Health. University of Ibadan. Nigeria.

  1. Thermoelectric efficiency of nanowires in contact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akguc, Gursoy B.

    2018-02-01

    Divergence of density of state near Fermi level at low dimensional systems helps to increase efficiency of thermoelectric materials. It is shown here two contacting nanowires in the middle results in electron conduction resonances that enhance the efficiency of overall thermoelectric output of the system. A non-linear response approach as well as efficiency at max power are necessary ingredients for the analysis.

  2. South African Journal of Higher Education: Contact

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Principal Contact. Prof Yusef Waghid Editor-in-Chief South African Journal of Higher Educatio. South African Journal of Higher Education Faculty of Education Stellenbosch University. Private Bag X1 Matieland 7602. Phone: +27 (021) 8082419. Fax: +27 (021) 8082283. Email: yw@sun.ac.za ...

  3. Quality in epidemiological surveillance of contact allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uter, Wolfgang; Rustemeyer, Thomas; Wilkinson, Mark

    2016-01-01

    The reporting of scientific results (in the field of contact dermatitis/allergy) should include a description of the methods used, including, but not limited to, standardized patch testing. Several aspects always need to be reported, such as duration of exposure, reading times, vehicle, and conce...

  4. Journal of Applied Science and Technology: Contact

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Principal Contact. Nana (Prof) Ayensu Gyeabour I Editor-in-Chief. Journal of Applied Science and Technology (JAST), Graduate School of Nuclear & Allied Sciences, University of Ghana, Atomic Campus, P.O. Box AE 1, Atomic, Accra, Ghana. Phone: +233-244-772255. Email: jastpublication@gmail.com ...

  5. CRS and Guarded Logics: a fruitful contact

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Benthem, J.; Andréka, H.; Ferenczi, M.; Németi, I.

    2013-01-01

    Back and forth between algebra and model theory. Algebra and model theory are complementary stances in the history of logic, and their interaction continues to spawn new ideas, witness the interface of First-Order Logic and Cylindric Algebra. This chapter is about a more specialized contact: the

  6. Nigerian Journal of Technological Development: Contact

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Principal Contact. Dr. M. F. Akorede Managing Editor Faculty of Engineering & Technology, University of Ilorin. Department of Electrical & Electronics Engineering,. University of Ilorin,. P.M.B 1515. Ilorin,. Nigeria. Phone: +234 8187432274. Email: njtd_man_editor@unilorin.edu.ng ...

  7. Contact Mechanics of a Small Icosahedral Virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeng, Cheng; Hernando-Pérez, Mercedes; Ma, Xiang; Schoot, Paul van der; Zandi, Roya; Dragnea, Bogdan

    2017-01-01

    Virus binding to a surface results at least locally, at the contact area, in stress and potential structural perturbation of the virus cage. Here we address the question of the role of substrate-induced deformation in the overall virus mechanical response to the adsorption event. This question may

  8. Healthy Contact Lens Wear and Care

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-02-04

    In this podcast, CDC’s Dr. Jennifer Cope explains some basic steps for proper wear and care of soft contact lenses.  Created: 2/4/2014 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 2/4/2014.

  9. The Induction of Mental and Contact Contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Michelle; Shafran, Roz; Burgess, Charlotte; Carpenter, Jodi; Millard, Emma; Thorpe, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Background: Extreme fear of contamination within obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) is traditionally conceptualised as a physical phenomenon. More recent research has supported the notion of "mental" contamination (MC) in which people feel contaminated in the absence of physical contact. The current research sought to determine whether…

  10. Contact allergy to preservatives--II

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, A. C.; Bos, J. D.; Jagtman, B. A.; Bruynzeel, D. P.; van Joost, T.; Weyland, J. W.

    1986-01-01

    To determine whether the prevalence of allergic reactions to certain preservatives warrants their inclusion in a routine series for patch testing, a tray of 14 preservatives was tested in 501 consecutive suspected contact dermatitis patients. More than 1% positive reactions were found with DMDM

  11. African Journal of Livestock Extension: Contact

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Principal Contact. DR. G.R.K. Sharma Editor-in-Chief Dept. of Vet & A. H. Extension College of Vet. Science A.N.G.R. Agricultural University Tirupati – 517502 Andhra Pradesh India Email: sharmagrk@yahoo.com ...

  12. South African Journal of Education: Contact

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Principal Contact. Prof. Ronél Ferreira Executive Editor University of Pretoria. Centre for the Study of Resilience, Top Floor, Student Centre, Building 10. Department of Educational Psychology. Faculty of Education. University of Pretoria. Groenkloof Campus. C/O George Storrar Road and Lleyds Street. Pretoria 0001.

  13. Systemic contact dermatitis due to nickel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taruli Olivia

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Systemic contact dermatitis (SCD is a systemic reactivation of a previous allergic contact dermatitis. The initial exposure may usually be topical, followed by oral, intravenous or inhalation exposure leading to a systemic hypersensitivity reaction. A case of a 27 year-old male with SCD due to nickel is reported Case Report: A 27 year-old male presented with recurrent pruritic eruption consist of deep seated vesicles on both palmar and left plantar since 6 months before admission. This complaint began after patient consumed excessive amounts of chocolate, canned food, and beans. The patient worked as a technician in a food factory. History of allergy due to nickel was acknowledged since childhood. The clinical presentation was diffuse deep seated vesicles, and multiple erythematous macules to plaques, with collarette scale. Patch test using the European standard showed a +3 result to nickel. The patient was diagnosed as systemic contact dermatitis due to nickel. The treatments were topical corticosteroid and patient education of avoidance of both contact and systemic exposure to nickel. The patient showed clinical improvement after 2 weeks. Discussion: SCD was diagnosed due to the history of massive consumption of food containing nickel in a patient who had initial sensitization to nickel, with clinical features and the patch test result. Advice to be aware of nickel and its avoidance is important in SCD management.

