Antonella Del Rosso
CERN was founded 58 years ago under the auspices of UNESCO. Since then, both organisations have grown to become world leaders in their respective fields. The links between the two have always existed but today they are even stronger, with new projects under way to develop a more efficient way of exchanging information and devise a common strategy on topics of mutual interest. CERN and UNESCO are a perfect example of natural partners: their common field is science and education is one of the pillars on which both are built. Historically, they share a common heritage. Both UNESCO and CERN were born of the desire to use scientific cooperation to rebuild peace and security in the aftermath of the Second World War. "Recently, building on our common roots and in close collaboration with UNESCO, we have been developing more structured links to ensure the continuity of the actions taken over the years," says Maurizio Bona, who is in charge of CERN relations with international orga...
Zimmermann, Fabian; Ricard, Daniel; Heino, Mikko
Population regulation is a central concept in ecology, yet in many cases its presence and the underlying mechanisms are difficult to demonstrate. The current paradigm maintains that marine fish populations are predominantly regulated by density-dependent recruitment. While it is known that density-dependent somatic growth can be present too, its general importance remains unknown and most practical applications neglect it. This study aimed to close this gap by for the first time quantifying and comparing density dependence in growth and recruitment over a large set of fish populations. We fitted density-dependent models to time-series data on population size, recruitment and age-specific weight from commercially exploited fish populations in the Northeast Atlantic Ocean and the Baltic Sea. Data were standardized to enable a direct comparison within and among populations, and estimated parameters were used to quantify the impact of density regulation on population biomass. Statistically significant density dependence in recruitment was detected in a large proportion of populations (70%), whereas for density dependence in somatic growth the prevalence of density dependence depended heavily on the method (26% and 69%). Despite age-dependent variability, the density dependence in recruitment was consistently stronger among age groups and between alternative approaches that use weight-at-age or weight increments to assess growth. Estimates of density-dependent reduction in biomass underlined these results: 97% of populations with statistically significant parameters for growth and recruitment showed a larger impact of density-dependent recruitment on population biomass. The results reaffirm the importance of density-dependent recruitment in marine fishes, yet they also show that density dependence in somatic growth is not uncommon. Furthermore, the results are important from an applied perspective because density dependence in somatic growth affects productivity and
Goodwin, Shikha J.; Blackman, Rachael K.; Sakellaridi, Sofia
Human cognition is characterized by flexibility, the ability to select not only which action but which cognitive process to engage to best achieve the current behavioral objective. The ability to tailor information processing in the brain to rules, goals, or context is typically referred to as executive control, and although there is consensus that prefrontal cortex is importantly involved, at present we have an incomplete understanding of how computational flexibility is implemented at the level of prefrontal neurons and networks. To better understand the neural mechanisms of computational flexibility, we simultaneously recorded the electrical activity of groups of single neurons within prefrontal and posterior parietal cortex of monkeys performing a task that required executive control of spatial cognitive processing. In this task, monkeys applied different spatial categorization rules to reassign the same set of visual stimuli to alternative categories on a trial-by-trial basis. We found that single neurons were activated to represent spatially defined categories in a manner that was rule dependent, providing a physiological signature of a cognitive process that was implemented under executive control. We found also that neural signals coding rule-dependent categories were distributed between the parietal and prefrontal cortex—however, not equally. Rule-dependent category signals were stronger, more powerfully modulated by the rule, and earlier to emerge in prefrontal cortex relative to parietal cortex. This suggests that prefrontal cortex may initiate the switch in neural representation at a network level that is important for computational flexibility. PMID:22399773
Full Text Available Failures in self-regulation are predictive of adverse cognitive, academic and vocational outcomes, yet the interplay between cognition and self-regulation failure remains elusive. Two experiments tested the hypothesis that lapses in self-regulation, as predicted by the strength model, can be induced in individuals using cognitive paradigms and whether such failures are related to cognitive performance. In Experiments 1, the stop-signal task (SST was used to show reduced behavioural inhibition after performance of a cognitively demanding arithmetic task, but only in people with low arithmetic accuracy, when compared with SST performance following a simple discrimination task. Surprisingly, and inconsistently with existing models, subjects rapidly recovered without rest or glucose. In Experiment 2, depletions of both go-signal reaction times and response inhibition were observed when a simple detection task was used as a control. These experiments provide new evidence that cognitive self-regulation processes are influenced by cognitive performance, and subject to improvement and recovery without rest.
Vanesa Galego Carrillo
Full Text Available Emotional regulation through cognitions is directly linked to human life and help people to maintain control on their emotions, both during and after experimenting an stressful event. Exposition to gender violence cause serious health problems related to stress that need the activation of cognitive and behavioral processes to cope with it. WHOWorld Health Organization states that women in maltreatment situation have limitations on self-autonomy (autonomy and independent behavior. For this reason, self-regulation, understood as a mechanic of self-management through cognitions, emotions, mood, impulsive control and executive task may be affected. The main objective of this research is, to know the impact that gender-based violence may result in the use of cognitive emotion regulation strategies. It was an observational cross-over design of two non-equivalent women's groups/samples. A total of 116 women completed adapted versions to Spanish of "Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (CERQ”. Of these, 51 were in a situation of abuse. Results show that the greatest differences between being affected or not by abuse reside in “Rumination”, “Acceptance”, “Catastrophizing and blaming others”. These findings contribute to the empirical evidence in the field of gender-based violence and provide key elements for intervention.
Heatherton, Todd F.; Wagner, Dylan D.
Self-regulatory failure is a core feature of many social and mental health problems. Self-regulation can by undermined by failures to transcend overwhelming temptations, negative moods, resource depletion, and when minor lapses in self-control snowball into self-regulatory collapse. Cognitive neuroscience research suggests that successful self-regulation is dependent on top-down control from the prefrontal cortex over subcortical regions involved in reward and emotion. We highlight recent neuroimaging research on self-regulatory failure, the findings of which support a balance model of self-regulation whereby self-regulatory failure occurs whenever the balance is tipped in favor of subcortical areas, either due to particularly strong impulses, or when prefrontal function itself is impaired. Such a model is consistent with recent findings in the cognitive neuroscience of addictive behavior, emotion regulation, and decision making. PMID:21273114
Rowland, Jesseca E; Hamilton, Meelah K; Lino, Bianca J; Ly, Patricia; Denny, Kelsey; Hwang, Eun-Ji; Mitchell, Philip B; Carr, Vaughan J; Green, Melissa J
Schizophrenia (SZ) and bipolar disorder (BD) exhibit common cognitive deficits that may impede the capacity for self-regulating affect. We examined the use of particular cognitive strategies for regulating negative affect in SZ and BD, and their associations with levels of mood symptomatology. Participants were 126 SZ, 97 BD, and 81 healthy controls (HC) who completed the Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (CERQ), the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS) and the Hypomanic Personality Scale (HPS). Patients with SZ and BD reported more frequent rumination, catastrophising and self-blame, and less use of putting into perspective, relative to HC. Additionally, SZ patients were more likely to engage in other-blame, compared to HC. The most consistent predictors of symptomatology for SZ were self-blame and catastrophising, while for BD were rumination and reduced positive reappraisal. These findings demonstrate maladaptive use of cognitive strategies to self-regulate negative affect in SZ and BD, resembling those reported previously for unipolar depression. The ineffective use of adaptive cognitive reframing strategies in both patient groups may reflect the impact of their shared cognitive deficits, and requires further investigation. Remediation of cognitive capacities contributing to ineffective self-regulation may facilitate reduced mood symptomatology in SZ and BD. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Stefano, George B
Cognitive ability did not appear de novo in humans. Despite our ability to recognize limited cognitive behavioral characteristics in animals, there has been no outcry to proclaim this phenomenon. The notion that humans are the only animals to possess cognition has taken advantage of the illusory potential in inter-subjectivity and placed him outside of reality. This deception, however, has positive survival value due to the fact that it is humankind's self-proclaimed responsibility to excel beyond other simple animal species. However, at this point in evolution, we must allow our cognitive ability to reform itself and, in so doing, evolve with the benefit of the knowledge that this ability is itself creating. By recognizing that animals may have limited cognitive ability, we only enhance our self-esteem, not diminish it. Furthermore, cognition, given its limited brain controlling attributes, may mask another more diligent force for action and control, namely, emotion. Emotion provides the motivation for action, the mechanism to limit reason in a timely survival related manner and a coping strategy for dealing with other humans and animals while simultaneously modulating involuntary physiological functions in an appropriate manner.
Full Text Available Aim: To explore relation between cognitive self-regulation, social functioning, and psychopathology in schizophrenia. Materials and Methods: A total of 100 patients diagnosed with schizophrenia according to International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10 were taken from Department of Psychiatry of two postgraduate hospitals of Kolkata, India. All subjects gave informed consent. After recording sociodemographic and clinical details, the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale for Schizophrenia (PANSS, Schizophrenia Research Foundation India-Social Functioning Index (SCARF-SFI, and specially designed questionnaire on cognitive self-regulation was administered. Results: All the four subtests of SCARF-SFI, that is, self-concern, occupational role, social role and family role, and symptoms scale of PANSS were significantly correlated with cognitive self-regulation. Cognitive self-regulation along with positive and negative symptoms was able to predict social functioning. Conclusion: Cognitive self-regulation is significantly and positively correlated to social functioning. Cognitive self-regulation along with positive and negative symptoms is a significant predictor of social functioning.
Dreu, Carsten K W De; Dussel, D Berno; Velden, Femke S Ten
Parochial altruism is decomposed in a tendency to benefit the in-group along with a tendency to ignore, derogate, and harm rivaling out-groups. Building off recent work suggesting that decisions to cooperate can be relatively fast and intuitive, we examine parochial altruism in intergroup conflict when cognitive deliberation is rendered difficult or not. Predictions were tested in an experiment using an incentivized Intergroup Prisoner's Dilemma-Maximizing Differences Game with 95 subjects classified as either pro-social or pro-self being randomly allocated to high vs. low impulse-control conditions. Results showed, first of all, that self-sacrificial decisions to contribute were made faster than decisions not to contribute, and that faster decision time associated with more positive expectations of in-group members. Second, we observed that lowering impulse control with a difficult rather than easy Stroop Task increased the amount contributed to a pool that benefited in-group members while harming out-group members; thus reducing deliberation increased parochial altruism. Finally, results replicated earlier work showing that especially pro-social (vs. pro-self) individuals contributed more to the in-group and did not lower their contributions to the between-group pool that benefitted their in-group and, simultaneously, hurt the out-group. This pattern emerged independent of their impulse control. Thus, (in-group bounded) cooperation is more prominent among individuals with strong rather than weak other-regarding preferences. Moreover, the intuitive tendency to cooperate may have evolved in the context of intergroup conflict and therefore is sharp-edged-in-group bounded and including willingness to aggress out-groups.
Dreu, Carsten K. W. De; Dussel, D. Berno; Velden, Femke S. Ten
Parochial altruism is decomposed in a tendency to benefit the in-group along with a tendency to ignore, derogate, and harm rivaling out-groups. Building off recent work suggesting that decisions to cooperate can be relatively fast and intuitive, we examine parochial altruism in intergroup conflict when cognitive deliberation is rendered difficult or not. Predictions were tested in an experiment using an incentivized Intergroup Prisoner’s Dilemma–Maximizing Differences Game with 95 subjects classified as either pro-social or pro-self being randomly allocated to high vs. low impulse-control conditions. Results showed, first of all, that self-sacrificial decisions to contribute were made faster than decisions not to contribute, and that faster decision time associated with more positive expectations of in-group members. Second, we observed that lowering impulse control with a difficult rather than easy Stroop Task increased the amount contributed to a pool that benefited in-group members while harming out-group members; thus reducing deliberation increased parochial altruism. Finally, results replicated earlier work showing that especially pro-social (vs. pro-self) individuals contributed more to the in-group and did not lower their contributions to the between-group pool that benefitted their in-group and, simultaneously, hurt the out-group. This pattern emerged independent of their impulse control. Thus, (in-group bounded) cooperation is more prominent among individuals with strong rather than weak other-regarding preferences. Moreover, the intuitive tendency to cooperate may have evolved in the context of intergroup conflict and therefore is sharp-edged—in-group bounded and including willingness to aggress out-groups. PMID:25999888
van Meeuwen, Ludo W.; Brand-Gruwel, Saskia; Kirschner, Paul A.; de Bock, Jeano J. P. R.; van Merriënboer, Jeroen J. G.
In complex cognitive domains such as air traffic control, professionals must be able to adapt to and act upon continuing changes in a highly advanced technological work environment. To function optimally in such an environment, the controllers must be able to regulate their learning. Although these regulation skills should be part of their…
Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to investigate differences among secondary school students in cognitive and metacognitive processes in self-regulated learning (SRL according to year of education, learning program, sex and achievement. Beside this, the autors were interested in the relationship between (metacognitive components of self-regulated learning. The theoretical framework of the research was the four-component model of self-regulated learning by Hofer, Yu and Pintrich (1998. The focus was on the first part of the model which is about cognitive structure and cognitive strategies.Metacognitive awareness inventory (Shraw and Sperling Dennison, 1994 and Cognitive strategies awareness questionnaire (Pečjak, 2000, in Peklaj and Pečjak, 2002 were applied. In a sample of 321 students, differences in perception of importance of cognitive strategies among students attending different grades (1st and 4th, students attending different learning programs, students of different gender and students with different achievements emerged. Students' achievement in the whole sample was related to amount of metacognitive awareness. In the sample of 4-year students and students attending professional secondary schools, students' achievement was additionally related to appraisal of importance elaboration and organizational strategies. Further statistical analyses of relationship between components in SRL showed high positive correlation between cognitive and metacognitive components.
Full Text Available Human religiousness is a complex and multidimensional reality embedded in basic human needs and connected with people’s desires, anxieties, and hopes. The aim of the paper is to assess religiousness, considered in terms of meaning and cognitive emotion regulation strategies, in adolescents. The religious meaning system is a multidimensional construct encompassing convictions, beliefs, emotional connotations, and the rules of worship. In situations of negative events or unpleasant experiences, young people resort to various coping strategies. Cognitive emotion regulation strategies concern relatively stable conscious ways of regulating emotions, which consist in mentally handling the incoming information that evoke emotions. The study concerned young people aged 13 to 16 years (N = 130. Religiousness was assessed using D. Krok’s Religious Meaning System Questionnaire (RMSQ and cognitive coping strategies were measured using the Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (CERQ by N. Garnefski and V. Kraaij. The results show that there are relations between religiousness, understood in terms of the young participants’ meaning system, and adaptive as well as maladaptive emotion regulation strategies. The results of the study are discussed in the light of theory and research.
Full Text Available This paper integrated Gross cognitive process into the HMM (hidden Markov model emotional regulation method and implemented human-robot emotional interaction with facial expressions and behaviors. Here, energy was the psychological driving force of emotional transition in the cognitive emotional model. The input facial expression was translated into external energy by expression-emotion mapping. Robot’s next emotional state was determined by the cognitive energy (the stimulus after cognition and its own current emotional energy’s size and source’s position. The two random quantities in emotional transition process—the emotional family and the specific emotional state in the AVS (arousal-valence-stance 3D space—were used to simulate human emotion selection. The model had been verified by an emotional robot with 10 degrees of freedom and more than 100 kinds of facial expressions. Experimental results show that the emotional regulation model does not simply provide the typical classification and jump in terms of a set of emotional labels but that it operates in a 3D emotional space enabling a wide range of intermediary emotional states to be obtained. So the robot with cognitive emotional regulation model is more intelligent and real; moreover it can give full play to its emotional diversification in the interaction.
Hobson, Nicholas M; Saunders, Blair; Al-Khindi, Timour; Inzlicht, Michael
Traditional models of cognitive control have explained performance monitoring as a "cold" cognitive process, devoid of emotion. In contrast to this dominant view, a growing body of clinical and experimental research indicates that cognitive control and its neural substrates, in particular the error-related negativity (ERN), are moderated by affective and motivational factors, reflecting the aversive experience of response conflict and errors. To add to this growing line of research, here we use the classic emotion regulation paradigm-a manipulation that promotes the cognitive reappraisal of emotion during task performance-to test the extent to which affective variation in the ERN is subject to emotion reappraisal, and also to explore how emotional regulation of the ERN might influence behavioral performance. In a within-subjects design, 41 university students completed 3 identical rounds of a go/no-go task while electroencephalography was recorded. Reappraisal instructions were manipulated so that participants either down-regulated or up-regulated emotional involvement, or completed the task normally, without engaging any reappraisal strategy (control). Results showed attenuated ERN amplitudes when participants down-regulated their emotional experience. In addition, a mediation analysis revealed that the association between reappraisal style and attenuated ERN was mediated by changes in reported emotion ratings. An indirect effects model also revealed that down-regulation predicted sensitivity of error-monitoring processes (difference ERN), which, in turn, predicted poorer task performance. Taken together, these results suggest that the ERN appears to have a strong affective component that is associated with indices of cognitive control and behavioral monitoring.
Full Text Available This paper examined the effects of cognitive emotion regulation on employees’ job satisfaction. In this survey, Questionnaire and the questions were divided into two categories of cognitive emotion regulation and job satisfaction. To measure cognitive emotion regulation, including unadjusted emotion regulation strategies and adjusted strategies, 36 items questionnaire was used originally developed by Garnefski et al. (2001 [Garnefski, N., Kraaij, V., & Spinhoven, P. (2001. Negative life events, cognitive emotion regulation, and emotional problems. Personality and Individual Differences, 30, 1311–1327.]. The questionnaires were distributed among 340 staff employee of the Islamic Republic of Iran Customs Administration. The results revealed that the adjusted cognitive emotion regulation strategies increase job satisfaction of employees. However, unadjusted cognitive emotion regulation strategies reduce employees' job satisfaction. Moreover, among adjusted emotion regulation strategies, put in perspective strategy did not have significant effect on job satisfaction and rumination, had no significant effect on job satisfaction, which was one of the unadjusted strategies of cognitive emotion regulation.
O'Toole, Mia S; Mennin, Douglas S; Hougaard, Esben; Zachariae, Robert; Rosenberg, Nicole K
The objective of the study was to investigate variables, derived from both cognitive and emotion regulation conceptualizations of social anxiety disorder (SAD), as possible change processes in cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) for SAD. Several proposed change processes were investigated: estimated probability, estimated cost, safety behaviours, acceptance of emotions, cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression. Participants were 50 patients with SAD, receiving a standard manualized CBT program, conducted in groups or individually. All variables were measured pre-therapy, mid-therapy and post-therapy. Lower level mediation models revealed that while a change in most process measures significantly predicted clinical improvement, only changes in estimated probability and cost and acceptance of emotions showed significant indirect effects of CBT for SAD. The results are in accordance with previous studies supporting the mediating role of changes in cognitive distortions in CBT for SAD. In addition, acceptance of emotions may also be a critical component to clinical improvement in SAD during CBT, although more research is needed on which elements of acceptance are most helpful for individuals with SAD. The study's lack of a control condition limits any conclusion regarding the specificity of the findings to CBT. Change in estimated probability and cost, and acceptance of emotions showed an indirect effect of CBT for SAD. Cognitive distortions appear relevant to target with cognitive restructuring techniques. Finding acceptance to have an indirect effect could be interpreted as support for contemporary CBT approaches that include acceptance-based strategies. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Zhan, Jun; Wu, Xiaofei; Fan, Jin; Guo, Jianyou; Zhou, Jianshe; Ren, Jun; Liu, Chang; Luo, Jing
Previous studies have reported the failure of cognitive emotion regulation (CER), especially in regulating unpleasant emotions under stress. The underlying reason for this failure was the application of CER depends heavily on the executive function of the prefrontal cortex (PFC), but this function can be impaired by stress-related neuroendocrine hormones. This observation highlights the necessity of developing self-regulatory strategies that require less top-down cognitive control. Based on traditional Chinese philosophy and medicine, which examine how different types of emotions promote or counteract one another, we have developed a novel emotion regulation strategy whereby one emotion is used to alter another. For example, our previous experiment showed that sadness induction (after watching a sad film) could reduce aggressive behavior associated with anger [i.e., "sadness counteracts anger" (SCA)] (Zhan et al., 2015). Relative to the CER strategy requiring someone to think about certain cognitive reappraisals to reinterpret the meaning of an unpleasant situation, watching a film or listening to music and experiencing the emotion contained therein seemingly requires less cognitive effort and control; therefore, this SCA strategy may be an alternative strategy that compensates for the limitations of cognitive regulation strategies, especially in stressful situations. The present study was designed to directly compare the effects of the CER and SCA strategy in regulating anger and anger-related aggression in stressful and non-stressful conditions. Participants' subjective feeling of anger, anger-related aggressive behavior, skin conductance, and salivary cortisol and alpha-amylase levels were measured. Our findings revealed that acute stress impaired one's ability to use CR to control angry responses provoked by others, whereas stress did not influence the efficiency of the SCA strategy. Compared with sadness or neutral emotion induction, CER induction was found to
Full Text Available Previous studies have reported the failure of cognitive emotion regulation (CER, especially in regulating unpleasant emotions under stress. The underlying reason for this failure was the application of CER depends heavily on the executive function of the prefrontal cortex (PFC, but this function can be impaired by stress-related neuroendocrine hormones. This observation highlights the necessity of developing self-regulatory strategies that require less top-down cognitive control. Based on traditional Chinese philosophy and medicine, which examine how different types of emotions promote or counteract one another, we have developed a novel emotion regulation strategy whereby one emotion is used to alter another. For example, our previous experiment showed that sadness induction (after watching a sad film could reduce aggressive behavior associated with anger [i.e., “sadness counteracts anger” (SCA] (Zhan et al., 2015. Relative to the CER strategy requiring someone to think about certain cognitive reappraisals to reinterpret the meaning of an unpleasant situation, watching a film or listening to music and experiencing the emotion contained therein seemingly requires less cognitive effort and control; therefore, this SCA strategy may be an alternative strategy that compensates for the limitations of cognitive regulation strategies, especially in stressful situations. The present study was designed to directly compare the effects of the CER and SCA strategy in regulating anger and anger-related aggression in stressful and non-stressful conditions. Participants’ subjective feeling of anger, anger-related aggressive behavior, skin conductance, and salivary cortisol and alpha-amylase levels were measured. Our findings revealed that acute stress impaired one’s ability to use CR to control angry responses provoked by others, whereas stress did not influence the efficiency of the SCA strategy. Compared with sadness or neutral emotion induction, CER
Aimone, James B.; Li, Yan; Lee, Star W.; Clemenson, Gregory D.; Deng, Wei; Gage, Fred H.
Adult neurogenesis in the hippocampus is a notable process due not only to its uniqueness and potential impact on cognition but also to its localized vertical integration of different scales of neuroscience, ranging from molecular and cellular biology to behavior. This review summarizes the recent research regarding the process of adult neurogenesis from these different perspectives, with particular emphasis on the differentiation and development of new neurons, the regulation of the process by extrinsic and intrinsic factors, and their ultimate function in the hippocampus circuit. Arising from a local neural stem cell population, new neurons progress through several stages of maturation, ultimately integrating into the adult dentate gyrus network. The increased appreciation of the full neurogenesis process, from genes and cells to behavior and cognition, makes neurogenesis both a unique case study for how scales in neuroscience can link together and suggests neurogenesis as a potential target for therapeutic intervention for a number of disorders. PMID:25287858
Meng, Annette; Siren, Anu Kristiina
-regulation of driving as measured by the avoidance of certain driving situations by older drivers with different levels of self-rated cognitive problems. Eight hundred and forty Danish drivers aged 75–95 completed a structured telephone interview. The results showed that the recognition of cognitive problems...... was associated with an experience of improvement in higher level driving skills but also of a decline in lower level driving skills. Moreover, cognitive problems recognised by drivers were associated with discomfort in, and avoidance of, driving situations. Finally, a linear relationship between discomfort...... in driving and avoidance was found and this tended to be stronger for drivers recognising cognitive problems. The results indicate that older drivers who recognise problems with cognitive functions display good self-assessment of changes in their driving skills. In addition, the results suggest that driving...
Flouri, Eirini; Midouhas, Emily; Joshi, Heather
Socio-economic disadvantage is strongly associated with children's emotional (internalising) and behavioural (externalising) problems. Self-regulation and verbal cognitive ability have been related to children's emotional and behavioural resilience to socio-economic disadvantage. Despite being inter-related, self-regulation and verbal cognitive ability have not been examined jointly as promoting resilience in young children. This study investigated the roles of self-regulation and verbal cognitive ability in children's emotional and behavioural resilience to family socio-economic disadvantage from early to middle childhood (ages 3, 5, and 7 years; N = 16,916; 49 % girls). Using multivariate response growth curve modelling, we found that the relationship between socio-economic disadvantage and internalising problems was stronger for children with lower verbal cognitive ability. Also, poor children with high and low levels of self-regulation showed a widening gap in both emotional and behavioural problems over time. Poor and non-poor children alike benefited from self-regulation, but poor children appeared to be more vulnerable to low self-regulation. Self-regulation and verbal cognitive ability seem to be important protective factors for young children growing up in poor families.
Somayeh Shahba; Seyed Mehdi Alvani; Shams Alsadat Zahedi; Gholamreza Memarzadeh
This paper examined the effects of cognitive emotion regulation on employees’ job satisfaction. In this survey, Questionnaire and the questions were divided into two categories of cognitive emotion regulation and job satisfaction. To measure cognitive emotion regulation, including unadjusted emotion regulation strategies and adjusted strategies, 36 items questionnaire was used originally developed by Garnefski et al. (2001) [Garnefski, N., Kraaij, V., & Spinhoven, P. (2001). Negative life eve...
Ells, C.E.; Coleman, C.E.; Hosbons, R.R.; Ibrahim, E.F.; Doubt, G.L.
