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Sample records for stronger synergies stabilizing

  1. Stronger synergies

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2012-01-01

    CERN was founded 58 years ago under the auspices of UNESCO. Since then, both organisations have grown to become world leaders in their respective fields. The links between the two have always existed but today they are even stronger, with new projects under way to develop a more efficient way of exchanging information and devise a common strategy on topics of mutual interest.   CERN and UNESCO are a perfect example of natural partners: their common field is science and education is one of the pillars on which both are built. Historically, they share a common heritage. Both UNESCO and CERN were born of the desire to use scientific cooperation to rebuild peace and security in the aftermath of the Second World War. "Recently, building on our common roots and in close collaboration with UNESCO, we have been developing more structured links to ensure the continuity of the actions taken over the years," says Maurizio Bona, who is in charge of CERN relations with international orga...

  2. Peptide-MHC class I stability is a stronger predictor of CTL immunogenicity than peptide affinity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harndahl, Mikkel Nors; Rasmussen, Michael; Nielsen, Morten

    2012-01-01

    Peptide-MHC class I stability is a stronger predictor of CTL immunogenicity than peptide affinity Mikkel Harndahla, Michael Rasmussena, Morten Nielsenb, Soren Buusa,∗ a Laboratory of Experimental Immunology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Denmark b Center for Biological Seq...... al., 2007. J. Immunol. 178, 7890–7901. doi:10.1016/j.molimm.2012.02.025...

  3. Stability of vertical posture explored with unexpected mechanical perturbations: synergy indices and motor equivalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamagata, Momoko; Falaki, Ali; Latash, Mark L

    2018-03-21

    We explored the relations between indices of mechanical stability of vertical posture and synergy indices under unexpected perturbations. The main hypotheses predicted higher posture-stabilizing synergy indices and higher mechanical indices of center of pressure stability during perturbations perceived by subjects as less challenging. Healthy subjects stood on a force platform and held in fully extended arms a bar attached to two loads acting downward and upward. One of the loads was unexpectedly released by the experimenter causing a postural perturbations. In different series, subjects either knew or did not know which of the two loads would be released. Forward perturbations were perceived as more challenging and accompanied by co-activation patterns among the main agonist-antagonist pairs. Backward perturbation led to reciprocal muscle activation patterns and was accompanied by indices of mechanical stability and of posture-stabilizing synergy which indicated higher stability. Changes in synergy indices were observed as early as 50-100 ms following the perturbation reflecting involuntary mechanisms. In contrast, predictability of perturbation direction had weak or no effect on mechanical and synergy indices of stability. These observations are interpreted within a hierarchical scheme of synergic control of motor tasks and a hypothesis on the control of movements with shifts of referent coordinates. The findings show direct correspondence between stability indices based on mechanics and on the analysis of multi-muscle synergies. They suggest that involuntary posture-stabilizing mechanisms show synergic organization. They also show that predictability of perturbation direction has strong effects on anticipatory postural adjustment but not corrective adjustments. We offer an interpretation of co-activation patterns that questions their contribution to postural stability.

  4. Achieving synergy between chemical oxidation and stabilization in a contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Vipul J; Hudson, Jeffrey Michael; Cassidy, Daniel P

    2016-07-01

    Eight in situ solidification/stabilization (ISS) amendments were tested to promote in situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) with activated persulfate (PS) in a contaminated soil. A 3% (by weight) dose of all ISS amendments selected for this study completely activated a 1.5% dose of PS within 3 h by raising temperatures above 30 °C (heat activation) and/or increasing pH above 10.5 (alkaline activation). Heat is released by the reaction of CaO with water, and pH increases because this reaction produces Ca(OH)2. Heat activation is preferred because it generates 2 mol of oxidizing radicals per mole of PS, whereas alkaline activation releases only 1. The relative contribution of heat vs. alkaline activation increased with CaO content of the ISS amendment, which was reflected by enhanced contaminant oxidation with increasing CaO content, and was confirmed by comparing to controls promoting purely heat or alkaline (NaOH) activation. The test soil was contaminated with benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), particularly naphthalene (NAP). ISS-activated PS oxidized between 47% and 84% of the BTEX & NAP, and between 13% and 33% of the higher molecular weight PAH. ISS-activated PS reduced the leachability of BTEX & NAP by 76%-91% and of the 17 PAH by 83%-96%. Combined ISCO/ISS reduced contaminant leachability far than ISCO or ISS treatments alone, demonstrating the synergy that is possible with combined remedies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Stability and composition of functional synergies for speech movements in children with developmental speech disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terband, H.; Maassen, B.; van Lieshout, P.; Nijland, L.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the consistency and composition of functional synergies for speech movements in children with developmental speech disorders. Kinematic data were collected on the reiterated productions of syllables spa (/spa:/) and paas (/pa:s/) by 10 6- to 9-year-olds with

  6. Stability and Composition of Functional Synergies for Speech Movements in Children with Developmental Speech Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terband, H.; Maassen, B.; van Lieshout, P.; Nijland, L.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the consistency and composition of functional synergies for speech movements in children with developmental speech disorders. Kinematic data were collected on the reiterated productions of syllables spa(/spa[image omitted]/) and paas(/pa[image omitted]s/) by 10 6- to 9-year-olds with developmental speech…

  7. Understanding synergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geary, Nori

    2013-02-01

    Analysis of the interactive effects of combinations of hormones or other manipulations with qualitatively similar individual effects is an important topic in basic and clinical endocrinology as well as other branches of basic and clinical research related to integrative physiology. Functional, as opposed to mechanistic, analyses of interactions rely on the concept of synergy, which can be defined qualitatively as a cooperative action or quantitatively as a supra-additive effect according to some metric for the addition of different dose-effect curves. Unfortunately, dose-effect curve addition is far from straightforward; rather, it requires the development of an axiomatic mathematical theory. I review the mathematical soundness, face validity, and utility of the most frequently used approaches to supra-additive synergy. These criteria highlight serious problems in the two most common synergy approaches, response additivity and Loewe additivity, which is the basis of the isobole and related response surface approaches. I conclude that there is no adequate, generally applicable, supra-additive synergy metric appropriate for endocrinology or any other field of basic and clinical integrative physiology. I recommend that these metrics be abandoned in favor of the simpler definition of synergy as a cooperative, i.e., nonantagonistic, effect. This simple definition avoids mathematical difficulties, is easily applicable, meets regulatory requirements for combination therapy development, and suffices to advance phenomenological basic research to mechanistic studies of interactions and clinical combination therapy research.

  8. Geneva international synergies

    CERN Multimedia

    2010-01-01

    Geneva has a long history of hosting international organizations, which is part of the reason why CERN is here, and it makes the canton an ideal place to forge links between such organizations. Over recent weeks, CERN has signed agreements with the ITU, WIPO and the WMO. At first sight, there may not seem to be much common ground between CERN and, say, the World Meteorological Organization, but scratch the surface, and you’ll soon find a common thread. All of these organizations have a vocation to stimulate technological innovation, and together we’re stronger.   Let’s start with ITU, the International Telecommunications Union. There, the synergies are evident. When ITU organized the World Summit on the Information Society in 2003, CERN provided a significant side event examining the Role of Science in the Information Society. The current agreement builds on that, allowing our two organizations to work together on important societal issues such as the extension of b...

  9. Effect of Thymus vulgaris L. Essential Oil on Oxidative Stability of Virgin Olive Oil and Its Synergy with Citric Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malihe Keramat

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Since usage of synthetic antioxidants has been under question due to their toxicity and possible carcinogenicity, there is still interest in developing plant-derived natural antioxidants, especially from edible plants. This study investigated the effect of Thymus vulgaris L. essential oil on virgin olive oil oxidation in comparison with tocopheryl acetate and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT. Furthermore, the synergistic activities of citric acid with natural and synthetic antioxidants were determined. Methods: T. vulgaris essential oil was added to the virgin olive oil at a concentration of 1000 ppm. The BHT and tocopheryl acetate were added to the virgin olive oil at 100 ppm concentration. Virgin olive oil samples were stored at 60°C for 16 days. The peroxide value, p-anisidine value, K232, and K268 values were measured every 4 days. Changes in chlorophyll and carotenoid contents of virgin olive oil samples were determined at the beginning and end of storage period. Results: T. vulgaris essential oil significantly reduced the peroxide value, p-anisidine value, K232, and K268 values of virgin olive oil. The effect of T.vulgaris essential oil on retarding virgin olive oil oxidation was similar to the effect of BHT. By comparison, tocopheryl acetate was less effective in reducing the oxidation of virgin olive oil. Furthermore, T. vulgaris essential oil could preserve chlorophyll and carotenoid of virgin olive oil during storage period. Conclusion: T. vulgaris essential oil can be applied to increase the oxidative stability of virgin olive oil, and can protect the chlorophyll and carotenoid of virgin olive oil.

  10. Stronger Fire-Resistant Epoxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fohlen, George M.; Parker, John A.; Kumar, Devendra

    1988-01-01

    New curing agent improves mechanical properties and works at lower temperature. Use of aminophenoxycyclotriphosphazene curing agents yields stronger, more heat- and fire-resistant epoxy resins. Used with solvent if necessary for coating fabrics or casting films.

  11. LHC-ILC synergy

    CERN Document Server

    Godbole, Rohini M

    2006-01-01

    I will begin by making a few general comments on the synergy between the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) which will go in action in 2007 and the International Linear Collider (ILC) which is under planning. I will then focus on the synergy between the LHC and the PLC option at the ILC, which is expected to be realised in the later stages of the ILC program. In this I will cover the possible synergy in the Higgs sector (with and without CP violation), in the determination of the anomalous vector boson couplings and last but not the least, in the search for extra dimensions and radions.

  12. Seeds and Synergies

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    'Seeds and Synergies presents inspiring evidence of change in practice and policy ... Seeds of inspiration: breathing new life into the formal agricultural research .... and Urban Development and Poverty Alleviation and Agricultural Commodity ...

  13. Muscle synergy space: learning model to create an optimal muscle synergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alnajjar, Fady; Wojtara, Tytus; Kimura, Hidenori; Shimoda, Shingo

    2013-01-01

    Muscle redundancy allows the central nervous system (CNS) to choose a suitable combination of muscles from a number of options. This flexibility in muscle combinations allows for efficient behaviors to be generated in daily life. The computational mechanism of choosing muscle combinations, however, remains a long-standing challenge. One effective method of choosing muscle combinations is to create a set containing the muscle combinations of only efficient behaviors, and then to choose combinations from that set. The notion of muscle synergy, which was introduced to divide muscle activations into a lower-dimensional synergy space and time-dependent variables, is a suitable tool relevant to the discussion of this issue. The synergy space defines the suitable combinations of muscles, and time-dependent variables vary in lower-dimensional space to control behaviors. In this study, we investigated the mechanism the CNS may use to define the appropriate region and size of the synergy space when performing skilled behavior. Two indices were introduced in this study, one is the synergy stability index (SSI) that indicates the region of the synergy space, the other is the synergy coordination index (SCI) that indicates the size of the synergy space. The results on automatic posture response experiments show that SSI and SCI are positively correlated with the balance skill of the participants, and they are tunable by behavior training. These results suggest that the CNS has the ability to create optimal sets of efficient behaviors by optimizing the size of the synergy space at the appropriate region through interacting with the environment.

  14. Synergy in supramolecular chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Nabeshima, Tatsuya

    2014-01-01

    Synergy and Cooperativity in Multi-metal Supramolecular Systems, T. NabeshimaHierarchically Assembled Titanium Helicates, Markus AlbrechtSupramolecular Hosts and Catalysts Formed by Self-assembly of Multinuclear Zinc Complexes in Aqueous Solution, Shin AokiSupramolecular Assemblies Based on Interionic Interactions, H. MaedaSupramolecular Synergy in the Formation and Function of Guanosine Quadruplexes, Jeffery T. DavisOn-Surface Chirality in Porous Self-Assembled Monolayers at Liquid-Solid Interface, Kazukuni Tahar

  15. Prospects for stronger calandria tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ells, C.E.; Coleman, C.E.; Hosbons, R.R.; Ibrahim, E.F.; Doubt, G.L.

    1990-12-01

    The CANDU calandria tubes, made of seam welded and annealed Zircaloy-2, have given exemplary service in-reactor. Although not designed as a system pressure containment, calandria tubes may remain intact even in the face of pressure tube rupture. One such incident at Pickering Unit 2 demonstrated the economic advantage of such an outcome, and a case can be made for increasing the probability that other calandria tubes would perform in a similar fashion. Various methods of obtaining stronger calandria tubes are available, and reviewed here. When the tubes are internally pressurized, the weld is the weak section of the tube. Increasing the oxygen concentration in the starting sheet, and thickening the weld, are promising routes to a stronger tube

  16. Target Choice and Unique Synergies in Global Mobile Telephony

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Claussen, Jörg; Köhler, Rebecca; Kretschmer, Tobias

    2018-01-01

    their foresight to select specific targets: First, they lower integration costs by selecting geographically close targets. This effect is stronger when buyer and target are in the same country, but only if the market is not so concentrated that it provokes regulatory interventions. Second, they select targets......The success of acquisitions rests on detecting and realizing unique synergies between buyer and target through their dyadic relationships. We study the role of unique dyad-specific synergies in the selection of takeover targets in the global mobile telecommunications industry. Firms use...... that can be acquired at a modest bid premium because they have asymmetric bargaining power. Finally, they select targets which can generate significant synergies due to technological synergies. Our work expands the existing target selection literature by studying dyad-specific factors within a single...

  17. Handwriting: three-dimensional kinetic synergies in circle drawing movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooke, Alexander W; Karol, Sohit; Park, Jaebum; Kim, Yoon Hyuk; Shim, Jae Kun

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate central nervous system (CNS) strategies for controlling multifinger forces during a circle-drawing task. Subjects drew 30 concentric, discontinuous clockwise and counter clockwise circles, at self and experimenter-set paces. The three-dimensional trajectory of the pen's center of mass and the three-dimensional forces and moments of force at each contact between the hand and the pen were recorded. Uncontrolled Manifold Analysis was used to quantify the synergies between pen-hand contact forces in radial, tangential and vertical directions. Results showed that synergies in the radial and tangential components were significantly stronger than in the vertical component. Synergies in the clockwise direction were significantly stronger than the counterclockwise direction in the radial and vertical components. Pace was found to be insignificant under any condition.

  18. Strategy and your stronger hand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Geoffrey A

    2005-12-01

    There are two kinds of businesses in the world, says the author. Knowing what they are--and which one your company is--will guide you to the right strategic moves. One kind includes businesses that compete on a complex-systems model. These companies have large enterprises as their primary customers. They seek to grow a customer base in the thousands, with no more than a handful of transactions per customer per year (indeed, in some years there may be none), and the average price per transaction ranges from six to seven figures. In this model, 1,000 enterprises each paying dollar 1 million per year would generate dollar 1 billion in annual revenue. The other kind of business competes on a volume-operations model. Here, vendors seek to acquire millions of customers, with tens or even hundreds of transactions per customer per year, at an average price of relatively few dollars per transaction. Under this model, it would take 10 million customers each spending dollar 8 per month to generate nearly dollar 1 billion in revenue. An examination of both models shows that they could not be further apart in their approach to every step along the classic value chain. The problem, though, is that companies in one camp often attempt to create new value by venturing into the other. In doing so, they fail to realize how their managerial habits have been shaped by the model they've grown up with. By analogy, they have a "handedness"--the equivalent of a person's right- or left-hand dominance--that makes them as adroit in one mode as they are awkward in the other. Unless you are in an industry whose structure forces you to attempt ambidexterity (in which case, special efforts are required to manage the inevitable dropped balls), you'll be far more successful making moves that favor your stronger hand.

  19. Anticipatory synergy adjustments reflect individual performance of feedforward force control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Togo, Shunta; Imamizu, Hiroshi

    2016-10-06

    We grasp and dexterously manipulate an object through multi-digit synergy. In the framework of the uncontrolled manifold (UCM) hypothesis, multi-digit synergy is defined as the coordinated control mechanism of fingers to stabilize variable important for task success, e.g., total force. Previous studies reported anticipatory synergy adjustments (ASAs) that correspond to a drop of the synergy index before a quick change of the total force. The present study compared ASA's properties with individual performances of feedforward force control to investigate a relationship of those. Subjects performed a total finger force production task that consisted of a phase in which subjects tracked target line with visual information and a phase in which subjects produced total force pulse without visual information. We quantified their multi-digit synergy through UCM analysis and observed significant ASAs before producing total force pulse. The time of the ASA initiation and the magnitude of the drop of the synergy index were significantly correlated with the error of force pulse, but not with the tracking error. Almost all subjects showed a significant increase of the variance that affected the total force. Our study directly showed that ASA reflects the individual performance of feedforward force control independently of target-tracking performance and suggests that the multi-digit synergy was weakened to adjust the multi-digit movements based on a prediction error so as to reduce the future error. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Env-glycoprotein heterogeneity as a source of apparent synergy and enhanced cooperativity in inhibition of HIV-1 infection by neutralizing antibodies and entry inhibitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketas, Thomas J.; Holuigue, Sophie; Matthews, Katie; Moore, John P.

    2011-01-01

    We measured the inhibition of infectivity of HIV-1 isolates and derivative clones by combinations of neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) and other entry inhibitors in a single-cycle-replication assay. Synergy was analyzed both by the current linear and a new nonlinear method. The new method reduced spurious indications of synergy and antagonism. Synergy between NAbs was overall weaker than between other entry inhibitors, and no stronger where one ligand is known to enhance the binding of another. However, synergy was stronger for a genetically heterogeneous HIV-1 R5 isolate than for its derivative clones. Enhanced cooperativity in inhibition by combinations, compared with individual inhibitors, correlated with increased synergy at higher levels of inhibition, while being less variable. Again, cooperativity enhancement was stronger for isolates than clones. We hypothesize that genetic, post-translational or conformational heterogeneity of the Env protein and of other targets for inhibitors can yield apparent synergy and increased cooperativity between inhibitors. PMID:22018634

  1. Synergies between energy supply networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Jianzhnog; Yan, Jinyue; Desideri, Umberto

    2017-01-01

    Energy system integration uses a whole-system approach to optimize the synergies between energy supply networks to facilitate and coordinate the grid integration of distributed energy resources while enabling the synergies and conflicts between the local distribution networks and the national lev...... and integration of local renewables including solar energy wind geothermal waste heat and biomass is presented.......Energy system integration uses a whole-system approach to optimize the synergies between energy supply networks to facilitate and coordinate the grid integration of distributed energy resources while enabling the synergies and conflicts between the local distribution networks and the national level...... objectives to be understood and optimally coordinated. The latest research on the network coupling technologies analysis of synergies between energy supply networks and optimal use of synergies in network operation is discussed. A diagram on the possible interactions between different energy networks...

  2. Cultural effect on synergy realization in cross-border acquisitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Daojuan; Hain, Daniel; Dao, Li Thuy

    2017-01-01

    This study examines two levels of cultural differences - national and organizational on synergy realization simultaneously by considering two critical implementation factors as the moderators: pre-acquisition due diligence and post-acquisition coordination efforts. Meanwhile, we argue cultural...... by Nordic companies. Results show that both national and organizational cultural differences only exert negative impact on realization of Type-2 synergy which is more implicit/intangible, less predictable, usually tacit-knowledge intensive and/or complementary, but no impact on realization of Type-1 synergy...... which is explicit/tangible, more predictable, less tacit-knowledge intensive, and/or based on cost reduction and similarity. Meanwhile, national cultural differences generate stronger negative effect at higher level of significance than that of organizational cultural differences. Moreover, proactive...

  3. Hand Grasping Synergies As Biometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Vrajeshri; Thukral, Poojita; Burns, Martin K; Florescu, Ionut; Chandramouli, Rajarathnam; Vinjamuri, Ramana

    2017-01-01

    Recently, the need for more secure identity verification systems has driven researchers to explore other sources of biometrics. This includes iris patterns, palm print, hand geometry, facial recognition, and movement patterns (hand motion, gait, and eye movements). Identity verification systems may benefit from the complexity of human movement that integrates multiple levels of control (neural, muscular, and kinematic). Using principal component analysis, we extracted spatiotemporal hand synergies (movement synergies) from an object grasping dataset to explore their use as a potential biometric. These movement synergies are in the form of joint angular velocity profiles of 10 joints. We explored the effect of joint type, digit, number of objects, and grasp type. In its best configuration, movement synergies achieved an equal error rate of 8.19%. While movement synergies can be integrated into an identity verification system with motion capture ability, we also explored a camera-ready version of hand synergies-postural synergies. In this proof of concept system, postural synergies performed well, but only when specific postures were chosen. Based on these results, hand synergies show promise as a potential biometric that can be combined with other hand-based biometrics for improved security.

  4. From silos to synergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treadwell, Janet; Levermann, Laurie; Soffar, Gail; Giardino, Angelo

    2007-08-01

    Texas Children's Health Plan (TCHP) redesigned its approach to care management in an effort to provide support for member-centric care and the medical home. The changes in process and structure focused on connecting information and programs to promote care for members in a collaborative manner and taking advantage of the synergy between staff, programming, and the physician practices serving health plan membership. The results brought about an improvement in job satisfaction, positive change in the medical-loss ratio, and new innovations to support preventive and chronic care service delivery needs of the TCHP membership.

  5. A Typical Synergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Noort, Thomas; Achten, Peter; Plasmeijer, Rinus

    We present a typical synergy between dynamic types (dynamics) and generalised algebraic datatypes (GADTs). The former provides a clean approach to integrating dynamic typing in a statically typed language. It allows values to be wrapped together with their type in a uniform package, deferring type unification until run time using a pattern match annotated with the desired type. The latter allows for the explicit specification of constructor types, as to enforce their structural validity. In contrast to ADTs, GADTs are heterogeneous structures since each constructor type is implicitly universally quantified. Unfortunately, pattern matching only enforces structural validity and does not provide instantiation information on polymorphic types. Consequently, functions that manipulate such values, such as a type-safe update function, are cumbersome due to boilerplate type representation administration. In this paper we focus on improving such functions by providing a new GADT annotation via a natural synergy with dynamics. We formally define the semantics of the annotation and touch on novel other applications of this technique such as type dispatching and enforcing type equality invariants on GADT values.

  6. Hand Grasping Synergies As Biometrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramana Vinjamuri

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the need for more secure identity verification systems has driven researchers to explore other sources of biometrics. This includes iris patterns, palm print, hand geometry, facial recognition, and movement patterns (hand motion, gait, and eye movements. Identity verification systems may benefit from the complexity of human movement that integrates multiple levels of control (neural, muscular, and kinematic. Using principal component analysis, we extracted spatiotemporal hand synergies (movement synergies from an object grasping dataset to explore their use as a potential biometric. These movement synergies are in the form of joint angular velocity profiles of 10 joints. We explored the effect of joint type, digit, number of objects, and grasp type. In its best configuration, movement synergies achieved an equal error rate of 8.19%. While movement synergies can be integrated into an identity verification system with motion capture ability, we also explored a camera-ready version of hand synergies—postural synergies. In this proof of concept system, postural synergies performed well, but only when specific postures were chosen. Based on these results, hand synergies show promise as a potential biometric that can be combined with other hand-based biometrics for improved security.

  7. Modeling Game Avatar Synergy and Opposition through Embedding in Multiplayer Online Battle Arena Games

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Zhengxing; Xu, Yuyu; Nguyen, Truong-Huy D.; Sun, Yizhou; El-Nasr, Magy Seif

    2018-01-01

    Multiplayer Online Battle Arena (MOBA) games have received increasing worldwide popularity recently. In such games, players compete in teams against each other by controlling selected game avatars, each of which is designed with different strengths and weaknesses. Intuitively, putting together game avatars that complement each other (synergy) and suppress those of opponents (opposition) would result in a stronger team. In-depth understanding of synergy and opposition relationships among game ...

  8. Female Psychology in August Strindberg's the Stronger

    OpenAIRE

    Sutandio, Anton; Apriliani, Erica

    2017-01-01

    This research aimed to offer interpretations of August Strindberg's The Stronger through the lens of female psychology. The Stronger is unique as it seemed very simple yet so intense and powerful with layers of interpretations. Written during 1888-1889, The Stronger, which only had two characters and only one speaking character, had become one of Strindberg's shortest yet important plays during his career. The female psychology approach used in the analysis would cover the discussion of gende...

  9. Intra-Personal and Inter-Personal Kinetic Synergies During Jumping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slomka Kajetan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We explored synergies between two legs and two subjects during preparation for a long jump into a target. Synergies were expected during one-person jumping. No such synergies were expected between two persons jumping in parallel without additional contact, while synergies were expected to emerge with haptic contact and become stronger with strong mechanical contact. Subjects performed jumps either alone (each foot standing on a separate force platform or in dyads (parallel to each other, each person standing on a separate force platform without any contact, with haptic contact, and with strong coupling. Strong negative correlations between pairs of force variables (strong synergies were seen in the vertical force in one-person jumps and weaker synergies in two-person jumps with the strong contact. For other force variables, only weak synergies were present in one-person jumps and no negative correlations between pairs of force variable for two-person jumps. Pairs of moment variables from the two force platforms at steady state showed positive correlations, which were strong in one-person jumps and weaker, but still significant, in two-person jumps with the haptic and strong contact. Anticipatory synergy adjustments prior to action initiation were observed in oneperson trials only. We interpret the different results for the force and moment variables at steady state as reflections of postural sway.

  10. SYNERGY EFFECTS IN WORK TEAMS

    OpenAIRE

    Raluca C. Zoltan

    2014-01-01

    Today’s organization increasingly utilizes all kind of teams in order to surpass their competitors through flexibility, adaptability and innovation, features which are seen to characterize the teams. For this purpose, the concept of synergy in teams’ activity is often mentioned as the prime reason for which collective work is considered to be superior comparative with individual work. But what exactly does it mean? The present paper aims to shed some light on the concept of synergy in work te...

  11. Chemical reaction due to stronger Ramachandran interaction

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The origin of a chemical reaction between two reactant atoms is associated with the activation energy, on the assumption that, high-energy collisions between these atoms, are the ones that overcome the activation energy. Here, we show that a stronger attractive van der Waals (vdW) and electron-ion Coulomb interactions ...

  12. Synergy disclosures in mergers and acquisitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.D.R.P. Dutordoir (Marie); P.G.J. Roosenboom (Peter); M. Teixeira de Vasconcelos (Manuel)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractWe examine bidding firms’ motives for disclosing a synergy forecast when announcing a merger or acquisition. Our sample consists of 1,990 M&A deals, of which 345 announce synergy estimates. Our results suggest that synergy disclosures serve to obtain a more favorable market reception for

  13. Entrepreneurial Creativity through Motivational Synergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amabile, Teresa M.

    1997-01-01

    Defines and describes entrepreneurial creativity, which is the generation and implementation of novel, appropriate ideas to establish a new venture. Discusses the need for motivational synergy, which results when strong levels of personal interest and involvement are combined with the promise of rewards that confirm competence. (Author/CR)

  14. SYNERGY EFFECTS IN WORK TEAMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raluca C. ZOLTAN

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Today’s organization increasingly utilizes all kind of teams in order to surpass their competitors through flexibility, adaptability and innovation, features which are seen to characterize the teams. For this purpose, the concept of synergy in teams’ activity is often mentioned as the prime reason for which collective work is considered to be superior comparative with individual work. But what exactly does it mean? The present paper aims to shed some light on the concept of synergy in work teams and its positive effects, namely, the social consequences of collective work such as social compensation, social indispensability, social comparison, social identity, but also its negative effects, such as free-riding, social loafing and sucker effect. These are important group phenomena that managers should be aware of because they have a major impact on team performance, and consequently, on organization performance.

  15. LHC Season 2: A stronger machine

    CERN Multimedia

    Dominguez, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    1) New magnets / De nouveaux aimants 2) Stronger connections / Des jonctions électriques renforcées 3) Safer magnets / Des aimants plus sûrs 4) Higher energy beams / Des faisceaux d’énergie plus élevée 5) Narrower beams / Des faisceaux plus serrés 6) Smaller but closer proton packets / Des groupes de protons plus petits mais plus rapprochés 7) Higher voltage / Une tension plus haute 8) Superior cryogenics / Un système cryogénique amélioré 9) Radiation-resistant electronics / Une électronique qui résiste aux radiations 10) More secure vacuum / Un vide plus sûr

  16. Toward a Formal Model of Cognitive Synergy

    OpenAIRE

    Goertzel, Ben

    2017-01-01

    "Cognitive synergy" refers to a dynamic in which multiple cognitive processes, cooperating to control the same cognitive system, assist each other in overcoming bottlenecks encountered during their internal processing. Cognitive synergy has been posited as a key feature of real-world general intelligence, and has been used explicitly in the design of the OpenCog cognitive architecture. Here category theory and related concepts are used to give a formalization of the cognitive synergy concept....

  17. Infrastructures for healthcare: From synergy to reverse synergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langhoff, Tue Odd; Amstrup, Mikkel Hvid; Mørck, Peter; Bjørn, Pernille

    2018-03-01

    The Danish General Practitioners Database has over more than a decade developed into a large-scale successful information infrastructure supporting medical research in Denmark. Danish general practitioners produce the data, by coding all patient consultations according to a certain set of classifications, on the entire Danish population. However, in the Autumn of 2014, the system was temporarily shut down due to a lawsuit filed by two general practitioners. In this article, we ask why and identify a political struggle concerning authority, control, and autonomy related to a transformation of the fundamental ontology of the information infrastructure. We explore how the transformed ontology created cracks in the inertia of the information infrastructure damaging the long-term sustainability. We propose the concept of reverse synergy as the awareness of negative impacts occurring when uncritically adding new actors or purposes to a system without due consideration to the nature of the infrastructure. We argue that while long-term information infrastructures are dynamic by nature and constantly impacted by actors joining or leaving the project, each activity of adding new actors must take reverse synergy into account, if not to risk breaking down the fragile nature of otherwise successful information infrastructures supporting research on healthcare.

  18. Gas Marbles: Much Stronger than Liquid Marbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timounay, Yousra; Pitois, Olivier; Rouyer, Florence

    2017-06-01

    Enwrapping liquid droplets with hydrophobic particles allows the manufacture of so-called "liquid marbles" [Aussillous and Quéré Nature (London) 411, 924 (2001); , 10.1038/35082026Mahadevan Nature (London)411, 895 (2001), 10.1038/35082164]. The recent intensive research devoted to liquid marbles is justified by their very unusual physical and chemical properties and by their potential for various applications, from microreactors to water storage, including water pollution sensors [Bormashenko Curr. Opin. Colloid Interface Sci. 16, 266 (2011), 10.1016/j.cocis.2010.12.002]. Here we demonstrate that this concept can be successfully applied for encapsulating and protecting small gas pockets within an air environment. Similarly to their liquid counterparts, those new soft-matter objects, that we call "gas marbles," can sustain external forces. We show that gas marbles are surprisingly tenfold stronger than liquid marbles and, more importantly, they can sustain both positive and negative pressure differences. This magnified strength is shown to originate from the strong cohesive nature of the shell. Those interesting properties could be exploited for imprisoning valuable or polluted gases or for designing new aerated materials.

  19. Cultural synergy in information institutions

    CERN Document Server

    Smiraglia, Richard P

    2014-01-01

    Cultural forces govern a synergistic relationship among information institutions that shapes their roles collectively and individually. Cultural synergy is the combination of perception- and behavior-shaping knowledge within, between, and among groups. Our hyperlinked era makes information-sharing among institutions critically important for scholarship as well as for the advancement of humankind. Information institutions are those that have, or share in, the mission to preserve, conserve, and disseminate information objects and their informative content. A central idea is the notion of social

  20. Synergy in RF Current Drive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dumont, R.J.; Giruzzi, G.

    2005-01-01

    Auxiliary methods for efficient non-inductive current drive in tokamaks generally involve the interaction of externally driven waves with superthermal electrons. Among the possible schemes, Lower Hybrid (LH) and Electron Cyclotron (EC) current drive have been so far the most successful. An interesting aspect of their combined use is the fact that since they involve possibly overlapping domains in velocity and configuration spaces, a synergy between them is expected for appropriate parameters. The signature of this effect, significant improvement of the EC current drive efficiency, results from a favorable interplay of the quasilinear diffusions induced by both waves. Recently, improvements of the EC current drive efficiency in the range of 2-4 have been measured in fully non-inductive discharges in the Tore Supra tokamak, providing the first clear evidence of this effect in steady-state conditions. We present here the experimental aspects of these discharges. The associated kinetic modeling and current state of understanding of the LH-EC synergy phenomenon are also discussed. (authors)

  1. Synergy in RF Current Drive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dumont, R.J.; Giruzzi, G.

    2005-01-01

    Auxiliary methods for efficient non-inductive current drive in tokamaks generally involve the interaction of externally driven waves with superthermal electrons. Among the possible schemes, Lower Hybrid (LH) and Electron Cyclotron (EC) current drive have been so far the most successful. An interesting aspect of their combined use is the fact that since they involve possibly overlapping domains in velocity and configuration spaces, a synergy between them is expected for appropriate parameters. The signature of this effect, significant improvement of the EC current drive efficiency, results from a favorable interplay of the quasilinear diffusions induced by both waves. Recently, improvements of the EC current drive efficiency in the range of 2-4 have been measured in fully non-inductive discharges in the Tore Supra tokamak, providing the first clear evidence of this effect in steady-state conditions. We present here the experimental aspects of these discharges. The associated kinetic modeling and current state of understanding of the LH-EC synergy phenomenon are also discussed

  2. Systematic synergy modeling: understanding drug synergy from a systems biology perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Di; Liu, Xi; Yang, Yiping; Yang, Hongjun; Lu, Peng

    2015-09-16

    Owing to drug synergy effects, drug combinations have become a new trend in combating complex diseases like cancer, HIV and cardiovascular diseases. However, conventional synergy quantification methods often depend on experimental dose-response data which are quite resource-demanding. In addition, these methods are unable to interpret the explicit synergy mechanism. In this review, we give representative examples of how systems biology modeling offers strategies toward better understanding of drug synergy, including the protein-protein interaction (PPI) network-based methods, pathway dynamic simulations, synergy network motif recognitions, integrative drug feature calculations, and "omic"-supported analyses. Although partially successful in drug synergy exploration and interpretation, more efforts should be put on a holistic understanding of drug-disease interactions, considering integrative pharmacology and toxicology factors. With a comprehensive and deep insight into the mechanism of drug synergy, systems biology opens a novel avenue for rational design of effective drug combinations.

  3. States agree on stronger physical protection regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Delegates from 89 countries agreed on 8 July to fundamental changes that will substantially strengthen the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material (CPPNM). IAEA Director General Mohamed ElBaradei welcomed the agreement in saying 'This new and stronger treaty is an important step towards greater nuclear security by combating, preventing, and ultimately punishing those who would engage in nuclear theft, sabotage or even terrorism. It demonstrates that there is indeed a global commitment to remedy weaknesses in our nuclear security regime.' The amended CPPNM makes it legally binding for States Parties to protect nuclear facilities and material in peaceful domestic use, storage as well as transport. It will also provide for expanded cooperation between and among States regarding rapid measures to locate and recover stolen or smuggled nuclear material, mitigate any radiological consequences of sabotage, and prevent and combat related offences. The original CPPNM applied only to nuclear material in international transport. Conference President Dr. Alec Baer said 'All 89 delegations demonstrated real unity of purpose. They put aside some very genuine national concerns in favour of the global interest and the result is a much improved convention that is better suited to addressing the nuclear security challenges we currently face.' The new rules will come into effect once they have been ratified by two-thirds of the 112 States Parties of the Convention, expected to take several years. 'But concrete actions are already taking place around the world. For more than 3 years, the IAEA has been implementing a systematic Nuclear Security plan, including physical protection activities designed to prevent, detect and respond to malicious acts,' said Anita Nillson, Director of the IAEA's Office of Nuclear Security. The Agency's Nuclear Security Fund, set up after the events of 9/11, has delivered $19.5 million in practical assistance to 121 countries

  4. Differences between kinematic synergies and muscle synergies during two-digit grasping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele eTagliabue

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The large number of mechanical degrees of freedom of the hand is not fully exploited during actual movements such as grasping. Usually, angular movements in various joints tend to be coupled, and EMG activities in different hand muscles tend to be correlated. The occurrence of covariation in the former was termed kinematic synergies, in the latter muscle synergies. This study addresses two questions: (i Whether kinematic and muscle synergies can simultaneously accommodate for kinematic and kinetic constraints. (ii If so, whether there is an interrelation between kinematic and muscle synergies. We used a reach-grasp-and-pull paradigm and recorded the hand kinematics as well as 8 surface EMGs. Subjects had to either perform a precision grip or side grip and had to modify their grip force in order to displace an object against a low or high load. The analysis was subdivided into three epochs: reach, grasp-and-pull, and static hold. Principal component analysis (PCA, temporal or static was performed separately for all three epochs, in the kinematic and in the EMG domain. PCA revealed that (i Kinematic- and muscle-synergies can simultaneously accommodate kinematic (grip type and kinetic task constraints (load condition. (ii Upcoming grip and load conditions of the grasp are represented in kinematic- and muscle-synergies already during reach. Phase plane plots of the principal muscle-synergy against the principal kinematic synergy revealed (iii that the muscle-synergy is linked (correlated, and in phase advance to the kinematic synergy during reach and during grasp-and-pull. Furthermore (iv, pair-wise correlations of EMGs during hold suggest that muscle-synergies are (in part implemented by coactivation of muscles through common input. Together, these results suggest that kinematic synergies have (at least in part their origin not just in muscular activation, but in synergiestic muscle activation. In short: kinematic synergies may result from muscle

  5. Stabilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad H. Al-Malack

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Fuel oil flyash (FFA produced in power and water desalination plants firing crude oils in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is being disposed in landfills, which increases the burden on the environment, therefore, FFA utilization must be encouraged. In the current research, the effect of adding FFA on the engineering properties of two indigenous soils, namely sand and marl, was investigated. FFA was added at concentrations of 5%, 10% and 15% to both soils with and without the addition of Portland cement. Mixtures of the stabilized soils were thoroughly evaluated using compaction, California Bearing Ratio (CBR, unconfined compressive strength (USC and durability tests. Results of these tests indicated that stabilized sand mixtures could not attain the ACI strength requirements. However, marl was found to satisfy the ACI strength requirement when only 5% of FFA was added together with 5% of cement. When the FFA was increased to 10% and 15%, the mixture’s strength was found to decrease to values below the ACI requirements. Results of the Toxicity Characteristics Leaching Procedure (TCLP, which was performed on samples that passed the ACI requirements, indicated that FFA must be cautiously used in soil stabilization.

  6. Characterization of Cardiac Patients Based on the Synergy Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tavangar

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Cardiac patients need comprehensive support due to the adverse effects of this disease on different aspects of their lives. Synergy intervention is a model that focuses on patients' requirements. Objectives This study aimed to determine the eightfold characteristic of cardiac patients based on the synergy model that represent their clinical requirements. Materials and Methods In this descriptive cross-sectional study, 40 cardiac patients hospitalized at the cardiac care unit (CCU of Yazd Afshar Hospital were randomly selected. The data were collected by using a two-part check-list including demographic characteristics and also by studying eight characteristics of patients through interviewing and reviewing their records. The results were analyzed using descriptive statistics such as frequency (percentage and analytical statistics such as Spearman and Mann-Whitney test with the SPSS software, version 18. Results The results showed that among patients' internal characteristics, reversibility (70.6%, vulnerability (68.6%, and predictability (80.4% at level 1 (the minimum score had the highest frequency and stability (49% and complexity (54.9% were at level 3 (average score. Among external characteristics participation in decision-making (80.4% at level 1 had the highest frequency while care (62.7% and recourses (98% were at level 3. Conclusions Ignoring any of the eightfold characteristics based on the synergy model interferes with comprehensive support of cardiac patients. Therefore, it is necessary for professional health practitioners, especially nurses, to consider patients' eightfold characteristics in order to provide quality care.

  7. Cultural Synergy and Organizational Change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strøbæk, Pernille Solveig; Vogt, Joachim

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores informal codes and rhythms of social behavior at work and their relation to organizational change and wellbeing. After a merger within a public service organization we organized 8 focus groups of 2-3 clerical or academic employees within a head office and a division office (N...... = 21). Word counts of ‘I’ and ‘we’ revealed that people sharing pre-merger organizational background (homogeneous groups) used ‘we’ more often than heterogeneous groups. Head office employees were concerned with workload and social code, whereas division office employees mainly discussed meetings......, commitment, and office space. Organizational background rather than office cultures guided these differences. We found that in a merged organization cultural synergies are possible to create if practical and social values for employees are offered. Thus, interesting new ways to transform problems...

  8. Synergy cycles in the Norwegian innovation system: The relation between synergy and cycle values

    OpenAIRE

    Inga Ivanova; Oivind Strand; Loet Leydesdorff

    2014-01-01

    The knowledge base of an economy measured in terms of Triple Helix relations can be analyzed in terms of mutual information among geographical, sectorial, and size distributions of firms as dimensions of the probabilistic entropy. The resulting synergy values of a TH system provide static snapshots. In this study, we add the time dimension and analyze the synergy dynamics using the Norwegian innovation system as an example. The synergy among the three dimensions can be mapped as a set of part...

  9. Ground-based lidar and microwave radiometry synergy for high vertical resolution absolute humidity profiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrera-Verdejo, María; Crewell, Susanne; Löhnert, Ulrich; Orlandi, Emiliano; Di Girolamo, Paolo

    2016-08-01

    Continuous monitoring of atmospheric humidity profiles is important for many applications, e.g., assessment of atmospheric stability and cloud formation. Nowadays there are a wide variety of ground-based sensors for atmospheric humidity profiling. Unfortunately there is no single instrument able to provide a measurement with complete vertical coverage, high vertical and temporal resolution and good performance under all weather conditions, simultaneously. For example, Raman lidar (RL) measurements can provide water vapor with a high vertical resolution, albeit with limited vertical coverage, due to sunlight contamination and the presence of clouds. Microwave radiometers (MWRs) receive water vapor information throughout the troposphere, though their vertical resolution is poor. In this work, we present an MWR and RL system synergy, which aims to overcome the specific sensor limitations. The retrieval algorithm combining these two instruments is an optimal estimation method (OEM), which allows for an uncertainty analysis of the retrieved profiles. The OEM combines measurements and a priori information, taking the uncertainty of both into account. The measurement vector consists of a set of MWR brightness temperatures and RL water vapor profiles. The method is applied to a 2-month field campaign around Jülich (Germany), focusing on clear sky periods. Different experiments are performed to analyze the improvements achieved via the synergy compared to the individual retrievals. When applying the combined retrieval, on average the theoretically determined absolute humidity uncertainty is reduced above the last usable lidar range by a factor of ˜ 2 with respect to the case where only RL measurements are used. The analysis in terms of degrees of freedom per signal reveal that most information is gained above the usable lidar range, especially important during daytime when the lidar vertical coverage is limited. The retrieved profiles are further evaluated using

  10. Managing Tensions And Forging Creative Synergies Between ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Managing Tensions And Forging Creative Synergies Between Indigenous And Modern Settlement Planning Concepts And Practices: Lessons For The Design And Planning For Sustainable Settlements And Built-Forms In Southern Africa.

  11. Sensory Synergy as Environmental Input Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fady eAlnajjar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of a method to feed proper environmental inputs back to the central nervous system (CNS remains one of the challenges in achieving natural movement when part of the body is replaced with an artificial device. Muscle synergies are widely accepted as a biologically plausible interpretation of the neural dynamics between the CNS and the muscular system. Yet the sensorineural dynamics of environmental feedback to the CNS has not been investigated in detail. In this study, we address this issue by exploring the concept of sensory synergy. In contrast to muscle synergy, we hypothesize that sensory synergy plays an essential role in integrating the overall environmental inputs to provide low-dimensional information to the CNS. We assume that sensor synergy and muscle synergy communicate using these low-dimensional signals. To examine our hypothesis, we conducted posture control experiments involving lateral disturbance with 9 healthy participants. Proprioceptive information represented by the changes on muscle lengths were estimated by using the musculoskeletal model analysis software SIMM. Changes on muscles lengths were then used to compute sensory synergies. The experimental results indicate that the environmental inputs were translated into the two dimensional signals and used to move the upper limb to the desired position immediately after the lateral disturbance. Participants who showed high skill in posture control were found to be likely to have a strong correlation between sensory and muscle signaling as well as high coordination between the utilized sensory synergies. These results suggest the importance of integrating environmental inputs into suitable low-dimensional signals before providing them to the CNS. This mechanism should be essential when designing the prosthesis’ sensory system to make the controller simpler

  12. Coevolution: A synergy in biology and ecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WenJun Zhang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Synergy refers to that in an open and complex system consisting of a large number of subsystems, far from equilibrium, its subsystems interact in a nonlinear way to produce synergistic effects and thus make the system generate a self-organization structure in space/time with certain functions. Biologists and ecologists, tend to use coevolution/coadaptation to represent the terminology "synergy". Coevolution and research methodology were briefly discussed in present paper.

  13. Sensory synergy as environmental input integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alnajjar, Fady; Itkonen, Matti; Berenz, Vincent; Tournier, Maxime; Nagai, Chikara; Shimoda, Shingo

    2014-01-01

    The development of a method to feed proper environmental inputs back to the central nervous system (CNS) remains one of the challenges in achieving natural movement when part of the body is replaced with an artificial device. Muscle synergies are widely accepted as a biologically plausible interpretation of the neural dynamics between the CNS and the muscular system. Yet the sensorineural dynamics of environmental feedback to the CNS has not been investigated in detail. In this study, we address this issue by exploring the concept of sensory synergy. In contrast to muscle synergy, we hypothesize that sensory synergy plays an essential role in integrating the overall environmental inputs to provide low-dimensional information to the CNS. We assume that sensor synergy and muscle synergy communicate using these low-dimensional signals. To examine our hypothesis, we conducted posture control experiments involving lateral disturbance with nine healthy participants. Proprioceptive information represented by the changes on muscle lengths were estimated by using the musculoskeletal model analysis software SIMM. Changes on muscles lengths were then used to compute sensory synergies. The experimental results indicate that the environmental inputs were translated into the two dimensional signals and used to move the upper limb to the desired position immediately after the lateral disturbance. Participants who showed high skill in posture control were found to be likely to have a strong correlation between sensory and muscle signaling as well as high coordination between the utilized sensory synergies. These results suggest the importance of integrating environmental inputs into suitable low-dimensional signals before providing them to the CNS. This mechanism should be essential when designing the prosthesis' sensory system to make the controller simpler.

  14. Synergy of FexCe1−xO2 mixed oxides for N2O decomposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perez-Alonso, F.J.; Melián-Cabrera, I.; López Granados, M.; Kapteijn, F.; Fierro, J.L.G.

    2006-01-01

    Fe–Ce mixed oxides prepared by coprecipitation showed considerable synergy in N2O decomposition when compared with pure metal oxide counterparts. The mixed system also displayed higher stability in reaction at high temperature. Through characterisation by XRD, XPS and TPR, the activity–stability

  15. Synergy of FexCe1-xO2 mixed oxides for N2O decomposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perez-Alonso, FJ; Melian Cabrera, Ignacio; Granados, ML; Kapteijn, F; Fierro, JLG

    2006-01-01

    Fe-Ce mixed oxides prepared by coprecipitation showed considerable synergy in N2O decomposition when compared with pure metal oxide counterparts. The mixed system also displayed higher stability in reaction at high temperature. Through characterisation by XRD, XPS and TPR, the activity-stability

  16. Greenhouses and their humanizing synergies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haeuplik-Meusburger, Sandra; Paterson, Carrie; Schubert, Daniel; Zabel, Paul

    2014-03-01

    Greenhouses in space will require advanced technical systems of automatic watering, soil-less cultivation, artificial lighting, and computerized observation of plants. Functions discussed for plants in space habitats include physical/health requirements and human psychology, social cohesion, as well as the complex sensorial benefits of plants for humans. The authors consider the role of plants in long-term space missions historically since 1971 (Salyut 1) and propose a set of priorities to be considered within the design requirements for greenhouses and constructed environments given a range of benefits associated with plant-human relationships. They cite recent research into the use of greenhouses in extreme environments to reveal the relative importance of greenhouses for people living in isolated locations. Additionally, they put forward hypotheses about where greenhouses might factor into several strata of human health. In a recent design-in-use study of astronauts' experiences in space habitats discussed in Architecture for Astronauts (Springer Press 2011) it was found that besides the basic advantages for life support there are clearly additional "side benefits" for habitability and physical wellbeing, and thus long-term mission success. The authors have composed several key theses regarding the need to promote plant-human relationships in space, including areas where synergy and symbiosis occur. They cite new comprehensive research into the early US Space Program to reveal where programmatic requirements could be added to space architecture to increase the less quantifiable benefits to astronauts of art, recreation, and poetic engagement with their existential condition of estrangement from the planet. Specifically in terms of the technological requirements, the authors propose the integration of a new greenhouse subsystem component into space greenhouses—the Mobile Plant Cultivation Subsystem—a portable, personal greenhouse that can be integrated

  17. Molecular mechanism of synergy between the antimicrobial peptides PGLa and magainin 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerweck, Jonathan; Strandberg, Erik; Kukharenko, Olga; Reichert, Johannes; Bürck, Jochen; Wadhwani, Parvesh; Ulrich, Anne S

    2017-10-13

    PGLa and magainin 2 (MAG2) are amphiphilic α-helical membranolytic peptides from frog skin with known synergistic antimicrobial activity. By systematically mutating residues in the two peptides it was possible to identify the ones crucial for the synergy, as monitored by biological assays, fluorescence vesicle leakage, and solid-state 15 N-NMR. Electrostatic interactions between anionic groups in MAG2 and cationic residues in PGLa enhance synergy but are not necessary for the synergistic effect. Instead, two Gly residues (7 and 11) in a so-called GxxxG motif in PGLa are necessary for synergy. Replacing either of them with Ala or another hydrophobic residue completely abolishes synergy according to all three methods used. The designer-made peptide MSI-103, which has a similar sequence as PGLa, shows no synergy with MAG2, but by introducing two Gly mutations it was possible to make it synergistic. A molecular model is proposed for the functionally active PGLa-MAG2 complex, consisting of a membrane-spanning antiparallel PGLa dimer that is stabilized by intimate Gly-Gly contacts, and where each PGLa monomer is in contact with one MAG2 molecule at its C-terminus.

  18. The Educational Program "Zajedno Jaci" (Stronger Together) in Croatia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanja, Sanja

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we explore intercultural learning undertaken through the educational program "Stronger Together." The program "Stronger Together" was created in 1998 in order to support and educate teachers working with children in post-war regions of Croatia using intercultural education and cooperative learning as tools for…

  19. Stronger Schrödinger-like uncertainty relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Qiu-Cheng; Qiao, Cong-Feng

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A stronger Schrödinger-like uncertainty relation in the sum of variances of two observables is obtained. • An improved Schrödinger-like uncertainty relation in the product of variances of two observables is obtained. • A stronger uncertainty relation in the sum of variances of three observables is proposed. - Abstract: Uncertainty relation is one of the fundamental building blocks of quantum theory. Nevertheless, the traditional uncertainty relations do not fully capture the concept of incompatible observables. Here we present a stronger Schrödinger-like uncertainty relation, which is stronger than the relation recently derived by Maccone and Pati (2014) [11]. Furthermore, we give an additive uncertainty relation which holds for three incompatible observables, which is stronger than the relation newly obtained by Kechrimparis and Weigert (2014) [12] and the simple extension of the Schrödinger uncertainty relation.

  20. Robustness of muscle synergies during visuomotor adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinhard eGentner

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available During visuomotor adaptation a novel mapping between visual targets and motor commands is gradually acquired. How muscle activation patterns are affected by this process is an open question. We tested whether the structure of muscle synergies is preserved during adaptation to a visuomotor rotation. Eight subjects applied targeted isometric forces on a handle instrumented with a force transducer while electromyographic (EMG activity was recorded from 13 shoulder and elbow muscles. The recorded forces were mapped into horizontal displacements of a virtual sphere with simulated mass, elasticity, and damping. The task consisted of moving the sphere to a target at one of eight equally spaced directions. Subjects performed three baseline blocks of 32 trials, followed by six blocks with a 45° CW rotation applied to the planar force, and finally three wash-out blocks without the perturbation. The sphere position at 100 ms after movement onset revealed significant directional error at the beginning of the rotation, a gradual learning in subsequent blocks, and aftereffects at the beginning of the wash-out. The change in initial force direction was closely related to the change in directional tuning of the initial EMG activity of most muscles. Throughout the experiment muscle synergies extracted using a non-negative matrix factorization algorithm from the muscle patterns recorded during the baseline blocks could reconstruct the muscle patterns of all other blocks with an accuracy significantly higher than chance indicating structural robustness. In addition, the synergies extracted from individual blocks remained similar to the baseline synergies throughout the experiment. Thus synergy structure is robust during visuomotor adaptation suggesting that changes in muscle patterns are obtained by rotating the directional tuning of the synergy recruitment.

  1. Women's political participation leads to stronger local economies ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-06-08

    Jun 8, 2016 ... Under changes to India's constitution, Indian women are gaining a stronger ... Legal reforms are encouraging women to contribute to economic growth ... on a panel on empowering women entrepreneurs at IDRC in Ottawa.

  2. Human synergy in the rotten banana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, Christian Franklin

    Counter-activity and synergy canbe viewed as a renaissance when recapturing the human potentials in civil society. The paper discusses employees' navigations and their imaginings of the future both relating to social enterprises and civil society and relating to the municipality as a rural area....

  3. The effect of aging on respiratory synergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kweon, Migyoung; Son, Sung Min; Kwon, Yong Hyun

    2015-04-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of aging on respiratory synergy, through the comparison of an elderly group and a young group, to help further understanding of postural control in the elderly. [Subjects and Methods] Ten community-dwelling elderly subjects and ten young subjects performed standing under two different respiratory conditions: quiet breathing and apnea. Center of foot pressure displacement and joint angular movements of the head, trunk, pelvis, hips, knees and ankles were measured. [Results] The results of this study showed that the elderly group had a respiratory synergy different from that of the young group. The elderly group in quiet stance used significantly more hip and pelvis movements when compensating for respiratory disturbance than standing with apnea, while the young group used significantly more whole body segments. There were no differences in angular displacements in the quiet stance between the elderly and the young groups. [Conclusion] The elderly group demonstrated a respiratory synergy pattern different from that of the young group. The findings indicate that aging changes the respiratory synergy pattern and this change is not due to decreased functioning of the ankle joint alone.

  4. IT Portfolio Selection and IT Synergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Woo Je

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation consists of three chapters. The primary objectives of this dissertation are: (1) to provide a methodological framework of IT (Information Technology) portfolio management, and (2) to identify the effect of IT synergy on IT portfolio selection of a firm. The first chapter presents a methodological framework for IT project…

  5. Synergy between phenothiazines and oxacillin against clinical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of the compounds were determined by agar dilution method, and synergy between phenothiazines and oxacillin was investigated using Checkerboard (microbroth dilution) technique. Results: We found that all S. aureus strains, regardless of their susceptibility to oxacillin, ...

  6. Synergy between indigenous knowledge systems, modern health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... the people of this country should harness a synergy between indigenous health care systems, scientific research and modern health care methods. This article attempts to address the historical evolution of health care methods in South Africa, its effect on the community as well as challenges facing the health professions.

  7. Synergies between nonproliferation regimes: A pragmatic approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Findlay, Trevor; Meier, Oliver

    2001-01-01

    Full text: With the recent progress in establishing international nonproliferation regimes, the question of synergies between different verification and monitoring regimes is becoming more acute. Three multilateral and universal nonproliferation organisations covering safeguards on civil nuclear materials, nuclear testing, and chemical weapons are up and running. A regime on biological weapons is under negotiation. Several regional organisations concerned with monitoring nonproliferation commitments in the nuclear field are in place; others are being established. Past discussions on synergies between these regimes have suffered from being too far-reaching. These discussions often have not reflected adequately the political difficulties of cooperation between regimes with different membership, scope and institutional set-up. This paper takes a pragmatic look at exploiting synergies and identifies some potential and real overlaps in the work between different verification regimes. It argues for a bottom-up approach and identifies building blocks for collaboration between verification regimes. By realising such, more limited potential for cooperation, the ground could be prepared for exploiting other synergies between these regimes. (author)

  8. Muscle Synergy-Driven Robust Motion Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Kyuengbo; Iwamoto, Masami; Kakei, Shinji; Kimpara, Hideyuki

    2018-04-01

    Humans are able to robustly maintain desired motion and posture under dynamically changing circumstances, including novel conditions. To accomplish this, the brain needs to optimize the synergistic control between muscles against external dynamic factors. However, previous related studies have usually simplified the control of multiple muscles using two opposing muscles, which are minimum actuators to simulate linear feedback control. As a result, they have been unable to analyze how muscle synergy contributes to motion control robustness in a biological system. To address this issue, we considered a new muscle synergy concept used to optimize the synergy between muscle units against external dynamic conditions, including novel conditions. We propose that two main muscle control policies synergistically control muscle units to maintain the desired motion against external dynamic conditions. Our assumption is based on biological evidence regarding the control of multiple muscles via the corticospinal tract. One of the policies is the group control policy (GCP), which is used to control muscle group units classified based on functional similarities in joint control. This policy is used to effectively resist external dynamic circumstances, such as disturbances. The individual control policy (ICP) assists the GCP in precisely controlling motion by controlling individual muscle units. To validate this hypothesis, we simulated the reinforcement of the synergistic actions of the two control policies during the reinforcement learning of feedback motion control. Using this learning paradigm, the two control policies were synergistically combined to result in robust feedback control under novel transient and sustained disturbances that did not involve learning. Further, by comparing our data to experimental data generated by human subjects under the same conditions as those of the simulation, we showed that the proposed synergy concept may be used to analyze muscle synergy

  9. Team synergies in sport: Theory and measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duarte Araújo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Individual players act as a coherent unit during team sports performance, forming a team synergy. A synergy is a collective property of a task-specific organization of individuals, such that the degrees of freedom of each individual in the system are coupled, enabling the degrees of freedom of different individuals to co-regulate each other. Here, we present an explanation for the emergence of such collective behaviors, indicating how these can be assessed and understood through the measurement of key system properties that exist, considering the contribution of each individual and beyond These include: to (i dimensional compression, a process resulting in independent degree of freedom being coupled so that the synergy has fewer degrees of freedom than the set of components from which it arises; (ii reciprocal compensation, if one element do not produce its function, other elements should display changes in their contributions so that task goals are still attained; (iii interpersonal linkages, the specific contribution of each element to a group task; and (iv, degeneracy, structurally different components performing a similar, but not necessarily identical, function with respect to context. A primary goal of our analysis is to highlight the principles and tools required to understand coherent and dynamic team behaviors, as well as the performance conditions that make such team synergies possible, through perceptual attunement to shared affordances in individual performers. A key conclusion is that teams can be trained to perceive how to use and share specific affordances, explaining how individual’s behaviours self-organize into a group synergy.Ecological dynamics explanations of team behaviors can transit beyond mere ratification of sport performance, providing a comprehensive conceptual framework to guide the implementation of diagnostic measures by sport scientists, sport psychologists and performance analysts.

  10. Tumor microenvironment and metabolic synergy in breast cancers: critical importance of mitochondrial fuels and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Outschoorn, Ubaldo; Sotgia, Federica; Lisanti, Michael P

    2014-04-01

    Metabolic synergy or metabolic coupling between glycolytic stromal cells (Warburg effect) and oxidative cancer cells occurs in human breast cancers and promotes tumor growth. The Warburg effect or aerobic glycolysis is the catabolism of glucose to lactate to obtain adenosine triphosphate (ATP). This review summarizes the main findings on this stromal metabolic phenotype, and the associated signaling pathways, as well as the critical role of oxidative stress and autophagy, all of which promote carcinoma cell mitochondrial metabolism and tumor growth. Loss of Caveolin 1 (Cav-1) and the upregulation of monocarboxylate transporter 4 (MCT4) in stromal cells are novel markers of the Warburg effect and metabolic synergy between stromal and carcinoma cells. MCT4 and Cav-1 are also breast cancer prognostic biomarkers. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are key mediators of the stromal Warburg effect. High ROS also favors cancer cell mitochondrial metabolism and tumorigenesis, and anti-oxidants can reverse this altered stromal and carcinoma metabolism. A pseudo-hypoxic state with glycolysis and low mitochondrial metabolism in the absence of hypoxia is a common feature in breast cancer. High ROS induces loss of Cav-1 in stromal cells and is sufficient to generate a pseudo-hypoxic state. Loss of Cav-1 in the stroma drives glycolysis and lactate extrusion via HIF-1α stabilization and the upregulation of MCT4. Stromal cells with loss of Cav-1 and/or high expression of MCT4 also show a catabolic phenotype, with enhanced macroautophagy. This catabolic state in stromal cells is driven by hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α, nuclear factor κB (NFκB), and JNK activation and high ROS generation. A feed-forward loop in stromal cells regulates pseudo-hypoxia and metabolic synergy, with Cav-1, MCT4, HIF-1α, NFκB, and ROS as its key elements. Metabolic synergy also may occur between cancer cells and cells in distant organs from the tumor. Cancer cachexia, which is due to severe organismal

  11. Motor synergies and the equilibrium-point hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latash, Mark L

    2010-07-01

    The article offers a way to unite three recent developments in the field of motor control and coordination: (1) The notion of synergies is introduced based on the principle of motor abundance; (2) The uncontrolled manifold hypothesis is described as offering a computational framework to identify and quantify synergies; and (3) The equilibrium-point hypothesis is described for a single muscle, single joint, and multijoint systems. Merging these concepts into a single coherent scheme requires focusing on control variables rather than performance variables. The principle of minimal final action is formulated as the guiding principle within the referent configuration hypothesis. Motor actions are associated with setting two types of variables by a controller, those that ultimately define average performance patterns and those that define associated synergies. Predictions of the suggested scheme are reviewed, such as the phenomenon of anticipatory synergy adjustments, quick actions without changes in synergies, atypical synergies, and changes in synergies with practice. A few models are briefly reviewed.

  12. Dietary antioxidant synergy in chemical and biological systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sunan; Zhu, Fan

    2017-07-24

    Antioxidant (AOX) synergies have been much reported in chemical ("test-tube" based assays focusing on pure chemicals), biological (tissue culture, animal and clinical models), and food systems during the past decade. Tentative synergies differ from each other due to the composition of AOX and the quantification methods. Regeneration mechanism responsible for synergy in chemical systems has been discussed. Solvent effects could contribute to the artifacts of synergy observed in the chemical models. Synergy in chemical models may hardly be relevant to biological systems that have been much less studied. Apparent discrepancies exist in understanding the molecular mechanisms in both chemical and biological systems. This review discusses diverse variables associated with AOX synergy and molecular scenarios for explanation. Future research to better utilize the synergy is suggested.