  14. Racial Prejudice, Interracial Contact, and Personality Variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, J. William; And Others

    1984-01-01

    This study examined the relationship of childrens' racial prejudice to child's race, interracial contact, grade, sex, intelligence, locus of control, anxiety, and self-concept. Five facets of racial prejudice were examined: a total index of racial prejudice, dating and marriage, school, social relationships, and racial interactions in restaurants.…

  15. Contact Dermatitis in the Construction Industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmerman, J.G.

    2017-01-01

    Construction workers are employed in a large and dynamic occupational sector and are exposed to hazardous substances during their work. This may cause diseases like contact dermatitis, one of the most prevalent occupational diseases in many countries. This thesis aims to assess the current

  16. Individual susceptibility to occupational contact dermatitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kezic, Sanja; Visser, Maaike J.; Verberk, Maarten M.

    2009-01-01

    Occupational Contact Dermatitis (OCD) is one of the most common work-related diseases. High risk occupations are in health care, hairdressing, food sector and metal industry. OCD tends to become chronic; persistent OCD often results in impaired quality of life and loss of work ability. The purpose

  17. African Review of Economics and Finance: Contact

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mailing Address. Graduate School of Business Administration University of the Witwatersrand P.O.Box 98 Wits 2050 Johannesburg South Africa. Principal Contact. Prof. Paul Alagidede Editor-in-Chief Wits University. Wits Business School, University of the Witwatersrand, 2 St David's Place, P.O. Box 98, Wits 2050, ...

  18. Impact Oscillator with Hertz's Model of Contact

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Půst, Ladislav; Peterka, František

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 2003, č. 38 (2003), s. 99-114 ISSN 0025-6455 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA101/00/0007 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2076919 Keywords : impacts * nonlinear dynamic system * damped Hertz's contact Subject RIV: BI - Acoustics Impact factor: 0.237, year: 2003

  19. Prevalence and cause of methylisothiazolinone contact allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundov, Michael D; Thyssen, Jacob P; Zachariae, Claus

    2010-01-01

    Methylchloroisothiazolinone/methylisothiazolinone (MCI/MI) has been one of the most frequent sensitizers since the 1980s. In 2005, the use of MI alone was approved for the preservation of cosmetic and household products in the EU. Before that, MI was used in industrial products, and the first cas...... of isolated MI contact allergy were published....

  20. Stellenbosch Papers in Linguistics Plus: Contact

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ricardo Davids Phone: +27 21 808 4889. Email: rddavids@sun.ac.za. ISSN: 2224-3380. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions of Use · Contact AJOL · News. OTHER RESOURCES.

  1. Contact lines on silicone elastomers promote contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hourlier-Fargette, Aurelie; Antkowiak, Arnaud; Neukirch, Sebastien

    2017-11-01

    Silicone elastomers are used in contact with aqueous liquids in a large range of applications. Due to numerous advantages such as its flexibility, optical transparency, or gas permeability, polydimethylsiloxane is widely spread in rapid prototyping for microfluidics or elastocapillarity experiments. However, silicone elastomers are known to contain a small fraction of uncrosslinked low-molecular-weight oligomers, the effects of which are not completely understood. We show that in various setups involving an air-water-silicone elastomer contact line, a capillarity-induced extraction of uncrosslinked oligomers occurs, leading to a contamination of water-air interfaces. We investigate the case of a static air-water-PDMS contact line, before focusing on moving contact lines. A water droplet sliding down on a PDMS inclined plane or an air bubble rising on an immersed PDMS plane exhibits two successive speed regimes: the second regime is reached only when a monolayer of oligomers completely covers the water-air interface. These experiments involve processes occurring at the polymer network scale that have significant macroscopic consequences, and therefore provide a simple test to evaluate the presence of uncrosslinked oligomers in an elastomer sample.

  2. Plasticity under rough surface contact and friction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sun, F.

    2016-01-01

    The ultimate objective of this work is to gain a better understanding of the plastic behavior of rough metal surfaces under contact loading. Attention in this thesis focuses on the study of single and multiple asperities with micrometer scale dimensions, a scale at which plasticity is known to be

  3. Isoeugenol is an important contact allergen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    White, I R; Johansen, J D; Gimenéz-Arnau, Elena

    1999-01-01

    The prevalence of contact allergy to the fragrance mix in individuals with eczema is up to 10%. Within the mix, isoeugenol (CAS 97-54-1) is an important individual allergen. Until May 1998, the IFRA (International Fragrance Association) guidelines suggested that isoeugenol could safely be used at...

