Sample records for stronger employment outcomes

  1. Conservatives Anticipate and Experience Stronger Emotional Reactions to Negative Outcomes. (United States)

    Joel, Samantha; Burton, Caitlin M; Plaks, Jason E


    The present work examined whether conservatives and liberals differ in their anticipation of their own emotional reactions to negative events. In two studies, participants imagined experiencing positive or negative outcomes in domains that do not directly concern politics. In Study 1, 190 American participants recruited online (64 male, Mage  = 32 years) anticipated their emotional responses to romantic relationship outcomes. In Study 2, 97 Canadian undergraduate students (26 male, Mage  = 21 years) reported on their anticipated and experienced emotional responses to academic outcomes. In both studies, more conservative participants predicted they would feel stronger negative emotions following negative outcomes than did more liberal participants. Furthermore, a longitudinal follow-up of Study 2 participants revealed that more conservative participants actually felt worse than more liberal participants after receiving a lower-than-desired exam grade. These effects remained even when controlling for the Big Five traits, prevention focus, and attachment style (Study 1), and optimism (Study 2). We discuss how the relationship between political orientation and anticipated affect likely contributes to differences between conservatives and liberals in styles of decision and policy choices. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Maternal employment and birth outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wüst, Miriam

    I use Danish survey and administrative data to examine the impact of maternal employment during pregnancy on birth outcomes. As healthier mothers are more likely to work and health shocks to mothers may impact employment and birth outcomes, I combine two strategies: First, I control extensively f...... explanation, namely, that exclusion from employment may stress mothers in countries with high-female employment rates....

  3. Stronger Federal Efforts Needed for Providing Employment Opportunities and Enforcing Labor Standards in Sheltered Workshops. (United States)


    assistance, through loans or 1/Mental retardation, cerebral palsy, epilepsy, autism, and severe dyslexia were conditions generally accepted as constituting...SUBMINIMUM WAGE GUARANTEE Special treatment of the handicapped was recognized because many individuals cannot successfully compete for jobs at the statu...employing the blind preferential treatment in Government contracting, second only to the Federal Prison Industries, Inc., to provide employment and

  4. Stronger synergies

    CERN Document Server

    Antonella Del Rosso


    CERN was founded 58 years ago under the auspices of UNESCO. Since then, both organisations have grown to become world leaders in their respective fields. The links between the two have always existed but today they are even stronger, with new projects under way to develop a more efficient way of exchanging information and devise a common strategy on topics of mutual interest.   CERN and UNESCO are a perfect example of natural partners: their common field is science and education is one of the pillars on which both are built. Historically, they share a common heritage. Both UNESCO and CERN were born of the desire to use scientific cooperation to rebuild peace and security in the aftermath of the Second World War. "Recently, building on our common roots and in close collaboration with UNESCO, we have been developing more structured links to ensure the continuity of the actions taken over the years," says Maurizio Bona, who is in charge of CERN relations with international orga...

  5. Employability and Employment Outcomes of No-Fee Preservice Students (United States)

    Jin, Yule; Li, Ling; Ding, Shujing; Li, Zhichao


    This study used interviews and questionnaires to survey 770 no-fee preservice students. Its findings were as follows: (1) Their employability encompasses five dimensions: teaching skills, ability to learn specialized knowledge, ability to grasp elementary and secondary teaching materials and methods, communication skills, and ability to apply for…

  6. Mismatch negativity is a stronger indicator of functional outcomes than neurocognition or theory of mind in patients with schizophrenia. (United States)

    Lee, Seung-Hwan; Sung, Kyongae; Lee, Kyong-Sang; Moon, Eunok; Kim, Chang-Gyu


    Mismatch negativity (MMN) is known to be associated with neurocognition, social cognition, and functional outcomes. The present study explored the relationships of MMN with neurocognition, theory of mind, and functional outcomes in patients with schizophrenia, first-degree relatives of patients with schizophrenia, and healthy controls. Twenty-five patients with schizophrenia, 21 first-degree relatives of patients with schizophrenia, and 29 healthy controls were recruited. We examined symptom severity, neurocognition, theory of mind, functional outcomes, and MMN. MMN amplitudes decreased in order of patients with schizophrenia, then first-degree relatives, then healthy controls. MMN amplitude was significantly correlated with measures of neurocognition, theory of mind, and functional outcome measurements in patients with schizophrenia. However, the most powerful correlations were those between MMN in the frontal region and measures of functional outcomes. The power and frequency of the correlations were weaker in first-degree relatives and healthy controls than in patients with schizophrenia. Hierarchical regression analysis revealed that functional outcomes (relative to measures of neurocognition and theory of mind) constituted the most powerful predictor of MMN. Our results suggest that MMN reflects functional outcomes more efficiently than do measures of neurocognition and theory of mind in patients with schizophrenia. © 2013.

  7. Academic Labor Markets and Assistant Professors' Employment Outcomes (United States)

    Hargens, Lowell L.


    Using data for 638 assistant professors who joined graduate sociology departments between 1975 and 1992, I examine the claim that when the labor market for new doctorates is weak, assistant professors experience less favorable employment outcomes than when that labor market is strong. Surprisingly, I find that those hired during the weak…

  8. Virtual reality job interview training and 6-month employment outcomes for individuals with schizophrenia seeking employment. (United States)

    Smith, Matthew J; Fleming, Michael F; Wright, Michael A; Roberts, Andrea G; Humm, Laura Boteler; Olsen, Dale; Bell, Morris D


    Individuals with schizophrenia have low employment rates and the job interview presents a critical barrier for them to obtain employment. Virtual reality training has demonstrated efficacy at improving interview skills and employment outcomes among multiple clinical populations. However, the effects of this training on individuals with schizophrenia are unknown. This study evaluated the efficacy of virtual reality job interview training (VR-JIT) at improving job interview skills and employment outcomes among individuals with schizophrenia in a small randomized controlled trial (n=21 VR-JIT trainees, n=11 waitlist controls). Trainees completed up to 10h of virtual interviews using VR-JIT, while controls received services as usual. Primary outcome measures included two pre-test and two post-test video-recorded role-play interviews scored by blinded raters with expertise in human resources and self-reported interviewing self-confidence. Six-month follow-up data on employment outcomes were collected. Trainees reported that the intervention was easy-to-use, helpful, and prepared them for future interviews. Trainees demonstrated increased role-play scores between pre-test and post-test while controls did not (p=0.001). After accounting for neurocognition and months since prior employment, trainees had greater odds of receiving a job offer by 6month follow-up compared to controls (OR: 8.73, p=0.04) and more training was associated with fewer weeks until receiving a job offer (r=-0.63, pjob interview skills in individuals with schizophrenia. Moreover, trainees had greater odds of receiving a job offer by 6-month follow-up. Future studies could evaluate the effectiveness of VR-JIT within community-based services. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Pharma rebates, pharmacy benefit managers and employer outcomes. (United States)

    Ali, Ozden Gür; Mantrala, Murali


    Corporate employers contract with pharmacy benefit managers (PBMs) with the goals of lowering their employee prescription drug coverage costs while maintaining health care quality. However, little is known about how employer-PBM contract elements and brand drugmakers' rebates combine to influence a profit-maximizing PBM's actions, and the impact of those actions on the employer's outcomes. To shed more light on these issues, the authors build and analyze a mathematical simulation model of a competitive pharmaceutical market comprised of one generic and two branded drugs, and involving a PBM contracted by a corporate employer to help it lower prescription drug costs while achieving a minimum desired quality of health care for its employees. The brand drugmakers' rebate offers, the PBM's assignment of drugs to formulary tiers, and the resulting employer outcomes under varying contracts and pharma brand marketing mix environmental scenarios are analyzed to provide insights. The findings include that the pharma brands offer rebates for the PBM's ability to move prescription share away from the unpreferred brand, but reduce these offers when the PBM's contract requires it to proactively influence physicians to prescribe the generic drug alternative. Further, Pareto optimal contracts that provide the highest health benefit for a given employer cost budget for the employer are analyzed to provide managerial implications. They are found to involve strong PBM influence on physician prescribing to discourage unpreferred brands, as well as high patient copayment requirements for unpreferred brands to align the patient prescription fill probability with the formulary, while other copayment requirements provide an instrument to determine the level of desired health benefit-cost tradeoff.

  10. Leveraging Employer Practices in Global Regulatory Frameworks to Improve Employment Outcomes for People with Disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew C. Saleh


    Full Text Available Work is an important part of life, providing both economic security and a forum to contribute one’s talents and skills to society, thereby anchoring the individual in a social role. However, access to work is not equally available to people with disabilities globally. Regulatory environments that prohibit discrimination and support vocational training and educational opportunities constitute a critical first step toward economic independence. However, they have not proven sufficient in themselves. In this article, we aim to infuse deeper consideration of employer practice and demand-side policy reforms into global policy discussions of the right to work for people with disabilities. We begin by documenting the employment and economic disparities existing for people with disabilities globally, followed by a description of the international, regional, and local regulatory contexts aiming to improve labor market outcomes for people with disabilities. Next, we examine how policies can leverage employer interests to further address inequalities. We discuss employer policies and practices demonstrated in the research to facilitate recruitment, hiring, career development, retention, and meaningful workplace inclusion. The goal of the article is to synthesize existing international literature on employment rights for people with disabilities with the employer perspective.

  11. Depression Care Management: Can Employers Purchase Improved Outcomes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn Rost


    Full Text Available Fourteen vendors are currently selling depression care management products to US employers after randomized trials demonstrate improved work outcomes. The research team interviewed 10 (71.4% of these vendors to compare their products to four key components of interventions demonstrated to improve work outcomes. Five of 10 depression products incorporate all four key components, three of which are sold by health maintenance organizations (HMOs; however, HMOs did not deliver these components at the recommended intensity and/or duration. Only one product delivered by a disease management company delivered all four components of care at the recommended intensity and duration. This “voltage drop,” which we anticipate will increase with product implementation, suggests that every delivery system should carefully evaluate the design of its depression product before implementation for its capacity to deliver evidence-based care, repeating these evaluations as new evidence emerges.

  12. Complex Karyotype is a Stronger Predictor than Del(17p) for Inferior Outcome in Relapsed or Refractory CLL Patients Treated with Ibrutinib-Based Regimens (United States)

    Thompson, Philip A.; O’Brien, Susan M.; Wierda, William G.; Ferrajoli, Alessandra; Stingo, Francesco; Smith, Susan C.; Burger, Jan A.; Estrov, Zeev; Jain, Nitin; Kantarjian, Hagop M.; Keating, Michael J.


    Background Ibrutinib is active in patients with relapsed/refractory (R/R) CLL. In patients treated with ibrutinib for R/R CLL, del(17p) identified by interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is associated with inferior progression-free survival, despite equivalent initial response rates. Del(17p) is frequently associated with complex metaphase karyotype (CKT); the prognostic significance of CKT in ibrutinib-treated patients has not been reported. Methods We reviewed 88 patients treated for R/R CLL at MD Anderson Cancer Center with investigational ibrutinib-based regimens from 2010–2013. Pre-treatment FISH and Lipopolysaccharide-stimulated metaphase cytogenetic analysis were performed on bone marrow. Results Adequate pre-treatment metaphase karyotype was available for 56/88 patients. Karyotype was complex in 21 of 56 cases; 17 of the 21 had del(17p) by FISH. Overall response rate, including partial remission with persistent lymphocytosis, was 94% with 17% complete responses. In multivariable analysis (MVA), only CKT was significantly associated with event-free survival (EFS) [HR 6.6 (1.7–25.6), p=0.006]. Fludarabine-refractory CLL [HR 6.9 (1.8–27.1), p=0.005] and CKT [HR 5.9 (1.6–22.2), p=0.008] were independently associated with inferior overall survival (OS) in MVA. Del(17p) by FISH was not significantly associated with EFS or OS in MVA. Conclusions CKT is a powerful predictor of outcome in ibrutinib-treated patients with R/R CLL and may be a stronger predictor of biological behavior than del(17p) by FISH. Given their relatively poor outcomes, patients with CKT are ideal candidates for studies of consolidative treatment strategies or novel treatment combinations. PMID:26193999

  13. Interventions for improving employment outcomes for workers with HIV. (United States)

    Robinson, Rachel; Okpo, Emmanuel; Mngoma, Nomusa


    The vast majority of people infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are adults of working age. Therefore unemployment and job loss resulting from HIV infection are major public health and economic concerns. Return to work (RTW) after diagnosis of HIV is a long and complex process, particularly if the individual has been absent from work for long periods. There have been various efforts to improve the RTW of persons living with HIV (HIV+), and many of these have been assessed formally in intervention studies. To evaluate the effect of interventions aimed at sustaining and improving employment in HIV+ persons. We conducted a comprehensive search from 1981 until December 2014 in the following databases: Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, OSH UPDATE databases (CISDOC, HSELINE, NIOSHTIC, NIOSHTIC-2, RILOSH), and PsycINFO. We considered for inclusion all randomized controlled trials (RCTs) or controlled before-after (CBA) studies assessing the effectiveness of pharmacological, vocational and psychological interventions with HIV+ working-aged (16 years or older) participants that had used RTW or other indices of employment as outcomes. Two review authors independently screened all potential references for inclusion. We determined final selection of studies by consensus. We performed data extraction and management, as well as Risk of bias assessment, in duplicate. We measured the treatment effect using odds ratio (OR) for binary outcomes and mean difference (MD) for continuous outcomes. We applied the GRADE approach to appraise the quality of the evidence. We found one RCT with 174 participants and five CBAs with 48,058 participants assessing the effectiveness of vocational training (n = 1) and antiretroviral therapy (ART) (n = 5). We found no studies assessing psychological interventions. The one RCT was conducted in the United States; the five CBA studies were conducted in South Africa, India, Kenya, and Uganda. We

  14. Prospects for stronger calandria tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ells, C.E.; Coleman, C.E.; Hosbons, R.R.; Ibrahim, E.F.; Doubt, G.L.


    The CANDU calandria tubes, made of seam welded and annealed Zircaloy-2, have given exemplary service in-reactor. Although not designed as a system pressure containment, calandria tubes may remain intact even in the face of pressure tube rupture. One such incident at Pickering Unit 2 demonstrated the economic advantage of such an outcome, and a case can be made for increasing the probability that other calandria tubes would perform in a similar fashion. Various methods of obtaining stronger calandria tubes are available, and reviewed here. When the tubes are internally pressurized, the weld is the weak section of the tube. Increasing the oxygen concentration in the starting sheet, and thickening the weld, are promising routes to a stronger tube

  15. Employer Practices in Improving Employment Outcomes for People with Disabilities: A Transdisciplinary and Employer-Inclusive Research Approach (United States)

    Barrington, Linda; Bruyère, M.; Waelder, Margaret


    Objective: Share new knowledge about workplace practices related to employer success in hiring, retaining, and promoting people with disabilities, and promote use of findings to employers and service providers. Design: A transdisciplinary and multifaceted data gathering approach. Results: Provides an overview of the research approach taken and the…

  16. Effects of an employer-based intervention on employment outcomes for youth with significant support needs due to autism. (United States)

    Wehman, Paul; Schall, Carol M; McDonough, Jennifer; Graham, Carolyn; Brooke, Valerie; Riehle, J Erin; Brooke, Alissa; Ham, Whitney; Lau, Stephanie; Allen, Jaclyn; Avellone, Lauren


    The purpose of this study was to develop and investigate an employer-based 9-month intervention for high school youth with autism spectrum disorder to learn job skills and acquire employment. The intervention modified a program titled Project SEARCH and incorporated the use of applied behavior analysis to develop Project SEARCH plus Autism Spectrum Disorder Supports. A randomized clinical trial compared the implementation of Project SEARCH plus Autism Spectrum Disorder Supports with high school special education services as usual. Participants were 49 high-school-aged individuals between the ages of 18 and 21 years diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder and eligible for supported employment. Students also had to demonstrate independent self-care. At 3 months post-graduation, 90% of the treatment group acquired competitive, part-time employment earning US$9.53-US$10.66 per hour. Furthermore, 87% of those individuals maintained employment at 12 months post-graduation. The control group's employment outcomes were 6% acquiring employment by 3 months post-graduation and 12% acquiring employment by 12 months post-graduation. The positive employment outcomes generated by the treatment group provide evidence that youth with autism spectrum disorder can gain and maintain competitive employment. Additionally, there is evidence that they are able to advance within that time toward more weekly hours worked, while they also displayed increasing independence in the work setting.

  17. HR practices for enhancing sustainable employability : implementation, use, and outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ybema, Jan Fekke; van Vuuren, Tinka; van Dam, Karen


    With the aging of the workforce, organizations need to maintain or improve the sustainable employability of their workforce throughout their working life. This raises the question which HR practices increase workers’ sustainable employability at work. The aim of this study is to investigate the

  18. Mental Illness and Labour Market Outcomes: Employment and Earnings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westergård-Nielsen, Niels Chr.; Agerbo, Esben; Eriksson, Tor Viking


    after hospital treatment is about 35% lower for cases than for controls and varies somewhat depending on diagnosis. On average, those who keep their jobs have 20% lower earnings compared to a control group. We use longitudinal data from labour market registers covering a 5% sample of the Danish adult......This paper investigates the effect of severe mental illness on the capacity to hold a job and to earn an income. We find that the employment rate is reduced with about 1/3 during the development of the disease. Hospital admission seems to stabilize employment for all diagnoses. The employment rate...

  19. Longitudinal Effects of Domestic Violence on Employment and Welfare Outcomes (United States)

    Lindhorst, Taryn; Oxford, Monica; Gillmore, Mary Rogers


    This study uses longitudinal data spanning 13 years from a study of 234 adolescent mothers to evaluate the effects of cumulative domestic violence on employment and welfare use before and after welfare reform. Domestic violence increased the odds of unemployment after welfare reform, but not before; domestic violence had no effect on welfare use…

  20. Project SEARCH UK--Evaluating Its Employment Outcomes (United States)

    Kaehne, Axel


    Background: The study reports the findings of an evaluation of Project SEARCH UK. The programme develops internships for young people with intellectual disabilities who are about to leave school or college. The aim of the evaluation was to investigate at what rate Project SEARCH provided employment opportunities to participants. Methods: The…

  1. Is education an engine for immigrants' employment outcome?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zorlu, A.


    This paper assesses the role of (foreign) education in determining the adjustment profile of immigrants in employment using the Dutch Labour Force Survey and regression analysis techniques. The disadvantaged labour market position of immigrants from developing countries is often linked to their

  2. Frailty, prefrailty and employment outcomes in Health and Employment After Fifty (HEAF) Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palmer, Keith T; D'Angelo, Stefania; Harris, E Clare; Linaker, Cathy; Gale, Catharine R; Evandrou, Maria; Syddall, Holly; Staa, Tjeerd P van; Cooper, Cyrus; Aihie Sayer, Avan; Coggon, David; Walker-Bone, Karen

    OBJECTIVES: Demographic changes are requiring people to work longer. No previous studies, however, have focused on whether the 'frailty' phenotype (which predicts adverse events in the elderly) is associated with employment difficulties. To provide information, we assessed associations in the Health

  3. A Comparison of Quality of Life Outcomes for People with Intellectual Disabilities in Supported Employment, Day Services and Employment Enterprises (United States)

    Beyer, Stephen; Brown, Tony; Akandi, Rachel; Rapley, Mark


    Background: Policy objectives for people with intellectual disabilities include day service modernization and the promotion of paid employment and quality of life. Quality of life is under represented as an outcome measure in vocational research. This research compares subjective and objective quality of life, and quality of work environment for…

  4. Close to Home: Employment Outcomes for Recent Radiation Oncology Graduates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, Awad A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Sylvester Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Miami Health System, Miami, Florida (United States); Holliday, Emma B. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Ileto, Jan [New York University, New York, New York (United States); Yoo, Stella K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California (United States); Green, Michael [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Orman, Amber [Department of Radiation Oncology, H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute, Tampa, Florida (United States); Deville, Curtiland [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Jagsi, Reshma [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Haffty, Bruce G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Rutgers-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, New Brunswick, New Jersey (United States); Wilson, Lynn D., E-mail: [Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale School of Medicine and Yale Cancer Center, New Haven, Connecticut (United States)


    Purpose: To characterize the practice type and location of radiation oncology (RO) residents graduating in 2013. Methods and Materials: Graduates completing RO residency in 2013 were identified, and for each, postgraduate practice setting (academic vs private practice) and location were identified. Characteristics of the graduates, including details regarding their institutions of medical school and residency education, were collected and analyzed. Results: Data were obtained from 146 of the 154 RO graduates from the class of 2013. Employment data were available for 142 graduates. Approximately one-third of graduates were employed in the same state as residency (36.6%), approximately two-thirds (62.0%) in the same region as residency, and nearly three-fourths (73.9%) in the same region as medical school or residency completion. Of the 66 graduates (46.5%) working in academics, 40.9% were at the same institution where they completed residency. Most trainees (82.4%) attended medical schools with RO residency programs. Conclusions: Although personal factors may attract students to train in a particular area, the location of medical school and residency experiences may influence RO graduate practice location choice. Trends in the geographic distribution of graduating radiation oncologists can help identify and better understand disparities in access to RO care. Steps to improve access to RO care may include interventions at the medical student or resident level, such as targeting students at medical schools without associated residency programs and greater resident exposure to underserved areas.

  5. Close to Home: Employment Outcomes for Recent Radiation Oncology Graduates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, Awad A.; Holliday, Emma B.; Ileto, Jan; Yoo, Stella K.; Green, Michael; Orman, Amber; Deville, Curtiland; Jagsi, Reshma; Haffty, Bruce G.; Wilson, Lynn D.


    Purpose: To characterize the practice type and location of radiation oncology (RO) residents graduating in 2013. Methods and Materials: Graduates completing RO residency in 2013 were identified, and for each, postgraduate practice setting (academic vs private practice) and location were identified. Characteristics of the graduates, including details regarding their institutions of medical school and residency education, were collected and analyzed. Results: Data were obtained from 146 of the 154 RO graduates from the class of 2013. Employment data were available for 142 graduates. Approximately one-third of graduates were employed in the same state as residency (36.6%), approximately two-thirds (62.0%) in the same region as residency, and nearly three-fourths (73.9%) in the same region as medical school or residency completion. Of the 66 graduates (46.5%) working in academics, 40.9% were at the same institution where they completed residency. Most trainees (82.4%) attended medical schools with RO residency programs. Conclusions: Although personal factors may attract students to train in a particular area, the location of medical school and residency experiences may influence RO graduate practice location choice. Trends in the geographic distribution of graduating radiation oncologists can help identify and better understand disparities in access to RO care. Steps to improve access to RO care may include interventions at the medical student or resident level, such as targeting students at medical schools without associated residency programs and greater resident exposure to underserved areas.

  6. The Role of Small Cities in Shaping Youth Employment Outcomes in ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    economic development is not well understood. This research project will address this gap by exploring how small cities can shape employment outcomes for migrant youth, specifically for women and youth from non-metropolitan backgrounds.

  7. Relationship of Personality and Locus of Control With Employment Outcomes among Participants with Spinal Cord Injury (United States)

    Krause, James S.; Broderick, Lynne


    We investigated relationships among personality, locus of control, and current post-injury employment status for 1,391 participants with spinal cord injury. Participants with higher internality locus-of-control scores and activity scores (personality) reported more favorable employment outcomes. Higher scores on chance and powerful others (locus…

  8. The Effects of Early Maternal Employment on Later Cognitive and Behavioral Outcomes. (United States)

    Han, Wen-Jui; Waldfogel, Jane; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne


    This study longitudinally followed Non-Hispanic White and African American children to see whether the impact of early maternal employment on cognitive and behavioral outcomes reported at age three and four persisted into school-age years. Results indicated that maternal employment in the first year of a child's life had significant negative…

  9. Want Students to Engage? Contextualise Graduate Learning Outcomes and Assess for Employability (United States)

    Jorre de St Jorre, Trina; Oliver, Beverley


    The ability of graduates to proactively develop, adapt and repackage their capabilities (or attributes) is an essential aspect of employability. This study was conducted at Deakin University, where graduate capabilities have been recast as graduate learning outcomes, and employability is frequently referenced. In light of significant curriculum…

  10. The Contribution of Work-Integrated Learning to Undergraduate Employability Skill Outcomes (United States)

    Jackson, Denise


    WIL has attracted considerable attention as an instrument for enhancing professional practice and developing work-readiness in new graduates. It is widely considered as a point of difference in developing graduate employability by enhancing skill outcomes, such as team-work, communication, self-management and problem solving, employment prospects…

  11. Daily Hassles as Mediators of Employment/Gender Differences in Adaptational Outcomes. (United States)

    Kanner, Allen D.

    Previous research has shown that employed men are generally healthier than employed women, due in part to the dual role of women as workers and homemakers. To examine this explanation, the impact of four types of daily hassles (minor stressful events) was compared on two adaptational outcomes, psychological symptoms and health, for working men and…

  12. Factors associated with employment status before and during pregnancy: Implications for studies of pregnancy outcomes. (United States)

    Rocheleau, Carissa M; Bertke, Stephen J; Lawson, Christina C; Romitti, Paul A; Desrosiers, Tania A; Agopian, Aaron J; Bell, Erin; Gilboa, Suzanne M


    Potential confounding or effect modification by employment status is frequently overlooked in pregnancy outcome studies. To characterize how employed and non-employed women differ, we compared demographics, behaviors, and reproductive histories by maternal employment status for 8,343 mothers of control (non-malformed) infants in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study (1997-2007) and developed a multivariable model for employment status anytime during pregnancy and the 3 months before conception. Sixteen factors were independently associated with employment before or during pregnancy, including: maternal age, pre-pregnancy body mass index, pregnancy intention, periconceptional/first trimester smoking and alcohol consumption, and household income. Employment status was significantly associated with many common risk factors for adverse pregnancy outcomes. Pregnancy outcome studies should consider adjustment or stratification by employment status. In studies of occupational exposures, these differences may cause uncontrollable confounding if non-employed women are treated as unexposed instead of excluded from analysis. Am. J. Ind. Med. 60:329-341, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. An Examination of Employment and Earning Outcomes of Probationers With Criminal and Substance Use Histories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sriram Chintakrindi


    Full Text Available There exists a strong relationship between having a criminal history and experiencing barriers to employment. Negative credentials facilitate the social and economic exclusion of individuals with criminal records. However, previous research has not concretely identified whether the stratification of economic opportunities by individual-level criminal records may be further affecting those who demonstrate substance use histories. In this study, we examine the substance use and criminal history profiles of probationers participating in an experimental drug treatment study and how probationer characteristics affect employment outcomes and gross earnings at both the 6- and 12-month follow-up periods. We hypothesize that substance use and criminal history have a main effect and interactional relationship that reduces the odds of self-reporting employment and decreases gross earnings outcomes of probationer. Our results demonstrate that substance use history and criminal history has a main effect on employment and earnings outcomes.

  14. Impact of primary care depression intervention on employment and workplace conflict outcomes: is value added? (United States)

    Smith, Jeffrey L; Rost, Kathryn M; Nutting, Paul A; Libby, Anne M; Elliott, Carl E; Pyne, Jeffrey M


    Depression causes significant functional impairment in sufferers and often leads to adverse employment outcomes for working individuals. Recovery from depression has been associated with better employment outcomes at one year. The study s goals were to assess a primary care depression intervention s impact on subsequent employment and workplace conflict outcomes in employed patients with depression. In 1996-1997, the study enrolled 262 employed patients with depression from twelve primary care practices located across ten U.S. states; 219 (84%) of the patients were followed at one year. Intent-to-treat analyses assessing intervention effects on subsequent employment and workplace conflict were conducted using logistic regression models controlling for individual clinical and sociodemographic characteristics, job classification and local employment conditions. To meet criteria for subsequent employment, persons working full-time at baseline had to report they were working full-time at follow-up and persons working part-time at baseline had to report working part-/full-time at follow-up. Workplace conflict was measured by asking patients employed at follow-up whether, in the past year, they had arguments or other difficulties with people at work . Findings showed that 92.1% of intervention patients met criteria for subsequent employment at one year, versus 82.0% of usual care patients (c2=4.42, p=.04). Intervention patients were less likely than usual care patients to report workplace conflict in the year following baseline (8.1% vs. 18.9%, respectively; c2=4.11; p=.04). The intervention s effect on subsequent employment was not mediated by its effect on workplace conflict. The intervention significantly improved employment outcomes and reduced workplace conflict in depressed, employed persons at one year. Economic implications for employers related to reduced turnover costs, for workers related to retained earnings, and for governments related to reduced

  15. Vocational rehabilitation services and employment outcomes for people with disabilities: a United States study. (United States)

    Dutta, Alo; Gervey, Robert; Chan, Fong; Chou, Chih-Chin; Ditchman, Nicole


    This study examined the effect of vocational rehabilitation services on employment outcomes of people with sensory/communicative, physical, and mental impairments in the United States. The sample frame includes 5,000 clients for each of the three disability groups whose cases were closed as either rehabilitated or not rehabilitated by state vocational rehabilitation agencies in the fiscal year 2005. The dependent variable is employment outcome. The predictor variables include a set of personal history variables and vocational rehabilitation service variables. Sixty-two percent of the clients in this study were gainfully employed after receiving vocational rehabilitation services. Individuals with sensory/communicative impairments had the highest success rate (75%) compared to 56% for the physical impairments group and 55% for those with mental impairments. Logistic regression analyses identified job placement, on-the-job support, maintenance, and other services (e.g., medical care for acute conditions) as significant predictors of employment success across all impairment groups. In addition, diagnostic and treatment (D&T) services (odds ratio [OR] = 1.57; 95% CI: 1.35-1.82) and rehabilitation technology services (OR = 1.97, 95% CI: 1.67-2.33) were found to uniquely contribute to employment outcomes for the sensory impairments group as well as the physical impairments group (D&T services: OR = 1.31, 95% CI: 1.15-1.48; RT services: OR = 1.41, 95% CI: 1.13-1.75), but not the mental impairments group. Substantial counseling was associated with employment outcomes for the physical (OR = 1.16, 95% CI: 1.02-1.32) and mental impairments groups (OR = 1.18, 95% CI: 1.03-1.35). Miscellaneous training (OR = 1.31; 95% CI: 1.09-1.49) was specifically associated with employment outcomes of the mental impairments group. This study provides some empirical support documenting the association between vocational rehabilitation services and employment outcomes of people with

  16. What do we Know About Improving Employment Outcomes for Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolyn Dudley


    Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorder (ASD is the most commonly diagnosed neurological disorder in children. Adults with ASD have some of the poorest employment outcomes in comparison to others with disabilities. While data in Canada is limited, roughly 25 per cent of Americans living with ASD are employed and no more than six per cent are competitively employed. Most earn less than the national minimum hourly wage, endure extended periods of joblessness and frequently shuffle between positions, further diminishing their prospects. Poor employment outcomes result in lower quality of life and often lead to steep economic costs. Governments are wise to pay attention to the poor employment outcomes as the high numbers of children now diagnosed with ASD will become adults in the future in need of employment opportunities. Improving employment outcomes for those living with ASD is an important policy objective. Work opportunities improve quality of life, economic independence, social integration, and ultimately benefit all. Adults with ASD can succeed with the right supports. Fortunately, there are many emerging policy and program options that demonstrate success. This paper conducts a review of studies and provides policy recommendations based on the literature, to help governments identify appropriate policy options. Some key factors are both those that are unique to the individual and the external supports available; namely school, work, and family. For example, factors that contribute to successful employment for people living with ASD may include IQ, social skills and self-determination, but for all, even for the less advantaged, external assistance from schools, employers and family can help. Inclusive special education programs in high school that offer work experiences are critical as are knowledgeable employers who can provide the right types of accommodation and leadership. In the work environment the use of vocational and rehabilitative supports, from

  17. The 2008-2009 Great Recession and employment outcomes among older workers. (United States)

    Axelrad, Hila; Sabbath, Erika L; Hawkins, Summer Sherburne


    This study examined whether economic changes related to the 2008-2009 Recession were associated with employment status and job quality indicators among older workers in Europe and Israel. Data were derived from 4917 respondents (16,090 observations both before and after the recession) from 13 countries who participated in the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe. Annual data on gross domestic product (GDP) per capita, life expectancy, and quarterly unemployment rates were assigned to employment assessments from 2004 to 2013. Using difference-in-differences models, we assessed the recession's implications on individual employment outcomes, while isolating cyclical variation within countries and individual changes over time. Among older workers, decreases in GDP were associated with an increase in the likelihood of being unemployed and a decrease in the likelihood of being retired. An increasing country-level unemployment rate had a significant effect on aspects of job quality: lower prospects for job advancement, lower job security, and higher job satisfaction. Economic recessions are thus negatively associated with employment outcomes for older workers. However, malleable policy-related factors such as longer tenure and improved general health can limit the negative employment and job quality outcomes following a recession.

  18. Psychological Interventions to Facilitate Employment Outcomes for Cancer Survivors: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis (United States)

    Fong, Carlton J.; Murphy, Kathleen M.; Westbrook, John D.; Markle, Minda M.


    Purpose: The objective was to examine experimental and quasi-experimental studies about interventions that (i) included behavioral, psychological, educational, or vocational components; (ii) involved cancer survivors aged 18 years or older; and (iii) assessed employment outcomes. Methods: The aims were both to describe the variety of interventions…

  19. An Evaluation of Risk Factors Related to Employment Outcomes for Youth with Disabilities (United States)

    Sima, Adam P.; Wehman, Paul H.; Chan, Fong; West, Michael D.; Leucking, Richard G.


    This study explores non-modifiable risk factors associated with poor post-school competitive employment outcomes for students with disabilities. A classification tree analysis was used with a sample of 2,900 students who were in the second National Longitudinal Transition Study-2 (NLTS2) up to 6 years following school exit to identify groups of…

  20. The Role of Small Cities in Shaping Youth Employment Outcomes in ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Growing workforce, internal migration The future of sustainable growth in several emerging markets rests on the ability of its young populations to find gainful ... from Indonesia will provide a richer analysis of the role of small cities in shaping youth employment outcomes in the region's large, middle-income economies.

  1. VR Employment Outcomes of Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Decade in the Making (United States)

    Alverson, Charlotte Y.; Yamamoto, Scott H.


    This study utilized hierarchical linear modeling analysis of a 10-year extant dataset from Rehabilitation Services Administration to investigate significant predictors of employment outcomes for vocational rehabilitation (VR) clients with autism. Predictor variables were gender, ethnicity, attained education level, IEP status in high school,…

  2. Rural and Urban Differences in Vocational Rehabilitation Case Mix, Delivery Practices, and Employment Outcomes (United States)

    Ipsen, Catherine; Swicegood, Grant


    Purpose: To examine rural and urban differences in Vocational Rehabilitation (VR) case mix, delivery practices, and employment outcomes. Methods: Rehabilitation Services Administration 911 (RSA-911) case data do not include location indicators that allow for rural analyses. We compiled RSA-911 data with county and ZIP code information from 47 VR…

  3. Low-Wage Maternal Employment and Outcomes for Children: A Study. (United States)

    Moore, Kristin A.; Driscoll, Anne K.


    Presents results of a study using national survey data that indicates that maternal employment in families that had previously received welfare does not hurt children's social or cognitive development and may improve their situations. Outcomes were better for those whose mothers earned higher wages. (SLD)

  4. Predicting Postsecondary Education and Employment Outcomes Using Results from the Transition Assessment and Goal Generator (United States)

    Burnes, Jennifer J.; Martin, James E.; Terry, Robert; McConnell, Amber E.; Hennessey, Maeghan N.


    We conducted an exploratory study to investigate the relation between nonacademic behavior constructs measured by the "Transition Assessment and Goal Generator" (TAGG) and postsecondary education and employment outcomes for 297 high school leavers who completed the TAGG during their high school years. Four of eight TAGG constructs…

  5. Associations of employment status and educational levels with mortality and hospitalization in the dialysis outcomes and practice patterns study in Japan. (United States)

    Imanishi, Yasuo; Fukuma, Shingo; Karaboyas, Angelo; Robinson, Bruce M; Pisoni, Ronald L; Nomura, Takanobu; Akiba, Takashi; Akizawa, Tadao; Kurokawa, Kiyoshi; Saito, Akira; Fukuhara, Shunichi; Inaba, Masaaki


    Socioeconomic status (SES) factors such as employment, educational attainment, income, and marital status can affect the health and well-being of the general population and have been associated with the prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, no studies to date in Japan have reported on the prognosis of patients with CKD with respect to SES. This study aimed to investigate the influences of employment and education level on mortality and hospitalization among maintenance hemodialysis (HD) patients in Japan. Data on 7974 HD patients enrolled in Dialysis Outcomes and Practice Patterns Study phases 1-4 (1999-2011) in Japan were analysed. Employment status, education level, demographic data, and comorbidities were abstracted at entry into DOPPS from patient records. Mortality and hospitalization events were collected during follow-up. Patients on dialysis employment and both mortality and hospitalization among patients education and outcomes was also assessed. The association between patient characteristics and employment among patients education and patients who graduated HS with some college tended to have elevated mortality (HR = 1.41; 95% CI, 1.04-1.92 and HR = 1.36; 95% CI: 1.02-1.82, respectively) but were not at risk for increased hospitalizations. Factors associated with unemployment included lower level of education, older age, female gender, longer vintage, and several comorbidities. Employment and education status were inversely associated with mortality in patients on maintenance HD in Japan. Employment but not education was also inversely associated with hospitalizations. After adjustment for comorbidities, the associations with clinical outcomes tended to be stronger for employment than education status.

  6. Comparison of employability outcomes among patients with early or long-standing rheumatoid arthritis. (United States)

    Han, Chenglong; Smolen, Josef; Kavanaugh, Arthur; St Clair, E William; Baker, Daniel; Bala, Mohan


    To compare employability between patients with early and long-standing rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and examine the relationships between improvement in employability and disease stage after adjustment for demographic characteristics, disease activity, physical functioning, and response to therapy. We evaluated the employability data from 2 double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled studies of infliximab plus methotrexate (MTX) in patients with RA. Patients were incomplete responders to MTX in 1 study and had never taken MTX in the other study. Patients age 3 years disease duration). Physical functioning was assessed using the Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ) and clinical response was determined based on the American College of Rheumatology 20% improvement criteria (ACR20). Patients with early RA were more likely to be employable at baseline than those with long-standing RA, even after adjusting for baseline HAQ scores. Among patients who were not employable at baseline but achieved an ACR20 response after 1 year of treatment, after adjusting for baseline HAQ score, the patients with early RA who had never taken MTX were 3 times more likely to become employable compared with those with long-standing RA who had an incomplete response to MTX at baseline. In 2 clinical trials, patients with early RA were more likely to show improved employment outcomes after treatment than those with long-standing RA, suggesting intervention as early as possible in the disease course maximizes an individual patient's employment potential.

  7. Systematic review of employer-sponsored wellness strategies and their economic and health-related outcomes. (United States)

    Kaspin, Lisa C; Gorman, Kathleen M; Miller, Ross M


    This review determines the characteristics and health-related and economic outcomes of employer-sponsored wellness programs and identifies possible reasons for their success. PubMed, ABI/Inform, and Business Source Premier databases, and Corporate Wellness Magazine were searched. English-language articles published from 2005 to 2011 that reported characteristics of employer-sponsored wellness programs and their impact on health-related and economic outcomes among US employees were accepted. Data were abstracted, synthesized, and interpreted. Twenty references were accepted. Wellness interventions were classified into health assessments, lifestyle management, and behavioral health. Improved economic outcomes were reported (health care costs, return on investment, absenteeism, productivity, workers' compensation, utilization) as well as decreased health risks. Programs associated with favorable outcomes had several characteristics in common. First, the corporate culture encouraged wellness to improve employees' lives, not only to reduce costs. Second, employees and leadership were strongly motivated to support the wellness programs and to improve their health in general. Third, employees were motivated by a participation-friendly corporate policy and physical environment. Fourth, successful programs adapted to the changing needs of the employees. Fifth, community health organizations provided support, education, and treatment. Sixth, successful wellness programs utilized technology to facilitate health risk assessments and wellness education. Improved health-related and economic outcomes were associated with employer-sponsored wellness programs. Companies with successful programs tended to include wellness as part of their corporate culture and supported employee participation in several key ways.

  8. Vocational rehabilitation services and employment outcomes for adults with cerebral palsy in the United States. (United States)

    Huang, I-Chun; Holzbauer, Jerome J; Lee, Eun-Jeong; Chronister, Julie; Chan, Fong; O'Neil, John


    The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between vocational rehabilitation services provided and work outcomes among people with cerebral palsy (CP), taking in to account demographic characteristics. From the US Department of Education Rehabilitation Service Administration Case Service Report (RSA-911) database, data from 3162 individuals with CP (1820 males [57.6%] and 1342 females [42.4% age range 16-54 y) whose cases were closed in 2009, were used in this study. A total of 1567 cases (49.6%) were closed with clients being categorized as 'successful employment' and 1595 cases (50.4%) were closed with clients being classified as unemployed. Multivariate logistic regression was used to examine the relationship between services provided and work outcomes with regard to demographic characteristics. Males aged between 26 and 54 years old with higher education attainment were more likely to be employed. Individuals receiving disability benefits were less likely to be employed. After controlling for the effect of demographic and work disincentive variables, five vocational rehabilitation services significantly predicted employment outcomes (pemployability, to address their much needed work adjustment skills, to establish independent living, and to eventually reach their full potential in participation in society. © 2013 Mac Keith Press.

  9. Employment and insurance outcomes and factors associated with employment among long-term thyroid cancer survivors: a population-based study from the PROFILES registry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tamminga, S.J.; Bultmann, U.; Husson, O.; Kuijpens, J.L.; Frings-Dresen, M.H.; de Boer, A.G.


    PURPOSE: To obtain insight into employment and insurance outcomes of thyroid cancer survivors and to examine the association between not having employment and other factors including quality of life. METHODS: In this cross-sectional population-based study, long-term thyroid cancer survivors from the

  10. Employment and insurance outcomes and factors associated with employment among long-term thyroid cancer survivors : a population-based study from the PROFILES registry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tamminga, S. J.; Bultmann, U.; Husson, O.; Kuijpens, J. L. P.; Frings-Dresen, M. H. W.; de Boer, Angela G. E. M.

    To obtain insight into employment and insurance outcomes of thyroid cancer survivors and to examine the association between not having employment and other factors including quality of life. In this cross-sectional population-based study, long-term thyroid cancer survivors from the Netherlands

  11. Employment and insurance outcomes and factors associated with employment among long-term thyroid cancer survivors: a population-based study from the PROFILES registry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tamminga, S. J.; Bültmann, U.; Husson, O.; Kuijpens, J. L. P.; Frings-Dresen, M. H. W.; de Boer, A. G. E. M.


    To obtain insight into employment and insurance outcomes of thyroid cancer survivors and to examine the association between not having employment and other factors including quality of life. In this cross-sectional population-based study, long-term thyroid cancer survivors from the Netherlands

  12. Implementation of an employment intervention in mental health teams: a naturalistic 1-year employment outcome study in people with severe mental illness. (United States)

    Marwaha, Steven; Gilbert, Eleanor; Flanagan, Sarah


    In the UK, the severely mentally ill have high rates of unemployment. To (1) evaluate implementation of an employment intervention and (2) test the effectiveness of training an existing staff member in providing the employment intervention (Model A) against the provision of a dedicated employment specialist to a team (Model B). An employment service was implemented in five mental health teams, with three teams having an existing team member trained and two teams receiving an additional member of staff to carry out the employment intervention. Work outcomes for the two groups were compared at 1 year. Competitive employment was obtained by 17.7% receiving an employment intervention (10.3%, Model A versus 22.8% Model B). Rates of employment or training obtained were 25.6% (10/39) in Model A versus 35.1% (20/57) in Model B, but the difference was not statistically different. Type of employment service model was not significantly associated with working. An employment service can be introduced effectively into mental health teams in the UK and positive employment outcomes achieved in a short space of time. Providing an additional resource is more effective compared to asking existing staff to deliver the intervention alongside other roles.

  13. Education and employment outcomes of young adults with a history of developmental language disorder (United States)

    Durkin, Kevin; Toseeb, Umar; Botting, Nicola; Pickles, Andrew


    Abstract Background Developmental language disorder (DLD) presents a considerable barrier for young adults to engage in further education and training. Early studies with young adults with DLD revealed poor educational achievement and lack of opportunities to progress in education. More recent studies have provided more positive findings. Relatively sparse data exist, however, on current cohorts and the factors that predict outcomes. Aims To examine educational and employment outcomes in young adulthood in a sample of people with histories of DLD compared with an age‐matched peer group without DLD. We ask: How do educational pathways and early jobs compare between those with and without DLD? Are young adults with DLD receiving similar levels of income as their peers? To what extent are language and literacy abilities associated with outcomes? Methods & Procedures Participants included 84 individuals with DLD (67% males) and 88 age‐matched peers without DLD (56% males). Participants were on average 24 years of age. They completed a battery of psycholinguistic, literacy and nonverbal skills assessments. Data were also collected on educational qualifications, current educational status, extent of educational support received, employment status, history and support, as well as current income. Outcomes & Results Those with DLD obtained lower academic and vocational qualifications. Higher educational/vocational qualifications were associated with better language, better reading and higher performance IQ (PIQ). There were few differences between the two groups in terms of engagement with education, but the mean age at leaving education was significantly earlier in the participants with DLD. Substantially more participants with DLD reported receiving support or dispensation from their educational institution. There was no significant difference between groups in the proportion of young people currently employed, though a higher proportion of the age‐matched peers was

  14. The impact of adolescent stuttering on educational and employment outcomes: evidence from a birth cohort study. (United States)

    McAllister, Jan; Collier, Jacqueline; Shepstone, Lee


    In interview and survey studies, people who stutter report the belief that stuttering has had a negative impact on their own education and employment. This population study sought objective evidence of such disadvantage for people who stutter as a group, compared with people who do not stutter. A secondary analysis of a British birth cohort dataset was used in the study. At age 16, there were 217 cohort members who were reported by their parents to stutter, and 15,694 cohort members with no known history of stuttering or other speech problems. Data were analysed concerning factors associated with report of stuttering at 16, school leaving age, highest qualification, unemployment early in working life, pay at age 23 and 50, and social class of job at age 23 and 50. Those who stuttered at 16 were statistically more likely than those who did not stutter to be male, to have poorer cognitive test scores, and to have been bullied. There were no significant effects of stuttering on educational outcomes. For employment outcomes, the only significant association with stuttering concerned socioeconomic status of occupation at 50, with those who had been reported to stutter having lower-status jobs. These findings fail to support the belief that stuttering has a negative impact on education and employment. The higher likelihood of those who stutter working in lower-status positions may reflect their preference for avoiding occupations perceived to require good spoken communication abilities. Therapeutic implications are discussed. The reader will be able to describe (a) prior work on the impact of stuttering on education and employment, (b) some characteristics of the National Child Development Study (NCDS), (c) the effect of stuttering on school leaving age and highest educational qualification in NCDS, (d) the effect of stuttering on employment outcomes in NCDS: unemployment by age 23, pay at 23 and 50, and socioeconomic status of occupation at 23 and 50. Copyright © 2012

  15. Substance use, education, employment, and criminal activity outcomes of adolescents in outpatient chemical dependency programs. (United States)

    Balsa, Ana I; Homer, Jenny F; French, Michael T; Weisner, Constance M


    Although the primary outcome of interest in clinical evaluations of addiction treatment programs is usually abstinence, participation in these programs can have a wide range of consequences. This study evaluated the effects of treatment initiation on substance use, school attendance, employment, and involvement in criminal activity at 12 months post-admission for 419 adolescents (aged 12 to 18) enrolled in chemical dependency recovery programs in a large managed care health plan. Instrumental variables estimation methods were used to account for unobserved selection into treatment by jointly modeling the likelihood of participation in treatment and the odds of attaining a certain outcome or level of an outcome. Treatment initiation significantly increased the likelihood of attending school, promoted abstinence, and decreased the probability of adolescent employment, but it did not significantly affect participation in criminal activity at the 12-month follow-up. These findings highlight the need to address selection in a non-experimental study and demonstrate the importance of considering multiple outcomes when assessing the effectiveness of adolescent treatment.