  13. Synergy as a new and sensitive marker of basal ganglia dysfunction: A study of asymptomatic welders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Mechelle M; Lee, Eun-Young; Jo, Hang Jin; Du, Guangwei; Park, Jaebum; Flynn, Michael R; Kong, Lan; Latash, Mark L; Huang, Xuemei

    2016-09-01

    Multi-digit synergies, a recently developed, theory-based method to quantify stability of motor action, are shown to reflect basal ganglia dysfunction associated with parkinsonian syndromes. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that multi-digit synergies may capture early and subclinical basal ganglia dysfunction. We chose asymptomatic welders to test the hypothesis because the basal ganglia are known to be most susceptible to neurotoxicity caused by welding-related metal accumulation (such as manganese and iron). Twenty right-handed welders and 13 matched controls were invited to perform single- and multi-finger pressing tasks using the fingers of the right or left hand. Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale and Grooved Pegboard scores were used to gauge gross and fine motor dysfunction, respectively. High-resolution (3T) T1-weighted, T2-weighted, T1 mapping, susceptibility, and diffusion tensor MRIs were obtained to reflect manganese, iron accumulation, and microstructural changes in basal ganglia. The synergy index stabilizing total force and anticipatory synergy adjustments were computed, compared between groups, and correlated with estimates of basal ganglia manganese [the pallidal index, R1 (1/T1)], iron [R2* (1/T2*)], and microstructural changes [fractional anisotropy and mean diffusivity]. There were no significant differences in Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (total or motor subscale) or Grooved Pegboard test scores between welders and controls. The synergy index during steady-state accurate force production was decreased significantly in the left hand of welders compared to controls (p=0.004) but did not reach statistical significance in the right hand (p=0.16). Anticipatory synergy adjustments, however, were not significantly different between groups. Among welders, higher synergy indices in the left hand were associated significantly with higher fractional anisotropy values in the left globus pallidus (R=0.731, psynergy metrics may serve

  14. Active sensor synergy for arctic cloud microphysics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sato Kaori

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we focus on the retrieval of liquid and ice-phase cloud microphysics from spaceborne and ground-based lidar-cloud radar synergy. As an application of the cloud retrieval algorithm developed for the EarthCARE satellite mission (JAXA-ESA [1], the derived statistics of cloud microphysical properties in high latitudes and their relation to the Arctic climate are investigated.

  15. Postural Hand Synergies during Environmental Constraint Exploitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cosimo Della Santina

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Humans are able to intuitively exploit the shape of an object and environmental constraints to achieve stable grasps and perform dexterous manipulations. In doing that, a vast range of kinematic strategies can be observed. However, in this work we formulate the hypothesis that such ability can be described in terms of a synergistic behavior in the generation of hand postures, i.e., using a reduced set of commonly used kinematic patterns. This is in analogy with previous studies showing the presence of such behavior in different tasks, such as grasping. We investigated this hypothesis in experiments performed by six subjects, who were asked to grasp objects from a flat surface. We quantitatively characterized hand posture behavior from a kinematic perspective, i.e., the hand joint angles, in both pre-shaping and during the interaction with the environment. To determine the role of tactile feedback, we repeated the same experiments but with subjects wearing a rigid shell on the fingertips to reduce cutaneous afferent inputs. Results show the persistence of at least two postural synergies in all the considered experimental conditions and phases. Tactile impairment does not alter significantly the first two synergies, and contact with the environment generates a change only for higher order Principal Components. A good match also arises between the first synergy found in our analysis and the first synergy of grasping as quantified by previous work. The present study is motivated by the interest of learning from the human example, extracting lessons that can be applied in robot design and control. Thus, we conclude with a discussion on implications for robotics of our findings.

  16. A Stronger Reason for the Right to Sign Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trovato, Sara

    2013-01-01

    Is the right to sign language only the right to a minority language? Holding a capability (not a disability) approach, and building on the psycholinguistic literature on sign language acquisition, I make the point that this right is of a stronger nature, since only sign languages can guarantee that each deaf child will properly develop the…

  17. Female Psychology in August Strindberg’s The Stronger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Sutandio

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to offer interpretations of August Strindberg’s The Stronger through the lens of female psychology. The Stronger is unique as it seemed very simple yet so intense and powerful with layers of interpretations. Written during 1888-1889, The Stronger, which only had two characters and only one speaking character, had become one of Strindberg’s shortest yet important plays during his career. The female psychology approach used in the analysis would cover the discussion of gender role, women’s self-esteem, competition for males, women’s friendships, ego style, and female psychology. It was an interdisciplinary research that combined structuralist, historical, biographical, and feminist approach to gain a better interpretation on the play. By referring to three different sources on the concept of female psychology, the analysis offered different and interesting interpretations on the nature and dynamics of the two female characters’ relationship. The Stronger has shown an enigmatic attraction in Strindberg’s authorship in which the readers could see the co-existence, collision, conflict, and merge of different paradigms concerning sex, gender, and sexuality.

  18. Women's political participation leads to stronger local economies ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Edgard Rodriguez - IDRC. Women attend a self-help group meeting near Hyderabad, India. Keenara Khanderia. Under changes to India's constitution, Indian women are gaining a stronger political voice. Legal reforms are encouraging women to contribute to economic growth and investments in community growth.

  19. Scientific Synergy between LSST and Euclid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Jason; Nichol, Robert C.; Aubourg, Éric; Bean, Rachel; Boutigny, Dominique; Bremer, Malcolm N.; Capak, Peter; Cardone, Vincenzo; Carry, Benoît; Conselice, Christopher J.; Connolly, Andrew J.; Cuillandre, Jean-Charles; Hatch, N. A.; Helou, George; Hemmati, Shoubaneh; Hildebrandt, Hendrik; Hložek, Renée; Jones, Lynne; Kahn, Steven; Kiessling, Alina; Kitching, Thomas; Lupton, Robert; Mandelbaum, Rachel; Markovic, Katarina; Marshall, Phil; Massey, Richard; Maughan, Ben J.; Melchior, Peter; Mellier, Yannick; Newman, Jeffrey A.; Robertson, Brant; Sauvage, Marc; Schrabback, Tim; Smith, Graham P.; Strauss, Michael A.; Taylor, Andy; Von Der Linden, Anja

    2017-12-01

    Euclid and the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) are poised to dramatically change the astronomy landscape early in the next decade. The combination of high-cadence, deep, wide-field optical photometry from LSST with high-resolution, wide-field optical photometry, and near-infrared photometry and spectroscopy from Euclid will be powerful for addressing a wide range of astrophysical questions. We explore Euclid/LSST synergy, ignoring the political issues associated with data access to focus on the scientific, technical, and financial benefits of coordination. We focus primarily on dark energy cosmology, but also discuss galaxy evolution, transient objects, solar system science, and galaxy cluster studies. We concentrate on synergies that require coordination in cadence or survey overlap, or would benefit from pixel-level co-processing that is beyond the scope of what is currently planned, rather than scientific programs that could be accomplished only at the catalog level without coordination in data processing or survey strategies. We provide two quantitative examples of scientific synergies: the decrease in photo-z errors (benefiting many science cases) when high-resolution Euclid data are used for LSST photo-z determination, and the resulting increase in weak-lensing signal-to-noise ratio from smaller photo-z errors. We briefly discuss other areas of coordination, including high-performance computing resources and calibration data. Finally, we address concerns about the loss of independence and potential cross-checks between the two missions and the potential consequences of not collaborating.

  20. Predicting synergy in atomic layer etching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanarik, Keren J. [Lam Research Corp., Fremont, CA (United States); Tan, Samantha [Lam Research Corp., Fremont, CA (United States); Yang, Wenbing [Lam Research Corp., Fremont, CA (United States); Kim, Taeseung [Lam Research Corp., Fremont, CA (United States); Lill, Thorsten [Lam Research Corp., Fremont, CA (United States); Kabansky, Alexander [Lam Research Corp., Fremont, CA (United States); Hudson, Eric A. [Lam Research Corp., Fremont, CA (United States); Ohba, Tomihito [Lam Research Corp., Fremont, CA (United States); Nojiri, Kazuo [Lam Research Corp., Fremont, CA (United States); Yu, Jengyi [Lam Research Corp., Fremont, CA (United States); Wise, Rich [Lam Research Corp., Fremont, CA (United States); Berry, Ivan L. [Lam Research Corp., Fremont, CA (United States); Pan, Yang [Lam Research Corp., Fremont, CA (United States); Marks, Jeffrey [Lam Research Corp., Fremont, CA (United States); Gottscho, Richard A. [Lam Research Corp., Fremont, CA (United States)

    2017-03-27

    Atomic layer etching (ALE) is a multistep process used today in manufacturing for removing ultrathin layers of material. In this article, the authors report on ALE of Si, Ge, C, W, GaN, and SiO2 using a directional (anisotropic) plasma-enhanced approach. The authors analyze these systems by defining an “ALE synergy” parameter which quantifies the degree to which a process approaches the ideal ALE regime. This parameter is inspired by the ion-neutral synergy concept introduced in the 1979 paper by Coburn and Winters. ALE synergy is related to the energetics of underlying surface interactions and is understood in terms of energy criteria for the energy barriers involved in the reactions. Synergistic behavior is observed for all of the systems studied, with each exhibiting behavior unique to the reactant–material combination. By systematically studying atomic layer etching of a group of materials, the authors show that ALE synergy scales with the surface binding energy of the bulk material. This insight explains why some materials are more or less amenable to the directional ALE approach. Furthermore, they conclude that ALE is both simpler to understand than conventional plasma etch processing and is applicable to metals, semiconductors, and dielectrics.

  1. Two aspects of feedforward postural control: anticipatory postural adjustments and anticipatory synergy adjustments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klous, Miriam; Mikulic, Pavle; Latash, Mark L

    2011-05-01

    We used the framework of the uncontrolled manifold hypothesis to explore the relations between anticipatory synergy adjustments (ASAs) and anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs) during feedforward control of vertical posture. ASAs represent a drop in the index of a multimuscle-mode synergy stabilizing the coordinate of the center of pressure in preparation to an action. ASAs reflect early changes of an index of covariation among variables reflecting muscle activation, whereas APAs reflect early changes in muscle activation levels averaged across trials. The assumed purpose of ASAs is to modify stability of performance variables, whereas the purpose of APAs is to change magnitudes of those variables. We hypothesized that ASAs would be seen before APAs and that this finding would be consistent with regard to the muscle-mode composition defined on the basis of different tasks and phases of action. Subjects performed a voluntary body sway task and a quick, bilateral shoulder flexion task under self-paced and reaction time conditions. Surface muscle activity of 12 leg and trunk muscles was analyzed to identify sets of 4 muscle modes for each task and for different phases within the shoulder flexion task. Variance components in the muscle-mode space and indexes of multimuscle-mode synergy stabilizing shift of the center of pressure were computed. ASAs were seen ∼ 100-150 ms prior to the task initiation, before APAs. The results were consistent with respect to different sets of muscle modes defined over the two tasks and different shoulder flexion phases. We conclude that the preparation for a self-triggered postural perturbation is associated with two types of anticipatory adjustments, ASAs and APAs. They reflect different feedforward processes within the hypothetical hierarchical control scheme, resulting in changes in patterns of covariation of elemental variables and in their patterns averaged across trials, respectively. The results show that synergies quantified

  2. Synergies of the Liberalization of the Railway Transport Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panák Michal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The liberalization of transport market brings various effects, which in the context of the assessment of synergies can affect in different ways the company, a customer as such, and transport undertakings operating on the railway transport market as well. This paper provides an innovative perspective on the relationship between liberalization and synergy, defining new types of synergies that have not yet been monitored in the conditions of railway transport. This approach is interesting because of the possibility of assessing the operation of railway undertakings in the open transport market. The eminent is characteristic of integration type synergies and emergence type synergies in relation to railway transport, as well as the breakdown of synergies in relation to the customer and carrier.

  3. Stronger vection in junior high school children than in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirai, Nobu; Imura, Tomoko; Tamura, Rio; Seno, Takeharu

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that even elementary school-aged children (7 and 11 years old) experience visually induced perception of illusory self-motion (vection) (Lepecq et al., 1995, Perception, 24, 435-449) and that children of a similar age (mean age = 9.2 years) experience more rapid and stronger vection than do adults (Shirai et al., 2012, Perception, 41, 1399-1402). These findings imply that although elementary school-aged children experience vection, this ability is subject to further development. To examine the subsequent development of vection, we compared junior high school students' (N = 11, mean age = 14.4 years) and adults' (N = 10, mean age = 22.2 years) experiences of vection. Junior high school students reported significantly stronger vection than did adults, suggesting that the perceptual experience of junior high school students differs from that of adults with regard to vection and that this ability undergoes gradual changes over a relatively long period of development.

  4. Stages in learning motor synergies: a view based on the equilibrium-point hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latash, Mark L

    2010-10-01

    This review describes a novel view on stages in motor learning based on recent developments of the notion of synergies, the uncontrolled manifold hypothesis, and the equilibrium-point hypothesis (referent configuration) that allow to merge these notions into a single scheme of motor control. The principle of abundance and the principle of minimal final action form the foundation for analyses of natural motor actions performed by redundant sets of elements. Two main stages of motor learning are introduced corresponding to (1) discovery and strengthening of motor synergies stabilizing salient performance variable(s) and (2) their weakening when other aspects of motor performance are optimized. The first stage may be viewed as consisting of two steps, the elaboration of an adequate referent configuration trajectory and the elaboration of multi-joint (multi-muscle) synergies stabilizing the referent configuration trajectory. Both steps are expected to lead to more variance in the space of elemental variables that is compatible with a desired time profile of the salient performance variable ("good variability"). Adjusting control to other aspects of performance during the second stage (for example, esthetics, energy expenditure, time, fatigue, etc.) may lead to a drop in the "good variability". Experimental support for the suggested scheme is reviewed. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Can Measured Synergy Excitations Accurately Construct Unmeasured Muscle Excitations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianco, Nicholas A; Patten, Carolynn; Fregly, Benjamin J

    2018-01-01

    Accurate prediction of muscle and joint contact forces during human movement could improve treatment planning for disorders such as osteoarthritis, stroke, Parkinson's disease, and cerebral palsy. Recent studies suggest that muscle synergies, a low-dimensional representation of a large set of muscle electromyographic (EMG) signals (henceforth called "muscle excitations"), may reduce the redundancy of muscle excitation solutions predicted by optimization methods. This study explores the feasibility of using muscle synergy information extracted from eight muscle EMG signals (henceforth called "included" muscle excitations) to accurately construct muscle excitations from up to 16 additional EMG signals (henceforth called "excluded" muscle excitations). Using treadmill walking data collected at multiple speeds from two subjects (one healthy, one poststroke), we performed muscle synergy analysis on all possible subsets of eight included muscle excitations and evaluated how well the calculated time-varying synergy excitations could construct the remaining excluded muscle excitations (henceforth called "synergy extrapolation"). We found that some, but not all, eight-muscle subsets yielded synergy excitations that achieved >90% extrapolation variance accounted for (VAF). Using the top 10% of subsets, we developed muscle selection heuristics to identify included muscle combinations whose synergy excitations achieved high extrapolation accuracy. For 3, 4, and 5 synergies, these heuristics yielded extrapolation VAF values approximately 5% lower than corresponding reconstruction VAF values for each associated eight-muscle subset. These results suggest that synergy excitations obtained from experimentally measured muscle excitations can accurately construct unmeasured muscle excitations, which could help limit muscle excitations predicted by muscle force optimizations.

  6. Biomimetic microstructures for photonic and fluidic synergies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasileiou, Maria; Mpatzaka, Theodora; Alexandropoulos, Dimitris; Vainos, Nikolaos A.

    2017-08-01

    Nature-inspired micro- and nano-structures offer a unique platform for the development of novel synergetic systems combining photonic and microfluidic functionalities. In this context, we examine the paradigm of butterfly Vanessa cardui and develop artificial diffractive microstructures inspired by its natural designs. Softlithographic and nanoimprint protocols are developed to replicate surfaces of natural specimens. Further to their optical behavior, interphases tailored by such microstructures exhibit enhanced hydrophobic properties, as compared to their planar counterparts made of the same materials. Such synergies exploited by new design approaches pave the way to prospective optofluidic, lab-on-chip and sensing applications.

  7. Stronger misdirection in curved than in straight motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge eOtero-Millan

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Illusions developed by magicians are a rich and largely untapped source of insight into perception and cognition. Here we show that curved motion, as employed by the magician in a classic sleight of hand trick, generates stronger misdirection than rectilinear motion, and that this difference can be explained by the differential engagement of the smooth pursuit and the saccadic oculomotor systems. This research moreover exemplifies how the magician’s intuitive understanding of the spectator’s mindset can surpass that of the cognitive scientist in specific instances, and that observation-based behavioral insights developed by magicians are worthy of quantitative investigation in the neuroscience laboratory.

  8. The right of the stronger: The play Sisyphus and critias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordović Ivan

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The Focus of this study is the standpoint of the play Sisyphus and critias the leader of the thirty towards the right of the stronger. this is a question of constant interest in scientific circles, since its answer can serve as the indicator of the influence this famous theory has had. this interest has been encouraged by the fact that critias’ authorship of the play is questionable. however, the question of the author is not of primary importance for this article, because there are some arguments, among some well known ones, which were not considered and which Show that in this satire, regardless of the author and the purpose of this fragment, the right of the stronger is actually non-existant. the first argument to support this theory is that nomosphysis antithesis is nowhere explicitly mentioned although it is the crucial element of the right of the stronger. in addition there is no claim in the play that the exploitation of the strong by the week or by law accrued. the second argument is that despite the incapability of laws to prevent the secret injustice, they and their importance for the human society are depicted in a positive light. it should also be noted that, unlike callicles and glaucon, laws are created to stop the bad and not the good. the third argument is that the invention of religion is accepted as a positive achievement, which finally enables the overcoming of primeval times and lawlessness. the reflection of this argument is a positive characterization of the individual who invented the fear of gods. the fourth argument, which has not been taken into consideration so far is the way the supporters and opponents of lawlessness are described and marked as κακοί and έσξλοί in the satire only physically strong are considered as strong as opposed to callicles, where they are also spiritually superior. intelectually superior in Sisyphus is the inventor of the fear of gods who is also in favor of law and order. the fact

  9. Alberta industrial synergy CO2 programs initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yildirim, E.

    1998-01-01

    The various industrial sectors within Alberta produce about 350,000 tonnes of CO 2 per day. This presentation was concerned with how this large volume and high concentration of CO 2 can be used in industrial and agricultural applications, because every tonne of CO 2 used for such purposes is a tonne that does not end up in the atmosphere. There is a good potential for an industrial synergy between the producers and users of CO 2 . The Alberta Industrial Synergy CO 2 Programs Initiative was established to ultimately achieve a balance between the producers of CO 2 and the users of CO 2 by creating ways to use the massive quantities of CO 2 produced by Alberta's hydrocarbon-based economy. The Alberta CO 2 Research Steering Committee was created to initiate and support CO 2 programs such as: (1) CO 2 use in enhanced oil recovery, (2) creation of a CO 2 production inventory, (3) survey of CO 2 users and potential users, (4) investigation of process issues such as power generation, oil sands and cement manufacturing, and (5) biofixation by plants, (6) other disposal options (e.g. in depleted oil and gas reservoirs, in aquifers, in tailings ponds, in coal beds). The single most important challenge was identified as 'rationalizing the formation of the necessary infrastructure'. Failing to do that will greatly impede efforts directed towards CO 2 utilization

  10. Managing Risk and Synergies R&D-Collaborations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahnke, Volker; Overby, Mikkel Lucas

    2004-01-01

    &D collaborations simultaneously. We use modern portfolio theory as an analogy to show how companies active in mobile telecommunication manage risks and create synergies by simultaneously engaging in several inter-firm collaborations.Keywords: Portfolio theory, risk, synergy, R&D collaboration, mobile commerce...

  11. Tapping Geography's Potential for Synergy with Creative Instructional Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway-Gomez, Kristen; Williams, Nikki; Atkinson-Palombo, Carol; Ahlqvist, Ola; Kim, Eje; Morgan, Miranda

    2011-01-01

    We define synergy, explain its importance within the context of rapidly changing academia, and provide examples of how geographic educators have used creative instructional approaches to create synergies. Both the content of geography and some of the instructional approaches used by geographic educators support the discipline's ability to deliver…

  12. Does Synergy Exist in Nursing? A Concept Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witges, Kim A; Scanlan, Judith M

    2015-01-01

    The aim is to analyze the concept of synergy, particularly as the concept applies to teamwork, and determine if the concept has utility in improving the work environment for nurses. Tackling nursing shortages that result from a poor work environment is a priority for many nurse leaders. Producing synergy among teams may be an effective strategy in enhancing the work environment. However, the understanding of synergy and the ability to produce synergy among teams has been seldom highlighted or discussed within nursing literature. Walker and Avant's approach was used to guide this concept analysis of synergy. Literature searches involved databases (PsycInfo, Medline, Cumulative Index for Nursing and Allied Health Literature [CINAHL], and Scopus), Internet search engines (Google), and hand searches. The analysis suggests that synergy is an outcome of the successful collaboration of the following three attributes: group cohesion, the pursuit of a common goal, and the achievement of a positive gain, considerably more than what was thought possible by the group. The foundation for this accomplishment requires an underlying feeling of special importance, the acknowledgment of each member's role, and open communication and dialogue among members. Nursing leaders would benefit from a broader understanding of synergy, and the mindful application and utility of synergy as an outcome of effective teamwork among nurses. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Synergy: a framework for leadership development and transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacini, Christine M

    2005-06-01

    The Synergy Model has been adopted as an organizing framework for nursing practice, education, and leadership at Clarian Health Partners, Inc. of Indiana. This article describes the evolution of educational programs at Clarian, in concert with the implementation of the Synergy Model. Philosophical and operational changes in staff orientation, professional development, and management development are described.

  14. Muscle synergies evoked by microstimulation are preferentially encoded during behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Alexander Overduin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Electrical microstimulation studies provide some of the most direct evidence for the neural representation of muscle synergies. These synergies, i.e. coordinated activations of groups of muscles, have been proposed as building blocks for the construction of motor behaviors by the nervous system. Intraspinal or intracortical microstimulation has been shown to evoke muscle patterns that can be resolved into a small set of synergies similar to those seen in natural behavior. However, questions remain about the validity of microstimulation as a probe of neural function, particularly given the relatively long trains of supratheshold stimuli used in these studies. Here, we examined whether muscle synergies evoked during intracortical microstimulation in two rhesus macaques were similarly encoded by nearby motor cortical units during a purely voluntary behavior involving object reach, grasp, and carry movements. At each microstimulation site we identified the synergy most strongly evoked among those extracted from muscle patterns evoked over all microstimulation sites. For each cortical unit recorded at the same microstimulation site, we then identified the synergy most strongly encoded among those extracted from muscle patterns recorded during the voluntary behavior. We found that the synergy most strongly evoked at an intracortical microstimulation site matched the synergy most strongly encoded by proximal units more often than expected by chance. These results suggest a common neural substrate for microstimulation-evoked motor responses and for the generation of muscle patterns during natural behaviors.

  15. Muscle synergy analysis in children with cerebral palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Lu; Li, Fei; Cao, Shuai; Zhang, Xu; Wu, De; Chen, Xiang

    2015-08-01

    Objective. To explore the mechanism of lower extremity dysfunction of cerebral palsy (CP) children through muscle synergy analysis. Approach. Twelve CP children were involved in this study, ten adults (AD) and eight typically developed (TD) children were recruited as a control group. Surface electromyographic (sEMG) signals were collected bilaterally from eight lower limb muscles of the subjects during forward walking at a comfortable speed. A nonnegative matrix factorization algorithm was used to extract muscle synergies. In view of muscle synergy differences in number, structure and symmetry, a model named synergy comprehensive assessment (SCA) was proposed to quantify the abnormality of muscle synergies. Main results. There existed larger variations between the muscle synergies of the CP group and the AD group in contrast with the TD group. Fewer mature synergies were recruited in the CP group, and many abnormal synergies specific to the CP group appeared. Specifically, CP children were found to recruit muscle synergies with a larger difference in structure and symmetry between two legs of one subject and different subjects. The proposed SCA scale demonstrated its great potential to quantitatively assess the lower-limb motor dysfunction of CP children. SCA scores of the CP group (57.00 ± 16.78) were found to be significantly less (p < 0.01) than that of the control group (AD group: 95.74 ± 2.04; TD group: 84.19 ± 11.76). Significance. The innovative quantitative results of this study can help us to better understand muscle synergy abnormality in CP children, which is related to their motor dysfunction and even the physiological change in their nervous system.

  16. Stronger multilayer acrylic dielectric elastomer actuators with silicone gel coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Gih-Keong; La, Thanh-Giang; Sheng-Wei Foong, Ervin; Shrestha, Milan

    2016-12-01

    Multilayer dielectric elastomer actuators (DEA) perform worst off than single-layer DEAs due to higher susceptibility to electro-thermal breakdown. This paper presents a hot-spot model to predict the electro-thermal breakdown field of DEAs and its dependence on thermal insulation. To inhibit the electrothermal breakdown, silicone gel coating was applied as barrier coating to multilayer acrylic DEA. The gel coating helps suppress the electro-thermally induced puncturing of DEA membrane at the hot spot. As a result, the gel-coated DEAs, in either a single layer or a multilayer stack, can produce 30% more isometric stress change as compared to those none-coated. These gel-coated acrylic DEAs show great potential to make stronger artificial muscles.

  17. The Philosophy of Modern Scientific Knowledge: the Language of Synergy and the Synergy of Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larisa Kiyashchenko

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The issue of the formation of present-day scientific knowledge is viewed in the paper through the prism of language. Language is seen here not merely as an external form vis-a-vis the content of scientific knowledge, but rather as the mode of emergence and existence of scientific knowledge as a certain reality (Shverev 2001: 509,  the one that evolves as a result of cognitive and communicative practices in transdisciplinary studies. The mutual influence of the language of synergy and the synergy of language leads to a new unity of scientific experience and gives rise to the philosophy of transdisciplinarity (Киященко 2006: 17. 

  18. Pedagogical Synergy: Linking Assessment, Curriculum, and Instruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caro Rolheiser

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the evolution of attempts to build coherence and capacity in an Ontario school district, focusing on the development of literacy strategies in all of the district’s elementary and secondary schools. In reviewing case studies in four elementary schools, the authors have identified three key elements (instruction, curriculum, and assessment as the key dimensions which have the greatest influence on student achievement. The authors of this paper present a new construct, pedagogical synergy, in which those three elements are combined. Improvements can occur at both the district and school levels when there are horizontal and reciprocal strategies for building capacity and increasing coherence. It is the mutual support between district and schools that provides the power in this new concept.

  19. Implementation synergies that exploit situational knowledge strategically

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quitzau, Maj-Britt; Petersen, Jens-Phillip

    This paper illustrates how strategic and situated forms of knowledge may increase capacity to implement energy strategies in local urban development projects. Through analysis of front runner implementation projects, we show that the involved planners utilize situational learning processes...... strategically to develop more viable implementation trajectories. These findings resonate well with relational and network orienteered research in contemporary planning theory. In the selected case studies, we can see that planners deliberately seek to extend traditional planning approaches, like e.......g. regulation, with broader context‐specific learning processes. In doing so, we argue that – what we call – an implementation synergy is established by interlacing different forms of situational knowledge with strategic knowledge about how to reach a desired energy target. In conclusion, the paper identifies...

  20. Motor equivalence and structure of variance: multi-muscle postural synergies in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falaki, Ali; Huang, Xuemei; Lewis, Mechelle M; Latash, Mark L

    2017-07-01

    We explored posture-stabilizing multi-muscle synergies with two methods of analysis of multi-element, abundant systems: (1) Analysis of inter-cycle variance; and (2) Analysis of motor equivalence, both quantified within the framework of the uncontrolled manifold (UCM) hypothesis. Data collected in two earlier studies of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) were re-analyzed. One study compared synergies in the space of muscle modes (muscle groups with parallel scaling of activation) during tasks performed by early-stage PD patients and controls. The other study explored the effects of dopaminergic medication on multi-muscle-mode synergies. Inter-cycle variance and absolute magnitude of the center of pressure displacement across consecutive cycles were quantified during voluntary whole-body sway within the UCM and orthogonal to the UCM space. The patients showed smaller indices of variance within the UCM and motor equivalence compared to controls. The indices were also smaller in the off-drug compared to on-drug condition. There were strong across-subject correlations between the inter-cycle variance within/orthogonal to the UCM and motor equivalent/non-motor equivalent displacements. This study has shown that, at least for cyclical tasks, analysis of variance and analysis of motor equivalence lead to metrics of stability that correlate with each other and show similar effects of disease and medication. These results show, for the first time, intimate links between indices of variance and motor equivalence. They suggest that analysis of motor equivalence, which requires only a handful of trials, could be used broadly in the field of motor disorders to analyze problems with action stability.

  1. Synergy as a rationale for phage therapy using phage cocktails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmerer, Matthew; Molineux, Ian J; Bull, James J

    2014-01-01

    Where phages are used to treat bacterial contaminations and infections, multiple phages are typically applied at once as a cocktail. When two or more phages in the cocktail attack the same bacterium, the combination may produce better killing than any single phage (synergy) or the combination may be worse than the best single phage (interference). Synergy is of obvious utility, especially if it can be predicted a priori, but it remains poorly documented with few examples known. This study addresses synergy in which one phage improves adsorption by a second phage. It first presents evidence of synergy from an experimental system of two phages and a mucoid E. coli host. The synergy likely stems from a tailspike enzyme produced by one of the phages. We then offer mathematical models and simulations to understand the dynamics of synergy and the enhanced magnitude of bacterial control possible. The models and observations complement each other and suggest that synergy may be of widespread utility and may be predictable from easily observed phenotypes.

  2. How valid are claims for synergy in published clinical studies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocana, A; Amir, E; Yeung, C; Seruga, B; Tannock, I F

    2012-08-01

    Clinical trials evaluating drug combinations are often stimulated by claims of synergistic interactions in preclinical models. Overuse or misuse of the term synergy could lead to poorly designed clinical studies. We searched PubMed using the terms 'synergy' or 'synergistic' and 'cancer' to select articles published between 2006 and 2010. Eligible studies were those that referred to synergy in preclinical studies to justify a drug combination evaluated in a clinical trial. Eighty-six clinical articles met eligibility criteria and 132 preclinical articles were cited in them. Most of the clinical studies were phase I (43%) or phase II trials (56%). Appropriate methods to evaluate synergy in preclinical studies included isobologram analysis in 18 studies (13.6%) and median effect in 10 studies (7.6%). Only 26 studies using animal models (39%) attempted to evaluate therapeutic index. There was no association between the result of the clinical trial and the use of an appropriate method to evaluate synergy (P=0.25, chi-squared test). Synergy is cited frequently in phase I and phase II studies to justify the evaluation of a specific drug combination. Inappropriate methods for evaluation of synergy and poor assessment of therapeutic index have been used in most preclinical articles.

  3. Muscle synergies during bench press are reliable across days.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristiansen, Mathias; Samani, Afshin; Madeleine, Pascal; Hansen, Ernst Albin

    2016-10-01

    Muscle synergies have been investigated during different types of human movement using nonnegative matrix factorization. However, there are not any reports available on the reliability of the method. To evaluate between-day reliability, 21 subjects performed bench press, in two test sessions separated by approximately 7days. The movement consisted of 3 sets of 8 repetitions at 60% of the three repetition maximum in bench press. Muscle synergies were extracted from electromyography data of 13 muscles, using nonnegative matrix factorization. To evaluate between-day reliability, we performed a cross-correlation analysis and a cross-validation analysis, in which the synergy components extracted in the first test session were recomputed, using the fixed synergy components from the second test session. Two muscle synergies accounted for >90% of the total variance, and reflected the concentric and eccentric phase, respectively. The cross-correlation values were strong to very strong (r-values between 0.58 and 0.89), while the cross-validation values ranged from substantial to almost perfect (ICC3, 1 values between 0.70 and 0.95). The present findings revealed that the same general structure of the muscle synergies was present across days and the extraction of muscle synergies is thus deemed reliable. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Conservatives Anticipate and Experience Stronger Emotional Reactions to Negative Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joel, Samantha; Burton, Caitlin M; Plaks, Jason E

    2014-02-01

    The present work examined whether conservatives and liberals differ in their anticipation of their own emotional reactions to negative events. In two studies, participants imagined experiencing positive or negative outcomes in domains that do not directly concern politics. In Study 1, 190 American participants recruited online (64 male, Mage  = 32 years) anticipated their emotional responses to romantic relationship outcomes. In Study 2, 97 Canadian undergraduate students (26 male, Mage  = 21 years) reported on their anticipated and experienced emotional responses to academic outcomes. In both studies, more conservative participants predicted they would feel stronger negative emotions following negative outcomes than did more liberal participants. Furthermore, a longitudinal follow-up of Study 2 participants revealed that more conservative participants actually felt worse than more liberal participants after receiving a lower-than-desired exam grade. These effects remained even when controlling for the Big Five traits, prevention focus, and attachment style (Study 1), and optimism (Study 2). We discuss how the relationship between political orientation and anticipated affect likely contributes to differences between conservatives and liberals in styles of decision and policy choices. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Enforcement costs: some humanitarian alternatives to stronger patent rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trotter, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Diseases that cause comparatively few problems in developed countries kill millions of people in the Third World each year. In many cases, people die because they cannot afford the medication needed to save their lives. In others, there are simply no drugs available because there are no wealthy western patients to justify pharmaceutical companies investing in a cure. This reveals a deep-seated problem within the patent system and the pharmaceutical industry that emphasises markets and profits at the expense of health and global welfare. Global efforts have seen substantial improvements in access to medicines in isolated areas, but with international agreements driving towards stronger patent protection and the expiry date for the TRIPS grace period fast approaching, it is time to consider alternatives which will allow the patent system to work for the humanitarian cause rather than against it. This paper considers two such problems in the patent system and pharmaceutical industry - prohibitive pricing and misdirected incentives - to offer a mode of regulation and enforcement that will support both a viable pharmaceutical industry and the human right to health and medication.

  6. Exploiting Laboratory and Heliophysics Plasma Synergies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill Dahlburg

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in space-based heliospheric observations, laboratory experimentation, and plasma simulation codes are creating an exciting new cross-disciplinary opportunity for understanding fast energy release and transport mechanisms in heliophysics and laboratory plasma dynamics, which had not been previously accessible. This article provides an overview of some new observational, experimental, and computational assets, and discusses current and near-term activities towards exploitation of synergies involving those assets. This overview does not claim to be comprehensive, but instead covers mainly activities closely associated with the authors’ interests and reearch. Heliospheric observations reviewed include the Sun Earth Connection Coronal and Heliospheric Investigation (SECCHI on the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO mission, the first instrument to provide remote sensing imagery observations with spatial continuity extending from the Sun to the Earth, and the Extreme-ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer (EIS on the Japanese Hinode spacecraft that is measuring spectroscopically physical parameters of the solar atmosphere towards obtaining plasma temperatures, densities, and mass motions. The Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO and the upcoming Solar Orbiter with the Heliospheric Imager (SoloHI on-board will also be discussed. Laboratory plasma experiments surveyed include the line-tied magnetic reconnection experiments at University of Wisconsin (relevant to coronal heating magnetic flux tube observations and simulations, and a dynamo facility under construction there; the Space Plasma Simulation Chamber at the Naval Research Laboratory that currently produces plasmas scalable to ionospheric and magnetospheric conditions and in the future also will be suited to study the physics of the solar corona; the Versatile Toroidal Facility at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology that

  7. Food synergies for improving bioavailability of micronutrients from plant foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, K Madhavan; Augustine, Little Flower

    2018-01-01

    Plant foods are endowed with micronutrients but an understanding of bioavailability is essential in countries primarily dependent on plant based foods. Bioavailability depends majorly on food synergies. This review examines the nature of certain food synergies and methods to screen and establish it as a strategy to control micronutrient deficiency in the populations. Strong evidence on the synergistic effect of inclusion of vitamin C rich fruits and non-vegetarian foods in enhancing the bioavailability of iron has been demonstrated. Fat is found to be synergistic for vitamin A absorption. Red wine and protein have been explored for zinc absorption and effect of fat has been studied for vitamin D. Methods for screening of bioavailability, and biomarkers to demonstrate the synergistic effects of foods are required. Translation of food synergy as a strategy requires adaptation to the context and popularization of intelligent food synergies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Field Synergy Principle for Energy Conservation Analysis and Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qun Chen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Optimization of mass and energy transfer process is critical to improve energy efficiency. In this contribution we introduce the field synergy principle as a unified principle for analyzing and improving the performance of the transfer process. Three field synergy numbers are introduced for heat, mass, and momentum transfer, respectively, and three cases are demonstrated for validation. The results indicate that the field synergy numbers will increase when reducing the angle between the velocity vector and the temperature gradient or the species concentration gradient fields in the convective heat or mass transfer, and the overall heat or mass transfer capability is therefore enhanced. In fluid flows, it will reduce the fluid flow drag to decrease the synergy number between the velocity and the velocity gradient fields over the entire domain and to decrease the product between the fluid viscosity and the velocity gradient at the boundary simultaneously.

  9. Generational Differences in Work-Family Conflict and Synergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas J. Beutell

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines differences in work-family conflict and synergy among the four generational groups represented in the contemporary workforce: Generation Y Generation X, Baby Boomers, and Matures using data from the 2008 National Study of the Changing Workforce (n = 3,502. Significant generational differences were found for work-family conflict (work interfering with family and family interfering with work but not for work-family synergy. Mental health and job pressure were the best predictors of work interfering with family conflict for each generational group. Work-family synergy presented a more complex picture. Work-family conflict and synergy were significantly related to job, marital, and life satisfaction. Implications and directions for future research are discussed.

  10. Future Combat Systems (FCS) Creates Cannon and Mortar Synergy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Beard, Kirby; James, Jeff; Tolbert, Vincent J

    2008-01-01

    .... The NLOS-C is one of the eight MGVs. Program Manager FCS (Brigade Combat Team (PM FCS(BCT)) is leveraging previous and current research and development efforts to create synergy between cannons and mortars, without duplication of effort...

  11. Generational differences in work-family conflict and synergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beutell, Nicholas J

    2013-06-19

    This paper examines differences in work-family conflict and synergy among the four generational groups represented in the contemporary workforce: Generation Y Generation X, Baby Boomers, and Matures using data from the 2008 National Study of the Changing Workforce (n = 3,502). Significant generational differences were found for work-family conflict (work interfering with family and family interfering with work) but not for work-family synergy. Mental health and job pressure were the best predictors of work interfering with family conflict for each generational group. Work-family synergy presented a more complex picture. Work-family conflict and synergy were significantly related to job, marital, and life satisfaction. Implications and directions for future research are discussed.

  12. Ethnic diversity and knowledge synergies: Rethinking the interrelations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauring, Jakob

    2005-01-01

    desire to see ethnical diversity as productive. Theoretical reviews and empirical research have indicated that the link between diversity and knowledge synergy cannot be taken for granted. This article argues that some theoretical rethinking of managerial strategies toward cultural diversity...

  13. Generational Differences in Work-Family Conflict and Synergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beutell, Nicholas J.

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines differences in work-family conflict and synergy among the four generational groups represented in the contemporary workforce: Generation Y Generation X, Baby Boomers, and Matures using data from the 2008 National Study of the Changing Workforce (n = 3,502). Significant generational differences were found for work-family conflict (work interfering with family and family interfering with work) but not for work-family synergy. Mental health and job pressure were the best predictors of work interfering with family conflict for each generational group. Work-family synergy presented a more complex picture. Work-family conflict and synergy were significantly related to job, marital, and life satisfaction. Implications and directions for future research are discussed. PMID:23783221

  14. The efficacy of Elekta Synergy image-guided radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takamatsu, Shigeyuki; Takanaka, Tsuyoshi; Kumano, Tomoyasu

    2008-01-01

    We evaluated the efficacy of Elekta Synergy image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) system equipped with cone beam CT (CBCT) for high accuracy radiation therapy. In cases set up with body marking who had large set up error could be adjusted by this system within 1 mm error. IGRT with CBCT correction provided precise set up. Elekta Synergy IGRT system is useful for high accuracy set up and will facilitate novel precise radiotherapy techniques. (author)

  15. Generational Differences in Work-Family Conflict and Synergy

    OpenAIRE

    Beutell, Nicholas

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines differences in work-family conflict and synergy among the four generational groups represented in the contemporary workforce: Generation Y Generation X, Baby Boomers, and Matures using data from the 2008 National Study of the Changing Workforce (n = 3,502). Significant generational differences were found for work-family conflict (work interfering with family and family interfering with work) but not for work-family synergy. Mental health and job pressure were the best pred...

  16. Synergy optimization and operation management on syndicate complementary knowledge cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Kai-Jan

    2014-10-01

    The number of multi enterprises knowledge cooperation has grown steadily, as a result of global innovation competitions. I have conducted research based on optimization and operation studies in this article, and gained the conclusion that synergy management is effective means to break through various management barriers and solve cooperation's chaotic systems. Enterprises must communicate system vision and access complementary knowledge. These are crucial considerations for enterprises to exert their optimization and operation knowledge cooperation synergy to meet global marketing challenges.

  17. Solar + Storage Synergies for Managing Commercial-Customer Demand Charges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gagnon, Pieter J. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Govindarajan, Anand [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bird, Lori A. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Barbose, Galen [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Darghouth, Naim [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Mills, Andrew [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-10-24

    We study the synergies between behind-the-meter solar and storage in reducing commercial-customer demand charges. This follows two previous studies that examined demand charge savings for stand-alone solar in both the residential and commercial sectors. In this study we show that solar and storage show consistent synergies for demand charge management, that the magnitude of reductions are highly customer-specific, and that the magnitude of savings is influenced by the design of the electricity tariff.

  18. Nuclear energy and its synergies with renewable energies; Le nucleaire dans ses synergies avec les renouvelables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carre, F. [CEA Saclay, DEN, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Mermilliod, N. [CEA Grenoble, Dir. de la Recherche Technologique, 38 (France); Devezeaux De Lavergne, J.G. [CEA Saclay, Dir. de l' Institut de tecchnico-economie des systemes energetiques I-tese, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Durand, S. [CEA Grenoble, European Institute of Technology -KIC InnoEnergy, 38 (France)

    2011-05-15

    France has the ambition to become a world leader in both nuclear industry and in renewable energies. 3 types of synergies between nuclear power and renewable energies are highlighted. First, nuclear power can be used as a low-carbon energy to produce the equipment required to renewable energy production for instance photovoltaic cells. Secondly, to benefit from the complementary features of both energies: continuous/intermittency of the production, centralized/local production. The future development of smart grids will help to do that. Thirdly, to use nuclear energy to produce massively hydrogen from water and synthetic fuels from biomass. (A.C.)

  19. Global mental health and neuroscience: potential synergies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Dan J; He, Yanling; Phillips, Anthony; Sahakian, Barbara J; Williams, John; Patel, Vikram

    2015-02-01

    Global mental health has emerged as an important specialty. It has drawn attention to the burden of mental illness and to the relative gap in mental health research and services around the world. Global mental health has raised the question of whether this gap is a developmental issue, a health issue, a human rights issue, or a combination of these issues-and it has raised awareness of the need to develop new approaches for building capacity, mobilising resources, and closing the research and treatment gap. Translational neuroscience has also advanced. It comprises an important conceptual approach to understanding the neurocircuitry and molecular basis of mental disorders, to rethinking how best to undertake research on the aetiology, assessment, and treatment of these disorders, with the ultimate aim to develop entirely new approaches to prevention and intervention. Some apparent contrasts exist between these fields; global mental health emphasises knowledge translation, moving away from the bedside to a focus on health systems, whereas translational neuroscience emphasises molecular neuroscience, focusing on transitions between the bench and bedside. Meanwhile, important opportunities exist for synergy between the two paradigms, to ensure that present opportunities in mental health research and services are maximised. Here, we review the approaches of global mental health and clinical neuroscience to diagnosis, pathogenesis, and intervention, and make recommendations for facilitating an integration of these two perspectives. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Achieving biopolymer synergy in systems chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yushi; Chotera, Agata; Taran, Olga; Liang, Chen; Ashkenasy, Gonen; Lynn, David G

    2018-05-31

    Synthetic and materials chemistry initiatives have enabled the translation of the macromolecular functions of biology into synthetic frameworks. These explorations into alternative chemistries of life attempt to capture the versatile functionality and adaptability of biopolymers in new orthogonal scaffolds. Information storage and transfer, however, so beautifully represented in the central dogma of biology, require multiple components functioning synergistically. Over a single decade, the emerging field of systems chemistry has begun to catalyze the construction of mutualistic biopolymer networks, and this review begins with the foundational small-molecule-based dynamic chemical networks and peptide amyloid-based dynamic physical networks on which this effort builds. The approach both contextualizes the versatile approaches that have been developed to enrich chemical information in synthetic networks and highlights the properties of amyloids as potential alternative genetic elements. The successful integration of both chemical and physical networks through β-sheet assisted replication processes further informs the synergistic potential of these networks. Inspired by the cooperative synergies of nucleic acids and proteins in biology, synthetic nucleic-acid-peptide chimeras are now being explored to extend their informational content. With our growing range of synthetic capabilities, structural analyses, and simulation technologies, this foundation is radically extending the structural space that might cross the Darwinian threshold for the origins of life as well as creating an array of alternative systems capable of achieving the progressive growth of novel informational materials.

  1. Muscle synergy extraction during arm reaching movements at different speeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabzevari, Vahid Reza; Jafari, Amir Homayoun; Boostani, Reza

    2017-01-01

    Muscle synergy is the activation of a group of muscles that contribute to a particular movement. The goal of the present study is to examine the hypothesis that human reaching movements at different speeds share similar muscle synergies and to investigate the kinesiology basis and innervation of muscles. Electromyographic activity from six muscles of the upper limb and shoulder girdle were recorded during three movements at different speeds, i.e. slow, moderate and fast. The effect of window length on the RMS signal of the EMG was analyzed and then EMG envelope signals were decomposed using non-negative matrix factorization. For each of the ten subjects, three synergies were extracted which accounted for at least 99% of the VAF. For each movement, the muscle synergies and muscle activation coefficients of all participants were clustered in to three partitions. Investigation showed a high similarity and dependency of cluster members due to the cosine similarity and mutual information in muscle synergy clustering. For further verification, the EMG envelope signals for all subjects were reconstructed. The results indicated a lower reconstruction error using the center of the muscle synergy clusters in comparison with the average of the activation coefficients, which confirms the current research's hypothesis.

  2. What is synergy? The Saariselkä agreement revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jing; Wennerberg, Krister; Aittokallio, Tero

    2015-01-01

    Many biological or chemical agents when combined interact with each other and produce a synergistic response that cannot be predicted based on the single agent responses alone. However, depending on the postulated null hypothesis of non-interaction, one may end up in different interpretations of synergy. Two popular reference models for null hypothesis include the Bliss independence model and the Loewe additivity model, each of which is formulated from different perspectives. During the last century, there has been an intensive debate on the suitability of these synergy models, both of which are theoretically justified and also in practice supported by different schools of scientists. More than 20 years ago, there was a community effort to make a consensus on the terminology one should use when claiming synergy. The agreement was formulated at a conference held in Saariselkä, Finland in 1992, stating that one should use the terms Bliss synergy or Loewe synergy to avoid ambiguity in the underlying models. We review the theoretical relationships between these models and argue that one should combine the advantages of both models to provide a more consistent definition of synergy and antagonism.

  3. A Control Scheme That Uses Dynamic Postural Synergies to Coordinate a Hybrid Walking Neuroprosthesis: Theory and Experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alibeji, Naji A; Molazadeh, Vahidreza; Dicianno, Brad E; Sharma, Nitin

    2018-01-01

    A hybrid walking neuroprosthesis that combines functional electrical stimulation (FES) with a powered lower limb exoskeleton can be used to restore walking in persons with paraplegia. It provides therapeutic benefits of FES and torque reliability of the powered exoskeleton. Moreover, by harnessing metabolic power of muscles via FES, the hybrid combination has a potential to lower power consumption and reduce actuator size in the powered exoskeleton. Its control design, however, must overcome the challenges of actuator redundancy due to the combined use of FES and electric motor. Further, dynamic disturbances such as electromechanical delay (EMD) and muscle fatigue must be considered during the control design process. This ensures stability and control performance despite disparate dynamics of FES and electric motor. In this paper, a general framework to coordinate FES of multiple gait-governing muscles with electric motors is presented. A muscle synergy-inspired control framework is used to derive the controller and is motivated mainly to address the actuator redundancy issue. Dynamic postural synergies between FES of the muscles and the electric motors were artificially generated through optimizations and result in key dynamic postures when activated. These synergies were used in the feedforward path of the control system. A dynamic surface control technique, modified with a delay compensation term, is used as the feedback controller to address model uncertainty, the cascaded muscle activation dynamics, and EMD. To address muscle fatigue, the stimulation levels in the feedforward path were gradually increased based on a model-based fatigue estimate. A Lyapunov-based stability approach was used to derive the controller and guarantee its stability. The synergy-based controller was demonstrated experimentally on an able-bodied subject and person with an incomplete spinal cord injury.

  4. A Control Scheme That Uses Dynamic Postural Synergies to Coordinate a Hybrid Walking Neuroprosthesis: Theory and Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naji A. Alibeji

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available A hybrid walking neuroprosthesis that combines functional electrical stimulation (FES with a powered lower limb exoskeleton can be used to restore walking in persons with paraplegia. It provides therapeutic benefits of FES and torque reliability of the powered exoskeleton. Moreover, by harnessing metabolic power of muscles via FES, the hybrid combination has a potential to lower power consumption and reduce actuator size in the powered exoskeleton. Its control design, however, must overcome the challenges of actuator redundancy due to the combined use of FES and electric motor. Further, dynamic disturbances such as electromechanical delay (EMD and muscle fatigue must be considered during the control design process. This ensures stability and control performance despite disparate dynamics of FES and electric motor. In this paper, a general framework to coordinate FES of multiple gait-governing muscles with electric motors is presented. A muscle synergy-inspired control framework is used to derive the controller and is motivated mainly to address the actuator redundancy issue. Dynamic postural synergies between FES of the muscles and the electric motors were artificially generated through optimizations and result in key dynamic postures when activated. These synergies were used in the feedforward path of the control system. A dynamic surface control technique, modified with a delay compensation term, is used as the feedback controller to address model uncertainty, the cascaded muscle activation dynamics, and EMD. To address muscle fatigue, the stimulation levels in the feedforward path were gradually increased based on a model-based fatigue estimate. A Lyapunov-based stability approach was used to derive the controller and guarantee its stability. The synergy-based controller was demonstrated experimentally on an able-bodied subject and person with an incomplete spinal cord injury.

  5. One Year After Fukushima, Nuclear Safety Is Stronger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    Full text: Nuclear power is safer than it was a year ago as the nuclear industry, regulators and governments act on the lessons of Fukushima, but that safety must never be taken for granted, said Yukiya Amano, Director General of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). Speaking ahead of the first anniversary of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident on 11 March, Amano said a culture of constant vigilance and improvement was vital to ensure that the benefits of nuclear power could be harnessed as safely as humanly possible. 'Nuclear safety is stronger than it was a year ago', he said. 'Fukushima Daiichi was a very serious accident, but we know what went wrong and we have a clear course of action to tackle those causes - not only in Japan, but anywhere in the world. 'Now we have to keep up the momentum. Complacency can kill'. On 11 March 2011 a huge earthquake and tsunami left more than 20 000 people dead or missing in eastern Japan. Amidst widespread destruction, the tsunami slammed into the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station, disabling cooling systems and leading to fuel meltdowns in three of the six Units. The accident was a jolt to the nuclear industry, regulators and governments. It was triggered by a massive force of nature, but it was existing weaknesses of design regarding defence against natural hazards, regulatory oversight, accident management and emergency response that allowed it to unfold as it did. For example: The nuclear regulator was not sufficiently independent, allowing weak oversight of the operator, TEPCO, and regulatory requirements fell short of international best practice; Not enough attention was paid to guarding against possible extreme events at the Fukushima Daiichi site, leaving critical safety functions such as cooling systems vulnerable to the tsunami; Training to respond to serious accidents was inadequate, as were mitigation measures to prevent hydrogen explosions and protect the venting system; and Accident command lines

  6. Synergy for a Strong Future FY 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devore, L.; Chrzanowski, P.

    2008-01-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC is committed to delivering the best combination of scientific research, technology development, business management, and safe, secure operations in support of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's critical national security mission. LLNS was formed specifically to manage LLNL for the Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration. LLNS consists of a team of five organizations renowned for their expertise and accomplishments throughout the U.S. nuclear weapons complex and beyond - Bechtel National, University of California, Babcock and Wilcox, Washington Division of URS Corporation, and Battelle. Bechtel is the nation's largest engineering and construction firm and a leader in project management. The University of California is the world's largest public research institution. Babcock and Wilcox and the Washington Division of URS Corporation are top nuclear facilities contractors and between them manage four of DOE's five safest sites. Battelle is a global leader in science and technology development and commercialization. The LLNS Board of Governors provides oversight for the management of the Laboratory and holds the Director and LLNS President responsible for the Laboratory's performance. The Board has seven standing committees that assist in assessing Laboratory performance and monitoring risks and internal controls. Through the Board of Governors, the Laboratory can reach back to LLNS partner organizations to help ensure that it fulfills its national security mission with excellence in scientific research, technology development, business management, and safe, secure operations. LLNS assumed management of LLNL on October 1, 2007. This report highlights LLNS accomplishments in FY2008, its first year as the Laboratory's managing contractor. It is clear that LLNS and the Laboratory have exploited numerous synergies inherent in their relationship - for example, science and engineering, mission and

  7. Dissection of protein interactomics highlights microRNA synergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wenliang; Zhao, Yilei; Xu, Yingqi; Sun, Yong; Wang, Zhe; Yuan, Wei; Du, Zhimin

    2013-01-01

    Despite a large amount of microRNAs (miRNAs) have been validated to play crucial roles in human biology and disease, there is little systematic insight into the nature and scale of the potential synergistic interactions executed by miRNAs themselves. Here we established an integrated parameter synergy score to determine miRNA synergy, by combining the two mechanisms for miRNA-miRNA interactions, miRNA-mediated gene co-regulation and functional association between target gene products, into one single parameter. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis indicated that synergy score accurately identified the gene ontology-defined miRNA synergy (AUC = 0.9415, psynergy, implying poor expectancy of widespread synergy. However, targeting more key genes made two miRNAs more likely to act synergistically. Compared to other miRNAs, miR-21 was a highly exceptional case due to frequent appearance in the top synergistic miRNA pairs. This result highlighted its essential role in coordinating or strengthening physiological and pathological functions of other miRNAs. The synergistic effect of miR-21 and miR-1 were functionally validated for their significant influences on myocardial apoptosis, cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis. The novel approach established in this study enables easy and effective identification of condition-restricted potent miRNA synergy simply by concentrating the available protein interactomics and miRNA-target interaction data into a single parameter synergy score. Our results may be important for understanding synergistic gene regulation by miRNAs and may have significant implications for miRNA combination therapy of cardiovascular disease.

  8. Prehension synergies and control with referent hand configurations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latash, Mark L; Friedman, Jason; Kim, Sun Wook; Feldman, Anatol G; Zatsiorsky, Vladimir M

    2010-04-01

    We used the framework of the equilibrium-point hypothesis (in its updated form based on the notion of referent configuration) to investigate the multi-digit synergies at two levels of a hypothetical hierarchy involved in prehensile actions. Synergies were analyzed at the thumb-virtual finger (VF) level (VF is an imaginary digit with the mechanical action equivalent to that of the four actual fingers) and at the individual finger level. The subjects performed very quick vertical movements of a handle into a target. A load could be attached off-center to provide a pronation or supination torque. In a few trials, the handle was unexpectedly fixed to the table and the digits slipped off the sensors. In such trials, the hand stopped at a higher vertical position and rotated into pronation or supination depending on the expected torque. The aperture showed non-monotonic changes with a large, fast decrease and further increase, ending up with a smaller distance between the thumb and the fingers as compared to unperturbed trials. Multi-digit synergies were quantified using indices of co-variation between digit forces and moments of force across unperturbed trials. Prior to the lifting action, high synergy indices were observed at the individual finger level while modest indices were observed at the thumb-VF level. During the lifting action, the synergies at the individual finger level disappeared while the synergy indices became higher at the thumb-VF level. The results support the basic premise that, within a given task, setting a referent configuration may be described with a few referent values of variables that influence the equilibrium state, to which the system is attracted. Moreover, the referent configuration hypothesis can help interpret the data related to the trade-off between synergies at different hierarchical levels.

  9. Explosive spreading on complex networks: The role of synergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Quan-Hui; Wang, Wei; Tang, Ming; Zhou, Tao; Lai, Ying-Cheng

    2017-04-01

    In spite of the vast literature on spreading dynamics on complex networks, the role of local synergy, i.e., the interaction of elements that when combined produce a total effect greater than the sum of the individual elements, has been studied but only for irreversible spreading dynamics. Reversible spreading dynamics are ubiquitous but their interplay with synergy has remained unknown. To fill this knowledge gap, we articulate a model to incorporate local synergistic effect into the classical susceptible-infected-susceptible process, in which the probability for a susceptible node to become infected through an infected neighbor is enhanced when the neighborhood of the latter contains a number of infected nodes. We derive master equations incorporating the synergistic effect, with predictions that agree well with the numerical results. A striking finding is that when a parameter characterizing the strength of the synergy reinforcement effect is above a critical value, the steady-state density of the infected nodes versus the basic transmission rate exhibits an explosively increasing behavior and a hysteresis loop emerges. In fact, increasing the synergy strength can promote the spreading and reduce the invasion and persistence thresholds of the hysteresis loop. A physical understanding of the synergy promoting explosive spreading and the associated hysteresis behavior can be obtained through a mean-field analysis.

  10. Resource synergy in stream periphyton communities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, Walter [University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign; Fanta, S.E. [University of Illinois; Roberts, Brian J [ORNL; Francoeur, Steven N. [Eastern Michigan University, Ypsilanti, MI

    2011-03-01

    1. Light and nutrients play pivotal roles in determining the growth of autotrophs, yet the potential for synergistic interactions between the two resources in algal communities is poorly understood, especially in stream ecosystems. In this study, light and phosphorus were manipulated in large experimental streams to examine resource colimitation and synergy in stream periphyton. 2. Whole-stream metabolism was simultaneously limited by light and phosphorus. Increasing the supply of either light or phosphorus resulted in significant increases in primary production and the transformation of the streams from heterotrophy to autotrophy. 3. Resource-driven changes in periphyton community structure occurred in concert with changes in production. Algal assemblages in highly shaded streams were composed primarily of small diatoms such as Achnanthidium minutissima, whereas larger diatoms such as Melosira varians predominated at higher irradiances. Phosphorus enrichment had relatively little effect on assemblage structure, but it did substantially diminish the abundance of Meridion circulare, a diatom whose mucilaginous colonies were conspicuously abundant in phosphorus-poor, high-light streams. Bacterial biomass declined relative to algal biomass with increases in primary productivity, regardless of whether the increases were caused by light or phosphorus. 4. Synergistic effects on primary production appeared to occur because the availability of one resource facilitated the utilization of the other. Light increased the abundance of large diatoms, which are known to convert high concentrations of nutrients into primary production more effectively than smaller taxa. Phosphorus enrichment led to the replacement of Meridion circulare by non-mucilaginous taxa in phosphorus-enriched streams, and we hypothesize that this change enabled more efficient use of light in photosynthesis. Higher ratios of chlorophyll a : biomass in phosphorus-enriched streams may have also led to more

  11. The quest for synergy when developing the urban fringe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jesper Rohr; Engberg, Lars A.

    How can planning policies related to urban fringe development and disadvantaged neighbourhoods create synergy? This question is approached and answered by various research fields and explored on various urban-planning levels, displaying case-studies related to urban regeneration, post......-industrial and suburban development and urban fringe literature. The present paper adds to these discussions by analysing two case-studies in Denmark in which local government pursue traditional urban-growth strategies in urban-fringe development - a post-industrial harbour and a large suburb, located just outside...... analyses this synergy by first describing the legislative, interventionist and financial context for urban-growth strategies deployed in the cases. On this background, the paper explores synergy potential related to policy as well as private-sector actors (local businesses, social housing organizations...

  12. Nuclear and Renewable Energy Synergies Workshop: Report of Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruth, M.; Antkowiak, M.; Gossett, S.

    2011-01-01

    Two of the major challenges the U.S. energy sector faces are greenhouse gas emissions and oil that is both imported and potentially reaching a peak (the point at which maximum extraction is reached). Interest in development of both renewable and nuclear energy has been strong because both have potential for overcoming these challenges. Research in both energy sources is ongoing, but relatively little research has focused on the potential benefits of combining nuclear and renewable energy. In September 2011, the Joint Institute for Strategic Energy Analysis (JISEA) convened the Nuclear and Renewable Energy Synergies Workshop at the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to identify potential synergies and strategic leveraging opportunities between nuclear energy and renewable energy. Industry, government, and academic thought leaders gathered to identify potential broad categories of synergies and brainstorm topic areas for additional analysis and research and development (R and D). This report records the proceedings and outcomes of the workshop.