The CANDU calandria tubes, made of seam welded and annealed Zircaloy-2, have given exemplary service in-reactor. Although not designed as a system pressure containment, calandria tubes may remain intact even in the face of pressure tube rupture. One such incident at Pickering Unit 2 demonstrated the economic advantage of such an outcome, and a case can be made for increasing the probability that other calandria tubes would perform in a similar fashion. Various methods of obtaining stronger calandria tubes are available, and reviewed here. When the tubes are internally pressurized, the weld is the weak section of the tube. Increasing the oxygen concentration in the starting sheet, and thickening the weld, are promising routes to a stronger tube
Van Rheenen, T E; Meyer, D; Rossell, S L
Converging evidence suggests that in bipolar disorder (BD), social cognition and emotion regulation are affected by the capacity for effective neurocognitive function. Adaptive emotion regulation may also rely on intact social cognition, and it is possible that social cognition acts as a mediator in its relationship with neurocognition. We aimed to address this hypothesis by explicitly examining interrelationships among neurocognition, social cognition and emotion regulation in an out-patient sample meeting criteria for a DSM-IV-TR diagnosis of BD compared with controls. Fifty-one BD patients and 52 healthy controls completed a battery of tests assessing neurocognition, social cognition (emotion perception and theory of mind) and emotion regulation. Path analysis revealed that in BD, neurocognition was associated with social cognition, but social cognition was not associated with emotion regulation as expected. In contrast, a component of social cognition was found to mediate the relationship between neurocognition and emotion regulation in healthy controls. These findings highlight differences in the pattern of associations between neurocognition, social cognition and emotion regulation across BD patients and controls. In the present data, these results appear to indicate that neurocognitive and social cognitive abilities generally operate in isolation from emotion regulation in BD. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Epstein, Irina; Finkbeiner, Steven
The activity-regulated cytoskeletal (Arc) gene is implicated in numerous synaptic plasticity paradigms, including long-term potentiation and depression and homeostatic plasticity, and is critical for consolidating memory. How Arc facilitates these forms of plasticity is not fully understood. Unlike other neuronal immediate-early genes, Arc encodes a protein that shuttles between the somatodendritic and nuclear compartments to regulate synaptic plasticity. Little attention has been paid to Arc's role in the nucleus. Here, we highlight the regulatory elements and signaling cascades required to induce Arc transcription and discuss the significance of Arc nuclear localization for synaptic plasticity and scaling. We integrate these findings into the context of cognitive function and disease and propose a model in which Arc mediates an effect on memory as a "chaser" of synaptic activity through homeostatic scaling. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Stikkelbroek, Yvonne; Bodden, Denise H M; Kleinjan, Marloes; Reijnders, M.; van Baar, Anneloes L
BACKGROUND: Depression during adolescence is a serious mental health problem. Difficulties in regulating evoked emotions after stressful life events are considered to lead to depression. This study examined if depressive symptoms were mediated by various cognitive emotion regulation strategies after
Slee, Nadja; Garnefski, Nadia; Spinhoven, Philip; Arensman, Ella
Elaborating on previous studies on emotion regulation and deliberate self-harm (DSH), in the present study we distinguish between strategies of cognitive content (e.g., suicidal cognitions of perceived burdensomeness, helplessness, poor distress tolerance) and cognitive process (e.g., nonacceptance of emotional responses, lack of awareness of…
Bošnjak Terzić, Brankica
Over the last three decades the notion of self-regulation has been increasingly investigated in the area of psychology, and over the last two decades this is true for other scientific areas. Bandura’s (1986) socio-cognitive approach has greatly improved the understanding self-regulation. The socio-cognitive approach to self-regulated learning (SRL), important for successful language learning, relates a learner’s self-regulating process with the specific learning experience and identifies the ...
Aro, Tuija; Poikkeus, Anna-Maija; Laakso, Marja-Leena; Tolvanen, Asko; Ahonen, Timo
We examined the associations between 5-year-old children's private speech, behavioural self-regulation, and cognitive abilities. Behavioural self-regulation was assessed using parental and preschool teacher questionnaires. Cognitive abilities (i.e., language, inhibition, planning and fluency, and memory) were assessed with neurocognitive tests,…
Dominguez-Sanchez, Francisco J.; Lasa-Aristu, Amaia; Amor, Pedro J.; Holgado-Tello, Francisco P.
The aim of this study was to validate a Spanish version of the Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (CERQ-S), originally developed by Garnefski, Kraaij, and Spinhoven. To date, it is the only available instrument that permits a conceptually pure quantification of cognitive strategies of emotional regulation. A sample of 615 students (25…
Hendricks, Michelle A; Buchanan, Tony W
Cognitive control and emotional control share many similarities, but the specific relationship between these processes is not well understood. This study explored the relationship between three types of cognitive control (working memory updating, response inhibition and set-shifting) and two emotional regulation strategies (expressive suppression and cognitive reappraisal). Corrugator electromyography, behaviour and self-reports of affect were measured as indices of emotion regulation. Results indicate that working memory updating predicted negative affect reduction during reappraisal and during expressive suppression. This study specifically shows that the working memory component of cognitive control is associated with negative affect reduction. Response inhibition and set-shifting were not specifically related to negative affect reduction, but these variables did predict aspects of emotional behaviour and regulation. These results suggest a general role for cognitive control in some aspects of emotion regulation as well as a specific modulatory role for working memory updating in the regulation of negative affect.
Bebko, Genna M; Franconeri, Steven L; Ochsner, Kevin N; Chiao, Joan Y
According to appraisal theories of emotion, cognitive reappraisal is a successful emotion regulation strategy because it involves cognitively changing our thoughts, which, in turn, change our emotions. However, recent evidence has challenged the importance of cognitive change and, instead, has suggested that attentional deployment may at least partly explain the emotion regulation success of cognitive reappraisal. The purpose of the current study was to examine the causal relationship between attentional deployment and emotion regulation success. We examined 2 commonly used emotion regulation strategies--cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression-because both depend on attention but have divergent behavioral, experiential, and physiological outcomes. Participants were either instructed to regulate emotions during free-viewing (unrestricted image viewing) or gaze-controlled (restricted image viewing) conditions and to self-report negative emotional experience. For both emotion regulation strategies, emotion regulation success was not altered by changes in participant control over the (a) direction of attention (free-viewing vs. gaze-controlled) during image viewing and (b) valence (negative vs. neutral) of visual stimuli viewed when gaze was controlled. Taken together, these findings provide convergent evidence that attentional deployment does not alter subjective negative emotional experience during either cognitive reappraisal or expressive suppression, suggesting that strategy-specific processes, such as cognitive appraisal and response modulation, respectively, may have a greater impact on emotional regulation success than processes common to both strategies, such as attention.
Yao, Zhao-Hui; Kang, Xiang; Yang, Liu; Niu, Yi; Lu, Ye; Nie, Li
Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) was widely used to treat the refractory depression. But ECT led to the cognitive deficits plaguing the depression patients. The underlying mechanisms of the cognitive deficits remain elusive. Repeated electroconvulsive shock (rECS) was used to simulate ECT and explore the mechanisms of ECT during the animal studies. Previous studies showed rECS could lead to neurogenesis and cognitive impairment. But it was well known that neurogenesis could improve the cognition. So these suggested that the mechanism of the cognitive deficit after rECS was very complex. In present study, we explored the probable mechanisms of the cognitive deficit after rECS from neurogenesis aspect. We found the cognitive deficit was reversible and neurogenesis could bring a long-term beneficial effect on cognition. Astrogliosis and NR1 down-regulation probably participated in the reversible cognitive deficits after rECS. Phenylbutyric acid (PBA), generally as an agent to investigate the roles of histone acetylation, could prevent the reversible cognitive dysfunction, but PBA could diminish the long-term effect of enhanced cognition by rECS. These suggested that ECT could possibly bring the long-term beneficial cognitive effect by regulating neurogenesis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Mulej Bratec, Satja; Xie, Xiyao; Schmid, Gabriele; Doll, Anselm; Schilbach, Leonhard; Zimmer, Claus; Wohlschläger, Afra; Riedl, Valentin; Sorg, Christian
Cognitive emotion regulation is a powerful way of modulating emotional responses. However, despite the vital role of emotions in learning, it is unknown whether the effect of cognitive emotion regulation also extends to the modulation of learning. Computational models indicate prediction error activity, typically observed in the striatum and ventral tegmental area, as a critical neural mechanism involved in associative learning. We used model-based fMRI during aversive conditioning with and without cognitive emotion regulation to test the hypothesis that emotion regulation would affect prediction error-related neural activity in the striatum and ventral tegmental area, reflecting an emotion regulation-related modulation of learning. Our results show that cognitive emotion regulation reduced emotion-related brain activity, but increased prediction error-related activity in a network involving ventral tegmental area, hippocampus, insula and ventral striatum. While the reduction of response activity was related to behavioral measures of emotion regulation success, the enhancement of prediction error-related neural activity was related to learning performance. Furthermore, functional connectivity between the ventral tegmental area and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, an area involved in regulation, was specifically increased during emotion regulation and likewise related to learning performance. Our data, therefore, provide first-time evidence that beyond reducing emotional responses, cognitive emotion regulation affects learning by enhancing prediction error-related activity, potentially via tegmental dopaminergic pathways. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Clark, Noreen M.; Zimmerman, Barry J.
Researchers interested in health-related learning have recently begun to study processes people use to self-regulate their health and their ability to prevent or control chronic disease. This paper represents a social cognitive view of self-regulation that involves three classes of influence on self-regulating behavior: personal, behavioral, and…
Buckley, Jude; Cohen, Jason D.; Kramer, Arthur F.; McAuley, Edward; Mullen, Sean P.
Cognitive control of physical activity and sedentary behavior is receiving increased attention in the neuroscientific and behavioral medicine literature as a means of better understanding and improving the self-regulation of physical activity. Enhancing individuals’ cognitive control capacities may provide a means to increase physical activity and reduce sedentary behavior. First, this paper reviews emerging evidence of the antecedence of cognitive control abilities in successful self-regulation of physical activity, and in precipitating self-regulation failure that predisposes to sedentary behavior. We then highlight the brain networks that may underpin the cognitive control and self-regulation of physical activity, including the default mode network, prefrontal cortical networks and brain regions and pathways associated with reward. We then discuss research on cognitive training interventions that document improved cognitive control and that suggest promise of influencing physical activity regulation. Key cognitive training components likely to be the most effective at improving self-regulation are also highlighted. The review concludes with suggestions for future research. PMID:25324754
L Mohammadi; M Salehzade Abarghoei; M Nasirian
Introduction: Today, third wave therapy in psychotherapy puts special emphasis on the individuals’ awareness as well as their emotional and cognitive acceptance rather than challenging the cognitions. Therfore, this study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of acceptance and commitment therapy on cognitive emotion regulation in the addicted men under Methadone treatment. Method: The study population consisted of all the addicted men under Methadone treatment referring to an addiction ...
Coats, Abby Heckman; Blanchard-Fields, Fredda
Young, middle-aged, and older adults' emotion regulation strategies in interpersonal problems were examined. Participants imagined themselves in anger- or sadness-eliciting situations with a close friend. Factor analyses of a new questionnaire supported a 4-factor model of emotion regulation strategies, including passivity, expressing emotions, seeking emotional information or support, and solving the problem. Results suggest that age differences in emotion regulation (such as older adults' increased endorsement of passive emotion regulation relative to young adults) are partially due to older adults' decreased ability to integrate emotion and cognition, increased prioritization of emotion regulation goals, and decreased tendency to express anger. (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved.
Bao, Peng; Jing, Jin; Yang, Wen-Han; Li, Xiu-Hong; Cai, Yu-Sui
Adolescent violence is now regarded as a major public health concern. Despite growing interest in psychographic risk factors for violent behavior, few studies have explored the role of strategies to regulate cognitive emotion in adolescents. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of adolescent violence behaviors and to identify the relationship between specific strategies to regulate cognitive emotion and forms of violent behavior.Adolescent violence is now regarded as a major public health concern. Despite growing interest in psychographic risk factors for violent behavior, few studies have explored the role of strategies to regulate cognitive emotion in adolescents. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of adolescent violence behaviors and to identify the relationship between specific strategies to regulate cognitive emotion and forms of violent behavior. We cross-sectionally surveyed 3315 students in grades 7 to 10 using anonymous, self-reporting questionnaires to examine strategies to regulate cognitive emotion and violence-related behaviors in young adolescents. A logistic regression model was used to identify the relationship between specific violent behaviors and strategies to regulate cognitive emotion. The most commonly reported type of violent behavior was verbal attack (48.6%), while 7.1% of students were involved in fights and 2.4% had been injured in fights. Boys were involved in all forms of violent behavior studied, and did so significantly more often than girls (Pemotion strategies (self-blame, rumination, planning, reappraisal, catastrophisizing, and blaming others) were associated with violent behaviors, of which catastrophisizing was the most significant factor of all violent behaviors examined that were influenced by this strategy. Violence-related behaviors, especially verbal attacks, were common among adolescents. Several cognitive emotion regulation strategies were positively associated with specific violent behaviors, but
Jesseca Elise Rowland
Full Text Available Schizophrenia (SZ and bipolar disorder (BD are associated with impairments in facial emotion perception and Theory of Mind (ToM. These social cognitive skills deficits may be related to a reduced capacity to effectively regulate one’s own emotions according to the social context. We therefore set out to examine the relationship between social cognitive abilities and the use of cognitive strategies for regulating negative emotion in SZ and BD. Participants were 56 SZ, 33 BD, and 58 healthy controls (HC who completed the Ekman 60-faces test of facial emotion recognition; a sub-set of these participants also completed The Awareness of Social Inference Test (TASIT and the Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (CERQ. SZ participants demonstrated impairments in emotion perception on both the Ekman and the TASIT Emotion Evaluation tests relative to BD and HC. While both SZ and BD patients showed ToM deficits (i.e., perception of sarcasm and lie compared to HC, SZ patients demonstrated significantly greater ToM impairment compared to BD. There were also distinct patterns of cognitive strategies used to regulate emotion in both patient groups: those with SZ were more likely to engage in catastrophising and rumination, while BD subjects were more likely to blame themselves and were less likely to engage in positive reappraisal, relative to HC. In addition, those with SZ were more likely to blame others compared to BD. Associations between social cognition and affect regulation were revealed for HC only: TASIT performance was negatively associated with more frequent use of rumination, catastrophising and blaming others, such that more frequent use of maladaptive cognitive emotion regulation strategies was associated with poor social cognitive performance. These associations were not present in either patient group. However, both SZ and BD patients demonstrated poor ToM performance and aberrant use of emotion regulation strategies consistent with
Rowland, Jesseca E; Hamilton, Meelah K; Vella, Nicholas; Lino, Bianca J; Mitchell, Philip B; Green, Melissa J
Schizophrenia (SZ) and bipolar disorder (BD) are associated with impairments in facial emotion perception and Theory of Mind (ToM). These social cognitive skills deficits may be related to a reduced capacity to effectively regulate one's own emotions according to the social context. We therefore set out to examine the relationship between social cognitive abilities and the use of cognitive strategies for regulating negative emotion in SZ and BD. Participants were 56 SZ, 33 BD, and 58 healthy controls (HC) who completed the Ekman 60-faces test of facial emotion recognition; a sub-set of these participants also completed The Awareness of Social Inference Test (TASIT) and the Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (CERQ). SZ participants demonstrated impairments in emotion perception on both the Ekman and the TASIT Emotion Evaluation tests relative to BD and HC. While both SZ and BD patients showed ToM deficits (i.e., perception of sarcasm and lie) compared to HC, SZ patients demonstrated significantly greater ToM impairment compared to BD. There were also distinct patterns of cognitive strategies used to regulate emotion in both patient groups: those with SZ were more likely to engage in catastrophizing and rumination, while BD subjects were more likely to blame themselves and were less likely to engage in positive reappraisal, relative to HC. In addition, those with SZ were more likely to blame others compared to BD. Associations between social cognition and affect regulation were revealed for HC only: TASIT performance was negatively associated with more frequent use of rumination, catastrophizing, and blaming others, such that more frequent use of maladaptive cognitive emotion regulation strategies was associated with poor social cognitive performance. These associations were not present in either patient group. However, both SZ and BD patients demonstrated poor ToM performance and aberrant use of emotion regulation strategies consistent with previous studies
Full Text Available Illusions developed by magicians are a rich and largely untapped source of insight into perception and cognition. Here we show that curved motion, as employed by the magician in a classic sleight of hand trick, generates stronger misdirection than rectilinear motion, and that this difference can be explained by the differential engagement of the smooth pursuit and the saccadic oculomotor systems. This research moreover exemplifies how the magician’s intuitive understanding of the spectator’s mindset can surpass that of the cognitive scientist in specific instances, and that observation-based behavioral insights developed by magicians are worthy of quantitative investigation in the neuroscience laboratory.
Brick, Noel E; MacIntyre, Tadhg E; Campbell, Mark J
Self-regulation reflects an individual's efforts to bring behavior and thinking into line with often consciously desired goals. During endurance activity, self-regulation requires an athlete to balance their speed or power output appropriately to achieve an optimal level of performance. Considering that both behavior and thinking are core elements of self-regulation, this article provides a cognitive perspective on the processes required for effective pace-regulation during endurance performance. We also integrate this viewpoint with physiological and performance outcomes during activity. As such, evidence is presented to suggest that what an athlete thinks about has an important influence on effort perceptions, physiological outcomes, and, consequently, endurance performance. This article also provides an account of how an athlete might control their cognition and focus attention during an endurance event. We propose that effective cognitive control during performance requires both proactive, goal-driven processes and reactive, stimulus-driven processes. In addition, the role of metacognition-or thinking about thinking-in pace-regulation will also be considered. Metacognition is an essential component of self-regulation and its primary functions are to monitor and control the thoughts and actions required for task completion. To illustrate these processes in action, a metacognitive framework of attentional focus and cognitive control is applied to an endurance performance setting: specifically, Bradley Wiggins' successful 2015 Hour record attempt in cycling. Finally, future perspectives will consider the potentially deleterious effects of the sustained cognitive effort required during prolonged and strenuous endurance tasks.
Full Text Available Understanding study as a strategic and self-regulated activity and having in mind the distinction between cognitive and self-regulated learning strategies suggested in the literature, this paper analyses whether the differences in the use of this kind of strategies leads to different levels of academic achievement. Data were collected using a sample of 447 (12 to 16 years-old students from Spanish Secondary Compulsive Education. Various instruments were applied to assess students’ cognitive and self-regulated learning strategies. Students’ marks in Maths, Spanish, English (Foreign language, Science, Social studies and Music were taken as indicators of academic achievement. Data suggest that the more students use cognitive and self-regulated learning strategies in a specifi c subject the better their level of achievement in that same subject.
Bomyea, Jessica; Lang, Ariel J
Persistent, trauma-related intrusive thoughts are common in individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Automatic aspects of cognitive functioning (including executive functioning) and maladaptive deliberate attempts at cognitive regulation have been proposed as individual difference factors that may perpetuate intrusive thoughts. The current study sought to examine the joint contribution of these two factors on intrusive thoughts in PTSD. Forty-two women with PTSD completed an executive functioning assessment followed by a thought suppression task. Intrusive thoughts (frequency and duration), as well as participants' use of specific cognitive regulation strategies (avoidance-based thought regulation strategies; TRS), were measured during the task. Hierarchical linear regression was used to examine the interaction of executive functioning and TRS on intrusive thoughts. Greater use of TRS was associated with greater intrusive thought persistence for those with low executive functioning, but not those with high executive functioning. Data was collected cross-sectionally and the laboratory thought suppression task may not correspond to naturalistic thought regulation. Results are consistent with prior literature suggesting that certain responses deployed by individuals to control intrusive thoughts may be unhelpful, but that a higher level of cognitive capacity may mitigate this effect. Implications of these findings for recent models of cognition in PTSD are discussed. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Clark, Noreen M; Zimmerman, Barry J
Researchers interested in health-related learning have recently begun to study processes people use to self-regulate their health and their ability to prevent or control chronic disease. This paper represents a social cognitive view of self-regulation that involves three classes of influence on self-regulating behavior: personal, behavioral, and environmental. This triadic model assumes that people self-regulate their health through the use of self-care strategies, setting reasonable health goals, and monitoring feedback concerning the effectiveness of strategies in meeting their goals. People's perceptions of self-efficacy are also assumed to play a major role in motivating them to self-regulate their health functioning. According to social cognitive theory, processes entailed in regulating one's health can be taught through social modeling, supports, and feedback; gradually these external supports are withdrawn as one is able to self-regulate. This paper will analyze self-regulation processes related to controlling or preventing lung disease, specifically management of asthma and eliminating smoking. The educational implications of the triadic model of self-regulation for promoting health and related behavioral functioning will be discussed. © 2014 Society for Public Health Education.
de Bruin, Anique B. H.; van Gog, Tamara
Although there is abundant experimental metamemory research on the relation between students' monitoring, regulation of learning, and learning outcomes, relatively little of this work has influenced educational research and practice. Metamemory research, traditionally based on experimental paradigms from cognitive psychology, can potentially…
Andy C. Belden
Full Text Available When used effectively, cognitive reappraisal of distressing events is a highly adaptive cognitive emotion regulation (CER strategy, with impairments in cognitive reappraisal associated with greater risk for psychopathology. Despite extensive literature examining the neural correlates of cognitive reappraisal in healthy and psychiatrically ill adults, there is a dearth of data to inform the neural bases of CER in children, a key gap in the literature necessary to map the developmental trajectory of cognitive reappraisal. In this fMRI study, psychiatrically healthy schoolchildren were instructed to use cognitive reappraisal to modulate their emotional reactions and responses of negative affect after viewing sad photos. Consistent with the adult literature, when actively engaged in reappraisal compared to passively viewing sad photos, children showed increased activation in the vlPFC, dlPFC, and dmPFC as well as in parietal and temporal lobe regions. When children used cognitive reappraisal to minimize their experience of negative affect after viewing sad stimuli they exhibited dampened amygdala responses. Results are discussed in relation to the importance of identifying and characterizing neural processes underlying adaptive CER strategies in typically developing children in order to understand how these systems go awry and relate to the risk and occurrence of affective disorders.
Randall, Jason G; Oswald, Frederick L; Beier, Margaret E
The current meta-analysis accumulates empirical findings on the phenomenon of mind-wandering, integrating and interpreting findings in light of psychological theories of cognitive resource allocation. Cognitive resource theory emphasizes both individual differences in attentional resources and task demands together to predict variance in task performance. This theory motivated our conceptual and meta-analysis framework by introducing moderators indicative of task-demand to predict who is more likely to mind-wander under what conditions, and to predict when mind-wandering and task-related thought are more (or less) predictive of task performance. Predictions were tested via a random-effects meta-analysis of correlations obtained from normal adult samples (k = 88) based on measurement of specified episodes of off-task and/or on-task thought frequency and task performance. Results demonstrated that people with fewer cognitive resources tend to engage in more mind-wandering, whereas those with more cognitive resources are more likely to engage in task-related thought. Addressing predictions of resource theory, we found that greater time-on-task-although not greater task complexity-tended to strengthen the negative relation between cognitive resources and mind-wandering. Additionally, increases in mind-wandering were generally associated with decreases in task performance, whereas increases in task-related thought were associated with increased performance. Further supporting resource theory, the negative relation between mind-wandering and performance was more pronounced for more complex tasks, though not longer tasks. Complementarily, the positive association between task-related thought and performance was stronger for more complex tasks and for longer tasks. We conclude by discussing implications and future research directions for mind-wandering as a construct of interest in psychological research. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).
Lee, Chwee Beng
The use of computers for learning is often a complex issue which involves cognitive and metacognitive concerns. This gives rise to our interest in examining the intention to use technology with relation to regulation of cognition. The use of technology for learning would necessarily require learners to exercise a certain level of regulation over…
Lin, Feng; Roiland, Rachel; Polesskaya, Oksana; Chapman, Benjamin; Johnson, Melissa; Brasch, Judith; Chen, Ding-Geng; Mapstone, Mark
High fatigability, a dysfunctional adaption to fatigue, may lead to difficulties performing otherwise regularly encountered cognitive activities and may be related to pro-inflammatory reactivity. The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of fatigability on cognitive processes and inflammatory response after an acute cognitive stress task in older adults. In an observational stress reactivity study conducted in a light- and temperature-controlled laboratory, we measured IL-6, self-reported acute fatigue, and frontally oriented cognitive processes in 55 community-dwelling individuals aged 75 years or older as part of a demanding set of cognitive tasks intended to induce stress. Subjects were classified into groups of low and high fatigability based on cluster analysis of their self-report acute fatigue before and after the cognitive tasks. The two clusters were comparable on levels of baseline IL-6 and cognitive processes; however, the high fatigability cluster had significantly higher levels of IL-6 response than the low fatigability cluster. After controlling for multiple covariates, fatigability moderated the relationship between speed of processing and IL-6 reactivity. Further exploratory analyses indicated significant adverse associations between speed of processing and attention and IL-6 reactivity in the group with low but not high fatigability. Although observational, these data are consistent with the notion that pro-inflammatory states in older adults might be reduced by improvements in cognitive processes. Because fatigability was associated with increased acute inflammatory response and disrupted the normal stress regulation provided by the cognitive processes, future randomized studies might examine whether fatigability alleviation reduces IL-6. Copyright © 2014 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. All rights reserved.
The origin of a chemical reaction between two reactant atoms is associated with the activation energy, on the assumption that, high-energy collisions between these atoms, are the ones that overcome the activation energy. Here, we show that a stronger attractive van der Waals (vdW) and electron-ion Coulomb interactions ...
Sani, Susan Raouf Hadadi; Tabibi, Zahra; Fadardi, Javad Salehi; Stavrinos, Despina
The present study explored whether aggression, emotional regulation, cognitive inhibition, and attentional bias towards emotional stimuli were related to risky driving behavior (driving errors, and driving violations). A total of 117 applicants for taxi driver positions (89% male, M age=36.59years, SD=9.39, age range 24-62years) participated in the study. Measures included the Ahwaz Aggression Inventory, the Difficulties in emotion regulation Questionnaire, the emotional Stroop task, the Go/No-go task, and the Driving Behavior Questionnaire. Correlation and regression analyses showed that aggression and emotional regulation predicted risky driving behavior. Difficulties in emotion regulation, the obstinacy and revengeful component of aggression, attentional bias toward emotional stimuli, and cognitive inhibition predicted driving errors. Aggression was the only significant predictive factor for driving violations. In conclusion, aggression and difficulties in regulating emotions may exacerbate risky driving behaviors. Deficits in cognitive inhibition and attentional bias toward negative emotional stimuli can increase driving errors. Predisposition to aggression has strong effect on making one vulnerable to violation of traffic rules and crashes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Cecilia Ulrika Dagsdotter Stenfors
Full Text Available Objective: Executive cognitive functioning is essential in private and working life and is sensitive to stress and aging. Cardiovascular (CV health factors are related to cognitive decline and dementia, but there is relatively few studies of the role of CV autonomic regulation, a key component in stress responses and risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD, and executive processes. An emerging pattern of results from previous studies suggest that different executive processes may be differentially associated with CV autonomic regulationThe aim was thus to study the associations between multiple measures of CV autonomic regulation and measures of different executive cognitive processes. Method: Participants were 119 healthy working adults (79% women, from the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health. Electrocardiogram was sampled for analysis of heart rate variability measures, including the Standard Deviation of NN, here heart beats (SDNN, root of the mean squares of successive differences (RMSSD, high frequency (HF power band from spectral analyses, and QT variability index (QTVI, a measure of myocardial repolarization patterns. Executive cognitive functioning was measured by 7 neuropsychological tests. The relationships between CV autonomic regulation measures and executive cognitive measures were tested with bivariate and partial correlational analyses, controlling for demographic variables and mental health symptoms.Results: Higher SDNN and RMSSD and lower QTVI were significantly associated with better performance on cognitive tests tapping inhibition, updating, shifting and psychomotor speed. After adjustments for demographic factors however (age being the greatest confounder, only QTVI was clearly associated with these executive tests. No such associations were seen for working memory capacity. Conclusion: Poorer cardiovascular autonomic regulation in terms of lower SDNN & RMSSD and higher QTVI was associated with poorer
Full Text Available Introduction: Today, third wave therapy in psychotherapy puts special emphasis on the individuals’ awareness as well as their emotional and cognitive acceptance rather than challenging the cognitions. Therfore, this study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of acceptance and commitment therapy on cognitive emotion regulation in the addicted men under Methadone treatment. Method: The study population consisted of all the addicted men under Methadone treatment referring to an addiction treatment clinic in Isfahan in 2014-2015, out of which 24 addicted men were selected via convenience sampling method, and then were appointed randomly into two experimental and control groups (n= 12. Both groups filled Cognition Emotion Regulation Questionnaire. The therapeutic interventions based on aacceptance and commitment therapy were held for the experimental group for 8 sessions of one hour once a week. Ultimately, the collected data were analyzed applying SPSS software via ANCOVA method . Result: The findings of the present study demonstrated a significant positive impact of acceptance and commitment therapy on reduction of self blame, rumination, catastrophizing as well as blaming others. Moreover, a significant increase was observed in regard with the acceptance, positive refocus, refocus on planning, positive reappraisal and positive perspective. Conclusion: It was concluded that acceptance and commitment therapy seems to be beneficial to enhancing the emotion regulation of addicted men under Methadone treatment, which can be related to training the referrents to accept their thoughts and conditions.