  4. Contact allergy to isoeugenol and its derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanaka, Susumu; Royds, C; Buckley, Christopher D

    2004-01-01

    A total of 2261 (808 male, 1453 female) consecutive patients attending contact dermatitis clinics were patch tested to isoeugenol and its derivatives listed in the EU Inventory of Fragrance Ingredients. Positive reactions were found to isoeugenol in 40, transisoeugenol in 40, isoeugenyl acetate i...

  5. International Journal of Modern Anthropology: Contact

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Principal Contact. Prof. Hassen Chaabani Editor-in-Chief of the journal & Professor Emeritus at the University of Monastir, Tunisa University of Monastir, Tunisia. Home address: Hassen Chaabani, 16 rue Sarajivo, Ennassr 1, 2037 Ariana, Tunisia. Phone: 00216 97442818. Email: hassenchaabani@gmail.com ...

  6. Amalgam contact hypersensitivity lesion: an unusual presentation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Amalgam or its components may cause Type IV hypersensitivity reactions on the oral mucosa. These amalgam contact hypersensitivity lesions (ACHL) present as white striae and plaques, erythematous, erosive, atrophic, or ulcerative lesions. Postinflammatory pigmentation in such lesions and pigmentation due to amalgam ...

  7. Corticosteroid contact allergy: an EECDRG multicentre study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dooms-Goossens, A; Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Brandäo, F M

    1996-01-01

    This article describes the results of an EECDRG multicentre study on contact allergy to corticosteroids. A total of 7238 patients were investigated: 6238 in 13 centres in the course of 1993, and 1000 patients in 1 centre in 1993 and 1994. The 5 corticosteroids tested were budesonide 0.1% pet...

  8. Optical Measurements of Cavitation in Tribological Contacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Tian; Morris, Nick; Coupland, Jeremy

    2015-12-01

    The paper describes the use of a white light interformeter to measure the cavitation bubble and oil film thickness in a tribological contact and compares the results to theory. It is found that oil film thickness is best predicted by the theory proposed by Coyne and Elrod.

  9. Tanzania Journal of Development Studies: Contact

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Benedict Mongula Phone: 255 22 2410075. Email: mongula@uccmail.co.tz. ISSN: 2591 6831. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions of Use · Contact AJOL · News. OTHER RESOURCES.

  10. Conservative systems with ports on contact manifolds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eberard, D.; Maschke, B.M.; van der Schaft, Arjan; Piztek, P.

    In this paper we propose an extension of port Hamiltonian systems, called conservative systems with ports, which encompass systems arising from the Irreversible Thermodynamics. Firstly we lift a port Hamiltonian system from its state space manifold to the thermodynamic phase space to a contact

  11. Amino acid empirical contact energy definitions for fold recognition in the space of contact maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fogolari Federico

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Contradicting evidence has been presented in the literature concerning the effectiveness of empirical contact energies for fold recognition. Empirical contact energies are calculated on the basis of information available from selected protein structures, with respect to a defined reference state, according to the quasi-chemical approximation. Protein-solvent interactions are estimated from residue solvent accessibility. Results In the approach presented here, contact energies are derived from the potential of mean force theory, several definitions of contact are examined and their performance in fold recognition is evaluated on sets of decoy structures. The best definition of contact is tested, on a more realistic scenario, on all predictions including sidechains accepted in the CASP4 experiment. In 30 out of 35 cases the native structure is correctly recognized and best predictions are usually found among the 10 lowest energy predictions. Conclusion The definition of contact based on van der Waals radii of alpha carbon and side chain heavy atoms is seen to perform better than other definitions involving only alpha carbons, only beta carbons, all heavy atoms or only backbone atoms. An important prerequisite for the applicability of the approach is that the protein structure under study should not exhibit anomalous solvent accessibility, compared to soluble proteins whose structure is deposited in the Protein Data Bank. The combined evaluation of a solvent accessibility parameter and contact energy allows for an effective gross screening of predictive models.

  12. Evaluation of contact sensitivity to topical drugs in patients with contact dermatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilge Bülbül Şen

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Design: Topical drugs are an important group of contact allergens. The present study aimed to evaluate contact sensitivity to topical drugs in patients with contact dermatitis. Materials and Methods: Between 2003 and 2008, 129 patients were followed up at the Department of Dermatology at Ankara University School of Medicine with clinically suspected contact sensitivity to topical drugs. In this study, the patch test reactions to the European Standard Battery and topical drugs used by the patients and medicament patch test results were evaluated. Results: Positive patch test reaction to one or more allergens was found in 80 (62.0% of 129 patients included in the study. Sixty-one of the 80 patients (61/129, 47.3% had positive patch test reaction to medicaments. Medicament sensitivity was detected in 37.9% (49/129 of subjects. Nitrofurazone was found to be the most common allergen (18.6%. Discussion: The present study showed that topical drugs are a frequent cause of allergic contact dermatitis. Therefore, the probability of contact sensitivity to topical drugs should also be considered in patients with the clinical diagnosis of allergic contact dermatitis and, suspected cases should be evaluated further with patch testing in order to find the responsible allergens.