  13. Lethal synergy involving bicyclomycin: an approach for reviving old antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Muhammad; Li, Liping; Zhao, Xilin; Kerns, Robert J; Berger, James M; Drlica, Karl

    2014-12-01

    One way to address the growing problem of antimicrobial resistance is to revive old compounds that may have intrinsic lethal activity that is obscured by protective factors. Bicyclomycin is an old inhibitor of the Rho transcription terminator that by itself shows little rapid lethal activity. However, bicyclomycin participates in bacteriostatic synergy, which raises the possibility that conditions for lethal synergy may exist, perhaps through a suppression of protective factors. Bicyclomycin was combined with bacteriostatic inhibitors of gene expression, and bactericidal activity was measured with several cultured Gram-negative pathogens. When used alone, bicyclomycin failed to rapidly kill growing cultures of Escherichia coli; however, the additional presence of bacteriostatic concentrations of tetracycline, chloramphenicol or rifampicin led to rapid killing. Four other pathogen species, Acinetobacter baumannii, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium and Shigella dysenteriae, also exhibited enhanced killing when bicyclomycin was combined with tetracycline or rifampicin. This lethal synergy was achieved at low concentrations (slightly above the MIC) for all agents tested in combinations. Follow-up work with E. coli indicated that lethal synergy arose from a blockage of transcription elongation. Moreover, lethal synergy was reduced when bicyclomycin was added 60 min before tetracycline, suggesting that bicyclomycin induces a protective factor. The action of bicyclomycin illustrates the potential present in a largely abandoned antibacterial agent; it exhibits lethal synergy when coadministered with known, bacteriostatic inhibitors of gene expression. The identification of protective factors, which are currently uncharacterized, may reveal new ways to promote the lethal action of some old antibiotics. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved

  14. Synergy Maps: exploring compound combinations using network-based visualization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Richard; Guha, Rajarshi; Korcsmaros, Tamás; Bender, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    The phenomenon of super-additivity of biological response to compounds applied jointly, termed synergy, has the potential to provide many therapeutic benefits. Therefore, high throughput screening of compound combinations has recently received a great deal of attention. Large compound libraries and the feasibility of all-pairs screening can easily generate large, information-rich datasets. Previously, these datasets have been visualized using either a heat-map or a network approach-however these visualizations only partially represent the information encoded in the dataset. A new visualization technique for pairwise combination screening data, termed "Synergy Maps", is presented. In a Synergy Map, information about the synergistic interactions of compounds is integrated with information about their properties (chemical structure, physicochemical properties, bioactivity profiles) to produce a single visualization. As a result the relationships between compound and combination properties may be investigated simultaneously, and thus may afford insight into the synergy observed in the screen. An interactive web app implementation, available at http://richlewis42.github.io/synergy-maps, has been developed for public use, which may find use in navigating and filtering larger scale combination datasets. This tool is applied to a recent all-pairs dataset of anti-malarials, tested against Plasmodium falciparum, and a preliminary analysis is given as an example, illustrating the disproportionate synergism of histone deacetylase inhibitors previously described in literature, as well as suggesting new hypotheses for future investigation. Synergy Maps improve the state of the art in compound combination visualization, by simultaneously representing individual compound properties and their interactions. The web-based tool allows straightforward exploration of combination data, and easier identification of correlations between compound properties and interactions.

  15. Synergy in spreading processes: from exploitative to explorative foraging strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Reche, Francisco J; Ludlam, Jonathan J; Taraskin, Sergei N; Gilligan, Christopher A

    2011-05-27

    An epidemiological model which incorporates synergistic effects that allow the infectivity and/or susceptibility of hosts to be dependent on the number of infected neighbors is proposed. Constructive synergy induces an exploitative behavior which results in a rapid invasion that infects a large number of hosts. Interfering synergy leads to a slower and sparser explorative foraging strategy that traverses larger distances by infecting fewer hosts. The model can be mapped to a dynamical bond percolation with spatial correlations that affect the mechanism of spread but do not influence the critical behavior of epidemics. © 2011 American Physical Society

  16. Synergies between renewable energy and fresh water production. Scoping study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geurts, F.; Noothout, P.; Schaap, A. [Ecofys Netherlands, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2011-02-15

    The IEA Implementing Agreement for Renewable Energy Technology Deployment (IEA-RETD) investigated the opportunities for coupling renewable energy systems with fresh water supply systems. The four main conclusions of the scoping study, carried out by Ecofys, are: (1) Fresh water production based on desalination technologies provide most options for synergies with renewable energy production; (2) Linking desalination to renewable sources is currently not economically viable; (3) There is a large potential for small scale (decentralised) desalination plants; (4) Current commercially-sized desalination technologies are in need of a constant operation point. Reverse osmosis and thermal membrane technologies might give future synergies as deferrable load.

  17. When Bioelectrochemical Systems Meet Forward Osmosis: Accomplishing Wastewater Treatment and Reuse through Synergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaobin Lu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Bioelectrochemical systems (BES and forward osmosis (FO are two emerging technologies with great potential for energy-efficient water/wastewater treatment. BES takes advantage of microbial interaction with a solid electron acceptor/donor to accomplish bioenergy recovery from organic compounds, and FO can extract high-quality water driven by an osmotic pressure. The strong synergy between those two technologies may complement each other and collaboratively address water-energy nexus. FO can assist BES with achieving water recovery (for future reuse, enhancing electricity generation, and supplying energy for accomplishing the cathode reactions; while BES may help FO with degrading organic contaminants, providing sustainable draw solute, and stabilizing water flux. This work has reviewed the recent development that focuses on the synergy between BES and FO, analyzed the advantages of each combination, and provided perspectives for future research. The findings encourage further investigation and development for efficient coordination between BES and FO towards an integrated system for wastewater treatment and reuse.

  18. Synergy in thrombin-graphene sponge for improved hemostatic efficacy and facile utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guofeng; Quan, Kecheng; Xu, CongCong; Deng, Bo; Wang, Xing

    2018-01-01

    Composites are attractive for its potential synergistic effects that can result in high-performance, but the synergy depends on subtle design. In this study, a hemostatic composite, a thrombin/cross-linked graphene sponge (TCGS), was developed through a facile gradient composite strategy. The porous structure of the CGS assures that the thrombin is stably embedded in the TCGS, avoiding a burst release but maintaining its bioactivity. In the synergy between proper thrombin stimulation and the fast absorption of the sponge, TCGS exhibits outstanding hemostatic performance, ultrafast bleeding cessation, within 100s, which is superior to both CGS and equal amounts of native thrombin. Lower or excessive thrombin dosages prolong the bleeding time. The study revealed that the balance between plasma absorption and thrombin stimulation at the interface is critical for improving hemostatic efficacy. TCGS is also highlighted for its biosafety and stability, even after 6 months of storage in environment. This potentially ultra-long shelf life is conducive to its practical applications. Therefore, TCGS not only provides a new strategy for developing a hemostatic composite but also provides a new method and understanding for the design of hemostatic materials. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Experimental demonstration of synergy between electron cyclotron and lower hybrid current drive on Tore Supra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artaud, J.F.; Giruzzi, G.; Dumont, R.J.; Imbeaux, F.; Bibet, P.; Bouquey, F.; Clary, J.; Ekedahl, A.; Hoang, G.T.; Lennholm, M.; Magne, R.; Segui, J.L.

    2004-01-01

    Non-inductive current drive (CD) has two main applications in tokamaks: sustainment of a substantial fraction of the toroidal plasma current necessary for the plasma confinement and control of the plasma stability and transport properties by appropriate shaping of the current density profile. For the first kind of applications, lower hybrid (LH) waves are known to provide the highest efficiency (defined as the ratio of the driven current to the injected wave power), although with limited control capability. Conversely, electron cyclotron (EC) waves drive highly localized currents, and are therefore particularly suited for control purposes, but their CD efficiency is much lower than that of LH waves (typically, an order of magnitude in present day experiments). Various calculations have demonstrated an interesting property: the current driven by the simultaneous use of the two waves, I(LH+EC), can be significantly larger than the sum I(LH)+I(EC) of the currents separately driven by the two waves in the same plasma conditions. This property, called synergy effect. The peculiar experimental conditions attainable on the Tore Supra tokamak have allowed the first experimental demonstration of the synergy between EC and LH current drive. The significant improvement of the electron cyclotron current drive (ECCD) efficiency in the presence of low hybrid current drive (LHCD), predicted by kinetic theory and confirmed by stationary experiments on Tore Supra, opens up the possibility of using ECCD as an efficient current profile control tool in LHCD plasmas

  20. Functional synergies underlying control of upright posture during changes in head orientation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunse Park

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Studies of human upright posture typically have stressed the need to control ankle and hip joints to achieve postural stability. Recent studies, however, suggest that postural stability involves multi degree-of-freedom (DOF coordination, especially when performing supra-postural tasks. This study investigated kinematic synergies related to control of the body's position in space (two, four and six DOF models and changes in the head's orientation (six DOF model. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Subjects either tracked a vertically moving target with a head-mounted laser pointer or fixated a stationary point during 4-min trials. Uncontrolled manifold (UCM analysis was performed across tracking cycles at each point in time to determine the structure of joint configuration variance related to postural stability or tracking consistency. The effect of simulated removal of covariance among joints on that structure was investigated to further determine the role of multijoint coordination. Results indicated that cervical joint motion was poorly coordinated with other joints to stabilize the position of the body center of mass (CM. However, cervical joints were coordinated in a flexible manner with more caudal joints to achieve consistent changes in head orientation. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: An understanding of multijoint coordination requires reference to the stability/control of important performance variables. The nature of that coordination differs depending on the reference variable. Stability of upright posture primarily involved multijoint coordination of lower extremity and lower trunk joints. Consistent changes in the orientation of the head, however, required flexible coordination of those joints with motion of the cervical spine. A two-segment model of postural control was unable to account for the observed stability of the CM position during the tracking task, further supporting the need to consider multijoint coordination to

  1. syNErgy: A Case Study in Workforce Curriculum Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killingsworth, John; Grosskopf, Kevin R.

    2013-01-01

    With high unemployment and structural changes to industry, workforce development in the United States is a growing concern. Many semiskilled workers lack knowledge, skills, and abilities to be competitive for reemployment to green jobs. Nebraska's syNErgy research grant was introduced to address the training needs of unemployed and underemployed…

  2. Practice effects on intra-team synergies in football teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Pedro; Chung, Dante; Carvalho, Thiago; Cardoso, Tiago; Davids, Keith; Araújo, Duarte; Garganta, Júlio

    2016-04-01

    Developing synchronised player movements for fluent competitive match play is a common goal for coaches of team games. An ecological dynamics approach advocates that intra-team synchronization is governed by locally created information, which specifies shared affordances responsible for synergy formation. To verify this claim we evaluated coordination tendencies in two newly-formed teams of recreational players during association football practice games, weekly, for fifteen weeks (thirteen matches). We investigated practice effects on two central features of synergies in sports teams - dimensional compression and reciprocal compensation here captured through near in-phase modes of coordination and time delays between coupled players during forward and backwards movements on field while attacking and defending. Results verified that synergies were formed and dissolved rapidly as a result of the dynamic creation of informational properties, perceived as shared affordances among performers. Practising once a week led to small improvements in the readjustment delays between co-positioning team members, enabling faster regulation of coordinated team actions. Mean values of the number of player and team synergies displayed only limited improvements, possibly due to the timescales of practice. No relationship between improvements in dimensional compression and reciprocal compensation were found for number of shots, amount of ball possession and number of ball recoveries made. Findings open up new perspectives for monitoring team coordination processes in sport. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Synergies of multiple remote sensing data sources for REDD+ monitoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sy, de V.; Herold, M.; Achard, F.; Asner, G.P.; Held, A.; Kellndorfer, J.; Verbesselt, J.

    2012-01-01

    Remote sensing technologies can provide objective, practical and cost-effective solutions for developing and maintaining REDD+ monitoring systems. This paper reviews the potential and status of available remote sensing data sources with a focus on different forest information products and synergies

  4. Academic Entrepreneurship and Traditional Academic Duties: Synergy or Rivalry?

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Silva, Muthu

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the influence of academic entrepreneurship on traditional academic duties carried out in a resource-constrained environment, particularly focusing on whether there is synergy or rivalry between these two activities. Using qualitative evidence, we discover that there are funding, resource, knowledge and skill and networking…

  5. Possible causes of dry pea synergy to corn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dry pea improves corn yield and tolerance to weed interference compared with soybean, spring wheat, or canola as preceding crops. To understand this synergy between dry pea and corn, we examined growth and nutrient concentration of corn following dry pea or soybean in sequence. Each corn plot was ...

  6. The synergy of creativity and critical thinking in engineering design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spuzic, Sead; Narayanan, Ramadas; Adriansen, Hanne Kirstine

    2016-01-01

    framework. It has been widely recognised that engineering design encompasses two ways of thinkingdcreative and critical. A central argument that the synergy of creativity and criticality is significantly enhanced by connecting true interdisciplinary augmentation with the fine arts is discussed along...

  7. Co-location synergies : specialized versus diverse logistics concentration areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuvel, van den F.P.; Langen, de P.W.; Donselaar, van K.H.; Fransoo, J.C.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the understanding of spatial concentration of logistics firms by empirically analyzing synergies through co-location and investigating whether co-location of logistics establishments in specialized logistics concentration areas results in

  8. Proximity matters : synergies through co-location of logistics establishments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuvel, van den F.P.; Langen, de P.W.; Donselaar, van K.H.; Fransoo, J.C.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the understanding of spatial concentration of logistics firms by empirically analyzing synergies through co-location and investigating whether spatial concentration of logistics activities indeed results in classical agglomeration economies as

  9. A measure of internal synergy of the collective system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novikov V.A.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The authors examine the methodology of HRM personnel management based on ratings. Proposed to represent a collective system that uses a matrix of pair relations as a system of linear differential equations. The condition of auto generation of an autonomous system can be determined by the application of the Laplace transformation to the system. This condition mainly depends on the main eigenvalue of dating relationships matrix. Assuming the oscillation frequency is straightly proportional to the system's synergy rating, a special algorithm of comparative evaluation of several collective systems was suggested. Methods: The calculation of the rating of internal synergies is based on the representation of the collective system as a system of linear differential equations, the coefficients of which are obtained by questionnaire survey of all members of the team. Internal representation of the system's synergism as a stimulation of an autonomous system allows using the eigenvector of the system as a measure of internal synergies. Results: The result of this method is the rating of members of interacting collective systems in terms of their contribution to the self-organization sharing behavior.  Conclusions:  Using a matrix of pair relations allows without direct programming and only using MathCad determines the measure of internal synergy of a collective system.  

  10. Human and veterinary medicine: the priority for public health synergies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Mantovani

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The concepts of ‘one medicine’ and 'one ‘health’ are supported and visualised as a tree (medicine, placed on the fertile soil (basic sciences, which divides into the two major branches of human and veterinary medicine, connected by the large branch of public health; minor branches (specialisations depart from the three larger ones. The synergy between human and veterinary medicine is not only a must for public health, but also implies ethical considerations. The basic reasons requiring synergy are found in the common sharing of the environment, in the use of animal products by humans, in the common culture and in the many problems to be faced together. The long list of adversities requiring synergy is topped by zoonoses (intended both in the classic and in the extended sense and food safety that extends to many other items connected with nutrition, environment, human/animal coexistence and the management of public health; the entire quality of human life is affected. Human and veterinary medicine have a strong cultural background (many subject matters in common, but unfortunately the undergraduate and postgraduate education programme (with few important exceptions do not offer training in cooperation. The synergy between human and veterinary medicines is an indicator of 'good public health practice' and any obstacles to this collaboration should be identified and eliminated. The logo for a public health founded on synergy is drawn as an umbrella formed by the medical and veterinary activities, protecting the population (consumers and producers, the animals and their products and the environment from the possible adversities linked to health.

  11. A novel computational framework for deducing muscle synergies from experimental joint moments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anantharaman eGopalakrishnan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Prior experimental studies have hypothesized the existence of a ‘muscle synergy’ based control scheme for producing limb movements and locomotion in vertebrates. Such synergies have been suggested to consist of fixed muscle grouping schemes with the co-activation of all muscles in a synergy resulting in limb movement. Quantitative representations of these groupings (termed muscle weightings and their control signals (termed synergy controls have traditionally been derived by the factorization of experimentally measured EMG. This study presents a novel approach for deducing these weightings and controls from inverse dynamic joint moments that are computed from an alternative set of experimental measurements – movement kinematics and kinetics. This technique was applied to joint moments for healthy human walking at 0.7 and 1.7 m/s, and two sets of ‘simulated’ synergies were computed based on two different criteria (1 synergies were required to minimize errors between experimental and simulated joint moments in a musculoskeletal model (pure-synergy solution (2 along with minimizing joint moment errors, synergies also minimized muscle activation levels (optimal-synergy solution. On comparing the two solutions, it was observed that the introduction of optimality requirements (optimal-synergy to a control strategy solely aimed at reproducing the joint moments (pure-synergy did not necessitate major changes in the muscle grouping within synergies or the temporal profiles of synergy control signals. Synergies from both the simulated solutions exhibited many similarities to EMG derived synergies from a previously published study, thus implying that the analysis of the two different types of experimental data reveals similar, underlying synergy structures.

  12. Premises and Limitations in Defining and Measuring Synergy from M&As

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aevoae George Marian

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Mergers and acquisitions are performed worldwide mainly because of synergy. Although many invoke the term synergy as the key motivation of why they engage in M&As, research has led us to understand that it is not very clear in terms of what it actually is. In the scientific literature, synergy is mostly defined as being “2+2=5”. Thus, we first thought that it can only be a positive effect. But, latter on, we found out that synergy is not only positive, it can be negative as well, known as negative synergy or dyssynergy. The purpose of this paper is to shed some light on what is synergy, how can we quantify and classify it and why acquiring firms tend to pay more for the target firm. We believe that there is a link between the amount of premium paid for a target firm and the expectations for synergy.

  13. Exo-exo synergy between Cel6A and Cel7A from Hypocrea jecorina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Badino, Silke Flindt; Christensen, Stefan Jarl; Kari, Jeppe

    2017-01-01

    Synergy between cellulolytic enzymes is essential in both natural and industrial breakdown of biomass. In addition to synergy between endo- and exo-lytic enzymes, a lesser known but equally conspicuous synergy occurs among exo-acting, processive cellobiohydrolases (CBHs) such as Cel7A and Cel6A...... from Hypocrea jecorina. We studied this system using microcrystalline cellulose as substrate and found a degree of synergy between 1.3 and 2.2 depending on the experimental conditions. Synergy between enzyme variants without the carbohydrate binding module (CBM) and its linker was strongly reduced...... compared to the wild types. One plausible interpretation of this is that exo-exo synergy depends on the targeting role of the CBM. Many earlier works have proposed that exo-exo synergy was caused by an auxiliary endo-lytic activity of Cel6A. However, biochemical data from different assays suggested...

  14. Inter- and Intrasubject Similarity of Muscle Synergies During Bench Press With Slow and Fast Velocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samani, Afshin; Kristiansen, Mathias

    2018-01-01

    We investigated the effect of low and high bar velocity on inter- and intrasubject similarity of muscle synergies during bench press. A total of 13 trained male subjects underwent two exercise conditions: a slow- and a fast-velocity bench press. Surface electromyography was recorded from 13 muscles, and muscle synergies were extracted using a nonnegative matrix factorization algorithm. The intrasubject similarity across conditions and intersubject similarity within conditions were computed for muscle synergy vectors and activation coefficients. Two muscle synergies were sufficient to describe the dataset variability. For the second synergy activation coefficient, the intersubject similarity within the fast-velocity condition was greater than the intrasubject similarity of the activation coefficient across the conditions. An opposite pattern was observed for the first muscle synergy vector. We concluded that the activation coefficients are robust within conditions, indicating a robust temporal pattern of muscular activity across individuals, but the muscle synergy vector seemed to be individually assigned.

  15. Simple test of synergy between ampicillin and vancomycin for resistant strains of Enterococcus faecium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, M; Barbadora, K; Wadowsky, R M

    1994-11-01

    The combination of ampicillin and vancomycin kills some but not all strains of ampicillin- and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium. We compared a simple test for synergy utilizing a commercially available microdilution susceptibility system with time-kill studies and determined acceptable breakpoints for this test for 20 strains of ampicillin- and vancomycin-resistant E. faecium. The combination of ampicillin and vancomycin was tested for synergy by time-kill, broth macrodilution, and broth microdilution procedures. Repeat testing of isolates by macro- and microdilution synergy methods yielded MICs that were within one twofold dilution of each other for both intra- and intertest comparisons. Synergy was always detected by time-kill studies when the MIC of ampicillin in the combination synergy screen was 16 micrograms/ml in the combination microdilution synergy screen. The determination of the synergy by the broth microdilution procedure appears to be simple, convenient, and accurate.

  16. The flexion synergy, mother of all synergies and father of new models of gait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques eDuysens

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Recently there has been a growing interest in the modular organization of leg movements, in particular those related to locomotion. One of the basic modules involves the flexion of the leg during swing and it was shown that this module is already present in neonates (Dominici, et al. 2011. In this paper, we question how these finding build upon the original work by Sherrington, who proposed that the flexor reflex is the basic building block of the flexion during swing phase. Similarly, the relation between the flexor reflex and the withdrawal reflex modules of Schouenborg et al. (1994 will be discussed. It will be argued that there is large overlap between these notions on modules and the older concepts of reflexes. In addition, it will be shown that there is a great flexibility in the expression of some of these modules during gait, thereby allowing for a phase-dependent modulation of the appropriate responses. In particular, the end of the stance phase is a period when the flexor synergy is facilitated. It is proposed that this is linked to the activation of circuitry that is responsible for the generation of locomotor patterns (CPG, central pattern generator. More specifically, it is suggested that the responses in that period relate to the activation of a flexor burst generator. The latter structure forms the core of a new asymmetric model of the CPG. This activation is controlled by afferent input (facilitation by a broad range of afferents, suppression by load afferent input. Meanwhile, many of these physiologic features have found their way in the control of very flexible walking bipedal robots.

  17. Stride time synergy in relation to walking during dual task

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Læssøe, Uffe; Madeleine, Pascal

    2012-01-01

    point of view elemental and performance variables may represent good and bad components of variability [2]. In this study we propose that the gait pattern can be seen as an on-going movement synergy in which each stride is corrected by the next stride (elemental variables) to ensure a steady gait...... (performance variable). AIM: The aim of this study was to evaluate stride time synergy and to identify good and bad stride variability in relation to walking during dual task. METHODS: Thirteen healthy young participants walked along a 2x5 meter figure-of-eight track at a self-selected comfortable speed...... with a positive slope going through the mean of the strides, and bad variance with respect to a similar line with a negative slope. The general variance coefficient (CV%) was also computed. The effect of introducing a concurrent cognitive task (dual task: counting backwards in sequences of 7) was evaluated...

  18. From fuel cells to batteries: Synergies, scales and simulation methods

    OpenAIRE

    Bessler, Wolfgang G.

    2011-01-01

    The recent years have shown a dynamic growth of battery research and development activities both in academia and industry, supported by large governmental funding initiatives throughout the world. A particular focus is being put on lithium-based battery technologies. This situation provides a stimulating environment for the fuel cell modeling community, as there are considerable synergies in the modeling and simulation methods for fuel cells and batteries. At the same time, batter...

  19. Analgesic synergy between opioid and α2 -adrenoceptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabot-Doré, A-J; Schuster, D J; Stone, L S; Wilcox, G L

    2015-01-01

    Opioid and α2 -adrenoceptor agonists are potent analgesic drugs and their analgesic effects can synergize when co-administered. These supra-additive interactions are potentially beneficial clinically; by increasing efficacy and/or reducing the total drug required to produce sufficient pain relief, undesired side effects can be minimized. However, combination therapies of opioids and α2 -adrenoceptor agonists remain underutilized clinically, in spite of a large body of preclinical evidence describing their synergistic interaction. One possible obstacle to the translation of preclinical findings to clinical applications is a lack of understanding of the mechanisms underlying the synergistic interactions between these two drug classes. In this review, we provide a detailed overview of the interactions between different opioid and α2 -adrenoceptor agonist combinations in preclinical studies. These studies have identified the spinal cord as an important site of action of synergistic interactions, provided insights into which receptors mediate these interactions and explored downstream signalling events enabling synergy. It is now well documented that the activation of both μ and δ opioid receptors can produce synergy with α2 -adrenoceptor agonists and that α2 -adrenoceptor agonists can mediate synergy through either the α2A or the α2C adrenoceptor subtypes. Current hypotheses surrounding the cellular mechanisms mediating opioid-adrenoceptor synergy, including PKC signalling and receptor oligomerization, and the evidence supporting them are presented. Finally, the implications of these findings for clinical applications and drug discovery are discussed. This article is part of a themed section on Opioids: New Pathways to Functional Selectivity. To view the other articles in this section visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2015.172.issue-2. © 2014 The British Pharmacological Society.

  20. Co-location synergies : specialized versus diverse logistics concentration areas

    OpenAIRE

    Heuvel, van den, F.P.; Langen, de, P.W.; Donselaar, van, K.H.; Fransoo, J.C.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the understanding of spatial concentration of logistics firms by empirically analyzing synergies through co-location and investigating whether co-location of logistics establishments in specialized logistics concentration areas results in benefits compared to co-location in diverse logistics concentration areas. Methodology: A survey among managers of 128 logistics establishments located in logistics concentration areas was used to test f...

  1. Proximity matters : synergies through co-location of logistics establishments

    OpenAIRE

    Heuvel, van den, F.P.; Langen, de, P.W.; Donselaar, van, K.H.; Fransoo, J.C.

    2012-01-01

    Although anecdotic evidence suggests that co-location of logistics activities can bring several benefits to the co-located logistics companies and hence, can be important to incorporate in the location decisions of these companies, this is the first paper to empirically research these benefits. This paper contributes to the understanding of spatial concentration of logistics firms by empirically analyzing synergies through co-location and investigates whether spatial concentration of logistic...

  2. Simbol-X: Synergies with JWST, ALMA and Herschel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiolino, R.

    2009-05-01

    I discuss the synergies between Simbol-X and three among the major astronomical facilities that, in the next decade, will be operative in the infrared-millimeter spectral range, namely JWST, Herschel and ALMA. I first provide a brief overview of the main features and observing capabilities offered by these facilities. Then I will discuss a few research fields (mostly extragalactic) that will geatly benefit of the joint exploitation of Simbol-X and these IR-mm observatories.

  3. Flexible automation and the loss of pooling synergy

    OpenAIRE

    Slomp, Jannes; Zee, Durk-Jouke van der

    2001-01-01

    This paper focuses on the effects of flexible automation on the performance of a job shop. Flexible automated machines may significantly improve the delivery performance and the flow time of jobs. The insertion of a flexible automated system in a job shop, however, also has a counter effect on the manufacturing performance. This is caused by the reduction of pooling synergy due to the dedication implied by flexible automated machines. This paper investigates by means of a simulation study to ...

  4. USING THE SYNERGY OF ALLIANCES AND PARTNERSHIP FOR SUSTAINABLE GROWTH

    OpenAIRE

    Elena DOVAL; Oriana DOVAL

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to demonstrate by searching the literature that the synergy of different types of alliances and partnership brings much more opportunities for the sustainable growth of the companies. After a briefing about definitions, types and purpose of alliances and partnership the paper reminds the process of alliances and partnership formation and emphasises the main advantages and limits of alliances and partnership Finally, a new type of company is defined, i.e. ‘the s...

  5. The synergies of the Italian wine and tourism sectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Gaetano Santeramo

    2017-06-01

    We analyse the synergic relations between the domestic tourism in Italy and wine industry exploring data on flows of domestic tourism among the Italian regions and key indicators for the wine industry. The region of origin of tourists is a determining factor in the choice of destination; we also highlight the role of customer loyalty. The political implications are relevant: institutions and political actors could exploit the synergies between the tourism and the wine industries by promoting excellence in wine.

  6. Nuclear and Renewable Energy Synergies Workshop: Report of Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruth, M.; Antkowiak, M.; Gossett, S.

    2011-12-01

    Two of the major challenges the U.S. energy sector faces are greenhouse gas emissions and oil that is both imported and potentially reaching a peak (the point at which maximum extraction is reached). Interest in development of both renewable and nuclear energy has been strong because both have potential for overcoming these challenges. Research in both energy sources is ongoing, but relatively little research has focused on the potential benefits of combining nuclear and renewable energy. In September 2011, the Joint Institute for Strategic Energy Analysis (JISEA) convened the Nuclear and Renewable Energy Synergies Workshop at the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to identify potential synergies and strategic leveraging opportunities between nuclear energy and renewable energy. Industry, government, and academic thought leaders gathered to identify potential broad categories of synergies and brainstorm topic areas for additional analysis and research and development (R&D). This report records the proceedings and outcomes of the workshop.

  7. Cooperation Formats of China and Europe: Synergies and Divergences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šteinbuka Inna

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This contribution articulates the synergies and divergences of the various formats of cooperation between China and the European countries. The EU and China have a strong interest in each other’s flagship initiatives, namely the Investment Plan for Europe, and the One Belt, One Road Initiative (Silk Road Economic Belt and 21st-Century Maritime Silk Road. The authors argue that there are certain synergies between these initiatives. Furthermore, the new initiative EU-China Connectivity Platform is aimed to explore these synergies. The authors explore the recent developments in the EU-China investments, trade cooperation and the challenges of the ever-growing CEEC-China partnership in different formats, including the new platform of 16+1. The authors examine these implications in relation to the need to expand and adapt the content and approach of the EU-China Bilateral Investment agreement. The article concludes that the CEEC-China relation does not go against the EU; moreover, neither the CEE countries nor China have any motivation to try to weaken the EU.

  8. A synergy-driven approach to a myoelectric hand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfrey, S B; Ajoudani, A; Catalano, M; Grioli, G; Bicchi, A

    2013-06-01

    In this paper, we present the Pisa/IIT SoftHand with myoelectric control as a synergy-driven approach for a prosthetic hand. Commercially available myoelectric hands are more expensive, heavier, and less robust than their body-powered counterparts; however, they can offer greater freedom of motion and a more aesthetically pleasing appearance. The Pisa/IIT SoftHand is built on the motor control principle of synergies through which the immense complexity of the hand is simplified into distinct motor patterns. As the SoftHand grasps, it follows a synergistic path with built-in flexibility to allow grasping of a wide variety of objects with a single motor. Here we test, as a proof-of-concept, 4 myoelectric controllers: a standard controller in which the EMG signal is used only as a position reference, an impedance controller that determines both position and stiffness references from the EMG input, a standard controller with vibrotactile force feedback, and finally a combined vibrotactile-impedance (VI) controller. Four healthy subjects tested the control algorithms by grasping various objects. All controllers were sufficient for basic grasping, however the impedance and vibrotactile controllers reduced the physical and cognitive load on the user, while the combined VI mode was the easiest to use of the four. While these results need to be validated with amputees, they suggest a low-cost, robust hand employing hardware-based synergies is a viable alternative to traditional myoelectric prostheses.

  9. Field synergy characteristics in condensation heat transfer with non-condensable gas over a horizontal tube

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junxia Zhang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Field synergy characteristics in condensation heat transfer with non-condensable gas (NCG over a horizontal tube were numerically simulated. Consequently, synergy angles between velocity and pressure or temperature gradient fields, gas film layer thickness, and induced velocity and shear stress on gas–liquid interface were obtained. Results show that synergy angles between velocity and temperature gradient fields are within 73.2°–88.7° and ascend slightly with the increment in mainstream velocity and that the synergy is poor. However, the synergy angle between velocity and pressure gradient fields decreases intensively with the increase in mainstream velocity at θ ≤ 30°, thereby improving the pressure loss. As NCG mass fraction increases, the gas film layer thickness enlarges and the induced velocity and shear stress on gas–liquid interface decreases. The synergy angles between velocity and temperature gradient fields increase, and the synergy angles between velocity and pressure gradient fields change at θ = 70°, decrease at θ 70°. When the horizontal tube circumference angle increases, the synergy angles between velocity and temperature or pressure gradient fields decrease, the synergy between velocity and pressure fields enhances, and the synergy between velocity and temperature fields degrades.

  10. Novel Methods to Enhance Precision and Reliability in Muscle Synergy Identification during Walking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yushin; Bulea, Thomas C.; Damiano, Diane L.

    2016-01-01

    Muscle synergies are hypothesized to reflect modular control of muscle groups via descending commands sent through multiple neural pathways. Recently, the number of synergies has been reported as a functionally relevant indicator of motor control complexity in individuals with neurological movement disorders. Yet the number of synergies extracted during a given activity, e.g., gait, varies within and across studies, even for unimpaired individuals. With no standardized methods for precise determination, this variability remains unexplained making comparisons across studies and cohorts difficult. Here, we utilize k-means clustering and intra-class and between-level correlation coefficients to precisely discriminate reliable from unreliable synergies. Electromyography (EMG) was recorded bilaterally from eight leg muscles during treadmill walking at self-selected speed. Muscle synergies were extracted from 20 consecutive gait cycles using non-negative matrix factorization. We demonstrate that the number of synergies is highly dependent on the threshold when using the variance accounted for by reconstructed EMG. Beyond use of threshold, our method utilized a quantitative metric to reliably identify four or five synergies underpinning walking in unimpaired adults and revealed synergies having poor reproducibility that should not be considered as true synergies. We show that robust and unreliable synergies emerge similarly, emphasizing the need for careful analysis in those with pathology. PMID:27695403

  11. Alterations in upper limb muscle synergy structure in chronic stroke survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rymer, William Z.; Perreault, Eric J.; Yoo, Seng Bum; Beer, Randall F.

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies in neurologically intact subjects have shown that motor coordination can be described by task-dependent combinations of a few muscle synergies, defined here as a fixed pattern of activation across a set of muscles. Arm function in severely impaired stroke survivors is characterized by stereotypical postural and movement patterns involving the shoulder and elbow. Accordingly, we hypothesized that muscle synergy composition is altered in severely impaired stroke survivors. Using an isometric force matching protocol, we examined the spatial activation patterns of elbow and shoulder muscles in the affected arm of 10 stroke survivors (Fugl-Meyer synergies were identified using non-negative matrix factorization. In both groups, muscle activation patterns could be reconstructed by combinations of a few muscle synergies (typically 4). We did not find abnormal coupling of shoulder and elbow muscles within individual muscle synergies. In stroke survivors, as in controls, two of the synergies were comprised of isolated activation of the elbow flexors and extensors. However, muscle synergies involving proximal muscles exhibited consistent alterations following stroke. Unlike controls, the anterior deltoid was coactivated with medial and posterior deltoids within the shoulder abductor/extensor synergy and the shoulder adductor/flexor synergy in stroke was dominated by activation of pectoralis major, with limited anterior deltoid activation. Recruitment of the altered shoulder muscle synergies was strongly associated with abnormal task performance. Overall, our results suggest that an impaired control of the individual deltoid heads may contribute to poststroke deficits in arm function. PMID:23155178

  12. Consequences of biomechanically constrained tasks in the design and interpretation of synergy analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Katherine M; Tresch, Matthew C; Perreault, Eric J

    2015-04-01

    Matrix factorization algorithms are commonly used to analyze muscle activity and provide insight into neuromuscular control. These algorithms identify low-dimensional subspaces, commonly referred to as synergies, which can describe variation in muscle activity during a task. Synergies are often interpreted as reflecting underlying neural control; however, it is unclear how these analyses are influenced by biomechanical and task constraints, which can also lead to low-dimensional patterns of muscle activation. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether commonly used algorithms and experimental methods can accurately identify synergy-based control strategies. This was accomplished by evaluating synergies from five common matrix factorization algorithms using muscle activations calculated from 1) a biomechanically constrained task using a musculoskeletal model and 2) without task constraints using random synergy activations. Algorithm performance was assessed by calculating the similarity between estimated synergies and those imposed during the simulations; similarities ranged from 0 (random chance) to 1 (perfect similarity). Although some of the algorithms could accurately estimate specified synergies without biomechanical or task constraints (similarity >0.7), with these constraints the similarity of estimated synergies decreased significantly (0.3-0.4). The ability of these algorithms to accurately identify synergies was negatively impacted by correlation of synergy activations, which are increased when substantial biomechanical or task constraints are present. Increased variability in synergy activations, which can be captured using robust experimental paradigms that include natural variability in motor activation patterns, improved identification accuracy but did not completely overcome effects of biomechanical and task constraints. These results demonstrate that a biomechanically constrained task can reduce the accuracy of estimated synergies and highlight

  13. Quantitative evaluation of muscle synergy models: a single-trial task decoding approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delis, Ioannis; Berret, Bastien; Pozzo, Thierry; Panzeri, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    Muscle synergies, i.e., invariant coordinated activations of groups of muscles, have been proposed as building blocks that the central nervous system (CNS) uses to construct the patterns of muscle activity utilized for executing movements. Several efficient dimensionality reduction algorithms that extract putative synergies from electromyographic (EMG) signals have been developed. Typically, the quality of synergy decompositions is assessed by computing the Variance Accounted For (VAF). Yet, little is known about the extent to which the combination of those synergies encodes task-discriminating variations of muscle activity in individual trials. To address this question, here we conceive and develop a novel computational framework to evaluate muscle synergy decompositions in task space. Unlike previous methods considering the total variance of muscle patterns (VAF based metrics), our approach focuses on variance discriminating execution of different tasks. The procedure is based on single-trial task decoding from muscle synergy activation features. The task decoding based metric evaluates quantitatively the mapping between synergy recruitment and task identification and automatically determines the minimal number of synergies that captures all the task-discriminating variability in the synergy activations. In this paper, we first validate the method on plausibly simulated EMG datasets. We then show that it can be applied to different types of muscle synergy decomposition and illustrate its applicability to real data by using it for the analysis of EMG recordings during an arm pointing task. We find that time-varying and synchronous synergies with similar number of parameters are equally efficient in task decoding, suggesting that in this experimental paradigm they are equally valid representations of muscle synergies. Overall, these findings stress the effectiveness of the decoding metric in systematically assessing muscle synergy decompositions in task space.

  14. The number and choice of muscles impact the results of muscle synergy analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Muterspaugh Steele

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available One theory for how humans control movement is that muscles are activated in weighted groups or synergies. Studies have shown that electromyography (EMG from a variety of tasks can be described by a low-dimensional space thought to reflect synergies. These studies use algorithms, such as nonnegative matrix factorization, to identify synergies from EMG. Due to experimental constraints, EMG can rarely be taken from all muscles involved in a task. However, it is unclear if the choice of muscles included in the analysis impacts estimated synergies. The aim of our study was to evaluate the impact of the number and choice of muscles on synergy analyses. We used a musculoskeletal model to calculate muscle activations required to perform an isometric upper-extremity task. Synergies calculated from the activations from the musculoskeletal model were similar to a prior experimental study. To evaluate the impact of the number of muscles included in the analysis, we randomly selected subsets of between 5 and 29 muscles and compared the similarity of the synergies calculated from each subset to a master set of synergies calculated from all muscles. We determined that the structure of synergies is dependent upon the number and choice of muscles included in the analysis. When five muscles were included in the analysis, the similarity of the synergies to the master set was only 0.57 ± 0.54; however, the similarity improved to over 0.8 with more than ten muscles. We identified two methods, selecting dominant muscles from the master set or selecting muscles with the largest maximum isometric force, which significantly improved similarity to the master set and can help guide future experimental design. Analyses that included a small subset of muscles also over-estimated the variance accounted for (VAF by the synergies compared to an analysis with all muscles. Thus, researchers should use caution using VAF to evaluate synergies when EMG is measured from a small

  15. A Conceptual Framework for Team Social Capital as Basis for Organizational Team Synergy

    OpenAIRE

    Raluca ZOLTAN

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to outline a conceptual framework of team social capital as a basis for reaching organizational team synergy. The dimensions of team social capital and the basic conditions required for organizational team synergy enable the extension of current model of team social capital by including of other variables. Today’s managers must consider these variables since the team tends to be the basic structural unit of current organizations and synergy, the key to achieving h...

  16. Synergies in the space of control variables within the equilibrium-point hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambike, S; Mattos, D; Zatsiorsky, V M; Latash, M L

    2016-02-19

    We use an approach rooted in the recent theory of synergies to analyze possible co-variation between two hypothetical control variables involved in finger force production based on the equilibrium-point (EP) hypothesis. These control variables are the referent coordinate (R) and apparent stiffness (C) of the finger. We tested a hypothesis that inter-trial co-variation in the {R; C} space during repeated, accurate force production trials stabilizes the fingertip force. This was expected to correspond to a relatively low amount of inter-trial variability affecting force and a high amount of variability keeping the force unchanged. We used the "inverse piano" apparatus to apply small and smooth positional perturbations to fingers during force production tasks. Across trials, R and C showed strong co-variation with the data points lying close to a hyperbolic curve. Hyperbolic regressions accounted for over 99% of the variance in the {R; C} space. Another analysis was conducted by randomizing the original {R; C} data sets and creating surrogate data sets that were then used to compute predicted force values. The surrogate sets always showed much higher force variance compared to the actual data, thus reinforcing the conclusion that finger force control was organized in the {R; C} space, as predicted by the EP hypothesis, and involved co-variation in that space stabilizing total force. Copyright © 2015 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The beat is getting stronger : The effect of atmospheric stability on low frequency modulated sound of wind turbines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, G P

    2005-01-01

    Sound from wind turbines involves a number of sound production mechanisms related to different interactions between the turbine blades and the air. An important contribution to the low frequency part of the sound spectrum is due to the sudden variation in air flow which the blade encounters when it

  18. Muscle Synergies Control during Hand-Reaching Tasks in Multiple Directions Post-stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon Israely

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: A muscle synergies model was suggested to represent a simplifying motor control mechanism by the brainstem and spinal cord. The aim of the study was to investigate the feasibility of such control mechanisms in the rehabilitation of post-stroke individuals during the execution of hand-reaching movements in multiple directions, compared to non-stroke individuals.Methods: Twelve non-stroke and 13 post-stroke individuals participated in the study. Muscle synergies were extracted from EMG data that was recorded during hand reaching tasks, using the NMF algorithm. The optimal number of synergies was evaluated in both groups using the Variance Accounted For (VAF and the Mean Squared Error (MSE. A cross validation procedure was carried out to define a representative set of synergies. The similarity index and the K-means algorithm were applied to validate the existence of such a set of synergies, but also to compare the modulation properties of synergies for different movement directions between groups. The similarity index and hierarchical cluster analysis were also applied to compare between group synergies.Results: Four synergies were chosen to optimally capture the variances in the EMG data, with mean VAF of 0.917 ± 0.034 and 0.883 ± 0.046 of the data variances, with respective MSE of 0.007 and 0.016, in the control and study groups, respectively. The representative set of synergies was set to be extracted from movement to the center of the reaching space. Two synergies had different muscle activation balance between groups. Seven and 17 clusters partitioned the muscle synergies of the control and study groups. The control group exhibited a gradual change in the activation in the amplitude in the time domain (modulation of synergies, as reflected by the similarity index, whereas the study group exhibited consistently significant differences between all movement directions and the representative set of synergies. The study findings support

  19. A Methodology to Measure Synergy Among Energy-Efficiency Programs at the Program Participant Level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonn, B.E.

    2003-11-14

    This paper presents a methodology designed to measure synergy among energy-efficiency programs at the program participant level (e.g., households, firms). Three different definitions of synergy are provided: strong, moderate, and weak. Data to measure synergy can be collected through simple survey questions. Straightforward mathematical techniques can be used to estimate the three types of synergy and explore relative synergistic impacts of different subsets of programs. Empirical research is needed to test the concepts and methods and to establish quantitative expectations about synergistic relationships among programs. The market for new energy-efficient motors is the context used to illustrate all the concepts and methods in this paper.

  20. Nuclear Security and Nuclear Safeguards; Differences, Commonalities and Synergies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jorant, C.

    2015-01-01

    Reference to the three S's in the nuclear world is recurring and much has been said about the need to build on synergies to reinforce safeguards, safety and security. In practice, the 3S's communities are seldom interconnected even though some interaction can be observed between safety and security and security and safeguards. Ensuring a better understanding between those three sectors about their scope, requirements, implementation methods and tools would stimulate cooperation. The second Nuclear Security Summit and particularly the industry related event stressed the synergies between safety and security. The first IAEAs Security Conference organized in July 2013 did not address specifically nuclear safeguards and security relations. Last Security Summit took place in The Hague in March 2014 and this type of issue was not really raised either. The safeguards Symposium provides a timely opportunity to tackle possible enhanced cooperation between safeguards and security communities and assess the prospect for addressing such issue at the next and allegedly last security summit in 2016. This presentation will analyze the differences and commonalities between those two sectors, in particular with regards to the objectives and actors, the organization and technicalities, or to the conceptual approaches (DBT and APA/SLC, attractiveness/accessibility). It will then assess the possible synergies or cooperation between both communities. It will discuss the merits of a global and comprehensive involvement of the different actors, (State, industry and international bodies including the NGOs) and of exchanges on good practices to contribute to a common understanding and references while allowing for an adaptable and national approach. Indeed the need to reassure the stakeholders, including the general public, that security, as well as safeguards are addressed in a consistent manner worldwide is of utmost importance for building future nuclear energy programmes on a

  1. Building synergies between climate change mitigation and energy poverty alleviation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ürge-Vorsatz, Diana; Tirado Herrero, Sergio

    2012-01-01

    Even though energy poverty alleviation and climate change mitigation are inextricably linked policy goals, they have remained as relatively disconnected fields of research inquiry and policy development. Acknowledging this gap, this paper explores the mainstream academic and policy literatures to provide a taxonomy of interactions and identify synergies and trade-offs between them. The most important trade-off identified is the potential increase in energy poverty levels as a result of strong climate change action if the internalisation of the external costs of carbon emissions is not offset by efficiency gains. The most significant synergy was found in deep energy efficiency in buildings. The paper argues that neither of the two problems – deep reductions in GHG emissions by mid-century, and energy poverty eradication – is likely to be solved fully on their own merit, while joining the two policy goals may provide a very solid case for deep efficiency improvements. Thus, the paper calls for a strong integration of these two policy goals (plus other key related benefits like energy security or employment), in order to provide sufficient policy motivation to mobilise a wide-scale implementation of deep energy efficiency standards. - Highlights: ► A taxonomy of interactions between climate change and energy poverty is offered. ► Energy poverty levels may increase as a result of strong climate change action. ► However, strong synergies are offered by deep improvements of energy efficiency. ► Access to modern energy carriers is a key requirement in developing countries. ► Sufficiently solving both problems requires the integration of policy goals.

  2. Lower-Body Muscle Structure and Jump Performance of Stronger and Weaker Surfing Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secomb, Josh L; Nimphius, Sophia; Farley, Oliver R; Lundgren, Lina; Tran, Tai T; Sheppard, Jeremy M

    2016-07-01

    To identify whether there are any significant differences in the lower-body muscle structure and countermovement-jump (CMJ) and squat-jump (SJ) performance between stronger and weaker surfing athletes. Twenty elite male surfers had their lower-body muscle structure assessed with ultrasonography and completed a series of lower-body strength and jump tests including isometric midthigh pull (IMTP), CMJ, and SJ. Athletes were separated into stronger (n = 10) and weaker (n = 10) groups based on IMTP performance. Large significant differences were identified between the groups for vastus lateralis (VL) thickness (P = .02, ES = 1.22) and lateral gastrocnemius (LG) pennation angle (P = .01, ES = 1.20), and a large nonsignificant difference was identified in LG thickness (P = .08, ES = 0.89). Furthermore, significant differences were present between the groups for peak force, relative peak force, and jump height in the CMJ and SJ (P Stronger surfing athletes in this study had greater VL and LG thickness and LG pennation angle. These muscle structures may explain their better performance in the CMJ and SJ. A unique finding in this study was that the stronger group appeared to better use their strength and muscle structure for braking as they had significantly higher eccentric peak velocity and vertical displacement during the CMJ. This enhanced eccentric phase may have resulted in a greater production and subsequent utilization of stored elastic strain energy that led to the significantly better CMJ performance in the stronger group.

  3. Nuclear energy and its synergies with renewable energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carre, F.; Mermilliod, N.; Devezeaux De Lavergne, J.G.; Durand, S.

    2011-01-01

    France has the ambition to become a world leader in both nuclear industry and in renewable energies. 3 types of synergies between nuclear power and renewable energies are highlighted. First, nuclear power can be used as a low-carbon energy to produce the equipment required to renewable energy production for instance photovoltaic cells. Secondly, to benefit from the complementary features of both energies: continuous/intermittency of the production, centralized/local production. The future development of smart grids will help to do that. Thirdly, to use nuclear energy to produce massively hydrogen from water and synthetic fuels from biomass. (A.C.)

  4. INPRO-SYNERGIES - a new international INPRO/IAEA project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreeva-Andrievskaya, L.N.; Kuznetsov, V.V.; Busurin, Yu.N.; Ponomarev, A.V.; )

    2012-01-01

    The new INPRO project entitled Synergistic Nuclear Energy Regional Group Interactions Evaluated for Sustainability (INPRO- SYNERGIES) is described. The project aims to improve the analytical software and databases to model more specifically the particular forms of synergistic architectures involving collaboration among supplier countries and user countries to support an efficient transition towards sustainable energy systems. The project's objectives, methods and contents of the work are analyzed. The synergistic collaborative scenarios for fuel cycle infrastructure development are evaluated. The course of the project and expected outputs are also described [ru

  5. Remote sensing of aerosols by synergy of caliop and modis

    OpenAIRE

    Kudo Rei; Nishizawa Tomoaki; Higurashi Akiko; Oikawa Eiji

    2018-01-01

    For the monitoring of the global 3-D distribution of aerosol components, we developed the method to retrieve the vertical profiles of water-soluble, light absorbing carbonaceous, dust, and sea salt particles by the synergy of CALIOP and MODIS data. The aerosol product from the synergistic method is expected to be better than the individual products of CALIOP and MODIS. We applied the method to the biomass-burning event in Africa and the dust event in West Asia. The reasonable results were obt...

  6. Photon beam commissioning of an Elekta Synergy linear accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Mashud, Md Abdullah; Tariquzzaman, M.; Jahangir Alam, M.; Zakaria, GA

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study is to present the results of commissioning of Elekta Synergy linear accelerator (linac). The acceptance test and commissioning were performed for three photon beams energies 4 MV, 6 MV and 15 MV and for the multileaf collimator (MLC). The percent depth doses (PDDs), in-plane and cross-plane beam profiles, head scatter factors (Sc), relative photon output factors (Scp), universal wedge transmission factor and MLC transmission factors were measured. The size of gantry, collimator, and couch isocenter were also measured.

  7. Inter-subject variability of muscle synergies during bench press in power lifters and untrained individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristiansen, M; Madeleine, P; Hansen, E A; Samani, A

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of the study was to elucidate the role of expertise on muscle synergies involved in bench press. Ten expert power lifters (EXP) and nine untrained participants (UNT) completed three sets of eight repetitions at 60% of three repetition maximum in bench press. Muscle synergies were extracted from surface electromyography data of 21 bench press cycles using non-negative matrix factorization algorithm. The synergy activation coefficient represents the relative contribution of the muscle synergy to the overall muscle activity pattern, while the muscle synergy vector represents the relative weighting of each muscle within each synergy. Describing more than 90% of the variability, two muscle synergies reflected the eccentric and concentric phase. The cross-correlations (ρ(max)) for synergy activation coefficient 2 (concentric phase) were 0.83 [0.71;0.88] and 0.59 [0.49;0.77] [Median ρ(max) (25th;75th percentile)] (P = 0.001) in UNT and EXP, respectively. Median correlation coefficient (ρ) for muscle synergy vector 2 was 0.15 [-0.08;0.46] and 0.48 [0.02;0.70] (P = 0.03) in UNT and EXP, respectively. Thus, EXP showed larger inter-subject variability than UNT in the synergy activation coefficient during the concentric phase, while the muscle synergy vectors were less variable in EXP. This points at the importance of a specialized neural strategy in elite bench press performance. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Research on a Novel Hydraulic/Electric Synergy Bus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kegang Zhao

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, increasing concerns regarding environmental pollution and requirements for lower fossil fuel consumption have increased interest in alternative hybrid powertrains. As a result, this paper presents a novel hydraulic/electric synergy powertrain with multiple working modes. The three energy sources (i.e., engine, battery, and hydraulic accumulator in this configuration are regulated by a dual planetary gear set to achieve optimal performances. This paper selects the component sizes of a hybrid electric vehicle (HEV, a hydraulic hybrid vehicle (HHV, and a hydraulic/electric synergy vehicle (HESV, based on the dynamic performance of a target vehicle (TV. In addition, this paper develops the forward simulation models of the four aforementioned vehicles in the MATLAB/Simulink/Driveline platform, in which the fuel economy simulations are carried out in relation to the Chinese urban bus cycle. The simulation results show that the fuel consumption of the three hybrid vehicles is similar, but much better than, that of the TV. Finally, based on the operating cost calculations over a five-year working period, the lowest cost ranges of the three hybrid vehicles are determined, which provides a method for choosing the optimal hybrid scheme.

  9. Synergy between low and high energy radical femtochemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gauduel, Y A

    2011-01-01

    The deleterious effects of ionizing radiation on integrated biological targets being dependent on the spatio-temporal distribution of short-lived radical processes, a thorough knowledge of these early events requires a real-time probing in the range 10 -15 - 10 -10 s. This manuscript review is focused on the synergy that exists between low (1-10 eV) and high (MeV) energy radiation femtochemistry (LERF, HERF respectively). The synergy remains crucial for the investigation of primary radical processes that take place within the prethermal regime of low energy secondary electrons. The quantum character of very-short lived electron in a prehydrated configuration provides a unique sub-nanometric probe to spatially explore some early radiation-induced biomolecular damage. This approach would foreshadow the development of innovative applications for spatio-temporal radiation biology such as, i) a highly-selective pro-drug activation using well-defined quantum states of short-lived radicals, ii) the real-time nanodosimetry in biologically relevant environments, and iii) the ultrashort irradiation of living cells.

  10. Proposed Methodology for Assessing Cost of Synergies between Offshore Renewable Energy and Other Sea Uses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Margheritini, Lucia; Hanssen, Jan Erik; O´Sullivan, Keith

    2015-01-01

    Dragon and wind turbine, W2Power) and another (non-energy) sea use. The methodology described in the present study has the value of presenting synergies under an economic prospective. Synergies can be found both in structural, installation and maintenance costs. The CAPEX and OPEX for the energy...

  11. Simulating Serial-Target Antibacterial Drug Synergies Using Flux Balance Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krueger, Andrew S.; Munck, Christian; Dantas, Gautam

    2016-01-01

    Flux balance analysis (FBA) is an increasingly useful approach for modeling the behavior of metabolic systems. However, standard FBA modeling of genetic knockouts cannot predict drug combination synergies observed between serial metabolic targets, even though such synergies give rise to some of t...

  12. Synergy among School and District Leaders in the Application of Quality Standards in Kuwaiti Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldaihani, Sultan Ghaleb

    2017-01-01

    This study sought to identify existing levels of synergy, or cooperation and compatibility, among school and district leaders and the impact of synergy on standards of quality in Kuwaiti schools. The researcher employed a qualitative methodology based on interviews with principals and administrators representing the six educational districts in…

  13. Hybrid fiber reinforced self-compacting concrete: fiber synergy at low ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Flexural toughness tests were performed and results were extensively analysed to identify synergy, if any, associated with various fiber combinations. Based on various analysis schemes, the paper identifies fiber combinations that demonstrate maximum synergy in terms of flexural toughness. Journal of Civil Engineering ...

  14. A model-based approach to predict muscle synergies using optimization: application to feedback control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza eSharif Razavian

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new model-based method to define muscle synergies. Unlike the conventional factorization approach, which extracts synergies from electromyographic data, the proposed method employs a biomechanical model and formally defines the synergies as the solution of an optimal control problem. As a result, the number of required synergies is directly related to the dimensions of the operational space. The estimated synergies are posture-dependent, which correlate well with the results of standard factorization methods. Two examples are used to showcase this method: a two-dimensional forearm model, and a three-dimensional driver arm model. It has been shown here that the synergies need to be task-specific (i.e. they are defined for the specific operational spaces: the elbow angle and the steering wheel angle in the two systems. This functional definition of synergies results in a low-dimensional control space, in which every force in the operational space is accurately created by a unique combination of synergies. As such, there is no need for extra criteria (e.g., minimizing effort in the process of motion control. This approach is motivated by the need for fast and bio-plausible feedback control of musculoskeletal systems, and can have important implications in engineering, motor control, and biomechanics.

  15. A model-based approach to predict muscle synergies using optimization: application to feedback control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharif Razavian, Reza; Mehrabi, Naser; McPhee, John

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a new model-based method to define muscle synergies. Unlike the conventional factorization approach, which extracts synergies from electromyographic data, the proposed method employs a biomechanical model and formally defines the synergies as the solution of an optimal control problem. As a result, the number of required synergies is directly related to the dimensions of the operational space. The estimated synergies are posture-dependent, which correlate well with the results of standard factorization methods. Two examples are used to showcase this method: a two-dimensional forearm model, and a three-dimensional driver arm model. It has been shown here that the synergies need to be task-specific (i.e., they are defined for the specific operational spaces: the elbow angle and the steering wheel angle in the two systems). This functional definition of synergies results in a low-dimensional control space, in which every force in the operational space is accurately created by a unique combination of synergies. As such, there is no need for extra criteria (e.g., minimizing effort) in the process of motion control. This approach is motivated by the need for fast and bio-plausible feedback control of musculoskeletal systems, and can have important implications in engineering, motor control, and biomechanics.

  16. Getting post-M&A integration mechanisms tuned in to technological relatedness and innovation synergy realisation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wubben, Emiel F.M.; Batterink, Maarten; Omta, Onno

    2016-01-01

    Studies on Mergers and Acquisitions (M&A) typically relate innovation synergies to either context characteristics or post-M&A integration. There is little research on how to tune the relevant practices to the benefit of realising specific innovation synergies. It is the purpose of this

  17. A stronger patch test elicitation reaction to the allergen hydroxycitronellal plus the irritant sodium lauryl sulfate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heydorn, S; Andersen, K E; Johansen, J D

    2003-01-01

    Household and cleaning products often contain both allergens and irritants. The aim of this double-blinded, randomized, paired study was to determine whether patch testing with an allergen (hydroxycitronellal) combined with an irritant [sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS)] cause a stronger patch test...

  18. Predatory blue crabs induce stronger nonconsumptive effects in eastern oysters Crassostrea virginica than scavenging blue crabs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avery E. Scherer

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available By influencing critical prey traits such as foraging or habitat selection, predators can affect entire ecosystems, but the nature of cues that trigger prey reactions to predators are not well understood. Predators may scavenge to supplement their energetic needs and scavenging frequency may vary among individuals within a species due to preferences and prey availability. Yet prey reactions to consumers that are primarily scavengers versus those that are active foragers have not been investigated, even though variation in prey reactions to scavengers or predators might influence cascading nonconsumptive effects in food webs. Oysters Crassostrea virginica react to crab predators by growing stronger shells. We exposed oysters to exudates from crabs fed live oysters or fed aged oyster tissue to simulate scavenging, and to controls without crab cues. Oysters grew stronger shells when exposed to either crab exudate, but their shells were significantly stronger when crabs were fed live oysters. The stronger response to predators than scavengers could be due to inherent differences in diet cues representative of reduced risk in the presence of scavengers or to degradation of conspecific alarm cues in aged treatments, which may mask risk from potential predators subsisting by scavenging.

  19. BUILDING STRONGER STATE ENERGY PARTNERSHIPS WITH THE U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kate Burke

    2002-11-01

    This technical progress report includes an update of the progress during the second year of cooperative agreement DE-FC26-00NT40802, Building Stronger State Energy Partnerships with the U.S. Department of Energy. The report also describes the barriers in conduct of the effort, and our assessment of future progress and activities.

  20. Becoming Stronger at Broken Places: A Model for Group Work with Young Adult from Divorced Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hage, Sally M.; Nosanow, Mia

    2000-01-01

    Describes a model for group work with young adults from divorced families using an 8-session psychoeducational group intervention. Goals include reducing isolation, establishing connectedness, and building a stronger sense of identify. By educating young adults on topics such as assertiveness, communication skills, and self-esteem, it will give…

  1. A Human Capital Framework for a Stronger Teacher Workforce. Advancing Teaching--Improving Learning. White Paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myung, Jeannie; Martinez, Krissia; Nordstrum, Lee

    2013-01-01

    Building a stronger teacher workforce requires the thoughtful orchestration of multiple processes working together in a human capital system. This white paper presents a framework that can be used to take stock of current efforts to enhance the teacher workforce in school districts or educational organizations, as well as their underlying theories…

  2. Mechanisms of the negative synergy effect between electron cyclotron current drive and lower hybrid current drive in tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Shaoyong; Hong Binbin; Tang Changjian; Yang Wen; Zhang Xinjun

    2013-01-01

    The synergy current drive by combining electron cyclotron wave (ECW) with lower hybrid wave (LHW) can be used to either increase the noninductive current drive efficiency or shape the plasma current profile. In this paper, the synergy current drive by ECW and LHW is studied with numerical simulation. The nonlinear relationship between the wave powers and the synergy current of ECW and LHW is revealed. When the LHW power is small, the synergy current reduces as the ECW power increases, and the synergy current is even reduced to lower than zero, which is referred as negative synergy in the this context. Research shows that the mechanism of the negative synergy is the peaking effect of LHW power profile and the trapped electrons effect. The present research is helpful for understanding the physics of synergy between electron cyclotron current drive and lower hybrid current drive, it can also instruct the design of experiments. (authors)

  3. Historical aspects and causes of the synergy beginning as a science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yakimtsov V. V.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The article is dedicated to the historical aspects of the beginning and development of a new popular science – synergy, as a means of interdisciplinary communication among scholars. Using methodological apparatus of synergy here were considered the basics of studies. Historical aspects of the origin, beginning and formation of synergy as a science and its application in all aspects of human life were analyzed. Current research areas within synergy and nonlinear dynamics were presented. Was presented a question of order and organization of global issues (energetic, environmental, social and economic and systems, that were developed by human using synergy. The conclusion was made on the need for a synergistic approach to all aspects of human life and especially to the economy – it is undeniable in the science of human development in society and especially within the manufacturing process.

  4. Symmetrical synergy of hybrid Co9S8-MoSx electrocatalysts for hydrogen evolution reaction

    KAUST Repository

    Zhou, Xiaofeng

    2017-01-07

    There exists a strong demand to replace expensive noble metal catalysts with efficient and earth-abundant catalysts for hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). Recently the Co- and Mo-based sulfides such as CoS2, Co9S8, and MoSx have been considered as several promising HER candidates. Here, a highly active and stable hybrid electrocatalyst 3D flower-like hierarchical Co9S8 nanosheets incorporated with MoSx has been developed via a one-step sulfurization method. Since the amounts of Co9S8 and MoSx are easily adjustable, we verify that small amounts of MoSx promotes the HER activity of Co9S8, and vise versa. In other words, we validate that symmetric synergy for HER in the Co- and Mo-based sulfide hybrid catalysts, a long-standing question requiring clear experimental proofs. Meanwhile, the best electrocatalyst Co9S8-30@MoSx/CC in this study exhibits excellent HER performance with an overpotential of −98 mV at −10 mA/cm2, a small Tafel slope of 64.8 mV/dec, and prominent electrochemical stability.

