WorldWideScience

Sample records for stronger negative response

  1. Conservatives Anticipate and Experience Stronger Emotional Reactions to Negative Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joel, Samantha; Burton, Caitlin M; Plaks, Jason E

    2014-02-01

    The present work examined whether conservatives and liberals differ in their anticipation of their own emotional reactions to negative events. In two studies, participants imagined experiencing positive or negative outcomes in domains that do not directly concern politics. In Study 1, 190 American participants recruited online (64 male, Mage  = 32 years) anticipated their emotional responses to romantic relationship outcomes. In Study 2, 97 Canadian undergraduate students (26 male, Mage  = 21 years) reported on their anticipated and experienced emotional responses to academic outcomes. In both studies, more conservative participants predicted they would feel stronger negative emotions following negative outcomes than did more liberal participants. Furthermore, a longitudinal follow-up of Study 2 participants revealed that more conservative participants actually felt worse than more liberal participants after receiving a lower-than-desired exam grade. These effects remained even when controlling for the Big Five traits, prevention focus, and attachment style (Study 1), and optimism (Study 2). We discuss how the relationship between political orientation and anticipated affect likely contributes to differences between conservatives and liberals in styles of decision and policy choices. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Daytime warming has stronger negative effects on soil nematodes than night-time warming

    OpenAIRE

    Yan, Xiumin; Wang, Kehong; Song, Lihong; Wang, Xuefeng; Wu, Donghui

    2017-01-01

    Warming of the climate system is unequivocal, that is, stronger warming during night-time than during daytime. Here we focus on how soil nematodes respond to the current asymmetric warming. A field infrared heating experiment was performed in the western of the Songnen Plain, Northeast China. Three warming modes, i.e. daytime warming, night-time warming and diurnal warming, were taken to perform the asymmetric warming condition. Our results showed that the daytime and diurnal warming treatmen...

  3. Global dimming and urbanization: did stronger negative SSR trends collocate with regions of population growth?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Imamovic

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Global dimming refers to the decrease in surface solar radiation (SSR observed from the 1960s to the 1980s at different measurement sites all around the world. It is under debate whether anthropogenic aerosols emitted from urban areas close to the measurement sites are mainly responsible for the dimming. In order to assess this urbanization impact on SSR, we use spatially explicit population density data of 0.08° resolution to construct population indices (PI at 157 high data quality sites. Our study extends previous population-based studies by incorporating distance-weighting as a simple aerosol diffusion model. We measured urbanization in the surrounding of a site as the PI change from 1960 to 1990 and found no negative correlation with the corresponding SSR trends from 1964 to 1989 for the 92 sites in Europe and Japan. For the 39 sites in China the correlation coefficients are significant at the 5 % level and reach around −0.35, while for the 26 remaining Asian, mostly Russian sites the correlation coefficients reach around −0.55 at the 1 % significance level. Results are similar, when the absolute levels of PIs are taken as an indicator for urbanization. Our findings call into question the existence of an urbanization effect for the sites in Europe and Japan, while such an effect cannot be ruled out for the sites in Asia, especially in Russia.

  4. Global dimming and urbanization: did stronger negative SSR trends collocate with regions of population growth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imamovic, Adel; Tanaka, Katsumasa; Folini, Doris; Wild, Martin

    2016-04-01

    Global dimming refers to the decrease in surface solar radiation (SSR) observed from the 1960s to the 1980s at different measurement sites all around the world. It is under debate whether anthropogenic aerosols emitted from urban areas close to the measurement sites are mainly responsible for the dimming. In order to assess this urbanization impact on SSR, we use spatially explicit population density data of 0.08° resolution to construct population indices (PI) at 157 high data quality sites. Our study extends previous population-based studies by incorporating distance-weighting as a simple aerosol diffusion model. We measured urbanization in the surrounding of a site as the PI change form 1960 to 1990 and found no negative correlation with the corresponding SSR trends from 1964 to 1989 for the 92 sites in Europe and Japan. For the 39 sites in China the correlation coefficients are significant at the 5 % level and reach around -0.35, while for the 26 remaining Asian, mostly Russian sites the correlation coefficients reach around -0.55 at the 1 % significance level. Results are similar, when the absolute levels of PIs are taken as an indicator for urbanization. Our findings call into question the existence of an urbanization effect for the sites in Europe and Japan, while such an effect cannot be ruled out for the sites in Asia, especially in Russia.

  5. Phytoplankton Communities Exhibit a Stronger Response to Environmental Changes than Bacterioplankton in Three Subtropical Reservoirs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lemian; Yang, Jun; Lv, Hong; Yu, Xiaoqing; Wilkinson, David M; Yang, Jun

    2015-09-15

    The simultaneous analysis of multiple components of ecosystems is crucial for comprehensive studies of environmental changes in aquatic ecosystems, but such studies are rare. In this study, we analyzed simultaneously the bacterioplankton and phytoplankton communities in three Chinese subtropical reservoirs and compared the response of these two components to seasonal environmental changes. Time-lag analysis indicated that the temporal community dynamics of both bacterioplankton and phytoplankton showed significant directional changes, and variance partitioning suggested that the major reason was the gradual improvement of reservoir water quality from middle eutrophic to oligo-mesotrophic levels during the course of our study. In addition, we found a higher level of temporal stability or stochasticity in the bacterioplankton community than in the phytoplankton community. Potential explanations are that traits associated with bacteria, such as high abundance, widespread dispersal, potential for rapid growth rates, and rapid evolutionary adaptation, may underlie the different stability or stochasticity of bacterioplankton and phytoplankton communities to the environmental changes. In addition, the indirect response of bacterioplankton to nitrogen and phosphorus may result in the fact that environmental deterministic selection was stronger for the phytoplankton than for the bacterioplankton communities.

  6. Stronger synergies

    CERN Document Server

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2012-01-01

    CERN was founded 58 years ago under the auspices of UNESCO. Since then, both organisations have grown to become world leaders in their respective fields. The links between the two have always existed but today they are even stronger, with new projects under way to develop a more efficient way of exchanging information and devise a common strategy on topics of mutual interest.   CERN and UNESCO are a perfect example of natural partners: their common field is science and education is one of the pillars on which both are built. Historically, they share a common heritage. Both UNESCO and CERN were born of the desire to use scientific cooperation to rebuild peace and security in the aftermath of the Second World War. "Recently, building on our common roots and in close collaboration with UNESCO, we have been developing more structured links to ensure the continuity of the actions taken over the years," says Maurizio Bona, who is in charge of CERN relations with international orga...

  7. Mismatch negativity is a stronger indicator of functional outcomes than neurocognition or theory of mind in patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung-Hwan; Sung, Kyongae; Lee, Kyong-Sang; Moon, Eunok; Kim, Chang-Gyu

    2014-01-03

    Mismatch negativity (MMN) is known to be associated with neurocognition, social cognition, and functional outcomes. The present study explored the relationships of MMN with neurocognition, theory of mind, and functional outcomes in patients with schizophrenia, first-degree relatives of patients with schizophrenia, and healthy controls. Twenty-five patients with schizophrenia, 21 first-degree relatives of patients with schizophrenia, and 29 healthy controls were recruited. We examined symptom severity, neurocognition, theory of mind, functional outcomes, and MMN. MMN amplitudes decreased in order of patients with schizophrenia, then first-degree relatives, then healthy controls. MMN amplitude was significantly correlated with measures of neurocognition, theory of mind, and functional outcome measurements in patients with schizophrenia. However, the most powerful correlations were those between MMN in the frontal region and measures of functional outcomes. The power and frequency of the correlations were weaker in first-degree relatives and healthy controls than in patients with schizophrenia. Hierarchical regression analysis revealed that functional outcomes (relative to measures of neurocognition and theory of mind) constituted the most powerful predictor of MMN. Our results suggest that MMN reflects functional outcomes more efficiently than do measures of neurocognition and theory of mind in patients with schizophrenia. © 2013.

  8. More concerns and stronger beliefs about the necessity of medication in patients with acromegaly are associated with negative illness perceptions and impairment in quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andela, Cornelie D; Biermasz, Nienke R; Kaptein, Adrian A; Pereira, Alberto M; Tiemensma, Jitske

    2015-10-01

    Patients with acromegaly can be treated with surgery, radiotherapy and/or medical treatment. In general, patients' beliefs about medication are associated with illness perceptions, a contributory factor of Quality of Life (QoL). At present, there are no quantitative studies on medication beliefs in patients with acromegaly. Here, we aimed to examine possible associations between medication beliefs, illness perceptions, and QoL. Furthermore we aimed to explore whether illness perceptions of patients with remission of acromegaly receiving medical treatment differ from patients without medical treatment. Cross-sectional evaluation of 73 patients with remission of acromegaly (n = 28 patients with medication, n = 45 without medication). The Beliefs about Medicines Questionnaire (BMQ), Illness Perception Questionnaire-Revised (IPQ-R), EuroQoL-5D, and AcroQoL were used for the assessment. Stronger beliefs about the necessity of medical treatment and stronger concerns about the adverse effects were associated with attributing more symptoms to acromegaly, perceiving more negative consequences, and having a stronger belief in a cyclical timeline (BMQ, all P IPQ-R, P = 0.002). Negative medication beliefs were related to more negative illness perceptions and worse disease-specific QoL. Patients receiving medical treatment for acromegaly tend to perceive a more chronic timeline of their disease, compared to patients with remission without medical treatment. These psychological factors need to be taken into account when treating patients and developing a psychosocial education program aiming to improve QoL. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. PDE11A negatively regulates lithium responsivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, G.; Agostino, M.J.; Bishara, K.; Capell, W.R.; Fisher, J.L.; Hegde, S.; Ibrahim, B.A.; Pilarzyk, Kaitlyn; Sabin, C.; Tuczkewycz, Taras; Wilson, Steven; Kelly, M.P.

    2016-01-01

    Lithium responsivity in patients with bipolar disorder has been genetically associated with Phosphodiesterase 11A (PDE11A), and lithium decreases PDE11A mRNA in IPSC-derived hippocampal neurons originating from lithium responsive patients. PDE11 is an enzyme uniquely enriched in the hippocampus that breaks down cAMP and cGMP. Here, we determined if decreasing PDE11A expression is sufficient to increase lithium responsivity in mice. In dorsal hippocampus (DHIPP) and ventral hippocampus (VHIPP), lithium-responsive C57BL/6J and 129S6/SvEvTac mice show decreased PDE11A4 protein expression relative to lithium-unresponsive BALB/cJ mice. In VHIPP, C57BL/6J mice also show differences in PDE11A4 compartmentalization relative to BALB/cJ mice. In contrast, neither PDE2A nor PDE10A expression differ among the strains. The compartment-specific differences in PDE11A4 protein expression are explained by a coding SNP at amino acid 499, which falls within the GAF-B homodimerization domain. Relative to the BALB/cJ 499T, the C57BL/6J 499A decreases PDE11A4 homodimerization, which removes PDE11A4 from the membrane. Consistent with the observation that lower PDE11A4 expression correlates with better lithium responsiveness, we found that Pde11a KO mice given 0.4% lithium chow for 3+ weeks exhibit greater lithium responsivity relative to WT littermates in tail suspension, an antidepressant predictive assay, and amphetamine hyperlocomotion, an anti-manic predictive assay. Reduced PDE11A4 expression may represent a lithium-sensitive pathophysiology, because both C57BL/6J and Pde11a KO mice show increased expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-6 relative to BALB/cJ and PDE11A WT mice, respectively. Our finding that PDE11A4 negatively regulates lithium responsivity in mice suggests that the PDE11A SNPs identified in patients may be functionally relevant. PMID:27646265

  10. "Stronger than the Storm": Keeping Infants and Young Children in Mind During the Response to Superstorm Sandy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Gerard; Mulrooney, Kathleen; Spinazzola, Nicci

    2013-01-01

    Superstorm Sandy hit the coast of New Jersey with deadly force causing hundreds of miles of coastline damage, loss of homes, property and road damage, and power outages throughout the region. despite the state's strong disaster response network, most programs and responders have little background in supporting the needs of infants and very young…

  11. Brain responds to another person's eye blinks in a natural setting-the more empathetic the viewer the stronger the responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandel, Anne; Helokunnas, Siiri; Pihko, Elina; Hari, Riitta

    2015-10-01

    An observer's brain is known to respond to another person's small nonverbal signals, such as gaze shifts and eye blinks. Here we aimed to find out how an observer's brain reacts to a speaker's eye blinks in the presence of other audiovisual information. Magnetoencephalographic brain responses along with eye gaze were recorded from 13 adults who watched a video of a person telling a story. The video was presented first without sound (visual), then with sound (audiovisual), and finally the audio story was presented with a still-frame picture on the screen (audio control). The viewers mainly gazed at the eye region of the speaker. Their saccades were suppressed at about 180 ms after the start of the speaker's blinks, a subsequent increase of saccade occurence to the base level, or higher, at around 340 ms. The suppression occurred in visual and audiovisual conditions but not during the control audio presentation. Prominent brain responses to blinks peaked in the viewer's occipital cortex at about 250 ms, with no differences in mean peak amplitudes or latencies between visual and audiovisual conditions. During the audiovisual, but not visual-only, presentation, the responses were the stronger the more empathetic the subject was according to the Empathic Concern score of the Interpersonal Reactivity Index questionnaire (Spearman's rank correlation, 0.73). The other person's eye blinks, nonverbal signs that often go unnoticed, thus elicited clear brain responses even in the presence of attention-attracting audiovisual information from the narrative, with stronger responses in people with higher empathy scores. © 2015 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. A role for negative reinforcement of response omission in punishment?

    OpenAIRE

    Arbuckle, Jeffery L.; Lattal, Kennon A.

    1987-01-01

    This experiment attempted to disentangle response-rate reductions controlled by the direct suppressive effects of a punisher from those due to negative reinforcement of response omission. Key-peck responding of pigeons was maintained by a conjoint variable-interval 3-min schedule of food presentation variable-interval 30-s schedule of response-dependent electric shock presentation. Omission of responses for 5, 10, or 30 s resulted in the possibility of canceling a scheduled shock. Response ra...

  13. A typology of negative responses: a case study of shiatsu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Andrew F; Esmonde, Lisa; Connolly, Seamus

    2009-06-01

    To develop and apply a client-centred typology for classifying negative responses to a CAM therapy. Prospective, 6 months cohort, pragmatic study of the effects and experience of shiatsu within three countries (Austria, Spain and the UK). Data collected via postal questionnaires, including on client-perceived negative responses. Classification of negative responses situated within a theoretical framework of Zen or Masunaga model of shiatsu. Shiatsu as delivered by the practitioner in routine practice. Prevalence of negative responses and response types. 633 clients provided full follow-up data, a response rate of 67%. A prevalence rate of 12-22 per 100 of client-perceived 'negative responses' was found across the three countries. Transitional effects accounted for 82% of all the client-described 'negative' responses. Nine clients (1.4% of the total), relating to 10 sets of written comments, reported a negative response that was classified as 'a potentially adverse event or effect' that might represent a risk to client safety. None of these clients ceased shiatsu. A typology of negative responses has an important role for practitioners, clients and researchers in drawing up evidence on the safety of a therapy. For researchers and policy makers, use of such a typology informs insight into what might cause harm (that is, 'definite' adverse events). For clients, the typology takes seriously the clients' own view. For practitioners, the typology draws on the modality's guiding theory and suggests ways to improve the delivery of treatments. Applying the typology to a cross-European prospective study of shiatsu supports the argument of shiatsu being inherently a safe modality.

  14. Effects of CEOs’ Negative Traits on Corporate Social Responsibility

    OpenAIRE

    Jae Kyu Myung; Yoon Hyuk Choi; Jong Dae Kim

    2017-01-01

    The dark triad, composed of Machiavellianism, psychopathy and narcissism, refers to negative personality traits, which may influence business processes. While negative traits could be an important factor explaining the relationship between a CEO’s immoral and unethical behavior and corporate social responsibility (CSR), there has been minimal research focusing on this relationship. This paper thus attempts to investigate how a CEO exhibiting these negative traits affects CSR, and if an employ...

  15. Effects of CEOs’ Negative Traits on Corporate Social Responsibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Kyu Myung

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The dark triad, composed of Machiavellianism, psychopathy and narcissism, refers to negative personality traits, which may influence business processes. While negative traits could be an important factor explaining the relationship between a CEO’s immoral and unethical behavior and corporate social responsibility (CSR, there has been minimal research focusing on this relationship. This paper thus attempts to investigate how a CEO exhibiting these negative traits affects CSR, and if an employee’s perception of ethics and social responsibility would mediate the relationship. In addition, this paper considers the moderating effects of an individual performance-based compensation system (IPBCS between employee’s CSR perception and CSR activities. The data are collected through a survey conducted on 165 employees (companies in twelve industries. The regression result indicates an inverse relationship between the negative traits of a CEO and an employee’s perception of ethics and social responsibility and CSR activities, and the mediating effect of the perception in the relationship between the negative traits and CSR activities. It also indicates that an IPBCS moderates the relationship between CSR perception and activities. Implications for the study, future research directions, and management approach are discussed.

  16. Positive and negative emotional responses to work- related trauma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-10-10

    Oct 10, 2010 ... Life Scale: Compassion Satisfaction and Fatigue Subscales' en die 'Silencing Response Scale' ingevorder en ... hazards and have a negative impact on the quality of life and the psychological health of the nurse, as well as .... of caregivers to pay attention to the stories or experiences of their patients and ...

  17. The opportunity cost of negative screening in socially responsible investing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trinks, Pieter Jan; Scholtens, Bert

    2017-01-01

    This paper investigates the impact of negative screening on the investment universe as well as on financial performance. We come up with a novel identification process and as such depart from mainstream Socially Responsible Investing (SRI) literature by concentrating on individual firms’ conduct and

  18. Negative affectivity moderated by BDNF and stress response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perea, C S; Paternina, A C; Gomez, Y; Lattig, M C

    2012-02-01

    Gene×environment (G×E) interactions are known to predict susceptibility to disorders such as depression and anxiety. Adverse experiences in childhood and number of stressful life events (SLEs) have been widely studied as environmental risk factors; however, SLE response has not yet been studied. Here we present a first attempt at the analysis of the interaction between the response to personal and academic stressful events during different life stages and the gene polymorphisms 5-HTTLPR, 5-HTTVNTR (STin2), HTR1A C(-1019)G, and BDNF Val66Met in the prediction of negative affectivity (NA). Standardized questionnaires (ST-DEP and STAI) were used to measure negative affectivity derived from depression and anxiety in a sample of 303 undergraduate students. Response to stressful events during childhood, high school and college years was evaluated together with a self-report personal history form. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to perform association and G×E analysis. Negative affectivity is strongly associated with childhood maltreatment and stress response. Gene associations were observed between 5-HTTVNTR allele 12 and the S_12 haplotype with NA derived from high scores in both depression and anxiety. The BDNF gene variant was not associated with NA derived from depression or anxiety alone, but it was associated with the comorbid presentation. A significant G×E interaction was observed between the BDNF Val66Met and stress response during childhood and college years although the risk for negative affectivity conferred by stress response during childhood was only significant among the Met allele carriers, while stress response during college years was a significant risk factor regardless of the BDNF Val66Met genotype. A significant G×E interaction was also found between the HTR1A C(-1019)G variant and childhood maltreatment. The study has two main limitations, sample size is low and retrospective recognition of SLEs is a concern. Altogether, our

  19. Cardiovascular responses of women to lower body negative pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, M. A. B.; Mathes, K. L.; Hoffler, G. W.

    1986-01-01

    The effects of lower body negative pressure (LBNP) on the cardiovascular response of 20 women between 23-43 years are evaluated. Calf circumference and cardiovascular data were recorded for women in the follicular and luteal phases of the menstrual cycle at -30, -40, and -50 mm Hg LBNP. The data reveal that the two menstrual phases did not cause differences in the way women respond to LBNP. It is observed that during LBNP calf circumference is enlarged; transthoracic impedance, and heart rate are increased; stroke volume, left ventricular ejection time, the Heather Index of contractility and systolic pressure, and cardiac output are reduced; and total peripheral resistance is elevated. The experimental data are compared to Montgomery et al. (1979). It is noted that the response of women to -50 mm Hg LBNP is similar to that of men; however, women adapt to stresses on the cardiovascular system with greater heart rate adjustments.

  20. Physical fitness and cardiovascular response to lower body negative pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raven, P. B.; Rohm-Young, D.; Blomqvist, C. G.

    1984-01-01

    Klein et al. (1977) have questioned the concept of endurance training as an appropriate means of preparing for prolonged space flights. Their opinion was mainly based on reports of endurance athletes who had a decreased tolerance to orthostatic or gravitational stress induced by lower body negative pressure (LBNP), upright tilt, or whole body water immersion. The present investigation had the objective to determine if the hemodynamic response to LBNP is different between a high and average fit group of subjects. In addition, the discrete aspect of cardiovascular function which had been altered by chronic training was to be identified. On the basis of the results of experiments conducted with 14 young male volunteers, it is concluded that the reflex response to central hypovolemia is altered by endurance exercise training.

  1. Prospects for stronger calandria tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ells, C.E.; Coleman, C.E.; Hosbons, R.R.; Ibrahim, E.F.; Doubt, G.L.

    1990-12-01

    The CANDU calandria tubes, made of seam welded and annealed Zircaloy-2, have given exemplary service in-reactor. Although not designed as a system pressure containment, calandria tubes may remain intact even in the face of pressure tube rupture. One such incident at Pickering Unit 2 demonstrated the economic advantage of such an outcome, and a case can be made for increasing the probability that other calandria tubes would perform in a similar fashion. Various methods of obtaining stronger calandria tubes are available, and reviewed here. When the tubes are internally pressurized, the weld is the weak section of the tube. Increasing the oxygen concentration in the starting sheet, and thickening the weld, are promising routes to a stronger tube

  2. Intra-specific variations in expression of stress-related genes in beech progenies are stronger than drought-induced responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carsjens, Caroline; Nguyen Ngoc, Quynh; Guzy, Jonas; Knutzen, Florian; Meier, Ina Christin; Müller, Markus; Finkeldey, Reiner; Leuschner, Christoph; Polle, Andrea

    2014-12-01

    Rapidly decreasing water availability as a consequence of climate change is likely to endanger the range of long-lived tree species. A pressing question is, therefore, whether adaptation to drought exists in important temperate tree species like European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.), a wide-spread, dominant forest tree in Central Europe. Here, five beech stands were selected along a precipitation gradient from moist to dry conditions. Neutral genetic markers revealed strong variation within and little differentiation between the populations. Natural regeneration from these stands was transferred to a common garden and used to investigate the expression of genes for abscisic acid (ABA)-related drought signaling [9-cis-epoxy-dioxygenase (NCED), protein phosphatase 2C (PP2C), early responsive to dehydration (ERD)] and stress protection [ascorbate peroxidase (APX), superoxide dismutase (SOD), aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH), glutamine amidotransferase (GAT)] that are involved in drought acclimation. We hypothesized that progenies from dry sites exhibit constitutively higher expression levels of ABA- and stress-related genes and are less drought responsive than progenies from moist sites. Transcript levels and stress responses (leaf area loss, membrane integrity) of well-irrigated and drought-stressed plants were measured during the early, mid- and late growing season. Principal component (PC) analysis ordered the beech progenies according to the mean annual precipitation at tree origin by the transcript levels of SOD, ALDH, GAT and ERD as major loadings along PC1. PC2 separated moist and drought treatments with PP2C levels as important loading. These results suggest that phosphatase-mediated signaling is flexibly acclimated to the current requirements, whereas stress compensatory measures exhibited genotypic variation, apparently underlying climate selection. In contrast to expectation, the drought responses were less pronounced than the progeny-related differences and the

  3. Rhinovirus infection results in stronger and more persistent genomic dysregulation: Evidence for altered innate immune response in asthmatics at baseline, early in infection, and during convalescence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter W Heymann

    Full Text Available Rhinovirus (HRV is associated with the large majority of virus-induced asthma exacerbations in children and young adults, but the mechanisms remain poorly defined.Asthmatics and non-asthmatic controls were inoculated with HRV-A16, and nasal epithelial samples were obtained 7 days before, 36 hours after, and 7 days after viral inoculation. RNA was extracted and subjected to RNA-seq analysis.At baseline, 57 genes were differentially expressed between asthmatics and controls, and the asthmatics had decreased expression of viral replication inhibitors and increased expression of genes involved in inflammation. At 36 hours (before the emergence of peak symptoms, 1329 genes were significantly altered from baseline in the asthmatics compared to 62 genes in the controls. At this time point, asthmatics lacked an increase in IL-10 signaling observed in the controls. At 7 days following HRV inoculation, 222 genes were significantly dysregulated in the asthmatics, whereas only 4 genes were dysregulated among controls. At this time point, the controls but not asthmatics demonstrated upregulation of SPINK5.As judged by the magnitude and persistence of dysregulated genes, asthmatics have a substantially different host response to HRV-A16 infection compared with non-asthmatic controls. Gene expression differences illuminate biologically plausible mechanisms that contribute to a better understanding of the pathogenesis of HRV-induced asthma exacerbations.

  4. Using sniffing behavior to differentiate true negative from false negative responses in trained scent-detection dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concha, Astrid; Mills, Daniel S; Feugier, Alexandre; Zulch, Helen; Guest, Claire; Harris, Rob; Pike, Thomas W

    2014-11-01

    False negatives are recorded in every chemical detection system, but when animals are used as a scent detector, some false negatives can arise as a result of a failure in the link between detection and the trained alert response, or a failure of the handler to identify the positive alert. A false negative response can be critical in certain scenarios, such as searching for a live person or detecting explosives. In this study, we investigated whether the nature of sniffing behavior in trained detection dogs during a controlled scent-detection task differs in response to true positives, true negatives, false positives, and false negatives. A total of 200 videos of 10 working detection dogs were pseudorandomly selected and analyzed frame by frame to quantify sniffing duration and the number of sniffing episodes recorded in a Go/No-Go single scent-detection task using an eight-choice test apparatus. We found that the sniffing duration of true negatives is significantly shorter than false negatives, true positives, and false positives. Furthermore, dogs only ever performed one sniffing episode towards true negatives, but two sniffing episodes commonly occurred in the other situations. These results demonstrate how the nature of sniffing can be used to more effectively assess odor detection by dogs used as biological detection devices. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press.

  5. Test-retest reliability of the multifocal photopic negative response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Alstine, Anthony W; Viswanathan, Suresh

    2017-02-01

    To assess the test-retest reliability of the multifocal photopic negative response (mfPhNR) of normal human subjects. Multifocal electroretinograms were recorded from one eye of 61 healthy adult subjects on two separate days using a Visual Evoked Response Imaging System software version 4.3 (EDI, San Mateo, California). The visual stimulus delivered on a 75-Hz monitor consisted of seven equal-sized hexagons each subtending 12° of visual angle. The m-step exponent was 9, and the m-sequence was slowed to include at least 30 blank frames after each flash. Only the first slice of the first-order kernel was analyzed. The mfPhNR amplitude was measured at a fixed time in the trough from baseline (BT) as well as at the same fixed time in the trough from the preceding b-wave peak (PT). Additionally, we also analyzed BT normalized either to PT (BT/PT) or to the b-wave amplitude (BT/b-wave). The relative reliability of test-retest differences for each test location was estimated by the Wilcoxon matched-pair signed-rank test and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC). Absolute test-retest reliability was estimated by Bland-Altman analysis. The test-retest amplitude differences for neither of the two measurement techniques were statistically significant as determined by Wilcoxon matched-pair signed-rank test. PT measurements showed greater ICC values than BT amplitude measurements for all test locations. For each measurement technique, the ICC value of the macular response was greater than that of the surrounding locations. The mean test-retest difference was close to zero for both techniques at each of the test locations, and while the coefficient of reliability (COR-1.96 times the standard deviation of the test-retest difference) was comparable for the two techniques at each test location when expressed in nanovolts, the %COR (COR normalized to the mean test and retest amplitudes) was superior for PT than BT measurements. The ICC and COR were comparable for the BT/PT and

  6. Response to Multiple Radiation Doses of Fibroblasts Over-Expressing Dominant Negative Ku70

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urano, Muneyasu; Huang Yunhong; He Fuqiu; Minami, Akiko; Ling, C. Clifton; Li, Gloria C.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the response of cells over-expressing dominant negative (DN) Ku70 to single and multiple small radiation doses. Methods and Materials: Clones of fibroblasts over-expressing DNKu70, DNKu70-7, DNKu70-11, and parental Rat-1 cells were irradiated under oxic or hypoxic conditions with single or multiple doses. Cells were trypsinized 0 or 6 h after irradiation to determine surviving fraction (SF). Results: Oxic DNKu70-7 or -11 cells trypsinized 6 h after irradiation were 1.52 or 1.25 and 1.28 or 1.15 times more sensitive than oxic Rat-1 at SF of 0.5 and 0.1, respectively. Hypoxic DNKu70-7 or -11 cells trypsinized 6 h after irradiation were 1.44 or 1.70 and 1.33 or 1.51 times more sensitive than hypoxic Rat-1 at SF of 0.5 and 0.1, respectively. To the multiple doses, oxic and hypoxic DNKu70-7 or -11 cells were 1.35 or 1.37 and 2.23 or 4.61 times more sensitive than oxic and hypoxic Rat-1, respectively, resulting in very small oxygen enhancement ratios. Namely, enhancement caused by DNKu70 under hypoxia after multiple doses was greater than that under oxic conditions and greater than that after single dose. Conclusions: Over-expression of DNKu70 enhances cells' response to radiation given as a single dose and as multiple small doses. The enhancement after multiple doses was stronger under hypoxic than under oxic conditions. These results encourage the use of DNKu70 fragment in a gene-radiotherapy

  7. Sinoatrial tissue of crucian carp heart has only negative contractile responses to autonomic agonists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hälinen Mervi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the anoxia-tolerant crucian carp (Carassius carassius cardiac activity varies according to the seasons. To clarify the role of autonomic nervous control in modulation of cardiac activity, responses of atrial contraction and heart rate (HR to carbacholine (CCh and isoprenaline (Iso were determined in fish acclimatized to winter (4°C, cold-acclimated, CA and summer (18°C, warm-acclimated, WA temperatures. Results Inhibitory action of CCh was much stronger on atrial contractility than HR. CCh reduced force of atrial contraction at an order of magnitude lower concentrations (EC50 2.75-3.5·10-8 M in comparison to its depressive effect on HR (EC50 1.23-2.02·10-7 M (P -8 M and 10-7 M CCh, respectively (P + current, IK,CCh, with an EC50 value of 3-4.5·10-7 M and inhibited Ca2+ current (ICa by 28 ± 8% and 51 ± 6% at 10-7 M and 10-6 M, respectively. These currents can explain the shortening of AP. Iso did not elicit any responses in crucian carp sinoatrial preparations nor did it have any effect on atrial ICa, probably due to the saturation of the β-adrenergic cascade in the basal state. Conclusion In the crucian carp, HR and force of atrial contraction show cardio-depressive responses to the cholinergic agonist, but do not have any responses to the β-adrenergic agonist. The scope of inhibitory regulation by CCh is increased by the high basal tone of the adenylate cyclase-cAMP cascade. Higher concentrations of CCh were required to induce IK,CCh and inhibit ICa than was needed for CCh's negative inotropic effect on atrial muscle suggesting that neither IK,CCh nor ICa alone can mediate CCh's actions but they might synergistically reduce AP duration and atrial force production. Autonomic responses were similar in CA winter fish and WA summer fish indicating that cardiac sensitivity to external modulation by the autonomic nervous system is not involved in seasonal acclimatization of the crucian carp heart to cold and anoxic

  8. Ethylene response factor AtERF72 negatively regulates Arabidopsis thaliana response to iron deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Li, Qiwei; Wang, Yi; Wu, Ting; Yang, Yafei; Zhang, Xinzhong; Han, Zhenhai; Xu, Xuefeng

    2017-09-23

    Ethylene regulates the plant's response to stress caused by iron (Fe) deficiency. However, specific roles of ERF proteins in response to Fe deficiency remain poorly understood. Here, we investigated the role of ERF72 in response to iron deficiency in Arabidopsis thaliana. In this study, the levels of the ethylene response factor AtERF72 increased in leaves and roots induced under the iron deficient conditions. erf72 mutant plants showed increased growth compared to wild type (WT) when grown in iron deficient medium for 5 d. erf72 mutants had increased root H + velocity and the ferric reductase activity, and increase in the expression of the iron deficiency response genes iron-regulated transporter 1 (IRT1) and H + -ATPase (HA2) levels in iron deficient conditions. Compared to WT plants, erf72 mutants retained healthy chloroplast structure with significantly higher Fe and Mg content, and decreased chlorophyll degradation gene pheophorbide a oxygenase (PAO) and chlorophyllase (CLH1) expression when grown in iron deficient media. Yeast one-hybrid analysis showed that ERF72 could directly bind to the promoter regions of iron deficiency responses genes IRT1, HA2 and CLH1. Based on our results, we suggest that ethylene released from plants under iron deficiency stress can activate the expression of ERF72, which responds to iron deficiency in the negative regulation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Positive and negative emotional responses to work-related trauma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Data were gathered via the Professional Quality of Life Scale: Compassion Satisfaction and Fatigue Subscales – Revision IV (ProQOL – R-IV) and the Silencing Response Scale and were analysed according to descriptive statistics and correlation coefficients. Findings suggest a high risk for compassion fatigue, a moderate ...

  10. A novel chimeric Hepatitis B virus S/preS1 antigen produced in mammalian and plant cells elicits stronger humoral and cellular immune response than the standard vaccine-constituent, S protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrica, Mihaela-Olivia; Lazar, Catalin; Paruch, Lisa; Skomedal, Hanne; Steen, Hege; Haugslien, Sissel; Tucureanu, Catalin; Caras, Iuliana; Onu, Adrian; Ciulean, Sonya; Branzan, Alexandru; Clarke, Jihong Liu; Stavaru, Crina; Branza-Nichita, Norica

    2017-08-01

    Chronic Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) infection leads to severe liver pathogenesis associated with significant morbidity and mortality. As no curable medication is yet available, vaccination remains the most cost-effective approach to limit HBV spreading and control the infection. Although safe and efficient, the standard vaccine based on production of the small (S) envelope protein in yeast fails to elicit an effective immune response in about 10% of vaccinated individuals, which are at risk of infection. One strategy to address this issue is the development of more immunogenic antigens. Here we describe a novel HBV antigen obtained by combining relevant immunogenic determinants of S and large (L) envelope proteins. Our approach was based on the insertion of residues 21-47 of the preS1 domain of the L protein (nomenclature according to genotype D), involved in virus attachment to hepatocytes, within the external antigenic loop of S. The resulting S/preS1 21-47 chimera was successfully produced in HEK293T and Nicotiana benthamiana plants, as a more economical recombinant protein production platform. Comparative biochemical, functional and electron microscopy analysis indicated assembly of the novel antigen into subviral particles in mammalian and plant cells. Importantly, these particles preserve both S- and preS1-specific epitopes and elicit significantly stronger humoral and cellular immune responses than the S protein, in both expression systems used. Our data promote this antigen as a promising vaccine candidate to overcome poor responsiveness to the conventional, S protein-based, HBV vaccine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. How Do Politicians Attribute Bureaucratic Responsibility for Performance? Negativity Bias and Interest Group Advocacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Poul A.; Moynihan, Donald P.

    2017-01-01

    Voters reward or punish politicians by deeming them responsible for positive and negative outcomes, but how, in turn, do politicians attribute responsibility to those who actually deliver public services? Inattention to this question renders incomplete current perspectives on democratic processes...

  12. Somatostatin Negatively Regulates Parasite Burden and Granulomatous Responses in Cysticercosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitra Khumbatta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cysticercosis is an infection of tissues with the larval cysts of the cestode, Taenia  solium. While live parasites elicit little or no inflammation, dying parasites initiate a granulomatous reaction presenting as painful muscle nodules or seizures when cysts are located in the brain. We previously showed in the T. crassiceps murine model of cysticercosis that substance P (SP, a neuropeptide, was detected in early granulomas and was responsible for promoting granuloma formation, while somatostatin (SOM, another neuropeptide and immunomodulatory hormone, was detected in late granulomas; SOM’s contribution to granuloma formation was not examined. In the current studies, we used somatostatin knockout (SOM−/− mice to examine the hypothesis that SOM downmodulates granulomatous inflammation in cysticercosis, thereby promoting parasite growth. Our results demonstrated that parasite burden was reduced 5.9-fold in SOM−/− mice compared to WT mice (P<0.05. This reduction in parasite burden in SOM−/− mice was accompanied by a 95% increase in size of their granulomas (P<0.05, which contained a 1.5-fold increase in levels of IFN-γ and a 26-fold decrease in levels of IL-1β (P<0.05 for both compared to granulomas from WT mice. Thus, SOM regulates both parasite burden and granulomatous inflammation perhaps through modulating granuloma production of IFN-γ and IL-1β.

  13. Gas Marbles: Much Stronger than Liquid Marbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timounay, Yousra; Pitois, Olivier; Rouyer, Florence

    2017-06-01

    Enwrapping liquid droplets with hydrophobic particles allows the manufacture of so-called "liquid marbles" [Aussillous and Quéré Nature (London) 411, 924 (2001); , 10.1038/35082026Mahadevan Nature (London)411, 895 (2001), 10.1038/35082164]. The recent intensive research devoted to liquid marbles is justified by their very unusual physical and chemical properties and by their potential for various applications, from microreactors to water storage, including water pollution sensors [Bormashenko Curr. Opin. Colloid Interface Sci. 16, 266 (2011), 10.1016/j.cocis.2010.12.002]. Here we demonstrate that this concept can be successfully applied for encapsulating and protecting small gas pockets within an air environment. Similarly to their liquid counterparts, those new soft-matter objects, that we call "gas marbles," can sustain external forces. We show that gas marbles are surprisingly tenfold stronger than liquid marbles and, more importantly, they can sustain both positive and negative pressure differences. This magnified strength is shown to originate from the strong cohesive nature of the shell. Those interesting properties could be exploited for imprisoning valuable or polluted gases or for designing new aerated materials.

  14. Development and modification of a response class via positive and negative reinforcement: a translational approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendres, Amber E; Borrero, John C

    2010-01-01

    When responses function to produce the same reinforcer, a response class exists. Researchers have examined response classes in applied settings; however, the challenges associated with conducting applied research on response class development have recently necessitated the development of an analogue response class model. To date, little research has examined response classes that are strengthened by negative reinforcement. The current investigation was designed to develop a laboratory model of a response class through positive reinforcement (i.e., points exchangeable for money) and through negative reinforcement (i.e., the avoidance of scheduled point losses) with 11 college students as participants and clicks as the operant. Results of both the positive and negative reinforcement evaluations showed that participants usually selected the least effortful response that produced points or the avoidance of point losses, respectively. The applied implications of the findings are discussed, along with the relevance of the present model to the study of punishment and resurgence.

  15. The right of the stronger: The play Sisyphus and critias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordović Ivan

    2004-01-01

    that the strong are described as kako¿ while the supporter of law are recognized as έσξλοί is also of great importance. in other words, this division reflects strong influence of aristocratic set of values by which the έσξλοί are in every way superior to the κακοί. some other indications Show that critias cannot be listed as a advocate of the right of the stronger regardless of our previous conclusion about the play. we need to bear in mind the fact that critias has only recently been linked with the theory of the right of the stronger. in the classical period there had been non attempt to explain his ruthless politics in Athens 404/403 BC by Means of the right of the stronger. what is more, no indication that he supported this theory were found. unlike xenophon and philostratus, it is very likely that Plato and Aristotle were mild to critias Due to his family ties with Plato and his friendship with Socrates. however, all the four of them would have stated that critias was an upholder of the right of the stronger if he had actually been that. that way Socrates would have been completely acquitted of the responsibility for the crimes critias had committed, because of the possible assertion that critias was misled by this theory and succumbed to the negative influence of the sophistic teachings. based on these arguments we can conclude that there is no trace of the right of the stronger in the play Sisyphus and that critias did not support this theory. this satirical play and critias were Most probably under a great influence of aristocratic beliefs, which were often scientifically misinterpreted as the reflection of the right of the stronger.

  16. Effect of Large Negative Phase of Blast Loading on Structural Response of RC Elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Zubair Iman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Structural response of reinforced concrete (RC elements for analysis and design are often obtained using the positive phase of the blast pressure curve disregarding the negative phase assuming insignificant contribution from the negative phase of the loading. Although, some insight on the effect of negative phase of blast pressure based on elastic single-degree-of-freedom (SDOF analysis was presented before, the influence of negative phase on different types of resistance functions of SDOF models and on realistic finite element analysis has not been explored. In this study, the effects of inclusion of pulse negative phase on structural response of RC elements from SDOF analysis and from more detailed finite element analysis have been investigated. Investigation of SDOF part has been conducted using MATLAB code that utilizes non-linear resistance functions of SDOF model. Detailed numerical investigation using finite element code DIANA was conducted on the significance of the negative phase on structural response. In the FE model, different support stiffness was used to explore the effect of support stiffness on the structural response due to blast negative phase. Results from SDOF and FE analyses present specific situations where the effect of large negative phase was found to be significant on the structural response of RC elements.

  17. Skeletal Muscle Responses to Negative Energy Balance: Effects of Dietary Protein12

    OpenAIRE

    Carbone, John W.; McClung, James P.; Pasiakos, Stefan M.

    2012-01-01

    Sustained periods of negative energy balance decrease body mass due to losses of both fat and skeletal muscle mass. Decreases in skeletal muscle mass are associated with a myriad of negative consequences, including suppressed basal metabolic rate, decreased protein turnover, decreased physical performance, and increased risk of injury. Decreases in skeletal muscle mass in response to negative energy balance are due to imbalanced rates of muscle protein synthesis and degradation. However, the ...

  18. The joyful, yet balanced, amygdala: moderated responses to positive but not negative stimuli in trait happiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, William A; Kirkland, Tabitha

    2014-06-01

    Although much is known about the neural dynamics of maladaptive affective styles, the mechanisms of happiness and well-being are less clear. One possibility is that the neural processes of trait happiness are the opposite of those involved in depression/anxiety: 'rose-colored glasses' cause happy people to focus on positive cues while remaining oblivious to threats. Specifically, because negative affective styles have been associated with increased amygdala activation to negative stimuli, it may be happy people will not show this enhanced response, and may even show reduced amygdala activation to negative stimuli. Alternatively, if well-being entails appropriate sensitivity to information, happy people may process any relevant cues-positive or negative-to facilitate appropriate responding. This would mean that happiness is associated with increased amygdala activation to both positive and negative stimuli. Forty-two participants viewed affective stimuli during functional magnetic resonance imaging scanning. Happier participants showed greater amygdala responses to positive stimuli. Moreover, no significant relationships were found between happiness and responses to negative stimuli. In other words, for happy people, a tuning toward positive did not come at the cost of losing sensitivity to negativity. This work suggests that trait happiness is associated with a balanced amygdala response to positivity and negativity. © The Author (2013). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Marital conflict and parental responses to infant negative emotions: Relations with toddler emotional regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankel, Leslie A; Umemura, Tomo; Jacobvitz, Deborah; Hazen, Nancy

    2015-08-01

    According to family systems theory, children's emotional development is likely to be influenced by family interactions at multiple levels, including marital, mother-child, and father-child interactions, as well as by interrelations between these levels. The purpose of the present study was to examine parents' marital conflict and mothers' and fathers' distressed responses to their infant's negative emotions, assessed when their child was 8 and 24 months old, in addition to interactions between parents' marital conflict and their distressed responses, as predictors of their toddler's negative and flat/withdrawn affect at 24 months. Higher marital conflict during infancy and toddlerhood predicted both increased negative and increased flat/withdrawn affect during toddlerhood. In addition, toddlers' negative (but not flat) affect was related to mothers' distressed responses, but was only related to father's distressed responses when martial conflict was high. Implications of this study for parent education and family intervention were discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The role of multiple negative social relationships in inflammatory cytokine responses to a laboratory stressor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunmi Song

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study examined the unique impact of perceived negativity in multiple social relationships on endocrine and inflammatory responses to a laboratory stressor. Via hierarchical cluster analysis, those who reported negative social exchanges across relationships with a romantic partner, family, and their closest friend had higher mean IL-6 across time and a greater increase in TNF-α from 15 min to 75 min post stress. Those who reported negative social exchanges across relationships with roommates, family, and their closest friend showed greater IL-6 responses to stress. Differences in mean IL-6 were accounted for by either depressed mood or hostility, whereas differences in the cytokine stress responses remained significant after controlling for those factors. Overall, this research provides preliminary evidence to suggest that having multiple negative relationships may exacerbate acute inflammatory responses to a laboratory stressor independent of hostility and depressed mood.

  1. Relations among child negative emotionality, parenting stress, and maternal sensitive responsiveness in early childhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paulussen-Hoogeboom, M.C.; Stams, G.J.J.M.; Hermanns, J.M.A.; Peetsma, T.T.D.

    2008-01-01

    This short-term longitudinal study focuses on relations between preschool-aged childrens' perceived "difficult" temperament (defined as high negative emotionality) and observed maternal sensitive responsiveness in the context of maternal parenting stress. Design. Participants were fifty-nine

  2. Children's expressions of negative emotions and adults' responses during routine cardiac consultations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vatne, Torun M; Ruland, Cornelia M; Ørnes, Knut; Finset, Arnstein

    2012-03-01

    One function of expressing emotion is to receive support. The aim of this study was to assess how children with heart disease express negative emotions during routine consultations, and examine the interaction between children's expressions and adults' responses. Seventy children, aged 7-13 years, completed measures of anxiety and were videotaped during cardiology visits. Adult-child interactions were analyzed using the Verona Definitions of Emotional Sequences. Children expressed negative emotion, mainly in subtle ways; however, adults rarely recognized and responded to these expressions. The frequency of children's expressions and adults' responses were related to the child's age, level of anxiety, and verbal participation. Children do not openly express negative emotions frequently during routine cardiac consultations; they are more likely to provide subtle cues of negative emotion. When expression of negative emotions does occur, adults may consider using the opportunity to explore the child's emotional experiences.

  3. Negative response of HgCdTe photodiode induced by nanosecond laser pulse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zuodong; Zhang, Jianmin; Lin, Xinwei; Shao, Bibo; Yang, Pengling

    2017-05-01

    Photodetectors' behavior and mechanism of transient response are still not understood very well, especially under high photon injection. Most of the researches on this topic were carried out with ultra-short laser pulse, whose pulse width ranged from femtosecond scale to picosecond scale. However, in many applications the durations of incident light are in nanosecond order and the light intensities are strong. To investigate the transient response characteristics and mechanisms of narrow-bandgap photovoltaic detectors under short laser irradiation, we performed an experiment on HgCdTe photodiodes. The n+-on-p type HgCdTe photodiodes in the experiment were designed to work in spectrum from 1.0μm to 3.0μm, with conditions of zero bias and room temperature. They were exposed to in-band short laser pulses with dwell time of 20 nanosecond. When the intensity of incident laser beam rose to 0.1J/cm2 order, the photodiodes' response characteristics turned to be bipolar from unipolar. A much longer negative response with duration of about 10μs to 100μs followed the positive light response. The amplitude of the negative response increased with the laser intensity, while the dwell time of positive response decreased with the laser intensity. Considering the response characteristics and the device structure, it is proposed that the negative response was caused by space charge effect at the electrodes. Under intense laser irradiation, a temperature gradient formed in the HgCdTe material. Due to the temperature gradient, the majority carriers diffused away from upper surface and left space charge at the electrodes. Then negative response voltage could be measured in the external circuit. With higher incident laser intensity, the degree of the space charge effect would become higher, and then the negative response would come earlier and show larger amplitude.

  4. Negative affect and neural response to palatable food intake in bulimia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohon, Cara; Stice, Eric

    2012-06-01

    Binge eating is often preceded by reports of negative affect, but the mechanism by which affect may lead to binge eating is unclear. This study evaluated the effect of negative affect on neural response to anticipation and receipt of palatable food in women with bulimia nervosa (BN) versus healthy controls. We also evaluated connectivity between the amygdala and reward-related brain regions. Females with and without BN (n=26) underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during receipt and anticipated receipt of chocolate milkshake and a tasteless solution. We measured negative affect just prior to the scan. Women with BN showed a positive correlation between negative affect and activity in the putamen, caudate, and pallidum during anticipated receipt of milkshake (versus tasteless solution). There were no significant relations between negative affect and receipt of milkshake. Connectivity analyses revealed a greater relation of amygdala activity to activation in the left putamen and insula during anticipated receipt of milkshake in the bulimia group relative to the control group. The opposite pattern was found for the taste of milkshake; the control group showed a greater relation of amygdala activity to activation in the left putamen and insula in response to milkshake receipt than the bulimia group. Results show that as negative affect increases, so does responsivity of reward regions to anticipated intake of palatable food, implying that negative affect may increase the reward value of food for individuals with bulimia nervosa or that negative affect has become a conditioned cue due to a history of binge eating in a negative mood. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Negative Affect and Neural Response to Palatable Food Intake in Bulimia Nervosa

    OpenAIRE

    Bohon, Cara; Stice, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Binge eating is often preceded by reports of negative affect, but the mechanism by which affect may lead to binge eating is unclear. This study evaluated the effect of negative affect on neural response to anticipation and receipt of palatable food in women with bulimia nervosa (BN) versus healthy controls. We also evaluated connectivity between the amygdala and reward-related brain regions. Females with and without BN (N = 26) underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during rec...

  6. Smoking in Response to Negative Mood in Men Versus Women as a Function of Distress Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giedgowd, Grace E.; Karelitz, Joshua L.; Conklin, Cynthia A.; Lerman, Caryn

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Negative mood situations often increase smoking behavior and reward, effects that may be greater among women and smokers low in tolerance for distress. Methods: Adult dependent smokers (N = 164; 86 men, 78 women) first completed measures of distress tolerance via self-report and by mirror-tracing and breath-holding tasks. They then participated in 2 virtually identical laboratory sessions, involving induction of negative versus neutral mood (control) via pictorial slides and music. They rated negative affect (NA) before and during mood induction and smoked their preferred brand ad libitum during the last 14 min of mood induction. Our aim was to examine mood effects on NA, smoking reward (“liking”), and smoking intake (puff volume and number) as a function of sex and distress tolerance. Results: Negative mood induction increased NA, as planned, and smoking reward and intake compared with neutral mood. Increases in NA and puff volume due to negative mood were greater in women compared with men, as hypothesized, but no main effects of the self-report or behavioral distress tolerance measures were seen in responses to mood induction. However, unexpectedly, lower self-reported distress tolerance was associated with greater smoking intake due to negative (but not neutral) mood in men and generally due to neutral (but not negative) mood in women. Conclusions: Negative mood may increase smoking intake more in women compared with men. Yet, low distress tolerance may enhance smoking intake due to negative versus neutral mood differentially between women and men, suggesting that sex and distress tolerance may interact to influence smoking responses to negative mood. PMID:22416115

  7. Negative emotions in cancer care: do oncologists' responses depend on severity and type of emotion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennifer, Sarah L; Alexander, Stewart C; Pollak, Kathryn I; Jeffreys, Amy S; Olsen, Maren K; Rodriguez, Keri L; Arnold, Robert M; Tulsky, James A

    2009-07-01

    To examine how type and severity of patients' negative emotions influence oncologists' responses and subsequent conversations. We analyzed 264 audio-recorded conversations between advanced cancer patients and their oncologists. Conversations were coded for patients' expressions of negative emotion, which were categorized by type of emotion and severity. Oncologists' responses were coded as using either empathic language or blocking and distancing approaches. Patients presented fear more often than anger or sadness; severity of disclosures was most often moderate. Oncologists responded to 35% of these negative emotional disclosures with empathic language. They were most empathic when patients presented intense emotions. Responding empathically to patients' emotional disclosures lengthened discussions by an average of only 21s. Greater response rates to severe emotions suggest oncologists may recognize negative emotions better when patients express them more intensely. Oncologists were least responsive to patient fear and responded with greatest empathy to sadness. Oncologists may benefit from additional training to recognize negative emotions, even when displayed without intensity. Teaching cancer patients to better articulate their emotional concerns may also enhance patient-oncologist communication.

  8. Associations between maternal negative affect and adolescent's neural response to peer evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Z. Tan

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Parenting is often implicated as a potential source of individual differences in youths’ emotional information processing. The present study examined whether parental affect is related to an important aspect of adolescent emotional development, response to peer evaluation. Specifically, we examined relations between maternal negative affect, observed during parent–adolescent discussion of an adolescent-nominated concern with which s/he wants parental support, and adolescent neural responses to peer evaluation in 40 emotionally healthy and depressed adolescents. We focused on a network of ventral brain regions involved in affective processing of social information: the amygdala, anterior insula, nucleus accumbens, and subgenual anterior cingulate, as well as the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex. Maternal negative affect was not associated with adolescent neural response to peer rejection. However, longer durations of maternal negative affect were associated with decreased responsivity to peer acceptance in the amygdala, left anterior insula, subgenual anterior cingulate, and left nucleus accumbens. These findings provide some of the first evidence that maternal negative affect is associated with adolescents’ neural processing of social rewards. Findings also suggest that maternal negative affect could contribute to alterations in affective processing, specifically, dampening the saliency and/or reward of peer interactions during adolescence.

  9. Chemical reaction due to stronger Ramachandran interaction

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The origin of a chemical reaction between two reactant atoms is associated with the activation energy, on the assumption that, high-energy collisions between these atoms, are the ones that overcome the activation energy. Here, we show that a stronger attractive van der Waals (vdW) and electron-ion Coulomb interactions ...

  10. Automatic Change Detection to Facial Expressions in Adolescents: Evidence from Visual Mismatch Negativity Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tongran eLiu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Adolescence is a critical period for the neurodevelopment of social-emotional processing, wherein the automatic detection of changes in facial expressions is crucial for the development of interpersonal communication. Two groups of participants (an adolescent group and an adult group were recruited to complete an emotional oddball task featuring on happy and one fearful condition. The measurement of event-related potential (ERP was carried out via electroencephalography (EEG and electrooculography (EOG recording, to detect visual mismatch negativity (vMMN with regard to the automatic detection of changes in facial expressions between the two age groups. The current findings demonstrated that the adolescent group featured more negative vMMN amplitudes than the adult group in the fronto-central region during the 120-200 ms interval. During the time window of 370-450 ms, only the adult group showed better automatic processing on fearful faces than happy faces. The present study indicated that adolescents posses stronger automatic detection of changes in emotional expression relative to adults, and sheds light on the neurodevelopment of automatic processes concerning social-emotional information.

  11. Control your anger! The neural basis of aggression regulation in response to negative social feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achterberg, Michelle; van Duijvenvoorde, Anna C K; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J; Crone, Eveline A

    2016-05-01

    Negative social feedback often generates aggressive feelings and behavior. Prior studies have investigated the neural basis of negative social feedback, but the underlying neural mechanisms of aggression regulation following negative social feedback remain largely undiscovered. In the current study, participants viewed pictures of peers with feedback (positive, neutral or negative) to the participant's personal profile. Next, participants responded to the peer feedback by pressing a button, thereby producing a loud noise toward the peer, as an index of aggression. Behavioral analyses showed that negative feedback led to more aggression (longer noise blasts). Conjunction neuroimaging analyses revealed that both positive and negative feedback were associated with increased activity in the medial prefrontal cortex (PFC) and bilateral insula. In addition, more activation in the right dorsal lateral PFC (dlPFC) during negative feedback vs neutral feedback was associated with shorter noise blasts in response to negative social feedback, suggesting a potential role of dlPFC in aggression regulation, or top-down control over affective impulsive actions. This study demonstrates a role of the dlPFC in the regulation of aggressive social behavior. © The Author (2016). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. The potential of forgiveness as a response for coping with negative peer experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanagan, Kelly S; Vanden Hoek, Kristin K; Ranter, Jennifer M; Reich, Holly A

    2012-10-01

    Coping strategies employed by adolescents in response to negative peer experiences are related to their adjustment. This study examines the potential of forgiveness as a coping response for negative peer experiences in early adolescence. Participants were 616 6th through 8th grade students at a middle school (46% girls) who completed self-report measures of bullying and victimization experiences, general coping strategies in response to bullying, social anxiety, self-esteem, and a measure of forgiveness to a self-identified experience of being bullied or hurt by a peer. Forgiveness was positively associated with conflict resolution, advice and support seeking strategies, and negatively associated with revenge seeking. Forgiveness was also positively associated with concurrent self-esteem and negatively associated with social anxiety. Further, forgiveness was related to social anxiety and self-esteem after accounting for bullying behavior and victimization experiences, general coping responses, and gender. Developmental considerations of forgiveness and implications for this response are considered. Copyright © 2012 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. All rights reserved.

  13. Temporal response of positive and negative regulators in response to acute and chronic exercise training in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olenich, Sara A; Gutierrez-Reed, Navarre; Audet, Gerald N; Olfert, I Mark

    2013-10-15

    Angiogenesis is controlled by a balance between positive and negative angiogenic factors, but temporal protein expression of many key angiogenic regulators in response to exercise are still poorly defined. In C57BL/6 mice, we evaluated the temporal protein expression of several pro-angiogenic and anti-angiogenic factors in response to (1) a single acute bout of exercise and (2) chronic exercise training resulting from 3, 5, 7, 14 and 28 days of voluntary wheel running. Following acute exercise, protein levels of vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF), endostatin and nucleolin were increased at 2-4 h (P responsiveness of VEGF to exercise in untrained mice (i.e. 161% increase, P angiogenesis is controlled by a balance between positive and negative mitogens, and reveals a complex, highly-coordinated, temporal scheme whereby these factors can differentially influence capillary growth in response to acute versus chronic exercise.

  14. Links between Chinese Mothers' Parental Beliefs and Responses to Children's Expression of Negative Emotions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Siu Mui

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated relations between parental beliefs and mothers' reported responses to their children's negative emotions. Altogether 189 Chinese mothers of children aged six to eight years were interviewed in group sessions using structured questionnaires. It was found that Chinese mothers endorsed Guan, the Chinese parental beliefs. They…

  15. Fear of Failure, Self-Handicapping, and Negative Emotions in Response to Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartels, Jared M.; Herman, William E.

    2011-01-01

    Research suggests that students who fear failure are likely to utilize cognitive strategies such as self-handicapping that serve to perpetuate failure. Such devastating motivational dispositions clearly limit academic success. The present study examined negative emotional responses to scenarios involving academic failure among a sample of…

  16. Relationships among Negative Emotionality, Responsive Parenting and Early Socio-Cognitive Development in Korean Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Kijoo

    2017-01-01

    The present study examined the interplay among negative emotionality, responsive parenting and socio-cognitive developmental outcomes (i.e., communication, personal-social and problem-solving outcomes) in about 1620 Korean children using three waves of longitudinal data spanning the first 2 years of their life. Results from the Structural Equation…

  17. The Implicit Positive and Negative Affect Test : Validity and relationship with cardiovascular stress-responses.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van, der Ploeg M.M.; Brosschot, J.F.; Thayer, J.F.; Verkuil, B.

    2016-01-01

    Self-report, i.e., explicit, measures of affect cannot fully explain the cardiovascular (CV) responses to stressors. Measuring affect beyond self-report, i.e., using implicit measures, could add to our understanding of stress-related CV activity. The Implicit Positive and Negative Affect Test

  18. Negative affectivity in cardiovascular disease: Evaluating Type D personality assessment using item response theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emons, Wilco H.M.; Meijer, R.R.; Denollet, Johan

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Individuals with increased levels of both negative affectivity (NA) and social inhibition (SI)—referred to as type-D personality—are at increased risk of adverse cardiac events. We used item response theory (IRT) to evaluate NA, SI, and type-D personality as measured by the DS14. The

  19. Negatively-charged air conditions and responses of the human psycho-neuro-endocrino-immune network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Kazuaki; Otsuki, Takemi; Mase, Akinori; Kawado, Takashi; Kotani, Muneo; Ami, Kazuhisa; Matsushima, Hiroki; Nishimura, Yasumitsu; Miura, Yoshie; Murakami, Shuko; Maeda, Megumi; Hayashi, Hiroaki; Kumagai, Naoko; Shirahama, Takashi; Yoshimatsu, Michiharu; Morimoto, Kanehisa

    2008-08-01

    Against increasing environmental adverse effects on human health such as those associated with water and ground pollution, as well as out- and indoor air conditions, trials were conducted to support and promote human health by improving the indoor air atmosphere. This study was performed to estimate the effect of negatively-charged air conditions on human biological markers related to the psycho-neuro-endocrino-immune (PNEI) network. After construction of negatively-charged experimental rooms (NCRs), healthy volunteers were admitted to these rooms and control rooms (CTRs) and various biological responses were analyzed. NCRs were constructed using a fine charcoal coating and applying an electric voltage (72 V) between the backside of walls and the ground. Various biological markers were monitored that related to general conditions, autonomic nervous systems, stress markers, immunological parameters and blood flow. Regarding the indoor environment, only negatively-charged air resulted in the difference between the CTR and NCR groups. The well-controlled experimental model-room to examine the biological effects of negatively-charged air was therefore established. Among the various parameters, IL-2, IL-4, the mean RR interval of the heart rate, and blood viscosity differed significantly between the CTR and NCR groups. In addition, the following formula was used to detect NCR-biological responses: Biological Response Value (BRV)=0.498+0.0005 [salivary cortisol]+0.072 [IL-2]+0.003 [HRM-SD]-0.013 [blood viscosity]-0.009 [blood sugar]+0.017 [pulse rate]. Negatively-charged air conditions activated the immune system slightly, smoothened blood flow and stabilized the autonomic nervous system. Although this is the first report to analyze negatively-charged air conditions on human biological responses, the long-term effects should be analyzed for the general use of these artificial atmospheres.

  20. Extracting Response Style Bias From Measures of Positive and Negative Affect in Aging Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Stefan

    2017-12-15

    This study investigated the role of response style biases in the assessment of positive and negative affect in aging research; it addressed whether response styles (a) are associated with age-related changes in cognitive abilities, (b) lead to distorted conclusions about age differences in affect, and (c) reduce the convergent and predictive validity of affect measures in relation to health outcomes. A multidimensional item response theory model was used to extract response styles from affect ratings provided by respondents to the psychosocial questionnaire (n = 6,295; aged 50-100 years) in the Health and Retirement Study (HRS). The likelihood of extreme response styles (disproportionate use of "not at all" and "very much" response categories) increased significantly with age, and this effect was mediated by age-related decreases in HRS cognitive test scores. Removing response styles from affect measures did not alter age patterns in positive and negative affect; however, it consistently enhanced the convergent validity (relationships with concurrent depression and mental health problems) and predictive validity (prospective relationships with hospital visits, physical illness onset) of the affect measures. The results support the importance of detecting and controlling response styles when studying self-reported affect in aging research. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Neural - hormonal responses to negative affective stimuli: Impact of dysphoric mood and sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mareckova, K; Holsen, L; Admon, R; Whitfield-Gabrieli, S; Seidman, L J; Buka, S L; Klibanski, A; Goldstein, J M

    2017-11-01

    Maladaptive responses to negative affective stimuli are pervasive, including clinically ill and healthy people, and men and women respond differently at neural and hormonal levels. Inspired by the Research Domain Criteria initiative, we used a transdiagnostic approach to investigate the impact of sex and dysphoric mood on neural-hormonal responses to negative affective stimuli. Participants included 99 individuals with major depressive disorder, psychosis and healthy controls. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was complemented with real-time acquisition of hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) and -gonadal (HPG) hormones. fMRI data were analyzed in SPM8 and task-related connectivity was assessed using generalized psychophysiological interaction. Across all participants, elevated cortisol response predicted lower brain activity in orbitofrontal cortex and hypothalamus-amygdala connectivity. In those with worse dysphoric mood, elevated cortisol response predicted lower activity in hypothalamus and hippocampus. In women, elevated cortisol response was associated with lower activity in medial prefrontal cortex and low hypothalamo-hippocampal connectivity. In women with high dysphoric mood, elevated cortisol response was associated with low hypothalamo-hippocampal connectivity. There were no interactions with diagnosis or medication. There was limited power to correct for multiple comparisons across total number of ROIs and connectivity targets; cortisol responses were relatively low. We conclude that the pathophysiology in neural-hormonal responses to negative affective stimuli is shared across healthy and clinical populations and varies as a function of sex and dysphoric mood. Our findings may contribute to the development of hormonal adjunctive therapeutics that are sex-dependent, underscoring the importance of one's sex to precision medicine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Amygdala response to negative stimuli predicts PTSD symptom onset following a terrorist attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Katie A; Busso, Daniel S; Duys, Andrea; Green, Jennifer Greif; Alves, Sonia; Way, Marcus; Sheridan, Margaret A

    2014-10-01

    Individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) exhibit heightened amygdala reactivity and atypical activation patterns in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) in response to negative emotional information. It is unknown whether these aspects of neural function are risk factors for PTSD or consequences of either trauma exposure or onset of the disorder. We had a unique opportunity to investigate this issue following the terrorist attacks at the 2013 Boston Marathon and the ensuing manhunt and shelter in place order. We examined associations of neural function measured prior to the attack with PTSD symptom onset related to these events. A sample of 15 adolescents (mean age = 16.5 years) who previously participated in a neuroimaging study completed a survey assessing posttraumatic symptoms related to the terrorist attack. We examined blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) response to viewing and actively down-regulating emotional responses to negative stimuli in regions previously associated with PTSD, including the amygdala, hippocampus, and mPFC, as prospective predictors of posttraumatic symptom onset. Increased BOLD signal to negative emotional stimuli in the left amygdala was strongly associated with posttraumatic symptoms following the attack. Reduced bilateral hippocampal activation during effortful attempts to down-regulate emotional responses to negative stimuli was also associated with greater posttraumatic symptoms. Associations of amygdala reactivity with posttraumatic symptoms were robust to controls for pre-existing depression, anxiety, and PTSD symptoms and prior exposure to violence. Amygdala reactivity to negative emotional information might represent a neurobiological marker of vulnerability to traumatic stress and, potentially, a risk factor for PTSD. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Amygdala Response to Negative Stimuli Predicts PTSD Symptom Onset following a Terrorist Attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Katie A.; Busso, Daniel S.; Duys, Andrea; Green, Jennifer Greif; Alves, Sonia; Way, Marcus; Sheridan, Margaret A.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Individuals with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) exhibit heightened amygdala reactivity and atypical activation patterns in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) in response to negative emotional information. It is unknown whether these aspects of neural function are risk factors for PTSD or consequences of either trauma exposure or onset of the disorder. We had a unique opportunity to investigate this issue following the terrorist attacks at the 2013 Boston Marathon and the ensuing manhunt and shelter in place order. We examined associations of neural function measured prior to the attack with PTSD symptom onset related to these events. METHODS A sample of 15 adolescents (mean age=16.5 years) who previously participated in a neuroimaging study completed a survey assessing posttraumatic symptoms related to the terrorist attack. We examined blood oxygen-level dependent (BOLD) response to viewing and actively down-regulating emotional responses to negative stimuli in regions previously associated with PTSD, including the amygdala, hippocampus, and mPFC, as prospective predictors of posttraumatic symptom onset. RESULTS Increased BOLD signal to negative emotional stimuli in the left amygdala was strongly associated with posttraumatic symptoms following the attack. Reduced bilateral hippocampal activation during effortful attempts to down-regulate emotional responses to negative stimuli was also associated with greater posttraumatic symptoms. Associations of amygdala reactivity with posttraumatic symptoms were robust to controls for pre-existing depression, anxiety, and PTSD symptoms and prior exposure to violence. CONCLUSIONS Amygdala reactivity to negative emotional information might represent a neurobiological marker of vulnerability to traumatic stress and, potentially, a risk factor for PTSD. PMID:24995938

  4. The negative acute phase response of serum transthyretin following Streptococcus suis infection in the pig

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campbell, F.M.; Waterston, M.; Andresen, Lars Ole

    2005-01-01

    was developed using anti-human TTR antibodies which cross reacted with porcine TTR. The assay had a detection limit of 32 mu g/mL while the mean concentration of transthyretin measured in healthy pig serum was 302 +/- 8 mu g/mL ( n = 63). There was no significant difference in the serum concentration of TTR......Transthyretin (TTR) is a serum protein which is a negative acute phase reactant in humans and levels of TTR are routinely measured as an indicator of health status. Such tests have yet to be established for the pig. In order to measure serum TTR in the pig during an acute phase response an assay...... in three different age groups from 10 to 25 weeks. Following Streptococcus suis type 2 infection transthyretin showed a negative acute phase response with serum concentrations reaching a significantly lower level at two days following infection....

  5. Quorum-Sensing Signal-Response Systems in Gram-Negative Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papenfort, Kai; Bassler, Bonnie

    2016-01-01

    Abstract / Preface Bacteria use quorum sensing to orchestrate gene expression programmes that underlie collective behaviours. Quorum sensing relies on the production, release, detection and group-level response to extracellular signalling molecules, which are called autoinducers. Recent work has discovered new autoinducers in Gram-negative bacteria, shown how these molecules are recognized by cognate receptors, revealed new regulatory components that are embedded in canonical signalling circuits and identified novel regulatory network designs. In this Review we examine how, together, these features of quorum sensing signal–response systems combine to control collective behaviours in Gram-negative bacteria and we discuss the implications for host–microbial associations and antibacterial therapy. PMID:27510864

  6. Adaptive response and genomic instability: allosteric response of genome to negative impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Masao S.

    2010-01-01

    Currently, there is an upsurge concern on the unique response of living cells to low dose ionizing radiation for its inconformity to the existing paradigm of the biological action of radiation and its impact on the current understanding of risk evaluation of health effect of radiation in our workplace and environment. For the allosteric response to have significance, the cells must have an excellent sensing mechanism to discriminate tolerable and intolerable signals. In a series of experiments with mammalian, including human, cells, we demonstrated a novel sensing and signaling mechanism in the low-dose irradiated cells that was mediated by a PKCα-p3BMAPK-PLCδ1 feedback regulatory loop. Upon irradiation, PKCα is immediately activated, which in turn activate p38MAPK. The activation of p38MAPK is feedbacked to the activation of PKCα via PLCδ1, which catalyzes the hydrolysis of PtdInsP2 to generate PKCα-directed second messengers DAG and lnsP3. At low doses, the PKCα and p38MAPK continue to be activated for long time through this feedback loop, but when the cells encounter the high dose (>10 cGy or equivalent), the feedback loop is immediately comes to shutdown by deprivation of PKCα protein, known as down-regulation of PKC signaling. Thus, PKCα plays a key role in the long lasting nature of adaptive response to low doses and a binary switch to the genomic instability by too much signals. Tumor suppressor protein, p53, is a downstream effecter

  7. Cardiovascular regulatory response to lower body negative pressure following blood volume loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, M.; Ghista, D. N.; Sandler, H.