  13. Potentially pathogenic free-living amoebae in contact lenses of the asymptomatic contact lens wearers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Niyyati

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Free-living amoebae (FLA including Acanthamoeba spp. and Hartmannella spp. are the causative agents of serious corneal infection especially within contact lens wearers. Thus contact lenses and their storage case could be a suitable niche for potentially pathogenic amoebae. The main objective of the present study was to evaluate the contamination of contact lenses to free living amoebae using morphological and sequencing based methods.Overall, 90 volunteers provided their contact lenses. All volunteers wore soft contact lenses. Both lenses were cultured in the same plate. Forty-eight of the volunteers were medical and dentistry student and 42 were ophthalmology attendees of hospitals in Tehran, Iran. All of the samples were inoculated to non-nutrient medium and monitored daily for the outgrowth of the amoebae. PCR and sequencing were performed using various primer pairs.Of the 90 volunteers, 9 (10% were positive for free-living amoebae outgrowth. Morphological analysis revealed that 3 isolates were belonged to Hartmannella genus according to small round cysts and 6 isolates were belonged to Acanthamoeba genus based on the star shape of endocysts. Sequencing revealed that Acanthamoeba belonged to T4, T3 and T5 genotype. Hartmannella were also belonged to vermiformis species.The presence of potentially pathogenic free living amoebae including Acanthamoeba and Hartmannella could be a high risk for people using soft contact lenses. These results revealed that improved clarification and professional recommendations for contact lens wearers is of utmost importance.

  14. Lifetime limitations of ohmic, contacting RF MEMS switches with Au, Pt and Ir contact materials due to accumulation of ‘friction polymer’ on the contacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czaplewski, David A; Nordquist, Christopher D; Dyck, Christopher W; Patrizi, Gary A; Kraus, Garth M; Cowan, William D

    2012-01-01

    We present lifetime limitations and failure analysis of many packaged RF MEMS ohmic contacting switches with Au–Au, Au–Ir, and Au–Pt contact materials operating with 100 µN of contact force per contact in hermetically sealed glass wall packages. All metals were tested using the same switch design in a controlled environment to provide a comparison between the performance of the different materials and their corresponding failure mechanisms. The switch lifetimes of the different contact materials varied from several hundred cycles to 200 million cycles with different mechanisms causing failures for different contact materials. Switches with Au–Au contacts failed due to adhesion when thoroughly cleaned while switches with dissimilar metal contacts (Au–Ir and Au–Pt) operated without adhesion failures but failed due to carbon accumulation on the contacts even in a clean, packaged environment as a result of the catalytic behavior of the contact materials. Switch lifetimes correlated inversely with catalytic behavior of the contact metals. The data suggests the path to increase switch lifetime is to use favorable catalytic materials as contacts, design switches with higher contact forces to break through any residual contamination, and use cleaner, probably smaller, packages. (paper)

  15. Contact allergy in the population of patients with chronic inflammatory dermatoses and contact hypersensitivity to corticosteroids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Kot

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : Clinical studies indicate that contact allergy to glucocorticosteroids (GCS is not rare and has been increasingly reported over the past decade. Among the risk factors for developing contact hypersensitivity to topical corticosteroids, chronic inflammatory skin diseases and polyvalent contact allergy seem to be most important. Aim : To present the structure of contact allergy in the population of patients with chronic inflammatory dermatoses (CID and contact hypersensitivity to corticosteroids. Material and methods : Twenty-seven patients with contact allergy to GCS and chronic inflammatory dermatoses were patch tested with 28 European Baseline Series allergens and 8 corticosteroid allergens. This study group consisted of 5 patients with atopic dermatitis (AD, 15 patients with contact eczema (CE and 7 with chronic leg eczema (CLE. Nineteen (70.4% patients were females and 8 (29.6% were males. Results : In the study group, the most sensitizing non-steroidal allergens were nickel sulfate (51.8%, cobalt chloride (33.3% and balsam of Peru (29.6%. The most sensitizing corticosteroid allergens were budesonide (77.8%, betamethasone valerate and clobetasol propionate (55.5% each. A total of 77.8% of patients allergic to GCS also showed sensitivity to at least one non-steroidal allergen from the European Baseline Series. Conclusions : The most important risk factors for developing contact allergy to corticosteroids appear to be chronic inflammatory dermatoses, long disease duration, extended on-and-off topical corticosteroid use, patients presenting two or more positive patch test results and polyvalent contact allergy to metal salts and to other non-steroidal haptens.

  16. Measurement errors related to contact angle analysis of hydrogel and silicone hydrogel contact lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, Michael L; Morgan, Philip B; Maldonado-Codina, Carole

    2009-11-01

    This work sought to undertake a comprehensive investigation of the measurement errors associated with contact angle assessment of curved hydrogel contact lens surfaces. The contact angle coefficient of repeatability (COR) associated with three measurement conditions (image analysis COR, intralens COR, and interlens COR) was determined by measuring the contact angles (using both sessile drop and captive bubble methods) for three silicone hydrogel lenses (senofilcon A, balafilcon A, lotrafilcon A) and one conventional hydrogel lens (etafilcon A). Image analysis COR values were about 2 degrees , whereas intralens COR values (95% confidence intervals) ranged from 4.0 degrees (3.3 degrees , 4.7 degrees ) (lotrafilcon A, captive bubble) to 10.2 degrees (8.4 degrees , 12.1 degrees ) (senofilcon A, sessile drop). Interlens COR values ranged from 4.5 degrees (3.7 degrees , 5.2 degrees ) (lotrafilcon A, captive bubble) to 16.5 degrees (13.6 degrees , 19.4 degrees ) (senofilcon A, sessile drop). Measurement error associated with image analysis was shown to be small as an absolute measure, although proportionally more significant for lenses with low contact angle. Sessile drop contact angles were typically less repeatable than captive bubble contact angles. For sessile drop measures, repeatability was poorer with the silicone hydrogel lenses when compared with the conventional hydrogel lens; this phenomenon was not observed for the captive bubble method, suggesting that methodological factors related to the sessile drop technique (such as surface dehydration and blotting) may play a role in the increased variability of contact angle measurements observed with silicone hydrogel contact lenses.