  5. Symmetrical synergy of hybrid CoS2-WS2 electrocatalysts for hydrogen evolution reaction

    KAUST Repository

    Zhou, Xiaofeng; Yang, Xiulin; Li, Henan; Hedhili, Mohamed N.; Huang, Kuo-Wei; Li, Lain-Jong; Zhang, Wenjing

    2017-01-01

    A highly active and stable hybrid electrocatalyst 3D hierarchical CoS2 nanosheets incorporated with WS2 (CoS2@WS2) has been developed via a one-step sulfurization method for the first time, where the contents of WS2 can be adjusted easily. We first prove the addition of small amounts of WS2 enhances the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) performance of CoS2, and vise versa. In other words, we validated the symmetric synergy for HER between the Co- and W-based sulfide hybrid catalysts. In addition, we confirmed that the formation of nanointerfaces of Co-S-W between CoS2 and WS2 was responsible for the excellent HER activity (an overpotential of -97.2 mV at -10 mA/cm2, a small Tafel slope of 66.0 mV/dec, and prominent electrochemical stability) of hybrid electrocatalyst CoS2@WS2.

  6. Symmetrical synergy of hybrid CoS2-WS2 electrocatalysts for hydrogen evolution reaction

    KAUST Repository

    Zhou, Xiaofeng

    2017-06-05

    A highly active and stable hybrid electrocatalyst 3D hierarchical CoS2 nanosheets incorporated with WS2 (CoS2@WS2) has been developed via a one-step sulfurization method for the first time, where the contents of WS2 can be adjusted easily. We first prove the addition of small amounts of WS2 enhances the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) performance of CoS2, and vise versa. In other words, we validated the symmetric synergy for HER between the Co- and W-based sulfide hybrid catalysts. In addition, we confirmed that the formation of nanointerfaces of Co-S-W between CoS2 and WS2 was responsible for the excellent HER activity (an overpotential of -97.2 mV at -10 mA/cm2, a small Tafel slope of 66.0 mV/dec, and prominent electrochemical stability) of hybrid electrocatalyst CoS2@WS2.

  7. U.S.-China Partnership: Building Regional Synergy for Stability and Security of the Korean Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    control on its populace. For over sixty years, these controls have included extensive censorship of information in and out of the country. A...Anniversary Summit in 2007, the 10 full ASEAN Members (Brunei, Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia , Myanmar, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand and Vietnam

  8. Electrobiorefineries: Unlocking the Synergy of Electrochemical and Microbial Conversions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harnisch, Falk; Urban, Carolin

    2017-12-13

    An integrated biobased economy urges an alliance of the two realms of "chemical production" and "electric power". The concept of electrobiorefineries provides a blueprint for such an alliance. Joining the forces of microbial and electrochemical conversions in electrobiorefineries allows interfacing the production, storage, and exploitation of electricity as well as biobased chemicals. Electrobiorefineries are a technological evolution of biorefineries by the addition of (bio)electrochemical transformations. This interfacing of microbial and electrochemical conversions will result in synergies affecting the entire process line, like enlarging the product portfolio, increasing the productivity, or exploiting new feedstock. A special emphasis is given to the utilization of oxidative and reductive electroorganic reactions of microbially produced intermediates that may serve as privileged building blocks. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. ZAKAT AND TAX; FROM THE SYNERGY TO OPTIMIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustofa

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Dualism dilemma between zakat and tax in Indonesia can be relatively mitigated by ratification of Act No. No. 38/1999 on Management of Zakat. In the regulation, zakat has been synergized with tax by placing zakat as a deduction from taxable income element (PKP. But so far it has not been given the significant impact on the acceptance of zakat and awareness of Muslims to pay zakat. There are also some problems in practical level that contribute to that fact. This article explores the zakat and tax synergy that have been achieved through Act No. 38 of 1999, the problems found in its execution, and of course an offer for a solution to optimize the role of zakat and tax for the people welfare. By examining same practice in some countries, this paper recommends zakat as a direct tax deduction (tax credit as a strategic step in the effort to optimize the role of zakat.

  10. Synergy, a co-operative innovation for joint operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todd, C.; Feuchtwanger, T.; Moberg, R.; Lesser, L.

    1993-01-01

    Industry cooperation in the operation of the large Swan Hills oil field in western Alberta is described. Declining production and increasing costs required innovative approaches to field operation. Traditional operation involved one operator making the majority of decisions with funding controlled by numerous non-operating joint owners, and can suffer from interaction problems due to the inherenty competitive nature of the petroleum industry. The new mode of operation stresses trust, cooperation, teamwork, resource sharing, and continuous improvement. The synergy involves sharing best practices, information, knowledge and expertise, combining resources, and standardizing procedures and specifications. The new mode of operation has resulted in an improved performance of up to 15%. The cooperation lessons learnt at Swan Hills may have broad application across the petroleum industry. 6 refs., 6 figs

  11. Synergy potential for oil and geothermal energy exploitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ziabakhsh-Ganji, Zaman; Nick, Hamidreza M.; Donselaar, Marinus E.

    2018-01-01

    A new solution for harvesting energy simultaneously from two different sources of energy by combining geothermal energy production and thermal enhanced heavy oil recovery is introduced. Numerical simulations are employed to evaluate the feasibility of generating energy from geothermal resources...... and feasibility analyses of the synergy potential of thermally-enhanced oil recovery and geothermal energy production are performed. A series of simulations are carried out to examine the effects of reservoir properties on energy consumption and oil recovery for different injection rates and injection temperature...... the geothermal energy could make the geothermal business case independent and may be a viable option to reduce the overall project cost. Furthermore, the results display that the enhance oil productions are able to reduce the required subsidy for a single doublet geothermal project up to 50%....

  12. Non-proliferation and security: synergy and differences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joly, J.

    2013-01-01

    Operators of nuclear facilities put in place both physical and organisational means to meet in a comprehensive way the requirements associated with Nuclear Non-Proliferation, Safety and Security. The common aim is to protect man and the environment from ionising radiation. The approaches for meeting these requirements have real similarities, but also differences which need to be respected in order to develop an appropriate synergy for obtaining the best possible level of safety, security and non-proliferation. This article aims to show the provisions that have been taken with regard to non-proliferation, security and safety which complement and reinforce each other.The paper is followed by the slides of the presentation. (author)

  13. Prospects for Future Synergies Between SKA and AtLAST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagg, Jeff

    2018-01-01

    The Square Kilometre Array will be the next major global radio astronomy observatory. Being built in two phases, the first phase will consist of a low frequency array in Australia and a mid to high frequency array of dishes in the Karoo of South Africa. The design of SKA1 is nearly complete with the expectation that construction should begin within the next two years. A significant fraction of the observing time on both SKA1-MID and SKA1-LOW will likely be devoted to large survey programmes covering a broad range of science objectives. Given the timeline for these SKA1 programmes to be completed, it is anticipated that they could naturally complement future high frequency surveys using AtLAST. I will highlight a few areas where such synergies should exist.

  14. Remote sensing of aerosols by synergy of caliop and modis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kudo Rei

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available For the monitoring of the global 3-D distribution of aerosol components, we developed the method to retrieve the vertical profiles of water-soluble, light absorbing carbonaceous, dust, and sea salt particles by the synergy of CALIOP and MODIS data. The aerosol product from the synergistic method is expected to be better than the individual products of CALIOP and MODIS. We applied the method to the biomass-burning event in Africa and the dust event in West Asia. The reasonable results were obtained; the much amount of the water-soluble and light absorbing carbonaceous particles were estimated in the biomass-burning event, and the dust particles were estimated in the dust event.

  15. Beyond synergy: The revolutionary elements in horizontal technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatala, R.

    1994-01-01

    The petroleum industry is undergoing a fundamental restructuring that is changing the shape and texture of the business. Four principles are guiding this restructuring: proactivity, simplicity/focus, flexibility and synergy. These four elements are contained within horizontal technology applications in Canada and are impacting the upstream operating companies and the service and supply sectors. The evolving socio-economic and political environments of these changes within the petroleum industry are examined. The specific resource base potential, financial, regulatory and market forces that support the application of horizontal technology are addressed and their forecast impacts on industry relationships, production and economic trends over the next 5 years are discussed. The blurred distinctions between operating and service sectors will continue such that service entities will participate directly in oil and gas opportunities in consort with operating companies or countries. 4 refs., 3 figs

  16. Remote sensing of aerosols by synergy of caliop and modis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudo, Rei; Nishizawa, Tomoaki; Higurashi, Akiko; Oikawa, Eiji

    2018-04-01

    For the monitoring of the global 3-D distribution of aerosol components, we developed the method to retrieve the vertical profiles of water-soluble, light absorbing carbonaceous, dust, and sea salt particles by the synergy of CALIOP and MODIS data. The aerosol product from the synergistic method is expected to be better than the individual products of CALIOP and MODIS. We applied the method to the biomass-burning event in Africa and the dust event in West Asia. The reasonable results were obtained; the much amount of the water-soluble and light absorbing carbonaceous particles were estimated in the biomass-burning event, and the dust particles were estimated in the dust event.

  17. Emerging synergy between nanotechnology and implantable biosensors: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaddiraju, Santhisagar; Tomazos, Ioannis; Burgess, Diane J; Jain, Faquir C; Papadimitrakopoulos, Fotios

    2010-03-15

    The development of implantable biosensors for continuous monitoring of metabolites is an area of sustained scientific and technological interests. On the other hand, nanotechnology, a discipline which deals with the properties of materials at the nanoscale, is developing as a potent tool to enhance the performance of these biosensors. This article reviews the current state of implantable biosensors, highlighting the synergy between nanotechnology and sensor performance. Emphasis is placed on the electrochemical method of detection in light of its widespread usage and substantial nanotechnology based improvements in various aspects of electrochemical biosensor performance. Finally, issues regarding toxicity and biocompatibility of nanomaterials, along with future prospects for the application of nanotechnology in implantable biosensors, are discussed. (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Synergy between Security and Safeguards in Uranium Concentrate Export Control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soumana, T.

    2010-01-01

    This paper is a proposal to the government of Niger and all national institutions involved in the ISSAS and INSSERV Missions held in Niger to optimally coordinate they activities in nuclear field. It is essential to notice that Niger has significant nuclear activities, mainly in uranium prospecting, mining, milling, and export. In Niger, there are also many radioactive sources in non nuclear use. The safeguards agreement of Niger, infcirc/664, is in force since 16 February 2005 and its relating additional protocol since 2 May 2007. For the safeguards implementation in Niger, Government has requested to the IAEA an ISSAS Mission which was completed in February 2008. A main recommendation of this mission is to consider an overall plan for security measures and in this regards, an INSSERV Mission was completed in December 2008. Nuclear safeguards conclusions focus on correctness and completeness of declarations provided by operators. Nuclear security activities (prevention, detection and response) are useful contributions to confirm safeguards conclusions specially, a good detection strategy at national level can help to confirm the absence of undeclared activities in a country like Niger. Many governmental institutions are involved in nuclear activities and there are lacks of communication between them. Creating a synergy between safeguards and security can federate the mechanisms of control at national level and have impact in many aspects specially in (i) awareness of decision makers (ii) optimal use of the equipments (iii) organizing training activities and human resource management and (iv) designing national strategic plans. The institution which hosted the two IAEA consultative missions (Directorate of Peaceful Use of Nuclear Techniques-DUPTN for the ISSAS Mission and Civil Defence for INSSERV Mission) in consultation with other national institutions had to create a framework for this synergy. This framework must be submitted to the IAEA for observation and

  19. Synergies and trade-offs in achieving global biodiversity targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Marco, Moreno; Butchart, Stuart H M; Visconti, Piero; Buchanan, Graeme M; Ficetola, Gentile F; Rondinini, Carlo

    2016-02-01

    After their failure to achieve a significant reduction in the global rate of biodiversity loss by 2010, world governments adopted 20 new ambitious Aichi biodiversity targets to be met by 2020. Efforts to achieve one particular target can contribute to achieving others, but different targets may sometimes require conflicting solutions. Consequently, lack of strategic thinking might result, once again, in a failure to achieve global commitments to biodiversity conservation. We illustrate this dilemma by focusing on Aichi Target 11. This target requires an expansion of terrestrial protected area coverage, which could also contribute to reducing the loss of natural habitats (Target 5), reducing human-induced species decline and extinction (Target 12), and maintaining global carbon stocks (Target 15). We considered the potential impact of expanding protected areas to mitigate global deforestation and the consequences for the distribution of suitable habitat for >10,000 species of forest vertebrates (amphibians, birds, and mammals). We first identified places where deforestation might have the highest impact on remaining forests and then identified places where deforestation might have the highest impact on forest vertebrates (considering aggregate suitable habitat for species). Expanding protected areas toward locations with the highest deforestation rates (Target 5) or the highest potential loss of aggregate species' suitable habitat (Target 12) resulted in partially different protected area network configurations (overlapping with each other by about 73%). Moreover, the latter approach contributed to safeguarding about 30% more global carbon stocks than the former. Further investigation of synergies and trade-offs between targets would shed light on these and other complex interactions, such as the interaction between reducing overexploitation of natural resources (Targets 6, 7), controlling invasive alien species (Target 9), and preventing extinctions of native

  20. Marine parameters from synergy of optical and radar satellite data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehner, S.; Hoja, D.; Schulz-Stellenfleth, J.

    In 2001 the European Space Agency ESA will launch the earth observation satellite ENVISAT. It will carry several instruments that provide new opportunities to measure oceanographic variables. Together, they represent the main measurement techniques of satellite oceanography, and complement each other in an ideal manner. These instruments are to be used in synergy to: Improve the analysis of measured wind and ocean wave fields, and thereby improve weather forecasting at weather centers; Determine the extent and variables of sea ice and develop a five-day sea ice prediction model, to support maritime shipping and offshore activities; Monitor and map sediment and suspended matter transport in coastal regions, especially in areas with large river estuaries, which greatly affects shipping lanes, harbors, and dredging activities; Monitor hydrobiological and bio-geochemical variables related to water quality in coastal regions and large inland waters, which affects ecology, coastal development, aquaculture, drinking water supplies, and tourism. To prepare the oceanographic community to make best use of the ENVISAT sensors in the pre-launch phase, existing algorithms to derive marine parameters are used and validated using data from the ERS SAR, the ERS RA, SeaWiFS and IRS MOS sensors now in operation. Derived products are used to address problems that can best be tackled using the synergy of radar and optical data, such as the effect of surface slicks on radar wind measurements, of sea state on ocean color, of wind and waves on the resuspension of suspended matter, and of wind and waves on sea ice variables.

  1. Heat Roadmap Europe: Identifying strategic heat synergy regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persson, U.; Möller, B.; Werner, S.

    2014-01-01

    This study presents a methodology to assess annual excess heat volumes from fuel combustion activities in energy and industry sector facilities based on carbon dioxide emission data. The aim is to determine regional balances of excess heat relative heat demands for all third level administrative regions in the European Union (EU) and to identify strategic regions suitable for large-scale implementation of district heating. The approach is motivated since the efficiency of current supply structures to meet building heat demands, mainly characterised by direct use of primary energy sources, is low and improvable. District heating is conceived as an urban supply side energy efficiency measure employable to enhance energy system efficiency by increased excess heat recoveries; hereby reducing primary energy demands by fuel substitution. However, the importance of heat has long been underestimated in EU decarbonisation strategies and local heat synergies have often been overlooked in energy models used for such scenarios. Study results indicate that 46% of all excess heat in EU27, corresponding to 31% of total building heat demands, is located within identified strategic regions. Still, a realisation of these rich opportunities will require higher recognition of the heat sector in future EU energy policy. - Highlights: • EU27 energy and industry sector heat recycling resources are mapped and quantified. • Target regions for large-scale implementation of district heating are identified. • 46% of total EU27 excess heat volume is seized in 63 strategic heat synergy regions. • Large urban zones have lead roles to play in transition to sustainability in Europe. • Higher recognition of heat sector is needed in future EU energy policy for realisation

  2. Electromyogram refinement using muscle synergy based regulation of uncertain information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Kyuengbo; Shin, Duk; Lee, Jongho; Kakei, Shinji

    2018-04-27

    Electromyogram signal (EMG) measurement frequently experiences uncertainty attributed to issues caused by technical constraints such as cross talk and maximum voluntary contraction. Due to these problems, individual EMGs exhibit uncertainty in representing their corresponding muscle activations. To regulate this uncertainty, we proposed an EMG refinement, which refines EMGs with regulating the contribution redundancy of the signals from EMGs to approximating torques through EMG-driven torque estimation (EDTE) using the muscular skeletal forward dynamic model. To regulate this redundancy, we must consider the synergistic contribution redundancy of muscles, including "unmeasured" muscles, to approximating torques, which primarily causes redundancy of EDTE. To suppress this redundancy, we used the concept of muscle synergy, which is a key concept of analyzing the neurophysiological regulation of contribution redundancy of muscles to exerting torques. Based on this concept, we designed a muscle-synergy-based EDTE as a framework for EMG refinement, which regulates the abovementioned uncertainty of individual EMGs in consideration of unmeasured muscles. In achieving the proposed EMG refinement, the most considerable point is to suppress a large change such as overestimation attributed to enhancement of the contribution of particular muscles to estimating torques. Therefore it is reasonable to refine EMGs by minimizing the change in EMGs. To evaluate this model, we used a Bland-Altman plot, which quantitatively evaluates the proportional bias of refined signals to EMGs. Through this evaluation, we showed that the proposed EDTE minimizes the bias while approximating torques. Therefore this minimization optimally regulates the uncertainty of EMGs and thereby leads to optimal EMG refinement. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Spectral intensity dependence an isotropy of sources stronger than 0.1 Jy at 2700 MHz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balonek, T.J.; Broderick, J.J.; Condon, J.J.; Crawford, D.F.; Jauncey, D.L.

    1975-01-01

    The 1000-foot (305 m) telescope of the National Astronomy and Ionosphere Center was used to measure 430 MHz flux densities of sources stronger than 0.1 Jy at 2700 MHz. Distributions of the resulting two-point spectral indices α (430, 2700) of sources in the intensity range 0.1less than or equal toS<0.35 Jy were compared with α (318, 2700) distributions of sources stronger than 0.35 Jy at 2700 MHz. The median normal-component spectral index and fraction of flat-spectrum sources in the faintest sample do not continue the previously discovered trend toward increased spectral steepening of faint sources. This result differs from the prediction of simple evolutionary cosmological models and therefore favors the alternative explanation that local source-density inhomogeneities are responsible for the observed intensity dependence of spectral indices

  4. Crosstalk in concurrent repeated games impedes direct reciprocity and requires stronger levels of forgiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiter, Johannes G; Hilbe, Christian; Rand, David G; Chatterjee, Krishnendu; Nowak, Martin A

    2018-02-07

    Direct reciprocity is a mechanism for cooperation among humans. Many of our daily interactions are repeated. We interact repeatedly with our family, friends, colleagues, members of the local and even global community. In the theory of repeated games, it is a tacit assumption that the various games that a person plays simultaneously have no effect on each other. Here we introduce a general framework that allows us to analyze "crosstalk" between a player's concurrent games. In the presence of crosstalk, the action a person experiences in one game can alter the person's decision in another. We find that crosstalk impedes the maintenance of cooperation and requires stronger levels of forgiveness. The magnitude of the effect depends on the population structure. In more densely connected social groups, crosstalk has a stronger effect. A harsh retaliator, such as Tit-for-Tat, is unable to counteract crosstalk. The crosstalk framework provides a unified interpretation of direct and upstream reciprocity in the context of repeated games.

  5. Daytime warming has stronger negative effects on soil nematodes than night-time warming

    OpenAIRE

    Yan, Xiumin; Wang, Kehong; Song, Lihong; Wang, Xuefeng; Wu, Donghui

    2017-01-01

    Warming of the climate system is unequivocal, that is, stronger warming during night-time than during daytime. Here we focus on how soil nematodes respond to the current asymmetric warming. A field infrared heating experiment was performed in the western of the Songnen Plain, Northeast China. Three warming modes, i.e. daytime warming, night-time warming and diurnal warming, were taken to perform the asymmetric warming condition. Our results showed that the daytime and diurnal warming treatmen...

  6. RhoB mediates antitumor synergy of combined ixabepilone and sunitinib in human ovarian serous cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishnu, Prakash; Colon-Otero, Gerardo; Kennedy, Gregory T; Marlow, Laura A; Kennedy, William P; Wu, Kevin J; Santoso, Joseph T; Copland, John A

    2012-03-01

    The aim was to evaluate antitumor activity of the combination of ixabepilone and sunitinib in pre-clinical models of chemotherapy naïve and refractory epithelial ovarian tumors, and to investigate the mechanism of synergy of such drug combination. HOVTAX2 cell line was derived from a metastatic serous papillary epithelial ovarian tumor (EOC) and a paclitaxel-resistant derivative was established. Dose response curves for ixabepilone and sunitinib were generated and synergy was determined using combination indexes. The molecular mechanism of antitumor synergy was examined using shRNA silencing. The combination of ixabepilone and sunitinib demonstrated robust antitumor synergy in naïve and paclitaxel-resistant HOVTAX2 cell lines due to increased apoptosis. The GTPase, RhoB, was synergistically upregulated in cells treated with ixabepilone and sunitinib. Using shRNA, RhoB was demonstrated to mediate antitumor synergy. These results were validated in two other EOC cell lines. Ixabepilone plus sunitinib demonstrated antitumor synergy via RhoB in naïve and paclitaxel-resistant cells resulting in apoptosis. This study demonstrates a novel mechanism of action leading to antitumor synergy and provides 'proof-of-principle' for combining molecular targeted agents with cytotoxic chemotherapy to improve antitumor efficacy. RhoB could be envisioned as an early biomarker of response to therapy in a planned Phase II clinical trial to assess the efficacy of ixabepilone combined with a receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor such as sunitinib. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of antitumor synergy between these two classes of drugs in EOC and the pivotal role of RhoB in this synergy. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Effects of 5 Weeks of Bench Press Training on Muscle Synergies: A Randomized Controlled Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristiansen, Mathias; Samani, Afshin; Madeleine, Pascal; Hansen, Ernst A

    2016-07-01

    Kristiansen, M, Samani, A, Madeleine, P, and Hansen, EA. Effects of 5 weeks of bench press training on muscle synergies: A randomized controlled study. J Strength Cond Res 30(7): 1948-1959, 2016-The ability to perform forceful muscle contractions has important implications in sports performance and in activities of daily living. However, there is a lack of knowledge on adaptations in intermuscular coordination after strength training. The purpose of this study was therefore to assess muscle synergies before and after 5 weeks of bench press training. Thirty untrained male subjects were randomly allocated to a training group (TRA) or a control group (CON). After the pretest, TRA completed 5 weeks of bench press training, before completing a posttest, whereas subjects in CON continued their normal life. During test sessions, surface electromyography (EMG) was recorded from 13 different muscles. Muscle synergies were extracted from EMG data using nonnegative matrix factorization. To evaluate differences between pretest and posttest, we performed a cross-correlation analysis and a cross-validation analysis, in which the synergy components extracted in the pretest session were recomputed, using the fixed synergy components from the posttest session. Two muscle synergies accounted for 90% of the total variance and reflected the concentric and eccentric phase, respectively. TRA significantly increased 3 repetition maximum in bench press with 19.0% (25th; 75th percentile, 10.3%; 21.7%) (p < 0.001), whereas no change occurred in CON. No significant differences were observed in synergy components between groups. However, decreases in correlation values for intragroup comparisons in TRA may suggest that the synergy components changed, whereas this was not the case in CON. Strength and conditioning professionals may consider monitoring changes in muscle synergies in training and rehabilitation programs as a way to benchmark changes in intermuscular coordination.

  8. Ni2P Makes Application of the PtRu Catalyst Much Stronger in Direct Methanol Fuel Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jinfa; Feng, Ligang; Liu, Changpeng; Xing, Wei

    2015-10-12

    PtRu is regarded as the best catalyst for direct methanol fuel cells, but the performance decay resulting from the loss of Ru seriously hinders commercial applications. Herein, we demonstrated that the presence of Ni2 P largely reduces Ru loss, which thus makes the application of PtRu much stronger in direct methanol fuel cells. Outstanding catalytic activity and stability were observed by cyclic voltammetry. Upon integrating the catalyst material into a practical direct methanol fuel cell, the highest maximum power density was achieved on the PtRu-Ni2P/C catalyst among the reference catalysts at different temperatures. A maximum power density of 69.9 mW cm(-2) at 30 °C was obtained on PtRu-Ni2P/C, which is even higher than the power density of the state-of-the-art commercial PtRu catalyst at 70 °C (63.1 mW cm(-2)). Moreover, decay in the performance resulting from Ru loss was greatly reduced owing to the presence of Ni2 P, which is indicative of very promising applications. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. How the biotin–streptavidin interaction was made even stronger: investigation via crystallography and a chimaeric tetramer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chivers, Claire E.; Koner, Apurba L.; Lowe, Edward D.; Howarth, Mark

    2011-01-01

    The interaction between SA (streptavidin) and biotin is one of the strongest non-covalent interactions in Nature. SA is a widely used tool and a paradigm for protein–ligand interactions. We previously developed a SA mutant, termed Tr (traptavidin), possessing a 10-fold lower off-rate for biotin, with increased mechanical and thermal stability. In the present study, we determined the crystal structures of apo-Tr and biotin–Tr at 1.5 Å resolution. In apo-SA the loop (L3/4), near biotin's valeryl tail, is typically disordered and open, but closes upon biotin binding. In contrast, L3/4 was shut in both apo-Tr and biotin–Tr. The reduced flexibility of L3/4 and decreased conformational change on biotin binding provide an explanation for Tr's reduced biotin off- and on-rates. L3/4 includes Ser45, which forms a hydrogen bond to biotin consistently in Tr, but erratically in SA. Reduced breakage of the biotin–Ser45 hydrogen bond in Tr is likely to inhibit the initiating event in biotin's dissociation pathway. We generated a Tr with a single biotin-binding site rather than four, which showed a simi-larly low off-rate, demonstrating that Tr's low off-rate was governed by intrasubunit effects. Understanding the structural features of this tenacious interaction may assist the design of even stronger affinity tags and inhibitors. PMID:21241253

  10. Techniques for rapid determination of effects of synergy between radionuclides and pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saas, A.; Grauby, A.

    1975-01-01

    The authors present a number of chromatographic techniques for rapid determination of synergy between radionuclides and various compounds in water. The first technique consists in studying how the chemical equilibrium of iodine varies in the presence of various organic and mineral compounds. The second makes it possible to define the effects of synergy within a given hydrographic basin. A third technique deals with the effects of synergy in ground water in the presence of various types of irrigation water. Finally, to complete this set of techniques, the authors define the mobility potential of a radionuclide in a given aqueous effluent

  11. A Conceptual Framework for Team Social Capital as Basis for Organizational Team Synergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raluca ZOLTAN

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to outline a conceptual framework of team social capital as a basis for reaching organizational team synergy. The dimensions of team social capital and the basic conditions required for organizational team synergy enable the extension of current model of team social capital by including of other variables. Today’s managers must consider these variables since the team tends to be the basic structural unit of current organizations and synergy, the key to achieving high performance in global competition.

  12. Beyond synergies. Comment on "Hand synergies: Integration of robotics and neuroscience for understanding the control of biological and artificial hands" by Marco Santello et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Andrew B.

    2016-07-01

    The target paper by Santello et al. [1] uses the observation that hand shape during grasping can be described by a small set of basic postures, or ;synergies,; to describe the possible neural basis of motor control during this complex behavior. In the literature, the term ;synergy; has been used with a number of different meanings and is still loosely defined, making it difficult to derive concrete analogs of corresponding neural structure. Here, I will define ;synergy; broadly, as a set of parameters bound together by a pattern of correlation. With this definition, it can be argued that behavioral synergies are just one facet of the correlational structuring used by the brain to generate behavior. As pointed out in the target article, the structure found in synergies is driven by the physical constraints of our bodies and our surroundings, combined with the behavioral control imparted by our nervous system. This control itself is based on correlational structure which is likely to be a fundamental property of brain function.

  13. Integrated Adaptive Scenarios for Ariculture: Synergies and Tradeoffs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malek, K.; Rajagopalan, K.; Adam, J. C.; Brady, M.; Stockle, C.; Liu, M.; Kruger, C. E.

    2017-12-01

    A wide variety of factors can drive adaptation of the agricultural production sector in response to climate change. Warming and increased growing season length can lead to adoption of newer plant varieties as well as increases in double cropping systems. Changes in expectations of drought frequency or economic factors could lead to adoption of new technology (such as irrigation technology or water trading systems) or crop choices with a view of reducing farm-level risk, and these choices can result in unintended system wide effects. These are all examples of producer adaptation decisions made with a long-term (multiple decades) view. In addition, producers respond to short-term (current year) shocks - such as drought events - through management strategies that include deficit irrigation, fallowing, nutrient management, and engaging in water trading. The effects of these short- and long-term decisions are not independent, and can drive or be driven by the other. For example, investment in new irrigation systems (long-term) can be driven by expectations of short-term crop productivity losses in drought years. Similarly, the capacity to manage for short-term shocks will depend on crop type and variety as well as adopted irrigation technologies. Our overarching objective is to understand the synergies and tradeoffs that exist when combining three potential long-term adaptation strategies and two short-term adaptation strategies, with a view of understanding the synergies and tradeoffs. We apply the integrated crop-hydrology modeling framework VIC-CropSyst, along with the water management module Yakima RiverWare to address these questions over our test area, the Yakima River basin. We consider adoption of a) more efficient irrigation technologies, slower growing crop varieties, and increased prevalence of double cropping systems as long-term adaptation strategies; and b) fallowing and deficit irrigation as short-term responses to droughts. We evaluate the individual and

  14. Forest Biomass Mapping From Lidar and Radar Synergies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Guoqing; Ranson, K. Jon; Guo, Z.; Zhang, Z.; Montesano, P.; Kimes, D.

    2011-01-01

    The use of lidar and radar instruments to measure forest structure attributes such as height and biomass at global scales is being considered for a future Earth Observation satellite mission, DESDynI (Deformation, Ecosystem Structure, and Dynamics of Ice). Large footprint lidar makes a direct measurement of the heights of scatterers in the illuminated footprint and can yield accurate information about the vertical profile of the canopy within lidar footprint samples. Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) is known to sense the canopy volume, especially at longer wavelengths and provides image data. Methods for biomass mapping by a combination of lidar sampling and radar mapping need to be developed. In this study, several issues in this respect were investigated using aircraft borne lidar and SAR data in Howland, Maine, USA. The stepwise regression selected the height indices rh50 and rh75 of the Laser Vegetation Imaging Sensor (LVIS) data for predicting field measured biomass with a R(exp 2) of 0.71 and RMSE of 31.33 Mg/ha. The above-ground biomass map generated from this regression model was considered to represent the true biomass of the area and used as a reference map since no better biomass map exists for the area. Random samples were taken from the biomass map and the correlation between the sampled biomass and co-located SAR signature was studied. The best models were used to extend the biomass from lidar samples into all forested areas in the study area, which mimics a procedure that could be used for the future DESDYnI Mission. It was found that depending on the data types used (quad-pol or dual-pol) the SAR data can predict the lidar biomass samples with R2 of 0.63-0.71, RMSE of 32.0-28.2 Mg/ha up to biomass levels of 200-250 Mg/ha. The mean biomass of the study area calculated from the biomass maps generated by lidar- SAR synergy 63 was within 10% of the reference biomass map derived from LVIS data. The results from this study are preliminary, but do show the

  15. Sexual harassment and emotional and behavioural symptoms in adolescence: stronger associations among boys than girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu; Fröjd, Sari; Marttunen, Mauri

    2016-08-01

    To study the associations between subjection to sexual harassment and emotional (depression) and behavioural (delinquency) symptoms among 14-to-18-year-old adolescents, and gender differences within these associations. 90,953 boys and 91,746 girls aged 14-18 participated in the School Health Promotion Study (SHPS), a school-based survey designed to examine the health, health behaviours, and school experiences of teenagers. Experiences of sexual harassment were elicited with five questions addressing five separate forms of harassment. Depression was measured by the 13-item Beck Depression Inventory and delinquency with a modified version of the International Self-Report Delinquency Study (ISRD) instrument. Data were analysed using cross-tabulations with Chi-square statistics and logistic regression. All sexual harassment experiences studied were associated with both depression (adjusted odds ratios varied from 2.2 to 2.7 in girls and from 2.0 to 5.1 in boys) and delinquency (adjusted odds ratios 3.1-5.0 in girls and 1.7-6.9 in boys). Sexual name-calling had a stronger association with depression and with delinquency in girls (adjusted odds ratios, respectively, 2.4 and 4.2), than in boys (adjusted odds ratios, respectively, 2.0 and 1.7), but otherwise stronger associations with emotional and behavioural symptoms were seen in boys. Subjection to sexual harassment is associated with both emotional and behavioural symptoms in both girls and boys. The associations are mostly stronger for boys. Boys subjected to sexual harassment may feel particularly threatened regarding their masculinity, and there may be less support available for boys traumatised due to sexual harassment.

  16. Mechanism of c-Src Synergy with the EGFR in Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tice, David

    1997-01-01

    .... To gain further insights into the mechanism of c-Src synergy with the EGFR, stable cell lines containing various c-Src mutants and overexpressed wt EGFR were generated and examined for tumorigenic...

  17. Mechanism of c-Src Synergy with the EGFR In Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tice, David

    1999-01-01

    ... on tumorigenicity and growth of breast tumor cells. Furthermore, we have discovered a mechanism of c-Src synergy with the EGFR and located specific points at which the pathway can be interdicted...

  18. Flexion synergy overshadows flexor spasticity during reaching in chronic moderate to severe hemiparetic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Michael D; Schut, Ingrid; Dewald, Julius P A

    2017-07-01

    Pharmaceutical intervention targets arm flexor spasticity with an often-unsuccessful goal of improving function. Flexion synergy is a related motor impairment that may be inadvertently neglected. Here, flexor spasticity and flexion synergy are disentangled to determine their contributions to reaching dysfunction. Twenty-six individuals participated. A robotic device systematically modulated shoulder abduction loading during ballistic reaching. Elbow muscle electromyography data were partitioned into windows delineated by elbow joint velocity allowing for the separation of synergy- and spasticity-related activation. Reaching velocity decreased with abduction loading (psynergy increased with abduction loading (psynergy is the predominant contributor to reaching dysfunction while flexor spasticity appears only relevant during unnaturally occurring passively supported movement. Interventions targeting flexion synergy should be leveraged in future stroke recovery trials. Copyright © 2017 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Investigating Conversational Dynamics: Interactive Alignment, Interpersonal Synergy, and Collective Task Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusaroli, Riccardo; Tylén, Kristian

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates interpersonal processes underlying dialog by comparing two approaches, "interactive alignment" and "interpersonal synergy", and assesses how they predict collective performance in a joint task. While the interactive alignment approach highlights imitative patterns between interlocutors, the synergy…

  20. Production of plastified wood with stronger static bending strength means of polymerization induced by gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva Filho, Elias

    1999-01-01

    The use of gamma radiation to obtain wood-polymer composites is one of the applications of radiation that presents the most commercial interest. The process, denominated radiopolymerization, comprises the impregnation of monomers into the completely dried wood followed by exposure to gamma radiation to induce polymerization of the impregnated monomers. I this context, the present work aimed the application of this process to seven kinds of wood existing in the brazilian forests. The considered monomer is styrene and the gamma source is Cobalt-60. The obtained wood-polystyrene composites were found to have stronger static bending strength. (author)

  1. Why is the radial flow in central pA collisions stronger than in AA?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalaydzhyan, Tigran; Shuryak, Edward

    2014-01-01

    Both the transverse size and entropy density per area in central pA collisions is smaller than in central AA, and yet the radial flow is stronger. We propose an explanation to this puzzle. Using a weak attraction between strings through the σ-meson exchange, fitted to the lattice data, we find collective implosion of the “spaghetti” multi-string state. Collectivization of the sigma field of the strings is the QCD analog of the black hole formation occurring in holographic models

  2. Selection is stronger in early-versus-late stages of divergence in a Neotropical livebearing fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingley, Spencer J; Johnson, Jerald B

    2016-03-01

    How selection acts to drive trait evolution at different stages of divergence is of fundamental importance in our understanding of the origins of biodiversity. Yet, most studies have focused on a single point along an evolutionary trajectory. Here, we provide a case study evaluating the strength of divergent selection acting on life-history traits at early-versus-late stages of divergence in Brachyrhaphis fishes. We find that the difference in selection is stronger in the early-diverged population than the late-diverged population, and that trait differences acquired early are maintained over time. © 2016 The Author(s).

  3. Building Stronger State Energy Partnerships with the U.S. Department of Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marks, Kate

    2011-09-30

    This final technical report details the results of total work efforts and progress made from October 2007 – September 2011 under the National Association of State Energy Officials (NASEO) cooperative agreement DE-FC26-07NT43264, Building Stronger State Energy Partnerships with the U.S. Department of Energy. Major topical project areas in this final report include work efforts in the following areas: Energy Assurance and Critical Infrastructure, State and Regional Technical Assistance, Regional Initiative, Regional Coordination and Technical Assistance, and International Activities in China. All required deliverables have been provided to the National Energy Technology Laboratory and DOE program officials.

  4. Quantifying synergy: a systematic review of mixture toxicity studies within environmental toxicology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Cedergreen

    Full Text Available Cocktail effects and synergistic interactions of chemicals in mixtures are an area of great concern to both the public and regulatory authorities. The main concern is whether some chemicals can enhance the effect of other chemicals, so that they jointly exert a larger effect than predicted. This phenomenon is called synergy. Here we present a review of the scientific literature on three main groups of environmentally relevant chemical toxicants: pesticides, metal ions and antifouling compounds. The aim of the review is to determine 1 the frequency of synergy, 2 the extent of synergy, 3 whether any particular groups or classes of chemicals tend to induce synergy, and 4 which physiological mechanisms might be responsible for this synergy. Synergy is here defined as mixtures with minimum two-fold difference between observed and predicted effect concentrations using Concentration Addition (CA as a reference model and including both lethal and sub-lethal endpoints. The results showed that synergy occurred in 7%, 3% and 26% of the 194, 21 and 136 binary pesticide, metal and antifoulants mixtures included in the data compilation on frequency. The difference between observed and predicted effect concentrations was rarely more than 10-fold. For pesticides, synergistic mixtures included cholinesterase inhibitors or azole fungicides in 95% of 69 described cases. Both groups of pesticides are known to interfere with metabolic degradation of other xenobiotics. For the four synergistic metal and 47 synergistic antifoulant mixtures the pattern in terms of chemical groups inducing synergy was less clear. Hypotheses in terms of mechanisms governing these interactions are discussed. It was concluded that true synergistic interactions between chemicals are rare and often occur at high concentrations. Addressing the cumulative rather than synergistic effect of co-occurring chemicals, using standard models as CA, is therefore regarded as the most important step in

  5. Trade-off between synergy and efficacy in combinations of HIV-1 latency-reversing agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Vipul; Dixit, Narendra M

    2018-02-01

    Eradicating HIV-1 infection is difficult because of the reservoir of latently infected cells that gets established soon after infection, remains hidden from antiretroviral drugs and host immune responses, and retains the capacity to reignite infection following the cessation of treatment. Drugs called latency-reversing agents (LRAs) are being developed to reactivate latently infected cells and render them susceptible to viral cytopathicity or immune killing. Whereas individual LRAs have failed to induce adequate reactivation, pairs of LRAs have been identified recently that act synergistically and hugely increase reactivation levels compared to individual LRAs. The maximum synergy achievable with LRA pairs is of clinical importance, as it would allow latency-reversal with minimal drug exposure. Here, we employed stochastic simulations of HIV-1 transcription and translation in latently infected cells to estimate this maximum synergy. We incorporated the predominant mechanisms of action of the two most promising classes of LRAs, namely, protein kinase C agonists and histone deacetylase inhibitors, and quantified the activity of individual LRAs in the two classes by mapping our simulations to corresponding in vitro experiments. Without any adjustable parameters, our simulations then quantitatively captured experimental observations of latency-reversal when the LRAs were used in pairs. Performing simulations representing a wide range of drug concentrations, we estimated the maximum synergy achievable with these LRA pairs. Importantly, we found with all the LRA pairs we considered that concentrations yielding the maximum synergy did not yield the maximum latency-reversal. Increasing concentrations to increase latency-reversal compromised synergy, unravelling a trade-off between synergy and efficacy in LRA combinations. The maximum synergy realizable with LRA pairs would thus be restricted by the desired level of latency-reversal, a constrained optimum we elucidated with

  6. Quantifying synergy: a systematic review of mixture toxicity studies within environmental toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cedergreen, Nina

    2014-01-01

    Cocktail effects and synergistic interactions of chemicals in mixtures are an area of great concern to both the public and regulatory authorities. The main concern is whether some chemicals can enhance the effect of other chemicals, so that they jointly exert a larger effect than predicted. This phenomenon is called synergy. Here we present a review of the scientific literature on three main groups of environmentally relevant chemical toxicants: pesticides, metal ions and antifouling compounds. The aim of the review is to determine 1) the frequency of synergy, 2) the extent of synergy, 3) whether any particular groups or classes of chemicals tend to induce synergy, and 4) which physiological mechanisms might be responsible for this synergy. Synergy is here defined as mixtures with minimum two-fold difference between observed and predicted effect concentrations using Concentration Addition (CA) as a reference model and including both lethal and sub-lethal endpoints. The results showed that synergy occurred in 7%, 3% and 26% of the 194, 21 and 136 binary pesticide, metal and antifoulants mixtures included in the data compilation on frequency. The difference between observed and predicted effect concentrations was rarely more than 10-fold. For pesticides, synergistic mixtures included cholinesterase inhibitors or azole fungicides in 95% of 69 described cases. Both groups of pesticides are known to interfere with metabolic degradation of other xenobiotics. For the four synergistic metal and 47 synergistic antifoulant mixtures the pattern in terms of chemical groups inducing synergy was less clear. Hypotheses in terms of mechanisms governing these interactions are discussed. It was concluded that true synergistic interactions between chemicals are rare and often occur at high concentrations. Addressing the cumulative rather than synergistic effect of co-occurring chemicals, using standard models as CA, is therefore regarded as the most important step in the risk

  7. Muscle Synergies Heavily Influence the Neural Control of Arm Endpoint Stiffness and Energy Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inouye, Joshua M; Valero-Cuevas, Francisco J

    2016-02-01

    Much debate has arisen from research on muscle synergies with respect to both limb impedance control and energy consumption. Studies of limb impedance control in the context of reaching movements and postural tasks have produced divergent findings, and this study explores whether the use of synergies by the central nervous system (CNS) can resolve these findings and also provide insights on mechanisms of energy consumption. In this study, we phrase these debates at the conceptual level of interactions between neural degrees of freedom and tasks constraints. This allows us to examine the ability of experimentally-observed synergies--correlated muscle activations--to control both energy consumption and the stiffness component of limb endpoint impedance. In our nominal 6-muscle planar arm model, muscle synergies and the desired size, shape, and orientation of endpoint stiffness ellipses, are expressed as linear constraints that define the set of feasible muscle activation patterns. Quadratic programming allows us to predict whether and how energy consumption can be minimized throughout the workspace of the limb given those linear constraints. We show that the presence of synergies drastically decreases the ability of the CNS to vary the properties of the endpoint stiffness and can even preclude the ability to minimize energy. Furthermore, the capacity to minimize energy consumption--when available--can be greatly affected by arm posture. Our computational approach helps reconcile divergent findings and conclusions about task-specific regulation of endpoint stiffness and energy consumption in the context of synergies. But more generally, these results provide further evidence that the benefits and disadvantages of muscle synergies go hand-in-hand with the structure of feasible muscle activation patterns afforded by the mechanics of the limb and task constraints. These insights will help design experiments to elucidate the interplay between synergies and the mechanisms

  8. Simple test of synergy between ampicillin and vancomycin for resistant strains of Enterococcus faecium.

    OpenAIRE

    Green, M; Barbadora, K; Wadowsky, R M

    1994-01-01

    The combination of ampicillin and vancomycin kills some but not all strains of ampicillin- and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium. We compared a simple test for synergy utilizing a commercially available microdilution susceptibility system with time-kill studies and determined acceptable breakpoints for this test for 20 strains of ampicillin- and vancomycin-resistant E. faecium. The combination of ampicillin and vancomycin was tested for synergy by time-kill, broth macrodilution, and b...

  9. Comparison of Vehicle Efficiency Technology Attributes and Synergy Estimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duleep, G. [ICF Incorporated, LLC., Fairfax, VA (United States)

    2011-02-01

    Analyzing the future fuel economy of light-duty vehicles (LDVs) requires detailed knowledge of the vehicle technologies available to improve LDV fuel economy. The National Highway Transportation Safety Administration (NHTSA) has been relying on technology data from a 2001 National Academy of Sciences (NAS) study (NAS 2001) on corporate average fuel economy (CAFE) standards, but the technology parameters were updated in the new proposed rulemaking (EPA and NHTSA 2009) to set CAFE and greenhouse gas standards for the 2011 to 2016 period. The update is based largely on an Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) analysis of technology attributes augmented by NHTSA data and contractor staff assessments. These technology cost and performance data were documented in the Draft Joint Technical Support Document (TSD) issued by EPA and NHTSA in September 2009 (EPA/NHTSA 2009). For these tasks, the Energy and Environmental Analysis (EEA) division of ICF International (ICF) examined each technology and technology package in the Draft TSD and assessed their costs and performance potential based on U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) program assessments. ICF also assessed the technologies, other relevant attributes based on data from actual production vehicles, and recently published technical articles in engineering journals. ICF examined technology synergy issues through an ICF in-house model that uses a discrete parameter approach.

  10. Comparison of Vehicle Efficiency Technology Attributes and Synergy Estimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duleep, G.

    2011-02-01

    Analyzing the future fuel economy of light-duty vehicles (LDVs) requires detailed knowledge of the vehicle technologies available to improve LDV fuel economy. The National Highway Transportation Safety Administration (NHTSA) has been relying on technology data from a 2001 National Academy of Sciences (NAS) study (NAS 2001) on corporate average fuel economy (CAFE) standards, but the technology parameters were updated in the new proposed rulemaking (EPA and NHTSA 2009) to set CAFE and greenhouse gas standards for the 2011 to 2016 period. The update is based largely on an Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) analysis of technology attributes augmented by NHTSA data and contractor staff assessments. These technology cost and performance data were documented in the Draft Joint Technical Support Document (TSD) issued by EPA and NHTSA in September 2009 (EPA/NHTSA 2009). For these tasks, the Energy and Environmental Analysis (EEA) division of ICF International (ICF) examined each technology and technology package in the Draft TSD and assessed their costs and performance potential based on U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) program assessments. ICF also assessed the technologies? other relevant attributes based on data from actual production vehicles and from recently published technical articles in engineering journals. ICF examined technology synergy issues through an ICF in-house model that uses a discrete parameter approach.

  11. Financial Synergy in Mergers and Acquisitions in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basmah Al Qudaiby (Basmah, A. Q.,

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Businesses today consider mergers and acquisitions a new strategy for their company’s growth. Companies aim to grow through sales’ increase, assets purchase, profits’ accumulation and market share gains. The better way for achieving these targets is by getting into either a Merger or an Acquisition. As a matter of fact, growth through mergers and acquisitions has been a critical part of the success of many companies operating in the new economy. Mergers and Acquisitions are an important factor in building up market capitalization. Based on three detailed and in depth structured interviews with major Saudi Arabian banks it has been found that, Mergers motivated by economies of scale should be approached cautiously. Companies should also approach vertical mergers cautiously because it is often difficult to gain synergy through a vertical merger and firms should also seek out mergers which allow the firm to acquire specialized knowledge. It has also been found that the firms should look for mergers that increase market power and avoid unrelated or conglomerate mergers.

  12. European Synergies for Soil-Related Training Provisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnoult, Matthieu; Reynders, Suzanne; Dittmann, Marie; Lukac, Martin

    2017-04-01

    The University of Reading (UK) has created an original massive online open course (MOOC) the concepts and practices of Climate Smart Agriculture (CSA), a new approach to agriculture based on three principles: mitigation of climate change, adaptation to climate change, stable or increased productivity, and sustainable food security. Through 2 case studies (dairy farming and wine production) this MOOC is an opportunity to highlight the importance of soil conditions for farmers (e.g., organic matter content, erosion, leaching), an issue which had been overlooked but is now seen as an essential part of integrated farm management or techniques such as no-till farming. Furthermore, this 3-week course launching in January 2017 will be translated in several European languages in order to foster international interest in CSA from students across Europe, but also to create collaborative synergies with research partners. To that effect, collaborative work is under way between the University of Reading, INRA, and Agreenium to develop a soil-oriented MOOC, around the 4‰ Initiative to be launched by France in 2017/18. This session will present the existing MOOC material developed at Reading in the context of British and French farming, the current issues facing farmers with respect to soil, and how these will be addressed in the forthcoming MOOC to be developed in partnership with INRA and Agreenium. The use of online training provision to elicit interest in climate change in general and soil topics in particular will also be outlined.

  13. More effective electricity production through partnerships and synergy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blais, C.

    1999-01-01

    The concept of industrial ecology, also known as closed-cycle processes and eco-industrial parks, is discussed. Central to this concept is the belief that eco-industrial parks foster synergy and partnership among different types of industries where one's waste will become somebody else's input, and that by reducing, reusing and recycling, eco-industrial parks enable their members to become more efficient, to do 'more with less', and to have less environmental impact. An overview of how such eco-industrial networks function and how they benefit the energy industry is provided. It is confidently asserted that eco-industrial networks offer endless possibilities to recover what is now waste energy and convert it into useful energy with minimum increasing efficiency, reducing greenhouse gases as well as other emissions and maintaining economic viability. Some of the barriers to the implementation of eco-industrial parks and some of the factors essential to success are reviewed. Case studies of some functioning eco-industrial parks are featured by way of illustrating the concept. 8 refs., 6 figs

  14. Advances and synergy of high pressure sciences at synchrotron sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, H.; Ehm, L.; Duffy, T.; Crichton, W.; Aoki, K.

    2009-01-01

    Introductory overview to the special issue papers on high-pressure sciences and synchrotron radiation. High-pressure research in geosciences, materials science and condensed matter physics at synchrotron sources is experiencing growth and development through synergistic efforts around the world. A series of high-pressure science workshops were organized in 2008 to highlight these developments. One of these workshops, on 'Advances in high-pressure science using synchrotron X-rays', was held at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS), Brookhaven National Laboratory, USA, on 4 October 2008. This workshop was organized in honour of Drs Jingzhu Hu and Quanzhong Guo in celebration of their retirement after up to 18 years of dedicated service to the high-pressure community as beamline scientists at X17 of NSLS. Following this celebration of the often unheralded role of the beamline scientist, a special issue of the Journal of Synchrotron Radiation on Advances and Synergy of High-Pressure Sciences at Synchrotron Sources was proposed, and we were pleased to invite contributions from colleagues who participated in the workshop as well as others who are making similar efforts at synchrotron sources worldwide.

  15. Energy mitigation, adaptation and biodiversity: Synergies and antagonisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, P M; Paterson, J S

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we review the current impacts of different energy producers (and energy conservation) on biodiversity and investigate the potential for achieving positive biodiversity effects along with mitigation and adaptation objectives. Very few energy producers achieve all three aims - although it may be possible with careful choice of location and management. In some instances, energy conservation can provide mitigation, adaptation and biodiversity benefits. There is still a gap in knowledge regarding the effects of newer energy technologies on biodiversity. There is an additional concern that many supposedly 'green' renewable energy projects may actually harm biodiversity to such a degree that their overall human benefits are negated. The increasing understanding that ecosystem services are vital for human well-being though means that attempting positive mitigation, adaptation and biodiversity conservation in the energy sector should be an imperative goal for international policy. Whilst research into synergies between mitigation and adaptation is established, there has been very little that has examined the impacts on biodiversity as well. Further work is required to identify and provide evidence of the best ways of optimising mitigation, adaptation and biodiversity in the energy sector.

  16. Techno-ecological synergy: a framework for sustainable engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakshi, Bhavik R; Ziv, Guy; Lepech, Michael D

    2015-02-03

    Even though the importance of ecosystems in sustaining all human activities is well-known, methods for sustainable engineering fail to fully account for this role of nature. Most methods account for the demand for ecosystem services, but almost none account for the supply. Incomplete accounting of the very foundation of human well-being can result in perverse outcomes from decisions meant to enhance sustainability and lost opportunities for benefiting from the ability of nature to satisfy human needs in an economically and environmentally superior manner. This paper develops a framework for understanding and designing synergies between technological and ecological systems to encourage greater harmony between human activities and nature. This framework considers technological systems ranging from individual processes to supply chains and life cycles, along with corresponding ecological systems at multiple spatial scales ranging from local to global. The demand for specific ecosystem services is determined from information about emissions and resource use, while the supply is obtained from information about the capacity of relevant ecosystems. Metrics calculate the sustainability of individual ecosystem services at multiple spatial scales and help define necessary but not sufficient conditions for local and global sustainability. Efforts to reduce ecological overshoot encourage enhancement of life cycle efficiency, development of industrial symbiosis, innovative designs and policies, and ecological restoration, thus combining the best features of many existing methods. Opportunities for theoretical and applied research to make this framework practical are also discussed.

  17. Facilitating Inter-Domain Synergies in Ambient Assisted Living Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartze, Jonas; Schrom, Harald; Wolf, Klaus-Hendrik; Marschollek, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Current Ambient Assisted Living (AAL) environments lack integration of sensors and actuators of other sub-domains. Creating technical and organizational integration is addressed by the BASIS project (Build Automation by a Scalable and Intelligent System), which aims to build a cross-domain home bus system. The main objective of this paper is to present an overview of design, architecture and state of realization of BASIS by describing the requirements development process, underlying hardware design and software architecture. We built a distributed system of one independent building manager with several redundantly meshed segment controllers, each controlling a bus segment with any number of bus nodes. The software system layer is divided into logical partitions representing each sub-domain. Structured data storage is possible with a special FHIR based home centered data warehouse. The system has been implemented in six apartments running under daily living conditions. BASIS integrates a broad range of sub-domains, which poses challenges to all project partners in terms of a common terminology, and project management methods, but enables development of inter-domain synergies like using the same sensor and actuator hardware for a broad range of services and use cases.

  18. Ginger phytochemicals exhibit synergy to inhibit prostate cancer cell proliferation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brahmbhatt, Meera; Gundala, Sushma R.; Asif, Ghazia; Shamsi, Shahab A; Aneja, Ritu

    2014-01-01

    Dietary phytochemicals offer non-toxic therapeutic management as well as chemopreventive intervention for slow-growing prostate cancers. However, the limited success of several single-agent clinical trials suggest a paradigm shift that the health benefits of fruits and vegetables are not ascribable due to individual phytochemicals rather may be ascribed to but to synergistic interactions among them. We recently reported growth-inhibiting and apoptosis-inducing properties of ginger extract (GE) in in vitro and in vivo prostate cancer models. Nevertheless, the nature of interactions among the constituent ginger biophenolics, viz. 6-gingerol, 8-gingerol, 10-gingerol, and 6-shogoal, remains elusive. Here we show antiproliferative efficacy of the most-active GE biophenolics as single-agents and in binary combinations, and investigate the nature of their interactions using the Chou-Talalay combination-index (CI) method. Our data demonstrate that binary combinations of ginger phytochemicals synergistically inhibit proliferation of PC-3 cells with CI values ranging from 0.03-0.88. To appreciate synergy among phytochemicals present in GE, the natural abundance of ginger biophenolics was quantitated using LC-UV/MS. Interestingly, combining GE with its constituents (in particular, 6-gingerol) resulted in significant augmentation of GE’s antiproliferative activity. These data generate compelling grounds for further preclinical evaluation of GE alone and in combination with individual ginger biophenols for prostate cancer management. PMID:23441614

  19. Future sustainable desalination using waste heat: kudos to thermodynamic synergy

    KAUST Repository

    Shahzad, Muhammad Wakil

    2015-12-02

    There has been a plethora of published literature on thermally-driven adsorption desalination (AD) cycles for seawater desalination due to their favorable environmentally friendly attributes, such as the ability to operate with low-temperature heat sources, from either the renewable or the exhaust gases, and having almost no major moving parts. We present an AD cycle for seawater desalination due to its unique ability to integrate higher water production yields with the existing desalination methods such as reverse osmosis (RO), multi-stage flashing (MSF) and multi-effect distillation (MED), etc. The hybrid cycles exploit the thermodynamic synergy between processes, leading to significant enhancement of the systems\\' performance ratio (PR). In this paper, we demonstrate experimentally the synergetic effect between the AD and MED cycles that results in quantum improvement in water production. The unique feature is in the internal latent heat recovery from the condenser unit of AD to the top-brine stage of MED, resulting in a combined, or simply termed as MEAD, cycle that requires no additional heat input other than the regeneration of an adsorbent. The batch-operated cycles are simple to implement and require low maintenance when compared with conventional desalination methods. Together, they offer a low energy and environmentally friendly desalination solution that addresses the major issues of the water-energy-environment nexus. © 2016 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  20. Pathways to social evolution: reciprocity, relatedness, and synergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Cleve, Jeremy; Akçay, Erol

    2014-08-01

    Many organisms live in populations structured by space and by class, exhibit plastic responses to their social partners, and are subject to nonadditive ecological and fitness effects. Social evolution theory has long recognized that all of these factors can lead to different selection pressures but has only recently attempted to synthesize how these factors interact. Using models for both discrete and continuous phenotypes, we show that analyzing these factors in a consistent framework reveals that they interact with one another in ways previously overlooked. Specifically, behavioral responses (reciprocity), genetic relatedness, and synergy interact in nontrivial ways that cannot be easily captured by simple summary indices of assortment. We demonstrate the importance of these interactions by showing how they have been neglected in previous synthetic models of social behavior both within and between species. These interactions also affect the level of behavioral responses that can evolve in the long run; proximate biological mechanisms are evolutionarily stable when they generate enough responsiveness relative to the level of responsiveness that exactly balances the ecological costs and benefits. Given the richness of social behavior across taxa, these interactions should be a boon for empirical research as they are likely crucial for describing the complex relationship linking ecology, demography, and social behavior. © 2014 The Author(s). Evolution © 2014 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  1. The Einstein-Brazil Fogarty: A decade of synergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosanchuk, Joshua D; Nosanchuk, Murphy D; Rodrigues, Marcio L; Nimrichter, Leonardo; Carvalho, Antonio C Campos de; Weiss, Louis M; Spray, David C; Tanowitz, Herbert B

    2015-01-01

    A rich, collaborative program funded by the US NIH Fogarty program in 2004 has provided for a decade of remarkable opportunities for scientific advancement through the training of Brazilian undergraduate, graduate and postdoctoral students from the Federal University and Oswaldo Cruz Foundation systems at Albert Einstein College of Medicine. The focus of the program has been on the development of trainees in the broad field of Infectious Diseases, with a particular focus on diseases of importance to the Brazilian population. Talented trainees from various regions in Brazil came to Einstein to learn techniques and study fungal, parasitic and bacterial pathogens. In total, 43 trainees enthusiastically participated in the program. In addition to laboratory work, these students took a variety of courses at Einstein, presented their results at local, national and international meetings, and productively published their findings. This program has led to a remarkable synergy of scientific discovery for the participants during a time of rapid acceleration of the scientific growth in Brazil. This collaboration between Brazilian and US scientists has benefitted both countries and serves as a model for future training programs between these countries.

  2. Muscle synergies in neuroscience and robotics: from input-space to task-space perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano eAlessandro

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we review the works related to muscle synergies that have been carried-out in neuroscience and control engineering. In particular, we refer to the hypothesis that the central nervous system (CNS generates desired muscle contractions by combining a small number of predefined modules, called muscle synergies. We provide an overview of the methods that have been employed to test the validity of this scheme, and we show how the concept of muscle synergy has been generalized for the control of artificial agents. The comparison between these two lines of research, in particular their different goals and approaches, is instrumental to explain the computational implications of the hypothesized modular organization. Moreover, it clarifies the importance of assessing the functional role of muscle synergies: although these basic modules are defined at the level of muscle activations (input-space, they should result in the effective accomplishment of the desired task. This requirement is not always explicitly considered in experimental neuroscience, as muscle synergies are often estimated solely by analyzing recorded muscle activities. We suggest that synergy extraction methods should explicitly take into account task execution variables, thus moving from a perspective purely based on input-space to one grounded on task-space as well.

  3. Hand synergies: Integration of robotics and neuroscience for understanding the control of biological and artificial hands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santello, Marco; Bianchi, Matteo; Gabiccini, Marco; Ricciardi, Emiliano; Salvietti, Gionata; Prattichizzo, Domenico; Ernst, Marc; Moscatelli, Alessandro; Jörntell, Henrik; Kappers, Astrid M. L.; Kyriakopoulos, Kostas; Albu-Schäffer, Alin; Castellini, Claudio; Bicchi, Antonio

    2016-07-01

    The term 'synergy' - from the Greek synergia - means 'working together'. The concept of multiple elements working together towards a common goal has been extensively used in neuroscience to develop theoretical frameworks, experimental approaches, and analytical techniques to understand neural control of movement, and for applications for neuro-rehabilitation. In the past decade, roboticists have successfully applied the framework of synergies to create novel design and control concepts for artificial hands, i.e., robotic hands and prostheses. At the same time, robotic research on the sensorimotor integration underlying the control and sensing of artificial hands has inspired new research approaches in neuroscience, and has provided useful instruments for novel experiments. The ambitious goal of integrating expertise and research approaches in robotics and neuroscience to study the properties and applications of the concept of synergies is generating a number of multidisciplinary cooperative projects, among which the recently finished 4-year European project ;The Hand Embodied; (THE). This paper reviews the main insights provided by this framework. Specifically, we provide an overview of neuroscientific bases of hand synergies and introduce how robotics has leveraged the insights from neuroscience for innovative design in hardware and controllers for biomedical engineering applications, including myoelectric hand prostheses, devices for haptics research, and wearable sensing of human hand kinematics. The review also emphasizes how this multidisciplinary collaboration has generated new ways to conceptualize a synergy-based approach for robotics, and provides guidelines and principles for analyzing human behavior and synthesizing artificial robotic systems based on a theory of synergies.

  4. Muscle synergies and complexity of neuromuscular control during gait in cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Katherine M; Rozumalski, Adam; Schwartz, Michael H

    2015-12-01

    Individuals with cerebral palsy (CP) have impaired movement due to a brain injury near birth. Understanding how neuromuscular control is altered in CP can provide insight into pathological movement. We sought to determine if individuals with CP demonstrate reduced complexity of neuromuscular control during gait compared with unimpaired individuals and if changes in control are related to functional ability. Muscle synergies during gait were retrospectively analyzed for 633 individuals (age range 3.9-70y): 549 with CP (hemiplegia, n=122; diplegia, n=266; triplegia, n=73; quadriplegia, n=88) and 84 unimpaired individuals. Synergies were calculated using non-negative matrix factorization from surface electromyography collected during previous clinical gait analyses. Synergy complexity during gait was compared with diagnosis subtype, functional ability, and clinical examination measures. Fewer synergies were required to describe muscle activity during gait in individuals with CP compared with unimpaired individuals. Changes in synergies were related to functional impairment and clinical examination measures including selective motor control, strength, and spasticity. Individuals with CP use a simplified control strategy during gait compared with unimpaired individuals. These results were similar to synergies during walking among adult stroke survivors, suggesting similar neuromuscular control strategies between these clinical populations. © 2015 Mac Keith Press.