  16. Education and employment outcomes of young adults with a history of developmental language disorder. (United States)

    Conti-Ramsden, Gina; Durkin, Kevin; Toseeb, Umar; Botting, Nicola; Pickles, Andrew


    Developmental language disorder (DLD) presents a considerable barrier for young adults to engage in further education and training. Early studies with young adults with DLD revealed poor educational achievement and lack of opportunities to progress in education. More recent studies have provided more positive findings. Relatively sparse data exist, however, on current cohorts and the factors that predict outcomes. To examine educational and employment outcomes in young adulthood in a sample of people with histories of DLD compared with an age-matched peer group without DLD. We ask: How do educational pathways and early jobs compare between those with and without DLD? Are young adults with DLD receiving similar levels of income as their peers? To what extent are language and literacy abilities associated with outcomes? Participants included 84 individuals with DLD (67% males) and 88 age-matched peers without DLD (56% males). Participants were on average 24 years of age. They completed a battery of psycholinguistic, literacy and nonverbal skills assessments. Data were also collected on educational qualifications, current educational status, extent of educational support received, employment status, history and support, as well as current income. Those with DLD obtained lower academic and vocational qualifications. Higher educational/vocational qualifications were associated with better language, better reading and higher performance IQ (PIQ). There were few differences between the two groups in terms of engagement with education, but the mean age at leaving education was significantly earlier in the participants with DLD. Substantially more participants with DLD reported receiving support or dispensation from their educational institution. There was no significant difference between groups in the proportion of young people currently employed, though a higher proportion of the age-matched peers was in work full time. Participants with DLD were much more likely to be

  17. Higher education attainment does not improve the adult employment outcomes of adolescents with ill health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Joy Callander


    Full Text Available This paper assesses whether attaining a higher education improves the chances of employment in adulthood amongst those who had a chronic health condition in adolescence. Using longitudinal analysis of twelve waves of the nationally representative Household Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia Survey, conducted between 2001 and 2012, a cohort of adolescents aged 15 to 21 in Wave 1 were followed through to age 24 (n=624. The results show that those who did have a chronic health condition during adolescence were2.4 times more likely to  not be employed at age 24 compared to those who did not have a chronic health condition (95% CI: 1.4 – 4.4, p=0.0024.  The results were adjusted for age, sex, education attainment at age 24, health status at age 24 and household income poverty status at age 24. Amongst those who did have a chronic health condition during adolescence there was no significant difference in the likelihood of being employed for those with a Year 12 and below (p=0.1087 level of education attainment or those with a Diploma, Certificate III or IV (p=0.6366 compared to those with a university degree. Education attainment was not shown to mitigate the impact of having a chronic health condition during adolescence on adult employment outcomes. Keywords: employment; chronic health conditions; poverty; living standards; longitudinal.

  18. Effects of an Employer-Based Intervention on Employment Outcomes for Youth with Significant Support Needs Due to Autism (United States)

    Wehman, Paul; Schall, Carol M.; McDonough, Jennifer; Graham, Carolyn; Brooke, Valerie; Riehle, J. Erin; Brooke, Alissa; Ham, Whitney; Lau, Stephanie; Allen, Jaclyn; Avellone, Lauren


    The purpose of this study was to develop and investigate an employer-based 9-month intervention for high school youth with autism spectrum disorder to learn job skills and acquire employment. The intervention modified a program titled Project SEARCH and incorporated the use of applied behavior analysis to develop Project SEARCH plus Autism…

  19. Impact of adolescent peer aggression on later educational and employment outcomes in an Australian cohort. (United States)

    Moore, Sophie E; Scott, James G; Thomas, Hannah J; Sly, Peter D; Whitehouse, Andrew J O; Zubrick, Stephen R; Norman, Rosana E


    This study used prospective birth cohort data to analyse the relationship between peer aggression at 14 years of age and educational and employment outcomes at 17 years (N = 1091) and 20 years (N = 1003). Participants from the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) study were divided into mutually exclusive categories of peer aggression. Involvement in peer aggression was reported by 40.2% (10.1% victims; 21.4% perpetrators; 8.7% victim-perpetrators) of participants. Participants involved in any form of peer aggression were less likely to complete secondary school. Perpetrators and victim-perpetrators of peer aggression were more likely to be in the 'No Education, Employment or Training' group at 20 years of age. This association was explained by non-completion of secondary school. These findings demonstrate a robust association between involvement in peer aggression and non-completion of secondary school, which in turn was associated with an increased risk of poor educational and employment outcomes in early adulthood. Copyright © 2015 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Postschool Engagement of Youths with Disabilities in South Carolina: Analysis of Employment and Postsecondary Education Outcomes across Three Years (United States)

    Prince, Angela M. T.


    For decades, youths with disabilities have had consistently poor postschool engagement outcomes in terms of employment and postsecondary education and training. Student-, school-, and district-level factors have impacted these outcomes in varying degrees. Using three years of postschool outcome data from the South Carolina Department of Education…

  1. Change in receptive vocabulary from childhood to adulthood: associated mental health, education and employment outcomes. (United States)

    Armstrong, Rebecca; Arnott, Wendy; Copland, David A; McMahon, Katie; Khan, Asaduzzaman; Najman, Jake M; Scott, James G


    Population-based studies have found that early language delays are associated with poorer long-term outcomes in adolescence and adulthood. Few studies have explored the influence of change in language ability over time on adult outcomes. To examine the educational, vocational and mental health outcomes for adults accounting for different vocabulary developmental profiles over a 16-year period. A total of 1914 participants of the Mater-University of Queensland Study of Pregnancy (MUSP) were categorized into four groups based on their vocabulary skills at 5 and 21 years: (1) persistently good (n = 1679), (2) persistently poor (n = 33), (3) improved (n = 160), and (4) deteriorated (n = 42). The associations between vocabulary group and educational, vocational, and mental health outcomes at 21 years were investigated. Adults with deteriorated and persistently poor vocabulary skills were less likely to have completed secondary school; with the improved, deteriorated and persistently poor groups being less likely to be engaged in education, employment or training at the 21-year follow-up, compared with the persistently good group. Adults with deteriorated performance were at an increased risk of affective disorders, as well as substance and alcohol abuse/misuse. These findings provide evidence that impaired vocabulary skills in adulthood, regardless of whether the deficit was acquired early or later, are associated with adverse outcomes. Clinicians and educators need to be aware of these adversities and ensure they are supporting children and adolescents in whom language difficulties exist or emerge so as to prevent poor long-term outcomes from occurring. © 2016 Royal College of Speech and Language Therapists.

  2. Employment services utilization and outcomes among substance abusing offenders participating in California's proposition 36 drug treatment initiative. (United States)

    Evans, Elizabeth; Hser, Yih-Ing; Huang, David


    California drug treatment programs may use funds to address barriers to work faced by Proposition 36 offenders, most of whom are not working at treatment entry, but employment services utilization and related behavioral outcomes have never been studied. This study examined primary data collected on 1,453 offenders by 30 programs during 2004 to explore the characteristics, employment services utilization, and outcomes of those who did and did not receive employment services while in drug treatment. One-year outcomes were mostly similar across groups, however, increases in the proportion of offenders employed, receiving income from employment and family or friends, and being paid for work were significantly greater among the received-employment-services group, and a greater proportion of this group also completed drug treatment. Employment services utilization was less likely for persons recruited from outpatient settings and more likely with greater severity of family/social problems and desire for services. Odds of employment one-year post-treatment entry were higher for those of Hispanic race/ethnicity (vs. White) and for those with treatment completion/longer retention but lower for those who were older, lived in specific counties, had greater employment problem severity at intake, and received other income-related services. Strategies for improving employment services utilization and outcomes among Proposition 36 offenders are discussed.

  3. Associations of employment status and educational levels with mortality and hospitalization in the dialysis outcomes and practice patterns study in Japan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuo Imanishi

    gender, longer vintage, and several comorbidities.Employment and education status were inversely associated with mortality in patients on maintenance HD in Japan. Employment but not education was also inversely associated with hospitalizations. After adjustment for comorbidities, the associations with clinical outcomes tended to be stronger for employment than education status.

  4. The prognosis of occupational asthma due to detergent enzymes: clinical, immunological and employment outcomes. (United States)

    Brant, A; Zekveld, C; Welch, J; Jones, M; Taylor, A Newman; Cullinan, P


    Little is known about the prognosis of occupational asthma induced by high molecular weight proteins. Our objective was to measure the clinical, immunological and employment outcomes of individuals with occupational asthma induced by detergent enzymes. We undertook a workforce-based follow-up study in 35 (78%) of the 45 ex-employees from a single factory with occupational asthma. In each case the diagnosis was supported by evidence of specific sensitization and characteristic changes in peak flow or a positive response to specific bronchial provocation testing. This group had left the factory on average 37 months before study. On review 25 (71%) reported chest symptoms during the last month. Compared with when working at the factory, most (86%) reported that their symptoms had improved. Twenty continued to attend their general practitioner for respiratory symptoms and 19 still used asthma medications. Since leaving the factory 16 (46%) and four (11%) had found full-time or part-time employment, respectively; of these 16 found they were paid less than when they worked at the factory. The remaining 15 subjects had not had any paid employment. All but two had positive skin prick tests to one or more three detergent enzymes. The estimated half-life of serum-specific IgE antibodies was 20 months for protease, and 21 months for cellulase and amylase. Population-based follow-up studies of the prognosis of occupational asthma are rare but probably avoid the bias in clinic-derived surveys. This study demonstrates that 3 years after the avoidance of exposure with detergent enzymes most patients continue to be troubled by, albeit improved, symptoms and experience difficulty in re-employment.

  5. Motivation in caring labor: Implications for the well-being and employment outcomes of nurses. (United States)

    Dill, Janette; Erickson, Rebecca J; Diefendorff, James M


    For nurses and other caregivers there is a strong emphasis on prosocial forms of motivation, or doing the job because you want to help others, even in formal, institutionalized care settings. This emphasis is based in gendered assumptions that altruistic motivations are the "right" reasons for being a nurse and lead to the best outcomes for workers and patients. Other motivations for pursuing care work, particularly extrinsic motivation, depart from the prosocial model of care and may be indicative of substandard outcomes, but little research has examined variation in care workers' motivations for doing their jobs. In this study, we use survey data collected from 730 acute care hospital nurses working within one health care system in the Midwestern United States to examine whether different sources of motivation for being a nurse are related to nurse job burnout, negative physical symptoms, and turnover intentions. Our findings suggest that nurses who have high intrinsic and extrinsic motivation actually have better perceived health and employment outcomes (i.e., less likely to say that they will leave, lower burnout, fewer negative physical symptoms) than those with high prosocial motivation, who are more likely to report job burnout. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Minority Embeddedness and Economic Integration: Is Diversity or Homogeneity Associated with Better Employment Outcomes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neli Demireva


    Full Text Available Using data from the Managing Cultural Diversity Survey 2010 and the Ethnic Minority British Election Study 2010, we explore the activity and employment outcomes of majority and minority individuals in the UK, and examine their association with a variety of ethnic embeddedness measures. We do not find that white British respondents living in areas of high deprivation and diversity experience lower levels of economic activity or bad jobs. Deprivation rather than minority embeddedness stands out as the factor that serves to compound both majority and minority disadvantage. In the case of minorities, embeddedness does have some negative effects, although these are greatly attenuated once one takes into account the level of area deprivation.

  7. Should Student Employment Be Subsidized? Conditional Counterfactuals and the Outcomes of Work-Study Participation. A CAPSEE Working Paper (United States)

    Scott-Clayton, Judith; Minaya, Veronica


    Student employment subsidies are one of the largest types of federal employment subsidies, and one of the oldest forms of student aid. Yet it is unclear whether they help or harm students' long term outcomes. We present a framework that decomposes overall effects into a weighted average of effects for marginal and inframarginal workers. We then…

  8. The Impact of Intensive Vocation-Related Course Taking on Employment Outcomes for Individuals Who Are Deaf (United States)

    Cawthon, Stephanie W.; Wendel, Erica M.; Bond, Mark P.; Garberoglio, Carrie Lou


    Individuals who are deaf have historically faced significant obstacles to equity in employment. This secondary analysis of data from the second National Longitudinal Transition Study (NLTS2) examined (a) intensive vocation-related courses taken by students who are deaf and (b) their impact on long-term employment outcomes. Deaf students in general…

  9. A descriptive study of employment patterns and work environment outcomes of specialist nurses in Canada. (United States)

    Doran, Diane; Duffield, Christine; Rizk, Paul; Nahm, Sang; Chu, Charlene H


    registered as general staff nurses. Analysis involved descriptive summaries, mean comparisons with independent-samples t test, and χ(2) tests for categorical data. Exit rates from direct practice were highest for APN-other (7.6%) and CNS (6.2%) and lowest for RN(EC) (1.0%) and staff nurses (1.2%). χ(2) Tests indicated yearly exit rates of both APN-other and CNS nurse groups were significantly higher than those of staff nurses in all years evaluated (α = .025). Every specialist employment group scored significantly higher than staff nurses on measures of work environment and satisfaction outcomes. We provided a description of specialist nurses in Ontario and examined the relationship between specialization and employment patterns of nurses to inform nurse retention strategies in the future. Employment in specialist nursing positions is significantly associated with differences in transitions or exits from nursing among the specialist and nonspecialist groups. Registered nurses (EC) displayed improved retention characteristics compared with staff nurses. Advanced practice nurse-other and APN-CNS exit rates from nursing practice in Ontario were comparable to staff nurses, but exit rates from direct clinical practice roles were higher than those of staff nurses. Targeted strategies are required to retain CNS and APN-other in direct clinical practice roles.

  10. A transdiagnostic study of education, employment, and training outcomes in young people with mental illness. (United States)

    Lee, R S C; Hermens, D F; Scott, J; O'Dea, B; Glozier, N; Scott, E M; Hickie, I B


    Optimizing functional recovery in young individuals with severe mental illness constitutes a major healthcare priority. The current study sought to quantify the cognitive and clinical factors underpinning academic and vocational engagement in a transdiagnostic and prospective youth mental health cohort. The primary outcome measure was 'not in education, employment or training' ('NEET') status. A clinical sample of psychiatric out-patients aged 15-25 years (n = 163) was assessed at two time points, on average, 24 months apart. Functional status, and clinical and neuropsychological data were collected. Bayesian structural equation modelling was used to confirm the factor structure of predictors and cross-lagged effects at follow-up. Individually, NEET status, cognitive dysfunction and negative symptoms at baseline were predictive of NEET status at follow-up (p education, employment or training (i.e. being NEET) was reported in about one in four members of this cohort. The initial level of cognitive functioning was the strongest determinant of future NEET status, whereas being academically or vocationally engaged had an impact on future negative symptomatology. If replicated, these findings support the need to develop early interventions that target cognitive phenotypes transdiagnostically.

  11. Web-Based Cognitive Remediation Improves Supported Employment Outcomes in Severe Mental Illness: Randomized Controlled Trial. (United States)

    Harris, Anthony Wf; Kosic, Tanya; Xu, Jean; Walker, Chris; Gye, William; Redoblado Hodge, Antoinette


    Finding work is a top priority for most people; however, this goal remains out of reach for the majority of individuals with a severe mental illness (SMI) who remain on benefits or are unemployed. Supported employment (SE) programs aimed at returning people with a severe mental illness to work are successful; however, they still leave a significant number of people with severe mental illness unemployed. Cognitive deficits are commonly found in SMI and are a powerful predictor of poor outcome. Fortunately, these deficits are amenable to treatment with cognitive remediation therapy (CRT) that significantly improves cognition in SMI. CRT combined with SE significantly increases the likelihood of individuals with severe mental illness obtaining and staying in work. However, the availability of CRT is limited in many settings. The aim of this study was to examine whether Web-based CRT combined with a SE program can improve the rate return to work of people with severe mental illness. A total of 86 people with severe mental illness (mean age 39.6 years; male: n=55) who were unemployed and who had joined a SE program were randomized to either a Web-based CRT program (CogRem) or an Internet-based control condition (WebInfo). Primary outcome measured was hours worked over 6 months post treatment. At 6 months, those participants randomized to CogRem had worked significantly more hours (P=.01) and had earned significantly more money (P=.03) than those participants randomized to the WebInfo control condition. No change was observed in cognition. This study corroborates other work that has found a synergistic effect of combining CRT with a SE program and extends this to the use of Web-based CRT. The lack of any improvement in cognition obscures the mechanism by which an improved wage outcome for participants randomized to the active treatment was achieved. However, the study substantially lowers the barrier to the deployment of CRT with other psychosocial interventions for

  12. Employment of Questionnaire as Tool for Effective Business Research Outcome: Problems and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Questionnaire has to do with questions designed to gather information or data for analysis. Questionnaire has to be adequate, simple, focused and related to the subject which the research is set to achieve and to test the hypotheses and questions that are formulated for the study. But many questionnaires are constructed and administered without following proper guideline which hinders there end result. This paper assesses some of the guides for constructing questionnaire as well as it uses and the extent to which it enhanced manager’s access to reliable data and information. Descriptive method is employed for the study. Findings revealed that poor or badly prepared questionnaire produce questionnaire that does not provide effective results. Managers and researchers that use such questionnaire hardly achieve their organisational and research objectives. The need for good, well prepared and adequate questionnaire is exemplified by its being the primary tool for analytical research. The study recommends that questionnaire be properly prepared for effective research outcome.

  13. An exploratory prospective study of the association between communication skills and employment outcomes after severe traumatic brain injury. (United States)

    Rietdijk, Rachael; Simpson, Grahame; Togher, Leanne; Power, Emma; Gillett, Lauren


    The aim of this pilot study was to explore possible correlations between measures of functional communication skills in the first year post-injury and later employment outcome. A preliminary observational study employing a prospective longitudinal design. Fourteen adults with traumatic brain injury completed an assessment involving two functional communication measures: an objective test of cognitive communication skills (Functional Assessment of Verbal Reasoning and Executive Strategies, FAVRES) and self-ratings of communication impairment (LaTrobe Communication Questionnaire, LCQ). Follow-up of participants' employment outcome was conducted 9-18 months after the initial assessment. At follow-up, eight participants had returned to employment (working a similar number of hours to their pre-injury status), five were unemployed and one was lost to follow-up. Employment status at follow-up was strongly correlated with both FAVRES Total Accuracy scores (r = 0.833) and Total Rationale scores (r = 0.837), but there were no correlations with FAVRES Time and Reasoning scores or with the LCQ. The FAVRES shows initial promise as an assessment that may be associated with successful employment outcome following traumatic brain injury. Further research with larger samples is required to provide further information on the prognostic utility of measures such as the FAVRES and the LCQ.

  14. Employment program for patients with severe mental illness in Malaysia: a 3-month outcome. (United States)

    Wan Kasim, Syarifah Hafizah; Midin, Marhani; Abu Bakar, Abdul Kadir; Sidi, Hatta; Nik Jaafar, Nik Ruzyanei; Das, Srijit


    This study aimed to examine the rate and predictive factors of successful employment at 3 months upon enrolment into an employment program among patients with severe mental illness (SMI). A cross-sectional study using universal sampling technique was conducted on patients with SMI who completed a 3-month period of being employed at Hospital Permai, Malaysia. A total of 147 patients were approached and 126 were finally included in the statistical analyses. Successful employment was defined as the ability to work 40 or more hours per month. Factors significantly associated with successful employment from bivariate analyses were entered into a multiple logistic regression analysis to identify predictors of successful employment. The rate of successful employment at 3 months was 68.3% (n=81). Significant factors associated with successful employment from bivariate analyses were having past history of working, good family support, less number of psychiatric admissions, good compliance to medicine, good interest in work, living in hostel, being motivated to work, satisfied with the job or salary, getting a preferred job, being in competitive or supported employment and having higher than median scores of PANNS on the positive, negative and general psychopathology. Significant predictors of employment, from a logistic regression model were having good past history of working (phistory of working and getting a preferred job were significant predictors of successful employment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Change in Receptive Vocabulary from Childhood to Adulthood: Associated Mental Health, Education and Employment Outcomes (United States)

    Armstrong, Rebecca; Arnott, Wendy; Copland, David A.; McMahon, Katie; Khan, Asaduzzaman; Najman, Jake M.; Scott, James G.


    Background: Population-based studies have found that early language delays are associated with poorer long-term outcomes in adolescence and adulthood. Few studies have explored the influence of change in language ability over time on adult outcomes. Aim: To examine the educational, vocational and mental health outcomes for adults accounting for…

  16. Attendance Rates in a Workplace Predict Subsequent Outcome of Employment-Based Reinforcement of Cocaine Abstinence in Methadone Patients (United States)

    Donlin, Wendy D.; Knealing, Todd W.; Needham, Mick; Wong, Conrad J.; Silverman, Kenneth


    This study assessed whether attendance rates in a workplace predicted subsequent outcome of employment-based reinforcement of cocaine abstinence. Unemployed adults in Baltimore methadone programs who used cocaine (N = 111) could work in a workplace for 4 hr every weekday and earn $10.00 per hour in vouchers for 26 weeks. During an induction…

  17. Individual and work-related predictors of work outcomes related to sustainable employment among male shift and day workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Ven, H.A.; Hesselink, J.K.; Bultmann, U.; de Boer, M.R.; de Looze, M.P.; van der Klink, J.J.L.; Brouwer, S.


    Objectives The aim of this study was to examine which individual and work-related characteristics predict work outcomes related to sustainable employment among male shift and day workers. Methods Between 1 September 2005 and 31 December 2009, data on individual and work-related characteristics of

  18. Individual and work-related predictors of work outcomes related to sustainable employment among male shift and day workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Ven, Hardy A.; Hesselink, John Klein; Bultmann, Ute; de Boer, Michiel R.; de Looze, Michiel P.; van der Klink, Jac J. L.; Brouwer, Sandra

    Objectives The aim of this study was to examine which individual and work-related characteristics predict work outcomes related to sustainable employment among male shift and day workers. Methods Between 1 September 2005 and 31 December 2009, data on individual and work-related characteristics of

  19. The Relationship between Perceived Computer Competence and the Employment Outcomes of Transition-Aged Youths with Visual Impairments (United States)

    Zhou, Li; Smith, Derrick W.; Parker, Amy T.; Griffin-Shirley, Nora


    Introduction: The study reported here explored the relationship between the self-perceived computer competence and employment outcomes of transition-aged youths with visual impairments. Methods: Data on 200 in-school youths and 190 out-of-school youths with a primary disability of visual impairment were retrieved from the database of the first…

  20. Effects of Cognitive Enhancement Therapy on Employment Outcomes in Early Schizophrenia: Results from a 2-Year Randomized Trial (United States)

    Eack, Shaun M.; Hogarty, Gerard E.; Greenwald, Deborah P.; Hogarty, Susan S.; Keshavan, Matcheri S.


    Objective: To examine the effects of psychosocial cognitive rehabilitation on employment outcomes in a randomized controlled trial for individuals with early course schizophrenia. Method: Early course schizophrenia outpatients (N = 58) were randomly assigned to cognitive enhancement therapy (CET) or an enriched supportive therapy (EST) control and…

  1. Outcomes of a 4-year program with higher education and employment goals for individuals diagnosed with mental illness. (United States)

    Schindler, Victoria P; Sauerwald, Camille


    This study examined outcomes of the first four years (2005-2009) of the Bridge Program, an occupational therapy (OT) program that incorporates principles of supported education and supported employment. This program was developed to assist individuals with mental illness to achieve higher education and employment goals. Forty-eight adult participants with various mental health diagnoses. A quantitative one-group pretest-posttest survey design and posttest qualitative focus groups were used. Participants enrolled in higher education increased from 7 to 11 (pretest=15%; posttest=23%), participants employed increased from 5 to 19 (pretest=10%; posttest=40%), and the combined category of higher education/employment increased from 12 to 30 (pretest=25%; posttest=63%) Statistical significance was achieved from pre to posttest in the employment sample (peducation/employment (peducation sample from pre to posttest (p=0.125). Quantitative and qualitative results support that an OT program incorporating principles of supported education and employment can assist individuals with mental illness to achieve higher education and employment goals. Results also outlined items participants found to be supports and barriers to achieving goals.

  2. The Role of Small Cities in Shaping Youth Employment Outcomes in ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    These cities, which have registered impressive increases in their populations and a concentration of GDP, serve simultaneously as origins, destinations, and transit points for young Indonesian men and women seeking employment and skills. Given that the trends in employment and growth in these areas are likely to ...

  3. Does the technique employed for skin temperature assessment alter outcomes? A systematic review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bach, Aaron J E; Stewart, Ian B; Minett, Geoffrey M; Costello, Joseph T


    Skin temperature is an important physiological measure that can reflect the presence of illness and injury as well as provide insight into the localised interactions between the body and the environment. The aim of this systematic review was to analyse the agreement between conductive and infrared means of assessing skin temperature which are commonly employed in in clinical, occupational, sports medicine, public health and research settings.Full-text eligibility was determined independently by two reviewers. Studies meeting the following criteria were included in the review: (1) the literature was written in English, (2) participants were human (in vivo), (3) skin surface temperature was assessed at the same site, (4) with at least two commercially available devices employed—one conductive and one infrared—and (5) had skin temperature data reported in the study.A computerised search of four electronic databases, using a combination of 21 keywords, and citation tracking was performed in January 2015. A total of 8,602 were returned.Methodology quality was assessed by two authors independently, using the Cochrane risk of bias tool.A total of 16 articles (n = 245) met the inclusion criteria.Devices are classified to be in agreement if they met the clinically meaningful recommendations of mean differences within  ±0.5 °C and limits of agreement of  ±1.0 °C.Twelve of the included studies found mean differences greater than  ±0.5 °C between conductive and infrared devices. In the presence of external stimulus (e.g. exercise and/or heat) five studies found exacerbated measurement differences between conductive and infrared devices.This is the first review that has attempted to investigate presence of any systemic bias between infrared and conductive measures by collectively evaluating the current evidence base. There was also a consistently high risk of bias across the studies, in terms of sample size, random sequence generation, allocation

  4. Long-term outcomes of childhood cancer survivors in Sweden: a population-based study of education, employment, and income. (United States)

    Boman, Krister K; Lindblad, Frank; Hjern, Anders


    Studies of different national populations were indispensable for estimating the impact of illness-related disability on social outcomes in adult childhood cancer survivors. The effects of childhood cancer on educational attainment, employment, and income in adulthood in a Swedish setting were studied. The study population was a national cohort of 1.46 million Swedish residents, including 1716 survivors of childhood cancer diagnosed before their 16th birthday, followed up in 2002 in registries at >25 years of age. Main outcomes were educational attainment, employment, and net income. Markers of persistent disability were considered, and outcomes were analyzed with multivariate linear and logistic regression models adjusted for age, sex, and socioeconomic indicators of the childhood households. Non-central nervous system (CNS) cancer survivors had similar education, employment, and income as the general population in adjusted models, whereas survivors of CNS tumors more often had no more than basic (education (relative risk [RR], 1.80 [95% confidence interval (95% CI), 1.45-2.23]), less often attained education beyond secondary school (RR, 0.69 [95% CI, 0.58-0.81]), and less often were employed (RR, 0.85 [95% CI, 0.77-0.94]). Predicted net income from work was lower in CNS tumor survivors (P importance of improved, safer pediatric CNS tumor treatment protocols and surveillance that identified individual needs for preventive and remedial measures.

  5. Supported employment among veterans with serious mental illness: the role of cognition and social cognition on work outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Felice Reddy


    Full Text Available Unemployment is a primary functional deficit for the majority of adults with schizophrenia. Research indicates that over two-thirds of adults living in the community with schizophrenia are unemployed. Despite effective programs to assist with job identification and placement, the ability to attain and maintain employment remains a pressing concern. Neurocognitive functioning is widely acknowledged to be a determinant of work outcome; however, effect sizes tend to be in the small to medium range. The present study sought to further understand the determinants of work outcome among a sample of 104 veterans with schizophrenia enrolled in a supported employment program. A small percentage of veterans in the study got competitive jobs; 53% who secured jobs maintained employment for longer than 6 months. Cognition, social cognition, and symptoms were unrelated to job attainment. However, speed of processing and social cognition were significant predictors of work outcomes such as wages and tenure. These findings suggest that cognitive abilities including processing speed and the ability to accurately interpret and respond to social cues are significant determinants of whether individuals with schizophrenia remain employed. The results are discussed in light of current available treatment options and domains to target in synergy with work rehabilitation efforts.

  6. New Perspectives on Documenting Employment and Earnings Outcomes in Vocational Education. (United States)

    Stevens, David W.; Shi, Jinping

    This guide is designed for local and state authorities who seek a better understanding of the performance of their vocational education programs. Its basic theme is management diagnostics. The first section provides a brief introduction to three decades of research that has been conducted on wage records submitted by employers under unemployment…

  7. The Impact of Employer-Sponsored Educational Assistance Benefits on Community College Student Outcomes (United States)

    Tran, Henry; Smith, Douglas


    Studies of community college finance often focus on revenue sources from the state and local government, private foundations, and tuition. While these resources are important, an often-neglected source of revenue is employer-sponsored educational assistance benefits for students. Given the dearth of literature on the benefits of this funding…

  8. Self-Assessment of Employability Skill Outcomes among Undergraduates and Alignment with Academic Ratings (United States)

    Jackson, Denise


    Despite acknowledgement of the benefits of self-assessment in higher education, disparity between student and academic assessments, with associated trends in overrating and underrating, plagues its meaningful use, particularly as a tool for formal assessment. This study examines self-assessment of capabilities in certain employability skills in…

  9. Toyboys or supergirls?An analysis of partners’ employment outcomes when she outearns him

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bloemen, H.G.; Stancanelli, E.G.F.


    In this paper we study households in which the woman is the main earner, encompassing both dual-earners with the wife outearning the husband and couples in which the husband is not employed. The literature in this area is very scant. Earlier studies find that the wife outearns the husband in roughly

  10. Enhancing Employment Outcomes for Survivors of Intimate Partner Violence: A Developmental Work Personality Perspective (United States)

    Keim, Jeanmarie; Strauser, David R.; Olguin, David L.


    Rates of intimate partner violence (IPV) are high. Many survivors elect to leave abusive relationships and seek treatment to address the abusive cycle and psychiatric symptoms that may result. Programs to assist survivors often include an employment component. This article discusses the use of the Developmental Work Personality Scale (D. R.…

  11. The Impact of Adolescent Stuttering on Educational and Employment Outcomes: Evidence from a Birth Cohort Study (United States)

    McAllister, Jan; Collier, Jacqueline; Shepstone, Lee


    Purpose: In interview and survey studies, people who stutter report the belief that stuttering has had a negative impact on their own education and employment. This population study sought objective evidence of such disadvantage for people who stutter as a group, compared with people who do not stutter. Method: A secondary analysis of a British…

  12. The Effect of Career Mentoring on Employment Outcomes for College Students Who Are Legally Blind (United States)

    O'Mally, Jamie; Antonelli, Karla


    Introduction: College graduates with visual impairments (that is, those who are blind or have low vision) often face challenges in securing competitive employment after graduation. Working with a mentor who is also visually impaired, and working in the same field, can provide important benefits to overcome these barriers. Methods: A nationwide…

  13. Presence Relates to Distinct Outcomes in Two Virtual Environments Employing Different Learning Modalities (United States)

    Persky, Susan; Kaphingst, Kimberly A.; McCall, Cade; Lachance, Christina; Beall, Andrew C.; Blascovich, Jim


    Presence in virtual learning environments (VLEs) has been associated with a number of outcome factors related to a user’s ability and motivation to learn. The extant but relatively small body of research suggests that a high level of presence is related to better performance on learning outcomes in VLEs. Different configurations of form and content variables such as those associated with active (self-driven, interactive activities) versus didactic (reading or lecture) learning may, however, influence how presence operates and on what content it operates. We compared the influence of presence between two types of immersive VLEs (i.e., active versus didactic techniques) on comprehension and engagement-related outcomes. The findings revealed that the active VLE promoted greater presence. Although we found no relationship between presence and learning comprehension outcomes for either virtual environment, presence was related to information engagement variables in the didactic immersive VLE but not the active environment. Results demonstrate that presence is not uniformly elicited or effective across immersive VLEs. Educational delivery mode and environment complexity may influence the impact of presence on engagement. PMID:19366319

  14. Formal plan for self-disclosure enhances supported employment outcomes among young people with severe mental illness. (United States)

    McGahey, Ellie; Waghorn, Geoffrey; Lloyd, Chris; Morrissey, Shirley; Williams, Philip Lee


    Young people with mental illness experience high levels of unemployment, which can be related to stigma and discrimination. This may result from poor choices in disclosing personal information, such as their mental illness diagnosis, in the workplace. The aim of this study was to investigate the predictive validity of a formal plan to manage personal information (PMPI) during the early stages of supported employment. The focal question was: does the use of a brief structured PMPI lead to more employment outcomes for young people with a mental illness? A sample of 40 young unemployed mental health service users (mean age 23.9 years), who were also attending employment services on the Gold Coast, was asked about their disclosure preferences. If they preferred not to disclose at all, they did not complete a plan for managing personal information. If they preferred to disclose some personal information, they were provided with assistance to complete a PMPI. Baseline information was gathered from two equal groups of 20 individuals. Employment status was ascertained at a 6-week follow-up interview. Those who completed a plan to manage their personal information had 4.9 times greater odds of employment at 6 weeks than those who preferred not to disclose any personal information. A formal PMPI has promising predictive validity with respect to job seekers not opposed to pragmatic forms of self-disclosure. Further research is needed to examine other properties of this decision-making tool. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  15. Chemical reaction due to stronger Ramachandran interaction

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The origin of a chemical reaction between two reactant atoms is associated with the activation energy, on the assumption that, high-energy collisions between these atoms, are the ones that overcome the activation energy. Here, we show that a stronger attractive van der Waals (vdW) and electron-ion Coulomb interactions ...

  16. Deep brain stimulation for psychiatric diseases: a pooled analysis of published studies employing disease-specific standardized outcome scales. (United States)

    Nangunoori, Raj; Tomycz, Nestor D; Quigley, Matthew; Oh, Michael Y; Whiting, Donald M


    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has emerged in recent years as a novel therapy in the treatment of refractory psychiatric disease, including major depressive disorder (MDD), obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and Tourette's syndrome (TS). Standardized outcome scales were crucial in establishing that DBS was an effective therapy for movement disorders. In order to better characterize the evidence supporting DBS for various psychiatric diseases, we performed a pooled analysis of those studies which incorporated specific standardized rating scales. A Medline search was conducted to identify all studies reporting DBS for MDD, OCD, and TS. The search yielded a total of 49 articles, of which 24 were included: 4 related to MDD (n = 48), 10 to OCD (n = 64), and 10 to TS (n = 46). A meta-analysis of DBS for MDD, OCD, and TS in studies employing disease-specific standardized outcome scales showed that the outcome scales all improved in a statistically significant fashion for these psychiatric diseases. Our pooled analysis suggests that DBS for TS has the highest efficacy amongst the psychiatric diseases currently being treated with DBS, followed by OCD and MDD. DBS for psychiatric diseases remains investigational; however, even when studies failing to incorporate standardized outcome scales are excluded, there is statistically significant evidence that DBS can improve symptoms in MDD, OCD, and TS. Standardized disease-specific outcome scales facilitate pooled analysis and should be a required metric in future studies of DBS for psychiatric disease.

  17. Antecedents and outcomes of a fourfold taxonomy of work-family balance in Chinese employed parents. (United States)

    Lu, Jia-Fang; Siu, Oi-Ling; Spector, Paul E; Shi, Kan


    The study provided validity evidence for a fourfold taxonomy of work-family balance that comprises direction of influence (work to family vs. family to work) and types of effect (work-family conflict vs. work-family facilitation). Data were collected from 189 employed parents in China. The results obtained from a confirmatory factor analysis supported the factorial validity of the fourfold taxonomy of work-family balance with a Chinese sample. Child care responsibilities, working hours, monthly salary, and organizational family-friendly policy were positively related to the conflict component of work-family balance; whereas new parental experience, spouse support, family-friendly supervisors and coworkers had significant positive effects on the facilitation component of work-family balance. In comparison with the inconsistent effects of work-family conflict, work to family facilitation had consistent positive effects on work and life attitudes. The implications of findings in relation to China and other countries are discussed in the paper.

  18. Decision aid on disclosure of mental health status to an employer: feasibility and outcomes of a randomised controlled trial. (United States)

    Henderson, Claire; Brohan, Elaine; Clement, Sarah; Williams, Paul; Lassman, Francesca; Schauman, Oliver; Dockery, Lisa; Farrelly, Simone; Murray, Joanna; Murphy, Caroline; Slade, Mike; Thornicroft, Graham


    Many mental health service users delay or avoid disclosing their condition to employers because of experience, or anticipation, of discrimination. However, non-disclosure precludes the ability to request 'reasonable adjustments'. There have been no intervention studies to support decision-making about disclosure to an employer. To determine whether the decision aid has an effect that is sustained beyond its immediate impact; to determine whether a large-scale trial is feasible; and to optimise the designs of a larger trial and of the decision aid. In this exploratory randomised controlled trial (RCT) in London, participants were randomly assigned to use of a decision aid plus usual care or usual care alone. Follow-up was at 3 months. Primary outcomes were: (a) stage of decision-making; (b) decisional conflict; and (c) employment-related outcomes (trial registration number: NCT01379014). We recruited 80 participants and interventions were completed for 36 out of 40 in the intervention group; in total 71 participants were followed up. Intention-to-treat analysis showed that reduction in decisional conflict was significantly greater in the intervention group than among controls (mean improvement -22.7 (s.d. = 15.2) v. -11.2 (s.d. = 18.1), P = 0.005). More of the intervention group than controls were in full-time employment at follow-up (P = 0.03). The observed reduction in decisional conflict regarding disclosure has a number of potential benefits which next need to be tested in a definitive trial.

  19. Employment outcome and predictors of competitive employment at 2-year follow-up of a vocational rehabilitation programme for individuals with schizophrenia in a high-income welfare society. (United States)

    Evensen, Stig; Ueland, Torill; Lystad, June Ullevoldsæter; Bull, Helen; Klungsøyr, Ole; Martinsen, Egil W; Falkum, Erik


    Employment is an important part of recovery for individuals with schizophrenia. The employment rate for this group is as low as 10% in Norway, and major system related barriers to employment are evident. This study reports the competitive employment outcome at 2-year follow-up of a vocational rehabilitation study augmented with cognitive remediation (CR) or elements from cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) for individuals with schizophrenia spectrum disorders. It also investigates if global functioning, self-esteem, and depression at baseline predicts employment outcome, and if change in these variables during the intervention period is associated with employment outcome. One hundred and forty-eight participants with schizophrenia spectrum disorders in six Norwegian counties received 10 months vocational rehabilitation augmented with either CBT (n = 84) or CR (n = 64). Both competitive and sheltered workplaces were used. Participants were assessed at baseline, at the end of the intervention period, and at 2-year follow-up. At 2-year follow-up, 21.2% had obtained competitive employment. A further 25.3% had work placements in competitive workplaces. Significant improvements were found in global functioning, self-esteem, and depression during the intervention period, but no significant differences between the two intervention groups. High baseline global functioning and self-esteem, as well as positive change in these variables during the intervention period, were significantly associated with higher competitive employment outcome at 2-year follow-up. The results add to existing evidence that competitive employment is attainable for individuals with schizophrenia. High global functioning and self-esteem were strongly associated with competitive employment outcome.

  20. Enablers and challenges of post-16 education and employment outcomes: the perspectives of young adults with a history of SLI. (United States)

    Carroll, Catherine; Dockrell, Julie


    Research studies have begun to investigate the post-16 outcomes for young adults with a specific language impairment (SLI). As yet only tentative conclusions can be drawn with respect to academic and employment outcomes and the factors that are associated with more positive outcomes. Evidence for these findings has relied predominantly on associations between various language, academic and psychosocial assessments. Little attention has been paid to the perspective of the young person. To investigate from the perspective of a group of young people with a history of SLI the factors they believed have enabled and presented a challenge to their post-16 education and employment outcomes and experiences. Nineteen (four female, 15 male) young people aged from 19 to 23 years (average age 21 years), who had all attended the same residential special school for pupils with SLI, were interviewed face to face to explore their views as to what had enabled and limited their transition experiences to date. The data were analysed using thematic analysis. The majority of the young people saw themselves as key agents of change and very active participants in steering their own transition since leaving school. They acknowledged the important role played by their parents and families and how factors such as SLI had affected their transition experiences. The study supports evidence from research with different groups of young people with special educational needs (SEN) and disabilities of the importance of school and post-16 curriculums which develop agency on behalf of the young person. © 2012 Royal College of Speech and Language Therapists.

  1. Stronger misdirection in curved than in straight motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge eOtero-Millan


    Full Text Available Illusions developed by magicians are a rich and largely untapped source of insight into perception and cognition. Here we show that curved motion, as employed by the magician in a classic sleight of hand trick, generates stronger misdirection than rectilinear motion, and that this difference can be explained by the differential engagement of the smooth pursuit and the saccadic oculomotor systems. This research moreover exemplifies how the magician’s intuitive understanding of the spectator’s mindset can surpass that of the cognitive scientist in specific instances, and that observation-based behavioral insights developed by magicians are worthy of quantitative investigation in the neuroscience laboratory.

  2. Outcomes of home-based employment service programs for people with disabilities and their related factors--a preliminary study in Taiwan. (United States)

    Lin, Yi-Jiun; Huang, I-Chun; Wang, Yun-Tung


    The aim of this exploratory study is to gain an understanding of the outcomes of home-based employment service programs for people with disabilities and their related factors in Taiwan. This study used survey method to collect 132 questionnaires. Descriptive and two-variable statistics including chi-square (χ(2)), independent sample t-test and analysis of variance were employed. The results found that 36.5% of the subjects improved their employment status and 75.8% of them improved in employability. Educational level and and vocational categories including "web page production", "e-commerce", "internet marketing", "on-line store" and "website set-up and management" were significantly "positively" associated with either of the two outcome indicators - change of employment status and employability. This study is the first evidence-based study about the outcomes of home-based employment service programs and their related factors for people with disabilities in Taiwan. The outcomes of the home-based employment service programs for people with disabilities were presented. Implications for Rehabilitation Home-based rehabilitation for people with disabilities can be effective. A programme of this kind supports participants in improving or gaining employment status as well as developing employability skills. Further consideration should be given to developing cost-effective home-based programmes and evaluating their effectiveness.

  3. A randomized controlled trial to improve health among women receiving welfare in the US: the relationship between employment outcomes and the economic recession. (United States)

    Kneipp, Shawn M; Kairalla, John A; Sheely, Amanda L


    The high prevalence of health conditions among U.S. women receiving Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF, or 'welfare') impedes the ability of many in this group to move from 'welfare-to-work', and the economic recession has likely exacerbated this problem. Despite this, few interventions have been developed to improve employment outcomes by addressing the health needs of women receiving TANF, and little is known about the impact of economic downturns on the employment trajectory of this group. Using data from a recent randomized controlled trial (RCT) that tested the efficacy of a public health nursing (PHN) intervention to address the chronic health condition needs of 432 American women receiving TANF, we examine the effect of the intervention and of recession exposure on employment. We further explore whether intervention effects were modified by select sociodemographic and health characteristics. Both marginal and more robust intervention effects were noted for employment-entry outcomes (any employment, p = 0.05 and time-to-employment, p = 0.01). There were significant effects for recession exposure on employment-entry (any employment, p = 0.002 and time-to-employment, p recession exposure influenced longer-term employment outcomes (employment rate or maximum continuous employment). Intervention effects were not modified by age, education, prior TANF receipt, functional status, or recession exposure, suggesting the intervention was equally effective in improving employment-entry across a fairly heterogeneous group both before and after the recession onset. These findings advance our understanding of the health and employment dynamics among this group of disadvantaged women under variable macroeconomic conditions, and have implications for guiding health and TANF-related policy. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. LHC Season 2: A stronger machine

    CERN Multimedia

    Dominguez, Daniel


    1) New magnets / De nouveaux aimants 2) Stronger connections / Des jonctions électriques renforcées 3) Safer magnets / Des aimants plus sûrs 4) Higher energy beams / Des faisceaux d’énergie plus élevée 5) Narrower beams / Des faisceaux plus serrés 6) Smaller but closer proton packets / Des groupes de protons plus petits mais plus rapprochés 7) Higher voltage / Une tension plus haute 8) Superior cryogenics / Un système cryogénique amélioré 9) Radiation-resistant electronics / Une électronique qui résiste aux radiations 10) More secure vacuum / Un vide plus sûr

  5. The Menu Approach to supported employment for individuals with severe and persistent mental illness: Outcomes in an Oregon community based program. (United States)

    Roush, Sean


    The purpose of this study was to determine the vocational outcomes at the Abacus Program, a Menu Approach supported employment program designed to assist individuals with serious mental illness (SMI) achieve competitive employment. A summative evaluation method was used to determine the vocational outcomes between the years 2000-2006 at the Abacus Program. Data was gathered from existing Abacus Program records and the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) 15.0 was used to calculate outcomes. The Abacus Program served 264 clients during the study period. Within those clients, there were 140 cases of vocational services that met study criteria which resulted in 83 successful instances of employment (59%). Initial data from a single site indicate that the Menu Approach to supported employment produces successful employment outcomes comparable to other published studies. Further research is warranted in order to confirm the initial results of this study in other settings. Randomized controlled trials should be conducted in order to compare the outcomes of the Menu Approach to other methods of providing supported employment services to individuals with SMI.