  17. Hip joint contact forces calculated using different muscle optimization techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wesseling, M.; Derikx, L.C.; de Groote, F.; Bartels, W.; Meyer, C.; Verdonschot, Nicolaas Jacobus Joseph; Jonkers, I.

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this study was to calculate muscle forces using different optimization techniques and investigate their effect on hip joint contact forces in gait and sit to stand. These contact forces were compared to measured hip contact forces [3]. The results showed that contact forces were

  18. [Fungal contamination of hydrophilic contact lenses (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liotet, S; Warnet, V N

    1981-01-01

    A study was conducted on 113 contact lens showing fungal colonies. The main genus isolated was Cepohalosporium (59.4 p. cent). Lens contamination is favoured by a major factor: contact lens spoliation, a secondary factor being inadequate contact lens maintenance. This contamination raises an economic problem, as every affected contact lens must be replaced.

  19. Bayesian Contact Tracing for Communicable Respiratory Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalaby, Ayman; Lizotte, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Objective The purpose of our work is to develop a system for automatic contact tracing with the goal of identifying individuals who are most likely infected, even if we do not have direct diagnostic information on their health status. Control of the spread of respiratory pathogens (e.g. novel influenza viruses) in the population using vaccination is a challenging problem that requires quick identification of the infectious agent followed by large-scale production and administration of a vaccine. This takes a significant amount of time. A complementary approach to control transmission is contact tracing and quarantining, which are currently applied to sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). For STDs, identifying the contacts that might have led to disease transmission is relatively easy; however, for respiratory pathogens, the contacts that can lead to transmission include a huge number of face-to-face daily social interactions that are impossible to trace manually. Introduction The evolution of novel influenza viruses in humans is a biological phenomenon that can not be stopped. All existing data suggest that vaccination against the morbidity and mortality of the novel influenza viruses is our best line of defence. Unfortunately, vaccination requires that the infectious agent to be quickly identified and a safe vaccine in large quantities is produced and administered. As was witnessed with the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic, these steps took a frustratingly long period during which the novel influenza virus continued its unstoppable and rapid global spreading. In addition to the different vaccination strategies (e.g. random mass vaccination, age structured vaccination), isolation and quarantining of infected individuals is another effective method used by the public health agencies to control the spreading of infectious diseases. Isolation is effective against any infectious disease, however it can be very hard to detect infectious individuals in the population when

  20. Mobile Application for Online Contact Synchronization : Phone Contact Back Up Application

    OpenAIRE

    Moyosade, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the thesis was to design and implement Online Contact Sync which is a backup of phone or SIM contacts to the server in case of phone lost or SIM damaged. Contact phone numbers corresponding to their names are stored in the remote server. The application was designed and implemented and it met all the requirement set for it. The application side was developed using Eclipse IDE which is used to write all the J2ME. The server side was written in PHP scripts and a robust data-base ...

  1. Establishing an upper bound on contact resistivity of ohmic contacts to n-GaN nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanchard, Paul; Bertness, Kris A; Harvey, Todd; Sanford, Norman

    2014-01-01

    Contact resistivity ρ c is an important figure of merit in evaluating and improving the performance of electronic and optoelectronic devices. Due to the small size, unique morphology, and uncertain transport properties of semiconductor nanowires (NWs), measuring ρ c of contacts to NWs can be particularly challenging. In this work, Si-doped n-GaN NWs were grown by molecular beam epitaxy. Four-contact structures with 20 nm Ti/200 nm Al contacts were fabricated on individual NWs by photolithography, and the contacts were annealed to achieve ohmic behavior. Two-point resistances R 23  and four-point collinear resistances R 23collinear  were measured between the middle two contacts on each NW. These resistances were then modeled by taking into account the non-uniform distribution of current flow along the length of each contact. Contrary to the assumption that the resistance difference R 23 −R 23collinear  is equal to the total contact resistance R c , the distributed-current-flow contact model shows that R 23 −R 23collinear  ≪ R c when ρ c is sufficiently small. Indeed, the measured R 23 −R 23collinear  was so small in these devices that it was within the measurement uncertainty, meaning that it was not possible to directly calculate ρ c from these data. However, it was possible to calculate an upper bound on ρ c for each device based on the largest possible value of R 23 −R 23collinear . In addition, we took into account the large uncertainties in the NW transport properties by numerically maximizing ρ c with respect to the uncertainty range of each measured and assumed parameter in the contact model. The resulting upper limits on ρ c ranged from 4.2 × 10 −6  to 7.6 × 10 −6  Ω cm 2 , indicating that 20 nm Ti/200 nm Al is a good choice of ohmic contact for moderately-doped n-GaN NWs. The measurement and numerical analysis demonstrated here offer a general approach to modeling ohmic contact resistivity via NW four

  2. Testing and Modeling of Contact Problems in Resistance Welding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Song, Quanfeng

    As a part of the efforts towards a professional and reliable numerical tool for resistance welding engineers, this Ph.D. project is dedicated to refining the numerical models related to the interface behavior. An FE algorithm for the contact problems in resistance welding has been developed...... in this work, dealing with the coupled mechanical-electrical-thermal contact problems. The penalty method is used to impose the contact conditions in the electrical and thermal contact, as well as frictionless contact and sticking contact in the mechanical model. A node-segment contact element is the basis...