Full Text Available Individuals regulate their emotions in a wide variety of ways. In the present review it has been addressed the issue of whether some forms of emotion regulation are healthier than others by focusing on two commonly used emotion regulation strategies: cognitive reappraisal (changing the way one thinks about potentially emotion-eliciting events and expressive suppression (changing the way one behaviorally responds to emotion-eliciting events. In the first section, experimental findings showing that cognitive reappraisal has a healthier profile of short-term affective, cognitive, and social consequences than expressive suppression are briefly reported. In the second section, individual-difference findings are reviewed showing that using cognitive reappraisal to regulate emotions is associated with healthier patterns of affect, social functioning, and well-being than is using expressive suppression. Finally, brain structural basis and functional activation linked to the habitual usage of cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression are discussed in detail.
Individuals regulate their emotions in a wide variety of ways. In the present review it has been addressed the issue of whether some forms of emotion regulation are healthier than others by focusing on two commonly used emotion regulation strategies: cognitive reappraisal (changing the way one thinks about potentially emotion-eliciting events) and expressive suppression (changing the way one behaviorally responds to emotion-eliciting events). In the first section, experimental findings showing that cognitive reappraisal has a healthier profile of short-term affective, cognitive, and social consequences than expressive suppression are briefly reported. In the second section, individual-difference findings are reviewed showing that using cognitive reappraisal to regulate emotions is associated with healthier patterns of affect, social functioning, and well-being than is using expressive suppression. Finally, brain structural basis and functional activation linked to the habitual usage of cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression are discussed in detail.
Tan, Yafei; Xin, Xiuhong; Wang, Xiang; Yao, Shuqiao
The relationship between psychological factors and obesity has become a hot topic in psychosomatic research. The aim of this study was to examine the characteristics of cognitive emotion regulation (CER) strategies in Chinese adolescents with different weight status. Using stratified random cluster sampling, 700 and 321 adolescents were defined as adolescents with overweight status and obese status, respectively. One thousand and twenty-one adolescents with normal-weight status were also selected. All participants completed a general questionnaire and Chinese version of the Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire. Adolescents in the obesity group obtained the highest scores on self-blame and rumination in three groups, and those from the obesity group obtained lower scores on acceptance, positive refocusing, and positive reappraisal than those from normal group (ps obesity.
This book offers a timely reflection on how the proliferation of advanced wireless communications technologies, particularly cognitive radio (CR) can be enabled by thoroughly-considered policy and appropriate regulation. It looks at the prospects of CR from the divergent standpoints of technological development and economic market reality. The book provides a broad survey of various techno-economic and policy aspects of CR development, and provides the reader with an understanding of the complexities involved as well as a toolbox of possible solutions to enable the evolutionary leap towards successful implementation of disruptive CR technology or indeed any other novel wireless technologies. Cognitive Radio Policy and Regulation showcases the original ideas and concepts introduced into the field of CR and dynamic spectrum access policy over nearly four years of work within COST Action IC0905 TERRA, a think-tank with participants from more than 20 countries. The book’s subject matter includes: • deploymen...
Dennis, Tracy A
Neuroscientific research on emotion regulation suggests that the interplay between emotion and cognition may be fundamental to the ability to adaptively regulate emotions. Although emotion and cognition have historically been considered to be in opposition, more recent research suggests that they are also integrated, coordinated, and complementary. In this article, I review studies showing that scalp-recorded event related potentials (ERPs) reflecting emotion-cognition integration can be used as clinically meaningful indices of emotion regulation in children and adults, and have the potential to serve as biomarkers for emotion regulation and risk for specific affective disorders. Drawing on neuroscience and behavioral research, I propose a model in which ERP measures of emotion-cognition integration rather than opposition is the guiding principle for detecting neural markers for emotion regulation. Suggestions for a future research agenda are then presented.
Li, Yuping; Pan, Ke; Chen, Lin; Ning, Jiao-Lin; Li, Xiaojun; Yang, Ting; Terrando, Niccolò; Gu, Jianteng; Tao, Guocai
Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) is a common complication after surgery, especially amongst elderly patients. Neuroinflammation and iron homeostasis are key hallmarks of several neurological disorders. In this study, we investigated the role of deferoxamine (DFO), a clinically used iron chelator, in a mouse model of surgery-induced cognitive dysfunction and assessed its neuroprotective effects on neuroinflammation, oxidative stress, and memory function. A model of laparotomy under general anesthesia and analgesia was used to study POCD. Twelve to 14 months C57BL/6J male mice were treated with DFO, and changes in iron signaling, microglia activity, oxidative stress, inflammatory cytokines, and neurotrophic factors were assessed in the hippocampus on postoperative days 3, 7, and 14. Memory function was evaluated using fear conditioning and Morris water maze tests. BV2 microglia cells were used to test the anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects of DFO. Peripheral surgical trauma triggered changes in hippocampal iron homeostasis including ferric iron deposition, increase in hepcidin and divalent metal transporter-1, reduction in ferroportin and ferritin, and oxidative stress. Microglia activation, inflammatory cytokines, brain-derived neurotropic factor impairments, and cognitive dysfunction were found up to day 14 after surgery. Treatment with DFO significantly reduced neuroinflammation and improved cognitive decline by modulating p38 MAPK signaling, reactive oxygen species, and pro-inflammatory cytokines release. Iron imbalance represents a novel mechanism underlying surgery-induced neuroinflammation and cognitive decline. DFO treatment regulates neuroinflammation and microglia activity after surgery.
Full Text Available Background : Love Trauma refers to a state of frustration and humiliation felt by the person who is rejected by his/her beloved. The present study was aimed at studying the effectiveness of Emotion-Focused Approach for cognitive emotion regulation of female university students who experienced Love Trauma. Materials and Methods: This study was a quasi-experimental research including a pre-test, a post-test, and a follow-up test with the control group. The statistical population included all female students of Ahvaz universities who had experienced Love Trauma in 2014-2015. The total number of participants was 22, out of which 11 participants (who showed willingness were chosen for the experimental group. The remaining 11 participants were placed in the control group. The Love Trauma Inventory and Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire were used as the instruments of the research. All participants answered both questionnaires. Then the members of experimental group received the treatment intervention during eight personal 60-minute sessions held twice a week. After that, both groups answered CERQ again. One month after the experiment, the follow-up test was conducted for both groups. The collected data was analyzed by descriptive statistics and Multivariable Analyze of Covariance (MANCOVA. Results: The findings indicated that the Emotion-Focused Approach in the post-test and follow-up test has provoked more positive strategies for cognitive emotion regulation in the experimental group in comparison with the control group Conclusion: Since love and other feelings associated with Love Trauma are classified under the category of emotions, the Emotionally-Focused Therapy can have a significant influence on the cognitive emotion regulation of female students suffering from Love Trauma.
Sullivan, Sara K; Strauss, Gregory P
In healthy individuals, there is evidence that effective implementation of an emotion regulation strategy has beneficial effects on temporally proximal cognitive control task performance. This effect occurs because both of these processes rely heavily on the prefrontal cortex. Individuals with schizophrenia (SZ) have impairments in both emotion regulation and cognitive control that are driven by structural and functional abnormalities of the prefrontal cortex; however, it is unknown whether emotion regulation attempts fail to benefit subsequently performed cognitive control tasks in people with SZ. The present study examined whether attempts to increase or decrease negative emotion via reappraisal have differential effects on subsequent cognitive control in a sample of outpatients diagnosed with SZ (n = 30) and demographically matched healthy controls (CN; n = 29). Participants completed a combined emotion regulation and cognitive control task in which numerical Stroop trials were presented immediately after unpleasant or neutral images that were either increased via reappraisal, decreased via reappraisal, or passively viewed. The electroencephalogram was recorded while participants performed the reappraisal-Stroop task and event related potentials (ERPs) were used to index emotion regulation effectiveness (late positive potential: LPP) and cognitive control (sustained potential: SP). Both CN and SZ evidenced higher LPP amplitude for unpleasant than neutral stimuli consistent with robust neural response to unpleasant stimuli. Although CN demonstrated neurophysiological evidence of effective use of reappraisal to increase and decrease negative emotion, SZ only showed an effective ability to increase negative emotion via reappraisal. CN displayed enhanced cognitive control following increase trials and impaired cognitive control following decrease trials, as indicated by modulation of SP amplitude. In SZ, increase instructions impaired cognitive control and decrease
Full Text Available Emotion regulation dysfunctions are assumed to contribute to the development of tobacco addiction and relapses among smokers attempting to quit. To further examine this hypothesis, the present study compared heavy smokers with nonsmokers in a reappraisal task. Specifically, we investigated whether nondeprived smokers and deprived smokers differ from nonsmokers in cognitive emotion regulation and whether there is an association between the outcome of emotion regulation and the cigarette craving. Sixty-five participants (23 nonsmokers, 22 nondeprived smokers, and 20 deprived smokers were instructed to down-regulate emotions by reappraising negative or positive pictorial scenarios. Self-ratings of valence, arousal and cigarette craving as well as facial electromyography and electroencephalograph activities were measured. Ratings, facial EMG, and EEG data indicated that both nondeprived smokers and deprived smokers performed comparably to nonsmokers in regulating emotional responses via reappraisal, irrespective of the valence of pictorial stimuli. Interestingly, changes in cigarette craving were positively associated with regulation of emotional arousal irrespective of emotional valence. These results suggest that heavy smokers are capable to regulate emotion via deliberate reappraisal and smokers’ cigarette craving is associated with emotional arousal rather than emotional valence. This study provides preliminary support for the therapeutic use of reappraisal to replace maladaptive emotion-regulation strategies in nicotine addicts.
Steiner, Heinz; Van Waes, Vincent
The psychostimulants methylphenidate (Ritalin, Concerta), amphetamine (Adderall), and modafinil (Provigil) are widely used in the treatment of medical conditions such as attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and narcolepsy and, increasingly, as “cognitive enhancers” by healthy people. The long-term neuronal effects of these drugs, however, are poorly understood. A substantial amount of research over the past 2 decades has investigated the effects of psychostimulants such as cocaine and amphetamines on gene regulation in the brain because these molecular changes are considered critical for psychostimulant addiction. This work has determined in some detail the neurochemical and cellular mechanisms that mediate psychostimulant-induced gene regulation and has also identified the neuronal systems altered by these drugs. Among the most affected brain systems are corticostriatal circuits, which are part of cortico-basal ganglia-cortical loops that mediate motivated behavior. The neurotransmitters critical for such gene regulation are dopamine in interaction with glutamate, while other neurotransmitters (e.g., serotonin) play modulatory roles. This review presents (1) an overview of the main findings on cocaine- and amphetamine-induced gene regulation in corticostriatal circuits in an effort to provide a cellular framework for (2) an assessment of the molecular changes produced by methylphenidate, medical amphetamine (Adderall), and modafinil. The findings lead to the conclusion that protracted exposure to these cognitive enhancers can induce gene regulation effects in corticostriatal circuits that are qualitatively similar to those of cocaine and other amphetamines. These neuronal changes may contribute to the addiction liability of the psychostimulant cognitive enhancers. PMID:23085425
Mocan, Andreia Ş; Iancu, Silvia Ş; Băban, Adriana S
The present cross-sectional observational study aimed to investigate the relation between cognitive-emotional regulation strategies and depressive symptoms in type 2 diabetes patients in the context of sociodemographic and clinical factors, of diabetes distress, perception of illness consequences and previous depression. Multiple logistic regression was performed on the responses of 354 adults with type 2 diabetes (58.5% women; mean ± SD age: 61.14 ± 8.5 years; diabetes duration: 9.7 ± 6.4 years; BMI: 30.9 ± 5.3 kg/m2). Depressive symptoms were present in 16.9% and diabetes distress in 45.5%. Participants completed questionnaires on depression (BDI-II), cognitive-emotional regulation strategies (CERQ), diabetes distress (DDS), illness perceived consequences (IPQ-R). Of the cognitive-emotional strategies, lower positive reappraisal of diabetes (OR:0.49;CI:0.34-0.70) and increased catastrophizing (OR:2.08; CI:1.47-2.91) were found to increase the likelihood of experiencing depressive symptoms in the presence of higher diabetes distress (OR: 1.53; CI:1.07-2.19), increased negative perception of diabetes consequences (OR:2.02; CI:1.34-3.06) and the presence of previous depression (OR:4.18; CI:2.03-8.63). To our knowledge, this is the first study to report on cognitive-emotional regulation strategies in type 2 diabetes and provides evidence for the beneficial influence of positive reappraisal and adverse effect of catastrophizing on depressive symptoms in the context of diabetes distress, perceived consequences of diabetes and previous history of depression.
Mulej Bratec, Satja; Xie, Xiyao; Wang, Yijun; Schilbach, Leonhard; Zimmer, Claus; Wohlschläger, Afra M; Riedl, Valentin; Sorg, Christian
Cognitive emotion regulation (CER) is a critical human ability to face aversive emotional stimuli in a flexible way, via recruitment of specific prefrontal brain circuits. Animal research reveals a central role of ventral striatum in emotional behavior, for both aversive conditioning, with striatum signaling aversive prediction errors (aPE), and for integrating competing influences of distinct striatal inputs from regions such as the prefrontal cortex (PFC), amygdala, hippocampus and ventral tegmental area (VTA). Translating these ventral striatal findings from animal research to human CER, we hypothesized that successful CER would affect the balance of competing influences of striatal afferents on striatal aPE signals, in a way favoring PFC as opposed to 'subcortical' (i.e., non-isocortical) striatal inputs. Using aversive Pavlovian conditioning with and without CER during fMRI, we found that during CER, superior regulators indeed reduced the modulatory impact of 'subcortical' striatal afferents (hippocampus, amygdala and VTA) on ventral striatal aPE signals, while keeping the PFC impact intact. In contrast, inferior regulators showed an opposite pattern. Our results demonstrate that ventral striatal aPE signals and associated competing modulatory inputs are critical mechanisms underlying successful cognitive regulation of aversive emotions in humans. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
McRae, Kateri; Rhee, Soo Hyun; Gatt, Justine M; Godinez, Detre; Williams, Leanne M; Gross, James J
Previous studies have established that personality traits related to emotionality are moderately heritable. However, the relative heritability of the strategies people use to regulate emotions is unknown. The present study compared the magnitude of additive genetic, shared environmental, and nonshared environmental influences on 2 commonly used emotion regulation strategies: cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression. In 743 twin pairs (1,486 twins), we replicated previous estimates of heritability of neuroticism (a2 = .41). Furthermore, cognitive reappraisal was significantly less heritable and more influenced by nonshared environment (a2 = .20; e2 = .80) than either neuroticism or suppression (a2 = .35; e2 = .65), another emotion regulation strategy. Finally, Cholesky decomposition modeling suggested that while there were common genetic and environmental influences on neuroticism, reappraisal and suppression, there were also significant nonshared environmental influences common between reappraisal and adaptive emotional functioning after controlling for neuroticism and suppression. These findings highlight that different aspects of emotional processing, even the use of different emotion regulation strategies, are differentially heritable. The importance of the nonshared environmental influences specific to reappraisal and adaptive emotional functioning speaks to the potential impact of social context, social partners, and psychosocial interventions on reappraisal habits. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Wei, Fang-Yi Flora; Wang, Y. Ken; Klausner, Michael
This study investigated whether texting during class influences students' cognitive learning. A theoretical model was proposed to study the relationships among college students' self-regulation, texting during class, sustained attention to classroom learning, and cognitive learning (i.e., grade-oriented academic performance and experience-oriented…
Mariani BTE Mansor
Full Text Available Internalizing/externalizing behavioural problems among adolescents are the most important issue in adolescents’ mental health. Cognitive-emotional regulation strategies are the important protective and risk factor for internalizing/externalizing behavioural problems. In the present study the moderating role of gender in the relationship between cognitive-emotional regulation strategies and internalizing/externalizing behavioural problems among adolescents was investigated. The respondents were 328 students who filled out Youth Self Report and Cognitive-Emotional Regulation Questionnaire. The moderating effect of gender were estimated by AMOS and the model fit indicated that gender did not have any significant moderating role in the relationship between positive and negative cognitive-emotional regulation strategies and internalizing/externalizing behavioural problems among adolescents.
Rozilawati Mahadi; Ganakumaran Subramaniam
Recent research suggests a potential link between meta-cognitive awareness,self regulated learning strategies and language performances. Self-regulated learning has garnered a great deal of interest among academicians and psychologists as research indicated that it has positive effects on learners? academic achievement (Dolianac, 1994; Dckeyrel et al., 2000) whereas experts advocate that ?meta-cognitive awareness? ignites one?s thinking and can lead to a deeper learning and improved performan...
Gruber, June; Hay, Aleena C; Gross, James J
Bipolar disorder involves difficulties with emotion regulation, yet the precise nature of these emotion regulatory difficulties is unclear. The current study examined whether individuals with remitted bipolar I disorder (n = 23) and healthy controls (n = 23) differ in their ability to use one effective and common form of emotion regulation, cognitive reappraisal. Positive, negative, and neutral films were used to elicit emotion, and participants were cued to watch the film carefully (i.e., uninstructed condition) or reappraise while measures of affect, behavior, and psychophysiology were obtained. Results showed that reappraisal was associated with reductions in emotion reactivity across subjective (i.e., positive and negative affect), behavioral (i.e., positive facial displays), and physiological (i.e., skin conductance) response domains across all participants. Results suggest that reappraisal may be an effective regulation strategy for both negative and positive emotion across both healthy adults and individuals with bipolar disorder. Discussion focuses on clinical and treatment implications for bipolar disorder.
Xie, Xiyao; Mulej Bratec, Satja; Schmid, Gabriele; Meng, Chun; Doll, Anselm; Wohlschläger, Afra; Finke, Kathrin; Förstl, Hans; Zimmer, Claus; Pekrun, Reinhard; Schilbach, Leonhard; Riedl, Valentin; Sorg, Christian
Socially-induced cognitive emotion regulation (Social-Reg) is crucial for emotional well-being and social functioning; however, its brain mechanisms remain poorly understood. Given that both social cognition and cognitive emotion regulation engage key regions of the default-mode network (DMN), we hypothesized that Social-Reg would rely on the DMN, and that its effectiveness would be associated with social functioning. During functional MRI, negative emotions were elicited by pictures, and - via short instructions - a psychotherapist either down-regulated participants' emotions by employing reappraisal (Reg), or asked them to simply look at the pictures (Look). Adult Attachment Scale was used to measure social functioning. Contrasting Reg versus Look, aversive emotions were successfully reduced during Social-Reg, with increased activations in the prefrontal and parietal cortices, precuneus and the left temporo-parietal junction. These activations covered key nodes of the DMN and were associated with Social-Reg success. Furthermore, participants' attachment security was positively correlated with both Social-Reg success and orbitofrontal cortex involvement during Social-Reg. In addition, specificity of the neural correlates of Social-Reg was confirmed by comparisons with participants' DMN activity at rest and their brain activations during a typical emotional self-regulation task based on the same experimental paradigm without a psychotherapist. Our results provide first evidence for the specific involvement of the DMN in Social-Reg, and the association of Social-Reg with individual differences in attachment security. The findings suggest that DMN dysfunction, found in many neuropsychiatric disorders, may impair the ability to benefit from Social-Reg. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Chen, Yu-Ning; Yao, Shu-Qiao; Xin, Xiu-Hong
The association between cognitive emotion regulation strategy use and adolescents' risk behavior has long been emphasized. To identify coping profiles of Chinese adolescents having unprotected sex and to examine the characteristics and associations among those subgroups, 541 adolescents (age, 14-19 years) were screened from secondary schools in 10 Chinese cities. By latent profile analysis (LPA), the participants were identified into three latent profiles: the low reaction profile (LRP, N = 70), the medium reaction profile (MRP, N = 369), and the high reaction profile (HRP, N = 102) based on nine subscales of the Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (CERQ). By one-way analysis of variance, chi-square tests, and multivariate logistic regression analysis, we found that: the HRP has the highest level of using eight strategies and the lowest unprotected sex, meanwhile the LRP has the lowest level of using nine strategies and the highest unprotected sex among three groups (both p cognitive coping, using both adaptive and maladaptive strategies, may associate with less unprotected sex. The programs of enhancing active copying may be targeted in interventions aiming to reduce adolescent unprotected sex.
Harvanko, Arit M; Derbyshire, Katherine L; Schreiber, Liana R N; Grant, Jon E
Based on previous observational studies that have suggested self-regulated caffeine use by older adults may enhance reaction time performance and vigilance on cognitive tasks, the current study sought to examine whether this effect held true for young adults as well. One hundred and four young adults from two major metropolitan areas, ages 18-29 years, not meeting the criteria for a current psychiatric disorder, completed several cognitive tasks related to decision-making (Cambridge Gamble Task), response inhibition and reaction time (stop-signal task), and vigilance and reaction time (Rapid Visual Information Processing). Caffeine usage was self-reported using a reliable quantity and frequency questionnaire. Self-reported caffeine usage was not significantly associated with any of the cognitive measures used in this study after controlling for age, gender, cigarette smoking, alcohol use, cannabis use, and gambling frequency. These data suggest that self-regulated caffeine usage may not have a significant impact on reaction time, vigilance, response inhibition, or decision-making in young adults, or that these effects are contingent upon other variables not accounted for in the current study. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
1) New magnets / De nouveaux aimants 2) Stronger connections / Des jonctions électriques renforcées 3) Safer magnets / Des aimants plus sûrs 4) Higher energy beams / Des faisceaux d’énergie plus élevée 5) Narrower beams / Des faisceaux plus serrés 6) Smaller but closer proton packets / Des groupes de protons plus petits mais plus rapprochés 7) Higher voltage / Une tension plus haute 8) Superior cryogenics / Un système cryogénique amélioré 9) Radiation-resistant electronics / Une électronique qui résiste aux radiations 10) More secure vacuum / Un vide plus sûr
Full Text Available Thomas Forkmann,1 Anne Scherer,1 Markus Pawelzik,2 Verena Mainz,1 Barbara Drueke,1 Maren Boecker,1 Siegfried Gauggel11Institute of Medical Psychology and Medical Sociology, University Hospital of RWTH Aachen, Aachen, Germany; 2EOS Hospital for Psychotherapy, Hammer Münster, GermanyIntroduction: Emotion regulation plays an important role in the development and treatment of depression. The present study investigated whether the emotion regulation strategies, expressive suppression (ES and cognitive reappraisal (CR change in the course of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT of depressive inpatients. Furthermore, it also examined whether changes in CR and ES correlated with positive treatment outcomes.Methods: Forty-four inpatients from a psychotherapeutic hospital who suffered from a depressive disorder (mean age =36.4 years, standard deviation =13.4 years; 63.6% female filled in the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire and the Beck Depression Inventory at admission and discharge. To detect changes in emotion regulation, and depression across treatment, data were analyzed using multivariate analyses of variance (MANOVA for repeated measures, effect sizes, and Spearman correlations. A P-value of ≤0.05 was considered statistically significant.Results: Depression severity (F=10.42, P=0.003; η2=0.22 and CR (F=4.71, P=0.04; η2=0.11 changed significantly across CBT treatment. ES remained virtually stable. Post-treatment scores of CR were also positively correlated with reduction in depressive symptoms across treatment (ρ=0.30, P=0.05.Conclusion: The results suggest that CBT affects emotion regulation in depressive inpatients only for CR and that higher post-treatment scores in CR were related to greater reduction in depressive symptoms across treatment.Keywords: emotion regulation, depression, major depressive disorder, psychotherapy
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Alexithymia, or "no words for feelings", is a personality trait which is associated with difficulties in emotion recognition and regulation. It is unknown whether this deficit is due primarily to regulation, perception, or mentalizing of emotions. In order to shed light on the core deficit, we tested our subjects on a wide range of emotional tasks. We expected the high alexithymics to underperform on all tasks. METHOD: Two groups of healthy individuals, high and low scoring on the cognitive component of the Bermond-Vorst Alexithymia Questionnaire, completed questionnaires of emotion regulation and performed several emotion processing tasks including a micro expression recognition task, recognition of emotional prosody and semantics in spoken sentences, an emotional and identity learning task and a conflicting beliefs and emotions task (emotional mentalizing. RESULTS: The two groups differed on the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire, Berkeley Expressivity Questionnaire and Empathy Quotient. Specifically, the Emotion Regulation Quotient showed that alexithymic individuals used more suppressive and less reappraisal strategies. On the behavioral tasks, as expected, alexithymics performed worse on recognition of micro expressions and emotional mentalizing. Surprisingly, groups did not differ on tasks of emotional semantics and prosody and associative emotional-learning. CONCLUSION: Individuals scoring high on the cognitive component of alexithymia are more prone to suppressive emotion regulation strategies rather than reappraisal strategies. Regarding emotional information processing, alexithymia is associated with reduced performance on measures of early processing as well as higher order mentalizing. However, difficulties in the processing of emotional language were not a core deficit in our alexithymic group.
Full Text Available Given that Fibromyalgia Syndrome (FMS is associated with problems in emotion regulation, the importance of assessing this construct is widely acknowledged by clinical psychologists and pain specialists. Although the Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (CERQ is a self-report measure used worldwide, there are no data on its psychometric properties in patients with FMS. This study analyzed the dimensionality, reliability, and validity of the CERQ in a sample of 231 patients with FMS. Given that “fibrofog” is one of the most disabling FMS symptoms, in the present study, items in the CERQ were grouped by dimension. This change in item presentation was conceived as an efficient way of facilitating responses as a result of a clear understanding of what the items related to each dimension are attempting to measure. The following battery of measures was administered: the CERQ, the Revised Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire, the Pain Catastrophizing Scale, the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Four models of the CERQ structure were examined and confirmatory factor analyses supported the original factor model, consisting of nine factors—Self-blame, Acceptance, Rumination, Positive refocusing, Refocus on planning, Positive reappraisal, Putting into perspective, Catastrophizing, and Other-blame. There was minimal overlap between CERQ subscales and their internal consistency was adequate. Correlational and regression analyses supported the construct validity of the CERQ. Our findings indicate that the CERQ (items-grouped version is a sound instrument for assessing cognitive emotion regulation in patients with FMS.