  6. Gas Marbles: Much Stronger than Liquid Marbles (United States)

    Timounay, Yousra; Pitois, Olivier; Rouyer, Florence


    Enwrapping liquid droplets with hydrophobic particles allows the manufacture of so-called "liquid marbles" [Aussillous and Quéré Nature (London) 411, 924 (2001); , 10.1038/35082026Mahadevan Nature (London)411, 895 (2001), 10.1038/35082164]. The recent intensive research devoted to liquid marbles is justified by their very unusual physical and chemical properties and by their potential for various applications, from microreactors to water storage, including water pollution sensors [Bormashenko Curr. Opin. Colloid Interface Sci. 16, 266 (2011), 10.1016/j.cocis.2010.12.002]. Here we demonstrate that this concept can be successfully applied for encapsulating and protecting small gas pockets within an air environment. Similarly to their liquid counterparts, those new soft-matter objects, that we call "gas marbles," can sustain external forces. We show that gas marbles are surprisingly tenfold stronger than liquid marbles and, more importantly, they can sustain both positive and negative pressure differences. This magnified strength is shown to originate from the strong cohesive nature of the shell. Those interesting properties could be exploited for imprisoning valuable or polluted gases or for designing new aerated materials.

  7. Longitudinal employment outcomes of an early intervention vocational rehabilitation service for people admitted to rehabilitation with a traumatic spinal cord injury. (United States)

    Hilton, G; Unsworth, C A; Murphy, G C; Browne, M; Olver, J


    Longitudinal cohort design. First, to explore the longitudinal outcomes for people who received early intervention vocational rehabilitation (EIVR); second, to examine the nature and extent of relationships between contextual factors and employment outcomes over time. Both inpatient and community-based clients of a Spinal Community Integration Service (SCIS). People of workforce age undergoing inpatient rehabilitation for traumatic spinal cord injury were invited to participate in EIVR as part of SCIS. Data were collected at the following three time points: discharge and at 1 year and 2+ years post discharge. Measures included the spinal cord independence measure, hospital anxiety and depression scale, impact on participation and autonomy scale, numerical pain-rating scale and personal wellbeing index. A range of chi square, correlation and regression tests were undertaken to look for relationships between employment outcomes and demographic, emotional and physical characteristics. Ninety-seven participants were recruited and 60 were available at the final time point where 33% (95% confidence interval (CI): 24-42%) had achieved an employment outcome. Greater social participation was strongly correlated with wellbeing (ρ=0.692), and reduced anxiety (ρ=-0.522), depression (ρ=-0.643) and pain (ρ=-0.427) at the final time point. In a generalised linear mixed effect model, education status, relationship status and subjective wellbeing increased significantly the odds of being employed at the final time point. Tertiary education prior to injury was associated with eight times increased odds of being in employment at the final time point; being in a relationship at the time of injury was associated with increased odds of being in employment of more than 3.5; subjective wellbeing, while being the least powerful predictor was still associated with increased odds (1.8 times) of being employed at the final time point. EIVR shows promise in delivering similar return

  8. Employment-based reinforcement of adherence to oral naltrexone in unemployed injection drug users: 12-month outcomes. (United States)

    Dunn, Kelly; DeFulio, Anthony; Everly, Jeffrey J; Donlin, Wendy D; Aklin, Will M; Nuzzo, Paul A; Leoutsakos, Jeannie-Marie S; Umbricht, Annie; Fingerhood, Michael; Bigelow, George E; Silverman, Kenneth


    Oral naltrexone could be a promising relapse-prevention pharmacotherapy for recently detoxified opioid-dependent patients; however, interventions are often needed to promote adherence with this treatment approach. We recently conducted a study to evaluate a 26-week employment-based reinforcement intervention of oral naltrexone in unemployed injection drug users (Dunn et al., 2013). Participants were randomly assigned into a contingency (n = 35) group required to ingest naltrexone under staff observation to gain entry into a therapeutic workplace or a prescription (n = 32) group given a take-home supply of oral naltrexone and access to the workplace without observed ingestion. Monthly urine samples were collected and analyzed for evidence for naltrexone adherence, opioid use, and cocaine use. As previously reported, contingency participants provided significantly more naltrexone-positive urine samples than prescription participants during the 26-week intervention period. The goal of this current study is to report the 12-month outcomes, which occurred 6 months after the intervention ended. Results at the 12-month visit showed no between-groups differences in naltrexone-positive, opioid-negative, or cocaine-negative urine samples and no participant self-reported using naltrexone at the follow-up visit. These results show that even after a period of successfully reinforced oral naltrexone adherence, longer-term naltrexone use is unlikely to be maintained after reinforcement contingencies are discontinued. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Postoperative quality of life outcome and employment in patients undergoing resection of epileptogenic lesions detected by magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moritake, Kouzo; Akiyama, Yasuhiko; Nagai, Hidemasa; Maruyama, Nobuyuki; Takada, Daikei; Daisu, Mitsuhiro; Nagasako, Noriko; Mikuni, Nobuhiro; Hashimoto, Nobuo


    The long-term postoperative improvement of quality of life (QOL) and employment were investigated in patients undergoing resection of epileptogenic lesions detected by magnetic resonance (MR) imaging to identify the associated preoperative factors. Thirty of 47 patients who underwent lesionectomy between 1987-2001 replied to questionnaires. Patients with extratemporal resection outnumbered those with temporal lobe resection. The mean follow-up period was 12.4±3.7 years. An arbitrary score for quantitatively assessing QOL was assigned. The mean increases in QOL score points were significantly higher in the late childhood onset group than those in the early childhood onset group, and were also significantly higher in the temporal resection group and extratemporal resection of non-dysplastic cortical pathology group than in the extratemporal resection of dysplastic cortical pathology group. Postoperative QOL improvement and occupational status of patients depended on the completeness of seizure control. Resection of lesions detected by MR imaging in patients with intractable epilepsy resulted in effective long-term QOL improvement and postoperative occupational status. Favorable outcome was related mainly to the pathology of the epileptogenic lesions, whether the lesion site was temporal or extratemporal, and the completeness of seizure control. (author)

  10. States agree on stronger physical protection regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    Full text: Delegates from 89 countries agreed on 8 July to fundamental changes that will substantially strengthen the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material (CPPNM). IAEA Director General Mohamed ElBaradei welcomed the agreement in saying 'This new and stronger treaty is an important step towards greater nuclear security by combating, preventing, and ultimately punishing those who would engage in nuclear theft, sabotage or even terrorism. It demonstrates that there is indeed a global commitment to remedy weaknesses in our nuclear security regime.' The amended CPPNM makes it legally binding for States Parties to protect nuclear facilities and material in peaceful domestic use, storage as well as transport. It will also provide for expanded cooperation between and among States regarding rapid measures to locate and recover stolen or smuggled nuclear material, mitigate any radiological consequences of sabotage, and prevent and combat related offences. The original CPPNM applied only to nuclear material in international transport. Conference President Dr. Alec Baer said 'All 89 delegations demonstrated real unity of purpose. They put aside some very genuine national concerns in favour of the global interest and the result is a much improved convention that is better suited to addressing the nuclear security challenges we currently face.' The new rules will come into effect once they have been ratified by two-thirds of the 112 States Parties of the Convention, expected to take several years. 'But concrete actions are already taking place around the world. For more than 3 years, the IAEA has been implementing a systematic Nuclear Security plan, including physical protection activities designed to prevent, detect and respond to malicious acts,' said Anita Nillson, Director of the IAEA's Office of Nuclear Security. The Agency's Nuclear Security Fund, set up after the events of 9/11, has delivered $19.5 million in practical assistance to 121 countries

  11. Using the Social Enterprise Intervention (SEI) and Individual Placement and Support (IPS) models to improve employment and clinical outcomes of homeless youth with mental illness. (United States)

    Ferguson, Kristin M


    Prior research reveals high unemployment rates among homeless youth. The literature offers many examples of using evidence-informed and evidence-based supported employment models with vulnerable populations to assist them in obtaining and maintaining employment and concurrently addressing mental health challenges. However, there are few examples to date of these models with homeless youth with mental illness. The purpose of this article was thus to describe a methodology for establishing a university-agency research partnership to design, implement, evaluate, and replicate evidence-informed and evidence-based interventions with homeless youth with mental illness to enhance their employment, mental health, and functional outcomes. Data from two studies are used to illustrate the relationship between vocational skill-building/employment and mental health among homeless youth. The article concludes with a discussion of the implications of conducting community-based participatory employment and clinical intervention research. The author highlights the opportunities and tensions associated with this approach.

  12. Using the Social Enterprise Intervention (SEI) and Individual Placement and Support (IPS) models to improve employment and clinical outcomes of homeless youth with mental illness1 (United States)

    Ferguson, Kristin M.


    Prior research reveals high unemployment rates among homeless youth. The literature offers many examples of using evidence-informed and evidence-based supported employment models with vulnerable populations to assist them in obtaining and maintaining employment and concurrently addressing mental health challenges. However, there are few examples to date of these models with homeless youth with mental illness. The purpose of this article was thus to describe a methodology for establishing a university-agency research partnership to design, implement, evaluate, and replicate evidence-informed and evidence-based interventions with homeless youth with mental illness to enhance their employment, mental health, and functional outcomes. Data from two studies are used to illustrate the relationship between vocational skill-building/employment and mental health among homeless youth. The article concludes with a discussion of the implications of conducting community-based participatory employment and clinical intervention research. The author highlights the opportunities and tensions associated with this approach. PMID:24294127

  13. Factors Contributing to Successful Employment Outcomes for Hispanic Women Who Are Deaf: Utilization of Chi-Squared Automatic Interaction Detector and Logistic Regression Analysis (United States)

    Feist, Amber M.


    Hispanic women who are deaf constitute a heterogeneous group of individuals with varying vocational needs. To understand the unique needs of this population, it is important to analyze how consumer characteristics, presence of public supports, and type of services provided influence employment outcomes for Hispanic women who are deaf. The purpose…

  14. Orientation and Mobility Skills and Outcome Expectations as Predictors of Employment for Young Adults with Visual Impairments (United States)

    Cmar, Jennifer L.


    Introduction: Youths with visual impairments attend postsecondary school at high rates, yet these individuals have low rates of employment. In this study, factors associated with post-school employment were investigated in a nationally representative sample of youths with visual impairments. Methods: In a secondary analysis of data from the…

  15. Employment-based abstinence reinforcement as a maintenance intervention for the treatment of cocaine dependence: post-intervention outcomes (United States)

    DeFulio, Anthony; Silverman, Kenneth


    Aims Due to the chronicity of cocaine dependence, practical and effective maintenance interventions are needed to sustain long-term abstinence. We sought to assess the effects of long-term employment-based reinforcement of cocaine abstinence after discontinuation of the intervention. Design Participants who initiated sustained opiate and cocaine abstinence during a 6-month abstinence reinforcement and training program worked as data entry operators and were randomly assigned to a group that could work independent of drug use (Control, n = 24), or an abstinence-contingent employment (n = 27) group that was required to provide cocaine- and opiate-negative urine samples to work and maintain maximum rate of pay. Setting A nonprofit data entry business. Participants Unemployed welfare recipients who persistently used cocaine while in methadone treatment. Measurements Urine samples and self-reports were collected every six months for 30 months. Findings During the employment year, abstinence-contingent employment participants provided significantly more cocaine-negative samples than controls (82.7% and 54.2%; P = .01, OR = 4.61). During the follow-up year, the groups had similar rates of cocaine-negative samples (44.2% and 50.0%; P = .93), and HIV-risk behaviors. Participants’ social, employment, economic, and legal conditions were similar in the two groups across all phases of the study. Conclusions Employment-based reinforcement effectively maintains long-term cocaine abstinence, but many patients relapse to use when the abstinence contingency is discontinued, even after a year of abstinence-contingent employment. Relapse could be prevented in many patients by leaving employment-based abstinence reinforcement in place indefinitely, which could be facilitated by integrating it into typical workplaces. PMID:21226886

  16. Prospective comparison of acute confusion severity with duration of post-traumatic amnesia in predicting employment outcome after traumatic brain injury. (United States)

    Nakase-Richardson, Risa; Yablon, Stuart A; Sherer, Mark


    Measurement of the duration of post-traumatic amnesia (PTA) is common practice, serving as an important index of the severity of traumatic brain injury (TBI) and a predictor of functional outcome. However, controversy exists regarding the nature of PTA; some studies indicate that it is a confusional state with symptoms that extend beyond disorientation and amnesia. To evaluate the contribution of the severity of acute confusion 1 month after TBI to prediction of employment at 1 year after injury, comparing it with PTA duration. Prospective study involving 171 participants with complete data, who met the study criteria, from 228 consecutive TBI Model System admissions. Outcome measures included weekly administration of the Delirium Rating Scale-Revised-98 (DelRS-R98) to measure the severity of acute confusion. Evaluations closest to 1 month after injury were used for study purposes. Duration of PTA was defined as the interval from injury until two consecutive Galveston Orientation and Amnesia Test scores of > or = 76 were obtained within a period of 24-72 h. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression were used to predict employment status at 1 year after injury. Age, education and DelRS-R98 were significant predictors accounting for 34% of outcome variance. Individuals with greater confusion severity at 1 month after injury, older age and lower levels of education were less likely to be employed at 1 year after injury. Severity of confusion was more strongly associated with employment outcome (r(s) = -0.39) than was PTA duration (r(s) = -0.34). In addition to demographic indices, severity of acute confusion makes a unique contribution to predicting late outcome after TBI.

  17. Employment and Professional Outcomes in 803 Patients Undergoing Bariatric Surgery in a French Reference Center for Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q Durand-Moreau


    Full Text Available Background: Very few studies have been performed on small populations about the links between employment and bariatric surgery. Objective: To determine if rates of employment are increased among patients who have undergone bariatric surgery, to assess their post-operative health consequences (post-prandial weakness, diarrhea, and patients' ability to maintain post-operative advice (ie, 30 minutes of daily physical activity, 6 small meals daily compared to non-employed post-surgical patients. Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed in the Regional Reference Centre for Obesity, which is a partnership between the University Hospital and a clinic in Angers, France during 2012 using a self-administrated questionnaire completed by patients hospitalized for post-operative follow-ups after bariatric surgery. Issues investigated were their professional situation before and after the surgery, compliancy to post-operative advice, and any postoperative side effects. Results: Employment rates were 64.4% before and 64.7% after the surgery (p=0.94. Of these, 30.6% maintained 30 minutes of daily physical activity vs. 41.0% of non-workers (p=0.02. 50.5% of employed patients and 57.3% of non-workers maintained 6 small meals a day after surgery (p=0.09. 8% of working patients reported post-prandial weaknesses and 8% reported diarrhea that caused problems at work. Conclusion: Employment rate remained stable after surgery. Having a job seemed to be an obstacle to managing 30 minutes of daily exercise, especially among women, but not maintaining 6 small meals a day. Therefore, working environment needs to be assessed to improve job quality and retention for patients who have undergone bariatric surgery.

  18. Employment and taxes in Latin America: An empirical study of the effects of payroll, corporate income and value-added taxes on labor outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Lora


    Full Text Available This paper empirically explores the effects of payroll taxes, value-added taxes and corporate income taxes on a variety of labor market outcomes such as participation, employment, informality, and wages. The results are based on nationallevel data of labor variables for 15 Latin American countries, and indicate that the effects of each tax are markedly different and may depend on several aspects of labor and tax institutions. Payroll taxes reduce employment and increase labor costs when their benefits are not valued by workers, but otherwise may increase labor participation and not raise labor costs. Value-added taxes increase informality and reduce skilled labor demand. In contrast, corporate income taxes may help reduce informality, especially among low education workers, but when tax enforcement capabilities are strong they may reduce labor participation and employment of medium- and high-education workers.

  19. Stronger Schrödinger-like uncertainty relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Qiu-Cheng; Qiao, Cong-Feng


    Highlights: • A stronger Schrödinger-like uncertainty relation in the sum of variances of two observables is obtained. • An improved Schrödinger-like uncertainty relation in the product of variances of two observables is obtained. • A stronger uncertainty relation in the sum of variances of three observables is proposed. - Abstract: Uncertainty relation is one of the fundamental building blocks of quantum theory. Nevertheless, the traditional uncertainty relations do not fully capture the concept of incompatible observables. Here we present a stronger Schrödinger-like uncertainty relation, which is stronger than the relation recently derived by Maccone and Pati (2014) [11]. Furthermore, we give an additive uncertainty relation which holds for three incompatible observables, which is stronger than the relation newly obtained by Kechrimparis and Weigert (2014) [12] and the simple extension of the Schrödinger uncertainty relation.

  20. Is the Ability to Ambulate Associated with Better Employment Outcomes in Participants with Traumatic Spinal Cord Injury? (United States)

    Krause, James S.


    The author compares current employment status after spinal cord injury between participants who were independent in ambulation (required no assistance from others) and those who were dependent in ambulation (required assistance from at least one other person to ambulate). Those who were independent of assistance from others in ambulation were…

  1. Four-Year Effects on Degree Receipt and Employment Outcomes from a Performance-Based Scholarship Program in Ohio (United States)

    Mayer, Alexander K.; Patel, Reshma; Gutierrez, Melvin


    A college degree is often viewed as a key step toward better employment and higher earnings. Many community college students, however, never graduate and cannot reap the financial benefits associated with a college degree. Although existing research suggests that financial aid interventions can modestly improve students' short-term academic…

  2. Agency Decision-Making Control and Employment Outcomes by Vocational Rehabilitation Consumers Who Are Blind or Visually Impaired (United States)

    Steinman, Bernard A.; Kwan, Ngai; Boeltzig-Brown, Heike; Haines, Kelly; Halliday, John; Foley, Susan M.


    Introduction: We hypothesized that consumers who are blind or visually impaired (that is, those who have low vision) who were served by state vocational rehabilitation agencies with decision-making control over administrative functions would experience better vocational rehabilitation outcomes than consumers served by vocational rehabilitation…

  3. Improved employment and education outcomes in households of HIV-infected adults with high CD4 cell counts: evidence from a community health campaign in Uganda. (United States)

    Thirumurthy, Harsha; Chamie, Gabriel; Jain, Vivek; Kabami, Jane; Kwarisiima, Dalsone; Clark, Tamara D; Geng, Elvin; Petersen, Maya L; Charlebois, Edwin D; Kamya, Moses R; Havlir, Diane V


    There is limited evidence on the association between socioeconomic outcomes and CD4 counts in populations that include HIV-infected adults who have high CD4 counts or have not been diagnosed. We examined this association among adults in a rural Ugandan parish. A community health campaign offering diagnostic and treatment services for HIV and other diseases was conducted with Ministry of Health support. Data on campaign participants' education and employment were collected and a detailed household socioeconomic survey was conducted among a subset of participants. Regression analyses were used to assess relationships between CD4 count and employment and education outcomes. A total of 2323 adults (74% of the community) participated in the campaign; 179 of 2282 (7.8%) tested HIV-positive and 46% were newly diagnosed. Among HIV-infected adults not on antiretroviral therapy (ART), those with CD4 at least 500 worked 6.9 more days/month (P < 0.01; 39% more) and 2.5 more h per day (P < 0.05, 44% more) than those with CD4 less than 200. These effects were not significantly different from the effects for those with CD4 350-499. Children aged 6-11 years in households of adults with CD4 at least 350 did not have significantly different school enrollment rates than children in households of adults with CD4 less than 350, but differences were larger among children aged 12-18 years. Outcomes of HIV-infected adults with CD4 at least 350 were better than those of adults with CD4 less than 200 and resembled those of HIV-uninfected adults. The results suggest that early ART initiation may generate economic benefits by preventing a decline in socioeconomic status, but further research is needed to determine the CD4 threshold at which these benefits would be largest.

  4. Women's political participation leads to stronger local economies ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Edgard Rodriguez - IDRC. Women attend a self-help group meeting near Hyderabad, India. Keenara Khanderia. Under changes to India's constitution, Indian women are gaining a stronger political voice. Legal reforms are encouraging women to contribute to economic growth and investments in community growth.

  5. A Stronger Reason for the Right to Sign Languages (United States)

    Trovato, Sara


    Is the right to sign language only the right to a minority language? Holding a capability (not a disability) approach, and building on the psycholinguistic literature on sign language acquisition, I make the point that this right is of a stronger nature, since only sign languages can guarantee that each deaf child will properly develop the…

  6. Stronger declines in youth alcohol consumption thanks to stronger integrated alcohol policies? A qualitative comparison of ten Dutch municipalities. (United States)

    de Goeij, Moniek C M; Harting, Janneke; Kunst, Anton E


    Little detailed evidence is available on how integrated policies could impact population health and under what conditions such policies could be realized. The aim of this study was to assess how youth alcohol consumption trends in the province of Noord-Brabant, The Netherlands, were related to the development and implementation of integrated policies. In a retrospective multiple case study, alcohol policies of six municipalities with stronger declines in youth alcohol consumption between 2007 and 2011 (cases) were compared to four municipalities with weaker declines (controls). Information on the policy process in the same period was obtained through semi-structured in-depth interviews with policy advisors. Information on implemented interventions was extracted from policy documents and checked by the interviewees. Interviews were analyzed for thematic content. Only municipalities with stronger declines in alcohol consumption involved sectors other than public health and had started to implement interventions that use regulatory or enforcement strategies. Their involvement was facilitated by framing youth alcohol consumption as a safety rather than a health problem, whereby local media played a substantial role. Implementation of integrated policies was further facilitated by dedicated leadership and sufficient resources. Reductions in youth alcohol consumption in Noord-Brabant were stronger when municipalities started to develop integrated policies. Results suggest that integrated policies framing a health problem as a broader societal problem could positively influence population health.

  7. Participation in programs designed to improve employment outcomes for persons with psychiatric disabilities: evidence from the New York WORKS demonstration project. (United States)

    Ruiz-Quintanilla, S Antonio; Weathers, Robert R; Melburg, Valerie; Campbell, Kimberly; Madi, Nawaf

    The New York WORKS demonstration project was designed to improve employment outcomes for persons with psychiatric disabilities receiving Supplemental Security Income (SSI) disability payments. This article shows how the individual characteristics of participants were related to outcomes at each stage of the multistage recruitment process used in the project and how those characteristics contributed to enrollment. The findings are important to program administrators who are interested in ensuring that SSI recipients receive equal access to employment-related services and who want to improve recruitment strategies for future demonstration projects. The New York WORKS recruitment process used administrative records from the Social Security Administration (SSA) to identify the population of over 68,000 SSI recipients with a diagnosis of a psychiatric disability in Erie County and New York City. Staff involved in the project documented the results of each stage of the recruitment process. The New York WORKS project included four stages: (1) the provision of information (sending a letter and information packet); (2) demonstrated awareness of the project (response to a letter containing an overview of the project); (3) expression of interest (indication of interest in the project, using a postmarked form returned to New York WORKS project staff); and (4) participation (actual enrollment in the program). The project staff members were also able to identify data from administrative records that described the characteristics of the population, including age, sex, type of psychiatric diagnosis, the number of months that the person collected benefits before the recruitment process, employment experience before the recruitment process, and annual earnings in the year before the recruitment process. The data on outcomes at each stage of the recruitment process and the characteristics of SSI recipients were analyzed using an empirical method recently suggested by Heckman and

  8. The right of the stronger: The play Sisyphus and critias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordović Ivan


    Full Text Available The Focus of this study is the standpoint of the play Sisyphus and critias the leader of the thirty towards the right of the stronger. this is a question of constant interest in scientific circles, since its answer can serve as the indicator of the influence this famous theory has had. this interest has been encouraged by the fact that critias’ authorship of the play is questionable. however, the question of the author is not of primary importance for this article, because there are some arguments, among some well known ones, which were not considered and which Show that in this satire, regardless of the author and the purpose of this fragment, the right of the stronger is actually non-existant. the first argument to support this theory is that nomosphysis antithesis is nowhere explicitly mentioned although it is the crucial element of the right of the stronger. in addition there is no claim in the play that the exploitation of the strong by the week or by law accrued. the second argument is that despite the incapability of laws to prevent the secret injustice, they and their importance for the human society are depicted in a positive light. it should also be noted that, unlike callicles and glaucon, laws are created to stop the bad and not the good. the third argument is that the invention of religion is accepted as a positive achievement, which finally enables the overcoming of primeval times and lawlessness. the reflection of this argument is a positive characterization of the individual who invented the fear of gods. the fourth argument, which has not been taken into consideration so far is the way the supporters and opponents of lawlessness are described and marked as κακοί and έσξλοί in the satire only physically strong are considered as strong as opposed to callicles, where they are also spiritually superior. intelectually superior in Sisyphus is the inventor of the fear of gods who is also in favor of law and order. the fact

  9. The University of Florida Department of Surgery: building a stronger tomorrow on yesterday's foundation. (United States)

    Behrns, Kevin E; Copeland, Edward M; Howard, Richard J


    Established in 1957, the University of Florida Department of Surgery has a solid foundation on which current faculty are driven to build a stronger tomorrow. The department is focused on promoting patient-centered care, expanding its research portfolio to improve techniques and outcomes, and training the surgical leaders of tomorrow. It fosters an environment where faculty, residents, students, and staff challenge long-held traditions with the goal of improving the health of our patients, the quality of our care, and the vitality of our work environment.

  10. Activities and interim outcomes of a multi-site development project to promote cognitive support technology use and employment success among postsecondary students with traumatic brain injuries. (United States)

    Hendricks, Deborah J; Sampson, Elaine; Rumrill, Phillip; Leopold, Anne; Elias, Eileen; Jacobs, Karen; Nardone, Amanda; Scherer, Marcia; Stauffer, Callista


    This article describes the activities and interim outcomes of a multi-site development project called Project Career, designed to promote cognitive support technology (CST) use and employment success for college and university students with traumatic brain injuries (TBIs). To obtain early intervention results from participants in Project Career's first 18 months of operation. Fifty-six students with TBI have participated to date across three implementation sites in Massachusetts, Ohio, and West Virginia, with 25 of these participants being military veterans. Descriptive analyses provide information regarding the participants, the barriers they face due to their TBI in obtaining a post-secondary education, and the impact services provided by Project Career have had to date in ameliorating those difficulties. Inferential statistical analyses provide preliminary results regarding program effectiveness. Preliminary results indicate the program is encouraging students to use CST strategies in the form of iPads and cognitive enhancement applications (also known as 'apps'). Significant results indicate participants are more positive, independent, and social; participants have a more positive attitude toward technology after six months in the program; and participants reported significantly improved experiences with technology during their first six months in the program. Participating students are actively preparing for their careers after graduation through a wide range of intensive vocational supports provided by project staff members.

  11. Implementing public employment policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Flemming; Bredgaard, Thomas

    . But there is an interesting question to investigate here: whether and if so how, NPM-inspired reforms are related to changes in employment policy towards a work-first approach? Are changes in public management systems created as deliberate policy changes, or do they bring about more indirect and unintended policy changes......Like most other areas within welfare policy, the employment and social policy areas are undergoing far-reaching changes in many countries. Partly in the shape of new forms of governance inspired by New Public Management (NPM), partly through new policies oriented towards activation and stronger...... disciplining of the unemployed (work first) (cf.Bredgaard & Larsen, 2005; Sol & Westerweld, 2005). It is, however, remarkable that in the research field there seems to be a division of labour so that changes in public administration and changes in the substance of employment policies are dealt with separately...

  12. Consequences and Policy Implications for University Students Who Have Chosen Liberal or Vocational Education in Canada: Labour Market Outcomes and Employability Skills. (United States)

    Lin, Zeng; Sweet, Robert; Anisef, Paul


    Analyses suggest that the Canadian labor market favors vocational over liberal graduates with regard to employment status, income, job security, and job satisfaction. However, findings also indicate a surprising lack of difference between liberal and vocational graduates in their employability skills. Employers were nevertheless more likely to…

  13. Employability Skills Assessment Tool Development (United States)

    Rasul, Mohamad Sattar; Rauf, Rose Amnah Abd; Mansor, Azlin Norhaini; Puvanasvaran, A. P.


    Research nationally and internationally found that technical graduates are lacking in employability skills. As employability skills are crucial in outcome-based education, the main goal of this research is to develop an Employability Skill Assessment Tool to help students and lecturers produce competent graduates in employability skills needed by…

  14. Stronger inducible defences enhance persistence of intraguild prey. (United States)

    Kratina, Pavel; Hammill, Edd; Anholt, Bradley R


    1. Intraguild predation is widespread in nature despite its potentially destabilizing effect on food web dynamics. 2. Anti-predator inducible defences affect both birth and death rates of populations and have the potential to substantially modify food web dynamics and possibly increase persistence of intraguild prey. 3. In a chemostat experiment, we investigated the long-term effects of inducible defences on the dynamics of aquatic microbial food webs consisting of an intraguild predator, intraguild prey, and a basal resource. We controlled environmental conditions and selected strains of intraguild prey that varied in the strength of expressed inducible defences. 4. We found that intraguild prey with a stronger tendency to induce an anti-predator morphology persist for significantly longer periods of time. In addition, model selection analysis implied that flexibility in defensive phenotype (inducibility itself) is most likely the factor responsible for the enhanced persistence. 5. As patterns at the community level often emerge as a result of the life-history traits of individuals, we propose that inducible defences increase the persistence of populations and may contribute to the widespread occurrence of theoretically unstable intraguild predation systems in nature.

  15. Employer branding


    Mičková, Kateřina


    The demand for qualified employees is higher then the offering, both in Czech republic and internationally. Demand for specific skills, in addition to a greater demand for workforce generally, is making employee recruitment and retention much more difficult and expensive. Employer Branding claims to be an answer to this new challenge. This international concept focuses on developing an "employer brand" - mental image of a company as an employer. To achieve this, it is necessary to demonstrate...

  16. Do External or Internal Technology Spillovers Have a Stronger Influence on Innovation Efficiency in China?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xionghe Qin


    Full Text Available In this study, we bridge an important gap in the literature by comparing the extent to which external technology spillovers, as indicated by foreign direct investment (FDI, and internal technology spillovers, as indicated by university-institute-industry cooperation (UIC, influence innovation efficiency in China. We divide the innovation process into two sequential stages, namely the knowledge creation and technology commercialization stages, and employ a network data envelopment analysis approach to measure innovation efficiency at each stage. The spatial analysis of the distribution of knowledge creation efficiency and technology commercialization efficiency reveals the heterogeneity of innovation efficiency at the provincial level. Then, a panel data regression is used to analyze the effect of FDI and UIC on innovation efficiency at each stage, using data from 2009 to 2015 for 30 provinces in China. By comparing FDI with UIC, we find that FDI has a higher coefficient and stronger significance level at the knowledge creation stage, while only industry-institute linkages exhibit a stronger association with innovation efficiency at the technology commercialization stage.

  17. Stronger interference from distractors in the right hemifield during visual search. (United States)

    Carlei, Christophe; Kerzel, Dirk


    The orientation-bias hypothesis states that there is a bias to attend to the right visual hemifield (RVF) when there is spatial competition between stimuli in the left and right hemifield [Pollmann, S. (1996). A pop-out induced extinction-like phenomenon in neurologically intact subjects. Neuropsychologia, 34(5), 413-425. doi: 10.1016/0028-3932(95)00125-5 ]. In support of this hypothesis, stronger interference was reported for RVF distractors with contralateral targets. In contrast, previous studies using rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) found stronger interference from distractors in the left visual hemifield (LVF). We used the additional singleton paradigm to test whether this discrepancy was due to the different distractor features that were employed (colour vs. orientation). Interference from the colour distractor with contralateral targets was larger in the RVF than in the LVF. However, the asymmetrical interference disappeared when observers had to search for an inconspicuous colour target instead of the inconspicuous shape target. We suggest that the LVF orienting-bias is limited to situations where search is driven by bottom-up saliency (singleton search) instead of top-down search goals (feature search). In contrast, analysis of the literature suggests the opposite for the LVF bias in RSVP tasks. Thus, the attentional asymmetry may depend on whether the task involves temporal or spatial competition, and whether search is based on bottom-up or top-down signals.

  18. Industry Employment (United States)

    Occupational Outlook Quarterly, 2012


    This article illustrates projected employment change by industry and industry sector over 2010-20 decade. Workers are grouped into an industry according to the type of good produced or service provided by the establishment for which they work. Industry employment projections are shown in terms of numeric change (growth or decline in the total…

  19. VIA Employability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Henrik Mariendal


    The fact that students develop employability during their education is a key point for educational institutions and the focus on this issue has never been greater. This project looks into personal experience from VIA-graduates of "developing their employability" during the education and how it......’s realized at the entrance to the labor market and in the future career. The purpose is to find opportunities to improve employability-developing activities and to adapt it to specific needs from the students. Based on a number of qualitative interviews and personality tests of the graduates, an increased...... personal approach is proposed in the agenda of employability. And ensure a wide range of offers, that appeal to multiple and differentiated personal and professional approaches to employability....

  20. When surging seas meet stronger rain: Nuclear techniques in flood management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quevenco, Rodolfo


    Unusually high rainfall in many parts of the world is a result of climate change, scientists say. Since warmer air can hold more water, the rationale goes, increased temperatures will increase the chances of stronger rainfall events. And when surging seas combine with stronger rain, the outcome is almost certain: floods. Floods are the most frequently occurring natural disasters, and south-east Asia is particularly vulnerable. Climate change and variability are expected to bring about increased typhoon activities, rising sea levels and off-season monsoon rains in southeast Asia and other regions. These can cause devastating floods in countries like Cambodia, Laos, Pakistan, the Philippines, Thailand and Viet Nam. For the residents of these countries who have survived the ravages of major floods, the road to recovery can be long and arduous. As the flood water recedes, they have to contend with new forms of flood: floods of concern and worries as to how to rebuild their houses, their lives and their cities. Governments, too, face huge challenges in rebuilding roads, public buildings, infrastructure and natural resources destroyed or polluted by the flood.

  1. Is Polar Amplification Deeper and Stronger than Dynamicists Assume? (United States)

    Scheff, J.; Maroon, E.


    In the CMIP multi-model mean under strong future warming, Arctic amplification is confined to the lower troposphere, so that the meridional gradient of warming reverses around 500 mb and the upper troposphere is characterized by strong "tropical amplification" in which warming weakens with increasing latitude. This model-derived pattern of warming maxima in the upper-level tropics and lower-level Arctic has become a canonical assumption driving theories of the large-scale circulation response to climate change. Yet, several lines of evidence and reasoning suggest that Arctic amplification may in fact extend through the entire depth of the troposphere, and/or may be stronger than commonly modeled. These include satellite Microwave Sounding Unit (MSU) temperature trends as a function of latitude and vertical level, the recent discovery that the extratropical negative cloud phase feedback in models is largely spurious, and the very strong polar amplification observed in past warm and lukewarm climates. Such a warming pattern, with deep, dominant Arctic amplification, would have very different implications for the circulation than a canonical CMIP-like warming: instead of slightly shifting poleward and strengthening, eddies, jets and cells might shift equatorward and considerably weaken. Indeed, surface winds have been mysteriously weakening ("stilling") at almost all stations over the last half-century or so, there has been no poleward shift in northern hemisphere circulation metrics, and past warm climates' subtropics were apparently quite wet (and their global ocean circulations were weak.) To explore these possibilities more deeply, we examine the y-z structure of warming and circulation changes across a much broader range of models, scenarios and time periods than the CMIP future mean, and use an MSU simulator to compare them to the satellite warming record. Specifically, we examine whether the use of historical (rather than future) forcing, AMIP (rather than CMIP

  2. Increasing Arctic sea ice export driven by stronger winds (United States)

    Sorteberg, A.; Smedsrud, L. H.; Sirevaag, A.; Kloster, K.


    Arctic sea ice area has decreased steadily over the last three decades. A thinner and more seasonal Arctic ice cover, related to increased long wave radiation, has become evident. Changes in circulation, including drift patterns of the Arctic pack ice, have been less obvious. Arctic sea ice export estimates have been hampered by low resolution spatial and temporal satellite imagery, especially during summer, making accurate detection difficult. Here we present a new ice area export dataset calculated from sea ice motion and concentration profiles along 79N. Ice drift vectors are calculated from ice feature displacement using Envisat ASAR WideSwath images every 3 days from 2004 while ice concentration is based on DMSP F13 SSMI and AQUA AMSR-E brightness temperature data. The two data sets are combined to give the ice-area flux in consecutive 3-day periods, uninterrupted year-round coverage along 79N. It is shown that sea ice export variability is closely linked to the geostrophic wind in the Fram Strait (correlation of 0.84). Using geostrophic winds from reanalysis back to the 1950s as a proxy for ice export indicates that the Arctic sea ice has annually lost an increasing area since the 1950's driven by stronger winds. Ice concentration has decreased slightly, but does not contribute significantly. The ice export has overall increased by ~25% over the period. Using cyclone tracking the changes in winds seems directly related to a higher low pressure activity in the Nordic Seas. Our results demonstrate that the changes in atmospheric circulation over the Arctic and sub-Arctic have contributed to a trend in the Fram Strait ice export. The Fram Strait between Greenland and Svalbard with average sea ice concentration for summer (red, June through August) and winter (black, January through March). Solid lines are 50%, dashed lines are 15%. Above mean southward ice drift across 79N from August 2004 to July 2010 in 1 degree bins based on SAR imagery, and mean ice

  3. One Year After Fukushima, Nuclear Safety Is Stronger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    Full text: Nuclear power is safer than it was a year ago as the nuclear industry, regulators and governments act on the lessons of Fukushima, but that safety must never be taken for granted, said Yukiya Amano, Director General of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). Speaking ahead of the first anniversary of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident on 11 March, Amano said a culture of constant vigilance and improvement was vital to ensure that the benefits of nuclear power could be harnessed as safely as humanly possible. 'Nuclear safety is stronger than it was a year ago', he said. 'Fukushima Daiichi was a very serious accident, but we know what went wrong and we have a clear course of action to tackle those causes - not only in Japan, but anywhere in the world. 'Now we have to keep up the momentum. Complacency can kill'. On 11 March 2011 a huge earthquake and tsunami left more than 20 000 people dead or missing in eastern Japan. Amidst widespread destruction, the tsunami slammed into the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station, disabling cooling systems and leading to fuel meltdowns in three of the six Units. The accident was a jolt to the nuclear industry, regulators and governments. It was triggered by a massive force of nature, but it was existing weaknesses of design regarding defence against natural hazards, regulatory oversight, accident management and emergency response that allowed it to unfold as it did. For example: The nuclear regulator was not sufficiently independent, allowing weak oversight of the operator, TEPCO, and regulatory requirements fell short of international best practice; Not enough attention was paid to guarding against possible extreme events at the Fukushima Daiichi site, leaving critical safety functions such as cooling systems vulnerable to the tsunami; Training to respond to serious accidents was inadequate, as were mitigation measures to prevent hydrogen explosions and protect the venting system; and Accident command lines

  4. Employer Branding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frimann, Søren; Mønsted, Bolette Rye


    Employer branding er både for den private og den offentlige sektor blevet en måde, de kan imødekomme ændrede arbejdsmarkedsvilkår og organisatoriske udfordringer i en postmoderne og globaliseret verden. Den aktuelle finanskrise har skabt nye udfordringer for organisationer i deres bestræbelser på...... at tiltrække- og fastholde attraktive medarbejdere. Men hvilken betydning har det, når Grundfos siger ”Mennesket er i fokus”, og hvad siger ”mangfoldighed” om Københavns Kommune som arbejdsplads i relation til employer branding? Er der egentlig sammenhæng mellem tankerne bag employer branding og de eksternt...... kommunikerede employer brandprodukter. Eller bliver det unikke ved arbejdspladserne ersattet af buzzwords uden substans og inddragelse af ansatte og interessenter? Artiklen har til formål at vurdere disse spørgsmål på baggrund af analyser af to cases med employer branding....

  5. Social outcomes and quality of life of childhood cancer survivors in Japan: a cross-sectional study on marriage, education, employment and health-related QOL (SF-36). (United States)

    Ishida, Yasushi; Honda, Misato; Kamibeppu, Kiyoko; Ozono, Shuichi; Okamura, Jun; Asami, Keiko; Maeda, Naoko; Sakamoto, Naoko; Inada, Hiroko; Iwai, Tsuyako; Kakee, Naoko; Horibe, Keizo


    Social outcomes and quality of life (QOL) of childhood cancer survivors (CCSs) remain unknown in Japan. We investigated these outcomes in young adult CCSs compared to those of their siblings in Japan, and analyzed the association between social outcome and SF-36 health survey subscale scores. Between 2007 and 2009, we performed a cross-sectional survey using self-rating questionnaires. We estimated social outcomes and health-related QOL by performing the SF-36 in each group: CCSs with or without stem cell transplantation (SCT)/radiotherapy (RT) and their siblings. Adjusted odds ratios for outcomes of interest were estimated using logistic regression analysis. Questionnaires from 185 CCSs and 72 CCS's siblings were analyzed. There were no differences in educational attainment or annual income. The SF-36 subscale scores of CCSs with SCT and RT were significantly lower than those of siblings in physical functioning (PF) (p < 0.001 and 0.003, respectively) and general health (GH) (both p = 0.001). Lower PF scores correlated with recurrence (p = 0.041) and late effects (p = 0.010), and poor GH scores with late effects (p = 0.006). The CCSs had made efforts to attain educational/vocational goals; however, a significant proportion of CCSs who had experienced late effects remain at increased risk of experiencing diminished QOL.

  6. [Prevention of psychosocial issues and drug addiction in workers employed in building great infrastructures: first outcomes of an experience in the Florence area]. (United States)

    Carpentiero, L; Costa, G; De Luca, G; Piovanelli, S; Venè, D; Righini, S; Marini, M; Baldanzi, S; Selvi, A; Scalas, S; Cassitto, M G; Sartori, S; Lacangellera, D; Bosco, A


    The research on stress, mobbing, and substance dependence in workers employed in the building of the great infrastructures is part of the project Euridice-Ten. The 75% of the workers employed took part in the research through an anonymous and structured questionnaire. The Clinica del Lavoro of the University of Milan elaborated the data. They point out a high risk of stress, a low level of control, a marked risk of mobbing, a high chronic fatigue in the most exhausting jobs, sleep disorders, problems in the social life as well as at home, in nourishment and at work. Many workers drink too much alcohol and the 9% of the workers know workers who use cocaine.

  7. Impact of social standing on sports injury prevention in a WHO safe community: intervention outcome by household employment contract and type of sport. (United States)

    Timpka, T; Lindqvist, K; Ekstrand, J; Karlsson, N


    As physical activity is promoted as part of a healthy lifestyle, sports injuries are becoming an important public health concern in many countries. The objective of this study is to investigate rates of sports injuries before and after implementation of a WHO Safe Community program. Sports injury data were collected pre- and post-implementation from all individuals below 65 years of age during 1 year in the targeted municipality (population 41,000) and in a control municipality (population 26,000). A quasi-experimental design was used and individuals were divided into three categories based on household relationship to the labour market. There were no differences between socio-economic categories regarding pre-intervention injury rates. No statistically significant post-intervention changes in injury rate were observed in the control area or among any females in either area. In the intervention area, a statistically significant (p = 0.011) decrease in injury rate was observed among male members of households in which the vocationally important member was employed. A statistically significant decrease was observed in injuries sustained in team sports among male members of households in which the vocationally important member was employed (p = 0.001) and among members of households in which the vocationally important member was self employed (psports, and members of non-vocationally active households were less affected by the interventions. These facts have to be addressed in planning future community based sports injury prevention programmes and their evaluations.

  8. Student employment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacob, Marita; Gerth, Maria; Weiss, Felix


    In this article, we examine social origin differences in employment patterns across different stages of higher education and compare these differences between vocational and academic fields of study. Using data from a large-scale German student survey, we study the development of inequality, acco...... decrease as students progress through higher education. While we find evidence for this hypothesis, we also show in multivariate models that the reduction of inequality in the student labour market is explained by prior differences between social origin groups.......In this article, we examine social origin differences in employment patterns across different stages of higher education and compare these differences between vocational and academic fields of study. Using data from a large-scale German student survey, we study the development of inequality...

  9. Illegal employment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Mervartová


    Full Text Available Since 2007 Labour Code contains the definition of dependent work, which can be carried out only in labour-law relations. The Amendment to Labour Code from 2012 makes the definition more precise, when it stipulates essential elements of dependent work and designates the others as conditions, under which dependent work should be carried out. The Amendment to Employment Act changes the definition of illegal work. Illegal work is a performance of dependent work by natural person except for labour-law relation, or if natural person – foreigner carries out work in conflict with issued permission to employment or without this permission. Since 2012 sanctions for illegal work were increased. Labour inspection is entitled to impose sanctions, in case of foreigners it is Customs Office. For control purposes employer is obliged to have copies of documents at the workplace proving the existence of labour-law relation. Goal of controls and high fines is to limit illegal employment of citizens of Czech Republic and foreigners as well. Illegal work has unfavourable economic impact on state budget. It comes to extensive tax evasions and also to evasions within health insurance and social security. If a concluded commercial-law relation meets the attributes of dependent work, then it stands for a concealed legal relationship. Tax Office can subsequently assess an income tax to businessman. Labour-law relationship enjoys a higher legal protection than commercial-law relationship; nonetheless it is not suitable to limit liberty of contract in cases when it is not unambiguously a dependent activity.

  10. Implementing the employability agenda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Donna; Snaith, Holly Grace; Foster, Emma


    This article draws on research commissioned by the Higher Education Academy (HEA) and conducted during 2013. It interrogates the ways in which the employability agenda has been fed through to the level of individual politics departments. The project was particularly concerned with establishing...... whether, and how, colleagues in politics and international relations (IR) had taken ownership of student employability at the level of the curriculum. In the article, the key findings of the research are summarised. There is also discussion of the (sometimes troubling) professional implications...... of infusing concern for graduate outcomes within a pedagogic framework that emphasises critical engagement with the underpinning political structures of the labour market....