  5. Synergy Repetition Training versus Task Repetition Training in Acquiring New Skill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Vrajeshri; Craig, Jamie; Schumacher, Michelle; Burns, Martin K; Florescu, Ionut; Vinjamuri, Ramana

    2017-01-01

    Traditionally, repetitive practice of a task is used to learn a new skill, exhibiting as immediately improved performance. Research suggests, however, that a more experience-based rather than exposure-based training protocol may allow for better transference of the skill to related tasks. In synergy-based motor control theory, fundamental motor skills, such as hand grasping, are represented with a synergy subspace that captures essential motor patterns. In this study, we propose that motor-skill learning through synergy-based mechanisms may provide advantages over traditional task repetition learning. A new task was designed to highlight the range of motion and dexterity of the human hand. Two separate training strategies were tested in healthy subjects: task repetition training and synergy training versus a control. All three groups showed improvements when retested on the same task. When tested on a similar, but different set of tasks, only the synergy group showed improvements in accuracy (9.27% increase) compared to the repetition (3.24% decline) and control (3.22% decline) groups. A kinematic analysis revealed that although joint angular peak velocities decreased, timing benefits stemmed from the initial feed-forward portion of the task (reaction time). Accuracy improvements may have derived from general improved coordination among the four involved fingers. These preliminary results warrant further investigation of synergy-based motor training in healthy individuals, as well as in individuals undergoing hand-based rehabilitative therapy.

  6. TKA patients with unsatisfying knee function show changes in neuromotor synergy pattern but not joint biomechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardestani, Marzieh M; Malloy, Philip; Nam, Denis; Rosenberg, Aaron G; Wimmer, Markus A

    2017-12-01

    Nearly 20% of patients who have undergone total knee arthroplasty (TKA) report persistent poor knee function. This study explores the idea that, despite similar knee joint biomechanics, the neuro-motor synergies may be different between high-functional and low-functional TKA patients. We hypothesized that (1) high-functional TKA recruit a more complex neuro-motor synergy pattern compared to low-functional TKA and (2) high-functional TKA patients demonstrate more stride-to-stride variability (flexibility) in their synergies. Gait and electromyography (EMG) data were collected during level walking for three groups of participants: (i) high-functional TKA patients (n=13); (ii) low-functional TKA patients (n=13) and (iii) non-operative controls (n=18). Synergies were extracted from EMG data using non-negative matrix factorization. Analysis of variance and Spearman correlation analyses were used to investigate between-group differences in gait and neuro-motor synergies. Results showed that synergy patterns were different among the three groups. Control subjects used 5-6 independent neural commands to execute a gait cycle. High functional TKA patients used 4-5 independent neural commands while low-functional TKA patients relied on only 2-3 independent neural commands to execute a gait cycle. Furthermore, stride-to-stride variability of muscles' response to the neural commands was reduced up to 15% in low-functional TKAs compared to the other two groups. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Modeling the synergy of cofilin and Arp2/3 in lamellipodial protrusive activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tania, Nessy; Condeelis, John; Edelstein-Keshet, Leah

    2013-11-05

    Rapid polymerization of actin filament barbed ends generates protrusive forces at the cell edge, leading to cell migration. Two important regulators of free barbed ends, cofilin and Arp2/3, have been shown to work in synergy (net effect greater than additive). To explore this synergy, we model the dynamics of F-actin at the leading edge, motivated by data from EGF-stimulated mammary carcinoma cells. We study how synergy depends on the localized rates and relative timing of cofilin and Arp2/3 activation at the cell edge. The model incorporates diffusion of cofilin, membrane protrusion, F-actin capping, aging, and severing by cofilin and branch nucleation by Arp2/3 (but not G-actin recycling). In a well-mixed system, cofilin and Arp2/3 can each generate a large pulse of barbed ends on their own, but have little synergy; high synergy occurs only at low activation rates, when few barbed ends are produced. In the full spatially distributed model, both synergy and barbed-end production are significant over a range of activation rates. Furthermore, barbed-end production is greatest when Arp2/3 activation is delayed relative to cofilin. Our model supports a direct role for cofilin-mediated actin polymerization in stimulated cell migration, including chemotaxis and cancer invasion. Copyright © 2013 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Muscle Synergies of Untrained Subjects during 6 min Maximal Rowing on Slides and Fixed Ergometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shazlin Shaharudin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The slides ergometer (SE was an improvisation from fixed ergometer (FE to bridge the gap of mechanics between ergometer rowing and on-water rowing. The specific mechanical constraints of these two types of ergometers may affect the pattern of muscle recruitment, coordination and adaptation. The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the muscle synergy during 6 minutes maximal rowing on slides (SE and fixed ergometers (FE. The laterality of muscle synergy was also examined. Surface electromyography activity, power output, heart rate, stroke length and stroke rate were analyzed from nine physically active subjects to assess the rowing performance. Physically active subjects, who were not specifically trained in rowing, were chosen to exclude the training effect on muscle synergy. Principal component analysis (PCA with varimax rotation was applied to extract muscle synergy. Three muscle synergies were sufficient to explain the majority of variance in SE (94.4 ± 2.2 % and FE (92.8 ± 1.7 %. Subjects covered more rowing distance, exerted greater power output and attained higher maximal heart rate during rowing on SE than on FE. The results proved the flexibility of muscle synergy to adapt to the mechanical constraints. Rowing on SE emphasized on bi-articular muscles contrary to rowing on FE which relied on cumulative effect of trunk and upper limb muscles during propulsive phase.

  9. Stronger interference from distractors in the right hemifield during visual search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlei, Christophe; Kerzel, Dirk

    2018-03-01

    The orientation-bias hypothesis states that there is a bias to attend to the right visual hemifield (RVF) when there is spatial competition between stimuli in the left and right hemifield [Pollmann, S. (1996). A pop-out induced extinction-like phenomenon in neurologically intact subjects. Neuropsychologia, 34(5), 413-425. doi: 10.1016/0028-3932(95)00125-5 ]. In support of this hypothesis, stronger interference was reported for RVF distractors with contralateral targets. In contrast, previous studies using rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) found stronger interference from distractors in the left visual hemifield (LVF). We used the additional singleton paradigm to test whether this discrepancy was due to the different distractor features that were employed (colour vs. orientation). Interference from the colour distractor with contralateral targets was larger in the RVF than in the LVF. However, the asymmetrical interference disappeared when observers had to search for an inconspicuous colour target instead of the inconspicuous shape target. We suggest that the LVF orienting-bias is limited to situations where search is driven by bottom-up saliency (singleton search) instead of top-down search goals (feature search). In contrast, analysis of the literature suggests the opposite for the LVF bias in RSVP tasks. Thus, the attentional asymmetry may depend on whether the task involves temporal or spatial competition, and whether search is based on bottom-up or top-down signals.

  10. Fathers see stronger family resemblances than non-fathers in unrelated children's faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bressan, Paola; Dal Pos, Stefania

    2012-12-01

    Even after they have taken all reasonable measures to decrease the probability that their spouses cheat on them, men still face paternal uncertainty. Such uncertainty can lead to paternal disinvestment, which reduces the children's probability to survive and reproduce, and thus the reproductive success of the fathers themselves. A theoretical model shows that, other things being equal, men who feel confident that they have fathered their spouses' offspring tend to enjoy greater fitness (i.e., leave a larger number of surviving progeny) than men who do not. This implies that fathers should benefit from exaggerating paternal resemblance. We argue that the self-deceiving component of this bias could be concealed by generalizing this resemblance estimation boost to (1) family pairs other than father-child and (2) strangers. Here, we tested the prediction that fathers may see, in unrelated children's faces, stronger family resemblances than non-fathers. In Study 1, 70 men and 70 women estimated facial resemblances between children paired, at three different ages (as infants, children, and adolescents), either to themselves or to their parents. In Study 2, 70 men and 70 women guessed the true parents of the same children among a set of adults. Men who were fathers reported stronger similarities between faces than non-fathers, mothers, and non-mothers did, but were no better at identifying childrens' real parents. We suggest that, in fathers, processing of facial resemblances is biased in a manner that reflects their (adaptive) wishful thinking that fathers and children are related.

  11. Do External or Internal Technology Spillovers Have a Stronger Influence on Innovation Efficiency in China?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xionghe Qin

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we bridge an important gap in the literature by comparing the extent to which external technology spillovers, as indicated by foreign direct investment (FDI, and internal technology spillovers, as indicated by university-institute-industry cooperation (UIC, influence innovation efficiency in China. We divide the innovation process into two sequential stages, namely the knowledge creation and technology commercialization stages, and employ a network data envelopment analysis approach to measure innovation efficiency at each stage. The spatial analysis of the distribution of knowledge creation efficiency and technology commercialization efficiency reveals the heterogeneity of innovation efficiency at the provincial level. Then, a panel data regression is used to analyze the effect of FDI and UIC on innovation efficiency at each stage, using data from 2009 to 2015 for 30 provinces in China. By comparing FDI with UIC, we find that FDI has a higher coefficient and stronger significance level at the knowledge creation stage, while only industry-institute linkages exhibit a stronger association with innovation efficiency at the technology commercialization stage.

  12. When surging seas meet stronger rain: Nuclear techniques in flood management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quevenco, Rodolfo

    2015-01-01

    Unusually high rainfall in many parts of the world is a result of climate change, scientists say. Since warmer air can hold more water, the rationale goes, increased temperatures will increase the chances of stronger rainfall events. And when surging seas combine with stronger rain, the outcome is almost certain: floods. Floods are the most frequently occurring natural disasters, and south-east Asia is particularly vulnerable. Climate change and variability are expected to bring about increased typhoon activities, rising sea levels and off-season monsoon rains in southeast Asia and other regions. These can cause devastating floods in countries like Cambodia, Laos, Pakistan, the Philippines, Thailand and Viet Nam. For the residents of these countries who have survived the ravages of major floods, the road to recovery can be long and arduous. As the flood water recedes, they have to contend with new forms of flood: floods of concern and worries as to how to rebuild their houses, their lives and their cities. Governments, too, face huge challenges in rebuilding roads, public buildings, infrastructure and natural resources destroyed or polluted by the flood.

  13. A configural dominant account of contextual cueing: Configural cues are stronger than colour cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunar, Melina A; John, Rebecca; Sweetman, Hollie

    2014-01-01

    Previous work has shown that reaction times to find a target in displays that have been repeated are faster than those for displays that have never been seen before. This learning effect, termed "contextual cueing" (CC), has been shown using contexts such as the configuration of the distractors in the display and the background colour. However, it is not clear how these two contexts interact to facilitate search. We investigated this here by comparing the strengths of these two cues when they appeared together. In Experiment 1, participants searched for a target that was cued by both colour and distractor configural cues, compared with when the target was only predicted by configural information. The results showed that the addition of a colour cue did not increase contextual cueing. In Experiment 2, participants searched for a target that was cued by both colour and distractor configuration compared with when the target was only cued by colour. The results showed that adding a predictive configural cue led to a stronger CC benefit. Experiments 3 and 4 tested the disruptive effects of removing either a learned colour cue or a learned configural cue and whether there was cue competition when colour and configural cues were presented together. Removing the configural cue was more disruptive to CC than removing colour, and configural learning was shown to overshadow the learning of colour cues. The data support a configural dominant account of CC, where configural cues act as the stronger cue in comparison to colour when they are presented together.

  14. Cable Stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bottura, L [European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland)

    2014-07-01

    Superconductor stability is at the core of the design of any successful cable and magnet application. This chapter reviews the initial understanding of the stability mechanism, and reviews matters of importance for stability such as the nature and magnitude of the perturbation spectrum and the cooling mechanisms. Various stability strategies are studied, providing criteria that depend on the desired design and operating conditions.

  15. Fiscal 1997 achievement report. Research and development of synergy ceramics; 1997 nendo synergy ceramics no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    Research and development is conducted on two subjects, that is, 1) hyper organized structure control technology and 2) structural element control technology. In addition, joint research and development is conducted on the creation of new materials by hyper organized structure controlling, hyper organized structure controlling for ceramics by a structurization reaction process, designing of precursors to ceramics, and the hyper organized structure control for ceramics by nanostructure process control. The joint research and development endeavors further deal with re-entrusted projects which involve researches on sintered structure control by powdery particulate structure control; dynamic process of synergy ceramics; oxynitride liquids, glasses, and glass-ceramics; and multifunctional ceramic laminates for engineering applications. Under subject 1), researches are made on the development of precursors into ceramics by utilizing chemical reactions of organic metal compounds, and analyses are conducted into the effects, exerted by the molecular structures of precursors and the conditions of a reaction for their development into ceramics, on the microstructures and various properties of the ceramics to be composed. Under subject 2), high strength, great hardness, and high resistance to wear are realized by allowing the precipitation of nano-particulates in crystals of a fine and very compact sintered body of alumina. (NEDO)

  16. Evaluation of Functional Correlation of Task-Specific Muscle Synergies with Motor Performance in Patients Poststroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Si Li

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The central nervous system produces movements by activating specifically programmed muscle synergies that are also altered with injuries in the brain, such as stroke. In this study, we hypothesize that there exists a positive correlation between task-specific muscle synergy and motor functions at joint and task levels in patients following stroke. The purpose here is to define and evaluate neurophysiological metrics based on task-specific muscle synergy for assessing motor functions in patients. A patient group of 10 subjects suffering from stroke and a control group of nine age-matched healthy subjects were recruited to participate in this study. Electromyography (EMG signals and movement kinematics were recorded in patients and control subjects while performing arm reaching tasks. Muscle synergies of individual patients were extracted off-line from EMG records of each patient, and a baseline pattern of muscle synergy was obtained from the pooled EMG data of all nine control subjects. Peak velocities and movement durations of each reaching movement were computed from measured kinematics. Similarity indices of matching components to those of the baseline synergy were defined by synergy vectors and time profiles, respectively, as well as by a combined similarity of vector and time profile. Results showed that pathological synergies of patients were altered from the characteristics of baseline synergy with missing components, or varied vector patterns and time profiles. The kinematic performance measured by peak velocities and movement durations was significantly poorer for the patient group than the control group. In patients, all three similarity indices were found to correlate significantly to the kinematics of movements for the reaching tasks. The correlation to the Fugl-Meyer score of arm was the highest with the vector index, the lowest with the time profile index, and in between with the combined index. These findings illustrate that the

  17. Stronger relationship of serum apolipoprotein A-1 and B with diabetic retinopathy than traditional lipids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B S Ankit

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Diabetic retinopathy (DR is the most common preventable cause of blindness where early detection and treatment can be sight-saving. Search for biomarkers of the disease has been relentless. We aimed to determine whether lipoproteins apolipoproteins A1 and B1 (Apo-A1 and Apo-B1 have stronger associations with DR in contrast to conventionally measured low-density lipoprotein (LDL and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. Materials and Methods: We performed a cross-sectional study and studied 117 patients. Serum lipid profile was assessed by autoanalyzer. Serum Apo-A1 and Apo-B were measured using immunoturbidimetric kit on an autoanalyzer. Apo-B/A1 ratio was calculated. Retinopathy was graded from the digital retinal photographs, taken with nonmydriatic auto fundus camera and classified according to International Clinical DR Disease Severity Scale. Results: Mean Apo-A1 for mild, moderate, severe retinopathy, and proliferative DR (PDR shows a significant negative correlation (P = 0.001 with severity of retinopathy. Mean Apo-B for mild, moderate, severe, PDR displayed a significant positive correlation with severity of retinopathy (P = 0.001. Mean Apo-B/A1 for mild, moderate, severe, PDR showed highly significant positive correlation with severity of retinopathy (P < 0.001. In contrast, mean LDL for mild, moderate, severe, PDR showed insignificant association with severity of DR (P = 0.081. Conclusion: Apo-A1 and Apo-B have a stronger association with the development of DR than traditional lipids and can thus facilitate early detection and treatment of the disease.

  18. Collaborative Research. Atmospheric Pressure Microplasma Chemistry-Photon Synergies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sung-Jin [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States); Eden, James Gary [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Combining the effects of low temperature, atmospheric pressure microplasmas and microplasma photon sources offers the promise of greatly expanding the range of applications for each of them. The plasma sources create active chemical species and these can be activated further by the addition of photons and the associated photochemistry. There are many ways to combine the effects of plasma chemistry and photochemistry, especially if there are multiple phases present. This project combined the construction of appropriate test experimental systems, various spectroscopic diagnostics and mathematical modeling. Through a continuous discussion and co-design process with the UC-Berkeley Team, we have successfully completed the fabrication and testing of all components for a microplasma array-assisted system designed for photon-activated plasma chemistry research. Microcavity plasma lamps capable of generating more than 20 mW/cm2 at 172 nm (Xe dimer) were fabricated with a custom form factor to mate to the plasma chemistry setup, and a lamp was current being installed by the Berkeley team so as to investigate plasma chemistry-photon synergies at a higher photon energy (~7.2 eV) as compared to the UVA treatment that is afforded by UV LEDs operating at 365 nm. In particular, motivated by the promising results from the Berkeley team with UVA treatment, we also produced the first generation of lamps that can generate photons in the 300-370 nm wavelength range. Another set of experiments, conducted under the auspices of this grant, involved the use of plasma microjet arrays. The combination of the photons and excited radicals produced by the plasma column resulted in broad area deactivation of bacteria.

  19. Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of In Vitro Synergy of Polymyxins and Carbapenems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avni, Tomer; Leibovici, Leonard; Adler, Amos; Friberg, Lena; Stergiopoulou, Theodouli; Carmeli, Yehuda; Paul, Mical

    2013-01-01

    Our objective was to examine the evidence of in vitro synergy of polymyxin-carbapenem combination therapy against Gram-negative bacteria (GNB). A systematic review and meta-analysis were performed. All studies examining in vitro interactions of antibiotic combinations consisting of any carbapenem with colistin or polymyxin B against any GNB were used. A broad search was conducted with no language, date, or publication status restrictions. Synergy rates, defined as a fractional inhibitory concentration index of ≤0.5 or a >2-log reduction in CFU, were pooled separately for time-kill, checkerboard, and Etest methods in a mixed-effect meta-analysis of rates. We examined whether the synergy rate depended on the testing method, type of antibiotic, bacteria, and resistance to carbapenems. Pooled rates with 95% confidence intervals (CI) are shown. Thirty-nine published studies and 15 conference proceeding were included, reporting on 246 different tests on 1,054 bacterial isolates. In time-kill studies, combination therapy showed synergy rates of 77% (95% CI, 64 to 87%) for Acinetobacter baumannii, 44% (95% CI, 30 to 59%) for Klebsiella pneumoniae, and 50% (95% CI, 30 to 69%) for Pseudomonas aeruginosa, with low antagonism rates for all. Doripenem showed high synergy rates for all three bacteria. For A. baumannii, meropenem was more synergistic than imipenem, whereas for P. aeruginosa the opposite was true. Checkerboard and Etest studies generally reported lower synergy rates than time-kill studies. The use of combination therapy led to less resistance development in vitro. The combination of a carbapenem with a polymyxin against GNB, especially A. baumannii, is supported in vitro by high synergy rates, with low antagonism and less resistance development. These findings should be examined in clinical studies. PMID:23917322

  20. The SYNERGY biodegradable polymer everolimus eluting coronary stent: Porcine vascular compatibility and polymer safety study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Gregory J; Marks, Angela; Berg, Kimberly J; Eppihimer, Michael; Sushkova, Natalia; Hawley, Steve P; Robertson, Kimberly A; Knapp, David; Pennington, Douglas E; Chen, Yen-Lane; Foss, Aaron; Huibregtse, Barbara; Dawkins, Keith D

    2015-11-15

    SYNERGY is a novel platinum chromium alloy stent that delivers abluminal everolimus from an ultrathin poly-lactide-co-glycide (PLGA) biodegradable polymer. This study evaluated the in vivo degradation of the polymer coating, everolimus release time course, and vascular compatibility of the SYNERGY stent. SYNERGY stents were implanted in arteries of domestic swine. Devices were explanted at predetermined time points (up to 120 days) and the extent of PLGA coating or everolimus remaining on the stents was quantified. Everolimus levels in the arterial tissue were also evaluated. A pathological analysis on coronary arteries of single and overlapping stents was performed at time points between 5 and 270 days. PLGA bioabsorption began immediately after implantation, and drug release was essentially complete by 90 days; PLGA absorption was substantially complete by 120 days (>90% of polymer was absorbed) leaving a bare metal SYNERGY stent. Vascular response was similar among SYNERGY and control stents (bare metal, polymer-only, and 3× polymer-only). Mild increases in para-strut fibrin were seen for SYNERGY at an early time point with no significant differences in all other morphological and morphometric parameters through 270 days or endothelial function (eNOS immunostaining) at 90 or 180 days. Inflammation was predominantly minimal to mild for all device types. In a swine model, everolimus was released by 90 days and PLGA bioabsorption was complete shortly thereafter. The SYNERGY stent and its biodegradable polymer, even at a 3× safety margin, demonstrated vascular compatibility similar to bare metal stent controls. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Suboptimal Muscle Synergy Activation Patterns Generalize their Motor Function across Postures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, M Hongchul; Ting, Lena H

    2016-01-01

    We used a musculoskeletal model to investigate the possible biomechanical and neural bases of using consistent muscle synergy patterns to produce functional motor outputs across different biomechanical conditions, which we define as generalizability. Experimental studies in cats demonstrate that the same muscle synergies are used during reactive postural responses at widely varying configurations, producing similarly-oriented endpoint force vectors with respect to the limb axis. However, whether generalizability across postures arises due to similar biomechanical properties or to neural selection of a particular muscle activation pattern has not been explicitly tested. Here, we used a detailed cat hindlimb model to explore the set of feasible muscle activation patterns that produce experimental synergy force vectors at a target posture, and tested their generalizability by applying them to different test postures. We used three methods to select candidate muscle activation patterns: (1) randomly-selected feasible muscle activation patterns, (2) optimal muscle activation patterns minimizing muscle effort at a given posture, and (3) generalizable muscle activation patterns that explicitly minimized deviations from experimentally-identified synergy force vectors across all postures. Generalizability was measured by the deviation between the simulated force direction of the candidate muscle activation pattern and the experimental synergy force vectors at the test postures. Force angle deviations were the greatest for the randomly selected feasible muscle activation patterns (e.g., >100°), intermediate for effort-wise optimal muscle activation patterns (e.g., ~20°), and smallest for generalizable muscle activation patterns (e.g., synergy force vector was reduced by ~45% when generalizability requirements were imposed. Muscles recruited in the generalizable muscle activation patterns had less sensitive torque-producing characteristics to changes in postures. We

  2. In Vitro Synergy of Telavancin and Rifampin Against Enterococcus faecium Resistant to Both Linezolid and Vancomycin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankey, George A; Ashcraft, Deborah S

    2013-01-01

    An emerging pathogen is Enterococcus faecium resistant to both linezolid and vancomycin (LRVRE). Antimicrobial combinations may be required for therapy and need to be evaluated. The combination of daptomycin and rifampin has demonstrated good in vitro activity against gram-positive bacteria, including E faecium. Telavancin, a newer lipoglycopeptide, has shown in vitro activity against E faecium. We evaluated the combination of telavancin and rifampin and compared the results to the combination of daptomycin and rifampin used previously on the same isolates. Twenty-four genetically unique (by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis), clinical LRVRE isolates were collected in the United States from 2001-2004. Etest minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) (μg/mL) were 0.064-8 for telavancin, 1-4 for daptomycin, and 0.012 to >32 for rifampin. In vitro synergy testing was performed in triplicate by an Etest MIC:MIC ratio method, and summation fractional inhibitory concentration (ΣFIC) was calculated: synergy ≤0.5; indifference >0.5-4; and antagonism >4. The Etest method showed synergy (ΣFICs of 0.1-0.5) with telavancin + rifampin in 20/24 (83%) isolates and indifference (ΣFICs of 0.6-0.8) in 4/24 (17%) isolates. Similarly, the daptomycin + rifampin combination showed synergy (ΣFICs of 0.1-0.5) in 21/24 (88%) isolates and indifference (ΣFICs of 0.6-1.0) in 3/24 (12%) isolates by the Etest method. No antagonism was found. In vitro synergy with both combinations (rifampin + telavancin or daptomycin) was 83% and 88%, respectively, by Etest against these LRVRE isolates. Although both daptomycin and telavancin in combination with rifampin showed a high incidence of synergistic activity, further in vitro synergy testing with this combination should be performed against additional E faecium isolates. In vitro synergy may or may not translate into in vivo effectiveness.

  3. Systematic review and meta-analysis of in vitro synergy of polymyxins and carbapenems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zusman, Oren; Avni, Tomer; Leibovici, Leonard; Adler, Amos; Friberg, Lena; Stergiopoulou, Theodouli; Carmeli, Yehuda; Paul, Mical

    2013-10-01

    Our objective was to examine the evidence of in vitro synergy of polymyxin-carbapenem combination therapy against Gram-negative bacteria (GNB). A systematic review and meta-analysis were performed. All studies examining in vitro interactions of antibiotic combinations consisting of any carbapenem with colistin or polymyxin B against any GNB were used. A broad search was conducted with no language, date, or publication status restrictions. Synergy rates, defined as a fractional inhibitory concentration index of ≤0.5 or a >2-log reduction in CFU, were pooled separately for time-kill, checkerboard, and Etest methods in a mixed-effect meta-analysis of rates. We examined whether the synergy rate depended on the testing method, type of antibiotic, bacteria, and resistance to carbapenems. Pooled rates with 95% confidence intervals (CI) are shown. Thirty-nine published studies and 15 conference proceeding were included, reporting on 246 different tests on 1,054 bacterial isolates. In time-kill studies, combination therapy showed synergy rates of 77% (95% CI, 64 to 87%) for Acinetobacter baumannii, 44% (95% CI, 30 to 59%) for Klebsiella pneumoniae, and 50% (95% CI, 30 to 69%) for Pseudomonas aeruginosa, with low antagonism rates for all. Doripenem showed high synergy rates for all three bacteria. For A. baumannii, meropenem was more synergistic than imipenem, whereas for P. aeruginosa the opposite was true. Checkerboard and Etest studies generally reported lower synergy rates than time-kill studies. The use of combination therapy led to less resistance development in vitro. The combination of a carbapenem with a polymyxin against GNB, especially A. baumannii, is supported in vitro by high synergy rates, with low antagonism and less resistance development. These findings should be examined in clinical studies.

  4. Disease-management partnership functioning, synergy and effectiveness in delivering chronic-illness care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramm, Jane Murray; Nieboer, Anna Petra

    2012-06-01

    This study explored associations among disease-management partnership functioning, synergy and effectiveness in the delivery of chronic-illness care. This study had a cross-sectional design. The study sample consists of 218 professionals (out of 393) participating in 22 disease-management partnerships in various regions of the Netherlands. We assessed the relationships among partnership functioning, synergy and effectiveness in the delivery of chronic-illness care. Partnership functioning was assessed through leadership, resources, administration and efficiency. Synergy was considered the proximal outcome of partnership functioning, which, in turn, influenced the effectiveness of disease-management partnerships [measured with the Assessment of Chronic Illness Care (ACIC) survey instrument]. Overall ACIC scores ranged from 3 to 10, indicating basic/intermediate to optimal/comprehensive delivery of chronic-illness care. The results of the regression analysis demonstrate that partnership effectiveness was positively associated with leadership (β = 0.25; P≤ 0.01), and resources (β = 0.31; P≤ 0.001). No significant relationship was found between administration, efficiency and partnership effectiveness. Partnership synergy acted as a mediator for partnership functioning and was statistically significantly associated with partnership effectiveness (β = 0.25; P≤ 0.001). Disease-management partnerships seemed better able to deliver higher levels of chronic-illness care when synergy is created between partners. Synergy was more likely to emerge with boundary-spanning leaders who understood and appreciated partners' different perspectives, could bridge their diverse cultures and were comfortable sharing ideas, resources and power. In addition, the acknowledgement of and ability to use members' resources are valuable in engaging partners' involvement and achieving synergy in disease-management partnerships.

  5. Investigating reduction of dimensionality during single-joint elbow movements: a case study on muscle synergies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico eChiovetto

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available A long standing hypothesis in the neuroscience community is that the CNS generates the muscle activities to accomplish movements by combining a relatively small number of stereotyped patterns of muscle activations, often referred to as muscle synergies. Different definitions of synergies have been given in the literature. The most well-known are those of synchronous, time-varying and temporal muscle synergies. Each one of them is based on a different mathematical model used to factor some EMG array recordings collected during the execution of variety of motor tasks into a well-determined spatial, temporal or spatio-temporal organization. This plurality of definitions and their separate application to complex tasks have so far complicated the comparison and interpretation of the results obtained across studies, and it has always remained unclear why and when one synergistic decomposition should be preferred to another one. By using well-understood motor tasks such as elbow flexions and extensions, we aimed in this study to clarify better what are the motor features characterized by each kind of decomposition and to assess whether, when and why one of them should be preferred to the others. We found that three temporal synergies, each one of them accounting for specific temporal phases of the movements could account for the majority of the data variation. Similar performances could be achieved by two synchronous synergies, encoding the agonist-antagonist nature of the two muscles considered, and by two time-varying muscle synergies, encoding each one a task-related feature of the elbow movements, specifically their direction. Our findings support the notion that each EMG decomposition provides a set of well-interpretable muscle synergies, identifying reduction of dimensionality in different aspects of the movements. Taken together, our findings suggest that all decompositions are not equivalent and may imply different neurophysiological substrates

  6. A Water-/Fireproof Flexible Lithium-Oxygen Battery Achieved by Synergy of Novel Architecture and Multifunctional Separator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Yan-Bin; Yang, Xiao-Yang; Chang, Zhi-Wen; Zhu, Yun-Hai; Liu, Tong; Yan, Jun-Min; Jiang, Qing

    2018-01-01

    To meet the increasing demands for portable and flexible devices in a rapidly developing society, it is urgently required to develop highly safe and flexible electrochemical energy-storage systems. Flexible lithium-oxygen batteries with high theoretical specific energy density are promising candidates; however, the conventional half-open structure design prevents it from working properly under water or fire conditions. Herein, as a proof-of-concept experiment, a highly safe flexible lithium-oxygen battery achieved by the synergy of a vital multifunctional structure design and a unique composite separator is proposed and fabricated. The structure can effectively prevent the invasion of water from the environment and combustion, which is further significantly consolidated with the help of a polyimide and poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) composite separator, which holds good water resistance, thermal stability, and ionic conductivity. Unexpectedly, the obtained lithium-oxygen battery exhibits superior flexibility, water resistance, thermal resistance, and cycling stability (up to 218 cycles; at a high current of 1 mA and capacity of 4 mA h). This novel water/fireproof, flexible lithium-oxygen battery is a promising candidate to power underwater flexible electronics. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. The Impact of Technical–Nontechnical Factors Synergy on Innovation Performance: The Moderating Effect of Talent Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Bo Shi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Innovation and talent are the guarantee of the sustainable development of an enterprise. However, internet companies are facing two major problems: innovation scarcity and frequent talent flow. The gradual intensification of competition is leading internet companies to realize the importance of collaborative innovation of an enterprise’s internal elements. Previous studies have pointed out that appropriate talent flow is conducive to improve the corporation’s innovation performance, too low or too high talent flow has a negative impact on the enterprise’s innovation ability. This study explores the relationship between talent flow, technical–nontechnical element synergy and collaborative innovation performance in the internet industry. The results show that the technical–nontechnical element synergy is beneficial to improve the collaborative innovation performance, and the comprehensive coordination of the elements can generate integration advantages that single element synergy cannot produce. As a moderator variable, talent flow can positively moderate the relationship between technical–market synergy, technical–strategy synergy, technical–institution synergy and collaborative innovation performance. However, because of the particularity of organization and culture, talent flow has no moderating effect on the relationship between technical–culture synergy, technical–organization synergy and innovation performance. Finally, this paper puts forward some suggestions on how to promote internet enterprise internal element synergy and use the talent flow frequency to improve collaborative innovation performance.

  8. Social Support and Emocional Stability in Adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Zuzana Mičková

    2014-01-01

    The issue of anticipation social support is actual topic because of detection important factors for positive development of personality. Emotional bonds are getting stronger with perception of social support. Subjective feeling of positive emotions and relationships is manifest with higher range of social and mental functioning, emotional - willing stability of personality. Emotional basement of personality is emotional stability, which represent relationship with the anticipated social suppo...

  9. Electromyogram synergy control of a dexterous artificial hand to unscrew and screw objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Benjamin A; Karnati, Nareen; Engeberg, Erik D

    2014-03-21

    Due to their limited dexterity, it is currently not possible to use a commercially available prosthetic hand to unscrew or screw objects without using elbow and shoulder movements. For these tasks, prosthetic hands function like a wrench, which is unnatural and limits their use in tight working environments. Results from timed rotational tasks with human subjects demonstrate the clinical need for increased dexterity of prosthetic hands, and a clinically viable solution to this problem is presented for an anthropomorphic artificial hand. Initially, a human hand motion analysis was performed during a rotational task. From these data, human hand synergies were derived and mapped to an anthropomorphic artificial hand. The synergy for the artificial hand is controlled using conventional dual site electromyogram (EMG) signals. These EMG signals were mapped to the developed synergy to control four joints of the dexterous artificial hand simultaneously.Five limb absent and ten able-bodied test subjects participated in a comparison study to complete a timed rotational task as quickly as possible with their natural hands (except for one subject with a bilateral hand absence), eight commercially available prosthetic hands, and the proposed synergy controller. Each test subject used two to four different artificial hands. With the able-bodied subjects, the developed synergy controller reduced task completion time by 177% on average. The limb absent subjects completed the task faster on average than with their own prostheses by 46%. There was a statistically significant improvement in task completion time with the synergy controller for three of the four limb absent participants with integrated prostheses, and was not statistically different for the fourth. The proposed synergy controller reduced average task completion time compared to commercially available prostheses. Additionally, the synergy controller is able to function in a small workspace and requires less physical

  10. A regional synergy approach to energy recovery: The case of the Kwinana industrial area, Western Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beers, D. van; Biswas, W.K.

    2008-01-01

    Energy is a key issue in the Kwinana industrial area, Western Australia's major heavy industrial region, where the major energy consuming industries consume upto 80 PJ/yr of energy in their processes. Over the past decade, significant progress has been made towards the reduction of energy consumption and reduction of greenhouse gases in Kwinana. One way to further advance sustainable energy use is through the realisation of regional synergies. These concern the capture, recovery and reuse of by-products, water and energy between industries in close proximity. Kwinana is recognised as a leading edge example in regional synergy development, but more synergy opportunities appear to exist. The centre for sustainable resource processing (CSRP) is undertaking research to develop new synergies in Kwinana, including energy utility synergies. As part of the research, a methodology was developed and applied to identify and evaluate the economic, technical, and environmental feasibility of collaborative energy recovery opportunities from industry flue gases in Kwinana. The trial application demonstrated the significant potential to mitigate CO 2 emissions through energy recovery from flue gases by applying technologies to convert the embedded energy into useful thermal and electric applications. This article discusses the methodology and outcomes from the trial applications, including the impact of carbon taxes, reducing costs of emerging technologies, and increasing energy prices

  11. Feasibility of Muscle Synergy Outcomes in Clinics, Robotics, and Sports: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juri Taborri

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last years, several studies have been focused on understanding how the central nervous system controls muscles to perform a specific motor task. Although it still remains an open question, muscle synergies have come to be an appealing theory to explain the modular organization of the central nervous system. Even though the neural encoding of muscle synergies remains controversial, a large number of papers demonstrated that muscle synergies are robust across different tested conditions, which are within a day, between days, within a single subject, and between subjects that have similar demographic characteristics. Thus, muscle synergy theory has been largely used in several research fields, such as clinics, robotics, and sports. The present systematical review aims at providing an overview on the applications of muscle synergy theory in clinics, robotics, and sports; in particular, the review is focused on the papers that provide tangible information for (i diagnosis or pathology assessment in clinics, (ii robot-control design in robotics, and (iii athletes’ performance assessment or training guidelines in sports.

  12. Understanding the Process and Success Factors to Increase Synergies between Research and Teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Ballou

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available While the synergies between research for knowledge discovery and teaching are widely accepted, the evidence is mostly implicit, verbal and poorly documented, and many times contradictive. In an effort to better understand the interaction between these important activities, the main objective of this study is to collect knowledge illustrating their synergies through specific cases. A complementary objective is to identify the important factors, which professionals should implement or avoid for increasing the likelihood that these synergies will be derived. To collect the necessary information personal interviews have been used to address the research question. The same set of questions was sent to several professionals known to have extensive experience in the areas of academic research and teaching. The respondents were asked to: 1. briefly describe the knowledge area in which the synergies occurred; 2. For the specified knowledge area, to please describe in summary form but specifically how they derived the synergy between research and teaching; and 3. Based on their personal experience, to please identify the important factors to increase the likelihood that academic research will produce benefits for teaching, and vice versa. The results strongly corroborate the importance of academic research for effective teaching. Based on the results, a set of recommendations are made to faculty members and school administrators to further promote academic research as an important factor for more effective teaching.

  13. Ecosystem service trade-offs and synergies misunderstood without landscape history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie A. Tomscha

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Dramatic changes in ecosystem services have motivated recent work characterizing their interactions, including identifying trade-offs and synergies. Although time is arguably implicit in these ideas of trade-offs and synergies (e.g., temporal dynamics or changes in ecosystem services, such interactions are routinely inferred based on the spatial relationships among ecosystem services alone (e.g., spatial concordance of ecosystem services indicates synergies, whereas incongruence signifies trade-offs. The limitations of this approach have not been fully explored. We quantified ecosystem service interactions using correlations among contemporary ecosystem services and compared these results to those derived by incorporating change in ecosystem services from an earlier decade. To document change over ~60 years in an urbanizing floodplain, we used aerial photography to map multiple floodplain-associated ecosystem services. Our results demonstrate how incorporating landscape baselines can influence measured synergies and trade-offs. Spatial correlations among contemporary ecosystem services missed several interactions that were detected when using prior baseline ecosystem services. Ignoring the history of ecosystem services and their change over time may result in missed opportunities to foster their synergies and lead to unnecessary trade-offs. Efforts to incorporate ecosystem services into land management should include long-term monitoring and baseline reconstructions of ecosystem services.

  14. Regular exercisers have stronger pelvic floor muscles than nonregular exercisers at midpregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bø, Kari; Ellstrøm Engh, Marie; Hilde, Gunvor

    2018-04-01

    Today all healthy pregnant women are encouraged to be physically active throughout pregnancy, with recommendations to participate in at least 30 minutes of aerobic activity on most days of the week in addition to performing strength training of the major muscle groups 2-3 days per week and also pelvic floor muscle training. There is, however, an ongoing debate whether general physical activity enhances or declines pelvic floor muscle function. The objectives of the study were to compare vaginal resting pressure, pelvic floor muscle strength, and endurance in regular exercisers (exercise ≥30 minutes 3 or more times per week) and nonexercisers at midpregnancy. Furthermore, another objective was to assess whether regular general exercise or pelvic floor muscle strength was associated with urinary incontinence. This was a cross-sectional study at mean gestational week 20.9 (±1.4) including 218 nulliparous pregnant women, with a mean age of 28.6 years (range, 19-40 years) and prepregnancy body mass index of 23.9 kg/m 2 (SD, 4.0). Vaginal resting pressure, pelvic floor muscle strength, and pelvic floor muscle endurance were measured by a high-precision pressure transducer connected to a vaginal balloon. The International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire Urinary Incontinence Short Form was used to assess urinary incontinence. Differences between groups were analyzed using an independent-sample Student t test. Linear regression analysis was conducted to adjust for prepregnancy body mass index, age, smoking during pregnancy, and regular pelvic floor muscle training during pregnancy. The significance value was set to P ≤ .05. Regular exercisers had statistically significant stronger (mean 6.4 cm H 2 O [95% confidence interval, 1.7-11.2]) and more enduring (mean 39.9 cm H 2 Osec [95% confidence interval, 42.2-75.7]) pelvic floor muscles. Only pelvic floor muscle strength remained statistically significant, when adjusting for possible confounders. Pelvic floor

  15. Kaempferol and Chrysin Synergies to Improve Septic Mice Survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harasstani, Omar A; Tham, Chau Ling; Israf, Daud A

    2017-01-06

    Previously, we reported the role of synergy between two flavonoids-namely, chrysin and kaempferol-in inhibiting the secretion of a few major proinflammatory mediators such as tumor necrosis factor -alpha (TNF-α), prostaglandin E₂ (PGE₂) , and nitric oxide (NO) from lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced RAW 264.7 cells. The present study aims to evaluate the effects of this combination on a murine model of polymicrobial sepsis induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). Severe sepsis was induced in male ICR mice ( n = 7) via the CLP procedure. The effects of chrysin and kaempferol combination treatment on septic mice were investigated using a 7-day survival study. The levels of key proinflammatory mediators and markers-such as aspartate aminotransferase (AST), TNF-α, and NO-in the sera samples of the septic mice were determined via ELISA and fluorescence determination at different time point intervals post-CLP challenge. Liver tissue samples from septic mice were harvested to measure myeloperoxidase (MPO) levels using a spectrophotometer. Moreover, intraperitoneal fluid (IPF) bacterial clearance and total leukocyte count were also assessed to detect any antibacterial effects exerted by chrysin and kaempferol, individually and in combination. Kaempferol treatment improved the survival rate of CLP-challenged mice by up to 16%. During this treatment, kaempferol expressed antibacterial, antiapoptotic and antioxidant activities through the attenuation of bacterial forming units, AST and NO levels, and increased polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) count in the IPF. On the other hand, the chrysin treatment significantly reduced serum TNF-α levels. However, it failed to significantly improve the survival rate of the CLP-challenged mice. Subsequently, the kaempferol/chrysin combination treatment significantly improved the overall 7-day survival rate by 2-fold-up to 29%. Kaempferol and chrysin revealed some synergistic effects by acting individually upon multiple

  16. The Integration Role of European Defense Procurement in Achieving a More Competitive and Stronger European Defense Equipment Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    and systems, even monopolistic ) essence of the supply side of the defense market . There are only a few suppliers that can meet today’s complex...DEFENSE PROCUREMENT IN ACHIEVING A MORE COMPETITIVE AND STRONGER EUROPEAN DEFENSE EQUIPMENT MARKET by Kiril O. Angelov June 2015 Thesis Advisor...COMPETITIVE AND STRONGER EUROPEAN DEFENSE EQUIPMENT MARKET 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) Kiril O. Angelov 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND

  17. Age differences in autobiographical memory across the adult lifespan: older adults report stronger phenomenology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luchetti, Martina; Sutin, Angelina R

    2018-01-01

    As an individual's life story evolves across adulthood, the subjective experience (phenomenology) of autobiographical memory likely changes. In addition to age at retrieval, both the recency of the memory and the age when a memory is formed may be particularly important to its phenomenology. The present work examines the effect of three temporal factors on phenomenology ratings: (a) age of the participant, (b) age at the event reported in the memory, and (c) memory age (recency). A large sample of Americans (N = 1120), stratified by chronological age, recalled and rated two meaningful memories, a Turning Point and an Early Childhood Memory. Ratings of phenomenology (e.g., vividness of turning points) were higher among older adults compared to younger adults. Memories of events from the reminiscence bump were more positive in valence than events from other time periods but did not differ on other phenomenological dimensions; recent memories had stronger phenomenology than remote memories. In contrast to phenomenology, narrative content was generally unrelated to participant age, age at the event, or memory age. Overall, the findings indicate age-related differences in how meaningful memories are re-experienced.

  18. Stronger activation of SREBP-1a by nucleus-localized HBx

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Qi; Qiao, Ling; Yang, Jian; Zhou, Yan; Liu, Qiang

    2015-01-01

    We previously showed that hepatitis B virus (HBV) X protein activates the sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1a (SREBP-1a). Here we examined the role of nuclear localization of HBx in this process. In comparison to the wild-type and cytoplasmic HBx, nuclear HBx had stronger effects on SREBP-1a and fatty acid synthase transcription activation, intracellular lipid accumulation and cell proliferation. Furthermore, nuclear HBx could activate HBV enhancer I/X promoter and was more effective on up-regulating HBV mRNA level in the context of HBV replication than the wild-type HBx, while the cytoplasmic HBx had no effect. Our results demonstrate the functional significance of the nucleus-localized HBx in regulating host lipogenic pathway and HBV replication. - Highlights: • Nuclear HBx is more effective on activating SREBP-1a and FASN transcription. • Nuclear HBx is more effective on enhancing intracellular lipid accumulation. • Nuclear HBx is more effective on enhancing cell proliferation. • Nuclear HBx up-regulates HBV enhancer I/X promoter activity. • Nuclear HBx increases HBV mRNA level in the context of HBV replication

  19. Income is a stronger predictor of mortality than education in a national sample of US adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabanayagam, Charumathi; Shankar, Anoop

    2012-03-01

    Low socioeconomic status (SES) is associated with mortality in several populations. SES measures, such as education and income, may operate through different pathways. However, the independent effect of each measure mutually adjusting for the effect of other SES measures is not clear. The association between poverty-income ratio (PIR) and education and all-cause mortality among 15,646 adults, aged >20 years, who participated in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in the USA, was examined. The lower PIR quartiles and less than high school education were positively associated with all-cause mortality in initial models adjusting for the demographic, lifestyle and clinical risk factors. After additional adjustment for education, the lower PIR quartiles were still significantly associated with all-cause mortality. The multivariable odds ratio (OR) [95% confidence interval (CI)] of all-cause mortality comparing the lowest to the highest quartile of PIR was 2.11 (1.52-2.95, p trend education was no longer associated with all-cause mortality [multivariable OR (95% CI) of all-cause mortality comparing less than high school to more than high school education was 1.05 (0.85-1.31, p trend=0.57)]. The results suggest that income may be a stronger predictor of mortality than education, and narrowing the income differentials may reduce the health disparities.

  20. UGC galaxies stronger than 25 mJy at 4.85 GHz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Condon, J.J.; Frayer, D.T.; Broderick, J.J.

    1991-01-01

    UGC galaxies in the declination band +5 to +75 deg were identified by position coincidence with radio sources stronger than 25 mJy on the Green Bank 4.85 GHz sky maps. Candidate identifications were confirmed or rejected with the aid of published aperture-synthesis maps and new 4.86 GHz VLA maps having 15 or 18 arcsec resolution, resulting in a sample of 347 nearby radio galaxies plus five new quasar-galaxy pairs. The radio energy sources in UGC galaxies were classified as starbursts or monsters on the basis of their infrared-radio flux ratios, infrared spectral indices, and radio morphologies. The rms scatter in the logarithmic infrared-radio ratio q is not more than 0.16 for starburst galaxies selected at 4.85 GHz. Radio spectral indices were obtained for nearly all of the UGC galaxies, and S0 galaxies account for a disproportionate share of the compact flat-spectrum (alpha less than 0.5) radio sources. The extended radio jets and lobes produced by monsters are preferentially, but not exclusively, aligned within about 30 deg of the optical minor axes of their host galaxies. The tendency toward minor-axis ejection appears to be independent of radio-source size and is strongest for elliptical galaxies. 230 refs

  1. Plant Identity Exerts Stronger Effect than Fertilization on Soil Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi in a Sown Pasture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yong; Chen, Liang; Luo, Cai-Yun; Zhang, Zhen-Hua; Wang, Shi-Ping; Guo, Liang-Dong

    2016-10-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi play key roles in plant nutrition and plant productivity. AM fungal responses to either plant identity or fertilization have been investigated. However, the interactive effects of different plant species and fertilizer types on these symbiotic fungi remain poorly understood. We evaluated the effects of the factorial combinations of plant identity (grasses Avena sativa and Elymus nutans and legume Vicia sativa) and fertilization (urea and sheep manure) on AM fungi following 2-year monocultures in a sown pasture field study. AM fungal extraradical hyphal density was significantly higher in E. nutans than that in A. sativa and V. sativa in the unfertilized control and was significantly increased by urea and manure in A. sativa and by manure only in E. nutans, but not by either fertilizers in V. sativa. AM fungal spore density was not significantly affected by plant identity or fertilization. Forty-eight operational taxonomic units (OTUs) of AM fungi were obtained through 454 pyrosequencing of 18S rDNA. The OTU richness and Shannon diversity index of AM fungi were significantly higher in E. nutans than those in V. sativa and/or A. sativa, but not significantly affected by any fertilizer in all of the three plant species. AM fungal community composition was significantly structured directly by plant identity only and indirectly by both urea addition and plant identity through soil total nitrogen content. Our findings highlight that plant identity has stronger influence than fertilization on belowground AM fungal community in this converted pastureland from an alpine meadow.

  2. Exercise training raises daily activity stronger than predicted from exercise capacity in patients with COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behnke, Michaela; Wewel, Alexandra R; Kirsten, Detlef; Jörres, Rudolf A; Magnussen, Helgo

    2005-06-01

    The 6-min walking (6MWD) and 6-min treadmill distance (6MTD) are often used as measures of exercise performance in patients with COPD. The aim of our study was to assess their relationship to daily activity in the course of an exercise training program. Eighty-eight patients with stable COPD (71m/17f; mean +/- SD age, 60 +/-8 year; FEV1, 43+/-14% pred) were recruited, 66 of whom performed a hospital-based 10-day walking training, whereas 22 were treated as control. On day 16MTD, and on days 8 and 10, 6MTD and 6MWD were determined. In addition, patients used an accelerometer (TriTrac-R3D) to record 24 h-activity, whereby training sessions were excluded. In both groups there was a linear relationship (r > or = 0.84 and P daily activity did not markedly vary with exercise capacity under baseline conditions. Participation in a training program increased activity significantly stronger than predicted from the gain in exercise capacity. This underlines the importance of non-physiological, patient-centered factors associated with training in COPD.

  3. Stronger activation of SREBP-1a by nucleus-localized HBx

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Qi [VIDO-InterVac, Veterinary Microbiology, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon (Canada); Qiao, Ling [VIDO-InterVac, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan (Canada); Yang, Jian [Drug Discovery Group, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan (Canada); Zhou, Yan [VIDO-InterVac, Veterinary Microbiology, Vaccinology and Immunotherapeutics, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan (Canada); Liu, Qiang, E-mail: qiang.liu@usask.ca [VIDO-InterVac, Veterinary Microbiology, Vaccinology and Immunotherapeutics, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan (Canada)

    2015-05-08

    We previously showed that hepatitis B virus (HBV) X protein activates the sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1a (SREBP-1a). Here we examined the role of nuclear localization of HBx in this process. In comparison to the wild-type and cytoplasmic HBx, nuclear HBx had stronger effects on SREBP-1a and fatty acid synthase transcription activation, intracellular lipid accumulation and cell proliferation. Furthermore, nuclear HBx could activate HBV enhancer I/X promoter and was more effective on up-regulating HBV mRNA level in the context of HBV replication than the wild-type HBx, while the cytoplasmic HBx had no effect. Our results demonstrate the functional significance of the nucleus-localized HBx in regulating host lipogenic pathway and HBV replication. - Highlights: • Nuclear HBx is more effective on activating SREBP-1a and FASN transcription. • Nuclear HBx is more effective on enhancing intracellular lipid accumulation. • Nuclear HBx is more effective on enhancing cell proliferation. • Nuclear HBx up-regulates HBV enhancer I/X promoter activity. • Nuclear HBx increases HBV mRNA level in the context of HBV replication.

  4. Brain Potentials Highlight Stronger Implicit Food Memory for Taste than Health and Context Associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoogeveen, Heleen R; Jolij, Jacob; Ter Horst, Gert J; Lorist, Monicque M

    2016-01-01

    Increasingly consumption of healthy foods is advised to improve population health. Reasons people give for choosing one food over another suggest that non-sensory features like health aspects are appreciated as of lower importance than taste. However, many food choices are made in the absence of the actual perception of a food's sensory properties, and therefore highly rely on previous experiences of similar consumptions stored in memory. In this study we assessed the differential strength of food associations implicitly stored in memory, using an associative priming paradigm. Participants (N = 30) were exposed to a forced-choice picture-categorization task, in which the food or non-food target images were primed with either non-sensory or sensory related words. We observed a smaller N400 amplitude at the parietal electrodes when categorizing food as compared to non-food images. While this effect was enhanced by the presentation of a food-related word prime during food trials, the primes had no effect in the non-food trials. More specifically, we found that sensory associations are stronger implicitly represented in memory as compared to non-sensory associations. Thus, this study highlights the neuronal mechanisms underlying previous observations that sensory associations are important features of food memory, and therefore a primary motive in food choice.

  5. Daytime warming has stronger negative effects on soil nematodes than night-time warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xiumin; Wang, Kehong; Song, Lihong; Wang, Xuefeng; Wu, Donghui

    2017-03-01

    Warming of the climate system is unequivocal, that is, stronger warming during night-time than during daytime. Here we focus on how soil nematodes respond to the current asymmetric warming. A field infrared heating experiment was performed in the western of the Songnen Plain, Northeast China. Three warming modes, i.e. daytime warming, night-time warming and diurnal warming, were taken to perform the asymmetric warming condition. Our results showed that the daytime and diurnal warming treatment significantly decreased soil nematodes density, and night-time warming treatment marginally affected the density. The response of bacterivorous nematode and fungivorous nematode to experimental warming showed the same trend with the total density. Redundancy analysis revealed an opposite effect of soil moisture and soil temperature, and the most important of soil moisture and temperature in night-time among the measured environment factors, affecting soil nematode community. Our findings suggested that daily minimum temperature and warming induced drying are most important factors affecting soil nematode community under the current global asymmetric warming.

  6. Earlier adolescent substance use onset predicts stronger connectivity between reward and cognitive control brain networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissman, David G; Schriber, Roberta A; Fassbender, Catherine; Atherton, Olivia; Krafft, Cynthia; Robins, Richard W; Hastings, Paul D; Guyer, Amanda E

    2015-12-01

    Early adolescent onset of substance use is a robust predictor of future substance use disorders. We examined the relation between age of substance use initiation and resting state functional connectivity (RSFC) of the core reward processing (nucleus accumbens; NAcc) to cognitive control (prefrontal cortex; PFC) brain networks. Adolescents in a longitudinal study of Mexican-origin youth reported their substance use annually from ages 10 to 16 years. At age 16, 69 adolescents participated in a resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging scan. Seed-based correlational analyses were conducted using regions of interest in bilateral NAcc. The earlier that adolescents initiated substance use, the stronger the connectivity between bilateral NAcc and right dorsolateral PFC, right dorsomedial PFC, right pre-supplementary motor area, right inferior parietal lobule, and left medial temporal gyrus. The regions that demonstrated significant positive linear relationships between the number of adolescent years using substances and connectivity with NAcc are nodes in the right frontoparietal network, which is central to cognitive control. The coupling of reward and cognitive control networks may be a mechanism through which earlier onset of substance use is related to brain function over time, a trajectory that may be implicated in subsequent substance use disorders. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Harmful drinking after job loss: a stronger association during the post-2008 economic crisis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Goeij, Moniek C M; Bruggink, Jan-Willem; Otten, Ferdy; Kunst, Anton E

    2017-06-01

    This study investigated, among the Dutch working population, whether job loss during the post-2008 economic crisis is associated with harmful drinking and whether this association is stronger than before the crisis. Repeated cross-sectional data from the Dutch Health Interview Survey 2004-2013 were used to define episodic drinking (≥6 glasses on 1 day ≥1/week) and chronic drinking (≥14 glasses/week for women and ≥21 for men). These data were linked to longitudinal data from tax registries, to measure the experience and duration of job loss during a 5-year working history. Before the crisis, job loss experience and duration were not associated with harmful drinking. During the crisis, job loss for more than 6 months was associated with episodic drinking [OR 1.40 (95% CI 1.01; 1.94)], while current job loss was associated with chronic drinking [OR 1.43 (95% CI 1.03; 1.98)]. These associations were most clear in men and different between the pre-crisis and crisis period (p interaction = 0.023 and 0.035, respectively). The results suggest that economic crises strengthen the potential impact of job loss on harmful drinking, predominately among men.

  8. Synergies between the first-generation JHF-SK and NuMI superbeam experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huber, P.; Lindner, M.; Winter, W.

    2003-01-01

    We discuss synergies in the combination of the first-generation JHF to Super-Kamiokande and NuMI off-axis superbeam experiments. With synergies we mean effects which go beyond simply adding the statistics of the two experiments. As a first important result, we do not observe interesting synergy effects in the combination of the two experiments as they are planned right now. However, we find that with minor modifications, such as a different NuMI baseline or a partial antineutrino running, one could do much richer physics with both experiments combined. Specifically, we demonstrate that one could, depending on the value of the solar mass squared difference, either measure the sign of the atmospheric mass squared difference or CP violation already with the initial stage experiments. Our main results are presented in a way that can be easily interpreted in terms of the forthcoming KamLAND result

  9. International legal instruments promoting synergy's in nuclear safety, security and safeguards: myth of reality?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasmant, A.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to assess the existing synergies between nuclear safety, nuclear security and non-proliferation/safeguards resulting from the adoption of international legal instruments. Keeping in mind that a synergy is the extra success achieved by two or more elements of a system working together instead of on their own, this paper will try to evaluate the possibility of a so-called '3 S' approach to optimize the benefits so defined. to achieve this, Part 1 focuses on the history of the three regimes and their major features, while Part 2, 3 and 4 explore the various benefits of, limits to, synergies between the nuclear safety, nuclear security and safeguards regimes. Part 5 describes the potential '3 S' approach in international nuclear law. (N.C.)

  10. SynergyFinder: a web application for analyzing drug combination dose-response matrix data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ianevski, Aleksandr; He, Liye; Aittokallio, Tero; Tang, Jing

    2017-08-01

    Rational design of drug combinations has become a promising strategy to tackle the drug sensitivity and resistance problem in cancer treatment. To systematically evaluate the pre-clinical significance of pairwise drug combinations, functional screening assays that probe combination effects in a dose-response matrix assay are commonly used. To facilitate the analysis of such drug combination experiments, we implemented a web application that uses key functions of R-package SynergyFinder, and provides not only the flexibility of using multiple synergy scoring models, but also a user-friendly interface for visualizing the drug combination landscapes in an interactive manner. The SynergyFinder web application is freely accessible at https://synergyfinder.fimm.fi ; The R-package and its source-code are freely available at http://bioconductor.org/packages/release/bioc/html/synergyfinder.html . jing.tang@helsinki.fi. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  11. Core business concentration vs. corporate diversification in the US electric utility industry: Synergy and deregulation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sueyoshi, Toshiyuki; Goto, Mika; Shang, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    Many economists such as Wilson (2002) [Wilson, R., 2002. Architecture of power market, Econometrica, 70, 1299-1340] have considered that there are similarities between electricity and gas services in the US electric utility industry. Hence, they expect a synergy effect between them. However, the two businesses do not have technology similarities at the level that the gas service produces a synergy effect with electricity. To examine whether there is a synergy effect of corporate diversification in the industry, we compare electricity-specialized firms with diversified utility firms in terms of their financial performance and corporate value. The comparison indicates that core business concentration is more effective for electric utility firms than corporate diversification under the current US deregulation policy.

  12. Pharmacological synergy: the next frontier on therapeutic advancement for migraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenfeld, Andrew; Gennings, Chris; Cady, Roger

    2012-04-01

    mechanisms are involved in terminating acute episodes of migraine. Clinicians now capitalize on this observation and use migraine medication in combination with another to improve patient outcomes, for example, using an antiemetic with an opioid or a triptan and NSAIDs. More recently, the Food and Drug Adminstration has approved a combination product containing 85mg of sumatriptan plus 500mg of naproxen sodium for acute treatment of migraine. Clinical trials conducted prior to approval demonstrated that the combination of sumatriptan and naproxen was more effective as a migraine abortive than either of its components but that each component and the combination were more effective than placebo. Exactly how sumatriptan and naproxen interact to create therapeutic synergism is unknown though its mere occurrence suggests that models assisting medical understanding and prediction of pharmacological synergism may improve clinical outcome over products acting through a single receptor mechanism. Migraine is a syndrome, meaning it is defined by observed symptoms rather than known pathophysiology. Multiple pathogenic mechanisms are likely involved in generating this diverse array of symptoms understood as the migraine symptom complex. Sumatriptan and naproxen have independent mechanisms of action and target distinct aspects of the vascular and inflammatory processes hypothesized to underlie migraine. Sumatriptan acts on the 5-HT(1B) and 5-HT(1D) receptors, whereas naproxen inhibits the COX-1 and COX-2 enzymes. Sumatriptan has vasoconstricting effects as well as effects on neurogenic inflammation by decreasing the release of substance P and calcitonin gene-related peptide. In contrast, naproxen affects prostaglandins and other inflammatory mediators. Because sumatriptan and naproxen both relieve migraine yet interact with different cellular targets within the migraine pathway, it is reasonable to assume there is a unique synergy between these medications that improves treatment

  13. Hand synergies: Integration of robotics and neuroscience for understanding the control of biological and artificial hands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santello, Marco; Bianchi, Matteo; Gabiccini, Marco; Ricciardi, Emiliano; Salvietti, Gionata; Prattichizzo, Domenico; Ernst, Marc; Moscatelli, Alessandro; Jörntell, Henrik; Kappers, Astrid M L; Kyriakopoulos, Kostas; Albu-Schäffer, Alin; Castellini, Claudio; Bicchi, Antonio

    2016-07-01

    The term 'synergy' - from the Greek synergia - means 'working together'. The concept of multiple elements working together towards a common goal has been extensively used in neuroscience to develop theoretical frameworks, experimental approaches, and analytical techniques to understand neural control of movement, and for applications for neuro-rehabilitation. In the past decade, roboticists have successfully applied the framework of synergies to create novel design and control concepts for artificial hands, i.e., robotic hands and prostheses. At the same time, robotic research on the sensorimotor integration underlying the control and sensing of artificial hands has inspired new research approaches in neuroscience, and has provided useful instruments for novel experiments. The ambitious goal of integrating expertise and research approaches in robotics and neuroscience to study the properties and applications of the concept of synergies is generating a number of multidisciplinary cooperative projects, among which the recently finished 4-year European project "The Hand Embodied" (THE). This paper reviews the main insights provided by this framework. Specifically, we provide an overview of neuroscientific bases of hand synergies and introduce how robotics has leveraged the insights from neuroscience for innovative design in hardware and controllers for biomedical engineering applications, including myoelectric hand prostheses, devices for haptics research, and wearable sensing of human hand kinematics. The review also emphasizes how this multidisciplinary collaboration has generated new ways to conceptualize a synergy-based approach for robotics, and provides guidelines and principles for analyzing human behavior and synthesizing artificial robotic systems based on a theory of synergies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. CO2-capture and air quality. Synergy or conflict? A study of possible impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koornneef, J.M.; Ramirez Ramirez, C.A.; Van Harmelen, A.K.; Van Horssen, A.; Van Gijlswijk, R.N.