Full Text Available Aims: To investigate the effects of resveratrol on cognitive impairment in streptozotocin (STZ-induced diabetic rats and to explore the mechanisms of that phenomenon. Methods: Sixty healthy male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups: normal control group (Con group, n = 15, Res group (normal Sprague Dawley rats treated with resveratrol, n = 15, diabetes mellitus group (DM group, n = 15 and DM + Res group (diabetic rats treat with resveratrol, n = 15. Streptozotocin (STZ was injected intraperitoneally to establish the diabetic model. One week after diabetic model induction, the animals in the Res group and the DM + Res group received resveratrol intraperitoneally once a day for consecutive 4 weeks. The Morris water maze test was applied to assess the effect of resveratrol on learning and memory. To explore the mechanisms of resveratrol on cognition, we detected the protein expression levels of Caspase-3, Bcl-2, Bax, NMDAR1 (N-Methyl-d-Aspartate receptor and BDNF (Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor via western blotting analysis. Results: Resveratrol has no obvious effect on normal SD rats. Compared to Con group, cognitive ability was significantly impaired with increased expression of Caspase-3, Bax and down-regulation of Bcl-2, NMDAR1 and BDNF in diabetic rats. By contrast, resveratrol treatment improved the cognitive decline. Evidently, resveratrol treatment reversed diabetes-induced changes of protein expression. Conclusions: Resveratrol significantly ameliorates cognitive decline in STZ-induced diabetic model rats. The potential mechanism underlying the protective effect could be attributed to the inhibition of hippocampal apoptosis through the Bcl-2, Bax and Caspase-3 signaling pathways and improvement of synaptic dysfunction. BDNF may also play an indispensable role in this mechanism.
Motschman, Courtney A; Tiffany, Stephen T
There has been limited research on cognitive processes governing smoking behavior in individuals who are tobacco dependent. In a replication (Baxter & Hinson, 2001) and extension, this study examined the theory (Tiffany, 1990) that drug use may be controlled by automatic processes that develop over repeated use. Heavy and occasional cigarette smokers completed a button-press reaction time (RT) task while concurrently smoking a cigarette, pretending to smoke a lit cigarette, or not smoking. Slowed RT during the button-press task indexed the cognitive disruption associated with nonautomatic control of behavior. Occasional smokers' RTs were slowed when smoking or pretending to smoke compared with when not smoking. Heavy smokers' RTs were slowed when pretending to smoke versus not smoking; however, their RTs were similarly fast when smoking compared with not smoking. The results indicated that smoking behavior was more highly regulated by controlled, nonautomatic processes among occasional smokers and by automatic processes among heavy smokers. Patterns of RT across the interpuff interval indicated that occasional smokers were significantly slowed in anticipation of and immediately after puffing onset, whereas heavy smokers were only slowed significantly after puffing onset. These findings suggest that the entirety of the smoking sequence becomes automatized, with the behaviors leading up to puffing becoming more strongly regulated by automatic processes with experience. These results have relevance to theories on the cognitive regulation of cigarette smoking and support the importance of interventions that focus on routinized behaviors that individuals engage in during and leading up to drug use. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Full Text Available This study aimed to validate a Chinese's adaption of the Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire for children (CERQ-Ck. This self-report instrument evaluates nine cognitive emotion regulation strategies that can be used by children after experiencing a negative life event. The CERQ-Ck was evaluated in a sample of 1403 elementary students between the ages of 9 and 11 by using cluster sampling. All the item-correlation coefficients for CERQ-Ck were above 0.30. The internal consistencies of the nine factors suggested moderate reliability (0.66 to 0.73. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA indicated that the current version had the same structure as the original instrument (Tucker-Lewis index = 0.912, comparative fit index = 0.922, root mean square error of approximation = 0.032, standardized root mean square residual = 0.044. A second-order factor and a third-order factor structure were also found. Test-retest correlations (0.53 to 0.70, ps < 0.01 over a period of 1 month, which ranged from acceptable to moderately strong were obtained from a random and stratified subsample of elementary students (N = 76. In addition, we analyzed convergent validity in relation to CERQ-Ck and the Chinese version of the Children's Depression Inventory model dimensions with a subsample of 1083 elementary students. Multiple-group CFA confirmed the measurement invariance for both the male and female groups (ΔCFI < 0.01, ΔRMSEA < 0.015. Overall, results indicate that CERQ-Ck has similar psychometric properties to the original instrument as well as with adequate reliability and validity to investigate the nine cognitive emotion regulation strategies during late childhood developmental periods.
Graff, Samantha; Kunkel, Dale; Mermin, Seth E
The childhood obesity crisis has prompted repeated calls for government action to curb the marketing of unhealthy food to children. Food and entertainment industry groups have asserted that the First Amendment prohibits such regulation. However, case law establishes that the First Amendment does not protect "inherently misleading" commercial speech. Cognitive research indicates that young children cannot effectively recognize the persuasive intent of advertising or apply the critical evaluation required to comprehend commercial messages. Given this combination--that government can prohibit "inherently misleading" advertising and that children cannot adequately understand commercial messages--advertising to children younger than age twelve should be considered beyond the scope of constitutional protection.
Hoorelbeke, Kristof; Koster, Ernst H W; Demeyer, Ineke; Loeys, Tom; Vanderhasselt, Marie-Anne
Cognitive control plays a key role in both adaptive emotion regulation, such as positive reappraisal, and maladaptive emotion regulation, such as rumination, with both strategies playing a major role in resilience and well-being. As a result, cognitive control training (CCT) targeting working memory functioning may have the potential to reduce maladaptive emotion regulation and increase adaptive emotion regulation. The current study explored the effects of CCT on positive reappraisal ability in a lab context, and deployment and efficacy of positive appraisal and rumination in daily life. A sample of undergraduates (n = 83) was allocated to CCT or an active control condition, performing 10 online training sessions over a period of 14 days. Effects on regulation of affective states in daily life were assessed using experience sampling over a 7-day posttraining period. Results revealed a positive association between baseline cognitive control and self-reported use of adaptive emotion regulation strategies, whereas maladaptive emotion regulation strategies showed a negative association. CCT showed transfer to working memory functioning on the dual n-back task. Overall, effects of CCT on emotion regulation were limited to reducing deployment of rumination in low positive affective states. However, we did not find beneficial effects on indicators of adaptive emotion regulation. These findings are in line with previous studies targeting maladaptive emotion regulation but suggest limited use in enhancing adaptive emotion regulation in a healthy sample. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Timounay, Yousra; Pitois, Olivier; Rouyer, Florence
Enwrapping liquid droplets with hydrophobic particles allows the manufacture of so-called "liquid marbles" [Aussillous and Quéré Nature (London) 411, 924 (2001); , 10.1038/35082026Mahadevan Nature (London)411, 895 (2001), 10.1038/35082164]. The recent intensive research devoted to liquid marbles is justified by their very unusual physical and chemical properties and by their potential for various applications, from microreactors to water storage, including water pollution sensors [Bormashenko Curr. Opin. Colloid Interface Sci. 16, 266 (2011), 10.1016/j.cocis.2010.12.002]. Here we demonstrate that this concept can be successfully applied for encapsulating and protecting small gas pockets within an air environment. Similarly to their liquid counterparts, those new soft-matter objects, that we call "gas marbles," can sustain external forces. We show that gas marbles are surprisingly tenfold stronger than liquid marbles and, more importantly, they can sustain both positive and negative pressure differences. This magnified strength is shown to originate from the strong cohesive nature of the shell. Those interesting properties could be exploited for imprisoning valuable or polluted gases or for designing new aerated materials.
Full Text Available In academic settings, emotions can arise in a variety of contexts and have adverse and interfering effects on learning and performance, especially those of negative valence. Thus, the investigation of their personal antecedents and different strategies implemented by students in order to regulate them, are important topics of research. The aim of this study was to examine the unique contribution of Big Five personality traits (as distal personal antecedents of emotions, cognitive control and value appraisals (as their proximal antecedents and students' tendencies to reappraise or suppress their emotions (as most important emotion regulation strategies for experiencing academic emotions of unhappiness, anger, anxiety and humiliation. The sample consisted of 500 high school students who completed the self-report questionnaire during their regular scheduled classes. The series of multiple hierarchical regression analyses showed that all groups of predictors have made significant and independent contribution to the explanation of all analysed emotions.
Capuana, Lesley J; Dywan, Jane; Tays, William J; Elmers, Jamie L; Witherspoon, Richelle; Segalowitz, Sidney J
Working from a model of neurovisceral integration, we examined whether adding response contingencies and motivational involvement would increase the need for cardiac autonomic regulation in maintaining effective cognitive control. Respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) was recorded during variants of the Stroop color-word task. The Basic task involved "accepting" congruent items and "rejecting" words printed in incongruent colors (BLUE in red font); an added contingency involved rejecting a particular congruent word (e.g., RED in red font), or a congruent word repeated on an immediately subsequent trial. Motivation was increased by adding a financial incentive phase. Results indicate that pre-task RSA predicted accuracy best when response contingencies required the maintenance of a specific item in memory or on the Basic Stroop task when errors resulted in financial loss. Overall, RSA appeared to be most relevant to performance when the task encouraged a more proactive style of cognitive control, a control strategy thought to be more metabolically costly, and hence, more reliant on flexible cardiac autonomic regulation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Mastellos, Dimitrios C
Growing evidence points to a previously elusive role of complement-modulated pathways in CNS development, neurogenesis and synaptic plasticity. Distinct complement effectors appear to play a multifaceted role in brain homeostasis by regulating synaptic pruning in the retinogeniculate system and sculpting functional neural circuits both in the developing and adult mammalian brain. A recent study by Perez-Alcazar et al. (2014) provides novel insights into this intricate interplay between complement and the dynamically regulated brain synaptic circuitry, by reporting that mice deficient in C3 exhibit enhanced hippocampus-dependent spatial learning and cognitive performance. This behavioral pattern is associated with an impact of C3 on the functional capacity of glutamatergic synapses, supporting a crucial role for complement in excitatory synapse elimination in the hippocampus. These findings add a fresh twist to this rapidly evolving research field, suggesting that discrete complement components may differentially modulate synaptic connectivity by wiring up with diverse neural effectors in different regions of the brain. The emerging role of complement in synaptogenesis and neural network plasticity opens new conceptual avenues for considering complement interception as a potential therapeutic modality for ameliorating progressive cognitive impairment in age-related, debilitating brain diseases with a prominent inflammatory signature. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Histone demethylase UTX mediates removal of repressive trimethylation of histone H3 lysine 27 (H3K27me3 to establish a mechanistic switch to activate large sets of genes. Mutation of Utx has recently been shown to be associated with Kabuki syndrome, a rare congenital anomaly syndrome with dementia. However, its biological function in the brain is largely unknown. Here, we observe that deletion of Utx results in increased anxiety-like behaviors and impaired spatial learning and memory in mice. Loss of Utx in the hippocampus leads to reduced long-term potentiation and amplitude of miniature excitatory postsynaptic current, aberrant dendrite development and defective synapse formation. Transcriptional profiling reveals that Utx regulates a subset of genes that are involved in the regulation of dendritic morphology, synaptic transmission, and cognition. Specifically, Utx deletion disrupts expression of neurotransmitter 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 5B (Htr5b. Restoration of Htr5b expression in newborn hippocampal neurons rescues the defects of neuronal morphology by Utx ablation. Therefore, we provide evidence that Utx plays a critical role in modulating synaptic transmission and cognitive behaviors. Utx cKO mouse models like ours provide a valuable means to study the underlying mechanisms of the etiology of Kabuki syndrome.
Full Text Available "n Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of emotional regulation training group therapy, based on Dialectical Behavioral Therapy(DBT and Cognitive Therapy, on improving emotional regulation and distress tolerance skills and relapse prevention in addicts . "nMethod: In a quasiexperimental study, 39 patients with the diagnosis of opioid dependence based on DSM-IV criteria were randomly assigned in to two experimental and one control groups. The experimental groups took 10 ninety-minute sessions of group therapy. The subjects were evaluated using the Opiate Treatment Index (OPI, General Health Questionnaire-28 (GHQ-28, and Distress Tolerance and Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scales prior to the start of treatment, and at the sixteenth session. The control group did not take group therapy and was merely treated with naltrexone. Data were analyzed using repeated measures ANOVA and ÷ 2 test . Results: Scheffe test showed that both emotion regulation training and cognitive therapy were more effective than naltrexone increasing distress tolerance, emotion regulation enhancement, and decreasing the amount of drug abuse, health improvement, social functioning, somatic symptoms, anxiety, social dysfunction and depression enhancement(P<0.05. In addition, emotion regulation training was more effective than cognitive therapy, increasing distress tolerance and emotional regulation enhancement (p<0.05. Conclusion: It seems that DBT skill training increase the effectiveness of pharmacotherapy and is more effective than cognitive therapy.
Individuals regulate their emotions in a wide variety of ways. In the present review it has been addressed the issue of whether some forms of emotion regulation are healthier than others by focusing on two commonly used emotion regulation strategies: cognitive reappraisal (changing the way one thinks about potentially emotion-eliciting events) and expressive suppression (changing the way one behaviorally responds to emotion-eliciting events). In the first section, experimental findings showin...
Hubert, Blandine; Guimard, Philippe; Florin, Agnès
This study adds to the body of research examining the links between two components of cognitive self-regulation (inhibitory control and verbal working memory) and social functioning (social integration, social problem solving, and prosocial skills) and focuses on children's sex as a moderator of the association between cognitive self-regulation and social functioning. The participants (N = 131) were French schoolchildren followed from kindergarten (Mage = 68.36 months, SD = 3.33 months) through Grade 1. Using hierarchical regression analyses, three major findings were revealed: (1) inhibitory control was a better predictor than verbal working memory of prosocial skills assessed by peers using the sociometric technique as well as by teachers using questionnaires, after controlling for sex, mother's education, and verbal and non-verbal IQ; (2) the prosocial skills assessed by teachers in kindergarten contributed more to explaining the prosocial skills and peer acceptance assessed in Grade 1 than cognitive self-regulation; and (3) sex did not moderate the relationship between cognitive self-regulation and social functioning. These results suggest that developing strong cognitive self-regulation, especially inhibitory control and prosocial skills, in young children schooled in France could be beneficial for their social development. © 2017 The Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.
Full text: Delegates from 89 countries agreed on 8 July to fundamental changes that will substantially strengthen the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material (CPPNM). IAEA Director General Mohamed ElBaradei welcomed the agreement in saying 'This new and stronger treaty is an important step towards greater nuclear security by combating, preventing, and ultimately punishing those who would engage in nuclear theft, sabotage or even terrorism. It demonstrates that there is indeed a global commitment to remedy weaknesses in our nuclear security regime.' The amended CPPNM makes it legally binding for States Parties to protect nuclear facilities and material in peaceful domestic use, storage as well as transport. It will also provide for expanded cooperation between and among States regarding rapid measures to locate and recover stolen or smuggled nuclear material, mitigate any radiological consequences of sabotage, and prevent and combat related offences. The original CPPNM applied only to nuclear material in international transport. Conference President Dr. Alec Baer said 'All 89 delegations demonstrated real unity of purpose. They put aside some very genuine national concerns in favour of the global interest and the result is a much improved convention that is better suited to addressing the nuclear security challenges we currently face.' The new rules will come into effect once they have been ratified by two-thirds of the 112 States Parties of the Convention, expected to take several years. 'But concrete actions are already taking place around the world. For more than 3 years, the IAEA has been implementing a systematic Nuclear Security plan, including physical protection activities designed to prevent, detect and respond to malicious acts,' said Anita Nillson, Director of the IAEA's Office of Nuclear Security. The Agency's Nuclear Security Fund, set up after the events of 9/11, has delivered $19.5 million in practical assistance to 121 countries
O'Leary, James D; Kozareva, Danka A; Hueston, Cara M; O'Leary, Olivia F; Cryan, John F; Nolan, Yvonne M
The nuclear receptor Tlx is a key regulator of embryonic and adult hippocampal neurogenesis and has been genetically linked to bipolar disorder. Mice lacking Tlx (Nr2e1(-/-)) display deficits in adult hippocampal neurogenesis and behavioural abnormalities. However, whether Tlx regulates behaviour during adolescence or in a sex-dependent manner remains unexplored. Therefore, we investigated the role of Tlx in a series of behavioural tasks in adolescent male and female mice with a spontaneous deletion of Tlx (Nr2e1(-/-) mice). Testing commenced at adolescence (postnatal day 28) and continued until adulthood (postnatal day 67). Adolescent male and female Nr2e1(-/-) mice were hyperactive in an open field, an effect that persisted in adulthood. Male but not female Nr2e1(-/-) mice exhibited reduced thigmotaxis during adolescence and adulthood. Impairments in rotarod motor performance developed in male and female Nr2e1(-/-) mice at the onset of adulthood. Spontaneous alternation in the Y-maze, a hippocampus-dependent task, was impaired in adolescent but not adult male and female Nr2e1(-/-) mice. Contextual fear conditioning was impaired in adolescent male Nr2e1(-/-) mice only, but both male and female adolescent Nr2e1(-/-) mice showed impaired cued fear conditioning, a hippocampal-amygdala dependent cognitive process. These deficits persisted into adulthood in males but not females. In conclusion, deletion of Tlx impairs motor, cognitive and anxiety-related behaviours during adolescence and adulthood in male and female mice with most effects occurring during adolescence rather than adulthood, independent of housing conditions. This suggests that Tlx has functions beyond regulation of adult hippocampal neurogenesis, and may be an important target in understanding neurobiological disorders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Meng, A.; Siren, A.; Teasdale, Thomas William
drivers may recognise cognitive problems, they tend not to recognise changes to their driving, which may reflect reluctance to acknowledge the impact of cognitive impairment on their driving. Furthermore, the results suggest that driving-related discomfort plays an important role in the self-regulation......The results of a previous study indicate that in general, older drivers who recognise cognitive problems show realistic self-assessment of changes in their driving skills and that driving-related discomfort may function as an indirect monitoring of driving ability, contributing to their safe...... of driving among cognitively impaired older drivers. However, it is less clear what triggers driving-related discomfort among cognitively impaired older drivers indicating that it may be a less reliable aspect of their self-monitoring of driving ability....
Full Text Available Background: The unified treatment approach (UP is an emotion-focused cognitive-behavioral therapy in which the main object of treatment is emotional processes. The aim of the present research was to examine the effectiveness of The Unified Protocol (UP on emotional dysregulation and cognitive emotion regulation strategies in patients with psychosomatic disorders. Methods: Emotion-focused cognitive behavioral therapy (ECBT, a unified treatment, with 12 weekly group sessions of 2 hours, was presented to 14 patients with psychosomatic complaints at the Subspecialty Center of Psychiatry in Isfahan in 2013. Pre- and post-intervention assessments were done by means of the self-report tests of Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS and Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (CERQ. Results: Significant reductions in post-test scores of total emotional dysregulation (P < 0.01 as well as the factors of non-acceptance (P < 0.05 and strategy (P < 0.01 were seen, while the other factors (goal, impulse, awareness, and clarity did not change. Moreover, a significant reduction was observed in the catastrophizing strategy score (P < 0.05, in comparison with other cognitive strategies. Conclusion: This pilot study including 14 patients with psychosomatic disorders indicates that the Unified treatment approach is an effective treatment in improvement of emotional dysregulation and in reduction of utilizing maladaptive cognitive strategies.
Bryan, Kathryn J; Mudd, Joseph C; Richardson, Sandy L; Chang, Jaewon; Lee, Hyoung-Gon; Zhu, Xiongwei; Smith, Mark A; Casadesus, Gemma
Declining levels of estrogen in women result in increases in gonadotropins such as luteinizing hormone (LH) through loss of feedback inhibition. LH, like estrogen, is modulated by hormone replacement therapy. However, the role of post-menopausal gonadotropin increases on cognition has not been evaluated. Here, we demonstrate that the down-regulation of ovariectomy-driven LH elevations using the gonadotropin releasing hormone super-analogue, leuprolide acetate, improves cognitive function in the Morris water maze and Y-maze tests in the absence of E2. Furthermore, our data suggest that these effects are independent of the modulation of estrogen receptors alpha and beta, or activation of CYP19 and StAR, associated with the production of endogenous E2. Importantly, pathways associated with improved cognition such as CaMKII and GluR1-Ser831 are up-regulated by leuprolide treatment but not by chronic long-term E2 replacement suggesting independent cognition-modulating properties. Our findings suggest that down-regulation of gonadotropins is as effective as E2 in modulating cognition but likely acts through different molecular mechanisms. These findings provide a potential novel protective strategy to treat menopause/age-related cognitive decline and/or prevent the development of AD.
Full Text Available Abstract This study was set to identify self-regulation skills required for online learning and to characterize cognitive transfer of on-campus and online students. The study included two groups of undergraduate students who studied the same course, but in different settings: online and on-campus. Data collected via an online survey and semi-structured interviews indicated that cognitive strategies and regulation of cognition are significant for successful online learning. Findings also indicated that the online students were more aware of mastery learning and information processing strategies than the on-campus peers. The online students specified the importance of planning, controlling, and evaluation skills for meaningful learning; whereas the on-campus students asserted lack of self-discipline and limited communication skills as barriers for distance learning. Near- and far-transfer components were identified, showing a significant positive correlation with self-regulation skills for both groups of learners.
Shojaie, Marjan; Ghanbari, Farzane; Shojaie, Nasrin
Undesirable and desirable effects of stressors on the body are assigned to distress and eustress, respectively. Immune system and brain are the most susceptible parts to stressful conditions, whereas long-lasting alterations in putative immune proteins involved in tension such as corticosterone (CORT), interleukin 6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) can impact learning and memory. Intermittent fasting (IF) is a repeated regular cycle of dietary restriction with well-known beneficial properties on the body. The aim of this study was to identify the eustress effects of IF on cognitive function by assessing the critical inflammatory factors in chronic distress. Forty male mice were divided into four groups (n = 10/group). Distress and control normally received food and water, whereas IF and IF with distress groups were daily deprived of food and water for two hours. In the second week, the electrical foot shock was induced to distress and IF with distress groups. Finally, the cognitive functions of all mice were evaluated by Barnes maze, their blood samples were taken to determine the plasma level of CORT, IL-6 and TNF-α, and the removed brain and adrenal glands were weighed in the third week. A significant gain in plasma level of CORT, IL-6 and TNF-α with a considerable brain hypotrophy and adrenal hypertrophy was found in distress group, whereas IF caused a remarkable reduction of the plasma inflammatory factors, especially in IF with distress mice ( P ≤ 0.05). In conclusion, IF could improve cognitive function and preserve the brain against distress by regulation of inflammatory response pathway.
Full Text Available Undesirable and desirable effects of stressors on the body are assigned to distress and eustress, respectively. Immune system and brain are the most susceptible parts to stressful conditions, whereas long-lasting alterations in putative immune proteins involved in tension such as corticosterone (CORT, interleukin 6 (IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α can impact learning and memory. Intermittent fasting (IF is a repeated regular cycle of dietary restriction with well-known beneficial properties on the body. The aim of this study was to identify the eustress effects of IF on cognitive function by assessing the critical inflammatory factors in chronic distress. Forty male mice were divided into four groups (n = 10/group. Distress and control normally received food and water, whereas IF and IF with distress groups were daily deprived of food and water for two hours. In the second week, the electrical foot shock was induced to distress and IF with distress groups. Finally, the cognitive functions of all mice were evaluated by Barnes maze, their blood samples were taken to determine the plasma level of CORT, IL-6 and TNF-α, and the removed brain and adrenal glands were weighed in the third week. A significant gain in plasma level of CORT, IL-6 and TNF-α with a considerable brain hypotrophy and adrenal hypertrophy was found in distress group, whereas IF caused a remarkable reduction of the plasma inflammatory factors, especially in IF with distress mice (P ≤ 0.05. In conclusion, IF could improve cognitive function and preserve the brain against distress by regulation of inflammatory response pathway.
Scheiter, Katharina; Schubert, Carina; Schüler, Anne
Background: When learning with text and pictures, learners often fail to adequately process the materials, which can be explained as a failure to self-regulate one's learning by choosing adequate cognitive learning processes. Eye movement modelling examples (EMME) showing how to process multimedia instruction have improved elementary school…
Full Text Available A substantial number of research studies have investigated the separate influence of working memory, attention, motivation, and learning strategies on mathematical performance and self-regulation in general. There is still little understanding of their impact on performance when taken together, understanding their interactions, and how much each of them contributes to the prediction of mathematical performance. With the emergence of new methodologies and technologies, such as the modelling with predictive systems, it is now possible to study these effects with approaches which use a wide range of data, including student characteristics, to estimate future performance without the need of traditional testing (Boekaerts and Cascallar, 2006. This research examines the different cognitive patterns and complex relations between cognitive variables, motivation, and background variables associated with different levels of mathematical performance using artificial neural networks (ANNs. A sample of 800 entering university students was used to develop three ANN models to identify the expected future level of performance in a mathematics test. These ANN models achieved high degree of precision in the correct classification of future levels of performance, showing differences in the pattern of relative predictive weight amongst those variables. The impact on educational quality, improvement, and accountability is highlighted.
Meyer, Katrin; Korz, Volker
Estrogenic functions in regulating behavioral states such as motivation, mood, anxiety, and cognition are relatively well documented in female humans and animals. In males, however, although the entire enzymatic machinery for producing estradiol and the corresponding receptors are present, estrogenic functions have been largely neglected. Therefore, and as a follow-up study to previous research, we sub-chronically applied a specific estrogen receptor α (ERα) antagonist in young male rats before and during a spatial learning task (holeboard). The male rats showed a dose-dependent increase in motivational, but not cognitive, behavior. The expression of hippocampal steroid receptor genes, such as glucocorticoid (GR), mineralocorticoid (MR), androgen (AR), and the estrogen receptor ERα but not ERβ was dose-dependently reduced. The expression of the aromatase but not the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) encoding gene was also suppressed. Reduced gene expression and increased behavioral performance converged at an antagonist concentration of 7.4 µmol. The hippocampal and blood serum hormone levels (corticosterone, testosterone, and 17β-estradiol) did not differ between the experimental groups and controls. We conclude that steroid receptors (and BDNF) act in a concerted, network-like manner to affect behavior and mutual gene expression. Therefore, the isolated view on single receptor types is probably insufficient to explain steroid effects on behavior. The steroid network may keep motivation in homeostasis by supporting and constraining the behavioral expression of motivation.
Full Text Available Estrogenic functions in regulating behavioral states such as motivation, mood, anxiety, and cognition are relatively well documented in female humans and animals. In males, however, although the entire enzymatic machinery for producing estradiol and the corresponding receptors are present, estrogenic functions have been largely neglected. Therefore, and as a follow-up study to previous research, we sub-chronically applied a specific estrogen receptor α (ERα antagonist in young male rats before and during a spatial learning task (holeboard. The male rats showed a dose-dependent increase in motivational, but not cognitive, behavior. The expression of hippocampal steroid receptor genes, such as glucocorticoid (GR, mineralocorticoid (MR, androgen (AR, and the estrogen receptor ERα but not ERβ was dose-dependently reduced. The expression of the aromatase but not the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF encoding gene was also suppressed. Reduced gene expression and increased behavioral performance converged at an antagonist concentration of 7.4 µmol. The hippocampal and blood serum hormone levels (corticosterone, testosterone, and 17β-estradiol did not differ between the experimental groups and controls. We conclude that steroid receptors (and BDNF act in a concerted, network-like manner to affect behavior and mutual gene expression. Therefore, the isolated view on single receptor types is probably insufficient to explain steroid effects on behavior. The steroid network may keep motivation in homeostasis by supporting and constraining the behavioral expression of motivation.