  11. Stronger learning recruits additional cell-signaling cascades: c-Jun-N-terminal kinase 1 (JNK1) is necessary for expression of stronger contextual fear conditioning. (United States)

    Leach, Prescott T; Kenney, Justin W; Gould, Thomas J


    Increased training often results in stronger memories but the neural changes responsible for these stronger memories are poorly understood. It is proposed here that higher levels of training that result in stronger memories recruit additional cell signaling cascades. This study specifically examined if c-Jun N-terminal kinase 1 (JNK1) is involved in the formation of stronger fear conditioning memories. Wildtype (WT), JNK1 heterozygous (Het), and JNK1 knockout (KO) mice were fear conditioned with 1 trial, 2 trials, or 4 trials. All mice learned both contextual (hippocampus-dependent) and cued (hippocampus-independent) fear conditioning but for contextual fear conditioning only, the JNK1 KO mice did not show higher levels of learning with increased trials. That is, WT mice showed a significant linear increase in contextual fear conditioning as training trials increased from 1 to 2 to 4 trials whereas KO mice showed the same level of contextual fear conditioning as WT mice for 1 trial training but did not have increased levels of contextual fear conditioning with additional trials. These data suggest that JNK1 may not be critical for learning but when higher levels of hippocampus-dependent learning occur, JNK1 signaling is recruited and is necessary for stronger hippocampus-dependent memory formation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Employment status, employment functioning, and barriers to employment among VA primary care patients. (United States)

    Zivin, Kara; Yosef, Matheos; Levine, Debra S; Abraham, Kristen M; Miller, Erin M; Henry, Jennifer; Nelson, C Beau; Pfeiffer, Paul N; Sripada, Rebecca K; Harrod, Molly; Valenstein, Marcia


    Prior research found lower employment rates among working-aged patients who use the VA than among non-Veterans or Veterans who do not use the VA, with the lowest reported employment rates among VA patients with mental disorders. This study assessed employment status, employment functioning, and barriers to employment among VA patients treated in primary care settings, and examined how depression and anxiety were associated with these outcomes. The sample included 287 VA patients treated in primary care in a large Midwestern VA Medical Center. Bivariate and multivariable analyses were conducted examining associations between socio-demographic and clinical predictors of six employment domains, including: employment status, job search self-efficacy, work performance, concerns about job loss among employed Veterans, and employment barriers and likelihood of job seeking among not employed Veterans. 54% of respondents were employed, 36% were not employed, and 10% were economically inactive. In adjusted analyses, participants with depression or anxiety (43%) were less likely to be employed, had lower job search self-efficacy, had lower levels of work performance, and reported more employment barriers. Depression and anxiety were not associated with perceived likelihood of job loss among employed or likelihood of job seeking among not employed. Single VA primary care clinic; cross-sectional study. Employment rates are low among working-aged VA primary care patients, particularly those with mental health conditions. Offering primary care interventions to patients that address mental health issues, job search self-efficacy, and work performance may be important in improving health, work, and economic outcomes. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Leaving Employment to Entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rocha, Vera; Carneiro, Anabela; Varum, Celeste

    : the relative inattention paid to other human resources beyond the founder, and the hetero-geneous context where employee startups may be established. We use a rich matched employer-employee dataset for Portugal, and estimate a multi-stage model addressing the issues of self-selection in entrepreneurship...... outcomes of arrival fi rms, and also for developing theories on labor markets for entrepreneurship. It also constitutes an important step towards unpacking the mechanisms through which mobile human capital affects the performance of receiving firms....

  14. Removal of proprioception by BCI raises a stronger body ownership illusion in control of a humanlike robot. (United States)

    Alimardani, Maryam; Nishio, Shuichi; Ishiguro, Hiroshi


    Body ownership illusions provide evidence that our sense of self is not coherent and can be extended to non-body objects. Studying about these illusions gives us practical tools to understand the brain mechanisms that underlie body recognition and the experience of self. We previously introduced an illusion of body ownership transfer (BOT) for operators of a very humanlike robot. This sensation of owning the robot's body was confirmed when operators controlled the robot either by performing the desired motion with their body (motion-control) or by employing a brain-computer interface (BCI) that translated motor imagery commands to robot movement (BCI-control). The interesting observation during BCI-control was that the illusion could be induced even with a noticeable delay in the BCI system. Temporal discrepancy has always shown critical weakening effects on body ownership illusions. However the delay-robustness of BOT during BCI-control raised a question about the interaction between the proprioceptive inputs and delayed visual feedback in agency-driven illusions. In this work, we compared the intensity of BOT illusion for operators in two conditions; motion-control and BCI-control. Our results revealed a significantly stronger BOT illusion for the case of BCI-control. This finding highlights BCI's potential in inducing stronger agency-driven illusions by building a direct communication between the brain and controlled body, and therefore removing awareness from the subject's own body.

  15. Precarious employment, bad jobs, labor unions, and early retirement. (United States)

    Raymo, James M; Warren, John R; Sweeney, Megan M; Hauser, Robert M; Ho, Jeong-Hwa


    We examined the extent to which involuntary job loss, exposure to "bad jobs," and labor union membership across the life course are associated with the risk of early retirement. Using data from the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study, a large (N=8,609) sample of men and women who graduated from high school in 1957, we estimated discrete-time event history models for the transition to first retirement through age 65. We estimated models separately for men and women. We found that experience of involuntary job loss and exposure to bad jobs are associated with a lower risk of retiring before age 65, whereas labor union membership is associated with a higher likelihood of early retirement. These relationships are stronger for men than for women and are mediated to some extent by pre-retirement differences in pension eligibility, wealth, job characteristics, and health. Results provide some support for hypotheses derived from theories of cumulative stratification, suggesting that earlier employment experiences should influence retirement outcomes indirectly through later-life characteristics. However, midlife employment experiences remain associated with earlier retirement, net of more temporally proximate correlates, highlighting the need for further theorization and empirical evaluation of the mechanisms through which increasingly common employment experiences influence the age at which older Americans retire.

  16. Employers' Guide to the Employment Equity Act

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lesley-Anne Katz


    Full Text Available Employers' Guide to the Employment Equity Act is aimed, according to the author, at assisting those in the labour arena (employers, managers, labour relations practitioners, union officials, and students to develop a practical understanding of the Employment Equity Act (hereafter, the Act.

  17. Employment specialist competencies for supported employment programs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corbière, M.; Brouwers, E.P.M.; Lanctôt, N.; van Weeghel, J.


    Purpose Supported employment (SE) programs are evidence-based programs offered to people with severe mental illness to facilitate obtaining and keeping competitive work. However, significant variations in individuals’ vocational success may be partly explained by differences in their employment

  18. Predatory blue crabs induce stronger nonconsumptive effects in eastern oysters Crassostrea virginica than scavenging blue crabs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avery E. Scherer


    Full Text Available By influencing critical prey traits such as foraging or habitat selection, predators can affect entire ecosystems, but the nature of cues that trigger prey reactions to predators are not well understood. Predators may scavenge to supplement their energetic needs and scavenging frequency may vary among individuals within a species due to preferences and prey availability. Yet prey reactions to consumers that are primarily scavengers versus those that are active foragers have not been investigated, even though variation in prey reactions to scavengers or predators might influence cascading nonconsumptive effects in food webs. Oysters Crassostrea virginica react to crab predators by growing stronger shells. We exposed oysters to exudates from crabs fed live oysters or fed aged oyster tissue to simulate scavenging, and to controls without crab cues. Oysters grew stronger shells when exposed to either crab exudate, but their shells were significantly stronger when crabs were fed live oysters. The stronger response to predators than scavengers could be due to inherent differences in diet cues representative of reduced risk in the presence of scavengers or to degradation of conspecific alarm cues in aged treatments, which may mask risk from potential predators subsisting by scavenging.

  19. Stronger Accent Following a Stroke: The Case of a Trilingual with Aphasia (United States)

    Levy, Erika S.; Goral, Mira; De Diesbach, Catharine Castelluccio; Law, Franzo, II


    This study documents patterns of change in speech production in a multilingual with aphasia following a cerebrovascular accident (CVA). EC, a right-handed Hebrew-English-French trilingual man, had a left fronto-temporo-parietal CVA, after which he reported that his (native) Hebrew accent became stronger in his (second language) English. Recordings…

  20. Peptide-MHC class I stability is a stronger predictor of CTL immunogenicity than peptide affinity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harndahl, Mikkel Nors; Rasmussen, Michael; Nielsen, Morten


    Peptide-MHC class I stability is a stronger predictor of CTL immunogenicity than peptide affinity Mikkel Harndahla, Michael Rasmussena, Morten Nielsenb, Soren Buusa,∗ a Laboratory of Experimental Immunology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Denmark b Center for Biological Seq...... al., 2007. J. Immunol. 178, 7890–7901. doi:10.1016/j.molimm.2012.02.025...

  1. First-order dominance: stronger characterization and a bivariate checking algorithm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Range, Troels Martin; Østerdal, Lars Peter Raahave


    distributions. Utilizing that this problem can be formulated as a transportation problem with a special structure, we provide a stronger characterization of multivariate first-order dominance and develop a linear time complexity checking algorithm for the bivariate case. We illustrate the use of the checking...

  2. Fasting insulin is a stronger cardiovascular risk factor in women than in men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oterdoom, Leendert H.; de Vries, Aiko P. J.; Gansevoort, Ron T.; de Jong, Paul E.; Gans, Reinold O. B.; Bakker, Stephan J. L.

    Diabetes is a stronger risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in women than in men. It is not known whether there is also a sex difference in the association between hyperinsulinaemia, reflecting insulin resistance, and CVD. Fasting insulin was assessed with a specific assay in 6916 fasting,

  3. A stronger patch test elicitation reaction to the allergen hydroxycitronellal plus the irritant sodium lauryl sulfate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heydorn, S; Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Johansen, Jeanne Duus


    Household and cleaning products often contain both allergens and irritants. The aim of this double-blinded, randomized, paired study was to determine whether patch testing with an allergen (hydroxycitronellal) combined with an irritant [sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS)] cause a stronger patch test...

  4. A Human Capital Framework for a Stronger Teacher Workforce. Advancing Teaching--Improving Learning. White Paper (United States)

    Myung, Jeannie; Martinez, Krissia; Nordstrum, Lee


    Building a stronger teacher workforce requires the thoughtful orchestration of multiple processes working together in a human capital system. This white paper presents a framework that can be used to take stock of current efforts to enhance the teacher workforce in school districts or educational organizations, as well as their underlying theories…

  5. Harmful drinking after job loss: a stronger association during the post-2008 economic crisis?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Goeij, Moniek C. M.; Bruggink, Jan-Willem; Otten, Ferdy; Kunst, Anton E.


    This study investigated, among the Dutch working population, whether job loss during the post-2008 economic crisis is associated with harmful drinking and whether this association is stronger than before the crisis. Repeated cross-sectional data from the Dutch Health Interview Survey 2004-2013 were

  6. Employment Effects of educational measures for work-injured people

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bach, Henning Bjerregaard; Datta Gupta, Nabanita; Høgelund, Jan

    employers a partial wage subsidy for disabled workers’ wages, by distinguishing between education effects of a return to wage-subsidized work versus a return to ordinary work. Unlike previous studies, we find a positive impact of educational measures on the probability of returning to work for the work...... injured and a stronger effect for a return to wage-subsidized employment compared to a return to ordinary employment....

  7. Do Creditor Rights Increase Employment Risk? Evidence from Loan Covenants


    Liang, J. Nellie; Falato, Antonio


    Using a regression discontinuity design, we provide evidence that incentive conflicts between firms and their creditors have a large impact on employees. There are sharp and substantial employment cuts following loan covenant violations, when creditors exercise their ex post control rights. The negative impact of violations on employment is stronger for firms that face more severe agency and financing frictions and those whose employees have weaker bargaining power. Employment cuts following ...

  8. Can absolute and proportional anthropometric characteristics distinguish stronger and weaker powerlifters? (United States)

    Keogh, Justin W L; Hume, Patria A; Pearson, Simon N; Mellow, Peter J


    This study sought to compare the anthropometric profiles of 17 weaker and 17 stronger Australasian and Pacific powerlifters who had competed in a regional-, national-, or international-level powerlifting competition in New Zealand. Stronger lifters were defined as those having a Wilks score greater than 410, whereas those in the weaker group had a Wilks score less than 370. Each powerlifter was assessed for 37 anthropometric dimensions by International Society for the Advancement of Kinanthropometry (ISAK) level II and III accredited anthropometrists. Because all powerlifters were highly mesomorphic and possessed large girths and bone breadths, both in absolute terms and when expressed as Phantom-Z scores compared through the Phantom, relatively few significant anthropometric differences were observed. However, stronger lifters had significantly greater muscle mass and larger muscular girths in absolute terms as well as greater Brugsch Index (chest girth/height) and "Phantom"-normalized muscle mass, upper arm, chest, and forearm girths. In terms of the segment lengths and bone breadths, the only significant difference was that stronger lifters had a significantly shorter lower leg than weaker lifters. Because the majority of the significant differences were for muscle mass and muscular girths, it would appear likely that these differences contributed to the stronger lifters' superior performance. Powerlifters may therefore need to devote some of their training to the development of greater levels of muscular hypertrophy if they wish to continue to improve their performance. To better understand the anthropometric determinants of muscular strength, future research should recruit larger samples (particularly of elite lifters) and follow these subjects prospectively.

  9. An ecological approach to understanding barriers to employment for youth with disabilities compared to their typically developing peers: views of youth, employers, and job counselors. (United States)

    Lindsay, Sally; McDougall, Carolyn; Menna-Dack, Dolly; Sanford, Robyn; Adams, Tracey


    The purpose of this study is to explore the extent to which youth with physical disabilities encounter different barriers to finding employment compared to their typically developing peers. This study draws on 50 qualitative in-depth interviews with a purposive sample of 31 youth (16 typically developing and 15 with a disability), and youth employers and job counselors knowledgeable about employment readiness among adolescents (n = 19). We utilize Bronfrebrenner's ecological framework to reveal the complex web of factors shaping youth's labor market outcomes. Only half of youth with a disability were working or looking for work compared to their peers. The findings show this was a result of different expectations of, and attitudes toward, youth with disabilities. For many youth with a disability, their peers, family and social networks often acted as a barrier to getting a job. Many youth also lacked independence and life skills that are needed to get a job (i.e. self-care and navigating public transportation) compared to their peers. Job counselors focused on linking youth to employers and mediating parental concerns. Employers appeared to have weaker links to youth with disabilities. System level barriers included lack of funding and policies to enhance disability awareness among employers. Youth with physical disabilities encounter some similar barriers to finding employment compared to their typically developing peers but in a stronger way. Barriers to employment exist at several levels including individual, sociostructural and environmental. The results highlight that although there are several barriers to employment for young people at the microsystem level, they are linked with larger social and environmental barriers. Clinicians working with youth should promote the development of skills that can lead to improved self-confidence and communication skills for youth. Encourage the development of extracurricular activities and social networking to build these

  10. Crosstalk in concurrent repeated games impedes direct reciprocity and requires stronger levels of forgiveness. (United States)

    Reiter, Johannes G; Hilbe, Christian; Rand, David G; Chatterjee, Krishnendu; Nowak, Martin A


    Direct reciprocity is a mechanism for cooperation among humans. Many of our daily interactions are repeated. We interact repeatedly with our family, friends, colleagues, members of the local and even global community. In the theory of repeated games, it is a tacit assumption that the various games that a person plays simultaneously have no effect on each other. Here we introduce a general framework that allows us to analyze "crosstalk" between a player's concurrent games. In the presence of crosstalk, the action a person experiences in one game can alter the person's decision in another. We find that crosstalk impedes the maintenance of cooperation and requires stronger levels of forgiveness. The magnitude of the effect depends on the population structure. In more densely connected social groups, crosstalk has a stronger effect. A harsh retaliator, such as Tit-for-Tat, is unable to counteract crosstalk. The crosstalk framework provides a unified interpretation of direct and upstream reciprocity in the context of repeated games.

  11. A stronger patch test elicitation reaction to the allergen hydroxycitronellal plus the irritant sodium lauryl sulfate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heydorn, S; Andersen, K E; Johansen, J D


    elicitation reaction than patch testing with the allergen (hydroxycitronellal) alone, in patients previously patch tested positive to hydroxycitronellal. A stronger patch test elicitation reaction was defined as at least 1 day of patch test reading showing more positive patch tests......Household and cleaning products often contain both allergens and irritants. The aim of this double-blinded, randomized, paired study was to determine whether patch testing with an allergen (hydroxycitronellal) combined with an irritant [sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS)] cause a stronger patch test...... (+, ++ or +++) on the forearm patch tested with 6 concentrations of SLS plus hydroxycitronellal than on the forearm tested with 6 concentrations of hydroxycitronellal alone and no day of patch test readings showing more positive tests on the hydroxycitronellal forearm. 15/20 (75%) had at least 1 day of patch test reading...

  12. Daytime warming has stronger negative effects on soil nematodes than night-time warming


    Yan, Xiumin; Wang, Kehong; Song, Lihong; Wang, Xuefeng; Wu, Donghui


    Warming of the climate system is unequivocal, that is, stronger warming during night-time than during daytime. Here we focus on how soil nematodes respond to the current asymmetric warming. A field infrared heating experiment was performed in the western of the Songnen Plain, Northeast China. Three warming modes, i.e. daytime warming, night-time warming and diurnal warming, were taken to perform the asymmetric warming condition. Our results showed that the daytime and diurnal warming treatmen...

  13. World Bank: Management Controls Stronger, But Challenges in Fighting Corruption Remain (United States)


    outline for possible World Development Report on institutions, including corruption . Completed • Prepare Europe and Central Asia Region...Management Controls Stronger, but Challenges in Fighting Corruption Remain If , 20000417 062 G A O Accountability * Integrity * Reliability GAO... corruption —broadly defined as the abuse of public office for private gain— ’The "World Bank" and "Bank" refer to the World Bank Group of institutions

  14. A stronger version of matrix convexity as applied to functions of Hermitian matrices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kagan Abram


    Full Text Available A stronger version of matrix convexity, called hyperconvexity is introduced. It is shown that the function is hyperconvex on the set of Hermitian matrices and is hyperconvex on the set of positive definite Hermitian matrices. The new concept makes it possible to consider weighted averages of matrices of different orders. Proofs use properties of the Fisher information matrix, a fundamental concept of mathematical statistics.

  15. Becoming Self-Employed. (United States)

    Lee, Grant; Cochran, Larry


    Explored how persons become self-employed. In critical incident interviews with five self-employed persons the critical events that assisted or hindered progress toward self-employment were listed in chronological order. In general, becoming self-employed involved establishing conditions of action that enhanced a sense of agency, thus enabling…

  16. Sexual harassment and emotional and behavioural symptoms in adolescence: stronger associations among boys than girls. (United States)

    Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu; Fröjd, Sari; Marttunen, Mauri


    To study the associations between subjection to sexual harassment and emotional (depression) and behavioural (delinquency) symptoms among 14-to-18-year-old adolescents, and gender differences within these associations. 90,953 boys and 91,746 girls aged 14-18 participated in the School Health Promotion Study (SHPS), a school-based survey designed to examine the health, health behaviours, and school experiences of teenagers. Experiences of sexual harassment were elicited with five questions addressing five separate forms of harassment. Depression was measured by the 13-item Beck Depression Inventory and delinquency with a modified version of the International Self-Report Delinquency Study (ISRD) instrument. Data were analysed using cross-tabulations with Chi-square statistics and logistic regression. All sexual harassment experiences studied were associated with both depression (adjusted odds ratios varied from 2.2 to 2.7 in girls and from 2.0 to 5.1 in boys) and delinquency (adjusted odds ratios 3.1-5.0 in girls and 1.7-6.9 in boys). Sexual name-calling had a stronger association with depression and with delinquency in girls (adjusted odds ratios, respectively, 2.4 and 4.2), than in boys (adjusted odds ratios, respectively, 2.0 and 1.7), but otherwise stronger associations with emotional and behavioural symptoms were seen in boys. Subjection to sexual harassment is associated with both emotional and behavioural symptoms in both girls and boys. The associations are mostly stronger for boys. Boys subjected to sexual harassment may feel particularly threatened regarding their masculinity, and there may be less support available for boys traumatised due to sexual harassment.

  17. Building Stronger State Energy Partnerships with the U.S. Department of Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Terry


    This final technical report details the results of total work efforts and progress made from July 2000 - July 2008 under the National Association of State Energy Officials (NASEO) cooperative agreement DE-FC26-00NT40802, Building Stronger State Energy Partnerships with the U.S. Department of Energy. Major topical project areas in this final report include work efforts in the following areas: Rebuild America/Energy Smart Schools, Higher Education Initiative, Winter/Summer Fuels Outlook Conferences, Energy Emergency, Clean Energy Integration, Energy Star, and Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability. All required deliverables have been provided to the National Energy Technology Laboratory and DOE program officials.

  18. Production of plastified wood with stronger static bending strength means of polymerization induced by gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva Filho, Elias


    The use of gamma radiation to obtain wood-polymer composites is one of the applications of radiation that presents the most commercial interest. The process, denominated radiopolymerization, comprises the impregnation of monomers into the completely dried wood followed by exposure to gamma radiation to induce polymerization of the impregnated monomers. I this context, the present work aimed the application of this process to seven kinds of wood existing in the brazilian forests. The considered monomer is styrene and the gamma source is Cobalt-60. The obtained wood-polystyrene composites were found to have stronger static bending strength. (author)

  19. Building Stronger State Energy Partnerships with the U.S. Department of Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marks, Kate


    This final technical report details the results of total work efforts and progress made from October 2007 – September 2011 under the National Association of State Energy Officials (NASEO) cooperative agreement DE-FC26-07NT43264, Building Stronger State Energy Partnerships with the U.S. Department of Energy. Major topical project areas in this final report include work efforts in the following areas: Energy Assurance and Critical Infrastructure, State and Regional Technical Assistance, Regional Initiative, Regional Coordination and Technical Assistance, and International Activities in China. All required deliverables have been provided to the National Energy Technology Laboratory and DOE program officials.

  20. Enhancing Employability of Exercise Science Students (United States)

    Reddan, Gregory


    The notion of employability is gaining importance as an essential outcome of many degrees in institutions of higher education throughout Australia. This paper aims to determine the effects of an Exercise Science course, which includes elements of both career development learning and work-integrated learning, on six dimensions of employability -…

  1. The El Niño Southern Oscillation is Getting Bigger and Stronger (United States)

    McNaught, C.; O'Brien, J.; Strazzo, S. E.


    The El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is an important natural climate variation that affects large portions of the world. We measure ENSO both in terms of its frequency and its magnitude. The different phases of ENSO - El Niño and La Niña - have different properties, and impact the global weather pattern differently. We examine the hypothesis that ENSO's frequency distribution is changing. We demonstrate that, indeed, El Niño's are getting stronger as measured by the maximum anomaly in sea surface temperature (SST). An analysis of the ENSO principal component is conducted using a fast Fourier transform to estimate the spectrum of the SST of the time series. We conclude that the intensity of El Niño events during the period 1970-2010 is statistically significantly higher when compared to the 1930—1970, with a broad spectral peak centered around 4 years. When we compare the SST spectrum for the period 1930-1970 with the spectrum for 1971- 2010, we find the latter period to be much stronger in power. Additionally recently classified ENSO types, including El Niño Modoki and Warm Pool ENSO, are briefly studied.; The first empirical orthogonal function of sea-surface temperatures (1930-2010) accounting for 75% of the variance. The values are indicative of departures from the mean, in °C. Positive (negative) values indicate anomalously higher (lower) sea-surface temperatures ; Normalized first principal component

  2. Foreign Trade Alternatives for Employment and Occupations, 2005. (United States)

    Su, Betty W.; Chentrens, Carl A.


    Examines the impact of high and low foreign trade on U.S. employment and occupations. A high-trade scenario portrays stronger world growth and higher domestic demand; a low-trade scenario illustrates poorer economic performance abroad and weaker domestic economy with respect to trade. (Author/JOW)

  3. Perspectives of employability skills




    The study investigated the different perspectives held by young people, employers and policy makers around Employability Skills and it examined how young people learnt these skills. This study draws young peoples’ perspectives into the research around Employability Skills and highlights the way in which social and cultural capital mediate their development. The research points to a model to re-vision employability skills which recognises the many ways in which they are learnt, over time a...

  4. Social innovation in employment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oeij, P.R.A.; Torre, W. van der; Santoclides, M.E


    This policy brief on Social Innovation of Employment informs on an inventory of challenges and policy recommendations based on the Case Study Report of Employment and on the Second Policy Foresight Workshop of Employment. A ‘paradigm shift’ is needed in the mind-set of policymakers. ‘Traditional’

  5. Youth employment in Egypt


    Eekelen, Willem van; De Luca, Loretta; Ismail, Magwa


    Examines economic and social factors affecting youth employment in Egypt and describes three national programmes for the promotion of youth employment based on human resources development, direct job creation and support in self-employment and enterprise creation. Describes one public-private project in each case.

  6. Employment Challenges in Kenya | Omolo | African Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper explores the employment challenge in Kenya. It focused on the past employment creation interventions adopted by the country over time, their outcomes and the status of the country's employment policy. Kenya's employment challenge is manifested in terms of a 12.7 per cent open unemployment rate, 21 per ...

  7. Peptide-MHC class I stability is a stronger predictor of CTL immunogenicity than peptide affinity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harndahl, Mikkel Nors; Rasmussen, Michael; Nielsen, Morten


    of antigen processing and presentation in defining cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) immunogenicity Assarsson et al., 2007. Using an affinity-balanced approach, we demonstrated that immunogenic peptides tend to be more stably bound to MHC-I molecules compared with non-immunogenic peptides. We also developed......Peptide-MHC class I stability is a stronger predictor of CTL immunogenicity than peptide affinity Mikkel Harndahla, Michael Rasmussena, Morten Nielsenb, Soren Buusa,∗ a Laboratory of Experimental Immunology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Denmark b Center for Biological...... Sequence Analysis, Department of Systems Biology, Technical University of Denmark, Denmark Efficient presentation of peptide-MHC class I (pMHC-I) complexes to immune T cells should benefit from a stable peptide- MHC-I interaction. However, it has been difficult to distinguish stability from other...

  8. Bone mineral content has stronger association with lean mass than fat mass among Indian urban adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raman K Marwaha


    Full Text Available Introduction: There are conflicting reports on the relationship of lean mass (LM and fat mass (FM with bone mineral content (BMC. Given the high prevalence of Vitamin D deficiency in India, we planned the study to evaluate the relationship between LM and FM with BMC in Indian children and adolescents. The objective of the study was to evaluate the relationship of BMC with LM and FM. Materials and Methods: Total and regional BMC, LM, and FM using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry and pubertal staging were assessed in 1403 children and adolescents (boys [B]: 826; girls [G]: 577. BMC index, BMC/LM and BMC/FM ratio, were calculated. Results: The age ranged from 5 to 18 years, with a mean age of 13.2 ± 2.7 years. BMC adjusted for height (BMC index and BMC/height ratio was comparable in both genders. There was no difference in total BMC between genders in the prepubertal group but were higher in more advanced stages of pubertal maturation. The correlation of total as well as regional BMC was stronger for LM (B: Total BMC - 0.880, trunk - 0.715, leg - 0.894, arm - 0.891; G: Total BMC - 0.827, leg - 0.846, arm - 0.815 (all value indicate r2 , P < 0.0001 for all when compared with FM (B: Total BMC - 0.776, trunk - 0.676, leg - 0.772, arm - 0.728; G: Total BMC - 0.781, leg - 0.741, arm - 0.689; all P < 0.0001 except at trunk BMC (LM - 0.682 vs. FM - 0.721; all P < 0.0001, even after controlling for age, height, pubertal stage, and biochemical parameters. Conclusions: BMC had a stronger positive correlation with LM than FM.

  9. African Mining, Gender and Local Employment (United States)

    Tolonen, A.; Kotsadam, A.


    Access to employment improves women's lives and is listed among the top five priorities for promoting gender equality in the 2012 World Development Report. This paper addresses this issue by exploring women's labor market opportunities in Africa within one very important and growing sector: extractive industries. Africa's opportunities are being transformed by new discoveries of natural resources and their rising prices, and the mining sector is the main recipient of foreign direct investment in Sub-Saharan Africa. Whether the discovery of natural resources is a blessing or a curse to a country's citizens is a contentious issue, and natural resource dependence has been linked to negative outcomes at the national level such as environmental degradation, conflict, elite capture of rents and low female labor force participation. Natural resource extraction has been argued to be a hindrance to women's labor market participation by increasing reservation wages and by decreasing market demand for female labor. We perform the first cross-national study testing these hypotheses with micro-data. To do this we combine survey data on 500,000 women in Sub-Saharan Africa with geo-coded data on 900 large-scale mines (see Figure 1). We treat mine openings and mine closings as natural experiments to explore local labor market changes. Industrial mines generate local structural shifts. Subsistence farming becomes less important for both men and women. However, men shift to skilled manual labor, and women shift to service sector jobs. This contradicts the hypothesis that natural resource extraction is detrimental to women, by not providing them with new job opportunities. However, in support of the hypothesis, women decrease their labor market participation more than men do. A back-of-the-envelope calculation estimates that 90,000 women across Africa benefit from service sector jobs as a direct result of industrial mining in their communities, but 280,000 women leave the labor force

  10. Risk factors for obesity: further evidence for stronger effects on overweight children and adolescents compared to normal-weight subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Beyerlein

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We recently showed that in preschoolers risk factors for overweight show stronger associations with BMI in children with high BMI values. However, it is unclear whether these findings might also pertain to adolescents. METHODS: We extracted data on 3-10 year-old (n = 7,237 and 11-17 year-old (n = 5,986 children from a representative cross-sectional German health survey (KiGGS conducted between 2003 and 2006 and calculated quantile regression models for each age group. We used z-scores of children's body mass index (BMI as outcome variable and maternal BMI, maternal smoking in pregnancy, low parental socioeconomic status, exclusive formula-feeding and high TV viewing time as explanatory variables. RESULTS: In both age groups, the estimated effects of all risk factors except formula-feeding on BMI z-score were greatest for children with the highest BMI z-score. The median BMI z-score of 11-17 year-old children with high TV viewing time, for example, was 0.11 [95% CI: 0.03, 0.19] units higher than the median BMI z-score of teenage children with low TV viewing time. This risk factor was associated with an average difference of 0.18 [0.06, 0.30] units at the 90(th percentile of BMI z-score and of 0.20 [0.07, 0.33] units at the 97(th percentile. CONCLUSIONS: We confirmed that risk factors for childhood overweight are associated with greater shifts in the upper parts of the children's BMI distribution than in the middle and lower parts. These findings pertain also to teenagers and might possibly help to explain the secular shift in the upper BMI percentiles in children and adolescents.

  11. General Outside Employment (United States)

    Montgomery County of Maryland — This dataset contains all outside employment requests held by employees of Montgomery County (excluding uniformed police officer) approved by the Ethics Commission...

  12. Regular Exercisers Have Stronger Pelvic Floor Muscles than Non-Regular Exercisers at Midpregnancy. (United States)

    Bø, Kari; Ellstrøm Engh, Marie; Hilde, Gunvor


    Today, all healthy pregnant women are encouraged to be physically active throughout pregnancy, with recommendations to participate in at least 30 min of aerobic activity on most days of the week, in addition to perform strength training of the major muscle groups 2-3 days per week, and also pelvic floor muscle training. There is, however, an ongoing debate whether general physical activity enhances or declines pelvic floor muscle function. To compare vaginal resting pressure, pelvic floor muscle strength and endurance in regular exercisers (exercise ≥ 30 minutes ≥ 3 times per week) and non-exercisers at mid-pregnancy. Furthermore, to assess whether regular general exercise or pelvic floor muscle strength was associated with urinary incontinence. This was a cross-sectional study at mean gestational week 20.9 (± 1.4) including 218 nulliparous pregnant women, mean age 28.6 years (range 19-40) and pre-pregnancy body mass index 23.9 kg/m 2 (SD 4.0). Vaginal resting pressure, pelvic floor muscle strength and pelvic floor muscle endurance were measured by a high precision pressure transducer connected to a vaginal balloon. International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire Urinary Incontinence Short Form was used to assess urinary incontinence. Differences between groups were analyzed using Independent Sample T-test. Linear regression analysis was conducted to adjust for pre-pregnancy body mass index, age, smoking during pregnancy and regular pelvic floor muscle training during pregnancy. P-value was set to ≤ 0.05. Regular exercisers had statistically significant stronger ( mean 6.4 cm H 2 O (95% CI: 1.7, 11.2)) and more enduring ( mean 39.9 cm H 2 Osec (95% CI: 42.2, 75.7)) pelvic floor muscles. Only pelvic floor muscle strength remained statistically significant, when adjusting for possible confounders. Pelvic floor muscle strength and not regular general exercise was associated with urinary continence (adjusted B: -6.4 (95% CI: -11.5, -1.4)). Regular

  13. Hippocampal-Prefrontal Reactivation during Learning Is Stronger in Awake Compared with Sleep States. (United States)

    Tang, Wenbo; Shin, Justin D; Frank, Loren M; Jadhav, Shantanu P


    Hippocampal sharp-wave ripple (SWR) events occur during both behavior (awake SWRs) and slow-wave sleep (sleep SWRs). Awake and sleep SWRs both contribute to spatial learning and memory, thought to be mediated by the coordinated reactivation of behavioral experiences in hippocampal-cortical circuits seen during SWRs. Current hypotheses suggest that reactivation contributes to memory consolidation processes, but whether awake and sleep reactivation are suited to play similar or different roles remains unclear. Here we addressed that issue by examining the structure of hippocampal (area CA1) and prefrontal (PFC) activity recorded across behavior and sleep stages in male rats learning a spatial alternation task. We found a striking state difference: prefrontal modulation during awake and sleep SWRs was surprisingly distinct, with differing patterns of excitation and inhibition. CA1-PFC synchronization was stronger during awake SWRs, and spatial reactivation, measured using both pairwise and ensemble measures, was more structured for awake SWRs compared with post-task sleep SWRs. Stronger awake reactivation was observed despite the absence of coordination between network oscillations, namely hippocampal SWRs and cortical delta and spindle oscillations, which is prevalent during sleep. Finally, awake CA1-PFC reactivation was enhanced most prominently during initial learning in a novel environment, suggesting a key role in early learning. Our results demonstrate significant differences in awake and sleep reactivation in the hippocampal-prefrontal network. These findings suggest that awake SWRs support accurate memory storage and memory-guided behavior, whereas sleep SWR reactivation is better suited to support integration of memories across experiences during consolidation. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Hippocampal sharp-wave ripples (SWRs) occur both in the awake state during behavior and in the sleep state after behavior. Awake and sleep SWRs are associated with memory

  14. Stronger associations of obesity with prehypertension and hypertension in young women than in young men. (United States)

    Wakabayashi, Ichiro


    Obesity is an important risk factor for prehypertension and hypertension, and there are sex-specific differences in prevalences of obesity and hypertension. The aim of this study was to determine whether sex influences the relationships of obesity with prehypertension and hypertension. The participants were 28,325 Japanese men and women aged 20-39 years. Obesity was evaluated by BMI (≥ 25 kg/m) and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR ≥ 0.5). Associations of obesity with prehypertension and hypertension were compared in men and women by using odds ratio (OR) and area under the curve (AUC). ORs for prehypertension and hypertension in participants with vs. participants without high BMI or WHtR were significantly higher than a reference level of 1.00 both in men and women and were significantly higher in women than in men. ORs for prehypertension and hypertension of participants with vs. participants without high BMI were 3.10 (2.84-3.38) (men) vs. 5.54 (4.80-6.40) (women) (P men) vs. 34.58 (26.55-45.04) (women) (P men. The results suggest that the associations of obesity with prehypertension and hypertension are stronger in women than in men.

  15. Stronger activation of SREBP-1a by nucleus-localized HBx

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Qi; Qiao, Ling; Yang, Jian; Zhou, Yan; Liu, Qiang


    We previously showed that hepatitis B virus (HBV) X protein activates the sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1a (SREBP-1a). Here we examined the role of nuclear localization of HBx in this process. In comparison to the wild-type and cytoplasmic HBx, nuclear HBx had stronger effects on SREBP-1a and fatty acid synthase transcription activation, intracellular lipid accumulation and cell proliferation. Furthermore, nuclear HBx could activate HBV enhancer I/X promoter and was more effective on up-regulating HBV mRNA level in the context of HBV replication than the wild-type HBx, while the cytoplasmic HBx had no effect. Our results demonstrate the functional significance of the nucleus-localized HBx in regulating host lipogenic pathway and HBV replication. - Highlights: • Nuclear HBx is more effective on activating SREBP-1a and FASN transcription. • Nuclear HBx is more effective on enhancing intracellular lipid accumulation. • Nuclear HBx is more effective on enhancing cell proliferation. • Nuclear HBx up-regulates HBV enhancer I/X promoter activity. • Nuclear HBx increases HBV mRNA level in the context of HBV replication

  16. Stronger activation of SREBP-1a by nucleus-localized HBx

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Qi [VIDO-InterVac, Veterinary Microbiology, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon (Canada); Qiao, Ling [VIDO-InterVac, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan (Canada); Yang, Jian [Drug Discovery Group, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan (Canada); Zhou, Yan [VIDO-InterVac, Veterinary Microbiology, Vaccinology and Immunotherapeutics, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan (Canada); Liu, Qiang, E-mail: [VIDO-InterVac, Veterinary Microbiology, Vaccinology and Immunotherapeutics, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan (Canada)


    We previously showed that hepatitis B virus (HBV) X protein activates the sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1a (SREBP-1a). Here we examined the role of nuclear localization of HBx in this process. In comparison to the wild-type and cytoplasmic HBx, nuclear HBx had stronger effects on SREBP-1a and fatty acid synthase transcription activation, intracellular lipid accumulation and cell proliferation. Furthermore, nuclear HBx could activate HBV enhancer I/X promoter and was more effective on up-regulating HBV mRNA level in the context of HBV replication than the wild-type HBx, while the cytoplasmic HBx had no effect. Our results demonstrate the functional significance of the nucleus-localized HBx in regulating host lipogenic pathway and HBV replication. - Highlights: • Nuclear HBx is more effective on activating SREBP-1a and FASN transcription. • Nuclear HBx is more effective on enhancing intracellular lipid accumulation. • Nuclear HBx is more effective on enhancing cell proliferation. • Nuclear HBx up-regulates HBV enhancer I/X promoter activity. • Nuclear HBx increases HBV mRNA level in the context of HBV replication.

  17. Length effects in pseudo-word spelling: stronger in dyslexic than in non-dyslexic students. (United States)

    Juul, Holger; Petersen, Dorthe Klint


    It is often discussed whether dyslexics show a deviant pattern of reading and spelling development when compared to typically developing students, or whether they follow the same pattern as other students, only at markedly slower rate. The present cross-sectional study investigated phonological encoding skills in dyslexic Danish students. We compared dyslexic and non-dyslexic students from grades 3, 5, 7, and 9 and examined whether effects of item length were stronger in the dyslexic groups. Mixed between-within subjects analyses of variance revealed significant interactions between dyslexia status and item length as the dyslexics at all grade levels were more affected by item length than their non-dyslexic peers. A marked developmental delay was apparent as the dyslexic group from grade 9 performed on approximately the same level as the non-dyslexic group from grade 3. Although the overall difference between these two groups was not significant, a significant interaction between dyslexia status and item length remained because the grade 9 dyslexics were more affected by item length than the younger non-dyslexic students. This difference in error profiles suggests a difference in the developmental patterns of dyslexic vs. non-dyslexic students.

  18. Brain Potentials Highlight Stronger Implicit Food Memory for Taste than Health and Context Associations. (United States)

    Hoogeveen, Heleen R; Jolij, Jacob; Ter Horst, Gert J; Lorist, Monicque M


    Increasingly consumption of healthy foods is advised to improve population health. Reasons people give for choosing one food over another suggest that non-sensory features like health aspects are appreciated as of lower importance than taste. However, many food choices are made in the absence of the actual perception of a food's sensory properties, and therefore highly rely on previous experiences of similar consumptions stored in memory. In this study we assessed the differential strength of food associations implicitly stored in memory, using an associative priming paradigm. Participants (N = 30) were exposed to a forced-choice picture-categorization task, in which the food or non-food target images were primed with either non-sensory or sensory related words. We observed a smaller N400 amplitude at the parietal electrodes when categorizing food as compared to non-food images. While this effect was enhanced by the presentation of a food-related word prime during food trials, the primes had no effect in the non-food trials. More specifically, we found that sensory associations are stronger implicitly represented in memory as compared to non-sensory associations. Thus, this study highlights the neuronal mechanisms underlying previous observations that sensory associations are important features of food memory, and therefore a primary motive in food choice.

  19. Phytoplankton Communities Exhibit a Stronger Response to Environmental Changes than Bacterioplankton in Three Subtropical Reservoirs. (United States)

    Liu, Lemian; Yang, Jun; Lv, Hong; Yu, Xiaoqing; Wilkinson, David M; Yang, Jun


    The simultaneous analysis of multiple components of ecosystems is crucial for comprehensive studies of environmental changes in aquatic ecosystems, but such studies are rare. In this study, we analyzed simultaneously the bacterioplankton and phytoplankton communities in three Chinese subtropical reservoirs and compared the response of these two components to seasonal environmental changes. Time-lag analysis indicated that the temporal community dynamics of both bacterioplankton and phytoplankton showed significant directional changes, and variance partitioning suggested that the major reason was the gradual improvement of reservoir water quality from middle eutrophic to oligo-mesotrophic levels during the course of our study. In addition, we found a higher level of temporal stability or stochasticity in the bacterioplankton community than in the phytoplankton community. Potential explanations are that traits associated with bacteria, such as high abundance, widespread dispersal, potential for rapid growth rates, and rapid evolutionary adaptation, may underlie the different stability or stochasticity of bacterioplankton and phytoplankton communities to the environmental changes. In addition, the indirect response of bacterioplankton to nitrogen and phosphorus may result in the fact that environmental deterministic selection was stronger for the phytoplankton than for the bacterioplankton communities.

  20. Age differences in autobiographical memory across the adult lifespan: older adults report stronger phenomenology. (United States)

    Luchetti, Martina; Sutin, Angelina R


    As an individual's life story evolves across adulthood, the subjective experience (phenomenology) of autobiographical memory likely changes. In addition to age at retrieval, both the recency of the memory and the age when a memory is formed may be particularly important to its phenomenology. The present work examines the effect of three temporal factors on phenomenology ratings: (a) age of the participant, (b) age at the event reported in the memory, and (c) memory age (recency). A large sample of Americans (N = 1120), stratified by chronological age, recalled and rated two meaningful memories, a Turning Point and an Early Childhood Memory. Ratings of phenomenology (e.g., vividness of turning points) were higher among older adults compared to younger adults. Memories of events from the reminiscence bump were more positive in valence than events from other time periods but did not differ on other phenomenological dimensions; recent memories had stronger phenomenology than remote memories. In contrast to phenomenology, narrative content was generally unrelated to participant age, age at the event, or memory age. Overall, the findings indicate age-related differences in how meaningful memories are re-experienced.

  1. Speed versus endurance tradeoff in plants: Leaves with higher photosynthetic rates show stronger seasonal declines. (United States)

    Zhang, Yong-Jiang; Sack, Lawren; Cao, Kun-Fang; Wei, Xue-Mei; Li, Nan


    We tested for a tradeoff across species between plant maximum photosynthetic rate and the ability to maintain photosynthesis under adverse conditions in the unfavorable season. Such a trade-off would be consistent with the observed trade-off between maximum speed and endurance in athletes and some animals that has been explained by cost-benefit theory. This trend would have importance for the general understanding of leaf design, and would simplify models of annual leaf carbon relations. We tested for such a trade-off using a database analysis across vascular plants and using an experimental approach for 29 cycad species, representing an ancient plant lineage with diversified evergreen leaves. In both tests, a higher photosynthetic rate per mass or per area in the favorable season was associated with a stronger absolute or percent decline in the unfavorable season. We resolved a possible mechanism based on biomechanics and nitrogen allocation; cycads with high leaf toughness (leaf mass per area) and higher investment in leaf construction than in physiological function (C/N ratio) tended to have lower warm season photosynthesis but less depression in the cool season. We propose that this trade-off, consistent with cost-benefit theory, represents a significant physio-phenological constraint on the diversity and seasonal dynamics of photosynthetic rate.

  2. A stronger necessary condition for the multistationarity of chemical reaction networks. (United States)

    Soliman, Sylvain


    Biochemical reaction networks grow bigger and bigger, fed by the high-throughput data provided by biologists and bred in open repositories of models allowing merging and evolution. Nevertheless, since the available data is still very far from permitting the identification of the increasing number of kinetic parameters of such models, the necessity of structural analyses for describing the dynamics of chemical networks appears stronger every day. Using the structural information, notably from the stoichiometric matrix, of a biochemical reaction system, we state a more strict version of the famous Thomas' necessary condition for multistationarity. In particular, the obvious cases where Thomas' condition was trivially satisfied, mutual inhibition due to a multimolecular reaction and mutual activation due to a reversible reaction, can now easily be ruled out. This more strict condition shall not be seen as some version of Thomas' circuit functionality for the continuous case but rather as related and complementary to the whole domain of the structural analysis of (bio)chemical reaction systems, as pioneered by the chemical reaction network theory.

  3. Plant Identity Exerts Stronger Effect than Fertilization on Soil Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi in a Sown Pasture. (United States)

    Zheng, Yong; Chen, Liang; Luo, Cai-Yun; Zhang, Zhen-Hua; Wang, Shi-Ping; Guo, Liang-Dong


    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi play key roles in plant nutrition and plant productivity. AM fungal responses to either plant identity or fertilization have been investigated. However, the interactive effects of different plant species and fertilizer types on these symbiotic fungi remain poorly understood. We evaluated the effects of the factorial combinations of plant identity (grasses Avena sativa and Elymus nutans and legume Vicia sativa) and fertilization (urea and sheep manure) on AM fungi following 2-year monocultures in a sown pasture field study. AM fungal extraradical hyphal density was significantly higher in E. nutans than that in A. sativa and V. sativa in the unfertilized control and was significantly increased by urea and manure in A. sativa and by manure only in E. nutans, but not by either fertilizers in V. sativa. AM fungal spore density was not significantly affected by plant identity or fertilization. Forty-eight operational taxonomic units (OTUs) of AM fungi were obtained through 454 pyrosequencing of 18S rDNA. The OTU richness and Shannon diversity index of AM fungi were significantly higher in E. nutans than those in V. sativa and/or A. sativa, but not significantly affected by any fertilizer in all of the three plant species. AM fungal community composition was significantly structured directly by plant identity only and indirectly by both urea addition and plant identity through soil total nitrogen content. Our findings highlight that plant identity has stronger influence than fertilization on belowground AM fungal community in this converted pastureland from an alpine meadow.