    2008-01-01

    Does CO2 capture and storage conflict with the objectives for air quality in the Netherlands? Or are win-win situations conceivable? These are important questions for policy makers today. It is expected that both conflicts and synergies will occur in the large scale implementation of CO2 capture in the Dutch electricity sector. This article provides a brief summary of part of the research program that was set up to unravel synergies and conflicts in policy for climate and air quality: the Dutch Policy Research Program on Air and Climate (BOLK) of the ministry of Housing, Spatial Planning and the Environment. [mk] [nl

  15. Health, supervisory support, and workplace culture in relation to work-family conflict and synergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beutell, Nicholas J

    2010-08-01

    This research examined health, supervisory support, and workplace culture as predictors of work interfering with family, family interfering with work, and work-family synergy. The analysis of data from 2,796 respondents from the 2002 National Study of the Changing Workforce yielded significant relations among measures of mental health, self-rated health, supervisory support, and work-family culture with a focus on career concerns. Support was found for a measure of work-family synergy. Implications and directions for research are discussed.

  16. Confirmation of Maslow's Hypothesis of Synergy: Developing an Acceptance of Selfishness at the Workplace Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaki, Jiro; Taniguchi, Toshiyo; Fujii, Yasuhito

    2016-04-30

    This study aimed to develop a new Acceptance of Selfishness at the Workplace Scale (ASWS) and to confirm Maslow's hypothesis of synergy: if both a sense of contribution and acceptance of selfishness at the workplace are high, workers are psychologically healthy. In a cross-sectional study with employees of three Japanese companies, 656 workers answered a self-administered questionnaire on paper completely (response rate = 66.8%). Each questionnaire was submitted to us in a sealed envelope and analyzed. The ASWS indicated high internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = 0.86). Significant (p Maslow's hypothesis of synergy was confirmed.

  17. Inter- and intrasubject similarity of muscle synergies during bench press with slow and fast velocity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samani, Afshin; Kristiansen, Mathias

    2018-01-01

    We investigated the effect of low and high bar velocity on inter- and intra-subject similarity of muscle synergies during bench press. Thirteen trained male subjects underwent two exercise conditions, i.e. a slow and a fast velocity bench press. Surface electromyography was recorded from thirteen...... to describe the dataset variability. For the second activation coefficient, the inter-subject similarity within the fast velocity condition was greater than the intra-subject similarity of the activation coefficient across the conditions. An opposite pattern was observed for the first muscle synergy vector...

  18. Post acquisition business synergies of a foreign affiliate. Case study of companies in Nuevo Leon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Cabeza

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This article will explain the importance of creating synergies after having acquired foreign affiliates. Interviews were conducted to executives of four of the most important manufacturing companies in Nuevo Leon, which have been involved in the international acquisition process of foreign affiliates. Also presented are 10 areas where synergies may be obtained after having acquired a foreign affiliate, in accordance with (Marin and Ketelhohn, 2008 economies of size at corporate headquarters, greater opportunities for professional development, corporate image, interdivisional transactions, vertical integration, economies of scale and/or scope, coordination of skills, learning center, leverage of intangible assets and unleashing of skills.

  19. Modification of Yellow River Sediment Based Stabilized Earth Bricks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junxia Liu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an experimental study on the microstructure and performance of stabilized earth bricks prepared from the Yellow River sediment. The sediment is modified by inorganic cementitious material, polymer bonding agent, and jute fibre. The results show that the sediment is preliminarily consolidated when the mixture ratio of activated sediment/cementitious binder/sand is 65/25/10. Compressive strength and softening coefficient of stabilized earth bricks is further improved by polymer bonding agent and jute fibre. SEM images and EDS spectral analysis indicate that there is indeed synergy among inorganic hydration products, polymer network and jute fibre to strengthen the sediment.

  20. Determination of in vitro synergy for dual antimicrobial therapy against resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae using Etest and agar dilution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wind, Carolien M; de Vries, Henry J C; van Dam, Alje P

    2015-03-01

    In response to antimicrobial resistance of Neisseria gonorrhoeae to last-resort extended-spectrum cephalosporins, combination therapy of azithromycin+ceftriaxone is now recommended. Dual therapy can be effective to treat monoresistant strains as well as multidrug-resistant strains, preferably employing the effect of in vitro synergy. As reports on in vitro synergy of azithromycin+ceftriaxone in N. gonorrhoeae are conflicting, in this study an evaluation of this combination was performed using a cross-wise Etest method and agar dilution. Synergy was defined as a fractional inhibitory concentration index (FICI) of ≤0.5. To identify other dual treatment options for gonorrhoea, in vitro synergy was evaluated for 65 dual antimicrobial combinations using Etest. Azithromycin, cefixime, ceftriaxone, colistin, ertapenem, fosfomycin, gentamicin, minocycline, moxifloxacin, rifampicin, spectinomycin and tigecycline were screened for synergy in all possible combinations. No synergy or antagonism was found for any of the 65 combinations. The geometric mean FICI ranged from 0.82 to 2.00. The mean FICI of azithromycin+ceftriaxone was 1.18 (Etest) and 0.55 (agar dilution). The difference between both methods did not result in a difference in interpretation of synergy. Ceftriaxone-resistant strain F89 was tested in all combinations and no synergy was found for any of them. Most importantly, the ceftriaxone minimum inhibitory concentration of F89 was not decreased below the breakpoint with any concentration of azithromycin. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. and the International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  1. Synergy of EMG patterns in gait as an objective measure of muscle selectivity in children with spastic cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwaan, Esther; Becher, Jules G; Harlaar, Jaap

    2012-01-01

    Selective motor control (SMC) is an important determinant of functioning in cerebral palsy (CP). Currently its assessment is based on subjective clinical tests with a low sensitivity. Electromyography (EMG) profiles during gait represent muscle coordination and might be used to assess SMC. EMG measurements during gait were processed into a measure of extensor synergy and thigh synergy. This was obtained in two groups of children with CP, and 30 typically developing children. Extensor synergy in CP was higher (0.95) than in healthy children (0.77), thigh synergy was almost equal in both groups. GMFM scores in the first group of 39 children with CP did not correlate to EMG based synergy measures. In a second group of 38 children with CP, a clear relation of clinical SMC score with extensor synergy was found, but only a weak relation with thigh synergy. Although an extensor synergy was validated at group level, our results present no convincing evidence for the use of EMG during gait to assess SMC in individual subjects with CP. Since gait involves both synergistic and selective contractions, the inherent motor control properties of this task will not allow for an assessment of selectivity comparable to the ability to perform isolated movements. Nevertheless, our results support the sensitive nature of EMG to represent an aberrant motor control in CP. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Serum albumin coating of demineralized bone matrix results in stronger new bone formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horváthy, Dénes B; Vácz, Gabriella; Szabó, Tamás; Szigyártó, Imola C; Toró, Ildikó; Vámos, Boglárka; Hornyák, István; Renner, Károly; Klára, Tamás; Szabó, Bence T; Dobó-Nagy, Csaba; Doros, Attila; Lacza, Zsombor

    2016-01-01

    Blood serum fractions are hotly debated adjuvants in bone replacement therapies. In the present experiment, we coated demineralized bone matrices (DBM) with serum albumin and investigated stem cell attachment in vitro and bone formation in a rat calvaria defect model. In the in vitro experiments, we observed that significantly more cells adhere to the serum albumin coated DBMs at every time point. In vivo bone formation with albumin coated and uncoated DBM was monitored biweekly by computed tomography until 11 weeks postoperatively while empty defects served as controls. By the seventh week, the bone defect in the albumin group was almost completely closed (remaining defect 3.0 ± 2.3%), while uncoated DBM and unfilled control groups still had significant defects (uncoated: 40.2 ± 9.1%, control: 52.4 ± 8.9%). Higher density values were also observed in the albumin coated DBM group. In addition, the serum albumin enhanced group showed significantly higher volume of newly formed bone in the microCT analysis and produced significantly higher breaking force and stiffness compared to the uncoated grafts (peak breaking force: uncoated: 15.7 ± 4 N, albumin 46.1 ± 11 N). In conclusion, this investigation shows that implanting serum albumin coated DBM significantly reduces healing period in nonhealing defects and results in mechanically stronger bone. These results also support the idea that serum albumin coating provides a convenient milieu for stem cell function, and a much improved bone grafting success can be achieved without the use of exogenous stem cells. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Association Between Self-Esteem and Depressive Symptoms Is Stronger Among Black than White Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assari, Shervin

    2017-08-01

    Although poor self-esteem is a core component of depression, we still do not know if racial and ethnic groups differ in the magnitude of this link. This study compared Black and White older adults on the association between self-esteem and depressive symptoms. With a cross-sectional design, this study enrolled 1493 older individuals (age 66 or more) from the 2001 Religion, Aging, and Health Survey, a nationally representative study in the United States. Participants were either Blacks (n = 734) or Whites (n = 759). Depressive symptoms and self-esteem were measured using brief measures of the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression scale (CES-D) and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, respectively. Demographics, socioeconomics, and self-rated health (SRH) were covariates and self-identified race was the moderator. Linear regression models were used for data analysis. Low self-esteem was associated with more depressive symptoms (B = 0.17, 95 % CI 0.15-0.28), above and beyond all covariates. We found a significant and positive interaction between race (Black) and poor self-esteem on depressive symptoms (B = 0.34, 95 % CI 0.17-0.36), suggesting a stronger association between self-esteem and depressive symptoms among Blacks compared to Whites. Although low self-esteem is associated with higher depressive symptoms in both Whites and Blacks (p self-esteem and high depressive symptoms are more closely associated among Blacks than Whites. It is not clear whether depression leaves a larger scar on self-esteem for Blacks, or Blacks are more vulnerable to the effect of low self-esteem on depression.

  4. The bigger, the stronger? Insights from muscle architecture and nervous characteristics in obese adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Vicencio, S; Coudeyre, E; Kluka, V; Cardenoux, C; Jegu, A-G; Fourot, A-V; Ratel, S; Martin, V

    2016-02-01

    Young obese youth are generally stronger than lean youth. This has been linked to the loading effect of excess body mass, acting as a training stimulus comparable to strength training. Whether this triggers specific adaptations of the muscle architecture (MA) and voluntary activation (VA) that could account for the higher strength of obese subjects remains unknown. MA characteristics (that is, pennation angle (PA), fascicle length (FL) and muscle thickness (MT)) and muscle size (that is, anatomical cross-sectional area (ACSA)) of the knee extensor (KE) and plantar flexor (PF) muscles were evaluated in 12 obese and 12 non-obese adolescent girls (12-15 years). Maximal isometric torque and VA of the KE and PF muscles were also assessed. Results revealed higher PA (Pmuscles in obese girls. Moreover, obese individuals produced a higher absolute torque than their lean counterparts on the KE (224.6±39.5 vs 135.7±32.7 N m, respectively; Pmuscles (73.3±16.5 vs 44.5±6.2 N m; Pmuscles (r=0.45-0.55, P<0.05-0.01). MVC was also correlated with VA (KE: r=0.44, P<0.05; PF: r=0.65, P<0.001) and segmental lean mass (KE: r=0.48, P<0.05; PF: r=0.57, P<0.01). This study highlighted favorable muscular and nervous adaptations to obesity that account for the higher strength of obese youth. The excess of body mass supported during daily activities could act as a chronic training stimulus responsible for these adaptations.

  5. Constructing dual-defense mechanisms on membrane surfaces by synergy of PFSA and SiO2 nanoparticles for persistent antifouling performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Linjie; Gao, Kang; Jiao, Zhiwei; Wu, Mengyuan; He, Mingrui; Su, Yanlei; Jiang, Zhongyi

    2018-05-01

    Synthetic antifouling membrane surfaces with dual-defense mechanisms (fouling-resistant and fouling-release mechanism) were constructed through the synergy of perfluorosulfonic acid (PFSA) and SiO2 nanoparticles. During the nonsolvent induced phase separation (NIPS) process, the amphiphilic PFSA polymers spontaneously segregated to membrane surfaces and catalyzed the hydrolysis-polycondensation of tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) to generate hydrophilic SiO2 nanoparticles (NPs). The resulting PVDF/PFSA/SiO2 hybrid membranes were characterized by contact angle measurements, FTIR, XPS, SEM, AFM, TGA, and TEM. The hydrophilic microdomains and low surface energy microdomains of amphiphilic PFSA polymers respectively endowed membrane surfaces with fouling-resistant mechanism and fouling-release mechanism, while the hydrophilic SiO2 NPs intensified the fouling-resistant mechanism. When the addition of TEOS reached 3 wt%, the hybrid membrane with optimal synergy of PFSA and SiO2 NPs displayed low flux decline (17.4% DRt) and high flux recovery (99.8% FRR) during the filtration of oil-in-water emulsion. Meanwhile, the long-time stability test verified that the hybrid membrane possessed persistent antifouling performance.

  6. Sensors and OBIA synergy for operational monitoring of surface water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masson, Eric; Thenard, Lucas

    2010-05-01

    , frequent drought period and now with foreseen climate change impacts. This third case will demonstrate the efficiency of SPOT 5 programming in synergy with OBIA methodology to assess the evolution of dam surface water within a complete water cycle (i.e. 2008-09). In all those three cases image segmentation and classification algorithms developed with e-Cognition 8 software allow an easy to use implementation of simple to highly sophisticate OBIA rulsets fully operational in batch processes. Finally this contribution foresees the new opportunity of integration of Worldview 2 multispectral imagery (i.e. 8 bands) including its "coastal" band that will also find an application in continental surface water bathymetry. Worldview 2 is a recently launch satellite (e.g. October 2009) that starts to collect earth observation data since January 2010. It is therefore a promising new remote sensing tool to develop operational hydrology in combination high resolution SAR imagery and OBIA methodology. This contribution will conclude on the strong potential for operationalisation in hydrology and water resources management that recent and future sensors and image analysis methodologies are offering to water management and decision makers.

  7. Antistaphylococcal activity of DX-619 alone and in combination with vancomycin, teicoplanin, and linezolid assessed by time-kill synergy testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Credito, Kim; Lin, Genrong; Appelbaum, Peter C

    2007-04-01

    Time-kill synergy studies testing in vitro activity of DX-619 alone and with added vancomycin, teicoplanin, or linezolid against 101 Staphylococcus aureus strains showed synergy between DX-619 and teicoplanin at 12 to 24 h in 72 strains and between DX-619 and vancomycin in 28 strains. No synergy was found with linezolid, and no antagonism was observed with any combination.

  8. The synergy of modeling and novel experiments for melt crystal growth research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derby, Jeffrey J.

    2018-05-01

    Computational modeling and novel experiments, when performed together, can enable the identification of new, fundamental mechanisms important for the growth of bulk crystals from the melt. In this paper, we present a compelling example of this synergy via the discovery of previously unascertained physical mechanisms that govern the engulfment of silicon carbide particles during the growth of crystalline silicon.

  9. Evaluations of the Synergy of the Water-Energy-Food Nexus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, M.

    2017-12-01

    Analyses of the synergy and tradeoff of the water-energy-food nexus are keys to a sustainable society under the increasing demand for resources. Analyses of the water-energy-food nexus in Kumamoto, Japan showed that the paddy field for rice production, upstream of the basin with irrigated water from the river, had recharged the groundwater which is used as drinking water downstream in Kumamoto city without energy consumption for the transport of groundwater. National government regulations of "fallow rice fields" and urbanization after the 1970s caused the decrease in the groundwater recharge rate upstream in the paddy field area. This also lead to the decrease in water resources of groundwater downstream in Kumamoto city, which then required additional energy for water pumping. Therefore, the synergy of water-energy-food was lost after government regulations of rice production and urbanization which caused an impermeable layer for groundwater recharge. The nexus model has been established to analyze the synergy of water-energy-food, including cost-benefit analyses, food trade including rice with different scenarios of food self-sufficiency rates, water and energy consumption for food, and others. A decrease in rice consumption and production with the same self-sufficiency rate caused a decrease in water and energy consumption for rice production, and a decrease in carbon emissions. However, the cost of synergy loss in the water-energy-food nexus in Kumamoto did not outweigh the benefit of reductions in water and energy consumption for rice production.

  10. "I've Known Rivers": A Reflection on the Synergy of Multigenre, Multimodal Texts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    In this article an elementary literacy specialist reflects on the use of multigenre, multimodal texts to support the teaching of poetry. She explores the synergy between poetry and related informational, visual, and auditory texts to afford deeper insights into the poem and the poet, in this instance, the poem, "The Negro Speaks of…

  11. Educational Opportunities Based on the University-Industry Synergies in an Open Innovation Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucia, Oscar; Burdio, Jose M.; Acero, Jesus; Barragan, Luis A.; Garcia, Jose R.

    2012-01-01

    Collaboration between Industry and University is becoming more important in order to improve the competitiveness of the research and development activities. Moreover, establishing synergies to bridge the gap between the academic and industrial spheres has demonstrated to be advantageous for both of them. Nowadays, Industry is moving towards an…

  12. Storage and balancing synergies in a fully or highly renewable pan-European power system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Morten Grud; Bruun Andresen, Gorm; Greiner, Martin

    2012-01-01

    the balancing energy needs for a given storage size, the interplay between storage and balancing is quantified, providing a hard upper limit on their synergy. An efficient but relatively small storage reduces balancing energy needs significantly due to its influence on intra-day mismatches. Furthermore, we show...

  13. Enhancement of catalyst performance in the direct propene epoxidation: a study into gold-titanium synergy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, J.; Halin, S.J.A.; Pidko, E.A.; Verhoeven, M.W.G.M.; Perez Ferrandez, D.M.; Hensen, E.J.M.; Schouten, J.C.; Nijhuis, T.A.

    2013-01-01

    Enhanced productivity toward propene oxide in the direct propene epoxidation with hydrogen and oxygen over gold nanoparticles supported on titanium-grafted silica was achieved by adjusting the gold–titanium synergy. Highly isolated titanium sites were obtained by lowering the titanium loading

  14. The Swedish system of innovation: Regional synergies in a knowledge-based economy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leydesdorff, L.; Strand, Ø.

    2013-01-01

    Based on the complete set of firm data for Sweden (N = 1,187,421; November 2011), we analyze the mutual information among the geographical, technological, and organizational distributions in terms of synergies at regional and national levels. Using this measure, the interaction among three

  15. Fire retardation of polystyrene/clay nanocomposites: initial study on synergy effect

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dujková, Z.; Měřínská, D.; Šlouf, Miroslav

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 9 (2013), s. 1278-1286 ISSN 0892-7057 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : fire retardation * synergy * clay Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 1.134, year: 2013

  16. Inquiry and Irony: Promise and Paradox in Paul Jablon's "The Synergy of Inquiry"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurenberg, David

    2016-01-01

    Paul Jablon's "The Synergy of Inquiry" (2014) is well-timed. The 2014 deadline set by No Child Left Behind (NCLB, 2002) for universal student proficiency has come and gone, and according to the National Assessment of Educational Progress, "proficiency rates last year were below 50 percent for nearly every racial and ethnic group, in…

  17. Study of LHW and IBW synergy experiment on the HT-7 superconducting tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, X.

    2001-01-01

    A successful experiment on lower hybrid wave (LHW) and ion Bernstein wave (IBW) synergy has been carried out in the HT-7 superconducting tokamak. With 500 kW of LHW heating power and 200 kW of injected IBW power, it is observed that the ion temperature increases from 500 eV to about 850 eV, the electron temperature increases from 800 eV to 1.2 keV, and the averaged electron density increases from 0.9x10 19 m -3 to 2.6x10 19 m -3 . The plasma parameters were obviously enhanced by means of the LHW and IBW heating and their synergy. The charge-exchange spectra of the neutral particle analysis (NPA) diagnostics data clearly showed that the high-energy ion tail which was produced by the LHW was decreased by the synergy with the IBW, and the bulk ion temperature was increased. The mechanism of the LHW and IBW synergy effect is discussed. (author)

  18. High prevalence of biofilm synergy among bacterial soil isolates in cocultures indicates bacterial interspecific cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ren, Dawei; Madsen, Jonas Stenløkke; Sørensen, Søren Johannes

    2015-01-01

    of single-species biofilms, indicating that all the individual strains benefit from inclusion in the multispecies community. Our results show a high prevalence of synergy in biofilm formation in multispecies consortia isolated from a natural bacterial habitat and suggest that interspecific cooperation...

  19. Beta-Lactams combinations with Vancomycin provide synergy against VSSA, hVISA, and VISA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Kieu-Nhi; Rybak, Michael J

    2018-03-19

    Background: Increasing utilization of vancomycin due to the high prevalence of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) infections has lead to the emergence of vancomycin-intermediate S. aureus (VISA) and heterogeneous VISA (hVISA). In vitro data suggest the potential for potent synergy between several beta-lactams and vancomycin. The objective of this study is to evaluate the synergy between beta-lactams and vancomycin against MRSA that is vancomycin susceptible, vancomycin susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (VSSA), hVISA, and VISA. Methods: Fifty randomly selected clinical MRSA strains with varying susceptibility to vancomycin were evaluated for vancomycin alone and vancomycin in combination with varying concentrations of cefazolin (CFZ), cefepime (FEP), ceftaroline (CPT), and nafcillin (NAF) minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). The potential for synergy was assessed by 24h time-kills. Results: Beta-lactams reduced vancomycin MIC values against all strains (4-16 fold reduction). In time-kill studies against MRSA, CFZ, FEP, CPT, and NAF all demonstrated a similar extent of killing at 24h, and all showed synergistic activity with vancomycin against VSSA, hVISA, and VISA. Each of these combinations was also superior to any single agent against isolates of all three phenotypes, and each was bactericidal (P synergy of vancomycin against these Staphylococcus strains. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Microbiology.

  20. Evaluation of synergy and bacterial regrowth in photocatalytic ozonation disinfection of municipal wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mecha, Achisa C; Onyango, Maurice S; Ochieng, Aoyi; Momba, Maggy N B

    2017-12-01

    The use of solar and ultraviolet titanium dioxide photocatalytic ozonation processes to inactivate waterborne pathogens (Escherichia coli, Salmonella species, Shigella species and Vibrio cholerae) in synthetic water and secondary municipal wastewater effluent is presented. The performance indicators were bacterial inactivation efficiency, post-disinfection regrowth and synergy effects (collaboration) between ozonation and photocatalysis (photocatalytic ozonation). Photocatalytic ozonation effectively inactivated the target bacteria and positive synergistic interactions were observed, leading to synergy indices (SI) of up to 1.86 indicating a performance much higher than that of ozonation and photocatalysis individually (SI≤1, no synergy; SI>1 shows synergy between the two processes). Furthermore, there was a substantial reduction in contact time required for complete bacterial inactivation by 50-75% compared to the individual unit processes of ozonation and photocatalysis. Moreover, no post-treatment bacterial regrowth after 24 and 48h in the dark was observed. Therefore, the combined processes overcame the limitations of the individual unit processes in terms of the suppression of bacterial reactivation and regrowth owing to the fact that bacterial cells were irreparably damaged. The treated wastewater satisfied the bacteriological requirements in treated wastewater for South Africa. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Social constructionism, discourse analysis and mental health nursing: a natural synergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leishman, June L

    2003-09-01

    This paper has been developed to identify the natural synergy between social constructionism, discourse analysis and mental health research. It is based on research undertaken to explore mental health nurses' identity. The proposal is that nurses' identities are rhetorically constructed in the language they use to account for and justify their work in the practice context.

  2. Synergy in the areas of NPP nuclear safety and nuclear security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dybach, A.M.; Kuzmyak, I.Ya.; Kukhotskij, A.V.

    2013-01-01

    The paper considers the question of synergy between nuclear safety and nuclear security. Special attention is paid to identifying interface of the two areas of safety and definition of common principles for nuclear security and nuclear safety measures. The principles of defense in depth, safety culture and graded approach are analyzed in detail.Specific features characteristic of nuclear safety and security are outlined

  3. Use of muscle synergies and wavelet transforms to identify fatigue during squatting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smale, Kenneth B; Shourijeh, Mohammad S; Benoit, Daniel L

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this study was to supplement continuous wavelet transforms with muscle synergies in a fatigue analysis to better describe the combination of decreased firing frequency and altered activation profiles during dynamic muscle contractions. Nine healthy young individuals completed the dynamic tasks before and after they squatted with a standard Olympic bar until complete exhaustion. Electromyography (EMG) profiles were analyzed with a novel concatenated non-negative matrix factorization method that decomposed EMG signals into muscle synergies. Muscle synergy analysis provides the activation pattern of the muscles while continuous wavelet transforms output the temporal frequency content of the EMG signals. Synergy analysis revealed subtle changes in two-legged squatting after fatigue while differences in one-legged squatting were more pronounced and included the shift from a general co-activation of muscles in the pre-fatigue state to a knee extensor dominant weighting post-fatigue. Continuous wavelet transforms showed major frequency content decreases in two-legged squatting after fatigue while very few frequency changes occurred in one-legged squatting. It was observed that the combination of methods is an effective way of describing muscle fatigue and that muscle activation patterns play a very important role in maintaining the overall joint kinetics after fatigue. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Cognitive synergy in groups and group-to-individual transfer of decision-making competencies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Curseu, P.L.; Meslec, M.N.; Pluut, Helen; Lucas, G.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    In a field study (148 participants organized in 38 groups) we tested the effect of group synergy and one's position in relation to the collaborative zone of proximal development (CZPD) on the change of individual decision-making competencies. We used two parallel sets of decision tasks reported in

  5. Optimized procedure for calibration and verification multileaf collimator from Elekta Synergy accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castel Millan, A.; Perellezo Mazon, A.; Fernandez Ibiza, J.; Arnalte Olloquequi, M.; Armengol Martinez, S.; Rodriguez Rey, A.; Guedea Edo, F.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this work is to design an optimized procedure for calibration and verification of a multileaf collimator used so as to allow the EPID and the image plate in a complementary way, using different processing systems. With this procedure we have two equivalent alternative as the same parameters obtained for the calibration of multileaf Elekta Synergy accelerator.

  6. Exploiting the synergy between carboplatin and ABT-737 in the treatment of ovarian carcinomas.

    KAUST Repository

    Jain, Harsh Vardhan; Richardson, Alan; Meyer-Hermann, Michael; Byrne, Helen M

    2014-01-01

    that will achieve a predetermined level of tumor growth inhibition, thereby maximizing the synergy between the two drugs. Our simulations suggest that the infusion-duration of each carboplatin dose is a critical parameter, with an 8-hour infusion of carboplatin

  7. A pragmatic definition of therapeutic synergy suitable for clinically relevant in vitro multicompound analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashif, Muhammad; Andersson, Claes; Åberg, Magnus; Nygren, Peter; Sjöblom, Tobias; Hammerling, Ulf; Larsson, Rolf; Gustafsson, Mats G

    2014-07-01

    For decades, the standard procedure when screening for candidate anticancer drug combinations has been to search for synergy, defined as any positive deviation from trivial cases like when the drugs are regarded as diluted versions of each other (Loewe additivity), independent actions (Bliss independence), or no interaction terms in a response surface model (no interaction). Here, we show that this kind of conventional synergy analysis may be completely misleading when the goal is to detect if there is a promising in vitro therapeutic window. Motivated by this result, and the fact that a drug combination offering a promising therapeutic window seldom is interesting if one of its constituent drugs can provide the same window alone, the largely overlooked concept of therapeutic synergy (TS) is reintroduced. In vitro TS is said to occur when the largest therapeutic window obtained by the best drug combination cannot be achieved by any single drug within the concentration range studied. Using this definition of TS, we introduce a procedure that enables its use in modern massively parallel experiments supported by a statistical omnibus test for TS designed to avoid the multiple testing problem. Finally, we suggest how one may perform TS analysis, via computational predictions of the reference cell responses, when only the target cell responses are available. In conclusion, the conventional error-prone search for promising drug combinations may be improved by replacing conventional (toxicology-rooted) synergy analysis with an analysis focused on (clinically motivated) TS. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.

  8. RF propagation measurement and model validation during RF/IR synergy trial vampira

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heemskerk, H.J.M.

    2005-01-01

    The member nations of AC/323 SET-RTG056/RTG32 on Integration of Radar and Infrared for Ship Self Defence have performed the Validation Measurements for Propagation in the Infrared and Radar (VAMPIRA). The objective was to get insight into the radar and infrared synergy concentrated on propagation in

  9. Neural basis for hand muscle synergies in the primate spinal cord.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takei, Tomohiko; Confais, Joachim; Tomatsu, Saeka; Oya, Tomomichi; Seki, Kazuhiko

    2017-08-08

    Grasping is a highly complex movement that requires the coordination of multiple hand joints and muscles. Muscle synergies have been proposed to be the functional building blocks that coordinate such complex motor behaviors, but little is known about how they are implemented in the central nervous system. Here we demonstrate that premotor interneurons (PreM-INs) in the primate cervical spinal cord underlie the spatiotemporal patterns of hand muscle synergies during a voluntary grasping task. Using spike-triggered averaging of hand muscle activity, we found that the muscle fields of PreM-INs were not uniformly distributed across hand muscles but rather distributed as clusters corresponding to muscle synergies. Moreover, although individual PreM-INs have divergent activation patterns, the population activity of PreM-INs reflects the temporal activation of muscle synergies. These findings demonstrate that spinal PreM-INs underlie the muscle coordination required for voluntary hand movements in primates. Given the evolution of neural control of primate hand functions, we suggest that spinal premotor circuits provide the fundamental coordination of multiple joints and muscles upon which more fractionated control is achieved by superimposed, phylogenetically newer, pathways.

  10. Bell inequalities stronger than the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt inequality for three-level isotropic states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Tsuyoshi; Imai, Hiroshi; Avis, David

    2006-01-01

    We show that some two-party Bell inequalities with two-valued observables are stronger than the CHSH inequality for 3x3 isotropic states in the sense that they are violated by some isotropic states in the 3x3 system that do not violate the CHSH inequality. These Bell inequalities are obtained by applying triangular elimination to the list of known facet inequalities of the cut polytope on nine points. This gives a partial solution to an open problem posed by Collins and Gisin. The results of numerical optimization suggest that they are candidates for being stronger than the I 3322 Bell inequality for 3x3 isotropic states. On the other hand, we found no Bell inequalities stronger than the CHSH inequality for 2x2 isotropic states. In addition, we illustrate an inclusion relation among some Bell inequalities derived by triangular elimination

  11. Simple and non-invasive techniques to evaluate the function of CircuLite Synergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohite, Prashant N; Bowles, Christopher T; Sabashnikov, Anton; Popov, Aron-Frederik; Patil, Nikhil P; Sáez, Diana García; Banner, Nicholas R; Simon, André R

    2014-11-01

    The Synergy CircuLite micropump is a novel partial-support miniature left ventricular assist device that propels 2-3 l/min blood from the left atrium into the right subclavian artery. The ability of currently available investigative modalities to confirm Synergy pump malfunction is limited. The Synergy speed fluctuates periodically (at 10-s intervals) from the baseline to a transient decrease followed by a transient increase (alternating speed algorithm, ASA) with the purpose of changing the blood flow behaviour, thereby reducing thrombogenicity. The aim of this study was to develop a simple non-invasive monitoring technique to assess pump function based on the detection of the ASA in the peripheral microcirculation. Between February 2012 and July 2013, 10 patients with advanced chronic heart failure underwent Synergy implantation at our institution. The pump function was assessed by echocardiography and invasive monitoring according to standard protocols; additionally, the pump speed and power consumption were monitored. During the pump function assessment, the pulse oximeter waveform was recorded from the index fingers of the left and right hand with simultaneous pump auscultation using a stethoscope positioned on the pump (right infra-clavicular pocket). The pulse oximeter waveform was readily detectable from the right and left hand of all study patients. If the Synergy function was normal, there was a significant difference in the morphology of the pulse oximeter waveform from each hand: the ASA algorithm produced a more pronounced variation (giant wave) in the trace from the right hand than from the left. The giant waves invariably coincided with the sound variation associated with the ASA algorithms, which were detected regularly at 10-s intervals. We describe a simple, readily applicable, inexpensive, non-invasive technique that allows evaluation of Synergy pump function and may have diagnostic utility under conditions of suspected pump thrombus

  12. Hand synergies: Integration of robotics and neuroscience for understanding the control of biological and artificial hands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santello, Marco; Bianchi, Matteo; Gabiccini, Marco; Ricciardi, Emiliano; Salvietti, Gionata; Prattichizzo, Domenico; Ernst, Marc; Moscatelli, Alessandro; Jörntell, Henrik; Kappers, Astrid M.L.; Kyriakopoulos, Kostas; Albu-Schäffer, Alin; Castellini, Claudio; Bicchi, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    The term ‘synergy’ – from the Greek synergia – means ‘working together’. The concept of multiple elements working together towards a common goal has been extensively used in neuroscience to develop theoretical frameworks, experimental approaches, and analytical techniques to understand neural control of movement, and for applications for neuro-rehabilitation. In the past decade, roboticists have successfully applied the framework of synergies to create novel design and control concepts for artificial hands, i.e., robotic hands and prostheses. At the same time, robotic research on the sensorimotor integration underlying the control and sensing of artificial hands has inspired new research approaches in neuroscience, and has provided useful instruments for novel experiments. The ambitious goal of integrating expertise and research approaches in robotics and neuroscience to study the properties and applications of the concept of synergies is generating a number of multidisciplinary cooperative projects, among which the recently finished 4-year European project “The Hand Embodied” (THE). This paper reviews the main insights provided by this framework. Specifically, we provide an overview of neuroscientific bases of hand synergies and introduce how robotics has leveraged the insights from neuroscience for innovative design in hardware and controllers for biomedical engineering applications, including myoelectric hand prostheses, devices for haptics research, and wearable sensing of human hand kinematics. The review also emphasizes how this multidisciplinary collaboration has generated new ways to conceptualize a synergy-based approach for robotics, and provides guidelines and principles for analyzing human behavior and synthesizing artificial robotic systems based on a theory of synergies. PMID:26923030

  13. Synergy among rat T cells in the proliferative response to alloantigen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, P.W.; Loop, S.M.; Bernstein, I.D.

    1979-01-01

    A synergistic interaction in the proliferative response to alloantigen is described for mixtures of rat thymus and lymph node cells. The optimal conditions for synergy are quantitatively defined. Regression analysis of the slope of the dose-response curve has been utilized to estimate the degree of interaction in thymus--lymph node cell mixtures. The slope of the response of cell mixtures was noted to be significantly greater than the slope for the response of lympth node cells alone. Irradiation was shown to have a differential effect on the response of thymus and lymph node cells in mixtures. Irradiated thymus cells retained the capacity for synergy in mixtures, whereas irradiated lymph node cells did not. Additional studies have demonstrated that both de novo protein synthesis and specific antigen recognition by both responding cell populations in mixtures was required for maximal synergy. These studies demonstrate that synergy cannot be explained as an artifact of altered cell density in vitro. They establish that thymus cells and lymph node cells represent distinct subsets which manifest qualitatively different functions in the proliferative response to alloantigen. Thymus cells can respond directly to alloantigen by proliferation but also have the capacity to amplify the proliferative response of lymph node cells, a capacity which is resistant to X irradiation but requires recognition of alloantigen and de novo protein synthesis. Lymph node cells may similarly respond by proliferation to alloantigen but lack the amplifier activity of thymus cells. Synergy for rat lymphoidcells, like mouse lymphoid cells, has been shown to involve an interaction of thymus-derived lymphocytes

  14. Prediction of drug synergy in cancer using ensemble-based machine learning techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Harpreet; Rana, Prashant Singh; Singh, Urvinder

    2018-04-01

    Drug synergy prediction plays a significant role in the medical field for inhibiting specific cancer agents. It can be developed as a pre-processing tool for therapeutic successes. Examination of different drug-drug interaction can be done by drug synergy score. It needs efficient regression-based machine learning approaches to minimize the prediction errors. Numerous machine learning techniques such as neural networks, support vector machines, random forests, LASSO, Elastic Nets, etc., have been used in the past to realize requirement as mentioned above. However, these techniques individually do not provide significant accuracy in drug synergy score. Therefore, the primary objective of this paper is to design a neuro-fuzzy-based ensembling approach. To achieve this, nine well-known machine learning techniques have been implemented by considering the drug synergy data. Based on the accuracy of each model, four techniques with high accuracy are selected to develop ensemble-based machine learning model. These models are Random forest, Fuzzy Rules Using Genetic Cooperative-Competitive Learning method (GFS.GCCL), Adaptive-Network-Based Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) and Dynamic Evolving Neural-Fuzzy Inference System method (DENFIS). Ensembling is achieved by evaluating the biased weighted aggregation (i.e. adding more weights to the model with a higher prediction score) of predicted data by selected models. The proposed and existing machine learning techniques have been evaluated on drug synergy score data. The comparative analysis reveals that the proposed method outperforms others in terms of accuracy, root mean square error and coefficient of correlation.

  15. Shared and task-specific muscle synergies of Nordic walking and conventional walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boccia, G; Zoppirolli, C; Bortolan, L; Schena, F; Pellegrini, B

    2018-03-01

    Nordic walking is a form of walking that includes a poling action, and therefore an additional subtask, with respect to conventional walking. The aim of this study was to assess whether Nordic walking required a task-specific muscle coordination with respect to conventional walking. We compared the electromyographic (EMG) activity of 15 upper- and lower-limb muscles of 9 Nordic walking instructors, while executing Nordic walking and conventional walking at 1.3 ms -1 on a treadmill. Non-negative matrix factorization method was applied to identify muscle synergies, representing the spatial and temporal organization of muscle coordination. The number of muscle synergies was not different between Nordic walking (5.2 ± 0.4) and conventional walking (5.0 ± 0.7, P = .423). Five muscle synergies accounted for 91.2 ± 1.1% and 92.9 ± 1.2% of total EMG variance in Nordic walking and conventional walking, respectively. Similarity and cross-reconstruction analyses showed that 4 muscle synergies, mainly involving lower-limb and trunk muscles, are shared between Nordic walking and conventional walking. One synergy acting during upper limb propulsion is specific to Nordic walking, modifying the spatial organization and the magnitude of activation of upper limb muscles compared to conventional walking. The inclusion of the poling action in Nordic walking does not increase the complexity of movement control and does not change the coordination of lower limb muscles. This makes Nordic walking a physical activity suitable also for people with low motor skill. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. A new direct growth method of graphene on Si-face of 6H-SiC by synergy of the inner and external carbon sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhiyuan; Xu, Shicai; Zhao, Lili; Zhang, Jing; Wang, Zhengping; Chen, Xiufang; Cheng, Xiufeng; Yu, Fapeng; Zhao, Xian

    2018-04-01

    Graphene is a promising two-dimensional material that has possible application in various disciplines, due to its super properties, including high carrier mobility, chemical stability, and optical transparency etc. In this paper, we report an inner and external carbon synergy (IECS) method to grow graphene on Si-face of 6H-SiC. This method combined the advantages of chemical vapor deposition (CVD) and traditional epitaxial growth (EG) based on silicon carbide, which providing a feasible approach for growing graphene on the SiC substrates. The graphene was synthesized within just 3 min, which was more than one order of magnitude faster than the graphene grown on 6H-SiC substrates by the traditional EG method. The growth temperature was ∼200 °C lower than the EG process. The directly grown graphene maintained the compatibility with the semiconductor technique, which is benefit for use in graphene-based microelectronic devices.

  17. Are we ready to move beyond the reductionist approach of classical synergy control?. Comment on "Hand synergies: Integration of robotics and neuroscience for understanding the control of biological and artificial hands" by Marco Santello et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacquaniti, Francesco; Ivanenko, Yuri P.; Zago, Myrka

    2016-07-01

    Starting from the classical concepts introduced by Sherrington [1] and considerably elaborated by Bernstein [2], much has been learned about motor synergies in the last several years. The contributions of the group funded by the European project ;The Hand Embodied; are remarkable in the field of biological and robotic control of the hand based on synergies, and they are reflected in this enjoyable review [3]. There, Santello et al. adopt Bernstein's definition of motor synergies as multiple elements working together towards a common goal, with the result that multiple degrees of freedom are controlled within a lower-dimensional space than the available number of dimensions.

  18. Evaluation of the 2010 Toyota Prius Hybrid Synergy Drive System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burress, Timothy A [ORNL; Campbell, Steven L [ORNL; Coomer, Chester [ORNL; Ayers, Curtis William [ORNL; Wereszczak, Andrew A [ORNL; Cunningham, Joseph Philip [ORNL; Marlino, Laura D [ORNL; Seiber, Larry Eugene [ORNL; Lin, Hua-Tay [ORNL

    2011-03-01

    Subsystems of the 2010 Toyota Prius hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) were studied and tested as part of an intensive benchmarking effort carried out to produce detailed information concerning the current state of nondomestic alternative vehicle technologies. Feedback provided by benchmarking efforts is particularly useful to partners of the Vehicle Technologies collaborative research program as it is essential in establishing reasonable yet challenging programmatic goals which facilitate development of competitive technologies. The competitive nature set forth by the Vehicle Technologies Program (VTP) not only promotes energy independence and economic stability, it also advocates the advancement of alternative vehicle technologies in an overall global perspective. These technologies greatly facilitate the potential to reduce dependency on depleting natural resources and mitigate harmful impacts of transportation upon the environment.

  19. Time-kill assay and Etest evaluation for synergy with polymyxin B and fluconazole against Candida glabrata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankey, George; Ashcraft, Deborah; Kahn, Heather; Ismail, Abdulrahim

    2014-10-01

    Fluconazole-resistant Candida glabrata is an emerging pathogen that causes fungemia. Polymyxin B, a last-resort antibiotic used to treat multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacterial infections, has been found to possess in vitro fungicidal activity and showed synergy with fluconazole against a single strain of C. glabrata. Since both agents may be used simultaneously in intensive care unit (ICU) patients, this study was performed to test for possible synergy of this combination against 35 C. glabrata blood isolates, using 2 methods: a time-kill assay and an experimental MIC-MIC Etest method. Thirty-five genetically unique C. glabrata bloodstream isolates were collected from 2009 to 2011, identified using an API 20C system, and genotyped by repetitive sequence-based PCR (rep-PCR). MICs were determined by Etest and broth microdilution methods. Synergy testing was performed using a modified bacterial Etest synergy method and time-kill assay, with final results read at 24 h. The Etest method showed synergy against 19/35 (54%) isolates; the time-kill assay showed synergy against 21/35 (60%) isolates. Isolates not showing drug synergy had an indifferent status. Concordance between methods was 60%. In vitro synergy of polymyxin B and fluconazole against the majority of C. glabrata isolates was demonstrated by both methods. The bacterial Etest synergy method adapted well when used with C. glabrata. Etest was easier to perform than time-kill assay and may be found to be an acceptable alternative to time-kill assay with antifungals. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  20. On the origin of muscle synergies: invariant balance in the co-activation of agonist and antagonist muscle pairs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroaki eHirai

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Investigation of neural representation of movement planning has attracted the attention of neuroscientists, as it may reveal the sensorimotor transformation essential to motor control. The analysis of muscle synergies based on the activity of agonist-antagonist (AA muscle pairs may provide insight into such transformations, especially for a reference frame in the muscle space. In this study, we examined the AA concept using the following explanatory variables: the AA ratio, which is related to the equilibrium-joint angle, and the AA sum, which is associated with joint stiffness. We formulated muscle synergies as a function of AA sums, positing that muscle synergies are composite units of mechanical impedance. The AA concept can be regarded as another form of the equilibrium-point (EP hypothesis, and it can be extended to the concept of EP-based synergies. We introduce here a novel tool for analyzing the neurological and motor functions underlying human movements and review some initial insights from our results about the relationships between muscle synergies, endpoint stiffness, and virtual trajectories (time series of EP. Our results suggest that (1 muscle synergies reflect an invariant balance in the co-activation of AA muscle pairs; (2 each synergy represents the basis for the radial, tangential, and null movements of the virtual trajectory in the polar coordinates centered on the specific joint at the base of the body; and (3 the alteration of muscle synergies (for example, due to spasticity or rigidity following neurological injury results in significant distortion of endpoint stiffness and concomitant virtual trajectories. These results indicate that muscle synergies (i.e., the balance of muscle mechanical impedance are essential for motor control.

  1. On the Origin of Muscle Synergies: Invariant Balance in the Co-activation of Agonist and Antagonist Muscle Pairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirai, Hiroaki; Miyazaki, Fumio; Naritomi, Hiroaki; Koba, Keitaro; Oku, Takanori; Uno, Kanna; Uemura, Mitsunori; Nishi, Tomoki; Kageyama, Masayuki; Krebs, Hermano Igo

    2015-01-01

    Investigation of neural representation of movement planning has attracted the attention of neuroscientists, as it may reveal the sensorimotor transformation essential to motor control. The analysis of muscle synergies based on the activity of agonist-antagonist (AA) muscle pairs may provide insight into such transformations, especially for a reference frame in the muscle space. In this study, we examined the AA concept using the following explanatory variables: the AA ratio, which is related to the equilibrium-joint angle, and the AA sum, which is associated with joint stiffness. We formulated muscle synergies as a function of AA sums, positing that muscle synergies are composite units of mechanical impedance. The AA concept can be regarded as another form of the equilibrium-point (EP) hypothesis, and it can be extended to the concept of EP-based synergies. We introduce, here, a novel tool for analyzing the neurological and motor functions underlying human movements and review some initial insights from our results about the relationships between muscle synergies, endpoint stiffness, and virtual trajectories (time series of EP). Our results suggest that (1) muscle synergies reflect an invariant balance in the co-activation of AA muscle pairs; (2) each synergy represents the basis for the radial, tangential, and null movements of the virtual trajectory in the polar coordinates centered on the specific joint at the base of the body; and (3) the alteration of muscle synergies (for example, due to spasticity or rigidity following neurological injury) results in significant distortion of endpoint stiffness and concomitant virtual trajectories. These results indicate that muscle synergies (i.e., the balance of muscle mechanical impedance) are essential for motor control.

  2. Stronger Association Between Valence- and Arousal Ratings of Affective Pictures with Older Age: Evidence for Variation Across Emotion Categories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Mai Bjørnskov; Mehlsen, Mimi Yung; Lyby, Marlene Skovgaard

    A sample of older and younger adults rated affective pictures according to valence, arousal and emotion category (happiness, sadness and disgust). Results indicate that older age is associated with a stronger linear association between ratings of arousal and valence. Further, the strength...... of the association vary according to emotion category....

  3. Stabilizing Niger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hahonou, Eric Komlavi

    international intervention in Niger. Their main objective is to secure their own strategic, economic and political interests by strengthening the Nigerien authorities through direct intervention and capacity building activities. For western states reinforcing state security institutions and stabilizing elite...

  4. Studies and Application of the Platform for Synergies among Tobacco Enterprises in Tobacco Leaf Threshing and Redrying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiao-Shuang; Wang, Hong-Lv

    2018-03-01

    Departing from the formulas of cigarette products, synergized business framework is established on the basis of cross-enterprise synergies for tobacco leaf threshing and redrying through the introduction of batch management, remote quality data sharing and consistent processes, among others. Functions of the business framework are achieved and a platform for synergies is erected by applying IOT, cross-enterprise system integration and big data processing technologies, resulting in a new pattern for intensive interaction and synergies between China Tobacco Zhejiang (CTZ) and tobacco redrying plants for more delicate management of the redrying process, more interactive information flows and more stable tobacco strip quality.

  5. Methodological Choices in Muscle Synergy Analysis Impact Differentiation of Physiological Characteristics Following Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caitlin L. Banks

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Muscle synergy analysis (MSA is a mathematical technique that reduces the dimensionality of electromyographic (EMG data. Used increasingly in biomechanics research, MSA requires methodological choices at each stage of the analysis. Differences in methodological steps affect the overall outcome, making it difficult to compare results across studies. We applied MSA to EMG data collected from individuals post-stroke identified as either responders (RES or non-responders (nRES on the basis of a critical post-treatment increase in walking speed. Importantly, no clinical or functional indicators identified differences between the cohort of RES and nRES at baseline. For this exploratory study, we selected the five highest RES and five lowest nRES available from a larger sample. Our goal was to assess how the methodological choices made before, during, and after MSA affect the ability to differentiate two groups with intrinsic physiologic differences based on MSA results. We investigated 30 variations in MSA methodology to determine which choices allowed differentiation of RES from nRES at baseline. Trial-to-trial variability in time-independent synergy vectors (SVs and time-varying neural commands (NCs were measured as a function of: (1 number of synergies computed; (2 EMG normalization method before MSA; (3 whether SVs were held constant across trials or allowed to vary during MSA; and (4 synergy analysis output normalization method after MSA. MSA methodology had a strong effect on our ability to differentiate RES from nRES at baseline. Across all 10 individuals and MSA variations, two synergies were needed to reach an average of 90% variance accounted for (VAF. Based on effect sizes, differences in SV and NC variability between groups were greatest using two synergies with SVs that varied from trial-to-trial. Differences in SV variability were clearest using unit magnitude per trial EMG normalization, while NC variability was less sensitive to EMG

  6. E3 Success Story - Working Together: E3 Ohio and the Ohio By-Product Synergy Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Mid-Ohio Regional Planning Commission (MORPC) received funding to support the integration of the national E3 sustainability initiative with the Ohio By-Product Synergy (BPS) Network to create an efficient and replicable model for reducing GHGs.

  7. A values-based approach to exploring synergies between livestock farming and landscape conservation in Galicia (Spain)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swagemakers, Paul; Garcia, Maria Dolores Dominguez; Torres, Amanda Onofa; Oostindie, Henk; Groot, Jeroen C.J.

    2017-01-01

    The path to sustainable development involves creating coherence and synergies in the complex relationships between economic and ecological systems. In sustaining their farm businesses farmers' differing values influence their decisions about agroecosystem management, leading them to adopt diverging

  8. Exploring Synergies between transit investment and dense redevelopment: A scenario analysis in a rapdily developing urban landscape

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset is a journal article that describes the use of a system dynamics model to explore the synergies between transit and development strategies as they give...

  9. Investigation of Synergy Between Electrochemical Capacitors, Flywheels, and Batteries in Hybrid Energy Storage for PV Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, John; Sibley, Lewis, B.; Wohlgemuth, John

    1999-06-01

    This report describes the results of a study that investigated the synergy between electrochemical capacitors (ECs) and flywheels, in combination with each other and with batteries, as energy storage subsystems in photovoltaic (PV) systems. EC and flywheel technologies are described and the potential advantages and disadvantages of each in PV energy storage subsystems are discussed. Seven applications for PV energy storage subsystems are described along with the potential market for each of these applications. A spreadsheet model, which used the net present value method, was used to analyze and compare the costs over time of various system configurations based on flywheel models. It appears that a synergistic relationship exists between ECS and flywheels. Further investigation is recommended to quantify the performance and economic tradeoffs of this synergy and its effect on overall system costs.

  10. The Successful Synergy of Swift and Fermi/GBM in Magnetars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouveliotou, Chryssa

    2011-01-01

    The magnetar rate of discovery has increased dramatically in the last decade. Five sources were discovered in the last three years alone as a result of the very efficient synergy among three X- and .gamma-ray instruments on NASA satellites: the Swift/Burst Alert Telescope (BAT), the Fermi/Gamma ray Burst Monitor (GBM), and the Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer; RXTE/Proportional Counter Array (PCA). To date, there are approx. 25 magnetar candidates, of which two are (one each) in the Large and Small Magellanic Cloud and the rest reside on the Galactic plane of our Milky Way. I will discuss here the main properties of the Magnetar Population and the common projects that can be achieved with the synergy of Swift and GBM.

  11. A Systematic Literature Review on Integrative Lean and Sustainability Synergies over a Building’s Lifecycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrieli Cristina Vieira de Carvalho

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The construction industry is increasingly moving towards the adoption of sustainable strategies and increased efficiency targets. Lean thinking (LT aims at removing waste, increasing value, reducing costs, and improving the overall quality of products and processes. Sustainability, in turn, is concerned with the environmental, social, and economic impacts made by the construction industry. Both philosophies share efficient resource usage concerns. A systematic literature review (SLR was carried out to cover the existing primary research and characterize its evolution and setting; to discuss the available empirical evidence to identify the LT and sustainability benefits and trade-offs; and to provide a holistic setting to promote those synergies. To catalyze the synergies between LT and sustainability, this paper highlights the potential application of LT elements throughout a building’s lifecycle. Knowledge synthetized is helpful for decision-makers to understand and explore combinations of the performance-oriented LT philosophy for the provision of environmentally responsive buildings.

  12. Investigation of Synergy Between Electrochemical Capacitors, Flywheels, and Batteries in Hybrid Energy Storage for PV Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, John; Sibley Lewis, B.; Wohlgemuth, John

    1999-01-01

    This report describes the results of a study that investigated the synergy between electrochemical capacitors (ECs) and flywheels, in combination with each other and with batteries, as energy storage subsystems in photovoltaic (PV) systems. EC and flywheel technologies are described and the potential advantages and disadvantages of each in PV energy storage subsystems are discussed. Seven applications for PV energy storage subsystems are described along with the potential market for each of these applications. A spreadsheet model, which used the net present value method, was used to analyze and compare the costs over time of various system configurations based on flywheel models. It appears that a synergistic relationship exists between ECS and flywheels. Further investigation is recommended to quantify the performance and economic tradeoffs of this synergy and its effect on overall system costs

  13. EBW-Bootstrap Current Synergy in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harvey, R.W.; Taylor, G.

    2005-01-01

    Current driven by electron Bernstein waves (EBW) and by the electron bootstrap effect are calculated separately and concurrently with a kinetic code, to determine the degree of synergy between them. A target β = 40% NSTX plasma is examined. A simple bootstrap model in the CQL3D Fokker-Planck code is used in these studies: the transiting electron distributions are connected in velocity-space at the trapped-passing boundary to trapped-electron distributions which are displaced radially by a half-banana width outwards/inwards for the co-/counter-passing regions. This model agrees well with standard bootstrap current calculations, over the outer 60% of the plasma radius. Relatively small synergy net bootstrap current is obtained for EBW power up to 4 MW. Locally, bootstrap current density increases in proportion to increased plasma pressure, and this effect can significantly affect the radial profile of driven current

  14. Synergies between neutrino oscillation experiments: an ‘adequate’ configuration for LBNO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, Monojit; Ghoshal, Pomita; Goswami, Srubabati; Raut, Sushant K.

    2014-01-01

    Determination of the neutrino mass hierarchy, octant of the mixing angle θ 23 and the CP violating phase δ CP are the unsolved problems in neutrino oscillation physics today. In this paper our aim is to obtain the minimum exposure required for the proposed Long Baseline Neutrino Oscillation (LBNO) experiment to determine the above unknowns. We emphasize on the advantage of exploiting the synergies offered by the existing and upcoming long-baseline and atmospheric neutrino experiments in economising the LBNO configuration. In particular, we do a combined analysis for LBNO, T2K, NOνA and INO. We consider three prospective LBNO setups — CERN-Pyhäsalmi (2290 km), CERN-Slanic (1500 km) and CERN-Fréjus (130 km) and evaluate the adequate exposure required in each case. Our analysis shows that the exposure required from LBNO can be reduced considerably due to the synergies arising from the inclusion of the other experiments

  15. Investigation on synergy of IBW and LHCD for integrated high performance operation in HT-7 tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan Baonian

    2002-01-01

    Control of the current density profile has been realized with off-axis current drive by LHW in the HT-7 tokamak predicted by a 2D FP code simulation and supported by measurements of a vertical HX array. IBW is explored to improve performance through heating electrons in the selected region. Strong synergy effect on driven current profile and increased driven efficiency was observed. Electron temperature shows an ITB-like profile with a significantly improved performance. Operation of IBW and LHCD synergetic discharges was optimized through moving the IBW resonant layer to maximize the plasma performance and to avoid the MHD activities. A variety of high performance discharges indicated by β N *H89=1∼ 4 was produced for several tens energy confinement times. This operation mode utilizing synergy effect of IBW and LHCD provide a new way to obtain steady-state operation in advanced tokamak scenario. (author)

  16. Quantifying Net Synergy/Redundancy of Spontaneous Variability Regulation via Predictability and Transfer Entropy Decomposition Frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porta, Alberto; Bari, Vlasta; De Maria, Beatrice; Takahashi, Anielle C M; Guzzetti, Stefano; Colombo, Riccardo; Catai, Aparecida M; Raimondi, Ferdinando; Faes, Luca

    2017-11-01

    Objective: Indexes assessing the balance between redundancy and synergy were hypothesized to be helpful in characterizing cardiovascular control from spontaneous beat-to-beat variations of heart period (HP), systolic arterial pressure (SAP), and respiration (R). Methods: Net redundancy/synergy indexes were derived according to predictability and transfer entropy decomposition strategies via a multivariate linear regression approach. Indexes were tested in two protocols inducing modifications of the cardiovascular regulation via baroreflex loading/unloading (i.e., head-down tilt at -25° and graded head-up tilt at 15°, 30°, 45°, 60°, 75°, and 90°, respectively). The net redundancy/synergy of SAP and R to HP and of HP and R to SAP were estimated over stationary sequences of 256 successive values. Results: We found that: 1) regardless of the target (i.e., HP or SAP) redundancy was prevalent over synergy and this prevalence was independent of type and magnitude of the baroreflex challenge; 2) the prevalence of redundancy disappeared when decoupling inputs from output via a surrogate approach; 3) net redundancy was under autonomic control given that it varied in proportion to the vagal withdrawal during graded head-up tilt; and 4) conclusions held regardless of the decomposition strategy. Conclusion: Net redundancy indexes can monitor changes of cardiovascular control from a perspective completely different from that provided by more traditional univariate and multivariate methods. Significance: Net redundancy measures might provide a practical tool to quantify the reservoir of effective cardiovascular regulatory mechanisms sharing causal influences over a target variable. Objective: Indexes assessing the balance between redundancy and synergy were hypothesized to be helpful in characterizing cardiovascular control from spontaneous beat-to-beat variations of heart period (HP), systolic arterial pressure (SAP), and respiration (R). Methods: Net redundancy/synergy

  17. Analytical calculation of current drive synergy between LH and EC waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dumont, R.; Giruzzi, G.

    2001-01-01

    An analytical model for the evaluation of electron cyclotron current drive efficiency improvement in lower hybrid current drive regimes is presented. The adjoint equation is written and solved by a perturbation treatment, allowing to derive a response function including both collisional and lower hybrid effects, in the limit where the former still dominate. This allows an analytical demonstration of the current drive synergy effects, previously found by numerical solutions of the kinetic equation. The model is especially useful for the determination of appropriate wave parameters optimizing this synergy effect, such as the EC launching angles suitable for a given LH target plasma. Under these conditions, it is shown that a significant improvement of the ECCD efficiency can be obtained

  18. [Do different interpretative methods used for evaluation of checkerboard synergy test affect the results?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozseven, Ayşe Gül; Sesli Çetin, Emel; Ozseven, Levent

    2012-07-01

    In recent years, owing to the presence of multi-drug resistant nosocomial bacteria, combination therapies are more frequently applied. Thus there is more need to investigate the in vitro activity of drug combinations against multi-drug resistant bacteria. Checkerboard synergy testing is among the most widely used standard technique to determine the activity of antibiotic combinations. It is based on microdilution susceptibility testing of antibiotic combinations. Although this test has a standardised procedure, there are many different methods for interpreting the results. In many previous studies carried out with multi-drug resistant bacteria, different rates of synergy have been reported with various antibiotic combinations using checkerboard technique. These differences might be attributed to the different features of the strains. However, different synergy rates detected by checkerboard method have also been reported in other studies using the same drug combinations and same types of bacteria. It was thought that these differences in synergy rates might be due to the different methods of interpretation of synergy test results. In recent years, multi-drug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii has been the most commonly encountered nosocomial pathogen especially in intensive-care units. For this reason, multidrug resistant A.baumannii has been the subject of a considerable amount of research about antimicrobial combinations. In the present study, the in vitro activities of frequently preferred combinations in A.baumannii infections like imipenem plus ampicillin/sulbactam, and meropenem plus ampicillin/sulbactam were tested by checkerboard synergy method against 34 multi-drug resistant A.baumannii isolates. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values for imipenem, meropenem and ampicillin/sulbactam were determined by the broth microdilution method. Subsequently the activity of two different combinations were tested in the dilution range of 4 x MIC and 0.03 x MIC in

  19. Achieving synergy between strategy and innovation: The key to value creation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dobni, C.B.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available An innovation perspective provides an unencumbered clean sheet view of the future, as it is only concerned with what opportunities lie ahead. It prompts the organization to consider the question of 'what future state do we want to achieve?' as opposed to the orchestrated approaches of strategic planning that promotes incrementalism. The perspective chosen will often determine whether an organization is a competitive innovator and competitive imitator. In today's economic environment, organizations are required to create differentiable value. To do so requires a certain synergy between strategy and innovation. This article outlines the importance of innovation, but more importantly discusses the relationship between strategy and innovation. It argues that strategic innovation is logical, yet strategy and innovation are quite different, both in terms of definition and function. These differences are identified, and approaches to achieving synergy are outlined.

  20. Results from the SynergieHaus programme of PreussenElektra; Ergebnisse aus dem SynergieHaus-Programm der PreussenElektra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mussenbrock, K. [Preussen Elektra, Hannover (Germany)

    1998-06-01

    The `SynergieHaus` project is an initiative by PreussenElektra and 25 regional and municipal utilities. Its objective is to contribute towards the further development and propagation of energy-saving building techniques. Within the framework of the project, funding was granted for more than 400 residential units erected between 1995 and 1997. The main prerequisites for funding were as follows: an at least 30 % shortfall of annual heating energy demand from the specifications of the thermal protection ordinance (WSchV `95) currently in force; installation of mechanical ventilation; and an airtight building envelope. (orig.) [Deutsch] Das SynergieHaus-Projekt ist eine Initiative der PreussenElektra und 25 Regionaler und Kommunaler Versorgungsunternehmen. Ziel ist es, einen Beitrag zur Weiterentwicklung und Verbreitung energiesparender Bauweisen zu leisten. Im Rahmen dieses Projektes wurden zwischen 1995 und 1997 mehr als 400 neuerrichtete Wohneinheiten finanziell gefoerdert. Voraussetzung fuer eine Foerderung waren insbesondere die Unterschreitung des Jahres-Heizwaermebedarfs gemaess geltender Waermeschutzverordnung (WSchV `95) um mindestens 30%, der Einbau einer mechanischen Wohnungslueftung sowie eine luftdichte Gebaeudehuelle. (orig.)