    1979-01-01

    An attempt is made to explain the cardiovascular regulatory responses to lower body negative pressure (LBNP) stress, both in the absence of and following blood or plasma volume loss, the latter being factors regularly observed with short- or long-term recumbency or weightlessness and associated with resulting cardiovascular deconditioning. Analytical expressions are derived for the responses of mean venous pressure and blood volume pooled in the lower body due to LBNP. An analysis is presented for determining the HR change due to LBNP stress following blood volume loss. It is concluded that the reduced orthostatic tolerance following long-term space flight or recumbency can be mainly attributed to blood volume loss, and that the associated cardiovascular responses characterizing this orthostatic intolerance is elicited by the associated central venous pressure response.

  8. Negative regulation of defense responses in plants by a conserved MAPKK kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frye, C A; Tang, D; Innes, R W

    2001-01-02

    The enhanced disease resistance 1 (edr1) mutation of Arabidopsis confers resistance to powdery mildew disease caused by the fungus Erysiphe cichoracearum. Resistance mediated by the edr1 mutation is correlated with induction of several defense responses, including host cell death. Double mutant analysis revealed that all edr1-associated phenotypes are suppressed by mutations that block salicylic acid (SA) perception (nim1) or reduce SA production (pad4 and eds1). The NahG transgene, which lowers endogenous SA levels, also suppressed edr1. In contrast, the ein2 mutation did not suppress edr1-mediated resistance and associated phenotypes, indicating that ethylene and jasmonic acid-induced responses are not required for edr1 resistance. The EDR1 gene was isolated by positional cloning and was found to encode a putative MAP kinase kinase kinase similar to CTR1, a negative regulator of ethylene responses in Arabidopsis. Taken together, these data suggest that EDR1 functions at the top of a MAP kinase cascade that negatively regulates SA-inducible defense responses. Putative orthologs of EDR1 are present in monocots such as rice and barley, indicating that EDR1 may regulate defense responses in a wide range of crop species.

  9. LHC Season 2: A stronger machine

    CERN Multimedia

    Dominguez, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    1) New magnets / De nouveaux aimants 2) Stronger connections / Des jonctions électriques renforcées 3) Safer magnets / Des aimants plus sûrs 4) Higher energy beams / Des faisceaux d’énergie plus élevée 5) Narrower beams / Des faisceaux plus serrés 6) Smaller but closer proton packets / Des groupes de protons plus petits mais plus rapprochés 7) Higher voltage / Une tension plus haute 8) Superior cryogenics / Un système cryogénique amélioré 9) Radiation-resistant electronics / Une électronique qui résiste aux radiations 10) More secure vacuum / Un vide plus sûr

  10. Pulmonary and systemic inflammatory responses in rabbits with gram-negative pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox-Dewhurst, R; Alberts, M K; Kajikawa, O; Caldwell, E; Johnson, M C; Skerrett, S J; Goodman, R B; Ruzinski, J T; Wong, V A; Chi, E Y; Martin, T R

    1997-06-01

    The major goals of this study were to define the relationships between intrapulmonary and systemic inflammatory responses in animals with gram-negative pneumonia. We treated rabbits with intrapulmonary Escherichia coli (1 x 10(7) to 1 x 10(10) cfu/ml), and then measured physiologic, cellular, and molecular events in the lungs and systemic circulation for 24 h. The treatment protocols resulted in groups of animals that mimicked the stages of the septic inflammatory response in humans. Animals treated with low inocula had systemic changes consistent with systemic inflammatory response syndrome and cleared the bacteria and inflammatory products from the lungs. Animals treated with high inocula failed to clear bacteria from the lungs, had severe intrapulmonary inflammatory responses, and developed septic shock. Intrapulmonary leukocyte recruitment was directly related to the size of the bacterial inoculum, but lung protein accumulation was not. Tumor neurosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin-8 (IL-8), and GRO were detectable in lung lavage fluid at 4 h and declined by 24 h in animals that cleared intrapulmonary E. coli. In contrast, lavage TNF-alpha, IL-8, and GRO increased over 24 h in animals that failed to clear intrapulmonary bacteria. MCP-1 increased between 4 h and 24 h in the lungs of all of the animals as the histologic response evolved from neutrophilic to mononuclear cell predominance. Thus, the intensity of systemic inflammatory and physiologic responses to intrapulmonary gram-negative infection depends on the inoculum size and whether the bacteria are cleared from or proliferate in the lungs. The results provide experimental support for the recently proposed classification of septic responses in humans.

  11. Pupillary Response to Negative Emotional Stimuli Is Differentially Affected in Meditation Practitioners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Vasquez-Rosati

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Clinically, meditative practices have become increasingly relevant, decreasing anxiety in patients and increasing antibody production. However, few studies have examined the physiological correlates, or effects of the incorporation of meditative practices. Because pupillary reactivity is a marker for autonomic changes and emotional processing, we hypothesized that the pupillary responses of mindfulness meditation practitioners (MP and subjects without such practices (non-meditators (NM differ, reflecting different emotional processing. In a group of 11 MP and 9 NM, we recorded the pupil diameter using video-oculography while subjects explored images with emotional contents. Although both groups showed a similar pupillary response for positive and neutral images, negative images evoked a greater pupillary contraction and a weaker dilation in the MP group. Also, this group had faster physiological recovery to baseline levels. These results suggest that mindfulness meditation practices modulate the response of the autonomic nervous system, reflected in the pupillary response to negative images and faster physiological recovery to baseline levels, suggesting that pupillometry could be used to assess the potential health benefits of these practices in patients.

  12. Amygdala and fusiform gyrus temporal dynamics: Responses to negative facial expressions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rauch Scott L

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The amygdala habituates in response to repeated human facial expressions; however, it is unclear whether this brain region habituates to schematic faces (i.e., simple line drawings or caricatures of faces. Using an fMRI block design, 16 healthy participants passively viewed repeated presentations of schematic and human neutral and negative facial expressions. Percent signal changes within anatomic regions-of-interest (amygdala and fusiform gyrus were calculated to examine the temporal dynamics of neural response and any response differences based on face type. Results The amygdala and fusiform gyrus had a within-run "U" response pattern of activity to facial expression blocks. The initial block within each run elicited the greatest activation (relative to baseline and the final block elicited greater activation than the preceding block. No significant differences between schematic and human faces were detected in the amygdala or fusiform gyrus. Conclusion The "U" pattern of response in the amygdala and fusiform gyrus to facial expressions suggests an initial orienting, habituation, and activation recovery in these regions. Furthermore, this study is the first to directly compare brain responses to schematic and human facial expressions, and the similarity in brain responses suggest that schematic faces may be useful in studying amygdala activation.

  13. CBL-interacting protein kinase 6 negatively regulates immune response to Pseudomonas syringae in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardar, Atish; Nandi, Ashis Kumar; Chattopadhyay, Debasis

    2017-06-15

    Cytosolic calcium ion (Ca2+) is an essential mediator of the plant innate immune response. Here, we report that a calcium-regulated protein kinase Calcineurin B-like protein (CBL)-interacting protein kinase 6 (CIPK6) functions as a negative regulator of immunity against the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae in Arabidopsis thaliana. Arabidopsis lines with compromised expression of CIPK6 exhibited enhanced disease resistance to the bacterial pathogen and to P. syringae harboring certain but not all avirulent effectors, while restoration of CIPK6 expression resulted in abolition of resistance. Plants overexpressing CIPK6 were more susceptible to P. syringae. Enhanced resistance in the absence of CIPK6 was accompanied by increased accumulation of salicylic acid and elevated expression of defense marker genes. Salicylic acid accumulation was essential for improved immunity in the absence of CIPK6. CIPK6 negatively regulated the oxidative burst associated with perception of pathogen-associated microbial patterns (PAMPs) and bacterial effectors. Accelerated and enhanced activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade in response to bacterial and fungal elicitors was observed in the absence of CIPK6. The results of this study suggested that CIPK6 negatively regulates effector-triggered and PAMP-triggered immunity in Arabidopsis. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  14. Climate Response to Negative Greenhouse Gas Radiative Forcing in Polar Winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanner, M. G.; Huang, X.; Chen, X.; Krinner, G.

    2018-02-01

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) additions to Earth's atmosphere initially reduce global outgoing longwave radiation, thereby warming the planet. In select environments with temperature inversions, however, increased GHG concentrations can actually increase local outgoing longwave radiation. Negative top of atmosphere and effective radiative forcing (ERF) from this situation give the impression that local surface temperatures could cool in response to GHG increases. Here we consider an extreme scenario in which GHG concentrations are increased only within the warmest layers of winter near-surface inversions of the Arctic and Antarctic. We find, using a fully coupled Earth system model, that the underlying surface warms despite the GHG addition exerting negative ERF and cooling the troposphere in the vicinity of the GHG increase. This unique radiative forcing and thermal response is facilitated by the high stability of the polar winter atmosphere, which inhibit thermal mixing and amplify the impact of surface radiative forcing on surface temperature. These findings also suggest that strategies to exploit negative ERF via injections of short-lived GHGs into inversion layers would likely be unsuccessful in cooling the planetary surface.

  15. The Arabidopsis GAI gene defines a signaling pathway that negatively regulates gibberellin responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, J; Carol, P; Richards, D E; King, K E; Cowling, R J; Murphy, G P; Harberd, N P

    1997-12-01

    The Arabidopsis gai mutant allele confers a reduction in gibberellin (GA) responsiveness. Here we report the molecular cloning of GAI and a closely related gene GRS. The predicted GAI (wild-type) and gai (mutant) proteins differ only by the deletion of a 17-amino-acid segment from within the amino-terminal region. GAI and GRS contain nuclear localization signals, a region of homology to a putative transcription factor, and motifs characteristic of transcriptional coactivators. Genetic analysis indicates that GAI is a repressor of GA responses, that GA can release this repression, and that gai is a mutant repressor that is relatively resistant to the effects of GA. Mutations at SPY and GAR2 suppress the gai phenotype, indicating the involvement of GAI, SPY, and GAR2 in a signaling pathway that regulates GA responses negatively. The existence of this pathway suggests that GA modulates plant growth through derepression rather than through simple stimulation.

  16. Is Polar Amplification Deeper and Stronger than Dynamicists Assume?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheff, J.; Maroon, E.

    2017-12-01

    In the CMIP multi-model mean under strong future warming, Arctic amplification is confined to the lower troposphere, so that the meridional gradient of warming reverses around 500 mb and the upper troposphere is characterized by strong "tropical amplification" in which warming weakens with increasing latitude. This model-derived pattern of warming maxima in the upper-level tropics and lower-level Arctic has become a canonical assumption driving theories of the large-scale circulation response to climate change. Yet, several lines of evidence and reasoning suggest that Arctic amplification may in fact extend through the entire depth of the troposphere, and/or may be stronger than commonly modeled. These include satellite Microwave Sounding Unit (MSU) temperature trends as a function of latitude and vertical level, the recent discovery that the extratropical negative cloud phase feedback in models is largely spurious, and the very strong polar amplification observed in past warm and lukewarm climates. Such a warming pattern, with deep, dominant Arctic amplification, would have very different implications for the circulation than a canonical CMIP-like warming: instead of slightly shifting poleward and strengthening, eddies, jets and cells might shift equatorward and considerably weaken. Indeed, surface winds have been mysteriously weakening ("stilling") at almost all stations over the last half-century or so, there has been no poleward shift in northern hemisphere circulation metrics, and past warm climates' subtropics were apparently quite wet (and their global ocean circulations were weak.) To explore these possibilities more deeply, we examine the y-z structure of warming and circulation changes across a much broader range of models, scenarios and time periods than the CMIP future mean, and use an MSU simulator to compare them to the satellite warming record. Specifically, we examine whether the use of historical (rather than future) forcing, AMIP (rather than CMIP

  17. Preliminary Validation of a New Measure of Negative Response Bias: The Temporal Memory Sequence Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegedish, Omer; Kivilis, Naama; Hoofien, Dan

    2015-01-01

    The Temporal Memory Sequence Test (TMST) is a new measure of negative response bias (NRB) that was developed to enrich the forced-choice paradigm. The TMST does not resemble the common structure of forced-choice tests and is presented as a temporal recall memory test. The validation sample consisted of 81 participants: 21 healthy control participants, 20 coached simulators, and 40 patients with acquired brain injury (ABI). The TMST had high reliability and significantly high positive correlations with the Test of Memory Malingering and Word Memory Test effort scales. Moreover, the TMST effort scales exhibited high negative correlations with the Glasgow Coma Scale, thus validating the previously reported association between probable malingering and mild traumatic brain injury. A suggested cutoff score yielded acceptable classification rates in the ABI group as well as in the simulator and control groups. The TMST appears to be a promising measure of NRB detection, with respectable rates of reliability and construct and criterion validity.

  18. A negative relationship between ventral striatal loss anticipation response and impulsivity in borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbort, Maike C; Soch, Joram; Wüstenberg, Torsten; Krauel, Kerstin; Pujara, Maia; Koenigs, Michael; Gallinat, Jürgen; Walter, Henrik; Roepke, Stefan; Schott, Björn H

    2016-01-01

    Patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD) frequently exhibit impulsive behavior, and self-reported impulsivity is typically higher in BPD patients when compared to healthy controls. Previous functional neuroimaging studies have suggested a link between impulsivity, the ventral striatal response to reward anticipation, and prediction errors. Here we investigated the striatal neural response to monetary gain and loss anticipation and their relationship with impulsivity in 21 female BPD patients and 23 age-matched female healthy controls using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Participants performed a delayed monetary incentive task in which three categories of objects predicted a potential gain, loss, or neutral outcome. Impulsivity was assessed using the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11). Compared to healthy controls, BPD patients exhibited significantly reduced fMRI responses of the ventral striatum/nucleus accumbens (VS/NAcc) to both reward-predicting and loss-predicting cues. BIS-11 scores showed a significant positive correlation with the VS/NAcc reward anticipation responses in healthy controls, and this correlation, while also nominally positive, failed to reach significance in BPD patients. BPD patients, on the other hand, exhibited a significantly negative correlation between ventral striatal loss anticipation responses and BIS-11 scores, whereas this correlation was significantly positive in healthy controls. Our results suggest that patients with BPD show attenuated anticipation responses in the VS/NAcc and, furthermore, that higher impulsivity in BPD patients might be related to impaired prediction of aversive outcomes.

  19. A negative relationship between ventral striatal loss anticipation response and impulsivity in borderline personality disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maike C. Herbort

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD frequently exhibit impulsive behavior, and self-reported impulsivity is typically higher in BPD patients when compared to healthy controls. Previous functional neuroimaging studies have suggested a link between impulsivity, the ventral striatal response to reward anticipation, and prediction errors. Here we investigated the striatal neural response to monetary gain and loss anticipation and their relationship with impulsivity in 21 female BPD patients and 23 age-matched female healthy controls using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. Participants performed a delayed monetary incentive task in which three categories of objects predicted a potential gain, loss, or neutral outcome. Impulsivity was assessed using the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11. Compared to healthy controls, BPD patients exhibited significantly reduced fMRI responses of the ventral striatum/nucleus accumbens (VS/NAcc to both reward-predicting and loss-predicting cues. BIS-11 scores showed a significant positive correlation with the VS/NAcc reward anticipation responses in healthy controls, and this correlation, while also nominally positive, failed to reach significance in BPD patients. BPD patients, on the other hand, exhibited a significantly negative correlation between ventral striatal loss anticipation responses and BIS-11 scores, whereas this correlation was significantly positive in healthy controls. Our results suggest that patients with BPD show attenuated anticipation responses in the VS/NAcc and, furthermore, that higher impulsivity in BPD patients might be related to impaired prediction of aversive outcomes.

  20. Shame, Catastrophizing, and Negative Partner Responses Are Associated With Lower Sexual and Relationship Satisfaction and More Negative Affect in Men With Peyronie's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Seth; Ferrar, Saskia; Sadikaj, Gentiana; Binik, Yitzchak; Carrier, Serge

    2017-04-03

    Peyronie's disease (PD) has a negative impact on men's sexual functioning and quality of life, but little is known about why some men cope better than others and what the effects of PD are on their relationships. The aims of the present study were to describe negative affect, pain, and relationship and sexual satisfaction in men with PD, and to explore their psychosocial correlates. Participants were 110 men diagnosed with PD. All men completed questionnaires. The main outcome measures were as follows: Global Measure of Sexual Satisfaction, Dyadic Adjustment Scale, McGill Pain Questionnaire, and Negative Affect Scale. The predictor variables were the following: Experience of Shame Scale, Body Esteem Scale, Body Image Self-Consciousness Scale, Index of Male Genital Image, a modified Pain Catastrophizing Scale, and a modified Multidimensional Pain Inventory. Although men with PD had mean sexual/relationship satisfaction and negative affect scores indicating mild impairment, there was a wide range of variation, with 42% to 52% scoring in the clinical range. Catastrophizing was significantly associated with reduced sexual satisfaction and increased negative affect and pain. Shame was also associated with increased negative affect. The significant associations of relationship satisfaction were partner responses and shame. Given the lack of curative treatment in PD, understanding why some men cope better than others may guide therapy. Shame, catastrophizing, and partner responses may be important therapeutic targets.

  1. A non-linear association between self-reported negative emotional response to stress and subsequent allostatic load

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dich, Nadya; Doan, Stacey N; Kivimäki, Mika

    2014-01-01

    cardiovascular, metabolic and immune function biomarkers at three clinical follow-up examinations. A non-linear association between negative emotional response and allostatic load was observed: being at either extreme end of the distribution of negative emotional response increased the risk of physiological...

  2. Effect of hindlimb suspension on cardiovascular responses to sympathomimetics and lower body negative pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overton, J. Michael; Tipton, Charles M.

    1990-01-01

    To determine whether hindlimb suspension is associated with the development of cardiovascular deconditioning, male rats were studied before and after undergoing one of three treatment conditions for 9 days: (1) cage control (n = 15, CON), (2) horizontal suspension (n = 15, HOZ), and (3) head-down suspension (n = 18, HDS). Testing included lower body negative pressure administered during chloralose-urethan anesthesia and graded doses of sympathomimetic agents (norepinephrine, phenylephrine, and tyramine) administered to conscious unrestrained animals. Both HDS and HOZ were associated with a small decrease in the hypotensive response to lower body negative pressure. The HOZ group, but not the HDS group, exhibited augmented reflex tachycardia. Furthermore, both HDS and HOZ groups manifested reduced pressor responses to phenylephrine after treatment. These reductions were associated with significantly attenuated increases in mesenteric vascular resistance. However, baroreflex control of heart rate was not altered by the treatment conditions. Collectively, these results indicate that 9 days of HDS in rats does not elicit hemodynamic response patterns generally associated with cardiovascular deconditioning induced by hypogravic conditions.

  3. Endoglin negatively regulates transforming growth factor beta1-induced profibrotic responses in intestinal fibroblasts.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Burke, J P

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Fibroblasts isolated from strictures in Crohn\\'s disease (CD) exhibit reduced responsiveness to stimulation with transforming growth factor (TGF) beta1. TGF-beta1, acting through the smad pathway, is critical to fibroblast-mediated intestinal fibrosis. The membrane glycoprotein, endoglin, is a negative regulator of TGF-beta1. METHODS: Intestinal fibroblasts were cultured from seromuscular biopsies of patients undergoing intestinal resection for CD strictures or from control patients. Endoglin expression was assessed using confocal microscopy, flow cytometry and western blot. The effect of small interfering (si) RNA-mediated knockdown and plasmid-mediated overexpression of endoglin on fibroblast responsiveness to TGF-beta1 was assessed by examining smad phosphorylation, smad binding element (SBE) promoter activity, connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) expression and ability to contract collagen. RESULTS: Crohn\\'s stricture fibroblasts expressed increased constitutive cell-surface and whole-cell endoglin relative to control cells. Endoglin co-localized with filamentous actin. Fibroblasts treated with siRNA directed against endoglin exhibited enhanced TGF-beta1-mediated smad-3 phosphorylation, and collagen contraction. Cells transfected with an endoglin plasmid did not respond to TGF-beta1 by exhibiting SBE promoter activity or producing CTGF. CONCLUSION: Fibroblasts from strictures in CD express increased constitutive endoglin. Endoglin is a negative regulator of TGF-beta1 signalling in the intestinal fibroblast, modulating smad-3 phosphorylation, SBE promoter activity, CTGF production and collagen contraction.

  4. (When) Do Stronger Patents Increase Continual Innovation?

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Yongmin; Pan, Shiyuan; Zhang, Tianle

    2012-01-01

    Under continual innovation, greater patent strength expands innovating firms’ profit against imitation, but also shifts profit from current to past innovators. We show how the impact of patents on innovation, as determined by these two opposing effects, varies with industry characteristics. When the discount factor is sufficiently high, the negative profit division effect is negligible, and innovation monotonically increases in patent strength; otherwise, innovation has an inverted-U relation...

  5. States agree on stronger physical protection regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Delegates from 89 countries agreed on 8 July to fundamental changes that will substantially strengthen the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material (CPPNM). IAEA Director General Mohamed ElBaradei welcomed the agreement in saying 'This new and stronger treaty is an important step towards greater nuclear security by combating, preventing, and ultimately punishing those who would engage in nuclear theft, sabotage or even terrorism. It demonstrates that there is indeed a global commitment to remedy weaknesses in our nuclear security regime.' The amended CPPNM makes it legally binding for States Parties to protect nuclear facilities and material in peaceful domestic use, storage as well as transport. It will also provide for expanded cooperation between and among States regarding rapid measures to locate and recover stolen or smuggled nuclear material, mitigate any radiological consequences of sabotage, and prevent and combat related offences. The original CPPNM applied only to nuclear material in international transport. Conference President Dr. Alec Baer said 'All 89 delegations demonstrated real unity of purpose. They put aside some very genuine national concerns in favour of the global interest and the result is a much improved convention that is better suited to addressing the nuclear security challenges we currently face.' The new rules will come into effect once they have been ratified by two-thirds of the 112 States Parties of the Convention, expected to take several years. 'But concrete actions are already taking place around the world. For more than 3 years, the IAEA has been implementing a systematic Nuclear Security plan, including physical protection activities designed to prevent, detect and respond to malicious acts,' said Anita Nillson, Director of the IAEA's Office of Nuclear Security. The Agency's Nuclear Security Fund, set up after the events of 9/11, has delivered $19.5 million in practical assistance to 121 countries

  6. Mothers’ amygdala response to positive or negative infant affect is modulated by personal relevance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lane eStrathearn

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Understanding, prioritizing and responding to infant affective cues is a key component of motherhood, with long-term implications for infant socio-emotional development. This important task includes identifying unique characteristics of one’s own infant, as they relate to differences in affect valence—happy or sad—while monitoring one’s own level of arousal. The amygdala has traditionally been understood to respond to affective valence; in the present study, we examined the potential effect of personal relevance on amygdala response, by testing whether mothers’ amygdala response to happy and sad infant face cues would be modulated by infant identity. We used functional MRI to measure amygdala activation in 39 first-time mothers, while they viewed happy, neutral and sad infant faces of both their own and a matched unknown infant. Emotional arousal to each face was rated using the Self Assessment Manikin Scales. Mixed-effects linear regression models were used to examine significant predictors of amygdala response. Overall, both arousal ratings and amygdala activation were greater when mothers viewed their own infant’s face compared with unknown infant faces. Sad faces were rated as more arousing than happy faces, regardless of infant identity. However, within the amygdala, a highly significant interaction effect was noted between infant identity and valence. For own-infant faces, amygdala activation was greater for happy than sad faces, whereas the opposite trend was seen for unknown-infant faces. Our findings suggest that the amygdala response to positive and negative valenced cues is modulated by personal relevance. Positive facial expressions from one’s own infant may play a particularly important role in eliciting maternal responses and strengthening the mother-infant bond.

  7. Cardiovascular regulation in humans in response to oscillatory lower body negative pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levenhagen, D. K.; Evans, J. M.; Wang, M.; Knapp, C. F.

    1994-01-01

    The frequency response characteristics of human cardiovascular regulation during hypotensive stress have not been determined. We therefore exposed 10 male volunteers to seven frequencies (0.004-0.1 Hz) of oscillatory lower body negative pressure (OLBNP; 0-50 mmHg). Fourier spectra of arterial pressure (AP), central venous pressure (CVP), stroke volume (SV), cardiac output (CO), heart rate (HR), and total peripheral resistance (TPR) were determined and first harmonic mean, amplitude, and phase angles with respect to OLBNP are presented. AP was relatively well regulated as demonstrated by small oscillations in half amplitude (3.5 mmHg) that were independent of OLBNP frequency and similar to unstressed control spectra. Due to the biomechanics of the system, the magnitudes of oscillations in calf circumference (CC) and CVP decreased with increasing frequency; therefore, we normalized responses by these indexes of the fluid volume shifted. The ratios of oscillations in AP to oscillations in CC increased by an order of magnitude, whereas oscillations in CVP to oscillations in CC and oscillations in AP to oscillations in CVP both tripled between 0.004 and 0.1 Hz. Therefore, even though the amount of fluid shifted by OLBNP decreased with increasing frequency, the magnitude of both CVP and AP oscillations per volume of fluid shifted increased (peaking at 0.08 Hz). The phase relationships between variables, particularly the increasing lags in SV and TPR, but not CVP, indicated that efferent responses with lags of 5-6 s could account for the observed responses. We conclude that, at frequencies below 0.02 Hz, the neural system of humans functioned optimally in regulating AP; OLBNP-induced decreases in SV (by as much as 50%) were counteracted by appropriate oscillations in HR and TPR responses. As OLBNP frequency increased, SV, TPR, and HR oscillations increasingly lagged the input and became less optimally timed for AP regulation.

  8. Negative temporal summation of the responses to pairs of tone bursts in albino mice inferior colliculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibikov, Nikolay G.; Cai, Chen Qi; Jie, Tang

    2003-10-01

    The extracellular activities of single units in an inferior colliculus of narcotized albino mice have been studied. As a stimuli pairs of best frequency (BF) tone bursts with different duration have been used and forward masking has been studied. The test tone usually has a 40 ms duration at intensity 5 dB above threshold. The intensity and duration of the masker could be changed. It was shown that the forward masking essentially depends upon the duration of the first burst. In many cases, the negative temporal summation can be seen. The increase in the duration of first burst (or masker) leads to the decrease in the whole response. Moreover, the BF tone burst which did not evoke any spike response could inhibit the response to the second (test) tone in some cases. Therefore in many units the inhibitory threshold was lower than the excitatory threshold even at the best frequency. The local application of bicuculline through a multibarrel-electrode increased the pulse activity considerably. However, the effect of forward masking usually left even after an inhibitory antagonist (bicuculline) application. [Work supported by grants 39970251 from NSFC, T010360056 from the Foreign Expert Bureau of the State Council of China, and 02-04-3900 from RFBR-NSFC.

  9. The relationship between smoking motives and smoking urges experienced in response to a negative affect induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinci, Christine; Kinsaul, Jessica; Carrigan, Maureen H; Copeland, Amy L

    2015-01-01

    The present study attempted to further elucidate the relationship between self-reported smoking motives and affect in college students. Smoking motives were measured via self-report, and following a laboratory negative affect (NA) mood induction, urge to smoke was assessed via three questions. Participants were college students (N=84) who reported smoking an average of 8.74 (SD=5.36) cigarettes per day. Results indicated that smoking motives for Positive Reinforcement and Automaticity significantly predicted participants' responses on two measures of urge to smoke immediately following the NA induction. Positive Reinforcement motives were predictive of urge to smoke, and Automaticity motives were predictive of the number of cigarettes participants stated that they would smoke if cigarettes were provided for free. These findings indicate that (1) the association between NA and smoking is perhaps more complex than previously thought; and (2) merely two (Positive Reinforcement, Automaticity) of possibly thirteen smoking motives were identified as predictive of smoking urges. It is particularly surprising that other smoking motives (e.g., Negative Reinforcement) were not significant predictors of urge following the NA induction. Implications for relapse risk and treatment considerations among smokers experiencing elevated NA are considered. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The bovine acute phase response to endotoxin and Gram-negative bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Stine

    exposure to LPS were employed: 1) intravenous bolus injection of Escherichia coli (E. coli) LPS inducing systemic inflammation (Papers I-III and Reports I and II), and 2) intramammary inoculation with E. coli inducing infection and local inflammation in the mammary gland (Paper IV). Systemic inflammation...... it appeared in the systemic circulation suggests that extrahepatic synthesis of SAA takes place in the inflamed udder. SAA levels in plasma and milk were very low prior to inoculation, increased rapidly and exponentially after inoculation, and returned quickly to the baseline after the infection was cleared...... aimed at containing infections, eliminating bacteria and restoring homeostasis. However, during infections or disease complexes in which LPS and/or Gram-negative bacteria persist, disease and pathological changes may result from the prolonged inflammatory response. For example, protracted LPS...

  11. Response to "The Iris Hypothesis: A Negative or Positive Cloud Feedback?"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Ming-Dah; Lindzen, Richard S.; Hou, Arthur Y.; Lau, William K. M. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Based on radiance measurements of Japan's Geostationary Meteorological Satellite, Lindzen et al. found that the high-level cloud cover averaged over the tropical western Pacific decreases with increasing sea surface temperature. They further found that the response of high-level clouds to the sea surface temperature had an effect of reducing the magnitude of climate change, which is referred as a negative climate feedback. Lin et al. reassessed the results found by Lindzen et al. by analyzing the radiation and clouds derived from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System measurements. They found a weak positive feedback between high-level clouds and the surface temperature. We have found that the approach taken by Lin et al. to estimating the albedo and the outgoing longwave radiation is incorrect and that the inferred climate sensitivity is unreliable.

  12. Does negative affectivity predict differential response to an SSRI versus a non-SSRI antidepressant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerra, Maria Lidia; Marchesi, Carlo; Amat, Jose A; Blier, Pierre; Hellerstein, David J; Stewart, Jonathan W

    2014-09-01

    This work tested the hypothesis that patients with high negative affectivity (NA) would have a better response to a serotonergic agent (escitalopram) than to one not thought to act directly on serotonin (bupropion). Data from a study conducted between August 2007 and July 2011 were reanalyzed retrospectively. Patients (N = 245) meeting criteria for major depressive disorder (MDD), diagnosed with DSM-IV-TR, were randomly assigned to double-blind treatment with bupropion extended-release, escitalopram, or the combination. Negative affectivity score was estimated using the guilt, hostility/irritability, and fear/anxiety items of the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale, the Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptoms, and the Social Adjustment Scale. We felt that these items captured published descriptions of the NA construct. A Clinical Global Impressions-Severity of Illness (CGI-S) score ≤ 2 defined response. Because combined treatment addressed both serotonin and non-serotonin systems, patients treated with both medications did not test the hypothesis and so were excluded from the analyses. Analysis of covariance with treatment as a grouping variable, NA as covariate, and CGI-S as dependent variable showed a significant 2-way interaction between treatment and NA (F₁,₁₅₆ = 4.82, P affectivity respond preferentially to antidepressants that selectively enhance serotonin neurotransmission. Although patients with low NA appear to benefit from serotonin enhancement as well, they also improved with bupropion, an antidepressant not thought to directly affect serotonin neurotransmission. These findings come from retrospective analyses using unproven approximation of NA, so no clinical inferences should be made before independent replication utilizing accepted NA measurement. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00519428. © Copyright 2014 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  13. Salicylic acid negatively affects the response to salt stress in pea plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barba-Espín, G; Clemente-Moreno, M J; Alvarez, S; García-Legaz, M F; Hernández, J A; Díaz-Vivancos, P

    2011-11-01

    We studied the effect of salicylic acid (SA) treatment on the response of pea plants to salinity. Sodium chloride (NaCl)-induced damage to leaves was increased by SA, which was correlated with a reduction in plant growth. The content of reduced ascorbate and glutathione in leaves of salt-treated plants increased in response to SA, although accumulation of the respective oxidised forms occurred. An increase in hydrogen peroxide also occurred in leaves of salt-exposed plants treated with SA. In the absence of NaCl, SA increased ascorbate peroxidase (APX; 100 μm) and glutathione-S transferase (GST; 50 μm) activities and increased catalase (CAT) activity in a concentration-dependent manner. Salinity decreased glutathione reductase (GR) activity, but increased GST and CAT activity. In salt-stressed plants, SA also produced changes in antioxidative enzymes: 100 μm SA decreased APX but increased GST. Finally, a concentration-dependent increase in superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was induced by SA treatment in salt-stressed plants. Induction of PR-1b was observed in NaCl-stressed plants treated with SA. The treatment with SA, as well as the interaction between salinity and SA treatment, had a significant effect on PsMAPK3 expression. The expression of PsMAPK3 was not altered by 70 mm NaCl, but was statistically higher in the absence than in the presence of SA. Overall, the results show that SA treatment negatively affected the response of pea plants to NaCl, and this response correlated with an imbalance in antioxidant metabolism. The data also show that SA treatment could enhance the resistance of salt-stressed plants to possible opportunistic pathogen attack, as suggested by increased PR-1b gene expression. © 2011 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  14. Dispositional Fear, Negative Affectivity, and Neuroimaging Response to Visually Suppressed Emotional Faces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vizueta, Nathalie; Patrick, Christopher J.; Jiang, Yi; Thomas, Kathleen M.; He, Sheng

    2011-01-01

    “Invisible” stimulus paradigms provide a method for investigating basic affective processing in clinical and non-clinical populations. Neuroimaging studies utilizing continuous flash suppression (CFS) have shown increased amygdala response to invisible fearful versus neutral faces. The current study used CFS in conjunction with functional MRI to test for differences in brain reactivity to visible and invisible emotional faces in relation to two distinct trait dimensions relevant to psychopathology: negative affectivity (NA) and fearfulness. Subjects consisted of college students (N = 31) assessed for fear/fearlessness along with dispositional NA. The main brain regions of interest included the fusiform face area (FFA), superior temporal sulcus (STS), and amygdala. Higher NA, but not trait fear, was associated with enhanced response to fearful versus neutral faces in STS and right amygdala (but not FFA), within the invisible condition specifically. The finding that NA rather than fearfulness predicted degree of amygdala reactivity to suppressed faces implicates the input subdivision of the amygdala in the observed effects. Given the central role of NA in anxiety and mood disorders, the current data also support use of the CFS methodology for investigating the neurobiology of these disorders. PMID:21771661

  15. Consistent negative response of US crops to high temperatures in observations and crop models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schauberger, Bernhard; Archontoulis, Sotirios; Arneth, Almut; Balkovic, Juraj; Ciais, Philippe; Deryng, Delphine; Elliott, Joshua; Folberth, Christian; Khabarov, Nikolay; Müller, Christoph; Pugh, Thomas A. M.; Rolinski, Susanne; Schaphoff, Sibyll; Schmid, Erwin; Wang, Xuhui; Schlenker, Wolfram; Frieler, Katja

    2017-04-01

    High temperatures are detrimental to crop yields and could lead to global warming-driven reductions in agricultural productivity. To assess future threats, the majority of studies used process-based crop models, but their ability to represent effects of high temperature has been questioned. Here we show that an ensemble of nine crop models reproduces the observed average temperature responses of US maize, soybean and wheat yields. Each day above 30°C diminishes maize and soybean yields by up to 6% under rainfed conditions. Declines observed in irrigated areas, or simulated assuming full irrigation, are weak. This supports the hypothesis that water stress induced by high temperatures causes the decline. For wheat a negative response to high temperature is neither observed nor simulated under historical conditions, since critical temperatures are rarely exceeded during the growing season. In the future, yields are modelled to decline for all three crops at temperatures above 30°C. Elevated CO2 can only weakly reduce these yield losses, in contrast to irrigation.

  16. Lysophosphatidic acid receptor-5 negatively regulates cellular responses in mouse fibroblast 3T3 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Yan; Hirane, Miku; Araki, Mutsumi [Division of Cancer Biology and Bioinformatics, Department of Life Science, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Kinki University, 3-4-1, Kowakae, Higashiosaka, Osaka 577-8502 (Japan); Fukushima, Nobuyuki [Division of Molecular Neurobiology, Department of Life Science, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Kinki University, 3-4-1, Kowakae, Higashiosaka, Osaka 577-8502 (Japan); Tsujiuchi, Toshifumi, E-mail: ttujiuch@life.kindai.ac.jp [Division of Cancer Biology and Bioinformatics, Department of Life Science, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Kinki University, 3-4-1, Kowakae, Higashiosaka, Osaka 577-8502 (Japan)

    2014-04-04

    Highlights: • LPA{sub 5} inhibits the cell growth and motile activities of 3T3 cells. • LPA{sub 5} suppresses the cell motile activities stimulated by hydrogen peroxide in 3T3 cells. • Enhancement of LPA{sub 5} on the cell motile activities inhibited by LPA{sub 1} in 3T3 cells. • The expression and activation of Mmp-9 were inhibited by LPA{sub 5} in 3T3 cells. • LPA signaling via LPA{sub 5} acts as a negative regulator of cellular responses in 3T3 cells. - Abstract: Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) signaling via G protein-coupled LPA receptors (LPA{sub 1}–LPA{sub 6}) mediates a variety of biological functions, including cell migration. Recently, we have reported that LPA{sub 1} inhibited the cell motile activities of mouse fibroblast 3T3 cells. In the present study, to evaluate a role of LPA{sub 5} in cellular responses, Lpar5 knockdown (3T3-L5) cells were generated from 3T3 cells. In cell proliferation assays, LPA markedly stimulated the cell proliferation activities of 3T3-L5 cells, compared with control cells. In cell motility assays with Cell Culture Inserts, the cell motile activities of 3T3-L5 cells were significantly higher than those of control cells. The activity levels of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) were measured by gelatin zymography. 3T3-L5 cells stimulated the activation of Mmp-2, correlating with the expression levels of Mmp-2 gene. Moreover, to assess the co-effects of LPA{sub 1} and LPA{sub 5} on cell motile activities, Lpar5 knockdown (3T3a1-L5) cells were also established from Lpar1 over-expressing (3T3a1) cells. 3T3a1-L5 cells increased the cell motile activities of 3T3a1 cells, while the cell motile activities of 3T3a1 cells were significantly lower than those of control cells. These results suggest that LPA{sub 5} may act as a negative regulator of cellular responses in mouse fibroblast 3T3 cells, similar to the case for LPA{sub 1}.

  17. Lysophosphatidic acid receptor-5 negatively regulates cellular responses in mouse fibroblast 3T3 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, Yan; Hirane, Miku; Araki, Mutsumi; Fukushima, Nobuyuki; Tsujiuchi, Toshifumi

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • LPA 5 inhibits the cell growth and motile activities of 3T3 cells. • LPA 5 suppresses the cell motile activities stimulated by hydrogen peroxide in 3T3 cells. • Enhancement of LPA 5 on the cell motile activities inhibited by LPA 1 in 3T3 cells. • The expression and activation of Mmp-9 were inhibited by LPA 5 in 3T3 cells. • LPA signaling via LPA 5 acts as a negative regulator of cellular responses in 3T3 cells. - Abstract: Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) signaling via G protein-coupled LPA receptors (LPA 1 –LPA 6 ) mediates a variety of biological functions, including cell migration. Recently, we have reported that LPA 1 inhibited the cell motile activities of mouse fibroblast 3T3 cells. In the present study, to evaluate a role of LPA 5 in cellular responses, Lpar5 knockdown (3T3-L5) cells were generated from 3T3 cells. In cell proliferation assays, LPA markedly stimulated the cell proliferation activities of 3T3-L5 cells, compared with control cells. In cell motility assays with Cell Culture Inserts, the cell motile activities of 3T3-L5 cells were significantly higher than those of control cells. The activity levels of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) were measured by gelatin zymography. 3T3-L5 cells stimulated the activation of Mmp-2, correlating with the expression levels of Mmp-2 gene. Moreover, to assess the co-effects of LPA 1 and LPA 5 on cell motile activities, Lpar5 knockdown (3T3a1-L5) cells were also established from Lpar1 over-expressing (3T3a1) cells. 3T3a1-L5 cells increased the cell motile activities of 3T3a1 cells, while the cell motile activities of 3T3a1 cells were significantly lower than those of control cells. These results suggest that LPA 5 may act as a negative regulator of cellular responses in mouse fibroblast 3T3 cells, similar to the case for LPA 1

  18. How the doc should (not) talk: when breaking bad news with negations influences patients' immediate responses and medical adherence intentions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgers, Christian; Beukeboom, Camiel J; Sparks, Lisa

    2012-11-01

    We investigate the role of specific formulations in a doctor's bad news delivery. We focus on the effects of negations and message framing on patients' immediate responses to the message and the doctor, and long-term consequences including quality of life and medical adherence intentions. Two lab experiments with 2 (language use: negations vs. affirmations)×2 (framing: positive vs. negative) between-subjects designs. After reading a transcription (experiment 1) or seeing a film clip (experiment 2), participants rated their evaluation of the message and the doctor, expected quality of life, and medical adherence intentions. Positively framed bad news with negations score more negative on these dependent variables than positively framed affirmations (both experiments). For negatively framed negations, these results are reversed (experiment 2). Furthermore, the evaluations of the message (experiment 1) and the doctor (both experiments) mediate the interaction of framing and language use on medical adherence intentions. Small linguistic variations (i.e., negations vs. affirmations) in breaking bad news can have a significant impact on the health message, doctor evaluation and medical adherence intentions. Doctors should refrain from using negations to break positively framed news, and employ negations when breaking negatively framed news. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. microRNA-124 negatively regulates TLR signaling in alveolar macrophages in response to mycobacterial infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Chunyan; Li, Yong; Li, Min; Deng, Guangcun; Wu, Xiaoling; Zeng, Jin; Hao, Xiujing; Wang, Xiaoping; Liu, Jing; Cho, William C S; Liu, Xiaoming; Wang, Yujiong

    2014-11-01

    The emerging roles of microRNAs (miRNAs) in regulating immune responses have attracted increasing attention in recent years; and the alveolar macrophages (AMs) are the main targets of mycobacterial infection, which play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. However, the immunoregulatory role of miRNAs in AMs has not been fully demonstrated. In this study, we find that miR-124 is up-regulated in the peripheral leukocytes of patients with pulmonary tuberculosis; furthermore, the expression miR-124 can be induced upon Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) infection in both RAW264.7 AM cells in vitro and murine AMs in vivo. Mechanistically, miR-124 is able to modulate toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling activity in RAW264.7 cells in response to BCG infection. In this regard, multiple components of TLR signaling cascade, including the TLR6, myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88), TNFR-associated factor 6 and tumor necrosis factor-α are directly targeted by miR-124. In addition, both overexpression of TLR signaling adaptor MyD88 and BCG infection are able to augment miR-124 transcription, while MyD88 expression silenced by small interfering RNA dramatically suppresses miR-124 expression in AMs in vitro. Moreover, the abundance of miR-124 transcript in murine AMs of MyD88 deficient mice is significantly less than that of their wild-type or heterozygous littermates; and the BCG infection fails to induce miR-124 expression in the lung of MyD88 deficient mouse. These results indicate a negative regulatory role of miR-124 in fine-tuning inflammatory response in AMs upon mycobacterial infection, in part through a mechanism by directly targeting TLR signaling. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Inhibiting automatic negative social responses in alcohol intoxication: interactions with theory of mind ability and level of task guidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Emma G; Skromanis, Sarah; Bruno, Raimondo; Mond, Jonathan; Honan, Cynthia A

    2018-04-01

    Alcohol intoxication is associated with socially disinhibited behaviours that may reflect impaired social cognitive abilities that guide social behaviour. The effects of alcohol on social cognition and how this may contribute to disinhibited behaviour are poorly understood. The aim of this study was to examine whether intoxicated individuals could inhibit automatic negative responses to negative social information, whether these difficulties were reliant on theory of mind (ToM) ability and whether intoxicated individuals were able to adjust verbal responses when provided with guidelines about how to respond. Sixty-four participants aged between 18 and 34 (balanced for gender) consumed a beverage containing either placebo or alcohol calculated to achieve a target BrAC of 0.080%, before completing a Flanker task, a go/no-go task and a novel measure of social disinhibition, the social disinhibition task. Results indicate that alcohol-intoxicated individuals can inhibit negative responses to negative social information, but display difficulty inhibiting negative responses to social information that requires ToM. They also suggest that people under the influence of moderate-to-high-dose alcohol can adjust their responses when provided with specific guidelines on how to respond. These findings may have important implications for understanding negative alcohol-related behaviours and promote the consideration of social context, social pressure and social cognitive abilities in the development of public policy and targeted interventions to prevent alcohol-related antisocial behaviours.

  1. Restoration of Radiation-Responsiveness of Estrogen-Receptor Negative Breast Cancer Cells

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Munshi, Anupama

    2005-01-01

    ER-negative human breast cancers are radioresistant due to hypermethylation and hypoacetylation of the ER gene and restoration of ER expression in ER-negative cells by treatment with the demethylating agent (5-Aza-dC...

  2. [Connection between the evaluation of positive or negative valence and verbal responses to a lexical decision making task].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouillet, Thibaut; Syssau, Arielle

    2005-12-01

    Evaluation of the positive or negative valence of a stimulus is an activity that is part of any emotional experience that has been mostly studied using the affective priming paradigm. When the prime and the target have the same valence (e.g. positive prime and positive target), the target response is facilitated as a function of opposing valence conditions (e.g. negative prime and positive target). These studies show that this evaluation is automatic but depends on the nature of the task's implied response because the priming effects are only observed for positive responses, not for negative responses. This result was explained in automatic judgmental tendency model put forth by Abelson and Rosenberg (1958) and Klauer and Stern (1992). In this model, affective priming assumes there is an overlap between both responses, the first response taking precedence as a function of the prime-target valence, and the second response one that is required by the task. We are assuming that another type of response was not foreseen under this model. In fact, upon activating the valence for each of the prime-target elements, two preliminary responses would be activated before the response on the prime-target valence relationship. These responses are directly linked to the prime and target evaluation independently of the prime-target relationship. This hypothesis can be linked to the larger hypothesis whereby the evaluative process is related to two distinct motivational systems corresponding to approach and avoidance behaviour responses (Lang, Bradley, & Cuthbert, 1990; Neuman & Strack, 2000; Cacciopo, Piester & Bernston, 1993). In this study, we use the hypothesis that when a word leads to a positive valence evaluation, this favours a positive verbal response and inversely, a negative valence word favours a negative response. We are testing this hypothesis outside the affective priming paradigm to study to what extent evaluating a word, even when it is not primed, activates both

  3. Cardiovascular response to lower body negative pressure stimulation before, during, and after space flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baisch, F.; Beck, L.; Blomqvist, G.; Wolfram, G.; Drescher, J.; Rome, J. L.; Drummer, C.

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is well known that space travel cause post-flight orthostatic hypotension and it was assumed that autonomic cardiovascular control deteriorates in space. Lower body negative pressure (LBNP) was used to assess autonomic function of the cardiovascular system. METHODS: LBNP tests were performed on six crew-members before and on the first days post-flight in a series of three space missions. Additionally, two of the subjects performed LBNP tests in-flight. LBNP mimics fluid distribution of upright posture in a gravity independent way. It causes an artificial sequestration of blood, reduces preload, and filtrates plasma into the lower part of the body. Fluid distribution was assessed by bioelectrical impedance and anthropometric measurements. RESULTS: Heart rate, blood pressure, and total peripheral resistance increased significantly during LBNP experiments in-flight. The decrease in stroke volume, the increased pooling of blood, and the increased filtration of plasma into the lower limbs during LBNP indicated that a plasma volume reduction and a deficit of the interstitial volume of lower limbs rather than a change in cardiovascular control was responsible for the in-flight response. Post-flight LBNP showed no signs of cardiovascular deterioration. The still more pronounced haemodynamic changes during LBNP reflected the expected behaviour of cardiovascular control faced with less intravascular volume. In-flight, the status of an intra-and extravascular fluid deficit increases sympathetic activity, the release of vasoactive substances and consequently blood pressure. Post-flight, blood pressure decreases significantly below pre-flight values after restoration of volume deficits. CONCLUSION: We conclude that the cardiovascular changes in-flight are a consequence of a fluid deficit rather than a consequence of changes in autonomic signal processing.

  4. Comparison of Photopic Negative Response of Full-Field and Focal Electroretinograms in Detecting Glaucomatous Eyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigeki Machida

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To compare the photopic negative response (PhNR of the full-field electroretinogram (ERG to the PhNR of the focal ERGs in detecting glaucoma. Methods. One hundred and three eyes with glaucoma and 42 normal eyes were studied. Full-field ERGs were elicited by red stimuli on a blue background. The focal ERGs were elicited by a 15∘ white stimulus spot centered on the macula, the superotemporal or the inferotemporal areas of the macula. Results. In early glaucoma, the areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUCs were significantly larger for the focal PhNR (0.863–0.924 than those for the full-field PhNR (0.666–0.748 (P<.05. The sensitivity was significantly higher for the focal PhNR than for the full-field PhNR in early (P<.01 and intermediate glaucoma (P<.05. In advanced glaucoma, there was no difference in the AUCs and sensitivities between the focal and full-field PhNRs. Conclusions. The focal ERG has the diagnostic ability with higher sensitivity in detecting early and intermediate glaucoma than the full-field ERG.

  5. Global negative vegetation feedback to climate warming responses of leaf litter decomposition rates in cold biomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelissen, Johannes H C; van Bodegom, Peter M; Aerts, Rien; Callaghan, Terry V; van Logtestijn, Richard S P; Alatalo, Juha; Chapin, F Stuart; Gerdol, Renato; Gudmundsson, Jon; Gwynn-Jones, Dylan; Hartley, Anne E; Hik, David S; Hofgaard, Annika; Jónsdóttir, Ingibjörg S; Karlsson, Staffan; Klein, Julia A; Laundre, Jim; Magnusson, Borgthor; Michelsen, Anders; Molau, Ulf; Onipchenko, Vladimir G; Quested, Helen M; Sandvik, Sylvi M; Schmidt, Inger K; Shaver, Gus R; Solheim, Bjørn; Soudzilovskaia, Nadejda A; Stenström, Anna; Tolvanen, Anne; Totland, Ørjan; Wada, Naoya; Welker, Jeffrey M; Zhao, Xinquan

    2007-07-01

    Whether climate change will turn cold biomes from large long-term carbon sinks into sources is hotly debated because of the great potential for ecosystem-mediated feedbacks to global climate. Critical are the direction, magnitude and generality of climate responses of plant litter decomposition. Here, we present the first quantitative analysis of the major climate-change-related drivers of litter decomposition rates in cold northern biomes worldwide. Leaf litters collected from the predominant species in 33 global change manipulation experiments in circum-arctic-alpine ecosystems were incubated simultaneously in two contrasting arctic life zones. We demonstrate that longer-term, large-scale changes to leaf litter decomposition will be driven primarily by both direct warming effects and concomitant shifts in plant growth form composition, with a much smaller role for changes in litter quality within species. Specifically, the ongoing warming-induced expansion of shrubs with recalcitrant leaf litter across cold biomes would constitute a negative feedback to global warming. Depending on the strength of other (previously reported) positive feedbacks of shrub expansion on soil carbon turnover, this may partly counteract direct warming enhancement of litter decomposition.

  6. Cardiovascular responses of men and women to lower body negative pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, L. D.; Kirk, P. J.; Payne, P. A.; Gerber, R. L.; Newton, S. D.; Williams, B. A.

    1977-01-01

    Changes in blood flow and blood redistribution were measured by impedance plethysmography in the pelvic and leg regions of six male and four female subjects during three 5-min exposures to -20, -40, and -60 mm Hg lower body negative pressure (LBNP). Female subjects demonstrated significantly higher mean heart rate and lower leg blood flow indices than the male subjects during the recumbent control periods. Men had slightly higher mean resting systolic and diastolic blood pressures and higher mean control pelvic blood indices. Women demonstrated significantly less blood pooling in the legs and slightly less in the pelvic region than the men. All of the 18 tests with male subjects at -60 mm Hg were completed without initial signs of syncope, while only two of the tests with women were completed successfully without the subject exhibiting presyncopal conditions. Results indicate that impedance plethysmography can be used to measure segmental cardiovascular responses during LBNP and that females may be less tolerant to -60 mm Hg LBNP than males.

  7. Preadolescents' Emotional and Prosocial Responses to Negative TV News: Investigating the Beneficial Effects of Constructive Reporting and Peer Discussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleemans, Mariska; Schlindwein, Luise F; Dohmen, Roos

    2017-09-01

    Watching news is important for preadolescents, but it may also harm their well-being. This study examined whether applying insights from positive psychology to news production can reduce this potential harm, by reducing negative emotional responses and enhancing positive emotional responses to negative news, and by encouraging prosocial intentions. Moreover, we explored whether peer discussion strengthened these effects. Preadolescents (n = 336; 9-13 years old; 48.5% female) were exposed to either constructive (solution-based news including positive emotions) or nonconstructive news. Subsequently, half of the children assigned to the constructive and the nonconstructive condition participated in a peer discussion. The findings showed that exposure to constructive news resulted in more positive emotional responses and less negative emotional responses as compared to nonconstructive news. Moreover, discussing the news with peers led to more positive and less negative emotional responses among preadolescents who watched the nonconstructive newscast, and to more prosocial intentions among preadolescents who watched constructive news. In all, constructive news reporting and peer discussion could function as tools to make negative news less harmful for preadolescents.

  8. Understanding less than nothing: Children’s neural response to negative numbers shifts across age and accuracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret M Gullick

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available We examined the brain activity underlying the development of our understanding of negative numbers, which are amounts lacking direct physical counterparts. Children performed a paired comparison task with positive and negative numbers during an fMRI session. As previously shown in adults, both pre-instruction fifth graders and post-instruction seventh graders demonstrated typical behavioral and neural distance effects to negative numbers, where response times and parietal and frontal activity increased as comparison distance decreased. We then determined the factors impacting the distance effect in each age group. Behaviorally, the fifth grader distance effect for negatives was significantly predicted only by positive comparison accuracy, indicating that children who were generally better at working with numbers were better at comparing negatives. In seventh graders, negative comparison accuracy significantly predicted their distance effect, indicating that children who were better at working with negative numbers demonstrated a more typical distance effect. Across children, as age increased, the negative number distance effect increased in the bilateral IPS and decreased frontally, indicating a frontoparietal shift consistent with previous numerical development literature. In contrast, as task accuracy increased, the parietal distance effect increased in the left IPS and decreased in the right, possibly indicating a change from an approximate understanding of negatives’ values to a more exact, precise representation (particularly supported by the left IPS with increasing expertise. These shifts separately indicate the effects of increasing maturity generally in numeric processing and specifically in negative number understanding.

  9. Physicians' responses to patients' expressions of negative emotions in hospital consultations: a video-based observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mjaaland, Trond A; Finset, Arnstein; Jensen, Bård Fossli; Gulbrandsen, Pål

    2011-09-01

    Patients express their negative emotions in medical consultations either implicitly as cue to an underlying unpleasant emotion or explicitly as a clear, unambiguous concern. The health provider's response to such cues and concerns is important for the outcome of consultations. Yet, physicians often neglect patient's negative emotions. Most studies of this subject are from primary health care. We aimed to describe how physicians in a hospital respond to negative emotions in an outpatient setting. Ninety six consultations were videotaped in a general teaching hospital. The Verona Coding Definitions of Emotional Sequences was used to identify patients' expression of negative emotions in terms of cue and concern and to code physicians' subsequent responses. Cohen's kappa was used as interrater reliability measure. Acceptable kappa level was set to .60. We observed 163 expressions of negative emotions. In general, the physician responses to patients' cues and concerns did not include follow up or exploration. Concerns more often than cues led to lack of emotional exploration. When patients expressed negative emotions or cues to such, hospital physicians tended to move away from emotional communication, particularly if the emotion was expressed as an explicit concern. Medical training should enable physicians' to explore the patients' emotions in situations where it will improve the medical treatment. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Fluid Shifts: Otoacoustical Emission Changes in Response to Posture and Lower Body Negative Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melgoza, R.; Kemp, D.; Ebert, D.; Danielson, R.; Stenger, M.; Hargens, A.; Dulchavsky, S.

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The purpose of the NASA Fluid Shifts Study is to characterize fluid distribution and compartmentalization associated with long-duration spaceflight and to correlate these findings with vision changes and other elements of the visual impairment and intracranial pressure (VIIP) syndrome. VIIP signs and symptoms, as well as postflight lumbar puncture data, suggest that elevated intracranial pressure (ICP) may be associated with spaceflight-induced cephalad fluid shifts, but this hypothesis has not been tested. Due to the invasive nature of direct measures of ICP, a noninvasive technique of monitoring ICP is desired for use during spaceflight. The phase angle and amplitude of otoacoustic emissions (OAEs) have been shown to be sensitive to posture change and ICP (1, 2), therefore use of OAEs is an attractive option. OAEs are low-level sounds produced by the sensory cells of the cochlea in response to auditory stimulation. These sounds travel peripherally from the cochlea, through the oval window, to the ear canal where they can be recorded. OAE transmission is sensitive to changes in the stiffness of the oval window, occurring as a result of changes in cochlear pressure. Increased stiffness of the oval window largely affects the transmission of sound from the cochlea at frequencies between 800 Hz and 1600 Hz. OAEs can be self-recorded in the laboratory or on the ISS using a handheld device. Our primary objectives regarding OAE measures in this experiment were to 1) validate this method during preflight testing of each crewmember (while sitting, supine and in head-down tilt position), and 2) determine if OAE measures (and presumably ICP) are responsive to lower body negative pressure and to spaceflight. METHODS: Distortion-product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) and transient evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAEs) were recorded preflight using the Otoport Advance OAE system (Otodynamics Ltd., Hatfield, UK). Data were collected in four conditions (seated

  11. Novel Model for Basaloid Triple-negative Breast Cancer: Behavior In Vivo and Response to Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa D Volk-Draper

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction:The basaloid triple-negative breast cancer (B-TNBC is one of the most aggressive, therapy-resistant, and metastatic tumors. Current models do not recapitulate the basaloid phenotype of TNBC, thus limiting the understanding of its biology and designing new treatments. We identified HCC1806 as a line expressing typical B-TNBC markers, engineered a subline with traceable reporters, and determined growth, drug sensitivity, recurrence, and vascular and metastatic patterns of orthotopic xenografts in immunodeficient mice. Methods: mRNA and protein analyses showed that HCC1806 expresses basal but not luminal or mesenchymal markers. HCC1806-RR subline stably expressing red fluorescent protein and Renilla luciferase was generated and characterized for sensitivity to chemodrugs, orthotopic growth, vascular properties, recurrence, metastasis, and responsiveness in vivo. Results: The HCC1806 cells were highly sensitive to paclitaxel, but cytotoxicity was accompanied by pro-survival vascular endothelial growth factor-A loop. In vivo, HCC1806-RR tumors display linear growth, induce peritumoral lymphatics, and spontaneously metastasize to lymph nodes (LNs and lungs. Similarly to human B-TNBC, HCC1806-RR tumors were initially sensitive to taxane therapy but subsequently recur. Bevacizumab significantly suppressed recurrence by 50% and reduced the incidence of LN and pulmonary metastases by, respectively, 50% and 87%. Conclusions The HCC1806-RR is a new model that expresses bona fide markers of B-TNBC and traceable markers for quantifying metastases. Combination of bevacizumab with nab-paclitaxel significantly improved the outcome, suggesting that this approach can apply to human patients with B-TNBC. This model can be used for defining the metastatic mechanisms of B-TNBC and testing new therapies.

  12. Stronger learning recruits additional cell-signaling cascades: c-Jun-N-terminal kinase 1 (JNK1) is necessary for expression of stronger contextual fear conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, Prescott T; Kenney, Justin W; Gould, Thomas J

    2015-02-01

    Increased training often results in stronger memories but the neural changes responsible for these stronger memories are poorly understood. It is proposed here that higher levels of training that result in stronger memories recruit additional cell signaling cascades. This study specifically examined if c-Jun N-terminal kinase 1 (JNK1) is involved in the formation of stronger fear conditioning memories. Wildtype (WT), JNK1 heterozygous (Het), and JNK1 knockout (KO) mice were fear conditioned with 1 trial, 2 trials, or 4 trials. All mice learned both contextual (hippocampus-dependent) and cued (hippocampus-independent) fear conditioning but for contextual fear conditioning only, the JNK1 KO mice did not show higher levels of learning with increased trials. That is, WT mice showed a significant linear increase in contextual fear conditioning as training trials increased from 1 to 2 to 4 trials whereas KO mice showed the same level of contextual fear conditioning as WT mice for 1 trial training but did not have increased levels of contextual fear conditioning with additional trials. These data suggest that JNK1 may not be critical for learning but when higher levels of hippocampus-dependent learning occur, JNK1 signaling is recruited and is necessary for stronger hippocampus-dependent memory formation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Intensity response function of the photopic negative response (PhNR): effect of age and test-retest reliability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Nabin R; Ly, Emma; Viswanathan, Suresh

    2017-08-01

    To assess the effect of age and test-retest reliability of the intensity response function of the full-field photopic negative response (PhNR) in normal healthy human subjects. Full-field electroretinograms (ERGs) were recorded from one eye of 45 subjects, and 39 of these subjects were tested on two separate days with a Diagnosys Espion System (Lowell, MA, USA). The visual stimuli consisted of brief (test-retest reliability was assessed with the Wilcoxon signed-rank test and Bland-Altman analysis. Holm's correction was applied to account for multiple comparisons. V max of BT was significantly smaller than that of PT and b-wave, and the V max of PT and b-wave was not significantly different from each other. The slope parameter n was smallest for BT and the largest for b-wave and the difference between the slopes of all three measures were statistically significant. Small differences observed in the mean values of K for the different measures did not reach statistical significance. The Wilcoxon signed-rank test indicated no significant differences between the two test visits for any of the Naka-Rushton parameters for the three ERG measures, and the Bland-Altman plots indicated that the mean difference between test and retest measurements of the different fit parameters was close to zero and within 6% of the average of the test and retest values of the respective parameters for all three ERG measurements, indicating minimal bias. While the coefficient of reliability (COR, defined as 1.96 times the standard deviation of the test and retest difference) of each fit parameter was more or less comparable across the three ERG measurements, the %COR (COR normalized to the mean test and retest measures) was generally larger for BT compared to both PT and b-wave for each fit parameter. The Naka-Rushton fit parameters did not show statistically significant changes with age for any of the ERG measures when corrections were applied for multiple comparisons. However, the V max of

  14. Stronger Schrödinger-like uncertainty relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Qiu-Cheng; Qiao, Cong-Feng

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A stronger Schrödinger-like uncertainty relation in the sum of variances of two observables is obtained. • An improved Schrödinger-like uncertainty relation in the product of variances of two observables is obtained. • A stronger uncertainty relation in the sum of variances of three observables is proposed. - Abstract: Uncertainty relation is one of the fundamental building blocks of quantum theory. Nevertheless, the traditional uncertainty relations do not fully capture the concept of incompatible observables. Here we present a stronger Schrödinger-like uncertainty relation, which is stronger than the relation recently derived by Maccone and Pati (2014) [11]. Furthermore, we give an additive uncertainty relation which holds for three incompatible observables, which is stronger than the relation newly obtained by Kechrimparis and Weigert (2014) [12] and the simple extension of the Schrödinger uncertainty relation.

  15. Correction to: The Opportunity Cost of Negative Screening in Socially Responsible Investing (vol 140, pg 193, 2017)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trinks, Pieter Jan; Scholtens, Bert

    2018-01-01

    Table 3 of Trinks, P. J., Scholtens, B., 2017. The Opportunity Cost of Negative Screening in Socially Responsible Investing. Journal of Business Ethics, 140(2), 193-208, reports the four-factor return performance of long-short sin stock portfolios and sin stock-free portfolios.

  16. How the doc should (not) talk: When breaking bad news with negations influences patients' immediate responses and medical adherence intentions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burgers, C.F.; Beukeboom, C.J.; Sparks, L

    2012-01-01

    Objective: We investigate the role of specific formulations in a doctor's bad news delivery. We focus on the effects of negations and message framing on patients' immediate responses to the message and the doctor, and long-term consequences including quality of life and medical adherence intentions.

  17. Mapping and characterization of positive and negative BOLD responses to visual stimulation in multiple brain regions at 7T

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jorge, João; Figueiredo, Patrícia; Gruetter, Rolf; Van der Zwaag, W.

    External stimuli and tasks often elicit negative BOLD responses in various brain regions, and growing experimental evidence supports that these phenomena are functionally meaningful. In this work, the high sensitivity available at 7T was explored to map and characterize both positive (PBRs) and

  18. Stronger inducible defences enhance persistence of intraguild prey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kratina, Pavel; Hammill, Edd; Anholt, Bradley R

    2010-09-01

    1. Intraguild predation is widespread in nature despite its potentially destabilizing effect on food web dynamics. 2. Anti-predator inducible defences affect both birth and death rates of populations and have the potential to substantially modify food web dynamics and possibly increase persistence of intraguild prey. 3. In a chemostat experiment, we investigated the long-term effects of inducible defences on the dynamics of aquatic microbial food webs consisting of an intraguild predator, intraguild prey, and a basal resource. We controlled environmental conditions and selected strains of intraguild prey that varied in the strength of expressed inducible defences. 4. We found that intraguild prey with a stronger tendency to induce an anti-predator morphology persist for significantly longer periods of time. In addition, model selection analysis implied that flexibility in defensive phenotype (inducibility itself) is most likely the factor responsible for the enhanced persistence. 5. As patterns at the community level often emerge as a result of the life-history traits of individuals, we propose that inducible defences increase the persistence of populations and may contribute to the widespread occurrence of theoretically unstable intraguild predation systems in nature.

  19. NLRX1 Sequesters STING to Negatively Regulate the Interferon Response, Thereby Facilitating the Replication of HIV-1 and DNA Viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Haitao; König, Renate; Deng, Meng; Riess, Maximilian; Mo, Jinyao; Zhang, Lu; Petrucelli, Alex; Yoh, Sunnie M; Barefoot, Brice; Samo, Melissa; Sempowski, Gregory D; Zhang, Aiping; Colberg-Poley, Anamaris M; Feng, Hui; Lemon, Stanley M; Liu, Yong; Zhang, Yanping; Wen, Haitao; Zhang, Zhigang; Damania, Blossom; Tsao, Li-Chung; Wang, Qi; Su, Lishan; Duncan, Joseph A; Chanda, Sumit K; Ting, Jenny P-Y

    2016-04-13

    Understanding the negative regulators of antiviral immune responses will be critical for advancing immune-modulated antiviral strategies. NLRX1, an NLR protein that negatively regulates innate immunity, was previously identified in an unbiased siRNA screen as required for HIV infection. We find that NLRX1 depletion results in impaired nuclear import of HIV-1 DNA in human monocytic cells. Additionally, NLRX1 was observed to reduce type-I interferon (IFN-I) and cytokines in response to HIV-1 reverse-transcribed DNA. NLRX1 sequesters the DNA-sensing adaptor STING from interaction with TANK-binding kinase 1 (TBK1), which is a requisite for IFN-1 induction in response to DNA. NLRX1-deficient cells generate an amplified STING-dependent host response to cytosolic DNA, c-di-GMP, cGAMP, HIV-1, and DNA viruses. Accordingly, Nlrx1(-/-) mice infected with DNA viruses exhibit enhanced innate immunity and reduced viral load. Thus, NLRX1 is a negative regulator of the host innate immune response to HIV-1 and DNA viruses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. SILICOMB PEEK Kirigami cellular structures: mechanical response and energy dissipation through zero and negative stiffness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Virk, K; Marsh, M; Monti, A; Trehard, T; Hazra, K; Boba, K; Remillat, C D L; Scarpa, F; Farrow, I R

    2013-01-01

    The work describes the manufacturing, testing and parametric analysis of cellular structures exhibiting zero Poisson’s ratio-type behaviour, together with zero and negative stiffness effects. The cellular structures are produced in flat panels and curved configurations, using a combination of rapid prototyping techniques and Kirigami (Origami and cutting) procedures for PEEK (Polyether Ether Ketone) thermoplastic composites. The curved cellular configurations show remarkable large deformation behaviours, with zero and negative stiffness regimes depending also on the strain rate applied. These unusual stiffness characteristics lead to a large increase of energy absorption during cyclic tests. (paper)

  1. Overwhelmed by Emotion: Pathways from Revictimization to Mothers' Negative Emotional Responsivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Christina Gamache; Kim, Hyoun K; Freyd, Jennifer J

    2017-12-29

    Maternal history of childhood abuse has consistently been linked to increased risk for poor emotional adjustment and parenting as an adult. The aim of this study was to examine a model that may explain the link between maternal history of childhood abuse and mothers' tendencies to respond negatively to their adolescent children's negative emotions. A community sample of 66 mothers with adolescent children participated. Path analysis supported associations between mothers with a history of high betrayal trauma revictimization (i.e., trauma perpetrated by someone close to the mother during childhood and again as a young adult) and increased difficulty regulating their emotions. In turn, mothers who struggled to regulate their own emotions were also more likely to respond negatively to their adolescent's negative emotions. Findings highlight effects of childhood trauma may be particularly problematic for mothers who are revictimized as young adults. These results provide the foundation for future research evaluating clinical interventions targeted at increasing maternal emotion regulation skills. © 2017 Family Process Institute.

  2. Negative Affective Spillover from Daily Events Predicts Early Response to Cognitive Therapy for Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Lawrence H.; Gunthert, Kathleen C.; Butler, Andrew C.; Parrish, Brendt P.; Wenze, Susan J.; Beck, Judith S.

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluated the predictive role of depressed outpatients' (N = 62) affective reactivity to daily stressors in their rates of improvement in cognitive therapy (CT). For 1 week before treatment, patients completed nightly electronic diaries that assessed daily stressors and negative affect (NA). The authors used multilevel modeling to…

  3. A cardiovascular system model for lower-body negative pressure response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, B. A., Jr.; Giese, R. P.

    1971-01-01

    Mathematical models used to study complex physiological control systems are discussed. Efforts were made to modify a model of the cardiovascular system for use in studying lower body negative pressure. A computer program was written which allows orderly, straightforward expansion to include exercise, metabolism (thermal stress), respiration, and other body functions.

  4. The prognostic value of the neoadjuvant response index in triple-negative breast cancer: validation and comparison with pathological complete response as outcome measure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jebbink, M.; van Werkhoven, E.; Mandjes, I. A. M.; Wesseling, J.; Lips, E. H.; Vrancken Peeters, M.-J. T. D. F.; Loo, C. E.; Sonke, G. S.; Linn, S. C.; Falo Zamora, C.; Rodenhuis, S.

    2015-01-01

    The Neoadjuvant response index (NRI) has been proposed as a simple measure of downstaging by neoadjuvant treatment in breast cancer. It was previously found to predict recurrence-free survival (RFS) in triple-negative (TN) breast cancer. It was at least as accurate as the standard binary system, the

  5. The prognostic value of the neoadjuvant response index in triple-negative breast cancer : validation and comparison with pathological complete response as outcome measure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jebbink, M.; van Werkhoven, E.; Mandjes, I. A. M.; Wesseling, J.; Lips, E. H.; Peeters, M. -J. T. D. F. Vrancken; Loo, C. E.; Sonke, G. S.; Linn, S. C.; Falo Zamora, C.; Rodenhuis, S.