  3. Endoscopic Solution to Rhinogenic Contact Headaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Abdul Cader Segana

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Headache is a common complaint that brings patients to multidisciplinary clinics. It is utmost important to have meticulous clinical diagnosis of patients with rhinogenic and non sinusogenic headaches. The diagnosis has become easier with the advent of modern endoscopy and endoscopic sinus surgical techniques. This study aims to investigate the role of some anatomical nasal abnormalities in rhinogenic contact headache and to evaluate response to endoscopic surgery.   Materials and Method A prospective study was conducted at a secondary level regional referral Hospital in the Sultanate of Oman. Patients with long-lasting, frequent, severe headaches not amenable to medical treatment, above 20 years of age were taken into consideration. Routine nasal endoscopy, Computerized tomography scan of the paranasal sinuses, Nasal decongestion and various surgical techniques to correct the anatomical abnormalities were included in our study and results were correlated statistically.   Result There was a male predominance in our study with duration of headache ranging from 2 weeks to 5 years. There was a preponderance of headache in frontal region in our study group. Diagnostic nasal endoscopy and CT scan of PNS revealed Deviated nasal septum / septal spur, concha bullosa, Haller cell, pneumatised uncinate process and agar nasi cells. The overall success rate of the surgery in relieving headaches, measured by the MIDAS- VAS score, was approximately 75 %. The non-parametric Wilcoxon signed rank test, Chi square and paired T tests shows that the following study has rejected the null hypothesis as statistically significant where the P value <0.05.   Discussion Researchers have examined the contact points as a source of rhinogenic / contact headache. Intranasal mucosal contact released substance P, causing pain and headache, Substance P has a potent vasodilator effect. Vasodilatation and perivascular inflammation are the final common pathways in

  4. Subjective assessment of contact lens wear by army aircrew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lattimore, M R; Cornum, R L

    1993-07-01

    Because 23% of Army aviators are ametropic, contact lenses have drawn increased attention as a spectacle substitute to solve system compatibility problems. From November 1988 until October 1991, a series of contact lens research protocols were conducted to develop a comprehensive database on contact lens wear in varied environments. Questionnaires were used to assess suitability and acceptability of routine contact lens wear. Responses from 202 subjects were obtained from September 1989 through September 1991. The questions explored operational and safety of flight issues of contact lens wear. Subjects overwhelmingly approved of contact lens use in all settings: 95% expressed greater combat readiness and effectiveness with contact lenses, 98% felt contact lens use (and maintenance) in the cockpit had no adverse impact on safety of flight, and 98% endorsed the routine use of contact lenses. These data highlight Army aircrew acceptance of contact lens use.

  5. Hip joint contact forces calculated using different muscle optimization techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Wesseling, M.; Derikx, L.C.; de Groote, F.; Bartels, W.; Meyer, C.; Verdonschot, Nicolaas Jacobus Joseph; Jonkers, I.

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this study was to calculate muscle forces using different optimization techniques and investigate their effect on hip joint contact forces in gait and sit to stand. These contact forces were compared to measured hip contact forces [3]. The results showed that contact forces were overestimated, especially when muscle forces were calculated using computed muscle control. For static optimization, results were closest to measured contact forces. Also, differences between measured and ...

  6. Effect of 3D fractal dimension on contact area and asperity interactions in elastoplastic contact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdeljalil Jourani

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Few models are devoted to investigate the effect of 3D fractal dimension Ds on contact area and asperity interactions. These models used statistical approaches or two-dimensional deterministic simulations without considering the asperity interactions and elastic–plastic transition regime. In this study, a complete 3D deterministic model is adopted to simulate the contact between fractal surfaces which are generated using a modified two-variable Weierstrass–Mandelbrot function. This model incorporates the asperity interactions and considers the different deformation modes of surface asperities which range from entirely elastic through elastic-plastic to entirely plastic contact. The simulations reveal that the elastoplastic model is more appropriate to calculate the contact area ratio and pressure field. It is also shown that the influence of the asperity interactions cannot be neglected, especially at lower fractal dimension Ds and higher load.

  7. Occupations at risk of developing contact allergy to isothiazolinones in Danish contact dermatitis patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwensen, Jakob F; Menné, Torkil; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    2014-01-01

    : painting, welding (blacksmiths), machine operating, and cosmetology. The occupational group of painting was frequent in the group of patients with BIT contact allergy. CONCLUSION: Several high-risk occupations for sensitization to isothiazolinones exist. Regulation on the allowed concentration...