  4. Harmful drinking after job loss: a stronger association during the post-2008 economic crisis? (United States)

    de Goeij, Moniek C M; Bruggink, Jan-Willem; Otten, Ferdy; Kunst, Anton E


    This study investigated, among the Dutch working population, whether job loss during the post-2008 economic crisis is associated with harmful drinking and whether this association is stronger than before the crisis. Repeated cross-sectional data from the Dutch Health Interview Survey 2004-2013 were used to define episodic drinking (≥6 glasses on 1 day ≥1/week) and chronic drinking (≥14 glasses/week for women and ≥21 for men). These data were linked to longitudinal data from tax registries, to measure the experience and duration of job loss during a 5-year working history. Before the crisis, job loss experience and duration were not associated with harmful drinking. During the crisis, job loss for more than 6 months was associated with episodic drinking [OR 1.40 (95% CI 1.01; 1.94)], while current job loss was associated with chronic drinking [OR 1.43 (95% CI 1.03; 1.98)]. These associations were most clear in men and different between the pre-crisis and crisis period (p interaction = 0.023 and 0.035, respectively). The results suggest that economic crises strengthen the potential impact of job loss on harmful drinking, predominately among men.

  5. Youth-Education-Employment. (United States)

    Wirtz, Willard; And Others

    The document presents the proceedings of an international symposium analyzing the relationship among youth, education, and employment, with emphasis on youth employment trends and the need to find solutions for unemployment problems. The objectives are to evaluate the existing relationship in the light of changing values and expectations of young…

  6. Homosexual Discrimination in Employment (United States)

    Siniscalco, Gary R.


    Recent developments in homosexual activism regarding employment problems in both the public and private sector are analyzed. Focus is on the law governing private employment, where homosexuals are afforded the least legal protection against discrimination. Available from: the University of Santa Clara, Santa Clara, California 95053. (LBH)

  7. Maine's Employability Skills Program (United States)

    McMahon, John M.; Wolffe, Karen E.; Wolfe, Judy; Brooker, Carrie


    This Practice Report describes the development and implementation of the "Maine Employability Skills Program," a model employment program developed by the Maine Division for the Blind and Visually Impaired (DBVI). The program was designed to support the efforts of the chronically unemployed or underemployed. These consumers were either…

  8. Employment Challenges in Kenya

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Kazungu

    Key Words: Employment Challenge, Employment Policy, Kenya. 1.0 Context ... Fiscal Measures. √. ×. √. Source: own elaboration based on government documents. Key: √- policy measure present; ×- policy measure not present ..... are Republic of Korea (1960–2001); Malaysia (1967–1997); Malta (1963–1994); Oman.

  9. Dimensions of Adolescent Employment. (United States)

    Mael, Fred A.; Morath, Ray A.; McLellan, Jeffrey A.


    Examines positive and negative correlates of adolescent work as a function of work dimensions. Results indicate that concurrent costs and benefits of adolescent employment may depend on dimensions of work as well as adolescent characteristics. Adolescent employment was generally related to subsequent work motivation and nonacademic performance.…

  10. Does academic performance or personal growth share a stronger association with learning environment perception?


    Colbert-Getz, Jorie M.; Tackett, Sean; Wright, Scott M.; Shochet, Robert S.


    Objectives This study was conducted to characterize the relative strength of associations of learning environment perception with academic performance and with personal growth. Methods In 2012-2014 second and third year students at Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine completed a learning environment survey and personal growth scale. Hierarchical linear regression analysis was employed to determine if the proportion of variance in learning environment scores accounted for by personal g...

  11. Habit doesn't make the predictions stronger: implicit alcohol associations and habitualness predict drinking uniquely. (United States)

    Lindgren, Kristen P; Neighbors, Clayton; Teachman, Bethany A; Gasser, Melissa L; Kaysen, Debra; Norris, Jeanette; Wiers, Reinout W


    As research on implicit (in the sense of fast/reflexive/impulsive) alcohol associations and alcohol advances, there is increasing emphasis on understanding the circumstances under which implicit alcohol associations predict drinking. In this study, we investigated habitualness of drinking (i.e., the extent to which drinking is automatic or occurs without thinking) as a moderator of the relations between several measures of implicit alcohol associations and key drinking outcomes. A sample of 506 participants (57% female) completed web-based measures of implicit alcohol associations (drinking identity, alcohol approach, and alcohol excitement), along with indicators of habitualness, and typical alcohol consumption, alcohol problems, and risk of alcohol use disorders. As expected, implicit alcohol associations, especially drinking identity, were positively associated with, and predicted unique variance in, drinking outcomes. Further, habitualness emerged as a consistent, positive predictor of drinking outcomes. Contrary to expectations, habitualness rarely moderated the relation between implicit alcohol associations and drinking outcomes. Although moderation was rarely observed, findings indicated that even mild levels of habitualness are risky. Findings also continue to support implicit alcohol associations, particularly drinking identity, as a risk factor for hazardous drinking. Collectively, this suggests the importance of targeting both in prevention and intervention efforts. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Perceived stress and biological risk: is the link stronger in Russians than in Taiwanese and Americans? (United States)

    Glei, Dana A; Goldman, Noreen; Shkolnikov, Vladimir M; Jdanov, Dmitri; Shkolnikova, Maria; Vaupel, James W; Weinstein, Maxine


    Allostatic load theory implies a relationship between exposure to psychological stress and multi-system physiological dysregulation. We used data from population-based samples of men and women in Russia (Moscow; n = 1800; age, mean 68.6 years), Taiwan (n = 1036; 65.6 years) and the United States (US; n = 1054; 58.0 years) -- which are likely to vary widely with respect to levels of stress exposure and biological markers -- to determine the magnitude of the association between perceived stress and physiological dysregulation. The measure of overall dysregulation was based on 15 markers including standard cardiovascular/metabolic risk factors as well as markers of inflammation and neuroendocrine activity. Subjective psychological stress was measured by the perceived stress scale. Only the Moscow sample demonstrated a positive association with overall dysregulation in both sexes. In the US, we found an association among women but not men. Among the Taiwanese, who report the lowest perceived stress, there was no association in women but an unexpected inverse relationship in men. The effects also varied across system-level subscores: the association with perceived stress was most consistent for standard cardiovascular/metabolic factors. Perceived stress was associated with inflammation and neuroendocrine activity in some samples. Although the evidence that perceived stress is the primary source of physiological dysregulation is generally modest, it was stronger in Russia where the level of perceived stress was particularly high. For Russia only, we had information about heart function based on a 24 h ambulatory electrocardiogram; perceived stress was consistently associated with heart rate dysregulation in Russian men and women.

  13. Stronger tests of mechanisms underlying geographic gradients of biodiversity: insights from the dimensionality of biodiversity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard D Stevens

    Full Text Available Inference involving diversity gradients typically is gathered by mechanistic tests involving single dimensions of biodiversity such as species richness. Nonetheless, because traits such as geographic range size, trophic status or phenotypic characteristics are tied to a particular species, mechanistic effects driving broad diversity patterns should manifest across numerous dimensions of biodiversity. We develop an approach of stronger inference based on numerous dimensions of biodiversity and apply it to evaluate one such putative mechanism: the mid-domain effect (MDE. Species composition of 10,000-km(2 grid cells was determined by overlaying geographic range maps of 133 noctilionoid bat taxa. We determined empirical diversity gradients in the Neotropics by calculating species richness and three indices each of phylogenetic, functional and phenetic diversity for each grid cell. We also created 1,000 simulated gradients of each examined metric of biodiversity based on a MDE model to estimate patterns expected if species distributions were randomly placed within the Neotropics. For each simulation run, we regressed the observed gradient onto the MDE-expected gradient. If a MDE drives empirical gradients, then coefficients of determination from such an analysis should be high, the intercept no different from zero and the slope no different than unity. Species richness gradients predicted by the MDE fit empirical patterns. The MDE produced strong spatially structured gradients of taxonomic, phylogenetic, functional and phenetic diversity. Nonetheless, expected values generated from the MDE for most dimensions of biodiversity exhibited poor fit to most empirical patterns. The MDE cannot account for most empirical patterns of biodiversity. Fuller understanding of latitudinal gradients will come from simultaneous examination of relative effects of random, environmental and historical mechanisms to better understand distribution and abundance of the


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kate Burke


    This technical progress report includes an update of the progress during the third year of cooperative agreement DE-FC26-00NT40802, Building Stronger State Energy Partnerships with the U.S. Department of Energy. The report also describes the barriers in conduct of the effort, and our assessment of future progress and activities. The approach of the project included three tasks during year three. First, NASEO and its Buildings Committee were to focus on raising awareness and coordination of Rebuild activities. Through education, one-on-one communications, and presentations at NASEO meetings and other events, staff and the committee will assist Rebuild officials in stimulating interest in the program and building greater support among State Energy Office Directors. The most recent subtasks added to the project, though not directly related to Rebuild America, fall under this initial task, and support: (a) state plans to implement integrated energy and environmental initiatives, including distributed generation technologies, and (b) initiation of a state collaborative on advanced turbines and hybrid systems. The advanced turbine piece was completed during this year. During the year, a new workplan was accepted by Rebuild America's Dan Sze to supplement the work in this task. This workplan is outlined below. Second, NASEO would work to improve the efficiency of America's schools by assisting states and DOE in promoting projects that result in more energy efficient and clean energy schools and a better learning environment. This task was fully completed during this year. The third task involves energy security issues which NASEO addressed by way of a Summer Fuels Outlook Conference held Tuesday, April 8, 2003. The purpose of this educational event was to inform state, federal, local, and other energy officials about the most recent transportation fuels data and trends. The public benefits part of this task was not funded for Year 3, thus no activity occurred.

  15. Association Between Self-Esteem and Depressive Symptoms Is Stronger Among Black than White Older Adults. (United States)

    Assari, Shervin


    Although poor self-esteem is a core component of depression, we still do not know if racial and ethnic groups differ in the magnitude of this link. This study compared Black and White older adults on the association between self-esteem and depressive symptoms. With a cross-sectional design, this study enrolled 1493 older individuals (age 66 or more) from the 2001 Religion, Aging, and Health Survey, a nationally representative study in the United States. Participants were either Blacks (n = 734) or Whites (n = 759). Depressive symptoms and self-esteem were measured using brief measures of the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression scale (CES-D) and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, respectively. Demographics, socioeconomics, and self-rated health (SRH) were covariates and self-identified race was the moderator. Linear regression models were used for data analysis. Low self-esteem was associated with more depressive symptoms (B = 0.17, 95 % CI 0.15-0.28), above and beyond all covariates. We found a significant and positive interaction between race (Black) and poor self-esteem on depressive symptoms (B = 0.34, 95 % CI 0.17-0.36), suggesting a stronger association between self-esteem and depressive symptoms among Blacks compared to Whites. Although low self-esteem is associated with higher depressive symptoms in both Whites and Blacks (p self-esteem and high depressive symptoms are more closely associated among Blacks than Whites. It is not clear whether depression leaves a larger scar on self-esteem for Blacks, or Blacks are more vulnerable to the effect of low self-esteem on depression.

  16. Income, employment and suicidal behavior. (United States)

    Kalist, David E; Molinari, Noelle-Angelique M; Siahaan, Freddy


    Little is known about the labor market outcomes of people who have attempted suicide or thought about suicide. We used micro-level data from the first wave of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions 2001-2002 to examine the effects of suicidal behavior on income and employment. The data provide a representative sample of the U.S. population, with its primary purpose to provide information on alcohol use disorders for the civilian non-institutionalized population aged 18 and over. The data include employment, income, and other socioeconomic and demographic information on respondents. Since the survey included 43,093 people, the data include a large number of respondents who attempted suicide or thought about committing suicide. We estimated earnings regressions and logit and ordered logit employment regressions. We used methods of IV estimation as well as two stage linear probability models to address potential endogeneity of suicidal behavior while estimating regressions separately by sex, since there are significant differences in suicide rates, suicide attempts, and suicidal ideation between men and women. We find that suicide attempts and suicidal ideation are negatively related to personal income and the probability of employment. The effects differ by sex. Men and women who attempted suicide had mean earnings lower by 16 and 13 percent, respectively. This amount reflects the combined effect of suicidal behavior and mental illness. With instrumental variable regression, the magnitude of the effects becomes larger-for example, as much as 50 percent decrease in the income of males who attempted suicide. Thoughts of suicide negatively affect income but to a smaller extent. Logit and ordered logit regressions indicate that attempted suicide reduces the probability of fulltime employment by over 20 percentage points for men and approximately 17 percentage points for women. People who engaged in suicidal behavior reported significantly

  17. Institutionalized Employer Collective Action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Christian Lyhne; Navrbjerg, Steen Erik


    Recent studies show that employer associations continue to exist in new ways despite internationalisation of the economy, liberalisation of markets and the decline of trade unions. This paradox raises two questions regarding EOs in today’s labour markets: Which employers join employer associations...... and what kind of services do EOs offer employers? This article explores these questions using two comprehensive surveys on EOs in Denmark – a prominent case of coordinated market economies. The main finding of the analyses is that collective activities vis-à-vis trade unions and government are still...... important but that individual and selective goods are just as important for recruitment and retention of members. The most important predictor of EO-membership is the existence of a collective agreement. Local union power and representation is not significant which supports the idea that EOs...

  18. Youth Employment and Unemployment (United States)

    OECD Observer, 1977


    Discusses youth employment and unemployment in Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, United Kingdom, and the United States; the trends, causes, consequences, policy goals, and specific measures needed to resolve problems. (SL)

  19. Employers meet employees


    Scheuer, Christian


    "Leaping into the future of labor economics: the research potential of linking employer and employee data" is the title of a paper by Daniel S Hammermesh published in Labour Economics in 1999. I quote it here, since it captures much of my motivation for the work included in this thesis. Considering applied micro econometrics and labor economics my main elds of interest, the development of linked employer-employee data that took place in Denmark around the time of the new mille...

  20. Deficiency of employability capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pelse I.


    Full Text Available Young unemployed people have comprised one of the significantly largest groups of the unemployed people in Latvia in recent years. One of the reasons why young people have difficulty integrating into the labour market is the “expectation gap” that exists in the relations between employers and the new generation of workers. Employers focus on capacity-building for employability such individual factors as strength, patience, self-discipline, self-reliance, self-motivation, etc., which having a nature of habit and are developed in a long-term work socialization process, which begins even before the formal education and will continue throughout the life cycle. However, when the socialization is lost, these habits are depreciated faster than they can be restored. Currently a new generation is entering the labour market, which is missing the succession of work socialization. Factors, such as rising unemployment and poverty in the background over the past twenty years in Latvia have created a very unfavourable employability background of “personal circumstances” and “external factors”, which seriously have impaired formation of the skills and attitudes in a real work environment. The study reveals another paradox – the paradox of poverty. Common sense would want to argue that poverty can be overcome by the job. However, the real state of affairs shows that unfavourable coincidence of the individual, personal circumstances and external factors leads to deficit of employability capacity and possibility of marked social and employment deprivation.

  1. Reducing Employment Insecurity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florence Lebert


    Full Text Available The perception of job insecurity is known to be a stressful condition for employees. Less is known about employment insecurity and the ways employees and their families deal with it. This study investigates whether participation in further training is a strategy that employees adopt to reduce perceived employment insecurity. As participation in further training is often costly and time-consuming, we assume that the family context is of importance for the decision to take part in further training. To take account of possible self-selection, we apply a propensity score matching procedure on longitudinal data from the Swiss Household Panel (2004-2013. Three main findings can be emphasized: first, participation in further training is not a strategy adopted particularly by employees who perceive high employment insecurity as they are less likely to train than their secure counterparts. Second, even though further training is not a strategy that is actively adopted, employees who train subsequently report lower levels of perceived employment insecurity. Third, the family context indeed influences the likelihood to train: partnered employees are more likely to train and preschool-aged children act as a constraint on women’s but enhance men’s participation in further training. Yet, in the context of high perceived employment insecurity, children generally reduce their parents’ likelihood to train as the parents may turn to other strategies that reduce perceived employment insecurity.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meedy Nugraha


    Full Text Available This paper proposes the importance of multiple instrumentation and data source (triangulation in a needs analysis. Various data gathering methods developed in assessing learners' English language needs are reviewed. The justification of employing more than a single data gathering method and data source in a needs analysis is also presented by examining the strengths and weaknesses of each method and evaluating previous needs analyses carried out in some Asian countries. Highlights are then given to the methodology mostly implemented in assessing English needs in Indonesia and a recommendation is addressed to further studies on learners's needs in Indonesia

  3. Distributed computing and data storage in proteomics: many hands make light work, and a stronger memory. (United States)

    Verheggen, Kenneth; Barsnes, Harald; Martens, Lennart


    Modern day proteomics generates ever more complex data, causing the requirements on the storage and processing of such data to outgrow the capacity of most desktop computers. To cope with the increased computational demands, distributed architectures have gained substantial popularity in the recent years. In this review, we provide an overview of the current techniques for distributed computing, along with examples of how the techniques are currently being employed in the field of proteomics. We thus underline the benefits of distributed computing in proteomics, while also pointing out the potential issues and pitfalls involved. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Resisting the "Employability" Doctrine through Anarchist Pedagogies & Prefiguration (United States)

    Osborne, Natalie; Grant-Smith, Deanna


    Increasingly those working in higher education are tasked with targeting their teaching approaches and techniques to improve the "employability" of graduates. However, this approach is promoted with little recognition that enhanced employability does not guarantee employment outcomes or the tensions inherent in pursuing this agenda. The…

  5. Interleukin 6 Is a Stronger Predictor of Clinical Events Than High-Sensitivity C-Reactive Protein or D-Dimer During HIV Infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borges, Alvaro Humberto Diniz; O'Connor, Jemma L; Phillips, Andrew N


    BACKGROUND: Interleukin 6 (IL-6), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), and D-dimer levels are linked to adverse outcomes in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, but the strength of their associations with different clinical end points warrants investigation. METHODS: Participants...... receiving standard of care in 2 HIV trials with measured biomarker levels were followed to ascertain all-cause death, non-AIDS-related death, AIDS, cardiovascular disease (CVD), and non-AIDS-defining malignancies. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of each end point for quartiles and log......-dimer (P = .20) as a predictor for different end points. CONCLUSIONS: IL-6 is a stronger predictor of fatal events than of CVD and non-AIDS-defining malignancies. Adjuvant antiinflammatory and antithrombotic therapies should be tested in HIV-infected individuals....

  6. CDC'S Testing Makes Us Stronger (TMUS) Campaign: Was Campaign Exposure Associated With HIV Testing Behavior Among Black Gay and Bisexual Men? (United States)

    Habarta, Nancy; Boudewyns, Vanessa; Badal, Hannah; Johnston, Jennie; Uhrig, Jennifer; Green, Donata; Ruddle, Paul; Rosenthal, Jacqueline; Stryker, Jo Ellen


    This study assessed exposure among Black gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (BMSM) to a communication campaign, Testing Makes Us Stronger (TMUS), and its association with HIV testing to determine campaign effectiveness. Data from an online survey (N = 3,105) were analyzed using propensity score weight-adjusted logistic regression to examine the effect of exposure on HIV testing. Among BMSM aged 18-44 (n = 702), 43.2% reported TMUS exposure. The majority of those exposed were aged 25-34 (54%), HIV-negative (65%), and had some college education (87%). TMUS exposure was associated with reported increased HIV testing behaviors at 6- and 12-month frequencies. Communication campaigns with clear implementation strategies, focused objectives, and online and event presence can be associated with longer-term outcomes such as HIV testing.

  7. Bell inequalities stronger than the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt inequality for three-level isotropic states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Tsuyoshi; Imai, Hiroshi; Avis, David


    We show that some two-party Bell inequalities with two-valued observables are stronger than the CHSH inequality for 3x3 isotropic states in the sense that they are violated by some isotropic states in the 3x3 system that do not violate the CHSH inequality. These Bell inequalities are obtained by applying triangular elimination to the list of known facet inequalities of the cut polytope on nine points. This gives a partial solution to an open problem posed by Collins and Gisin. The results of numerical optimization suggest that they are candidates for being stronger than the I 3322 Bell inequality for 3x3 isotropic states. On the other hand, we found no Bell inequalities stronger than the CHSH inequality for 2x2 isotropic states. In addition, we illustrate an inclusion relation among some Bell inequalities derived by triangular elimination

  8. "This one is stronger". Spotlights on the lifelong learning professional-in-action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josje van der Linden


    Full Text Available ABSTRACT“This one is stronger.” Spotlights on the lifelong learning professional-in-action Around the world, lifelong learning is being promoted as a strategy for coping with the changing realities of life and work. The fourth Sustainable Development Goal, agreed in September 2015, reflects this: “ensure equitable and inclusive quality education and promote lifelong learning opportunities for all”. Despite its importance, doubts remain about the implementation of this goal in practice (Van der Kamp, 2000; Regmi, 2015. This article looks at the practice of lifelong learning from the point of view of the professionals involved, their actions and the way these actions are challenged, supported and further developed. Following Schön’s “reflection-in-action” (1983, the term “professional-in-action” is used to stress the role of the professional in making the difference on the ground. The leading question is: how can lifelong learning professionals be supported in their contribution to surrounding society and its citizens? The professionals-in-action featured in this article include professionals based in the Netherlands as well as in other, less privileged contexts. Meaningful experiences are used to build a story about challenges, the right to exist, commitment, recognition and room to manoeuvre. The experiences reveal the importance of interacting with the learner and the professional space that is necessary to achieve this. Professionalization in professional learning communities and practice-oriented research must accompany this professional space. SAMENVATTING“Deze is sterker”. Spotlights op de leven lang leren professional-in-actieOm te kunnen omgaan met de veranderende realiteit in leven en werk, wordt wereldwijd een leven lang leren aangemoedigd. Het vierde duurzame ontwikkelingsdoel, vastgesteld in september 2015, weerspiegelt dit: “het verzekeren van kwalitatief goed onderwijs en het bevorderen van de mogelijkheden

  9. Employment certificates on HRT

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department


    As part of the ongoing drive to simplify and streamline administrative procedures and processes, the IT and HR Departments have made employment certificates available on a self-service basis on the HRT application, in the main menu under "My self services". All members of the personnel can thus obtain a certificate of employment or association, in French or in English, for the present or past contractual period. The HR Department’s Records Office remains responsible for issuing any special certificates that might be required. IT-AIS (Administrative Information Services) HR-SPS (Services, Procedures & Social) Records Office – Tel. 73700

  10. Policies for full employment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Koning, Jaap; Layard, Richard; Nickel, Stephen

    European unemployment is too high, and employment is too low. Over 7½ per cent of Europe's workforce is unemployed, and only two thirds of people aged 15-64 are in work. At the Lisbon summit two years ago the heads of government set the target that by 2010 the employment rate should rise from 64 ......, the Netherlands and Sweden). And seven of the 15 countries in the E.U already have lower unemployment than the United States (the previous four plus Austria, Ireland and Luxembourg)....

  11. Youth, family and employment. (United States)

    Peters, J F


    Some of the functions and dysfunctions of youth employment in contemporary society are discussed. The focus then shifts to a third variable: family dynamics. The research indicates that youth unemployment prolongs residence with parents. The younger the youth, the more tolerant are the parents of the unemployment. It was also found that a daughter's lack of employment in the summer months is more acceptable than a son's; that debts are part of the lifestyle of youth after age 18; that males incur more debts than do females; and that parents are the major source of financial loans.

  12. Governing EU employment policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Eva; Triantafillou, Peter; Damgaard, Bodil


    In the European Union (EU), employment policy is a prerogative of the member states. Therefore the EU's ability to govern in this area depends on its capability to involve national governments and relevant stakeholders in a collaborative effort to formulate and implement shared policy objectives....... Drawing an analytical distinction between cooperation, coordination and collaboration, the article analyses the formulation and implementation of EU employment policies. It concludes that while the formulation of policy objectives and the discussion of national policy approaches do involve elements...... of collaboration, the implementation phase mainly consists in the less demanding forms of cooperation and coordination....

  13. Radiation protection - the employer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldfinch, E.


    A brief report is given of a paper presented at the symposium on 'Radiation and the Worker - where do we go from here' in London 1983. The paper concerned the employers' viewpoint on the draft of the proposed Ionising Radiations Regulations in the Health and Safety Commission Consultative Document. It was concluded that there was already a very good standard of radiological protection in the UK and that any improvements could therefore only be fringe improvements, although the cost to the employer of introducing and implementing the new proposed Regulations was bound to be high. (U.K.)

  14. International Volunteering: Employability, Leadership and More (United States)

    Rothwell, Andrew; Charleston, Brandon


    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the experiences of individuals in transition between education and work during international volunteering expeditions. While it was expected that outcomes might include employability enhancement and skill development, the authors aimed to clarify what the main factors were, examine employability…

  15. Employment and Growth | Page 21 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Employment and Growth. Language English. Read more about Social Protection and Labour Market Outcomes of Youth in South Africa. Language English. Read more about Job Creation in African Agriculture. Language English. Read more about Création d'emplois dans l'agriculture africaine. Language French.

  16. Factors Influencing Self Employment Media Service Providers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We examined the effect of sex, curriculum outcomes, personality traits, gender role stereotype and common business practices on media self employment in south-south Nigeria. Using five 20 item questionnaires, we collected data from 361 tertiary institution graduates for study. Multiple regression analysis of our data ...

  17. Meditation has stronger relationships with mindfulness, kundalini, and mystical experiences than yoga or prayer. (United States)

    de Castro, John M


    Contemplative practices can have profound effects on mindfulness and on physical and sensory and mystical experiences. Individuals who self-reported meditation, yoga, contemplative prayer, or a combination of practices and their patterns of practice were compared for mindfulness, kundalini effects, and mystical experiences. The results suggest that the amount of practice but not the pattern and social conditions of practice influences mindfulness and possibly mystical experiences. Meditation, yoga, contemplative prayer, or a combination of practices all were found to be associated with enhancements of mindfulness, kundalini effects, and mystical experiences, but meditation had particularly strong associations and may be the basis of the associations of yoga and prayer with these outcomes. The results further suggest that the primary association of contemplative practices is with the real time awareness and appreciation of sensory and perceptual experiences which may be the intermediary between disparate practices and mindfulness, kundalini effects, and mystical experiences. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Physical activity, obesity and mortality: does pattern of physical activity have stronger epidemiological associations?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauman, Adrian E.; Grunseit, Anne C.; Rangul, Vegar


    outcomes, compared to single time-point measure of PA. Methods: Data were the Danish MONICA (MONItoring Trends and Determinants in CArdiovascular Disease) study over three waves 1982-3 (time 1), 1987-8 (time 2) and 1993-4 (time 3). Associations between leisure time single time-point PA levels at time 1...... and time 3, and sport and active travel at times 1 and 2 with BMI, waist, hip circumference and mortality (death from coronary heart disease (CHD) and cardiovascular disease (CVD)) were compared to 'PA patterns' spanning multiple time points. PA pattern classified participants' PA as either 1) inactive...... or low PA at both time points; 2) moderate level PA at time 1 and high activity at time 3; or 3) a 'mixed PA pattern' indicating a varying levels of activity over time. Similarly, sport and active travel were also classified as indicating stable low, stable high and mixed patterns. Results...

  19. Declining Black Employment. (United States)

    Vedder, Richard; Gallaway, Lowell


    Explores income inequality during declining African-American employment, examines current welfare systems, and suggests ways to improve the economic disadvantages of minority groups. Letting markets work can improve the economic status of African Americans. The present dual African-American economy, a market economy and an entitlement economy, is…

  20. Views of the employers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishida, J.


    The employer shall establish and maintain a safety management system, which is a part of the overall management system that facilitates the management of the occupational health and safety risks associated with the business of the organization. In addition to meeting its legal responsibilities, the employer should aim to improve its occupational health and safety performance, and its safety management system, effectively and efficiently, to meet changing business and regulatory needs. Occupational radiation protection is also a part of its activities. The concept of 'as low as reasonably achievable' (ALARA) presumes that any increment of radiation dose may produce a proportionate incremental risk, and that all radiation doses shall be kept ALARA, taking into account social and economic factors. Up to now, by implementing various activities in accordance with the principle of ALARA, employers have been minimizing the exposure dose of plant workers. Owing to improvements in hardware and administrative control, the exposure dose of workers has followed a remarkable downward trend, and now the number of workers exceeding 20 mSv/a is nearly zero. By implementing more thorough radiation protection and safety programmes, as well as by promoting safety consciousness among individual workers, the employers are continuing their efforts, respecting ALARA, to prevent workers from being exposed to radiation unnecessarily. As a consequence, the average individual dose of workers has dropped to 1 mSv/a or so. There may no longer be a discernible decrease in doses received at most of nuclear facilities

  1. Employment without Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Jørgen

    Employment is a central argument for economic growth in the Western world. But environmental problems like global warming points towards limits to growth. The presentation outlines the history of what has lead to this dilemma. Fortunately citizens attitudes now points towards a preference for less...

  2. Should Universities Promote Employability? (United States)

    McCowan, Tristan


    Employability is becoming increasingly central to the mission and functioning of universities, spurred on by national and supranational agencies, and the demands of marketisation. This article provides a response to the normative dimensions of the question, progressing through four stages: first, there is a brief consideration of the meaning and…

  3. Employment Relations in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jørgen Steen; Due, Jesper Jørgen; Andersen, Søren Kaj


    Jørgen Steen Madsen, Jesper Due og Søren Kaj Andersen har skrevet et kapitel om udviklingen i dansk arbejdsmarkedsregulering til bogen International and Comparative Employment Relations, redigeret af Greg Bamber, Russell Lansbury og Nick Wailes. Bogen indeholder bidrag, der præsenterer og...

  4. Shifting employment revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cremers, J.; Gramuglia, A.


    The CLR-network examined in 2006 the phenomenon of undeclared labour, with specific regard to the construction sector. The resulting study, Shifting Employment: undeclared labour in construction, gave evidence that this is an area particularly affected by undeclared activities with one of the

  5. Shifting employment revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cremers, Jan; Gramuglia, Alessia


    The CLR-network examined in 2006 the phenomenon of undeclared labour, with specific regard to the construction sector. The resulting study, Shifting Employment: undeclared labour in construction (Shifting-study hereafter), gave evidence that this is an area particularly affected by undeclared

  6. A Stochastic Employment Problem (United States)

    Wu, Teng


    The Stochastic Employment Problem(SEP) is a variation of the Stochastic Assignment Problem which analyzes the scenario that one assigns balls into boxes. Balls arrive sequentially with each one having a binary vector X = (X[subscript 1], X[subscript 2],...,X[subscript n]) attached, with the interpretation being that if X[subscript i] = 1 the ball…

  7. The Employment Mismatch (United States)

    Fischer, Karin


    Employers value a four-year college degree, many of them more than ever. Yet half of those surveyed recently by "The Chronicle" and American Public Media's "Marketplace" said they had trouble finding recent graduates qualified to fill positions at their company or organization. Nearly a third gave colleges just fair to poor marks for producing…

  8. Stronger Association Between Valence- and Arousal Ratings of Affective Pictures with Older Age: Evidence for Variation Across Emotion Categories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Mai Bjørnskov; Mehlsen, Mimi Yung; Lyby, Marlene Skovgaard

    A sample of older and younger adults rated affective pictures according to valence, arousal and emotion category (happiness, sadness and disgust). Results indicate that older age is associated with a stronger linear association between ratings of arousal and valence. Further, the strength...

  9. Pilot testing of the "First You Should Get Stronger" program among caregivers of older adults with dementia. (United States)

    Lök, Neslihan; Bademli, Kerime

    In this study, randomized controlled interventional study pattern was used to examine the effects of the "First You Should Get Stronger" program on the caregiving burden and healthy life style behavior of caregivers of dementia patients. "Zarit Caregiver Burden Scale" and "Healthy Life Style Behavior Scale" were used. The study was completed with 40 caregivers in total with 20 in the intervention group and 20 in the control group. A statistically significant difference was determined between the "Zarit Caregiving Burden Scale" and "Healthy Life Style Behavior Scale" score averages of the intervention group that participated in the "First You Should Get Stronger" program in comparison with those of the control group. It is important for the healths of caregivers to include similar programs for the caregivers of dementia patients in continuous and regular applications. The results highlight the importance of the "First You Should Get Stronger" program significantly decreased the caregiving burden and significantly developed the healthy lifestyle behaviors of caregivers in the intervention group. Since dementia is a difficult neurological syndrome with patients cared at home, it generally wears out the caregivers significantly. It is suggested that the nurses and healthcare professionals working with dementia patients are evaluated separately and that they carry out caregiving applications within the scope of the "First You Should Get Stronger" program. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. An Exploration of Employer Perceptions of Graduate Student Employability (United States)

    Chhinzer, Nita; Russo, Anna Maria


    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore employer perceptions of graduate student employability. This study is novel since existing research focused on employability is largely theoretic, remains focused on defining employability of undergraduates and largely fails to determine employer perceptions of factors that increase or decrease…

  11. Does academic performance or personal growth share a stronger association with learning environment perception? (United States)

    Colbert-Getz, Jorie M; Tackett, Sean; Wright, Scott M; Shochet, Robert S


    This study was conducted to characterize the relative strength of associations of learning environment perception with academic performance and with personal growth. In 2012-2014 second and third year students at Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine completed a learning environment survey and personal growth scale. Hierarchical linear regression analysis was employed to determine if the proportion of variance in learning environment scores accounted for by personal growth was significantly larger than the proportion accounted for by academic performance (course/clerkship grades). The proportion of variance in learning environment scores accounted for by personal growth was larger than the proportion accounted for by academic performance in year 2 [R(2)Δ of 0.09, F(1,175) = 14.99,  p Learning environment scores shared a small amount of variance with academic performance in years 2 and 3.  The amount of variance between learning environment scores and personal growth was small in year 2 and large in year 3. Since supportive learning environments are essential for medical education, future work must determine if enhancing personal growth prior to and during the clerkship year will increase learning environment perception.

  12. Children's Evaluations of Temporally Distant Outcomes (United States)

    Nisan, Mordecai


    Investigated the hypothesis that 10-year-old children will tend to perceive delayed outcomes as being of lower value than immediately expected ones, with the effect being stronger for negative outcomes. Good- and bad-tasting foods were used as stimuli. (SDH)

  13. Employability: Challenges for Education and Training Systems (United States)

    Perez, Elena Arjona; Garrouste, Christelle; Kozovska, Kornelia

    The recent crisis has taken its toll in terms of unemployment, especially among young people. This has revived the debate on the contribution of Education and Training (E&T) systems to the employability of young graduates. At European policy level, there is a growing interest in creating incentives for reforming E&T systems so as to make them more responsive to future labour market needs and short term adverse labour market conditions. One of the main challenges is finding valid measures for evaluating the contribution of E&T systems to employability, taking into account their diversity within the European Union. This paper presents an operational framework of analysis for employability and discusses some of the most important challenges related to the multidimensional nature of the employability concept, the lack of data for cross-country comparison and the difficulty of disentangling the role of education and training systems from other factors in evaluating labour market outcomes.

  14. Energy levy and employment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Mooij, R.A.


    The employment in the Netherlands seems to be relatively vulnerable for an energy levy compared to other European countries. Therefore, implementation of an energy levy because of the environment demands a supporting policy for the employment. This can be realized by using the yield of the levy totally for the decrease of the tax burden on labour. An unbalanced distribution of incomes between the working population and the unemployed population must be taken for granted. Based on the general equilibrium model ENTAX (ENvironmental TAXation) for a small economy a number of factors, which can impact the cost effectiveness of a regulating energy levy, are discussed. Six countries (Netherlands, Belgium, Denmark, Germany, France and the United Kingdom) are compared regarding these factors. 4 tabs., 15 refs

  15. Employment and winter construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ernst Jan de Place; Larsen, Jacob Norvig


    Reduced seasonal building activity in the construction sector is often assumed to be related to hard winter conditions for building activities and poor working conditions for construction workers, resulting in higher costs and poor quality of building products, particularly in the northern...... hemisphere. Can climatic conditions alone explain the sizeable difference in reduction in building activity in the construction sector in European countries in the winter months, or are other factors such as technology, economic cycles and schemes for financial compensation influential as well? What...... possibilities exist for reducing seasonal variation in employment? In addition to a literature review related to winter construction, European and national employment and meteorological data were studied. Finally, ministerial acts, ministerial orders or other public policy documents related to winter...

  16. Entrepreneurship and Employment Stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Failla, Virgilio; Melillo, Francesca; Reichstein, Toke


    are identified and empirically explored: (i) job matching, (ii) labour market value, and (iii) personal commitment. Entrepreneurs appear to be more productive and thus better matched compared to wageworkers. However, they also appear to be locked in entrepreneurship because of their anticipated lower value......This paper challenges the conventional belief that entrepreneurship is an unstable career path. Using longitudinal matched employer–employee data from Denmark, the analysis reveals that a transition to entrepreneurship decreases individual's employment turnover tendency. Three explanations...... in the labour market and because of their personal attachment to the venture. The counter-intuitive finding – entrepreneurship yields greater employment stability – only holds with respect to subsequent transitions to wagework and not for new venture founding. The results have implications for our understanding...

  17. Liability in Employment Law


    Lang, Roman


    97 Liability in labour law Summary This diploma paper analyzes liability in labour law with focus on liability for damage. At first the diploma paper introduces conception of liability in general and idea of liability in labour law considering different position of employee and employer in labour relations. The diploma paper then enumerates the types of labour-law liability. The next chapter concentrates on liability for damage. This chapter describes characteristic features of liability for ...

  18. Work and Employment


    De Poorter, Mathieu


    The social and solidarity economy (SSE) and its ties to the questions of employment and work are discussed here from the perspective of enterprises and organisations of the SSE and their efforts to create decent work, as defined by the International Labour Organisation. Enterprises and organisations of the SSE are analysed under the four dimensions that define decent work, namely: The guarantee of labour rights, and the promotion of the application and respect for the (fundamental) working st...

  19. Soldiers’ employment attitude and employability: An exploratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Gao


    Full Text Available Purpose: Nowadays it is very difficult for Chinese retired soldiers to find proper jobs, and the primary reason is the significant gap between job requirements and soldiers owned job skills. Therefore, it is very important to improve the soldiers’ job skills and enhance their understanding of employment.Design/methodology/approach: This paper expands the study scope from the soldiers’ job skills to the employability, initiatively introduces the employment attitude which has obvious impact on the employment of soldiers, and analyses the influence that employment attitude can play on employability. At last, this paper develops statistical method to find the relationship between soldiers’ employment attitude and employability.Findings: The empirical analysis shows that soldiers’ employment attitude has the positive linkage with employability, which makes the employment attitude a measurable variable for the employability rather than an absolute standard.Research limitations/implications: According to the research purpose, more variables should be considered in the model, consequently, there are only three indicators to describe solders’ employment attitude and four indicators to describe solders’ employability.Originality/value: This paper takes research on soldiers’ employability in a new perspective. The soldiers’ employment attitude is served as the entry point, showing the influence that soldiers’ employment attitude has on employability.

  20. Environment, employment and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhalla, A.S.


    It is generally recognised that the question of sustainable development is a global problem, emphasizing the increasingly interdependent nature of relationships among nations. Solutions to the problem are as much political as they are economic and technological. Notwithstanding the deepening and widening of the debate on sustainable development, its implications for employment - a major concern of the ILO under its World Employment Programme - have remained largely unexplored. This volume, therefore, has a very modest objective, namely to place the employment question on the policy agenda in the context of the current debate on environment and development. The design of environmental policies should allow for the differences that exist between countries with a high level of development and technological dynamism and those with a low level of development and low technological capability. One must also recognize the costs imposed by adjustment and the consequent distributional impact. In the long term, technology choice plays a crucial role in promoting sustainable development in both industrialized and developing countries. It is not only environment-friendly technologies that need to be developed and diffused; in the case of the least developed countries, technological transformation needs to be accelerated in order to minimise their dependence on natural resources for economic growth. Refs, figs and tabs

  1. Energy investments and employment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    A study was conducted to assess the effect that different energy options would have on provincial and regional employment prospects in British Columbia. Current and future economic and employment patterns were examined to develop a more detailed understanding of the skills, age, gender, location, and other characteristics of British Columbia workers. Over 40 previous studies examining the energy/employment relationship were also reviewed. Based on this review and an analysis of the province's economic and labor conditions, the following conclusions are drawn. Investment in non-energy sectors offers better prospects for reducing unemployment than investment in the energy sector, whether for new supply or improving efficiency. Investments in the energy sector provide fewer jobs than investments in most other sectors of the economy. Among the available electricity supply options, large hydroelectric projects tend to produce the fewest jobs per investment dollar. Smaller thermal projects such as wood residue plants produce the most jobs. If and when more energy is needed in British Columbia, the most cost-effective combination of energy supply and efficiency options will also create the most jobs. Compared to traditional energy supply options, investments in energy efficiency would create about twice as many total jobs, create jobs that better match the skills of the province's unemployed and its population distribution, and create jobs that last longer on the average. Construction-related measures such as improved insulation tend to produce more jobs per investment dollar than the substitution of more energy-efficient equipment. 69 refs., 9 tabs

  2. Employment opportunities for the disabled

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delsen, L.W.M.


    Policy makers in the OECD Member States have developed quite different programmes and institutional arrangements to create and promote employment opportunities for the disabled. These policy approaches include legal interventions, employment support services, financial support of open employment and

  3. Challenging Scandinavian employment relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Christian Lyhne; Larsen, Trine Pernille; Madsen, Jørgen Steen


    and employment relations in the Danish, Norwegian and Swedish public sector. In this paper, we argue that although differences exist across the Scandinavian countries, it is evident that they have managed to adopt and implement NPM-inspired reforms without dismantling their universal welfare services and strong......Building on the convergence/divergence approach, this paper examines whether recent new public management (NPM) inspired reforms entailing inter alia cutbacks in the public sector, marketisation and management by performance measures have had significant implications for service provision...... traditions of collective bargaining in the public sector. However, this restructuring is taking its toll on the work environment....

  4. Graduate Employability: A Conceptual Framework for Understanding Employers' Perceptions (United States)

    Cai, Yuzhuo


    This study provides a conceptual framework for understanding what employers think about the value of graduates with similar educational credentials in the workplace (their employability), using insights from the new institutionalism. In this framework, the development of employers' beliefs about graduates' employability is broken into a number of…

  5. Life Sciences and employability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wynand J. Boshoff


    Full Text Available This article addresses unemployment in rural areas. South Africa is also characterised by skills shortage and high unemployment figures, especially in rural areas as compared to urban areas. The institutional reality of education is that every rural village hosts a high school which is primarily engaged in preparing learners for further studies, whilst the Further Training Colleges (previously known as technical colleges are mainly located in the larger centres. It is with this scenario as a backdrop that the possible role of high schools to alleviate the problem is being argued. It is clear that rural employers do not expect from school leavers to be in possession of applicable knowledge, but rather to be in possession of the ability as well as certain personal characteristics that would make them employable. Unfortunately, however, this is not always found in young persons who have completed their schooling successfully. Life Sciences educators can render a valuable service should certain nontraditional approaches be incorporated into the teaching practice. This will enable them to contribute to solving one of South Africa’s serious problems.

  6. Employment funding under review. (United States)


    In February 1998, the Vietnam Women's Union (VWU) hosted a conference to review experience with the National Employment Program (NEP) that was instituted in 1993 to fund projects that create jobs. The 1.5 billion VND in funding distributed by the VWU that year has increased to 21 billion VND in 1997 and has supported 559 projects in 61 provinces and cities, creating 139,162 jobs. The 14 mountainous provinces have benefitted from 140 projects implemented with 4 billion VND in loans to ethnic minorities. In one case, a revolving loan fund of 100 million VND recovered most of the principle loaned as well as 54 million VND in interest. In another, investment of 70 million VND generated 48 million VND in income in a single year. The availability of the loans has allowed families to rise from chronic poverty as women have generated employment and income for their families. In order to expand, however, the program needs more funding and more cooperation from the State Treasury, and VWU members need training in order to be able to manage large projects.

  7. The impact of aging on regional employment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Torben Dall; Mitze, Timo Friedel; Kangasharju, Aki


    Ageing is a key challenge for many countries. The purpose of this paper is to simulate how ageing affects future regional labour market outcomes. We develop a simulation procedure based on data for 71 Nordic regions in Finland, Norway, Sweden and Denmark. The procedure combines spatial econometrics...... and population projections for scenario analyses of future employment patterns up to 2021. Compared to a “benchmark scenario” based on projections of the working age population, we find that predicted regional labour market outcomes tell a much richer story if a combination of estimation results and population...

  8. Wages, Employment and Economic Shocks: Evidence from Indonesia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Smith, James


    ...), this paper examines the impact of the crisis on labor market outcomes. Aggregate employment has remained remarkably robust through the crisis although there has been significant switching within sectors...

  9. Employer supports for parents with young children. (United States)

    Friedman, D E


    The competing interests of employers, working parents, and very young children collide in decisions over work schedules, child care arrangements, promotions, children's sicknesses, and overtime hours. With the rising number of women in the labor force, more and more employers are concerned about how their workers balance work and family priorities. This article examines the supports that employers provide to help parents with young children juggle demands on their time and attention. It reviews the availability of traditional benefits, such as vacation and health insurance, and describes family-friendly initiatives. Exciting progress is being made in this arena by leading employers, but coverage remains uneven: Employers say they provide family-friendly policies and programs to improve staff recruitment and retention, reduce absenteeism, and increase job satisfaction and company loyalty. Evaluations demonstrate positive impacts on each of these valued outcomes. Employee benefits and work/family supports seldom reach all layers of the work force, and low-income workers who need assistance the most are the least likely to receive or take advantage of it. Understandably, employer policies seek to maximize productive work time. However, it is often in the best interests of children for a parent to be able to set work aside to address urgent family concerns. The author concludes that concrete work/family supports like on-site child care, paid leave, and flextime are important innovations. Ultimately, the most valuable aid to employees would be a family-friendly workplace culture, with supportive supervision and management practices.