Wu, Dongmei; Chen, Taolin; Yang, Hao; Gong, Qiyong; Hu, Xiuying
To examine the effectiveness of individual reminiscence therapy in community-dwelling older women with depressive symptoms and to explore the characteristics of participants' verbalisation in the process. Previous studies have found reminiscence was related to depression and anxiety. Although reminiscence therapy is widely used to reduce depression, little is known about how it works, and the content of verbalisations might provide one explanation. The study employed a one-group pretest-post-test design. Twenty-seven participants underwent 6-week interventions of individual reminiscence therapy at home that were conducted by one nurse and induced through seeing old photographs. The Geriatric Depression Scale, Zung Self-rating Anxiety Scale, Reminiscence Functions Scale and Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire were used to measure the emotional states, reminiscence functions and cognitive emotion regulation strategies. Participants' verbalisations were categorised using the Client Behavior System. Reminiscence therapy relieved depression and anxiety. Both the reminiscence function and cognitive emotion regulation became more favourable after interventions. Furthermore, higher frequencies of recounting, cognitive-behavioural exploration and affective exploration were noted in the process. Participants with more severe depressive symptoms tended to display a higher frequency of affective exploration. The reduction in depression, self-negative reminiscence and negative-focused emotion regulation were respectively associated with verbalisations. Individual reminiscence therapy might relieve negative emotion and improve reminiscence function and cognitive emotion regulation. The participants' verbalisation is worthy of our attention, due to its correlation with the severity of depression and its mitigating effects on the depression, anxiety, self-negative reminiscence and negative-focused regulation in older women. The results contribute to our understanding of
Henderson, Heather A
Shyness is associated with social-emotional maladjustment in some, but not all, children. The ability to flexibly regulate attention under conditions of potential conflict may protect shy children from developing internalizing problems. In the current study, the associations between shyness, the N2 event related potential (ERP) response, and social-emotional adjustment were examined in a sample of 36 typically developing 9- to 13-year-old children. It was hypothesized that the N2 amplitude, an ERP measure associated with aspects of cognitive and attention control, would moderate the associations between shyness and social-emotional functioning (negative attribution style, social self-perceptions, social anxiety). Shyness was unrelated to behavioral or ERP measures collected during a modified Flanker task; however, shyness and N2 amplitude were alone and in combination associated with all three measures of social adjustment. In general, shyness was associated with poor outcomes primarily among children with relatively large amplitude, or enhanced, N2 responses. The results are discussed in terms of the role of conflict sensitivity in the regulation of attention and emotions associated with shyness and the importance of studying the combined influences of reactive and self-regulatory aspects of temperament in relation to adjustment in childhood.
ali ghaedniay jahromi
Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the effectiveness of group training of procedural emotion regulation strategies in cognitive coping of individuals suffering substance abuse. Method: A quasi-experimental design along with pretest-posttest and control group was used for this study. Then, 16 patients suffering substance abuse were selected through convenience sampling and were randomly assigned to two control and experimental groups. The experimental group received 10 sessions of group training of procedural emotion regulation strategies while the control group received no treatment. Both groups before and after the treatment completed the Persian version of cognitive emotion regulation questionnaire (Hasani, 2011. Results: The results showed that group training of e procedural motion regulation strategies leads to a reduction in maladaptive strategies such as self-blame, rumination, catastrophizing, and other-blame and an increase in adaptive strategies such as refocus on planning, positive reappraisal, and perspective development. Conclusion: Training of procedural emotion regulation strategies via the reduction of maladaptive and increase of adaptive cognitive emotion regulation strategies can provide the opportunity for the improvement and non-return to substance abuse.
Gliebe, Sudi Kate
Problem: The problem of this study was to determine the relationship between perceived stress, as measured by the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), and a specific set of predictor variables among selected teachers in Lutheran schools in the United States. These variables were cognitive emotion regulation strategies (positive reappraisal and…
Swartz, Rebecca Anne; McElwain, Nancy L.
Research Findings: The present research examines preservice teachers' (N = 24) self-reported emotion-related regulation and cognition as predictors of their observed responses to young children's positive and negative emotional displays. Correlation and regression analyses revealed that teachers reporting greater reappraisal strategies in…
Full Text Available Abstract Background: The purpose of this study was to compare the cognitive emotional regulation strategies, sensory processing sensitivity and anxiety sensitivity in patients with multiple sclerosis and normal people. Materials and Methods: Statistical population of this study was all of patients with multiple sclerosis that referred to M.S association of Iran in the tehran. Sample of this study was 30 individuals of patients with multiple sclerosis selected by available sampling method and were matched with 30 individuals of normal people. Two groups completed cognitive emotion regulation, high sensory processing sensitivity and anxiety sensitivity questionnaires. Data were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance and Multivariate Analysis of Variance. Results: The results indicated that there is significant difference between two groups in view of cognitive emotion regulation strategies in which the mean of scores of patients with multiple sclerosis in maladaptive strategies of self- blame, catastrophizing and other blame were more than normal people and mean of scores of them in adaptive strategies of positive refocusing, positive reappraisal and putting into perspective were less than normal people. The results also indicated that there is a significant difference between two groups in anxiety sensitivity and sensory processing sensitivity. Conclusion: The most of emotional problems in patients with multiple sclerosis can be the result of more application of maladaptive strategies of cognitive emotion regulation, high sensory processing sensitivity and high anxiety sensitivity.
Ford, Julian D.; Grasso, Damion J.; Levine, Joan; Tennen, Howard
This pilot randomized clinical trial tested an emotion regulation enhancement to cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) with 29 college student problem drinkers with histories of complex trauma and current clinically significant traumatic stress symptoms. Participants received eight face-to-face sessions of manualized Internet-supported CBT for problem…
Kostons, Danny; Van Gog, Tamara; Paas, Fred
Kostons, D., Van Gog, T., & Paas, F. (2012). Training self-assessment and task-selection skills: A cognitive approach to improving self-regulated learning. Learning and Instruction, 22(2), 121-132. doi:10.1016/j.learninstruc.2011.08.004
William Sealy Hambright
Full Text Available Synaptic loss and neuron death are the underlying cause of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD; however, the modalities of cell death in those diseases remain unclear. Ferroptosis, a newly identified oxidative cell death mechanism triggered by massive lipid peroxidation, is implicated in the degeneration of neurons populations such as spinal motor neurons and midbrain neurons. Here, we investigated whether neurons in forebrain regions (cerebral cortex and hippocampus that are severely afflicted in AD patients might be vulnerable to ferroptosis. To this end, we generated Gpx4BIKO mouse, a mouse model with conditional deletion in forebrain neurons of glutathione peroxidase 4 (Gpx4, a key regulator of ferroptosis, and showed that treatment with tamoxifen led to deletion of Gpx4 primarily in forebrain neurons of adult Gpx4BIKO mice. Starting at 12 weeks after tamoxifen treatment, Gpx4BIKO mice exhibited significant deficits in spatial learning and memory function versus Control mice as determined by the Morris water maze task. Further examinations revealed that the cognitively impaired Gpx4BIKO mice exhibited hippocampal neurodegeneration. Notably, markers associated with ferroptosis, such as elevated lipid peroxidation, ERK activation and augmented neuroinflammation, were observed in Gpx4BIKO mice. We also showed that Gpx4BIKO mice fed a diet deficient in vitamin E, a lipid soluble antioxidant with anti-ferroptosis activity, had an expedited rate of hippocampal neurodegeneration and behavior dysfunction, and that treatment with a small-molecule ferroptosis inhibitor ameliorated neurodegeneration in those mice. Taken together, our results indicate that forebrain neurons are susceptible to ferroptosis, suggesting that ferroptosis may be an important neurodegenerative mechanism in diseases such as AD. Keywords: Ferroptosis, Neurodegeneration, Cognitive impairment, Alzheimer's disease, Glutathione peroxidase 4, Transgenic mice
Extremera, Natalio; Rey, Lourdes
The loss of one's job has been conceptualized as a major stressful life event in an adult's life and has consistently been associated with lower health-related quality of life (HRQoL). The role of cognitive emotion regulation strategies after the experience of stressful events has emerged as an important predictor of adverse psychological and health outcomes. However, the effect of these coping strategies on the HRQoL of unemployed people has not been examined until now. We aimed to study the associations of these cognitive emotion regulation strategies on HRQoL of unemployed people. Using cross-sectional data, 1,125 unemployed adults were assessed using a Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire for cognitive coping and SF-12 to assess HRQoL. We studied the effect of cognitive emotion regulation strategies on mental and physical health composite separately, adjusting for gender, age, educational level and length of unemployment, using hierarchical regression analyses. Results showed unemployed men tended to express greater use of self-blame, other-blame, and catastrophizing, and lower use of perspective taking strategies when confronted with unemployment. Moreover, self-blame (for mental health composite only), blaming others, rumination, and catastrophizing negatively correlated, while positive reappraisal, putting into perspective, planning, and positive refocusing positively correlated with both mental and physical health composite in unemployed people. Further hierarchical regression analyses indicate that five strategies (a lower reported use of self-blame, rumination, and catastrophizing, as well as higher scores of positive reappraisal and positive refocusing) and three strategies (lower scores of catastrophizing and rumination and high scores in planning) have significant and independent contributions, beyond gender, age, educational level and length of unemployment, to the prediction of mental health and physical health composite, respectively
Full Text Available A disruption of the vitamin A signaling pathway has been involved in age-related memory decline and hippocampal plasticity alterations. Using vitamin A deficiency (VAD, a nutritional model leading to a hyposignaling of the retinoid pathway, we have recently demonstrated that retinoic acid (RA, the active metabolite of vitamin A, is efficient to reverse VAD-induced spatial memory deficits and adult hippocampal neurogenesis alterations. Besides, excess of glucocorticoids (GCs occurring with aging is known to strongly inhibit hippocampal plasticity and functions and few studies report on the counteracting effects of RA signaling pathway on GCs action. Here, we have addressed whether the modulation of brain GCs availability could be one of the biological mechanisms involved in the effects of vitamin A status on hippocampal plasticity and functions. Thus, we have studied the effects of a vitamin A-free diet for 14 weeks and a 4-week vitamin A supplementation on plasma and hippocampal corticosterone (CORT levels in Wistar rats. We have also investigated corticosteroid binding globulin (CBG binding capacity and 11beta-Hydrosteroid Dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1 activity, both important modulators of CORT availability at the peripheral and hippocampal levels respectively. Interestingly, we show that the vitamin A status regulates levels of free plasma CORT and hippocampal CORT levels, by acting through a regulation of CBG binding capacity and 11β-HSD1 activity. Moreover, our results suggest that increased CORT levels in VAD rats could have some deleterious consequences on spatial memory, anxiety-like behavior and adult hippocampal neurogenesis whereas these effects could be corrected by a vitamin A supplementation. Thus, the modulation of GCs availability by vitamin A status is an important biological mechanism that should be taken into account in order to prevent age-related cognitive decline and hippocampal plasticity alterations.
Bonhomme, Damien; Minni, Amandine M; Alfos, Serge; Roux, Pascale; Richard, Emmanuel; Higueret, Paul; Moisan, Marie-Pierre; Pallet, Véronique; Touyarot, Katia
A disruption of the vitamin A signaling pathway has been involved in age-related memory decline and hippocampal plasticity alterations. Using vitamin A deficiency (VAD), a nutritional model leading to a hyposignaling of the retinoid pathway, we have recently demonstrated that retinoic acid (RA), the active metabolite of vitamin A, is efficient to reverse VAD-induced spatial memory deficits and adult hippocampal neurogenesis alterations. Besides, excess of glucocorticoids (GCs) occurring with aging is known to strongly inhibit hippocampal plasticity and functions and few studies report on the counteracting effects of RA signaling pathway on GCs action. Here, we have addressed whether the modulation of brain GCs availability could be one of the biological mechanisms involved in the effects of vitamin A status on hippocampal plasticity and functions. Thus, we have studied the effects of a vitamin A-free diet for 14 weeks and a 4-week vitamin A supplementation on plasma and hippocampal corticosterone (CORT) levels in Wistar rats. We have also investigated corticosteroid binding globulin (CBG) binding capacity and 11beta-Hydrosteroid Dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1) activity, both important modulators of CORT availability at the peripheral and hippocampal levels respectively. Interestingly, we show that the vitamin A status regulates levels of free plasma CORT and hippocampal CORT levels, by acting through a regulation of CBG binding capacity and 11β-HSD1 activity. Moreover, our results suggest that increased CORT levels in VAD rats could have some deleterious consequences on spatial memory, anxiety-like behavior and adult hippocampal neurogenesis whereas these effects could be corrected by a vitamin A supplementation. Thus, the modulation of GCs availability by vitamin A status is an important biological mechanism that should be taken into account in order to prevent age-related cognitive decline and hippocampal plasticity alterations.
Wisco, Blair E.; Sloan, Denise M.; Marx, Brian P.
We examined the extent to which cognitive emotion-regulation (ER) strategies moderated posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) treatment outcome among 40 motor vehicle accident survivors. Participants were randomly assigned to either a brief written exposure therapy (WET) condition or a waitlist condition and were assessed pre- and posttreatment and at a 3-month follow-up. Positive-reappraisal and putting-into-perspective strategies at baseline interacted with condition to predict symptom change over time. Both strategies predicted greater reductions in PTSD in the waitlist group, suggesting facilitation of natural recovery. However, positive reappraisal was associated with smaller reductions in PTSD in the WET group, suggesting that this strategy may interfere with treatment. Treatment also reduced use of the maladaptive ER strategy of rumination. These results provide evidence that putting-into-perspective and positive-reappraisal strategies are beneficial in the absence of treatment and that certain types of ER strategies may reduce response to WET, highlighting the importance of future research examining ER during treatment. PMID:24482755
Forslund, Tommie; Brocki, Karin C; Bohlin, Gunilla; Granqvist, Pehr; Eninger, Lilianne
This study examined the contributions of several important domains of functioning to attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and conduct problems. Specifically, we investigated whether cognitive inhibition, emotion regulation, emotionality, and disorganized attachment made independent and specific contributions to these externalizing behaviour problems from a multiple pathways perspective. The study included laboratory measures of cognitive inhibition and disorganized attachment in 184 typically developing children (M age = 6 years, 10 months, SD = 1.7). Parental ratings provided measures of emotion regulation, emotionality, and externalizing behaviour problems. Results revealed that cognitive inhibition, regulation of positive emotion, and positive emotionality were independently and specifically related to ADHD symptoms. Disorganized attachment and negative emotionality formed independent and specific relations to conduct problems. Our findings support the multiple pathways perspective on ADHD, with poor regulation of positive emotion and high positive emotionality making distinct contributions to ADHD symptoms. More specifically, our results support the proposal of a temperamentally based pathway to ADHD symptoms. The findings also indicate that disorganized attachment and negative emotionality constitute pathways specific to conduct problems rather than to ADHD symptoms. © 2016 The British Psychological Society.
Full Text Available Background: Cancer is a destructive and usually progressive disease while put too much stress on the patients family and the society. Then, recognizing of variables which can help to improve wellbeing of these patients can be important and very helpful to diminish the stress of them. Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the role of coping strategies and emotion regulation in well-being of patients with cancer. Methods: This descriptive study with predictive design was conducted in 2016. The research sample consisted of 62 cancerous patients in three chemotherapy centers of Qom city. The patients completed demographic questionnaire, Garnefski cognitive emotion regulation questionnaire (CERQ, Endler and Parker coping strategies questionnaire and Ryff psychological well-being questionnaire. Findings: Results showed that there were significant relationships between coping styles and psychological well-being of cancer patients (P=0.01. But there was no relationship between cognitive emotion regulation and psychological well-being. Regression analysis showed that coping styles had more power to predict psychological well-being than cognitive emotion regulation (P=0.01. Conclusion: According to the results, it can be concluded that coping styles are the most important factors that affect encountering with tensional events such as cancer. Major focus on the therapeutic and educational programs related to recognizing and applying adaptive coping styles, has important role in increasing psychological well-being of these patients.
Song, Qiu-Cheng; Qiao, Cong-Feng
Highlights: • A stronger Schrödinger-like uncertainty relation in the sum of variances of two observables is obtained. • An improved Schrödinger-like uncertainty relation in the product of variances of two observables is obtained. • A stronger uncertainty relation in the sum of variances of three observables is proposed. - Abstract: Uncertainty relation is one of the fundamental building blocks of quantum theory. Nevertheless, the traditional uncertainty relations do not fully capture the concept of incompatible observables. Here we present a stronger Schrödinger-like uncertainty relation, which is stronger than the relation recently derived by Maccone and Pati (2014) . Furthermore, we give an additive uncertainty relation which holds for three incompatible observables, which is stronger than the relation newly obtained by Kechrimparis and Weigert (2014)  and the simple extension of the Schrödinger uncertainty relation.
Full Text Available The goals of this study were (a to examine the psychometric properties of a Catalan version of the Effortful control scale of the Adult Temperament Questionnaire short-form and (b to analyze the relationships among effortful control (EC, negative affectivity (NA, and the use of negative cognitive emotion regulation (ER strategies. In a sample of 353 college students, the instrument presents acceptable internal consistency, temporal stability and convergent validity; however, in general, psychometric properties are poorer than those reported for other versions. Confirmatory factor analysis fit indices revealed an overall poor fit for the three-factor theoretical model. Additionally, it has been found that the proneness to engage in negative cognitive ER strategies was mainly related with exhibiting high NA. Further, although such tendencies were also influenced by EC capabilities, data did not show EC moderating the relationships among NA, anxiety, and the use of negative cognitive ER strategies.
Kaplan, R J; Greenwood, C E; Winocur, G; Wolever, T M
A glucose drink has been shown to improve memory in persons with poor glucose regulation and poor cognition. The objective of this study was to determine 1) whether an association between cognition and glucose regulation is apparent in healthy seniors and 2) the effects of dietary carbohydrates on cognition. After an overnight fast, 10 men and 10 women (aged 60-82 y) consumed 50 g carbohydrate as glucose, potatoes, or barley or a placebo on 4 separate mornings. Cognitive tests were administered 15, 60, and 105 min after ingestion of the carbohydrate. Plasma glucose and serum insulin were measured. In a multiple regression analysis, poor baseline (placebo) verbal declarative memory (immediate and 20-min delayed paragraph recall and word list recall) and visuomotor task performance were predicted by poor beta cell function, high incremental area under the glucose curve, low insulin resistance, and low body mass index. The difference in plasma glucose after food consumption [glucose > potatoes > barley > placebo (P: foods, baseline score and beta cell function correlated with improvements in immediate and delayed paragraph recall for all 3 carbohydrates (compared with placebo); the poorer the baseline memory or beta cell function, the greater the improvement (correlation between beta cell function and improvement in delayed paragraph recall: r > -0.50, P: memories or beta cell function independently of plasma glucose.
Wang, Hao; Sun, Xiaoxu; Zhang, Ning; Ji, Zhouye; Ma, Zhanqiang; Fu, Qiang; Qu, Rong; Ma, Shiping
Cognitive impairment has been recognized as a typical characteristic of neurodegenerative disease in diabetes mellitus (DM) and this cognitive dysfunction may be a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Ferulic acid, a phenolic compound commonly found in a range of plants, has emerged various properties including anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects. In the present study, the protective activities and relevant mechanisms of ferulic acid were evaluated in diabetic rats with cognitive deficits, which were induced by a high-glucose-fat (HGF) diet and low dose of streptozotocin (STZ). It was observed that ferulic acid significantly increased body weight and decreased blood glucose levels. Meanwhile, ferulic acid could markedly ameliorate spatial memory of diabetic rats in Morris water maze (MWM) and decrease AD-like pathologic changes (Aβ deposition and Tau phosphorylation) in the hippocampus, which might be correlated with the inhibition of inflammatory cytokines release and reduction of protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) expression. Moreover, the levels of brain insulin signal molecules p-IRS, p-Akt and p-GSK3β were also investigated. We found that ferulic acid administration restored the alterations in insulin signaling. In conclusion, ferulic acid exhibited beneficial effects on diabetes-induced cognition lesions, which was involved in the regulation of PTP1B and insulin signaling pathway. We suppose that PTP1B inhibition may represent a promising approach to correct abnormal signaling linked to diabetes-induced cognitive impairment. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Meule, Adrian; Kübler, Andrea; Blechert, Jens
In our current obesogenic environment, exposure to visual food-cues can easily lead to craving and overeating because short-term, pleasurable effects of food intake dominate over the anticipated long-term adverse effects such as weight gain and associated health problems. Here we contrasted these two conditions during food-cue presentation while acquiring event-related potentials (ERPs) and subjective craving ratings. Female participants (n = 25) were presented with either high-calorie (HC) or low-calorie (LC) food images under instructions to imagine either immediate (NOW) or long-term effects (LATER) of consumption. On subjective ratings for HC foods, the LATER perspective reduced cravings as compared to the NOW perspective. For LC foods, by contrast, craving increased under the LATER perspective. Early ERPs (occipital N1, 150-200 ms) were sensitive to food type but not to perspective. Late ERPs (late positive potential, LPP, 350-550 ms) were larger in the HC-LATER condition than in all other conditions, possibly indicating that a cognitive focus on negative long-term consequences induced negative arousal. This enhancement for HC-LATER attenuated to the level of the LC conditions during the later slow wave (550-3000 ms), but amplitude in the HC-NOW condition was larger than in all other conditions, possibly due to a delayed appetitive response. Across all conditions, LPP amplitudes were positively correlated with self-reported emotional eating. In sum, results reveal that regulation effects are secondary to an early attentional analysis of food type and dynamically evolve over time. Adopting a long-term perspective on eating might promote a healthier food choice across a range of food types.
Full Text Available In our current obesogenic environment, exposure to visual food-cues can easily lead to craving and overeating because short-term, pleasurable effects of food intake dominate over the anticipated long-term adverse effects such as weight gain and associated health problems. Here we contrasted these two conditions during food-cue presentation while acquiring event-related potentials (ERPs and subjective craving ratings. Female participants (n = 25 were presented with either high-calorie (HC or low-calorie (LC food images under instructions to imagine either immediate (NOW or long-term effects (LATER of consumption. On subjective ratings for HC foods, the LATER perspective reduced cravings as compared to the NOW perspective. For LC foods, by contrast, craving increased under the LATER perspective. Early ERPs (occipital N1, 150-200 ms were sensitive to food type but not to perspective. Late ERPs (late positive potential, LPP, 350-550ms were larger in the HC-LATER condition than in all other conditions, possibly indicating that a cognitive focus on negative long-term consequences induced negative arousal. This enhancement for HC-LATER attenuated to the level of the LC conditions during the later slow wave (550-3000 ms, but amplitude in the HC-NOW condition was larger than in all other conditions, possibly due to a delayed appetitive response. Across all conditions, LPP amplitudes were positively correlated with self-reported emotional eating. In sum, results reveal that regulation effects are secondary to early neural appetitive responses and dynamically evolve over time. Adopting a long-term perspective on eating might promote a healthier food choice across a range of food types.
Basilio, Marisol; Rodríguez, Cintia
The role of language as a tool to support the self-regulation has been widely studied, yet there is little evidence on the role of prelinguistic communication in the early development of self-regulation. To address this gap, we developed behavioural indicators of preverbal cognitive self-regulation, and described how can parents support it through…
Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a complex age-related metabolic disease. Cognitive dysfunction and learning and memory deficits are main characteristics of age-related metabolic diseases in the central nervous system. The underlying mechanisms contributing to cognitive decline are complex, especially cognitive dysfunction associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus. SIRT1, as one of the modulators in insulin resistance, is indispensable for learning and memory. In the present study, deacetylation, oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, inflammation, microRNA, and tau phosphorylation are considered in the context of mechanism and significance of SIRT1 in learning and memory in diabetic and nondiabetic murine models. In addition, future research directions in this field are discussed, including therapeutic potential of its activator, resveratrol, and application of other compounds in cognitive improvement. Our findings suggest that SIRT1 might be a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of cognitive impairment induced by type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Otto, Benjamin; Misra, Supriya; Prasad, Aditya; McRae, Kateri
One factor that influences the success of emotion regulation is the manner in which the regulated emotion was generated. Recent research has suggested that reappraisal, a top-down emotion regulation strategy, is more effective in decreasing self-reported negative affect when emotions were generated from the top-down, versus the bottom-up. On the basis of a process overlap framework, we hypothesized that the neural regions active during reappraisal would overlap more with emotions that were generated from the top-down, rather than from the bottom-up. In addition, we hypothesized that increased neural overlap between reappraisal and the history effects of top-down emotion generation would be associated with increased reappraisal success. The results of several analyses suggested that reappraisal and emotions that were generated from the top-down share a core network of prefrontal, temporal, and cingulate regions. This overlap is specific; no such overlap was observed between reappraisal and emotions that were generated in a bottom-up fashion. This network consists of regions previously implicated in linguistic processing, cognitive control, and self-relevant appraisals, which are processes thought to be crucial to both reappraisal and top-down emotion generation. Furthermore, individuals with high reappraisal success demonstrated greater neural overlap between reappraisal and the history of top-down emotion generation than did those with low reappraisal success. The overlap of these key regions, reflecting overlapping processes, provides an initial insight into the mechanism by which generation history may facilitate emotion regulation.
Enriquez Geppert, Stefanie; Huster, René J; Ros, Tomas; Wood, Guilherme; Colzato, Lorenza
In the last years, innovations in technology and methodology, as well as increased knowledge about cortical oscillations have significantly impacted the advancement of new neurofeedback approaches. As such, sham-controlled studies, showing evidence for enhanced performance of cognition after
Ali Ghaednia Jahromi
Full Text Available Background and Objective: Substance abuse is a chronic recurring disorder who needs to manage therapy over time. The goal of current study was to assess the cognitive emotion regulation strategies and emotional schemas in men with substance abuse, abstinent and normal individuals.Materials and Methods: In the form of a causal-comparative design, using available sampling method 30 men with substance abuse, 30 abstinent and 30 normal individuals were selected and after matching on the base of age, education and the substance they used were assessed via cognitive emotion regulation questionnaire and emotional schemas questionnaire. Multivariate analysis of variance was used to compare the three groups.Results: In self-blame (P=0.0004 and catastrophizing (P=0.0008 maladaptive cognitive emotion regulation strategies, the scores of individuals with substance abuse were higher than abstinent and normal individuals and in rumination (P=0.0007 individuals with substance abuse and abstinent obtained higher score in comparison with normal individuals. In refocusing on planning (P=0.0005 and positive reappraisal (P=0.00 adaptive strategies, normal individuals and abstinent in comparison with individuals with substance abuse obtained higher scores. In mental rumination (P=0.0008, blame (P=0.0008 and simplistic view of emotions (P=0.0009 individuals with substance abuse, abstinent had higher scores in comparison with normal individuals. In guilt (P=0.008 and uncontrolled (P=0.006 emotional schemas, individuals with substance abuse in comparison with normal individuals obtained higher scores.Conclusion: No effective emotional schemas and emotion regulation strategies can play a key role in substance abuse initiation, maintenance and relapse.