    The Neoadjuvant response index (NRI) has been proposed as a simple measure of downstaging by neoadjuvant treatment in breast cancer. It was previously found to predict recurrence-free survival (RFS) in triple-negative (TN) breast cancer. It was at least as accurate as the standard binary system, the

  6. Cortisol awakening response and negative emotionality linked to asymmetry in major limbic fibre bundle architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Kathrine Skak; Jernigan, Terry L; Iversen, Pernille

    2012-01-01

    The limbic system plays an important role in regulating the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis as well as aspects of emotion, and both neuroendocrine disturbance and increased negative emotionality are associated with risk for developing affective disorders. However, the extent to which...... (CAR) and neuroticism, a personality trait associated with the tendency to experience negative emotions. Sixty-nine healthy adults were studied with diffusion-weighted imaging, and fractional anisotropy (FA) was extracted from the cingulum and uncinate fasciculus. Higher neuroticism scores, which were...... associated with higher CAR, were also correlated with higher right relative to left cingulum FA. Elevated CAR was associated with the degree of FA asymmetry within both the cingulum and the uncinate fasciculus, but in opposing directions. These results suggest that the balance between left- and right...

  7. Age Differences in Affective and Cardiovascular Responses to a Negative Social Interaction: The Role of Goals, Appraisals, and Emotion Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luong, Gloria; Charles, Susan T.

    2014-01-01

    Older adults often report less affective reactivity to interpersonal tensions than younger individuals, but few studies have directly investigated mechanisms explaining this effect. The current study examined whether older adults’ differential endorsement of goals, appraisals, and emotion regulation strategies (i.e., conflict avoidance/de-escalation, self-distraction) during a controlled negative social interaction may explain age differences in affective and cardiovascular responses to the conflict discussion. Participants (N=159; 80 younger adults, 79 older adults) discussed hypothetical dilemmas with disagreeable confederates. Throughout the laboratory session, participants’ subjective emotional experience, blood pressure, and pulse rate were assessed. Older adults generally exhibited less reactivity (negative affect reactivity, diastolic blood pressure reactivity, and pulse rate reactivity) to the task, and more pronounced positive and negative affect recovery following the task, than did younger adults. Older adults appraised the task as more enjoyable and the confederate as more likeable, and more strongly endorsed goals to perform well on the task, which mediated age differences in negative affect reactivity, pulse rate reactivity, and positive affect recovery (i.e., increases in post-task positive affect), respectively. In addition, younger adults showed increased negative affect reactivity with greater use of self-distraction, whereas older adults did not. Together, findings suggest that older adults respond less negatively to unpleasant social interactions than younger adults, and these responses are explained in part by older adults’ pursuit of different motivational goals, less threatening appraisals of the social interaction, and more effective use of self-distraction, compared to younger adults. PMID:24773101

  8. Neurocysticercosis as an important differential of paradoxical response during antituberculosis therapy in HIV-negative patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rivonirina Andry Rakotoarivelo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Neurocysticercosis can simulate a paradoxical response during antituberculosis therapy with neurological ailments. We report the case of a 31 year-old-man, treated for tuberculous meningitis who developed neurological deficit after nine weeks of early antituberculous therapy. The diagnosis of neurocysticercosis was confirmed by CT scan and cerebrospinal fluid analysis. Neurocysticercosis should be sought as an important differential of paradoxical response during antituberculosis therapy.

  9. A negative relationship between ventral striatal loss anticipation response and impulsivity in borderline personality disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Herbort, Maike C.; Soch, Joram; W?stenberg, Torsten; Krauel, Kerstin; Pujara, Maia; Koenigs, Michael; Gallinat, J?rgen; Walter, Henrik; Roepke, Stefan; Schott, Bj?rn H.

    2016-01-01

    Patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD) frequently exhibit impulsive behavior, and self-reported impulsivity is typically higher in BPD patients when compared to healthy controls. Previous functional neuroimaging studies have suggested a link between impulsivity, the ventral striatal response to reward anticipation, and prediction errors. Here we investigated the striatal neural response to monetary gain and loss anticipation and their relationship with impulsivity in 21 female BP...

  10. Mapping and characterization of positive and negative BOLD responses to visual stimulation in multiple brain regions at 7T.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorge, João; Figueiredo, Patrícia; Gruetter, Rolf; van der Zwaag, Wietske

    2018-02-20

    External stimuli and tasks often elicit negative BOLD responses in various brain regions, and growing experimental evidence supports that these phenomena are functionally meaningful. In this work, the high sensitivity available at 7T was explored to map and characterize both positive (PBRs) and negative BOLD responses (NBRs) to visual checkerboard stimulation, occurring in various brain regions within and beyond the visual cortex. Recently-proposed accelerated fMRI techniques were employed for data acquisition, and procedures for exclusion of large draining vein contributions, together with ICA-assisted denoising, were included in the analysis to improve response estimation. Besides the visual cortex, significant PBRs were found in the lateral geniculate nucleus and superior colliculus, as well as the pre-central sulcus; in these regions, response durations increased monotonically with stimulus duration, in tight covariation with the visual PBR duration. Significant NBRs were found in the visual cortex, auditory cortex, default-mode network (DMN) and superior parietal lobule; NBR durations also tended to increase with stimulus duration, but were significantly less sustained than the visual PBR, especially for the DMN and superior parietal lobule. Responses in visual and auditory cortex were further studied for checkerboard contrast dependence, and their amplitudes were found to increase monotonically with contrast, linearly correlated with the visual PBR amplitude. Overall, these findings suggest the presence of dynamic neuronal interactions across multiple brain regions, sensitive to stimulus intensity and duration, and demonstrate the richness of information obtainable when jointly mapping positive and negative BOLD responses at a whole-brain scale, with ultra-high field fMRI. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Quadratic solitons for negative effective second-harmonic diffraction as nonlocal solitons with periodic nonlocal response function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbensen, B.K.; Bache, Morten; Krolikowski, W.

    2012-01-01

    We employ the formal analogy between quadratic and nonlocal solitons to investigate analytically the properties of solitons and soliton bound states in second-harmonic generation in the regime of negative diffraction or dispersion of the second harmonic. We show that in the nonlocal description...... this regime corresponds to a periodic nonlocal response function. We then use the strongly nonlocal approximation to find analytical solutions of the families of single bright solitons and their bound states in terms of Mathieu functions....

  12. HapX positively and negatively regulates the transcriptional response to iron deprivation in Cryptococcus neoformans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Won Hee Jung

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans is a major cause of illness in immunocompromised individuals such as AIDS patients. The ability of the fungus to acquire nutrients during proliferation in host tissue and the ability to elaborate a polysaccharide capsule are critical determinants of disease outcome. We previously showed that the GATA factor, Cir1, is a major regulator both of the iron uptake functions needed for growth in host tissue and the key virulence factors such as capsule, melanin and growth at 37°C. We are interested in further defining the mechanisms of iron acquisition from inorganic and host-derived iron sources with the goal of understanding the nutritional adaptation of C. neoformans to the host environment. In this study, we investigated the roles of the HAP3 and HAPX genes in iron utilization and virulence. As in other fungi, the C. neoformans Hap proteins negatively influence the expression of genes encoding respiratory and TCA cycle functions under low-iron conditions. However, we also found that HapX plays both positive and negative roles in the regulation of gene expression, including a positive regulatory role in siderophore transporter expression. In addition, HapX also positively regulated the expression of the CIR1 transcript. This situation is in contrast to the negative regulation by HapX of genes encoding GATA iron regulatory factors in Aspergillus nidulans and Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Although both hapX and hap3 mutants were defective in heme utilization in culture, only HapX made a contribution to virulence, and loss of HapX in a strain lacking the high-affinity iron uptake system did not cause further attenuation of disease. Therefore, HapX appears to have a minimal role during infection of mammalian hosts and instead may be an important regulator of environmental iron uptake functions. Overall, these results indicated that C. neoformans employs multiple strategies for iron acquisition during infection.

  13. Evaluation of ofloxacin in the treatment of mucopurulent cervicitis: response of chlamydia-positive and chlamydia-negative forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandeying, V; Sutthijumroon, S; Tungphaisal, S

    1989-06-01

    The treatment of mucopurulent cervicitis in nonpregnant women was evaluated in a randomized study. Subjective and objective criteria were used to assess the response of cervicitis to therapy. Forty-three patients (Group I) were treated with Ofloxacin, 100 mg orally twice daily for 10 days, and forty-five patients (Group II) were treated with Ofloxacin, 200 mg orally twice daily for 7 days. Both produced significant improvement in subjective and objective signs of cervicitis; decreasing clinical symptoms, eliminating mucopurulent endocervical findings, and eradicating C. trachomatis. Overall, of the chlamydia-positive form the complete response of Ofloxacin treatment in mucopurulent cervicitis was 18 (60.0%), the partial response was 10 (33.3%), and resistance was 2 (6.6%) of the 30 patients (p = 0.6592). Of the chlamydia-negative form the complete response was 38 (65.5%), the partial response was 20 (34.5%) of the 58 patients (p = 0.9463). C. trachomatis eradication was satisfactory between both treatment regimens; 28 (93.3%) of the 30 women in chlamydia-positive form. This trial shows that both regimens are also beneficial in the treatment of mucopurulent cervicitis either C. trachomatis positive or C. trachomatis negative, and do not differ significantly between both groups (p = 0.1375). No side effects were observed.

  14. Visual mismatch negativity for changes in orientation--a sensory memory-dependent response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astikainen, Piia; Lillstrang, Elina; Ruusuvirta, Timo

    2008-12-01

    It remains unclear whether the mismatch negativity of event-related potentials (ERPs) in vision resembles its auditory counterpart in terms of memory relatedness. We recorded ERPs to visual bars in adult humans engaged in an auditory task. In one condition, a bar ('standard') repeated at 400- or 1100-ms non-stimulated intervals was rarely (P = 0.1) replaced by another bar of a different orientation ('deviant'). In the other condition (400-ms intervals), the occurrences of the standards were replaced by 10 (P = 0.1 each) bars of different orientations, including that of the deviant ('control-deviant'). Deviants shifted ERPs towards negative polarity relative to standards in occipital electrodes and towards positive polarity in frontal electrodes at 185-205 ms post-stimulus but only when 400-ms non-stimulated intervals were applied. Furthermore, the shift existed even relative to ERPs to control-deviants. The findings suggest that, as in audition, vision supports the detection of voluntarily unattended changes per se within the constraints of sensory memory. The findings also pave the way for the future exploration of both intact and impaired memory-based visual processing and memory capacity.

  15. Sample size determination for a three-arm equivalence trial of Poisson and negative binomial responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yu-Wei; Tsong, Yi; Zhao, Zhigen

    2017-01-01

    Assessing equivalence or similarity has drawn much attention recently as many drug products have lost or will lose their patents in the next few years, especially certain best-selling biologics. To claim equivalence between the test treatment and the reference treatment when assay sensitivity is well established from historical data, one has to demonstrate both superiority of the test treatment over placebo and equivalence between the test treatment and the reference treatment. Thus, there is urgency for practitioners to derive a practical way to calculate sample size for a three-arm equivalence trial. The primary endpoints of a clinical trial may not always be continuous, but may be discrete. In this paper, the authors derive power function and discuss sample size requirement for a three-arm equivalence trial with Poisson and negative binomial clinical endpoints. In addition, the authors examine the effect of the dispersion parameter on the power and the sample size by varying its coefficient from small to large. In extensive numerical studies, the authors demonstrate that required sample size heavily depends on the dispersion parameter. Therefore, misusing a Poisson model for negative binomial data may easily lose power up to 20%, depending on the value of the dispersion parameter.

  16. Dominant negative Bmp5 mutation reveals key role of BMPs in skeletal response to mechanical stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kingsley David M

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Over a hundred years ago, Wolff originally observed that bone growth and remodeling are exquisitely sensitive to mechanical forces acting on the skeleton. Clinical studies have noted that the size and the strength of bone increase with weight bearing and muscular activity and decrease with bed rest and disuse. Although the processes of mechanotransduction and functional response of bone to mechanical strain have been extensively studied, the molecular signaling mechanisms that mediate the response of bone cells to mechanical stimulation remain unclear. Results Here, we identify a novel germline mutation at the mouse Bone morphogenetic protein 5 (Bmp5 locus. Genetic analysis shows that the mutation occurs at a site encoding the proteolytic processing sequence of the BMP5 protein and blocks proper processing of BMP5. Anatomic studies reveal that this mutation affects the formation of multiple skeletal features including several muscle-induced skeletal sites in vivo. Biomechanical studies of osteoblasts from these anatomic sites show that the mutation inhibits the proper response of bone cells to mechanical stimulation. Conclusion The results from these genetic, biochemical, and biomechanical studies suggest that BMPs are required not only for skeletal patterning during embryonic development, but also for bone response and remodeling to mechanical stimulation at specific anatomic sites in the skeleton.

  17. Circulatory responses to lower body negative pressure in young Afghans and Danes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmar, Ali; Bülow, Jens; Simonsen, Lene

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: We have previously shown that Afghans residing in Denmark for at least 12 years exhibit a lower 24-h ambulatory blood pressure compared to Danes. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that the lower blood pressure reflects attenuated compensatory baroreflex responses...

  18. Dynamics of brassinosteroid response modulated by negative regulator LIC in rice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cui Zhang

    Full Text Available Brassinosteroids (BRs regulate rice plant architecture, including leaf bending, which affects grain yield. Although BR signaling has been investigated in Arabidopsis thaliana, the components negatively regulating this pathway are less well understood. Here, we demonstrate that Oryza sativa LEAF and TILLER ANGLE INCREASED CONTROLLER (LIC acts as an antagonistic transcription factor of BRASSINAZOLE-RESISTANT 1 (BZR1 to attenuate the BR signaling pathway. The gain-of-function mutant lic-1 and LIC-overexpressing lines showed erect leaves, similar to BZR1-depleted lines, which indicates the opposite roles of LIC and BZR1 in regulating leaf bending. Quantitative PCR revealed LIC transcription rapidly induced by BR treatment. Image analysis and immunoblotting showed that upon BR treatment LIC proteins translocate from the cytoplasm to the nucleus in a phosphorylation-dependent fashion. Phosphorylation assay in vitro revealed LIC phosphorylated by GSK3-like kinases. For negative feedback, LIC bound to the core element CTCGC in the BZR1 promoter on gel-shift and chromatin immunoprecipitation assay and repressed its transcription on transient transformation assay. LIC directly regulated target genes such as INCREASED LEAF INCLINATION 1 (ILI1 to oppose the action of BZR1. Repression of LIC in ILI1 transcription in protoplasts was partially rescued by BZR1. Phenotypic analysis of the crossed lines depleted in both LIC and BZR1 suggested that BZR1 functionally depends on LIC. Molecular and physiology assays revealed that LIC plays a dominant role at high BR levels, whereas BZR1 is dominant at low levels. Thus, LIC regulates rice leaf bending as an antagonistic transcription factor of BZR1. The phenotypes of lic-1 and LIC-overexpressing lines in erect leaves contribute to ideal plant architecture. Improving this phenotype may be a potential approach to molecular breeding for high yield in rice.

  19. Sleep deprivation and stressors: evidence for elevated negative affect in response to mild stressors when sleep deprived.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minkel, Jared D; Banks, Siobhan; Htaik, Oo; Moreta, Marisa C; Jones, Christopher W; McGlinchey, Eleanor L; Simpson, Norah S; Dinges, David F

    2012-10-01

    Stress often co-occurs with inadequate sleep duration, and both are believed to impact mood and emotion. It is not yet known whether inadequate sleep simply increases the intensity of subsequent stress responses or interacts with stressors in more complicated ways. To address this issue, we investigated the effects of one night of total sleep deprivation on subjective stress and mood in response to low-stress and high-stress cognitive testing conditions in healthy adult volunteers in two separate experiments (total N = 53). Sleep was manipulated in a controlled, laboratory setting and stressor intensity was manipulated by changing difficulty of cognitive tasks, time pressure, and feedback about performance. Sleep-deprived participants reported greater subjective stress, anxiety, and anger than rested controls following exposure to the low-stressor condition, but not in response to the high-stressor condition, which elevated negative mood and stress about equally for both sleep conditions. These results suggest that sleep deprivation lowers the psychological threshold for the perception of stress from cognitive demands but does not selectively increase the magnitude of negative affect in response to high-stress performance demands.

  20. SAZ, a new SUPERMAN-like protein, negatively regulates a subset of ABA-responsive genes in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Chang-Jie; Aono, Mitsuko; Tamaoki, Masanori; Maeda, Satoru; Sugano, Shoji; Mori, Masaki; Takatsuji, Hiroshi

    2008-02-01

    Arabidopsis SUPERMAN (SUP) and members of its family are plant-unique C(2)H(2)-type zinc finger genes that have been implicated in plant growth and development. In this paper, we report that a new SUP-family gene, designated as S A- and A BA-downregulated z inc finger gene (SAZ), is involved in the negative regulation of ABA-mediated signaling. SAZ-GUS fusion proteins were predominantly localized in the nuclei when they were transiently expressed in onion epidermal cells. SAZ transcripts were expressed in the leaves and pistils of very young flower buds. In young seedlings, SAZ expression was downregulated in response to environmental stresses such as drought, salt, ozone and ultraviolet-B irradiation. This downregulation was also observed in response to the phytohormones salicylic acid (SA) and abscisic acid (ABA). SA-responsive downregulation of SAZ was not observed in the npr1-1 mutant, indicating that this regulation is NPR1 dependent. RNAi-mediated knockdown of SAZ (SAZ-kd) resulted in elevated expression of the drought- and ABA-responsive genes rd29B and rab18 under unstressed conditions, and it enhanced the response of these genes to drought and ABA treatment. The expression of several other drought- and/or ABA-responsive genes was not affected by SAZ-kd. Based on these results, we propose that SAZ plays a role in repressing a subset of the ABA-mediated stress-responsive genes in unstressed conditions.

  1. Effects of a Negative G Strap on Restraint Dynamics and Human Impact Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-12-01

    experiments. One fracture occurred at a peak acceleration below 20 G, but with a relatively high velocity change of 57 ft/sec ( Lovelace et al 1945...and R. C. Reboulet, October 1978, Photometric Methods for the Analsis of Human Kinematic Responses to Impact Environments, AMRL-TR-78-94 ( ADA -062006...Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio. Lovelace , R., E. Baldes, and V. Wulff, August 1945, The Ejection Seat for Emergency Escape from High-Speed Aircraft

  2. The quantal theory of immunity and the interleukin-2-dependent negative feedback regulation of the immune response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kendall A; Popmihajlov, Zoran

    2008-08-01

    The regulation of the tempo, magnitude, and duration of the immune response has been thought to reside solely with antigen for the past 50 years. However, with the discovery of the interleukins (ILs) 30 years ago, it became evident that these endogenous 'lymphocytotrophic hormones' provide the molecular mechanisms via classic hormone-receptor interactions. However, lacking in the hormonal regulatory capacity of the ILs were negative feedback mechanisms that functioned to switch off the positive driving force of the immune response, whether after antigen was cleared or when antigen persists, as with auto-antigens, tumor antigens, persistent infections, or allografts. Our recent experimental data, reviewed herein, exploring the T-cell antigen receptor (TCR) induction of the negative transcriptional regulator, forkhead box protein 3 (FOXP3), indicate that its expression is signaled by the T-cell growth factor IL-2. Once expressed, FOXP3 functions to restrict IL-2 expression in reaction to continued TCR stimulation. Thus, IL-2 regulates it own levels via a FOXP3-mediated negative feedback loop. In contrast, we found no evidence that FOXP3(+) cells actively suppress IL-2 expression, thereby failing to support the notion that such cells regulate potential effector cells.

  3. Elongated Hypocotyl 5-Homolog (HYH Negatively Regulates Expression of the Ambient Temperature-Responsive MicroRNA Gene MIR169

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phanu T. Serivichyaswat

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Arabidopsis microRNA169 (miR169 is an ambient temperature-responsive microRNA that plays an important role in stress responses and the floral transition. However, the transcription factors that regulate the expression of MIR169 have remained unknown. In this study, we show that Elongated Hypocotyl 5-Homolog (HYH directly binds to the promoter of MIR169a and negatively regulates its expression. Absolute quantification identified MIR169a as the major locus producing miR169. GUS reporter assays revealed that the deletion of a 498-bp fragment (–1,505 to –1,007, relative to the major transcriptional start site of MIR169a abolished its ambient temperature-responsive expression. DNA-affinity chromatography followed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis identified transcription factor HYH as a trans-acting factor that binds to the 498-bp promoter fragment of pri-miR169a. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays and chromatin immunoprecipitation–quantitative PCR demonstrated that the HYH.2 protein, a predominant isoform of HYH, directly associated with a G-box-like motif in the 498-bp fragment of pri-miR169a. Higher enrichment of HYH.2 protein on the promoter region of MIR169a was seen at 23°C, consistent with the presence of more HYH.2 protein in the cell at the temperature. Transcript levels of pri-miR169a increased in hyh mutants and decreased in transgenic plants overexpressing HYH. Consistent with the negative regulation of MIR169a by HYH, the diurnal levels of HYH mRNA and pri-miR169a showed opposite patterns. Taken together, our results suggest that HYH is a transcription factor that binds to a G-box-like motif in the MIR169a promoter and negatively regulates ambient temperature-responsive expression of MIR169a at higher temperatures in Arabidopsis.

  4. The bovine acute phase response to endotoxin and Gram-negative bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Stine

    -induced anorexia and ruminal hypomotility may be detrimental for lactating dairy cows, since these cows are highly dependent on continuous feed intake to avoid severe metabolic disturbances. Furthermore, depression of the cytokine-producing capacity of circulating PBMCs may result in aberrant innate immune...... not undermine this concept as such, but given the significant individual variation in APP response, caution is certainly warranted when absolute concentrations of SAA and haptoglobin are used to interpret disease status in individual cows. In the experimental mastitis model, SAA concentrations in plasma...

  5. Need to Belong, Not Rejection Sensitivity, Moderates Cortisol Response, Self-Reported Stress, and Negative Affect Following Social Exclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beekman, Janine B; Stock, Michelle L; Marcus, Tara

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined if the traits need to belong (NTB) and rejection sensitivity (RS) differentially moderate the impact of experimentally manipulated social exclusion on stress and affect. Participants (N = 132) completed a survey measuring NTB and RS, and then were randomly assigned to be included or excluded during a game of Cyberball. A second survey then assessed perceived stress and negative affect, and a cortisol sample was taken. Controlling for gender and baseline cortisol levels, excluded participants high (vs. low) in NTB had significantly higher postexclusion cortisol levels, and reported greater perceived stress and negative affect. The moderating effect for RS was not found, however, and NTB and RS were not correlated. Findings suggest that the NTB moderates psychological and physiological responses to exclusion.

  6. Women's political participation leads to stronger local economies ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Edgard Rodriguez - IDRC. Women attend a self-help group meeting near Hyderabad, India. Keenara Khanderia. Under changes to India's constitution, Indian women are gaining a stronger political voice. Legal reforms are encouraging women to contribute to economic growth and investments in community growth.

  7. A Stronger Reason for the Right to Sign Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trovato, Sara

    2013-01-01

    Is the right to sign language only the right to a minority language? Holding a capability (not a disability) approach, and building on the psycholinguistic literature on sign language acquisition, I make the point that this right is of a stronger nature, since only sign languages can guarantee that each deaf child will properly develop the…

  8. Ocular surface squamous neoplasia in HIV-positive and HIV-negative patients and response to 5-fluorouracil in Angola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nutt RJ

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Robert J Nutt,1 John L Clements,2 William H Dean3 1Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK; 2Boa Vista Eye Clinic, Benguela, Angola; 3Bristol Eye Hospital, Bristol, UK Background: Ocular surface squamous neoplasia (OSSN is becoming increasingly prevalent and aggressive in Sub-Saharan Africa. It is a phenomenon linked with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection, although association rates in Angola are currently unknown. A topical treatment that is effective in HIV-positive and HIV-negative individuals may be preferable to surgery in some contexts. We aimed to estimate the proportion of OSSN associated with HIV in Angola and to report on the success of topical 5-fluorouracil as a primary treatment in HIV-positive and HIV-negative patients.Methods: Photographs of OSSNs taken at presentation and following treatment with 5-fluorouracil in patients presenting to Boa Vista Eye Clinic, Angola, between October 2011 and July 2013 were grouped into HIV-positive and HIV-negative groups and analyzed to compare presenting features and treatment response. Eighty-one OSSNs were analyzed for clinical features and 24 met the inclusion criteria for analysis of treatment response.Results: Eighty-two patients presented with OSSN between October 2011 and July 2013. Twenty-one (26% were HIV-positive and typically had OSSNs that exhibited more pathological features than those in HIV-negative patients. Twenty-four (29% patients met the inclusion criteria for analysis of treatment response; of these, 26 (91% OSSNs in both groups displayed at least partial resolution after one treatment course. In the HIV-positive group, five of eight patients displayed complete resolution, two showed partial resolution, and one failed. In the HIV-negative group, five of 16 showed complete resolution, ten of 16 had partial resolution, and one failed.Conclusion: Individuals presenting with OSSN in Angola are more likely to have HIV infection compared

  9. Hemodynamic responses to seated and supine lower body negative pressure - Comparison with +Gz acceleration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polese, Alvese; Sandler, Harold; Montgomery, Leslie D.

    1992-01-01

    The hemodynamic responses to LBNP in seated subjects and in subjects in supine body positions were compared and were correlated with hemodynamic changes which occurred during a simulated (by centrifugation) Shuttle reentry acceleration with a slow onset rate of 0.002 G/s and during gradual onset exposures to +3 Gz and +4 Gz. Results demonstrate that seated LBNP at a level of -40 mm Hg can serve as a static simulator for changes in the heart rate and in mean blood pressure induced by gradual onset acceleration stress occurring during Shuttle reentry. The findings also provide a rationale for using LBNP during weightlessness as a means of imposing G-loading on the circulation prior to reentry.

  10. Preventing the Development of Observationally Learnt Fears in Children by Devaluing the Model's Negative Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Gemma; Field, Andy P; Askew, Chris

    2015-10-01

    Vicarious learning has become an established indirect pathway to fear acquisition. It is generally accepted that associative learning processes underlie vicarious learning; however, whether this association is a form of conditioned stimulus-unconditioned stimulus (CS-US) learning or stimulus-response (CS-CR) learning remains unclear. Traditionally, these types of learning can be dissociated in a US revaluation procedure. The current study explored the effects of post-vicarious learning US revaluation on acquired fear responses. Ninety-four children (46 males and 48 females) aged 6 to 10 years first viewed either a fear vicarious learning video or a neutral vicarious learning video followed by random allocation to one of three US revaluation conditions: inflation; deflation; or control. Inflation group children were presented with still images of the adults in the video and told that the accompanying sound and image of a very fast heart rate monitor belonged to the adult. The deflation group were shown the same images but with the sound and image of a normal heart rate. The control group received no US revaluation. Results indicated that inflating how scared the models appeared to be did not result in significant increases in children's fear beliefs, avoidance preferences, avoidance behavior or heart rate for animals above increases caused by vicarious learning. In contrast, US devaluation resulted in significant decreases in fear beliefs and avoidance preferences. Thus, the findings provide evidence that CS-US associations underpin vicarious learning and suggest that US devaluation may be a successful method for preventing children from developing fear beliefs following a traumatic vicarious learning episode with a stimulus.

  11. One Year After Fukushima, Nuclear Safety Is Stronger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    Full text: Nuclear power is safer than it was a year ago as the nuclear industry, regulators and governments act on the lessons of Fukushima, but that safety must never be taken for granted, said Yukiya Amano, Director General of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). Speaking ahead of the first anniversary of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident on 11 March, Amano said a culture of constant vigilance and improvement was vital to ensure that the benefits of nuclear power could be harnessed as safely as humanly possible. 'Nuclear safety is stronger than it was a year ago', he said. 'Fukushima Daiichi was a very serious accident, but we know what went wrong and we have a clear course of action to tackle those causes - not only in Japan, but anywhere in the world. 'Now we have to keep up the momentum. Complacency can kill'. On 11 March 2011 a huge earthquake and tsunami left more than 20 000 people dead or missing in eastern Japan. Amidst widespread destruction, the tsunami slammed into the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station, disabling cooling systems and leading to fuel meltdowns in three of the six Units. The accident was a jolt to the nuclear industry, regulators and governments. It was triggered by a massive force of nature, but it was existing weaknesses of design regarding defence against natural hazards, regulatory oversight, accident management and emergency response that allowed it to unfold as it did. For example: The nuclear regulator was not sufficiently independent, allowing weak oversight of the operator, TEPCO, and regulatory requirements fell short of international best practice; Not enough attention was paid to guarding against possible extreme events at the Fukushima Daiichi site, leaving critical safety functions such as cooling systems vulnerable to the tsunami; Training to respond to serious accidents was inadequate, as were mitigation measures to prevent hydrogen explosions and protect the venting system; and Accident command lines

  12. SlBIR3 Negatively Regulates PAMP Responses and Cell Death in Tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuhua Huang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Bri1-associated kinase 1 (BAK1-interacting receptor-like kinase (BIR proteins have been shown to play important roles in regulating growth and development, pathogen associated molecular pattern (PAMP-triggered immunity (PTI responses, and cell death in the model plant, Arabidopsis thaliana. We identified four BIR family members in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum, including SlBIR3, an ortholog of AtBIR3 from A. thaliana. SlBIR3 is predicted to encode a membrane localized non-arginine-aspartate (non-RD kinase that, based on protein sequence, does not have autophosphorylation activity but that can be phosphorylated in vivo. We established that SlBIR3 interacts with SlBAK1 and AtBAK1 using yeast two-hybrid assays and co-immunoprecipitation and maltose-binding protein pull down assays. We observed that SlBIR3 overexpression in tomato (cv. micro-tom and A. thaliana has weak effect on growth and development through brassinosteroid (BR signaling. SlBIR3 overexpression in A. thaliana suppressed flg22-induced defense responses, but did not affect infection with the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae (PstDC3000. This result was confirmed using virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS in tomato in conjunction with PstDC3000 infection. Overexpression of SlBIR3 in tomato (cv. micro-tom and A. thaliana resulted in enhanced susceptibility to the necrotrophic fungus Botrytis cinerea. In addition, co-silencing SlBIR3 with SlSERK3A or SlSERK3B using VIGS and the tobacco rattle virus (TRV-RNA2 vector containing fragments of both the SlSERK3 and SlBIR3 genes induced spontaneous cell death, indicating a cooperation between the two proteins in this process. In conclusion, our study revealed that SlBIR3 is the ortholog of AtBIR3 and that it participates in BR, PTI, and cell death signaling pathways.

  13. Whole blood transcriptome analysis reveals potential competition in metabolic pathways between negative energy balance and response to inflammatory challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouvier-Muller, Juliette; Allain, Charlotte; Tabouret, Guillaume; Enjalbert, Francis; Portes, David; Noirot, Céline; Rupp, Rachel; Foucras, Gilles

    2017-05-24

    Negative Energy Balance (NEB) is considered to increase susceptibility to mastitis. The objective of this study was to improve our understanding of the underlying mechanisms by comparing transcriptomic profiles following NEB and a concomitant mammary inflammation. Accordingly, we performed RNA-seq analysis of blood cells in energy-restricted ewes and control-diet ewes at four different time points before and after intra mammary challenge with phlogogenic ligands. Blood leucocytes responded to NEB by shutting down lipid-generating processes, including cholesterol and fatty acid synthesis, probably under transcriptional control of SREBF 1. Furthermore, fatty acid oxidation was activated and glucose oxidation and transport inhibited in response to energy restriction. Among the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in response to energy restriction, 64 genes were also differential in response to the inflammatory challenge. Opposite response included the activation of cholesterol and fatty acid synthesis during the inflammatory challenge. Moreover, activation of glucose oxidation and transport coupled with the increase of plasma glucose concentration in response to the inflammatory stimuli suggested a preferential utilization of glucose as the energy source during this stress. Leucocyte metabolism therefore undergoes strong metabolic changes during an inflammatory challenge, which could be in competition with those induced by energy restriction.

  14. Negative responses of Collembola in a forest soil (Alptal, Switzerland) under experimentally increased N deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu Guoliang, E-mail: xugl@scbg.ac.c [Institute of Ecology, South China Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510650 (China); Schleppi, Patrick; Li Maihe [Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research, CH-8903 Birmensdorf (Switzerland); Fu Shenglei, E-mail: sfu@scib.ac.c [Institute of Ecology, South China Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510650 (China)

    2009-07-15

    The response of specific groups of organisms, like Collembola to atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition is still scarcely known. We investigated the Collembola community in a subalpine forest (Alptal, Switzerland) as subjected for 12 years to an experimentally increased N deposition (+25 on top of ambient 12 kg N ha{sup -1} year{sup -1}). In the 0-5 cm soil layer, there was a tendency of total Collembola densities to be lower in N-treated than in control plots. The density of Isotomiella minor, the most abundant species, was significantly reduced by the N addition. A tendency of lower Collembola group richness was observed in N-treated plots. The Density-Group index (d{sub DG}) showed a significant reduction of community diversity, but the Shannon-Wiener index (H') was not significantly affected by the N addition. The Collembola community can be considered as a bioindicator of N inputs exceeding the biological needs, namely, soil N saturation. - Collembola community, which was significantly affected by a long-term N addition experiment, can be considered as a bioindicator of N saturation.

  15. Impact analyses for negative flexural responses (hogging) in railway prestressed concrete sleepers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaewunruen, S.; Ishida, T.; Remennikov, AM

    2016-09-01

    By nature, ballast interacts with railway concrete sleepers in order to provide bearing support to track system. Most train-track dynamic models do not consider the degradation of ballast over time. In fact, the ballast degradation causes differential settlement and impact forces acting on partial and unsupported tracks. Furthermore, localised ballast breakages underneath railseat increase the likelihood of centrebound cracks in concrete sleepers due to the unbalanced support under sleepers. This paper presents a dynamic finite element model of a standard-gauge concrete sleeper in a track system, taking into account the tensionless nature of ballast support. The finite element model was calibrated using static and dynamic responses in the past. In this paper, the effects of centre-bound ballast support on the impact behaviours of sleepers are highlighted. In addition, it is the first to demonstrate the dynamic effects of sleeper length on the dynamic design deficiency in concrete sleepers. The outcome of this study will benefit the rail maintenance criteria of track resurfacing in order to restore ballast profile and appropriate sleeper/ballast interaction.

  16. Chinua Achebe's novel Things fall apart as a response to the negative portrayal of Africans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Babnik

    2009-12-01

    Given that Achebe’s fi rst novel, whose publication sparked an incident at Ibadan University in 1952, was in itself an act of rebellion and a form of rejoinder to the colonial representation of Africans, it is understandable that the absence of personality, historicity, and understanding are integral to his novels. Writing an »African« novel or »anti-novel« meant transcending the »objectivity« of colonial discourse and drawing into one’s consciousness the history and culture of the Igbo people (primarily from southeast Nigeria, although the description of pre-colonial society at the moment of its fi rst contact with the white man does not imply a nostalgic return to the past, as is notable for instance in the négritude movement. Th e potency of Achebe’s novel lies in the fact that by invoking Igbo culture he has turned the colonial perception of Africans as inferior on its head, although the anti-colonial dialectics are intimately bound up with his representation of the African woman. Achebe’s women are marginalized just as in Fanon’s work – the novel Th ings Fall Apart is in some ways a response to Fanon’s theoretical work Th e Wretched of the Earth. Women in Achebe’s trilogy Th ings Fall Apart, No Longer at Ease, and Arrow of God have above all a symbolic and metaphorical role, being represented as the mother of the land, whereas men are individual fi gures. Th is representation of women is linked to the fact that the fi rst two novels, which were written before the independence of Nigeria in 1960, develop the idea of the national struggle for liberation, which reaffi rms the humanity and manhood of the colonized, whereas colonialism only assigned to Africans the attributes of children or at best those of women. In Achebe’s favor, one can say that Okunkwo, as the reincarnation of the social ideal of manhood, is continually fi ghting with the basic tenet of both the preceding (i.e., his father’s and future (i.e., his son’s generation

  17. The effect of blood volume loss on cardiovascular response to lower body negative pressure using a mathematical model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karam, E. H.; Srinivasan, R. S.; Charles, J. B.; Fortney, S. M.

    1994-01-01

    Different mathematical models of varying complexity have been proposed in recent years to study the cardiovascular (CV) system. However, only a few of them specifically address the response to lower body negative pressure (LBNP), a stress that can be applied in weightlessness to predict changes in orthostatic tolerance. Also, the simulated results produced by these models agree only partially with experimental observations. In contrast, the model proposed by Melchior et al., and modified by Karam et al. is a simple representation of the CV system capable of accurately reproducing observed LBNP responses up to presyncopal levels. There are significant changes in LBNP response due to a loss of blood volume and other alterations that occur in weightlessness and related one-g conditions such as bedrest. A few days of bedrest can cause up to 15% blood volume loss (BVL), with consequent decreases in both stroke volume and cardiac output, and increases in heart rate, mean arterial pressure, and total peripheral resistance. These changes are more pronounced at higher levels of LBNP. This paper presents the results of a simulation study using our CV model to examine the effect of BVL on LBNP response.

  18. Predatory blue crabs induce stronger nonconsumptive effects in eastern oysters Crassostrea virginica than scavenging blue crabs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avery E. Scherer

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available By influencing critical prey traits such as foraging or habitat selection, predators can affect entire ecosystems, but the nature of cues that trigger prey reactions to predators are not well understood. Predators may scavenge to supplement their energetic needs and scavenging frequency may vary among individuals within a species due to preferences and prey availability. Yet prey reactions to consumers that are primarily scavengers versus those that are active foragers have not been investigated, even though variation in prey reactions to scavengers or predators might influence cascading nonconsumptive effects in food webs. Oysters Crassostrea virginica react to crab predators by growing stronger shells. We exposed oysters to exudates from crabs fed live oysters or fed aged oyster tissue to simulate scavenging, and to controls without crab cues. Oysters grew stronger shells when exposed to either crab exudate, but their shells were significantly stronger when crabs were fed live oysters. The stronger response to predators than scavengers could be due to inherent differences in diet cues representative of reduced risk in the presence of scavengers or to degradation of conspecific alarm cues in aged treatments, which may mask risk from potential predators subsisting by scavenging.

  19. Stronger declines in youth alcohol consumption thanks to stronger integrated alcohol policies? A qualitative comparison of ten Dutch municipalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Goeij, Moniek C M; Harting, Janneke; Kunst, Anton E

    2017-03-02

    Little detailed evidence is available on how integrated policies could impact population health and under what conditions such policies could be realized. The aim of this study was to assess how youth alcohol consumption trends in the province of Noord-Brabant, The Netherlands, were related to the development and implementation of integrated policies. In a retrospective multiple case study, alcohol policies of six municipalities with stronger declines in youth alcohol consumption between 2007 and 2011 (cases) were compared to four municipalities with weaker declines (controls). Information on the policy process in the same period was obtained through semi-structured in-depth interviews with policy advisors. Information on implemented interventions was extracted from policy documents and checked by the interviewees. Interviews were analyzed for thematic content. Only municipalities with stronger declines in alcohol consumption involved sectors other than public health and had started to implement interventions that use regulatory or enforcement strategies. Their involvement was facilitated by framing youth alcohol consumption as a safety rather than a health problem, whereby local media played a substantial role. Implementation of integrated policies was further facilitated by dedicated leadership and sufficient resources. Reductions in youth alcohol consumption in Noord-Brabant were stronger when municipalities started to develop integrated policies. Results suggest that integrated policies framing a health problem as a broader societal problem could positively influence population health.

  20. N1 response attenuation and the mismatch negativity (MMN) to within- and across-category phonetic contrasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Daniel M R; Melges, Danilo B; Rothe-Neves, Rui

    2017-04-01

    According to the neural adaptation model of the mismatch negativity (MMN), the sensitivity of this event-related response to both acoustic and categorical information in speech sounds can be accounted for by assuming that (a) the degree of overlapping between neural representations of two sounds depends on both the acoustic difference between them and whether or not they belong to distinct phonetic categories, and (b) a release from stimulus-specific adaptation causes an enhanced N1 obligatory response to infrequent deviant stimuli. On the basis of this view, we tested in Experiment 1 whether the N1 response to the second sound of a pair (S 2 ) would be more attenuated in pairs of identical vowels compared with pairs of different vowels, and in pairs of exemplars of the same vowel category compared with pairs of exemplars of different categories. The psychoacoustic distance between S 1 and S 2 was the same for all within-category and across-category pairs. While N1 amplitudes decreased markedly from S 1 to S 2 , responses to S 2 were quite similar across pair types, indicating that the attenuation effect in such conditions is not stimulus specific. In Experiment 2, a pronounced MMN was elicited by a deviant vowel sound in an across-category oddball sequence, but not when the exact same deviant vowel was presented in a within-category oddball sequence. This adds evidence that MMN reflects categorical phonetic processing. Taken together, the results suggest that different neural processes underlie the attenuation of the N1 response to S 2 and the MMN to vowels. © 2017 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  1. The IDA-LIKE peptides IDL6 and IDL7 are negative modulators of stress responses in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vie, Ane Kjersti; Najafi, Javad; Winge, Per; Cattan, Ester; Wrzaczek, Michael; Kangasjärvi, Jaakko; Miller, Gad; Brembu, Tore; Bones, Atle M

    2017-06-15

    Small signalling peptides have emerged as important cell to cell messengers in plant development and stress responses. However, only a few of the predicted peptides have been functionally characterized. Here, we present functional characterization of two members of the IDA-LIKE (IDL) peptide family in Arabidopsis thaliana, IDL6 and IDL7. Localization studies suggest that the peptides require a signal peptide and C-terminal processing to be correctly transported out of the cell. Both IDL6 and IDL7 appear to be unstable transcripts under post-transcriptional regulation. Treatment of plants with synthetic IDL6 and IDL7 peptides resulted in down-regulation of a broad range of stress-responsive genes, including early stress-responsive transcripts, dominated by a large group of ZINC FINGER PROTEIN (ZFP) genes, WRKY genes, and genes encoding calcium-dependent proteins. IDL7 expression was rapidly induced by hydrogen peroxide, and idl7 and idl6 idl7 double mutants displayed reduced cell death upon exposure to extracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). Co-treatment of the bacterial elicitor flg22 with IDL7 peptide attenuated the rapid ROS burst induced by treatment with flg22 alone. Taken together, our results suggest that IDL7, and possibly IDL6, act as negative modulators of stress-induced ROS signalling in Arabidopsis. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  2. Cortisol response to an induction of negative affect among adolescents with and without loss of control eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radin, Rachel M; Shomaker, Lauren B; Kelly, Nichole R; Pickworth, Courtney K; Thompson, Katherine A; Brady, Sheila M; Demidowich, Andrew; Galescu, Ovidiu; Altschul, Anne M; Shank, Lisa M; Yanovski, Susan Z; Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian; Yanovski, Jack A

    2016-12-01

    Adults with binge eating disorder may have an exaggerated or blunted cortisol response to stress. Yet, limited data exist among youth who report loss of control (LOC) eating, a developmental precursor to binge eating disorder. We studied cortisol reactivity among 178 healthy adolescents with and without LOC eating. Following a buffet lunch meal adolescents were randomly assigned to watch a neutral or sad film clip. After, they were offered snacks from a multi-item array to assess eating in the absence of hunger. Salivary cortisol was collected at -80, 0, 30 and 50 min relative to film administration, and state mood ratings were reported before and after the film. Adolescents with LOC had greater increases in negative affect during the experimental paradigm in both conditions (ps > 0.05). Depressive symptoms, but not LOC, related to a greater cortisol response in the sad film condition (ps > 0.05). Depressive symptoms and state LOC were related to different aspects of eating behaviour, independent of film condition or cortisol response (ps > 0.05). A film clip that induced depressed state affect increased salivary cortisol only in adolescents with more elevated depressive symptoms. Adolescents with and without LOC were differentiated by greater increases in state depressed affect during laboratory test meals but had no difference in cortisol reactivity. Future studies are required to determine if adolescents with LOC manifest alterations in stress reactivity to alternative stress-inducing situations. © 2015 World Obesity Federation.

  3. Helicobacter pylori infection associates with a mucosal downregulation of ghrelin, negative regulator of Th1-cell responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paoluzi, Omero Alessandro; Del Vecchio Blanco, Giovanna; Caruso, Roberta; Monteleone, Ivan; Caprioli, Flavio; Tesauro, Manfredi; Turriziani, Mario; Monteleone, Giovanni; Pallone, Francesco

    2013-12-01

    Helicobacter pylori (Hp)-related gastritis is characterized by a predominant T helper (Th)1/Th17 cell immunity. Ghrelin (GR) has immunoregulatory properties and inhibits experimental Th cell-dependent pathology. To evaluate whether Hp infection associates with changes in GR expression and whether GR negatively regulates Th1/Th17 cytokines during Hp infection. GR expression was evaluated by real-time PCR in gastric biopsies taken from Hp-infected and Hp-uninfected patients and in gastric biopsies of Hp-negative subjects cultured with or without H. pylori culture supernatant. To examine whether GR regulates Hp-induced cytokine production, H. pylori-infected gastric biopsies were stimulated with GR, and interleukin (IL)-12, interferon (IFN)-γ and IL-4 transcripts were evaluated by real-time PCR. IL-12 and IFN-γ were also analyzed in lamina propria mononuclear cells (LPMCs) extracted from Hp-infected gastric biopsies and cultured with GR. GR RNA transcripts were reduced in biopsies from Hp-infected patients. Treatment of Hp-negative gastric biopsies with Hp culture supernatant reduced GR RNA expression. GR dose-dependently inhibited RNA expression of IL-12 and IFN-γ but not IL-4 in ex vivo cultures of mucosal explants and in cultures of gastric LPMCs from Hp-positive patients. GR is downregulated in the gastric mucosa of H. pylori-infected patients. Such a defect could contribute to sustain the ongoing Th1-cell response. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Response and binding elements for ligand-dependent positive transcription factors integrate positive and negative regulation of gene expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenfeld, M.G.; Glass, C.K.; Adler, S.; Crenshaw, E.B. III; He, X.; Lira, S.A.; Elsholtz, H.P.; Mangalam, H.J.; Holloway, J.M.; Nelson, C.; Albert, V.R.; Ingraham, H.A.

    1988-01-01

    Accurate, regulated initiation of mRNA transcription by RNA polymerase II is dependent on the actions of a variety of positive and negative trans-acting factors that bind cis-acting promoter and enhancer elements. These transcription factors may exert their actions in a tissue-specific manner or function under control of plasma membrane or intracellular ligand-dependent receptors. A major goal in the authors' laboratory has been to identify the molecular mechanisms responsible for the serial activation of hormone-encoding genes in the pituitary during development and the positive and negative regulation of their transcription. The anterior pituitary gland contains phenotypically distinct cell types, each of which expresses unique trophic hormones: adrenocorticotropic hormone, thyroid-stimulating hormone, prolactin, growth hormone, and follicle-stimulating hormone/luteinizing hormone. The structurally related prolactin and growth hormone genes are expressed in lactotrophs and somatotrophs, respectively, with their expression virtually limited to the pituitary gland. The reported transient coexpression of these two structurally related neuroendocrine genes raises the possibility that the prolactin and growth hormone genes are developmentally controlled by a common factor(s)

  5. Environmental stewardship and corporate social responsibility: Implication for consumers’ resistance to negative information. The case of apple in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Larbi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available There are several studies that have investigated the effect of corporate social responsibility (CSR on consumer behavior. However, these studies demonstrate conflicting results on how CSR influences consumer purchasing behavior and retention; for example, in event of negative information about a firm. Therefore, the effectiveness of CSR in advancing the core business of firms remains unresolved. This research uses a qualitative approach to examine how CSR affords firms greater levels of goodwill with consumers. The study focuses on the case of Apple in China. Both primary and secondary data were collected through interviews, review of literature, newspaper reports, blogs, social media, and official websites of institutions and corporate entities. A deductive analytical approach was used to examine how consumers perceive CSR, and how that impacts on their attitude towards a firm when confronted with negative information. The study found low level of awareness of CSR in consumers. Moreover, the findings demonstrate that consumers tend to attach more importance to CSR when they identify with the problems associated with the actions or inactions of a firm. The study shows that firms can only enjoy the full benefits of CSR by creating public awareness of such endeavours

  6. Stronger misdirection in curved than in straight motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge eOtero-Millan

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Illusions developed by magicians are a rich and largely untapped source of insight into perception and cognition. Here we show that curved motion, as employed by the magician in a classic sleight of hand trick, generates stronger misdirection than rectilinear motion, and that this difference can be explained by the differential engagement of the smooth pursuit and the saccadic oculomotor systems. This research moreover exemplifies how the magician’s intuitive understanding of the spectator’s mindset can surpass that of the cognitive scientist in specific instances, and that observation-based behavioral insights developed by magicians are worthy of quantitative investigation in the neuroscience laboratory.

  7. Negative and positive participant responses to the composite international diagnostic interview - Results of the Netherlands Mental Health Survey and Incidence Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graaf, R. de; Have, M.L. ten; Dorsselaer, S.A.F.M. van; Schoemaker, C.G.; Vollebergh, W.A.M.

    2004-01-01

    Little is known about the emotional responses of participants in community surveys to standardised psychiatric interviews like the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). This study investigates the proportion of subjects responding negatively or positively to the CIDI, and identifies

  8. Tomato NAC transcription factor SlSRN1 positively regulates defense response against biotic stress but negatively regulates abiotic stress response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Liu

    Full Text Available Biotic and abiotic stresses are major unfavorable factors that affect crop productivity worldwide. NAC proteins comprise a large family of transcription factors that play important roles in plant growth and development as well as in responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. In a virus-induced gene silencing-based screening to identify genes that are involved in defense response against Botrytis cinerea, we identified a tomato NAC gene SlSRN1 (Solanum lycopersicum Stress-related NAC1. SlSRN1 is a plasma membrane-localized protein with transactivation activity in yeast. Expression of SlSRN1 was significantly induced by infection with B. cinerea or Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst DC3000, leading to 6-8 folds higher than that in the mock-inoculated plants. Expression of SlSRN1 was also induced by salicylic acid, jasmonic acid and 1-amino cyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid and by drought stress. Silencing of SlSRN1 resulted in increased severity of diseases caused by B. cinerea and Pst DC3000. However, silencing of SlSRN1 resulted in increased tolerance against oxidative and drought stresses. Furthermore, silencing of SlSRN1 accelerated accumulation of reactive oxygen species but attenuated expression of defense genes after infection by B. cinerea. Our results demonstrate that SlSRN1 is a positive regulator of defense response against B. cinerea and Pst DC3000 but is a negative regulator for oxidative and drought stress response in tomato.

  9. Tomato NAC transcription factor SlSRN1 positively regulates defense response against biotic stress but negatively regulates abiotic stress response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bo; Ouyang, Zhigang; Zhang, Yafen; Li, Xiaohui; Hong, Yongbo; Huang, Lei; Liu, Shixia; Zhang, Huijuan; Li, Dayong; Song, Fengming

    2014-01-01

    Biotic and abiotic stresses are major unfavorable factors that affect crop productivity worldwide. NAC proteins comprise a large family of transcription factors that play important roles in plant growth and development as well as in responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. In a virus-induced gene silencing-based screening to identify genes that are involved in defense response against Botrytis cinerea, we identified a tomato NAC gene SlSRN1 (Solanum lycopersicum Stress-related NAC1). SlSRN1 is a plasma membrane-localized protein with transactivation activity in yeast. Expression of SlSRN1 was significantly induced by infection with B. cinerea or Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst) DC3000, leading to 6-8 folds higher than that in the mock-inoculated plants. Expression of SlSRN1 was also induced by salicylic acid, jasmonic acid and 1-amino cyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid and by drought stress. Silencing of SlSRN1 resulted in increased severity of diseases caused by B. cinerea and Pst DC3000. However, silencing of SlSRN1 resulted in increased tolerance against oxidative and drought stresses. Furthermore, silencing of SlSRN1 accelerated accumulation of reactive oxygen species but attenuated expression of defense genes after infection by B. cinerea. Our results demonstrate that SlSRN1 is a positive regulator of defense response against B. cinerea and Pst DC3000 but is a negative regulator for oxidative and drought stress response in tomato.

  10. Negative affectivity and social inhibition in cardiovascular disease: evaluating type-D personality and its assessment using item response theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emons, Wilco H M; Meijer, Rob R; Denollet, Johan

    2007-07-01

    Individuals with increased levels of both negative affectivity (NA) and social inhibition (SI)-referred to as type-D personality-are at increased risk of adverse cardiac events. We used item response theory (IRT) to evaluate NA, SI, and type-D personality as measured by the DS14. The objectives of this study were (a) to evaluate the relative contribution of individual items to the measurement precision at the cutoff to distinguish type-D from non-type-D personality and (b) to investigate the comparability of NA, SI, and type-D constructs across the general population and clinical populations. Data from representative samples including 1316 respondents from the general population, 427 respondents diagnosed with coronary heart disease, and 732 persons suffering from hypertension were analyzed using the graded response IRT model. In Study 1, the information functions obtained in the IRT analysis showed that (a) all items had highest measurement precision around the cutoff and (b) items are most informative at the higher end of the scale. In Study 2, the IRT analysis showed that measurements were fairly comparable across the general population and clinical populations. The DS14 adequately measures NA and SI, with highest reliability in the trait range around the cutoff. The DS14 is a valid instrument to assess and compare type-D personality across clinical groups.

  11. Negative rebound and disinvestment effects in response to an improvement in energy efficiency in the UK economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, Karen

    2009-01-01

    This paper uses a computable general equilibrium (CGE) framework to investigate the conditions under which rebound effects may occur in response to increases in energy efficiency in the UK national economy. Previous work for the UK has suggested that rebound effects will occur even where key elasticities of substitution in production are set close to zero. The research reported in this paper involves carrying out a systematic sensitivity analysis, where relative price sensitivity is gradually introduced into the system, focusing specifically on elasticities of substitution in production and trade parameters, in order to determine conditions under which rebound effects become a likely outcome. The main result is that, while there is positive pressure for rebound effects even where (direct and indirect) demands for energy are very price inelastic, this may be partially or wholly offset by negative income, competitiveness and disinvestment effects, which also occur in response to falling energy prices. The occurrence of disinvestment effects is of particular interest. These occur where falling energy prices reduce profitability in domestic energy supply sectors, leading to a contraction in capital stock in these sectors, which may in turn lead to rebound effects that are smaller in the long run than in the short run, a result that runs contrary to the predictions of previous theoretical work in this area. (author)

  12. Emotional arousal and recognition memory are differentially reflected in pupil diameter responses during emotional memory for negative events in younger and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hämmerer, Dorothea; Hopkins, Alexandra; Betts, Matthew J; Maaß, Anne; Dolan, Ray J; Düzel, Emrah

    2017-10-01

    A better memory for negative emotional events is often attributed to a conjoint impact of increased arousal and noradrenergic modulation (NA). A decline in NA during aging is well documented but its impact on memory function during aging is unclear. Using pupil diameter (PD) as a proxy for NA, we examined age differences in memory for negative events in younger (18-30 years) and older (62-83 years) adults based on a segregation of early arousal to negative events, and later retrieval-related PD responses. In keeping with the hypothesis of reduced age-related NA influences, older adults showed attenuated induced PD responses to negative emotional events. The findings highlight a likely contribution of NA to negative emotional memory, mediated via arousal that may be compromised with aging. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Understanding consumer's responses to negative emotions related to crowding on satisfaction and impulse purchase in retail: the mediating role of coping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlette Cassia Oliveira Ferreira

    Full Text Available Abstract The perception of crowding, understood as an individual's response to crowds, can be observed in retail environments and influences positive and negative emotions. In this research we test the mediating effect of coping – rational strategies adopted to deal with negative emotions – in the relationship between negative emotions (resulting from crowding perception and consumer behavior (measured by impulse purchase and satisfaction. The findings related to coping explain to what extent there is a positive response to human density in the retail environment. For this, a theoretical model was developed which includes the relationships among perception of crowding, positive and negative emotions, and consumer behavior. The model enhances the understanding of the crowding phenomenon by including relationships mediated by an oppositional strategy (coping dimension between negative emotions and consumer behaviors. To test the theoretical model, a survey was conducted with 456 respondents and hypothesis tests using structural equation modeling. It was evidenced that crowding perception has more robust effects on negative emotions than positive emotions. It is emphasized that with the inclusion of opposition mediation, the weak direct relationship between negative emotions and behaviors, becomes a positive relationship between negative emotion and impulse purchase, and negative emotion and satisfaction. In addition to the theoretical contributions of the tested model, future research and managerial implications are proposed at the end of the article.

  14. Clinical Initial Response of Neoadjuvant Chemotheraphy in Triple Negative, HER-2, and Luminal Types of Breast Cancer in Denpasar (A Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristianto Yuli Yarso

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Triple Negative, Luminal, HER-2 subtypes of breast cancer are markers to predict behavior, aggressiveness, and response to chemotherapy. The aim of this study is to understand character and response to standard neoadjuvant chemotherapy in different subtypes of breast cancer. Method: This is a descriptive study of breast cancer subtypes. From 687 patients (2003-2010 351 patients have IHC data which divided into 3 groups, Triple negative, Luminal, and HER-2. We used 10% as a cut off point for ER, PR, while 30% & positive 3 for HER-2. We determined initial clinical response after 3 cycles of neoadjuvant chemotherapy although only 77 got standard neoadjuvant chemotherapy and had clinical response data. We used 50% diameters depreciation & no metastasis as cut off point for respond group. Results: There were 116 (33% Triple Negative, 60 (17% HER-2, and 175 (50% Luminal Subtypes. The mean of age for 351 patients are 48.32 (23-82 years. In this study, it was obtained that no significant difference of means of age (p=0.24 in these 3 groups. Triple negative group significantly more advance in grade if compared with the other two groups (p=0.02. HER-2 group had highest response with standard neoadjuvant chemotherapy (50%, Luminal group had (49%, and Triple negative group had only (15% response. One pCR in HER-2 group. There were no difference ages in subtypes. Triple negative has more advances in grade. HER-2 group has highest response to standard neoadjuvant chemotherapy and Triple negative has lowest response to standard neoadjuvant chemotherapy.

  15. The Photopic Negative Response: An Objective Measure of Retinal Ganglion Cell Function in Patients With Leber's Hereditary Optic Neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karanjia, Rustum; Berezovsky, Adriana; Sacai, Paula Yuri; Cavascan, Nivea Nunes; Liu, Henry Yuheng; Nazarali, Samir; Moraes-Filho, Milton Nunes; Anderson, Kirsten; Tran, Jeffrey Show; Watanabe, Sung EunSong; Moraes, Milton Nunes; Sadun, Federico; DeNegri, Anna Maria; Barboni, Piero; do Val Ferreira Ramos, Carolina; La Morgia, Chiara; Carelli, Valerio; Belfort, Rubens; Coupland, Stuart Glenn; Salomao, Solange Rios; Sadun, Alfredo A

    2017-05-01

    The photopic negative response (PhNR) is a slow negative component of a flash photopic full-field ERG that has been shown to be specific for retinal ganglion cell (RGC) activity. Direct evaluation of RGC function is desirable in patients with Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) in which the loss of central acuity can make it difficult to monitor patients with standard metrics. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of PhNR as an objective noninvasive clinical metric in LHON. Full-field photopic ERG recordings were collected in subjects with the mt.11778G>A/ND4 LHON mutation using a red on blue stimulus. The PhNR was identified using a computer-based automated detection system, and data were manually examined to remove movement artifacts. The PhNR amplitude was compared between controls (n = 13), carriers (n = 17), and affected (n = 6). Mean PhNR amplitude decreased significantly across groups (P < 0.0001). Post hoc Tukey's test revealed a significant decrease in PhNR amplitude between carriers and controls (P < 0.05) and between carriers and affected (P < 0.01). We are able to demonstrate that the PhNR amplitude is significantly decreased in patients affected by LHON compared to carriers in a well-described pedigree. Surprisingly, there was also a decrease in PhNR in carriers, suggesting potential subclinical RGC dysfunction in some carriers. This is important in patients affected with LHON who typically have a dense central scotoma. The PhNR may be a useful objective outcome measure for future clinical trials.

  16. LACK OF REPRODUCIBILITY OF A SINGLE NEGATIVE STING CHALLENGE RESPONSE IN THE ASSESSMENT OF ANAPHYLACTIC RISK IN PATIENTS WITH SUSPECTED YELLOW JACKET HYPERSENSITIVITY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    FRANKEN, HH; DUBOIS, AEJ; MINKEMA, HJ; VANDERHEIDE, S; DEMONCHY, JGR

    To investigate the reproducibility of a single negative response to sting challenge with a living insect, we rechallenged a group of 61 patients who showed no clinical response to a first sting challenge. All patients had previously had symptoms suggestive of anaphylaxis after a yellow jacket field

  17. Protein expression of DNA damage repair proteins dictates response to topoisomerase and PARP inhibitors in triple-negative breast cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie L Boerner

    Full Text Available Patients with metastatic triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC have a poor prognosis. New approaches for the treatment of TNBC are needed to improve patient survival. The concept of synthetic lethality, brought about by inactivating complementary DNA repair pathways, has been proposed as a promising therapeutic option for these tumors. The TNBC tumor type has been associated with BRCA mutations, and inhibitors of Poly (ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP, a family of proteins that facilitates DNA repair, have been shown to effectively kill BRCA defective tumors by preventing cells from repairing DNA damage, leading to a loss of cell viability and clonogenic survival. Here we present preclinical efficacy results of combining the PARP inhibitor, ABT-888, with CPT-11, a topoisomerase I inhibitor. CPT-11 binds to topoisomerase I at the replication fork, creating a bulky adduct that is recognized as damaged DNA. When DNA damage was stimulated with CPT-11, protein expression of the nucleotide excision repair enzyme ERCC1 inversely correlated with cell viability, but not clonogenic survival. However, 4 out of the 6 TNBC cells were synergistically responsive by cell viability and 5 out of the 6 TNBC cells were synergistically responsive by clonogenic survival to the combination of ABT-888 and CPT-11. In vivo, the BRCA mutant cell line MX-1 treated with CPT-11 alone demonstrated significant decreased tumor growth; this decrease was enhanced further with the addition of ABT-888. Decrease in tumor growth correlated with an increase in double strand DNA breaks as measured by γ-H2AX phosphorylation. In summary, inhibiting two arms of the DNA repair pathway simultaneously in TNBC cell lines, independent of BRCA mutation status, resulted in un-repairable DNA damage and subsequent cell death.

  18. FOREVER YOUNG FLOWER Negatively Regulates Ethylene Response DNA-Binding Factors by Activating an Ethylene-Responsive Factor to Control Arabidopsis Floral Organ Senescence and Abscission1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pei-Fang; Lee, Yung-I; Yang, Chang-Hsien

    2015-01-01

    In this study of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), we investigated the relationship between FOREVER YOUNG FLOWER (FYF) and Ethylene Response DNA-binding Factors (EDFs) and functionally analyzed a key FYF target, an Ethylene-Responsive Factor (ERF), that controls flower senescence/abscission. Ectopic expression of EDF1/2/3/4 caused promotion of flower senescence/abscission and the activation of the senescence-associated genes. The presence of a repressor domain in EDFs and the enhancement of the promotion of senescence/abscission in EDF1/2/3/4+SRDX (converting EDFs to strong repressors by fusion with the ERF-associated amphiphilic repression motif repression domain SRDX) transgenic plants suggested that EDFs act as repressors. The significant reduction of β-glucuronidase (GUS) expression by 35S:FYF in EDF1/2/3/4:GUS plants indicates that EDF1/2/3/4 functions downstream of FYF in regulating flower senescence/abscission. In this study, we also characterized an ERF gene, FOREVER YOUNG FLOWER UP-REGULATING FACTOR1 (FUF1), which is up-regulated by FYF during flower development. Ectopic expression of FUF1 caused similar delayed flower senescence/abscission as seen in 35S:FYF plants. This phenotype was correlated with deficient abscission zone formation, ethylene insensitivity, and down-regulation of EDF1/2/3/4 and abscission-associated genes in 35S:FUF1 flowers. In contrast, significant promotion of flower senescence/abscission and up-regulation of EDF1/2/3/4 were observed in 35S:FUF1+SRDX transgenic dominant-negative plants, in which FUF1 is converted to a potent repressor by fusion to an SRDX-suppressing motif. Thus, FUF1 acts as an activator in suppressing EDF1/2/3/4 function and senescence/abscission of the flowers. Our results reveal that FYF regulates flower senescence/abscission by negatively regulating EDF1/2/3/4, which is the downstream gene in the ethylene response, by activating FUF1 in Arabidopsis. PMID:26063506

  19. Negative permeability from random particle composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hussain, Shahid, E-mail: shussain2@qinetiq.com

    2017-04-15

    Artificial media, such as those composed of periodically-spaced wires for negative permittivity and split ring resonators for negative permeability have been extensively investigated for negative refractive index (NRI) applications (Smith et al., 2004; Pendry et al., 1999) [1,2]. This paper presents an alternative method for producing negative permeability: granular (or particulate) composites incorporating magnetic fillers. Artificial media, such as split-ring resonators, are designed to produce a magnetic resonance feature, which results in negative permeability over a narrow frequency range about the resonance frequency. The position of the feature is dependent upon the size of the inclusion. The material in this case is anisotropic, such that the feature is only observable when the materials are orientated in a specific direction relative to the applied field. A similar resonance can be generated in magnetic granular (particulate) materials: ferromagnetic resonance from the natural spin resonance of particles. Although the theoretical resonance profiles in granular composites shows the permeability dipping to negative values, this is rarely observed experimentally due to resonance damping effects. Results are presented for iron in spherical form and in flake form, dispersed in insulating host matrices. The two particle shapes show different permeability performance, with the magnetic flakes producing a negative contribution. This is attributed to the stronger coupling with the magnetic field resulting from the high aspect ratio of the flakes. The accompanying ferromagnetic resonance is strong enough to overcome the effects of damping and produce negative permeability. The size of random particle composites is not dictated by the wavelength of the applied field, so the materials are potentially much thinner than other, more traditional artificial composites at microwave frequencies. - Highlights: • Negative permeability from random particle composites is

  20. Trait aspects of auditory mismatch negativity predict response to auditory training in individuals with early illness schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biagianti, Bruno; Roach, Brian J; Fisher, Melissa; Loewy, Rachel; Ford, Judith M; Vinogradov, Sophia; Mathalon, Daniel H

    2017-01-01

    Individuals with schizophrenia have heterogeneous impairments of the auditory processing system that likely mediate differences in the cognitive gains induced by auditory training (AT). Mismatch negativity (MMN) is an event-related potential component reflecting auditory echoic memory, and its amplitude reduction in schizophrenia has been linked to cognitive deficits. Therefore, MMN may predict response to AT and identify individuals with schizophrenia who have the most to gain from AT. Furthermore, to the extent that AT strengthens auditory deviance processing, MMN may also serve as a readout of the underlying changes in the auditory system induced by AT. Fifty-six individuals early in the course of a schizophrenia-spectrum illness (ESZ) were randomly assigned to 40 h of AT or Computer Games (CG). Cognitive assessments and EEG recordings during a multi-deviant MMN paradigm were obtained before and after AT and CG. Changes in these measures were compared between the treatment groups. Baseline and trait-like MMN data were evaluated as predictors of treatment response. MMN data collected with the same paradigm from a sample of Healthy Controls (HC; n = 105) were compared to baseline MMN data from the ESZ group. Compared to HC, ESZ individuals showed significant MMN reductions at baseline ( p = .003). Reduced Double-Deviant MMN was associated with greater general cognitive impairment in ESZ individuals ( p = .020). Neither ESZ intervention group showed significant change in MMN. We found high correlations in all MMN deviant types (rs = .59-.68, all ps < .001) between baseline and post-intervention amplitudes irrespective of treatment group, suggesting trait-like stability of the MMN signal. Greater deficits in trait-like Double-Deviant MMN predicted greater cognitive improvements in the AT group ( p = .02), but not in the CG group. In this sample of ESZ individuals, AT had no effect on auditory deviance processing as assessed by MMN. In ESZ individuals, baseline MMN

  1. Methylation at a transcription factor-binding site on the 5-HT1A receptor gene correlates with negative symptom treatment response in first episode schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Hao; Dalton, Caroline F; Srisawat, Umarat; Zhang, Zhi Jun; Reynolds, Gavin P

    2014-04-01

    Individual variability and inadequate response of negative symptoms are major limitations of antipsychotic treatment in schizophrenia. A functional polymorphism, rs6295, in the 5-HT1A-receptor gene (HTR1A) contributes to this variability in negative symptom response. The DNA sequence containing rs6295 is rich in cytosine methylation (CpG) sites; CpG methylation is an epigenetic factor that, like rs6295, can modify transcriptional control. To investigate whether DNA methylation influences response to antipsychotic treatment, we determined methylation at CpG sites close to rs6295 in DNA from 82 Chinese subjects with a first psychotic episode. Methylation of one CpG site within a recognition sequence for HES transcriptional repressors was found to correlate with changes in total PANSS score (p = 0.006) and negative factor sub-score (p factor score (p = 0.019); the effect on symptom change remained after correction for this baseline score. An effect of rs6295 on negative symptom response was not seen in this sample, which may not have provided sufficient power for the pharmacogenetic association. These preliminary results indicate that epigenetic modification of transcriptional regulation by specific cytosine methylation may modulate HTR1A expression, resulting in effects on emotional dysfunction and negative symptom response to antipsychotic treatment.