  10. Authenticity in Employment Relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tackney, Charles Thomas

    analysis should complement and support corporate social responsibility, management spirituality, authentic leadership / authentic follower, and other secular research by offering a research methods bridge between empirically grounded theology and secular studies, with the common goal of improving workplace...... of the concept in Western culture, philosophy, and management studies, Religious Society of Friends (Quaker) and Roman Catholic social teachings are investigated for positively correlative data to help develop the criterion variable. From the literature review of concept and historical data in both traditions......This research takes up the concept of authenticity as a criterion variable for theology of the workplace analysis, a domain which explores employment parameters in light of religious teaching on the social question at national, organizational or firm-specific levels. Following a review...

  11. Fixed term employment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durant, B.W.; Schonberner, M.J.


    A series of brief notes were included with this presentation which highlighted certain aspects of contract management. Several petroleum companies have realized the benefits of taking advantage of contract personnel to control fixed G and A, manage the impacts on their organization, contain costs, to manage termination costs, and to fill gaps in lean personnel rosters. An independent contractor was described as being someone who is self employed, often with a variety of work experiences. The tax benefits and flexibility of contractor personnel were also described. Some liability aspects of hiring an independent contractor were also reviewed. The courts have developed the following 4 tests to help determine whether an individual is an employee or an independent contractor: (1) the control test, (2) the business integration test, (3) specific result test, and (4) the economic reality test

  12. Authenticity in Employment Relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tackney, Charles Thomas


    Authenticity is developed and deployed as a criterion variable for a theology of the workplace inquiry that combines theory and methodological development with data analysis. The goal is to show that social science method can offer an empirically valid, prophetic dimension to the study of employm......Authenticity is developed and deployed as a criterion variable for a theology of the workplace inquiry that combines theory and methodological development with data analysis. The goal is to show that social science method can offer an empirically valid, prophetic dimension to the study...... of employment and work parameters in light of religious teachings on the social question at national, organizational, or firm-specific levels. The function of a criterion variable is described, noting that the switch from a dependent variable approach introduces an open-system dynamism to social science...... theology and allied fields for the common cause of assessing authenticity in firm, organization, and higher system functions....

  13. Authenticity in Employment Relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tackney, Charles Thomas

    analysis should complement and support corporate social responsibility, management spirituality, authentic leadership / authentic follower, and other secular research by offering a research methods bridge between empirically grounded theology and secular studies, with the common goal of improving workplace......This research takes up the concept of authenticity as a criterion variable for theology of the workplace analysis, a domain which explores employment parameters in light of religious teaching on the social question at national, organizational or firm-specific levels. Following a review...... of the concept in Western culture, philosophy, and management studies, Religious Society of Friends (Quaker) and Roman Catholic social teachings are investigated for positively correlative data to help develop the criterion variable. From the literature review of concept and historical data in both traditions...

  14. Employability skills: Maintaining relevance in marketing education


    Barker, Beverly


    Employability is an important outcome of education, particularly with vocationally orientated degrees such as marketing. Supporting this, a wide range of literature discusses the skills that should be developed within students in general, and those on business and marketing courses in particular (Bennett, Dunne, & Carré, 1999; Hillage & Pollard, 1998; Zinser, 2003). However, with increasing competition for graduate placements and jobs, do the skills under discussion remain relevant to the con...

  15. Low-Wage Maternal Employment and Parenting Style (United States)

    Jackson, Aurora P.; Bentler, Peter M.; Franke, Todd M.


    This three-year longitudinal study investigated whether low-wage employment was associated with improved psychological and parenting outcomes in a sample of 178 single mothers who were employed and unemployed current and former welfare recipients both before and subsequent to the passage of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity…

  16. Employment relations, flexibility and risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Carsten Strøby

    Employment relations literature often distinguishes between social democratic/corporatist models of employment relations and liberal models of employment relations as they are seen as opposite or at least different ways of organizing labor markets. They are often characterized as having very...... different risk profiles in terms of relationships between employees, employers, and the state. Low levels of labor market regulation very often characterize the liberal models of employment relations as we know them from, for instance, the USA and the UK. This means that employment conditions are very often...

  17. 29 CFR 779.19 - Employer, employee, and employ. (United States)


    ... RETAILERS OF GOODS OR SERVICES General Some Basic Definitions § 779.19 Employer, employee, and employ. The... of oppressive child labor. The Act provides its own definitions of “employer,” “employee”, and... particular employee. It should also be noted that “employer”, “enterprise”, and “establishment” are not...

  18. A Conceptual Understanding of Employability: The Employers' View in Rwanda (United States)

    Bamwesiga, Penelope Mbabazi


    Many governments believe that investing in human capital should increase citizens' employability, which is why it is often presented as a solution to the problems of knowledge-based economies and societies, rising unemployment rates and economic competiveness. The aim of this study is to understand employers' views regarding the employability of…

  19. Consumer and Employer Strategies for Overcoming Employment Barriers. Technical Report. (United States)

    Crudden, Adele; Williams, Wendy; McBroom, Lynn W.; Moore, J. Elton

    This report on strategies for overcoming employment barriers for persons with visual impairments summarizes comments and suggestions of 7 focus groups comprised of either consumers (n=49) or employers (n=19). The report first reviews the literature concerning employment barriers and how consumers in previous studies suggested these barriers be…

  20. Glass Stronger than Steel (United States)

    Yarris, Lynn


    A new type of damage-tolerant metallic glass, demonstrating a strength and toughness beyond that of steel or any other known material, has been developed and tested by a collaboration of researchers from Berkeley Lab and Caltech.

  1. Are Tornadoes Getting Stronger? (United States)

    Elsner, J.; Jagger, T.


    A cumulative logistic model for tornado damage category is developed and examined. Damage path length and width are significantly correlated to the odds of a tornado receiving the next highest damage category. Given values for the cube root of path length and square root of path width, the model predicts a probability for each category. The length and width coefficients are insensitive to the switch to the Enhanced Fujita (EF) scale and to distance from nearest city although these variables are statistically significant in the model. The width coefficient is sensitive to whether or not the tornado caused at least one fatality. This is likely due to the fact that the dimensions and characteristics of the damage path for such events are always based on ground surveys. The model predicted probabilities across the categories are then multiplied by the center wind speed from the categorical EF scale to obtain an estimate of the highest tornado wind speed on a continuous scale in units of meters per second. The estimated wind speeds correlate at a level of .82 (.46, .95) [95% confidence interval] to wind speeds estimated independently from a doppler radar calibration. The estimated wind speeds allow analyses to be done on the tornado database that are not possible with the categorical scale. The modeled intensities can be used in climatology and in environmental and engineering applications. More work needs to be done to understand the upward trends in path length and width. The increases lead to an apparent increase in tornado intensity across all EF categories.

  2. A longitudinal analysis of cars, transit, and employment outcomes. (United States)


    Access to cars and transit can influence individuals ability to reach opportunities such as jobs, health care, and other important : activities. While access to cars and public transit varies considerably across time, space, and across populations...

  3. E-to-E: Spanning Opportunity and Skills Gaps with Education-to-Employment Pathways (United States)

    Gittell, Ross; Hitchcock, Jeremy


    This article reports on a skills gap problem experienced in New England states where the economy has improved, but economic opportunity and skills gaps contribute to slower growth in employment, income, and social mobility. The article suggests ways to overcome this gap by building stronger bridges between education and employment…

  4. Long-Term Unemployment and the"Employability Gap": Priorities for Renewing Britain's New Deal. (United States)

    Lindsay, Colin


    Interviews with 115 British job seekers explored the effectiveness of New Deal 25 Plus, a reformed government initiative for long-term unemployed. The program, especially one-to-one support, better addresses some aspects of the employability gap. However, to overcome long-term labor market detachment requires stronger commitment to training in…

  5. Malnutrition Increases With Obesity and Is a Stronger Independent Risk Factor for Postoperative Complications: A Propensity-Adjusted Analysis of Total Hip Arthroplasty Patients. (United States)

    Fu, Michael C; D'Ambrosia, Christopher; McLawhorn, Alexander S; Schairer, William W; Padgett, Douglas E; Cross, Michael B


    Obesity is frequently associated with complications after total hip arthroplasty (THA) and is often concomitant with malnutrition. The purpose of this study was to investigate the independent morbidity risk of malnutrition relative to obesity. The National Surgical Quality Improvement Program from 2005 to 2013 was queried for elective primary THA cases. Malnutrition was defined as albumin malnutrition with 30-day outcomes. A total of 40,653 THA cases were identified, of which 20,210 (49.7%) had preoperative albumin measurements. Propensity score adjustment successfully reduced potential selection bias, with P > .05 for differences between those with and without albumin data. Malnutrition incidence increased from 2.8% in obese I to 5.7% in obese III patients. With multivariable propensity-adjusted logistic regression, malnutrition was a more robust predictor than any obesity class for any postoperative complication(s) (odds ratio [OR] 1.61, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.25-2.08), major complications (OR 1.63, 95% CI 1.21-2.19), respiratory complications (OR 2.35, 95% CI 1.27-4.37), blood transfusions (OR 1.71, 95% CI 1.44-2.03), and extended length of stay (OR 1.35, 95% CI 1.14-1.59). Malnutrition incidence increased significantly from obese I to obese III patients and was a stronger and more consistent predictor than obesity of complications after THA. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The changing employment relationship in the chemical industry : the role of the employment- and psychological contract / Elsabé Keyser.


    Keyser, Elsabé


    Understanding the employment relationship in the chemical industry in South Africa and organisational change within it is crucial to the understanding of the changing employment and psychological contract within this industry. This study focused on the employment- and psychological contracts, as well as employees ' work-outcomes (organisational commitment, job insecurity, job performance and intention to quit). Employees from the chemical industry were targeted and a cross-sectional survey...

  7. Lingering illness or sudden death? Pre-exit employment developments in German establishments


    Fackler, Daniel; Schnabel, Claus; Wagner, Joachim


    Using a large administrative dataset for Germany, this paper compares employment developments in exiting and surviving establishments. For both West and East Germany we find a clear 'shadow of death' effect reflecting lingering illness: establishments shrink dramatically already several years before closure, employment growth rates differ strongly between exiting and surviving establishments, and this difference becomes stronger as exit approaches. We further show that prior to exit the workf...

  8. College Student Employment and Drinking: A Daily Study of Work Stressors, Alcohol Expectancies, and Alcohol Consumption


    Butler, Adam B.; Dodge, Kama D.; Faurote, Eric J.


    We examined the within-person relationships between daily work stressors and alcohol consumption over 14 consecutive days in a sample of 106 employed college students. Using a tension reduction theoretical framework, we predicted that exposure to work stressors would increase alcohol consumption by employed college students, particularly for men and those with stronger daily expectancies about the tension reducing properties of alcohol. After controlling for day of the week, we found that hou...

  9. KIR2DL2/2DL3-E35 alleles are functionally stronger than -Q35 alleles (United States)

    Bari, Rafijul; Thapa, Rajoo; Bao, Ju; Li, Ying; Zheng, Jie; Leung, Wing


    KIR2DL2 and KIR2DL3 segregate as alleles of a single locus in the centromeric motif of the killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR) gene family. Although KIR2DL2/L3 polymorphism is known to be associated with many human diseases and is an important factor for donor selection in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, the molecular determinant of functional diversity among various alleles is unclear. In this study we found that KIR2DL2/L3 with glutamic acid at position 35 (E35) are functionally stronger than those with glutamine at the same position (Q35). Cytotoxicity assay showed that NK cells from HLA-C1 positive donors with KIR2DL2/L3-E35 could kill more target cells lacking their ligands than NK cells with the weaker -Q35 alleles, indicating better licensing of KIR2DL2/L3+ NK cells with the stronger alleles. Molecular modeling analysis reveals that the glutamic acid, which is negatively charged, interacts with positively charged histidine located at position 55, thereby stabilizing KIR2DL2/L3 dimer and reducing entropy loss when KIR2DL2/3 binds to HLA-C ligand. The results of this study will be important for future studies of KIR2DL2/L3-associated diseases as well as for donor selection in allogeneic stem cell transplantation.

  10. The impact of gambling advertising: Problem gamblers report stronger impacts on involvement, knowledge, and awareness than recreational gamblers. (United States)

    Hanss, Daniel; Mentzoni, Rune A; Griffiths, Mark D; Pallesen, Ståle


    Although there is a general lack of empirical evidence that advertising influences gambling participation, the regulation of gambling advertising is hotly debated among academic researchers, treatment specialists, lobby groups, regulators, and policymakers. This study contributes to the ongoing debate by investigating perceived impacts of gambling advertising in a sample of gamblers drawn from the general population in Norway (n = 6,034). Three dimensions of advertising impacts were identified, representing perceived impacts on (a) gambling-related attitudes, interest, and behavior ("involvement"); (b) knowledge about gambling options and providers ("knowledge"); and (c) the degree to which people are aware of gambling advertising ("awareness"). Overall, impacts were strongest for the knowledge dimension, and, for all 3 dimensions, the impact increased with level of advertising exposure. Those identified as problem gamblers in the sample (n = 57) reported advertising impacts concerning involvement more than recreational gamblers, and this finding was not attributable to differences in advertising exposure. Additionally, younger gamblers reported stronger impacts on involvement and knowledge but were less likely to agree that they were aware of gambling advertising than older gamblers. Male gamblers were more likely than female gamblers to report stronger impacts on both involvement and knowledge. These findings are discussed with regard to existing research on gambling advertising as well as their implications for future research and policy-making. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Employment challenges in the future

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rimmer, Nina Roehr


    Discussion of challenges in employment challenges in Europe and a brief discription of the Danish flexicurity system......Discussion of challenges in employment challenges in Europe and a brief discription of the Danish flexicurity system...

  12. Veterans' Employment and Training Service (United States)

    ... Engage Facebook Twitter Instagram RSS Email Share Veterans' Employment and Training Service (VETS) Menu About VETS Who ... Tweets about from:@VETS_DOL Tweets by @USDOL Employment Initiatives Contact your local American Job Center for ...

  13. Single-employer Pension Plans (United States)

    Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation — This spreadsheet lists the active single-employer pensions plans insured by PBGC. Plans are identified by name, employer identification number (EIN) and plan number...

  14. Characteristics of Student Employment in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Čavar


    Full Text Available The article deals with student term-time employment in Croatia, causes of its growing prevalence, its patterns and legal regulation, and finally its effects on the higher education system and labour market. Overview of the theories on combining work and study singled out few relevant factors determining motivations of students for engaging in term-time employment and employment's different academic and professional outcomes, mainly related to the massification of higher education phenomenon (higher number of students and their greater diversity, youth unemployment, and questionable college degree relevance. Although conducted on non-systematic data, gathered from previous research of student population in Croatia and EUROSTUDENT international research on the quality of student life, analysis carried out in this article showed the occurrence of higher education massification and its influence on student employment, especially in the fields of social sciences and humanities. Croatian students' motivations for term-time employment are mainly a wish to improve their living standard and a need for work experience, while their average workload is of low to medium intensity, usually on jobs not at all related to their future profession. Apart from presenting the practice of student work use, this article also gives an overview of its legal regulation in Croatia, and examples of its misuse, i.e., negative implications it may have on student and regular workers.

  15. Employment Impact of Electronic Business. (United States)

    Hecker, Daniel E.


    Electronic business is stimulating employment in some sectors across industries, such as computer-related and customer service occupations, and diminishing employment in others, such as administrative support and marketing/sales. Similarly, employment impacts will vary by industry. (Contains 56 notes and references.) (SK)

  16. The Middle Class Is Key to a Better-Educated Nation: A Stronger Middle Class Is Associated with Better Educational Outcomes (United States)

    Madland, David; Bunker, Nick


    Education is key to America's economic success as technological change and global competition increase exponentially. Unfortunately, where once the nation was atop the world academically, today American students rank in the middle of the pack. Not surprisingly, business leaders and the American public are concerned about the quality of American…

  17. Relationship between employment characteristics and obesity among employed U.S. adults. (United States)

    Park, Sohyun; Pan, Liping; Lankford, Tina


    This study examined associations between employment characteristics and obesity among a sample representing civilian noninstitutionalized U.S. adults. Quantitative, cross-sectional study. Workplace. The 2010 National Health Interview Survey data for 15,121 employed adults (≥18 years). The outcome variable was weight status, and exposure variables were employment characteristics (number of employees, work hours, paid by the hour, paid sick leave, and health insurance offered). Multivariate logistic regression was used to estimate adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for employment characteristics associated with obesity (body mass index [BMI] ≥ 30 kg/m(2)) after controlling for age, sex, race/ethnicity, education, family income, fruit/vegetable intake, physical activity, smoking, and occupations. Nationwide, 28% of employed adults were obese. From multivariate logistic regression, the odds of being obese was significantly greater among adults who worked at a company with 100 to 499 employees (OR = 1.19, 95% CI = 1.02-1.39) vs. with 1 to 24 employees and those who worked >50 hours/week (OR  = 1.32, 95% CI  = 1.05-1.65) vs. obese and 6 out of 10 were overweight or obese. A better understanding of why these employment characteristics are associated with obesity could help employers better develop and target interventions for obesity prevention and treatment in the worksites.

  18. Concept of self-employment


    Startienė, Gražina; Remeikienė, Rita; Dumčiuvienė, Daiva


    The article deals with the theories that explain the growth of self-employment and help to determine the presumptions of the self-employment growth. Self-employment theories are classified to several groups, i.e. the economic and sociological-psychological as well as the “push” and “pull” theories. Economic theories of self-employment interpret financial motives of the person to pursue own business, while sociologicalpsychological theories of self-employment determine non-financial objectives...

  19. Growth, Employment and Structural Change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aggarwal, Aradhna


    This paper studies the decomposition of GSDP growth per capita in Punjab via-a-vis 15 other states in India during 1993–94 and 2011–12 in terms of employment and productivity growth. Specifically, it focuses on the role of employment growth and structural change in employment on economic growth...... but structural shifts have paid off well in terms of diversification of the economy and their contribution to labour productivity especially for manufacturing. Overall employment effect had been negative but this was essentially due to contraction in the labour force; the employment rate effect turned out...

  20. The Employer Perspective on Sustainable Employability in the Construction Industry. (United States)

    Tonnon, Susanne C; van der Veen, Rozan; Westerman, Marjan J; Robroek, Suzan J W; van der Ploeg, Hidde P; van der Beek, Allard J; Proper, Karin I


    To determine the measures employers in the construction industry take to promote sustainable employability, the barriers and facilitators that influence implementation and employer needs. Questionnaire among 499 employers and interviews with 17 employers. Employers expressed a need for alternative jobs for workers who can no longer perform physically demanding tasks, as well as means to stimulate proactive employee behavior. Measures frequently targeted the work environment (95%) and employee health (79%), less frequently personal development (63%) and organization (65%). Implementation was influenced by economic factors, rules and regulations, client demands, employee demands, company vision, company culture, and time/manpower/expertise. Implementation of measures aimed at reducing physical load and the promotion of personal development are needed.

  1. The effect of performance related pay in employment services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sofie Johansen, Ann; Holm, Anders; Rosdahl, Anders

    This paper investigates the effects of performance-related pay (PRP) in Danish local employment administration on unemployed social clients’ employment outcomes. PRP implies here that employees in the employment administration are rewarded each time a social client gets a job. There are different...... schemes with collective monetary payoffs have a positive effect. Furthermore it seems that the PRP schemes are most productive for social clients with relatively high prior employment opportunities. A skimming effect does not seem to occur. This seems to indicate that the PRP schemes increases...

  2. Fasting insulin has a stronger association with an adverse cardiometabolic risk profile than insulin resistance: the RISC study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Rooij, Susanne R; Dekker, Jacqueline M; Kozakova, Michaela


    OBJECTIVE: Fasting insulin concentrations are often used as a surrogate measure of insulin resistance. We investigated the relative contributions of fasting insulin and insulin resistance to cardiometabolic risk and preclinical atherosclerosis. DESIGN AND METHODS: The Relationship between Insulin...... insulin, a simple and practical measure, may be a stronger and independent contributor to cardiometabolic risk and atherosclerosis in a healthy population than hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp-derived insulin sensitivity.......OBJECTIVE: Fasting insulin concentrations are often used as a surrogate measure of insulin resistance. We investigated the relative contributions of fasting insulin and insulin resistance to cardiometabolic risk and preclinical atherosclerosis. DESIGN AND METHODS: The Relationship between Insulin...... of the metabolic syndrome in 1177 participants. Carotid artery intima media thickness (IMT) was measured by ultrasound to assess preclinical atherosclerosis. RESULTS: Fasting insulin was correlated with all elements of the metabolic syndrome. Insulin sensitivity (M/I) was correlated with most elements. The odds...

  3. Collective Nostalgia Is Associated With Stronger Outgroup-Directed Anger and Participation in Ingroup-Favoring Collective Action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wing-Yee Cheung


    Full Text Available Collective nostalgia refers to longing for the way society used to be. We tested whether collective nostalgia is associated with ingroup-favoring collective action and whether this association is mediated by outgroup-directed anger and outgroup-directed contempt. We conducted an online study of Hong Kong residents (N = 111 during a large-scale democratic social movement, the Umbrella Movement, that took place in Hong Kong in 2014 in response to proposed electoral reforms by the Chinese government in Mainland China. Reported collective nostalgia for Hong Kong’s past was high in our sample and collective nostalgia predicted stronger involvement in ingroup-favoring collective action, and it did so indirectly via higher intensity of outgroup-directed anger (but not through outgroup-directed contempt. We argue that collective nostalgia has implications for strengthening ingroup-serving collective action, and we highlight the importance of arousal of group-based emotions in this process.

  4. Elite level rhythmic gymnasts have significantly more and stronger pain than peers of similar age: a prospective study. (United States)

    Sabeti, Manuel; Jeremian, Lusine; Graf, Alexandra; Kandelhart, Robert


    Rhythmic gymnastics (RG) unites aesthetic, ballet-like motion, and all aspects of gymnastics. To reach elite level, girls begin at early age the intensive training. To date it is unclear if such demanding training influences the incidence and intensity of painful overuse injuries. The purpose of this study is to analyze anatomical painful regions and pain intensity in elite level rhythmic gymnasts (elRG) and compare results with an age-matched control group (CG). This prospective field study was carried out at the European Championship in RG 2013 (218 participating athletes, Vienna, Austria). Volunteering athletes were interviewed according to a preformed questionnaire. As CG secondary school pupils without any competitive sports experience were analyzed accordingly. Overall, 243 young females (144 elRG/66 % of all participants and 99 CG) were observed. ElRGs were significantly (s.) smaller, lighter, and had s. stronger pain (p < 0.001). A total of 72 % of athletes reported to have at least one painful body region compared with 52 % of CG (p < 0.001). ElRG had nearly three times more serious injuries than the CG. In all 23 % off all elRG reported to have had no access to professional medical care. ElRGs were s. more frequently (25 vs 9 %) affected at the lumbar spine and the ankle joint (17.4 vs 7 %). To our knowledge, this trial analyzes the largest cohort of elRG to date. Hence, it is clearly alluded that intensive training in RG is a significant factor causing more and stronger pain than in a CG.

  5. 78 FR 35316 - Solicitation for a Cooperative Agreement-Employment Retention Inventory Validation (United States)


    ... strategies for change while improving offender outcomes through collaboration with stakeholders; practitioners increased their knowledge in employment retention, career development theory and application...

  6. The Faculty Learning Outcome Assessment Framework (United States)

    Hurney, Carol A.; Brantmeier, Edward J.; Good, Megan R.; Harrison, Douglas; Meixner, Cara


    Assessment is a cyclical process within which educators construct outcomes, implement programs, assess constructs such as learning, evaluate results, and utilize results to craft stronger programs and services. Within educational and faculty development, assessment measures program impact on faculty, students, and/or institutional culture.…

  7. The role of agreements between labour unions and employers in the regulation of the work environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasle, Peter; Petersen, Jens Voxtrup


    Traditionally, agreements between labour unions and employers’ associations have been a rare instrument of work environment regulation. Yet, they seem to win more importance. These years there is a growing tendency in Denmark to integrate agreements and legislation. One of the reasons...... the labour unions and employers’ associations under pressure, forcing them to look for new roles. A stronger role in work environment regulation could be a possibility. Agreements between the social partners about the work environment may open new dynamics if they result in a stronger commitment....... On one hand, employers may find the work environment requirements too strict; on the other, union members may find them exactly the opposite....

  8. Employment strategy of the Russians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Borisovich Toreev


    Full Text Available During the crisis it is especially important to choose a correct employment strategy. Every employee uses an employment strategy, as he/she selects the direction of long-term employment consciously or intuitively. The choice of strategy is determined by a number of factors shaping the person’s attitudes: health, character, upbringing, education, social environment, institutional environment. The employment strategies of the young people newly entering the labor market differ from lab our strategies of workers. Young people do not have such experience and can plan their life “from scratch”. The Soviet specialists, people who started their career in the planned economy, have their own features of employment strategies. The article describes employment strategies of the Russians

  9. Epilepsy and employment: literature review. (United States)

    Smeets, Vivian M J; van Lierop, Brigitte A G; Vanhoutvin, Jos P G; Aldenkamp, Albert P; Nijhuis, Frans J N


    The aim of this review is to increase understanding of the factors that affect the regular employment positions of people with epilepsy by means of the World Health Organization International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF) model. Thirty-four primary research articles describing factors associated with employment for people with epilepsy are reviewed. People with epilepsy may face a number of complex and interacting problems in finding and maintaining employment. Stigma, seizure severity, and psychosocial variables such as low self-esteem, passive coping style, and low self-efficacy have been implicated as factors that play an important role in predicting employment. Findings demonstrate the need for specific employment training programs. We recommend specific training interventions that focus on increasing the self-efficacy and coping skills of people with epilepsy so that these individuals will be able to accept their disorder and make personal and health-related choices that help them to achieve better employment positions in society.

  10. Business/Employers Influenza Toolkit

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    This podcast promotes the "Make It Your Business To Fight The Flu" toolkit for Businesses and Employers. The toolkit provides information and recommended strategies to help businesses and employers promote the seasonal flu vaccine. Additionally, employers will find flyers, posters, and other materials to post and distribute in the workplace.  Created: 9/6/2011 by Office of Infectious Diseases, Office of the Director (OD).   Date Released: 9/7/2011.

  11. Caseworker Behavior and Clients' Employability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weatherall, Cecilie Dohlmann; Markwardt, Kristoffer

    empirically looked at the link between caseworker behavior and clients’ employability. A very rich survey dataset on caseworker behavior combined with informative panel data on the caseworker’s client—the unemployed—makes it possible to study the link between caseworker behavior and clients’ job possibilities....... Results show that there is a relationship between caseworker behavior and employment among the unemployed. Especially the employability among the insured unemployed is related to the concepts of coping, and professional distance....

  12. Employer-sponsored pension plans


    Rakonjac-Antić Tatjana N.


    Apart from pension plans within social insurance, in developed pension systems there are also available to individuals schemes which may to a large extent ensure a significant part of their total pension. Among them are the following: employer-sponsored pension plans or individual pension plans. The most widely used employer-sponsored pension plan in the USA is 401(k), in which both the employer and the employee contribute to the financing of the pension. These contributions as well as the re...

  13. Employer Branding: an Islamic Perspective


    Norasyikin binti Shaikh Ibrahim


    This paper discusses employer branding from an Islamic perspective. Islam is away of life and so do the employer and employee relationship, which strengthensemployer branding in an organization. The definition, importance and processrelated to employer branding are discussed in the context of human resource management, such as job satisfaction and work environment. In addition to that, related human resource management practices such as recruitment andselection were discussed in an ...

  14. Conceptualizing Learning and Employability "Learning and Employability Framework" (United States)

    Sumanasiri, Erabaddage Gishan Tharanga; Yajid, Mohd Shukri Ab; Khatibi, Ali


    Extensive studies have been done on employability and the factors that lead to employability. Previous studies have focused on career development programs, internships, work experience programs, soft-skill development programs, and even university admission criteria which can be considered external factors to university student learning…

  15. University Graduates' Employability, Employment Status, and Job Quality (United States)

    González-Romá, Vicente; Gamboa, Juan Pablo; Peiró, José M.


    We investigated whether a set of indicators of the employability dimensions proposed by Fugate, Kinicki, and Asforth (i.e., career identity, personal adaptability, and human and social capital) are related to university graduates' employment status and five indicators of the quality of their jobs (pay, hierarchical level, vertical and horizontal…

  16. Employment effects of foreign acquisition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandick, Roger; Karpaty, Patrik


    This paper investigates the employment effects of foreign acquisitions in acquired firms in Swedish manufacturing during the 1990s; a period characterized by a dramatic increase in foreign ownership. We find some evidence of positive employment effects in acquired firms and it seems that the empl......This paper investigates the employment effects of foreign acquisitions in acquired firms in Swedish manufacturing during the 1990s; a period characterized by a dramatic increase in foreign ownership. We find some evidence of positive employment effects in acquired firms and it seems...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubina Khan


    Full Text Available Abstract: This paper presents a brief summary of a study which was carried out to investigate how employers representing major employment sectors in the Bangladeshi Industry view the skills and English proficiency level of the current employees. Opinions were also solicited on what skills are required for fresh recruits. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 30 employers representing the major employment sectors in Bangladeshi Industry. Results revealed the importance of English as an indispensible means of communication in the Bangladeshi corporate sector and showed that the business enterprises use extensive amounts of English. It also highlighted that the existent English proficiency of the employees was far below the required proficiency level. Recommendations were made to address the gap and prepare the youth to meet the demands of the global market. Keywords: English proficiency, competency, employability skills, global literacy skills

  18. 20 CFR 404.1003 - Employment. (United States)


    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Employment. 404.1003 Section 404.1003...- ) Employment, Wages, Self-Employment, and Self-Employment Income Employment § 404.1003 Employment. Employment....1010. Section 404.1004 states the general rule on the kinds of work covered as employment. Exceptions...

  19. Genetic testing in the workplace: the employer's coin toss. (United States)

    French, Samantha


    A toss of the coin by the modern-day employer reveals two options regarding genetic testing in the workplace. The employer may choose to take advantage of increasingly precise, available, and affordable genetic testing in order to ascertain the genetic characteristics--and deficiencies--of its employees. This outcome exposes the employer to a vast array of potential litigation and liability relating to the Americans with Disabilities Act, the Fourth Amendment, Title VII of the Civil Rights Act, and state legislation designed to protect genetic privacy. Alternatively, the employer may neglect to indulge in this trend of genetic testing and may face liability for employer negligence, violations of federal legislation such as OSHA regulations, and increased costs associated with insuring the health of genetically endangered employees. In the rapidly developing universe of genetic intelligence, the employer is faced with a staggering dilemma.

  20. Increased fire frequency promotes stronger spatial genetic structure and natural selection at regional and local scales in Pinus halepensis Mill. (United States)

    Budde, Katharina B; González-Martínez, Santiago C; Navascués, Miguel; Burgarella, Concetta; Mosca, Elena; Lorenzo, Zaida; Zabal-Aguirre, Mario; Vendramin, Giovanni G; Verdú, Miguel; Pausas, Juli G; Heuertz, Myriam


    The recurrence of wildfires is predicted to increase due to global climate change, resulting in severe impacts on biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. Recurrent fires can drive plant adaptation and reduce genetic diversity; however, the underlying population genetic processes have not been studied in detail. In this study, the neutral and adaptive evolutionary effects of contrasting fire regimes were examined in the keystone tree species Pinus halepensis Mill. (Aleppo pine), a fire-adapted conifer. The genetic diversity, demographic history and spatial genetic structure were assessed at local (within-population) and regional scales for populations exposed to different crown fire frequencies. Eight natural P. halepensis stands were sampled in the east of the Iberian Peninsula, five of them in a region exposed to frequent crown fires (HiFi) and three of them in an adjacent region with a low frequency of crown fires (LoFi). Samples were genotyped at nine neutral simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and at 251 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from coding regions, some of them potentially important for fire adaptation. Fire regime had no effects on genetic diversity or demographic history. Three high-differentiation outlier SNPs were identified between HiFi and LoFi stands, suggesting fire-related selection at the regional scale. At the local scale, fine-scale spatial genetic structure (SGS) was overall weak as expected for a wind-pollinated and wind-dispersed tree species. HiFi stands displayed a stronger SGS than LoFi stands at SNPs, which probably reflected the simultaneous post-fire recruitment of co-dispersed related seeds. SNPs with exceptionally strong SGS, a proxy for microenvironmental selection, were only reliably identified under the HiFi regime. An increasing fire frequency as predicted due to global change can promote increased SGS with stronger family structures and alter natural selection in P. halepensis and in plants with similar life history traits

  1. Employment discrimination: authority figures' demographic preferences and followers' affective organizational commitment. (United States)

    Petersen, Lars-Eric; Dietz, Jörg


    The authors used theories of organizational commitment and obedience to authority to explain employment discrimination. In Study 1, employees participated in an experimental simulation of their work. An organizational authority's demographic preferences led to employment discrimination. As expected, affective organizational commitment moderated this effect, such that it was stronger for more committed employees. In Study 2, another sample of employees completed a survey that included an employment discrimination scenario. A model of linkages from affective organizational commitment to submissiveness to organizational authorities to employment discrimination fit the data well, after controlling for prejudicial attitudes and authoritarianism. Submissiveness to organizational authorities mediated the relationship between affective organizational commitment and employment discrimination. The authors discuss the importance of studying employment discrimination as an organizational and not just an intergroup phenomenon.

  2. Research Award: Employment and Growth

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Office 2004 Test Drive User

    IDRC's Employment and Growth program supports policy-oriented research that generates new insights and options for promoting policies that facilitate inclusive growth. This is growth that enhances access of the poor to opportunities and reduces inequalities. Women's economic empowerment and youth employment are ...

  3. Innovation, Industry Evoluation and Employment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.B. Audretsch (David); A.R. Thurik (Roy)


    textabstractThe purpose of this paper is to introduce a series of articles on the links between innovation, the evolution of industry and employment. These relations provide the building blocks of a new industrial policy. The articles are included in Innovation, Industry Evolution and Employment

  4. Employer Demands from Business Graduates (United States)

    McMurray, Stephen; Dutton, Matthew; McQuaid, Ronald; Richard, Alec


    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to report on research carried out with employers to determine demand for business and management skills in the Scottish workforce. Design/methodology/approach: The research used a questionnaire in which employers were interviewed (either telephone or face to face), completed themselves and returned by e-mail,…

  5. Sensor employing internal reference electrode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    The present invention concerns a novel internal reference electrode as well as a novel sensing electrode for an improved internal reference oxygen sensor and the sensor employing same.......The present invention concerns a novel internal reference electrode as well as a novel sensing electrode for an improved internal reference oxygen sensor and the sensor employing same....

  6. Employability: Review and Research Prospects (United States)

    Guilbert, Laure; Bernaud, Jean-Luc; Gouvernet, Brice; Rossier, Jérôme


    Professional transition, employment, and reemployment are major concerns for nations facing adverse economic situations. The employability construct represents a scientific challenge in order to better understand the relationship between the job seekers' issues and the expectations of the world of work. This paper presents a review of the concept…

  7. The Employable Woman Conference Report. (United States)

    DeAngelo, Lois; Garcia, Bernice

    The conference proceedings relating to employment status and employment-related problems of women in general, and Montgomery County, Maryland, specifically, are highlighted in this report. The purpose of the conference was to establish a solid base for an on-going dialogue with educators, personnel experts, and affirmative action officers in the…

  8. Opening Doors: Employing the Disabled. (United States)

    Maurer, Lydia

    The handbook is intended to help employers understand barriers to employment of disabled people. Barriers are examined, including attitudinal, physical (architectural, transportation, site, and equipment), policy and practice barriers (interviewing and recruiting), and communication barriers. Suggestions and guidelines for dealing with the…

  9. The measurement of employment benefits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burtraw, D.


    The consideration of employment effects and so-called 'hidden employment benefits' is one of the most confused and contentious issues in benefit-cost analysis and applied welfare economics generally. New investments create new employment opportunities, and often advocates for specific investments cite these employment opportunities as alleged benefits associated with the project. Indeed, from the local perspective, such employment opportunities may appear to be beneficial because they appear to come for free. If there is unemployment in the local area, then new investments create valuable employment opportunities for those in the local community. Even if there is full employment in the local area then new investments create incentives for immigrant from other locations that may have pecuniary benefits locally through increased property values, business revenues, etc. The focus in this study is on net economic benefits from a broad national perspective. From this perspective, many of the alleged employment benefits at the local level are offset by lost benefits at other locales, and do not count as benefits according to economic theory. This paper outlines a methodology for testing this rebuttable presumption with empirical data pertaining to labor markets that would be affected by a specific new investment. The theoretical question that is relevant is whether the social opportunity cost of new employment is less than the market wage. This would be the case, for example, if one expects unemployment or underemployment to persist in a specific region of the economy or occupational category affected by the new investment. In this case, new employment opportunities produce a net increase in social wealth rather than just a transfer of income

  10. Strategies of Building a Stronger Sense of Community for Sustainable Neighborhoods: Comparing Neighborhood Accessibility with Community Empowerment Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Te-I Albert Tsai


    Full Text Available New Urbanist development in the U.S. aims at enhancing a sense of community and seeks to return to the design of early transitional neighborhoods which have pedestrian-oriented environments with retail shops and services within walking distances of housing. Meanwhile, 6000 of Taiwan’s community associations have been running community empowerment programs supported by the Council for Cultural Affairs that have helped many neighborhoods to rebuild so-called community cohesion. This research attempts to evaluate whether neighborhoods with facilities near housing and shorter travel distances within a neighborhood would promote stronger social interactions and form a better community attachment than neighborhoods that have various opportunities for residents to participate in either formal or informal social gatherings. After interviewing and surveying residents from 19 neighborhoods in Taipei’s Beitou District, and correlating the psychological sense of community with inner neighborhood’s daily travel distances and numbers of participatory activities held by community organizations under empowerment programs together with frequencies of regular individual visits and casual meetings, statistical evidence yielded that placing public facilities near residential locations is more effective than providing various programs for elevating a sense of community.

  11. Ni2P Makes Application of the PtRu Catalyst Much Stronger in Direct Methanol Fuel Cells. (United States)

    Chang, Jinfa; Feng, Ligang; Liu, Changpeng; Xing, Wei


    PtRu is regarded as the best catalyst for direct methanol fuel cells, but the performance decay resulting from the loss of Ru seriously hinders commercial applications. Herein, we demonstrated that the presence of Ni2 P largely reduces Ru loss, which thus makes the application of PtRu much stronger in direct methanol fuel cells. Outstanding catalytic activity and stability were observed by cyclic voltammetry. Upon integrating the catalyst material into a practical direct methanol fuel cell, the highest maximum power density was achieved on the PtRu-Ni2P/C catalyst among the reference catalysts at different temperatures. A maximum power density of 69.9 mW cm(-2) at 30 °C was obtained on PtRu-Ni2P/C, which is even higher than the power density of the state-of-the-art commercial PtRu catalyst at 70 °C (63.1 mW cm(-2)). Moreover, decay in the performance resulting from Ru loss was greatly reduced owing to the presence of Ni2 P, which is indicative of very promising applications. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Attentional bias in restrictive eating disorders. Stronger attentional avoidance of high-fat food compared to healthy controls? (United States)

    Veenstra, Esther M; de Jong, Peter J


    A striking feature of the restricting subtype of anorexia nervosa (AN) is that these patients are extremely successful in restricting their food intake. Possibly, they are highly efficient in avoiding attentional engagement of food cues, thereby preventing more elaborate processing of food cues and thus subsequent craving. This study examined whether patients diagnosed with restrictive eating disorders ('restricting AN-like patients'; N=88) indeed show stronger attentional avoidance of visual food stimuli than healthy controls (N=76). Attentional engagement and disengagement were assessed by means of a pictorial exogenous cueing task, and (food and neutral) pictures were presented for 300, 500, or 1000 ms. In the 500 ms condition, both restricting AN-like patients and healthy controls demonstrated attentional avoidance of high-fat food as indexed by a negative cue-validity effect and impaired attentional engagement with high-fat food, whereas no evidence was found for facilitated disengagement from high-fat food. Within the group of restricting AN-like patients, patients with relatively severe eating pathology showed relatively strong attentional engagement with low-fat food. There was no evidence for attentional bias in the 300 and 1000 ms condition. The pattern of findings indicate that attentional avoidance of high-fat food is a common phenomenon that may become counterproductive in restricting AN-like patients, as it could facilitate their restricted food intake. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Conspecific flowers of Sinapis arvensis are stronger competitors for pollinators than those of the invasive weed Bunias orientalis (United States)

    Hochkirch, Axel; Mertes, Tamara; Rautenberg, Julia


    Biological invasions can affect the structure and function of ecosystems and threaten native plant species. Since most weeds rely on mutualistic relationships in their new environment, they may act as new competitors for pollinators. Pollinator competition is likely to be density dependent, but it is often difficult to disentangle competition caused by flower quality from effects caused by flower quantity. In order to test the effects of the presence and number of flowers of the invasive weed Bunias orientalis on the insect visitation rates in a native species ( Sinapis arvensis), we performed two replacement experiments using plants with standardised flower numbers. The visitation rates in S. arvensis were significantly higher than in B. orientalis and the number of insect visits dropped significantly with increasing density of S. arvensis flowers. These results suggest that intraspecific competition among flowers of S. arvensis is stronger than the competitive effect of alien flowers. As flowers of B. orientalis do not seem to distract visitors from S. arvensis, it is unlikely that pollinator competition between these two plant species plays a crucial role. However, it cannot be excluded that mass blossom stands of B. orientalis may distract flower visitors from native species.

  14. How the biotin–streptavidin interaction was made even stronger: investigation via crystallography and a chimaeric tetramer (United States)

    Chivers, Claire E.; Koner, Apurba L.; Lowe, Edward D.; Howarth, Mark


    The interaction between SA (streptavidin) and biotin is one of the strongest non-covalent interactions in Nature. SA is a widely used tool and a paradigm for protein–ligand interactions. We previously developed a SA mutant, termed Tr (traptavidin), possessing a 10-fold lower off-rate for biotin, with increased mechanical and thermal stability. In the present study, we determined the crystal structures of apo-Tr and biotin–Tr at 1.5 Å resolution. In apo-SA the loop (L3/4), near biotin's valeryl tail, is typically disordered and open, but closes upon biotin binding. In contrast, L3/4 was shut in both apo-Tr and biotin–Tr. The reduced flexibility of L3/4 and decreased conformational change on biotin binding provide an explanation for Tr's reduced biotin off- and on-rates. L3/4 includes Ser45, which forms a hydrogen bond to biotin consistently in Tr, but erratically in SA. Reduced breakage of the biotin–Ser45 hydrogen bond in Tr is likely to inhibit the initiating event in biotin's dissociation pathway. We generated a Tr with a single biotin-binding site rather than four, which showed a simi-larly low off-rate, demonstrating that Tr's low off-rate was governed by intrasubunit effects. Understanding the structural features of this tenacious interaction may assist the design of even stronger affinity tags and inhibitors. PMID:21241253

  15. Meta-Analysis of the Effect of Bowel Preparation on Adenoma Detection: Early Adenomas Affected Stronger than Advanced Adenomas. (United States)

    Sulz, Michael C; Kröger, Arne; Prakash, Meher; Manser, Christine N; Heinrich, Henriette; Misselwitz, Benjamin


    Low-quality bowel preparation reduces efficacy of colonoscopy. We aimed to summarize effects of bowel preparation on detection of adenomas, advanced adenomas and colorectal cancer. A systematic literature search was performed regarding detection of colonic lesions after normal and low-quality bowel preparation. Reported bowel preparation quality was transformed to the Aronchick scale with its qualities "excellent", "good", "fair", "poor", and "insufficient" or "optimal" (good/excellent), "suboptimal" (fair/poor/insufficient), "adequate" (good/excellent/fair) and "inadequate" (poor/insufficient). We identified two types of studies: i) Comparative studies, directly comparing lesion detection according to bowel preparation quality, and ii) repeat colonoscopy studies, reporting results of a second colonoscopy after previous low-quality preparation. The detection of early adenomas was reduced with inadequate vs. adequate bowel preparation (Odds Ratio (OR) 0.53, CI: 0.46-0.62, panalysis resulted in smaller confidence intervals compared to earlier studies. Classifying the bowel-preparation quality as suboptimal vs. optimal led to the same qualitative conclusion (OR: 0.81, CI: 0.74-0.89, pdetection were insufficient. Inadequate bowel preparation affects detection of early colonic lesions stronger than advanced lesions.



    Stallmann, Judith I.; Nelson, James H.


    Employment history affects subsequent choices. Based on their original job choice, operators are divided into farmers and workers. Equations are estimated to determine their probabilities of working off-the-farm. Education increased the probability that workers work off-the-farm, whereas vocational training increases farmers' probability. The probability of working off-the-farm decreases as unearned income increases, and its impact on workers is larger than on farmers. An employed spouse incr...

  17. Additional employer and employee obligations of the contract of employment


    Jankauskaitė, Vaida


    Economic growth since 2001 till 2008 start leaded to higher incomes for both employers and employees, many new jobs were created. The unemployment rate in Lithuania was particularly low, moreover, according to official statistics, nearly half a million people emigrated from Lithuania. Labor market challenges and economic patterns determined the principles of the labor law and the content of the norms, public social and political conditions. Employers, through businesses, noticed that it has b...

  18. A reappraisal of the virtues of private sector employment programmes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter; Graversen, Brian Krogh

    In this paper, we evaluate the employment effects of Danish active labour market programmes aimed at welfare benefit recipients. We estimate an econometric model with treatment effects and discrete outcomes and we allow the responses to treatment to vary among observationally identical persons. T...... significant mean effects of participation in private sector employment programmes compared to participation in other programmes, but we find evidence of heterogeneity in the treatment effects....

  19. Employment Discrimination against LGBT Utahns


    Rosky, Clifford; Mallory, Christy; Smith, Jenni; Badgett, M.V. Lee


    This study analyzes data from a 2010 survey on the employment experiences of 939 LGBT people living in Utah.  The study found that 44% of LGB people and 66% of transgender people in Utah have experienced employment discrimination.  The data showed that employment discrimination based on sexual orientation and gender identity currently occurs in Utah, with close to 30% of LGB respondents and 45% of transgender respondents reporting that they experienced some form of workplace harassment on a w...

  20. Employability of Nursing Care Graduates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donik Barbara


    Full Text Available Starting points: In Slovenia, the higher education institution for nursing started exploring employability opportunities in nursing care in connection with the achievement of competencies from students’ and employers’ point of view. This article highlights the importance of monitoring nursing graduates’ employability. Its aim is to examine the employability of nursing care graduates based on the self-evaluation of competences obtained during the last study year and to establish a link between the self-evaluation of competences and students’ academic performance.