  1. Cross learning synergies between Operation Management content and the use of generic analytic tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederic Marimon

    2017-06-01

    By presenting both objectives simultaneously students are found to be more motivated towards working deeply in both objectives. Students know that the theoretical content will be put in practice through certain tools, strengthening the student's interest on the conceptual issues of the chapter. In turn, because students know that they will use a generic tool in a known context, their interests in these tools is reinforced. The result is a cross learning synergy.

  2. Muscle synergies with Walkaround® postural support vs. “cane/therapist” assistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miljkovic, Nadica; Milovanovic, Ivana; Dragin, Aleksandra

    2013-01-01

    The main clinical measures of walking recovery in stroke patients were compared for training assisted by Walkaround® postural support (WPS) and conventional (CON) support by a cane/therapist. OBJECTIVE: We attributed the differences between the trainings to modified muscular synergies that occurred...... be the superior training scheme. CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicated that assistance by WPS changed the motor control output relative to CON assistance in most patients....

  3. Assessment of airframe-subsystems synergy on overall aircraft performance in a Collaborative Design Environment.

    OpenAIRE

    Shiva Prakasha, Prajwal; Ciampa, Pier Davide

    2016-01-01

    A Collaborative Multidisciplinary Design Optimization (MDO) methodology is presented, which uses physics based analysis to evaluate the correlations between the airframe design and its sub-systems integration from the early design process, and to exploit the synergies within a simultaneous optimization process. Further, the disciplinary analysis modules involved in the optimization task are located in different organization. Hence, the Airframe and Subsystem design tools are integrated within...

  4. Activation of plantar flexor muscles is constrained by multiple muscle synergies rather than joint torques.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahito Suzuki

    Full Text Available Behavioral evidence has suggested that a small number of muscle synergies may be responsible for activating a variety of muscles. Nevertheless, such dimensionality reduction may also be explained using the perspective of alternative hypotheses, such as predictions based on linear combinations of joint torques multiplied by corresponding coefficients. To compare the explanatory capacity of these hypotheses for describing muscle activation, we enrolled 12 male volunteers who performed isometric plantar flexor contractions at 10-100% of maximum effort. During each plantar flexor contraction, the knee extensor muscles were isometrically contracted at 0%, 50%, or 100% of maximum effort. Electromyographic activity was recorded from the vastus lateralis, medial gastrocnemius (MG, lateral gastrocnemius (LG, and soleus muscles and quantified using the average rectified value (ARV. At lower plantar flexion torque, regression analysis identified a clear linear relationship between the MG and soleus ARVs and between the MG and LG ARVs, suggesting the presence of muscle synergy (r2 > 0.65. The contraction of the knee extensor muscles induced a significant change in the slope of this relationship for both pairs of muscles (MG × soleus, P = 0.002; MG × LG, P = 0.006. Similarly, the slope of the linear relationship between the plantar flexion torque and the ARV of the MG or soleus changed significantly with knee extensor contraction (P = 0.031 and P = 0.041, respectively. These results suggest that muscle synergies characterized by non-mechanical constraints are selectively recruited according to whether contraction of the knee extensor muscles is performed simultaneously, which is relatively consistent with the muscle synergy hypothesis.

  5. Exploring Opportunities for Promoting Synergies between Climate Change Adaptation and Mitigation in Forest Carbon Initiatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugene L. Chia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available There is growing interest in designing and implementing climate change mitigation and adaptation (M + A in synergy in the forest and land use sectors. However, there is limited knowledge on how the planning and promotion of synergies between M + A can be operationalized in the current efforts to mitigate climate change through forest carbon. This paper contributes to fill this knowledge gap by exploring ways of planning and promoting M + A synergy outcomes in forest carbon initiatives. It examines eight guidelines that are widely used in designing and implementing forest carbon initiatives. Four guiding principles with a number of criteria that are relevant for planning synergy outcomes in forest carbon activities are proposed. The guidelines for developing forest carbon initiatives need to demonstrate that (1 the health of forest ecosystems is maintained or enhanced; (2 the adaptive capacity of forest-dependent communities is ensured; (3 carbon and adaptation benefits are monitored and verified; and (4 adaptation outcomes are anticipated and planned in forest carbon initiatives. The forest carbon project development guidelines can encourage the integration of adaptation in forest carbon initiatives. However, their current efforts guiding projects and programs to deliver biodiversity and environmental benefits, ecosystem services, and socioeconomic benefits are not considered explicitly as efforts towards enhancing adaptation. An approach for incentivizing and motivating project developers, guideline setters, and offset buyers is imperative in order to enable existing guidelines to make clear contributions to adaptation goals. We highlight and discuss potential ways of incentivizing and motivating the explicit planning and promotion of adaptation outcomes in forest carbon initiatives.

  6. Knee Motion Generation Method for Transfemoral Prosthesis Based on Kinematic Synergy and Inertial Motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sano, Hiroshi; Wada, Takahiro

    2017-12-01

    Previous research has shown that the effective use of inertial motion (i.e., less or no torque input at the knee joint) plays an important role in achieving a smooth gait of transfemoral prostheses in the swing phase. In our previous research, a method for generating a timed knee trajectory close to able-bodied individuals, which leads to sufficient clearance between the foot and the floor and the knee extension, was proposed using the inertial motion. Limb motions are known to correlate with each other during walking. This phenomenon is called kinematic synergy. In this paper, we measure gaits in level walking of able-bodied individuals with a wide range of walking velocities. We show that this kinematic synergy also exists between the motions of the intact limbs and those of the knee as determined by the inertial motion technique. We then propose a new method for generating the motion of the knee joint using its inertial motion close to the able-bodied individuals in mid-swing based on its kinematic synergy, such that the method can adapt to the changes in the motion velocity. The numerical simulation results show that the proposed method achieves prosthetic walking similar to that of able-bodied individuals with a wide range of constant walking velocities and termination of walking from steady-state walking. Further investigations have found that a kinematic synergy also exists at the start of walking. Overall, our method successfully achieves knee motion generation from the initiation of walking through steady-state walking with different velocities until termination of walking.

  7. Normalized Index of Synergy for Evaluating the Coordination of Motor Commands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Togo, Shunta; Imamizu, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Humans perform various motor tasks by coordinating the redundant motor elements in their bodies. The coordination of motor outputs is produced by motor commands, as well properties of the musculoskeletal system. The aim of this study was to dissociate the coordination of motor commands from motor outputs. First, we conducted simulation experiments where the total elbow torque was generated by a model of a simple human right and left elbow with redundant muscles. The results demonstrated that muscle tension with signal-dependent noise formed a coordinated structure of trial-to-trial variability of muscle tension. Therefore, the removal of signal-dependent noise effects was required to evaluate the coordination of motor commands. We proposed a method to evaluate the coordination of motor commands, which removed signal-dependent noise from the measured variability of muscle tension. We used uncontrolled manifold analysis to calculate a normalized index of synergy. Simulation experiments confirmed that the proposed method could appropriately represent the coordinated structure of the variability of motor commands. We also conducted experiments in which subjects performed the same task as in the simulation experiments. The normalized index of synergy revealed that the subjects coordinated their motor commands to achieve the task. Finally, the normalized index of synergy was applied to a motor learning task to determine the utility of the proposed method. We hypothesized that a large part of the change in the coordination of motor outputs through learning was because of changes in motor commands. In a motor learning task, subjects tracked a target trajectory of the total torque. The change in the coordination of muscle tension through learning was dominated by that of motor commands, which supported the hypothesis. We conclude that the normalized index of synergy can be used to evaluate the coordination of motor commands independently from the properties of the

  8. Synergy between methylerythritol phosphate pathway and mevalonate pathway for isoprene production in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chen; Gao, Xiang; Jiang, Yu; Sun, Bingbing; Gao, Fang; Yang, Sheng

    2016-09-01

    Isoprene, a key building block of synthetic rubber, is currently produced entirely from petrochemical sources. In this work, we engineered both the methylerythritol phosphate (MEP) pathway and the mevalonate (MVA) pathway for isoprene production in E. coli. The synergy between the MEP pathway and the MVA pathway was demonstrated by the production experiment, in which overexpression of both pathways improved the isoprene yield about 20-fold and 3-fold, respectively, compared to overexpression of the MEP pathway or the MVA pathway alone. The (13)C metabolic flux analysis revealed that simultaneous utilization of the two pathways resulted in a 4.8-fold increase in the MEP pathway flux and a 1.5-fold increase in the MVA pathway flux. The synergy of the dual pathway was further verified by quantifying intracellular flux responses of the MEP pathway and the MVA pathway to fosmidomycin treatment and mevalonate supplementation. Our results strongly suggest that coupling of the complementary reducing equivalent demand and ATP requirement plays an important role in the synergy of the dual pathway. Fed-batch cultivation of the engineered strain overexpressing the dual pathway resulted in production of 24.0g/L isoprene with a yield of 0.267g/g of glucose. The synergy of the MEP pathway and the MVA pathway also successfully increased the lycopene productivity in E. coli, which demonstrates that it can be used to improve the production of a broad range of terpenoids in microorganisms. Copyright © 2016 International Metabolic Engineering Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Synergy of radon inhalation and tobacco smoking in the induction of lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sedlak, Antonin

    2010-01-01

    The problem of contribution of tobacco smoking to the induction of lung cancer in persons living in environments with the enhanced radon concentrations is treated. An attempt is made to interpret the sub-multiplicative mechanism of the synergy of the two factors, i.e. a situation where the contribution of the two factors acting jointly is larger than their simple addition but lower than their multiplication, as currently assumed to hold. (P.A.)

  10. Exploiting Synergies in European Wind and Hydrogen Sectors: A Cost-benefit Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    SHAW SUZANNE; PETEVES ESTATHIOS

    2007-01-01

    This article outlines an assessment of the perspectives for exploiting synergies between European wind and hydrogen energy sectors, where wind energy conversion to hydrogen is used as a common strategy for reducing network management costs in high wind energy penetration situations, and for production of renewable hydrogen. The attractiveness of this approach, referred to here as a ¿¿wind-hydrogen strategy¿¿, is analysed using a costbenefit approach to evaluate the final impact...

  11. Opportunities for Synergy Between Natural Gas and Renewable Energy in the Electric Power and Transportation Sectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, A.; Zinaman, O.; Logan, J.

    2012-12-01

    Use of both natural gas and renewable energy has grown significantly in recent years. Both forms of energy have been touted as key elements of a transition to a cleaner and more secure energy future, but much of the current discourse considers each in isolation or concentrates on the competitive impacts of one on the other. This paper attempts, instead, to explore potential synergies of natural gas and renewable energy in the U.S. electric power and transportation sectors.

  12. Computational intelligence synergies of fuzzy logic, neural networks and evolutionary computing

    CERN Document Server

    Siddique, Nazmul

    2013-01-01

    Computational Intelligence: Synergies of Fuzzy Logic, Neural Networks and Evolutionary Computing presents an introduction to some of the cutting edge technological paradigms under the umbrella of computational intelligence. Computational intelligence schemes are investigated with the development of a suitable framework for fuzzy logic, neural networks and evolutionary computing, neuro-fuzzy systems, evolutionary-fuzzy systems and evolutionary neural systems. Applications to linear and non-linear systems are discussed with examples. Key features: Covers all the aspect

  13. Absence of synergy for monosynaptic Group I inputs between abdominal and internal intercostal motoneurons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ford, T W; Meehan, Claire Francesca; Kirkwood, P A

    2014-01-01

    Internal intercostal and abdominal motoneurons are strongly coactivated during expiration. We investigated whether that synergy was paralleled by synergistic Group I reflex excitation. Intracellular recordings were made from motoneurons of the internal intercostal nerve of T8 in anesthetized cats...... that are synergistically activated in expiration leads us to conclude that such connections from muscle spindle afferents of the thoracic nerves have little role in controlling expiratory movements but, where present, support other motor acts....

  14. Supply Chain Performance Improvement Strategy Through Quality of Synergy in The Automotive Components Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tri Purwani

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study were 1 develop a new concept of Bilateral Symmetry, which is the ability of similarity based on transparency and standardization, 2 conduct empirical testing and analyzing the effect of bilateral symmetry to the improved supply chain performance through quality of synergy in industrial automotive components. The study population includes the entire automotive component industry in Indonesia. This study used sample of 105 respondents using purposive sampling method to comply with the AMOS program. The study result shows that the ability of similarity standardization and the ability of the similarity of transparency have positive significant impact on the quality of synergy, and quality of synergy have positive significant impact on the supply chain performance. In addition, from the results of hypothesis testing found two strategies that can improve supply chain performance with 1 increasing the ability of similarity standardization and 2 improve transparency through quality of synergy.Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah mengembangkan konsep baru bilateral symmetry, yang merupakan kemampuan kesamaan berdasarkan transparansi dan standarisasi, dan melakukan pengujian empiris dan menganalisis pengaruh simetri bilateral untuk peningkatan kinerja rantai pasokan melalui kualitas sinergi pada komponen otomotif industri. Populasi penelitian meliputi seluruh industri komponen otomotif di Indonesia. Penelitian ini menggunakan sampel 105 responden dengan menggunakan metode purposive sampling dan dianalisis dengan program AMOS. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa kemampuan kesamaan standarisasi dan kemampuan kesamaan transparansi berdampak signifikan positif pada kualitas sinergi, dan kualitas sinergi berdampak signifikan positif terhadap kinerja rantai pasokan. Selain itu, dari hasil pengujian hipotesis menemukan dua strategi yang dapat meningkatkan kinerja supply chain dengan meningkatkan kemampuan kesamaan standarisasi dan

  15. DO WE IDENTIFY SYNERGIES IN PUBLIC MERGERS/ACQUSITIONS: BEFORE AND DURING THE ECONOMIC CRISIS

    OpenAIRE

    Oana Resceanu

    2011-01-01

    The aim of mergers and acquisitions is to create wealth for the shareholders and usually this is accomplished through synergistic expectations. However the evaluation and identification of synergies in mergers and acquisitions is one of the important issues in Corporate Finance. In this paper it is tested the markets reaction to a sample of 61 mergers/acquisitions in the European pharmaceutical sector, realized between end 2004 and beginning 2010- prior and during the economic crisis. In the ...

  16. Genistein, a phytoestrogen, improves total cholesterol, and Synergy, a prebiotic, improves calcium utilization, but there were no synergistic effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legette, LeeCole L; Lee, Wang-Hee; Martin, Berdine R; Story, Jon A; Arabshahi, Ali; Barnes, Stephen; Weaver, Connie M

    2011-08-01

    Prebiotics and phytoestrogens have sparked great interest because evidence indicates that the consumption of these dietary constituents leads to lower cholesterol levels and inhibition of postmenopausal bone loss. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of both a prebiotic (Synergy) and a phytoestrogen (genistein) on bone and blood lipid levels in an animal model of postmenopausal women. A 4-week feeding study was conducted in 5-month-old ovariectomized (OVX) Sprague-Dawley rats to examine the effect of genistein, Synergy (a prebiotic), and genistein and Synergy combined on bone density and strength, calcium metabolism, and lipid biomarkers. There were six treatment groups: sham control, OVX control, OVX rats receiving daily estradiol injections, and OVX rats receiving an AIN-93M diet supplement with 200 ppm genistein, with 5% Synergy or with 200 ppm genistein and 5% Synergy combined. The rats receiving genistein had significantly lower total serum cholesterol concentrations than OVX rats in the control group (17%), OVX rats receiving daily estradiol injections (14%), and OVX rats fed the 5% Synergy diet (19%). Consumption of Synergy improved calcium absorption efficiency (41%) compared with nonconsumption (OVX control). Sham control rats had a significantly higher femoral bone density, as determined by underwater weighing, than did the rats in all of the OVX groups. Genistein consumption restored total and trabecular bone mineral density at the distal femur similar to the levels of sham rats. Genistein supplementation imparts modest heart health benefits and improves bone geometry at the distal femur, and prebiotic consumption (Synergy) results in improved calcium utilization strength in ovariectomized rats, but the combination produced no synergistic effects.

  17. Synergy temporal sequences and topography in the spinal cord: evidence for a traveling wave in frog locomotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltiel, Philippe; d'Avella, Andrea; Wyler-Duda, Kuno; Bizzi, Emilio

    2016-11-01

    Locomotion is produced by a central pattern generator. Its spinal cord organization is generally considered to be distributed, with more rhythmogenic rostral lumbar segments. While this produces a rostrocaudally traveling wave in undulating species, this is not thought to occur in limbed vertebrates, with the exception of the interneuronal traveling wave demonstrated in fictive cat scratching (Cuellar et al. J Neurosci 29:798-810, 2009). Here, we reexamine this hypothesis in the frog, using the seven muscle synergies A to G previously identified with intraspinal NMDA (Saltiel et al. J Neurophysiol 85:605-619, 2001). We find that locomotion consists of a sequence of synergy activations (A-B-G-A-F-E-G). The same sequence is observed when focal NMDA iontophoresis in the spinal cord elicits a caudal extension-lateral force-flexion cycle (flexion onset without the C synergy). Examining the early NMDA-evoked motor output at 110 sites reveals a rostrocaudal topographic organization of synergy encoding by the lumbar cord. Each synergy is preferentially activated from distinct regions, which may be multiple, and partially overlap between different synergies. Comparing the sequence of synergy activation in locomotion with their spinal cord topography suggests that the locomotor output is achieved by a rostrocaudally traveling wave of activation in the swing-stance cycle. A two-layer circuitry model, based on this topography and a traveling wave reproduces this output and explores its possible modifications under different afferent inputs. Our results and simulations suggest that a rostrocaudally traveling wave of excitation takes advantage of the topography of interneuronal regions encoding synergies, to activate them in the proper sequence for locomotion.

  18. The synergy between mass-media and public management: a positive perspective for the Departments of Communication and Public Relations

    OpenAIRE

    Prodan (Mocanu) Ana-Maria

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this article is to emphasize the major role the departments of communication and public relations detains in the synergy process between mass-media and public institutions, starting from a series of short-circuits which have occurred in Romanian public sector and led to the misunderstanding of messages, due to an unprofessional communication. Synergy, on its basic meaning, represents a simultaneous action oriented in the same direction, which involves several agents who have the sa...

  19. Using postural synergies to animate a low-dimensional hand avatar in haptic simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulatto, Sara; Formaglio, Alessandro; Malvezzi, Monica; Prattichizzo, Domenico

    2013-01-01

    A technique to animate a realistic hand avatar with 20 DoFs based on the biomechanics of the human hand is presented. The animation does not use any sensor glove or advanced tracker with markers. The proposed approach is based on the knowledge of a set of kinematic constraints on the model of the hand, referred to as postural synergies, which allows to represent the hand posture using a number of variables lower than the number of joints of the hand model. This low-dimensional set of parameters is estimated from direct measurement of the motion of thumb and index finger tracked using two haptic devices. A kinematic inversion algorithm has been developed, which takes synergies into account and estimates the kinematic configuration of the whole hand, i.e., also of the fingers whose end tips are not directly tracked by the two haptic devices. The hand skin is deformable and its deformation is computed using a linear vertex blending technique. The proposed synergy-based animation of the hand avatar involves only algebraic computations and is suitable for real-time implementation as required in haptics.

  20. Diamond coating deposition by synergy of thermal and laser methods-A problem revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ristic, Gordana S.; Trtica, Milan S.; Bogdanov, Zarko D.; Romcevic, Nebojsa Z.; Miljanic, Scepan S.

    2007-01-01

    Diamond coatings were deposited by synergy of the hot filament CVD method and the pulse TEA CO 2 laser, in spectroactive and spectroinactive diamond precursor atmospheres. Resulting diamond coatings are interpreted relying on evidence of scanning electron microscopy as well as microRaman spectroscopy. Thermal synergy component (hot filament) possesses an activating agent for diamond deposition, and contributes significantly to quality and extent of diamond deposition. Laser synergy component comprises a solid surface modification as well as the spectroactive gaseous atmosphere modification. Surface modification consists in changes of the diamond coating being deposited and, at the same time, in changes of the substrate surface structure. Laser modification of the spectroactive diamond precursor atmosphere means specific consumption of the precursor, which enables to skip the deposition on a defined substrate location. The resulting process of diamond coating elimination from certain, desired locations using the CO 2 laser might contribute to tailoring diamond coatings for particular applications. Additionally, the substrate laser modification could be optimized by choice of a proper spectroactive precursor concentration, or by a laser radiation multiple pass through an absorbing medium

  1. A synergy-based hand control is encoded in human motor cortical areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leo, Andrea; Handjaras, Giacomo; Bianchi, Matteo; Marino, Hamal; Gabiccini, Marco; Guidi, Andrea; Scilingo, Enzo Pasquale; Pietrini, Pietro; Bicchi, Antonio; Santello, Marco; Ricciardi, Emiliano

    2016-01-01

    How the human brain controls hand movements to carry out different tasks is still debated. The concept of synergy has been proposed to indicate functional modules that may simplify the control of hand postures by simultaneously recruiting sets of muscles and joints. However, whether and to what extent synergic hand postures are encoded as such at a cortical level remains unknown. Here, we combined kinematic, electromyography, and brain activity measures obtained by functional magnetic resonance imaging while subjects performed a variety of movements towards virtual objects. Hand postural information, encoded through kinematic synergies, were represented in cortical areas devoted to hand motor control and successfully discriminated individual grasping movements, significantly outperforming alternative somatotopic or muscle-based models. Importantly, hand postural synergies were predicted by neural activation patterns within primary motor cortex. These findings support a novel cortical organization for hand movement control and open potential applications for brain-computer interfaces and neuroprostheses. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.13420.001 PMID:26880543

  2. Enhanced MR angiography of the lower extremities with synergy spine coil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takashima, Hiroyuki; Watanabe, Naoki

    2002-01-01

    A synergy spine coil is a phased-array coil designed for spine imaging. The coil's sensitive area is narrow in both the x-axis and y-axis directions but very wide in the z-axis direction. It is therefore suitable for using in long parts of the body, such as the spine. We used the coil for enhanced MR angiography in the lower extremities, which requires a very long field of view on the z-axis direction. Using on the NEMA (National Electrical Manufacturers Association) standard test for special-purpose coils, the sensitive volume of the synergy spine coil was first measured by using a phantom. It was found that the sensitive lengths along x-axis and y-axis were 300 mm and 120 mm, respectively, while that along z-axis could set at any length required for the examination by modifying the element number. The above area was confirmed to be sufficient for obtaining enhanced MR angiograms of the lower extremities. The results of this study showed the use of the synergy spine coil in enhanced MR angiography of the lower extremities is superior to the use of a conventional whole body coil for obtaining good MR angiograms with a good single-to-noise ratio (SNR). (author)

  3. Co-gasification of bituminous coal and hydrochar derived from municipal solid waste: Reactivity and synergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Juntao; Guo, Qinghua; He, Qing; Ding, Lu; Yoshikawa, Kunio; Yu, Guangsuo

    2017-09-01

    In this work, the influences of gasification temperature and blended ratio on co-gasification reactivity and synergy of Shenfu bituminous coal (SF) and municipal solid waste-derived hydrochar (HTC) were investigated using TGA. Additionally, active alkaline and alkaline earth metal (AAEM) transformation during co-gasification was quantitatively analyzed by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer for correlating synergy on co-gasification reactivity. The results showed that higher char gasification reactivity existed at higher HTC char proportion and gasification temperature, and the main synergy behaviour on co-gasification reactivity was performed as synergistic effect. Enhanced synergistic effect at lower temperature was mainly resulted from more obviously inhibiting the primary AAEM (i.e. active Ca) transformation, and weak synergistic effect still existed at higher temperature since more active K with prominent catalysis was retained. Furthermore, more active HTC-derived AAEM remaining in SF sample during co-gasification would lead to enhanced synergistic effect as HTC char proportion increased. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Striking multiple synergies created by combining reduced graphene oxides and carbon nanotubes for polymer nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Ping’an; Liu Lina; Fu Shenyuan; Yu Youming; Jin Chunde; Wu Qiang; Zhang Yan; Li Qian

    2013-01-01

    The extraordinary properties of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and graphene stimulate the development of advanced composites. Recently, several studies have reported significant synergies in the mechanical, electrical and thermal conductivity properties of polymer nanocomposites by incorporating their nanohybrids. In this work, we created polypropylene nanocomposites with homogeneous dispersion of CNTs and reduced graphene oxides via a facile polymer-latex-coating plus melt-mixing strategy, and investigated their synergistic effects in their viscoelastic, gas barrier, and flammability properties. Interestingly, the results show remarkable synergies, enhancing their melt modulus and viscosity, O 2 barrier, and flame retardancy properties and respectively exhibiting a synergy percentage of 15.9%, 45.3%, and 20.3%. As previously reported, we also observed remarkable synergistic effects in their tensile strength (14.3%) and Young’s modulus (27.1%), electrical conductivity (32.3%) and thermal conductivity (34.6%). These impressive results clearly point towards a new strategy to create advanced materials by adding binary combinations of different types of nanofillers. (paper)

  5. Precise Plan in the analysis of volume precision in SynergyTM conebeam CT image

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai Sen; Xu Qingfeng; Zhong Renming; Jiang Xiaoqin; Jiang Qingfeng; Xu Feng

    2007-01-01

    Objective: A method of checking the volume precision in Synergy TM conebeam CT image. Methods: To scan known phantoms (big, middle, small spheres, cubes and cuniform cavum) at different positions (CBCT centre and departure centre from 5, 8, 10 cm along the accelerator G-T way)with conebeam CT, the phantom volume of reconstructed images were measure. Then to compared measured volume of Synergy TM conebeam CT with fanbeam CT results and nominal values. Results: The middle spheres had 1.5% discrepancy in nominal values and metrical average values at CBCT centre and departure from centre 5, 8 cm along accelerator G-T way. The small spheres showed 8.1%, with 0.8 % of the big cube and 2.9% of small cube, in nominal values and metrical average values at CBCT centre and departure from centre 5, 8, 10 cm along the accelerator G-T way. Conclusion: In valid scan range of Synergy TM conebeam CT, reconstructed precision is independent of the distance deviation from the center. (authors)

  6. Co-gasification of coal and biomass: Synergy, characterization and reactivity of the residual char.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Junhao; Shao, Jingai; Yang, Haiping; Lin, Guiying; Chen, Yingquan; Wang, Xianhua; Zhang, Wennan; Chen, Hanping

    2017-11-01

    The synergy effect between coal and biomass in their co-gasification was studied in a vertical fixed bed reactor, and the physic-chemical structural characteristics and gasification reactivity of the residual char obtained from co-gasification were also investigated. The results shows that, conversion of the residual char and tar into gas is enhanced due to the synergy effect between coal and biomass. The physical structure of residual char shows more pore on coal char when more biomass is added in the co-gasification. The migration of inorganic elements between coal and biomass was found, the formation and competitive role of K 2 SiO 3 , KAlSiO 4 , and Ca 3 Al 2 (SiO 4 ) 3 is a mechanism behind the synergy. The graphization degree is enhanced but size of graphite crystallite in the residual char decreases with biomass blending ratio increasing. TGA results strongly suggest the big difference in the reactivity of chars derived from coal and biomass in spite of influence from co-gasification. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Kinematic and kinetic synergies of the lower extremities during the pull in olympic weightlifting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kipp, Kristof; Redden, Josh; Sabick, Michelle; Harris, Chad

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify multijoint lower extremity kinematic and kinetic synergies in weightlifting and compare these synergies between joints and across different external loads. Subjects completed sets of the clean exercise at loads equal to 65, 75, and 85% of their estimated 1-RM. Functional data analysis was used to extract principal component functions (PCF's) for hip, knee, and ankle joint angles and moments of force during the pull phase of the clean at all loads. The PCF scores were then compared between joints and across loads to determine how much of each PCF was present at each joint and how it differed across loads. The analyses extracted two kinematic and four kinetic PCF's. The statistical comparisons indicated that all kinematic and two of the four kinetic PCF's did not differ across load, but scaled according to joint function. The PCF's captured a set of joint- and load-specific synergies that quantified biomechanical function of the lower extremity during Olympic weightlifting and revealed important technical characteristics that should be considered in sports training and future research.

  8. Mapping synergies and trade-offs between energy and the Sustainable Development Goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuso Nerini, Francesco; Tomei, Julia; To, Long Seng; Bisaga, Iwona; Parikh, Priti; Black, Mairi; Borrion, Aiduan; Spataru, Catalina; Castán Broto, Vanesa; Anandarajah, Gabrial; Milligan, Ben; Mulugetta, Yacob

    2018-01-01

    The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development—including 17 interconnected Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and 169 targets—is a global plan of action for people, planet and prosperity. SDG7 calls for action to ensure access to affordable, reliable, sustainable and modern energy for all. Here we characterize synergies and trade-offs between efforts to achieve SDG7 and delivery of the 2030 Agenda as a whole. We identify 113 targets requiring actions to change energy systems, and published evidence of relationships between 143 targets (143 synergies, 65 trade-offs) and efforts to achieve SDG7. Synergies and trade-offs exist in three key domains, where decisions about SDG7 affect humanity's ability to: realize aspirations of greater welfare and well-being; build physical and social infrastructures for sustainable development; and achieve sustainable management of the natural environment. There is an urgent need to better organize, connect and extend this evidence, to help all actors work together to achieve sustainable development.

  9. A Synergy Cropland of China by Fusing Multiple Existing Maps and Statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Miao; Wu, Wenbin; You, Liangzhi; Chen, Di; Zhang, Li; Yang, Peng; Tang, Huajun

    2017-07-12

    Accurate information on cropland extent is critical for scientific research and resource management. Several cropland products from remotely sensed datasets are available. Nevertheless, significant inconsistency exists among these products and the cropland areas estimated from these products differ considerably from statistics. In this study, we propose a hierarchical optimization synergy approach (HOSA) to develop a hybrid cropland map of China, circa 2010, by fusing five existing cropland products, i.e., GlobeLand30, Climate Change Initiative Land Cover (CCI-LC), GlobCover 2009, MODIS Collection 5 (MODIS C5), and MODIS Cropland, and sub-national statistics of cropland area. HOSA simplifies the widely used method of score assignment into two steps, including determination of optimal agreement level and identification of the best product combination. The accuracy assessment indicates that the synergy map has higher accuracy of spatial locations and better consistency with statistics than the five existing datasets individually. This suggests that the synergy approach can improve the accuracy of cropland mapping and enhance consistency with statistics.

  10. Molecular signatures of nicotinoid-pathogen synergy in the termite gut.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruchira Sen

    Full Text Available Previous studies in lower termites revealed unexpected synergies between nicotinoid insecticides and fungal entomopathogens. The present study investigated molecular mechanisms of nicotinoid-pathogen synergy in the lower termite Reticulitermes flavipes, using the nicotinoid, imidacloprid, in combination with fungal and bacterial entomopathogens. Particular focus was placed on metatranscriptome composition and microbial dynamics in the symbiont-rich termite gut, which houses diverse mixes of protists and bacteria. cDNA microarrays containing a mix of host and protist symbiont oligonucleotides were used to simultaneously assess termite and protist gene expression. Five treatments were compared that included single challenges with sublethal doses of fungi (Metharizium anisopliae, bacteria (Serratia marcescens or imidacloprid, and dual challenges with fungi + imidacloprid or bacteria + imidacloprid. Our findings point towards protist dysbiosis and compromised social behavior, rather than suppression of stereotypical immune defense mechanisms, as the dominant factors underlying nicotinoid-pathogen synergy in termites. Also, greater impacts observed for the fungal pathogen than for the bacterial pathogen suggest that the rich bacterial symbiont community in the R. flavipes gut (>5000 species-level phylotypes exists in an ecological balance that effectively excludes exogenous bacterial pathogens. These findings significantly advance our understanding of antimicrobial defenses in this important eusocial insect group, as well as provide novel insights into how nicotinoids can exert deleterious effects on social insect colonies.

  11. Sustainable Urbanization Synergy Degree Measures—A Case Study in Henan Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leilei Jiao

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable urbanization emphasizes properly handling the relationships between people, people and society, and people and nature in the process of urban development. However, sometimes these interactions are difficult to quantify. Through an analysis of the structure and functions of the sustainable urbanization system, this paper introduced synergetic theory and constructed a sustainable urbanization synergy system (SUSS with five subsystems; demographic change, economic development, spatial structure, environmental quality, and social development; to study the synergistic development and orderly evolution trend of the sustainable urbanization composite system. Using sustainable urbanization in Henan province as an example, a mathematical quantitative model was established to measure the subsystem order degrees and the composite system synergy degree from 2006 to 2015. The results were consistent with the actual situation and indicated that over time, sustainable urbanization in Henan developed towards a more harmonious and orderly state, though the overall synergy degree was not high. It was found that the model was a sound basis for scientific judgment and effective decision-making when seeking to coordinate sustainable urbanization.

  12. The New Bail-in Regime and the Need for Stronger Market Discipline: What Can We Learn From the Greek Case?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evangelos Vasileiou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Effective Market Discipline (MD puzzles financial economists and regulators for decades, while the recent bail-in legislation for European banks extremely raises the need for even stronger MD. It may not be exaggeration to say that a new regime for the European banking market is born after the aforementioned decision. This paper’s objective is the broader MD examination, using variables that are not usually included in MD studies, but concern the European Union (EU and the European Monetary Union (EMU in the last years. In particular, apart from banking, deposit insurance and pure macroeconomic indicators, we also include governance and sovereign debt indices. The new regime may need a new MD approach. We choose Greece to implement our assumptions, because it is the country with the most severe economic, sovereign and governance problems in the EU. We employ data for the period 2002-10. The empirical evidence supports that market discipline is superficial, while there is ample evidence that MD is directly influenced by the poor governance performance and the excessive government debt. Greek authorities have to make major structural reforms in order to create the conditions for long-term stability, while our analysis points out some EMU’s shortfalls. 

  13. Macroeconomic stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Jesper

    2004-01-01

    It is demonstrated that full employment and sustainable development not necessarily are conflicting goals. On the other hand macroeconomic stability cannot be obtained without a deliberate labour sharing policy and a shift in the composition of private consumption away from traditional material...

  14. Stabilized superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, J.

    1975-01-01

    The stable, high field, high current composite wire comprises multiple filaments in a depleted bronze matrix, each filament comprising a type II superconducting, beta-tungsten structure, intermetallic compound layer jacketing and metallurgically bonded to a stabilizing copper core, directly or via an intermediate layer of refractory metal

  15. Synergy of drug combinations in treating multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizvi, Meher; Ahmad, Junaid; Khan, Fatima; Shukla, Indu; Malik, Abida; Sami, Hiba

    2015-01-01

    With the emergence of metallo-betalactamases (MBL) in Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa), the value of carbapenem, the drug of last resort, is being severely compromised. Curtailing the use of carbapenems becomes paramount if resistance is to be reined in. To study the role of synergy between combinations of drugs as an alternative treatment choice for P. aeruginosa. Synergy was studied between combinations of levofloxacin with piperacillin-tazobactam and levofloxacin with cefoperazone-sulbactam by time-kill and chequerboard techniques. P. aeruginosa were tested for antibiotic susceptibility by the disc diffusion assay (260 isolates) and E-test (60 isolates). Synergy testing by chequerboard and time-kill assays was performed with combinations of piperacillin-tazobactam with levofloxacin (11 isolates) and cefoperazone-sulbactam with levofloxacin (10 isolates). Nearly all isolates were susceptible to piperacillin-tazobactam (96.1 per cent), followed by piperacillin (78.5 per cent). Seventy-one isolates (27.3 per cent) were found to be multidrug resistant and 19.6 per cent were ESBL producers. MIC50 of amikacin was 32μg/ml and MIC90 was 64μg/ml. MIC50 and MIC90 of cefoperazone-sulbactam was 32μg/ml and 64μg/ml, and for levofloxacin it was 10μg/ml and 240μg/ml, respectively. Piperacillin-tazobactam had MIC50 and MIC90 of 5μg/ml and 10μg/ml, respectively. Synergy was noted in 72.7 per cent isolates for levofloxacin and piperacillin-tazobactam combination, the remaining 27.3 per cent isolates showed addition by both chequerboard and time-kill assay. For levofloxacin and cefoperazone-sulbactam, only 30 per cent isolates had synergy, 40 per cent showed addition, 20 per cent indifference, and 10 per cent were antagonistic by the chequerboard method. The combination of levofloxacin and piperacillin-tazobactam is a good choice for treatment of such strains.

  16. Synergy of licorice extract and pea protein hydrolysate for oxidative stability of soybean oil-in-water emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xin; Xiong, Youling L; Chen, Jie; Zhou, Lirong

    2014-08-13

    Previously developed radical-scavenging pea protein hydrolysates (PPHs) prepared with Flavourzyme (Fla-PPH) and Protamex (Pro-PPH) were used as cosurfactants with Tween 20 to produce soybean oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions, and the suppression of lipid oxidation was investigated. Both PPHs significantly retarded oxidation (P < 0.05) of the emulsions when stored at 37 °C for 14 days. Electron microscopy revealed an interfacial peptidyl membrane around oil droplets, which afforded steric restrictions to oxidation initiators. When licorice extract (LE) was also used in emulsion preparation, a remarkable synergistic oxidation inhibition was observed with both PPHs. LE adsorbed onto oil droplets either directly or through associating with PPH to produce a thick and compact interfacial membrane enabling the defense against oxygen species. Liquiritin apioside, neolicuroside, glabrene, and 18β-glycyrrhetic acid were the predominant phenolic derivatives partitioning at the interface and most likely the major contributors to the notable synergistic antioxidant activity when coupled with PPHs.

  17. Technology of Synergy Manifestation in the Research of Solution's Stability of Differential Equations System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvoryatkina, Svetlana N.; Melnikov, Roman A. M.; Smirnov, Eugeny I.

    2017-01-01

    Effectiveness of mathematical education as non-linear, composite and open system, formation and development of cognitive abilities of the trainee are wholly defined in the solution of complex tasks by means of modern achievements in science to high school practice adaptation. The possibility of complex tasks solution arises at identification of…

  18. Synergy of β-Lactams with Vancomycin against Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus: Correlation of Disk Diffusion and Checkerboard Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sy, Cheng Len; Huang, Tsi-Shu; Chen, Chii Shiang; Chen, Yao-Shen; Tsai, Hung-Chin; Wann, Shue-Renn; Wu, Kuan-Sheng; Chen, Jui-Kuang; Lee, Susan Shin-Jung; Liu, Yung-Ching

    2016-03-01

    Modified disk diffusion (MDD) and checkerboard tests were employed to assess the synergy of combinations of vancomycin and β-lactam antibiotics for 59 clinical isolates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Mu50 (ATCC 700699). Bacterial inocula equivalent to 0.5 and 2.0 McFarland standard were inoculated on agar plates containing 0, 0.5, 1, and 2 μg/ml of vancomycin. Oxacillin-, cefazolin-, and cefoxitin-impregnated disks were applied to the surface, and the zones of inhibition were measured at 24 h. The CLSI-recommended checkerboard method was used as a reference to detect synergy. The MICs for vancomycin were determined using the Etest method, broth microdilution, and the Vitek 2 automated system. Synergy was observed with the checkerboard method in 51% to 60% of the isolates when vancomycin was combined with any β-lactam. The fractional inhibitory concentration indices were significantly lower in MRSA isolates with higher vancomycin MIC combinations (P synergy in MRSA isolates with bacterial inocula equivalent to McFarland standard 0.5 were 33.0% and 62.5% for oxacillin, 45.1% and 52.4% for cefazolin, and 43.1% and 52.4% for cefoxitin when combined with 0.5 and 2 μg/ml of vancomycin, respectively. Based on our study, the simple MDD method is not recommended as a replacement for the checkerboard method to detect synergy. However, it may serve as an initial screening method for the detection of potential synergy when it is not feasible to perform other labor-intensive synergy tests. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  19. Antistaphylococcal Activity of DX-619 Alone and in Combination with Vancomycin, Teicoplanin, and Linezolid Assessed by Time-Kill Synergy Testing▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Credito, Kim; Lin, Genrong; Appelbaum, Peter C.

    2007-01-01

    Time-kill synergy studies testing in vitro activity of DX-619 alone and with added vancomycin, teicoplanin, or linezolid against 101 Staphylococcus aureus strains showed synergy between DX-619 and teicoplanin at 12 to 24 h in 72 strains and between DX-619 and vancomycin in 28 strains. No synergy was found with linezolid, and no antagonism was observed with any combination. PMID:17261625

  20. Income inequality is associated with stronger social comparison effects: The effect of relative income on life satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Felix; Lucas, Richard E

    2016-02-01

    Previous research has shown that having rich neighbors is associated with reduced levels of subjective well-being, an effect that is likely due to social comparison. The current study examined the role of income inequality as a moderator of this relative income effect. Multilevel analyses were conducted on a sample of more than 1.7 million people from 2,425 counties in the United States. Results showed that higher income inequality was associated with stronger relative income effects. In other words, people were more strongly influenced by the income of their neighbors when income inequality was high. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Income Inequality Is Associated with Stronger Social Comparison Effects: The Effect of Relative Income on Life Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Felix; Lucas, Richard E.

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has shown that having rich neighbors is associated with reduced levels of subjective well-being, an effect that is likely due to social comparison. The current study examined the role of income inequality as a moderator of this relative income effect. Multilevel analyses were conducted on a sample of over 1.7 million people from 2,425 counties in the United States. Results showed that higher income inequality was associated with stronger relative income effects. In other words, people were more strongly influenced by the income of their neighbors when income inequality was high. PMID:26191957

  2. Integration of robotics and neuroscience beyond the hand: What kind of synergies?. Comment on "Hand synergies: Integration of robotics and neuroscience for understanding the control of biological and artificial hands" by Marco Santello et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Avella, Andrea

    2016-07-01

    Santello et al. [1] review an impressive amount of work on the control of biological and artificial hands that demonstrates how the concept of synergies can lead to a successful integration of robotics and neuroscience. Is it possible to generalize the same approach to the control of biological and artificial limbs and bodies beyond the hand? The human hand synergies that appear most relevant for robotic hands are those defined at the kinematic level, i.e. postural synergies [2]. Postural synergies capture the geometric relations among the many joints of the hand and allow for a low dimensional characterization and synthesis of the static hand postures involved in grasping and manipulating a large set of objects. However, many other complex motor skills such as walking, reaching, throwing, and catching require controlling multi-articular time-varying trajectories rather than static postures. Dynamic control of biological and artificial limbs and bodies, especially when geometric and inertial parameters are uncertain and the joints are compliant, poses great challenges. What kind of synergies might simplify the dynamic control of motor skills involving upper and lower limbs as well as the whole body?

  3. Which global stock indices trigger stronger contagion risk in the Vietnamese stock market? Evidence using a bivariate analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Kuan-Min

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper extends recent investigations into risk contagion effects on stock markets to the Vietnamese stock market. Daily data spanning October 9, 2006 to May 3, 2012 are sourced to empirically validate the contagion effects between stock markets in Vietnam, and China, Japan, Singapore, and the US. To facilitate the validation of contagion effects with market-related coefficients, this paper constructs a bivariate EGARCH model of dynamic conditional correlation coefficients. Using the correlation contagion test and Dungey et al.’s (2005 contagion test, we find contagion effects between the Vietnamese and four other stock markets, namely Japan, Singapore, China, and the US. Second, we show that the Japanese stock market causes stronger contagion risk in the Vietnamese stock market compared to the stock markets of China, Singapore, and the US. Finally, we show that the Chinese and US stock markets cause weaker contagion effects in the Vietnamese stock market because of stronger interdependence effects between the former two markets.

  4. The impact of gambling advertising: Problem gamblers report stronger impacts on involvement, knowledge, and awareness than recreational gamblers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanss, Daniel; Mentzoni, Rune A; Griffiths, Mark D; Pallesen, Ståle

    2015-06-01

    Although there is a general lack of empirical evidence that advertising influences gambling participation, the regulation of gambling advertising is hotly debated among academic researchers, treatment specialists, lobby groups, regulators, and policymakers. This study contributes to the ongoing debate by investigating perceived impacts of gambling advertising in a sample of gamblers drawn from the general population in Norway (n = 6,034). Three dimensions of advertising impacts were identified, representing perceived impacts on (a) gambling-related attitudes, interest, and behavior ("involvement"); (b) knowledge about gambling options and providers ("knowledge"); and (c) the degree to which people are aware of gambling advertising ("awareness"). Overall, impacts were strongest for the knowledge dimension, and, for all 3 dimensions, the impact increased with level of advertising exposure. Those identified as problem gamblers in the sample (n = 57) reported advertising impacts concerning involvement more than recreational gamblers, and this finding was not attributable to differences in advertising exposure. Additionally, younger gamblers reported stronger impacts on involvement and knowledge but were less likely to agree that they were aware of gambling advertising than older gamblers. Male gamblers were more likely than female gamblers to report stronger impacts on both involvement and knowledge. These findings are discussed with regard to existing research on gambling advertising as well as their implications for future research and policy-making. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Removal of proprioception by BCI raises a stronger body ownership illusion in control of a humanlike robot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alimardani, Maryam; Nishio, Shuichi; Ishiguro, Hiroshi

    2016-09-22

    Body ownership illusions provide evidence that our sense of self is not coherent and can be extended to non-body objects. Studying about these illusions gives us practical tools to understand the brain mechanisms that underlie body recognition and the experience of self. We previously introduced an illusion of body ownership transfer (BOT) for operators of a very humanlike robot. This sensation of owning the robot's body was confirmed when operators controlled the robot either by performing the desired motion with their body (motion-control) or by employing a brain-computer interface (BCI) that translated motor imagery commands to robot movement (BCI-control). The interesting observation during BCI-control was that the illusion could be induced even with a noticeable delay in the BCI system. Temporal discrepancy has always shown critical weakening effects on body ownership illusions. However the delay-robustness of BOT during BCI-control raised a question about the interaction between the proprioceptive inputs and delayed visual feedback in agency-driven illusions. In this work, we compared the intensity of BOT illusion for operators in two conditions; motion-control and BCI-control. Our results revealed a significantly stronger BOT illusion for the case of BCI-control. This finding highlights BCI's potential in inducing stronger agency-driven illusions by building a direct communication between the brain and controlled body, and therefore removing awareness from the subject's own body.

  6. Learned parametrized dynamic movement primitives with shared synergies for controlling robotic and musculoskeletal systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elmar eRückert

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available A salient feature of human motor skill learning is the ability to exploitsimilarities across related tasks.In biological motor control, it has been hypothesized that muscle synergies,coherent activations of groups of muscles, allow for exploiting shared knowledge.Recent studies have shown that a rich set of complex motor skills can be generated bya combination of a small number of muscle synergies.In robotics, dynamic movement primitives are commonlyused for motor skill learning. This machine learning approach implements a stable attractor systemthat facilitates learning and it can be used in high-dimensional continuous spaces. However, it does not allow for reusing shared knowledge, i.e. for each task an individual set of parameters has to be learned.We propose a novel movement primitive representationthat employs parametrized basis functions, which combines the benefits of muscle synergiesand dynamic movement primitives. For each task asuperposition of synergies modulates a stable attractor system.This approach leads to a compact representation of multiple motor skills andat the same time enables efficient learning in high-dimensional continuous systems.The movement representation supports discrete and rhythmic movements andin particular includes the dynamic movement primitive approach as a special case.We demonstrate the feasibility of the movement representation in three multi-task learning simulated scenarios.First, the characteristics of the proposed representation are illustrated in a point-mass task.Second, in complex humanoid walking experiments,multiple walking patterns with different step heights are learned robustly and efficiently.Finally, in a multi-directional reaching task simulated with a musculoskeletal modelof the human arm, we show how the proposed movement primitives can be used tolearn appropriate muscle excitation patterns and to generalize effectively to new reaching skills.

  7. Antimicrobial synergy between carprofen and doxycycline against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius ST71.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brochmann, Rikke Prejh; Helmfrid, Alexandra; Jana, Bimal; Magnowska, Zofia; Guardabassi, Luca

    2016-06-24

    New therapeutic strategies are needed to face the rapid spread of multidrug-resistant staphylococci in veterinary medicine. The objective of this study was to identify synergies between antimicrobial and non-antimicrobial drugs commonly used in companion animals as a possible strategy to restore antimicrobial susceptibility in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (MRSP). A total of 216 antimicrobial/non-antimicrobial drug combinations were screened by disk diffusion using a clinical MRSP sequence type (ST) 71 strain resistant to all six antimicrobials tested (ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, clindamycin, doxycycline, oxacillin and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole). The most promising drug combination (doxycycline-carprofen) was further assessed by checkerboard testing extended to four additional MRSP strains belonging to ST71 or ST68, and by growth inhibition experiments. Seven non-antimicrobial drugs (bromhexine, acepromazine, amitriptyline, clomipramine, carprofen, fluoxetine and ketoconazole) displayed minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) ranging between 32 and >4096 mg/L, and enhanced antimicrobial activity of one or more antimicrobials. Secondary screening by checkerboard assay revealed a synergistic antimicrobial effect between carprofen and doxycycline, with the sum of the fractional inhibitory concentration indexes (ΣFICI) ranging between 0.3 and 0.5 depending on drug concentration. Checkerboard testing of multiple MRSP strains revealed a clear association between synergy and carriage of tetK, which is a typical feature of MRSP ST71. An increased growth inhibition was observed when MRSP ST71 cells in exponential phase were exposed to 0.5/32 mg/L of doxycycline/carprofen compared to individual drug exposure. Carprofen restores in vitro susceptibility to doxycycline in S. pseudintermedius strains carrying tetK such as MRSP ST71. Further research is warranted to elucidate the molecular mechanism behind the identified synergy and its linkage to

  8. Synergies in the design and development of fusion and generation IV fission reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogusch, E.; Carre, F.; Knebel, J.; Aoto, K.

    2007-01-01

    Future fusion reactors or systems and Generation IV fission reactors are designed and developed in worldwide programmes mostly involving the same partners to investigate and assess their potential for realisation and contribution to meet the future energy needs beyond 2030. Huge scientific and financial effort is necessary to meet these objectives. First programmes have been launched in Generation IV International Forum (GIF) for fission and in the Broader Approach for fusion reactor system development. Except the physics basis for the energy source, future fusion and fission reactors, in particular those with fast neutron core face similar design issues and development needs. Therefore the call for the identification of synergies became evident. Beyond ITER cooled by water, future fusion reactors or systems will be designed for helium and liquid metal cooling and higher temperatures similar to those proposed for some of the six fission reactor concepts in GIF with their diverse coolants. Beside materials developments which are not discussed in this paper, design and performance of components and systems related to the diverse coolants including lifetime and maintenance aspects might offer significant potentials for synergies. Furthermore, the use of process heat for applications in addition to electricity production as well as their safety approaches might create synergistic design and development programmes. Therefore an early identification of possible synergies in the relevant programmes should be endorsed to minimise the effort for future power plants in terms of investments and resources. In addition to a general overview of a possible synergistic work programme which promotes the interaction between fusion and fission programmes towards an integrated organisation of their design and R and D programmes, some specific remarks will be given for joint design tools, numerical code systems and joint experiments in support of common technologies. (orig.)

  9. Synergy and antagonism between iron chelators and antifungal drugs in Cryptococcus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Yu-Wen; Campbell, Leona T; Wilkins, Marc R; Pang, Chi Nam Ignatius; Chen, Sharon; Carter, Dee A

    2016-10-01

    Fungal infections remain very difficult to treat, and developing new antifungal drugs is difficult and expensive. Recent approaches therefore seek to augment existing antifungals with synergistic agents that can lower the therapeutic dose, increase efficacy and prevent resistance from developing. Iron limitation can inhibit microbial growth, and iron chelators have been employed to treat fungal infections. In this study, chequerboard testing was used to explore combinations of iron chelators with antifungal agents against pathogenic Cryptococcus spp. with the aim of determining how disruption to iron homeostasis affects antifungal susceptibility. The iron chelators ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), deferoxamine (DFO), deferiprone (DFP), deferasirox (DSX), ciclopirox olamine and lactoferrin (LF) were paired with the antifungal agents amphotericin B (AmB), fluconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole and caspofungin. All chelators except for DFO increased the efficacy of AmB, and significant synergy was seen between AmB and LF for all Cryptococcus strains. Addition of exogenous iron rescued cells from the antifungal effect of LF alone but could not prevent inhibition by AmB + LF, indicating that synergy was not due primarily to iron chelation but to other properties of LF that were potentiated in the presence of AmB. Significant synergy was not seen consistently for other antifungal-chelator combinations, and EDTA, DSX and DFP antagonised the activity of azole drugs in strains of Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii. This study highlights the range of interactions that can be induced by chelators and indicates that most antifungal drugs are not enhanced by iron limitation in Cryptococcus. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. and International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  10. Synergy and redundancy in the Granger causal analysis of dynamical networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stramaglia, Sebastiano; M Cortes, Jesus; Marinazzo, Daniele

    2014-01-01

    We analyze, by means of Granger causality (GC), the effect of synergy and redundancy in the inference (from time series data) of the information flow between subsystems of a complex network. While we show that fully conditioned GC (CGC) is not affected by synergy, the pairwise analysis fails to prove synergetic effects. In cases when the number of samples is low, thus making the fully conditioned approach unfeasible, we show that partially conditioned GC (PCGC) is an effective approach if the set of conditioning variables is properly chosen. Here we consider two different strategies (based either on informational content for the candidate driver or on selecting the variables with highest pairwise influences) for PCGC and show that, depending on the data structure, either one or the other might be equally valid. On the other hand, we observe that fully conditioned approaches do not work well in the presence of redundancy, thus suggesting the strategy of separating the pairwise links in two subsets: those corresponding to indirect connections of the CGC (which should thus be excluded) and links that can be ascribed to redundancy effects and, together with the results from the fully connected approach, provide a better description of the causality pattern in the presence of redundancy. Finally we apply these methods to two different real datasets. First, analyzing electrophysiological data from an epileptic brain, we show that synergetic effects are dominant just before seizure occurrences. Second, our analysis applied to gene expression time series from HeLa culture shows that the underlying regulatory networks are characterized by both redundancy and synergy. (paper)

  11. Synergies in the design and development of fusion and generation IV fission reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogusch, E.; Carre, F.; Knebel, J.U.; Aoto, K.

    2008-01-01

    Future fusion reactor and Generation IV fission reactor systems are designed and developed in worldwide programmes to investigate and assess their potential for realisation and contribution to the future energy needs beyond 2030 mostly involving the same partners. Huge scientific and financial effort is necessary to meet these objectives. First programmes have been launched in Generation IV International Forum (GIF) for fission and in the Broader Approach for fusion reactor system development. Except for the physics basis for the energy source, future fusion and fission reactors, in particular those with fast neutron core, face similar design issues and development needs. Therefore, the call for the identification of synergies became evident. Beyond ITER cooled by water, future fusion reactor systems will be designed for high-temperature helium and liquid metal cooling but also water including supercritical water and molten salt similar to those proposed for some of the six fission reactor concepts in GIF with their diverse coolants. Beside materials developments which are not discussed in this paper, design and performance of components and systems related to the diverse coolants including lifetime and maintenance aspects might offer significant potentials for synergies. Furthermore, the use of process heat for applications in addition to electricity production as well as their safety approaches can create synergistic design and development programmes. Therefore, an early identification of possible synergies in the relevant programmes should be endorsed to minimise the effort for future power plants in terms of investments and resources. In addition to a general overview of a possible synergistic work programme which promotes the interaction between fusion and fission programmes towards an integrated organisation of their design and R and D programmes, some specific remarks will be given for joint design tools, numerical code systems and joint experiments in

  12. Before Stabilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plesner, Ursula; Horst, Maja

    2013-01-01

    of the communication about innovations in information and communication technology (ICT), and to contribute to an understanding of how different visions promise particular future configurations of workflows, communication processes, politics, economic models and social relations. Hereby, the paper adds...... to the literature on the relationship between ICTs and organizing, but with a distinct focus on innovation communication and distributed innovation processes taking place before ICTs are stabilized, issues which cannot be captured by studies of diffusion and adaptation of new ICTs within single organizations....

  13. Trade-Off and Synergy among Ecosystem Services in the Guanzhong-Tianshui Economic Region of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keyu Qin

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Natural ecosystems provide society with important goods and services. With rapidly increasing populations and excessive utilization of natural resources, humans have been enhancing the production of some services at the expense of others. Although the need for certain trade-offs between conservation and development is urgent, having only a small number of efficient methods to assess such trade-offs has impeded progress. This study focuses on the evaluation of ecosystem services under different land use schemes. It reveals the spatial and temporal distributions of and changes in ecosystem services. Based on a correlation rate model and distribution mapping, the trade-offs and synergies of these ecosystem services can be found. Here, we also describe a new simple approach to quantify the relationships of every trade-off and synergy. The results show that all ecosystem services possess trade-offs and synergies in the study area. The trend of improving carbon sequestration and water interception indicate that these key ecosystem services have the strongest synergy. And the decrease in regional agricultural production and other services, except water yield, may be considered as trade-offs. The synergy between water yield and agricultural production was the most significant, while the trade-off between water interception and carbon sequestration was the most apparent, according to our interaction quantification model. The results of this study have implications for planning and monitoring the future management of natural capital and ecosystem services, and can be integrated into land use decision-making.

  14. Trade-Off and Synergy among Ecosystem Services in the Guanzhong-Tianshui Economic Region of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Keyu; Li, Jing; Yang, Xiaonan

    2015-11-03

    Natural ecosystems provide society with important goods and services. With rapidly increasing populations and excessive utilization of natural resources, humans have been enhancing the production of some services at the expense of others. Although the need for certain trade-offs between conservation and development is urgent, having only a small number of efficient methods to assess such trade-offs has impeded progress. This study focuses on the evaluation of ecosystem services under different land use schemes. It reveals the spatial and temporal distributions of and changes in ecosystem services. Based on a correlation rate model and distribution mapping, the trade-offs and synergies of these ecosystem services can be found. Here, we also describe a new simple approach to quantify the relationships of every trade-off and synergy. The results show that all ecosystem services possess trade-offs and synergies in the study area. The trend of improving carbon sequestration and water interception indicate that these key ecosystem services have the strongest synergy. And the decrease in regional agricultural production and other services, except water yield, may be considered as trade-offs. The synergy between water yield and agricultural production was the most significant, while the trade-off between water interception and carbon sequestration was the most apparent, according to our interaction quantification model. The results of this study have implications for planning and monitoring the future management of natural capital and ecosystem services, and can be integrated into land use decision-making.

  15. Effect of fuel origin on synergy during co-gasification of biomass and coal in CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Zheng, Yan; Yang, Mingjun; Song, Yongchen

    2016-01-01

    The effect of fuel origin on synergy in coal/biomass blends during co-gasification has been assessed using a congruent-mass thermogravimetry analysis (TGA) method. Results revealed that synergy occurs when ash residuals are formed, followed by an almost complete gasification of biomass. Potassium species in biomass ash play a catalytic role in promoting gasification reactivity of coal char, which is a direct consequence of synergy during co-gasification. The SEM-EDS spectra provided conclusive evidence that the transfer of potassium from biomass to the surface of coal char occurs during co-pyrolysis/gasification. Biomass ash rich in silica eliminated synergy in coal/biomass blends but not to the extent of inhibiting the reaction rate of the blended chars to make it slower than that of separated ones. The best result in terms of synergy was concluded to be the combination of low-ash coal and K-rich biomass. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Analysis of JET LCHD/ICRH synergy experiments in terms of relativistic current drive theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Start, D F.H.; Baranov, Y; Brusati, M; Ekedahl, A; Froissard, P; Gormezano, C; Jacquinot, J; Paquin, L; Rimini, F G [Commission of the European Communities, Abingdon (United Kingdom). JET Joint Undertaking; Cox, M; Gardner, C; O` Brien, M R [UKAEA Culham Lab., Abingdon (United Kingdom); Di Vita, A [Ansaldo SpA, Genoa (Italy)

    1994-07-01

    The present analysis shows that the observed efficiency of current drive with synergy between LHCD and ICRH is in good agreement with the relativistic theory of Karney and Fisch for Landau damped waves. The predicted power absorption from the fast wave by the electron tail is within 30% of the measured value. In the presence of significant fast electron diffusion within a slowing down time it would be possible to produce central current drive using multiple ICRF resonances even when the LHCD deposition is at half radius, as in an ITER type device. (authors). 4 refs., 6 figs.

  17. Smart Metering. Synergies within medium voltage automation; Synergien durch Smart Metering. Automatisierung auf Mittelspannungsebene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maas, Peter [IDS GmbH, Ettlingen (Germany)

    2010-11-15

    Transparent interdivisional system solutions are an indispensable and decisive precondition for the optimization of business processes. The implementation of a Smart Metering solution does not only provide data for billing purposes, but also renders important data for network operation. Synergies can be achieved through the use of a common infrastructure which covers both the needs of Smart Metering and network operation. An open architecture of the solution allows for the future integration of further services of the domains Smart Grid and Smart Home. (orig.)

  18. Proton Beam Fast Ignition Fusion: Synergy of Weibel and Rayleigh-Taylor Instabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefan, V. Alexander

    2011-04-01

    The proton beam generation and focusing in fast ignition inertial confinement fusion is studied. The spatial and energy spread of the proton beam generated in a laser-solid interaction is increased due to the synergy of Weibel and Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities. The focal spot radius can reach 100 μm, which is nearly an order of magnitude larger than the optimal value. The energy spread decreases the beam deposition energy in the focal spot. Under these conditions, ignition of a precompressed DT fuel is achieved with the beam powers much higher than the values presently in consideration. Work supported in part by NIKOLA TESLA Laboratories (Stefan University), La Jolla, CA.

  19. Analysis of JET LCHD/ICRH synergy experiments in terms of relativistic current drive theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Start, D.F.H.; Baranov, Y.; Brusati, M.; Ekedahl, A.; Froissard, P.; Gormezano, C.; Jacquinot, J.; Paquin, L.; Rimini, F.G.; Di Vita, A.

    1994-01-01

    The present analysis shows that the observed efficiency of current drive with synergy between LHCD and ICRH is in good agreement with the relativistic theory of Karney and Fisch for Landau damped waves. The predicted power absorption from the fast wave by the electron tail is within 30% of the measured value. In the presence of significant fast electron diffusion within a slowing down time it would be possible to produce central current drive using multiple ICRF resonances even when the LHCD deposition is at half radius, as in an ITER type device. (authors). 4 refs., 6 figs

  20. Robots, multi-user virtual environments and healthcare: synergies for future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Ajung; Grajales, Francisco J; Van der Loos, H F Machiel

    2011-01-01

    The adoption of technology in healthcare over the last twenty years has steadily increased, particularly as it relates to medical robotics and Multi-User Virtual Environments (MUVEs) such as Second Life. Both disciplines have been shown to improve the quality of care and have evolved, for the most part, in isolation from each other. In this paper, we present four synergies between medical robotics and MUVEs that have the potential to decrease resource utilization and improve the quality of healthcare delivery. We conclude with some foreseeable barriers and future research directions for researchers in these fields.