  2. PITX2 DNA-methylation predicts response to anthracycline-based adjuvant chemotherapy in triple-negative breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Absmaier, Magdalena; Napieralski, Rudolf; Schuster, Tibor; Aubele, Michaela; Walch, Axel; Magdolen, Viktor; Dorn, Julia; Gross, Eva; Harbeck, Nadia; Noske, Aurelia; Kiechle, Marion; Schmitt, Manfred

    2018-03-01

    Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) constitutes a heterogeneous breast cancer subgroup with poor prognosis; survival rates are likely to be lower with TNBC compared to other breast cancer subgroups. For this disease, systemic adjuvant chemotherapy regimens often yield suboptimal clinical results. To improve treatment regimens in TNBC, identification of molecular biomarkers may help to select patients for individualized adjuvant therapy. Evidence has accumulated that determination of the methylation status of the PITX2 gene provides a predictive value in various breast cancer subgroups, either treated with endocrine-based therapy or anthracycline-containing chemotherapy. To further explore the validity of this novel predictive candidate biomarker, in the present exploratory retrospective study, determination of the PITX2 DNA-methylation status was assessed for non-metastatic TNBC patients treated with adjuvant anthracycline-based chemotherapy by molecular analysis of breast cancer tissues. The PITX2 DNA-methylation status was determined in fresh-frozen tumor tissue specimens (n=56) by methylation-specific qRT-PCR (qMSP) and the data related to disease-free and overall survival, applying an optimized DNA-methylation score of 6.35%. For non-metastatic TNBC patients treated with adjuvant systemic anthracycline-based chemotherapy, a low PITX2 DNA-methylation status (PITX2 DNA-methylation. For non-metastatic TNBC patients, selective determination of the PITX2 DNA-methylation status may serve as a cancer biomarker for predicting response to anthracycline-based adjuvant chemotherapy. The assay based on methylation of the PIXT2 gene can be applied to frozen and routinely available formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) breast cancer tumor tissues that will not only define those TNBC patients who may benefit from anthracycline-based chemotherapy but also those who should be spared the necessity of such potentially toxic treatment. Such patients should be allocated to

  3. Serum response factor: positive and negative regulation of an epithelial gene expression network in the destrin mutant cornea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakami-Schulz, Sharolyn V.; Verdoni, Angela M.; Sattler, Shannon G.; Jessen, Erik; Kao, Winston W.-Y.; Ikeda, Akihiro

    2014-01-01

    Increased angiogenesis, inflammation, and proliferation are hallmarks of diseased tissues, and in vivo models of these disease phenotypes can provide insight into disease pathology. Dstncorn1 mice, deficient for the actin depolymerizing factor destrin (DSTN), display an increase of serum response factor (SRF) that results in epithelial hyperproliferation, inflammation, and neovascularization in the cornea. Previous work demonstrated that conditional ablation of Srf from the corneal epithelium of Dstncorn1 mice returns the cornea to a wild-type (WT) like state. This result implicated SRF as a major regulator of genes that contributes to abnormal phenotypes in Dstncorn1 cornea. The purpose of this study is to identify gene networks that are affected by increased expression of Srf in the Dstncorn1 cornea. Microarray analysis led to characterization of gene expression changes that occur when conditional knockout of Srf rescues mutant phenotypes in the cornea of Dstncorn1 mice. Comparison of gene expression values from WT, Dstncorn1 mutant, and Dstncorn1 rescued cornea identified >400 differentially expressed genes that are downstream from SRF. Srf ablation had a significant effect on genes associated with epithelial cell-cell junctions and regulation of actin dynamics. The majority of genes affected by SRF are downregulated in the Dstncorn1 mutant cornea, suggesting that increased SRF negatively affects transcription of SRF gene targets. ChIP-seq analysis on Dstncorn1 mutant and WT tissue revealed that, despite being present in higher abundance, SRF binding is significantly decreased in the Dstncorn1 mutant cornea. This study uses a unique model combining genetic and genomic approaches to identify genes that are regulated by SRF. These findings expand current understanding of the role of SRF in both normal and abnormal tissue homeostasis. PMID:24550211

  4. Serum response factor: positive and negative regulation of an epithelial gene expression network in the destrin mutant cornea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakami-Schulz, Sharolyn V; Verdoni, Angela M; Sattler, Shannon G; Jessen, Erik; Kao, Winston W-Y; Ikeda, Akihiro; Ikeda, Sakae

    2014-04-15

    Increased angiogenesis, inflammation, and proliferation are hallmarks of diseased tissues, and in vivo models of these disease phenotypes can provide insight into disease pathology. Dstn(corn1) mice, deficient for the actin depolymerizing factor destrin (DSTN), display an increase of serum response factor (SRF) that results in epithelial hyperproliferation, inflammation, and neovascularization in the cornea. Previous work demonstrated that conditional ablation of Srf from the corneal epithelium of Dstn(corn1) mice returns the cornea to a wild-type (WT) like state. This result implicated SRF as a major regulator of genes that contributes to abnormal phenotypes in Dstn(corn1) cornea. The purpose of this study is to identify gene networks that are affected by increased expression of Srf in the Dstn(corn1) cornea. Microarray analysis led to characterization of gene expression changes that occur when conditional knockout of Srf rescues mutant phenotypes in the cornea of Dstn(corn1) mice. Comparison of gene expression values from WT, Dstn(corn1) mutant, and Dstn(corn1) rescued cornea identified >400 differentially expressed genes that are downstream from SRF. Srf ablation had a significant effect on genes associated with epithelial cell-cell junctions and regulation of actin dynamics. The majority of genes affected by SRF are downregulated in the Dstn(corn1) mutant cornea, suggesting that increased SRF negatively affects transcription of SRF gene targets. ChIP-seq analysis on Dstn(corn1) mutant and WT tissue revealed that, despite being present in higher abundance, SRF binding is significantly decreased in the Dstn(corn1) mutant cornea. This study uses a unique model combining genetic and genomic approaches to identify genes that are regulated by SRF. These findings expand current understanding of the role of SRF in both normal and abnormal tissue homeostasis.

  5. Response of the cholesterol metabolism to a negative energy balance in dairy cows depends on the lactational stage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef J Gross

    Full Text Available The response of cholesterol metabolism to a negative energy balance (NEB induced by feed restriction for 3 weeks starting at 100 days in milk (DIM compared to the physiologically occurring NEB in week 1 postpartum (p.p. was investigated in 50 dairy cows (25 control (CON and 25 feed-restricted (RES. Blood samples, liver biopsies and milk samples were taken in week 1 p.p., and in weeks 0 and 3 of feed restriction. Plasma concentrations of total cholesterol (C, phospholipids (PL, triglycerides (TAG, very low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (VLDL-C and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C increased in RES cows from week 0 to 3 during feed restriction and were higher in week 3 compared to CON cows. In contrast, during the physiologically occurring NEB in week 1 p.p., C, PL, TAG and lipoprotein concentrations were at a minimum. Plasma phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP and lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT activities did not differ between week 0 and 3 for both groups, whereas during NEB in week 1 p.p. PLTP activity was increased and LCAT activity was decreased. Milk C concentration was not affected by feed restriction in both groups, whereas milk C mass was decreased in week 3 for RES cows. In comparison, C concentration and mass in milk were elevated in week 1 p.p. Hepatic mRNA abundance of sterol regulatory element-binding factor-2 (SREBF-2, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A synthase 1 (HMGCS1, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase (HMGCR, and ATP-binding cassette transporter (ABCA1 were similar in CON and RES cows during feed restriction, but were upregulated during NEB in week 1 p.p. compared to the non-lactating stage without a NEB. In conclusion, cholesterol metabolism in dairy cows is affected by nutrient and energy deficiency depending on the stage of lactation.

  6. Response of the cholesterol metabolism to a negative energy balance in dairy cows depends on the lactational stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Josef J; Kessler, Evelyne C; Albrecht, Christiane; Bruckmaier, Rupert M

    2015-01-01

    The response of cholesterol metabolism to a negative energy balance (NEB) induced by feed restriction for 3 weeks starting at 100 days in milk (DIM) compared to the physiologically occurring NEB in week 1 postpartum (p.p.) was investigated in 50 dairy cows (25 control (CON) and 25 feed-restricted (RES)). Blood samples, liver biopsies and milk samples were taken in week 1 p.p., and in weeks 0 and 3 of feed restriction. Plasma concentrations of total cholesterol (C), phospholipids (PL), triglycerides (TAG), very low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (VLDL-C) and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) increased in RES cows from week 0 to 3 during feed restriction and were higher in week 3 compared to CON cows. In contrast, during the physiologically occurring NEB in week 1 p.p., C, PL, TAG and lipoprotein concentrations were at a minimum. Plasma phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP) and lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) activities did not differ between week 0 and 3 for both groups, whereas during NEB in week 1 p.p. PLTP activity was increased and LCAT activity was decreased. Milk C concentration was not affected by feed restriction in both groups, whereas milk C mass was decreased in week 3 for RES cows. In comparison, C concentration and mass in milk were elevated in week 1 p.p. Hepatic mRNA abundance of sterol regulatory element-binding factor-2 (SREBF-2), 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A synthase 1 (HMGCS1), 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase (HMGCR), and ATP-binding cassette transporter (ABCA1) were similar in CON and RES cows during feed restriction, but were upregulated during NEB in week 1 p.p. compared to the non-lactating stage without a NEB. In conclusion, cholesterol metabolism in dairy cows is affected by nutrient and energy deficiency depending on the stage of lactation.

  7. Non-linear Heart Rate and Blood Pressure Interaction in Response to Lower-Body Negative Pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay K. Verma

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Early detection of hemorrhage remains an open problem. In this regard, blood pressure has been an ineffective measure of blood loss due to numerous compensatory mechanisms sustaining arterial blood pressure homeostasis. Here, we investigate the feasibility of causality detection in the heart rate and blood pressure interaction, a closed-loop control system, for early detection of hemorrhage. The hemorrhage was simulated via graded lower-body negative pressure (LBNP from 0 to −40 mmHg. The research hypothesis was that a significant elevation of causal control in the direction of blood pressure to heart rate (i.e., baroreflex response is an early indicator of central hypovolemia. Five minutes of continuous blood pressure and electrocardiogram (ECG signals were acquired simultaneously from young, healthy participants (27 ± 1 years, N = 27 during each LBNP stage, from which heart rate (represented by RR interval, systolic blood pressure (SBP, diastolic blood pressure (DBP, and mean arterial pressure (MAP were derived. The heart rate and blood pressure causal interaction (RR↔SBP and RR↔MAP was studied during the last 3 min of each LBNP stage. At supine rest, the non-baroreflex arm (RR→SBP and RR→MAP showed a significantly (p < 0.001 higher causal drive toward blood pressure regulation compared to the baroreflex arm (SBP→RR and MAP→RR. In response to moderate category hemorrhage (−30 mmHg LBNP, no change was observed in the traditional marker of blood loss i.e., pulse pressure (p = 0.10 along with the RR→SBP (p = 0.76, RR→MAP (p = 0.60, and SBP→RR (p = 0.07 causality compared to the resting stage. Contrarily, a significant elevation in the MAP→RR (p = 0.004 causality was observed. In accordance with our hypothesis, the outcomes of the research underscored the potential of compensatory baroreflex arm (MAP→RR of the heart rate and blood pressure interaction toward differentiating a simulated moderate category hemorrhage from

  8. Negative psychological responses of injury and rehabilitation adherence effects on return to play in competitive athletes: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivarsson A

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Andreas Ivarsson,1 Ulrika Tranaeus,2,3 Urban Johnson,1 Andreas Stenling 4 1Center of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport, School of Health and Welfare, Halmstad University, Halmstad, 2Performance and Training Unit, The Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences (GIH, 3Musculoskeletal & Sports Injury Epidemiology Center, IMM, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, 4Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden Abstract: Previous research offers evidence that psychological factors influence an injured athlete during the rehabilitation process. Our first objective was to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of the results from all published studies that examined the relationships among negative affective responses after sport injuries, rehabilitation adherence, and return to play (RTP. The second objective was to use a meta-analytic path analysis to investigate whether an indirect effect existed between negative affective responses and RTP through rehabilitation adherence. This literature review resulted in seven studies providing 14 effect sizes. The results from the meta-analysis showed that negative affective responses had a negative effect on successful RTP, whereas rehabilitation adherence had a positive effect on RTP. The results from the meta-analytic path analysis showed a weak and nonsignificant indirect effect of negative affective responses on RTP via rehabilitation adherence. These results underline the importance of providing supportive environments for injured athletes to increase the chances of successful RTP via a decrease in negative affective responses and increase in rehabilitation adherence. Keywords: affective responses, rehabilitation behaviors, return to play, sport injuries

  9. Humanizing online brand communications in response to negative word of mouth: the effects of proactive and reactive webcare

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Noort, G.; Willemsen, L.M.; Eisend, M.; Langner, T.

    2011-01-01

    By means of an experiment, we study the most effective means for companies to counter complaints as expressed in negative electronic word of mouth (NWOM). The results show that negative brand evaluations engendered by NWOM, can be attenuated by webcare interventions dependent on type of strategy

  10. The El Niño Southern Oscillation is Getting Bigger and Stronger

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNaught, C.; O'Brien, J.; Strazzo, S. E.

    2012-12-01

    The El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is an important natural climate variation that affects large portions of the world. We measure ENSO both in terms of its frequency and its magnitude. The different phases of ENSO - El Niño and La Niña - have different properties, and impact the global weather pattern differently. We examine the hypothesis that ENSO's frequency distribution is changing. We demonstrate that, indeed, El Niño's are getting stronger as measured by the maximum anomaly in sea surface temperature (SST). An analysis of the ENSO principal component is conducted using a fast Fourier transform to estimate the spectrum of the SST of the time series. We conclude that the intensity of El Niño events during the period 1970-2010 is statistically significantly higher when compared to the 1930—1970, with a broad spectral peak centered around 4 years. When we compare the SST spectrum for the period 1930-1970 with the spectrum for 1971- 2010, we find the latter period to be much stronger in power. Additionally recently classified ENSO types, including El Niño Modoki and Warm Pool ENSO, are briefly studied.; The first empirical orthogonal function of sea-surface temperatures (1930-2010) accounting for 75% of the variance. The values are indicative of departures from the mean, in °C. Positive (negative) values indicate anomalously higher (lower) sea-surface temperatures ; Normalized first principal component

  11. Predicting response to HBV vaccination in people with positive anti-HBc but negative HBsAg and anti-HBs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabir, Ali; Keshvari, Maryam; Kashani, Amir Hossein Faghihi; Alavian, Seyed-Moayed

    2008-01-01

    There are 5.1-6.5% of people with positive anti-HBc in Iran. The aim of this study was to assess the predicting factors of response to hepatitis B vaccination in anti-HBc positive subjects. Total response rate to vaccination was 79.8% (75 cases) and 67.9% (38 cases) in cases and controls, respectively. Nineteen persons (20.2%) in cases and 18 persons (32.1%) of controls had negative anti-HBs even after three doses of HB vaccination. Factor associated with decreased response to vaccination was prior history of being HBsAg positive (OR = 1.3, p = 0.01). In a quasi-experimental study, 94 people with negative HBsAg, negative anti-HBs and positive anti-HBc (cases) and 56 persons with negative HBsAg, anti-HBs and anti-HBc (controls) were vaccinated at zero, one and six months with recombinant hepatitis B vaccine. Successful immunization was defined by anti-HBs antibody titer > or =10 mIU/mL. The rate of response to hepatitis B vaccination is nearly like other studies but somewhat different. Higher percent of married cases together with higher percent of positive HBsAg in spouses may explain the slight difference in the response to vaccination in cases in comparison with controls as a result of booster like effect that seldom happens because of recurrent contacts between the subjects and the HBsAg positive spouses spontaneously.

  12. Increasing Arctic sea ice export driven by stronger winds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorteberg, A.; Smedsrud, L. H.; Sirevaag, A.; Kloster, K.

    2010-12-01

    Arctic sea ice area has decreased steadily over the last three decades. A thinner and more seasonal Arctic ice cover, related to increased long wave radiation, has become evident. Changes in circulation, including drift patterns of the Arctic pack ice, have been less obvious. Arctic sea ice export estimates have been hampered by low resolution spatial and temporal satellite imagery, especially during summer, making accurate detection difficult. Here we present a new ice area export dataset calculated from sea ice motion and concentration profiles along 79N. Ice drift vectors are calculated from ice feature displacement using Envisat ASAR WideSwath images every 3 days from 2004 while ice concentration is based on DMSP F13 SSMI and AQUA AMSR-E brightness temperature data. The two data sets are combined to give the ice-area flux in consecutive 3-day periods, uninterrupted year-round coverage along 79N. It is shown that sea ice export variability is closely linked to the geostrophic wind in the Fram Strait (correlation of 0.84). Using geostrophic winds from reanalysis back to the 1950s as a proxy for ice export indicates that the Arctic sea ice has annually lost an increasing area since the 1950's driven by stronger winds. Ice concentration has decreased slightly, but does not contribute significantly. The ice export has overall increased by ~25% over the period. Using cyclone tracking the changes in winds seems directly related to a higher low pressure activity in the Nordic Seas. Our results demonstrate that the changes in atmospheric circulation over the Arctic and sub-Arctic have contributed to a trend in the Fram Strait ice export. The Fram Strait between Greenland and Svalbard with average sea ice concentration for summer (red, June through August) and winter (black, January through March). Solid lines are 50%, dashed lines are 15%. Above mean southward ice drift across 79N from August 2004 to July 2010 in 1 degree bins based on SAR imagery, and mean ice

  13. Working memory capacity and spontaneous emotion regulation: high capacity predicts self-enhancement in response to negative feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmeichel, Brandon J; Demaree, Heath A

    2010-10-01

    Although previous evidence suggests that working memory capacity (WMC) is important for success at emotion regulation, that evidence may reveal simply that people with higher WMC follow instructions better than those with lower WMC. The present study tested the hypothesis that people with higher WMC more effectively engage in spontaneous emotion regulation following negative feedback, relative to those with lower WMC. Participants were randomly assigned to receive either no feedback or negative feedback about their emotional intelligence. They then completed a disguised measure of self-enhancement and a self-report measure of affect. Experimental condition and WMC interacted such that higher WMC predicted more self-enhancement and less negative affect following negative feedback. This research provides novel insight into the consequences of individual differences in WMC and illustrates that cognitive capacity may facilitate the spontaneous self-regulation of emotion. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. The prognostic value of the neoadjuvant response index in triple-negative breast cancer: validation and comparison with pathological complete response as outcome measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jebbink, M; van Werkhoven, E; Mandjes, I A M; Wesseling, J; Lips, E H; Vrancken Peeters, M-J T D F; Loo, C E; Sonke, G S; Linn, S C; Falo Zamora, C; Rodenhuis, S

    2015-08-01

    The Neoadjuvant response index (NRI) has been proposed as a simple measure of downstaging by neoadjuvant treatment in breast cancer. It was previously found to predict recurrence-free survival (RFS) in triple-negative (TN) breast cancer. It was at least as accurate as the standard binary system, the absence or presence of a pathological complete remission (pCR), which is the commonly employed outcome measure. The NRI was evaluated in an independent consecutive series of patients to validate the previous findings. Univariable and multivariable analyses were done to assess the predictive value of clinical parameters and of the NRI for RFS. We combined the original and validation series of patients to build a multivariable predictive model for RFS after neoadjuvant chemotherapy in TN breast cancer. The validation set (N = 108) confirmed that patients with a higher-than-median NRI (>0.7) had excellent RFS (P = 0.002), similar to that of patients who had achieved a pCR. Multivariable analysis in 191 patients showed that the NRI was a strong independent predictor of RFS (P = 0.0002), with N-stage (P = 0.001) and T-stage (P = 0.014) ranking second and third, respectively. Importantly, among patients who did not achieve a pCR (NRI values below 1), higher NRI values were still associated with better RFS. The NRI is a simple method and a practical tool to predict RFS in TN breast cancer patients treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy. It adds prognostic information to the presence or absence of pCR and could be useful to compare the efficacies of different chemotherapy regimens.

  15. Mothers’ Power Assertion, Children’s Negative, Adversarial Orientation, and Future Behavior Problems in Low-Income Families: Early Maternal Responsiveness as a Moderator of the Developmental Cascade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sanghag; Kochanska, Grazyna

    2014-01-01

    Parental power assertion, a key dimension of family environment, generally sets in motion detrimental developmental cascades; however, evidence suggests that other qualities of parenting, such as responsiveness, can significantly moderate those processes. Mechanisms that account for such moderating effects are not fully understood. We propose a conceptual model of processes linking parental power assertion, parental responsiveness, children’s negative, adversarial, rejecting orientation toward the parent, and behavior problems. We test that model in a short-term longitudinal design involving 186 low-income, ethnically diverse mothers and their toddlers. When children were 30 months, the dyads were observed in multiple, lengthy, naturalistic laboratory interactions to assess behaviorally mothers’ responsiveness and their power-assertive control style. At 33 months, we observed behavioral indicators of children’s negative, adversarial, rejecting orientation toward the mothers in several naturalistic and standardized paradigms. At 40 months, mothers rated children’s behavior problems. The proposed moderated mediation sequence, tested using a new approach, PROCESS (Hayes, 2013), was supported. The indirect effect from maternal power assertion to children’s negative, adversarial orientation to future behavior problems was present when mothers’ responsiveness was either low or average but absent when mothers were highly responsive. This study elucidates a potential process that may link parental power assertion with behavior problems and highlights how positive aspects of parenting can moderate this process and defuse maladaptive developmental cascades. It also suggests possible targets for parenting intervention and prevention efforts. PMID:25401483

  16. Mothers' power assertion; children's negative, adversarial orientation; and future behavior problems in low-income families: early maternal responsiveness as a moderator of the developmental cascade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sanghag; Kochanska, Grazyna

    2015-02-01

    Parental power assertion, a key dimension of family environment, generally sets in motion detrimental developmental cascades; however, evidence suggests that other qualities of parenting, such as responsiveness, can significantly moderate those processes. Mechanisms that account for such moderating effects are not fully understood. We propose a conceptual model of processes linking parental power assertion, parental responsiveness, children's negative, adversarial, rejecting orientation toward the parent, and behavior problems. We test that model in a short-term longitudinal design involving 186 low-income, ethnically diverse mothers and their toddlers. When children were 30 months, the dyads were observed in multiple, lengthy, naturalistic laboratory interactions to assess behaviorally mothers' responsiveness and their power-assertive control style. At 33 months, we observed behavioral indicators of children's negative, adversarial, rejecting orientation toward the mothers in several naturalistic and standardized paradigms. At 40 months, mothers rated children's behavior problems. The proposed moderated mediation sequence, tested using a new approach, PROCESS (Hayes, 2013), was supported. The indirect effect from maternal power assertion to children's negative, adversarial orientation to future behavior problems was present when mothers' responsiveness was either low or average but absent when mothers were highly responsive. This study elucidates a potential process that may link parental power assertion with behavior problems and highlights how positive aspects of parenting can moderate this process and defuse maladaptive developmental cascades. It also suggests possible targets for parenting intervention and prevention efforts. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  17. Responses to Positive versus Negative Interventions to Disruptive Classroom Behavior in a Student with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Renee B.

    2013-01-01

    This study reviews pertinent research, then uses a single-subject experimental design and methodology to assess the impact of both positive and negative interventions to reduce the incidence of inappropriate classroom behavior in a 12.2 year-old male student with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). In the context of this study,…

  18. Creativity, Psychopathology, and Emotion Processing: A Liberal Response Bias for Remembering Negative Information Is Associated with Higher Creativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drus, Marina; Kozbelt, Aaron; Hughes, Robert R.

    2014-01-01

    To what extent do more creative people process emotional information differently than less creative people? This study examined the role of emotion processing in creativity and its implications for the creativity-psychopathology association. A total of 117 participants performed a memory recognition task for negative, positive, and neutral words;…

  19. Neural Correlates of Biased Responses: The Negative Method Effect in the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale Is Associated with Right Amygdala Volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yinan; Kong, Feng; Huang, Lijie; Liu, Jia

    2016-10-01

    Self-esteem is a widely studied construct in psychology that is typically measured by the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES). However, a series of cross-sectional and longitudinal studies have suggested that a simple and widely used unidimensional factor model does not provide an adequate explanation of RSES responses due to method effects. To identify the neural correlates of the method effect, we sought to determine whether and how method effects were associated with the RSES and investigate the neural basis of these effects. Two hundred and eighty Chinese college students (130 males; mean age = 22.64 years) completed the RSES and underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Behaviorally, method effects were linked to both positively and negatively worded items in the RSES. Neurally, the right amygdala volume negatively correlated with the negative method factor, while the hippocampal volume positively correlated with the general self-esteem factor in the RSES. The neural dissociation between the general self-esteem factor and negative method factor suggests that there are different neural mechanisms underlying them. The amygdala is involved in modulating negative affectivity; therefore, the current study sheds light on the nature of method effects that are related to self-report with a mix of positively and negatively worded items. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. The Contributions of Positive and Negative Affect to Emotional Well-Being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randy Larsen

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the definitions of subjective well-being have been reviewed with a focus on its emotional core, which we consider to be the ratio of positive to negative affect over time. The reviewed evidence showed that negative emotions tend to be of longer duration than positive and that the NA system produces stronger emotional responses than the PA system. Also, a variety of experimental results show that negative stimuli make unique demands on cognitive resources (particularly perception and attention compared to positive stimuli. The evidence that the negative affect system produces stronger affective output, per unit input, than the positive affect system, is a phenomenon known as negativity bias. I also went so far as to argue that negativity exceeds positivity by a factor of pi (3.14 and that efforts to speed adaptation to negative events may be more important to overall SWB then efforts to prolong responses to positive events (Larsen and Prizmic, 2008. The fact that negativity is stronger than positivity, combined with the notion of differential adaptation (people adapt faster to good events than to bad events, creates the conditions that drive the hedonic treadmill. However, most people are, to some degree, able to overcome the psychological forces of the hedonic treadmill and maintain at least a modicum of emotional well-being (Biswas-Diener, Vitterso, & Diener, 2005. It is likely that the ability called "emotional intelligence" refers in large part to the capacity to manage negative affect following unpleasant or stressful events (Larsen & Learner, 2006. Moreover, such an ability is likely to be made up of particular behaviors and strategies that each contributes specifically to the management of negative emotions (Larsen & Prizmic, 2004.

  1. Ministers at IAEA Conference Call for Stronger Nuclear Security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    Full text: Despite substantial progress in strengthening nuclear security in recent years, more needs to be done worldwide to defend against the threat of nuclear terrorism and other malicious acts involving nuclear or radiological material, a Ministerial Declaration at the IAEA's International Conference on Nuclear Security: Enhancing Global Efforts stated today. More than 1 300 participants at the Conference, which is open to all 159 IAEA Member States, will analyse past and current efforts and consider how future challenges can best be met to ensure effective and sustainable nuclear security worldwide. The Conference, which started in Vienna today and ends on Friday, includes representatives from 123 countries and 21 governmental and non-governmental organizations. The Ministerial Declaration, adopted at a plenary session attended by 34 government ministers and other Heads of Delegation including the Conference President, Hungarian Foreign Affairs Minister Janos Martonyi, says they ''remain concerned about the threat of nuclear and radiological terrorism and of other malicious acts or sabotage related to facilities and activities involving nuclear and other radioactive material.'' The Declaration - the first of its kind for nuclear security - notes that all States are responsible for their own nuclear security, but that international cooperation is important in supporting States' efforts to fulfil their responsibilities. It affirms the central role of the IAEA in strengthening nuclear security globally, and leading coordination of international activities in this field. ''We encourage all States to maintain highly effective nuclear security, including physical protection, for all nuclear and other radioactive material, their transport, use and storage and their associated facilities, as well as protecting sensitive information and maintaining the necessary nuclear security systems and measures to assess and manage their nuclear security effectively,'' the

  2. When negation is not negation

    OpenAIRE

    Milicevic, Nataša

    2008-01-01

    In this paper I will discuss the formation of different types of yes/no questions in Serbian (examples in (1)), focusing on the syntactically and semantically puzzling example (1d), which involves the negative auxiliary inversion. Although there is a negative marker on the fronted auxiliary, the construction does not involve sentential negation. This coincides with the fact that the negative quantifying NPIs cannot be licensed. The question formation and sentential negation have similar synta...

  3. Blunted neuroactive steroid and HPA axis responses to stress are associated with reduced sleep quality and negative affect in pregnancy: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowley, Shannon K; O'Buckley, Todd K; Schiller, Crystal E; Stuebe, Alison; Morrow, A Leslie; Girdler, Susan S

    2016-04-01

    Anxiety during pregnancy has been linked to adverse maternal health outcomes, including postpartum depression (PPD). However, there has been limited study of biological mechanisms underlying behavioral predictors of PPD during pregnancy. Considering the shared etiology of chronic stress amongst antenatal behavioral predictors, the primary goal of this pilot study was to examine associations among stress-related physiological factors (including GABA-ergic neurosteroids) and stress-related behavioral indices of anxiety during pregnancy. Fourteen nulliparous women in their second trimester of a singleton pregnancy underwent speech and mental arithmetic stress, following a 2-week subjective and objective recording of sleep-wake behavior. Lower cortisol, progesterone, and a combined measure of ALLO + pregnanolone throughout the entire stressor protocol (area under the curve, AUC) were associated with greater negative emotional responses to stress, and lower cortisol AUC was associated with worse sleep quality. Lower adrenocorticotropic hormone was associated with greater anxious and depressive symptoms. Stress produced paradoxical reductions in cortisol, progesterone, and a combined measure of allopregnanolone + pregnanolone, while tetrahydrodeoxycorticosterone levels were elevated. These data suggest that cortisol, progesterone, and ALLO + pregnanolone levels in the second trimester of pregnancy are inversely related to negative emotional symptoms, and the negative impact of acute stress challenge appears to exert its effects by reducing these steroids to further promote negative emotional responses.

  4. Stronger Dopamine D1 Receptor-Mediated Neurotransmission in Dyskinesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farré, Daniel; Muñoz, Ana; Moreno, Estefanía; Reyes-Resina, Irene; Canet-Pons, Júlia; Dopeso-Reyes, Iria G; Rico, Alberto J; Lluís, Carme; Mallol, Josefa; Navarro, Gemma; Canela, Enric I; Cortés, Antonio; Labandeira-García, José L; Casadó, Vicent; Lanciego, José L; Franco, Rafael

    2015-12-01

    Radioligand binding assays to rat striatal dopamine D1 receptors showed that brain lateralization of the dopaminergic system were not due to changes in expression but in agonist affinity. D1 receptor-mediated striatal imbalance resulted from a significantly higher agonist affinity in the left striatum. D1 receptors heteromerize with dopamine D3 receptors, which are considered therapeutic targets for dyskinesia in parkinsonian patients. Expression of both D3 and D1-D3 receptor heteromers were increased in samples from 6-hydroxy-dopamine-hemilesioned rats rendered dyskinetic by treatment with 3, 4-dihydroxyphenyl-L-alanine (L-DOPA). Similar findings were obtained using striatal samples from primates. Radioligand binding studies in the presence of a D3 agonist led in dyskinetic, but not in lesioned or L-DOPA-treated rats, to a higher dopamine sensitivity. Upon D3-receptor activation, the affinity of agonists for binding to the right striatal D1 receptor increased. Excess dopamine coming from L-DOPA medication likely activates D3 receptors thus making right and left striatal D1 receptors equally responsive to dopamine. These results show that dyskinesia occurs concurrently with a right/left striatal balance in D1 receptor-mediated neurotransmission.

  5. Acute pharmacologically induced shifts in serotonin availability abolish emotion-selective responses to negative face emotions in distinct brain networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grady, Cheryl Lynn; Siebner, Hartwig R; Hornboll, Bettina

    2013-01-01

    Pharmacological manipulation of serotonin availability can alter the processing of facial expressions of emotion. Using a within-subject design, we measured the effect of serotonin on the brain's response to aversive face emotions with functional MRI while 20 participants judged the gender...... distributed brain responses identified two brain networks with modulations of activity related to face emotion and serotonin level. The first network included the left amygdala, bilateral striatum, and fusiform gyri. During the Control session this network responded only to fearful faces; increasing serotonin...... enhanced the neural response of this set of regions to angry faces, relative to Control, and CIT also enhanced activity for neutral faces. The net effect of these changes in both networks was to abolish the selective response to fearful expressions. These results suggest that a normal level of serotonin...

  6. Sleep Deprivation and Stressors: Evidence for Elevated Negative Affect in Response to Mild Stressors When Sleep Deprived

    OpenAIRE

    Minkel, Jared D.; Banks, Siobhan; Htaik, Oo; Moreta, Marisa C.; Jones, Christopher W.; McGlinchey, Eleanor L.; Simpson, Norah S.; Dinges, David F.

    2012-01-01

    Stress often co-occurs with inadequate sleep duration, and both are believed to impact mood and emotion. It is not yet known whether inadequate sleep simply increases the intensity of subsequent stress responses or interacts with stressors in more complicated ways. To address this issue, we investigated the effects of one night of total sleep deprivation on subjective stress and mood in response to low-stress and high-stress cognitive testing conditions in healthy adult volunteers in two sepa...

  7. Fetal programming: excess prenatal testosterone reduces postnatal luteinizing hormone, but not follicle-stimulating hormone responsiveness, to estradiol negative feedback in the female.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarma, Hirendra N; Manikkam, Mohan; Herkimer, Carol; Dell'Orco, James; Welch, Kathleen B; Foster, Douglas L; Padmanabhan, Vasantha

    2005-10-01

    Exposure of female sheep fetuses to excess testosterone (T) during early to midgestation produces postnatal hypergonadotropism manifest as a selective increase in LH. This hypergonadotropism may result from reduced sensitivity to estradiol (E2) negative feedback and/or increased pituitary sensitivity to GnRH. We tested the hypothesis that excess T before birth reduces responsiveness of LH and FSH to E2 negative feedback after birth. Pregnant ewes were treated with T propionate (100 mg/kg in cotton seed oil) or vehicle twice weekly from d 30-90 gestation. Responsiveness to E2 negative feedback was assessed at 12 and 24 wk of age in the ovary-intact female offspring. Our experimental strategy was first to arrest follicular growth and reduce endogenous E2 by administering the GnRH antagonist (GnRH-A), Nal-Glu (50 microg/kg sc every 12 h for 72 h), and then provide a fixed amount of exogenous E2 via an implant. Blood samples were obtained every 20 min at 12 wk and every 10 min at 24 wk before treatment, during and after GnRH-A treatment both before and after E2 implant. GnRH-A ablated LH pulsatility, reduced FSH by approximately 25%, and E2 production diminished to near detection limit of assay at both ages in both groups. Prenatal T treatment produced a precocious and selective reduction in responsiveness of LH but not FSH to E2 negative feedback, which was manifest mainly at the level of LH/GnRH pulse frequency. Collectively, these findings support the hypothesis that prenatal exposure to excess T decreases postnatal responsiveness to E2 inhibitory feedback of LH/GnRH secretion to contribute to the development of hypergonadotropism.

  8. Psychological Consequences Associated With Positive and Negative Responses to Disclosure of Sexual Assault Among College Women: A Prospective Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orchowski, Lindsay M.; Gidycz, Christine A.

    2015-01-01

    A prospective design was utilized to explore the impact of social reactions to sexual assault disclosure among college women who experienced sexual victimization over a 4-month academic quarter. Women completed baseline, 4- and 7-month assessments of symptomatology, beliefs about why sexual assault occurs, victimization, and social reactions to sexual assault disclosure. Accounting for symptomatology or beliefs reported prior to the assault, positive social reactions were not associated with victims’ subsequent symptomatology or beliefs. However, accounting for symptomatology or beliefs reported prior to the assault, higher negative social reactions were associated with victims’ post-assault reports of hostility, fear, and beliefs about why sexual assault occurs. PMID:25926138

  9. Negative energy balance in a male songbird, the Abert's towhee, constrains the testicular endocrine response to luteinizing hormone stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Scott; Gao, Sisi; Valle, Shelley; Bittner, Stephanie; Hutton, Pierce; Meddle, Simone L.; Deviche, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Energy deficiency can suppress reproductive function in vertebrates. As the orchestrator of reproductive function, endocrine activity of the hypothalamo-pituitary–gonadal (HPG) axis is potentially an important mechanism mediating such effects. Previous experiments in wild-caught birds found inconsistent relationships between energy deficiency and seasonal reproductive function, but these experiments focused on baseline HPG axis activity and none have investigated the responsiveness of this axis to endocrine stimulation. Here, we present data from an experiment in Abert's towhees, Melozone aberti, using gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) challenges to investigate whether energy deficiency modulates the plasma testosterone responsiveness of the HPG axis. Wild-caught birds were either ad libitum fed or energetically constrained via chronic food restriction during photoinduced reproductive development. Energy deficiency did not significantly affect the development of reproductive morphology, the baseline endocrine activity of the HPG axis, or the plasma testosterone response to GnRH challenge. Energy deficiency did, however, decrease the plasma testosterone responsiveness to LH challenge. Collectively, these observations suggest that energy deficiency has direct gonadal effects consisting of a decreased responsiveness to LH stimulation. Our study, therefore, reveals a mechanism by which energy deficiency modulates reproductive function in wild birds in the absence of detectable effects on baseline HPG axis activity. PMID:26333925

  10. Ascaris suum infection negatively affects the response to a Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae vaccination and subsequent challenge infection in pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    It is vital to understand the possible mechanisms that may impair optimal vaccine efficacy. The hypothesis posed in this study was that a concurrent Ascaris suum infection of pigs vaccinated with a Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (Mh) vaccine would modulate the protective immune response to a subsequent ch...

  11. Destination branding by residents : The role of perceived responsibility in positive and negative word-of-mouth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeuring, Jelmer; Haartsen, Tialda

    2017-01-01

    The importance of residents’ communication about their home region as tourist destination is increasingly acknowledged in the place branding process. However, the extent to which residents feel responsible for communicating Destination Images (DIs), and how these attributions affect word-of-mouth

  12. Mammary gene expression profiles during an intramammary challenge reveal potential mechanisms linking negative energy balance with impaired immune response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moyes, Kasey; Drackley, J K; Morin, D E

    2010-01-01

    Our objective was to compare mammary tissue gene expression profiles during a Streptococcus uberis (S. uberis) mastitis challenge between lactating cows subjected to dietary-induced negative energy balance (NEB; n = 5) and cows fed ad libitum to maintain positive energy balance (PEB; n = 5......) in order to better understand the mechanisms associated with NEB and risk of mastitis during the transition period. The NEB cows were feed-restricted to 60% of calculated net energy for lactation requirements for 7 d, and cows assigned to PEB were fed the same diet for ad libitum intake. Five days after...... feed restriction, one rear mammary quarter of each cow was inoculated with 5,000 cfu of S. uberis (O140J). At 20 h post-inoculation, S. uberis-infected mammary quarters from all cows were biopsied for RNA extraction. Energy balance (NEB vs. PEB) resulted in 287 differentially expressed genes (DEG; FDR...

  13. Catechol-O-methyltransferase gene variants may associate with negative symptom response and plasma concentrations of prolactin in schizophrenia after amisulpride treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chun-Yen; Yeh, Yi-Wei; Kuo, Shin-Chang; Ho, Pei-Shen; Liang, Chih-Sung; Yen, Che-Hung; Lu, Ru-Band; Huang, San-Yuan

    2016-03-01

    Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) enzyme is involved in the pathogenesis of psychotic symptoms and may be associated with a therapeutic response to antipsychotic drugs. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between COMT variants, plasma prolactin level, and the therapeutic effectiveness of amisulpride treatment in patients with schizophrenia. A 12-week naturalistic study of amisulpride treatment was carried out in 185 Han Chinese patients with schizophrenia. The patients were screened for 14 single-nucleotide polymorphisms of the COMT gene. The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) was used to assess the improvement of psychopathological symptoms from the baseline to the end point in each subject. For better presentation of time-course changes in response status, a mixed model for repeated-measures (MMRM) analysis of symptom improvement during the 12-week treatment period was conducted. The change in plasma prolactin level after amisulpride treatment was also examined (n=51). No significant differences in the genotype frequencies of the COMT variants investigated were observed between responders and non-responders. Moreover, an MMRM analysis of psychopathological symptom improvement during the 12-week treatment course showed that it depended significantly on COMT variants (rs4680, rs4633, and rs6267), particularly regarding changes in negative symptoms. The increase in plasma prolactin levels observed was influenced by the COMT rs4680 variant and was positively correlated with a reduction in PANSS negative scores. Our results suggest that variation of the COMT gene is associated with treatment response regarding negative symptoms and prolactin changes after amisulpride treatment in patients with schizophrenia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Concurrent tobacco and khat use is associated with blunted cardiovascular stress response and enhanced negative mood: a cross-sectional investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    al'Absi, Mustafa; Nakajima, Motohiro; Dokam, Anisa; Sameai, Abed; Alsoofi, Mohamed; Saem Khalil, Najat; Al Habori, Molham

    2014-07-01

    Khat (Catha edulis), an amphetamine-like plant, is widely used in East Africa and the Arabian Peninsula and is becoming a growing problem in other parts of the world. The concurrent use of tobacco and khat is highly prevalent and represents a public health challenge. We examined for the first time associations of the concurrent use of tobacco and khat with psychophysiological responses to acute stress in two sites in Yemen. Participants (N = 308; 135 women) included three groups: users of khat and tobacco, users of khat alone, and a control group (nonsmokers/nonusers of khat). These individuals completed a laboratory session in which blood pressures (BP), heart rate, and mood measures were assessed during rest and in response to acute stress. Concurrent use of khat and tobacco was associated with attenuated systolic BP, diastolic BP, and heart rate responses to laboratory stress (ps < 0.05) and with increased negative affect relative to the control group (ps < 0.05). Results demonstrated blunted cardiovascular responses to stress and enhanced negative affect in concurrent khat and tobacco users. These findings extend previous studies with other substances and suggest that adverse effects of khat use may lie in its association with the use of tobacco. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Sublethal pesticide doses negatively affect survival and the cellular responses in American foulbrood-infected honeybee larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Javier Hernández; Krainer, Sophie; Engert, Antonia; Schuehly, Wolfgang; Riessberger-Gallé, Ulrike; Crailsheim, Karl

    2017-02-01

    Disclosing interactions between pesticides and bee infections is of most interest to understand challenges that pollinators are facing and to which extent bee health is compromised. Here, we address the individual and combined effect that three different pesticides (dimethoate, clothianidin and fluvalinate) and an American foulbrood (AFB) infection have on mortality and the cellular immune response of honeybee larvae. We demonstrate for the first time a synergistic interaction when larvae are exposed to sublethal doses of dimethoate or clothianidin in combination with Paenibacillus larvae, the causative agent of AFB. A significantly higher mortality than the expected sum of the effects of each individual stressor was observed in co-exposed larvae, which was in parallel with a drastic reduction of the total and differential hemocyte counts. Our results underline that characterizing the cellular response of larvae to individual and combined stressors allows unmasking previously undetected sublethal effects of pesticides in colony health.

  16. Enhanced Negative Emotion and Alcohol Craving, and Altered Physiological Responses Following Stress and Cue Exposure in Alcohol Dependent Individuals

    OpenAIRE

    Sinha, Rajita; Fox, Helen C; Hong, Kwangik A; Bergquist, Keri; Bhagwagar, Zubin; Siedlarz, Kristen M

    2008-01-01

    Chronic alcohol abuse is associated with changes in stress and reward pathways that could alter vulnerability to emotional stress and alcohol craving. This study examines whether chronic alcohol abuse is associated with altered stress and alcohol craving responses. Treatment-engaged, 28-day abstinent alcohol-dependent individuals (ADs; 6F/22M), and social drinkers (SDs; 10F/18M) were exposed to a brief guided imagery of a personalized stressful, alcohol-related and neutral-relaxing situation,...

  17. Peripheral Microvascular Responses to Whole-Body Tilting, G(z) Centrifugation, and Lower Body Negative Pressure Stresses in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breit, G. A.; Watenpaugh, D. E.; Buckley, T. M.; Ballard, R. E.; Murthy, G.; Hargens, A. R.

    1994-01-01

    The response of the cutaneous microcirculation to orthostatic stress varies along the length of the body due to the interaction of central controls with regional responses to local blood pressure. We hypothesize that artificial orthostatic stresses such as Gz centrifugation and LBNP differ from whole-body tilting in terms of the distribution of microvascular blood flow. Cutaneous microvascular flows were measured by laser Doppler flowmetry at the neck, thigh, and leg of 15 normal subjects. Volunteers underwent stepwise head-up tilt (HUT) and short- and long-arm centrifugation protocols from supine control (0 Gz) to 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, 1.0, 0.8, 0.6, 0.4, 0.2, and 0 Gz at the feet, for 30-s periods with 10-s transitions between levels. The same subjects underwent a corresponding supine LBNP protocol, up to 100 mmHg (in 20 mmHg increments) and back to zero pressure, which produced transmural pressure across blood vessels in the foot approximately equal to the HUT protocol. In general, application of all orthostatic stresses produced significant flow reductions in the lower body (p less than 0.05) and inconsistent changes in the neck. At low levels of each stress (0.4 Gz, 40 mmHg), LBNP generated the greatest relative reduction in flow in the lower body (-66.9+/-5.7%, thigh; -60.6 +/-5.7%, leg, mean +/- SE). HUT caused a less severe flow reduction than LBNP at the thigh and leg (-39.9 +/- 8.1% and -55.9+/-4.8%), while the effects induced by both forms of centrifugation were the least profound. Higher levels of each stress generally resulted in similar responses. These responses exhibit a consistent relationship to hypothesized changes in local microvascular transmural pressure, suggesting that myogenic and veno-arteriolar reflexes play a significant role in determining microvascular perfusion during orthostatic stress.

  18. Response to Multiple Radiation Doses of Human Colorectal Carcinoma Cells Infected With Recombinant Adenovirus Containing Dominant-Negative Ku70 Fragment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urano, Muneyasu; He Fuqiu; Minami, Akiko; Ling, C. Clifton; Li, Gloria C.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the effect of recombinant replication-defective adenovirus containing dominant-negative Ku70 fragment on the response of tumor cells to multiple small radiation doses. Our ultimate goal is to demonstrate the feasibility of using this virus in gene-radiotherapy to enhance the radiation response of tumor cells. Methods and Materials: Human colorectal HCT8 and HT29 carcinoma cells were plated in glass tubes, infected with virus (25 multiplicity of infection), and irradiated with a single dose or zero to five doses of 3 Gy each at 6-h intervals. Hypoxia was induced by flushing with 100% nitrogen gas. The cells were trypsinized 0 or 6 h after the final irradiation, and cell survival was determined by colony formation. The survival data were fitted to linear-quadratic model or exponential line. Results: Virus infection enhanced the radiation response of the HCT8 and HT29 cells. The virus enhancement ratio for single-dose irradiation at a surviving fraction of 0.1 was ∼1.3 for oxic and hypoxic HCT8 and 1.4 and 1.1 for oxic and hypoxic HT29, respectively. A similar virus enhancement ratio of 1.2-1.3 was observed for both oxic and hypoxic cells irradiated with multiple doses; however, these values were smaller than the values found for dominant-negative Ku70-transfected Rat-1 cells. This difference has been discussed. The oxygen enhancement ratio for HCT8 and HT29 receiving fractionated doses was 1.2 and 2.0, respectively, and virus infection altered them slightly. Conclusion: Infection of recombinant replication-defective adenovirus containing dominant-negative Ku70 fragment enhanced the response of human colorectal cancer cells to single and multiple radiation doses.

  19. Once the rockets are up, who should care where they come down? The problem of responsibility ascription for the negative consequences of biofuel innovations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tempels, T H; Van den Belt, H

    2016-01-01

    Responsible Innovation (RI) is often heralded in EU policy circles as a means to achieve ethically acceptable, sustainable innovations. Yet, conceptual questions on the specific notion of 'responsibility' and to what extent an innovation can be 'responsible' are only partly addressed. In this chapter the question of responsibility for the indirect negative effects of biofuel innovations is explored. While initially hailed as one of the much needed solutions in the global struggle against climate change, the use of biofuels has become increasingly criticised. It is argued that the increased production of biofuels has put smallholder farmers out of business, has given rise to increased food prices, sparking food riots in several countries, while also contributing to further environmental degradation as the demand for new biofuels requires the development of new croplands at the cost of forests and peat lands. In the current market-based system it is customary to disburden researchers and business companies from any responsibility for the more remote consequences of their actions. When harmful consequences are brought about through the mediation of (perhaps a long series of) market transactions, they are often considered inevitable and excusable and not an appropriate occasion for invoking anybody's responsibility. But how broad is the scope of responsibility when it comes to the above mentioned social and ecological problems? By invoking the sacred duty to "innovate", the business company could perhaps be exculpated. In our age, innovation is often so much celebrated that many negative impacts are duly accepted as the inevitable price of progress. By approaching responsibility from a perspective that takes into account the economic and ecological interconnectedness of the world, we show how the debate on Responsible Innovation in biofuels becomes tied in with global debates on economic justice and bioscarcity. In conclusion we argue that if we-assuming this

  20. Negative BOLD response and serotonin concentration within rostral subgenual portion of the anterior cingulate cortex for long-allele carriers during perceptual processing of emotional tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadi, Shamil M.; Siadat, Mohamad R.; Babajani-Feremi, Abbas

    2012-03-01

    We investigated the effect of synaptic serotonin concentration on hemodynamic responses. The stimuli paradigm involved the presentation of fearful and threatening facial expressions to a set of 24 subjects who were either5HTTLPR long- or short-allele carriers (12 of each type in each group). The BOLD signals of the rACC from subjects of each group were averaged to increase the signal-to-noise ratio. We used a Bayesian approach to estimate the parameters of the underlying hemodynamic model. Our results, during this perceptual processing of emotional task, showed a negative BOLD signal in the rACC in the subjects with long-alleles. In contrast, the subjects with short-alleles showed positive BOLD signals in the rACC. These results suggest that high synaptic serotonin concentration in the rACC inhibits neuronal activity in a fashion similar to GABA, and a consequent negative BOLD signal ensues.

  1. Double-standards in reporting of risk and responsibility for sexual health: a qualitative content analysis of negatively toned UK newsprint articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Susan P; McDaid, Lisa M; Hilton, Shona

    2014-08-04

    The need to challenge messages that reinforce harmful negative discourses around sexual risk and responsibility is a priority in improving sexual health. The mass media are an important source of information regularly alerting, updating and influencing public opinions and the way in which sexual health issues are framed may play a crucial role in shaping expectations of who is responsible for sexual health risks and healthy sexual practices. We conducted an in-depth, qualitative analysis of 85 negatively toned newspaper articles reporting on sexual health topics to examine how risk and responsibility have been framed within these in relation to gender. Articles published in 2010 in seven UK and three Scottish national newspapers were included. A latent content analysis approach was taken, focusing on interpreting the underlying meaning of text. A key theme in the articles was men being framed as a risk to women's sexual health, whilst it was part of a women's role to "resist" men's advances. Such discourses tended to portray a power imbalance in sexual relationships between women and men. A number of articles argued that it was women who needed to take more responsibility for sexual health. Articles repeatedly suggested that women and teenage girls in particular, lacked the skills and confidence to negotiate safer sex and sex education programmes were often presented as having failed. Men were frequently portrayed as being more promiscuous and engaging in more risky sexual health behaviours than women, yet just one article drew attention to the lack of focus on male responsibility for sexual health. Gay men were used as a bench mark against which rates were measured and framed as being a risk and at risk. The framing of men as a risk to women, whilst women are presented at the same time as responsible for patrolling sexual encounters, organising contraception and preventing sexual ill health reinforces gender stereotypes and undermines efforts to promote a

  2. The Socio-Communicative Development of Preterm Infants Is Resistant to the Negative Effects of Parity on Maternal Responsiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldas, Ivete F R; Garotti, Marilice F; Shiramizu, Victor K M; Pereira, Antonio

    2018-01-01

    Humans are born completely dependent on adult care for survival. To get the necessary support, newborns rely on socio-communicative abilities which have both innate and learned components. Maternal responsiveness (MR), as a critical aspect of mother-infant interaction, is a robust predictor of the acquisition of socio-communicative abilities. However, maternal responsiveness (MR) is influenced by parity, since mothers rely on a limited capacity of cognitive control for efficient attachment with their offspring. This fact is of particular concern for preterms, whose developing brain already faces many challenges due to their premature emergence from the womb's controlled environment and may still have to compete with siblings for mother's attention. Thus, in the present work, we aimed to understand how parity interferes with MR and whether it affects the development of socio-communicative abilities of preterm infants. We used the Social Interaction Rating Scale (SIRS) and the mother-child observation protocol in 18 dyads with gestational age development of preterm infants during the first year, suggesting a level of resilience of brain systems supporting the attachment to caregivers.

  3. SIRT6 Acts as a Negative Regulator in Dengue Virus-Induced Inflammatory Response by Targeting the DNA Binding Domain of NF-κB p65

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengcheng Li

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Dengue virus (DENV is a mosquito-borne single-stranded RNA virus causing human disease with variable severity. The production of massive inflammatory cytokines in dengue patients has been associated with dengue disease severity. However, the regulation of these inflammatory responses remains unclear. In this study, we report that SIRT6 is a negative regulator of innate immune responses during DENV infection. Silencing of Sirt6 enhances DENV-induced proinflammatory cytokine and chemokine production. Overexpression of SIRT6 inhibits RIG-I-like receptor (RLR and Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3 mediated NF-κB activation. The sirtuin core domain of SIRT6 is required for the inhibition of NF-κB p65 function. SIRT6 interacts with the DNA binding domain of p65 and competes with p65 to occupy the Il6 promoter during DENV infection. Collectively, our study demonstrates that SIRT6 negatively regulates DENV-induced inflammatory response via RLR and TLR3 signaling pathways.

  4. BRUTUS and its paralogs, BTS LIKE1 and BTS LIKE2, encode important negative regulators of the iron deficiency response in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindt, Maria N; Akmakjian, Garo Z; Pivarski, Kara L; Punshon, Tracy; Baxter, Ivan; Salt, David E; Guerinot, Mary Lou

    2017-07-19

    Iron (Fe) is required for plant health, but it can also be toxic when present in excess. Therefore, Fe levels must be tightly controlled. The Arabidopsis thaliana E3 ligase BRUTUS (BTS) is involved in the negative regulation of the Fe deficiency response and we show here that the two A. thaliana BTS paralogs, BTS LIKE1 (BTSL1) and BTS LIKE2 (BTSL2) encode proteins that act redundantly as negative regulators of the Fe deficiency response. Loss of both of these E3 ligases enhances tolerance to Fe deficiency. We further generated a triple mutant with loss of both BTS paralogs and a partial loss of BTS expression that exhibits even greater tolerance to Fe-deficient conditions and increased Fe accumulation without any resulting Fe toxicity effects. Finally, we identified a mutant carrying a novel missense mutation of BTS that exhibits an Fe deficiency response in the root when grown under both Fe-deficient and Fe-sufficient conditions, leading to Fe toxicity when plants are grown under Fe-sufficient conditions.

  5. Students' responses under “negative pressure” to respiratory questions at the 15th physiology quiz international event: 100 medical school teams from 22 countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hwee-Ming Cheng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The annual Inter-medical School Physiology Quiz (IMSPQ reached a milestone in August 2017 with the participation of 100 university medical schools at the 15th IMSPQ. A total of 440 students from 22 countries competed. The written test on day 1 shortlisted 48 of the 100 teams for the 2nd day oral quiz stimulating sessions, conducted before a live audience. The IMSPQ provides a unique sample of international students, taught under a diverse spectrum of medical curriculums, designed to meet the university and national priorities of the countries. The written test, taken by all 440 students, is a challenging 75-min paper with 100 physiology statements covering all organ systems. Certainty in students' answers was targeted by a true/false response, with no marks for unattempted questions but with a negative mark on incorrect answers. The insights from an analysis of responses to the lung physiology, including cardiorespiratory mechanism, are helpful and enlightening for Physiology teachers. They show common areas of difficulty and imprecise understanding. This brief teaching note will describe and give some comments on the students' respiratory responses under pressure of negative marking.

  6. bHLH003, bHLH013 and bHLH017 are new targets of JAZ repressors negatively regulating JA responses.

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    Sandra Fonseca

    Full Text Available Cell reprogramming in response to jasmonates requires a tight control of transcription that is achieved by the activity of JA-related transcription factors (TFs. Among them, MYC2, MYC3 and MYC4 have been described as activators of JA responses. Here we characterized the function of bHLH003, bHLH013 and bHLH017 that conform a phylogenetic clade closely related to MYC2, MYC3 and MYC4. We found that these bHLHs form homo- and heterodimers and also interact with JAZ repressors in vitro and in vivo. Phenotypic analysis of JA-regulated processes, including root and rosette growth, anthocyanin accumulation, chlorophyll loss and resistance to Pseudomonas syringae, on mutants and overexpression lines, suggested that these bHLHs are repressors of JA responses. bHLH003, bHLH013 and bHLH017 are mainly nuclear proteins and bind DNA with similar specificity to that of MYC2, MYC3 and MYC4, but lack a conserved activation domain, suggesting that repression is achieved by competition for the same cis-regulatory elements. Moreover, expression of bHLH017 is induced by JA and depends on MYC2, suggesting a negative feed-back regulation of the activity of positive JA-related TFs. Our results suggest that the competition between positive and negative TFs determines the output of JA-dependent transcriptional activation.

  7. Negative ... concord?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giannakidou, A

    The main claim of this paper is that a general theory of negative concord (NC) should allow for the possibility of NC involving scoping of a universal quantifier above negation. I propose that Greek NC instantiates this option. Greek n-words will be analyzed as polarity sensitive universal

  8. Ndk, a novel host-responsive regulator, negatively regulates bacterial virulence through quorum sensing in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hua; Xiong, Junzhi; Zhang, Rong; Hu, Xiaomei; Qiu, Jing; Zhang, Di; Xu, Xiaohui; Xin, Rong; He, Xiaomei; Xie, Wei; Sheng, Halei; Chen, Qian; Zhang, Le; Rao, Xiancai; Zhang, Kebin

    2016-01-01

    Pathogenic bacteria could adjust gene expression to enable their survival in the distinct host environment. However, the mechanism by which bacteria adapt to the host environment is not well described. In this study, we demonstrated that nucleoside diphosphate kinase (Ndk) of Pseudomonas aeruginosa is critical for adjusting the bacterial virulence determinants during infection. Ndk expression was down-regulated in the pulmonary alveoli of a mouse model of acute pneumonia. Knockout of ndk up-regulated transcription factor ExsA-mediated T3S regulon expression and decreased exoproduct-related gene expression through the inhibition of the quorum sensing hierarchy. Moreover, in vitro and in vivo studies demonstrated that the ndk mutant exhibits enhanced cytotoxicity and host pathogenicity by increasing T3SS proteins. Taken together, our data reveal that ndk is a critical novel host-responsive gene required for coordinating P. aeruginosa virulence upon acute infection. PMID:27345215

  9. OsRMC, a negative regulator of salt stress response in rice, is regulated by two AP2/ERF transcription factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra, Tânia S; Figueiredo, Duarte D; Cordeiro, André M; Almeida, Diego M; Lourenço, Tiago; Abreu, Isabel A; Sebastián, Alvaro; Fernandes, Lisete; Contreras-Moreira, Bruno; Oliveira, M Margarida; Saibo, Nelson J M

    2013-07-01

    High salinity causes remarkable losses in rice productivity worldwide mainly because it inhibits growth and reduces grain yield. To cope with environmental changes, plants evolved several adaptive mechanisms, which involve the regulation of many stress-responsive genes. Among these, we have chosen OsRMC to study its transcriptional regulation in rice seedlings subjected to high salinity. Its transcription was highly induced by salt treatment and showed a stress-dose-dependent pattern. OsRMC encodes a receptor-like kinase described as a negative regulator of salt stress responses in rice. To investigate how OsRMC is regulated in response to high salinity, a salt-induced rice cDNA expression library was constructed and subsequently screened using the yeast one-hybrid system and the OsRMC promoter as bait. Thereby, two transcription factors (TFs), OsEREBP1 and OsEREBP2, belonging to the AP2/ERF family were identified. Both TFs were shown to bind to the same GCC-like DNA motif in OsRMC promoter and to negatively regulate its gene expression. The identified TFs were characterized regarding their gene expression under different abiotic stress conditions. This study revealed that OsEREBP1 transcript level is not significantly affected by salt, ABA or severe cold (5 °C) and is only slightly regulated by drought and moderate cold. On the other hand, the OsEREBP2 transcript level increased after cold, ABA, drought and high salinity treatments, indicating that OsEREBP2 may play a central role mediating the response to different abiotic stresses. Gene expression analysis in rice varieties with contrasting salt tolerance further suggests that OsEREBP2 is involved in salt stress response in rice.

  10. Pathological complete response after cisplatin neoadjuvant therapy is associated with the downregulation of DNA repair genes in BRCA1-associated triple-negative breast cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domagala, Pawel; Hybiak, Jolanta; Rys, Janusz; Byrski, Tomasz; Cybulski, Cezary; Lubinski, Jan

    2016-10-18

    Pathologic complete response (pCR) after neoadjuvant chemotherapy is considered a suitable surrogate marker of treatment efficacy in patients with triple-negative breast cancers (TNBCs). However, the molecular mechanisms underlying pCR as a result of such treatment remain obscure. Using real-time PCR arrays we compared the expression levels of 120 genes involved in the main mechanisms of DNA repair in 43 pretreatment biopsies of BRCA1-associated TNBCs exhibiting pCR and no pathological complete response (non-pCR) after neoadjuvant chemotherapy with cisplatin. Altogether, 25 genes were significantly differentially expressed between tumors exhibiting pCR and non-pCR, and these genes were downregulated in the pCR group compared to the non-pCR group. A difference in expression level greater than 1.5-fold was detected for nine genes: MGMT, ERCC4, FANCB, UBA1, XRCC5, XPA, XPC, PARP3, and RPA1. The non-homologous end joining and nucleotide excision repair pathways of DNA repair showed the most significant relevance. Expression profile of DNA repair genes associated with pCR was different in the node-positive (20 genes with fold change >1.5) and node-negative (only 3 genes) subgroups. Although BRCA1 germline mutations are the principal defects in BRCA1-associated TNBC, our results indicate that the additional downregulation of other genes engaged in major pathways of DNA repair may play a decisive role in the pathological response of these tumors to cisplatin neoadjuvant chemotherapy. The results suggest that patients with node-positive BRCA1-associated TNBCs that do not exhibit pCR after cisplatin neoadjuvant chemotherapy may be candidates for subsequent therapy with PARP inhibitors, whereas UBA1 may be a potential therapeutic target in node-negative subgroup.

  11. Mice lacking SIGNR1 have stronger T helper 1 responses to Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wieland, Catharina W.; Koppel, Estella A.; den Dunnen, Jeroen; Florquin, Sandrine; McKenzie, Andrew N. J.; van Kooyk, Yvette; van der Poll, Tom; Geijtenbeek, Teunis B. H.

    2007-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis and the associated disease tuberculosis are health risks causing many deaths worldwide each year in humans. M. tuberculosis targets dendritic cell (DC)-specific intercellular adhesion molecule-3 grabbing non-integrin (DC-SIGN) to induce immunosuppression, since interaction

  12. TRIM30α Is a Negative-Feedback Regulator of the Intracellular DNA and DNA Virus-Triggered Response by Targeting STING.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanming Wang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Uncontrolled immune responses to intracellular DNA have been shown to induce autoimmune diseases. Homeostasis regulation of immune responses to cytosolic DNA is critical for limiting the risk of autoimmunity and survival of the host. Here, we report that the E3 ubiquitin ligase tripartite motif protein 30α (TRIM30α was induced by herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1 infection in dendritic cells (DCs. Knockdown or genetic ablation of TRIM30α augmented the type I IFNs and interleukin-6 response to intracellular DNA and DNA viruses. Trim30α-deficient mice were more resistant to infection by DNA viruses. Biochemical analyses showed that TRIM30α interacted with the stimulator of interferon genes (STING, which is a critical regulator of the DNA-sensing response. Overexpression of TRIM30α promoted the degradation of STING via K48-linked ubiquitination at Lys275 through a proteasome-dependent pathway. These findings indicate that E3 ligase TRIM30α is an important negative-feedback regulator of innate immune responses to DNA viruses by targeting STING.

  13. Photosynthetic temperature responses of tree species in Rwanda: evidence of pronounced negative effects of high temperature in montane rainforest climax species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vårhammar, Angelica; Wallin, Göran; McLean, Christopher M; Dusenge, Mirindi Eric; Medlyn, Belinda E; Hasper, Thomas B; Nsabimana, Donat; Uddling, Johan

    2015-05-01

    The sensitivity of photosynthetic metabolism to temperature has been identified as a key uncertainty for projecting the magnitude of the terrestrial feedback on future climate change. While temperature responses of photosynthetic capacities have been comparatively well investigated in temperate species, the responses of tropical tree species remain unexplored. We compared the responses of seedlings of native cold-adapted tropical montane rainforest tree species with those of exotic warm-adapted plantation species, all growing in an intermediate temperature common garden in Rwanda. Leaf gas exchange responses to carbon dioxide (CO2 ) at different temperatures (20-40°C) were used to assess the temperature responses of biochemical photosynthetic capacities. Analyses revealed a lower optimum temperature for photosynthetic electron transport rates than for Rubisco carboxylation rates, along with lower electron transport optima in the native cold-adapted than in the exotic warm-adapted species. The photosynthetic optimum temperatures were generally exceeded by daytime peak leaf temperatures, in particular in the native montane rainforest climax species. This study thus provides evidence of pronounced negative effects of high temperature in tropical trees and indicates high susceptibility of montane rainforest climax species to future global warming. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  14. Sense or sensibility? Social sharers' evaluations of socio-affective vs. cognitive support in response to negative emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauw, Lisanne S; Sauter, Disa A; van Kleef, Gerben A; Fischer, Agneta H

    2017-11-09

    When in emotional distress, people often turn to others for social support. A general distinction has been made between two types of support that are differentially effective: Whereas socio-affective support temporarily alleviates emotional distress, cognitive support may contribute to better long-term recovery. In the current studies, we examine what type of support individuals seek. We first confirmed in a pilot study that these two types of support can be reliably distinguished. Then, in Study 1, we experimentally tested participants' support evaluations in response to different emotional situations using a vignette methodology. Findings showed that individuals perceived any type of reaction that included socio-affective support as preferable. The evaluation of cognitive support, however, was dependent on the specific emotion: Unlike worry and regret, anger and sadness were characterised by a strong dislike for purely cognitive support. Using different materials, Study 2 replicated these findings. Taken together, the findings suggest that individuals evaluate different types of support in a way that is unlikely to benefit emotional recovery in the long run.

  15. Mammalian ECD Protein Is a Novel Negative Regulator of the PERK Arm of the Unfolded Protein Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olou, Appolinaire A; Sarkar, Aniruddha; Bele, Aditya; Gurumurthy, C B; Mir, Riyaz A; Ammons, Shalis A; Mirza, Sameer; Saleem, Irfana; Urano, Fumihiko; Band, Hamid; Band, Vimla

    2017-09-15

    Mammalian Ecdysoneless (ECD) is a highly conserved ortholog of the Drosophila Ecd gene product whose mutations impair the synthesis of Ecdysone and produce cell-autonomous survival defects, but the mechanisms by which ECD functions are largely unknown. Here we present evidence that ECD regulates the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response. ER stress induction led to a reduced ECD protein level, but this effect was not seen in PKR-like ER kinase knockout (PERK-KO) or phosphodeficient eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2α (eIF2α) mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs); moreover, ECD mRNA levels were increased, suggesting impaired ECD translation as the mechanism for reduced protein levels. ECD colocalizes and coimmunoprecipitates with PERK and GRP78. ECD depletion increased the levels of both phospho-PERK (p-PERK) and p-eIF2α, and these effects were enhanced upon ER stress induction. Reciprocally, overexpression of ECD led to marked decreases in p-PERK, p-eIF2α, and ATF4 levels but robust increases in GRP78 protein levels. However, GRP78 mRNA levels were unchanged, suggesting a posttranscriptional event. Knockdown of GRP78 reversed the attenuating effect of ECD overexpression on PERK signaling. Significantly, overexpression of ECD provided a survival advantage to cells upon ER stress induction. Taken together, our data demonstrate that ECD promotes survival upon ER stress by increasing GRP78 protein levels to enhance the adaptive folding protein in the ER to attenuate PERK signaling. Copyright © 2017 Olou et al.

  16. Hemispheric Asymmetries in Striatal Reward Responses Relate to Approach-Avoidance Learning and Encoding of Positive-Negative Prediction Errors in Dopaminergic Midbrain Regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aberg, Kristoffer Carl; Doell, Kimberly C; Schwartz, Sophie

    2015-10-28

    Some individuals are better at learning about rewarding situations, whereas others are inclined to avoid punishments (i.e., enhanced approach or avoidance learning, respectively). In reinforcement learning, action values are increased when outcomes are better than predicted (positive prediction errors [PEs]) and decreased for worse than predicted outcomes (negative PEs). Because actions with high and low values are approached and avoided, respectively, individual differences in the neural encoding of PEs may influence the balance between approach-avoidance learning. Recent correlational approaches also indicate that biases in approach-avoidance learning involve hemispheric asymmetries in dopamine function. However, the computational and neural mechanisms underpinning such learning biases remain unknown. Here we assessed hemispheric reward asymmetry in striatal activity in 34 human participants who performed a task involving rewards and punishments. We show that the relative difference in reward response between hemispheres relates to individual biases in approach-avoidance learning. Moreover, using a computational modeling approach, we demonstrate that better encoding of positive (vs negative) PEs in dopaminergic midbrain regions is associated with better approach (vs avoidance) learning, specifically in participants with larger reward responses in the left (vs right) ventral striatum. Thus, individual dispositions or traits may be determined by neural processes acting to constrain learning about specific aspects of the world. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/3514491-10$15.00/0.

  17. Solitary Alcohol Use in Teens Is Associated With Drinking in Response to Negative Affect and Predicts Alcohol Problems in Young Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creswell, Kasey G; Chung, Tammy; Clark, Duncan B; Martin, Christopher S

    2014-09-01

    Adolescent solitary drinking may represent an informative divergence from normative behavior, with important implications for understanding risk for alcohol-use disorders later in life. Within a self-medication framework, we hypothesized that solitary alcohol use would be associated with drinking in response to negative affect and that such a pattern of drinking would predict alcohol problems in young adulthood. We tested these predictions in a longitudinal study in which we examined whether solitary drinking in adolescence (ages 12-18) predicted alcohol-use disorders in young adulthood (age 25) in 466 alcohol-using teens recruited from clinical programs and 243 alcohol-using teens recruited from the community. Findings showed that solitary drinking was associated with drinking in response to negative affect during adolescence and predicted alcohol problems in young adulthood. Results indicate that drinking alone is an important type of alcohol-use behavior that increases risk for the escalation of alcohol use and the development of alcohol problems.

  18. Assessment of negative phototaxis in long-term fasted Glyptocidaris crenularis: a new insight into measuring stress responses of sea urchins in aquaculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Xiaofei; Wei, Jing; Zhao, Chong; Feng, Wenping; Sun, Ping; Chang, Yaqing

    2015-01-01

    A cost-effective method was designed to measure the behavioral response of negative phototaxis to high-intensity illumination in the sea urchin Glyptocidaris crenularis. Ninety sea urchins were randomly and equally divided into two aquaculture environment groups: a fasted group, which was starved during the experiment, and a fed group. After 10 months, the total mortality of each group was recorded. Then, 15 sea urchins were randomly selected from each group and behavioral responses to high-intensity illumination were investigated for each sea urchin. After the behavioral experiment, body measurements of the trial sea urchins were taken. The results reveal that food deprivation significantly affected test diameter ( P0.05). The mortality rates of fasted and fed urchins were 6.7% and 0%, respectively. The present study provides evidence that food deprivation has a significant effect on phenotypic traits and behavioral responses to high-intensity illumination in the sea urchin G. crenularis. With this method, environmental stressors can be easily detected by measuring proper optional indicators. This study provides a new insight into measuring stress responses of sea urchins in aquaculture. However, further studies should be carried out to understand more environmental factors and to compare this potential behavioral method with immune, physiological, and epidemiological approaches.