  1. Density regulation in Northeast Atlantic fish populations: Density dependence is stronger in recruitment than in somatic growth. (United States)

    Zimmermann, Fabian; Ricard, Daniel; Heino, Mikko


    Population regulation is a central concept in ecology, yet in many cases its presence and the underlying mechanisms are difficult to demonstrate. The current paradigm maintains that marine fish populations are predominantly regulated by density-dependent recruitment. While it is known that density-dependent somatic growth can be present too, its general importance remains unknown and most practical applications neglect it. This study aimed to close this gap by for the first time quantifying and comparing density dependence in growth and recruitment over a large set of fish populations. We fitted density-dependent models to time-series data on population size, recruitment and age-specific weight from commercially exploited fish populations in the Northeast Atlantic Ocean and the Baltic Sea. Data were standardized to enable a direct comparison within and among populations, and estimated parameters were used to quantify the impact of density regulation on population biomass. Statistically significant density dependence in recruitment was detected in a large proportion of populations (70%), whereas for density dependence in somatic growth the prevalence of density dependence depended heavily on the method (26% and 69%). Despite age-dependent variability, the density dependence in recruitment was consistently stronger among age groups and between alternative approaches that use weight-at-age or weight increments to assess growth. Estimates of density-dependent reduction in biomass underlined these results: 97% of populations with statistically significant parameters for growth and recruitment showed a larger impact of density-dependent recruitment on population biomass. The results reaffirm the importance of density-dependent recruitment in marine fishes, yet they also show that density dependence in somatic growth is not uncommon. Furthermore, the results are important from an applied perspective because density dependence in somatic growth affects productivity and

  2. Can an amine be a stronger acid than a carboxylic acid? The surprisingly high acidity of amine-borane complexes. (United States)

    Martín-Sómer, Ana; Lamsabhi, Al Mokhtar; Yáñez, Manuel; Dávalos, Juan Z; González, Javier; Ramos, Rocío; Guillemin, Jean-Claude


    The gas-phase acidity of a series of amine-borane complexes has been investigated through the use of electrospray mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), with the application of the extended Cooks kinetic method, and high-level G4 ab initio calculations. The most significant finding is that typical nitrogen bases, such as aniline, react with BH(3) to give amine-borane complexes, which, in the gas phase, have acidities as high as those of either phosphoric, oxalic, or salicylic acid; their acidity is higher than many carboxylic acids, such as formic, acetic, and propanoic acid. Indeed the complexation of different amines with BH(3) leads to a substantial increase (from 167 to 195 kJ mol(-1)) in the intrinsic acidity of the system; in terms of ionization constants, this increase implies an increase as large as fifteen orders of magnitude. Interestingly, this increase in acidity is almost twice as large as that observed for the corresponding phosphine-borane analogues. The agreement between the experimental and the G4-based calculated values is excellent. The analysis of the electron-density rearrangements of the amine and the borane moieties indicates that the dative bond is significantly stronger in the N-deprotonated anion than in the corresponding neutral amine-borane complex, because the deprotonated amine is a much better electron donor than the neutral amine. On the top of that, the newly created lone pair on the nitrogen atom in the deprotonated species, conjugates with the BN bonding pair. The dispersion of the extra electron density into the BH(3) group also contributes to the increased stability of the deprotonated species. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Ipr1 modified BCG as a novel vaccine induces stronger immunity than BCG against tuberculosis infection in mice. (United States)

    Wang, Yuwei; Yang, Chun; He, Yonglin; Zhan, Xingxing; Xu, Lei


    Tuberculosis is a major challenge to global public health. However, the Bacille Calmette‑Guérin (BCG), the only vaccine available against tuberculosis, has been questioned for the low protective effect. The present study used the mouse gene intracellular pathogen resistance I (Ipr1) gene to alter the current BCG vaccine and evaluated its immunity effect against tuberculosis. This study also investigated the intrinsic relationships of Ipr1 and innate immunity. The reformed BCG (BCGi) carrying the Ipr1 gene was constructed. The mice were intranasally challenged with the M. tuberculosis H37Rv strain after vaccination with BCGi. Protection efficacy of the vaccine was assessed by the organ coefficient, bacterial load and pathological changes in the lung. The differential expression of 113 immune‑related genes between BCGi and BCG groups were detected by an oligo microarray. According to the results of organ coefficient, bacterial load and pathological changes in the organization, BCGi had been shown to have stronger protective effects against M. tuberculosis than BCG. The oligo microarray and reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction further revealed that the Ipr1 gene could upregulate the expression of 13 genes, including a >3‑fold increase in Toll‑like receptor (TLR)4 and 10‑fold increase in surfactant protein D (sftpd). The two genes not only participate in innate immunity against pathogens, but also are closely interrelated. Ipr1 could activate the TLR4 and sftpd signaling pathway and improve the innate immunity against tuberculosis, therefore Ipr1 modified BCG may be a candidate vaccine against M. tuberculosis.

  4. 37% Phosphoric Acid Induced Stronger Matrix Metalloproteinase-8 Expression of the Dental Pulp than 19% Ethylene Diamine Tetraacetic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadie Fatimatuzzahro


    Full Text Available Etching agents such as ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA and phosphoric acid which are widely used in adhesive restoration system aimed to increase for retention of restorative materials, may act a chemical irritant that induce inflammation of dental pulp. Inflammation is a body response against irritant and infectious agents. Matrix metalloproteinase-8, the major collagenolytic enzyme, degrades collagen type 1. This enzyme is expressed in low level in normal condition, however, the expression will increase during inflammation. The purpose of the present research was to study the effect of 19% EDTA and 37% phosphoric acid application as an etching agents on the MMP-8 expression of dental pulp. Forty-five male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into 3 groups. Cavity preparation was made on the occlusal surface of maxillary first molar using a round diamond bur. 19% EDTA, 37% phosphoric acid, and distilled water were applied on the surface of the cavity of the teeth in group I, II, and III subsequently. The cavity then filed by glass ionomer cements. The rats were sacrified at 1, 3, 5, 7, and 14 days after the treatment (n=3 for each day. The specimens were then processed histologically. Immunohistochemical (IHC analysis was performed using rabbit anti rat MMP-8 polyclonal antibody to examine MMP-8 expression and HE (Hematoxylen Eosin staining to observe the number of macrophages. The results showed 37% phosphoric acid application induced stronger expression of MMP-8 and higher number of macrophages than 19% EDTA. The strongest expression of MMP-8 seems on 5 days after the treatment where the highest number of macrophages were also found.

  5. 45 CFR 400.76 - Criteria for exemption from registration for employment services, participation in employability... (United States)


    ... employment services, participation in employability service programs, and acceptance of appropriate offers of... RESETTLEMENT PROGRAM Requirements for Employability Services and Employment General Requirements § 400.76 Criteria for exemption from registration for employment services, participation in employability service...

  6. Maternal Employment and Childhood Obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gwozdz, Wencke; Sousa-Poza, Alfonso; Reisch, Lucia

    The substantial increase in female employment rates in Europe over the past two decades has often been linked in political and public rhetoric to negative effects on child development, including obesity. We analyse this association between maternal employment and childhood obesity using rich...... objective reports of various anthropometric and other measures of fatness from the IDEFICS study of children aged 2-9 in 16 regions of eight European countries. Based on such data as accelerometer measures and information from nutritional diaries, we also investigate the effects of maternal employment...... on obesity's main drivers: calorie intake and physical activity. Our analysis provides little evidence for any association between maternal employment and childhood obesity, diet or physical activity....

  7. Maternal Employment and Childhood Obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gwozdz, Wencke; Sousa-Poza, Alfonso; Reisch, Lucia


    The substantial increase in female employment rates in Europe over the past two decades has often been linked in political and public rhetoric to negative effects on child development, including obesity. We analyse this association between maternal employment and childhood obesity using rich...... objective reports of various anthropometric and other measures of fatness from the IDEFICS study of children aged 2-9 in 16 regions of eight European countries. Based on such data as accelerometer measures and information from nutritional diaries, we also investigate the effects of maternal employment...... on obesity's main drivers: calorie intake and physical activity. Our analysis provides little evidence for any association between maternal employment and childhood obesity, diet or physical activity....

  8. Analysing race inequality in employment


    Griffiths, Elisabeth


    Elisabeth Griffiths, principal lecturer at Northumbria Law School at Northumbria University, explores employment issues in the recent review by the Equality and Human Rights Commission (EHRC) of prejudice and unlawful behaviour because of race.

  9. Employment growth and regional development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Rikard; Hansen, Høgni Kalsø; Winther, Lars


    This paper explores the potential drivers behind uneven regional development in the context of employment growth in Denmark and Sweden. In particular, we are interested in the roles of urbanization, industrial change and the rise of the new economy as manifested in the growth of the two economies...... in 2002–2007. The aim of this paper is, therefore, to analyse the impact of a number of key industrial sectors on regional employment growth in the two countries. The empirical analysis is based on longitudinal matched employer–employee data retrieved from official registers in each economy from 2002...... to 2007, a period of strong national growth following the crisis of early 2000. Our findings indicate that the two economies follow a similar pattern in addressing total employment growth; but looking at changes in employment levels across the national borders of these two relatively similar open...

  10. New Office Technology and Employment. (United States)

    Cockroft, David


    Shows that there are potential problems associated with technological change which demand both serious analytical treatment and the development of sophisticated industrial and social policies. Discusses the office sector, office technology, employment, and trade unions. (CT)

  11. Consultation Services for the Employer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library


    The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) is sensitive to the difficulties faced by employers who are genuinely concerned with their employees' safety and health and who wish to comply with OSHA regulations...

  12. Employer-sponsored pension plans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakonjac-Antić Tatjana N.


    Full Text Available Apart from pension plans within social insurance, in developed pension systems there are also available to individuals schemes which may to a large extent ensure a significant part of their total pension. Among them are the following: employer-sponsored pension plans or individual pension plans. The most widely used employer-sponsored pension plan in the USA is 401(k, in which both the employer and the employee contribute to the financing of the pension. These contributions as well as the return to their investment have a preferential tax treatment, i.e. do not enter a tax base. The funds are taxed only when drawn from the account in the form of a pension. This paper aims to present the functioning of 401(k pension plan as the most widely used employer sponsored pension plan in the USA, which is likely, in a modified form, to have an important place within our future reformed pension insurance system.

  13. Employer Branding: An Islamic Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norasyikin binti Shaikh Ibrahim


    Full Text Available This paper discusses employer branding from an Islamic perspective. Islam is away of life and so do the employer and employee relationship, which strengthensemployer branding in an organization. The definition, importance and processrelated to employer branding are discussed in the context of human resource management, such as job satisfaction and work environment. In addition to that, related human resource management practices such as recruitment andselection were discussed in an Islamic context. Related concepts such as employeevalue proposition (EVP, ethics and Islamic values were discussed with referencefrom Al-Quran and Hadith. The paper concludes with a few suggestions andrecommendations on instilling Islamic values for effective employer branding.

  14. Employment protection legislation in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Kunovac


    Full Text Available According to business climate and competitiveness indicators published by international organisations, Croatia is a country with a rigid labour market and a high level of the legal protection of employees. Given that an Act on Amendments to the Labour Act (OG 73/13 entered into force in Croatia in June 2013, this paper examines changes in employment protection legislation in Croatia and Central and Eastern European (CEE countries, as well as in Croatia's main trading partners during the period between 2008 and 2013. A cross-country comparison shows a strong downward trend in legal employment protection in most CEE countries during the observed period, primarily as concerns individual dismissal in the cases of regular employment contracts, while in the case of temporary employment the protection strengthened slightly. On the other hand, despite the adoption of amendments to the Labour Act (LA, Croatian labour legislation governing employment protection for regular employment contracts remains relatively inflexible compared to that in other countries.

  15. Employer attractiveness from a generational perspective: Implications for employer branding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germano Glufke Reis


    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study aimed to identify the employer attractiveness factors prioritized by different generations: Baby Boomers, Generation X, and Generation Y. The survey was conducted with a sample of 937 professionals, working in various areas and companies, most of them were managers and had a high education level. The Employer Attractiveness Scale proposed by Berthon et al. (2005 was adopted and the results indicate that, when choosing a company, the generations under study have specific features regarding the attractiveness attributes they prioritize. It was also observed that Generation Y discriminates and ranks such attributes more clearly than the others. Possible implications for employer branding and research limitations are discussed at the end of the article.

  16. Defense Acquisitions: Stronger Management Practices are Needed to Improve DOD’s Software-Intensive Weapon Acquisitions (United States)


    Successful Outcomes Three leading companies we visited—General Motors Powertrain Unit Motorola Global Software Group (GSG); and Teradata , a...errors. Motorola GSG, a communications company, and Teradata , a division of NCR that specializes in database technology, estimate that about 95...acquirer or a governing board. Teradata , a division of NCR, goes further by limiting the number of changes it will make during the development cycle. A

  17. Who Do You Know? A Study of Connectedness in Online Education and Employment (United States)

    Oguz, Faith; Poole, Nancy


    This study explored the relationship of online course intensity to the development of social networks and the impact of social networks on obtaining employment or employment information to develop a better understanding of the factors that lead to improved employment outcomes and information-gathering. Graduates from three ALA-accredited programs…

  18. Family Perspectives on Integrated Employment for Adults with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities (United States)

    Gilson, Carly B.; Carter, Erik W.; Bumble, Jennifer L.; McMillan, Elise D.


    Families are essential partners in efforts to elevate the employment outcomes of adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD). We examined the employment-related expectations, preferences, and concerns of 673 parents and other family members of adults with IDD. Participants prioritized paid integrated employment over sheltered…

  19. Employee to employer communication skills: balancing cancer treatment and employment. (United States)

    Brown, Richard F; Owens, Myra; Bradley, Cathy


    Cancer patients face difficulties in accessing legally mandated benefits and accommodations when they return to the workplace. Poor employer-employee communication inflates these difficulties. Although proven methods to facilitate physician-patient communication exist, these have not been applied to the workplace. Thus, we aimed to assess the feasibility and utility of applying these methods to educate patients about their workplace rights and provide them with communication skills training to aid their conversations with their employers. A DVD was produced to educate patients and facilitate workplace communication. Participants consisted of 28 solid tumor cancer patients (14 women and 14 men) who completed primary cancer treatment in the past 12 months and were employed at the time of diagnosis. Participants watched a communication skills training DVD and completed a telephone interview. The interview elicited information about workplace experiences and evaluation of the DVD training program. The physician-patient communication skills training model utilized was successfully translated to the employer-employee setting. All but one participant found the DVD useful and easy to understand and indicated a high degree of confidence in using the communication skills to help them ask for workplace accommodations. All participants agreed that it would help newly diagnosed patients in discussions with their employers. Our data provides promising preliminary evidence that patient communication skills training can be applied to the workplace setting and is a welcomed aid to newly diagnosed cancer patients in their discussions with employers regarding the impact of treatment on their work performance and needs for accommodations. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Stronger pack warnings predict quitting more than weaker ones: finding from the ITC Malaysia and Thailand surveys. (United States)

    Fathelrahman, Ahmed I; Li, Lin; Borland, Ron; Yong, Hua-Hie; Omar, Maizurah; Awang, Rahmat; Sirirassamee, Buppha; Fong, Geoffrey T; Hammond, David


    mechanisms for influencing quitting regardless of warning strength. The larger and more informative Thai warnings were associated with higher levels of reactions predictive of quitting and stronger associations with subsequent quitting, demonstrating their greater potency.

  1. Carbon sink activity is stronger under grazing than under mowing: results from a paired eddy flux towers experiment (United States)

    Pintér, Krisztina; Balogh, János; Koncz, Péter; Hidy, Dóra; Cserhalmi, Dóra; Papp, Marianna; Fóti, Szilvia; Nagy, Zoltán


    Effect of grazing vs. mowing on carbon balance of a grassland was investigated by a paired eddy towers (one of them measuring the grazed, the another the mowed treatment) experiment at the Bugacpuszta sandy grassland site (HU-Bug, 46.69° N, 19.6° E, 114m asl, 10.4 ° C annual mean temperature, 562 mm annual precipitation sum) located in the Hungarian Plain. Eddy covariance measurements started in July, 2002. The area of the mowed treatment is 1 ha, it is located within the grazed treatment (500 ha). Electric fence was set up around the selected area in spring of 2011. Study years include 2011, 2012 and 2013. The pasture is managed extensively (average grazing pressure of 0.5 cattle per hectare), the cattle herd regularly took several kilometres during a grazing day. Annual net ecosystem exchange (NEE) of the grassland is strongly limited by precipitation, there were 2 source years within the 11 years (2003-2013) of measurements, during which the average annual balance was -109 gCm-2year-1 with standard deviation of 106 gCm-2year-1. Carbon sink activity of the grassland was stronger in the grazed treatment than in the mowed treatment during the three year study period (paired t-test, P=0.058). In the grazed treatment the average sink strength was -142.8 ±40 gCm-2year-1, while in the mowed treatment the average sink strength was -61.5 ±46.5 gCm-2year-1. Differences of carbon balances between the treatments were positively correlated to the annual sum of evapotranspiration (ET), while ETs of the treatments were almost identical (differences within a 10mm year-1 range) in each study year. Water use efficiency in the mowed treatment was 44% of that in the grazed treatment (P=0.045) as a result of the differences in sink capacity. The higher sensitivity to drought by the mowed treatment manifested in decreased sink capacity during summer and in decreased regeneration capacity during autumn rains as shown by the cumulative NEE in the different years. Minor but

  2. Neighborhood Quality and Labor Market Outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damm, Anna Piil

    neighborhood may, therefore, hamper individual labor market outcomes because of lack of employed contacts. I investigate this hypothesis by exploiting a unique natural experiment that occurred between 1986 and 1998 when refugee immigrants to Denmark were assigned to municipalities quasirandomly, which...... successfully addresses the methodological problem of endogenous neighborhood selection. Taking account of location sorting, living in a socially deprived neighborhood does not affect labor market outcomes of refugee men. Furthermore, their labor market outcomes are not affected by the overall employment rate...

  3. Graduates' Employability: What Do Graduates and Employers Think? (United States)

    Matsouka, Kyriaki; Mihail, Dimitrios M.


    The purpose of this article is to investigate the views of university graduates and human resource managers (HRMs) on graduates' employability in terms of the soft skills required by the labour market. Soft skills (personal attributes that enhance an individual's interactions, job performance and career prospects) are necessary in the labour…

  4. International employment policies: employment and stabilisation in Mexico.


    Mertens L


    ILO pub-WEP pub. Working paper on the impact of stabilization and adjustment policies (economic policy) on employment, Mexico, prospects for the 1980s - examines the transition from import substitution industrialization to an economic model based on export oriented industry, structural changes and subsequent financial collapse (financial policy), economic growth performance, 1978-1981, the external debt crisis, etc. Bibliography, statistical tables.

  5. Making sense of employer collectivism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Christian Lyhne


    This conceptual article argues that preferences of employers for collective action cannot be reduced to rational actors making decisions based on market structures or institutional logics. Both markets and institutions are inherently ambiguous and employers therefore have to settle for plausible...... – rather than accurate – rational strategies among many alternatives through so-called sensemaking. Sensemaking refers to the process by which employers continuously make sense of their competitive environment by building causal stories of competitive advantages. The article therefore tries to provide...... that allude to the ambiguous role of markets and institutions but do not study how actors deal with this ambiguity. The sensemaking concept is illustrated with an analysis of wage bargaining in Denmark during the recent recession when Danish labour cost competitiveness was in a deplorable state. However...

  6. Transversal knowledge formations in Professional Bachelor Education employing Problem Based Learning (PBL)


    Verner Larsen


    This paper describes the principles underlying how various knowledge areas blend into transversal formations in two educational contexts employing PBL. Such ‘transversality’ has often been referred to as inter- cross- or trans-disciplinarity. However, these terms are ambiguous, especially in relation to Problem Based Learning. There is a growing need for stronger language to express underlying principles of knowledge formations and the constitution of such. The term transversality suggests th...

  7. Global Employer and Business Associations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ronit, Karsten


    Global employer and business associations at the peak level are neglected in research, but this paper argues that it is possible to develop collective action and represent interests in many policy fields through these encompassing entities, and they add to other forms of global business...... coordination. This study analyses all the global peak associations (International Chamber of Commerce, International Organisation of Employers, World Chambers Federation, Business and Industry Advisory Committee to the OECD, B20 Coalition, World Economic Forum and World Business Council for Sustainable...... implications for our understanding of global politics where new approaches are needed to analyse the institutionalisation of business interests....

  8. Employment Growth and International Trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Rikke; Warzynski, Frederic; Westergård-Nielsen, Niels Chr.

    In this paper, we use a detailed dataset containing information about all international trade transactions of the population of Danish ?rms over more than a decade to analyze the relationship between export and import decisions and employment growth. We further distinguish between imports of ?nal...... goods and imports of intermedi­ate products. We ?nd that both imports and exports decisions are positively related to employment growth. Interestingly, both ?nished goods and intermediate goods imports have a positive link. We also control for the re-exporting process, i.e. ?rms importing ?nal goods...

  9. Technological Innovation and Employment Reallocation


    Greenan, Nathalie; Guellec, Dominique


    ; International audience; The paper describes the dynamics of employment at a firm and sector level in the French industry and examines how far technological innovation can give account of it. We use a firm sample of 15,186 firms, over the 1986-1990 period. The two facts we want to explain at a firm level and a sector level are the net change in employment and the micro turmoil (transfers between competing firms). Innovating firms and sectors create jobs more than others over medium run (5 ye...

  10. Who benefits from supported employment: a meta-analytic study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Campbell, Kikuko


    AIMS: This meta-analysis sought to identify which subgroups of clients with severe mental illness (SMI) benefited from evidence-based supported employment. METHODS: We used meta-analysis to pool the samples from 4 randomized controlled trials comparing the Individual Placement and Support (IPS) model of supported employment to well-regarded vocational approaches using stepwise models and brokered services. Meta-analysis was used to determine the magnitude of effects for IPS\\/control group differences within specific client subgroups (defined by 2 work history, 7 sociodemographic, and 8 clinical variables) on 3 competitive employment outcomes (obtaining a job, total weeks worked, and job tenure). RESULTS: The findings strongly favored IPS, with large effect sizes across all outcomes: 0.96 for job acquisition, 0.79 for total weeks worked, and 0.74 for job tenure. Overall, 90 (77%) of the 117 effect sizes calculated for the 39 subgroups exceeded 0.70, and all 117 favored IPS. CONCLUSIONS: IPS produces better competitive employment outcomes for persons with SMI than alternative vocational programs regardless of background demographic, clinical, and employment characteristics.

  11. Employment and Earnings in High-Tech Ethnic Niches (United States)

    Lee, Jennifer C.


    The increase in high-skilled immigrants to the United States coincided with the expansion of the high-technology sector, and now a large share of Asian immigrants concentrate in high-tech industries. Despite much research on the relationship between ethnic concentration and labor market outcomes, the association between ethnic niche employment and…

  12. Forms of Graduate Capital and Their Relationship to Graduate Employability (United States)

    Tomlinson, Michael


    Purpose: In the context of far-reaching changes in higher education and the labour market, there has been extensive discussion on what constitutes graduate employability and what shapes graduates' labour market outcomes. Many of these discussions are based on skills-centred approaches and related supply-side logic. The purpose of this paper is to…

  13. Youth employment and women's economic empowerment in Africa ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The study will use qualitative and quantitative methods to identify gender differences in employment and in the performance of women and youth-owned SMEs, assess the effectiveness and outcomes of the various tourism-based interventions instituted by the governments and their partners, contribute to the design of ...

  14. Youth employment to reduce violence in Central America | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    By combining quantitative and qualitative approaches, mapping out initiatives and outcomes, and focusing both on beneficiaries of employment programs for vulnerable youth and policymakers in charge of program design and implementation, the project aims to uncover the strengths and weaknesses of these interventions ...

  15. Social Integration in Employment Settings: Application of Intergroup Contact Theory (United States)

    Novak, Jeanne A.; Rogan, Patricia M.


    This study used a survey of 106 employment specialists to test the ability of intergroup contact theory to explain social integration outcomes of employees with disabilities. Contact theory suggests that coworkers are more accepting of employees with disabilities if they have sufficient opportunities to interact with them, equal status and…

  16. Gain-loss-frame in outcome-interdependence : Does it influence equality or equity considerations?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    deDreu, CKW


    Research suggests that framing outcomes as gains produces stronger concern for distributive justice than framing outcomes as losses. Unfortunately, however, this prior research manipulated own and other's outcomes only (and not own and other's input). Hence, it remained unclear whether framing

  17. Incentives for improving human resource outcomes in health care: overview of reviews. (United States)

    Misfeldt, Renee; Linder, Jordana; Lait, Jana; Hepp, Shelanne; Armitage, Gail; Jackson, Karen; Suter, Esther


    To review the effectiveness of financial and nonfinancial incentives for improving the benefits (recruitment, retention, job satisfaction, absenteeism, turnover, intent to leave) of human resource strategies in health care. Overview of 33 reviews published from 2000 to 2012 summarized the effectiveness of incentives for improving human resource outcomes in health care (such as job satisfaction, turnover rates, recruitment, and retention) that met the inclusion criteria and were assessed by at least two research members using the Assessment of Multiple Systematic Reviews quality assessment tool. Of those, 13 reviews met the quality criteria and were included in the overview. Information was extracted on a description of the review, the incentives considered, and their impact on human resource outcomes. The information on the relationship between incentives and outcomes was assessed and synthesized. While financial compensation is the best-recognized approach within an incentives package, there is evidence that health care practitioners respond positively to incentives linked to the quality of the working environments including opportunities for professional development, improved work life balance, interprofessional collaboration, and professional autonomy. There is less evidence that workload factors such as job demand, restructured staffing models, re-engineered work designs, ward practices, employment status, or staff skill mix have an impact on human resource outcomes. Overall, evidence of effective strategies for improving outcomes is mixed. While financial incentives play a key role in enhancing outcomes, they need to be considered as only one strategy within an incentives package. There is stronger evidence that improving the work place environment and instituting mechanisms for work-life balance need to be part of an overall strategy to improve outcomes for health care practitioners.

  18. Higher Education, Employability and Competitiveness (United States)

    Pavlin, Samo; Svetlicic, Marjan


    This paper studies the relationship between competitiveness and higher education systems in Europe. It explores whether more competitive countries have developed more labour-market-oriented systems of higher education (HE) that thereby give their graduates greater short term employability potential. Based on and a large-scale survey among 45.000…

  19. Transnational Education and Employability Development (United States)

    Mellors-Bourne, Robin; Jones, Elspeth; Woodfield, Steve


    Internationalisation and employability development are important themes for UK higher education (HE) and the Higher Education Academy (HEA). One aspect of many UK HE institutions' internationalisation strategies has been to increase the number and range of UK programmes delivered "offshore" as transnational education (TNE)--through…

  20. Youth Employment and Job Creation. (United States)

    Connors, Tad

    A policy that addresses youth unemployment with monetary expansion for similar fiscal policies is criticized as compounding the problem, and alternative solutions are offered. Accordingly, a brief look at youth labor market characteristics, pertinent labor market theory, and the present industrial distribution of employed youth is offered. A…

  1. EMPLOYABILITY van UM-afgestudeerden

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eldert, Peter; Künn, Annemarie; Mommers, Ardi


    De voor u liggende studie is een weerslag van het project ‘Employability onder UM afgestudeerden’. Het rapport geeft eerst een samenvatting van de uitgevoerde literatuurstudie op het gebied van ‘employability’ in het hoger onderwijs. Vervolgens wordt de ‘employability’ van UM afgestudeerden vijf

  2. Patient advocacy versus employer protection. (United States)

    Deubner, David; Sturm, Richard E


    In a departure from the usual Occupational Medicine: State of the Art Reviews article, this piece comprises responses from two occupational physicians to the question of how balance is achieved between employer and patient interests in occupational medicine. The authors discuss the ethical dilemmas that may arise in such relationships, negotiation of confrontations, physician responsibilities, and conflict resolution.

  3. Employment status and working conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goudswaard, A.; Andries, F.


    In the 1990s an increasing number of employees were engaged in non-permanent contract work in the European Union. This can, to a large extent, be explained by an active labour market policy where job creation was the focus, and this type of employment provided a way of meeting the increased demand

  4. Employment and Unemployment in Lagos

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O. Fapohunda (Olanrewaju)


    textabstractWage-earning employment was non-existent in Nigeria before the advent of the white man and the British administration. The average Nigerian engaged in subsistence agriculture or some cottage industry like weaving, pottery or carving. The first wage earners in Nigeria were probably the

  5. Employers' Perspectives of Online Education (United States)

    Linardopoulos, Nikolaos


    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to describe the strengths and weaknesses of seven representative studies pertaining to the employers' perceptions of online education. Design/methodology/approach: The paper retrieved and analysed representative studies on the subject from two scholarly databases and Google. Findings: The results indicate that…

  6. Job satisfaction and contingent employment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Graaf-Zijl, M.


    This paper analyses job satisfaction as an aggregate of satisfaction with several job aspects, with special focus on the influence of contingent-employment contracts. Fixed-effect analysis is applied on a longitudinal sample of Dutch employees in four work arrangements: regular, fixed-term, on-call

  7. Teaching Soft Skills Employers Need (United States)

    Ellis, Maureen; Kisling, Eric; Hackworth, Robbie G.


    This study identifies the soft skills community colleges teach in an office technology course and determines whether the skills taught are congruent with the soft skills employers require in today's entry-level office work. A qualitative content analysis of a community college office technology soft skills course was performed using 23 soft skills…

  8. Employment effects of biofuels development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danielsson, B.O.; Hektor, B.


    Effects on employment - national and regional - from an expanding market for biofuels in Sweden are estimated in this article. The fuels considered are: Peat, straw, energy crops, silviculture, forestry waste, wood waste, by-products from paper/wood industry and processed fuels from these sources. (22 refs., tabs.)

  9. Employment and Urban Native Canadians. (United States)

    Abrahams-Maclachlan, Caryl; And Others


    Measured differences in employment issues between native Canadian Indians and a nonnative comparison group in Toronto. Given similar circumstances, found Native Canadians less formally educated and skill trained than nonnatives of comparable age, sex, and education. Respondents under 25 and over 50 earned substantially less. (Author)

  10. Sex Discrimination in Employment Practices. (United States)

    California Univ., Los Angeles. Univ. Extension.

    The conference on sex discrimination in employment practices was held at the University of California at Los Angeles in cooperation with the Women's Bureau of the Department of Labor. Speeches included: (1) "New Legislation--New Action" by Rosalind K. Loring and William Foster, (2) "Compliance Policies and Procedures for Business and Industry" by…

  11. Health Benefits In 2015: Stable Trends In The Employer Market. (United States)

    Claxton, Gary; Rae, Matthew; Panchal, Nirmita; Whitmore, Heidi; Damico, Anthony; Kenward, Kevin; Long, Michelle


    The annual Kaiser Family Foundation/Health Research and Educational Trust Employer Health Benefits Survey found that in 2015, average annual premiums (employer and worker contributions combined) were $6,251 for single coverage and $17,545 for family coverage. Both premiums rose 4 percent from 2014, continuing several years of modest growth. The percentage of firms offering health benefits and the percentage of workers covered by their employers' plans remained statistically unchanged from 2014. Eighty-one percent of covered workers were enrolled in a plan with a general annual deductible. Among those workers, the average deductible for single coverage was $1,318. Half of large employers either offered employees the opportunity or required them to complete biometric screening. Of firms that offer an incentive for completing the screening, 20 percent provide employees with incentives or penalties that are tied to meeting those biometric outcomes. The 2015 survey included new questions on financial incentives to complete wellness programs and meet specified biometric outcomes as well as questions about narrow networks and employers' strategies related to the high-cost plan tax and the employer shared-responsibility provisions of the Affordable Care Act. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  12. 45 CFR 400.75 - Registration for employment services, participation in employability service programs and... (United States)


    ..., participation in employability service programs and targeted assistance programs, going to job interviews, and... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT PROGRAM Requirements for Employability Services and Employment General Requirements § 400.75 Registration for employment services, participation in employability...

  13. Employment, Social Networks and Undocumented Migrants: The Employer Perspective (United States)

    Bloch, Alice; McKay, Sonia


    This article draws on data from qualitative interviews with ethnic enclave and ethnic economy business entrepreneurs from Chinese, Bangladeshi and Turkish-speaking communities in London. Routes into business and worker recruitment practices are explored, demonstrating the centrality of social capital in the form of family and other social networks within these processes. The article investigates what employers consider the desirable characteristics of workers: trust, kinship, gender, social networks, language compatibility and the needs of the business intersect with racialised notions of workers’ strengths and characteristics. Finally, we consider changing practices in relation to the employment of undocumented migrants, in the context of an increasingly punitive legislative regime. The complex and variable impact of policy alongside the ways in which other obligations and positions outweigh the fear and risks of sanctions associated with non-compliance is revealed. PMID:25866421

  14. Employment, Social Networks and Undocumented Migrants: The Employer Perspective. (United States)

    Bloch, Alice; McKay, Sonia


    This article draws on data from qualitative interviews with ethnic enclave and ethnic economy business entrepreneurs from Chinese, Bangladeshi and Turkish-speaking communities in London. Routes into business and worker recruitment practices are explored, demonstrating the centrality of social capital in the form of family and other social networks within these processes. The article investigates what employers consider the desirable characteristics of workers: trust, kinship, gender, social networks, language compatibility and the needs of the business intersect with racialised notions of workers' strengths and characteristics. Finally, we consider changing practices in relation to the employment of undocumented migrants, in the context of an increasingly punitive legislative regime. The complex and variable impact of policy alongside the ways in which other obligations and positions outweigh the fear and risks of sanctions associated with non-compliance is revealed.

  15. Women: work and employment -- some notes. (United States)

    Mukherjee, M; Sujaya, C P; Jain, D


    This article discusses recent literature on women's work in India, provides commentary on some outcomes of women's work and research findings on women's work, identifies differences of opinion on policies and programs, and offers future strategies. The number of entries on Indian women's employment increases every year and offers a range of specialized information. Studies focus on the characteristics of women's work, debates about what should be considered as work, trends, market activity by occupation and gender, casual rural labor, inter-regional and inter-class variations, women's poverty and low wages, consequences of using the household as a unit of analysis, women's survival strategies, and home-based employment options. There is widespread agreement that almost all poor women are engaged in some form of income earning work. Among the Indian population without assets, women have higher work participation rates. In low resource households, women's earnings satisfy survival needs. Sex disaggregated data is needed at all levels. Women manage multiple roles that tax their nutritional status, create emotional pressure, and require an energy expenditure that is underestimated. Various groups of women are being recognized, such as female heads of households, widows, destitute women, and women impoverished due to male out-migration. Women's work tends to be the most backbreaking, laborious, low skilled, and poorly paid. Women's studies in the future must examine whether economic theories remain the same when a gendered analysis is accounted for. It is posited that women's work is not marginal but central. Development has not recognized this.

  16. Local Residential Segregation Matters: Stronger Association of Census Tract Compared to Conventional City-Level Measures with Fatal and Non-Fatal Assaults (Total and Firearm Related), Using the Index of Concentration at the Extremes (ICE) for Racial, Economic, and Racialized Economic Segregation, Massachusetts (US), 1995-2010. (United States)

    Krieger, Nancy; Feldman, Justin M; Waterman, Pamela D; Chen, Jarvis T; Coull, Brent A; Hemenway, David


    Research on residential segregation and health, primarily conducted in the USA, has chiefly employed city or regional measures of racial segregation. To test our hypothesis that stronger associations would be observed using local measures, especially for racialized economic segregation, we analyzed risk of fatal and non-fatal assault in Massachusetts (1995-2010), since this outcome is strongly associated with residential segregation. The segregation metrics comprised the Index of Concentration at the Extremes (ICE), the Index of Dissimilarity, and poverty rate, with measures computed at both the census tract and city/town level. Key results were that larger associations between fatal and non-fatal assaults and residential segregation occurred for models using the census tract vs. city/town measures, with the greatest associations observed for racialized economic segregation. For fatal assaults, comparing the bottom vs. top quintiles, the incidence rate ratio (and 95% confidence interval (CI)) in models using the census tract measures equaled 3.96 (95% CI 3.10, 5.06) for the ICE for racialized economic segregation, 3.26 (95% CI 2.58, 4.14) for the ICE for income, 3.14 (95% CI 2.47, 3.99) for poverty, 2.90 (95% CI 2.21, 3.81) for the ICE for race/ethnicity, and only 0.93 (95% CI 0.79, 1.11) for the Index of Dissimilarity; in models that included both census tract and city/town ICE measures, this risk ratio for the ICE for racialized economic segregation was higher at the census tract (3.29; 95% CI 2.43, 4.46) vs. city/town level (1.61; 95% CI 1.12, 2.32). These results suggest that, at least in the case of fatal and non-fatal assaults, research on residential segregation should employ local measures, including of racialized economic segregation, to avoid underestimating the adverse impact of segregation on health.

  17. Hydrogen bonds of RNA are stronger than those of DNA, but NMR monitors only presence of methyl substituent in uracil/thymine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swart, M.; Fonseca Guerra, C.; Bickelhaupt, F.M.


    Recently, Vakonakis and LiWang (J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2004, 126, 5688) reported experimental evidence for stronger hydrogen bonds in RNA A:U than in DNA A:T base pairs, which was based on differences in NMR shielding for adenine C2. We have analyzed the proposed correlation between NMR shielding and

  18. Development of Enriched Core Competencies for Health Services and Policy Research: Training for Stronger Career Readiness and Greater Impact. (United States)

    Bornstein, Stephen; Heritage, Melissa; Chudak, Amanda; Tamblyn, Robyn; McMahon, Meghan; Brown, Adalsteinn


    To develop an enriched set of core competencies for health services and policy research (HSPR) doctoral training that will help graduates maximize their impact across a range of academic and nonacademic work environments and roles. Data were obtained from multiple sources, including literature reviews, key informant interviews, stakeholder consultations, and Expert Working Group (EWG) meetings between January 2015 and March 2016. The study setting is Canada. The study used qualitative methods and an iterative development process with significant stakeholder engagement throughout. The literature reviews, key informant interviews, existing data on graduate career trajectories, and EWG deliberations informed the identification of career profiles for HSPR graduates and the competencies required to succeed in these roles. Stakeholder consultations were held to vet, refine, and validate the competencies. The EWG reached consensus on six sectors and eight primary roles in which HSPR doctoral graduates can bring value to employers and the health system. Additionally, 10 core competencies were identified that should be included or further emphasized in the training of HSPR doctoral students to increase their preparedness and potential for impact in a variety of roles within and outside of traditional academic workplaces. The results offer an expanded view of potential career paths for HSPR doctoral graduates and provide recommendations for an expanded set of core competencies that will better equip graduates to maximize their impact on the health system. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  19. Working to Reduce Poverty: A National Subsidized Employment Proposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indivar Dutta-Gupta


    Full Text Available Subsidized employment programs that increase labor supply and demand are a proven, underutilized strategy for reducing poverty in the short and long term. These programs use public and private funds to provide workers wage-paying jobs, training, and wraparound services to foster greater labor force attachment while offsetting employers’ cost for wages, on-the-job training, and overhead. This article proposes two new separate but harmonized federal funding streams for subsidized employment that would expand automatically when and where economic conditions deteriorate. Participating states and local organizations would be offered generous matching funds to target adult workers most in need and to secure employer participation. The proposal would effectively reduce poverty among workers during work placements, and improve long-term unsubsidized employment and other outcomes for participants and their families.

  20. EEO Review : youth employment measures, 2010 - Malta


    Debono, Manwel


    This report explores youth employment measures in Malta. It outlines the trends in youth employment. Then it examines measures taken to promote youth employment, focusing on school education and training policies, labour market and employment-related policies, and access to benefits. Finally, the report focuses on the roles of labour market actors in the promotion of youth employment.

  1. Artificial Intelligence, Employment, and Income


    Nilsson, Nils J.


    Artificial intelligence (AI) will have profound societal effects. It promises potential benefits (and may also pose risks) in education, defense, business, law and science. In this article we explore how AI is likely to affect employment and the distribution of income. We argue that AI will indeed reduce drastically the need of human toil. We also note that some people fear the automation of work by machines and the resulting of unemployment. Yet, since the majority of us probably would rathe...

  2. Ghana Youth Employment Program Inventory


    Ulzen-Appiah, Ato; Avura, Francis Babongte


    This youth employment inventory has been compiled to improve the evidence base for making decisions about how to address the problem of youth unemployment or youth who are not in education and not participating in the labor market in Ghana. Policy makers who are considering measures to help young people make the transition into the labor market and obtain decent work are hampered by a lack ...

  3. Population and Employment in China


    Keyfitz, N.


    China's effectiveness in population control can be credited to the direct line of command through party and administrative cadres that extends from the leadership in Beijing down to the production team in a distant rural commune. The reason that the administrative machine has devoted so much attention to population control is twofold: the perceived limits of the natural environment, as indicated by slowness of growth of food supplies, and the difficulty of arranging productive employment for ...

  4. Diamond Synthesis Employing Nanoparticle Seeds (United States)

    Uppireddi, Kishore (Inventor); Morell, Gerardo (Inventor); Weiner, Brad R. (Inventor)


    Iron nanoparticles were employed to induce the synthesis of diamond on molybdenum, silicon, and quartz substrates. Diamond films were grown using conventional conditions for diamond synthesis by hot filament chemical vapor deposition, except that dispersed iron oxide nanoparticles replaced the seeding. This approach to diamond induction can be combined with dip pen nanolithography for the selective deposition of diamond and diamond patterning while avoiding surface damage associated to diamond-seeding methods.

  5. Achieving and sustaining full employment. (United States)

    Rosen, S M


    Human rights and public health considerations provide strong support for policies that maximize employment. Ample historical and conceptual evidence supports the feasibility of full employment policies. New factors affecting the labor force, the rate of technological change, and the globalization of economic activity require appropriate policies--international as well as national--but do not invalidate the ability of modern states to apply the measures needed. Among these the most important include: (I) systematic reduction in working time with no loss of income, (2) active labor market policies, (3) use of fiscal and monetary measures to sustain the needed level of aggregate demand, (4) restoration of equal bargaining power between labor and capital, (5) social investment in neglected and outmoded infrastructure, (6) accountability of corporations for decisions to shift or reduce capital investment, (7) major reductions in military spending, to be replaced by socially needed and economically productive expenditures, (8) direct public sector job creation, (9) reform of monetary policy to restore emphasis on minimizing unemployment and promoting full employment. None are without precedent in modern economies. The obstacles are ideological and political. To overcome them will require intellectual clarity and effective advocacy.

  6. Obesity and Labour Market Outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Jane

    This paper analyzes the relationship between three body weight measures and employment status and wages, thereby broadening the perspective of the literature on obesity and labor market outcomes. The analysis uses a unique dataset from a Danish panel survey from 1995 and 2000, combined with admin......This paper analyzes the relationship between three body weight measures and employment status and wages, thereby broadening the perspective of the literature on obesity and labor market outcomes. The analysis uses a unique dataset from a Danish panel survey from 1995 and 2000, combined...

  7. The impact of supported employment and working on clinical and social functioning: results of an international study of individual placement and support. (United States)

    Burns, Tom; Catty, Jocelyn; White, Sarah; Becker, Thomas; Koletsi, Marsha; Fioritti, Angelo; Rössler, Wulf; Tomov, Toma; van Busschbach, Jooske; Wiersma, Durk; Lauber, Christoph


    Concerns are frequently expressed that working might worsen the mental health of people with severe mental illness (SMI). Several studies of Individual Placement and Support (IPS), however, have found associations between working and better nonvocational outcomes. IPS has been found to double the return to work of people with SMI in 6 European countries. To explore separately associations between IPS, returning to work, and clinical and social outcomes. Patients (n = 312) in a randomized controlled trial of IPS in 6 European centers were followed up for 18 months. There were no differences in clinical and social functioning between IPS and control patients at 18 months. Those who worked had better global functioning, fewer symptoms, and less social disability at final follow-up; greater job tenure was associated with better functioning. Working was associated with concurrently better clinical and social functioning, but this contrast was stronger in the control group, suggesting that IPS was better than the control service at helping more unwell patients into work. Working was associated with having been in remission and out of hospital for the previous 6 months. It was also associated with a slight decrease in depression and with being in remission over the subsequent 6 months. Concerns among clinicians about possible detrimental effects of working and supported employment have been misplaced. Although some of the associations found may have been selection effects, there is sufficient evidence of work having beneficial effects on clinical and social functioning to merit further exploration.

  8. The benefits of biotics in erosion control materials for critical sites : better business, improved soil and stronger vegetation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myrowich, M.; Nelson, R. [Verdyol Plant Research, Riverton, MB (Canada)


    This paper discussed the advantages of biotics in erosion control materials, such as the inclusion of hydraulic growth mediums (HGMs) and beneficial growth stimulants, for critical sites. Biotics provide organic additives, and the growth mediums stimulate natural microbial activity, soil aggregate formation, and other natural topsoil forming processes to ensure the long-term health of vegetation. HGMs provide a living base for plants to grow without having to overhaul the entire topsoil structure. The two main components are the biotic system for improving soil and promoting vegetation and a tackifier to secure the HGM to the soil, enhance soil formation processes, and allow vegetation to get established. HGMs are suitable for mining and industrial reclamation because they improve soils and are more cost effective and environmentally sound than trucking in new soil to a site. Two case studies showed how vegetation is quickly established for long-term protection and the benefits for businesses using these erosion-control techniques. The second case study described the manner in which Hydro Quebec successfully employed HGMs to reclaim sensitive roadsides that were being built at construction sites near James Bay. HGMs were found to offer the right solution to the specifics of the site, such as highly erodible subsoil, no available topsoil, and an extremely short growing season. It was concluded that HGMs with biotic components and strong tackifiers improve the performance and economics of erosion control and the overall health of soils for the long-term sustainability of vegetative cover at sensitive sites. 7 refs., 2 figs.

  9. 38 CFR 21.58 - Redetermination of employment handicap and serious employment handicap. (United States)


    ... employment handicap and serious employment handicap. 21.58 Section 21.58 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans... of employment handicap and serious employment handicap. (a) Prior to induction into a program. A determination as to employment handicap, serious employment handicap, or eligibility for a program of employment...