  8. Stable and low contact resistance electrical contacts for high temperature SiGe thermoelectric generators

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Bo

    2018-04-14

    The thermal stability and contact resistance of TaAlN thin films as electrical contacts to SiGe thermoelectric elements are reported. We demonstrate that a sharp interface is maintained after the device annealed at 800°C for over 100h, indicating that no interdiffusion takes place between TaAlN and SiGe. A specific contact resistivity of (2.1±1.3)×10−6Ω-cm2 for p-type SiGe and (2.8±1.6)×10−5 Ω-cm2 for n-type SiGe is demonstrated after the high temperature annealing. These results show that TaAlN is a promising contact material for high temperature thermoelectrics such as SiGe.

  9. Contact and non-contact ultrasonic measurement in the food industry: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Khairi, Mohd Taufiq; Ibrahim, Sallehuddin; Md Yunus, Mohd Amri; Faramarzi, Mahdi

    2016-01-01

    The monitoring of the food manufacturing process is vital since it determines the safety and quality level of foods which directly affect the consumers’ health. Companies which produce high quality products will gain trust from consumers. This factor helps the companies to make profits. The use of efficient and appropriate sensors for the monitoring process can also reduce cost. The food assessing process based on an ultrasonic sensor has attracted the attention of the food industry due to its excellent capabilities in several applications. The utilization of low or high frequencies for the ultrasonic transducer has provided an enormous benefit for analysing, modifying and guaranteeing the quality of food. The contact and non-contact ultrasonic modes for measurement also contributed significantly to the food processing. This paper presents a review of the application of the contact and non-contact mode of ultrasonic measurement focusing on safety and quality control areas. The results from previous researches are shown and elaborated. (topical review)

  10. Large deformation contact mechanics of a pressurized long rectangular membrane. II. Adhesive contact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Abhishek; Hui, Chung-Yuen

    2013-01-01

    In part I of this work, we presented a theory for adhesionless contact of a pressurized neo-Hookean plane-strain membrane to a rigid substrate. Here, we extend our theory to include adhesion using a fracture mechanics approach. This theory is used to study contact hysteresis commonly observed in experiments. Detailed analysis is carried out to highlight the differences between frictionless and no-slip contact. Membrane detachment is found to be strongly dependent on adhesion: for low adhesion, the membrane ‘pinches-off’, whereas for large adhesions, it detaches unstably at finite contact (‘pull-off’). Expressions are derived for the critical adhesion needed for pinch-off to pull-off transition. Above a threshold adhesion, the membrane exhibits bistability, two stable states at zero applied pressure. The condition for bistability for both frictionless and no-slip boundary conditions is obtained explicitly. PMID:24353472

  11. Allergic contact dermatitis to fragrance: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheinman, P L

    1996-06-01

    Allergy to fragrance is the most common cause of cosmetic contact dermatitis and therefore constitutes a significant clinical problem. The widespread use of fragranced materials in skin care and household products is probably the most important reason for the high incidence of fragrance sensitization. This report will summarize the history of fragrance, review how to detect and evaluate fragrance allergy, discuss the problems inherent in patch testing with the fragrance mix and its constituents, describe systemic contact dermatitis from ingestion of certain flavors, and give suggestions for fragrance-sensitive patients. The use of fragrance mix in patch testing has been invaluable in detecting fragrance allergy. Continued investigation into positive patch test responses to fragrance in scented products is essential in helping to identify new fragrance allergens. Additionally, more cooperation is necessary between industry and dermatologists in assisting patients to avoid proven allergens.

  12. European Surveillance System on Contact Allergies (ESSCA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uter, W; Amario-Hita, J C; Balato, A

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Contact allergy is a common condition and can severely interfere with daily life or professional activities. Due to changes in exposures, such as introduction of new substances, new products or formulations and regulatory intervention, the spectrum of contact sensitization changes...... to the metals nickel, cobalt and chromium remained largely stable, at 18.1%, 5.9% and 3.2%, respectively, similar to mostly unchanged prevalence with fragrance mix I, II and Myroxylon pereirae (balsam of Peru) at 7.3%, 3.8% and 5.3%, respectively. In the subgroup of departments diagnosing (mainly) patients...... or persisting problems, and thus enables focussing in-depth research (subgroup analyses, exposure analysis) on areas where it is needed....

  13. Liquid-liquid contact in vapor explosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segev, A.

    1978-08-01

    The contact of two liquid materials, one of which is at a temperature substantially above the boiling point of the other, can lead to fast energy conversion and a subsequent shock wave. This phenomenon is called a vapor explosion. One method of producing intimate, liquid-liquid contact (which is known to be a necessary condition for vapor explosion) is a shock tube configuration. Such experiments in which water was impacted upon molten aluminum showed that very high pressures, even larger than the thermodynamic critical pressure, could occur. The mechanism by which such sharp pressure pulses are generated is not yet clear. The report describes experiments in which cold liquids (Freon-11, Freon-22, water, or butanol) were impacted upon various hot materials

  14. Micro-ecological behavior and intergroup contact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeown, Shelley; Cairns, Ed; Stringer, Maurice; Rae, Gordon

    2012-01-01

    Research evaluating intergroup contact has tended to rely on self-report measures. Drawing on recent micro-ecological research, the two studies reported here used a multi-method approach to examine contact in a more holistic fashion. This involved the measurement of observable behavior at the micro-level, intergroup attitudes via infrahumanization and focus groups. Participants were taking part in a community intervention program in Northern Ireland. We conclude that micro-ecological behavior is not necessarily indicative of outgroup attitudes. Although behavior and attitudes changed in line with one another in Study 1 (less aggregation and significantly less infrahumanization), there were no infrahumanization differences between those who sat beside an outgroup member and those who did not. Importantly, the work presented here illustrates a unique method that allows micro-ecological behavioral observations to be made for the first time in non-racial settings.