  19. Plant Identity Exerts Stronger Effect than Fertilization on Soil Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi in a Sown Pasture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yong; Chen, Liang; Luo, Cai-Yun; Zhang, Zhen-Hua; Wang, Shi-Ping; Guo, Liang-Dong

    2016-10-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi play key roles in plant nutrition and plant productivity. AM fungal responses to either plant identity or fertilization have been investigated. However, the interactive effects of different plant species and fertilizer types on these symbiotic fungi remain poorly understood. We evaluated the effects of the factorial combinations of plant identity (grasses Avena sativa and Elymus nutans and legume Vicia sativa) and fertilization (urea and sheep manure) on AM fungi following 2-year monocultures in a sown pasture field study. AM fungal extraradical hyphal density was significantly higher in E. nutans than that in A. sativa and V. sativa in the unfertilized control and was significantly increased by urea and manure in A. sativa and by manure only in E. nutans, but not by either fertilizers in V. sativa. AM fungal spore density was not significantly affected by plant identity or fertilization. Forty-eight operational taxonomic units (OTUs) of AM fungi were obtained through 454 pyrosequencing of 18S rDNA. The OTU richness and Shannon diversity index of AM fungi were significantly higher in E. nutans than those in V. sativa and/or A. sativa, but not significantly affected by any fertilizer in all of the three plant species. AM fungal community composition was significantly structured directly by plant identity only and indirectly by both urea addition and plant identity through soil total nitrogen content. Our findings highlight that plant identity has stronger influence than fertilization on belowground AM fungal community in this converted pastureland from an alpine meadow.

  20. Isotropic Single Negative Metamaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Protiva

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the application of simple, and therefore cheap, planar resonators for building 3D isotropic metamaterials. These resonators are: a broadside-coupled split ring resonator with a magnetic response providing negative permeability; an electric dipole terminated by a loop inductor together with a double H-shaped resonator with an electric response providing negative permittivity. Two kinds of 3D isotropic single negative metamaterials are reported. The first material consists of unit cells in the form of a cube bearing on its faces six equal planar resonators with tetrahedral symmetry. In the second material, the planar resonators boxed into spherical plastic shells and randomly distributed in a hosting material compose a real 3D volumetric metamaterial with an isotropic response. In both cases the metamaterial shows negative permittivity or permeability, according to the type of resonators that are used. The experiments prove the isotropic behavior of the cells and of the metamaterial specimens.

  1. The Arabidopsis ATAF1, a NAC transcription factor, is a negative regulator of defense responses against necrotrophic fungal and bacterial pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao'e; Basnayake, B M Vindhya S; Zhang, Huijuan; Li, Guojun; Li, Wei; Virk, Nasar; Mengiste, Tesfaye; Song, Fengming

    2009-10-01

    Transcription factors of the NAC family are known to be involved in various growth or developmental processes and in regulation of response to environmental stresses. In the present study, we report that Arabidopsis ATAF1 is a negative regulator of defense responses against both necrotrophic fungal and bacterial pathogens. Expression of ATAF1 was downregulated after infection with Botrytis cinerea or Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato or after treatment with salicylic acid (SA), jasmonic acid, and 1-amino cyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (the precursor of ethylene biosynthesis). Transgenic plants that overexpress the ATAF1 gene (ATAF1-OE) showed increased susceptibility while expression of an ATAF1 chimeric repressor construct (ATAF1-SRDX) exhibited enhanced resistance to P. syringae pv. tomato DC3000, B. cinerea, and Alternaria brassicicola. The ataf1 mutant plants showed no significant resistance against the pathogens tested. After inoculation with B. cinerea or P. syringae pv. tomato DC3000, expressions of defense-related genes PR-1, PR-5. and PDF1.2 were upregulated in the ATAF1-SRDX plants but attenuated or unchanged in the ATAF1-OE plants. In ATAF1-OE plants, SA-induced expression of pathogenesis-related genes and disease resistance against P. syringae pv. tomato DC3000 was partially suppressed. Increased levels of reactive oxygen species (i.e., H(2)O(2) and superoxide anion) accumulated only in the ATAF1-OE but not in the ATAF1-SRDX plants after Botrytis spp. infection. Our studies provide direct genetic evidence for the role of ATAF1 as a negative regulator of defense response against different type of pathogens.

  2. Evidence for active, nonlinear, negative feedback in the vibration response of the apical region of the in-vivo guinea-pig cochlea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinn, C; Maier, H; Zenner, H; Gummer, A W

    2000-04-01

    The transverse vibration response of the organ of Corti near the apical end of the guinea-pig cochlea was measured in vivo. For cochleae in good physiological condition, as ascertained with threshold compound action potentials and the endocochlear potential, increasing amounts of attenuation and phase lag were found as the intensity was decreased below 80 dB SPL. These nonlinear phenomena disappeared post mortem. The data suggest that an active, nonlinear damping mechanism exists at low intensities at the apex of the cochlea. The phase nonlinearity, evident at all frequencies except at the best frequency (BF), was limited to a total phase change of 0.25 cycles, implying negative feedback of electromechanical force from the outer hair cells into a compliant organ of Corti. The amplitude nonlinearity was largest above BF, possibly due to interaction with a second vibration mode. The high-frequency flank of the amplitude response curve was shifted to lower frequencies by as much as 0.6 octave (oct) for a 50-dB reduction of sound intensity; the reduction of BF was 0.3 oct, but there was no change of relative bandwidth (Q(10 dB)). Detailed frequency responses measured at 60 dB SPL were consistent with non-dispersive, travelling-wave motion: travel time to the place of BF (400 Hz at 60 dB SPL) was 2.9 ms, Q(10 dB) was 1.0; standing-wave motion occurred above 600 Hz. Based on comparison with neural and mechanical data from the base of the cochlea, amplitudes at the apex appear to be sufficient to yield behavioural thresholds. It is concluded that active negative feedback may be a hallmark of the entire cochlea at low stimulus frequencies and that, in contrast to the base, the apex does not require active amplification.

  3. Overexpression of sICAM-1 in the Alveolar Epithelial Space Results in an Exaggerated Inflammatory Response and Early Death in Gram Negative Pneumonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Curtis Jeffery L

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A sizeable body of data demonstrates that membrane ICAM-1 (mICAM-1 plays a significant role in host defense in a site-specific fashion. On the pulmonary vascular endothelium, mICAM-1 is necessary for normal leukocyte recruitment during acute inflammation. On alveolar epithelial cells (AECs, we have shown previously that the presence of normal mICAM-1 is essential for optimal alveolar macrophage (AM function. We have also shown that ICAM-1 is present in the alveolar space as a soluble protein that is likely produced through cleavage of mICAM-1. Soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1 is abundantly present in the alveolar lining fluid of the normal lung and could be generated by proteolytic cleavage of mICAM-1, which is highly expressed on type I AECs. Although a growing body of data suggesting that intravascular sICAM-1 has functional effects, little is known about sICAM-1 in the alveolus. We hypothesized that sICAM-1 in the alveolar space modulates the innate immune response and alters the response to pulmonary infection. Methods Using the surfactant protein C (SPC promoter, we developed a transgenic mouse (SPC-sICAM-1 that constitutively overexpresses sICAM-1 in the distal lung, and compared the responses of wild-type and SPC-sICAM-1 mice following intranasal inoculation with K. pneumoniae. Results SPC-sICAM-1 mice demonstrated increased mortality and increased systemic dissemination of organisms compared with wild-type mice. We also found that inflammatory responses were significantly increased in SPC-sICAM-1 mice compared with wild-type mice but there were no difference in lung CFU between groups. Conclusions We conclude that alveolar sICAM-1 modulates pulmonary inflammation. Manipulating ICAM-1 interactions therapeutically may modulate the host response to Gram negative pulmonary infections.

  4. Differential regulation of polysaccharide-specific antibody responses to isolated polysaccharides, conjugate vaccines, and intact Gram-positive versus Gram-negative extracellular bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snapper, Clifford M

    2016-06-24

    Bacterial capsular polysaccharides are major virulence factors and are key targets in a number of licensed anti-bacterial vaccines. Their major characteristics are their large molecular weight and expression of repeating antigenic epitopes that mediate multivalent B cell receptor cross-linking. In addition, since the majority of these antigens cannot associate with MHC-II they fail to recruit CD4+ T cell help and are referred to as T cell-independent antigens. In this review I will discuss a series of studies from my laboratory that have underscored the importance of understanding polysaccharide-specific antibody responses within the context in which the PS is expressed (i.e. in isolation, as a component of conjugate vaccines, and expressed naturally by intact bacteria). We have shown that multivalent B cell receptor crosslinking, as mediated by polysaccharides, uniquely determines the qualitative response of the B cell to subsequent stimuli, but by itself is insufficient to induce antibody secretion or class switching. For these latter events to occur, second signals must act in concert with primary signals derived from the B cell receptor. The co-expression of polysaccharide and protein within intact bacteria promotes recruitment of CD4+ T cell help for the associated PS-specific IgG response, in contrast to isolated polysaccharides. Further, the particulate nature of extracellular bacteria confers properties to the polysaccharide-specific IgG response that makes it distinct immunologically from soluble conjugate vaccines. Finally, the underlying biochemical and/or structural differences that distinguish Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria appear to play critical roles in differentially regulating the associated polysaccharide-specific IgG responses to these groups of pathogens. These studies have a number of implications for the understanding and future design of polysaccharide-based vaccines. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Murine CR1/2 targeted antigenized single-chain antibody fragments induce transient low affinity antibodies and negatively influence an ongoing immune response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prechl, József; Molnár, Eszter; Szekeres, Zsuzsanna; Isaák, Andrea; Papp, Krisztián; Balogh, Péter; Erdei, Anna

    2007-01-01

    We have generated a single-chain antibody which recognizes murine CR1/2 and carries a genetically fused influenza hemagglutinin derived peptide. Theoretically such a construct is able to crosslink the B cell antigen receptor and CR1/2 on peptide specific B cells. The construct was able to reach its CR1/2 positive target cells, yet intraperitoneal delivery of the construct elicited an IgM response only slightly exceeding that induced by the free peptide. Providing T cell help by the injection of peptide specific lymphocytes did not alter the response in essence, that is anti-peptide IgG was not detectable even after booster immunizations. When used as a booster vaccine following injection of the peptide in adjuvant, the construct even inhibited the development of IgG1 and IgG3 anti-peptide antibodies. These data indicate that although targeting of antigen to CR1/2 on B cells can enhance transient proliferation or differentiation of antigen specific B cells it cannot induce strong, longlasting humoral immune responses. Furthermore, CR1/2 targeting constructs may negatively influence an ongoing immune reaction.

  6. Predicting the transition from anxiety to depressive symptoms in early adolescence: Negative anxiety response style as a moderator of sequential comorbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starr, Lisa R; Stroud, Catherine B; Li, Yihan I

    2016-01-15

    Anxiety often precedes depression. The anxiety response styles theory of comorbidity suggests anxious individuals with a tendency to ruminate or make hopeless attributions about anxiety symptoms (negative anxiety response styles [NARS]) are more vulnerable to subsequent depressive symptoms. However, this theory has never been tested in adolescence, when the anxiety-depression transition may frequently occur, or using an extended (one-year) follow-up period. 128 early adolescent girls (M=12.39 years) participated with caregivers in a one-year longitudinal study. At baseline and follow-up, participants completed diagnostic interviews and self-report measures assessing child NARS and brooding rumination. T1 NARS predicted longitudinal elevations in depressive symptoms and increased associations between T1 anxiety and T2 depressive symptoms. This study examines anxiety and depression comorbidity using a community sample. The sample is relatively low on sociodemographic diversity. Results support the anxiety response styles theory, with potential implications for early identification of anxious youth at risk for later development of comorbid depression. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Healthy full-term infants' brain responses to emotionally and linguistically relevant sounds using a multi-feature mismatch negativity (MMN) paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostilainen, Kaisamari; Wikström, Valtteri; Pakarinen, Satu; Videman, Mari; Karlsson, Linnea; Keskinen, Maria; Scheinin, Noora M; Karlsson, Hasse; Huotilainen, Minna

    2018-03-23

    We evaluated the feasibility of a multi-feature mismatch negativity (MMN) paradigm in studying auditory processing of healthy newborns. The aim was to examine the automatic change-detection and processing of semantic and emotional information in speech in newborns. Brain responses of 202 healthy newborns were recorded with a multi-feature paradigm including a Finnish bi-syllabic pseudo-word/ta-ta/as a standard stimulus, six linguistically relevant deviant stimuli and three emotionally relevant stimuli (happy, sad, angry). Clear responses to emotional sounds were found already at the early latency window 100-200 ms, whereas responses to linguistically relevant minor changes and emotional stimuli at the later latency window 300-500 ms did not reach significance. Moreover, significant interaction between gender and emotional stimuli was found in the early latency window. Further studies on using multi-feature paradigms with linguistic and emotional stimuli in newborns are needed, especially those containing of follow-ups, enabling the assessment of the predictive value of early variations between subjects. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Transdiagnostic assessment of repetitive negative thinking and responses to positive affect: Structure and predictive utility for depression, anxiety, and mania symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEvoy, Peter M; Hyett, Matthew P; Ehring, Thomas; Johnson, Sheri L; Samtani, Suraj; Anderson, Rebecca; Moulds, Michelle L

    2018-02-26

    Repetitive negative thinking (RNT) is a cognitive process that is repetitive, passive, relatively uncontrollable, and focused on negative content, and is elevated in emotional disorders including depression and anxiety disorders. Repetitive positive thinking is associated with bipolar disorder symptoms. The unique contributions of positive versus negative repetitive thinking to emotional symptoms are unknown. The first aim of this study was to use confirmatory factor analyses to evaluate the psychometrics of two transdiagnostic measures of RNT, the Repetitive Thinking Questionnaire (RTQ-10) and Perseverative Thinking Questionnaire (PTQ), and a measure of repetitive positive thinking, the Responses to Positive Affect (RPA) Questionnaire. The second aim was to determine incremental predictive utility of these measures. All measures were administered to a sample of 2088 undergraduate students from the Netherlands (n = 992), Australia (n = 698), and America (n = 398). Unidimensional, bifactor, and three-factor models were supported for the RTQ-10, PTQ, and RPA, respectively. A common factor measured by all PTQ items explained most variance in PTQ scores suggesting that this measure is essentially unidimensional. The RNT factor of the RTQ-10 demonstrated the strongest predictive utility, although the PTQ was also uniquely although weakly associated with anxiety, depression, and mania symptoms. The RPA dampening factor uniquely predicted anxiety and depression symptoms, suggesting that this scale is a separable process to RNT as measured by the RTQ-10 and PTQ. Findings were cross-sectional and need to be replicated in clinical samples. Transdiagnostic measures of RNT are essentially unidimensional, whereas RPA is multidimensional. RNT and RPA have unique predictive utility. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Does negative affect mediate the relationship between daily PTSD symptoms and daily alcohol involvement in female rape victims? Evidence from 14 days of interactive voice response assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, Amy; Hagman, Brett T; Moore, Kathleen; Mitchell, Jessica; Ehlke, Sarah

    2014-03-01

    The negative reinforcement model of addiction posits that individuals may use alcohol to reduce negative affective (NA) distress. The current study investigated the mediating effect of daily NA on the relationship between daily PTSD symptoms and same-day and next-day alcohol involvement (consumption and desire to drink) in a sample of 54 non-treatment-seeking female rape victims who completed 14 days of interactive voice response assessment. The moderating effect of lifetime alcohol use disorder diagnosis (AUD) on daily relationships was also examined. Multilevel models suggested that NA mediated the relationship between PTSD and same-day, but not next-day alcohol involvement. NA was greater on days characterized by more severe PTSD symptoms, and alcohol consumption and desire to drink were greater on days characterized by higher NA. Furthermore, daily PTSD symptoms and NA were more strongly associated with same-day (but not next-day) alcohol consumption and desire to drink for women with an AUD than without. Results suggest that NA plays an important role in female rape victims' daily alcohol use. Differences between women with and without an AUD indicate the need for treatment matching to subtypes of female rape victims.

  10. Auditory sensory processing deficits in sensory gating and mismatch negativity-like responses in the social isolation rat model of schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Witten, Louise; Oranje, Bob; Mørk, Arne

    2014-01-01

    Patients with schizophrenia exhibit disturbances in information processing. These disturbances can be investigated with different paradigms of auditory event related potentials (ERP), such as sensory gating in a double click paradigm (P50 suppression) and the mismatch negativity (MMN) component...... in an auditory oddball paradigm. The aim of the current study was to test if rats subjected to social isolation, which is believed to induce some changes that mimic features of schizophrenia, displays alterations in sensory gating and MMN-like response. Male Lister-Hooded rats were separated into two groups; one...... group socially isolated (SI) for 8 weeks and one group housed (GH). Both groups were then tested in a double click sensory gating paradigm and an auditory oddball paradigm (MMN-like) paradigm. It was observed that the SI animals showed reduced sensory gating of the cortical N1 amplitude. Furthermore...

  11. Myeloid cell sirtuin-1 expression does not alter host immune responses to Gram-negative endotoxemia or Gram-positive bacterial infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura E Crotty Alexander

    Full Text Available The role of sirtuin-1 (SIRT1 in innate immunity, and in particular the influence of SIRT1 on antimicrobial defense against infection, has yet to be reported but is important to define since SIRT1 inhibitors are being investigated as therapeutic agents in the treatment of cancer, Huntington's disease, and autoimmune diseases. Given the therapeutic potential of SIRT1 suppression, we sought to characterize the role of SIRT1 in host defense. Utilizing both pharmacologic methods and a genetic knockout, we demonstrate that SIRT1 expression has little influence on macrophage and neutrophil antimicrobial functions. Myeloid SIRT1 expression does not change mortality in gram-negative toxin-induced shock or gram-positive bacteremia, suggesting that therapeutic suppression of SIRT1 may be done safely without suppression of myeloid cell-specific immune responses to severe bacterial infections.

  12. KIR2DL2/2DL3-E35 alleles are functionally stronger than -Q35 alleles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bari, Rafijul; Thapa, Rajoo; Bao, Ju; Li, Ying; Zheng, Jie; Leung, Wing

    2016-03-01

    KIR2DL2 and KIR2DL3 segregate as alleles of a single locus in the centromeric motif of the killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR) gene family. Although KIR2DL2/L3 polymorphism is known to be associated with many human diseases and is an important factor for donor selection in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, the molecular determinant of functional diversity among various alleles is unclear. In this study we found that KIR2DL2/L3 with glutamic acid at position 35 (E35) are functionally stronger than those with glutamine at the same position (Q35). Cytotoxicity assay showed that NK cells from HLA-C1 positive donors with KIR2DL2/L3-E35 could kill more target cells lacking their ligands than NK cells with the weaker -Q35 alleles, indicating better licensing of KIR2DL2/L3+ NK cells with the stronger alleles. Molecular modeling analysis reveals that the glutamic acid, which is negatively charged, interacts with positively charged histidine located at position 55, thereby stabilizing KIR2DL2/L3 dimer and reducing entropy loss when KIR2DL2/3 binds to HLA-C ligand. The results of this study will be important for future studies of KIR2DL2/L3-associated diseases as well as for donor selection in allogeneic stem cell transplantation.

  13. Negative thermal expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrera, G D; Bruno, J A O; Barron, T H K; Allan, N L

    2005-01-01

    There has been substantial renewed interest in negative thermal expansion following the discovery that cubic ZrW 2 O 8 contracts over a temperature range in excess of 1000 K. Substances of many different kinds show negative thermal expansion, especially at low temperatures. In this article we review the underlying thermodynamics, emphasizing the roles of thermal stress and elasticity. We also discuss vibrational and non-vibrational mechanisms operating on the atomic scale that are responsible for negative expansion, both isotropic and anisotropic, in a wide range of materials. (topical review)

  14. Effects of 10 days 6 degrees head-down tilt on the responses to fluid loading and lower body negative pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baisch, F.; Heer, M.; Beck, L.; Blomqvist, C. G.; Kropp, J.; Schulz, H.; Hillebrecht, A.; Meyer, M.

    1991-01-01

    In an international collaborative project six normal male subjects were studied before, during and after 10 days 6 degrees HDT. Fluid intake was controlled at 40 ml/(kgbw day). Urine volume and body weight were determined daily. Fluid loading and LBNP were performed in all three phases of the study. Body weight diminished by 2.6% because of fluid loss. Blood volume diminished by 13%. The responses to fluid loading were similar in the three phases of the study. Sixty minutes after end of infusion only 5.5% of the infused saline remained in the intravascular compartment. Excess interstitial fluid was eliminated in the next 24 hs but a negative balance was recorded also in the following day. The compliance of the lower limbs expressed as the rate of limb volume change/unit LBNP change was increased at the end of the HDT phase and during the post HDT phase. The set point of intravascular volume was defended, as shown by the response to FL. HDT increased the compliance of the lower limbs.

  15. A G-protein β subunit, AGB1, negatively regulates the ABA response and drought tolerance by down-regulating AtMPK6-related pathway in Arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-bei Xu

    Full Text Available Heterotrimeric G-proteins are versatile regulators involved in diverse cellular processes in eukaryotes. In plants, the function of G-proteins is primarily associated with ABA signaling. However, the downstream effectors and the molecular mechanisms in the ABA pathway remain largely unknown. In this study, an AGB1 mutant (agb1-2 was found to show enhanced drought tolerance, indicating that AGB1 might negatively regulate drought tolerance in Arabidopsis. Data showed that AGB1 interacted with protein kinase AtMPK6 that was previously shown to phosphorylate AtVIP1, a transcription factor responding to ABA signaling. Our study found that transcript levels of three ABA responsive genes, AtMPK6, AtVIP1 and AtMYB44 (downstream gene of AtVIP1, were significantly up-regulated in agb1-2 lines after ABA or drought treatments. Other ABA-responsive and drought-inducible genes, such as RD29A (downstream gene of AtMYB44, were also up-regulated in agb1-2 lines. Furthermore, overexpression of AtVIP1 resulted in hypersensitivity to ABA at seed germination and seedling stages, and significantly enhanced drought tolerance in transgenic plants. These results suggest that AGB1 was involved in the ABA signaling pathway and drought tolerance in Arabidopsis through down-regulating the AtMPK6, AtVIP1 and AtMYB44 cascade.

  16. Nasal carriage of methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci in healthy humans is associated with occupational pig contact in a dose-response manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ling; Chen, Zhiyao; Guo, Dan; Li, Shunming; Huang, Jingya; Wang, Xiaolin; Yao, Zhenjiang; Chen, Sidong; Ye, Xiaohua

    2017-09-01

    This study aimed to explore the association between occupational pig contact and human methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci (MRCoNS) carriage. We conducted a cross-sectional study of pig exposed participants and controls in Guangdong, China, using a multi-stage sampling design. Participants provided a nasal swab for MRCoNS analysis and resulting isolates were tested for antibiotic susceptibility. The dose-response relation was examined using log binomial regression or Poisson regression models. The adjusted prevalence of MRCoNS carriage in pig exposed participants was 1.67 times (95% CI: 1.32-2.11) higher than in controls. The adjusted average number of resistance to different antibiotic classes of MRCoNS isolates from pig exposed participants was 1.67 times (95% CI: 1.46-1.91) higher than those from controls. Notably, we found the frequency and duration of occupational pig contact was associated with increased prevalence and increased number of resistance to different antibiotic classes of MRCoNS in a dose-response manner. When examining these relations by MRCoNS species, there was still evidence of similar exposure-response relations. Additionally, the proportion of tetracycline-resistant and tet(M)-containing MRCoNS isolates was significantly higher in pig exposed participants than in controls. These findings suggested a potential transmission of MRCoNS from livestock to humans by occupational livestock contact, and the presence of phenotypic and genotypic tetracycline resistance may aid in the differentiation of animal origins of MRCoNS isolates. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. High Chromosome Number in hematological cancer cell lines is a Negative Predictor of Response to the inhibition of Aurora B and C by GSK1070916

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hardwicke Mary

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aurora kinases play critical roles in mitosis and are being evaluated as therapeutic targets in cancer. GSK1070916 is a potent, selective, ATP competitive inhibitor of Aurora kinase B and C. Translation of predictive biomarkers to the clinic can benefit patients by identifying the tumors that are more likely to respond to therapies, especially novel inhibitors such as GSK1070916. Methods 59 Hematological cancer-derived cell lines were used as models for response where in vitro sensitivity to GSK1070916 was based on both time and degree of cell death. The response data was analyzed along with karyotype, transcriptomics and somatic mutation profiles to determine predictors of response. Results 20 cell lines were sensitive and 39 were resistant to treatment with GSK1070916. High chromosome number was more prevalent in resistant cell lines (p-value = 0.0098, Fisher Exact Test. Greater resistance was also found in cell lines harboring polyploid subpopulations (p-value = 0.00014, Unpaired t-test. A review of NOTCH1 mutations in T-ALL cell lines showed an association between NOTCH1 mutation status and chromosome number (p-value = 0.0066, Fisher Exact Test. Conclusions High chromosome number associated with resistance to the inhibition of Aurora B and C suggests cells with a mechanism to bypass the high ploidy checkpoint are resistant to GSK1070916. High chromosome number, a hallmark trait of many late stage hematological malignancies, varies in prevalence among hematological malignancy subtypes. The high frequency and relative ease of measurement make high chromosome number a viable negative predictive marker for GSK1070916.

  18. Extracellular vesicles, especially derived from Gram-negative bacteria, in indoor dust induce neutrophilic pulmonary inflammation associated with both Th1 and Th17 cell responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Y-S; Choi, E-J; Lee, W-H; Choi, S-J; Roh, T-Y; Park, J; Jee, Y-K; Zhu, Z; Koh, Y-Y; Gho, Y S; Kim, Y-K

    2013-04-01

    Many bacterial components in indoor dust can evoke inflammatory pulmonary diseases. Bacteria secrete nanometre-sized vesicles into the extracellular milieu, but it remains to be determined whether bacteria-derived extracellular vesicles in indoor dust are pathophysiologically related to inflammatory pulmonary diseases. To evaluate whether extracellular vesicles (EV) in indoor air are related to the pathogenesis of pulmonary inflammation and/or asthma. Indoor dust was collected from a bed mattress in an apartment. EV were prepared by sequential ultrafiltration and ultracentrifugation. Innate and adaptive immune responses were evaluated after airway exposure of EV. Repeated intranasal application of indoor-dust-induced neutrophilic pulmonary inflammation accompanied by lung infiltration of both Th1 and Th17 cells. EV 50-200 nm in diameter were present (102.5 μg protein concentration/g dust) in indoor dust. These vesicles were internalized by airway epithelial cells and alveolar macrophages, and this process was blocked by treatment of polymyxin B (an antagonist of lipopolysaccharide, an outer-membrane component of Gram-negative bacteria). Intranasal application of 0.1 or 1 μg of these vesicles for 4 weeks elicited neutrophilic pulmonary inflammation. This phenotype was accompanied by lung infiltration of both Th1 and Th17 cells, which were reversed by treatment of polymyxin B. Serum dust EV-reactive IgG1 levels were significantly higher in atopic children with asthma than in atopic healthy children and those with rhinitis or dermatitis. Indoor dust EV, especially derived from Gram-negative bacteria, is a possible causative agent of neutrophilic airway diseases. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  19. Characterization of a Toxin A-Negative, Toxin B-Positive Strain of Clostridium difficile Responsible for a Nosocomial Outbreak of Clostridium difficile-Associated Diarrhea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfa, Michelle J.; Kabani, Amin; Lyerly, David; Moncrief, Scott; Neville, Laurie M.; Al-Barrak, Ali; Harding, Godfrey K. H.; Dyck, Brenda; Olekson, Karen; Embil, John M.

    2000-01-01

    Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea (CAD) is a very common nosocomial infection that contributes significantly to patient morbidity and mortality as well as to the cost of hospitalization. Previously, strains of toxin A-negative, toxin B-positive C. difficile were not thought to be associated with clinically significant disease. This study reports the characterization of a toxin A-negative, toxin B-positive strain of C. difficile that was responsible for a recently described nosocomial outbreak of CAD. Analysis of the seven patient isolates from the outbreak by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis indicated that this outbreak was due to transmission of a single strain of C. difficile. Our characterization of this strain (HSC98) has demonstrated that the toxin A gene lacks 1.8 kb from the carboxy repetitive oligopeptide (CROP) region but apparently has no other major deletions from other regions of the toxin A or toxin B gene. The remaining 1.3-kb fragment of the toxin A CROP region from strain HSC98 showed 98% sequence homology with strain 1470, previously reported by M. Weidmann in 1997 (GenBank accession number Y12616), suggesting that HSC98 is toxinotype VIII. The HSC98 strain infecting patients involved in this outbreak produced the full spectrum of clinical illness usually associated with C. difficile-associated disease. This pathogenic spectrum was manifest despite the inability of this strain to alter tight junctions as determined by using in vitro tissue culture testing, which suggested that no functional toxin A was produced by this strain. PMID:10878068

  20. The Positive Side of Negative Labelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, van Y.K.; Jonge, de J.

    2015-01-01

    Ethical labels signal positive ethical quality of a product but fail to create massive demand for such products. Based on regulatory focus theory and prospect theory, it is argued that negative signalling of low ethical quality would have a stronger effect on the adoption of ethical products than

  1. Casein Kinase I Isoform Hrr25 Is a Negative Regulator of Haa1 in the Weak Acid Stress Response Pathway in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Morgan E; Black, Joshua J; Liu, Zhengchang

    2017-07-01

    Haa1 is a transcription factor that adapts Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells to weak organic acid stresses by activating the expression of various genes. Many of these genes encode membrane proteins, such as TPO2 and YRO2 How Haa1 is activated by weak acids is not clear. Here, we show that casein kinase I isoform Hrr25 is an important negative regulator of Haa1. Haa1 is known to be multiply phosphorylated. We found that mutations in HRR25 lead to reduced Haa1 phosphorylation and increased expression of Haa1 target genes and that Hrr25 interacts with Haa1. The other three casein kinase I isoforms, Yck1, Yck2, and Yck3, do not seem to play critical roles in Haa1 regulation. Hrr25 has a 200-residue C-terminal region, including a proline- and glutamine-rich domain. Our data suggest that the C-terminal region of Hrr25 is required for normal inhibition of expression of Haa1 target genes TPO2 and YRO2 and is important for cell growth but is not required for cell morphogenesis. We propose that Hrr25 is an important regulator of cellular adaptation to weak acid stress by inhibiting Haa1 through phosphorylation. IMPORTANCE Our study has revealed the casein kinase I protein Hrr25 to be a negative regulator of Haa1, a transcription factor mediating the cellular response to stresses caused by weak acids. Many studies have focused on the target genes of Haa1 and their roles in weak acid stress responses, but little has been reported on the regulatory mechanism of Haa1. Weak acids, such as acetic acid, have long been used for food preservation by slowing down the growth of fungal species, including S. cerevisiae In the biofuel industry, acetic acid in the lignocellulosic hydrolysates limits the production of ethanol, which is undesirable. By understanding how Haa1 is regulated, we can make advances in the field of food sciences to better preserve food and engineer acetic acid-resistant strains that will increase productivity in the biofuel industry. Copyright © 2017 American

  2. Retention of estradiol negative feedback relationship to LH predicts ovulation in response to caloric restriction and weight loss in obese patients with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dam, Eveline W C M; Roelfsema, Ferdinand; Veldhuis, Johannes D; Hogendoorn, Simone; Westenberg, Jos; Helmerhorst, Frans M; Frölich, Marijke; Krans, H Michiel J; Meinders, A Edo; Pijl, Hanno

    2004-04-01

    The present study tests the hypothesis that specific endocrine, metabolic, and anthropometric features distinguish obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) who resume ovulation in response to calorie restriction and weight loss from those who do not. Fifteen obese (body mass index 39 +/- 7 kg/m(2)) hyperandrogenemic oligoovulatory patients undertook a very low calorie diet (VLCD), wherein each lost > or =10% of body weight over a mean of 6.25 mo. Body fat distribution was quantitated by magnetic resonance imaging. Hormones were measured in the morning at baseline, after 1 wk of VLCD, and after 10% weight loss. To monitor LH release, blood was sampled for 24 h at 10-min intervals before intervention and after 7 days of VLCD. Responders were defined a priori as individuals exhibiting two or more ovulatory cycles in the course of intervention, as corroborated by serum progesterone concentrations > or =18 nmol/l followed by vaginal bleeding. At baseline, responders had a higher sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) concentration but were otherwise indistinguishable from nonresponders. Body weight, the size of body fat depots, and plasma insulin levels declined to a similar extent in responders and nonresponders. Also, SHBG increased, and the free testosterone index decreased comparably. However, responders exhibited a significant decline of circulating estradiol concentrations (from 191 +/- 82 to 158 +/- 77 pmol/l, means +/- SD, P = 0.037) and a concurrent increase in LH secretion (from 104 +/- 42 to 140 +/- 5 U.l(-1).day(-1), P = 0.006) in response to 7 days of VLCD, whereas neither parameter changed significantly in nonresponders. We infer that evidence of retention of estradiol-dependent negative feedback on LH secretion may forecast follicle maturation and ovulation in obese patients with PCOS under dietary restriction.

  3. Tumor-infiltrating CD8+ and FOXP3+ lymphocytes in triple-negative breast cancer: its correlation with pathological complete response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyashita, Minoru; Sasano, Hironobu; Tamaki, Kentaro; Chan, Monica; Hirakawa, Hisashi; Suzuki, Akihiko; Tada, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Go; Nemoto, Noriko; Nakagawa, Saki; Ishida, Takanori; Ohuchi, Noriaki

    2014-12-01

    The anti-tumor immune response was recently reported to play a critical role in the chemotherapeutic sensitivity of breast cancer. Therefore, we investigated the correlation between CD8+ and FOXP3+ tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes and the pathological complete response (pCR) following neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC), in conjunction with neoangiogenesis, basal and proliferation markers. CD8+ and FOXP3+ lymphocytes were assessed in biopsy specimens by double-staining immunohistochemistry, in combination with immunostaining of vasohibin-1, CD31, EGFR, CK5/6, and Ki-67. Earlier age, pre-menopausal status, smaller tumor size, and high Ki-67 were significantly associated with pCR, as in high CD8+, high CD8+/FOXP3+ ratio, and low vasohibin-1 positive ratio. Multivariate analysis did reveal that a high CD8+/FOXP3+ ratio was a strong predictor of pCR with an odds ratio of 5.32 (P = 0.005). High Ki-67 was also significantly associated with pCR (P = 0.002). TNBCs with a high CD8+/FOXP3+ ratio and high Ki-67 had the highest pCR rate (70%) following NAC. However, the pCR rate of the patients with low CD8+/FOXP3+ ratio and low Ki-67 was only 5%. The pCR rates of a high CD8+/FOXP3+ ratio and low Ki-67 patients and those with a low CD8+/FOXP3+ ratio and high Ki-67 were 24 and 21%, respectively. TNBCs with a high CD8+/FOXP3+ ratio were more sensitive to anthracycline and taxane-based chemotherapeutic regimens, and the CD8+/FOXP3+ ratio in conjunction with Ki-67 could predict pCR following NAC in TNBC. This predictor may represent a new surrogate for testing the efficacy of investigational agents in the neoadjuvant setting.

  4. CD4+ T cells elicit host immune responses to MHC class II-negative ovarian cancer through CCL5 secretion and CD40-mediated licensing of dendritic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesbeth, Yolanda C; Martinez, Diana G; Toraya, Seiko; Scarlett, Uciane K; Cubillos-Ruiz, Juan R; Rutkowski, Melanie R; Conejo-Garcia, Jose R

    2010-05-15

    T cell adoptive transfer strategies that have produced clinical remissions against specific tumors have so far produced disappointing results against ovarian cancer. Recent evidence suggests that adoptively transferred CD4(+) T cells can trigger endogenous immune responses in particular patients with ovarian cancer through unknown mechanisms. However, conflicting reports suggest that ovarian cancer-infiltrating CD4(+) T cells are associated with negative outcomes. In this study, we elucidate the phenotypic attributes that enable polyclonal CD4(+) T cells briefly primed against tumor Ags to induce therapeutically relevant endogenous antitumor immune responses. Our results unveil a therapeutic mechanism whereby tumor-primed CD4(+) T cells transferred into ovarian cancer-bearing mice secrete high levels of CCL5, which recruits endogenous CCR5(+) dendritic cells to tumor locations and activate them through CD40-CD40L interactions. These newly matured dendritic cells are then able to prime tumor-specific endogenous CD8(+) T cells, which mediate long-term protection. Correspondingly, administration of tumor-primed CD4(+) T cells significantly delayed progression of MHC class II(-) ovarian cancers, similarly to CD8(+) T cells only, and directly activated wild-type but not CD40-deficient dendritic cells recruited to the tumor microenvironment. Our results unveil a CCL5- and CD40L-dependent mechanism of transferring immunity from exogenously activated CD4(+) T cells to tumor-exposed host cells, resulting in sustained antitumor effects. Our data provide a mechanistic rationale for incorporating tumor-reactive CD4(+) T cells in adoptive cell transfer immunotherapies against ovarian cancer and underscore the importance of optimizing immunotherapeutic strategies for the specific microenvironment of individual tumors.

  5. Positive and negative affectivity, stress, and well-being in African-Americans: Initial demonstration of a polynomial regression and response surface methodology approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Jennifer; Zhdanova, Ludmila; Lucas, Todd

    2017-09-05

    The extent to which positive (PA) and negative (NA) affect conjointly impact well-being is not yet well understood. Additionally, research investigating the role of affectivity in maintaining well-being among ethnic and racial minorities is scant. The current research demonstrates how polynomial regression and response surface methodology (PR and RSM) may be used to better understand how PA and NA jointly influence stress and well-being. In Study 1, 291 African-American undergraduates (M age  = 22.91, SD = 6.91; 67% female) completed measures of affectivity and psychological well-being. In Study 2, a community sample of 117 African-Americans (M age  = 31.87, SD = 13.83; 69% female) completed affectivity measures and a laboratory-based social stressor task to assess links between affectivity and salivary cortisol reactivity. Study 1 included life satisfaction, perceived stress and self-reported depressive symptoms. Study 2 included salivary cortisol reactivity. Across both studies, PA ascendency (i.e. high PA combined with low NA) was associated with better well-being, while NA ascendancy (i.e. high NA combined with low PA) was associated with poorer outcomes. PR and RSM may provide new insight into the conjoint influence of PA and NA on health and well-being. We discuss potential implications for affectivity research, including race-related explorations.

  6. Dual Specificity Phosphatase 5, a Specific Negative Regulator of ERK Signaling, Is Induced by Serum Response Factor and Elk-1 Transcription Factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffet, Camille; Catelli, Maria-Grazia; Hecale-Perlemoine, Karine; Bricaire, Léopoldine; Garcia, Camille; Gallet-Dierick, Anne; Rodriguez, Stéphanie; Cormier, Françoise; Groussin, Lionel

    2015-01-01

    Serum stimulation of mammalian cells induces, via the MAPK pathway, the nuclear protein DUSP5 (dual-specificity phosphatase 5), which specifically interacts with and inactivates the ERK1/2 MAP kinases. However, molecular mechanisms underlying DUSP5 induction are not well known. Here, we found that the DUSP5 mRNA induction depends on a transcriptional regulation by the MAPK pathway, without any modification of the mRNA stability. Two contiguous CArG boxes that bind serum response factor (SRF) were found in a 1 Kb promoter region, as well as several E twenty-six transcription factor family binding sites (EBS). These sites potentially bind Elk-1, a transcription factor activated by ERK1/2. Using wild type or mutated DUSP5 promoter reporters, we demonstrated that SRF plays a crucial role in serum induction of DUSP5 promoter activity, the proximal CArG box being important for SRF binding in vitro and in living cells. Moreover, in vitro and in vivo binding data of Elk-1 to the same promoter region further demonstrate a role for Elk-1 in the transcriptional regulation of DUSP5. SRF and Elk-1 form a ternary complex (Elk-1-SRF-DNA) on DUSP5 promoter, consequently providing a link to an important negative feedback tightly regulating phosphorylated ERK levels.

  7. Stronger Accent Following a Stroke: The Case of a Trilingual with Aphasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Erika S.; Goral, Mira; De Diesbach, Catharine Castelluccio; Law, Franzo, II

    2011-01-01

    This study documents patterns of change in speech production in a multilingual with aphasia following a cerebrovascular accident (CVA). EC, a right-handed Hebrew-English-French trilingual man, had a left fronto-temporo-parietal CVA, after which he reported that his (native) Hebrew accent became stronger in his (second language) English. Recordings…

  8. Peptide-MHC class I stability is a stronger predictor of CTL immunogenicity than peptide affinity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harndahl, Mikkel Nors; Rasmussen, Michael; Nielsen, Morten

    2012-01-01

    Peptide-MHC class I stability is a stronger predictor of CTL immunogenicity than peptide affinity Mikkel Harndahla, Michael Rasmussena, Morten Nielsenb, Soren Buusa,∗ a Laboratory of Experimental Immunology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Denmark b Center for Biological Seq...... al., 2007. J. Immunol. 178, 7890–7901. doi:10.1016/j.molimm.2012.02.025...

  9. First-order dominance: stronger characterization and a bivariate checking algorithm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Range, Troels Martin; Østerdal, Lars Peter Raahave

    2018-01-01

    distributions. Utilizing that this problem can be formulated as a transportation problem with a special structure, we provide a stronger characterization of multivariate first-order dominance and develop a linear time complexity checking algorithm for the bivariate case. We illustrate the use of the checking...

  10. Fasting insulin is a stronger cardiovascular risk factor in women than in men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oterdoom, Leendert H.; de Vries, Aiko P. J.; Gansevoort, Ron T.; de Jong, Paul E.; Gans, Reinold O. B.; Bakker, Stephan J. L.

    Diabetes is a stronger risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in women than in men. It is not known whether there is also a sex difference in the association between hyperinsulinaemia, reflecting insulin resistance, and CVD. Fasting insulin was assessed with a specific assay in 6916 fasting,

  11. A stronger patch test elicitation reaction to the allergen hydroxycitronellal plus the irritant sodium lauryl sulfate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heydorn, S; Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Johansen, Jeanne Duus

    2003-01-01

    Household and cleaning products often contain both allergens and irritants. The aim of this double-blinded, randomized, paired study was to determine whether patch testing with an allergen (hydroxycitronellal) combined with an irritant [sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS)] cause a stronger patch test...

  12. A Human Capital Framework for a Stronger Teacher Workforce. Advancing Teaching--Improving Learning. White Paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myung, Jeannie; Martinez, Krissia; Nordstrum, Lee

    2013-01-01

    Building a stronger teacher workforce requires the thoughtful orchestration of multiple processes working together in a human capital system. This white paper presents a framework that can be used to take stock of current efforts to enhance the teacher workforce in school districts or educational organizations, as well as their underlying theories…

  13. Harmful drinking after job loss: a stronger association during the post-2008 economic crisis?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Goeij, Moniek C. M.; Bruggink, Jan-Willem; Otten, Ferdy; Kunst, Anton E.

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated, among the Dutch working population, whether job loss during the post-2008 economic crisis is associated with harmful drinking and whether this association is stronger than before the crisis. Repeated cross-sectional data from the Dutch Health Interview Survey 2004-2013 were

  14. Can absolute and proportional anthropometric characteristics distinguish stronger and weaker powerlifters?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keogh, Justin W L; Hume, Patria A; Pearson, Simon N; Mellow, Peter J

    2009-11-01

    This study sought to compare the anthropometric profiles of 17 weaker and 17 stronger Australasian and Pacific powerlifters who had competed in a regional-, national-, or international-level powerlifting competition in New Zealand. Stronger lifters were defined as those having a Wilks score greater than 410, whereas those in the weaker group had a Wilks score less than 370. Each powerlifter was assessed for 37 anthropometric dimensions by International Society for the Advancement of Kinanthropometry (ISAK) level II and III accredited anthropometrists. Because all powerlifters were highly mesomorphic and possessed large girths and bone breadths, both in absolute terms and when expressed as Phantom-Z scores compared through the Phantom, relatively few significant anthropometric differences were observed. However, stronger lifters had significantly greater muscle mass and larger muscular girths in absolute terms as well as greater Brugsch Index (chest girth/height) and "Phantom"-normalized muscle mass, upper arm, chest, and forearm girths. In terms of the segment lengths and bone breadths, the only significant difference was that stronger lifters had a significantly shorter lower leg than weaker lifters. Because the majority of the significant differences were for muscle mass and muscular girths, it would appear likely that these differences contributed to the stronger lifters' superior performance. Powerlifters may therefore need to devote some of their training to the development of greater levels of muscular hypertrophy if they wish to continue to improve their performance. To better understand the anthropometric determinants of muscular strength, future research should recruit larger samples (particularly of elite lifters) and follow these subjects prospectively.

  15. Prognostic impact of {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT staging and of pathological response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in triple-negative breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groheux, D.; Merlet, P. [Saint-Louis Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Paris Cedex 10 (France); University of Paris VII, B2T Doctoral School, Institut Universitaire d' Hematologie, Paris (France); Giacchetti, S.; Hamy, A.S.; Espie, M. [Saint-Louis Hospital, Breast Diseases Unit, Department of Medical Oncology, Paris (France); Delord, M. [Institut Universitaire d' Hematologie, Department of Biostatistics and Bioinformatics, Paris (France); Roquancourt, A. de [Saint-Louis Hospital, Department of Pathology, Paris (France); Hindie, E. [University of Bordeaux, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Haut-Leveque Hospital, CHU Bordeaux, Bordeaux (France)

    2014-11-29

    Mortality is high in patients with locally advanced triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC), especially in those with residual tumour after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC). The aim of this study was to determine if pretreatment {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT staging and pathological findings after NAC could together allow stratification of patients into prognostic groups. Initial staging with {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT was performed prospectively in 85 consecutive patients with stage II/III TNBC. Correlations between PET findings and disease-specific survival (DSS) were examined. In patients without distant metastases on PET staging, the impact of pathological response to NAC on DSS was examined. Patterns of recurrence were also analysed. {sup 18}F-DG PET/CT revealed distant metastases in 11 of 85 patients (12.9 %). Among 74 M0 patients, 23 (31.1 %) showed a pathological complete response (pCR) at surgery, while 51 had residual invasive disease (no pCR). DSS differed considerably among the three groups of patients (log-rank P <.001): among patients with occult metastases on baseline PET/CT, 2-year DSS was 18.2 %, and among patients without initial metastases on PET/CT, 5-year DSS was 61.3 % in patients without pCR after NAC and 95.2 % in those with pCR. Of the 51 patients who did not achieve pCR, 21 relapsed (17 developed distant metastases). The sites of distant recurrence were: lung/pleura (nine patients), brain (eight patients), liver (six patients), distant lymph nodes (six patients) and bone (five patients). In patients with clinical stage II/III TNBC, {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT findings at initial staging and pathological response at the end of NAC allow three groups of patients with quite different prognoses to be defined. Extraskeletal recurrences predominated. Specific follow-up strategies in patients with TNBC who do not achieve pCR deserve investigation. (orig.)

  16. Life history theory and breast cancer risk: methodological and theoretical challenges: Response to "Is estrogen receptor negative breast cancer risk associated with a fast life history strategy?".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktipis, Athena

    2016-01-01

    In a meta-analysis published by myself and co-authors, we report differences in the life history risk factors for estrogen receptor negative (ER-) and estrogen receptor positive (ER+) breast cancers. Our meta-analysis did not find the association of ER- breast cancer risk with fast life history characteristics that Hidaka and Boddy suggest in their response to our article. There are a number of possible explanations for the differences between their conclusions and the conclusions we drew from our meta-analysis, including limitations of our meta-analysis and methodological challenges in measuring and categorizing estrogen receptor status. These challenges, along with the association of ER+ breast cancer with slow life history characteristics, may make it challenging to find a clear signal of ER- breast cancer with fast life history characteristics, even if that relationship does exist. The contradictory results regarding breast cancer risk and life history characteristics illustrate a more general challenge in evolutionary medicine: often different sub-theories in evolutionary biology make contradictory predictions about disease risk. In this case, life history models predict that breast cancer risk should increase with faster life history characteristics, while the evolutionary mismatch hypothesis predicts that breast cancer risk should increase with delayed reproduction. Whether life history tradeoffs contribute to ER- breast cancer is still an open question, but current models and several lines of evidence suggest that it is a possibility. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Foundation for Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health.

  17. Efficacy and Molecular Mechanisms of Differentiated Response to the Aurora and Angiogenic Kinase Inhibitor ENMD-2076 in Preclinical Models of p53-Mutated Triple-Negative Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia A. Ionkina

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available PurposeTriple-negative breast cancer (TNBC is a subtype associated with poor prognosis and for which there are limited therapeutic options. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of ENMD-2076 in p53-mutated TNBC patient-derived xenograft (PDX models and describe patterns of terminal cell fate in models demonstrating sensitivity, intrinsic resistance, and acquired resistance to ENMD-2076.Experimental designp53-mutated, TNBC PDX models were treated with ENMD-2076 and evaluated for mechanisms of sensitivity or resistance to treatment. Correlative tissue testing was performed on tumor tissue to assess for markers of proliferation, apoptosis, senescence, and pathways of resistance after treatment and at the time of acquired resistance.ResultsSensitivity to ENMD-2076 200 mg/kg daily was associated with induction of apoptosis while models exhibiting intrinsic or acquired resistance to treatment presented with a senescent phenotype. Response to ENMD-2076 was accompanied by an increase in p53 and p73 levels, even within the background of mutant p53. Treatment with ENMD-2076 resulted in a decrease in pAurA and an increase in pHH3. We observed a TNBC subtype switch from the luminal androgen receptor to the basal-like subtype at acquired resistance.ConclusionENMD-2076 has antitumor activity in preclinical models of p53-mutated TNBC. Increased levels of p53 and p73 correlated with sensitivity whereas senescence was associated with resistance to ENMD-2076. The novel finding of a TNBC subtype switch at time of acquired resistance may provide mechanistic insights into the biologic effects of selective pressure of anticancer treatments on TNBC. ENMD-2076 is currently being evaluated in a Phase 2 clinical trial in patients with metastatic, previously treated TNBC where these biologic correlates can be further explored.

  18. Collective Nostalgia Is Associated With Stronger Outgroup-Directed Anger and Participation in Ingroup-Favoring Collective Action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wing-Yee Cheung

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Collective nostalgia refers to longing for the way society used to be. We tested whether collective nostalgia is associated with ingroup-favoring collective action and whether this association is mediated by outgroup-directed anger and outgroup-directed contempt. We conducted an online study of Hong Kong residents (N = 111 during a large-scale democratic social movement, the Umbrella Movement, that took place in Hong Kong in 2014 in response to proposed electoral reforms by the Chinese government in Mainland China. Reported collective nostalgia for Hong Kong’s past was high in our sample and collective nostalgia predicted stronger involvement in ingroup-favoring collective action, and it did so indirectly via higher intensity of outgroup-directed anger (but not through outgroup-directed contempt. We argue that collective nostalgia has implications for strengthening ingroup-serving collective action, and we highlight the importance of arousal of group-based emotions in this process.

  19. Crosstalk in concurrent repeated games impedes direct reciprocity and requires stronger levels of forgiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiter, Johannes G; Hilbe, Christian; Rand, David G; Chatterjee, Krishnendu; Nowak, Martin A

    2018-02-07

    Direct reciprocity is a mechanism for cooperation among humans. Many of our daily interactions are repeated. We interact repeatedly with our family, friends, colleagues, members of the local and even global community. In the theory of repeated games, it is a tacit assumption that the various games that a person plays simultaneously have no effect on each other. Here we introduce a general framework that allows us to analyze "crosstalk" between a player's concurrent games. In the presence of crosstalk, the action a person experiences in one game can alter the person's decision in another. We find that crosstalk impedes the maintenance of cooperation and requires stronger levels of forgiveness. The magnitude of the effect depends on the population structure. In more densely connected social groups, crosstalk has a stronger effect. A harsh retaliator, such as Tit-for-Tat, is unable to counteract crosstalk. The crosstalk framework provides a unified interpretation of direct and upstream reciprocity in the context of repeated games.

  20. A stronger patch test elicitation reaction to the allergen hydroxycitronellal plus the irritant sodium lauryl sulfate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heydorn, S; Andersen, K E; Johansen, J D

    2003-01-01

    elicitation reaction than patch testing with the allergen (hydroxycitronellal) alone, in patients previously patch tested positive to hydroxycitronellal. A stronger patch test elicitation reaction was defined as at least 1 day of patch test reading showing more positive patch tests......Household and cleaning products often contain both allergens and irritants. The aim of this double-blinded, randomized, paired study was to determine whether patch testing with an allergen (hydroxycitronellal) combined with an irritant [sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS)] cause a stronger patch test...... (+, ++ or +++) on the forearm patch tested with 6 concentrations of SLS plus hydroxycitronellal than on the forearm tested with 6 concentrations of hydroxycitronellal alone and no day of patch test readings showing more positive tests on the hydroxycitronellal forearm. 15/20 (75%) had at least 1 day of patch test reading...

  1. World Bank: Management Controls Stronger, But Challenges in Fighting Corruption Remain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-04-01

    outline for possible World Development Report on institutions, including corruption . Completed • Prepare Europe and Central Asia Region...Management Controls Stronger, but Challenges in Fighting Corruption Remain If , 20000417 062 G A O Accountability * Integrity * Reliability GAO... corruption —broadly defined as the abuse of public office for private gain— ’The "World Bank" and "Bank" refer to the World Bank Group of institutions

  2. A stronger version of matrix convexity as applied to functions of Hermitian matrices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kagan Abram

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available A stronger version of matrix convexity, called hyperconvexity is introduced. It is shown that the function is hyperconvex on the set of Hermitian matrices and is hyperconvex on the set of positive definite Hermitian matrices. The new concept makes it possible to consider weighted averages of matrices of different orders. Proofs use properties of the Fisher information matrix, a fundamental concept of mathematical statistics.

  3. False-positive Papanicolaou (PAP) test rates in the College of American Pathologists PAP education and PAP proficiency test programs: evaluation of false-positive responses of high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion or cancer to a negative reference diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crothers, Barbara A; Booth, Christine Noga; Darragh, Teresa Marie; Zhao, Chengquan; Souers, Rhona J; Thomas, Nicole; Moriarty, Ann T

    2014-05-01

    In cytology proficiency testing (PT), participants fail for incorrectly interpreting a high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion or cancer (HSIL+) Papanicolaou test result as negative. This penalty may lead to a false-positive interpretation of negative slides as HSIL+ to avoid failure. To investigate factors related to false-positive responses in a PT versus an educational environment. We analyzed 420,079 responses from 9414 validated negative reference slides in the College of American Pathologists Interlaboratory Comparison Program in Gynecologic Cytopathology (PAP Education) and compared them with responses from the Gynecologic Cytology Proficiency Testing Program for the percentage of false-positive (HSIL+) interpretations in each of 7 negative subcategories. We evaluated the influence of preparation type (ThinPrep, SurePath, and conventional Papanicolaou test), participant type (pathologist or cytotechnologist), and program time interval (preproficiency test or PT) on a false-positive response. Reference diagnosis and participant type, but not preparation type, were statistically correlated to false-positive responses. The interaction between program time interval and participant type was also significant. Pathologists had higher rates of false-positive results on preproficiency test (1.2% [800 of 68,690]) than they did on PT (0.8% [993 of 129,857]). Cytotechnologists had no differences between program time intervals (preproficiency, 0.9% [515 of 63,281] versus PT, 1.0 [1231 of 121,621]; P = .91). Negative subcategories frequently mistaken for HSIL+ were reparative changes (4.7% [427 of 9069]), atrophic vaginitis (1.8% [18 of 987]), and negative for intraepithelial lesion or malignancy (1.2% [2143 of 178,651]), but during PT, false-positive rates were significantly increased only for the negative for intraepithelial lesion or malignancy and herpes simplex virus (P Testing Program than they did in PAP Education, but participants were more likely to report a

  4. Polarized Th1 and Th2 cells are less responsive to negative feedback by receptors coupled to the AC/cAMP system compared to freshly isolated T cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijink, Irene H; Vellenga, Edo; Borger, Peter; Postma, Dirkje S; Monchy, Jan G R de; Kauffman, Henk F

    1 The adenylyl cyclase (AC)/cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) system is known to negatively regulate transcriptional activity of T cells, thereby possibly modulating T-cell-mediated responses at the sites of inflammation. Effects of cAMP have been widely studied in freshly isolated T cells and

  5. Sexual harassment and emotional and behavioural symptoms in adolescence: stronger associations among boys than girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu; Fröjd, Sari; Marttunen, Mauri

    2016-08-01

    To study the associations between subjection to sexual harassment and emotional (depression) and behavioural (delinquency) symptoms among 14-to-18-year-old adolescents, and gender differences within these associations. 90,953 boys and 91,746 girls aged 14-18 participated in the School Health Promotion Study (SHPS), a school-based survey designed to examine the health, health behaviours, and school experiences of teenagers. Experiences of sexual harassment were elicited with five questions addressing five separate forms of harassment. Depression was measured by the 13-item Beck Depression Inventory and delinquency with a modified version of the International Self-Report Delinquency Study (ISRD) instrument. Data were analysed using cross-tabulations with Chi-square statistics and logistic regression. All sexual harassment experiences studied were associated with both depression (adjusted odds ratios varied from 2.2 to 2.7 in girls and from 2.0 to 5.1 in boys) and delinquency (adjusted odds ratios 3.1-5.0 in girls and 1.7-6.9 in boys). Sexual name-calling had a stronger association with depression and with delinquency in girls (adjusted odds ratios, respectively, 2.4 and 4.2), than in boys (adjusted odds ratios, respectively, 2.0 and 1.7), but otherwise stronger associations with emotional and behavioural symptoms were seen in boys. Subjection to sexual harassment is associated with both emotional and behavioural symptoms in both girls and boys. The associations are mostly stronger for boys. Boys subjected to sexual harassment may feel particularly threatened regarding their masculinity, and there may be less support available for boys traumatised due to sexual harassment.

  6. Attentional bias in restrictive eating disorders. Stronger attentional avoidance of high-fat food compared to healthy controls?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veenstra, Esther M; de Jong, Peter J

    2012-02-01

    A striking feature of the restricting subtype of anorexia nervosa (AN) is that these patients are extremely successful in restricting their food intake. Possibly, they are highly efficient in avoiding attentional engagement of food cues, thereby preventing more elaborate processing of food cues and thus subsequent craving. This study examined whether patients diagnosed with restrictive eating disorders ('restricting AN-like patients'; N=88) indeed show stronger attentional avoidance of visual food stimuli than healthy controls (N=76). Attentional engagement and disengagement were assessed by means of a pictorial exogenous cueing task, and (food and neutral) pictures were presented for 300, 500, or 1000 ms. In the 500 ms condition, both restricting AN-like patients and healthy controls demonstrated attentional avoidance of high-fat food as indexed by a negative cue-validity effect and impaired attentional engagement with high-fat food, whereas no evidence was found for facilitated disengagement from high-fat food. Within the group of restricting AN-like patients, patients with relatively severe eating pathology showed relatively strong attentional engagement with low-fat food. There was no evidence for attentional bias in the 300 and 1000 ms condition. The pattern of findings indicate that attentional avoidance of high-fat food is a common phenomenon that may become counterproductive in restricting AN-like patients, as it could facilitate their restricted food intake. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Building Stronger State Energy Partnerships with the U.S. Department of Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Terry

    2008-09-30

    This final technical report details the results of total work efforts and progress made from July 2000 - July 2008 under the National Association of State Energy Officials (NASEO) cooperative agreement DE-FC26-00NT40802, Building Stronger State Energy Partnerships with the U.S. Department of Energy. Major topical project areas in this final report include work efforts in the following areas: Rebuild America/Energy Smart Schools, Higher Education Initiative, Winter/Summer Fuels Outlook Conferences, Energy Emergency, Clean Energy Integration, Energy Star, and Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability. All required deliverables have been provided to the National Energy Technology Laboratory and DOE program officials.

  8. The University of Florida Department of Surgery: building a stronger tomorrow on yesterday's foundation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrns, Kevin E; Copeland, Edward M; Howard, Richard J

    2012-01-01

    Established in 1957, the University of Florida Department of Surgery has a solid foundation on which current faculty are driven to build a stronger tomorrow. The department is focused on promoting patient-centered care, expanding its research portfolio to improve techniques and outcomes, and training the surgical leaders of tomorrow. It fosters an environment where faculty, residents, students, and staff challenge long-held traditions with the goal of improving the health of our patients, the quality of our care, and the vitality of our work environment.

  9. Production of plastified wood with stronger static bending strength means of polymerization induced by gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva Filho, Elias

    1999-01-01

    The use of gamma radiation to obtain wood-polymer composites is one of the applications of radiation that presents the most commercial interest. The process, denominated radiopolymerization, comprises the impregnation of monomers into the completely dried wood followed by exposure to gamma radiation to induce polymerization of the impregnated monomers. I this context, the present work aimed the application of this process to seven kinds of wood existing in the brazilian forests. The considered monomer is styrene and the gamma source is Cobalt-60. The obtained wood-polystyrene composites were found to have stronger static bending strength. (author)

  10. Building Stronger State Energy Partnerships with the U.S. Department of Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marks, Kate

    2011-09-30

    This final technical report details the results of total work efforts and progress made from October 2007 – September 2011 under the National Association of State Energy Officials (NASEO) cooperative agreement DE-FC26-07NT43264, Building Stronger State Energy Partnerships with the U.S. Department of Energy. Major topical project areas in this final report include work efforts in the following areas: Energy Assurance and Critical Infrastructure, State and Regional Technical Assistance, Regional Initiative, Regional Coordination and Technical Assistance, and International Activities in China. All required deliverables have been provided to the National Energy Technology Laboratory and DOE program officials.

  11. Do External or Internal Technology Spillovers Have a Stronger Influence on Innovation Efficiency in China?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xionghe Qin

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we bridge an important gap in the literature by comparing the extent to which external technology spillovers, as indicated by foreign direct investment (FDI, and internal technology spillovers, as indicated by university-institute-industry cooperation (UIC, influence innovation efficiency in China. We divide the innovation process into two sequential stages, namely the knowledge creation and technology commercialization stages, and employ a network data envelopment analysis approach to measure innovation efficiency at each stage. The spatial analysis of the distribution of knowledge creation efficiency and technology commercialization efficiency reveals the heterogeneity of innovation efficiency at the provincial level. Then, a panel data regression is used to analyze the effect of FDI and UIC on innovation efficiency at each stage, using data from 2009 to 2015 for 30 provinces in China. By comparing FDI with UIC, we find that FDI has a higher coefficient and stronger significance level at the knowledge creation stage, while only industry-institute linkages exhibit a stronger association with innovation efficiency at the technology commercialization stage.

  12. Stronger interference from distractors in the right hemifield during visual search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlei, Christophe; Kerzel, Dirk

    2018-03-01

    The orientation-bias hypothesis states that there is a bias to attend to the right visual hemifield (RVF) when there is spatial competition between stimuli in the left and right hemifield [Pollmann, S. (1996). A pop-out induced extinction-like phenomenon in neurologically intact subjects. Neuropsychologia, 34(5), 413-425. doi: 10.1016/0028-3932(95)00125-5 ]. In support of this hypothesis, stronger interference was reported for RVF distractors with contralateral targets. In contrast, previous studies using rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) found stronger interference from distractors in the left visual hemifield (LVF). We used the additional singleton paradigm to test whether this discrepancy was due to the different distractor features that were employed (colour vs. orientation). Interference from the colour distractor with contralateral targets was larger in the RVF than in the LVF. However, the asymmetrical interference disappeared when observers had to search for an inconspicuous colour target instead of the inconspicuous shape target. We suggest that the LVF orienting-bias is limited to situations where search is driven by bottom-up saliency (singleton search) instead of top-down search goals (feature search). In contrast, analysis of the literature suggests the opposite for the LVF bias in RSVP tasks. Thus, the attentional asymmetry may depend on whether the task involves temporal or spatial competition, and whether search is based on bottom-up or top-down signals.

  13. When surging seas meet stronger rain: Nuclear techniques in flood management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quevenco, Rodolfo

    2015-01-01

    Unusually high rainfall in many parts of the world is a result of climate change, scientists say. Since warmer air can hold more water, the rationale goes, increased temperatures will increase the chances of stronger rainfall events. And when surging seas combine with stronger rain, the outcome is almost certain: floods. Floods are the most frequently occurring natural disasters, and south-east Asia is particularly vulnerable. Climate change and variability are expected to bring about increased typhoon activities, rising sea levels and off-season monsoon rains in southeast Asia and other regions. These can cause devastating floods in countries like Cambodia, Laos, Pakistan, the Philippines, Thailand and Viet Nam. For the residents of these countries who have survived the ravages of major floods, the road to recovery can be long and arduous. As the flood water recedes, they have to contend with new forms of flood: floods of concern and worries as to how to rebuild their houses, their lives and their cities. Governments, too, face huge challenges in rebuilding roads, public buildings, infrastructure and natural resources destroyed or polluted by the flood.

  14. Exposure-response relationship of typical and atypical antipsychotics assessed by the positive and negative syndrome scale (PANSS) and its subscales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pilla Reddy, Venkatesh; Suleiman, Ahmed; Kozielska, Magdalena; Johnson, Martin; Vermeulen, An; Liu, Jing; de Greef, Rik; Groothuis, Genoveva; Danhof, Meindert; Proost, Johannes

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: It has been suggested that atypical antipsychotics (ATAPs), are more effective towards negative symptoms than typical antipsychotics (TAPs) in schizophrenic patients.[1,2] To quantify the above statement, we aimed i) to develop a PK-PD model that characterizes the time course of PANSS

  15. ERK7 is a negative regulator of protein secretion in response to amino-acid starvation by modulating Sec16 membrane association

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zacharogianni, M.; Kondylis, V.; Tang, Y.; Farhan, H.; Xanthakis, D.; Fuchs, F.; Boutros, M.; Rabouille, C.

    2011-01-01

    RNAi screening for kinases regulating the functional organization of the early secretory pathway in Drosophila S2 cells has identified the atypical Mitotic-Associated Protein Kinase (MAPK) Extracellularly regulated kinase 7 (ERK7) as a new modulator. We found that ERK7 negatively regulates secretion

  16. Early stage cost-effectiveness analysis of a BRCA1-like test to detect triple negative breast cancers responsive to high dose alkylating chemotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miquel-Cases, Anna; Steuten, Lotte Maria Gertruda; Retel, Valesca P.; van Harten, Willem H.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Triple negative breast cancers (TNBC) with a BRCA1-like profile may benefit from high dose alkylating chemotherapy (HDAC). This study examines whether BRCA1-like testing to target effective HDAC in TNBC patients can be more cost-effective than treating all patients with standard

  17. Phenomenological Characteristics of Autobiographical Memories: Responsiveness to an Induced Negative Mood State in Those With and Without a Previous History of Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Andrew E P

    2016-01-01

    In this study we investigated the relative accessibility of phenomenological characteristics in autobiographical memories of 104 students with and without a previous history of a depression. Participants recalled personal events that were elicited with cue words and then asked to rate these personal events for a number of phenomenological characteristics. The characteristics were typicality, rumination, valence, importance of others, expectancy, desirability, and personal importance. The effects of previous history of depression (without history or with previous history of depression) and self-reported mood (pre- and post-negative mood induction) on autobiographical recall was examined by employing a mixed factor design. Self-reported mood was measured as a manipulation check, before and after Mood Induction Procedure. Typicality, rumination and personal importance showed significant interaction effects in those with a history of depression. Ordinal regression supported the finding that those with a history of depression had a higher chance of typicality and personal importance than those without a history of depression. The results indicate that recall of autobiographical characteristics is in part dependent on induced negative mood state and on previous history of depression. The findings may prompt future research into targeted interventions that reduce individual tendencies for heightened cognitive reactivity in negative mood states for those with a history of depression.

  18. Neural correlates of the use of psychological distancing to regulate responses to negative social cues: a study of patients with borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenigsberg, Harold W; Fan, Jin; Ochsner, Kevin N; Liu, Xun; Guise, Kevin G; Pizzarello, Scott; Dorantes, Christine; Guerreri, Stephanie; Tecuta, Lucia; Goodman, Marianne; New, Antonia; Siever, Larry J

    2009-11-01

    Emotional instability is a defining feature of borderline personality disorder (BPD); yet, little is understood about its underlying neural correlates. One possible contributing factor to emotional instability is a failure to adequately employ adaptive cognitive regulatory strategies such as psychological distancing. To determine whether there are differences in neural dynamics underlying this control strategy between BPD patients and healthy control (HC) subjects, blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging signals were acquired as 18 BPD and 16 HC subjects distanced from or simply looked at pictures depicting social interactions. Contrasts in signal between distance and look conditions were compared between groups. Borderline personality disorder patients showed a different pattern of activation compared with HC subjects when looking at negative versus neutral pictures. When distancing versus looking at negative pictures, both groups showed decreased negative affect ratings and increased activation of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, areas near/along the intraparietal sulcus (IPS), ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, and posterior cingulate/precuneus regions. However, the BPD group showed less BOLD signal change in dorsal anterior cingulate cortex and IPS, less deactivation in the amygdala, and greater activation in the superior temporal sulcus and superior frontal gyrus. Borderline personality disorder and HC subjects display different neural dynamics while passively viewing social emotional stimuli. In addition, BPD patients do not engage the cognitive control regions to the extent that HCs do when employing a distancing strategy to regulate emotional reactions, which may be a factor contributing to the affective instability of BPD.

  19. Spectral components of human cardiovascular responses to step changes in Lower Body Negative Pressure (LBNP) before and after 22 hour of 6 deg head down bed rest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, C. F.; Evans, J. M.; Grande, K. J.; Murphy, C. D.; Patwardhan, A. R.

    1992-01-01

    Changes in autonomic outflow to peripheral organs during the development of bedrest induced orthostatic intolerance have not been determined. Recent studies have indicated that spectral analysis provides an indirect assessment of these changes. Eight male subjects were studied before and after 22 hours of 6 degree head down bedrest plus Lasix (40 mg. P.P.). Cardiovascular spectra (using an autoregressive technique) were determined for heart rate (HR, ECG), arterial pressure (AP, Finapres), radial artery flow (RF, Hokansen) and respiration rate (RR, BoMed). Spectra were obtained from 2.5 minute segments during control, lower body negative pressure (minus 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 mmHg) and recovery. Bedrest increased HR spectra power in the low frequency (.001 to .041 Hz) range, increased RF power in the low and mid (.04 to .18 Hz) range and increased AP power in the high (.18 to .50 Hz) frequency range. Increasing levels of lower body negative pressure decreased HR power and increased RF power in the high frequency range and decreased AP power in the low frequency range. Since spectral power of HR in the high frequency range has been shown to indicate parasympathetically mediated regulation and power in the low and mid frequency ranges indicates a sympathetic / parasympathetic mixture, then both bedrest and lower body negative pressure appeared to shift sympathetic / parasympathetic balance toward sympathetic regulation of HR. The interpretation of the spectral content of AP and RF with respect to their autonomic origins remains unclear.