  10. Ethnic identity, majority norms, and the native–immigrant employment gap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorinas, Cedric Jean-Laurent Elie


    by capturing a novel dimension of ethnic identity: openness to majority norms. Reproducing measures from earlier studies, I find that immigrants’ employment outcomes do not systematically associate with their ethnic identity. However, immigrants who share social norms with the majority experience significantly......Earlier studies do not agree on whether ethnic identity, i.e., immigrants’ attachment to the home country and the host country, can explain lower employment outcomes among immigrants. This study investigates the relationship between employment and ethnic identity and complements the literature...... on the interethnic employment gap and aspects of immigrants’ identity relevant to economic integration....

  11. Employer`s contributions to the training of professional statisticians

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rustagi, J.S. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States). Statistics Dept.; Wright, T. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Mathematical Sciences Section]|[Bureau of the Census, Washington, DC (United States)


    Statistical science provides important techniques for decision making in a large variety of fields of human endeavor mainly through statistical practice. According to Deming (1965), ``Statistical practice is mostly a collaborative venture between (professional) statisticians and experts in subject-matter (area).`` The professional statistician must be properly trained in areas of statistical science most suited to the discipline in which the applications are made. Due to a large variety of applications. The education of a professional statistician by universities can only be very general. Higher education provides the theoretical basis of statistical science whereas the specific expertise needed by the professional statistician is given by the application areas. In this paper, the authors review the approach of academic programs which are geared towards applications and discuss some of the innovative strategies for preparing statisticians as consultants in industry and business. A survey (census) of statisticians at the national laboratories of the US Department of Energy was made to assess their training by universities and to get a broad view of additional training which has brought them to their present professional status. A particular interest is the extent to which employers have contributed to the training of statisticians. A few recommendations are made which may serve to improve the future training of statisticians for applied collaborative work by universities and employers.

  12. 'I feel stronger and younger all the time'-perspectives of elderly kidney transplant recipients: thematic synthesis of qualitative research. (United States)

    Pinter, Jule; Hanson, Camilla S; Craig, Jonathan C; Chapman, Jeremy R; Budde, Klemens; Halleck, Fabian; Tong, Allison


    , providing support to alleviate the debilitating impacts of immunosuppression and addressing fears about deteriorating health and graft failure may improve satisfaction and outcomes in elderly kidney transplant recipients. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA. All rights reserved.

  13. Youth employment problems in Latvia


    Mičule, Madara


    Unemployment to which young people are also subjected, is one of the main economical problems nowadays. The issue is actual also for Latvian youth. Therefore the theme of the Bachelor’s work is „Youth unemployment problems in Latvia”. The aim of the Bachelor’s work is to find out the current situation in the unemployment sphere, young people’s employment in Latvia as well as to work out solutions which could be used to solve the problem. The unemployment term, its types, causes and ef...

  14. Total employment effect of biofuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stridsberg, S.


    The study examined the total employment effect of both direct production of biofuel and energy conversion to heat and electricity, as well as the indirect employment effect arising from investments and other activities in conjunction with the production organization. A secondary effect depending on the increased capital flow is also included in the final result. The scenarios are based on two periods, 1993-2005 and 2005-2020. In the present study, the different fuels and the different applications have been analyzed individually with regard to direct and indirect employment within each separate sector. The greatest employment effect in the production chain is shown for logging residues with 290 full-time jobs/TWh, whereas other biofuels range between 80 and 280 full-time jobs/TWh. In the processing chain, the corresponding range is 200-300 full-time jobs per each additional TWh. Additionally and finally, there are secondary effects that give a total of 650 full-time jobs/TWh. Together with the predicted increase, this suggests that unprocessed fuel will provide an additional 16 000 annual full-time jobs, and that fuel processing will contribute with a further 5 000 full-time jobs. The energy production from the fuels will provide an additional 13 000 full-time jobs. The total figure of 34 000 annual full-time jobs must then be reduced by about 4000 on account of lost jobs, mainly in the oil sector and to some extent in imports of biofuel. In addition, the anticipated increase in capital turnover that occurs within the biofuel sector, will increase full-time jobs up to year 2020. Finally, a discussion is given of the accomplishment of the programmes anticipated by the scenario, where it is noted that processing of biofuel to wafers, pellets or powder places major demands on access to raw material of good quality and that agrarian fuels must be given priority if they are to enter the system sufficiently fast. Straw is already a resource but is still not accepted by

  15. Vocational interests assessed at the end of high school predict life outcomes assessed 10 years later over and above IQ and Big Five personality traits. (United States)

    Stoll, Gundula; Rieger, Sven; Lüdtke, Oliver; Nagengast, Benjamin; Trautwein, Ulrich; Roberts, Brent W


    Vocational interests are important aspects of personality that reflect individual differences in motives, goals, and personal strivings. It is therefore plausible that these characteristics have an impact on individuals' lives not only in terms of vocational outcomes, but also beyond the vocational domain. Yet the effects of vocational interests on various life outcomes have rarely been investigated. Using Holland's RIASEC taxonomy (Holland, 1997), which groups vocational interests into 6 broad domains, the present study examined whether vocational interests are significant predictors of life outcomes that show incremental validity over and above the Big Five personality traits. For this purpose, a cohort of German high school students (N = 3,023) was tracked over a period of 10 years after graduating from school. Linear and logistic regression analyses were used to examine the predictive validity of RIASEC interests and Big Five personality traits. Nine outcomes from the domains of work, relationships, and health were investigated. The results indicate that vocational interests are important predictors of life outcomes that show incremental validity over the Big Five personality traits. Vocational interests were significant predictors of 7 of the 9 investigated outcomes: full-time employment, gross income, unemployment, being married, having children, never having had a relationship, and perceived health status. For work and relationship outcomes, vocational interests were even stronger predictors than the Big Five personality traits. For health-related outcomes, the results favored the personality traits. Effects were similar across gender for all outcomes-except 2 relationship outcomes. Possible explanations for these effects are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Influence employment by improving aerobics on motor readiness of girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. P. Shypulo


    Full Text Available Purpose : substantiate the effect of employment by improving aerobics on motor readiness of girls in extracurricular educational institutions. Material : the study involved 90 women aged 16-18 years old. Classes are held 3 times a week for 1 hour each. Results : defined state and the most informative indicators motor fitness girls. Built analytical model of graph model for forecasting and conducting quantitative and qualitative control of motor fitness girls. The degree of severity of each of the parameters studied motor fitness girls. Conclusions : the possibilities of predicting outcomes. Recommended method of aerobics classes, which has five stages. Its main feature - the constant objective control efficiency of employment.

  17. Employability Skills, Personal Qualities, and Early Employment Problems of Entry-Level Auditors: Perspectives from Employers, Lecturers, Auditors, and Students (United States)

    Lim, Yet-Mee; Lee, Teck Heang; Yap, Ching Seng; Ling, Chui Ching


    The authors examine the issue of employability of university accounting students from the perspectives of accounting firm employers, junior auditors, accounting lecturers, and accounting students. Areas of investigation include perceived importance of employability skills and desirable personal qualities; and early employment problems encountered…

  18. Building Employer Capacity to Support Meaningful Employment for Persons with Developmental Disabilities: A Grounded Theory Study of Employment Support Perspectives. (United States)

    Rashid, Marghalara; Hodgetts, Sandra; Nicholas, David


    To explore strategies to build employer capacity to support people with DD in meaningful employment from perspective of employment support workers. A grounded theory study was conducted with 34 employment support individuals. A theoretical sampling approach was used to identify and recruit participants from multiple sites in Ontario and Alberta. Three main themes, with seven sub-themes, emerged: (1) experiences of supporting employment finding for people with DD, (2) institutional influences on employee experiences, and (3) attitudes, assumptions and stigma. Several recommendations related to building employer capacity were offered. Our findings provide insight on specific elements and strategies that can support building employer capacity for persons with DD.

  19. Part-time Employment and Business Cycle in Central and Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fialová Kamila


    Full Text Available This article explores the development of part-time employment in Central and Eastern Europe and compares it to Western Europe. On the macro level it examines the role of the business cycle and its effect on part-time employment in the two groups of countries since 2001. The key result reveals that contrary to the West, the business cycle development exerts a significant negative effect on the part-time employment rate in Eastern Europe. When the economy operates below its potential, part-time employment tends to grow more than full-time employment. This finding is consistent with the labour demand effect and reflects the pursuit of flexibility by firms as well as the adjustment in composition of employment to changing economic conditions. The countercyclical effect is even stronger for involuntary part-time employment. Separate analyses of individual demographic groups of workers reveal a significant negative effect of the business cycle on part-time employment of older workers and male prime-age workers in Eastern Europe. In contrast, the effect is insignificant for young workers and unclear for prime-age women.

  20. Using social capital to construct a conceptual International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health Children and Youth version-based framework for stronger inclusive education policies in Europe. (United States)

    Maxwell, Gregor; Koutsogeorgou, Eleni


    Inclusive education is part of social inclusion; therefore, social capital can be linked to an inclusive education policy and practice. This association is explored in this article, and a practical measure is proposed. Specifically, the World Health Organization's International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health Children and Youth Version (ICF-CY) is proposed as the link between social capital and inclusive education. By mapping participation and trust indicators of social capital to the ICF-CY and by using the Matrix to Analyse Functioning in Education Systems (MAFES) to analyze the functioning of inclusive education policies and systems, a measure for stronger inclusive education policies is proposed. Such a tool can be used for policy planning and monitoring to ensure better inclusive education environments. In conclusion, combining enhanced social capital linked to stronger inclusive education policies, by using the ICF-CY, can lead to better health and well-being for all.

  1. 34 CFR 104.13 - Employment criteria. (United States)


    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Employment criteria. 104.13 Section 104.13 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education OFFICE FOR CIVIL RIGHTS, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION... Employment Practices § 104.13 Employment criteria. (a) A recipient may not make use of any employment test or...

  2. 28 CFR 54.500 - Employment. (United States)


    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Employment. 54.500 Section 54.500... in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 54.500 Employment. (a) General. (1) No... subjected to discrimination in employment, or recruitment, consideration, or selection therefor, whether...

  3. 41 CFR 101-4.500 - Employment. (United States)


    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Employment. 101-4.500... Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 101-4.500 Employment. (a) General. (1) No person... subjected to discrimination in employment, or recruitment, consideration, or selection therefor, whether...

  4. 14 CFR 1253.500 - Employment. (United States)


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Employment. 1253.500 Section 1253.500... in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 1253.500 Employment. (a) General. (1..., or be subjected to discrimination in employment, or recruitment, consideration, or selection therefor...

  5. 15 CFR 8a.500 - Employment. (United States)


    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Employment. 8a.500 Section 8a.500... in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 8a.500 Employment. (a) General. (1) No... subjected to discrimination in employment, or recruitment, consideration, or selection therefor, whether...

  6. 45 CFR 86.51 - Employment. (United States)


    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Employment. 86.51 Section 86.51 Public Welfare... in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 86.51 Employment. (a) General. (1) No... subjected to discrimination in employment, or recruitment, consideration, or selection therefor, whether...

  7. 1 CFR 500.140 - Employment. (United States)


    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Employment. 500.140 Section 500.140 General... ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY THE NATIONAL COMMISSION FOR EMPLOYMENT POLICY § 500.140 Employment. No qualified handicapped person shall, on the basis of handicap, be subjected to discrimination in employment under any...

  8. Employment Trends in the European Postal Sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halberg, Paul; Nielsen, Jens; Henten, Anders

    An analysis of the employments trends in the Danish postal sector and the different factors that influence theses employment trends......An analysis of the employments trends in the Danish postal sector and the different factors that influence theses employment trends...

  9. Legal Consequences of Employer Discharge Procedures (United States)

    Joseph, Stephanie


    The employment contract is sometimes misunderstood by both employees and employers. Drafters of employee manuals, policies, and procedures should be aware that the nature of the at-will employment relationship can be transformed into a binding employment contract by the words and phrases chosen. In this article, the author uses the case of Eric,…

  10. Professional practice and construction undergraduates' employability skills


    Vohmann, B.; Frame, I.


    Employability skills are known to be valuable to undergraduates when entering the workplace and expected by employers, yet, in construction as in many disciplines, these skills often are not well developed. However, construction professionals frequently work in complex dynamic environments and employability skills may enhance undergraduates' practitioner effectiveness. Therefore it is important tutors exploit opportunities to help undergraduates develop their employability skills. This paper ...

  11. Youth Employment in a Globalising World

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gough, Katherine V.; Langevang, Thilde; Owusu, George


    Young people in the global South are seeking employment opportunities in challenging economic and social environments. This paper provides an overview of current debates regarding youth employment, highlighting conceptualisations of youth and (un)employment, emerging youth employment trends and t...

  12. The Youth Transition Demonstration: Lifting Employment Barriers for Youth with Disabilities


    Thomas Fraker


    The evaluation team is tracking employment, earnings, and benefits, among other outcomes, to assess whether YTD helped youth find jobs and reduced their dependency on SSI and DI. The evaluation also includes a comprehensive study of the implementation of YTD.

  13. 45 CFR 400.82 - Failure or refusal to accept employability services or employment. (United States)


    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Failure or refusal to accept employability... SERVICES REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT PROGRAM Requirements for Employability Services and Employment Failure Or Refusal to Accept Employability Services Or Employment § 400.82 Failure or refusal to accept employability...

  14. Youth Employment in a Globalising World

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gough, Katherine V.; Langevang, Thilde; Owusu, George


    Young people in the global South are seeking employment opportunities in challenging economic and social environments. This paper provides an overview of current debates regarding youth employment, highlighting conceptualisations of youth and (un)employment, emerging youth employment trends...... and the nature of policies introduced to tackle youth (un)employment. It provides an overview of the six papers that make up this special issue and shows how highlighting the complexities and diversities of youth employment strategies in sub-Saharan Africa provides valuable lessons, both for enhancing current...... conceptualisations and theorisation of youth employment and in terms of related policy instruments....

  15. Development of Stronger and More Reliable Cast Austenitic Stainless Steels (H-Series) Based on Scientific Design Methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muralidharan, G.; Sikka, V.K.; Pankiw, R.I.


    Mechanical and Corrosion Properties (ORNL/TM-2005/81/R1). The final report on another related project at the University of Tennessee by George Pharr, Easo George, and Michael Santella has been published as Development of Combinatorial Methods for Alloy Design and Optimization (ORNL/TM-2005-133). The goal of the project was to increase the high-temperature strength by 50% and upper use temperature by 86 to 140 F (30 to 60 C) of H-Series of cast austenitic stainless steels. Meeting such a goal is expected to result in energy savings of 38 trillion Btu/year by 2020 and energy cost savings of $185 million/year. The goal of the project was achieved by using the alloy design methods developed at ORNL, based on precise microcharacterization and identification of critical microstructure/properties relationships and combining them with the modern computational science-based tools that calculate phases, phase fractions, and phase compositions based on alloy compositions. The combined approach of microcharacterization of phases and computational phase prediction would permit rapid improvement of the current alloy composition of an alloy and provide the long-term benefit of customizing alloys within grades for specific applications. The project was appropriate for the domestic industry because the current H-Series alloys have reached their limits both in high-temperature-strength properties and in upper use temperature. The desire of Duraloy's industrial customers to improve process efficiency, while reducing cost, requires that the current alloys be taken to the next level of strength and that the upper use temperature limit be increased. This project addressed a specific topic from the subject call: to develop materials for manufacturing processes that will increase high-temperature strength, fatigue resistance, corrosion, and wear resistance. The outcome of the project would benefit manufacturing processes in the chemical, steel, and heat-treating industries.

  16. Client-centeredness in supported employment: specialist and supervisor perspectives. (United States)

    Kostick, Kristin M; Whitley, Rob; Bush, Philip W


    This article examines the notion of client-centeredness from the perspective of supported employment specialists and supervisors, identifying barriers and facilitators to implementation in the field. Though by definition client-centered practices give precedence to clients' wishes, in a realistic setting client-centeredness is adapted to account for negotiations among clients, specialists, employers, and mental health service agencies. Qualitative interviews (n = 22) were conducted with employment specialists and supervisors to elicit facilitators and barriers to successful supported employment outcomes. Data were analyzed inductively using ATLAS.ti 5.0 software. Principal factors influencing implementation of client-centeredness include (1) clients' anxieties about their interests and abilities, (2) difficulties interpreting and negotiating clients' preferences in realistic contexts, (3) quality of supervision and guidance in implementing client-centered practices and upholding morale when facing challenges in the field, and (4) managing discrepancies across resource-sharing agencies in what it means to be "client-centered". These factors suggest the need for (1) focused training among employment specialists to better understand and negotiate clients' wishes, (2) more integration and communication between members of the treatment team, (3) hiring supervisors with first-hand supported employment experience, and (4) spreading awareness of the IPS model across resource-sharing agencies.

  17. Welfare states, flexible employment, and health: a critical review. (United States)

    Kim, Il-Ho; Muntaner, Carles; Vahid Shahidi, Faraz; Vives, Alejandra; Vanroelen, Christophe; Benach, Joan


    The aim of this literature review is to identify whether differences between welfare regimes can manifest diverse consequences for the health effects of insecure and precarious employment, as well as to address challenging issues and implications for future research. By searching PubMed, PsychINFO, Stork Social Science Citation Index, and Index Lilac, from 1988 to June 2010, a total of 104 original articles were selected (65 on job insecurity; 39 on precarious employment). After classifying selected empirical studies according to a six-regime welfare state typology (Scandinavian, Bismarckian, Southern European, Anglo-Saxon, Eastern European, and East Asian), this systematic review reveals that welfare regimes may be an important determinant of employment-related health. Precarious workers in Scandinavian welfare states report better or equal health status when compared to their permanent counterparts. By contrast, precarious work in the remaining welfare state regimes is found to be associated with adverse health outcomes, including poor self-rated health, musculoskeletal disorders, injuries, and mental health problems. Future research should be conducted by employing conceptual models that specify how macro-economic processes, country-level welfare factors, and individual employment histories and environments relate to employment-related health inequalities. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Is temporary employment a cause or consequence of poor mental health? A panel data analysis. (United States)

    Dawson, Chris; Veliziotis, Michail; Pacheco, Gail; Webber, Don J


    Mental health status has an association with labour market outcomes. If people in temporary employment have poorer mental health than those in permanent employment then it is consistent with two mutually inclusive possibilities: temporary employment generates adverse mental health effects and/or individuals with poorer mental health select into temporary from permanent employment. We apply regression analyses to longitudinal data corresponding to about 50,000 observations across 8000 individuals between 1991 and 2008 drawn from the British Household Panel Survey. We find that permanent employees who will be in temporary employment in the future have poorer mental health than those who never become temporarily employed. We also reveal that this relationship is mediated by greater job dissatisfaction. Overall, these results suggest that permanent workers with poor mental health appear to select into temporary employment thus signalling that prior cross section studies may overestimate the influence of employment type on mental health. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Employment and social benefits up to 10 years after breast cancer diagnosis: a population-based study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paalman, C. H.; van Leeuwen, F. E.; Aaronson, N. K.; de Boer, A. G. E. M.; van de Poll-Franse, L.; Oldenburg, H. S. A.; Schaapveld, M.


    Little is known about employment outcomes after breast cancer (BC) beyond the first years after treatment. Employment outcomes were compared with a general population comparison group (N=91 593) up to 10 years after BC for 26 120 patients, diagnosed before age 55 between 2000-2005, with income and

  20. Employment and social benefits up to 10 years after breast cancer diagnosis : A population-based study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paalman, C. H.; van Leeuwen, F. E.; Aaronson, N. K.; de Boer, A. G. E. M.; van de Poll-Franse, L.V.; Oldenburg, H. S. A.; Schaapveld, M.


    Background: Little is known about employment outcomes after breast cancer (BC) beyond the first years after treatment. Methods: Employment outcomes were compared with a general population comparison group (N=91 593) up to 10 years after BC for 26 120 patients, diagnosed before age 55 between

  1. Pre-employment vocational education and training in Korea


    Chae, ChangKyun; Chung, Jaeho


    The Korean vocational education and training (VET) system is heralded as one of the key factors contributing to the countries past economic growth. VET has played an important role in developing a skilled labor force during Korea's economic development. However, with the increasing importance of higher education and general education, the status of VET in the country is declining. This paper explores recent Korean data to analyze the labor market outcomes of pre-employment VET institutions. T...

  2. Ten Messages About Youth Employment in South East Europe


    World Bank Group


    Today, nearly half of youth in the six South East European countries (SEE6) are not in the labor market, and one quarter is inactive—not in employment, education, or training. These poor outcomes partly reflect a difficult recovery in SEE6 from the 2008 global financial crisis, which sent already high youth unemployment soaring to new heights. This paper presents 10 evidence-based messages...

  3. Structuration of precarious employment in economically constrained firms : The case of Dutch agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroon, B.; Paauwe, J.


    Precarious employment practices such as short-term contracts, low pay and lack of voice have undesired outcomes for workers, because these impede employees in their ethical rights to freedom, well-being and equality. Still, precarious employment practice is common in sectors with restrained economic

  4. Job Coaching and Success in Gaining and Sustaining Employment among Homeless People (United States)

    Hoven, Hanno; Ford, Rebecca; Willmot, Anne; Hagan, Stephanie; Siegrist, Johannes


    Objective: People who are homeless experience many barriers that affect their ability to gain and sustain work. In this study, we investigate whether personal job coaching support contributes toward employment success. Methods: The short- and long-term employment outcomes of 2,480 clients participating in a labor market program were analyzed.…

  5. JBAS Vol.5 No. 1 June 2013 64 Enhancing graduate employability ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Jun 1, 2013 ... conducting tracer studies and/or industry satisfaction surveys for identifying the employment ... satisfaction. Output. Graduates. Research outputs. Service/ outreach. Outcome. Graduate. Employability. Educational attainment of the population ... move away from the traditional job-for-life practice; increasing.

  6. Employment Programmes and Interventions Targeting Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Systematic Review of the Literature (United States)

    Hedley, Darren; Uljarevic, Mirko; Cameron, Lauren; Halder, Santoshi; Richdale, Amanda; Dissanayake, Cheryl


    Individuals with autism spectrum disorder face significant challenges entering the workforce; yet research in this area is limited and the issues are poorly understood. In this systematic review, empirical peer-reviewed studies on employment programmes, interventions and employment-related outcomes in individuals with autism spectrum disorder over…

  7. Analysis of Employment Quality of Chinese Vocational and Technical College Graduates (United States)

    Po, Yang; Jianru, Guo; Yinan, Jin


    The employment quality of college graduates is a recent topic of heated discussion in China. Given the differences in the talent development goals of academic and vocational institutions and in individual job search approaches, this research compares the differences between the job search approaches and actual employment outcomes of graduates of…

  8. College Graduates with Visual Impairments: A Report on Seeking and Finding Employment (United States)

    Antonelli, Karla; Steverson, Anne; O'Mally, Jamie


    Introduction: Career mentoring can help college graduates with legal blindness to address employment barriers. Data on specific employment outcomes and job search experiences for this population can inform job-seeking strategies for students, mentors, and service providers. Methods: A longitudinal study evaluated job-seeking activities and…

  9. The Relationship of Personality Traits to the Employment Status of Persons Who Are Blind. (United States)

    Hagemoser, S. D.


    Two levels of education (high school or less, or training beyond high school) and nine content scales of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 were used to predict employment-related outcomes of 109 blind adults. Education, anger, cynicism, obsessiveness, and family problems were significant predictors of employability. Self-esteem,…

  10. Employment after heart transplantation among adults with congenital heart disease. (United States)

    Tumin, Dmitry; Chou, Helen; Hayes, Don; Tobias, Joseph D; Galantowicz, Mark; McConnell, Patrick I


    Adults with congenital heart disease may require heart transplantation for end-stage heart failure. Whereas heart transplantation potentially allows adults with congenital heart disease to resume their usual activities, employment outcomes in this population are unknown. Therefore, we investigated the prevalence and predictors of work participation after heart transplantation for congenital heart disease. Retrospective review of a prospective registry. United Network for Organ Sharing registry of transplant recipients in the United States. Adult recipients of first-time heart transplantation with a primary diagnosis of congenital heart disease, performed between 2004 and 2015. None. Employment status reported by transplant centers at required follow-up intervals up to 5 y posttransplant. Among 470 patients included in the analysis (mean follow-up: 5 ± 3 y), 127 (27%) worked after transplant, 69 (15%) died before beginning or returning to work, and 274 (58%) survived until censoring, but did not participate in paid work. Multivariable competing-risks regression analysis examined characteristics associated with posttransplant employment, accounting for mortality as a competing outcome. In descriptive and multivariable analysis, pretransplant work participation was associated with a greater likelihood of posttransplant employment, while the use of Medicaid insurance at the time of transplant was associated with a significantly lower likelihood of working after transplant (subhazard ratio compared to private insurance: 0.55; 95% confidence interval: 0.32, 0.95; P = .032). Employment was rare after heart transplantation for congenital heart disease, and was significantly less common than in the broader population of adults with congenital heart disease. Differences in return to work were primarily related to pretransplant employment and the use of public insurance, rather than clinical characteristics. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Employment and vocational skills among individuals with autism spectrum disorder: predictors, impact, and interventions




    PUBLISHED Much research has been devoted to early intervention for individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), with a lesser emphasis on research examining the outcomes for, or support of, these individuals as they reach employment-age. Historically, employment opportunities for individuals with ASD have been limited. The current literature review sought to investigate the existing predictors and impact of employment or vocational placements among persons with ASD. Interventions desc...

  12. Employing helicity amplitudes for resummation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moult, Ian; Stewart, Iain W.; Tackmann, Frank J.; Waalewijn, Wouter J.; Amsterdam Univ.


    Many state-of-the-art QCD calculations for multileg processes use helicity amplitudes as their fundamental ingredients. We construct a simple and easy-to-use helicity operator basis in soft-collinear effective theory (SCET), for which the hard Wilson coefficients from matching QCD onto SCET are directly given in terms of color-ordered helicity amplitudes. Using this basis allows one to seamlessly combine fixed-order helicity amplitudes at any order they are known with a resummation of higher-order logarithmic corrections. In particular, the virtual loop amplitudes can be employed in factorization theorems to make predictions for exclusive jet cross sections without the use of numerical subtraction schemes to handle real-virtual infrared cancellations. We also discuss matching onto SCET in renormalization schemes with helicities in 4- and d-dimensions. To demonstrate that our helicity operator basis is easy to use, we provide an explicit construction of the operator basis, as well as results for the hard matching coefficients, for pp → H+0,1,2 jets, pp → W/Z/γ+0,1,2 jets, and pp → 2,3 jets. These operator bases are completely crossing symmetric, so the results can easily be applied to processes with e + e - and e - p collisions.

  13. Risk assessment: An employer's perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, K.C.


    There is no question that a careful assessment of risk is essential for safe industrial operations. For that reason, a thoughtful analysis of the effectiveness of available risk assessment technologies is prerequisite for responsible corporate decision making. An 'employer's' perspective on risk assessment cannot be constrained by any artificial restrictions which that term may imply. In reality, all those who are involved in the execution of an industrial enterprise: managers, regulators, the affected public, and especially those employees exposed to hazards, are necessarily partners in assessment of risk. The perspective of this paper is that of the oil and gas industry, in which the author's organization, Exxon Company, International, participates. The paper addresses what Exxon requires to assess and manage risk in its worldwide operations. The author is aware, however, through contacts with industry colleagues, that some of Exxon's initiatives are representative of similar actions being taken by others. 1992 is the European Year of Safety, Health and Hygiene, coinciding with the United Kingdom's Presidency of the European Council. It is also the year in which new 'goal-setting' regulations covering safety in the U.K. offshore oil industry were put forward by the Health and Safety Commission. These regulations, based largely on Lord Cullen's recommendations following the Piper Alpha tragedy, set the pace for safety in the British North Sea and will significantly impact the safety of offshore oil installations worldwide. The requirement for risk assessment, using a systematic process of analysing and evaluating risk, is a key component of this safety regime

  14. Flexible employment, precarious employees? Job-, employer- and institutional explanations for numerical flexibility, and its relation to precarious employment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olsthoorn, M.


    This dissertation presents a study of numerical flexibility and its relation to precarious employment in contemporary labour markets. Precarious employment is defined as the situation in which an employee has both insecure employment and insecure finances. More specifically, precarious employees are

  15. Measuring Outcomes. (United States)

    Kirschenmann, Sandy; Lane, Theodore


    Describes the California Community Colleges' goal to advance the state's economic growth through quality economic development programs. Discusses the importance of assessment and presents the results of an outcome evaluation, stating that California will collect $1.42 in taxes over the next 10 years for every dollar it spent on economic…

  16. More concerns and stronger beliefs about the necessity of medication in patients with acromegaly are associated with negative illness perceptions and impairment in quality of life. (United States)

    Andela, Cornelie D; Biermasz, Nienke R; Kaptein, Adrian A; Pereira, Alberto M; Tiemensma, Jitske


    Patients with acromegaly can be treated with surgery, radiotherapy and/or medical treatment. In general, patients' beliefs about medication are associated with illness perceptions, a contributory factor of Quality of Life (QoL). At present, there are no quantitative studies on medication beliefs in patients with acromegaly. Here, we aimed to examine possible associations between medication beliefs, illness perceptions, and QoL. Furthermore we aimed to explore whether illness perceptions of patients with remission of acromegaly receiving medical treatment differ from patients without medical treatment. Cross-sectional evaluation of 73 patients with remission of acromegaly (n = 28 patients with medication, n = 45 without medication). The Beliefs about Medicines Questionnaire (BMQ), Illness Perception Questionnaire-Revised (IPQ-R), EuroQoL-5D, and AcroQoL were used for the assessment. Stronger beliefs about the necessity of medical treatment and stronger concerns about the adverse effects were associated with attributing more symptoms to acromegaly, perceiving more negative consequences, and having a stronger belief in a cyclical timeline (BMQ, all P IPQ-R, P = 0.002). Negative medication beliefs were related to more negative illness perceptions and worse disease-specific QoL. Patients receiving medical treatment for acromegaly tend to perceive a more chronic timeline of their disease, compared to patients with remission without medical treatment. These psychological factors need to be taken into account when treating patients and developing a psychosocial education program aiming to improve QoL. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Psychotherapy Outcome in a Private Practice Setting. (United States)

    Kirkhart, Kathryn A.; And Others

    Although almost one-third of licensed psychologists who work in health care settings are employed primarily in private practice, no major study of outcomes in this setting has been undertaken. Outcomes in a private practice were investigated with 33 adult clients who planned to pursue psychotherapy until release by their therapist. The clients…

  18. Increasing BMI is associated with reduced expression of P-glycoprotein (ABCB1 gene) in the human brain with a stronger association in African-Americans than Caucasians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Julie Vendelbo; Olesen, Rasmus Hansen; Lauridsen, Jesper Krogh


    . Using microarray data analysis from 145 neurologically sound adults, this study investigated the association between body mass index (BMI) and ABCB1 expression in the frontal cortex. Increasing BMI values were associated with a statistically significantly reduced expression of ABCB1. Investigation...... of DNA methylation patterns in a subgroup of 52 individuals found that the methylation/expression ratios of ABCB1 were unaffected by increasing BMI values. Interestingly, the effect of BMI on ABCB1 expression appeared stronger in African Americans than in Caucasians.The Pharmacogenomics Journal advance...

  19. Neighborhood quality and labor market outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damm, Anna Piil


    Settlement in a socially deprived neighborhood may hamper individual labor market outcomes because of lack of employed or highly skilled contacts. I investigate this hypothesis by exploiting a unique natural experment that occurred between 1986 and 1998 when refugee immigrants to Denmark were...... of refugee men. Their labor market outcomes are also not affected by the overall employment rate and the overall average skill level in the neighborhood. However, an increase in the average skill level of non-Western immigrant men living in the neighborhood raises their employment probability, while...

  20. Sign Language Users' Education and Employment Levels: Keeping Pace with Changes in the General Australian Population? (United States)

    Willoughby, Louisa


    This article draws on data from the 2006 Australian census to explore the education and employment outcomes of sign languages users living in Victoria, Australia, and to compare them with outcomes reported in the general population. Census data have the advantage of sampling the entire population on the one night, avoiding problems of population…

  1. 75 FR 3168 - Vocational Rehabilitation and Employment Program-Self-Employment (United States)


    ..., prior to authorizing a rehabilitation plan leading to self-employment (a ``self-employment plan''). The... Employment Program--Self-Employment AGENCY: Department of Veterans Affairs. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This... Affairs (VA) concerning self-employment for individuals with qualifying disabilities. We are making...

  2. Women's Employment in France: Protection or Equality. (United States)

    Devaud, Marcelle; Levy, Martine


    Reviews the origin and evolution of special protection laws in France for employed women, describes those measures that still exist, and explains what employers, unions, and the authorities think of them. Discusses pregnancy, family responsibilities, and technological progress. (CT)

  3. Employer's Perceptions of Agribusiness Placement SOE Programs. (United States)

    Fletcher, Gregory W.; And Others


    Research was conducted to determine the benefits derived from agribusiness supervised occupational experience programs and to identify factors important in planning and/or conducting students' agribusiness employment experiences as perceived by employers of vocational agriculture students. (CT)

  4. EU employment challenges in the future

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rimmer, Nina Roehr


    Comparison and discussion of the Danish and Spanish employment situation and challenges in the future......Comparison and discussion of the Danish and Spanish employment situation and challenges in the future...

  5. Employment and Growth | Page 36 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Employment and Growth. Emploi et croissance. Language English. Read more about Promoting Entrepreneurship Research in Southeast Asia: Applying the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor. Language English. Read more about Greening Small and Medium Enterprises: Its Impact on Competitiveness and Employment.

  6. 12 CFR 268.705 - Employment. (United States)


    ... Physical or Mental Disability § 268.705 Employment. No qualified individual with a disability shall, on the basis of a disability, be subjected to discrimination in employment under any program or activity...

  7. Predicting Employer's Benefits from Cooperative Education. (United States)

    Wiseman, Richard L.; Page, Norman R.


    Attempts to predict employer benefits resulting from their involvement in cooperative education programs. Benefits include a good source of quality employees, increased worker motivation, and increased respect between students and employers. (JOW)

  8. Employing Disabled Persons in Leisure Service Agencies. (United States)

    Shank, John W.


    This article discusses a study that explored barriers to the employment of physically disabled persons in leisure services and the extent to which selected actions would increase the potential employment of these individuals. (JMK)

  9. Employment: Labor Force Status (1983-2012) (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Civilian labor force data consists of the number of employed persons, the number of unemployed persons, an unemployment rate and the total count of both employed and...

  10. 76 FR 45621 - Employment and Training Administration (United States)


    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration Comment Request for Extension of... Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Labor (Department), as part of its continuing effort..., the Employment and Training Administration (ETA) is soliciting comments concerning the extension of...

  11. 76 FR 5212 - Employment and Training Administration (United States)


    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration Comment Request for Information...): Extension With Revisions AGENCY: Employment and Training Administration (ETA), Department of Labor. ACTION... Training Administration is soliciting comments concerning the Office of Unemployment Insurance's collection...

  12. Parental employment and children's body weight: Mothers, others, and mechanisms. (United States)

    Ziol-Guest, Kathleen M; Dunifon, Rachel E; Kalil, Ariel


    A robust body of literature spanning several countries indicates a positive association between maternal employment and child body mass index (BMI). Fewer studies have examined the role of paternal employment. More importantly, little empirical work examines the mechanisms that might explain the relationships between parental employment and children's BMI. Our paper tests the relationship between the cumulative experience of maternal and spouse employment over a child's lifetime and that child's BMI, overweight, and obesity at age 13 or 14. We further examine several mechanisms that may explain these associations. We use data from the U.S. National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY79) merged mother-child file on cohorts of children who were born during a period of dramatic increase in both childhood obesity and maternal employment. We find that the number of hours that highly-educated mothers work over her child's lifetime is positively and statistically significantly associated with her child's BMI and risk of overweight at ages 13 or 14. The work hours of mothers' spouses and partners, on the other hand, are not significantly associated with these outcomes. Results suggest that, for children of highly-educated mothers, the association between maternal work hours and child BMI is partially mediated by television viewing time. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Are melanized feather barbs stronger? (United States)

    Butler, Michael; Johnson, Amy S


    Melanin has been associated with increased resistance to abrasion, decreased wear and lowered barb breakage in feathers. But, this association was inferred without considering barb position along the rachis as a potentially confounding variable. We examined the cross-sectional area, breaking force, breaking stress, breaking strain and toughness of melanized and unmelanized barbs along the entire rachis of a primary feather from an osprey (Pandion haliaetus). Although breaking force was higher for melanized barbs, breaking stress (force divided by cross-sectional area) was greater for unmelanized barbs. But when position was considered, all mechanical differences between melanized and unmelanized barbs disappeared. Barb breaking stress, breaking strain and toughness decreased, and breaking stiffness increased, distally along the rachis. These proximal-distal material property changes are small and seem unlikely to affect flight performance of barbs. Our observations of barb bending, breaking and morphology, however, lead us to propose a design principle for barbs. We propose that, by being thicker-walled dorso-ventrally, the barb's flexural stiffness is increased during flight; but, by allowing for twisting when loaded with dangerously high forces, barbs firstly avoid failure by bending and secondly avoid complete failure by buckling rather than rupturing.

  14. A stronger, more supranational Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beach, Derek


    Are we witnessing a transformation of the EU from a strong supranational institution into a weaker Union dominated by governments? This chapter analyzes developments in the past two decades, investigating whether we have seen a shift in power from the EU to member state governments. Is there a sh......Are we witnessing a transformation of the EU from a strong supranational institution into a weaker Union dominated by governments? This chapter analyzes developments in the past two decades, investigating whether we have seen a shift in power from the EU to member state governments....... Is there a shift in the EU towards a new, more intergovernmental Union? The argument in this chapter is that what we are seeing is actually the gradual strengthening of the supranational character of the Union, following a typical trajectory. When a policy area is first included as part of the EU, decision...

  15. A stronger perfume for LPG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willcox, C.K.


    The odorisation of Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) is undertaken to improve the safe use and transport of this popular fuel. Effective LPG odorisation should enable leaks to be detected by any person with a normal sense of smell before gas concentrations reach a hazardous level. The objective is identical to that for odorising natural gas. However, the physical characteristics of propane and butane present particular difficulties. These do not occur with natural gas, which has a dynamic, flowing, simple-phase system. (author)

  16. A stronger perfume for LPG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willcox, C.K.


    The odorisation of Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) is undertaken to improve the safe use and transport of this popular fuel. Effective LPG odorisation should enable leaks to be detected by any person with a normal sense of smell before gas concentrations reach a hazardous level. The objective is identical to that for odorising natural gas. However, the physical characteristics of propane and butane present particular difficulties. These do not occur with natural gas, which has a dynamic, flowing, simple-phase system. (author)

  17. Faster-higher-stronger -- greener

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgess, A.


    The Toronto Olympic Bid Committee is reported to have adopted a strong environmental orientation in its bid to bring the 2008 Olympic Games to Toronto. In a recent address, the President of the Committee outlined details of the bid's environmental component which emphasizes the role of sustainable development within the Olympics and the consequences of this orientation on the design, construction and operation of facilities. The Toronto Bid Committee has gained inspiration and momentum for its 'green bid' from the host city of the 2000 Olympic Games, Sidney, Australia, which has won widespread praise for its efforts to clean up Homebush Bay, a brownfield site long seen as a liability for the city. The Toronto Bid Committee is making itself accountable for: creating the healthiest possible conditions for the athletes, visitors and residents; designing for sustainability; protecting, restoring and enhancing human and natural habitats; conserving resources and minimizing the ecological impact of the Games; promoting innovative, technically proven Canadian environmental technology; and fostering environmental awareness and education. The Committee intends to make the environment a priority and not just an afterthought in the bidding process. It hopes to develop specific goals and where possible, quantifiable targets in non-polluting designs for all Olympic housing and sports facilities. Wherever possible renewable power such as wind, solar and fuel cells will be used, and cleaner fuels such as natural gas where green power is not a viable option

  18. Working Longer Makes Students Stronger?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Vibeke Myrup

    classroom hours in literacy and maths on ninth grade (aged 16) student performance in writing and maths, respectively. Using population data for Denmark in 2003-2006, I exploit unique policy-induced variation in classroom hours.On average, the reform changed classroom hours by 2.2-3.3% in literacy and maths...

  19. Employment services in Great Britain and Turkey


    ÖZKANLI, Özlem


    This artiele criticaUy compares the institutions and procedures for the employment services of Great Britain (GB) and Turkey. The similarities and differences of two employment organisations, the Department for Education and Employment in GB and the Turkish Employment Organisation, are examined. Data is collected in field study from these organisations, based in London and Ankara, through interviews and observation techniques. Field study in London is financed by the World Bank. After briefly...

  20. When affective well-being is empowered : the joint role of leader-member exchange and the employment relationship


    Audenaert, Mieke; Vanderstraeten, Alex; Buyens, Dirk


    HRM and the leader are often assumed to play a joint role in affecting employee reactions. In a multilevel, time-lagged study, we examined the joint role of the employment relationship and leader-member exchange. We tested whether this joint role is essential to when leader-member exchange leads to affective well-being via psychological empowerment. We build on HRM literature to expect that the relationship of leader-member exchange with psychological empowerment is stronger when the employme...

  1. 29 CFR 788.16 - Employment relationship. (United States)


    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Employment relationship. 788.16 Section 788.16 Labor... MORE THAN EIGHT EMPLOYEES ARE EMPLOYED § 788.16 Employment relationship. (a) The Supreme Court has made..., the permanency of the relationship, the opportunities for profit or loss, the initiative judgment or...

  2. 29 CFR 801.8 - Employment relationship. (United States)


    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Employment relationship. 801.8 Section 801.8 Labor... OF THE EMPLOYEE POLYGRAPH PROTECTION ACT OF 1988 General § 801.8 Employment relationship. (a) EPPA... employer in relationship to an employee or prospective employee” (EPPA section 2(2)). (b) EPPA restrictions...

  3. 34 CFR 34.21 - Employer certification. (United States)


    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Employer certification. 34.21 Section 34.21 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education ADMINISTRATIVE WAGE GARNISHMENT § 34.21 Employer... within the time stated in the instructions for the form. (c) The employer must include in the...

  4. 36 CFR 1154.140 - Employment. (United States)


    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Employment. 1154.140 Section... ARCHITECTURAL AND TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE BOARD § 1154.140 Employment. No qualified handicapped person shall, on the basis of handicap, be subjected to discrimination in employment under any program or...

  5. 24 CFR 3.500 - Employment. (United States)


    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Employment. 3.500 Section 3.500... Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 3.500 Employment. (a) General. (1) No person shall, on the basis of sex, be excluded from participation in, be...

  6. 3 CFR 102.140 - Employment. (United States)


    ... 3 The President 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Employment. 102.140 Section 102.140 Presidential... PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY THE EXECUTIVE OFFICE OF THE PRESIDENT § 102.140 Employment. No... employment under any program or activity conducted by the agency. The definitions, requirements, and...

  7. 29 CFR 1615.140 - Employment. (United States)



  8. 45 CFR 606.40 - Employment. (United States)


    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Employment. 606.40 Section 606.40 Public Welfare... § 606.40 Employment. No qualified individual with handicaps shall, on the basis of handicap, be subjected to discrimination in employment under any program or activity conducted by the Foundation. The...

  9. 11 CFR 6.140 - Employment. (United States)


    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Employment. 6.140 Section 6.140 Federal... OR ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY THE FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION § 6.140 Employment. No qualified handicapped person shall, on the basis of handicap, be subjected to discrimination in employment under any...

  10. 45 CFR 707.7 - Employment. (United States)


    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Employment. 707.7 Section 707.7 Public Welfare... § 707.7 Employment. No qualified individual with disabilities shall, on the basis of disability, be subjected to discrimination in employment under any program or activity conducted by the Agency. The...

  11. 22 CFR 1701.140 - Employment. (United States)


    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Employment. 1701.140 Section 1701.140 Foreign... PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY THE UNITED STATES INSTITUTE OF PEACE § 1701.140 Employment. No... employment under any program or activity conducted by the agency. The definitions, requirements, and...

  12. 1 CFR 457.140 - Employment. (United States)


    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Employment. 457.140 Section 457.140 General... ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY THE NATIONAL CAPITAL PLANNING COMMISSION § 457.140 Employment. No qualified handicapped person shall, on the basis of handicap, be subjected to discrimination in employment under any...

  13. 22 CFR 219.140 - Employment. (United States)


    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Employment. 219.140 Section 219.140 Foreign... DEVELOPMENT § 219.140 Employment. No qualified handicapped person shall, on the basis of handicap, be subjected to discrimination in employment under any program or activity conducted by the agency. The...

  14. 19 CFR 201.140 - Employment. (United States)


    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Employment. 201.140 Section 201.140 Customs Duties... Commission § 201.140 Employment. No qualified handicapped person shall, on the basis of handicap, be subjected to discrimination in employment under any program or activity conducted by the agency. The...

  15. 34 CFR 1200.140 - Employment. (United States)


    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Employment. 1200.140 Section 1200.140 Education... COUNCIL ON DISABILITY § 1200.140 Employment. No qualified individual with handicaps shall, on the basis of handicap, be subjected to discrimination in employment under any program or activity conducted by the...

  16. 43 CFR 17.540 - Employment. (United States)


    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Employment. 17.540 Section 17.540 Public... Programs or Activities Conducted by the Department of the Interior § 17.540 Employment. No qualified handicapped person shall, on the basis of handicap, be subjected to discrimination in employment under any...

  17. 45 CFR 2490.140 - Employment. (United States)


    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Employment. 2490.140 Section 2490.140 Public... MADISON MEMORIAL FELLOWSHIP FOUNDATION § 2490.140 Employment. No qualified individual with handicaps shall, on the basis of handicap, be subjected to discrimination in employment under any program or activity...

  18. 29 CFR 100.540 - Employment. (United States)


    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Employment. 100.540 Section 100.540 Labor Regulations... § 100.540 Employment. No qualified individual with handicaps shall, on the basis of handicap, be subject to discrimination in employment under any program or activity conducted by the agency. The...

  19. 12 CFR 352.6 - Employment. (United States)


    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Employment. 352.6 Section 352.6 Banks and... NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF DISABILITY § 352.6 Employment. No qualified individual with a disability shall, on the basis of that disability, be subjected to discrimination in employment in any program or activity...

  20. 45 CFR 1803.9 - Employment. (United States)


    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Employment. 1803.9 Section 1803.9 Public Welfare... THE BASIS OF HANDICAP § 1803.9 Employment. No qualified individual with handicaps shall, on the basis of handicap, be subjected to discrimination in employment under any program or activity conducted by...