  1. Statistics, synergy, and mechanism of multiple photogeneration of excitons in quantum dots: Fundamental and applied aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oksengendler, B. L.; Turaeva, N. N.; Uralov, I.; Marasulov, M. B.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of multiple exciton generation is analyzed based on statistical physics, quantum mechanics, and synergetics. Statistical problems of the effect of multiple exciton generation (MEG) are broadened and take into account not only exciton generation, but also background excitation. The study of the role of surface states of quantum dots is based on the synergy of self-catalyzed electronic reactions. An analysis of the MEG mechanism is based on the idea of electronic shaking using the sudden perturbation method in quantum mechanics. All of the above-mentioned results are applied to the problem of calculating the limiting efficiency to transform solar energy into electric energy. (authors)

  2. Dynamic boundaries of user communities: exploiting synergies rather than managing dilemmas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dragsdahl Lauritzen, Ghita; Salomo, Søren; La Cour, Anders

    2013-01-01

    literature characterises such tensions as dilemmas between competing demands that firms must balance to encourage and benefit from user contributions. This paper brings in a systems theory perspective to show that what is currently described as trade-offs that must be managed are in fact synergies......A large body of literature indicates that innovation not only stems from a firm’s internal investments but also relies on input from external sources. This is also reflected in an increasing interest in user innovation. In particular, users, who increasingly gather in communities, can offer...

  3. Synergies of scale - A vision of Mongolia and China's common energy future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borgford-Parnell, Nathan

    2010-09-15

    Energy consumption in China is expected to double over the next 20 years. Addressing the enormous scale of China's energy need and attendant increases in greenhouse gas emissions requires dramatic and rapid rollout of renewable energy technologies. Mongolia has some of the world's best renewable energy resources but the scale of its market cannot tap them efficiently. Developing Mongolia into a significant exporter of renewable energy to China will create synergies of scale moving both countries towards their energy goals, creating jobs, and fostering growth while significantly reducing GHG emissions in the region.

  4. Comparison of soil moisture retrieval algorithms based on the synergy between SMAP and SMOS-IC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi-Khusfi, Mohsen; Alavipanah, Seyed Kazem; Hamzeh, Saeid; Amiraslani, Farshad; Neysani Samany, Najmeh; Wigneron, Jean-Pierre

    2018-05-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate possible improvements of the soil moisture (SM) retrievals from the SMAP observations, based on the synergy between SMAP and SMOS. We assessed the impacts of the vegetation and soil roughness parameters on SM retrievals from SMAP observations. To do so, the effects of three key input parameters including the vegetation optical depth (VOD), effective scattering albedo (ω) and soil roughness (HR) parameters were assessed with the emphasis on the synergy with the VOD product derived from SMOS-IC, a new and simpler version of the SMOS algorithm, over two years of data (April 2015 to April 2017). First, a comprehensive comparison of seven SM retrieval algorithms was made to find the best one for SM retrievals from the SMAP observations. All results were evaluated against in situ measurements over 548 stations from the International Soil Moisture Network (ISMN) in terms of four statistical metrics: correlation coefficient (R), root mean square error (RMSE), bias and unbiased RMSE (UbRMSE). The comparison of seven SM retrieval algorithms showed that the dual channel algorithm based on the additional use of the SMOS-IC VOD product (selected algorithm) led to the best results of SM retrievals over 378, 399, 330 and 271 stations (out of a total of 548 stations) in terms of R, RMSE, UbRMSE and both R & UbRMSE, respectively. Moreover, comparing the measured and retrieved SM values showed that this synergy approach led to an increase in median R value from 0.6 to 0.65 and a decrease in median UbRMSE from 0.09 m3/m3 to 0.06 m3/m3. Second, using the algorithm selected in a first step and defined above, the ω and HR parameters were calibrated over 218 rather homogenous ISMN stations. 72 combinations of various values of ω and HR were used for the calibration over different land cover classes. In this calibration process, the optimal values of ω and HR were found for the different land cover classes. The obtained results indicated that the

  5. Field Synergy Analysis and Optimization of the Thermal Behavior of Lithium Ion Battery Packs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongwen He

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a three dimensional (3D modeling has been built for a lithium ion battery pack using the field synergy principle to obtain a better thermal distribution. In the model, the thermal behavior of the battery pack was studied by reducing the maximum temperature, improving the temperature uniformity and considering the difference between the maximum and maximum temperature of the battery pack. The method is further verified by simulation results based on different environmental temperatures and discharge rates. The thermal behavior model demonstrates that the design and cooling policy of the battery pack is crucial for optimizing the air-outlet patterns of electric vehicle power cabins.

  6. SCIENAR Virtual Community: An Useful Tool to Promote the Synergies Among Artists and Scientists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iole Alfano

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a Virtual Community (VC developed within the framework of the European project SCIENAR (Scientific Scenarios and Art. The SCIENAR project explores the connections between Art and Science and the use of new media and Information Communication Technologies (ICTs for the exploration and representation of these relationships in an innovative and productive way. The main objective of the Virtual Community described herein is to strengthen the role of the “artistic-scientific” community in the production of new science and new art. This objective can be achieved by promoting synergies and collaborations between the different protagonists involved in the large field of research of Art and Science.

  7. Application of field synergy principle for optimization fluid flow and convective heat transfer in a tube bundle of a pre-heater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamid, Mohammed O.A.; Zhang, Bo; Yang, Luopeng

    2014-01-01

    The big problems facing solar-assisted MED (multiple-effect distillation) desalination unit are the low efficiency and bulky heat exchangers, which worsen its systematic economic feasibility. In an attempt to develop heat transfer technologies with high energy efficiency, a mathematical study is established, and optimization analysis using FSP (field synergy principle) is proposed to support meaning of heat transfer enhancement of a pre-heater in a solar-assisted MED desalination unit. Numerical simulations are performed on fluid flow and heat transfer characteristics in a circular and elliptical tube bundle. The numerical results are analyzed using the concept of synergy angle and synergy number as an indication of synergy between velocity vector and temperature gradient fields. Heat transfer in elliptical tube bundle is enhanced significantly with increasing initial velocity of the feed seawater and field synergy number and decreasing of synergy angle. Under the same operating conditions of the two designs, the total average synergy angle is 78.97° and 66.31° in circular and elliptical tube bundle, respectively. Optimization of the pre-heater by FSP shows that in case of elliptical tube bundle design, the average synergy number and heat transfer rate are increased by 22.68% and 35.98% respectively. - Highlights: • FSP (field synergy principle) is used to investigate heat transfer enhancement. • Numerical simulations are performed in circular and elliptical tubes pre-heater. • Numerical results are analyzed using concept of synergy angle and synergy number. • Optimization of elliptical tube bundle by FSP has better performance

  8. Administrative Synergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitt, Kimberly Kappler; Weckstein, Daniel K.

    2012-01-01

    One of the biggest obstacles to overcome in creating and sustaining an administrative professional learning community (PLC) is time. Administrators are constantly deluged by the tyranny of the urgent. It is a Herculean task to carve out time for PLCs, but it is imperative to do so. In this article, the authors describe how an administrative PLC…

  9. Working hard to make a simple definition of synergies. Comment on: "Hand synergies: Integration of robotics and neuroscience for understanding the control of biological and artificial hands" by Marco Santello et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alessandro, Cristiano; Oliveira Barroso, Filipe; Tresch, Matthew

    2016-07-01

    The paper ;Hand synergies: Integration of robotics and neuroscience for understanding the control of biological and artificial hands; [1] presents a comprehensive review of the work carried out as part of the EU funded project ;The Hand Embodied;. The work uses the concept of ;synergy; to study the neuromuscular control of the human hand and to design novel robotics systems. The project has been very productive and has made important contributions. We are therefore confident that it will lead to further advancements and experiments in the future.

  10. Towards a synergy framework across neuroscience and robotics: Lessons learned and open questions. Reply to comments on: "Hand synergies: Integration of robotics and neuroscience for understanding the control of biological and artificial hands"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santello, Marco; Bianchi, Matteo; Gabiccini, Marco; Ricciardi, Emiliano; Salvietti, Gionata; Prattichizzo, Domenico; Ernst, Marc; Moscatelli, Alessandro; Jorntell, Henrik; Kappers, Astrid M. L.; Kyriakopoulos, Kostas; Schaeffer, Alin Abu; Castellini, Claudio; Bicchi, Antonio

    2016-07-01

    We would like to thank all commentators for their insightful commentaries. Thanks to their diverse and complementary expertise in neuroscience and robotics, the commentators have provided us with the opportunity to further discuss state-of-the-art and gaps in the integration of neuroscience and robotics reviewed in our article. We organized our reply in two sections that capture the main points of all commentaries [1-9]: (1) Advantages and limitations of the synergy approach in neuroscience and robotics, and (2) Learning and role of sensory feedback in biological and robotics synergies.

  11. Numerical analysis on the synergy between electron cyclotron current drive and lower hybrid current drive in tokamak plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, S Y; Hong, B B; Liu, Y; Lu, W; Huang, J; Tang, C J; Ding, X T; Zhang, X J; Hu, Y J

    2012-01-01

    The synergy between electron cyclotron current drive (ECCD) and lower hybrid current drive (LHCD) is investigated numerically with the parameters of the HL-2A tokamak. Based on the understanding of the synergy mechanisms, a high current driven efficiency or a desired radial current profile can be achieved through properly matching the parameters of ECCD and LHCD due to the flexibility of ECCD. Meanwhile, it is found that the total current driven by the electron cyclotron wave (ECW) and the lower hybrid wave (LHW) simultaneously can be smaller than the sum of the currents driven by the ECW and LHW separately, when the power of the ECW is much larger than the LHW power. One of the reasons leading to this phenomenon (referred to as negative synergy in this context) is that fast current-carrying electrons tend to be trapped, when the perpendicular velocity driven by the ECW is large and the parallel velocity decided by the LHW is correspondingly small. (paper)

  12. A novel selective VPAC2 agonist peptide-conjugated chitosan modified selenium nanoparticles with enhanced anti-type 2 diabetes synergy effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao SJ

    2017-03-01

    through its insulinotropic effect, DBAYL, SeNPs or SC. A single injection of SCD (20 nmol/kg into db/db mice with type 2 diabetes leads to enhanced insulin secretion and sustained hypoglycemic effect, and the effectiveness and duration of SCD in enhancing insulin secretion and reducing blood glucose levels are much stronger than Exendin-4, SeNPs or SC. In db/db mice, chronic administration of SCD by daily injection for 12 weeks markedly improved glucose and lipid profiles, insulin sensitivity and the structures of pancreatic and adipose tissue. The results indicate that SC can play a role as a carrier for the slow release of bioactive peptides and SCD could be a hopeful therapeutic against type 2 diabetes through the synergy effects of DBAYL and SeNPs. Keywords: pituitary adenylate cyclase activating peptide (PACAP-derived peptide, nano-selenium, VPAC2 receptor, synergy effect, type 2 diabetes (T2D

  13. An ultrasensitive hydrogen peroxide biosensor based on electrocatalytic synergy of graphene-gold nanocomposite, CdTe-CdS core-shell quantum dots and gold nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu Zhiguo; Yang Shuping; Li Zaijun; Sun Xiulan; Wang Guangli; Fang Yinjun; Liu Junkang

    2011-01-01

    Graphical abstract: We first reported an ultrasensitive hydrogen peroxide biosensor in this work, which was fabricated by coating graphene-gold nanocomposite, CdTe-CdS core-shell quantum dots, gold nanoparticles and horseradish peroxidase in sequence on the surface of gold electrode. Since a promising their electrocatalytic synergy towards hydrogen peroxide was achieved, the biosensor displayed very high sensitivity, low detection limit (S/N = 3) (3.2 x 10 -11 M) and good long-term stability (20 weeks). Highlights: · We for the first time integrated novel hydrogen peroxide biosensor based on G-AuNP, CdTe-CdS and AuNPs. · Three nanomaterials show remarkable synergistic electrocatalysis towards hydrogen peroxide. · The biosensor provides the best sensitivity in all biosensors based on graphene for detection of glucose up to now. - Abstract: We first reported an ultrasensitive hydrogen peroxide biosensor in this work. The biosensor was fabricated by coating graphene-gold nanocomposite (G-AuNP), CdTe-CdS core-shell quantum dots (CdTe-CdS), gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) and horseradish peroxidase (HRP) in sequence on the surface of gold electrode (GE). Cyclic voltammetry and differential pulse voltammetry were used to investigate electrochemical performances of the biosensor. Since promising electrocatalytic synergy of G-AuNP, CdTe-CdS and AuNPs towards hydrogen peroxide was achieved, the biosensor displayed a high sensitivity, low detection limit (S/N = 3) (3.2 x 10 -11 M), wide calibration range (from 1 x 10 -10 M to 1.2 x 10 -8 M) and good long-term stability (20 weeks). Moreover, the effects of omitting G-AuNP, CdTe-CdS and AuNP were also examined. It was found that sensitivity of the biosensor is more 11-fold better if G-AuNP, CdTe-CdS and AuNPs are used. This could be ascribed to improvement of the conductivity between graphene nanosheets in the G-AuNP due to introduction of the AuNPs, ultrafast charge transfer from CdTe-CdS to the graphene sheets and AuNP due to

  14. Collective Nostalgia Is Associated With Stronger Outgroup-Directed Anger and Participation in Ingroup-Favoring Collective Action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wing-Yee Cheung

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Collective nostalgia refers to longing for the way society used to be. We tested whether collective nostalgia is associated with ingroup-favoring collective action and whether this association is mediated by outgroup-directed anger and outgroup-directed contempt. We conducted an online study of Hong Kong residents (N = 111 during a large-scale democratic social movement, the Umbrella Movement, that took place in Hong Kong in 2014 in response to proposed electoral reforms by the Chinese government in Mainland China. Reported collective nostalgia for Hong Kong’s past was high in our sample and collective nostalgia predicted stronger involvement in ingroup-favoring collective action, and it did so indirectly via higher intensity of outgroup-directed anger (but not through outgroup-directed contempt. We argue that collective nostalgia has implications for strengthening ingroup-serving collective action, and we highlight the importance of arousal of group-based emotions in this process.

  15. Bactericidal activity of LFchimera is stronger and less sensitive to ionic strength than its constituent lactoferricin and lactoferrampin peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolscher, Jan G M; Adão, Regina; Nazmi, Kamran; van den Keybus, Petra A M; van 't Hof, Wim; Nieuw Amerongen, Arie V; Bastos, Margarida; Veerman, Enno C I

    2009-01-01

    The innate immunity factor lactoferrin harbours two antimicrobial moieties, lactoferricin and lactoferrampin, situated in close proximity in the N1 domain of the molecule. Most likely they cooperate in many of the beneficial activities of lactoferrin. To investigate whether chimerization of both peptides forms a functional unit we designed a chimerical structure containing lactoferricin amino acids 17-30 and lactoferrampin amino acids 265-284. The bactericidal activity of this LFchimera was found to be drastically stronger than that of the constituent peptides, as was demonstrated by the need for lower dose, shorter incubation time and less ionic strength dependency. Likewise, strongly enhanced interaction with negatively charged model membranes was found for the LFchimera relative to the constituent peptides. Thus, chimerization of the two antimicrobial peptides resembling their structural orientation in the native molecule strikingly improves their biological activity.

  16. Bilingual recognition memory: stronger performance but weaker levels-of-processing effects in the less fluent language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Wendy S; Gutiérrez, Marisela

    2012-04-01

    The effects of bilingual proficiency on recognition memory were examined in an experiment with Spanish-English bilinguals. Participants learned lists of words in English and Spanish under shallow- and deep-encoding conditions. Overall, hit rates were higher, discrimination greater, and response times shorter in the nondominant language, consistent with effects previously observed for lower frequency words. Levels-of-processing effects in hit rates, discrimination, and response time were stronger in the dominant language. Specifically, with shallow encoding, the advantage for the nondominant language was larger than with deep encoding. The results support the idea that memory performance in the nondominant language is impacted by both the greater demand for cognitive resources and the lower familiarity of the words.

  17. Strategic Factors Influencing National and Regional Systems of Innovation: A Case of Weaker NSI with Stronger RSI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pir Roshanuddin Shah Rashdi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The issues of relationship between NSI ((National System of Innovation and RSI (Regional System of Innovation are not well reported with innovation policy research. That is, whether the NSI is the system on top of RSI, or the importance of regions make stronger NSIs. Therefore, it raises concern regarding development of strategic relationship between these two. For this, two cases ? Catalonia (Spain and N Ireland (the UK, have been selected based on theoretical sampling. Key economic indicators have been identified and have been quantitatively analyzed. The evidence suggests that strong NSI has positive influence on RSI. In addition to that, the concentration of knowledge and promotion of institutions may be strategically established and then needed resources may be injected to produce high quality human resources. There is, however, need for more comprehensive studies to be conducted in order to validate the results of this research

  18. The sigh of the oppressed: The palliative effects of ideology are stronger for people living in highly unequal neighbourhoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, Nikhil K; Greaves, Lara M; Osborne, Danny; Sibley, Chris G

    2017-09-01

    Ideologies that legitimize status hierarchies are associated with increased well-being. However, which ideologies have 'palliative effects', why they have these effects, and whether these effects extend to low-status groups remain unresolved issues. This study aimed to address these issues by testing the effects of the ideology of Symbolic Prejudice on well-being among low- and high-status ethnic groups (4,519 Europeans and 1,091 Māori) nested within 1,437 regions in New Zealand. Results showed that Symbolic Prejudice predicted increased well-being for both groups, but that this relationship was stronger for those living in highly unequal neighbourhoods. This suggests that it is precisely those who have the strongest need to justify inequality that accrue the most psychological benefit from subscribing to legitimizing ideologies. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.

  19. Modification of Spastic Stretch Reflexes at the Elbow by Flexion Synergy Expression in Individuals With Chronic Hemiparetic Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPherson, Jacob G; Stienen, Arno H; Drogos, Justin M; Dewald, Julius P

    2018-03-01

    To systematically characterize the effect of flexion synergy expression on the manifestation of elbow flexor stretch reflexes poststroke, and to relate these findings to elbow flexor stretch reflexes in individuals without neurologic injury. Controlled cohort study. Academic medical center. Participants (N=20) included individuals with chronic hemiparetic stroke (n=10) and a convenience sample of individuals without neurologic or musculoskeletal injury (n=10). Participants with stroke were interfaced with a robotic device that precisely manipulated flexion synergy expression (by regulating shoulder abduction loading) while delivering controlled elbow extension perturbations over a wide range of velocities. This device was also used to elicit elbow flexor stretch reflexes during volitional elbow flexor activation, both in the cohort of individuals with stroke and in a control cohort. In both cases, the amplitude of volitional elbow flexor preactivation was matched to that generated involuntarily during flexion synergy expression. The amplitude of short- and long-latency stretch reflexes in the biceps brachii, assessed by electromyography, and expressed as a function of background muscle activation and stretch velocity. Increased shoulder abduction loading potentiated elbow flexor stretch reflexes via flexion synergy expression in the paretic arm. Compared with stretch reflexes in individuals without neurologic injury, paretic reflexes were larger at rest but were approximately equal to control muscles at matched levels of preactivation. Because flexion synergy expression modifies stretch reflexes in involved muscles, interventions that reduce flexion synergy expression may confer the added benefit of reducing spasticity during functional use of the arm. Copyright © 2017 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Characterizing Aerosols over Southeast Asia using the AERONET Data Synergy Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles, David M.; Holben, Brent N.; Eck, Thomas F.; Slutsker, Ilya; Slutsker, Ilya; Welton, Ellsworth, J.; Chin, Mian; Kucsera, Thomas; Schmaltz, Jeffery E.; Diehl, Thomas; hide

    2007-01-01

    Biomass burning, urban pollution and dust aerosols have significant impacts on the radiative forcing of the atmosphere over Asia. In order to better quanti@ these aerosol characteristics, the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) has established over 200 sites worldwide with an emphasis in recent years on the Asian continent - specifically Southeast Asia. A total of approximately 15 AERONET sun photometer instruments have been deployed to China, India, Pakistan, Thailand, and Vietnam. Sun photometer spectral aerosol optical depth measurements as well as microphysical and optical aerosol retrievals over Southeast Asia will be analyzed and discussed with supporting ground-based instrument, satellite, and model data sets, which are freely available via the AERONET Data Synergy tool at the AERONET web site (http://aeronet.gsfc.nasa.gov). This web-based data tool provides access to groundbased (AERONET and MPLNET), satellite (MODIS, SeaWiFS, TOMS, and OMI) and model (GOCART and back trajectory analyses) databases via one web portal. Future development of the AERONET Data Synergy Tool will include the expansion of current data sets as well as the implementation of other Earth Science data sets pertinent to advancing aerosol research.

  1. Synergy of Stochastic and Systematic Energization of Plasmas during Turbulent Reconnection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisokas, Theophilos; Vlahos, Loukas; Isliker, Heinz

    2018-01-01

    The important characteristic of turbulent reconnection is that it combines large-scale magnetic disturbances (δ B/B∼ 1) with randomly distributed unstable current sheets (UCSs). Many well-known nonlinear MHD structures (strong turbulence, current sheet(s), shock(s)) lead asymptotically to the state of turbulent reconnection. We analyze in this article, for the first time, the energization of electrons and ions in a large-scale environment that combines large-amplitude disturbances propagating with sub-Alfvénic speed with UCSs. The magnetic disturbances interact stochastically (second-order Fermi) with the charged particles and play a crucial role in the heating of the particles, while the UCSs interact systematically (first-order Fermi) and play a crucial role in the formation of the high-energy tail. The synergy of stochastic and systematic acceleration provided by the mixture of magnetic disturbances and UCSs influences the energetics of the thermal and nonthermal particles, the power-law index, and the length of time the particles remain inside the energy release volume. We show that this synergy can explain the observed very fast and impulsive particle acceleration and the slightly delayed formation of a superhot particle population.

  2. Steering operational synergies in terrestrial observation networks: opportunity for advancing Earth system dynamics modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Baatz

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Advancing our understanding of Earth system dynamics (ESD depends on the development of models and other analytical tools that apply physical, biological, and chemical data. This ambition to increase understanding and develop models of ESD based on site observations was the stimulus for creating the networks of Long-Term Ecological Research (LTER, Critical Zone Observatories (CZOs, and others. We organized a survey, the results of which identified pressing gaps in data availability from these networks, in particular for the future development and evaluation of models that represent ESD processes, and provide insights for improvement in both data collection and model integration. From this survey overview of data applications in the context of LTER and CZO research, we identified three challenges: (1 widen application of terrestrial observation network data in Earth system modelling, (2 develop integrated Earth system models that incorporate process representation and data of multiple disciplines, and (3 identify complementarity in measured variables and spatial extent, and promoting synergies in the existing observational networks. These challenges lead to perspectives and recommendations for an improved dialogue between the observation networks and the ESD modelling community, including co-location of sites in the existing networks and further formalizing these recommendations among these communities. Developing these synergies will enable cross-site and cross-network comparison and synthesis studies, which will help produce insights around organizing principles, classifications, and general rules of coupling processes with environmental conditions.

  3. Transversus abdominis is part of a global not local muscle synergy during arm movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, S L; Lay, B; Allison, G T

    2013-10-01

    The trunk muscle transversus abdominis (TrA) is thought to be controlled independently of the global trunk muscles. Methodological issues in the 1990s research such as unilateral electromyography and a limited range of arm movements justify a re-examination of this theory. The hypothesis tested is that TrA bilateral co-contraction is a typical muscle synergy during arm movement. The activity of 6 pairs of trunk and lower limb muscles was recorded using bilateral electromyography during anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs) associated with the arm movements. The integrated APA electromyographical signals were analyzed for muscle synergy using Principle Component Analysis. TrA does not typically bilaterally co-contract during arm movements (1 out of 6 participants did). APA muscle activity of all muscles during asymmetrical arm movements typically reflected a direction specific diagonal pattern incorporating a twisting motion to transfer energy from the ground up. This finding is not consistent with the hypothesis that TrA plays a unique role providing bilateral, feedforward, multidirectional stiffening of the spine. This has significant implications to the theories underlying the role of TrA in back pain and in the training of isolated bilateral co-contraction of TrA in the prophylaxis of back pain. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Non-communicable diseases and human rights: Global synergies, gaps and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Laura; Tarantola, Daniel; Hoffmann, Michael; Gruskin, Sofia

    2017-10-01

    The incorporation of human rights in health policy and programmes is known to strengthen responses to health problems and help address disparities created or exacerbated by illness yet this remains underexplored in relation to non-communicable diseases (NCDs). Aiming to understand existing synergies and how they might be further strengthened, we assessed the extent to which human rights are considered in global NCD policies and strategies and the degree of attention given to NCDs by select United Nations human rights mechanisms. Across global NCD policies and strategies, rhetorical assertions regarding human rights appear more often than actionable statements, thus limiting their implementation and impact. Although no human rights treaty explicitly mentions NCDs, some human rights monitoring mechanisms have been paying increasing attention to NCDs. This provides important avenues for promoting the incorporation of human rights norms and standards into NCD responses as well as for accountability. Linking NCDs and human rights at the global level is critical for encouraging national-level action to promote better outcomes relating to both health and human rights. The post-2015 development agenda constitutes a key entry point for highlighting these synergies and strengthening opportunities for health and rights action at global, national and local levels.

  5. Optimizing the resource usage in Cloud based environments: the Synergy approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zangrando, L.; Llorens, V.; Sgaravatto, M.; Verlato, M.

    2017-10-01

    Managing resource allocation in a cloud based data centre serving multiple virtual organizations is a challenging issue. In fact, while batch systems are able to allocate resources to different user groups according to specific shares imposed by the data centre administrator, without a static partitioning of such resources, this is not so straightforward in the most common cloud frameworks, e.g. OpenStack. In the current OpenStack implementation, it is only possible to grant fixed quotas to the different user groups and these resources cannot be exceeded by one group even if there are unused resources allocated to other groups. Moreover in the existing OpenStack implementation, when there aren’t resources available, new requests are simply rejected: it is then up to the client to later re-issue the request. The recently started EU-funded INDIGO-DataCloud project is addressing this issue through “Synergy”, a new advanced scheduling service targeted for OpenStack. Synergy adopts a fair-share model for resource provisioning which guarantees that resources are distributed among users following the fair-share policies defined by the administrator, taken also into account the past usage of such resources. We present the architecture of Synergy, the status of its implementation, some preliminary results and the foreseen evolution of the service.

  6. Plasmas meet nanoparticles-where synergies can advance the frontier of medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kong, M G; Keidar, M; Ostrikov, K

    2011-01-01

    Nanoparticles and low-temperature plasmas have been developed, independently and often along different routes, to tackle the same set of challenges in biomedicine. There are intriguing similarities and contrasts in their interactions with cells and living tissues, and these are reflected directly in the characteristics and scope of their intended therapeutic solutions, in particular their chemical reactivity, selectivity against pathogens and cancer cells, safety to healthy cells and tissues and targeted delivery to diseased tissues. Time has come to ask the inevitable question of possible plasma-nanoparticle synergy and the related benefits to the development of effective, selective and safe therapies for modern medicine. This perspective paper offers a detailed review of the strengths and weakenesses of nanomedicine and plasma medicine as a stand-alone technology, and then provides a critical analysis of some of the major opportunities enabled by synergizing nanotechnology and plasma technology. It is shown that the plasma-nanoparticle synergy is best captured through plasma nanotechnology and its benefits for medicine are highly promising.

  7. Synergy effect of naphthenic acid corrosion and sulfur corrosion in crude oil distillation unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, B. S.; Yin, W. F.; Sang, D. H.; Jiang, Z. Y.

    2012-10-01

    The synergy effect of naphthenic acid corrosion and sulfur corrosion at high temperature in crude oil distillation unit was studied using Q235 carbon-manganese steel and 316 stainless steel. The corrosion of Q235 and 316 in corrosion media containing sulfur and/or naphthenic acid at 280 °C was investigated by weight loss, scanning electron microscope (SEM), EDS and X-ray diffractometer (XRD) analysis. The results showed that in corrosion media containing only sulfur, the corrosion rate of Q235 and 316 first increased and then decreased with the increase of sulfur content. In corrosion media containing naphthenic acid and sulfur, with the variations of acid value or sulfur content, the synergy effect of naphthenic acid corrosion and sulfur corrosion has a great influence on the corrosion rate of Q235 and 316. It was indicated that the sulfur accelerated naphthenic acid corrosion below a certain sulfur content but prevented naphthenic acid corrosion above that. The corrosion products on two steels after exposure to corrosion media were investigated. The stable Cr5S8 phases detected in the corrosion products film of 316 were considered as the reason why 316 has greater corrosion resistance to that of Q235.

  8. Electron Bernstein wave-bootstrap current synergy in the National Spherical Torus Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harvey, R.W.; Taylor, G.

    2005-01-01

    Current driven by electron Bernstein waves (EBW) and by the electron bootstrap effect are calculated separately and concurrently with a kinetic code to determine the degree of synergy between them. A target β=40% NSTX [M. Ono, S. Kaye, M. Peng et al., Proceedings of the 17th IAEA Fusion Energy Conference, edited by M. Spak (IAEA, Vienna, Austria, 1999), Vol. 3, p. 1135] plasma is examined. A simple bootstrap model in the collisional-quasilinear CQL3D Fokker-Planck code (National Technical Information Service document No. DE93002962) is used in these studies: the transiting electron distributions are connected in velocity space at the trapped-passing boundary to trapped-electron distributions that are displaced radially by a half-banana-width outwards/inwards for the co-passing/counter-passing regions. This model agrees well with standard bootstrap current calculations over the outer 60% of the plasma radius. Relatively small synergy net bootstrap current is obtained for EBW power up to 4 MW. Locally, bootstrap current density increases in proportion to increased plasma pressure, and this effect can significantly affect the radial profile of driven current

  9. Numerical simulation of conjugate heat transfer in electronic cooling and analysis based on field synergy principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Y.P.; Lee, T.S.; Low, H.T.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, the conjugate heat transfer in electronic cooling is numerically simulated with the newly proposed algorithm CLEARER on collocated grid. Because the solid heat source and substrate are isolated from the boundary, special attention is given to deal with the velocity and temperature in the solid region in the full field computation. The influence of openings on the substrate, heat source height and their distribution along the substrate on the maximum temperature and overall Nusselt number is investigated. The numerical results show that the openings on the substrate can enhance the heat transfer as well as increasing the heat source height, meanwhile, by arranging the heat sources coarsely in the front part and densely in the rear part of the substrate, the thermal performance can also be increased. Then the results are analyzed from the viewpoint of field synergy principle, and it is shown that the heat transfer improvement can all be attributed to the better synergy between the velocity field and temperature field, which may offer some guidance in the design of electronic devices

  10. Synergy in extraction system chemistry: combining configurational entropy, film bending and perturbation of complexation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rey, Julien

    2016-01-01

    Separative chemistry is a pillar of technologic development in extraction, separation and selective remediation of metals and molecules. It finds its applications in the fields of electronic, renewable energy, medicine and chemistry, which require more than ever the use of 'Strategic Metals'. The liquid-liquid extraction is a separation technique that is involved in hydrometallurgical processes for the recovery of strategic metals from primary deposits, secondary and urban mines. This work is part of global vision of optimization of liquid-liquid extraction processes used in synergy, consisting in understanding the mechanisms underlying the synergy, and generalizing these mechanisms to all synergistic extraction systems. The understanding of these mechanisms underlying synergism aims at predicting and developing new synergistic extractants mixtures.To better understand the driving forces at the origin of synergistic phenomena, a suitable methodology for the characterization of supramolecular structures of extractant in the organic phase was exploited during this thesis work. The use of techniques like Small Angle Neutron/X-ray Scattering (SAXS/ANS) and interfacial tensiometry was crucial for the understanding of the synergistic mechanisms. A thermodynamical was also proposed to estimate quantitatively the key driving forces involved in the liquid-liquid extraction mechanisms. The application of these keys of comprehension helped to design a new synergistic system for the extraction of rare earths elements from phosphoric medium. (author) [fr

  11. The neuroendocrine response to stress under the effect of drugs: Negative synergy between amphetamine and stressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Román, Almudena; Ortega-Sánchez, Juan A; Rotllant, David; Gagliano, Humberto; Belda, Xavier; Delgado-Morales, Raúl; Marín-Blasco, Ignacio; Nadal, Roser; Armario, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    There have been numerous studies into the interaction between stress and addictive drugs, yet few have specifically addressed how the organism responds to stress when under the influence of psychostimulants. Thus, we studied the effects of different acute stressors (immobilization, interleukin-1β and forced swimming) in young adult male rats simultaneously exposed to amphetamine (AMPH, 4 mg/kg SC), evaluating classic biological markers. AMPH administration itself augmented the plasma hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) hormones, adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) and corticosterone, without affecting plasma glucose levels. By contrast, this drug dampened the peripheral HPA axis, as well as the response of glucose to the three stressors. We also found that AMPH administration completely blocked the forced swim-induced expression of the corticotropin-releasing hormone (hnCRH) and it partially reduced c-fos expression in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN). Indeed, this negative synergy in the forced swim test could even be observed with a lower dose of AMPH (1mg/kg, SC), a dose that is usually received in self-administration experiments. In conclusion, when rats that receive AMPH are subjected to stress, a negative synergy occurs that dampens the prototypic peripheral physiological response to stress and activation of the PVN. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. A synergy perspective on gait – over-ground vs. treadmill walking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Læssøe, Uffe; Madeleine, Pascal

    on movements has proposed that elemental and performance variables may represent good and bad components of variability [2]. We suggest that the gait pattern can be regarded as a movement synergy in which medio-lateral deviation in one stride can be corrected during the next stride (the elemental variables......). Such corrections ensure a straight gait path (the performance variable). AIM: The aim of this study was to apply a synergy approach to gait analysis by comparing over-ground and treadmill walking. The treadmill was hypothesized to demand a less variable walking path resulting in a larger good/bad variability ratio...... of the strides, and bad variance with respect to a similar line with a negative slope. The good/bad variance ratio was calculated and the difference between treadmill and over-ground walking was finally evaluated. RESULTS: The good/bad variance ratio for over-ground walking was 1.7 (CI95%: 1.5-2.0). When walking...

  13. Steering operational synergies in terrestrial observation networks: opportunity for advancing Earth system dynamics modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baatz, Roland; Sullivan, Pamela L.; Li, Li; Weintraub, Samantha R.; Loescher, Henry W.; Mirtl, Michael; Groffman, Peter M.; Wall, Diana H.; Young, Michael; White, Tim; Wen, Hang; Zacharias, Steffen; Kühn, Ingolf; Tang, Jianwu; Gaillardet, Jérôme; Braud, Isabelle; Flores, Alejandro N.; Kumar, Praveen; Lin, Henry; Ghezzehei, Teamrat; Jones, Julia; Gholz, Henry L.; Vereecken, Harry; Van Looy, Kris

    2018-05-01

    Advancing our understanding of Earth system dynamics (ESD) depends on the development of models and other analytical tools that apply physical, biological, and chemical data. This ambition to increase understanding and develop models of ESD based on site observations was the stimulus for creating the networks of Long-Term Ecological Research (LTER), Critical Zone Observatories (CZOs), and others. We organized a survey, the results of which identified pressing gaps in data availability from these networks, in particular for the future development and evaluation of models that represent ESD processes, and provide insights for improvement in both data collection and model integration. From this survey overview of data applications in the context of LTER and CZO research, we identified three challenges: (1) widen application of terrestrial observation network data in Earth system modelling, (2) develop integrated Earth system models that incorporate process representation and data of multiple disciplines, and (3) identify complementarity in measured variables and spatial extent, and promoting synergies in the existing observational networks. These challenges lead to perspectives and recommendations for an improved dialogue between the observation networks and the ESD modelling community, including co-location of sites in the existing networks and further formalizing these recommendations among these communities. Developing these synergies will enable cross-site and cross-network comparison and synthesis studies, which will help produce insights around organizing principles, classifications, and general rules of coupling processes with environmental conditions.

  14. Elite level rhythmic gymnasts have significantly more and stronger pain than peers of similar age: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabeti, Manuel; Jeremian, Lusine; Graf, Alexandra; Kandelhart, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Rhythmic gymnastics (RG) unites aesthetic, ballet-like motion, and all aspects of gymnastics. To reach elite level, girls begin at early age the intensive training. To date it is unclear if such demanding training influences the incidence and intensity of painful overuse injuries. The purpose of this study is to analyze anatomical painful regions and pain intensity in elite level rhythmic gymnasts (elRG) and compare results with an age-matched control group (CG). This prospective field study was carried out at the European Championship in RG 2013 (218 participating athletes, Vienna, Austria). Volunteering athletes were interviewed according to a preformed questionnaire. As CG secondary school pupils without any competitive sports experience were analyzed accordingly. Overall, 243 young females (144 elRG/66 % of all participants and 99 CG) were observed. ElRGs were significantly (s.) smaller, lighter, and had s. stronger pain (p < 0.001). A total of 72 % of athletes reported to have at least one painful body region compared with 52 % of CG (p < 0.001). ElRG had nearly three times more serious injuries than the CG. In all 23 % off all elRG reported to have had no access to professional medical care. ElRGs were s. more frequently (25 vs 9 %) affected at the lumbar spine and the ankle joint (17.4 vs 7 %). To our knowledge, this trial analyzes the largest cohort of elRG to date. Hence, it is clearly alluded that intensive training in RG is a significant factor causing more and stronger pain than in a CG.

  15. Diagnostic Performance of the Extensor Carpi Ulnaris (ECU) Synergy Test to Detect Sonographic ECU Abnormalities in Chronic Dorsal Ulnar-Sided Wrist Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Junko; Ishii, Yoshinori; Noguchi, Hideo

    2016-01-01

    The extensor carpi ulnaris (ECU) tendon synergy test is a simple and unique diagnostic maneuver for evaluation of chronic dorsal ulnar-sided wrist pain, which applies isolated tension to the ECU without greatly stressing other structures. This study aimed to investigate the diagnostic performance of the ECU synergy test to detect ECU abnormalities on sonography. Forty affected wrists from 39 consecutive patients with chronic dorsal ulnar-sided wrist pain that continued for greater than 1 month were examined with the ECU synergy test and sonography. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of the ECU synergy test to detect ECU abnormalities were evaluated. We compared the results of the ECU synergy test between groups with and without ECU abnormalities and also compared the ages, sexes, and symptomatic durations of the patients between groups with positive and negative ECU synergy test results and between the groups with and without ECU abnormalities. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value were 73.7%, 85.7%, 82.4%, and 78.3%, respectively. There was significant difference in the ECU synergy test results between the groups with and without ECU abnormalities (P synergy test could be a useful provocative maneuver to detect ECU abnormalities in patients with chronic dorsal ulnar-sided wrist pain. © 2016 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  16. Industrial science and technology frontier program progress reports for fiscal 1998. Research and development of synergy ceramics; 1998 nendo synergy ceramics no kenkyu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    In relation with research and development of 'synergy ceramics' which have begun since fiscal 1994 under a joint organization of the industries, Government and academic circles, reports were given on the achievement status of the whole of the first stage of the project, together with the results of researches made in fiscal 1998. With regard to high-order structure control technologies, reports were given on the following subjects: precursor design, structure formation design, nano-structure process and structuring reaction process as the basic technologies for structure creation, and inter-hierarchy deposition reaction control, phase boundary formation control, anisotropic particle interface control and high-order space production control as the structural element control technologies. With respect to analysis and evaluation technologies, reports were given on research achievements in fundamental technologies for analysis and evaluation, and property developing element evaluation technologies. In the field of overall survey and study, various committees and study meetings were held, research projects were planned, and technological trends were surveyed, whose results were reported. In the joint researches, reports were given on the survey and study on new material creation by means of high-order structure control, and the research on high-order structure control of ceramics by means of structuring reaction process control. (NEDO)

  17. Industrial science and technology frontier program progress reports for fiscal 1998. Research and development of synergy ceramics; 1998 nendo synergy ceramics no kenkyu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    In relation with research and development of 'synergy ceramics' which have begun since fiscal 1994 under a joint organization of the industries, Government and academic circles, reports were given on the achievement status of the whole of the first stage of the project, together with the results of researches made in fiscal 1998. With regard to high-order structure control technologies, reports were given on the following subjects: precursor design, structure formation design, nano-structure process and structuring reaction process as the basic technologies for structure creation, and inter-hierarchy deposition reaction control, phase boundary formation control, anisotropic particle interface control and high-order space production control as the structural element control technologies. With respect to analysis and evaluation technologies, reports were given on research achievements in fundamental technologies for analysis and evaluation, and property developing element evaluation technologies. In the field of overall survey and study, various committees and study meetings were held, research projects were planned, and technological trends were surveyed, whose results were reported. In the joint researches, reports were given on the survey and study on new material creation by means of high-order structure control, and the research on high-order structure control of ceramics by means of structuring reaction process control. (NEDO)

  18. Research on the Synergy Degree of China Yangtze River Delta Region Technology Innovation System Evolution from the Perspective of Technology Innovation Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Bin Feng

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This paper divides technology innovation system into research and development input subsystem, technology research and development subsystem and technology application subsystem from the perspective of technology innovation chain, combining with the system theory. Then selects the corresponding ordinal variables, makes an empirical analysis to the synergy degree of Yangtze River delta regional technology innovation system evolution by complex system synergy degree model which based on the data of 2002-2009. The results show that the development of synergy degree of the technology innovation system appears a rising trend and the technology application subsystem is the key factor of direction and degree of synergy development in the evolution process of regional technology innovation system in the Yangtze River Delta of China. Finally, this paper analyzes the characteristics and causes of synergy degree’s evolution, and puts forward the corresponding policy recommendations to different problems.

  19. Synergy effects between bismuth molybdate catalyst phases (Bi/Mo from 0.57 to 2) for the selective oxidation of propylene to arcrolein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le, Minh Thang; Well, Willy van; Stoltze, Per

    2005-01-01

    In this work, the synergy effect between different phases of bismuth molybdate catalysts was investigated systematically. The catalysts were prepared by spray drying and had a Bi/Mo atomic between 0.57 and 2. It is found that the synergy effect is only observed in mixtures containing γ-phase. A m......-phase. A mixture with Bi/Mo ratio = 1.3 consisting of γ- and α-phase, exhibits the highest activity. Less homogeneous ‘artificial mixtures’ exhibit reduced synergy effects when compared to homogeneous ‘in situ mixtures’.......In this work, the synergy effect between different phases of bismuth molybdate catalysts was investigated systematically. The catalysts were prepared by spray drying and had a Bi/Mo atomic between 0.57 and 2. It is found that the synergy effect is only observed in mixtures containing γ...

  20. The role of synergies within generative models of action execution and recognition: A computational perspective. Comment on "Grasping synergies: A motor-control approach to the mirror neuron mechanism" by A. D'Ausilio et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezzulo, Giovanni; Donnarumma, Francesco; Iodice, Pierpaolo; Prevete, Roberto; Dindo, Haris

    2015-03-01

    Controlling the body - given its huge number of degrees of freedom - poses severe computational challenges. Mounting evidence suggests that the brain alleviates this problem by exploiting "synergies", or patterns of muscle activities (and/or movement dynamics and kinematics) that can be combined to control action, rather than controlling individual muscles of joints [1-10].

  1. Increased fire frequency promotes stronger spatial genetic structure and natural selection at regional and local scales in Pinus halepensis Mill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budde, Katharina B; González-Martínez, Santiago C; Navascués, Miguel; Burgarella, Concetta; Mosca, Elena; Lorenzo, Zaida; Zabal-Aguirre, Mario; Vendramin, Giovanni G; Verdú, Miguel; Pausas, Juli G; Heuertz, Myriam

    2017-04-01

    The recurrence of wildfires is predicted to increase due to global climate change, resulting in severe impacts on biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. Recurrent fires can drive plant adaptation and reduce genetic diversity; however, the underlying population genetic processes have not been studied in detail. In this study, the neutral and adaptive evolutionary effects of contrasting fire regimes were examined in the keystone tree species Pinus halepensis Mill. (Aleppo pine), a fire-adapted conifer. The genetic diversity, demographic history and spatial genetic structure were assessed at local (within-population) and regional scales for populations exposed to different crown fire frequencies. Eight natural P. halepensis stands were sampled in the east of the Iberian Peninsula, five of them in a region exposed to frequent crown fires (HiFi) and three of them in an adjacent region with a low frequency of crown fires (LoFi). Samples were genotyped at nine neutral simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and at 251 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from coding regions, some of them potentially important for fire adaptation. Fire regime had no effects on genetic diversity or demographic history. Three high-differentiation outlier SNPs were identified between HiFi and LoFi stands, suggesting fire-related selection at the regional scale. At the local scale, fine-scale spatial genetic structure (SGS) was overall weak as expected for a wind-pollinated and wind-dispersed tree species. HiFi stands displayed a stronger SGS than LoFi stands at SNPs, which probably reflected the simultaneous post-fire recruitment of co-dispersed related seeds. SNPs with exceptionally strong SGS, a proxy for microenvironmental selection, were only reliably identified under the HiFi regime. An increasing fire frequency as predicted due to global change can promote increased SGS with stronger family structures and alter natural selection in P. halepensis and in plants with similar life history traits

  2. Challenges and Opportunities to Developing Synergies Among Diverse Environmental Observatories: FSML, NEON, and GLEON

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, C. E.; Weathers, K. C.; Knoll, L. B.; Brentrup, J.

    2012-12-01

    Recent rapid advances in sensor technology and cyberinfrastructure have enabled the development of numerous environmental observatories ranging from local networks at field stations and marine laboratories (FSML) to continental scale observatories such as the National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) to global scale observatories such as the Global Lake Ecological Observatory Network (GLEON). While divergent goals underlie the initial development of these observatories, and they are often designed to serve different communities, many opportunities for synergies exist. In addition, the use of existing infrastructure may enhance the cost-effectiveness of building and maintaining large scale observatories. For example, FSMLs are established facilities with the staff and infrastructure to host sensor nodes of larger networks. Many field stations have existing staff and long-term databases as well as smaller sensor networks that are the product of a single or small group of investigators with a unique data management system embedded in a local or regional community. These field station based facilities and data are a potentially untapped gold mine for larger continental and global scale observatories; common ecological and environmental challenges centered on understanding the impacts of changing climate, land use, and invasive species often underlie these efforts. The purpose of this talk is to stimulate a dialog on the challenges of merging efforts across these different spatial and temporal scales, as well as addressing how to develop synergies among observatory networks with divergent roots and philosophical approaches. For example, FSMLs have existing long-term databases and facilities, while NEON has sparse past data but a well-developed template and closely coordinated team working in a coherent format across a continental scale. GLEON on the other hand is a grass-roots network of experts in science, information technology, and engineering with a common goal

  3. Towards Integrated Powertrain Control: exploiting synergy between a diesel hybrid and aftertreatment system in a distribution truck

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Foster, D.L.; Cloudt, R.P.M.; Willems, F.P.T.

    2008-01-01

    With the increasing demands on driveability, fuel efficiency and emissions, it becomes essential to optimize the overall performance of future powertrains. Therefore, a system approach is required. In this study, the Integrated Powertrain Control concept is presented, which exploits the synergy

  4. Towards Integrated Powertrain Control : exploiting synergy between a diesel hybrid and aftertreatment system in a distribution truck

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Foster, D.; Cloudt, R.P.M.; Willems, F.P.T.

    2008-01-01

    With the increasing demands on driveability, fuel efficiency and emissions, it becomes essential to optimize the overall performance of future powertrains. Therefore, a system approach is required. In this study, the Integrated Powertrain Control concept is presented, which exploits the synergy

  5. A systematic analysis of enabling conditions for synergy between climate change mitigation and adaptation measures in developing countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duguma, L.A.; Wambugu, S.W.; Minang, P.A.; Noordwijk, van M.

    2014-01-01

    There is a growing quest for synergy between mitigation and adaptation due to concerns of inefficiency and ineffectiveness of the compartmentalized approaches to climate change. However, little has been done to explore the necessary enabling conditions for synergistic design and implementation. This

  6. In vitro synergy of polymyxins with other antibiotics for Acinetobacter baumannii: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Wentao; Shao, Xiaodi; Di, Xiuzhen; Cui, Junchang; Wang, Rui; Liu, Youning

    2015-01-01

    In order to provide preliminary guidance for rational antibiotic combination therapy in the clinic, a systematic review and meta-analysis was performed to evaluate the in vitro synergistic activity of polymyxins combined with other antibiotics against Acinetobacter baumannii. An extensive literature search was undertaken without restriction according to region, publication type or language. All available in vitro synergy tests on antibiotic combinations consisting of polymyxins were included. The primary outcome assessed was the in vitro activity of combination therapy on bacterial kill or inhibition. In total, 70 published studies and 31 conference proceedings reporting testing of polymyxins in combination with 11 classes consisting of 28 antibiotic types against 1484 A. baumannii strains were included in the analysis. In time-kill studies, high in vitro synergy and bactericidal activity were found for polymyxins combined with several antibiotic classes such as carbapenems and glycopeptides. Carbapenems or rifampicin combination could efficiently suppress the development of colistin resistance and displayed a >50% synergy rate against colistin-resistant strains. Synergy rates of chequerboard microdilution and Etest methods in most antibiotic combinations were generally lower than those of time-kill assays. The benefits of these antibiotic combinations should be further demonstrated by well-designed clinical studies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. and the International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  7. Trade-offs and synergies between universal electricity access and climate change mitigation in Sub-Saharan Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dagnachew, Anteneh G.; Lucas, Paul L.; Hof, Andries F.; van Vuuren, Detlef P.

    2018-01-01

    Access to electricity services is fundamental to development, as it enables improvements to the quality of human life. At the same time, increasing electricity access can have notable consequences for global climate change. This paper analyses trade-offs and synergies between achieving universal

  8. How to Achieve Synergy between Medical Education and Cognitive Neuroscience? An Exercise on Prior Knowledge in Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiter, Dirk J.; van Kesteren, Marlieke T. R.; Fernandez, Guillen

    2012-01-01

    A major challenge in contemporary research is how to connect medical education and cognitive neuroscience and achieve synergy between these domains. Based on this starting point we discuss how this may result in a common language about learning, more educationally focused scientific inquiry, and multidisciplinary research projects. As the topic of…

  9. Effect of human-robot interaction on muscular synergies on healthy people and post-stroke chronic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scano, A; Chiavenna, A; Caimmi, M; Malosio, M; Tosatti, L M; Molteni, F

    2017-07-01

    Robot-assisted training is a widely used technique to promote motor re-learning on post-stroke patients that suffer from motor impairment. While it is commonly accepted that robot-based therapies are potentially helpful, strong insights about their efficacy are still lacking. The motor re-learning process may act on muscular synergies, which are groups of co-activating muscles that, being controlled as a synergic group, allow simplifying the problem of motor control. In fact, by coordinating a reduced amount of neural signals, complex motor patterns can be elicited. This paper aims at analyzing the effects of robot assistance during 3D-reaching movements in the framework of muscular synergies. 5 healthy people and 3 neurological patients performed free and robot-assisted reaching movements at 2 different speeds (slow and quasi-physiological). EMG recordings were used to extract muscular synergies. Results indicate that the interaction with the robot very slightly alters healthy people patterns but, on the contrary, it may promote the emergency of physiological-like synergies on neurological patients.

  10. Implementation intention and planning interventions in Health Psychology : Recommendations from the Synergy Expert Group for research and practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagger, M.S.; Luszczynska, A.; de Wit, J.; Benyamini, Y.; Burkert, S.; Chamberland, P.-E.; Chater, A.; Dombrowski, S.U.; van Dongen, A.; French, D.P.; Gauchet, A.; Hankonen, N.; Karekla, M.; Kinney, A.Y.; Kwasnicka, D.; Lo, S.H.; López-Roig, S.; Meslot, C.; Marques, M.M.; Neter, E.; Plass, A.M.; Potthoff, S.; Rennie, L.; Scholz, U.; Stadler, G.; Stolte, E.; ten Hoor, G.; Verhoeven, A.A.C.; Wagner, M.; Oettingen, G.; Sheeran, P.; Gollwitzer, P.M.

    2016-01-01

    The current article details a position statement and recommendations for future research and practice on planning and implementation intentions in health contexts endorsed by the Synergy Expert Group. The group comprised world-leading researchers in health and social psychology and behavioural

  11. Implementation intention and planning interventions in Health Psychology: Recommendations from the Synergy Expert Group for research and practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagger, M.S.; Luszczynska, A.; de Wit, J.; Benyamini, Y.; Burkert, S.; Chamberland, P.E.; Chater, A.; Dombrowski, S.U.; van Dongen, A.; French, D.P.; Gauchet, A.; Hankonen, N.; Karekla, M.; Kinney, A.Y.; Kwasnicka, D.; Lo, S.H.; López-Roig, S.; Meslot, C.; Marques, M.M.; Neter, E.; Plass, A.M.; Potthoff, S.; Rennie, L.; Scholz, U; Stadler, G.; Stolte, E.; Ten Hoor, G.; Verhoeven, A.; Wagner, M.; Oettingen, G.; Sheeran, P.; Gollwitzer, P.M.

    2016-01-01

    The current article details a position statement and recommendations for future research and practice on planning and implementation intentions in health contexts endorsed by the Synergy Expert Group. The group comprised world-leading researchers in health and social psychology and behavioural

  12. Strategies of Building a Stronger Sense of Community for Sustainable Neighborhoods: Comparing Neighborhood Accessibility with Community Empowerment Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Te-I Albert Tsai

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available New Urbanist development in the U.S. aims at enhancing a sense of community and seeks to return to the design of early transitional neighborhoods which have pedestrian-oriented environments with retail shops and services within walking distances of housing. Meanwhile, 6000 of Taiwan’s community associations have been running community empowerment programs supported by the Council for Cultural Affairs that have helped many neighborhoods to rebuild so-called community cohesion. This research attempts to evaluate whether neighborhoods with facilities near housing and shorter travel distances within a neighborhood would promote stronger social interactions and form a better community attachment than neighborhoods that have various opportunities for residents to participate in either formal or informal social gatherings. After interviewing and surveying residents from 19 neighborhoods in Taipei’s Beitou District, and correlating the psychological sense of community with inner neighborhood’s daily travel distances and numbers of participatory activities held by community organizations under empowerment programs together with frequencies of regular individual visits and casual meetings, statistical evidence yielded that placing public facilities near residential locations is more effective than providing various programs for elevating a sense of community.

  13. Nitrogen fertilization has a stronger effect on soil nitrogen-fixing bacterial communities than elevated atmospheric CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthrong, Sean T; Yeager, Chris M; Gallegos-Graves, Laverne; Steven, Blaire; Eichorst, Stephanie A; Jackson, Robert B; Kuske, Cheryl R

    2014-05-01

    Biological nitrogen fixation is the primary supply of N to most ecosystems, yet there is considerable uncertainty about how N-fixing bacteria will respond to global change factors such as increasing atmospheric CO2 and N deposition. Using the nifH gene as a molecular marker, we studied how the community structure of N-fixing soil bacteria from temperate pine, aspen, and sweet gum stands and a brackish tidal marsh responded to multiyear elevated CO2 conditions. We also examined how N availability, specifically, N fertilization, interacted with elevated CO2 to affect these communities in the temperate pine forest. Based on data from Sanger sequencing and quantitative PCR, the soil nifH composition in the three forest systems was dominated by species in the Geobacteraceae and, to a lesser extent, Alphaproteobacteria. The N-fixing-bacterial-community structure was subtly altered after 10 or more years of elevated atmospheric CO2, and the observed shifts differed in each biome. In the pine forest, N fertilization had a stronger effect on nifH community structure than elevated CO2 and suppressed the diversity and abundance of N-fixing bacteria under elevated atmospheric CO2 conditions. These results indicate that N-fixing bacteria have complex, interacting responses that will be important for understanding ecosystem productivity in a changing climate.

  14. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor signaling modulates antiviral immune responses: ligand metabolism rather than chemical source is the stronger predictor of outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boule, Lisbeth A; Burke, Catherine G; Jin, Guang-Bi; Lawrence, B Paige

    2018-01-29

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) offers a compelling target to modulate the immune system. AHR agonists alter adaptive immune responses, but the consequences differ across studies. We report here the comparison of four agents representing different sources of AHR ligands in mice infected with influenza A virus (IAV): TCDD, prototype exogenous AHR agonist; PCB126, pollutant with documented human exposure; ITE, novel pharmaceutical; and FICZ, degradation product of tryptophan. All four compounds diminished virus-specific IgM levels and increased the proportion of regulatory T cells. TCDD, PCB126 and ITE, but not FICZ, reduced virus-specific IgG levels and CD8 + T cell responses. Similarly, ITE, PCB126, and TCDD reduced Th1 and Tfh cells, whereas FICZ increased their frequency. In Cyp1a1-deficient mice, all compounds, including FICZ, reduced the response to IAV. Conditional Ahr knockout mice revealed that all four compounds require AHR within hematopoietic cells. Thus, differences in the immune response to IAV likely reflect variances in quality, magnitude, and duration of AHR signaling. This indicates that binding affinity and metabolism may be stronger predictors of immune effects than a compound's source of origin, and that harnessing AHR will require finding a balance between dampening immune-mediated pathologies and maintaining sufficient host defenses against infection.

  15. Control strategy of hydraulic/electric synergy system in heavy hybrid vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Hui; Yang Lifu; Jing Junqing; Luo Yanling

    2011-01-01

    Energy consumption and exhaust emissions of hybrid vehicles strongly depend on the energy storage source and the applied control strategy. Heavy vehicles have the characteristics of frequent starts/stops and significant amounts of braking energy, which needs to find a more efficient way to store and use the high power flow. A novel parallel hybrid vehicles configuration consisting of hydraulic/electric synergy system is proposed to overcome the existing drawbacks of single energy storage source in heavy hybrid vehicles. A control strategy combining a logic threshold approach and key parameters optimization algorithm is developed to achieve acceptable vehicle performance while simultaneously maximizing engine fuel economy and maintaining the battery state of charge in its rational operation range at all times. The experimental and simulation results illustrate the potential of the proposed control strategy in terms of fuel economy and in keeping the deviations of SOC at high efficiency range.

  16. Synergy between Rhizobium phaseoli and Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans in the Bioleaching Process of Copper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuecheng Zheng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the synergy of Rhizobium phaseoli and Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans in the bioleaching process of copper. The results showed that additional R. phaseoli could increase leaching rate and cell number of A. ferrooxidans. When the initial cell number ratio between A. ferrooxidans and R. phaseoli was 2 : 1, A. ferrooxidans attained the highest final cell number of approximately 2 × 108 cells/mL and the highest copper leaching rate of 29%, which is 7% higher than that in the group with A. ferrooxidans only. R. phaseoli may use metabolized polysaccharides from A. ferrooxidans, and organic acids could chelate or precipitate harmful heavy metals to reduce their damage on A. ferrooxidans and promote its growth. Organic acids could also damage the mineral lattice to increase the leaching effect.

  17. Synergy between Rhizobium phaseoli and Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans in the Bioleaching Process of Copper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xuecheng; Li, Dongwei

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the synergy of Rhizobium phaseoli and Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans in the bioleaching process of copper. The results showed that additional R. phaseoli could increase leaching rate and cell number of A. ferrooxidans. When the initial cell number ratio between A. ferrooxidans and R. phaseoli was 2 : 1, A. ferrooxidans attained the highest final cell number of approximately 2 × 108 cells/mL and the highest copper leaching rate of 29%, which is 7% higher than that in the group with A. ferrooxidans only. R. phaseoli may use metabolized polysaccharides from A. ferrooxidans, and organic acids could chelate or precipitate harmful heavy metals to reduce their damage on A. ferrooxidans and promote its growth. Organic acids could also damage the mineral lattice to increase the leaching effect. PMID:26942203

  18. Synergy between research activity and management procedures in an industrial waste treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertanza, G.; Collivignarelli, M.C.; Zanaboni, S.

    2006-01-01

    The optimization of operation criteria for centralized industrial waste treatment plants is a difficult task. Experimental research can be a useful tool for understanding how to carry out this optimization process; however, in order to obtain proper solution, a very close connection must been observed activity and the field (e.g. practical application at the full scale). In this paper a three years successful experience is described: the research was carried out in an industrial waste treatment facility located in Northern Italy. Thanks to a close interaction between management and research activities, a significant synergy was achieved: in fact, interesting and original suggestions for the research arose from plant monitoring, and the first findings of the research have already led to important improvements in the full scale plant management [it

  19. Control strategy of hydraulic/electric synergy system in heavy hybrid vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun Hui; Yang Lifu; Junqing Jing; Yanling Luo [Jiangsu Xuzhou Construction Machinery Research Institute, Jiangsu (China)

    2011-01-15

    Energy consumption and exhaust emissions of hybrid vehicles strongly depend on the energy storage source and the applied control strategy. Heavy vehicles have the characteristics of frequent starts/stops and significant amounts of braking energy, which needs to find a more efficient way to store and use the high power flow. A novel parallel hybrid vehicles configuration consisting of hydraulic/electric synergy system is proposed to overcome the existing drawbacks of single energy storage source in heavy hybrid vehicles. A control strategy combining a logic threshold approach and key parameters optimization algorithm is developed to achieve acceptable vehicle performance while simultaneously maximizing engine fuel economy and maintaining the battery state of charge in its rational operation range at all times. The experimental and simulation results illustrate the potential of the proposed control strategy in terms of fuel economy and in keeping the deviations of SOC at high efficiency range. (author)

  20. A New Maraging Stainless Steel with Excellent Strength–Toughness–Corrosion Synergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jialong Tian

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A new maraging stainless steel with superior strength–toughness–corrosion synergy has been developed based on an innovative concept of alloy design. The high strength–toughness combination is achieved by forming dispersive nano-sized intermetallic compounds in the soft lath martensitic matrix with a slight amount of residual austenite. The good corrosion resistance is guaranteed by exactly controlling the Co content based on understanding the synergistic effect between Co and Cr. The fine structure characteristics of two dominant strengthening precipitations including Ni3Ti and Mo-rich phases were finely characterized associated with transmission electron microscope (TEM and atom probe tomography (APT analyses. The relationship among microstructure, strength and toughness is discussed. The precipitation mechanism of different precipitates in the new maraging stainless steel is revealed based on the APT analysis.