  20. Peptide-MHC class I stability is a stronger predictor of CTL immunogenicity than peptide affinity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harndahl, Mikkel Nors; Rasmussen, Michael; Nielsen, Morten

    2012-01-01

    of antigen processing and presentation in defining cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) immunogenicity Assarsson et al., 2007. Using an affinity-balanced approach, we demonstrated that immunogenic peptides tend to be more stably bound to MHC-I molecules compared with non-immunogenic peptides. We also developed......Peptide-MHC class I stability is a stronger predictor of CTL immunogenicity than peptide affinity Mikkel Harndahla, Michael Rasmussena, Morten Nielsenb, Soren Buusa,∗ a Laboratory of Experimental Immunology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Denmark b Center for Biological...... Sequence Analysis, Department of Systems Biology, Technical University of Denmark, Denmark Efficient presentation of peptide-MHC class I (pMHC-I) complexes to immune T cells should benefit from a stable peptide- MHC-I interaction. However, it has been difficult to distinguish stability from other...

  1. Bone mineral content has stronger association with lean mass than fat mass among Indian urban adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raman K Marwaha

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There are conflicting reports on the relationship of lean mass (LM and fat mass (FM with bone mineral content (BMC. Given the high prevalence of Vitamin D deficiency in India, we planned the study to evaluate the relationship between LM and FM with BMC in Indian children and adolescents. The objective of the study was to evaluate the relationship of BMC with LM and FM. Materials and Methods: Total and regional BMC, LM, and FM using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry and pubertal staging were assessed in 1403 children and adolescents (boys [B]: 826; girls [G]: 577. BMC index, BMC/LM and BMC/FM ratio, were calculated. Results: The age ranged from 5 to 18 years, with a mean age of 13.2 ± 2.7 years. BMC adjusted for height (BMC index and BMC/height ratio was comparable in both genders. There was no difference in total BMC between genders in the prepubertal group but were higher in more advanced stages of pubertal maturation. The correlation of total as well as regional BMC was stronger for LM (B: Total BMC - 0.880, trunk - 0.715, leg - 0.894, arm - 0.891; G: Total BMC - 0.827, leg - 0.846, arm - 0.815 (all value indicate r2 , P < 0.0001 for all when compared with FM (B: Total BMC - 0.776, trunk - 0.676, leg - 0.772, arm - 0.728; G: Total BMC - 0.781, leg - 0.741, arm - 0.689; all P < 0.0001 except at trunk BMC (LM - 0.682 vs. FM - 0.721; all P < 0.0001, even after controlling for age, height, pubertal stage, and biochemical parameters. Conclusions: BMC had a stronger positive correlation with LM than FM.

  2. Assessment of an RNA interference screen-derived mitotic and ceramide pathway metagene as a predictor of response to neoadjuvant paclitaxel for primary triple-negative breast cancer: a retrospective analysis of five clinical trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Nicolai Stefan; Szallasi, Zoltan Imre; Eklund, Aron Charles

    2010-01-01

    involved in mitosis or ceramide metabolism that influenced sensitivity to paclitaxel, with an RNA interference (RNAi) screen in three cancer cell lines, including a triple-negative breast-cancer cell line. Here, we assess these genes as a predictor of pCR to paclitaxel combination chemotherapy in triple......Addition of taxanes to preoperative chemotherapy in breast cancer increases the proportion of patients who have a pathological complete response (pCR). However, a substantial proportion of patients do not respond, and the prognosis is particularly poor for patients with oestrogen-receptor (ER......-negative breast cancer. METHODS: We derived a paclitaxel response metagene based on mitotic and ceramide genes identified by functional genomics studies. We used area under the curve (AUC) analysis and multivariate logistic regression to retrospectively assess the metagene in six cohorts of patients with triple...

  3. miR-146a negatively regulates the induction of proinflammatory cytokines in response to Japanese encephalitis virus infection in microglial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Minnan; Du, Ganqin; Zhao, Jiegang; Du, Xiaowei

    2017-06-01

    Increasing evidence confirms the involvement of virus infection and miRNA, such as miR-146a, in neuroinflammation-associated epilepsy. In the present study, we investigated the upregulation of miR-146a with RT-qPCR and in situ hybridization methods in a mice infection model of Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) and in vitro. Subsequently we investigated the involvement of miR-146a in modulating JEV-induced neuroinflammation. It was demonstrated that JEV infection promoted miR-146a production in BALB/c mice brain and in cultured mouse microglial C8-B4 cells, along with pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, IFN-β and IFN-α. We also found that miR-146a exerted negative regulatory effects upon IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, IFN-β and IFN-α in C8-B4 cells. Accordingly, miR-146a downregulation with a miR-146a inhibitor promoted the upregulation of IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, IFN-β and IFN-α, whereas miR-146a upregulation with miR-146a mimics reduced the upregulation of these cytokines. Moreover, miR-146a exerted no regulation upon JEV growth in C8-B4 cells. In conclusion, JEV infection upregulated miR-146a and pro-inflammatory cytokine production, in mice brain and in cultured C8-B4 cells. Furthermore, miR-146a negatively regulated the production of JEV-induced pro-inflammatory cytokines, in virus growth independent fashion, identifying miR-146a as a negative feedback regulator in JEV-induced neuroinflammation, and possibly in epilepsy.

  4. Regular Exercisers Have Stronger Pelvic Floor Muscles than Non-Regular Exercisers at Midpregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bø, Kari; Ellstrøm Engh, Marie; Hilde, Gunvor

    2017-12-26

    Today, all healthy pregnant women are encouraged to be physically active throughout pregnancy, with recommendations to participate in at least 30 min of aerobic activity on most days of the week, in addition to perform strength training of the major muscle groups 2-3 days per week, and also pelvic floor muscle training. There is, however, an ongoing debate whether general physical activity enhances or declines pelvic floor muscle function. To compare vaginal resting pressure, pelvic floor muscle strength and endurance in regular exercisers (exercise ≥ 30 minutes ≥ 3 times per week) and non-exercisers at mid-pregnancy. Furthermore, to assess whether regular general exercise or pelvic floor muscle strength was associated with urinary incontinence. This was a cross-sectional study at mean gestational week 20.9 (± 1.4) including 218 nulliparous pregnant women, mean age 28.6 years (range 19-40) and pre-pregnancy body mass index 23.9 kg/m 2 (SD 4.0). Vaginal resting pressure, pelvic floor muscle strength and pelvic floor muscle endurance were measured by a high precision pressure transducer connected to a vaginal balloon. International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire Urinary Incontinence Short Form was used to assess urinary incontinence. Differences between groups were analyzed using Independent Sample T-test. Linear regression analysis was conducted to adjust for pre-pregnancy body mass index, age, smoking during pregnancy and regular pelvic floor muscle training during pregnancy. P-value was set to ≤ 0.05. Regular exercisers had statistically significant stronger ( mean 6.4 cm H 2 O (95% CI: 1.7, 11.2)) and more enduring ( mean 39.9 cm H 2 Osec (95% CI: 42.2, 75.7)) pelvic floor muscles. Only pelvic floor muscle strength remained statistically significant, when adjusting for possible confounders. Pelvic floor muscle strength and not regular general exercise was associated with urinary continence (adjusted B: -6.4 (95% CI: -11.5, -1.4)). Regular

  5. Hippocampal-Prefrontal Reactivation during Learning Is Stronger in Awake Compared with Sleep States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Wenbo; Shin, Justin D; Frank, Loren M; Jadhav, Shantanu P

    2017-12-06

    Hippocampal sharp-wave ripple (SWR) events occur during both behavior (awake SWRs) and slow-wave sleep (sleep SWRs). Awake and sleep SWRs both contribute to spatial learning and memory, thought to be mediated by the coordinated reactivation of behavioral experiences in hippocampal-cortical circuits seen during SWRs. Current hypotheses suggest that reactivation contributes to memory consolidation processes, but whether awake and sleep reactivation are suited to play similar or different roles remains unclear. Here we addressed that issue by examining the structure of hippocampal (area CA1) and prefrontal (PFC) activity recorded across behavior and sleep stages in male rats learning a spatial alternation task. We found a striking state difference: prefrontal modulation during awake and sleep SWRs was surprisingly distinct, with differing patterns of excitation and inhibition. CA1-PFC synchronization was stronger during awake SWRs, and spatial reactivation, measured using both pairwise and ensemble measures, was more structured for awake SWRs compared with post-task sleep SWRs. Stronger awake reactivation was observed despite the absence of coordination between network oscillations, namely hippocampal SWRs and cortical delta and spindle oscillations, which is prevalent during sleep. Finally, awake CA1-PFC reactivation was enhanced most prominently during initial learning in a novel environment, suggesting a key role in early learning. Our results demonstrate significant differences in awake and sleep reactivation in the hippocampal-prefrontal network. These findings suggest that awake SWRs support accurate memory storage and memory-guided behavior, whereas sleep SWR reactivation is better suited to support integration of memories across experiences during consolidation. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Hippocampal sharp-wave ripples (SWRs) occur both in the awake state during behavior and in the sleep state after behavior. Awake and sleep SWRs are associated with memory

  6. Does cue context matter? Examining the specificity of cue-related activation of positive and negative alcohol expectancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardell, Jeffrey D; Read, Jennifer P

    2013-12-01

    Consistent with the Encoding Specificity principle, positive alcohol expectancies may be activated by cues in drinking contexts because they are more closely associated with these cues in memory than are negative expectancies. However, there is little research examining the specificity of cue-induced alcohol expectancy activation. This study investigated the relative activation of positive and negative expectancies in response to positive and negative cue contexts. We also examined whether these effects were stronger for heavier and more problematic drinkers. College student drinkers were randomly assigned to listen to vignettes describing either positive or negative drinking scenarios (cue exposure). Participants also completed an implicit measure of alcohol expectancy activation (modified Stroop task) both before and after the cue exposure, as well as self-report measures of alcohol use and alcohol-related problems. We found that alcohol-related problems moderated the effects of cue condition on expectancy activation, such that specific activation of positive relative to negative expectancies in response to positive cues was observed only for drinkers with higher levels of alcohol problems. No differences in activation of positive versus negative expectancies were observed for more problematic drinkers in the negative cue condition or for less problematic drinkers in either cue condition. The results are partially consistent with the Encoding Specificity principle, showing that positive contextual cues can selectively activate positive alcohol expectancies for more problematic drinkers. Findings may have implications for interventions that target automatic expectancy processes, suggesting potential utility in targeting specific expectancies in specific contexts.

  7. The association of negative attributions with irritation and anger after brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Dawn; Malec, James F; Hammond, Flora M

    2015-05-01

    Study objectives were to examine associations of irritation and anger with negative attributions, and associations of negative attributions with trait aggression in participants with traumatic brain injury (TBI). Forty-eight participants with moderate to severe TBI participated in this study. Participants were primarily male (68.8%), and on average, approximately 5 years postinjury. Prospective study using a quasi-experimental design. Participants were presented with 21 vignettes that hypothetically led to negative consequences for the participant. Stories portrayed characters' actions as benign, ambiguous, or hostile. After each vignette, participants rated how irritated and angry they would be, and how intentional, hostile, and blameworthy they perceived the characters' actions. Participants' trait aggression was evaluated with the aggression questionnaire. Irritation and anger ratings were strongly correlated with intent, hostility, and blame ratings of the character (p negative attributions they make about others' behaviors. Findings further indicate a relationship between negative attributions and trait aggression. Thus, individuals with TBI who have higher trait aggression may have a tendency to make more negative attributions about others' behaviors, and in turn, have stronger feelings of irritation and anger as a response. Future studies with healthy controls and larger sample sizes are needed to build upon this clinically relevant topic. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Once the rockets are up, who should care where they come down? The problem of responsibility ascription for the negative consequences of biofuel innovations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tempels, T.H.; Belt, Van den H.

    2016-01-01

    Responsible Innovation (RI) is often heralded in EU policy circles as a means to achieve ethically acceptable, sustainable innovations. Yet, conceptual questions on the specific notion of ‘responsibility’ and to what extent an innovation can be ‘responsible’ are only partly addressed. In this

  9. Genome-wide miRNA screening reveals miR-310 family members negatively regulate the immune response in Drosophila melanogaster via co-targeting Drosomycin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yao; Li, Shengjie; Li, Ruimin; Xu, Jiao; Jin, Ping; Chen, Liming; Ma, Fei

    2017-03-01

    Although innate immunity mediated by Toll signaling has been extensively studied in Drosophila melanogaster, the role of miRNAs in regulating the Toll-mediated immune response remains largely unknown. In this study, following Gram-positive bacterial challenge, we identified 93 differentially expressed miRNAs via genome-wide miRNA screening. These miRNAs were regarded as immune response related (IRR). Eight miRNAs were confirmed to be involved in the Toll-mediated immune response upon Gram-positive bacterial infection through genetic screening of 41 UAS-miRNA lines covering 60 miRNAs of the 93 IRR miRNAs. Interestingly, four out of these eight miRNAs, miR-310, miR-311, miR-312 and miR-313, are clustered miRNAs and belong to the miR-310 family. These miR-310 family members were shown to target and regulate the expression of Drosomycin, an antimicrobial peptide produced by Toll signaling. Taken together, our study implies important regulatory roles of miRNAs in the Toll-mediated innate immune response of Drosophila upon Gram-positive bacterial infection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. A Combination of Targeted Therapy with Chemotherapy Backbone Induces Response in a Treatment-Resistant Triple-Negative MCL1-Amplified Metastatic Breast Cancer Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siraj M. Ali

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available After failure of anthracycline- and platinum-based therapy, no effective therapies exist for management of metastatic triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC. We report a case of metastatic TNBC harboring MCL1 amplification, as identified by comprehensive genomic profiling in the course of clinical care. MCL1 is an antiapoptotic gene in the BCL2 family, and MCL1 amplification is common in TNBC (at least 20%. A personalized dose-reduced regimen centered on a combination of sorafenib and vorinostat was implemented, based on preclinical evidence demonstrating treatment synergy in the setting of MCL1 amplification. Although hospice care was being considered before treatment initiation, the personalized regimen yielded 6 additional months of life for this patient. Further rigorous studies are needed to confirm that this regimen or derivatives thereof can benefit the MCL1-amplified subset of TNBC patients.

  11. Slow walking on a treadmill desk does not negatively affect executive abilities: An examination of cognitive control, conflict adaptation, response inhibition, and post-error slowing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J Larson

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available An increasing trend in the workplace is for employees to walk on treadmills while working to attain known health benefits; however, the effect of walking on a treadmill during cognitive control and executive function tasks is not well known. We compared the cognitive control processes of conflict adaptation (i.e., congruency sequence effects—improved performance following high-conflict relative to low-conflict trials, post-error slowing (i.e., Rabbitt effect, and response inhibition during treadmill walking (1.5 mph relative to sitting. Understanding the influence of treadmill desks on these cognitive processes may have implications for worker health and productivity. Sixty-nine individuals were randomized to either a sitting (n = 35 or treadmill-walking condition (n = 34. Groups did not differ in age or body mass index. All participants completed a computerized Eriksen flanker task and a response-inhibition go/no-go task in random order while either walking on a treadmill or seated. Response times (RTs and accuracy were analyzed separately for each task using mixed model analysis of variance. Separate ANOVAs for RTs and accuracy showed the expected conflict adaptation effects, post-error slowing, and response inhibition effects when collapsed across sitting and treadmill groups (all Fs > 78.77, Ps .38, suggesting no decrements or enhancements in conflict-related control and adjustment processes or response inhibition for those walking on a treadmill versus sitting. We conclude that cognitive control performance remains relatively unaffected during slow treadmill walking relative to sitting.

  12. BRCAness as a Biomarker for Predicting Prognosis and Response to Anthracycline-Based Adjuvant Chemotherapy for Patients with Triple-Negative Breast Cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hitomi Mori

    Full Text Available Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC is a heterogeneous tumor that encompasses many different subclasses of the disease. In this study, we assessed BRCAness, defined as the shared characteristics between sporadic and BRCA1-mutated tumors, in a large cohort of TNBC cases.The BRCAness of 262 patients with primary TNBCs resected between January 2004 and December 2014 was determined through the isolation of DNA from tumor tissue. Classification of BRCAness was performed using multiple ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA. The tumor subtypes were determined immunohistochemically using resected specimens.Of the 262 TNBCs, the results of the MLPA assays showed that 174 (66.4% tumors had BRCAness. Patients with BRCAness tumors were younger than patients with non-BRCAness tumors (P = 0.003. There was no significant difference between the two groups regarding their pathological stages. The BRCAness group had a significantly shorter recurrence-free survival (RFS compared with the non-BRCAness group (P = 0.04 and had a shorter overall survival (OS although this did not reach statistical significance. Adjuvant treatments with anthracycline-based regimens provided significantly greater benefits to the BRCAness group (P = 0.003 for RFS, and P = 0.03 for OS. Multivariate Cox proportional hazard model analysis showed that BRCAness was an independent negative prognostic factor, and the anthracycline-based adjuvant chemotherapy was an independent positive prognostic factor for both RFS and OS in TNBC.The 66.4% patients of TNBCs showed BRCAness. BRCAness is essential as a biomarker in the subclassification of TNBCs and might be of use for predicting their prognosis. Furthermore, this biomarker might be a predictive factor for the effectiveness of anthracycline-based adjuvant chemotherapy for patients with TNBCs.

  13. Stronger associations of obesity with prehypertension and hypertension in young women than in young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakabayashi, Ichiro

    2012-07-01

    Obesity is an important risk factor for prehypertension and hypertension, and there are sex-specific differences in prevalences of obesity and hypertension. The aim of this study was to determine whether sex influences the relationships of obesity with prehypertension and hypertension. The participants were 28,325 Japanese men and women aged 20-39 years. Obesity was evaluated by BMI (≥ 25 kg/m) and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR ≥ 0.5). Associations of obesity with prehypertension and hypertension were compared in men and women by using odds ratio (OR) and area under the curve (AUC). ORs for prehypertension and hypertension in participants with vs. participants without high BMI or WHtR were significantly higher than a reference level of 1.00 both in men and women and were significantly higher in women than in men. ORs for prehypertension and hypertension of participants with vs. participants without high BMI were 3.10 (2.84-3.38) (men) vs. 5.54 (4.80-6.40) (women) (P men) vs. 34.58 (26.55-45.04) (women) (P men. The results suggest that the associations of obesity with prehypertension and hypertension are stronger in women than in men.

  14. Stronger activation of SREBP-1a by nucleus-localized HBx

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Qi; Qiao, Ling; Yang, Jian; Zhou, Yan; Liu, Qiang

    2015-01-01

    We previously showed that hepatitis B virus (HBV) X protein activates the sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1a (SREBP-1a). Here we examined the role of nuclear localization of HBx in this process. In comparison to the wild-type and cytoplasmic HBx, nuclear HBx had stronger effects on SREBP-1a and fatty acid synthase transcription activation, intracellular lipid accumulation and cell proliferation. Furthermore, nuclear HBx could activate HBV enhancer I/X promoter and was more effective on up-regulating HBV mRNA level in the context of HBV replication than the wild-type HBx, while the cytoplasmic HBx had no effect. Our results demonstrate the functional significance of the nucleus-localized HBx in regulating host lipogenic pathway and HBV replication. - Highlights: • Nuclear HBx is more effective on activating SREBP-1a and FASN transcription. • Nuclear HBx is more effective on enhancing intracellular lipid accumulation. • Nuclear HBx is more effective on enhancing cell proliferation. • Nuclear HBx up-regulates HBV enhancer I/X promoter activity. • Nuclear HBx increases HBV mRNA level in the context of HBV replication

  15. Stronger activation of SREBP-1a by nucleus-localized HBx

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Qi [VIDO-InterVac, Veterinary Microbiology, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon (Canada); Qiao, Ling [VIDO-InterVac, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan (Canada); Yang, Jian [Drug Discovery Group, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan (Canada); Zhou, Yan [VIDO-InterVac, Veterinary Microbiology, Vaccinology and Immunotherapeutics, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan (Canada); Liu, Qiang, E-mail: qiang.liu@usask.ca [VIDO-InterVac, Veterinary Microbiology, Vaccinology and Immunotherapeutics, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan (Canada)

    2015-05-08

    We previously showed that hepatitis B virus (HBV) X protein activates the sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1a (SREBP-1a). Here we examined the role of nuclear localization of HBx in this process. In comparison to the wild-type and cytoplasmic HBx, nuclear HBx had stronger effects on SREBP-1a and fatty acid synthase transcription activation, intracellular lipid accumulation and cell proliferation. Furthermore, nuclear HBx could activate HBV enhancer I/X promoter and was more effective on up-regulating HBV mRNA level in the context of HBV replication than the wild-type HBx, while the cytoplasmic HBx had no effect. Our results demonstrate the functional significance of the nucleus-localized HBx in regulating host lipogenic pathway and HBV replication. - Highlights: • Nuclear HBx is more effective on activating SREBP-1a and FASN transcription. • Nuclear HBx is more effective on enhancing intracellular lipid accumulation. • Nuclear HBx is more effective on enhancing cell proliferation. • Nuclear HBx up-regulates HBV enhancer I/X promoter activity. • Nuclear HBx increases HBV mRNA level in the context of HBV replication.

  16. Length effects in pseudo-word spelling: stronger in dyslexic than in non-dyslexic students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juul, Holger; Petersen, Dorthe Klint

    2017-10-01

    It is often discussed whether dyslexics show a deviant pattern of reading and spelling development when compared to typically developing students, or whether they follow the same pattern as other students, only at markedly slower rate. The present cross-sectional study investigated phonological encoding skills in dyslexic Danish students. We compared dyslexic and non-dyslexic students from grades 3, 5, 7, and 9 and examined whether effects of item length were stronger in the dyslexic groups. Mixed between-within subjects analyses of variance revealed significant interactions between dyslexia status and item length as the dyslexics at all grade levels were more affected by item length than their non-dyslexic peers. A marked developmental delay was apparent as the dyslexic group from grade 9 performed on approximately the same level as the non-dyslexic group from grade 3. Although the overall difference between these two groups was not significant, a significant interaction between dyslexia status and item length remained because the grade 9 dyslexics were more affected by item length than the younger non-dyslexic students. This difference in error profiles suggests a difference in the developmental patterns of dyslexic vs. non-dyslexic students.

  17. Brain Potentials Highlight Stronger Implicit Food Memory for Taste than Health and Context Associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoogeveen, Heleen R; Jolij, Jacob; Ter Horst, Gert J; Lorist, Monicque M

    2016-01-01

    Increasingly consumption of healthy foods is advised to improve population health. Reasons people give for choosing one food over another suggest that non-sensory features like health aspects are appreciated as of lower importance than taste. However, many food choices are made in the absence of the actual perception of a food's sensory properties, and therefore highly rely on previous experiences of similar consumptions stored in memory. In this study we assessed the differential strength of food associations implicitly stored in memory, using an associative priming paradigm. Participants (N = 30) were exposed to a forced-choice picture-categorization task, in which the food or non-food target images were primed with either non-sensory or sensory related words. We observed a smaller N400 amplitude at the parietal electrodes when categorizing food as compared to non-food images. While this effect was enhanced by the presentation of a food-related word prime during food trials, the primes had no effect in the non-food trials. More specifically, we found that sensory associations are stronger implicitly represented in memory as compared to non-sensory associations. Thus, this study highlights the neuronal mechanisms underlying previous observations that sensory associations are important features of food memory, and therefore a primary motive in food choice.

  18. Age differences in autobiographical memory across the adult lifespan: older adults report stronger phenomenology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luchetti, Martina; Sutin, Angelina R

    2018-01-01

    As an individual's life story evolves across adulthood, the subjective experience (phenomenology) of autobiographical memory likely changes. In addition to age at retrieval, both the recency of the memory and the age when a memory is formed may be particularly important to its phenomenology. The present work examines the effect of three temporal factors on phenomenology ratings: (a) age of the participant, (b) age at the event reported in the memory, and (c) memory age (recency). A large sample of Americans (N = 1120), stratified by chronological age, recalled and rated two meaningful memories, a Turning Point and an Early Childhood Memory. Ratings of phenomenology (e.g., vividness of turning points) were higher among older adults compared to younger adults. Memories of events from the reminiscence bump were more positive in valence than events from other time periods but did not differ on other phenomenological dimensions; recent memories had stronger phenomenology than remote memories. In contrast to phenomenology, narrative content was generally unrelated to participant age, age at the event, or memory age. Overall, the findings indicate age-related differences in how meaningful memories are re-experienced.

  19. Speed versus endurance tradeoff in plants: Leaves with higher photosynthetic rates show stronger seasonal declines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong-Jiang; Sack, Lawren; Cao, Kun-Fang; Wei, Xue-Mei; Li, Nan

    2017-02-10

    We tested for a tradeoff across species between plant maximum photosynthetic rate and the ability to maintain photosynthesis under adverse conditions in the unfavorable season. Such a trade-off would be consistent with the observed trade-off between maximum speed and endurance in athletes and some animals that has been explained by cost-benefit theory. This trend would have importance for the general understanding of leaf design, and would simplify models of annual leaf carbon relations. We tested for such a trade-off using a database analysis across vascular plants and using an experimental approach for 29 cycad species, representing an ancient plant lineage with diversified evergreen leaves. In both tests, a higher photosynthetic rate per mass or per area in the favorable season was associated with a stronger absolute or percent decline in the unfavorable season. We resolved a possible mechanism based on biomechanics and nitrogen allocation; cycads with high leaf toughness (leaf mass per area) and higher investment in leaf construction than in physiological function (C/N ratio) tended to have lower warm season photosynthesis but less depression in the cool season. We propose that this trade-off, consistent with cost-benefit theory, represents a significant physio-phenological constraint on the diversity and seasonal dynamics of photosynthetic rate.

  20. A stronger necessary condition for the multistationarity of chemical reaction networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliman, Sylvain

    2013-11-01

    Biochemical reaction networks grow bigger and bigger, fed by the high-throughput data provided by biologists and bred in open repositories of models allowing merging and evolution. Nevertheless, since the available data is still very far from permitting the identification of the increasing number of kinetic parameters of such models, the necessity of structural analyses for describing the dynamics of chemical networks appears stronger every day. Using the structural information, notably from the stoichiometric matrix, of a biochemical reaction system, we state a more strict version of the famous Thomas' necessary condition for multistationarity. In particular, the obvious cases where Thomas' condition was trivially satisfied, mutual inhibition due to a multimolecular reaction and mutual activation due to a reversible reaction, can now easily be ruled out. This more strict condition shall not be seen as some version of Thomas' circuit functionality for the continuous case but rather as related and complementary to the whole domain of the structural analysis of (bio)chemical reaction systems, as pioneered by the chemical reaction network theory.

  1. Harmful drinking after job loss: a stronger association during the post-2008 economic crisis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Goeij, Moniek C M; Bruggink, Jan-Willem; Otten, Ferdy; Kunst, Anton E

    2017-06-01

    This study investigated, among the Dutch working population, whether job loss during the post-2008 economic crisis is associated with harmful drinking and whether this association is stronger than before the crisis. Repeated cross-sectional data from the Dutch Health Interview Survey 2004-2013 were used to define episodic drinking (≥6 glasses on 1 day ≥1/week) and chronic drinking (≥14 glasses/week for women and ≥21 for men). These data were linked to longitudinal data from tax registries, to measure the experience and duration of job loss during a 5-year working history. Before the crisis, job loss experience and duration were not associated with harmful drinking. During the crisis, job loss for more than 6 months was associated with episodic drinking [OR 1.40 (95% CI 1.01; 1.94)], while current job loss was associated with chronic drinking [OR 1.43 (95% CI 1.03; 1.98)]. These associations were most clear in men and different between the pre-crisis and crisis period (p interaction = 0.023 and 0.035, respectively). The results suggest that economic crises strengthen the potential impact of job loss on harmful drinking, predominately among men.

  2. Efficacy and safety of active negative pressure peritoneal therapy for reducing the systemic inflammatory response after damage control laparotomy (the Intra-peritoneal Vacuum Trial): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Derek J; Jenne, Craig N; Ball, Chad G; Tiruta, Corina; Léger, Caroline; Xiao, Zhengwen; Faris, Peter D; McBeth, Paul B; Doig, Christopher J; Skinner, Christine R; Ruddell, Stacy G; Kubes, Paul; Kirkpatrick, Andrew W

    2013-05-16

    Damage control laparotomy, or abbreviated initial laparotomy followed by temporary abdominal closure (TAC), intensive care unit resuscitation, and planned re-laparotomy, is frequently used to manage intra-abdominal bleeding and contamination among critically ill or injured adults. Animal data suggest that TAC techniques that employ negative pressure to the peritoneal cavity may reduce the systemic inflammatory response and associated organ injury. The primary objective of this study is to determine if use of a TAC dressing that affords active negative pressure peritoneal therapy, the ABThera Open Abdomen Negative Pressure Therapy System, reduces the extent of the systemic inflammatory response after damage control laparotomy for intra-abdominal sepsis or injury as compared to a commonly used TAC method that provides potentially less efficient peritoneal negative pressure, the Barker's vacuum pack. The Intra-peritoneal Vacuum Trial will be a single-center, randomized controlled trial. Adults will be intraoperatively allocated to TAC with either the ABThera or Barker's vacuum pack after the decision has been made by the attending surgeon to perform a damage control laparotomy. The study will use variable block size randomization. On study days 1, 2, 3, 7, and 28, blood will be collected. Whenever possible, peritoneal fluid will also be collected at these time points from the patient's abdomen or TAC device. Luminex technology will be used to quantify the concentrations of 65 mediators relevant to the inflammatory response in peritoneal fluid and plasma. The primary endpoint is the difference in the plasma concentration of the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-6 at 24 and 48 h after TAC dressing application. Secondary endpoints include the differential effects of these dressings on the systemic concentration of other pro-inflammatory cytokines, collective peritoneal and systemic inflammatory mediator profiles, postoperative fluid balance, intra-abdominal pressure, and

  3. False-negative type-specific glycoprotein G antibody responses in STI clinic patients with recurrent HSV-1 or HSV-2 DNA positive genital herpes, The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rooijen, Martijn S; Roest, Wim; Hansen, Gino; Kwa, David; de Vries, Henry J C

    2016-06-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) type-discriminating antibody tests (glycoprotein G (gG) directed) are used to identify naïve persons and differentiate acute infections from recurrences. We studied test characteristics of three commercially available antibody tests in patients with recurrent (established by viral PCR tests) herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) or herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) genital herpes episodes. Serum samples (at minimum 3 months after t=0) were examined for the presence of gG-1-specific or gG-2-specific antibodies using the HerpeSelect 1 and 2 Immunoblot IgG, the HerpeSelect 1 and 2 enzyme linked immunoassays IgG and the LIAISON HSV-1 and HSV-2 IgG indirect chemiluminescence immunoassays. The immunoblot was HSV-1 positive in 70.6% (95% CI 44.0% to 89.7%), the LIAISON in 88.2% (95% CI 63.5% to 98.5%) and the ELISA in 82.4% (95% CI 56.6% to 96.2%) of the 17 patients with a recurrent HSV-1 episode. From 33 patients with a recurrent HSV-2 episode, the immunoblot was HSV-2 positive in 84.8% (95% CI 68.1% to 94.9%), the LIAISON in 69.7% (95% CI 51.3% to 84.4%) and the ELISA in 84.8% (95% CI 68.1% to 94.9%). Among 15/17 (88.2%; 95% CI 63.5% to 98.5%) patients with HSV-1 and 30/33 (90.1%; 95% CI 75.7% to 98.1%) patients with HSV-2, HSV-1 or HSV-2 antibodies, respectively, were detected in at least one of the three antibody tests. Commercial type-specific gG HSV-1 or HSV-2 antibody assays were false negative in 12-30% of patients with recurrent HSV-1 or HSV-2 DNA positive genital lesions. The clinical and epidemiological use of type-specific HSV serology can be hampered by false-negative results, especially if based on a single test. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  4. HER2 phosphorylation is maintained by a PKB negative feedback loop in response to anti-HER2 herceptin in breast cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merel Gijsen

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Herceptin (trastuzumab is used in patients with breast cancer who have HER2 (ErbB2-positive tumours. However, its mechanisms of action and how acquired resistance to Herceptin occurs are still poorly understood. It was previously thought that the anti-HER2 monoclonal antibody Herceptin inhibits HER2 signalling, but recent studies have shown that Herceptin does not decrease HER2 phosphorylation. Its failure to abolish HER2 phosphorylation may be a key to why acquired resistance inevitably occurs for all responders if Herceptin is given as monotherapy. To date, no studies have explained why Herceptin does not abolish HER2 phosphorylation. The objective of this study was to investigate why Herceptin did not decrease HER2 phosphorylation despite being an anti-HER2 monoclonal antibody. We also investigated the effects of acute and chronic Herceptin treatment on HER3 and PKB phosphorylation in HER2-positive breast cancer cells. Using both Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET methodology and conventional Western blot, we have found the molecular mechanisms whereby Herceptin fails to abolish HER2 phosphorylation. HER2 phosphorylation is maintained by ligand-mediated activation of EGFR, HER3, and HER4 receptors, resulting in their dimerisation with HER2. The release of HER ligands was mediated by ADAM17 through a PKB negative feedback loop. The feedback loop was activated because of the inhibition of PKB by Herceptin treatment since up-regulation of HER ligands and ADAM17 also occurred when PKB phosphorylation was inhibited by a PKB inhibitor (Akt inhibitor VIII, Akti-1/2. The combination of Herceptin with ADAM17 inhibitors or the panHER inhibitor JNJ-26483327 was able to abrogate the feedback loop and decrease HER2 phosphorylation. Furthermore, the combination of Herceptin with JNJ-26483327 was synergistic in tumour inhibition in a BT474 xenograft model. We have determined that a PKB negative feedback loop links ADAM17 and HER ligands in maintaining

  5. Evaluation of Life Events in Major Depression: Assessing Negative Emotional Bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girz, Laura; Driver-Linn, Erin; Miller, Gregory A; Deldin, Patricia J

    2017-05-01

    Overly negative appraisals of negative life events characterize depression but patterns of emotion bias associated with life events in depression are not well understood. The goal of this paper is to determine under which situations emotional responses are stronger than expected given life events and which emotions are biased. Depressed (n = 16) and non-depressed (n = 14) participants (mean age = 41.4 years) wrote about negative life events involving their own actions and inactions, and rated the current emotion elicited by those events. They also rated emotions elicited by someone else's actions and inactions. These ratings were compared with evaluations provided by a second, 'benchmark' group of non-depressed individuals (n = 20) in order to assess the magnitude and direction of possible biased emotional reactions in the two groups. Participants with depression reported greater anger and disgust than expected in response to both actions and inactions, whereas they reported greater guilt, shame, sadness, responsibility and fear than expected in response to inactions. Relative to non-depressed and benchmark participants, depressed participants were overly negative in the evaluation of their own life events, but not the life events of others. A standardized method for establishing emotional bias reveals a pattern of overly negative emotion only in depressed individuals' self-evaluations, and in particular with respect to anger and disgust, lending support to claims that major depressives' evaluations represent negative emotional bias and to clinical interventions that address this bias. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Macrophage-Lineage Cells Negatively Regulate the Hematopoietic Stem Cell Pool in Response to Interferon Gamma at Steady State and During Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Amanda; Zhang, Yubin; Thai, Vinh; Jones, Maura; Jordan, Michael B; MacNamara, Katherine C

    2015-07-01

    Bone marrow (BM) resident macrophages (Mϕs) regulate hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) mobilization; however, their impact on HSC function has not been investigated. We demonstrate that depletion of BM resident Mϕs increases HSC proliferation as well as the pool of quiescent HSCs. At the same time, during bacterial infection where BM resident Mϕs are selectively increased we observe a decrease in HSC numbers. Moreover, strategies that deplete or reduce Mϕs during infection prevent HSC loss and rescue HSC function. We previously found that the transient loss of HSCs during infection is interferon-gamma (IFNγ)-dependent. We now demonstrate that IFNγ signaling specifically in Mϕs is critical for both the diminished HSC pool and maintenance of BM resident Mϕs during infection. In addition to the IFNγ-dependent loss of BM HSC and progenitor cells (HSPCs) during infection, IFNγ reduced circulating HSPC numbers. Importantly, under infection conditions AMD3100 or G-CSF-induced stem cell mobilization was impaired. Taken together, our data show that IFNγ acts on Mϕs, which are a negative regulator of the HSC pool, to drive the loss in BM and peripheral HSCs during infection. Our findings demonstrate that modulating BM resident Mϕ numbers can impact HSC function in vivo, which may be therapeutically useful for hematologic conditions and refinement of HSC transplantation protocols. © 2015 AlphaMed Press.

  7. Caspase-10 Negatively Regulates Caspase-8-Mediated Cell Death, Switching the Response to CD95L in Favor of NF-κB Activation and Cell Survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Horn

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Formation of the death-inducing signaling complex (DISC initiates extrinsic apoptosis. Caspase-8 and its regulator cFLIP control death signaling by binding to death-receptor-bound FADD. By elucidating the function of the caspase-8 homolog, caspase-10, we discover that caspase-10 negatively regulates caspase-8-mediated cell death. Significantly, we reveal that caspase-10 reduces DISC association and activation of caspase-8. Furthermore, we extend our co-operative/hierarchical binding model of caspase-8/cFLIP and show that caspase-10 does not compete with caspase-8 for binding to FADD. Utilizing caspase-8-knockout cells, we demonstrate that caspase-8 is required upstream of both cFLIP and caspase-10 and that DISC formation critically depends on the scaffold function of caspase-8. We establish that caspase-10 rewires DISC signaling to NF-κB activation/cell survival and demonstrate that the catalytic activity of caspase-10, and caspase-8, is redundant in gene induction. Thus, our data are consistent with a model in which both caspase-10 and cFLIP coordinately regulate CD95L-mediated signaling for death or survival.

  8. The Banana Fruit SINA Ubiquitin Ligase MaSINA1 Regulates the Stability of MaICE1 to be Negatively Involved in Cold Stress Response

    OpenAIRE

    Zhong-Qi Fan; Jian-Ye Chen; Jian-Fei Kuang; Wang-Jin Lu; Wei Shan

    2017-01-01

    The regulation of ICE1 protein stability is important to ensure effective cold stress response, and is extensively studied in Arabidopsis. Currently, how ICE1 stability in fruits under cold stress is controlled remains largely unknown. Here, we reported the possible involvement of a SEVEN IN ABSENTIA (SINA) ubiquitin ligase MaSINA1 from banana fruit in affecting MaICE1 stability. MaSINA1 was identified based on a yeast two-hybrid screening using MaICE1 as bait. Further yeast two-hybrid, pull-...

  9. Perceived stress and biological risk: is the link stronger in Russians than in Taiwanese and Americans?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glei, Dana A; Goldman, Noreen; Shkolnikov, Vladimir M; Jdanov, Dmitri; Shkolnikova, Maria; Vaupel, James W; Weinstein, Maxine

    2013-07-01

    Allostatic load theory implies a relationship between exposure to psychological stress and multi-system physiological dysregulation. We used data from population-based samples of men and women in Russia (Moscow; n = 1800; age, mean 68.6 years), Taiwan (n = 1036; 65.6 years) and the United States (US; n = 1054; 58.0 years) -- which are likely to vary widely with respect to levels of stress exposure and biological markers -- to determine the magnitude of the association between perceived stress and physiological dysregulation. The measure of overall dysregulation was based on 15 markers including standard cardiovascular/metabolic risk factors as well as markers of inflammation and neuroendocrine activity. Subjective psychological stress was measured by the perceived stress scale. Only the Moscow sample demonstrated a positive association with overall dysregulation in both sexes. In the US, we found an association among women but not men. Among the Taiwanese, who report the lowest perceived stress, there was no association in women but an unexpected inverse relationship in men. The effects also varied across system-level subscores: the association with perceived stress was most consistent for standard cardiovascular/metabolic factors. Perceived stress was associated with inflammation and neuroendocrine activity in some samples. Although the evidence that perceived stress is the primary source of physiological dysregulation is generally modest, it was stronger in Russia where the level of perceived stress was particularly high. For Russia only, we had information about heart function based on a 24 h ambulatory electrocardiogram; perceived stress was consistently associated with heart rate dysregulation in Russian men and women.

  10. Stronger tests of mechanisms underlying geographic gradients of biodiversity: insights from the dimensionality of biodiversity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard D Stevens

    Full Text Available Inference involving diversity gradients typically is gathered by mechanistic tests involving single dimensions of biodiversity such as species richness. Nonetheless, because traits such as geographic range size, trophic status or phenotypic characteristics are tied to a particular species, mechanistic effects driving broad diversity patterns should manifest across numerous dimensions of biodiversity. We develop an approach of stronger inference based on numerous dimensions of biodiversity and apply it to evaluate one such putative mechanism: the mid-domain effect (MDE. Species composition of 10,000-km(2 grid cells was determined by overlaying geographic range maps of 133 noctilionoid bat taxa. We determined empirical diversity gradients in the Neotropics by calculating species richness and three indices each of phylogenetic, functional and phenetic diversity for each grid cell. We also created 1,000 simulated gradients of each examined metric of biodiversity based on a MDE model to estimate patterns expected if species distributions were randomly placed within the Neotropics. For each simulation run, we regressed the observed gradient onto the MDE-expected gradient. If a MDE drives empirical gradients, then coefficients of determination from such an analysis should be high, the intercept no different from zero and the slope no different than unity. Species richness gradients predicted by the MDE fit empirical patterns. The MDE produced strong spatially structured gradients of taxonomic, phylogenetic, functional and phenetic diversity. Nonetheless, expected values generated from the MDE for most dimensions of biodiversity exhibited poor fit to most empirical patterns. The MDE cannot account for most empirical patterns of biodiversity. Fuller understanding of latitudinal gradients will come from simultaneous examination of relative effects of random, environmental and historical mechanisms to better understand distribution and abundance of the

  11. BUILDING STRONGER STATE ENERGY PARTNERSHIPS WITH THE U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kate Burke

    2003-09-01

    This technical progress report includes an update of the progress during the third year of cooperative agreement DE-FC26-00NT40802, Building Stronger State Energy Partnerships with the U.S. Department of Energy. The report also describes the barriers in conduct of the effort, and our assessment of future progress and activities. The approach of the project included three tasks during year three. First, NASEO and its Buildings Committee were to focus on raising awareness and coordination of Rebuild activities. Through education, one-on-one communications, and presentations at NASEO meetings and other events, staff and the committee will assist Rebuild officials in stimulating interest in the program and building greater support among State Energy Office Directors. The most recent subtasks added to the project, though not directly related to Rebuild America, fall under this initial task, and support: (a) state plans to implement integrated energy and environmental initiatives, including distributed generation technologies, and (b) initiation of a state collaborative on advanced turbines and hybrid systems. The advanced turbine piece was completed during this year. During the year, a new workplan was accepted by Rebuild America's Dan Sze to supplement the work in this task. This workplan is outlined below. Second, NASEO would work to improve the efficiency of America's schools by assisting states and DOE in promoting projects that result in more energy efficient and clean energy schools and a better learning environment. This task was fully completed during this year. The third task involves energy security issues which NASEO addressed by way of a Summer Fuels Outlook Conference held Tuesday, April 8, 2003. The purpose of this educational event was to inform state, federal, local, and other energy officials about the most recent transportation fuels data and trends. The public benefits part of this task was not funded for Year 3, thus no activity occurred.

  12. Association Between Self-Esteem and Depressive Symptoms Is Stronger Among Black than White Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assari, Shervin

    2017-08-01

    Although poor self-esteem is a core component of depression, we still do not know if racial and ethnic groups differ in the magnitude of this link. This study compared Black and White older adults on the association between self-esteem and depressive symptoms. With a cross-sectional design, this study enrolled 1493 older individuals (age 66 or more) from the 2001 Religion, Aging, and Health Survey, a nationally representative study in the United States. Participants were either Blacks (n = 734) or Whites (n = 759). Depressive symptoms and self-esteem were measured using brief measures of the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression scale (CES-D) and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, respectively. Demographics, socioeconomics, and self-rated health (SRH) were covariates and self-identified race was the moderator. Linear regression models were used for data analysis. Low self-esteem was associated with more depressive symptoms (B = 0.17, 95 % CI 0.15-0.28), above and beyond all covariates. We found a significant and positive interaction between race (Black) and poor self-esteem on depressive symptoms (B = 0.34, 95 % CI 0.17-0.36), suggesting a stronger association between self-esteem and depressive symptoms among Blacks compared to Whites. Although low self-esteem is associated with higher depressive symptoms in both Whites and Blacks (p self-esteem and high depressive symptoms are more closely associated among Blacks than Whites. It is not clear whether depression leaves a larger scar on self-esteem for Blacks, or Blacks are more vulnerable to the effect of low self-esteem on depression.

  13. Motivational factors and negative affectivity as predictors of alcohol craving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pombo, Samuel; Luísa Figueira, M; Walter, Henriette; Lesch, Otto

    2016-09-30

    Craving is thought to play an important role in alcohol use disorders. The recent inclusion of "craving" as a formal diagnostic symptom calls for further investigation of this subjective phenomenon with multiple dimensions. Considering that alcohol-dependent patients compensate negative physical/emotional states with alcohol, the aim of this study is to investigate alcohol craving and its correlation with drinking measures and affective personality dimensions. A sample of 135 alcohol-dependent patients (104 males and 31 females) was collected from a clinical setting. Subjects self-rated their cravings (Penn Alcohol Craving Scale) and the stage of change. Several personality scales were also administered. Craving was related to drinking status, abstinence time, age, and taking steps. After controlling for these conditions, psychological characteristics related to low self-concept, neuroticism, cyclothymic affective temperament, depression, and hostility were found to be predictors of craving in sober alcohol-dependent patients. Our results support craving as a component of the phenomenology of alcohol dependence and highlight the presence of unpleasant feelings as predictors of craving in sober alcohol-dependent patients without co-occurring psychiatric conditions. The predisposition to experience negative emotions may induce a stronger craving response and increase the likelihood of a first drink and a subsequent loss of control. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The presence of non-organ-specific autoantibodies is associated with a negative response to combination therapy with interferon and ribavirin for chronic hepatitis C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matern Siegfried

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Non-organ-specific autoantibodies are found in a considerable number of anti-HCV positive patients. Previous studies investigated the clinical relevance of these antibodies in patients treated with interferon monotherapy, but not combination therapies. Methods Anti-nuclear, anti-smooth muscle, anti-mitochondrial, anti-neutrophil-cytoplasmatic and anti-liver/kidney microsomal antibodies were determined in 78 consecutive anti-HCV positive patients by indirect immunofluorescence. The presence of these antibodies was related to demographic variables and to the outcome of antiviral combination therapy with interferon-α and ribavirin in 65 patients. Results In our study, positivity for autoantibodies was associated with higher alanine aminotransferase levels and higher mean values for HCV-RNA (p Conclusions The absence of non-organ-specific autoantibodies might indicate a significantly higher chance for viral clearance in response to combination therapy for chronic hepatitis C infection. Therefore, despite of an overall higher treatment response, the addition of the immunomodulatory drug ribavirin could accentuate immunological differences that affect treatment outcome and might have been less obvious in earlier studies analysing interferon monotherapy.

  15. ZRBA1, a Mixed EGFR/DNA Targeting Molecule, Potentiates Radiation Response Through Delayed DNA Damage Repair Process in a Triple Negative Breast Cancer Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heravi, Mitra; Kumala, Slawomir; Rachid, Zakaria; Jean-Claude, Bertrand J.; Radzioch, Danuta; Muanza, Thierry M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: ZRBA1 is a combi-molecule designed to induce DNA alkylating lesions and to block epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) TK domain. Inasmuch as ZRBA1 downregulates the EGFR TK-mediated antisurvival signaling and induces DNA damage, we postulated that it might be a radiosensitizer. The aim of this study was to further investigate the potentiating effect of ZRBA1 in combination with radiation and to elucidate the possible mechanisms of interaction between these 2 treatment modalities. Methods and Materials: The triple negative human breast MDA-MB-468 cancer cell line and mouse mammary cancer 4T1 cell line were used in this study. Clonogenic assay, Western blot analysis, and DNA damage analysis were performed at multiple time points after treatment. To confirm our in vitro findings, in vivo tumor growth delay assay was performed. Results: Our results show that a combination of ZRBA1 and radiation increases the radiation sensitivity of both cell lines significantly with a dose enhancement factor of 1.56, induces significant numbers of DNA strand breaks, prolongs higher DNA damage up to 24 hours after treatment, and significantly increases tumor growth delay in a syngeneic mouse model. Conclusions: Our data suggest that the higher efficacy of this combination could be partially due to increased DNA damage and delayed DNA repair process and to the inhibition of EGFR. The encouraging results of this combination demonstrated a significant improvement in treatment efficiency and therefore could be applicable in early clinical trial settings

  16. The stress-response dampening hypothesis: how self-esteem and stress act as mechanisms between negative parental bonds and alcohol-related problems in emerging adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backer-Fulghum, Lindsey M; Patock-Peckham, Julie A; King, Kevin M; Roufa, Lindsay; Hagen, Leslie

    2012-04-01

    The stress dampening model (Marlatt, 1987; Sayette, 1993; Sher, 1987) suggests certain individuals may use alcohol to escape from their negative life experiences. Pathological reasons for drinking (e.g., using alcohol as a means to cope) reflect the degree to which individuals are motivated to use alcohol in order to dampen or alleviate the stress they are experiencing (Johnson, Schwitters, Wilson, Nagoshi, & McClearn, 1985). Direct and mediational links among parental bonds (rejection, care, overprotection, autonomy, and neglect), self-esteem, stress, pathological reasons for drinking, and alcohol-related problems were explored. A Structural Equation Model with (405 students; 164 women, 241 men) college students was examined. Three path mediational analyses revealed several mediated pathways. Greater feelings of perceived father/mother neglectfulness (i.e., offspring feeling parents do not show up for them) were indirectly linked to more alcohol-related problems (e.g., indicative of alcohol use or dependence in emerging adulthood) through increased stress and pathological reasons for drinking. Furthermore, higher levels of father rejection (i.e., perception of feeling unwanted) were indirectly linked to more pathological reasons for drinking through low self-esteem and increased stress. However, greater feelings of mother care (affectionate and attentive) were indirectly linked to fewer pathological reasons for drinking through higher self-esteem and lower levels of stress. Moreover, high self-esteem was found to be indirectly linked to fewer alcohol-related problems through decreased stress and pathological reasons for drinking. These findings suggest several specific pathways for using alcohol to self-medicate (i.e., consume alcohol for a specific purpose) or dampen feelings of stress. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. 37% Phosphoric Acid Induced Stronger Matrix Metalloproteinase-8 Expression of the Dental Pulp than 19% Ethylene Diamine Tetraacetic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadie Fatimatuzzahro

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Etching agents such as ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA and phosphoric acid which are widely used in adhesive restoration system aimed to increase for retention of restorative materials, may act a chemical irritant that induce inflammation of dental pulp. Inflammation is a body response against irritant and infectious agents. Matrix metalloproteinase-8, the major collagenolytic enzyme, degrades collagen type 1. This enzyme is expressed in low level in normal condition, however, the expression will increase during inflammation. The purpose of the present research was to study the effect of 19% EDTA and 37% phosphoric acid application as an etching agents on the MMP-8 expression of dental pulp. Forty-five male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into 3 groups. Cavity preparation was made on the occlusal surface of maxillary first molar using a round diamond bur. 19% EDTA, 37% phosphoric acid, and distilled water were applied on the surface of the cavity of the teeth in group I, II, and III subsequently. The cavity then filed by glass ionomer cements. The rats were sacrified at 1, 3, 5, 7, and 14 days after the treatment (n=3 for each day. The specimens were then processed histologically. Immunohistochemical (IHC analysis was performed using rabbit anti rat MMP-8 polyclonal antibody to examine MMP-8 expression and HE (Hematoxylen Eosin staining to observe the number of macrophages. The results showed 37% phosphoric acid application induced stronger expression of MMP-8 and higher number of macrophages than 19% EDTA. The strongest expression of MMP-8 seems on 5 days after the treatment where the highest number of macrophages were also found.

  18. Complement C3a binding to its receptor as a negative modulator of Th2 response in liver injury in trichloroethylene-sensitized mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feng; Zha, Wan-sheng; Zhang, Jia-xiang; Li, Shu-long; Wang, Hui; Ye, Liang-ping; Shen, Tong; Wu, Chang-hao; Zhu, Qi-xing

    2014-08-17

    Trichloroethylene (TCE) is a major occupational health hazard and causes occupational medicamentosa-like dermatitis (OMLDT) and liver damage. Recent evidence suggests immune response as a distinct mode of action for TCE-induced liver damage. This study aimed to explore the role of the key complement activation product C3a and its receptor C3aR in TCE-induced immune liver injury. A mouse model of skin sensitization was induced by TCE in the presence and absence of the C3aR antagonist SB 290157. Liver function was evaluated by alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) in conjunction with histopathological characterizations. C3a and C3aR were detected by immunohistochemistry and C5b-9 was assessed by immunofluorescence. IFN-γ and IL4 expressions were determined by flow cytometry and ELISA. The total sensitization rate was 44.1%. TCE sensitization caused liver cell necrosis and inflammatory infiltration, elevated serum ALT and AST, expression of C3a and C3aR, and deposition of C5b-9 in the liver. IFN-γ and IL-4 expressions were up-regulated in spleen mononuclear cells and their serum levels were also increased. Pretreatment with SB 290157 resulted in more inflammatory infiltration in the liver, higher levels of AST, reduced C3aR expression on Kupffer cells, and decreased IL-4 levels while IFN-γ remained unchanged. These data demonstrate that blocking of C3a binding to C3aR reduces IL4, shifts IFN-γ and IL-4 balance, and aggravates TCE-sensitization induced liver damage. These findings reveal a novel mechanism whereby modulation of Th2 response by C3a binding to C3a receptor contributes to immune-mediated liver damage by TCE exposure. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  19. USP18-based negative feedback control is induced by type I and type III interferons and specifically inactivates interferon α response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Véronique François-Newton

    Full Text Available Type I interferons (IFN are cytokines that are rapidly secreted upon microbial infections and regulate all aspects of the immune response. In humans 15 type I IFN subtypes exist, of which IFN α2 and IFN β are used in the clinic for treatment of different pathologies. IFN α2 and IFN β are non redundant in their expression and in their potency to exert specific bioactivities. The more recently identified type III IFNs (3 IFN λ or IL-28/IL-29 bind an unrelated cell-type restricted receptor. Downstream of these two receptor complexes is a shared Jak/Stat pathway. Several mechanisms that contribute to the shut down of the IFN-induced signaling have been described at the molecular level. In particular, it has long been known that type I IFN induces the establishment of a desensitized state. In this work we asked how the IFN-induced desensitization integrates into the network built by the multiple type I IFN subtypes and type III IFNs. We show that priming of cells with either type I IFN or type III IFN interferes with the cell's ability to further respond to all IFN α subtypes. Importantly, primed cells are differentially desensitized in that they retain sensitivity to IFN β. We show that USP18 is necessary and sufficient to induce differential desensitization, by impairing the formation of functional binding sites for IFN α2. Our data highlight a new type of differential between IFNs α and IFN β and underline a cross-talk between type I and type III IFN. This cross-talk could shed light on the reported genetic variation in the IFN λ loci, which has been associated with persistence of hepatitis C virus and patient's response to IFN α2 therapy.

  20. Conspecific negative density dependence and forest diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Daniel J; Beaulieu, Wesley T; Bever, James D; Clay, Keith

    2012-05-18

    Conspecific negative density-dependent establishment, in which local abundance negatively affects establishment of conspecific seedlings through host-specific enemies, can influence species diversity of plant communities, but the generality of this process is not well understood. We tested the strength of density dependence using the United States Forest Service's Forest Inventory and Analysis database containing 151 species from more than 200,000 forest plots spanning 4,000,000 square kilometers. We found that most species experienced conspecific negative density dependence (CNDD), but there was little effect of heterospecific density. Additionally, abundant species exhibited weaker CNDD than rarer species, and species-rich regions exhibited stronger CNDD than species-poor regions. Collectively, our results provide evidence that CNDD is a pervasive mechanism driving diversity across a gradient from boreal to subtropical forests.

  1. Supporting young people living with cancer to tell their stories in ways that make them stronger: The Beads of Life approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portnoy, Sara; Girling, Isabella; Fredman, Glenda

    2016-04-01

    This article describes the 'Beads of Life' approach--a five-part methodology informed by narrative therapy to enable children and young people to make sense of their cancer journey in ways that make them stronger. Young people are invited to use beads as prompts to tell preferred stories of their identity to create a safe place to stand from which to story their cancer journey. The approach positions young people as experts in their lives. It aims to change their relationship with cancer to reduce its negative impact on life by lessening isolation. By enabling medical staff to get to know the young person apart from the cancer, this approach aims to create hope for the future and improve quality of care. © The Author(s) 2015.

  2. CDC'S Testing Makes Us Stronger (TMUS) Campaign: Was Campaign Exposure Associated With HIV Testing Behavior Among Black Gay and Bisexual Men?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habarta, Nancy; Boudewyns, Vanessa; Badal, Hannah; Johnston, Jennie; Uhrig, Jennifer; Green, Donata; Ruddle, Paul; Rosenthal, Jacqueline; Stryker, Jo Ellen

    2017-06-01

    This study assessed exposure among Black gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (BMSM) to a communication campaign, Testing Makes Us Stronger (TMUS), and its association with HIV testing to determine campaign effectiveness. Data from an online survey (N = 3,105) were analyzed using propensity score weight-adjusted logistic regression to examine the effect of exposure on HIV testing. Among BMSM aged 18-44 (n = 702), 43.2% reported TMUS exposure. The majority of those exposed were aged 25-34 (54%), HIV-negative (65%), and had some college education (87%). TMUS exposure was associated with reported increased HIV testing behaviors at 6- and 12-month frequencies. Communication campaigns with clear implementation strategies, focused objectives, and online and event presence can be associated with longer-term outcomes such as HIV testing.

  3. Emotional eating and Pavlovian learning: does negative mood facilitate appetitive conditioning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bongers, Peggy; van den Akker, Karolien; Havermans, Remco; Jansen, Anita

    2015-06-01

    Emotional eating has been suggested to be a learned behaviour; more specifically, classical conditioning processes might be involved in its development. In the present study we investigated whether a negative mood facilitates appetitive conditioning and whether trait impulsivity influences this process. After undergoing either a negative or neutral mood induction, participants were subjected to a differential classical conditioning procedure, using neutral stimuli and appetizing food. Two initially neutral distinctive vases with flowers were (CS+) or were not (CS-) paired with chocolate mousse intake. We measured participants' expectancy and desire to eat (4 CS+ and 4 CS- trials), salivation response, and actual food intake. The BIS-11 was administered to assess trait impulsivity. In both mood conditions, participants showed a classically conditioned appetite. Unexpectedly, there was no evidence of facilitated appetitive learning in a negative mood with regard to expectancy, desire, salivation, or intake. However, immediately before the taste test, participants in the negative mood condition reported a stronger desire to eat in the CS+ compared to the CS- condition, while no such effect occurred in the neutral group. An effect of impulsivity was found with regard to food intake in the neutral mood condition: high-impulsive participants consumed less food when presented with the CS+ compared to the CS-, and also less than low-impulsive participants. An alternative pathway to appetitive conditioning with regard to emotions is that it is not the neutral stimuli, but the emotions themselves that become conditioned stimuli and elicit appetitive responses. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Stronger pack warnings predict quitting more than weaker ones: finding from the ITC Malaysia and Thailand surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathelrahman, Ahmed I; Li, Lin; Borland, Ron; Yong, Hua-Hie; Omar, Maizurah; Awang, Rahmat; Sirirassamee, Buppha; Fong, Geoffrey T; Hammond, David

    2013-09-18

    We examined the impact of cigarette pack warning labels on interest in quitting and subsequent quit attempts among adult smokers in Malaysia and Thailand. Two overlapping cohorts of adults who reported smoking factory- made cigarettes from Malaysia and Thailand were interviewed face-to-face (3189 were surveyed at baseline and 1781 re-contacted at Wave 2; 2361 current smokers were surveyed at Wave 2 and 1586 re-contacted at Wave 3). In Thailand at baseline, large text only warnings were assessed, while at Wave 2 new large graphic warnings were assessed. In Malaysia, during both waves small text only warnings were in effect. Reactions were used to predict interest in quitting, and to predict making quit attempts over the following inter-wave interval. Multivariate predictors of "interest in quitting" were comparable across countries, but predictors of quit attempts varied. In both countries, cognitive reactions to warnings (adjusted ORs; 1.57 & 1.69 for Malaysia at wave 1 and wave 2 respectively and 1.29 & 1.19 for Thailand at wave 1 and wave 2 respectively), forgoing a cigarette (except Wave 2 in Malaysia) (adjusted ORs; 1.77 for Malaysia at wave 1 and 1.54 & 2.32 for Thailand at wave 1 and wave 2 respectively), and baseline knowledge (except wave 2 in both countries) (adjusted ORs; 1.71 & 1.51 for Malaysia and Thailand respectively) were positively associated with interest in quitting at that wave. In Thailand only, "cognitive reactions to warnings" (adjusted ORs; 1.12 & 1.23 at wave 1 and wave 2 respectively), "forgoing a cigarette" (adjusted OR = 1.55 at wave 2 only) and "an interest in quitting" (adjusted ORs; 1.61 & 2.85 at wave 1 and wave 2 respectively) were positively associated with quit attempts over the following inter-wave interval. Salience was negatively associated with subsequent quit attempts in both Malaysia and Thailand, but at Wave 2 only (adjusted ORs; 0.89 & 0.88 for Malaysia and Thailand respectively). Warnings appear to have common

  5. Persistent negative temperature response of mesophyll conductance in red raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) leaves under both high and low vapour pressure deficits: a role for abscisic acid?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Changpeng; Ethier, Gilbert; Pepin, Steeve; Dubé, Pascal; Desjardins, Yves; Gosselin, André

    2017-09-01

    The temperature dependence of mesophyll conductance (g m ) was measured in well-watered red raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) plants acclimated to leaf-to-air vapour pressure deficit (VPDL) daytime differentials of contrasting amplitude, keeping a fixed diurnal leaf temperature (T leaf ) rise from 20 to 35 °C. Contrary to the great majority of g m temperature responses published to date, we found a pronounced reduction of g m with increasing T leaf irrespective of leaf chamber O 2 level and diurnal VPDL regime. Leaf hydraulic conductance was greatly enhanced during the warmer afternoon periods under both low (0.75 to 1.5 kPa) and high (0.75 to 3.5 kPa) diurnal VPDL regimes, unlike stomatal conductance (g s ), which decreased in the afternoon. Consequently, the leaf water status remained largely isohydric throughout the day, and therefore cannot be evoked to explain the diurnal decrease of g m . However, the concerted diurnal reductions of g m and g s were well correlated with increases in leaf abscisic acid (ABA) content, thus suggesting that ABA can induce a significant depression of g m under favourable leaf water status. Our results challenge the view that the temperature dependence of g m can be explained solely from dynamic leaf anatomical adjustments and/or from the known thermodynamic properties of aqueous solutions and lipid membranes.​. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Stronger effects of Roundup than its active ingredient glyphosate in damselfly larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssens, Lizanne; Stoks, Robby

    2017-12-01

    Pesticides are causing strong decreases in aquatic biodiversity at concentrations assumed safe by legislation. One reason for the failing risk assessment may be strong differences in the toxicity of the active ingredient of pesticides and their commercial formulations. Sublethal effects, especially those on behaviour, have been largely ignored in this context, yet can be equally important as lethal effects at the population and ecosystem levels. Here, we compared the toxicity of the herbicide Roundup and its active ingredient glyphosate on survival, but also on ecologically relevant sublethal traits (life history, behaviour and physiology) in damselfly larvae. Roundup was more toxic than glyphosate with negative effects on survival, behaviour and most of the physiological traits being present at lower concentrations (food intake, escape swimming speed) or even only present (survival, sugar and total energy content and muscle mass) following Roundup exposure. This confirms the toxicity of the surfactant POEA. Notably, also glyphosate was not harmless: a realistic concentration of 2mg/l resulted in reduced growth rate, escape swimming speed and fat content. Our results therefore indicate that the toxicity of Roundup cannot be fully attributed to its surfactant, thereby suggesting that also the new generation of glyphosate-based herbicides with other mixtures of surfactants likely will have adverse effects on non-target aquatic organisms. Ecotoxicological studies comparing the toxicity of active ingredients and their commercial formulations typically ignore behaviour while the here observed differential effects on behaviour likely will negatively impact damselfly populations. Our data highlight that risk assessment of pesticides ignoring sublethal effects may contribute to the negative effects of pesticides on aquatic biodiversity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Bell inequalities stronger than the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt inequality for three-level isotropic states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Tsuyoshi; Imai, Hiroshi; Avis, David

    2006-01-01

    We show that some two-party Bell inequalities with two-valued observables are stronger than the CHSH inequality for 3x3 isotropic states in the sense that they are violated by some isotropic states in the 3x3 system that do not violate the CHSH inequality. These Bell inequalities are obtained by applying triangular elimination to the list of known facet inequalities of the cut polytope on nine points. This gives a partial solution to an open problem posed by Collins and Gisin. The results of numerical optimization suggest that they are candidates for being stronger than the I 3322 Bell inequality for 3x3 isotropic states. On the other hand, we found no Bell inequalities stronger than the CHSH inequality for 2x2 isotropic states. In addition, we illustrate an inclusion relation among some Bell inequalities derived by triangular elimination

  8. A novel ethylene-responsive factor from Tamarix hispida, ThERF1, is a GCC-box- and DRE-motif binding protein that negatively modulates abiotic stress tolerance in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liuqiang; Qin, Liping; Liu, Wenjin; Zhang, Daoyuan; Wang, Yucheng

    2014-09-01

    Ethylene-responsive factor (ERF) family is one of the largest families of plant-specific transcription factor that can positively or negatively regulate abiotic stress tolerance. However, their functions in regulating abiotic stress tolerance are still not fully understood. In this study, we characterized the functions of an ERF gene from Tamarix hispida, ThERF1, which can negatively regulate abiotic stress tolerance. The expression of ThERF1 was induced by salinity, PEG-simulated drought and abscisic acid (ABA) treatments. ThERF1 can specifically bind to GCC-box and DRE motifs. Overexpression of ThERF1 in transgenic Arabidopsis plants showed inhibited seed germination, and decreased fresh weight gain and root growth compared with wild-type (WT) plants. In addition, the transcript levels of several superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) genes in transgenic plants were significantly inhibited compared with in WT plants, resulting in decreased SOD and POD activities in transgenic plants under salt and drought stress conditions. Furthermore, the reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, malondialdehyde (MDA) contents and cell membrane damage in ThERF1-transformed plants were all highly increased relative to WT plants. Our results suggest that ThERF1 negatively regulates abiotic stress tolerance by strongly inhibiting the expression of SOD and POD genes, leading to decreased ROS-scavenging ability. © 2014 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  9. "This one is stronger". Spotlights on the lifelong learning professional-in-action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josje van der Linden

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT“This one is stronger.” Spotlights on the lifelong learning professional-in-action Around the world, lifelong learning is being promoted as a strategy for coping with the changing realities of life and work. The fourth Sustainable Development Goal, agreed in September 2015, reflects this: “ensure equitable and inclusive quality education and promote lifelong learning opportunities for all”. Despite its importance, doubts remain about the implementation of this goal in practice (Van der Kamp, 2000; Regmi, 2015. This article looks at the practice of lifelong learning from the point of view of the professionals involved, their actions and the way these actions are challenged, supported and further developed. Following Schön’s “reflection-in-action” (1983, the term “professional-in-action” is used to stress the role of the professional in making the difference on the ground. The leading question is: how can lifelong learning professionals be supported in their contribution to surrounding society and its citizens? The professionals-in-action featured in this article include professionals based in the Netherlands as well as in other, less privileged contexts. Meaningful experiences are used to build a story about challenges, the right to exist, commitment, recognition and room to manoeuvre. The experiences reveal the importance of interacting with the learner and the professional space that is necessary to achieve this. Professionalization in professional learning communities and practice-oriented research must accompany this professional space. SAMENVATTING“Deze is sterker”. Spotlights op de leven lang leren professional-in-actieOm te kunnen omgaan met de veranderende realiteit in leven en werk, wordt wereldwijd een leven lang leren aangemoedigd. Het vierde duurzame ontwikkelingsdoel, vastgesteld in september 2015, weerspiegelt dit: “het verzekeren van kwalitatief goed onderwijs en het bevorderen van de mogelijkheden

  10. Disparity between General Symptom Relief and Remission Criteria in the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS): A Post-treatment Bifactor Item Response Theory Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Ariana E; Reise, Steven P; Marder, Stephen R; Mansolf, Maxwell; Han, Carol; Bilder, Robert M

    2017-12-01

    Objective: Total scale scores derived by summing ratings from the 30-item PANSS are commonly used in clinical trial research to measure overall symptom severity, and percentage reductions in the total scores are sometimes used to document the efficacy of treatment. Acknowledging that some patients may have substantial changes in PANSS total scores but still be sufficiently symptomatic to warrant diagnosis, ratings on a subset of 8 items, referred to here as the "Remission set," are sometimes used to determine if patients' symptoms no longer satisfy diagnostic criteria. An unanswered question remains: is the goal of treatment better conceptualized as reduction in overall symptom severity, or reduction in symptoms below the threshold for diagnosis? We evaluated the psychometric properties of PANSS total scores, to assess whether having low symptom severity post-treatment is equivalent to attaining Remission. Design: We applied a bifactor item response theory (IRT) model to post-treatment PANSS ratings of 3,647 subjects diagnosed with schizophrenia assessed at the termination of 11 clinical trials. The bifactor model specified one general dimension to reflect overall symptom severity, and five domain-specific dimensions. We assessed how PANSS item discrimination and information parameters varied across the range of overall symptom severity (θ), with a special focus on low levels of symptoms (i.e., θgeneral symptom severity, and only 8% reflected secondary domain factors. This implies that a general factor may provide a good indicator of symptom severity, and that interpretation is not overly complicated by multidimensionality; (2) Post-treatment, 534 individuals (about 15% of the whole sample) scored in the "Relief" range of general symptom severity, but more than twice that number (n = 1351) satisfied Remission criteria (37%). 2 in 3 Remitted patients had scores that were not in a low symptom range (corresponding to Absent or Minimal item scores); (3) PANSS items

  11. Stronger Association Between Valence- and Arousal Ratings of Affective Pictures with Older Age: Evidence for Variation Across Emotion Categories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Mai Bjørnskov; Mehlsen, Mimi Yung; Lyby, Marlene Skovgaard

    A sample of older and younger adults rated affective pictures according to valence, arousal and emotion category (happiness, sadness and disgust). Results indicate that older age is associated with a stronger linear association between ratings of arousal and valence. Further, the strength...