  15. Contact formation in gallium arsenide solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weizer, Victor G.; Fatemi, Navid S.

    1988-01-01

    Gold and gold-based alloys, commonly used as solar cell contact materials, are known to react readily with gallium arsenide. Experiments were performed to identify the mechanisms involved in these GaAs-metal interactions. It is shown that the reaction of GaAs with gold takes place via a dissociative diffusion process. It is shown further that the GaAs-metal reaction rate is controlled to a very great extent by the condition of the free surface of the contact metal, an interesting example of which is the previously unexplained increase in the reaction rate that has been observed for samples annealed in a vacuum environment as compared to those annealed in a gaseous ambient. A number of other hard-to-explain observations, such as the low-temperature formation of voids in the gold lattice and crystallite growth on the gold surface, are explained by invoking this mechanism.

  16. Advances in direct contact evaporator design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lage, P.L.C. [Programa de Engenharia Quimica, COPPE/UFRJ, C. P. 68502, 21945-970, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Campos, F.B. [Gerencia de Gas e Energia, CENPES/PETROBRAS, Cidade Universitaria, Q.7, Ilha do Fundao, Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, 21949-900 (Brazil)

    2004-01-01

    Direct contact evaporators are nonisothermal bubble columns where a hot gas, usually obtained by combustion, is used to heat and vaporize the solvent of a given solution that needs to be concentrated. The design of such equipment has been relied on experimental data or on a simplified method that assumes that the gas leaves the evaporator at equilibrium with the liquid phase, giving no information about the necessary bubbling height to attain such equilibrium conditions. Recent advances in the heat and mass transfer processes during the formation and ascension of superheated bubbles together with simple mass and energy balances in the liquid phase and gas distributor system were used to develop a more detailed design procedure. The accuracy of both design procedures are compared to available experimental data in a direct contact evaporator operating in semibatch mode. The new design method agreed well with the experimental data. (Abstract Copyright [2004], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  17. Contact Sliding under Relatively Low Loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyeong Hee Kang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available ZnO nanowires have received much interest owing to their particular structural and piezoelectric properties. For widespread application of ZnO nanowires in various nanotechnologies, the mechanical reliability of the nanowires should be assessed. In this paper, the damage characteristics of vertically grown ZnO nanowires due to contact sliding against a 2 mm diameter steel ball under relatively low loads were investigated. Frictional behavior and wear characteristics of the specimens were assessed. Furthermore, contact sliding tests were performed inside an SEM to monitor the progression of damage of the nanowires. It was found that the friction coefficient was about 0.35 under all loads while the damage characteristics of the nanowires were quite different for each load. The large diameter nanowires tended to fracture earlier than the small diameter nanowires. Wear tests performed inside the SEM confirmed the surface damage characteristics observed during the friction tests.

  18. Ultrananocrystalline diamond contacts for electronic devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sumant, Anirudha V.; Smedley, John; Muller, Erik

    2017-12-12

    A method of forming electrical contacts on a diamond substrate comprises producing a plasma ball using a microwave plasma source in the presence of a mixture of gases. The mixture of gases include a source of a p-type or an n-type dopant. The plasma ball is disposed at a first distance from the diamond substrate. The diamond substrate is maintained at a first temperature. The plasma ball is maintained at the first distance from the diamond substrate for a first time, and a UNCD film, which is doped with at least one of a p-type dopant and an n-type dopant, is disposed on the diamond substrate. The doped UNCD film is patterned to define UNCD electrical contacts on the diamond substrate.

  19. Contact lenses for ophthalmic drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Alex

    2017-09-01

    Contact lenses as a means to deliver pharmaceuticals to the eye have seen a significant increase in research interest in the past few years. This review will detail the in vitro experiments which have investigated use of these contact lenses in the context of the desired pharmacological treatment goals in the management of infectious, inflammatory, allergic and glaucomatous diseases of the eye. The techniques researchers have employed to modify and tailor drug release rates from these materials, including the use of vitamin E diffusion barriers, modified ionicity, molecular imprinting and incorporation of drug reservoirs, will be discussed, as well as their impact on drug release kinetics. Finally, the demonstration of the feasibility of these materials when applied in vivo in animal models as well as in humans with and without disease will be presented and their results discussed relating to their implications for the future of the field. © 2017 Optometry Australia.

  20. Electrical contact arrangement for a coating process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabagambe, Benjamin; McCamy, James W; Boyd, Donald W

    2013-09-17

    A protective coating is applied to the electrically conductive surface of a reflective coating of a solar mirror by biasing a conductive member having a layer of a malleable electrically conductive material, e.g. a paste, against a portion of the conductive surface while moving an electrodepositable coating composition over the conductive surface. The moving of the electrodepositable coating composition over the conductive surface includes moving the solar mirror through a flow curtain of the electrodepositable coating composition and submerging the solar mirror in a pool of the electrodepositable coating composition. The use of the layer of a malleable electrically conductive material between the conductive member and the conductive surface compensates for irregularities in the conductive surface being contacted during the coating process thereby reducing the current density at the electrical contact area.