Full Text Available Emotion regulation has an important role in child development and psychopathology. Reappraisal as cognitive regulation technique can be used effectively by children. Moreover, an ERP component known to reflect emotional processing called late positive potential (LPP can be modulated by children using reappraisal and this modulation is also related to children's emotional adjustment. The present study seeks to elucidate the neural generators of such LPP effects. To this end, children aged 8–14 years reappraised emotional faces, while neural activity in an LPP time window was estimated using magnetoencephalography-based source localization. Additionally, neural activity was correlated with two indexes of emotional adjustment and age. Reappraisal reduced activity in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex during down-regulation and enhanced activity in the right parietal cortex during up-regulation. Activity in the visual cortex decreased with increasing age, more adaptive emotion regulation and less anxiety. Results demonstrate that reappraisal changed activity within a frontoparietal network in children. Decreasing activity in the visual cortex with increasing age is suggested to reflect neural maturation. A similar decrease with adaptive emotion regulation and less anxiety implies that better emotional adjustment may be associated with an advance in neural maturation.
Wessing, Ida; Rehbein, Maimu A; Romer, Georg; Achtergarde, Sandra; Dobel, Christian; Zwitserlood, Pienie; Fürniss, Tilman; Junghöfer, Markus
Emotion regulation has an important role in child development and psychopathology. Reappraisal as cognitive regulation technique can be used effectively by children. Moreover, an ERP component known to reflect emotional processing called late positive potential (LPP) can be modulated by children using reappraisal and this modulation is also related to children's emotional adjustment. The present study seeks to elucidate the neural generators of such LPP effects. To this end, children aged 8-14 years reappraised emotional faces, while neural activity in an LPP time window was estimated using magnetoencephalography-based source localization. Additionally, neural activity was correlated with two indexes of emotional adjustment and age. Reappraisal reduced activity in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex during down-regulation and enhanced activity in the right parietal cortex during up-regulation. Activity in the visual cortex decreased with increasing age, more adaptive emotion regulation and less anxiety. Results demonstrate that reappraisal changed activity within a frontoparietal network in children. Decreasing activity in the visual cortex with increasing age is suggested to reflect neural maturation. A similar decrease with adaptive emotion regulation and less anxiety implies that better emotional adjustment may be associated with an advance in neural maturation. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Full text: Nuclear power is safer than it was a year ago as the nuclear industry, regulators and governments act on the lessons of Fukushima, but that safety must never be taken for granted, said Yukiya Amano, Director General of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). Speaking ahead of the first anniversary of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident on 11 March, Amano said a culture of constant vigilance and improvement was vital to ensure that the benefits of nuclear power could be harnessed as safely as humanly possible. 'Nuclear safety is stronger than it was a year ago', he said. 'Fukushima Daiichi was a very serious accident, but we know what went wrong and we have a clear course of action to tackle those causes - not only in Japan, but anywhere in the world. 'Now we have to keep up the momentum. Complacency can kill'. On 11 March 2011 a huge earthquake and tsunami left more than 20 000 people dead or missing in eastern Japan. Amidst widespread destruction, the tsunami slammed into the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station, disabling cooling systems and leading to fuel meltdowns in three of the six Units. The accident was a jolt to the nuclear industry, regulators and governments. It was triggered by a massive force of nature, but it was existing weaknesses of design regarding defence against natural hazards, regulatory oversight, accident management and emergency response that allowed it to unfold as it did. For example: The nuclear regulator was not sufficiently independent, allowing weak oversight of the operator, TEPCO, and regulatory requirements fell short of international best practice; Not enough attention was paid to guarding against possible extreme events at the Fukushima Daiichi site, leaving critical safety functions such as cooling systems vulnerable to the tsunami; Training to respond to serious accidents was inadequate, as were mitigation measures to prevent hydrogen explosions and protect the venting system; and Accident command lines
Desrosiers, Alethea; Vine, Vera; Curtiss, Joshua; Klemanski, David H
Mindfulness-based interventions for depression and anxiety emphasize the importance of observing present moment experience, but observing has often been positively related to anxiety and unrelated to depression symptoms. The current study sought to better understand the conditions and mechanism through which observing relates to symptoms by examining six conditional process models in which (1) nonreactivity moderates the direct effect of observing on symptoms of anxiety and depression symptoms and (2) nonreactivity moderates the indirect effect of observing on anxiety and depression via cognitive emotion regulation strategies (i.e., rumination, worry, and reappraisal). A clinical sample of 189 adults with anxiety and depressive disorders completed the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire, Mood and Anxiety Symptom Questionnaire, Penn State Worry Questionnaire, Ruminative Responses Scale, and Emotion Regulation Questionnaire. Conditional process models showed that nonreactivity significantly moderated the direct effect of observing on symptoms of depression, but not anxiety. Additionally, nonreactivity significantly moderated the indirect effect of observing on symptoms of depression through rumination and reappraisal, but not worry. For anxiety, nonreactivity significantly moderated the indirect effect of observing on symptoms through worry and rumination, but not reappraisal. Causal interpretations of results are limited. Findings suggest that the relationship between observing and symptoms of depression and anxiety depends on the capacity to observe nonreactively, which may influence symptoms directly and indirectly through cognitive emotion regulation strategies. Findings raise important implications for tailoring mindfulness-based treatments for anxiety and depression symptoms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available A substantial number of studies on basal forebrain cholinergic neurons (BFCN have provided compelling evidence for their role in the etiology of stress, cognitive aging, Alzheimer’s disease (AD, and other neurodegenerative diseases. BFCN project to a broad range of cortical sites and limbic structures, including the hippocampus, and are involved in stress and cognition. In particular, the hippocampus, the primary target tissue of the glucocorticoid stress hormones, is associated with cognitive function in tandem with hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis modulation. The present review summarizes glucocorticoid and HPA axis research to date in an effort to establish the manner in which stress affects the release of acetylcholine, glucocorticoids, and their receptor in the context of cognitive processes. We attempt to provide the molecular interactive link between the glucocorticoids and cholinergic system that contributes to BFCN degeneration in stress-induced acceleration of cognitive decline in aging and AD. We also discuss the importance of animal models in facilitating such studies for pharmacological use, which could help decipher disease states and propose leads for pharmacological intervention.
Vinther-Jensen, T; Nielsen, Troels Tolstrup; Budtz-Jørgensen, E
-described cohort of Danish HD gene-expansion carriers. We show that cognitive impairment and psychiatric symptoms in HD are modified by polymorphisms in the monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) and catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) genes and by the 4p16.3 B haplotype. These results support the theory of dopamine imbalance......Huntington's disease (HD) is an autosomal dominantly inherited neurodegenerative disorder characterized by motor, psychiatric, and cognitive manifestations. HD is caused by a CAG repeat expansion in the Huntingtin (HTT) gene but the exact pathogenesis remains unknown. Dopamine imbalance has...... previously been shown in HD, and furthermore dopamine is thought to be implicated in cognition, behavioral and motor disturbances. A substantiated inverse correlation between motor onset and the elongated CAG repeat in the HTT has been established. This relation does not account for the full variability...
Tougas, Michelle E; Hayden, Jill A; McGrath, Patrick J; Huguet, Anna; Rozario, Sharlene
Theory is often recommended as a framework for guiding hypothesized mechanisms of treatment effect. However, there is limited guidance about how to use theory in intervention development. We conducted a systematic review to provide an exemplar review evaluating the extent to which use of theory is identified and incorporated within existing interventions. We searched electronic databases PubMed, PsycINFO, CENTRAL, and EMBASE from inception to May 2014. We searched clinicaltrials.gov for registered protocols, reference lists of relevant systematic reviews and included studies, and conducted a citation search in Web of Science. We included peer-reviewed publications of interventions that referenced the social cognitive theory of self-regulation as a framework for interventions to manage chronic health conditions. Two reviewers independently assessed articles for eligibility. We contacted all authors of included studies for information detailing intervention content. We describe how often theory mechanisms were addressed by interventions, and report intervention characteristics used to address theory. Of 202 articles that reported using the social cognitive theory of self-regulation, 52% failed to incorporate self-monitoring, a main theory component, and were therefore excluded. We included 35 interventions that adequately used the theory framework. Intervention characteristics were often poorly reported in peer-reviewed publications, 21 of 35 interventions incorporated characteristics that addressed each of the main theory components. Each intervention addressed, on average, six of eight self-monitoring mechanisms, two of five self-judgement mechanisms, and one of three self-evaluation mechanisms. The self-monitoring mechanisms 'Feedback' and 'Consistency' were addressed by all interventions, whereas the self-evaluation mechanisms 'Self-incentives' and 'External rewards' were addressed by six and four interventions, respectively. The present review establishes that
Rasetti, Roberta; Mattay, Venkata S; Stankevich, Beth; Skjei, Kelsey; Blasi, Giuseppe; Sambataro, Fabio; Arrillaga-Romany, Isabel C; Goldberg, Terry E; Callicott, Joseph H; Apud, José A; Weinberger, Daniel R
Modafinil differs from other arousal-enhancing agents in chemical structure, neurochemical profile, and behavioral effects. Most functional neuroimaging studies to date examined the effect of modafinil only on information processing underlying executive cognition, but cognitive enhancers in general have been shown to have pronounced effects on emotional behavior, too. We examined the effect of modafinil on neural circuits underlying affective processing and cognitive functions. Healthy volunteers were enrolled in this double-blinded placebo-controlled trial (100 mg/day for 7 days). They underwent BOLD fMRI while performing an emotion information-processing task that activates the amygdala and two prefrontally dependent cognitive tasks—a working memory (WM) task and a variable attentional control (VAC) task. A clinical assessment that included measurement of blood pressure, heart rate, the Hamilton anxiety scale, and the profile of mood state (POMS) questionnaire was also performed on each test day. BOLD fMRI revealed significantly decreased amygdala reactivity to fearful stimuli on modafinil compared with the placebo condition. During executive cognition tasks, a WM task and a VAC task, modafinil reduced BOLD signal in the prefrontal cortex and anterior cingulate. Although not statistically significant, there were trends for reduced anxiety, for decreased fatigue-inertia and increased vigor-activity, as well as decreased anger-hostility on modafinil. Modafinil in low doses has a unique physiologic profile compared with stimulant drugs: it enhances the efficiency of prefrontal cortical cognitive information processing, while dampening reactivity to threatening stimuli in the amygdala, a brain region implicated in anxiety. PMID:20555311
Edgard Rodriguez - IDRC. Women attend a self-help group meeting near Hyderabad, India. Keenara Khanderia. Under changes to India's constitution, Indian women are gaining a stronger political voice. Legal reforms are encouraging women to contribute to economic growth and investments in community growth.
Is the right to sign language only the right to a minority language? Holding a capability (not a disability) approach, and building on the psycholinguistic literature on sign language acquisition, I make the point that this right is of a stronger nature, since only sign languages can guarantee that each deaf child will properly develop the…
Van Leeuwen, Anouschka; Janssen, Jeroen; Erkens, Gijsbert; Brekelmans, Mieke
By collaboratively solving a task, students are challenged to share ideas, express their thoughts, and engage in discussion. Collaborating groups of students may encounter problems concerning cognitive activities (such as a misunderstanding of the task material). If these problems are not addressed
The Relationship Between Symptoms of Eating Disorders and Worry About Body Image, Attachment Styles, and Cognitive Emotion Regulation Strategies Among Students of Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences
Full Text Available Background There are different assumptions about the factors responsible for the genesis and maintenance of eating disorders. Each of the two main types of eating disorders results from a complex interaction of emotional and psychological factors. Objectives The purpose of the current research was to study the relationship between symptoms of eating disorders and worry about body image, attachment styles, and cognitive emotion regulation strategies, among a sample of students at Ahvaz Jundishapur University. Materials and Methods The study sample consisted of students of Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, 2011 - 2012. The research participants were selected with use of multistage random sample from various colleges. Our research tools were the eating attitudes questionnaire (EAT-26, the Worry about body image questionnaire, the attachment styles questionnaire, and a questionnaire on cognitive emotion regulation strategies. Pearson correlation and stepwise regression methods, with inter and stepwise methods, were used during data analysis. Results The results of this research indicated that worry about body image, an avoidant attachment style, negative cognitive emotion regulation strategies, and secure attachment style in regression equation remained significant (P < 0.0001. Results also showed that worry about body image, an anxious attachment style, an avoidant attachment style, and negative cognitive emotion regulation strategies were significant in the regression equation, predicting 19% of the variance in the eating disorder symptoms. Conclusions Concerns about body image, an avoidant attachment style, and cognitive strategies to regulate negative emotions were the strongest predictors for eating disorder symptoms. Based on current research findings, an avoidance attachment style, concerns about body image, and negative emotion regulation cognitive strategies increase eating disorder symptoms in students. Because attachment
Koval, Peter; Butler, Emily A; Hollenstein, Tom; Lanteigne, Dianna; Kuppens, Peter
The tendency for emotions to be predictable over time, labelled emotional inertia, has been linked to low well-being and is thought to reflect impaired emotion regulation. However, almost no studies have examined how emotion regulation relates to emotional inertia. We examined the effects of cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression on the inertia of behavioural, subjective and physiological measures of emotion. In Study 1 (N = 111), trait suppression was associated with higher inertia of negative behaviours. We replicated this finding experimentally in Study 2 (N = 186). Furthermore, in Study 2, instructed suppressors and reappraisers both showed higher inertia of positive behaviours, and reappraisers displayed higher inertia of heart rate. Neither suppression nor reappraisal were associated with the inertia of subjective feelings in either study. Thus, the effects of suppression and reappraisal on the temporal dynamics of emotions depend on the valence and emotional response component in question.
Full Text Available Carisa Perry-Parrish,1 Nikeea Copeland-Linder,2 Lindsey Webb,2 Ashley Shields,1 Erica MS Sibinga2 1Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Division of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Pediatric Medical Psychology Program, 2Department of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA Abstract: Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT was introduced in 1995 to address the problem of recurrent depression. MBCT is based on the notion that meditation helps individuals effectively deploy and regulate attention to effectively manage and treat a range of psychological symptoms, including emotional responses to stress, anxiety, and depression. Several studies demonstrate that mindfulness approaches can effectively reduce negative emotional reactions that result from and/or exacerbate psychiatric difficulties and exposure to stressors among children, adolescents, and their parents. Mindfulness may be particularly relevant for youth with maladaptive cognitive processes such as rumination. Clinical experience regarding the utility of mindfulness-based approaches, including MBCT, is being increasingly supported by empirical studies to optimize the effective treatment of youth with a range of challenging symptoms. This paper provides a description of MBCT, including mindfulness practices, theoretical mechanisms of action, and targeted review of studies in adolescents. Keywords: youth, mindfulness-based cognitive therapy, adolescents
Perrone-McGovern, Kristin M.; Simon-Dack, Stephanie L.; Beduna, Kerry N.; Williams, Cady C.; Esche, Aaron M.
In this study, we examined interrelationships among emotional overexcitability, perfectionism, emotion regulation, and subjective well-being. Dabrowski and Piechowski's theoretical conceptualization of overexcitabilities and J. J. Gross and John's constructs of emotion regulation strategies provided a framework to guide hypotheses in the present…
Swart, M.; Kortekaas, R; Aleman, A.
Background: Alexithymia, or "no words for feelings'', is a personality trait which is associated with difficulties in emotion recognition and regulation. It is unknown whether this deficit is due primarily to regulation, perception, or mentalizing of emotions. In order to shed light on the core
Full Text Available Huntington's disease (HD patients and mouse models show learning and memory impairment associated with hippocampal dysfunction. The neuronal nitric oxide synthase/3',5'-cyclic guanosine monophosphate (nNOS/cGMP pathway is implicated in synaptic plasticity, and in learning and memory processes. Here, we examined the nNOS/cGMP pathway in the hippocampus of HD mice to determine whether it can be a good therapeutic target for cognitive improvement in HD. We analyzed hippocampal nNOS and phosphodiesterase (PDE 5 and 9 levels in R6/1 mice, and cGMP levels in the hippocampus of R6/1, R6/2 and Hdh(Q7/Q111 mice, and of HD patients. We also investigated whether sildenafil, a PDE5 inhibitor, could improve cognitive deficits in R6/1 mice. We found that hippocampal cGMP levels were 3-fold lower in 12-week-old R6/1 mice, when they show deficits in object recognition memory and in passive avoidance learning. Consistent with hippocampal cGMP levels, nNOS levels were down-regulated, while there were no changes in the levels of PDE5 and PDE9 in R6/1 mice. A single intraperitoneal injection of sildenafil (3 mg/Kg immediately after training increased cGMP levels, and improved memory in R6/1 mice, as assessed by using the novel object recognition and the passive avoidance test. Importantly, cGMP levels were also reduced in R6/2 mouse and human HD hippocampus. Therefore, the regulation of hippocampal cGMP levels can be a suitable treatment for cognitive impairment in HD.
Kriston, Pálma; Pikó, Bettina
More and more studies suggest that mental health may be determined by processes of emotional self-regulation. Emotion regulation is a complex concept which can be explicit and implicit and includes different cognitive and behavioral processes: evaluation, modifying of emotional reaction to accomplish goals. Our research aim was to explore the use of cognitive emotional self-regulation strategies related to mental health indicators among adolescents. The youth study was performed with a sample size of 1245 participants in Makó, in 2016. Data collection was based on self-administrated questionnaries that contained items on mental health, subjective well-being and background of sociodemographics. The data were compared on the basis of gender differences and tested by multiple linear regression analysis to map associations between the regulation strategies and mental health indicators: depression, psychosomatic symptoms, satisfaction with life. Girls reported higher levels of depression and psychosomatic symptoms and lower satisfaction with life than boys. Significant differences were observed between boys and girls in using rumination, positive refocusing, selfblame, others-blame and putting into perspective regulation strategy. In addition the nonadaptive strategies were proved to be related to higher depression and psychosomatic symptom scores, whereas adaptive strategies to higher level of satisfaction with life in both boys and girls. The study draws attention to the importance of cognitive emotion regulation strategies from the point of view of mental health and to explore the background factors of cognitive processes of emotional self-regulation.
HAGGER, L.; HAGGER-JOHNSON, G.
With headlines such as ‘Get Smart Drugs Out of the Closet, Scientists Urge’ and ‘Smart Drugs for Straight As’,1 discussions about individuals taking psychopharmaceutical drugs to enhance their cognitive performance2 are increasingly in the public domain. In the US, drugs such as Modafinil are being used by university students because they provide a more targeted, powerful mental ‘sharpening’ than traditional stimulants such as caffeine in its various forms.3 Such drugs are readily available o...
Navas, Juan F; Verdejo-García, Antonio; LÓpez-GÓmez, Marta; Maldonado, Antonio; Perales, José C
Background and aims Existing research shows that gambling disorder patients (GDPs) process gambling outcomes abnormally when compared against healthy controls (HCs). These anomalies present the form of exaggerated or distorted beliefs regarding the expected utility of outcomes and one's ability to predict or control gains and losses, as well as retrospective reinterpretations of what caused them. This study explores the possibility that the emotional regulation strategies GDPs use to cope with aversive events are linked to these cognitions. Methods 41 GDPs and 45 HCs, matched in sociodemographic variables, were assessed in gambling severity, emotion-regulation strategies (cognitive emotion-regulation questionnaire, CERQ), and gambling-related cognitions (gambling-related cognitions scale, GRCS). Results GDPs showed higher scores in all gambling-related cognition dimensions. Regarding emotion regulation, GDPs were observed to use self-blame and catastrophizing, but also positive refocusing, more often than controls. Additionally, in GDPs, putatively adaptive CERQ strategies shared a significant portion of variance with South Oaks gambling screen severity and GRCS beliefs. Shared variability was mostly attributable to the roles of refocusing on planning and putting into perspective at positively predicting severity and the interpretative bias (GDPs propensity to reframe losses in a more benign way), respectively. Discussion and conclusions Results show links between emotion-regulation strategies and problematic gambling-related behaviors and cognitions. The pattern of those links supports the idea that GDPs use emotion-regulation strategies, customarily regarded as adaptive, to cope with negative emotions, so that the motivational and cognitive processing of gambling outcomes becomes less effective in shaping gambling-related behavior.
Navas, Juan F.; Verdejo-García, Antonio; LÓpez-GÓmez, Marta; Maldonado, Antonio; Perales, José C.
Background and aims Existing research shows that gambling disorder patients (GDPs) process gambling outcomes abnormally when compared against healthy controls (HCs). These anomalies present the form of exaggerated or distorted beliefs regarding the expected utility of outcomes and one’s ability to predict or control gains and losses, as well as retrospective reinterpretations of what caused them. This study explores the possibility that the emotional regulation strategies GDPs use to cope with aversive events are linked to these cognitions. Methods 41 GDPs and 45 HCs, matched in sociodemographic variables, were assessed in gambling severity, emotion-regulation strategies (cognitive emotion-regulation questionnaire, CERQ), and gambling-related cognitions (gambling-related cognitions scale, GRCS). Results GDPs showed higher scores in all gambling-related cognition dimensions. Regarding emotion regulation, GDPs were observed to use self-blame and catastrophizing, but also positive refocusing, more often than controls. Additionally, in GDPs, putatively adaptive CERQ strategies shared a significant portion of variance with South Oaks gambling screen severity and GRCS beliefs. Shared variability was mostly attributable to the roles of refocusing on planning and putting into perspective at positively predicting severity and the interpretative bias (GDPs propensity to reframe losses in a more benign way), respectively. Discussion and conclusions Results show links between emotion-regulation strategies and problematic gambling-related behaviors and cognitions. The pattern of those links supports the idea that GDPs use emotion-regulation strategies, customarily regarded as adaptive, to cope with negative emotions, so that the motivational and cognitive processing of gambling outcomes becomes less effective in shaping gambling-related behavior. PMID:27363462
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Background The Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (CERQ) is a cognitive and emotional tool measuring how individuals deal with stressful life events. However differences exist in the results of CERQ among individuals. Objective This study was conducted to investigate the CERQ results and depressive symptoms of students at our university (both local and international students) in order to provide further guidance for psychological interventions. Methods 255 sophomore and junior interna...
Chow, Lok-Hi; Tao, Pao-Luh; Chen, Yuan-Hao; Lin, Yu-Hui; Huang, Eagle Yi-Kung
Ang IV is an endogenous peptide generated from the degradation of angiotensin II. Ang IV was found to enhance learning and memory in CNS. PKMzeta was identified to be a fragment of PKCzeta (protein kinase Czeta). Its continuous activation was demonstrated to be correlated with the formation of memory in the hippocampus. Therefore, we investigated whether PKMzeta participates in the effects of Ang IV on memory. We first examined the effect of Ang IV on non-spatial memory/cognition in modified object recognition test in rats. Our data showed that Ang IV could increase the exploration time on novel object. The co-administration of ZIP (PKMzeta inhibitor) with Ang IV significantly blocked the effect by Ang IV. The effects of Ang IV on hippocampal LTP at the CA1 region were also evaluated. Ang IV significantly increased the amplitude and slope of the EPSPs, which was consistent with other reports. Surprisingly, instead of potentiating LTP, Ang IV caused a failed maintenance of LTP. Moreover, there was no quantitative change in PKMzeta induced by Ang IV and/or ZIP after behavioral experiments. Taken together, our data re-confirmed the finding of the positive effect of Ang IV to enhance memory/cognition. The increased strength of EPSPs with Ang IV could also have certain functional relevance. Since the behavioral results suggested the involvement of PKMzeta, we hypothesized that the enhancement of memory/cognition by Ang IV may rely on an increase in PKMzeta activity. Overall, the present study provided important advances in our understanding of the action of Ang IV in the hippocampus. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Aim: Today, third wave therapies in psychotherapy shift their attention from challenging cognitions to awareness and acceptance of feelings, emotions, cognitions and behaviors. Therefore, this research aimed to compare of efficacy of group psychotherapy based on acceptance and commitment therapy, with mindfulness on craving and cognitive emotion regulation in methamphetamine addicts. Method: Research method was semi experimental research design with pre-post test and follow up. The population of research was included all of methamphetamine addicts in baharestan, Isfahan. Drug abusers was 34 participants that refered to addiction rehabilitation centers and selected by snowball sampling and finaly divided to 2groups by radomization (acceptance and commitment therapy group and mindfulness groups. Each groups recieved treatment in 12 sessions (At First 2 sessions per week and at last 1 session per week. Two groups assessed by craving test (Ekhtiary, 1387 and cognitive emotion regulation (garnefski et al, 2002, in pretest, post test and follow up. Results: The results showed that two treatment groups had significant effect on craving intensity in post test and follow up. In addition, there was no significant difference in comparing of the efficacy of these two treatments on cognitive emotion regulation and it means that both two traetments had same effect on cognitive emotion regulatin. Conclusion: we can say that acceptance and commitmet therapy and mindfulnesshave effect on reduction psychopathology from using amphetamines due to same theraputic factors.
The Comparison of Effectiveness of Cognitive-Behavioral Group Therapy Based on Coping Skills and Methadone Maintenance Treatment in Improvement of Emotional Regulation Strategies and Relapse Prevention
Full Text Available Purpose: This study compared the effectiveness of group cognitive-behavioral therapy based on coping skills (CBT and methadone maintenance therapy (MMT in improvement of emotional regulation strategies and prevention of relapse. Method: The method of the present study was semi-experimental research design (pre-test-post-test with witness group. For sampling 45 substance abuse people who had referred to addiction treatment centers were selected and assigned to three groups of cognitive behavior therapy, methadone maintenance treatment and witness group randomly. The participants in all three groups completed the emotional intelligence questionnaire before and after the intervention. Data were analyzed by covariance method. Results: The results showed that cognitive-behavior therapy in comparison to methadone maintenance therapy and witness group led to significant improvement of emotional regulation in substance abusers, but there was no significant difference between the methadone maintenance treatment group and control group. Also, the rate of relapse in individuals who assigned to cognitive-behavior therapy group in comparison to methadone maintenance therapy and the witness group was significantly lower, but there was no significant difference between methadone therapy and witness. Conclusion: Cognitive-behavior therapy was an effective treatment that can change the cognitive and behavioral variables related to substance abuse, such as emotional regulation strategies. Thus, results suggested that drug abuse treatment programs must target these mediator variables.
de Goeij, Moniek C M; Harting, Janneke; Kunst, Anton E
Little detailed evidence is available on how integrated policies could impact population health and under what conditions such policies could be realized. The aim of this study was to assess how youth alcohol consumption trends in the province of Noord-Brabant, The Netherlands, were related to the development and implementation of integrated policies. In a retrospective multiple case study, alcohol policies of six municipalities with stronger declines in youth alcohol consumption between 2007 and 2011 (cases) were compared to four municipalities with weaker declines (controls). Information on the policy process in the same period was obtained through semi-structured in-depth interviews with policy advisors. Information on implemented interventions was extracted from policy documents and checked by the interviewees. Interviews were analyzed for thematic content. Only municipalities with stronger declines in alcohol consumption involved sectors other than public health and had started to implement interventions that use regulatory or enforcement strategies. Their involvement was facilitated by framing youth alcohol consumption as a safety rather than a health problem, whereby local media played a substantial role. Implementation of integrated policies was further facilitated by dedicated leadership and sufficient resources. Reductions in youth alcohol consumption in Noord-Brabant were stronger when municipalities started to develop integrated policies. Results suggest that integrated policies framing a health problem as a broader societal problem could positively influence population health.