  12. Pilot testing of the "First You Should Get Stronger" program among caregivers of older adults with dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lök, Neslihan; Bademli, Kerime

    In this study, randomized controlled interventional study pattern was used to examine the effects of the "First You Should Get Stronger" program on the caregiving burden and healthy life style behavior of caregivers of dementia patients. "Zarit Caregiver Burden Scale" and "Healthy Life Style Behavior Scale" were used. The study was completed with 40 caregivers in total with 20 in the intervention group and 20 in the control group. A statistically significant difference was determined between the "Zarit Caregiving Burden Scale" and "Healthy Life Style Behavior Scale" score averages of the intervention group that participated in the "First You Should Get Stronger" program in comparison with those of the control group. It is important for the healths of caregivers to include similar programs for the caregivers of dementia patients in continuous and regular applications. The results highlight the importance of the "First You Should Get Stronger" program significantly decreased the caregiving burden and significantly developed the healthy lifestyle behaviors of caregivers in the intervention group. Since dementia is a difficult neurological syndrome with patients cared at home, it generally wears out the caregivers significantly. It is suggested that the nurses and healthcare professionals working with dementia patients are evaluated separately and that they carry out caregiving applications within the scope of the "First You Should Get Stronger" program. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Higher BMI is associated with stronger effects of social cues on everyday snacking behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schüz, Benjamin; Revell, Sarah; Hills, Andrew P; Schüz, Natalie; Ferguson, Stuart G

    2017-07-01

    Discretionary food choices (snacks) contribute up to a third of the daily energy intake and potentially contribute to energy imbalance and weight gain. Individual snack intake behaviour is guided by internal and external cues, with social cues (seeing others eat, being alone) consistently showing large effects. A wide body of (mainly laboratory-based) research suggests marked differences in people's response to eating cues based on BMI. Here, we show that these BMI differences in cue responsiveness also pertain to everyday snacking behaviour. In two combined ecological momentary assessment studies, 122 participants with BMIs ranging from 18.34 to 45.71 kg/m 2 logged their everyday snacking behaviour in real-time over two weeks along with the presence or absence of social cues. Random-effects modelling showed that people with higher BMI were more likely to consume high-energy snacks when alone, and were more likely to consume low-energy snacks in the presence of others eating. This suggests BMI differences in cue responsiveness that are in line with impression management theory and underlines the importance of social cues for snacking behaviour and provides avenues for both theory and intervention development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Negating the Verum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørsnes, Bjarne

    2012-01-01

    an (aboutness-)topic. The negation of a verum predicate explains why preposed negation—like other constructions with verum-focus—fails to license strong negative polarity items and fails to rule out positive ones. The lack of a topic explains why preposed negation is preferred with non-referential subjects...

  15. Sentential Negation in English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mowarin, Macaulay

    2009-01-01

    This paper undertakes a detailed analysis of sentential negation in the English language with Chomsky's Government-Binding theory of Transformational Grammar as theoretical model. It distinguishes between constituent and sentential negation in English. The essay identifies the exact position of Negation phrase in an English clause structure. It…

  16. [Negative symptoms and cerebral imaging].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaladjian, A; Belzeaux, R; Adida, M; Azorin, J-M

    2015-12-01

    A number of neuroanatomical and neurofonctional abnormalities have been evidenced by cerebral imaging studies in patients suffering from schizophrenia. Nevertheless, those specifically associated with the negative symptoms of this disease are still insufficiently known. This work is a review of selected studies that have assessed the brain correlates of negative symptoms in schizophrenia. Approaches using structural imaging have highlighted reduction of gray matter density or cortical thickness associated with negative symptoms, which is rather sparsely distributed within the frontal and temporal regions, localized nevertheless more particularly in the frontal medial and orbitofrontal areas, as well as the amygdalo-hippocampic complex. These deficits are concurrent with a loss of integrity of the principal paths of white matter tracts between frontal and limbic regions. On the other hand, neurofonctional abnormalities associated with negative symptoms involve especially the frontal areas and limbic striatum. A disturbed functioning within the fronto-striatal loops, related to a striatal dopaminergic deficit, may represent a potential explanatory hypothesis of the negative symptoms of schizophrenia, as suggested by studies using Positron Emission Tomography on this topic or neuroimaging studies on the effects of antipsychotics. A better identification of the cerebral abnormalities associated with the negative dimension of schizophrenia, with regard to the lateralization of these abnormalities or to their changes during the course of the disease, could offer new therapeutic modalities for the treatment of this dimension which, until now, remains few responsive to conventional pharmacological treatments. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. IgA/IgM Responses to Gram-Negative Bacteria are not Associated with Perinatal Depression, but with Physio-Somatic Symptoms and Activation of the Tryptophan Catabolite Pathway at the End of Term and Postnatal Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roomruangwong, Chutima; Kanchanatawan, Buranee; Sirivichayakul, Sunee; Anderson, George; Carvalho, André F; Duleu, Sebastien; Geffard, Michel; Maes, Michael

    2017-04-07

    Evidence has implicated the translocation of commensal Gram-negative bacteria (Gram-B) due to leaky gut in the pathophysiology of depression and physio-somatic symptoms (e.g. fatigue, pain, irritable bowel syndrome, malaise, etc.). In addition, the leaky gut may contribute to immune-inflammatory activation and oxidative stress. This study investigated whether bacterial translocation is associated with perinatal depression and anxiety scores and with prenatal physio-somatic symptoms and immune-inflammatory biomarkers, including the tryptophan catabolite (TRYCAT) pathway. Data were collected in pregnant women at the end of term (T1) and 4-6 weeks after delivery (T2) as well as in non-pregnant controls. We examined the associations between serum IgM/IgA responses to Gram-B at the end of term and depression (Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale -EPDS) and anxiety (Spielberger's State Anxiety Inventory -STAI) symptoms. Levels of C-reactive protein, zinc, haptoglobin, hematocrit and IgA/IgM responses to 9 TRYCATs were also measured. No significant associations of the IgA/IgM responses to Gram-B with prenatal depression and anxiety were observed. Increased IgA/IgM responses to Gram-B predict higher levels of haptoglobin, hematocrit and TRYCATs, in particular quinolinic acid and the quinolinic acid / kynurenic acid ratio. IgA responses to Gram-B were significantly lowered in pregnant women compared to age-matched non-pregnant women, while IgM responses were significantly elevated in participants with alcohol consumption. Physio-somatic symptoms at the end of term were significantly associated with IgM responses to Klebsiella pneumonia. Postnatal anxiety was significantly predicted by IgA responses to Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In conclusion, our findings suggest that pregnancy may protect against bacterial translocation, while alcohol use may increase bacterial translocation. The results suggest that end of term mucosa-derived immune responses to Gram-B contribute to immune

  18. Negative ion sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, Junzo; Takagi, Toshinori

    1983-01-01

    Negative ion sources have been originally developed at the request of tandem electrostatic accelerators, and hundreds of nA to several μA negative ion current has been obtained so far for various elements. Recently, the development of large current hydrogen negative ion sources has been demanded from the standpoint of the heating by neutral particle beam injection in nuclear fusion reactors. On the other hand, the physical properties of negative ions are interesting in the thin film formation using ions. Anyway, it is the present status that the mechanism of negative ion action has not been so fully investigated as positive ions because the history of negative ion sources is short. In this report, the many mechanisms about the generation of negative ions proposed so far are described about negative ion generating mechanism, negative ion source plasma, and negative ion generation on metal surfaces. As a result, negative ion sources are roughly divided into two schemes, plasma extraction and secondary ion extraction, and the former is further classified into the PIG ion source and its variation and Duoplasmatron and its variation; while the latter into reflecting and sputtering types. In the second half of the report, the practical negative ion sources of each scheme are described. If the mechanism of negative ion generation will be investigated more in detail and the development will be continued under the unified know-how as negative ion sources in future, the development of negative ion sources with which large current can be obtained for any element is expected. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  19. Tomato SR/CAMTA transcription factors SlSR1 and SlSR3L negatively regulate disease resistance response and SlSR1L positively modulates drought stress tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaohui; Huang, Lei; Zhang, Yafen; Ouyang, Zhigang; Hong, Yongbo; Zhang, Huijuan; Li, Dayong; Song, Fengming

    2014-10-28

    The SR/CAMTA proteins represent a small family of transcription activators that play important roles in plant responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. Seven SlSR/CAMTA genes were identified in tomato as tomato counterparts of SR/CAMTA; however, the involvement of SlSRs/CAMTAs in biotic and abiotic stress responses is not clear. In this study, we performed functional analysis of the SlSR/CAMTA family for their possible functions in defense response against pathogens and tolerance to drought stress. Expression of SlSRs was induced with distinct patterns by Botrytis cinerea and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst) DC3000. Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS)-based knockdown of either SlSR1 or SlSR3L in tomato resulted in enhanced resistance to B. cinerea and Pst DC3000 and led to constitutive accumulation of H2O2, elevated expression of defense genes, marker genes for pathogen-associated molecular pattern-triggered immunity, and regulatory genes involved in the salicylic acid- and ethylene-mediated signaling pathways. Furthermore, the expression of SlSR1L and SlSR2L in detached leaves and whole plants was significantly induced by drought stress. Silencing of SlSR1L led to decreased drought stress tolerance, accelerated water loss in leaves, reduced root biomass and attenuated expression of drought stress responsive genes in tomato. The SlSR1 and SlSR3L proteins were localized in the nucleus of plant cells when transiently expressed in Nicotiana benthamiana and had transcriptional activation activity in yeast. VIGS-based functional analyses demonstrate that both SlSR1 and SlSR3L in the tomato SlSR/CAMTA family are negative regulators of defense response against B. cinerea and Pst DC3000 while SlSR1L is a positive regulator of drought stress tolerance in tomato.

  20. Polemic and Descriptive Negations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horslund, Camilla Søballe

    2011-01-01

    as such may be more or less central to the meaning of the utterance. The present paper investigates the role of morphosyntactic and prosodic prominence as well as register and social setting on the interpretation of negations. It seems plausible to expect that if the negation as such is central to the meaning...... of the utterance (as in polemic negations), the negation will be articulated prominently in order to emphasise this importance. Likewise, if the negation is not central to the meaning of the utterance, it should not be articulated prominently. Moreover, it is plausible to expect descriptive negations to be more...... common in certain social context or genres, while polemic negations are more likely to come up in other genres and social settings. Previous studies have shown a relation between articulatory prominence and register, which may further inform the analysis. Hence, the paper investigates how articulatory...

  1. Decision making of heavy cannabis users on the Iowa Gambling Task: stronger association with THC of hair analysis than with personality traits of the Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermann, Derik; Leménager, Tagrid; Gelbke, Jan; Welzel, Helga; Skopp, Gisela; Mann, Karl

    2009-01-01

    It is unclear whether impairment in decision making, measured by the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT), in addiction is substance-induced or the consequence of personality structure. Analysis of the IGT, the Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire (TPQ) and cannabinoids in hair and urine were performed in 13 cannabis users and matched controls. Hair Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) correlated negatively with the last subtrial (cards 80-100) of the IGT (R = -0.67). In all participants (n = 26) the TPQ dimension, harm avoidance, correlated negatively with the total IGT score (R = -0.46). The last IGT-subtrial correlated with adventure seeking (R = 0.43), harm avoidance (R = -0.39) and reward dependence (R = -0.44). The last subtrial gives information on whether a participant has learned the IGT strategy. Multiple regression confirmed the impact of THC on the last subtrial, whereas TPQ personality traits did not additionally explain variance. Former indications of the IGT performance depending on the amount of cannabis consumed were replicated with an objective measurement of chronic cannabis consumption (hair THC). Multiple regression analysis argues for a stronger impact of chronic THC consumption than personality traits, but does not provide a causal relationship. Other factors (e.g. genetic) may also play a role. 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Microdosimetry of negative pions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amols, H.I.; Dicello, J.F.; Lane, T.F.

    1976-01-01

    The radiation quality of negative and positive pions of initial momentum 168MeV/c has been determined at eight different depths in a liquid phantom. The measurements were made with a 2.5cm diameter spherical proportional counter with Shonka A-150 neutron tissue equivalent plastic walls. The gas pressure in the sensitive volume was chosen to stimulate a diameter of 2μm in unit density material. Dose distributions as a function of lineal energy change slowly in the entrance and plateau regions with a dose mean lineal energy of 6-8keV/μm. Less than 3% of the dose is delivered in excess of 50keV/μm in this region. In the Bragg peak region the distributions change rapidly as a function of depth with the dose mean lineal energy increasing to 38keV/μm at the peak and to 57keV/μm just beyond the peak. On the basis of these microdosimetric data predictions of RBE and OER have been made with the use of both the theory of dual radiation action and also the delta ray theory of cell survival. The former has been used to predict biological response at low doses and the latter at high doses. A comparison is made between the two theories at intermediate doses. The results of these calculations are not inconsistant with recent biological data

  3. Diversity has stronger top-down than bottom-up effects on decomposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Diane S; Cardinale, Bradley J; Downing, Amy L; Duffy, J Emmett; Jouseau, Claire; Sankaran, Mahesh; Wright, Justin P

    2009-04-01

    The flow of energy and nutrients between trophic levels is affected by both the trophic structure of food webs and the diversity of species within trophic levels. However, the combined effects of trophic structure and diversity on trophic transfer remain largely unknown. Here we ask whether changes in consumer diversity have the same effect as changes in resource diversity on rates of resource consumption. We address this question by focusing on consumer-resource dynamics for the ecologically important process of decomposition. This study compares the top-down effect of consumer (detritivore) diversity on the consumption of dead organic matter (decomposition) with the bottom-up effect of resource (detrital) diversity, based on a compilation of 90 observations reported in 28 studies. We did not detect effects of either detrital or consumer diversity on measures of detrital standing stock, and effects on consumer standing stock were equivocal. However, our meta-analysis indicates that reductions in detritivore diversity result in significant reductions in the rate of decomposition. Detrital diversity has both positive and negative effects on decomposition, with no overall trend. This difference between top-down and bottom-up effects of diversity is robust to different effect size metrics and could not be explained by differences in experimental systems or designs between detritivore and detrital manipulations. Our finding that resource diversity has no net effect on consumption in "brown" (detritus-consumer) food webs contrasts with previous findings from "green" (plant-herbivore) food webs and suggests that effects of plant diversity on consumption may fundamentally change after plant death.

  4. Gene network and pathway analysis of bovine mammary tissue challenged with Streptococcus uberis reveals induction of cell profileration and inhibition of PPARγ signaling as potential mechanism for the negative relationships between immune response and lipid metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moyes, Kasey M; Drackley, James K; Morin, Dawn E

    2009-01-01

    with immune system function (e.g., CD14, IL8, IL1B, and TLR2) and negative relationships with genes involved with lipid metabolism (e.g., GPAM, SCD, FABP4, CD36, and LPL) and antioxidant activity (SOD1). Conclusion Results provided novel information into the early signaling and metabolic pathways in mammary......Background Information generated via microarrays might uncover interactions between the mammary gland and Streptococcus uberis (S. uberis) that could help identify control measures for the prevention and spread of S. uberis mastitis, as well as improve overall animal health and welfare....../or metabolic responses to mastitis challenge with S. uberis O140J. Results Streptococcus uberis IMI resulted in 2,102 (1,939 annotated) differentially expressed genes (DEG). Within this set of DEG, we uncovered 20 significantly enriched canonical pathways (with 20 to 61 genes each), the majority of which were...

  5. Land use change has stronger effects on functional diversity than taxonomic diversity in tropical Andean hummingbirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinoco, Boris A; Santillán, Vinicio E; Graham, Catherine H

    2018-03-01

    Land use change modifies the environment at multiple spatial scales, and is a main driver of species declines and deterioration of ecosystem services. However, most of the research on the effects of land use change has focused on taxonomic diversity, while functional diversity, an important predictor of ecosystem services, is often neglected. We explored how local and landscape scale characteristics influence functional and taxonomic diversity of hummingbirds in the Andes Mountains in southern Ecuador. Data was collected in six landscapes along a land use gradient, from an almost intact landscape to one dominated by cattle pastures. We used point counts to sample hummingbirds from 2011 to 2012 to assessed how local factors (i.e., vegetation structure, flowering plants richness, nectar availability) and landscape factors (i.e., landscape heterogeneity, native vegetation cover) influenced taxonomic and functional diversity. Then, we analyzed environment - trait relationships (RLQ test) to explore how different hummingbird functional traits influenced species responses to these factors. Taxonomic and functional diversity of hummingbirds were positively associated with landscape heterogeneity but only functional diversity was positively related to native vegetation coverage. We found a weak response of taxonomic and functional diversity to land use change at the local scale. Environment-trait associations showed that body mass of hummingbirds likely influenced species sensitivity to land use change. In conclusion, landscape heterogeneity created by land use change can positively influence hummingbird taxonomic and functional diversity; however, a reduction of native vegetation cover could decrease functional diversity. Given that functional diversity can mediate ecosystem services, the conservation of native vegetation cover could play a key role in the maintenance of hummingbird pollination services in the tropical Andes. Moreover, there are particular functional

  6. Role of shame and body esteem in cortisol stress responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupis, Sarah B; Sabik, Natalie J; Wolf, Jutta M

    2016-04-01

    Studies assessing the role of shame in HPA axis reactivity report mixed findings. Discrepancies may be due to methodological difficulties and inter-individual differences in the propensity to experience shame in a stressful situation. Hence, the current study combined self-report of shame and facial coding of shame expressions and assessed the role of body esteem as a moderator of the shame-stress link. For this, 44 healthy students (24F, age 20.5 ± 2.1 years) were exposed to an acute psychosocial stress paradigm (Trier Social Stress Test: TSST). Salivary cortisol levels were measured throughout the protocol. Trait shame was measured before the stress test, and state shame immediately afterwards. Video recordings of the TSST were coded to determine emotion expressions. State shame was neither associated with cortisol stress responses nor with body esteem (self-report: all ps ≥ .24; expression: all ps ≥ .31). In contrast, higher trait shame was associated with both negative body esteem (p = .049) and stronger cortisol stress responses (p = .013). Lastly, having lower body esteem predicted stronger cortisol stress responses (p = .022); however, it did not significantly moderate the association between shame indices and cortisol stress responses (all ps ≥ .94). These findings suggest that body esteem and trait shame independently contribute to strength of cortisol stress responses. Thus, in addition to trait shame, body esteem emerged as an important predictor of cortisol stress responses and as such, a potential contributor to stress-related negative health outcomes.

  7. Negative permeability from random particle composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Shahid

    2017-04-01

    Artificial media, such as those composed of periodically-spaced wires for negative permittivity and split ring resonators for negative permeability have been extensively investigated for negative refractive index (NRI) applications (Smith et al., 2004; Pendry et al., 1999) [1,2]. This paper presents an alternative method for producing negative permeability: granular (or particulate) composites incorporating magnetic fillers. Artificial media, such as split-ring resonators, are designed to produce a magnetic resonance feature, which results in negative permeability over a narrow frequency range about the resonance frequency. The position of the feature is dependent upon the size of the inclusion. The material in this case is anisotropic, such that the feature is only observable when the materials are orientated in a specific direction relative to the applied field. A similar resonance can be generated in magnetic granular (particulate) materials: ferromagnetic resonance from the natural spin resonance of particles. Although the theoretical resonance profiles in granular composites shows the permeability dipping to negative values, this is rarely observed experimentally due to resonance damping effects. Results are presented for iron in spherical form and in flake form, dispersed in insulating host matrices. The two particle shapes show different permeability performance, with the magnetic flakes producing a negative contribution. This is attributed to the stronger coupling with the magnetic field resulting from the high aspect ratio of the flakes. The accompanying ferromagnetic resonance is strong enough to overcome the effects of damping and produce negative permeability. The size of random particle composites is not dictated by the wavelength of the applied field, so the materials are potentially much thinner than other, more traditional artificial composites at microwave frequencies.

  8. Negative Mood Increases Selective Attention to Negatively Valenced Body Parts in Female Adolescents with Anorexia Nervosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svaldi, Jennifer; Bender, Caroline; Caffier, Detlef; Ivanova, Viliana; Mies, Nina; Fleischhaker, Christian; Tuschen-Caffier, Brunna

    2016-01-01

    Objective Previous research has yielded evidence of increased attentional processing of negatively valenced body parts in women with anorexia nervosa (AN), especially for those with high depressive symptomatology. The present study extended previous research by implementing an experimental mood manipulation. Method In a within-subjects design, female adolescents with AN (n = 12) and an age matched female control group (CG; n = 12) were given a negative and a positive mood induction at a one-week interval. After each mood induction, participants underwent a 3-min mirror exposure, while their eye movements were recorded. Results After the positive mood induction, both AN and CG participants displayed longer and more frequent gazes towards their self-defined most ugly relative to their self-defined most beautiful body part. However, after the negative mood induction, only females with AN were characterized by increased attention to their most ugly compared to their most beautiful body part, while CG participants’ attention distribution was balanced. Furthermore, in the negative (but not in the positive) mood induction condition gaze frequency and duration towards the most ugly body part was significantly stronger in the AN group relative to the CG. Discussion The results emphasize the role of negative mood in the maintenance of pathological information processing of the self-body. This increased body-related negativity-bias during negative mood may lead to the persistence and aggravation of AN patients’ body image disturbance. PMID:27123587

  9. Negative Mood Increases Selective Attention to Negatively Valenced Body Parts in Female Adolescents with Anorexia Nervosa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Svaldi

    Full Text Available Previous research has yielded evidence of increased attentional processing of negatively valenced body parts in women with anorexia nervosa (AN, especially for those with high depressive symptomatology. The present study extended previous research by implementing an experimental mood manipulation.In a within-subjects design, female adolescents with AN (n = 12 and an age matched female control group (CG; n = 12 were given a negative and a positive mood induction at a one-week interval. After each mood induction, participants underwent a 3-min mirror exposure, while their eye movements were recorded.After the positive mood induction, both AN and CG participants displayed longer and more frequent gazes towards their self-defined most ugly relative to their self-defined most beautiful body part. However, after the negative mood induction, only females with AN were characterized by increased attention to their most ugly compared to their most beautiful body part, while CG participants' attention distribution was balanced. Furthermore, in the negative (but not in the positive mood induction condition gaze frequency and duration towards the most ugly body part was significantly stronger in the AN group relative to the CG.The results emphasize the role of negative mood in the maintenance of pathological information processing of the self-body. This increased body-related negativity-bias during negative mood may lead to the persistence and aggravation of AN patients' body image disturbance.

  10. Cellular responses of BRCA1-defective and triple-negative breast cancer cells and in vitro BRCA1 interactions induced by metallo-intercalator ruthenium(II) complexes containing chloro-substituted phenylazopyridine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is defined by the absence of expression of estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2. Breast cancers with a BRCA1 mutation are also frequently triple-negative. Currently, there is a lack of effective therapies and known specific molecular targets for this aggressive breast cancer subtype. To address this concern, we have explored the cellular responses of BRCA1-defective and triple-negative breast cancer cells, and in vitro BRCA1 interactions induced by the ruthenium(II) complexes containing the bidentate ligand, 5-chloro-2-(phenylazo)pyridine. Methods Triple-negative MDA-MB-231, BRCA1-defective HCC1937 and BRCA1-competent MCF-7 breast cancer cell lines were treated with ruthenium(II) complexes. The cytoxoxicity of ruthenium-induced breast cancer cells was evaluated by a real time cellular analyzer (RTCA). Cellular uptake of ruthenium complexes was determined by ICP-MS. Cell cycle progression and apoptosis were assessed using propidium iodide and Annexin V flow cytometry. The N-terminal BRCA1 RING protein was used for conformational and functional studies using circular dichroism and in vitro ubiquitination. Results HCC1937 cells were significantly more sensitive to the ruthenium complexes than the MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells. Treatment demonstrated a higher degree of cytotoxicity than cisplatin against all three cell lines. Most ruthenium atoms were retained in the nuclear compartment, particularly in HCC1937 cells, after 24 h of incubation, and produced a significant block at the G2/M phase. An increased induction of apoptotic cells as well as an upregulation of p53 mRNA was observed in all tested breast cancer cells. It was of interest that BRCA1 mRNA and replication of BRCA1-defective cells were downregulated. Changes in the conformation and binding constants of ruthenium-BRCA1 adducts were observed, causing inactivation of the RING heterodimer BRCA1/BARD1-mediated E3

  11. Emotion-Specific Priming: Congruence Effects on Affect and Recognition across Negative Emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Christine H.; Shantz, Cynthia A.

    1995-01-01

    Demonstrated the emotion-specific priming effects of negatively valenced emotions (anger, sadness, and fear) in a divided attention task. Results indicated that a negative emotion displayed by a target that matched the emotion induced by a priming manipulation was significantly stronger than an incongruous priming manipulation and displayed…

  12. Memories reactivated under ketamine are subsequently stronger: A potential pre-clinical behavioral model of psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honsberger, Michael J; Taylor, Jane R; Corlett, Philip R

    2015-05-01

    Sub-anesthetic doses of the NMDA antagonist ketamine have been shown to model the formation and stability of delusion in human subjects. The latter has been predicted to be due to aberrant prediction error resulting in enhanced destabilization of beliefs. To extend the scope of this model, we investigated the effect of administration of low dose systemic ketamine on memory in a rodent model of memory reconsolidation. Systemic ketamine was administered either prior to or immediately following auditory fear memory reactivation in rats. Memory strength was assessed by measuring freezing behavior 24h later. Follow up experiments were designed to investigate an effect of pre-reactivation ketamine on short-term memory (STM), closely related memories, and basolateral amygdala (BLA) specific destabilization mechanisms. Rats given pre-reactivation, but not post-reactivation, ketamine showed larger freezing responses 24h later compared to vehicle. This enhancement was not observed 3h after the memory reactivation, nor was it seen in a closely related contextual memory. Prior inhibition of a known destabilization mechanism in the BLA blocked the effect of pre-reactivation ketamine. Pre- but not post-reactivation ketamine enhances fear memory. These data together with recent data in human subjects supports a model of delusion fixity that proposes that aberrant prediction errors result in enhanced destabilization and strengthening of delusional belief. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Negative Ion Density Fronts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igor Kaganovich

    2000-01-01

    Negative ions tend to stratify in electronegative plasmas with hot electrons (electron temperature Te much larger than ion temperature Ti, Te > Ti ). The boundary separating a plasma containing negative ions, and a plasma, without negative ions, is usually thin, so that the negative ion density falls rapidly to zero-forming a negative ion density front. We review theoretical, experimental and numerical results giving the spatio-temporal evolution of negative ion density fronts during plasma ignition, the steady state, and extinction (afterglow). During plasma ignition, negative ion fronts are the result of the break of smooth plasma density profiles during nonlinear convection. In a steady-state plasma, the fronts are boundary layers with steepening of ion density profiles due to nonlinear convection also. But during plasma extinction, the ion fronts are of a completely different nature. Negative ions diffuse freely in the plasma core (no convection), whereas the negative ion front propagates towards the chamber walls with a nearly constant velocity. The concept of fronts turns out to be very effective in analysis of plasma density profile evolution in strongly non-isothermal plasmas

  14. Coastal Bacterioplankton Metabolism Is Stimulated Stronger by Anthropogenic Aerosols than Saharan Dust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Marín

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In oligotrophic regions, such as the Mediterranean Sea, atmospheric deposition has the potential to stimulate heterotrophic prokaryote growth and production in surface waters, especially during the summer stratification period. Previous studies focused on the role of leaching nutrients from mineral particles of Saharan (S origin, and were restricted to single locations at given times of the year. In this study, we evaluate the effect of atmospheric particles from diverse sources and with a markedly different chemical composition [S dust and anthropogenic (A aerosols] on marine planktonic communities from three locations of the northwestern Mediterranean with contrasted anthropogenic footprint. Experiments were also carried out at different times of the year, considering diverse initial conditions. We followed the dynamics of the heterotrophic community and a range of biogeochemical and physiological parameters in six experiments. While the effect of aerosols on bacterial abundance was overall low, bacterial heterotrophic production was up to 3.3 and 2.1 times higher in the samples amended with A and S aerosols, respectively, than in the controls. Extracellular enzymatic activities [leu-aminopeptidase (AMA and β-glucosidase (β-Gl] were also enhanced with aerosols, especially from A origin. AMA and β-Gl increased up to 7.1 in the samples amended with A aerosols, and up to 1.7 and 2.1 times, respectively, with S dust. The larger stimulation observed with A aerosols might be attributed to their higher content in nitrate. However, the response was variable depending the initial status of the seawater. In addition, we found that both A and S aerosols stimulated bacterial abundance and metabolism significantly more in the absence of competitors and predators.

  15. Autophagy, stress, and cancer metabolism: what doesn't kill you makes you stronger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew, R; White, E

    2011-01-01

    Altered metabolism is a hallmark of cancer. Oncogenic events that lead to cancerous states reorganize metabolic pathways to increase nutrient uptake, which promotes biosynthetic capabilities and cell-autonomous behavior. Increased biosynthesis dictates metabolic demand for ATP, building blocks, and reducing equivalents, rendering cancer cells metabolically in a perpetually hungry state. Moreover, most chemotherapy agents induce acute metabolic stress that cancer cells must overcome for their survival. These metabolic stress cues in cancer cells can activate and cause dependence on the self-cannibalization mechanism of macroautophagy (autophagy hereafter) for the lysosomal turnover and recycling of organelles and proteins for energy and stress survival. For example, activating mutations in Ras or Ras-effector pathways induce autophagy, and cancer cell lines with Ras activation show elevated levels of basal autophagy that is essential for starvation survival and tumor growth. The metabolic implications of this are profound and multifaceted. First, autophagy-mediated degradation and recycling of cellular substrates can support metabolism and promote survival and tumor growth. Second, acute autophagy activation in response to cancer therapy can potentially lead to refractory tumors resistant to conventional chemotherapy. For example, a specific form of autophagy that targets mitochondria (mitophagy) may also function to promote cell survival by the clearance of damaged mitochondria that are potential sources of reactive oxygen species (ROS). These point to the possibility that autophagy is a unique metabolic need, important for survival as well as therapy resistance in cancer cells. Targeting autophagy in single-agent therapy to sensitize aggressive cancers that are dependent on autophagy for survival or in combination with therapeutic agents that induce autophagy as a resistance mechanism may be an effective therapeutic strategy to treat cancer.

  16. Patient personality and therapist response: an empirical investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colli, Antonello; Tanzilli, Annalisa; Dimaggio, Giancarlo; Lingiardi, Vittorio

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between therapists' emotional responses and patients' personality disorders and level of psychological functioning. A random national sample of psychiatrists and clinical psychologists (N=203) completed the Therapist Response Questionnaire to identify patterns of therapists' emotional response, and the Shedler-Westen Assessment Procedure-200 to assess personality disorders and level of psychological functioning in a randomly selected patient currently in their care and with whom they had worked for a minimum of eight sessions and a maximum of 6 months (one session per week). There were several significant relationships between therapists' responses and patients' personality pathology. Paranoid and antisocial personality disorders were associated with criticized/mistreated countertransference, and borderline personality disorder was related to helpless/inadequate, overwhelmed/disorganized, and special/overinvolved countertransference. Disengaged countertransference was associated with schizotypal and narcissistic personality disorders and negatively associated with dependent and histrionic personality disorders. Schizoid personality disorder was associated with helpless/inadequate responses. Positive countertransference was associated with avoidant personality disorder, which was also related to both parental/protective and special/overinvolved therapist responses. Obsessive-compulsive personality disorder was negatively associated with special/overinvolved therapist responses. In general, therapists' responses were characterized by stronger negative feelings when working with lower-functioning patients. Patients' specific personality pathologies are associated with consistent emotional responses, which suggests that clinicians can make diagnostic and therapeutic use of their responses to patients.

  17. Long-term perspective underscores need for stronger near-term policies on climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcott, S. A.; Shakun, J. D.; Clark, P. U.; Mix, A. C.; Pierrehumbert, R.; Goldner, A. P.

    2014-12-01

    Despite scientific consensus that substantial anthropogenic climate change will occur during the 21st century and beyond, the social, economic and political will to address this global challenge remains mired in uncertainty and indecisiveness. One contributor to this situation may be that scientific findings are often couched in technical detail focusing on near-term changes and uncertainties and often lack a relatable long-term context. We argue that viewing near-term changes from a long-term perspective provides a clear demonstration that policy decisions made in the next few decades will affect the Earth's climate, and with it our socio-economic well-being, for the next ten millennia or more. To provide a broader perspective, we present a graphical representation of Earth's long-term climate history that clearly identifies the connection between near-term policy options and the geological scale of future climate change. This long view is based on a combination of recently developed global proxy temperature reconstructions of the last 20,000 years and model projections of surface temperature for the next 10,000 years. Our synthesis places the 20th and 21st centuries, when most emissions are likely to occur, into the context of the last twenty millennia over which time the last Ice Age ended and human civilization developed, and the next ten millennia, over which time the projected impacts will occur. This long-term perspective raises important questions about the most effective adaptation and mitigation policies. For example, although some consider it economically viable to raise seawalls and dikes in response to 21st century sea level change, such a strategy does not account for the need for continuously building much higher defenses in the 22nd century and beyond. Likewise, avoiding tipping points in the climate system in the short term does not necessarily imply that such thresholds will not still be crossed in the more distant future as slower components

  18. Negative thermal expansion materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, J.S.O.

    1997-01-01

    The recent discovery of negative thermal expansion over an unprecedented temperature range in ZrW 2 O 8 (which contracts continuously on warming from below 2 K to above 1000 K) has stimulated considerable interest in this unusual phenomenon. Negative and low thermal expansion materials have a number of important potential uses in ceramic, optical and electronic applications. We have now found negative thermal expansion in a large new family of materials with the general formula A 2 (MO 4 ) 3 . Chemical substitution dramatically influences the thermal expansion properties of these materials allowing the production of ceramics with negative, positive or zero coefficients of thermal expansion, with the potential to control other important materials properties such as refractive index and dielectric constant. The mechanism of negative thermal expansion and the phase transitions exhibited by this important new class of low-expansion materials will be discussed. (orig.)

  19. Trait acceptance predicts fewer daily negative emotions through less stressor-related rumination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalino, Lahnna I; Arenander, Justine; Epel, Elissa; Puterman, Eli

    2017-12-01

    People who are more accepting of their thoughts and feelings experience fewer negative emotions. Although several studies document the connection between acceptance and negative emotions, little, if any research, sheds light on how being receptive to one's internal experience results in less negativity in everyday life. In a daily diary study (N = 183), we found that people who were more accepting of their thoughts and feelings experienced fewer daily negative emotions, and this association was partly explained by less daily stressor-related rumination. The strength of this mediational pathway differed depending upon the average perceived severity of daily stressors. When daily stressors were perceived to be more demanding, trait acceptance predicted a stronger inverse association with rumination, and rumination predicted a stronger positive association with negative emotions. These results shed light on one way acceptance of internal experience predicts less negativity, as well as the moderating role of perceived daily stress. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Coping, goal adjustment, and positive and negative affect in definitive infertility

    OpenAIRE

    Kraaij, V.; Garnefski, N.; Schroevers, M.J.

    2009-01-01

    The relationships between coping strategies, goal adjustment and positive and negative affect were studied in 83 definitive involuntary childless people. Self-report questionnaires were filled out. The findings suggested that positive ways to handle the childlessness were related to positive affect, while negative ways to deal with the childlessness were related to negative affect. Cognitive coping strategies seemed to have a stronger influence on affect than the behavioral coping strategies....

  1. Social Responsibility Networks (SRN: The Role of the International Civil Society in Redressing the Negative Effects of Globalization at the Local Level Social Responsibility Networks (SRN: The Role of the International Civil Society in Redressing the Negative Effects of Globalization at the Local Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Alejandra Gonzalez-Perez

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Evidencias, tanto teóricas como emp��ricas, indican que la globalización de laeconomía ha intensificado la exclusión social, los problemas medio ambientales y haexacerbado desigualdades en materia social y laboral. Para revertir estas situacionesse requiere de sistemas transnacionales de gobernabilidad legítimos y transparentes,que cuenten con la participación activa y reconocida de los trabajadores.Este documento se basa en una investigación empírica en la cual se presentaun modelo de participación transnacional de los actores de la sociedad civil(incluyendo los sindicatos y otras organizaciones de trabajadores, así como tambiénlas corporaciones privadas y las agencias gubernamentales. De esta manera se desarrolla una plataforma que opera como un sistema de responsabilidad socialcuyo alcance sobrepasa a la responsabilidad social empresarial (RSE. There is both theoretical and empirical evidence which indicates that the processes of globalization have intensified the onset of social exclusion and environmental problems. Globalized processes may also exacerbate inequalities that, in order to be readdressed, require transnational, transparent, accountable and participative governance systems,  with an active and recognised contribution by the local community in the amelioration of these problems.This paper focuses on transnational participation of civil society actors as well as private corporations and state agencies, which together provide a platform for the development of a broader scope for corporate social responsibility (CSR.

  2. Glass Stronger than Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarris, Lynn

    2011-03-28

    A new type of damage-tolerant metallic glass, demonstrating a strength and toughness beyond that of steel or any other known material, has been developed and tested by a collaboration of researchers from Berkeley Lab and Caltech.

  3. Are Tornadoes Getting Stronger?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsner, J.; Jagger, T.

    2013-12-01

    A cumulative logistic model for tornado damage category is developed and examined. Damage path length and width are significantly correlated to the odds of a tornado receiving the next highest damage category. Given values for the cube root of path length and square root of path width, the model predicts a probability for each category. The length and width coefficients are insensitive to the switch to the Enhanced Fujita (EF) scale and to distance from nearest city although these variables are statistically significant in the model. The width coefficient is sensitive to whether or not the tornado caused at least one fatality. This is likely due to the fact that the dimensions and characteristics of the damage path for such events are always based on ground surveys. The model predicted probabilities across the categories are then multiplied by the center wind speed from the categorical EF scale to obtain an estimate of the highest tornado wind speed on a continuous scale in units of meters per second. The estimated wind speeds correlate at a level of .82 (.46, .95) [95% confidence interval] to wind speeds estimated independently from a doppler radar calibration. The estimated wind speeds allow analyses to be done on the tornado database that are not possible with the categorical scale. The modeled intensities can be used in climatology and in environmental and engineering applications. More work needs to be done to understand the upward trends in path length and width. The increases lead to an apparent increase in tornado intensity across all EF categories.

  4. The impact of gambling advertising: Problem gamblers report stronger impacts on involvement, knowledge, and awareness than recreational gamblers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanss, Daniel; Mentzoni, Rune A; Griffiths, Mark D; Pallesen, Ståle

    2015-06-01

    Although there is a general lack of empirical evidence that advertising influences gambling participation, the regulation of gambling advertising is hotly debated among academic researchers, treatment specialists, lobby groups, regulators, and policymakers. This study contributes to the ongoing debate by investigating perceived impacts of gambling advertising in a sample of gamblers drawn from the general population in Norway (n = 6,034). Three dimensions of advertising impacts were identified, representing perceived impacts on (a) gambling-related attitudes, interest, and behavior ("involvement"); (b) knowledge about gambling options and providers ("knowledge"); and (c) the degree to which people are aware of gambling advertising ("awareness"). Overall, impacts were strongest for the knowledge dimension, and, for all 3 dimensions, the impact increased with level of advertising exposure. Those identified as problem gamblers in the sample (n = 57) reported advertising impacts concerning involvement more than recreational gamblers, and this finding was not attributable to differences in advertising exposure. Additionally, younger gamblers reported stronger impacts on involvement and knowledge but were less likely to agree that they were aware of gambling advertising than older gamblers. Male gamblers were more likely than female gamblers to report stronger impacts on both involvement and knowledge. These findings are discussed with regard to existing research on gambling advertising as well as their implications for future research and policy-making. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Removal of proprioception by BCI raises a stronger body ownership illusion in control of a humanlike robot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alimardani, Maryam; Nishio, Shuichi; Ishiguro, Hiroshi

    2016-09-22

    Body ownership illusions provide evidence that our sense of self is not coherent and can be extended to non-body objects. Studying about these illusions gives us practical tools to understand the brain mechanisms that underlie body recognition and the experience of self. We previously introduced an illusion of body ownership transfer (BOT) for operators of a very humanlike robot. This sensation of owning the robot's body was confirmed when operators controlled the robot either by performing the desired motion with their body (motion-control) or by employing a brain-computer interface (BCI) that translated motor imagery commands to robot movement (BCI-control). The interesting observation during BCI-control was that the illusion could be induced even with a noticeable delay in the BCI system. Temporal discrepancy has always shown critical weakening effects on body ownership illusions. However the delay-robustness of BOT during BCI-control raised a question about the interaction between the proprioceptive inputs and delayed visual feedback in agency-driven illusions. In this work, we compared the intensity of BOT illusion for operators in two conditions; motion-control and BCI-control. Our results revealed a significantly stronger BOT illusion for the case of BCI-control. This finding highlights BCI's potential in inducing stronger agency-driven illusions by building a direct communication between the brain and controlled body, and therefore removing awareness from the subject's own body.

  6. NEGATION AFFIXES IN ENGLISH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dedy Subandowo -

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This research entitled "Negation Affixes in English". This study is aimed to describe the various negation affixes in English, morphological process, morphophonemic and meaning. The research data were taken from various sources of English grammar book, morphology, research journal and the book which relatees to the research. English grammar books used in this study are written by Otto Jesperson, Marcella Frank, Greenbaum and Geoffrey Leech.  The method used in this research is the descriptive-qualitative method. While the data collection techniques are performed by using jot-down method. And the results of analysis are presented in tabular form and descriptive method. The result of the research shows that English has six types of negative affixes which are categorized by the intensity of its appearance, such as dis-, in-, non-, un-, anti- and -less. Based on the function, negation affixes are divided into several categories such as adjectives, nouns, verbs, and adverbs. The morphophonemic affix in- has four allomorphs, they are in-, im-, il- and ir- . While the analysis revealed that negation affixes have some basic meanings, such as ‘not’, ‘without’, and ‘anti’.

  7. Project Stronger Together: Protocol to Test a Dyadic Intervention to Improve Engagement in HIV Care Among Sero-Discordant Male Couples in Three US Cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Rob; Suarez, Nicolas A; Garofalo, Robert; Hidalgo, Marco A; Hoehnle, Samuel; Thai, Jennie; Mimiaga, Matthew J; Brown, Emily; Bratcher, Anna; Wimbly, Taylor; Sullivan, Patrick

    2017-08-31

    An estimated one- to-two-thirds of new human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections among US men who have sex with men (MSM) occur within the context of primary partnerships. Despite this fact, there remains a lack of prevention interventions that focus on male sero-discordant dyads. Interventions that provide male couples with skills to manage HIV risk, and to support each other towards active engagement in HIV prevention and care, are urgently needed. The objective of this paper is to describe the protocol for an innovative dyadic intervention (Stronger Together) that combines couples' HIV testing and dyadic adherence counseling to improve treatment adherence and engagement in care among HIV sero-discordant male couples in the United States. The research activities involve a prospective randomized controlled trial (RCT) of approximately 165 venue- and clinic-recruited sero-discordant male couples (330 individuals: 165 HIV sero-negative and 165 HIV sero-positive). Couples randomized into the intervention arm receive couples' HIV counseling and testing plus dyadic adherence counseling, while those randomized to the control arm receive individual HIV counseling and testing. The study takes place in three cities: Atlanta, GA (study site Emory University); Boston, MA (study site The Fenway Institute); and Chicago, IL (study site Ann & Robert H. Lurie Children's Hospital of Chicago). Cohort recruitment began in 2015. Couples are followed prospectively for 24 months, with study assessments at baseline, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months. Stronger Together was launched in August 2014. To date, 160 couples (97% of the target enrollment) have been enrolled and randomized. The average retention rate across the three sites is 95%. Relationship dissolution has been relatively low, with only 13 couples breaking up during the RCT. Of the 13 couples who have broken up, 10 of the 13 HIV-positive partners have been retained in the cohort; none of these HIV-positive partners have enrolled

  8. Nedtrykt af negative nyheder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovsgaard, Morten; Søberg, Pernille Frantz

    2016-01-01

    I adskillige år er det blevet debatteret, hvorvidt nyhedernes negative fokus har konsekvenser for borgerne, og om det i sid-ste ende får flere til at vende ryggen til nyhederne. Vores viden om effekterne af positive og negative nyheder er dog begrænset, og derfor undersøges det i denne artikel......, hvordan henholdsvis positive og negative tv-nyheder påvirker seernes humør, hukom-melse af information fra indslaget og lyst til at se yderligere tv-nyheder. Det gør vi i et survey-eksperiment (N=204), hvor tre grupper så enten et originalt indslag eller det samme indslag klippet med henholdsvis et...

  9. On Various Negative Translations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilda Ferreira

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Several proof translations of classical mathematics into intuitionistic mathematics have been proposed in the literature over the past century. These are normally referred to as negative translations or double-negation translations. Among those, the most commonly cited are translations due to Kolmogorov, Godel, Gentzen, Kuroda and Krivine (in chronological order. In this paper we propose a framework for explaining how these different translations are related to each other. More precisely, we define a notion of a (modular simplification starting from Kolmogorov translation, which leads to a partial order between different negative translations. In this derived ordering, Kuroda and Krivine are minimal elements. Two new minimal translations are introduced, with Godel and Gentzen translations sitting in between Kolmogorov and one of these new translations.

  10. Negative ion sourcery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Os, C.F.A. van.

    1989-01-01

    The work described in this thesis is involved by current research programs in the field of nuclear-fusion. A brief introduction to fusion is given, anticipated problems related to current drive of the fusion plasma are pinpointed and probable suggestions to overcome these problems are described. One probable means for current drive is highlighted; Neutral Beam Injection (NBI). This is based on injecting a 1 MeV neutral hydrogen or deuterium beam into a fusion plasma. Negative ions are needed as primary particles because they can easily be neutralized at 1 MeV. The two current schemes for production of negative ions are described, volume production and negative surface ionization. The latter method is extensively studied in this thesis. (author). 171 refs.; 55 figs.; 7 tabs

  11. Depressionens negative spiral

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Karen

    2006-01-01

    Artiklen formidler resultater fra en longitudinel undersøgelse af det selvforstærkende, negative samspil imellem udvikling og vedligeholdelse af alderdomsdepression via primære miljøbelastninger og via  den deprimerede ældre som belastning for miljøet, som i sin tur "svarer negativt" på lidelsen og...

  12. Quantum logic without negation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zapatrin, R.R. (Dept. of Mathematics, SPb UEF, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation))

    1994-05-01

    The algebraic tools based on generating semigroups are suggested to describe property lattices possessing the relation of exclusivity rather than the operation of negation. The reduction to standard situation of orthocomplemented and orthomodular lattices is described. As an example of non-orthocomplementable property lattice that of a hypothetical ''topologymeter'' is studied. (orig.)

  13. The Negative Repetition Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, Neil W.; Peterson, Daniel J.

    2013-01-01

    A fundamental property of human memory is that repetition enhances memory. Peterson and Mulligan (2012) recently documented a surprising "negative repetition effect," in which participants who studied a list of cue-target pairs twice recalled fewer targets than a group who studied the pairs only once. Words within a pair rhymed, and…

  14. Fasting insulin has a stronger association with an adverse cardiometabolic risk profile than insulin resistance: the RISC study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Rooij, Susanne R; Dekker, Jacqueline M; Kozakova, Michaela

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Fasting insulin concentrations are often used as a surrogate measure of insulin resistance. We investigated the relative contributions of fasting insulin and insulin resistance to cardiometabolic risk and preclinical atherosclerosis. DESIGN AND METHODS: The Relationship between Insulin...... insulin, a simple and practical measure, may be a stronger and independent contributor to cardiometabolic risk and atherosclerosis in a healthy population than hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp-derived insulin sensitivity.......OBJECTIVE: Fasting insulin concentrations are often used as a surrogate measure of insulin resistance. We investigated the relative contributions of fasting insulin and insulin resistance to cardiometabolic risk and preclinical atherosclerosis. DESIGN AND METHODS: The Relationship between Insulin...... of the metabolic syndrome in 1177 participants. Carotid artery intima media thickness (IMT) was measured by ultrasound to assess preclinical atherosclerosis. RESULTS: Fasting insulin was correlated with all elements of the metabolic syndrome. Insulin sensitivity (M/I) was correlated with most elements. The odds...

  15. Epigenetic-based combinatorial resveratrol and pterostilbene alters DNA damage response by affecting SIRT1 and DNMT enzyme expression, including SIRT1-dependent γ-H2AX and telomerase regulation in triple-negative breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kala, Rishabh; Shah, Harsh N.; Martin, Samantha L.; Tollefsbol, Trygve O.

    2015-01-01

    Nutrition is believed to be a primary contributor in regulating gene expression by affecting epigenetic pathways such as DNA methylation and histone modification. Resveratrol and pterostilbene are phytoalexins produced by plants as part of their defense system. These two bioactive compounds when used alone have been shown to alter genetic and epigenetic profiles of tumor cells, but the concentrations employed in various studies often far exceed physiologically achievable doses. Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is an often fatal condition that may be prevented or treated through novel dietary-based approaches. HCC1806 and MDA-MB-157 breast cancer cells were used as TNBC cell lines in this study. MCF10A cells were used as control breast epithelial cells to determine the safety of this dietary regimen. CompuSyn software was used to determine the combination index (CI) for drug combinations. Combinatorial resveratrol and pterostilbene administered at close to physiologically relevant doses resulted in synergistic (CI <1) growth inhibition of TNBCs. SIRT1, a type III histone deacetylase (HDAC), was down-regulated in response to this combinatorial treatment. We further explored the effects of this novel combinatorial approach on DNA damage response by monitoring γ-H2AX and telomerase expression. With combination of these two compounds there was a significant decrease in these two proteins which might further resulted in significant growth inhibition, apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in HCC1806 and MDA-MB-157 breast cancer cells, while there was no significant effect on cellular viability, colony forming potential, morphology or apoptosis in control MCF10A breast epithelial cells. SIRT1 knockdown reproduced the effects of combinatorial resveratrol and pterostilbene-induced SIRT1 down-regulation through inhibition of both telomerase activity and γ-H2AX expression in HCC1806 breast cancer cells. As a part of the repair mechanisms and role of SIRT1 in recruiting DNMTs

  16. Elite level rhythmic gymnasts have significantly more and stronger pain than peers of similar age: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabeti, Manuel; Jeremian, Lusine; Graf, Alexandra; Kandelhart, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Rhythmic gymnastics (RG) unites aesthetic, ballet-like motion, and all aspects of gymnastics. To reach elite level, girls begin at early age the intensive training. To date it is unclear if such demanding training influences the incidence and intensity of painful overuse injuries. The purpose of this study is to analyze anatomical painful regions and pain intensity in elite level rhythmic gymnasts (elRG) and compare results with an age-matched control group (CG). This prospective field study was carried out at the European Championship in RG 2013 (218 participating athletes, Vienna, Austria). Volunteering athletes were interviewed according to a preformed questionnaire. As CG secondary school pupils without any competitive sports experience were analyzed accordingly. Overall, 243 young females (144 elRG/66 % of all participants and 99 CG) were observed. ElRGs were significantly (s.) smaller, lighter, and had s. stronger pain (p < 0.001). A total of 72 % of athletes reported to have at least one painful body region compared with 52 % of CG (p < 0.001). ElRG had nearly three times more serious injuries than the CG. In all 23 % off all elRG reported to have had no access to professional medical care. ElRGs were s. more frequently (25 vs 9 %) affected at the lumbar spine and the ankle joint (17.4 vs 7 %). To our knowledge, this trial analyzes the largest cohort of elRG to date. Hence, it is clearly alluded that intensive training in RG is a significant factor causing more and stronger pain than in a CG.

  17. Complex Karyotype is a Stronger Predictor than Del(17p) for Inferior Outcome in Relapsed or Refractory CLL Patients Treated with Ibrutinib-Based Regimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Philip A.; O’Brien, Susan M.; Wierda, William G.; Ferrajoli, Alessandra; Stingo, Francesco; Smith, Susan C.; Burger, Jan A.; Estrov, Zeev; Jain, Nitin; Kantarjian, Hagop M.; Keating, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Ibrutinib is active in patients with relapsed/refractory (R/R) CLL. In patients treated with ibrutinib for R/R CLL, del(17p) identified by interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is associated with inferior progression-free survival, despite equivalent initial response rates. Del(17p) is frequently associated with complex metaphase karyotype (CKT); the prognostic significance of CKT in ibrutinib-treated patients has not been reported. Methods We reviewed 88 patients treated for R/R CLL at MD Anderson Cancer Center with investigational ibrutinib-based regimens from 2010–2013. Pre-treatment FISH and Lipopolysaccharide-stimulated metaphase cytogenetic analysis were performed on bone marrow. Results Adequate pre-treatment metaphase karyotype was available for 56/88 patients. Karyotype was complex in 21 of 56 cases; 17 of the 21 had del(17p) by FISH. Overall response rate, including partial remission with persistent lymphocytosis, was 94% with 17% complete responses. In multivariable analysis (MVA), only CKT was significantly associated with event-free survival (EFS) [HR 6.6 (1.7–25.6), p=0.006]. Fludarabine-refractory CLL [HR 6.9 (1.8–27.1), p=0.005] and CKT [HR 5.9 (1.6–22.2), p=0.008] were independently associated with inferior overall survival (OS) in MVA. Del(17p) by FISH was not significantly associated with EFS or OS in MVA. Conclusions CKT is a powerful predictor of outcome in ibrutinib-treated patients with R/R CLL and may be a stronger predictor of biological behavior than del(17p) by FISH. Given their relatively poor outcomes, patients with CKT are ideal candidates for studies of consolidative treatment strategies or novel treatment combinations. PMID:26193999

  18. Analogues of the Frog-skin Antimicrobial Peptide Temporin 1Tb Exhibit a Wider Spectrum of Activity and a Stronger Antibiofilm Potential as Compared to the Parental Peptide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassi, Lucia; Maisetta, Giuseppantonio; Maccari, Giuseppe; Esin, Semih; Batoni, Giovanna

    2017-04-01

    The frog skin-derived peptide Temporin 1Tb (TB) has gained increasing attention as novel antimicrobial agent for the treatment of antibiotic-resistant and/or biofilm-mediated infections. Nevertheless, such a peptide possesses a preferential spectrum of action against Gram-positive bacteria. In order to improve the therapeutic potential of TB, the present study evaluated the antibacterial and antibiofilm activities of two TB analogues against medically relevant bacterial species. Of the two analogues, TB_KKG6A has been previously described in the literature, while TB_L1FK is a new analogue designed by us through statistical-based computational strategies. Both TB analogues displayed a faster and stronger bactericidal activity than the parental peptide, especially against Gram-negative bacteria in planktonic form. Differently from the parental peptide, TB_KKG6A and TB_L1FK were able to inhibit the formation of Staphylococcus aureus biofilms by more than 50% at 12 μM, while only TB_KKG6A prevented the formation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms at 24 μM. A marked antibiofilm activity against preformed biofilms of both bacterial species was observed for the two TB analogues when used in combination with EDTA. Analysis of synergism at the cellular level suggested that the antibiofilm activity exerted by the peptide-EDTA combinations against mature biofilms might be due mainly to a disaggregating effect on the extracellular matrix in the case of S. aureus, and to a direct activity on biofilm-embedded cells in the case of P. aeruginosa. Both analogues displayed a low hemolytic effect at the active concentrations and, overall, TB_L1FK resulted less cytotoxic towards mammalian cells. Collectively, the results obtained demonstrated that subtle changes in the primary sequence of TB may provide TB analogues that, used alone or in combination with adjuvant molecules such as EDTA, exhibit promising features against both planktonic and biofilm cells of medically relevant

  19. Increased fire frequency promotes stronger spatial genetic structure and natural selection at regional and local scales in Pinus halepensis Mill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budde, Katharina B; González-Martínez, Santiago C; Navascués, Miguel; Burgarella, Concetta; Mosca, Elena; Lorenzo, Zaida; Zabal-Aguirre, Mario; Vendramin, Giovanni G; Verdú, Miguel; Pausas, Juli G; Heuertz, Myriam

    2017-04-01

    The recurrence of wildfires is predicted to increase due to global climate change, resulting in severe impacts on biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. Recurrent fires can drive plant adaptation and reduce genetic diversity; however, the underlying population genetic processes have not been studied in detail. In this study, the neutral and adaptive evolutionary effects of contrasting fire regimes were examined in the keystone tree species Pinus halepensis Mill. (Aleppo pine), a fire-adapted conifer. The genetic diversity, demographic history and spatial genetic structure were assessed at local (within-population) and regional scales for populations exposed to different crown fire frequencies. Eight natural P. halepensis stands were sampled in the east of the Iberian Peninsula, five of them in a region exposed to frequent crown fires (HiFi) and three of them in an adjacent region with a low frequency of crown fires (LoFi). Samples were genotyped at nine neutral simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and at 251 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from coding regions, some of them potentially important for fire adaptation. Fire regime had no effects on genetic diversity or demographic history. Three high-differentiation outlier SNPs were identified between HiFi and LoFi stands, suggesting fire-related selection at the regional scale. At the local scale, fine-scale spatial genetic structure (SGS) was overall weak as expected for a wind-pollinated and wind-dispersed tree species. HiFi stands displayed a stronger SGS than LoFi stands at SNPs, which probably reflected the simultaneous post-fire recruitment of co-dispersed related seeds. SNPs with exceptionally strong SGS, a proxy for microenvironmental selection, were only reliably identified under the HiFi regime. An increasing fire frequency as predicted due to global change can promote increased SGS with stronger family structures and alter natural selection in P. halepensis and in plants with similar life history traits

  20. Negative leave balances

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Department

    2005-01-01

    Members of the personnel entitled to annual leave and, where appropriate, saved leave and/or compensatory leave are requested to take note of the new arrangements described below, which were recommended by the Standing Concertation Committee (SCC) at its meeting on 1Â September 2005 and subsequently approved by the Director-General. The changes do not apply to members of the personnel participating in the Progressive Retirement Programme (PRP) or the Part-time Work as a pre-retirement measure, for whom the specific provisions communicated at the time of joining will continue to apply. Â Negative balances in annual leave, saved leave and/or compensatory leave accounts at the end of the leave year (30th September) and on the date on which bonuses are credited to the saved leave account (31st December): Where members of the personnel have a leave account with a negative balance on 30Â September and/or 31Â December, leave will automatically be transferred from one account to another on the relevant dates i...

  1. Negative leave balances

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Department

    2005-01-01

    Members of the personnel entitled to annual leave and, where appropriate, saved leave and/or compensatory leave are requested to take note of the new arrangements described below, which were recommended by the Standing Concertation Committee (SCC) at its meeting on 1 September 2005 and subsequently approved by the Director-General. The changes do not apply to members of the personnel participating in the Progressive Retirement Programme (PRP) or the Part-time Work as a pre-retirement measure, for whom the specific provisions communicated at the time of joining will continue to apply.  Negative balances in annual leave, saved leave and/or compensatory leave accounts at the end of the leave year (30th September) and on the date on which bonuses are credited to the saved leave account (31st December): Where members of the personnel have a leave account with a negative balance on 30 September and/or 31 December, leave will automatically be transferred from one account to another on the relevant dates in or...

  2. Strategies of Building a Stronger Sense of Community for Sustainable Neighborhoods: Comparing Neighborhood Accessibility with Community Empowerment Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Te-I Albert Tsai

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available New Urbanist development in the U.S. aims at enhancing a sense of community and seeks to return to the design of early transitional neighborhoods which have pedestrian-oriented environments with retail shops and services within walking distances of housing. Meanwhile, 6000 of Taiwan’s community associations have been running community empowerment programs supported by the Council for Cultural Affairs that have helped many neighborhoods to rebuild so-called community cohesion. This research attempts to evaluate whether neighborhoods with facilities near housing and shorter travel distances within a neighborhood would promote stronger social interactions and form a better community attachment than neighborhoods that have various opportunities for residents to participate in either formal or informal social gatherings. After interviewing and surveying residents from 19 neighborhoods in Taipei’s Beitou District, and correlating the psychological sense of community with inner neighborhood’s daily travel distances and numbers of participatory activities held by community organizations under empowerment programs together with frequencies of regular individual visits and casual meetings, statistical evidence yielded that placing public facilities near residential locations is more effective than providing various programs for elevating a sense of community.

  3. Ni2P Makes Application of the PtRu Catalyst Much Stronger in Direct Methanol Fuel Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jinfa; Feng, Ligang; Liu, Changpeng; Xing, Wei

    2015-10-12

    PtRu is regarded as the best catalyst for direct methanol fuel cells, but the performance decay resulting from the loss of Ru seriously hinders commercial applications. Herein, we demonstrated that the presence of Ni2 P largely reduces Ru loss, which thus makes the application of PtRu much stronger in direct methanol fuel cells. Outstanding catalytic activity and stability were observed by cyclic voltammetry. Upon integrating the catalyst material into a practical direct methanol fuel cell, the highest maximum power density was achieved on the PtRu-Ni2P/C catalyst among the reference catalysts at different temperatures. A maximum power density of 69.9 mW cm(-2) at 30 °C was obtained on PtRu-Ni2P/C, which is even higher than the power density of the state-of-the-art commercial PtRu catalyst at 70 °C (63.1 mW cm(-2)). Moreover, decay in the performance resulting from Ru loss was greatly reduced owing to the presence of Ni2 P, which is indicative of very promising applications. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Conspecific flowers of Sinapis arvensis are stronger competitors for pollinators than those of the invasive weed Bunias orientalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochkirch, Axel; Mertes, Tamara; Rautenberg, Julia

    2012-03-01

    Biological invasions can affect the structure and function of ecosystems and threaten native plant species. Since most weeds rely on mutualistic relationships in their new environment, they may act as new competitors for pollinators. Pollinator competition is likely to be density dependent, but it is often difficult to disentangle competition caused by flower quality from effects caused by flower quantity. In order to test the effects of the presence and number of flowers of the invasive weed Bunias orientalis on the insect visitation rates in a native species ( Sinapis arvensis), we performed two replacement experiments using plants with standardised flower numbers. The visitation rates in S. arvensis were significantly higher than in B. orientalis and the number of insect visits dropped significantly with increasing density of S. arvensis flowers. These results suggest that intraspecific competition among flowers of S. arvensis is stronger than the competitive effect of alien flowers. As flowers of B. orientalis do not seem to distract visitors from S. arvensis, it is unlikely that pollinator competition between these two plant species plays a crucial role. However, it cannot be excluded that mass blossom stands of B. orientalis may distract flower visitors from native species.

  5. How the biotin–streptavidin interaction was made even stronger: investigation via crystallography and a chimaeric tetramer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chivers, Claire E.; Koner, Apurba L.; Lowe, Edward D.; Howarth, Mark

    2011-01-01

    The interaction between SA (streptavidin) and biotin is one of the strongest non-covalent interactions in Nature. SA is a widely used tool and a paradigm for protein–ligand interactions. We previously developed a SA mutant, termed Tr (traptavidin), possessing a 10-fold lower off-rate for biotin, with increased mechanical and thermal stability. In the present study, we determined the crystal structures of apo-Tr and biotin–Tr at 1.5 Å resolution. In apo-SA the loop (L3/4), near biotin's valeryl tail, is typically disordered and open, but closes upon biotin binding. In contrast, L3/4 was shut in both apo-Tr and biotin–Tr. The reduced flexibility of L3/4 and decreased conformational change on biotin binding provide an explanation for Tr's reduced biotin off- and on-rates. L3/4 includes Ser45, which forms a hydrogen bond to biotin consistently in Tr, but erratically in SA. Reduced breakage of the biotin–Ser45 hydrogen bond in Tr is likely to inhibit the initiating event in biotin's dissociation pathway. We generated a Tr with a single biotin-binding site rather than four, which showed a simi-larly low off-rate, demonstrating that Tr's low off-rate was governed by intrasubunit effects. Understanding the structural features of this tenacious interaction may assist the design of even stronger affinity tags and inhibitors. PMID:21241253

  6. Meta-Analysis of the Effect of Bowel Preparation on Adenoma Detection: Early Adenomas Affected Stronger than Advanced Adenomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulz, Michael C; Kröger, Arne; Prakash, Meher; Manser, Christine N; Heinrich, Henriette; Misselwitz, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    Low-quality bowel preparation reduces efficacy of colonoscopy. We aimed to summarize effects of bowel preparation on detection of adenomas, advanced adenomas and colorectal cancer. A systematic literature search was performed regarding detection of colonic lesions after normal and low-quality bowel preparation. Reported bowel preparation quality was transformed to the Aronchick scale with its qualities "excellent", "good", "fair", "poor", and "insufficient" or "optimal" (good/excellent), "suboptimal" (fair/poor/insufficient), "adequate" (good/excellent/fair) and "inadequate" (poor/insufficient). We identified two types of studies: i) Comparative studies, directly comparing lesion detection according to bowel preparation quality, and ii) repeat colonoscopy studies, reporting results of a second colonoscopy after previous low-quality preparation. The detection of early adenomas was reduced with inadequate vs. adequate bowel preparation (Odds Ratio (OR) 0.53, CI: 0.46-0.62, panalysis resulted in smaller confidence intervals compared to earlier studies. Classifying the bowel-preparation quality as suboptimal vs. optimal led to the same qualitative conclusion (OR: 0.81, CI: 0.74-0.89, pdetection were insufficient. Inadequate bowel preparation affects detection of early colonic lesions stronger than advanced lesions.

  7. Negative regulators of cell proliferation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, T. C.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1994-01-01

    Cell proliferation is governed by the influence of both mitogens and inhibitors. Although cell contact has long been thought to play a fundamental role in cell cycling regulation, and negative regulators have long been suspected to exist, their isolation and purification has been complicated by a variety of technical difficulties. Nevertheless, over recent years an ever-expanding list of putative negative regulators have emerged. In many cases, their biological inhibitory activities are consistent with density-dependent growth inhibition. Most likely their interactions with mitogenic agents, at an intracellular level, are responsible for either mitotic arrest or continued cell cycling. A review of naturally occurring cell growth inhibitors is presented with an emphasis on those factors shown to be residents of the cell surface membrane. Particular attention is focused on a cell surface sialoglycopeptide, isolated from intact bovine cerebral cortex cells, which has been shown to inhibit the proliferation of an unusually wide range of target cells. The glycopeptide arrest cells obtained from diverse species, both fibroblasts and epithelial cells, and a broad variety of transformed cells. Signal transduction events and a limited spectrum of cells that are refractory to the sialoglycopeptide have provided insight into the molecular events mediated by this cell surface inhibitor.

  8. Quitting smoking: The importance of non-smoker identity in predicting smoking behaviour and responses to a smoking ban.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meijer, Eline; Gebhardt, Winifred A; Dijkstra, Arie; Willemsen, Marc C; Van Laar, Colette

    2015-01-01

    We examined how 'smoker' and 'non-smoker' self- and group-identities and socio-economic status (SES) may predict smoking behaviour and responses to antismoking measures (i.e., the Dutch smoking ban in hospitality venues). We validated a measure of responses to the smoking ban. Longitudinal online survey study with one-year follow-up (N = 623 at T1 in 2011; N = 188 at T2 in 2012) among daily smokers. Intention to quit, quit attempts and 'rejecting', 'victimizing', 'socially conscious smoking' and 'active quitting' responses to the smoking ban. Non-smoker identities are more important than smoker identities in predicting intention to quit, quit attempts and responses to the smoking ban, even when controlling for other important predictors such as nicotine dependence. Smokers with stronger non-smoker identities had stronger intentions to quit, were more likely to attempt to quit between measurements, and showed less negative and more positive responses to the smoking ban. The association between non-smoker self-identity and intention to quit was stronger among smokers with lower than higher SES. Antismoking measures might be more effective if they would focus also on the identity of smokers, and help smokers to increase identification with non-smoking and non-smokers.

  9. [Negative pressure therapy: NPT].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maillard, H

    2015-01-01

    Negative pressure therapy or treatment (NPT) is used very frequently in hospitals in both surgical and medical departments. NPT consists of maintaining the wound surface at a pressure below ambient atmospheric pressure by means of a specially designed dressing attached to a depressurisation device as well as a system to drain exudate. NPT has been shown to be beneficial in increasing blood flow, thanks to feedback resulting from the decreased oxygen pressure, angiogenesis and reduction of the wound surface area. The French Health Authority (HAS) has issued recommendations for good use in a specific and limited series of applications. NPT may be used in post-traumatic or post-surgical wounds, burns, and in chronic wounds, such as bedsores and ulcers. It is also effective as an adjuvant treatment for infected wounds. In recent years, various different NPT devices have become commercially available. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Risk factors for obesity: further evidence for stronger effects on overweight children and adolescents compared to normal-weight subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Beyerlein

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We recently showed that in preschoolers risk factors for overweight show stronger associations with BMI in children with high BMI values. However, it is unclear whether these findings might also pertain to adolescents. METHODS: We extracted data on 3-10 year-old (n = 7,237 and 11-17 year-old (n = 5,986 children from a representative cross-sectional German health survey (KiGGS conducted between 2003 and 2006 and calculated quantile regression models for each age group. We used z-scores of children's body mass index (BMI as outcome variable and maternal BMI, maternal smoking in pregnancy, low parental socioeconomic status, exclusive formula-feeding and high TV viewing time as explanatory variables. RESULTS: In both age groups, the estimated effects of all risk factors except formula-feeding on BMI z-score were greatest for children with the highest BMI z-score. The median BMI z-score of 11-17 year-old children with high TV viewing time, for example, was 0.11 [95% CI: 0.03, 0.19] units higher than the median BMI z-score of teenage children with low TV viewing time. This risk factor was associated with an average difference of 0.18 [0.06, 0.30] units at the 90(th percentile of BMI z-score and of 0.20 [0.07, 0.33] units at the 97(th percentile. CONCLUSIONS: We confirmed that risk factors for childhood overweight are associated with greater shifts in the upper parts of the children's BMI distribution than in the middle and lower parts. These findings pertain also to teenagers and might possibly help to explain the secular shift in the upper BMI percentiles in children and adolescents.

  11. Density regulation in Northeast Atlantic fish populations: Density dependence is stronger in recruitment than in somatic growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Fabian; Ricard, Daniel; Heino, Mikko

    2018-01-30

    Population regulation is a central concept in ecology, yet in many cases its presence and the underlying mechanisms are difficult to demonstrate. The current paradigm maintains that marine fish populations are predominantly regulated by density-dependent recruitment. While it is known that density-dependent somatic growth can be present too, its general importance remains unknown and most practical applications neglect it. This study aimed to close this gap by for the first time quantifying and comparing density dependence in growth and recruitment over a large set of fish populations. We fitted density-dependent models to time-series data on population size, recruitment and age-specific weight from commercially exploited fish populations in the Northeast Atlantic Ocean and the Baltic Sea. Data were standardized to enable a direct comparison within and among populations, and estimated parameters were used to quantify the impact of density regulation on population biomass. Statistically significant density dependence in recruitment was detected in a large proportion of populations (70%), whereas for density dependence in somatic growth the prevalence of density dependence depended heavily on the method (26% and 69%). Despite age-dependent variability, the density dependence in recruitment was consistently stronger among age groups and between alternative approaches that use weight-at-age or weight increments to assess growth. Estimates of density-dependent reduction in biomass underlined these results: 97% of populations with statistically significant parameters for growth and recruitment showed a larger impact of density-dependent recruitment on population biomass. The results reaffirm the importance of density-dependent recruitment in marine fishes, yet they also show that density dependence in somatic growth is not uncommon. Furthermore, the results are important from an applied perspective because density dependence in somatic growth affects productivity and

  12. Can an amine be a stronger acid than a carboxylic acid? The surprisingly high acidity of amine-borane complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Sómer, Ana; Lamsabhi, Al Mokhtar; Yáñez, Manuel; Dávalos, Juan Z; González, Javier; Ramos, Rocío; Guillemin, Jean-Claude

    2012-12-03

    The gas-phase acidity of a series of amine-borane complexes has been investigated through the use of electrospray mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), with the application of the extended Cooks kinetic method, and high-level G4 ab initio calculations. The most significant finding is that typical nitrogen bases, such as aniline, react with BH(3) to give amine-borane complexes, which, in the gas phase, have acidities as high as those of either phosphoric, oxalic, or salicylic acid; their acidity is higher than many carboxylic acids, such as formic, acetic, and propanoic acid. Indeed the complexation of different amines with BH(3) leads to a substantial increase (from 167 to 195 kJ mol(-1)) in the intrinsic acidity of the system; in terms of ionization constants, this increase implies an increase as large as fifteen orders of magnitude. Interestingly, this increase in acidity is almost twice as large as that observed for the corresponding phosphine-borane analogues. The agreement between the experimental and the G4-based calculated values is excellent. The analysis of the electron-density rearrangements of the amine and the borane moieties indicates that the dative bond is significantly stronger in the N-deprotonated anion than in the corresponding neutral amine-borane complex, because the deprotonated amine is a much better electron donor than the neutral amine. On the top of that, the newly created lone pair on the nitrogen atom in the deprotonated species, conjugates with the BN bonding pair. The dispersion of the extra electron density into the BH(3) group also contributes to the increased stability of the deprotonated species. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Ipr1 modified BCG as a novel vaccine induces stronger immunity than BCG against tuberculosis infection in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuwei; Yang, Chun; He, Yonglin; Zhan, Xingxing; Xu, Lei

    2016-08-01

    Tuberculosis is a major challenge to global public health. However, the Bacille Calmette‑Guérin (BCG), the only vaccine available against tuberculosis, has been questioned for the low protective effect. The present study used the mouse gene intracellular pathogen resistance I (Ipr1) gene to alter the current BCG vaccine and evaluated its immunity effect against tuberculosis. This study also investigated the intrinsic relationships of Ipr1 and innate immunity. The reformed BCG (BCGi) carrying the Ipr1 gene was constructed. The mice were intranasally challenged with the M. tuberculosis H37Rv strain after vaccination with BCGi. Protection efficacy of the vaccine was assessed by the organ coefficient, bacterial load and pathological changes in the lung. The differential expression of 113 immune‑related genes between BCGi and BCG groups were detected by an oligo microarray. According to the results of organ coefficient, bacterial load and pathological changes in the organization, BCGi had been shown to have stronger protective effects against M. tuberculosis than BCG. The oligo microarray and reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction further revealed that the Ipr1 gene could upregulate the expression of 13 genes, including a >3‑fold increase in Toll‑like receptor (TLR)4 and 10‑fold increase in surfactant protein D (sftpd). The two genes not only participate in innate immunity against pathogens, but also are closely interrelated. Ipr1 could activate the TLR4 and sftpd signaling pathway and improve the innate immunity against tuberculosis, therefore Ipr1 modified BCG may be a candidate vaccine against M. tuberculosis.

  14. Negative Refractive Index in Artificial Metamaterials

    OpenAIRE

    Grigorenko, A. N.

    2006-01-01

    We discuss optical constants in artificial metamaterials showing negative magnetic permeability and electric permittivity. Using effective field theory, we calculate effective permeability of nanofabricated media composed of pairs of identical gold nano-pillars with magnetic response in the visible spectrum.

  15. Lactic Acid Bacteria Inducing a Weak Interleukin-12 and Tumor Necrosis Alpha Response in Human Dendritic Cells Inhibit Strongly Stimulating Lactic Acid Bacteria but Act Synergistically with Gram-Negative Bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeuthen, Louise Hjerrild; Christensen, Hanne Risager; Frøkiær, Hanne

    2006-01-01

    The development and maintenance of immune homeostasis indispensably depend on signals from the gut flora. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB), which are gram-positive (G+) organisms, are plausible significant players and have received much attention. Gram-negative (G-) commensals, such as members...

  16. Negative affect is related to reduced differential neural responses to social and non-social stimuli in 5-to-8-month-old infants: A functional near-infrared spectroscopy-study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Kant, Anne; Biro, Szilvia; Levelt, Claartje; Huijbregts, Stephan

    2017-12-14

    Both social perception and temperament in young infants have been related to social functioning later in life. Previous functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS) data (Lloyd-Fox et al., 2009) showed larger blood-oxygenation changes for social compared to non-social stimuli in the posterior temporal cortex of five-month-old infants. We sought to replicate and extend these findings by using fNIRS to study the neural basis of social perception in relation to infant temperament (Negative Affect) in 37 five-to-eight-month-old infants. Infants watched short videos displaying either hand and facial movements of female actors (social dynamic condition) or moving toys and machinery (non-social dynamic condition), while fNIRS data were collected over temporal brain regions. Negative Affect was measured using the Infant Behavior Questionnaire. Results showed significantly larger blood-oxygenation changes in the right posterior-temporal region in the social compared to the non-social condition. Furthermore, this differential activation was smaller in infants showing higher Negative Affect. Our results replicate those of Lloyd-Fox et al. and confirmed that five-to-eight-month-old infants show cortical specialization for social perception. Furthermore, the decreased cortical sensitivity to social stimuli in infants showing high Negative Affect may be an early biomarker for later difficulties in social interaction. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilmann, Christine; Peters, Georg

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY The definition of the heterogeneous group of coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) is still based on diagnostic procedures that fulfill the clinical need to differentiate between Staphylococcus aureus and those staphylococci classified historically as being less or nonpathogenic. Due to patient- and procedure-related changes, CoNS now represent one of the major nosocomial pathogens, with S. epidermidis and S. haemolyticus being the most significant species. They account substantially for foreign body-related infections and infections in preterm newborns. While S. saprophyticus has been associated with acute urethritis, S. lugdunensis has a unique status, in some aspects resembling S. aureus in causing infectious endocarditis. In addition to CoNS found as food-associated saprophytes, many other CoNS species colonize the skin and mucous membranes of humans and animals and are less frequently involved in clinically manifested infections. This blurred gradation in terms of pathogenicity is reflected by species- and strain-specific virulence factors and the development of different host-defending strategies. Clearly, CoNS possess fewer virulence properties than S. aureus, with a respectively different disease spectrum. In this regard, host susceptibility is much more important. Therapeutically, CoNS are challenging due to the large proportion of methicillin-resistant strains and increasing numbers of isolates with less susceptibility to glycopeptides. PMID:25278577

  18. Die Negation der Niederlage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxana Kath

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the unconventional ways in which the Romans dealt with their military setbacks. Although Rome suffered a large number of defeats these were denied in political communications or even successfully reinterpreted as victories. This denial of defeats was a response to the severe shock and the major change in the political system and its leadership after the defeat at the river Allia 389 BC. The paper focuses on the historical causes of this collective behavior as well as its effects on the stability of the political order of the Roman Republic in comparison to Athenian Democracy.

  19. Carbon sink activity is stronger under grazing than under mowing: results from a paired eddy flux towers experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pintér, Krisztina; Balogh, János; Koncz, Péter; Hidy, Dóra; Cserhalmi, Dóra; Papp, Marianna; Fóti, Szilvia; Nagy, Zoltán

    2014-05-01

    Effect of grazing vs. mowing on carbon balance of a grassland was investigated by a paired eddy towers (one of them measuring the grazed, the another the mowed treatment) experiment at the Bugacpuszta sandy grassland site (HU-Bug, 46.69° N, 19.6° E, 114m asl, 10.4 ° C annual mean temperature, 562 mm annual precipitation sum) located in the Hungarian Plain. Eddy covariance measurements started in July, 2002. The area of the mowed treatment is 1 ha, it is located within the grazed treatment (500 ha). Electric fence was set up around the selected area in spring of 2011. Study years include 2011, 2012 and 2013. The pasture is managed extensively (average grazing pressure of 0.5 cattle per hectare), the cattle herd regularly took several kilometres during a grazing day. Annual net ecosystem exchange (NEE) of the grassland is strongly limited by precipitation, there were 2 source years within the 11 years (2003-2013) of measurements, during which the average annual balance was -109 gCm-2year-1 with standard deviation of 106 gCm-2year-1. Carbon sink activity of the grassland was stronger in the grazed treatment than in the mowed treatment during the three year study period (paired t-test, P=0.058). In the grazed treatment the average sink strength was -142.8 ±40 gCm-2year-1, while in the mowed treatment the average sink strength was -61.5 ±46.5 gCm-2year-1. Differences of carbon balances between the treatments were positively correlated to the annual sum of evapotranspiration (ET), while ETs of the treatments were almost identical (differences within a 10mm year-1 range) in each study year. Water use efficiency in the mowed treatment was 44% of that in the grazed treatment (P=0.045) as a result of the differences in sink capacity. The higher sensitivity to drought by the mowed treatment manifested in decreased sink capacity during summer and in decreased regeneration capacity during autumn rains as shown by the cumulative NEE in the different years. Minor but

  20. The role of the SST-thermocline relationship in Indian Ocean Dipole skewness and its response to global warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Benjamin; Cai, Wenju; Walsh, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    A positive Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) tends to have stronger cold sea surface temperature anomalies (SSTAs) over the eastern Indian Ocean with greater impacts than warm SSTAs that occur during its negative phase. Two feedbacks have been suggested as the cause of positive IOD skewness, a positive Bjerknes feedback and a negative SST-cloud-radiation (SCR) feedback, but their relative importance is debated. Using inter-model statistics, we show that the most important process for IOD skewness is an asymmetry in the thermocline feedback, whereby SSTAs respond to thermocline depth anomalies more strongly during the positive phase than negative phase. This asymmetric thermocline feedback drives IOD skewness despite positive IODs receiving greater damping from the SCR feedback. In response to global warming, although the thermocline feedback strengthens, its asymmetry between positive and negative IODs weakens. This behaviour change explains the reduction in IOD skewness that many models display under global warming. PMID:25112717

  1. Is windswept tree growth negative thigmotropism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telewski, Frank W

    2012-03-01

    The scientific investigation of the influence of wind on tree growth has been conducted for over 200 years. One influence of wind on trees is the formation of an asymmetric crown, usually characterized as being windswept under moderate windy conditions. As wind exposure increases, the terms applied to this growth form include flag-tree, banner-tree, and krummholz. The modification in crown morphology has been widely recognized and studied, especial in the area of wind prospecting or as a bioindicator of wind speed in environments lacking monitoring stations. However, the causes and physiology underlying this response is little understood. The windswept morphology is consistent with the morphologies associated with other tropisms (i.e. phototropism and gravitropism). Tropisms are defined as a growth response towards (positive) or away (negative) from an environmental stimulus. The asymmetric growth form of windswept trees appears to be a negative thigmotropic growth response to wind. In this review, evidence will be presented to support or reject two hypotheses; H₁ the windswept growth form is the result of a negative thigmotropic growth response or H₂ the windswept growth form is determined by the biophysical properties of wood. It is argued that the windswept growth form is more likely the product of biomechanical properties (accept H₂) than of a physiological thigmotropic growth response (reject H₁). However, proper testing of both hypotheses is still required before a final confirmation can be established. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Body image related negative interpretation bias in anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockmeyer, Timo; Anderle, Alisa; Schmidt, Hagen; Febry, Stephanie; Wünsch-Leiteritz, Wally; Leiteritz, Andreas; Friederich, Hans-Christoph

    2018-03-14

    A distorted body image and pronounced body dissatisfaction are hallmarks of anorexia nervosa (AN) that typically result in dietary restraint and compensatory behaviours. Cognitive biases such as negative interpretation bias are considered key maintaining factors of these maladaptive cognitions and behaviours. However, little attention has been paid to empirical tests whether negative interpretation bias exists in AN and to what degree it is associated with symptom severity. Participants in the present study were 40 women with AN and 40 healthy women with no history of an eating disorder. Body-related negative interpretation bias (i.e., a tendency to interpret ambiguous information about the own body in a negative way) was measured by a Scrambled Sentences Task. Patients with AN showed a stronger body-related negative interpretation bias than healthy controls. Within both groups, negative interpretation bias correlated strongly and positively with AN symptom severity and these effects were not moderated by levels of depressive symptoms. The findings support the idea that biased interpretation of body-related information is associated with the specific psychopathology of AN. Targeted, computerised interventions (e.g. interpretation bias modification) may help to alter these dysfunctional cognitive schemas that lie at the heart of AN. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Meaning of the negative impedance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conciauro, G.; Puglisi, M.

    1981-06-01

    It is shown that the negative real part of an input impedance does not mean instability of the related circuit. A negative real part of the input impedance means only that the concerned circuit is active.

  4. Meaning of the negative impedance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conciauro, G.; Puglisi, M.

    1981-06-01

    It is shown that the negative real part of an input impedance does not mean instability of the related circuit. A negative real part of the input impedance means only that the concerned circuit is active

  5. Negative index in chiral metamaterials

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, S.; Plum, E.; Menzel, C.; Rockstuhl, C.; Zheludev, N.; Zhang, W.

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate that planar metamaterial lacking of mirror symmetry shows asymmetric transmission of terahertz waves and bands of positive, negative and zero phase and group velocities indicating a polarization sensitive negative index and slow-light media.

  6. Negative dimensional integrals. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halliday, I.G.; Ricotta, R.M.

    1987-01-01

    We propose a new method of evaluating integrals based on negative dimensional integration. We compute Feynman graphs by considering analytic extensions. Propagators are raised to negative integer powers and integrated over negative integer dimensions. We are left with the problem of computing polynomial integrals and summing finite series. (orig.)

  7. Thermodynamics of negative absolute pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lukacs, B.; Martinas, K.

    1984-03-01

    The authors show that the possibility of negative absolute pressure can be incorporated into the axiomatic thermodynamics, analogously to the negative absolute temperature. There are examples for such systems (GUT, QCD) processing negative absolute pressure in such domains where it can be expected from thermodynamical considerations. (author)

  8. Negative chemical ionization mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smit, A.L.C.

    1979-01-01

    This thesis describes some aspects of Negative Chemical Ionization (NCI) mass spectrometry. The reasons for the growing interest in NCI are: (i) to extend the basic knowledge of negative ions and their reactions in the gas phase; (ii) to investigate whether or not this knowledge of negative ions can be used successfully to elucidate the structure of molecules by mass spectrometry. (Auth.)

  9. Similar cisplatin sensitivity of HPV-positive and -negative HNSCC cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, Chia-Jung; Becker, Benjamin; Kriegs, Malte; Gatzemeier, Fruzsina; Krüger, Katharina; Möckelmann, Nikolaus; Fritz, Gerhard; Petersen, Cordula; Knecht, Rainald; Rothkamm, Kai; Rieckmann, Thorsten

    2016-06-14

    Patients with HPV-positive head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) show better survival rates than those with HPV-negative HNSCC. While an enhanced radiosensitivity of HPV-positive tumors is clearly evident from single modality treatment, cisplatin is never administered as monotherapy and therefore its contribution to the enhanced cure rates of HPV-positive HNSCC is not known. Both cisplatin and radiotherapy can cause severe irreversible side effects and therefore various clinical studies are currently testing deintensified regimes for patients with HPV-positive HNSCC. One strategy is to omit cisplatin-based chemotherapy or replace it by less toxic treatments but the risk assessment of these approaches remains difficult. In this study we have compared the cytotoxic effects of cisplatin in a panel of HPV-positive and -negative HNSCC cell lines alone and when combined with radiation.While cisplatin-treated HPV-positive strains showed a slightly stronger inhibition of proliferation, there was no difference regarding colony formation. Cellular responses to the drug, namely cell cycle distribution, apoptosis and γH2AX-induction did not differ between the two entities but assessment of cisplatin-DNA-adducts suggests differences regarding the mechanisms that determine cisplatin sensitivity. Combining cisplatin with radiation, we generally observed an additive but only in a minority of strains from both entities a clear synergistic effect on colony formation. In summary, HPV-positive and -negative HNSCC cells were equally sensitive to cisplatin. Therefore replacing cisplatin may be feasible but the substituting agent should be of similar efficacy in order not to jeopardize the high cure rates for HPV-positive HNSCC.

  10. The case for negative senescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaupel, James W; Baudisch, Annette; Dölling, Martin

    2004-01-01

    Negative senescence is characterized by a decline in mortality with age after reproductive maturity, generally accompanied by an increase in fecundity. Hamilton (1966) ruled out negative senescence: we adumbrate the deficiencies of his model. We review empirical studies of various plants and some...... kinds of animals that may experience negative senescence and conclude that negative senescence may be widespread, especially in indeterminate-growth species for which size and fertility increase with age. We develop optimization models of life-history strategies that demonstrate that negative senescence...

  11. Synchronicity in elevation range shifts among small mammal and vegetation over the last century is stronger for omnivores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferreira Dos Santos, Maria Joao; Thorne, James; Moritz, Craig

    2015-01-01

    In mountain ecosystems, species can be said to respond synchronously to environmental change when the elevation ranges of vegetation types and their associated vertebrates expand or contract in the same direction. Conversely, the response is asynchronous when the elevation ranges of vegetation types

  12. Negative snakes in JET: evidence for negative shear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gill, R.D.; Alper, B.; Edwards, A.W.

    1994-01-01

    The signature of the negative snakes from the soft X-ray cameras is very similar to the more usual snakes except that the localised region of the snake has, compared with its surroundings, decreased rather than increased emission. Circumstances where negative snakes have been seen are reviewed. The negative snake appears as a region of increased resistance and of increased impurity density. The relationship between the shear and the current perturbation is shown, and it seem probable that the magnetic shear is reversed at the point of the negative snake, i.e. that q is decreasing with radius. 6 refs., 6 figs

  13. Hydrogen bonds of RNA are stronger than those of DNA, but NMR monitors only presence of methyl substituent in uracil/thymine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swart, M.; Fonseca Guerra, C.; Bickelhaupt, F.M.

    2004-01-01

    Recently, Vakonakis and LiWang (J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2004, 126, 5688) reported experimental evidence for stronger hydrogen bonds in RNA A:U than in DNA A:T base pairs, which was based on differences in NMR shielding for adenine C2. We have analyzed the proposed correlation between NMR shielding and

  14. Depression and Identity: Are Self-Constructions Negative or Conflictual?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrián Montesano

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Negative self-views have proved to be a consistent marker of vulnerability for depression. However, recent research has shown that a particular kind of cognitive conflict, implicative dilemma, is highly prevalent in depression. In this study, the relevance of these conflicts is assessed as compared to the cognitive model of depression of a negative view of the self. In so doing, 161 patients with major depression and 110 controls were assessed to explore negative self-construing (self-ideal discrepancy and conflicts (implicative dilemmas, as well as severity of symptoms. Results showed specificity for the clinical group indicating a pattern of mixed positive and negative self-descriptions with a high rate of conflict. Regression analysis lent support to the conflict hypothesis in relation to clinically relevant indicators such as symptom severity, global functioning. However, self-ideal discrepancy was a stronger predictor of group membership. The findings showed the relevance of cognitive conflicts to compliment the well-consolidated theory of negative self-views. Clinical implications for designing interventions are discussed.

  15. Depression and Identity: Are Self-Constructions Negative or Conflictual?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montesano, Adrián; Feixas, Guillem; Caspar, Franz; Winter, David

    2017-01-01

    Negative self-views have proved to be a consistent marker of vulnerability for depression. However, recent research has shown that a particular kind of cognitive conflict, implicative dilemma, is highly prevalent in depression. In this study, the relevance of these conflicts is assessed as compared to the cognitive model of depression of a negative view of the self. In so doing, 161 patients with major depression and 110 controls were assessed to explore negative self-construing (self-ideal discrepancy) and conflicts (implicative dilemmas), as well as severity of symptoms. Results showed specificity for the clinical group indicating a pattern of mixed positive and negative self-descriptions with a high rate of conflict. Regression analysis lent support to the conflict hypothesis in relation to clinically relevant indicators such as symptom severity, global functioning. However, self-ideal discrepancy was a stronger predictor of group membership. The findings showed the relevance of cognitive conflicts to compliment the well-consolidated theory of negative self-views. Clinical implications for designing interventions are discussed.

  16. In roots of Arabidopsis thaliana, the damage-associated molecular pattern AtPep1 is a stronger elicitor of immune signalling than flg22 or the chitin heptamer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Poncini

    Full Text Available Plants interpret their immediate environment through perception of small molecules. Microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs such as flagellin and chitin are likely to be more abundant in the rhizosphere than plant-derived damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs. We investigated how the Arabidopsis thaliana root interprets MAMPs and DAMPs as danger signals. We monitored root development during exposure to increasing concentrations of the MAMPs flg22 and the chitin heptamer as well as of the DAMP AtPep1. The tissue-specific expression of defence-related genes in roots was analysed using a toolkit of promoter::YFPN lines reporting jasmonic acid (JA-, salicylic acid (SA-, ethylene (ET- and reactive oxygen species (ROS- dependent signalling. Finally, marker responses were analysed during invasion by the root pathogen Fusarium oxysporum. The DAMP AtPep1 triggered a stronger activation of the defence markers compared to flg22 and the chitin heptamer. In contrast to the tested MAMPs, AtPep1 induced SA- and JA-signalling markers in the root and caused a severe inhibition of root growth. Fungal attack resulted in a strong activation of defence genes in tissues close to the invading fungal hyphae. The results collectively suggest that AtPep1 presents a stronger danger signal to the Arabidopsis root than the MAMPs flg22 and chitin heptamer.

  17. In roots of Arabidopsis thaliana, the damage-associated molecular pattern AtPep1 is a stronger elicitor of immune signalling than flg22 or the chitin heptamer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poncini, Lorenzo; Wyrsch, Ines; Dénervaud Tendon, Valérie; Vorley, Thomas; Boller, Thomas; Geldner, Niko; Métraux, Jean-Pierre; Lehmann, Silke

    2017-01-01

    Plants interpret their immediate environment through perception of small molecules. Microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs) such as flagellin and chitin are likely to be more abundant in the rhizosphere than plant-derived damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs). We investigated how the Arabidopsis thaliana root interprets MAMPs and DAMPs as danger signals. We monitored root development during exposure to increasing concentrations of the MAMPs flg22 and the chitin heptamer as well as of the DAMP AtPep1. The tissue-specific expression of defence-related genes in roots was analysed using a toolkit of promoter::YFPN lines reporting jasmonic acid (JA)-, salicylic acid (SA)-, ethylene (ET)- and reactive oxygen species (ROS)- dependent signalling. Finally, marker responses were analysed during invasion by the root pathogen Fusarium oxysporum. The DAMP AtPep1 triggered a stronger activation of the defence markers compared to flg22 and the chitin heptamer. In contrast to the tested MAMPs, AtPep1 induced SA- and JA-signalling markers in the root and caused a severe inhibition of root growth. Fungal attack resulted in a strong activation of defence genes in tissues close to the invading fungal hyphae. The results collectively suggest that AtPep1 presents a stronger danger signal to the Arabidopsis root than the MAMPs flg22 and chitin heptamer.

  18. Religious and Psychological Implications of Positive and Negative Religious Coping in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorbani, Nima; Watson, P J; Tahbaz, Sahar; Chen, Zhuo Job

    2017-04-01

    This study examined the religious and psychological implications of religious coping in Iran. University students (N = 224) responded to the Brief Positive and Negative Religious Coping Scales along with measures of Religious Orientation, Integrative Self-Knowledge, Self-Control, Mindfulness, Self-Compassion, Self-Esteem, Guilt, Shame, and Self-Criticism. As in previous research elsewhere, Positive Religious Coping was stronger on average than Negative Religious Coping, and Positive and Negative Religious Coping predicted adjustment and maladjustment, respectively, In addition, this study demonstrated that direct relationships between Positive and Negative Religious Coping appeared to be reliable in Iran; that Positive Religious Copings was broadly compatible with, and Negative Religious Coping was largely irrelevant to, Iranian religious motivations; and that Negative Religious Coping obscured linkages of Positive Religious Coping with religious and psychological adjustment.

  19. Addition of zoledronic acid to neoadjuvant chemotherapy does not enhance tumor response in patients with HER2-negative stage II/III breast cancer: the NEOZOTAC trial (BOOG 2010-01)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Charehbili, A.; Ven, S. van de; Smit, V.T.; Meershoek-Klein Kranenbarg, E.; Hamdy, N.A.; Putter, H.; Heijns, J.B.; Warmerdam, L.J. van; Kessels, L.; Dercksen, M.; Pepels, M.J.; Maartense, E.; Laarhoven, H.W.M. van; Vriens, B.; Wasser, M.N.; Leeuwen-Stok, A.E. van; Liefers, G.J.; Velde, C.J. van de; Nortier, J.W.; Kroep, J.R.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The role of zoledronic acid (ZA) when added to the neoadjuvant treatment of breast cancer (BC) in enhancing the clinical and pathological response of tumors is unclear. The effect of ZA on the antitumor effect of neoadjuvant chemotherapy has not prospectively been studied before.

  20. Addition of zoledronic acid to neoadjuvant chemotherapy does not enhance tumor response in patients with HER2-negative stage II/III breast cancer: the NEOZOTAC trial (BOOG 2010-01)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Charehbili, A.; van de Ven, S.; Smit, V. T. H. B. M.; Meershoek-Klein Kranenbarg, E.; Hamdy, N. A. T.; Putter, H.; Heijns, J. B.; van Warmerdam, L. J. C.; Kessels, L.; Dercksen, M.; Pepels, M. J.; Maartense, E.; van Laarhoven, H. W. M.; Vriens, B.; Wasser, M. N.; van Leeuwen-Stok, A. E.; Liefers, G. J.; van de Velde, C. J. H.; Nortier, J. W. R.; Kroep, J. R.

    2014-01-01

    The role of zoledronic acid (ZA) when added to the neoadjuvant treatment of breast cancer (BC) in enhancing the clinical and pathological response of tumors is unclear. The effect of ZA on the antitumor effect of neoadjuvant chemotherapy has not prospectively been studied before. NEOZOTAC is a

  1. Negative Correlation between Circulating CD4+FOXP3+CD127− Regulatory T Cells and Subsequent Antibody Responses to Infant Measles Vaccine but Not Diphtheria–Tetanus–Pertussis Vaccine Implies a Regulatory Role

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorjoh Ndure

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Regulatory T cells (Tregs play a key homeostatic role by suppressing immune responses. They have been targeted in mouse and human cancer studies to improve vaccine immunogenicity and tumor clearance. A number of commercially available drugs and experimental vaccine adjuvants have been shown to target Tregs. Infants have high numbers of Tregs and often have poor responses to vaccination, yet the role Tregs play in controlling vaccine immunogenicity has not been explored in this age group. Herein, we explore the role of CD4+FOXP3+CD127− Tregs in controlling immunity in infant males and females to vaccination with diphtheria–tetanus–whole cell pertussis (DTP and/or measles vaccine (MV. We find correlative evidence that circulating Tregs at the time of vaccination suppress antibody responses to MV but not DTP; and Tregs 4 weeks after DTP vaccination may suppress vaccine-specific cellular immunity. This opens the exciting possibility that Tregs may provide a future target for improved vaccine responses in early life, including reducing the number of doses of vaccine required. Such an approach would need to be safe and the benefits outweigh the risks, thus further research in this area is required.

  2. Negative Attitudes, Network and Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennett, Patrick; la Cour, Lisbeth; Larsen, Birthe

    use Danish register data to find a signficant positive correlation between negative attitudes towards immigrants and high school attendance and find a positive impact of networking on high school attendance. In both the macro and the micro-econometric analysis we run the same regressions for natives......We consider the impact of negative attitudes against immigrants and immigration on educational choice in a search and wage bargaining model including networking. We consider two cases in terms of the importance of negative attitudes againts immigrants for high and low educated individuals and find...... that more negative attitudes against immigrants has a positive impact on education in one case and a negative impact in the other and has no impact on natives. Immigration improves employment perspectives for immigrants and thereby increases immigrant education whereas endogenous negative attitudes lead...

  3. Wages, Amenities and Negative Attitudes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waisman, Gisela; Larsen, Birthe

    We exploit the regional variation in negative attitudes towards immigrants to Sweden in order to analyse the consequences of the attitudes on immigrants welfare. We find that attitudes towards immigrants are of importance: they both affect their labour market outcomes and their quality of life. We...... interpret the negative effect on wages as evidence of labour market discrimination. We estimate the welfare effects of negative attitudes, through their wage and local amenities, for immigrants with different levels of skills, origin, gender and age....

  4. On Negation as Mitigation: The Case of Negative Irony

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giora, Rachel; Fein, Ofer; Ganzi, Jonathan; Levi, Natalie Alkeslassy; Sabah, Hadas

    2005-01-01

    Four experiments support the view of negation as mitigation (Giora, Balaban, Fein, & Alkabets, 2004). They show that when irony involves some sizable gap between what is said and what is criticized (He is exceptionally bright said of an idiot), it is rated as highly ironic (Giora, 1995). A negated version of that overstatement (He is not…

  5. Intense negative heavy ion sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Yoshiharu; Takagi, Akira; Ikegami, Kiyoshi; Ueno, Akira; Fukumoto, Sadayoshi

    1990-08-01

    Negative ion sources based on plasma-surface interactions (BLAKE ion source) have been developed at KEK for producing negative heavy ions. The first negative heavy ion source (BLAKE-II) was developed by modifying the ordinary negative hydrogen ion source with converter (BLAKE-I) placed into the plasma. It generates various species of negative heavy ions with intense beam currents. For example, a more than 10 mA Au- ion beam was obtained from the ion source. Recently, the large scaled negative heavy ion source (BLAKE-III) has been developed and in the preliminary test experiment, more than 100 mA Cu- ion beam has been stably obtained with a 10% duty factor in pulsed operation. The BLAKE-II ion source was attached to the BNL 15 MV and Tsukuba University TANDEM accelerators and large current negative heavy ion beams were successfully accelerated in pulsed mode operation. Also, it was found that the space charge effect should be carefully considered for such a large current acceleration in a tandem accelerator, especially at the injection beam line and low energy end. In order to examine the negative ion formation process fundamentally, negative ion production probability related on sputtered particle velocity was measured and the results showed exponential dependence of the production probability on particle velocity as Norskov and Lindquist's theory predicted.

  6. Prestarlike functions with negative coefficients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Silverman

    1979-01-01

    Full Text Available The extreme points for prestarlike functions having negative coefficients are determined. Coefficient, distortion and radii of univalence, starlikeness, and convexity theorems are also obtained.

  7. Negative ions of polyatomic molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christophorou, LG.

    1980-01-01

    In this paper general concepts relating to, and recent advances in, the study of negative ions of polyatomic molecules are discussed with emphasis on halocarbons. The topics dealt with in the paper are as follows: basic electron attachment processes, modes of electron capture by molecules, short-lived transient negative ions, dissociative electron attachment to ground-state molecules and to hot molecules (effects of temperature on electron attachment), parent negative ions, effect of density, nature, and state of the medium on electron attachment, electron attachment to electronically excited molecules, the binding of attached electrons to molecules (electron affinity), and the basic and the applied significance of negative-ion studies

  8. Immune phenotype and body condition in roe deer: individuals with high body condition have different, not stronger immunity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuelle Gilot-Fromont

    Full Text Available An efficient immunity is necessary for host survival, but entails energetic costs. When energy is limited, immunocompetence and body condition should co-vary positively among individuals and, depending on body condition, individuals should allocate more either in innate immunity or in adaptive response. We tested whether immune phenotype depends on body condition in large mammals, using data from two contrasted populations of roe deer Capreolus capreolus in France. Roe deer living at Chizé, a forest with poor habitat quality, were expected to show lower values for body condition and immune parameters than roe deer at Trois Fontaines, a forest with high habitat quality. From 285 blood samples collected between December 2009 and March 2011, we measured seven metabolic parameters and ten immunological parameters. A Principal Component Analysis showed that all indicators of body condition co-varied positively and were lowest at Chizé. Several immunological indicators correlated to body condition and differed between Trois Fontaines and Chizé. However, high body condition was not associated to a high average level of immunocompetence, but instead to high levels of indicators of acute inflammatory innate response, while low body condition was associated to high levels of monocytes and lymphocytes, possibly reflecting adaptive immunity. Limited data suggest that the difference between populations was not related to the presence of specific parasite species, however parasite exposure and stress have to be investigated to gain a more complete understanding of the determinants of immunity.

  9. Immune phenotype and body condition in roe deer: individuals with high body condition have different, not stronger immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilot-Fromont, Emmanuelle; Jégo, Maël; Bonenfant, Christophe; Gibert, Philippe; Rannou, Benoit; Klein, François; Gaillard, Jean-Michel

    2012-01-01

    An efficient immunity is necessary for host survival, but entails energetic costs. When energy is limited, immunocompetence and body condition should co-vary positively among individuals and, depending on body condition, individuals should allocate more either in innate immunity or in adaptive response. We tested whether immune phenotype depends on body condition in large mammals, using data from two contrasted populations of roe deer Capreolus capreolus in France. Roe deer living at Chizé, a forest with poor habitat quality, were expected to show lower values for body condition and immune parameters than roe deer at Trois Fontaines, a forest with high habitat quality. From 285 blood samples collected between December 2009 and March 2011, we measured seven metabolic parameters and ten immunological parameters. A Principal Component Analysis showed that all indicators of body condition co-varied positively and were lowest at Chizé. Several immunological indicators correlated to body condition and differed between Trois Fontaines and Chizé. However, high body condition was not associated to a high average level of immunocompetence, but instead to high levels of indicators of acute inflammatory innate response, while low body condition was associated to high levels of monocytes and lymphocytes, possibly reflecting adaptive immunity. Limited data suggest that the difference between populations was not related to the presence of specific parasite species, however parasite exposure and stress have to be investigated to gain a more complete understanding of the determinants of immunity.

  10. Parenting stress mediates the association between negative affectivity and harsh parenting: A longitudinal dyadic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Yunying; Fredman, Steffany J; Feinberg, Mark E

    2017-09-01

    The current study examined parenting stress (disaggregated into personal distress and child rearing stress) at 12 months postpartum as a mediator of the longitudinal association between parental negative affectivity at 6 months postpartum and harsh parenting at 3 years postpartum for first-time parents with a child transitioning from late toddlerhood to the early preschool years. Analyses were conducted using Mediation for Actor Partner Interdependence Modeling in a sample of 164 couples who participated in a randomized controlled trial of a universal, couple-based transition to parenthood program. There were indirect actor effects of negative affect on a parent's own harsh parenting through both dimensions of parenting stress, with a stronger mediating effect for personal distress than child rearing stress. There were also indirect partner effects of negative affect on one's partner's harsh parenting through the partner's parenting stress, with a stronger indirect partner effect from mothers' negative affect to fathers' harsh parenting than vice versa. Specifically, the mediating effect of personal distress was found for both mothers and fathers, whereas the mediating effect of child rearing stress was found from mothers' negative affect to fathers' harsh parenting only. Findings highlight the importance of a dyadic approach in examining the longitudinal association between negative affect and harsh parenting and suggest that reducing parenting stress in the first year postpartum may decrease the risk of future harsh parenting among couples in which one or both partners experience negative affectivity. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Unattentive speech processing is influenced by orthographic knowledge: evidence from mismatch negativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattamadilok, Chotiga; Morais, José; Colin, Cécile; Kolinsky, Régine

    2014-10-01

    How far can acquired knowledge such as orthographic knowledge affect pre-existing abilities such as speech perception? This controversial issue was addressed by investigating the automaticity of the influence of orthographic knowledge on speech processing. Many studies demonstrated this influence in active, lexico-semantic speech processing tasks. However, it has never been observed when speech is unattended. Here, the Mismatch Negativity (MMN), an automatic index of experience-dependent auditory traces, was recorded in an unattended oddball paradigm manipulating the orthographic congruency between frequent and deviant spoken riming words. Both orthographically congruent and incongruent deviant words elicited a typical MMN over the fronto-central regions, with a stronger response in the incongruent condition. The finding showed that the orthographic dimension of spoken words influences a physiological marker of speech processing although participants were required not to attend to the auditory input. This provides evidence for an impact of acquiring a written code on speech processing. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. CD4 T cells mediate both positive and negative regulation of the immune response to HIV infection: complex role of T follicular helper cells and Regulatory T cells in pathogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chansavath ePhetsouphanh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available HIV-1 infection results in chronic activation of cells in lymphoid tissue, including T cells, B cells and myeloid lineage cells. The resulting characteristic hyperplasia is an amalgam of proliferating host immune cells in the adaptive response, increased concentrations of innate response mediators due to viral and bacterial products, and homeostatic responses to inflammation. While it is generally thought that CD4 T cells are greatly depleted, in fact, two types of CD4 T cells appear to be increased, namely regulatory T cells (Tregs and T follicular helper cells (Tfh. These cells have opposing roles, but may both be important in the pathogenic process. Whether Tregs are failing in their role to limit lymphocyte activation is unclear, but there is no doubt now that Tfh are associated with B cell hyperplasia and increased germinal centre activity. Antiretroviral therapy (ART may reduce the lymphocyte activation, but not completely, and therefore there is a need for interventions that selectively enhance normal CD4 function without exacerbating Tfh, B cell or Treg dysfunction.

  13. Different parts, different stories: climate sensitivity of growth is stronger in root collars vs. stems in tundra shrubs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ropars, Pascale; Angers-Blondin, Sandra; Gagnon, Marianne; Myers-Smith, Isla H; Lévesque, Esther; Boudreau, Stéphane

    2017-08-01

    Shrub densification has been widely reported across the circumpolar arctic and subarctic biomes in recent years. Long-term analyses based on dendrochronological techniques applied to shrubs have linked this phenomenon to climate change. However, the multi-stemmed structure of shrubs makes them difficult to sample and therefore leads to non-uniform sampling protocols among shrub ecologists, who will favor either root collars or stems to conduct dendrochronological analyses. Through a comparative study of the use of root collars and stems of Betula glandulosa, a common North American shrub species, we evaluated the relative sensitivity of each plant part to climate variables and assessed whether this sensitivity is consistent across three different types of environments in northwestern Québec, Canada (terrace, hilltop and snowbed). We found that root collars had greater sensitivity to climate than stems and that these differences were maintained across the three types of environments. Growth at the root collar was best explained by spring precipitation and summer temperature, whereas stem growth showed weak and inconsistent responses to climate variables. Moreover, sensitivity to climate was not consistent among plant parts, as individuals having climate-sensitive root collars did not tend to have climate-sensitive stems. These differences in sensitivity of shrub parts to climate highlight the complexity of resource allocation in multi-stemmed plants. Whereas stem initiation and growth are driven by microenvironmental variables such as light availability and competition, root collars integrate the growth of all plant parts instead, rendering them less affected by mechanisms such as competition and more responsive to signals of global change. Although further investigations are required to determine the degree to which these findings are generalizable across the tundra biome, our results indicate that consistency and caution in the choice of plant parts are a key

  14. Isopropylnorsynephrine is a stronger lipolytic agent in human adipocytes than synephrine and other amines present in Citrus aurantium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercader, Josep; Wanecq, Estelle; Chen, Jian; Carpéné, Christian

    2011-09-01

    The weight loss observed in consumers of extracts of Citrus aurantium (bitter orange) has been tentatively attributed to the lipolytic and thermogenic effects of the alkaloids abundant in the unripe fruit. Synephrine, octopamine, tyramine, and other alkaloids have been repeatedly identified and quantified in Citrus members of the Rutaceae family or in their extracts incorporated in dietary supplements for weight management. However, there are only scarce reports on their lipolytic action. This study aimed at comparing the acute lipolytic activity of synephrine, octopamine, tyramine, and N-methyltyramine in rat and human adipocytes. Maximal response to the prototypical β-adrenergic agonist isoprenaline was taken as reference in both species. In rat, octopamine was slightly more active than synephrine while tyramine and N-methyl tyramine did not stimulate-and even inhibited-lipolysis. In human adipocytes, none of these amines stimulated lipolysis when tested up to 10 μg/ml. At higher doses (≥100 μg/ml), tyramine and N-methyl tyramine induced only 20% of the maximal lipolysis and exhibited antilipolytic properties. Synephrine and octopamine were partially stimulatory at high doses. Since synephrine is more abundant than octopamine in C. aurantium, it should be the main responsible for the putative lipolytic action of the extracts claimed to mitigate obesity. Noteworthy, their common isopropyl derivative, isopropylnorsynephrine (also named isopropyloctopamine or betaphrine), was clearly lipolytic: active at 1 μg/ml and reproducing more than 60% of isoprenaline maximal effect in human adipocytes. This compound, not detected in C. aurantium, and which has few reported adverse effects to date, might be useful for in vivo triglyceride breakdown.

  15. Double-Negative Mechanical Metamaterials Displaying Simultaneous Negative Stiffness and Negative Poisson’s Ratio Properties

    OpenAIRE

    Hewage, Trishan A.M.; Alderson, Kim L; Alderson, Andrew; Scarpa, Fabrizio

    2016-01-01

    Intuitively, materials become both shorter and wider when compressed along their length. Here we show how a composite material or structure can display a simultaneous reversal in the direction of deformation for both the axial and transverse dimensions, corresponding to negative values of effective stiffness and effective Poisson’s ratio, respectively. A negative Poisson’s ratio[1] (NPR or auxetic[2]) host assembly stabilising (otherwise unstable) embedded negative stiffness[3] (NS) elements ...

  16. Negative supervisionsoplevelser og deres konsekvenser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jan

    2011-01-01

    in evaluation. First part of the paper explores negative experience in supervision in general. The second part, focusing on negative experience in supervision caused by evaluation, is explored and discussed in relation to the key concept of supervisory alliance (Bordin, 1983), perceiving evaluation...

  17. Research priorities for negative emissions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fuss, S.; Jones, C. D.; Kraxner, F.; Peters, G. P.; Smith, P.; Tavoni, M.; van Vuuren, Detlef; Canadell, J. G.; Jackson, R. B.; Milne, J.; Moreira, J. R.; Nakicenovic, N.; Sharifi, A.; Yamagata, Y.

    2016-01-01

    Carbon dioxide removal from the atmosphere (CDR) - also known as 'negative emissions' - features prominently in most 2 °C scenarios and has been under increased scrutiny by scientists, citizens, and policymakers. Critics argue that 'negative emission technologies' (NETs) are insufficiently mature to

  18. Income, Amenities and Negative Attitudes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waisman, Gisela; Larsen, Birthe

    2016-01-01

    We exploit the regional variation in negative attitudes towards immigrants to Sweden in order to analyse the consequences of negative attitudes on refugees’ utility from labour income and amenities. We find that attitudes towards immigrants are important: while they affect mainly the refugees...

  19. Question tags and sentential negativity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brasoveanu, A.; De Clercq, K.; Farkas, D.; Roelofsen, F.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an experiment that is designed to quantify the negativity of sentences with different types of negative operators (n-words like never and downward entailing operators like rarely) in different syntactic positions (adverb, subject, and direct object). In the experiment,

  20. Jasmonate-responsive expression of paclitaxel biosynthesis genes in Taxus cuspidata cultured cells is negatively regulated by the bHLH transcription factors TcJAMYC1, TcJAMYC2 and TcJAMYC4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangram Keshari Lenka

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Taxus cell suspension culture is a sustainable technology for the industrial production of paclitaxel (Taxol®, a highly modified diterpene anti-cancer agent. The methyl jasmonate (MJ-mediated paclitaxel biosynthetic pathway is not fully characterized, making metabolic engineering efforts difficult. Here, promoters of seven genes (TASY, T5αH, DBAT, DBBT, PAM, BAPT and DBTNBT, encoding enzymes of the paclitaxel biosynthetic pathway were isolated and used to drive MJ-inducible expression of a GUS reporter construct in transiently transformed Taxus cells, showing that elicitation of paclitaxel production by MJ is regulated at least in part at the level of transcription. The paclitaxel biosynthetic pathway promoters contained a large number of E-box sites (CANNTG, similar to the binding sites for the key MJ-inducible transcription factor AtMYC2 from Arabidopsis thaliana. Three MJ-inducible MYC transcription factors similar to AtMYC2 (TcJAMYC1, TcJAMYC2 and TcJAMYC4 were identified in Taxus. Transcriptional regulation of paclitaxel biosynthetic pathway promoters by transient over expression of TcJAMYC transcription factors indicated a negative rather than positive regulatory role of TcJAMYCs on paclitaxel biosynthetic gene expression.

  1. Inhibition of lipopolysaccharide-induced proinflammatory responses by Buddleja officinalis extract in BV-2 microglial cells via negative regulation of NF-kB and ERK1/2 signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Won-Jun; Jung, Uhee; Eom, Hyun-Soo; Shin, Hee-June; Park, Hae-Ran

    2013-07-31

    Buddleja officinalis has been traditionally used in the supportive treatment of inflammatory and neuronal diseases in Korea and China. Although several reports have shown the anti-inflammatory effects of Buddleja officinalis, the anti-neuroinflammatory effect has remained unclear. In this study, we aimed to investigate the inhibitory effects of flower buds of B. officinalis Maximowicz water extract (BOWE) on LPS-induced inflammatory processes in BV-2 microglial cells. BOWE dose-dependently inhibited the production of nitric oxide as well as iNOS mRNA expression. Moreover, BOWE prevented IL-1β and IL-6 mRNA expression. However, BOWE had no effect on LPS-induced COX-2 or TNF-a mRNA expression. The extract also had no effect on LPS-stimulated p38 MAPK, JNK, and c-Jun phosphorylation, whereas ERK1/2 phosphorylation was strongly inhibited by BOWE. BOWE also inhibited the LPS-induced degradation of IkB-α, and LPS-induced phosphorylation of p65 NF-kB protein. These data indicate that BOWE inhibited the nitric oxide production and pro-inflammatory gene expression in BV-2 microglial cells, possibly through a negative regulation of the NF-kB and ERK1/2 pathways. Further identification of the direct target molecule(s) of BOWE is required to support its use as an anti-neuroinflammatory agent against the neurodegenerative disorders.

  2. Inhibition of Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Proinflammatory Responses by Buddleja officinalis Extract in BV-2 Microglial Cells via Negative Regulation of NF-kB and ERK1/2 Signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hae-Ran Park

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Buddleja officinalis has been traditionally used in the supportive treatment of inflammatory and neuronal diseases in Korea and China. Although several reports have shown the anti-inflammatory effects of Buddleja officinalis, the anti-neuroinflammatory effect has remained unclear. In this study, we aimed to investigate the inhibitory effects of flower buds of B. officinalis Maximowicz water extract (BOWE on LPS-induced inflammatory processes in BV-2 microglial cells. BOWE dose-dependently inhibited the production of nitric oxide as well as iNOS mRNA expression. Moreover, BOWE prevented IL-1β and IL-6 mRNA expression. However, BOWE had no effect on LPS-induced COX-2 or TNF-a mRNA expression. The extract also had no effect on LPS-stimulated p38 MAPK, JNK, and c-Jun phosphorylation, whereas ERK1/2 phosphorylation was strongly inhibited by BOWE. BOWE also inhibited the LPS-induced degradation of IkB-α, and LPS-induced phosphorylation of p65 NF-kB protein. These data indicate that BOWE inhibited the nitric oxide production and pro-inflammatory gene expression in BV-2 microglial cells, possibly through a negative regulation of the NF-kB and ERK1/2 pathways. Further identification of the direct target molecule(s of BOWE is required to support its use as an anti-neuroinflammatory agent against the neurodegenerative disorders.

  3. Out-group mating threat and disease threat increase implicit negative attitudes toward the out-group among men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liga eKlavina

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available We investigated if perceiving an out-group as a threat to one’s mating opportunities enhanced the implicit negative attitudes towards that out-group. In addition, we examined the moderating effect of disease threat on the relationship between an out-group mating threat and implicit negative attitudes toward an out-group. In Experiment 1, an out-group mating threat led to stronger implicit negative out-group attitudes as measured by the Implicit Association Test, but only for men with high chronic perceived vulnerability to disease. No such effects were found among women. In Experiment 2, men in the out-group mating threat condition, who were primed with disease prevalence showed significantly stronger implicit negative attitudes towards the out-group than controls. Findings are discussed with reference to the functional approach of prejudice and sex-specific motivational reactions to different out-group threats.

  4. Nested structures approach for bulk 3D negative index materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andryieuski, Andrei; Malureanu, Radu; Lavrinenko, Andrei

    2009-01-01

    We propose a generic conceptual idea to obtain bulk 3D negative index metamaterials, which exhibit isotropic properties. The design is based on the nested structures approach, when one element providing magnetic response is inserted into another design with negative dielectric constant. Both...

  5. rhesus negative woman transfused with rhesus positive blood

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-03-01

    Mar 1, 2015 ... Keywords: Rhesus negative, alloimmunization, preg- nancy, blood transfusion, anti D immunoglobulin .... of immunogenicity4. Generally, individuals who are Rh D negative do not express the RHD gene.5 ... IgG and as little as 0.03ml of Rh D positive red blood cells (RBC) can elicit a secondary response.4.

  6. Effects of a chronic stress treatment on vaccinal response in lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Destrez, A; Boissy, A; Guilloteau, L; Andanson, S; Souriau, A; Laroucau, K; Chaillou, E; Deiss, V

    2017-05-01

    Farming systems can expose animals to chronic mild stress which is known to induce negative affective state. Affective state in animals, as in humans, can be assessed through behavioral cues. This study aimed to describe the effect of a chronic mild stress, known to induce a negative affective state, on sheep health through their response to vaccination. The study used 15 lambs subjected to a model of chronic mild stress for 15 weeks and 15 lambs reared under conventional farming as a control group. After 7 weeks of stressful treatment, the lambs were individually exposed to a judgment bias test to assess a putative stress-induced 'pessimism.' After 15 weeks of stressful treatment, antibody immune response was measured after an injection of a live vaccine challenge (Chlamydia abortus attenuated vaccine strain 1B). Stressed lambs displayed a pessimistic-like perception in the judgment bias test, revealing a negative affective state. Stressed and control animals showed different immunological reactions to vaccine challenge: stressed sheep had lower hemoglobin concentrations and higher platelet, granulocyte and acute-phase protein concentrations. Antibody response induced by the vaccine strain was not different between stressed and control sheep. Our results suggest that negative affective state induced by chronic stress treatment may induce a stronger inflammatory response to vaccine challenge in sheep. Improvement of animal health may be achieved through consideration of stressors that may affect the emotional and immunological state of sheep.

  7. Placement Disruption and Negative Placement Outcomes among Adolescents in Long-Term Foster Care: The Role of Behavior Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leathers, Sonya J.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: This study examined risk of placement disruption and negative placement outcomes (e.g., residential treatment and incarceration) among adolescents placed in traditional family foster care for a year or longer. A foster parent's report of externalizing behavior problems was expected to be a stronger predictor of disruption and negative…

  8. Reactions to perceived fairness: The impact of mortality salience and self-esteem on ratings of negative affect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, K. van den

    2001-01-01

    In correspondence with terror management theory, the findings of two experiments show that reminders of death lead to stronger effects of perceived fairness on ratings of negative affect. Furthermore, in line with the theory''s self-esteem mechanism, results of Experiment 1 suggest that state

  9. Using social capital to construct a conceptual International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health Children and Youth version-based framework for stronger inclusive education policies in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Gregor; Koutsogeorgou, Eleni

    2012-02-01

    Inclusive education is part of social inclusion; therefore, social capital can be linked to an inclusive education policy and practice. This association is explored in this article, and a practical measure is proposed. Specifically, the World Health Organization's International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health Children and Youth Version (ICF-CY) is proposed as the link between social capital and inclusive education. By mapping participation and trust indicators of social capital to the ICF-CY and by using the Matrix to Analyse Functioning in Education Systems (MAFES) to analyze the functioning of inclusive education policies and systems, a measure for stronger inclusive education policies is proposed. Such a tool can be used for policy planning and monitoring to ensure better inclusive education environments. In conclusion, combining enhanced social capital linked to stronger inclusive education policies, by using the ICF-CY, can lead to better health and well-being for all.

  10. Giant negative thermal expansion in magnetic nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, X G; Kubozono, H; Yamada, H; Kato, K; Ishiwata, Y; Xu, C N

    2008-12-01

    Most solids expand when they are heated, but a property known as negative thermal expansion has been observed in a number of materials, including the oxide ZrW2O8 (ref. 1) and the framework material ZnxCd1-x(CN)2 (refs 2,3). This unusual behaviour can be understood in terms of low-energy phonons, while the colossal values of both positive and negative thermal expansion recently observed in another framework material, Ag3[Co(CN)6], have been explained in terms of the geometric flexibility of its metal-cyanide-metal linkages. Thermal expansion can also be stopped in some magnetic transition metal alloys below their magnetic ordering temperature, a phenomenon known as the Invar effect, and the possibility of exploiting materials with tuneable positive or negative thermal expansion in industrial applications has led to intense interest in both the Invar effect and negative thermal expansion. Here we report the results of thermal expansion experiments on three magnetic nanocrystals-CuO, MnF2 and NiO-and find evidence for negative thermal expansion in both CuO and MnF2 below their magnetic ordering temperatures, but not in NiO. Larger particles of CuO and MnF2 also show prominent magnetostriction (that is, they change shape in response to an applied magnetic field), which results in significantly reduced thermal expansion below their magnetic ordering temperatures; this behaviour is not observed in NiO. We propose that the negative thermal expansion effect in CuO (which is four times larger than that observed in ZrW2O8) and MnF2 is a general property of nanoparticles in which there is strong coupling between magnetism and the crystal lattice.

  11. Isotropic Negative Thermal Expansion Metamaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lingling; Li, Bo; Zhou, Ji

    2016-07-13

    Negative thermal expansion materials are important and desirable in science and engineering applications. However, natural materials with isotropic negative thermal expansion are rare and usually unsatisfied in performance. Here, we propose a novel method to achieve two- and three-dimensional negative thermal expansion metamaterials via antichiral structures. The two-dimensional metamaterial is constructed with unit cells that combine bimaterial strips and antichiral structures, while the three-dimensional metamaterial is fabricated by a multimaterial 3D printing process. Both experimental and simulation results display isotropic negative thermal expansion property of the samples. The effective coefficient of negative thermal expansion of the proposed models is demonstrated to be dependent on the difference between the thermal expansion coefficient of the component materials, as well as on the circular node radius and the ligament length in the antichiral structures. The measured value of the linear negative thermal expansion coefficient of the three-dimensional sample is among the largest achieved in experiments to date. Our findings provide an easy and practical approach to obtaining materials with tunable negative thermal expansion on any scale.

  12. Plant diversity effects on soil microbial functions and enzymes are stronger than warming in a grassland experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinauer, Katja; Tilman, David; Wragg, Peter D; Cesarz, Simone; Cowles, Jane M; Pritsch, Karin; Reich, Peter B; Weisser, Wolfgang W; Eisenhauer, Nico

    2015-01-01

    Anthropogenic changes in biodiversity and atmospheric temperature significantly influence ecosystem processes. However, little is known about potential interactive effects of plant diversity and warming on essential ecosystem properties, such as soil microbial functions and element cycling. We studied the effects of orthogonal manipulations of plant diversity (one, four, and 16 species) and warming (ambient, +1.5 degrees C, and +3 degrees C) on soil microbial biomass, respiration, growth after nutrient additions, and activities of extracellular enzymes in 2011 and 2012 in the BAC (biodiversity and climate) perennial grassland experiment site at Cedar Creek, Minnesota, USA. Focal enzymes are involved in essential biogeochemical processes of the carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus cycles. Soil microbial biomass and some enzyme activities involved in the C and N cycle increased significantly with increasing plant diversity in both years. In addition, 16-species mixtures buffered warming induced reductions in topsoil water content. We found no interactive effects of plant diversity and warming on soil microbial biomass and growth rates. However, the activity of several enzymes (1,4-beta-glucosidase, 1,4-beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase, phosphatase, peroxidase) depended on interactions between plant diversity and warming with elevated activities of enzymes involved in the C, N, and P cycles at both high plant diversity and high warming levels. Increasing plant diversity consistently decreased microbial biomass-specific enzyme activities and altered soil microbial growth responses to nutrient additions, indicating that plant diversity changed nutrient limitations and/or microbial community composition. In contrast to our expectations, higher plant diversity only buffered temperature effects on soil water content, but not on microbial functions. Temperature effects on some soil enzymes were greatest at high plant diversity. In total, our results suggest that the fundamental

  13. 'I feel stronger and younger all the time'-perspectives of elderly kidney transplant recipients: thematic synthesis of qualitative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinter, Jule; Hanson, Camilla S; Craig, Jonathan C; Chapman, Jeremy R; Budde, Klemens; Halleck, Fabian; Tong, Allison

    2016-09-01

    Kidney transplantation offers improved survival and quality of life to an increasing number of elderly patients with end-stage kidney disease. However, elderly kidney transplant recipients may face unique challenges due to a higher burden of comorbidity, greater cumulative risk of immunosuppression-related complications and increasing frailty. We aimed to describe the perspectives of elderly kidney transplant recipients. Electronic databases were searched to April 2015. Qualitative studies were eligible if they reported views from elderly kidney transplant recipients (≥60 years). Thematic synthesis was used to analyse the findings. Twenty-one studies involving >116 recipients were included. We identified seven themes. 'Regaining strength and vitality' meant valuing the physical and psychosocial improvements in daily functioning and life participation. 'Extending life' was the willingness to accept any organ, including extended criteria kidneys, to prolong survival. 'Debt of gratitude' entailed conscious appreciation toward their donor while knowing they were unable to repay their sacrifice. 'Moral responsibility to maintain health' motivated adherence to medication and lifestyle recommendations out of an ethical duty to protect their gift for graft survival. 'Unabating and worsening forgetfulness' hindered self-management. 'Disillusionment with side effects and complications' reflected disappointment and exasperation with the unintended consequences of medications. 'Finality of treatment option' was an acute awareness that the current transplant may be their last. Kidney transplantation was perceived to slow and even reverse the experience of aging among elderly recipients, especially compared with dialysis. However, some were frustrated over persistent limitations after transplant, struggled with the burden of medication side effects and worried about a possible return to dialysis if the transplant failed. Clarifying patient expectations of transplantation

  14. Brief learning induces a memory bias for arousing-negative words: an fMRI study in high and low trait anxious persons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eden, Annuschka S.; Dehmelt, Vera; Bischoff, Matthias; Zwitserlood, Pienie; Kugel, Harald; Keuper, Kati; Zwanzger, Peter; Dobel, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Persons suffering from anxiety disorders display facilitated processing of arousing and negative stimuli, such as negative words. This memory bias is reflected in better recall and increased amygdala activity in response to such stimuli. However, individual learning histories were not considered in most studies, a concern that we meet here. Thirty-four female persons (half with high-, half with low trait anxiety) participated in a criterion-based associative word-learning paradigm, in which neutral pseudowords were paired with aversive or neutral pictures, which should lead to a valence change for the negatively paired pseudowords. After learning, pseudowords were tested with fMRI to investigate differential brain activation of the amygdala evoked by the newly acquired valence. Explicit and implicit memory was assessed directly after training and in three follow-ups at 4-day intervals. The behavioral results demonstrate that associative word-learning leads to an explicit (but no implicit) memory bias for negatively linked pseudowords, relative to neutral ones, which confirms earlier studies. Bilateral amygdala activation underlines the behavioral effect: Higher trait anxiety is correlated with stronger amygdala activation for negatively linked pseudowords than for neutrally linked ones. Most interestingly, this effect is also present for negatively paired pseudowords that participants could not remember well. Moreover, neutrally paired pseudowords evoked higher amygdala reactivity than completely novel ones in highly anxious persons, which can be taken as evidence for generalization. These findings demonstrate that few word-learning trials generate a memory bias for emotional stimuli, indexed both behaviorally and neurophysiologically. Importantly, the typical memory bias for emotional stimuli and the generalization to neutral ones is larger in high anxious persons. PMID:26347689

  15. Brief learning induces a memory bias for arousing-negative words: An fMRI study in high and low trait anxious persons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annuschka Salima Eden

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Persons suffering from anxiety disorders display facilitated processing of arousing and negative stimuli, such as negative words. This memory bias is reflected in better recall and increased amygdala activity in response to such stimuli. However, individual learning histories were not considered in most studies, a concern that we meet here. Thirty-four female persons (half with high-, half with low trait anxiety participated in a criterion-based associative word-learning paradigm, in which neutral pseudowords were paired with aversive or neutral pictures, which should lead to a valence change for the negatively paired pseudowords. After learning, pseudowords were tested with fMRI to investigate differential brain activation of the amygdala evoked by the newly acquired valence. Explicit and implicit memory was assessed directly after training and in three follow-ups at four-day intervals. The behavioral results demonstrate that associative word-learning leads to an explicit (but no implicit memory bias for negatively linked pseudowords, relative to neutral ones, which confirms earlier studies. Bilateral amygdala activation underlines the behavioral effect: Higher trait anxiety is correlated with stronger amygdala activation for negatively linked pseudowords than for neutrally linked ones. Most interestingly, this effect is also present for negatively paired pseudowords that participants could not remember well. Moreover, neutrally paired pseudowords evoked higher amygdala reactivity than completely novel ones in highly anxious persons, which can be taken as evidence for generalization. These findings demonstrate that few word-learning trials generate a memory bias for emotional stimuli, indexed both behaviorally and neurophysiologically. Importantly, the typical memory bias for emotional stimuli and the generalization to neutral ones is larger in high anxious persons.

  16. Negative Attitudes, Network and Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennett, Patrick; la Cour, Lisbeth; Larsen, Birthe

    This paper explores potential explanations behind the educational gap between young natives and immigrants using two measures, negative attitudes towards immigrants and networking, which may influence natives and immigrants differently. The paper considers, both theoretically and empirically......, the impact of negative attitudes and networking taking into account that these parameters may influence high and uneducated workers as well as immigrants and natives differently, creating different incentives to acquire education for the two ethnic groups. Using rich Danish administrative data, this paper...... finds evidence that greater negative attitudes increase incentives for males to acquire education and that networking also increases immigrant education....

  17. Mazindol treatment of negative symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, W T; Breier, A; Buchanan, R W; Kirkpatrick, B; Shepard, P; Weiner, E

    2000-10-01

    Hypodopaminergic and hyponoradrenergic pathophysiology may be a basis for primary and/or secondary negative symptoms in schizophrenia. The hypothesis that enhanced neurotransmission in these systems would be therapeutic for negative symptoms was tested by comparing mazindol and placebo in a double-blind, cross-over design trial. Outcome following mazindol supplementation was comparable to placebo supplementation (F(1,30) = 0.9; p = .57). Results for deficit and non-deficit schizophrenia subjects were similar, and were not affected by whether concurrent the antipsychotic drug treatment was clozapine, fluphenazine, or haloperidol. The efficacy hypothesis was not supported for either primary or secondary negative symptoms.

  18. [APPLICATION OF NEGATIVE PRESSURE THERAPY].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laginja, S; Marinović, M

    2016-01-01

    Negative pressure therapy is gradually taking an increasingly important role in the treatment of chronic wound healing because of its simple application in hospital or outpatient setting and good comfort with no pain for the patient. Chronic wound healing is accelerated in comparison with other conservative treatments. The level of negative pressure is between 40 and 125 mm Hg below ambient. Direct and indirect effect of the negative pressure therapy helps in wound healing and provides good preparation for definitive surgical management of wounds.

  19. Fragility of happiness moderates the influence of negative predictors of subjective well-Being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshanloo, Mohsen

    2018-03-01

    Valuing happiness, negative life circumstances, and neuroticism have been found to negatively predict subjective well-being (SWB). It was hypothesized that holding fragility of happiness beliefs (the belief that happiness is fleeting and may easily turn into less favorable states) would moderate the relationships between these predictors and SWB. The sample consisted of 338 Korean participants who responded to an online survey (M age  = 26.19). Multiple regression with centered variables was used to test the hypotheses. Consistent with the hypotheses, the results showed that fragility of happiness had an exacerbating effect on these negative associations. That is, the negative relationships between the predictors and SWB were stronger for individuals who reported higher fragility of happiness. These results indicate that people's notions of the nature of well-being may come to exacerbate the impact of negative predictors of SWB.

  20. If you negate, you may forget: negated repetitions impair memory compared with affirmative repetitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo, Ruth; Schul, Yaacov; Rosenthal, Meytal

    2014-08-01

    One of the most robust laws of memory is that repeated activation improves memory. Our study shows that the nature of repetition matters. Specifically, although both negated repetition and affirmative repetition improve memory compared with no repetition, negated repetition hinders memory compared with affirmative repetition. After showing participants different entities, we asked them about features of these entities, leading to either "yes" or "no" responses. Our findings show that correctly negating an incorrect feature of an entity elicits an active forgetting effect compared with correctly affirming its true features. For example, after seeing someone drink a glass of white wine, answering "no" to "was it red wine?" may lead one to greater memory loss of the individual drinking wine at all compared with answering "yes" to "was it white wine?" We find this negation-induced forgetting effect in 4 experiments that differ in (a) the meaning given for the negation, (b) the type of stimuli (visual or verbal), and (c) the memory measure (recognition or free recall). We discuss possible underlying mechanisms and offer theoretical and applied implications of the negation-induced forgetting effect in relation to other known inhibition effects. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  1. Adjective metaphors evoke negative meanings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maki Sakamoto

    Full Text Available Previous metaphor studies have paid much attention to nominal metaphors and predicative metaphors, but little attention has been given to adjective metaphors. Although some studies have focused on adjective metaphors, they only examined differences in the acceptability of various types of adjective metaphors. This paper explores the cognitive effects evoked by adjective metaphors. Three psychological experiments revealed that (1 adjective metaphors, especially those modified by color adjectives, tend to evoke negative effect; (2 although the meanings of metaphors are basically affected by the meanings of their vehicles, when a vehicle has a neutral meaning, negative meanings are evoked most frequently for adjective metaphors compared to nominal and predicative metaphors; (3 negative meanings evoked by adjective metaphors are related to poeticness, and poetic metaphors evoke negative meanings more easily than less poetic metaphors. Our research sheds new light on studies of the use of metaphor, which is one of the most basic human cognitive abilities.

  2. Ferroelectric Negative Capacitance Domain Dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Hoffmann, Michael; Khan, Asif Islam; Serrao, Claudy; Lu, Zhongyuan; Salahuddin, Sayeef; Pešić, Milan; Slesazeck, Stefan; Schroeder, Uwe; Mikolajick, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Transient negative capacitance effects in epitaxial ferroelectric Pb(Zr$_{0.2}$Ti$_{0.8}$)O$_3$ capacitors are investigated with a focus on the dynamical switching behavior governed by domain nucleation and growth. Voltage pulses are applied to a series connection of the ferroelectric capacitor and a resistor to directly measure the ferroelectric negative capacitance during switching. A time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau approach is used to investigate the underlying domain dynamics. The transien...

  3. Negative magnetic relaxation in superconductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krasnoperov E.P.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available It was observed that the trapped magnetic moment of HTS tablets or annuli increases in time (negative relaxation if they are not completely magnetized by a pulsed magnetic field. It is shown, in the framework of the Bean critical-state model, that the radial temperature gradient appearing in tablets or annuli during a pulsed field magnetization can explain the negative magnetic relaxation in the superconductor.

  4. Use of Negation in Search

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    as of May 2010, produced a large number of images of Volkswagen Beetles as shown in Figure 8. After indicating they were ready to proceed... Volkswagen 1 beetle -VW -car 1 beetle –car - Volkswagen 1 beetle -VW - Volkswagen 1 beetle -VW -car - Volkswagen 1 black beetle Not within first 30...that had many Volkswagen Beetles in the results, why did you choose not to use negation?] 9. [Do you think that negation would have been useful in

  5. Effects of Aversive Classical Conditioning on Sexual Response in Women With Dyspareunia and Sexually Functional Controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Both, Stephanie; Brauer, Marieke; Weijenborg, Philomeen; Laan, Ellen

    2017-05-01

    In dyspareunia-a somatically unexplained vulvovaginal pain associated with sexual intercourse-learned pain-related fear and inhibited sexual arousal are supposed to play a pivotal role. Based on research findings indicating that enhanced pain conditioning is involved in the etiology and maintenance of chronic pain, in the present study it was hypothesized that enhanced pain conditioning also might be involved in dyspareunia. To test whether learned associations between pain and sex negatively affect sexual response; whether women with dyspareunia show stronger aversive learning; and whether psychological distress, pain-related anxiety, vigilance, catastrophizing, and sexual excitation and inhibition were associated with conditioning effects. Women with dyspareunia (n = 36) and healthy controls (n = 35) completed a differential conditioning experiment, with one erotic picture (the CS + ) paired with a painful unconditional stimulus and one erotic picture never paired with pain (the CS - ). Genital sexual response was measured by vaginal photoplethysmography, and ratings of affective value and sexual arousal in response to the CS + and CS - were obtained. Psychological distress, pain cognitions, and sexual excitation and inhibition were assessed by validated questionnaires. The two groups showed stronger negative affect and weaker subjective sexual arousal to the CS + during the extinction phase, but, contrary to expectations, women with dyspareunia showed weaker differential responding. Controls showed more prominent lower genital response to the CS + during acquisition than women with dyspareunia. In addition, women with dyspareunia showed stronger expectancy for the unconditional stimulus in response to the safe CS - . Higher levels of pain-related fear, pain catastrophizing, and sexual inhibition were associated with weaker differential conditioning effects. Pairing of sex with pain negatively affects sexual response. The results indicate that a learned

  6. SM-1 negative ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Zhenjun; Wang Jianzhen

    1987-01-01

    The working principle and characteristics of SM-1 Negative Ion Source is mainly introduced. In the instrument, there is a device to remove O 3 . This instrument can keep high density of negative ions which is generated by the electrical coronas setting out electricity at negative high voltage and can remove the O 3 component which is harmful to the human body. The density of negative ions is higher than 2.5 x 10 6 p./cm 3 while that of O 3 components is less than 1 ppb at the distance of 50 cm from the panel of the instrument. The instrument sprays negative ions automatically without the help of electric fan, so it works noiselessly. It is widely used in national defence, industry, agriculture, forestry, stock raising, sidelines and in the places with an equipment of low density of negative ion or high concentration of O 3 components. Besides, the instrument may also be used to treat diseases, to prevent against rot, to arrest bacteria, to purify air and so on

  7. Different physiological responses of cyanobacteria to ultraviolet-B radiation under iron-replete and iron-deficient conditions: Implications for underestimating the negative effects of UV-B radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zheng-Ke; Dai, Guo-Zheng; Juneau, Philippe; Qiu, Bao-Sheng

    2017-04-01

    Iron deficiency has been considered one of the main limiting factors of phytoplankton productivity in some aquatic systems including oceans and lakes. Concomitantly, solar ultraviolet-B radiation has been shown to have both deleterious and positive impacts on phytoplankton productivity. However, how iron-deficient cyanobacteria respond to