Falquez, Rosalux; Dinu-Biringer, Ramona; Stopsack, Malte; Arens, Elisabeth A; Wick, Wolfgang; Barnow, Sven
Previous investigations have demonstrated the relationship between inhibitory deficits and maladaptive emotion regulation. Although several neuropsychological studies show that frontal lobe damage can lead to extreme inhibition impairments, there have been no investigations regarding the influence of frontal lobe damage and related inhibition impairments on the use of maladaptive strategies. The goal of the current study was to examine the impact of executive functions impairments due to frontal lobe damage on cognitive emotion regulation. Fifteen patients with frontal lobe damage were compared to twenty-two healthy controls on their reported use of maladaptive strategies. The effect of behavioral inhibition deficits among the frontal lobe damage group was examined. Patients reflected a heightened use of maladaptive strategies compared to healthy controls, significantly mediated by Go/NoGo task errors, which are an indicator for response inhibition deficits. Results suggest that a heightened use of maladaptive strategies by patients relies to a strong extent on their impaired impulse control, highlighting the complex interplay between executive functions and emotional regulation.
Full Text Available The Focus of this study is the standpoint of the play Sisyphus and critias the leader of the thirty towards the right of the stronger. this is a question of constant interest in scientific circles, since its answer can serve as the indicator of the influence this famous theory has had. this interest has been encouraged by the fact that critias’ authorship of the play is questionable. however, the question of the author is not of primary importance for this article, because there are some arguments, among some well known ones, which were not considered and which Show that in this satire, regardless of the author and the purpose of this fragment, the right of the stronger is actually non-existant. the first argument to support this theory is that nomosphysis antithesis is nowhere explicitly mentioned although it is the crucial element of the right of the stronger. in addition there is no claim in the play that the exploitation of the strong by the week or by law accrued. the second argument is that despite the incapability of laws to prevent the secret injustice, they and their importance for the human society are depicted in a positive light. it should also be noted that, unlike callicles and glaucon, laws are created to stop the bad and not the good. the third argument is that the invention of religion is accepted as a positive achievement, which finally enables the overcoming of primeval times and lawlessness. the reflection of this argument is a positive characterization of the individual who invented the fear of gods. the fourth argument, which has not been taken into consideration so far is the way the supporters and opponents of lawlessness are described and marked as κακοί and έσξλοί in the satire only physically strong are considered as strong as opposed to callicles, where they are also spiritually superior. intelectually superior in Sisyphus is the inventor of the fear of gods who is also in favor of law and order. the fact
Ross, Heather E.; Young, Larry J.
Oxytocin is produced in the hypothalamus and released into the circulation through the neurohypophyseal system. Peripherally released oxytocin facilitates parturition and milk ejection during nursing. Centrally released oxytocin coordinates the onset of maternal nurturing behavior at parturition and plays a role in mother-infant bonding. More recent studies have revealed a more general role for oxytocin in modulating affiliative behavior in both sexes. Oxytocin regulates alloparental care and pair bonding in female monogamous prairie voles. Social recognition in male and female mice is also modulated by oxytocin. In humans, oxytocin increases gaze to the eye region of human faces and enhances interpersonal trust and the ability to infer the emotions of others from facial cues. While the neurohypopheseal oxytocin system has been well characterized, less is known regarding the nature of oxytocin release within the brain. Here we review the role of oxytocin in the regulation prosocial interactions, and discuss the neuroanatomy of the central oxytocin system. PMID:19481567
Ross, Heather E; Young, Larry J
Oxytocin is produced in the hypothalamus and released into the circulation through the neurohypophyseal system. Peripherally released oxytocin facilitates parturition and milk ejection during nursing. Centrally released oxytocin coordinates the onset of maternal nurturing behavior at parturition and plays a role in mother-infant bonding. More recent studies have revealed a more general role for oxytocin in modulating affiliative behavior in both sexes. Oxytocin regulates alloparental care and pair bonding in female monogamous prairie voles. Social recognition in male and female mice is also modulated by oxytocin. In humans, oxytocin increases gaze to the eye region of human faces and enhances interpersonal trust and the ability to infer the emotions of others from facial cues. While the neurohypopheseal oxytocin system has been well characterized, less is known regarding the nature of oxytocin release within the brain. Here we review the role of oxytocin in the regulation of prosocial interactions, and discuss the neuroanatomy of the central oxytocin system.
Khajavi, Yaser; Abbasian, Reza
Problem Statement: One of the techniques which recently have attracted attention of researchers is concept mapping. Although, there are a number of researches investigating the influence of concept mapping technique on different skills e.g. reading, writing and etc, there are quite few studies on the effect of concept maps on motivational factors which are influential in students' success in reading such as self-regulation.Purpose of Study: This paper strives to investigate if concept mapping...
Siep, Nicolette; Roefs, Anne; Roebroeck, Alard; Havermans, Remco; Bonte, Milene; Jansen, Anita
The premise of cognitive therapy is that one can overcome the irresistible temptation of highly palatable foods by actively restructuring the way one thinks about food. Testing this idea, participants in the present study were instructed to passively view foods, up-regulate food palatability thoughts, apply cognitive reappraisal (e.g., thinking about health consequences), or suppress food palatability thoughts and cravings. We examined whether these strategies affect self-reported food craving and mesocorticolimbic activity as assessed by functional magnetic resonance imaging. It was hypothesized that cognitive reappraisal would most effectively inhibit the mesocorticolimbic activity and associated food craving as compared to suppression. In addition, it was hypothesized that suppression would lead to more prefrontal cortex activity, reflecting the use of more control resources, as compared to cognitive reappraisal. Self-report results indicated that up-regulation increased food craving compared to the other two conditions, but that there was no difference in craving between the suppression and cognitive reappraisal strategy. Corroborating self-report results, the neuroimaging results showed that up-regulation increased activity in important regions of the mesocorticolimbic circuitry, including the ventral tegmental area, ventral striatum, operculum, posterior insular gyrus, medial orbitofrontal cortex and ventromedial prefrontal cortex. Contrary to our hypothesis, suppression more effectively decreased activity in the core of the mesocorticolimbic circuitry (i.e., ventral tegmental area and ventral striatum) compared to cognitive reappraisal. Overall, the results support the contention that appetitive motivation can be modulated by the application of short-term cognitive control strategies. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Perry, David R.; Steck, Andy K.
Teachers are increasingly integrating mobile digital technology into the classroom. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of incorporating iPads in a secondary-level geometry course on academic achievement, student engagement, self-efficacy, and meta-cognitive self-regulation. Students in the iPad-using classroom experienced lower…
With a specific focus on tutoring among future teachers this article proposes a model of self-regulated learning. The focus on different mechanisms inherent to the tutoring relationship will consider Affective impacts or motivation, Reflexive or metacognitive and Cognitive resolutions. The ARC combination proposes that personal skills will be…
Jakubowski, Terrance G.; Dembo, Myron H.
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships among academic achievement, academic self-regulation, and four social cognitive characteristics: (1) self-efficacy; (2) anxiety; (3) identity style; and (4) stage of change. Participants were 210 college students enrolled in a learning and study strategies course at a private research…
The relationships between knowledge and regulation of cognition and how they interact to mediate the effects of task-induced involvement load on word learning and confidence judgments were investigated. The participants were 77 undergraduate English majors. They were required to complete a checklist on metacognition. Subsequently, they were…
McEwen, Bruce S; Gray, Jason D; Nasca, Carla
The discovery of steroid hormone receptors in brain regions that mediate every aspect of brain function has broadened the definition of 'neuroendocrinology' to include the reciprocal communication between the brain and the body via hormonal and neural pathways. The brain is the central organ of stress and adaptation to stress because it perceives and determines what is threatening, as well as the behavioral and physiological responses to the stressor. The adult and developing brain possess remarkable structural and functional plasticity in response to stress, including neuronal replacement, dendritic remodeling, and synapse turnover. Stress causes an imbalance of neural circuitry subserving cognition, decision-making, anxiety and mood that can alter expression of those behaviors and behavioral states. This imbalance, in turn, affects systemic physiology via neuroendocrine, autonomic, immune and metabolic mediators. In the short term, as for increased fearful vigilance and anxiety in a threatening environment, these changes may be adaptive. But, if the danger passes and the behavioral state persists along with the changes in neural circuitry, such maladaptation may need intervention with a combination of pharmacological and behavioral therapies, as is the case for chronic anxiety and depression. There are important sex differences in the brain responses to stressors that are in urgent need of further exploration. Moreover, adverse early-life experience, interacting with alleles of certain genes, produce lasting effects on brain and body over the life-course via epigenetic mechanisms. While prevention is most important, the plasticity of the brain gives hope for therapies that take into consideration brain-body interactions. © 2015 Society for Endocrinology.
Burke, Mary V; Small, Dana M
Emerging evidence from human and animal studies suggest that consumption of palatable foods rich in fat and/or carbohydrates may produce deleterious influences on brain function independently of body weight or metabolic disease. Here we consider two mechanisms by which diet can impact striatal circuits to amplify food cue reactivity and impair inhibitory control. First, we review findings demonstrating that the energetic properties of foods regulate nucleus accumbens food cue reactivity, a demonstrated predictor of weight gain susceptibility, which is then sensitized by chronic consumption of an energy dense diet. Second, we consider evidence for diet-induced adaptations in dorsal striatal dopamine signaling that is associated with impaired inhibitory control and negative outcome learning.
Crino, Natalie; Touyz, Stephen; Rieger, Elizabeth
The present study compared the use (and effectiveness) of cognitive self-regulation strategies in eating disordered (ED) and non-eating disordered women (non-ED), and whether ED subgroups differ in their use of avoidant/suppressive strategies and cognitive reappraisal. The participants consisted of 90 adult patients recruited from a specialist eating disorder service and 97 adults without an ED. Cognitive self-regulation strategies were examined on a baseline self-report measure and while looking in a mirror. The results of this study showed that, relative to the non-ED group, ED participants engage in more worry and self-punishment and less distraction and social control strategies in general but not specifically during a body exposure task. Reappraisal strategies were equally likely to be used by clinical and non-clinical groups but participants with anorexia nervosa (AN) found them less effective during the task. Non-ED participants found distraction strategies more effective than the ED group for managing the body exposure experience. ED subgroups used avoidant/suppressive strategies and cognitive reappraisal strategies to a similar extent. The use of maladaptive self-regulation strategies, and the use and effectiveness of some of the more adaptive self-regulation strategies sets eating disorders apart from those without an eating disorder, supporting previous research in the area. Contrary to what was predicted, the results were similar across ED subgroups. The findings highlight the importance of cognitive self-regulation strategies as a focus of research and clinical intervention. Level III: Case-control study.
Joel, Samantha; Burton, Caitlin M; Plaks, Jason E
The present work examined whether conservatives and liberals differ in their anticipation of their own emotional reactions to negative events. In two studies, participants imagined experiencing positive or negative outcomes in domains that do not directly concern politics. In Study 1, 190 American participants recruited online (64 male, Mage = 32 years) anticipated their emotional responses to romantic relationship outcomes. In Study 2, 97 Canadian undergraduate students (26 male, Mage = 21 years) reported on their anticipated and experienced emotional responses to academic outcomes. In both studies, more conservative participants predicted they would feel stronger negative emotions following negative outcomes than did more liberal participants. Furthermore, a longitudinal follow-up of Study 2 participants revealed that more conservative participants actually felt worse than more liberal participants after receiving a lower-than-desired exam grade. These effects remained even when controlling for the Big Five traits, prevention focus, and attachment style (Study 1), and optimism (Study 2). We discuss how the relationship between political orientation and anticipated affect likely contributes to differences between conservatives and liberals in styles of decision and policy choices. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Kratina, Pavel; Hammill, Edd; Anholt, Bradley R
1. Intraguild predation is widespread in nature despite its potentially destabilizing effect on food web dynamics. 2. Anti-predator inducible defences affect both birth and death rates of populations and have the potential to substantially modify food web dynamics and possibly increase persistence of intraguild prey. 3. In a chemostat experiment, we investigated the long-term effects of inducible defences on the dynamics of aquatic microbial food webs consisting of an intraguild predator, intraguild prey, and a basal resource. We controlled environmental conditions and selected strains of intraguild prey that varied in the strength of expressed inducible defences. 4. We found that intraguild prey with a stronger tendency to induce an anti-predator morphology persist for significantly longer periods of time. In addition, model selection analysis implied that flexibility in defensive phenotype (inducibility itself) is most likely the factor responsible for the enhanced persistence. 5. As patterns at the community level often emerge as a result of the life-history traits of individuals, we propose that inducible defences increase the persistence of populations and may contribute to the widespread occurrence of theoretically unstable intraguild predation systems in nature.
Raven, Frank; Van der Zee, Eddy A; Meerlo, Peter; Havekes, Robbert
Dendritic spines are the major sites of synaptic transmission in the central nervous system. Alterations in the strength of synaptic connections directly affect the neuronal communication, which is crucial for brain function as well as the processing and storage of information. Sleep and sleep loss bidirectionally alter structural plasticity, by affecting spine numbers and morphology, which ultimately can affect the functional output of the brain in terms of alertness, cognition, and mood. Experimental data from studies in rodents suggest that sleep deprivation may impact structural plasticity in different ways. One of the current views, referred to as the synaptic homeostasis hypothesis, suggests that wake promotes synaptic potentiation whereas sleep facilitates synaptic downscaling. On the other hand, several studies have now shown that sleep deprivation can reduce spine density and attenuate synaptic efficacy in the hippocampus. These data are the basis for the view that sleep promotes hippocampal structural plasticity critical for memory formation. Altogether, the impact of sleep and sleep loss may vary between regions of the brain. A better understanding of the role that sleep plays in regulating structural plasticity may ultimately lead to novel therapeutic approaches for brain disorders that are accompanied by sleep disturbances and sleep loss. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Giakoumaki, Stella G; Karagiannopoulou, Leda; Rózsa, Sándor; Zouraraki, Chrysoula; Karamaouna, Penny; Cloninger, C Robert
Background. The revised Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI-R) measures Cloninger's psychobiological model of personality. The average effects of individual temperament and character traits have been associated with schizotypy and with impaired regulation of affect and cognition. We extended prior research by testing predictions about the association of specific multidimensional configurations of temperament and character traits on schizotypy, affect balance, and self-perceived cognitive functioning. Method. A well-educated sample of native Greeks (N = 483), completed a new Greek translation of the TCI-R, as well as the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ), the Positive/Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) and the Cognitive Failures Questionnaire (CFQ). The factor structure of the TCI-R was examined with exploratory and confirmatory tests. Associations between reported measures were examined with correlational and regression analyses. Results. The TCI-R had good psychometric properties as expected from studies in other countries. As predicted, specific configurations of temperament and character were associated with schizotypy, negative affect balance, and cognitive lapses. The "Borderline/Explosive temperament" (high Novelty Seeking, high Harm Avoidance, low Reward Dependence), "Schizotypal/Disorganized character" (low Self-directedness, low Cooperativeness, high Self-transcendence), and "Low Ego Strength/Fragile" profile (high Harm Avoidance, low Persistence, low Self-Directedness) were each strongly associated with higher stereotypy, negative affect balance (low positive affect and high negative affect), and subjective cognitive lapses compared to their contrast groups. Discussion. Multidimensional TCI profiles are strongly related to individual differences in schizotypy and self-reported regulation of affect and cognition. The Greek translation of the TCI-R is psychometrically sound and useful for clinical assessment and research.
Stella G. Giakoumaki
Full Text Available Background. The revised Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI-R measures Cloninger’s psychobiological model of personality. The average effects of individual temperament and character traits have been associated with schizotypy and with impaired regulation of affect and cognition. We extended prior research by testing predictions about the association of specific multidimensional configurations of temperament and character traits on schizotypy, affect balance, and self-perceived cognitive functioning. Method. A well-educated sample of native Greeks (N = 483, completed a new Greek translation of the TCI-R, as well as the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ, the Positive/Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS and the Cognitive Failures Questionnaire (CFQ. The factor structure of the TCI-R was examined with exploratory and confirmatory tests. Associations between reported measures were examined with correlational and regression analyses. Results. The TCI-R had good psychometric properties as expected from studies in other countries. As predicted, specific configurations of temperament and character were associated with schizotypy, negative affect balance, and cognitive lapses. The “Borderline/Explosive temperament” (high Novelty Seeking, high Harm Avoidance, low Reward Dependence, “Schizotypal/Disorganized character” (low Self-directedness, low Cooperativeness, high Self-transcendence, and “Low Ego Strength/Fragile” profile (high Harm Avoidance, low Persistence, low Self-Directedness were each strongly associated with higher stereotypy, negative affect balance (low positive affect and high negative affect, and subjective cognitive lapses compared to their contrast groups. Discussion. Multidimensional TCI profiles are strongly related to individual differences in schizotypy and self-reported regulation of affect and cognition. The Greek translation of the TCI-R is psychometrically sound and useful for clinical assessment and
Scheff, J.; Maroon, E.
In the CMIP multi-model mean under strong future warming, Arctic amplification is confined to the lower troposphere, so that the meridional gradient of warming reverses around 500 mb and the upper troposphere is characterized by strong "tropical amplification" in which warming weakens with increasing latitude. This model-derived pattern of warming maxima in the upper-level tropics and lower-level Arctic has become a canonical assumption driving theories of the large-scale circulation response to climate change. Yet, several lines of evidence and reasoning suggest that Arctic amplification may in fact extend through the entire depth of the troposphere, and/or may be stronger than commonly modeled. These include satellite Microwave Sounding Unit (MSU) temperature trends as a function of latitude and vertical level, the recent discovery that the extratropical negative cloud phase feedback in models is largely spurious, and the very strong polar amplification observed in past warm and lukewarm climates. Such a warming pattern, with deep, dominant Arctic amplification, would have very different implications for the circulation than a canonical CMIP-like warming: instead of slightly shifting poleward and strengthening, eddies, jets and cells might shift equatorward and considerably weaken. Indeed, surface winds have been mysteriously weakening ("stilling") at almost all stations over the last half-century or so, there has been no poleward shift in northern hemisphere circulation metrics, and past warm climates' subtropics were apparently quite wet (and their global ocean circulations were weak.) To explore these possibilities more deeply, we examine the y-z structure of warming and circulation changes across a much broader range of models, scenarios and time periods than the CMIP future mean, and use an MSU simulator to compare them to the satellite warming record. Specifically, we examine whether the use of historical (rather than future) forcing, AMIP (rather than CMIP
Sorteberg, A.; Smedsrud, L. H.; Sirevaag, A.; Kloster, K.
Arctic sea ice area has decreased steadily over the last three decades. A thinner and more seasonal Arctic ice cover, related to increased long wave radiation, has become evident. Changes in circulation, including drift patterns of the Arctic pack ice, have been less obvious. Arctic sea ice export estimates have been hampered by low resolution spatial and temporal satellite imagery, especially during summer, making accurate detection difficult. Here we present a new ice area export dataset calculated from sea ice motion and concentration profiles along 79N. Ice drift vectors are calculated from ice feature displacement using Envisat ASAR WideSwath images every 3 days from 2004 while ice concentration is based on DMSP F13 SSMI and AQUA AMSR-E brightness temperature data. The two data sets are combined to give the ice-area flux in consecutive 3-day periods, uninterrupted year-round coverage along 79N. It is shown that sea ice export variability is closely linked to the geostrophic wind in the Fram Strait (correlation of 0.84). Using geostrophic winds from reanalysis back to the 1950s as a proxy for ice export indicates that the Arctic sea ice has annually lost an increasing area since the 1950's driven by stronger winds. Ice concentration has decreased slightly, but does not contribute significantly. The ice export has overall increased by ~25% over the period. Using cyclone tracking the changes in winds seems directly related to a higher low pressure activity in the Nordic Seas. Our results demonstrate that the changes in atmospheric circulation over the Arctic and sub-Arctic have contributed to a trend in the Fram Strait ice export. The Fram Strait between Greenland and Svalbard with average sea ice concentration for summer (red, June through August) and winter (black, January through March). Solid lines are 50%, dashed lines are 15%. Above mean southward ice drift across 79N from August 2004 to July 2010 in 1 degree bins based on SAR imagery, and mean ice
Ballesta, Juan J; del Pozo, Carlos; Castelló-Banyuls, Juan; Faura, Clara C
Cognitive impairment is common in patients with chronic kidney disease. Brain nicotinic acetylcholine receptors modulate cognitive functions, such as learning and memory. Pharmacological cholinergic enhancement is useful in patients with cognitive dysfunction. The major nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subtypes in the brain are heteromeric α4β2 and homomeric α7 receptors. To study the involvement of neuronal acetylcholine receptors in cognitive impairment in uremic rats, bilateral nephrectomy was performed. 24 weeks after nephrectomy, memory was assessed using the one trial step-down inhibitory avoidance test. Neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in the brain were studied by radioligand binding, immunoprecipitation, Western blot and sucrose gradient experiments. We demonstrated that rats with severe renal failure show disorders of short term memory. Long term memory was not altered in these rats. The number of functional α4β2 heteromeric neuronal nicotinic receptors was decreased in the brains of rats with severe renal failure. There was a significant correlation between the degree of renal impairment and the number of heteromeric nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in the brain. The down-regulation of functional α4β2 receptors in the brains of rats with severe renal failure was not due to a reduction of α4 or β2 subunit proteins. The number of α7 homomeric neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors was not altered. These findings may have important clinical significance for the management of cognitive impairment in patients with chronic kidney disease. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Springvloet, Linda; Lechner, Lilian; Oenema, Anke
Background Educational differences in health-related behaviors, where low- and moderate-educated individuals have poorer outcomes than high-educated individuals, are persistent. The reasons for these differences remain poorly understood. This study explored whether individual cognitions, self-regulation and environmental-level factors may explain educational differences in vegetable consumption. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among 1,342 Dutch adults, of whom 54.5% were low/mod...
Jessica Ann Wojtalik
Full Text Available Individuals with schizophrenia who misuse substances are burdened with impairments in emotion regulation. Cognitive Enhancement Therapy (CET may address these problems by enhancing prefrontal brain function. A small sample of outpatients with schizophrenia and alcohol and/or cannabis substance use problems participating in an 18-month randomized trial of CET (n = 10 or usual care (n = 4 completed post-treatment functional neuroimaging using an emotion regulation task. General linear models explored CET effects on brain activity in emotional neurocircuitry. Individuals treated with CET had significantly greater activation in broad regions of the prefrontal cortex, limbic and striatal systems implicated in emotion regulation compared to usual care. Differential activation favoring CET in prefrontal regions and the insula mediated behavioral improvements in emotional processing. Our data lend preliminary support of CET effects on neuroplasticity in fronto-limbic and striatal circuitries which mediate emotion regulation in people with schizophrenia and comorbid substance misuse problems.
Full Text Available Infertility is considered as an intense and prolonged stressful experience. Despite of high prevalence of infertility and its emotional burden for couples and especially for women, the knowledge regarding psychological factors influencing adjustment to it is limited. The aim of the present study was to investigate the mediational role of cognitive emotion regulation strategies in the relationship of ego-strength and adjustment to infertility in women.A total number of 275 women with primary infertility referring to Valie-asr Reproductive Health Research Center (Tehran Imam Khomeini Hospital participated in the present study. Data was collected via demographic information questionnaire, Ego-Strength Scale (ESS, Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (CERQ and Adjustment to Illness Scale (AIS. Data were analysed using Pearson correlation and path analysis methods Using SPSS (18 and LISREL (8.5 software.RESULTS indicated there are significant positive correlation between ego-strength and adjustment to infertility (r = 0.44, p < 0.01. Also Adjustment has significant positive correlation withadaptive emotion regulation strategies (r = 0.38, p < 0.01 and significant negative correlation with non-adaptive emotion regulation strategies (r = -0.43, p < 0.01. RESULTS of path analysis indicated emotion regulation strategies mediate the relationship of ego-strength and adjustment.These results can be helpful in making preventive policies, identifying high risk patients and planning psychological interventions.
The purpose of this study was to analyze the relation between students' cognitive learning strategies and conceptions of learning biology. The two scales, "Cognitive Learning Strategies" and "Conceptions of Learning Biology", were revised and adapted to biology in order to measure the students' learning strategies and…
Wu, Qi; Qiao, Ling; Yang, Jian; Zhou, Yan; Liu, Qiang
We previously showed that hepatitis B virus (HBV) X protein activates the sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1a (SREBP-1a). Here we examined the role of nuclear localization of HBx in this process. In comparison to the wild-type and cytoplasmic HBx, nuclear HBx had stronger effects on SREBP-1a and fatty acid synthase transcription activation, intracellular lipid accumulation and cell proliferation. Furthermore, nuclear HBx could activate HBV enhancer I/X promoter and was more effective on up-regulating HBV mRNA level in the context of HBV replication than the wild-type HBx, while the cytoplasmic HBx had no effect. Our results demonstrate the functional significance of the nucleus-localized HBx in regulating host lipogenic pathway and HBV replication. - Highlights: • Nuclear HBx is more effective on activating SREBP-1a and FASN transcription. • Nuclear HBx is more effective on enhancing intracellular lipid accumulation. • Nuclear HBx is more effective on enhancing cell proliferation. • Nuclear HBx up-regulates HBV enhancer I/X promoter activity. • Nuclear HBx increases HBV mRNA level in the context of HBV replication
Wu, Qi [VIDO-InterVac, Veterinary Microbiology, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon (Canada); Qiao, Ling [VIDO-InterVac, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan (Canada); Yang, Jian [Drug Discovery Group, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan (Canada); Zhou, Yan [VIDO-InterVac, Veterinary Microbiology, Vaccinology and Immunotherapeutics, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan (Canada); Liu, Qiang, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [VIDO-InterVac, Veterinary Microbiology, Vaccinology and Immunotherapeutics, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan (Canada)
We previously showed that hepatitis B virus (HBV) X protein activates the sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1a (SREBP-1a). Here we examined the role of nuclear localization of HBx in this process. In comparison to the wild-type and cytoplasmic HBx, nuclear HBx had stronger effects on SREBP-1a and fatty acid synthase transcription activation, intracellular lipid accumulation and cell proliferation. Furthermore, nuclear HBx could activate HBV enhancer I/X promoter and was more effective on up-regulating HBV mRNA level in the context of HBV replication than the wild-type HBx, while the cytoplasmic HBx had no effect. Our results demonstrate the functional significance of the nucleus-localized HBx in regulating host lipogenic pathway and HBV replication. - Highlights: • Nuclear HBx is more effective on activating SREBP-1a and FASN transcription. • Nuclear HBx is more effective on enhancing intracellular lipid accumulation. • Nuclear HBx is more effective on enhancing cell proliferation. • Nuclear HBx up-regulates HBV enhancer I/X promoter activity. • Nuclear HBx increases HBV mRNA level in the context of HBV replication.
Pan, Yijun; Short, Jennifer L; Choy, Kwok H C; Zeng, Annie X; Marriott, Philip J; Owada, Yuji; Scanlon, Martin J; Porter, Christopher J H; Nicolazzo, Joseph A
in the maintenance of cognitive function via regulating the brain uptake of DHA, and suggests that upregulation of FABP5 in neurodegenerative diseases, where brain DHA levels are possibly diminished (e.g., Alzheimer's disease), may provide a novel therapeutic approach for restoring cognitive function. Copyright © 2016 the authors 0270-6474/16/3611756-13$15.00/0.
Annual Research Review: On the relations among self-regulation, self-control, executive functioning, effortful control, cognitive control, impulsivity, risk-taking, and inhibition for developmental psychopathology.
Nigg, Joel T
Self-regulation (SR) is central to developmental psychopathology, but progress has been impeded by varying terminology and meanings across fields and literatures. The present review attempts to move that discussion forward by noting key sources of prior confusion such as measurement-concept confounding, and then arguing the following major points. First, the field needs a domain-general construct of SR that encompasses SR of action, emotion, and cognition and involves both top-down and bottom-up regulatory processes. This does not assume a shared core process across emotion, action, and cognition, but is intended to provide clarity on the extent of various claims about kinds of SR. Second, top-down aspects of SR need to be integrated. These include (a) basic processes that develop early and address immediate conflict signals, such as cognitive control and effortful control (EC), and (b) complex cognition and strategies for addressing future conflict, represented by the regulatory application of complex aspects of executive functioning. Executive function (EF) and cognitive control are not identical to SR because they can be used for other activities, but account for top-down aspects of SR at the cognitive level. Third, impulsivity, risk-taking, and disinhibition are distinct although overlapping; a taxonomy of the kinds of breakdowns of SR associated with psychopathology requires their differentiation. Fourth, different aspects of the SR universe can be organized hierarchically in relation to granularity, development, and time. Low-level components assemble into high-level components. This hierarchical perspective is consistent across literatures. It is hoped that the framework outlined here will facilitate integration and cross-talk among investigators working from different perspectives, and facilitate individual differences research on how SR relates to developmental psychopathology. © 2016 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.
Nielsen, Sara Kerstine Kaya; Hageman, Ida; Petersen, Anders
Objective: Approximately, 50% of all individuals with anxiety disorders do not benefit from the “gold standard” treatment, namely cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). Reliable predictors of treatment effect are lacking. The primary aim of this study was to investigate the predictive value of emotion...... regulation, attentional control, and attachment style for group-based CBT outcomes in routine clinical settings. Method: A total of 76 patients with anxiety disorders received manual-based group CBT at psychiatric outpatient clinics. Emotion regulation, attachment style, and attentional control were assessed...... with self-report measures and with an experimental computer-based attentional control task at baseline. The severity of anxiety was assessed at intake, post-treatment, and at a 6-month follow-up. Results: Attentional control, emotion regulation, and attachment avoidance did not predict treatment outcomes...
Van Rheenen, Tamsyn E; Rossell, Susan L
People with bipolar disorder (BD) experience significant psychosocial impairment. Understandings of the nature and causes of such impairment is limited by the lack of research exploring the extent to which subjectively reported functioning should be valued as an indicator of objective dysfunction, or examining the relative influence of neurocognition, social cognition and emotion regulation on these important, but different aspects of psychosocial functioning in the context of mania and depression symptoms. This study aimed to address this paucity of research by conducting a comprehensive investigation of psychosocial functioning in a well characterised group of BD patients. Fifty-one BD patients were compared to 52 healthy controls on objectively and subjectively assessed psychosocial outcomes. Relationships between current mood symptoms, psychosocial function and neurocognitive, social cognitive and emotion regulation measures were also examined in the patient group. Patients had significantly worse scores on the global objective and subjective functioning measures relative to controls. In the patient group, although these scores were correlated, regression analyses showed that variance in each of the measures was explained by different predictors. Depressive symptomatology was the most important predictor of global subjective functioning, and neurocognition had a concurrent and important influence with depressive symptoms on objective psychosocial function. Emotion regulation also had an indirect effect on psychosocial functioning via its influence on depressive symptomatology. As this study was cross-sectional in nature, we are unable to draw precise conclusions regarding contributing pathways involved in psychosocial functioning in BD. These results suggest that patients' own evaluations of their subjective functioning represent important indicators of the extent to which their observable function is impaired. They also highlight the importance of
Hu, Hongxing; Alsron, Bahargul; Xu, Bin; Hao, Wei
The Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (CERQ) is a cognitive and emotional tool measuring how individuals deal with stressful life events. However differences exist in the results of CERQ among individuals. This study was conducted to investigate the CERQ results and depressive symptoms of students at our university (both local and international students) in order to provide further guidance for psychological interventions. 255 sophomore and junior international students (171 male and 84 female) and 262 sophomore and junior Chinese students (124 male and 138 female) were investigated using CERQ, ASLEC and SDS questionnaires. Results were analyzed using SPSS 16.0. Compared to Chinese students, international students more often used cognitive adjustment methods such as "positive refocusing","re-focus on planning" and "catastrophizing". In regression equations where depression symptoms were used as the dependent variable, "self-blaming" and "catastrophizing"positively contributed to depression symptoms in international students, while"acceptance" was negatively correlated with depression symptoms.In Chinese students, "life events score" and "catastrophizing"were positively correlated withdepression symptoms, while "positive re-evaluating" was negatively correlated with depression symptoms. Among students of different races, positive coping methods were negatively correlated with depression symptoms and could possibly prevent the occurrence of depression, while negative coping methods were positively correlated with depression.Encouraging students to use adaptive coping methods during psychological intervention is an effective way to adjust cognitions and behavior for depression prevention.
Fischer, Peter; Greitemeyer, Tobias; Frey, Dieter
In the present research, the authors investigated the impact of self-regulation resources on confirmatory information processing, that is, the tendency of individuals to systematically prefer standpoint-consistent information to standpoint-inconsistent information in information evaluation and search. In 4 studies with political and economic decision-making scenarios, it was consistently found that individuals with depleted self-regulation resources exhibited a stronger tendency for confirmatory information processing than did individuals with nondepleted self-regulation resources. Alternative explanations based on processes of ego threat, cognitive load, and mood were ruled out. Mediational analyses suggested that individuals with depleted self-regulation resources experienced increased levels of commitment to their own standpoint, which resulted in increased confirmatory information processing. In sum, the impact of ego depletion on confirmatory information search seems to be more motivational than cognitive in nature.
Springvloet, Linda; Lechner, Lilian; Oenema, Anke
Educational differences in health-related behaviors, where low- and moderate-educated individuals have poorer outcomes than high-educated individuals, are persistent. The reasons for these differences remain poorly understood. This study explored whether individual cognitions, self-regulation and environmental-level factors may explain educational differences in vegetable consumption. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 1,342 Dutch adults, of whom 54.5% were low/moderate-educated. Individuals completed an online questionnaire, assessing education, vegetable consumption, demographics, individual cognitions (attitude towards consuming 200 grams of vegetables a day, self-efficacy, subjective norm, intention, perception of vegetables as being expensive), self-regulation (general self-regulation, vegetable-specific action- and coping planning) and environmental-level factors (perception of availability of vegetables in the supermarket and availability of vegetables at home). The joint-significance test was used to determine significant mediation effects. Low/moderate-educated individuals consumed less vegetables (M = 151.2) than high-educated individuals (M = 168.1, β = -0.15, P education and vegetable consumption (percentage mediated effect: 24.46%). Since attitude and availability of vegetables at home partially explain the difference in vegetable consumption between low/moderate- and high-educated individuals, these variables may be good target points for interventions to promote vegetable consumption among low/moderate-educated individuals.
Sagalakova, Olga A.; Truevtsev, Dmitry V.; Sagalakov, Anatoly M.
This article analyzes modern theoretical and conceptual models of social anxiety disorder (SAD) (cognitive, metacognitive, psychopathological) with a view to determine specific features of psychological mechanisms of disorders studied in various approaches, to identify similarities and differences in conceptual SAD models, their heuristic…
Leach, Prescott T; Kenney, Justin W; Gould, Thomas J
Increased training often results in stronger memories but the neural changes responsible for these stronger memories are poorly understood. It is proposed here that higher levels of training that result in stronger memories recruit additional cell signaling cascades. This study specifically examined if c-Jun N-terminal kinase 1 (JNK1) is involved in the formation of stronger fear conditioning memories. Wildtype (WT), JNK1 heterozygous (Het), and JNK1 knockout (KO) mice were fear conditioned with 1 trial, 2 trials, or 4 trials. All mice learned both contextual (hippocampus-dependent) and cued (hippocampus-independent) fear conditioning but for contextual fear conditioning only, the JNK1 KO mice did not show higher levels of learning with increased trials. That is, WT mice showed a significant linear increase in contextual fear conditioning as training trials increased from 1 to 2 to 4 trials whereas KO mice showed the same level of contextual fear conditioning as WT mice for 1 trial training but did not have increased levels of contextual fear conditioning with additional trials. These data suggest that JNK1 may not be critical for learning but when higher levels of hippocampus-dependent learning occur, JNK1 signaling is recruited and is necessary for stronger hippocampus-dependent memory formation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Background Extinction learning is proposed to be one key mechanism of action underlying exposure-based cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) in specific phobia. Beyond that, cognitive reappraisal, one important strategy to regulate negative emotions, is a crucial component of CBT interventions, but has been disregarded in previous studies investigating neural change processes in specific phobia. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of individual differences in habitual/dispositional cognitive reappraisal usage and the time course of brain activation during phobic stimulation in specific phobia. Methods Dental phobic patients and healthy control subjects participated in a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study whilst being confronted with phobic, disgust, fear and neutral pictures. Individual differences in cognitive reappraisal usage were assessed via a self-report questionnaire and correlated with activation decreases over the course of time. Results Phobic individuals with higher dispositional cognitive reappraisal scores showed a more pronounced activation decline in the right dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC) which might be associated with a diminution of explicit cognitive emotion regulation over the course of time. Less decrease of activation in the right ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) and the lateral orbitofrontal cortex (lOFC) over time in subjects with higher cognitive reappraisal scores might be related to a stronger automatic regulation of emotions or even emotional relearning. Additionally, phobic subjects compared with healthy controls showed a stronger habituation of the left dmPFC over the course of symptom provocation. Conclusions The results of this study show for the first time that individual differences in cognitive reappraisal usage are associated with the time course of brain activation during symptom provocation in specific phobia. Additionally, the present study gives first indications for the
Slot, Pauline Louise; Mulder, Hanna; Verhagen, Josje; Leseman, Paul
The preschool period is marked by rapid growth of children's self-regulation and related executive functions. Self-regulation is considered an important aspect of school readiness and is related to academic and social–emotional outcomes in childhood. Pretend play, as part of the early childhood
Slot, Pauline Louise; Mulder, Hanna; Verhagen, Josje; Leseman, Paul P. M.
The preschool period is marked by rapid growth of children's self-regulation and related executive functions. Self-regulation is considered an important aspect of school readiness and is related to academic and social--emotional outcomes in childhood. Pretend play, as part of the early childhood curriculum, is hypothesized to support…
Marceau, Ely M; Berry, Jamie; Lunn, Joanne; Kelly, Peter J; Solowij, Nadia
Executive dysfunction is common in substance use disorder (SUD) populations and hinders treatment. We previously found that 50% of residents in SUD therapeutic communities had been hospitalized for head injuries; this was a significant determinant of cognitive impairment. The current study aimed to establish whether cognitive remediation improves executive functions (EFs) and self-regulation in an ecologically valid sample of female residents attending SUD therapeutic community treatment, including those with past head injuries and psychiatric comorbidities. Controlled sequential groups design with residents (N=33, all female) receiving treatment as usual (TAU). The intervention group (n=16) completed four weeks of cognitive remediation (CR) and the control, TAU only (n=17). Outcome measures assessed pre- and post-intervention included both performance- and inventory-based measures of EFs, and self-reported self-regulation and quality of life. CR relative to TAU significantly improved performance-based assessment of inhibition (Color-Word Interference Test; F=4.29, p=0.047), inventory-based assessment of EFs (Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function - Adult Version: Global Executive Composite; F=6.38, p=0.017), impulsivity (Barratt Impulsiveness Scale; F=4.61, p=0.040), self-control (Brief Self-Control Scale; F=5.53, p=0.026), and quality of life (Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire - Short Form; F=7.68, p=0.010). Findings suggest that CR improves EFs in a heterogeneous sample of female residents in therapeutic community SUD treatment. Future research may explore the possibility of tailoring CR interventions for various SUD subgroups. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Fagundo, Ana Beatriz; Via, Esther; Sánchez, Isabel; Jiménez-Murcia, Susana; Forcano, Laura; Soriano-Mas, Carles; Giner-Bartolomé, Cristina; Santamaría, Juan J; Ben-Moussa, Maher; Konstantas, Dimitri; Lam, Tony; Lucas, Mikkel; Nielsen, Jeppe; Lems, Peter; Cardoner, Narcís; Menchón, Jose M; de la Torre, Rafael; Fernandez-Aranda, Fernando
PlayMancer is a video game designed to increase emotional regulation and reduce general impulsive behaviors, by training to decrease arousal and improve decision-making and planning. We have previously demonstrated the usefulness of PlayMancer in reducing impulsivity and improving emotional regulation in bulimia nervosa (BN) patients. However, whether these improvements are actually translated into brain changes remains unclear. The aim of this case study was to report on a 28-year-old Spanish woman with BN, and to examine changes in physiological variables and brain activity after a combined treatment of video game therapy (VGT) and cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). Ten VGT sessions were carried out on a weekly basis. Anxiety, physiological, and impulsivity measurements were recorded. The patient was scanned in a 1.5-T magnetic resonance scanner, prior to and after the 10-week VGT/CBT combined treatment, using two paradigms: (1) an emotional face-matching task, and (2) a multi-source interference task (MSIT). Upon completing the treatment, a decrease in average heart rate was observed. The functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) results indicated a post-treatment reduction in reaction time along with high accuracy. The patient engaged areas typically active in healthy controls, although the cluster extension of the active areas decreased after the combined treatment. These results suggest a global improvement in emotional regulation and impulsivity control after the VGT therapy in BN, demonstrated by both physiological and neural changes. These promising results suggest that a combined treatment of CBT and VGT might lead to functional cerebral changes that ultimately translate into better cognitive and emotional performances.
Fagundo, Ana Beatriz; Via, Esther; Sánchez, Isabel; Jiménez-Murcia, Susana; Forcano, Laura; Soriano-Mas, Carles; Giner-Bartolomé, Cristina; Santamaría, Juan J; Ben-Moussa, Maher; Konstantas, Dimitri; Lam, Tony; Lucas, Mikkel; Nielsen, Jeppe; Lems, Peter; Cardoner, Narcís; Menchón, Jose M; de la Torre, Rafael
Background PlayMancer is a video game designed to increase emotional regulation and reduce general impulsive behaviors, by training to decrease arousal and improve decision-making and planning. We have previously demonstrated the usefulness of PlayMancer in reducing impulsivity and improving emotional regulation in bulimia nervosa (BN) patients. However, whether these improvements are actually translated into brain changes remains unclear. Objective The aim of this case study was to report on a 28-year-old Spanish woman with BN, and to examine changes in physiological variables and brain activity after a combined treatment of video game therapy (VGT) and cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). Methods Ten VGT sessions were carried out on a weekly basis. Anxiety, physiological, and impulsivity measurements were recorded. The patient was scanned in a 1.5-T magnetic resonance scanner, prior to and after the 10-week VGT/CBT combined treatment, using two paradigms: (1) an emotional face-matching task, and (2) a multi-source interference task (MSIT). Results Upon completing the treatment, a decrease in average heart rate was observed. The functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) results indicated a post-treatment reduction in reaction time along with high accuracy. The patient engaged areas typically active in healthy controls, although the cluster extension of the active areas decreased after the combined treatment. Conclusions These results suggest a global improvement in emotional regulation and impulsivity control after the VGT therapy in BN, demonstrated by both physiological and neural changes. These promising results suggest that a combined treatment of CBT and VGT might lead to functional cerebral changes that ultimately translate into better cognitive and emotional performances. PMID:25116416
Ochsner, Kevin N.; Silvers, Jennifer A.; Buhle, Jason T.
This paper reviews and synthesizes functional imaging research that over the past decade has begun to offer new insights into the brain mechanisms underlying emotion regulation. Towards that end, the first section of the paper outlines a model of the processes and neural systems involved in emotion generation and regulation. The second section surveys recent research supporting and elaborating the model, focusing primarily on studies of the most commonly investigated strategy, which is known as reappraisal. At its core, the model specifies how prefrontal and cingulate control systems modulate activity in perceptual, semantic and affect systems as a function of one's regulatory goals, tactics, and the nature of the stimuli and emotions being regulated. This section also shows how the model can be generalized to understand the brain mechanisms underlying other emotion regulation strategies as well as a range of other allied phenomena. The third and last section considers directions for future research, including how basic models of emotion regulation can be translated to understand changes in emotion across the lifespan and in clinical disorders. PMID:23025352
Ma, Xiaoming; Tamir, Maya; Miyamoto, Yuri
We propose a sociocultural instrumental approach to emotion regulation. According to this approach, cultural differences in the tendency to savor rather than dampen positive emotions should be more pronounced when people are actively pursuing goals (i.e., contexts requiring higher cognitive effort) than when they are not (i.e., contexts requiring lower cognitive efforts), because cultural beliefs about the utility of positive emotions should become most relevant when people are engaging in active goal pursuit. Four studies provided support for our theory. First, European Americans perceived more utility and less harm of positive emotions than Japanese did (Study 1). Second, European Americans reported a stronger relative preference for positive emotions than Asians, but this cultural difference was larger in high cognitive effort contexts than in moderate or low cognitive effort contexts (Study 2). Third, European Americans reported trying to savor rather than dampen positive emotions more than Asians did when preparing to take an exam, a typical high cognitive effort context (Studies 3-4), but these cultural differences were attenuated when an exam was not expected (Study 3) and disappeared when participants expected to interact with a stranger (Study 4). These findings suggest that cultural backgrounds and situational demands interact to shape how people regulate positive emotions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).
Hanss, Daniel; Mentzoni, Rune A; Griffiths, Mark D; Pallesen, Ståle
Although there is a general lack of empirical evidence that advertising influences gambling participation, the regulation of gambling advertising is hotly debated among academic researchers, treatment specialists, lobby groups, regulators, and policymakers. This study contributes to the ongoing debate by investigating perceived impacts of gambling advertising in a sample of gamblers drawn from the general population in Norway (n = 6,034). Three dimensions of advertising impacts were identified, representing perceived impacts on (a) gambling-related attitudes, interest, and behavior ("involvement"); (b) knowledge about gambling options and providers ("knowledge"); and (c) the degree to which people are aware of gambling advertising ("awareness"). Overall, impacts were strongest for the knowledge dimension, and, for all 3 dimensions, the impact increased with level of advertising exposure. Those identified as problem gamblers in the sample (n = 57) reported advertising impacts concerning involvement more than recreational gamblers, and this finding was not attributable to differences in advertising exposure. Additionally, younger gamblers reported stronger impacts on involvement and knowledge but were less likely to agree that they were aware of gambling advertising than older gamblers. Male gamblers were more likely than female gamblers to report stronger impacts on both involvement and knowledge. These findings are discussed with regard to existing research on gambling advertising as well as their implications for future research and policy-making. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Sarab, Mohamad Reza Anani; Gordani, Yahya
Investigations into the use of private speech by adult English foreign language (EFL) learners in regulating their mental activities have been an interesting area of research with a sociocultural framework. Following this line of research, 30 advanced adult EFL learners were selected via the administration of Oxford quick placement test and took a…
Kostons, Danny; van Gog, Tamara; Paas, Fred
For self-regulated learning to be effective, students need to be able to accurately assess their own performance on a learning task and use this assessment for the selection of a new learning task. Evidence suggests, however, that students have difficulties with accurate self-assessment and task
Togsverd, Mads; Werge, Thomas M; Tankó, Laszlo B
Genetic and environmental factors influence cognitive aging. The gene encoding dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DBH) could be one such factor since this hydroxylase converts dopamine to norepinephrine both of which are involved in cognition regulation....
Togsverd, Mads; Werge, Thomas M; Tankó, Laszlo B
Genetic and environmental factors influence cognitive aging. The gene encoding dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DBH) could be one such factor since this hydroxylase converts dopamine to norepinephrine both of which are involved in cognition regulation.......Genetic and environmental factors influence cognitive aging. The gene encoding dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DBH) could be one such factor since this hydroxylase converts dopamine to norepinephrine both of which are involved in cognition regulation....
de la Fuente, Jesús; Sander, Paul; Martínez-Vicente, José M; Vera, Mariano; Garzón, Angélica; Fadda, Salvattore
The Theory of Self- vs . Externally-Regulated Learning™ (SRL vs. ERL) proposed different types of relationships among levels of variables in Personal Self-Regulation (PSR) and Regulatory Teaching (RT) to predict the meta-cognitive, meta-motivational and -emotional variables of learning, and of Academic Achievement in Higher Education. The aim of this investigation was empirical in order to validate the model of the combined effect of low-medium-high levels in PSR and RT on the dependent variables. For the analysis of combinations, a selected sample of 544 undergraduate students from two Spanish universities was used. Data collection was obtained from validated instruments, in Spanish versions. Using an ex-post-facto design, different Univariate and Multivariate Analyses (3 × 1, 3 × 3, and 4 × 1) were conducted. Results provide evidence for a consistent effect of low-medium-high levels of PSR and of RT, thus giving significant partial confirmation of the proposed rational model. As predicted, (1) the levels of PSR and positively and significantly effected the levels of learning approaches, resilience, engagement, academic confidence, test anxiety, and procedural and attitudinal academic achievement; (2) the most favorable type of interaction was a high level of PSR with a high level RT process. The limitations and implications of these results in the design of effective teaching are analyzed, to improve university teaching-learning processes.
Hyun, Jinshil; Sliwinski, Martin J; Almeida, David M; Smyth, Joshua M; Scott, Stacey B
Given that the association between work stress and negative affect can exacerbate negative health and workplace outcomes, it is important to identify the protective and risk factors that moderate this association. Socioemotional aging and cognitive abilities might influence how people utilize emotion regulation skills and engage in practical problem solving to manage their work stress. The aim of this study is to examine whether age and cognitive abilities independently and interactively moderate the association between work-related stress and negative affect. A diverse working adult sample (N = 139, age 25-65, 69% of females) completed a cross-sectional survey that assessed chronic work stress, negative affect, and fluid and crystallized cognitive abilities. Results from regression analyses suggested that both fluid and crystallized cognitive abilities, but not age, moderated the association between work stress and negative affect. Further, we found that crystallized cognition had a stronger attenuating effect on the work stress-negative affect association for older compared to younger workers. The moderating effect of fluid cognition was invariant across age. Our findings demonstrate that cognitive abilities are an important personal resource that might protect individuals against the negative impacts of work stress and negative affect. Although the role that fluid cognition plays in work stress-negative affect association is comparably important for both younger and older workers, crystallized cognition might play a more valuable role for older than younger workers.
Poor blood pressure regulation (BPR) in response to orthostasis could contribute to cerebral hypoperfusion and cell damage. The authors of this study examined neuropsychological function and mood in relation to BPR following orthostatic challenge in African American children, aged 6 to 9 years. Participants (N = 33) laid supine for 5 minutes, before having their BP taken. Participants then stood and had BP measured again at 1, 3, and 5 minutes. After a rest, the authors administrated neuropsychological and depression tests while the participants were seated. The authors calculated the difference between supine and 1-minute standing systolic blood pressure (SBP) and pulse pressure (PP) scores. In response to orthostatic challenge, smaller increases in SBP were predictive of decreased verbal memory whereas smaller increases in PP were associated with increased depressive symptomatology and poor prospective memory. In conclusion, less effective BPR was associated with increased depression and poor performance on some neuropsychological tests.
Avery E. Scherer
Full Text Available By influencing critical prey traits such as foraging or habitat selection, predators can affect entire ecosystems, but the nature of cues that trigger prey reactions to predators are not well understood. Predators may scavenge to supplement their energetic needs and scavenging frequency may vary among individuals within a species due to preferences and prey availability. Yet prey reactions to consumers that are primarily scavengers versus those that are active foragers have not been investigated, even though variation in prey reactions to scavengers or predators might influence cascading nonconsumptive effects in food webs. Oysters Crassostrea virginica react to crab predators by growing stronger shells. We exposed oysters to exudates from crabs fed live oysters or fed aged oyster tissue to simulate scavenging, and to controls without crab cues. Oysters grew stronger shells when exposed to either crab exudate, but their shells were significantly stronger when crabs were fed live oysters. The stronger response to predators than scavengers could be due to inherent differences in diet cues representative of reduced risk in the presence of scavengers or to degradation of conspecific alarm cues in aged treatments, which may mask risk from potential predators subsisting by scavenging.
Levy, Erika S.; Goral, Mira; De Diesbach, Catharine Castelluccio; Law, Franzo, II
This study documents patterns of change in speech production in a multilingual with aphasia following a cerebrovascular accident (CVA). EC, a right-handed Hebrew-English-French trilingual man, had a left fronto-temporo-parietal CVA, after which he reported that his (native) Hebrew accent became stronger in his (second language) English. Recordings…
Harndahl, Mikkel Nors; Rasmussen, Michael; Nielsen, Morten
Peptide-MHC class I stability is a stronger predictor of CTL immunogenicity than peptide affinity Mikkel Harndahla, Michael Rasmussena, Morten Nielsenb, Soren Buusa,∗ a Laboratory of Experimental Immunology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Denmark b Center for Biological Seq...... al., 2007. J. Immunol. 178, 7890–7901. doi:10.1016/j.molimm.2012.02.025...
Range, Troels Martin; Østerdal, Lars Peter Raahave
distributions. Utilizing that this problem can be formulated as a transportation problem with a special structure, we provide a stronger characterization of multivariate first-order dominance and develop a linear time complexity checking algorithm for the bivariate case. We illustrate the use of the checking...
Oterdoom, Leendert H.; de Vries, Aiko P. J.; Gansevoort, Ron T.; de Jong, Paul E.; Gans, Reinold O. B.; Bakker, Stephan J. L.
Diabetes is a stronger risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in women than in men. It is not known whether there is also a sex difference in the association between hyperinsulinaemia, reflecting insulin resistance, and CVD. Fasting insulin was assessed with a specific assay in 6916 fasting,
Heydorn, S; Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Johansen, Jeanne Duus
Household and cleaning products often contain both allergens and irritants. The aim of this double-blinded, randomized, paired study was to determine whether patch testing with an allergen (hydroxycitronellal) combined with an irritant [sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS)] cause a stronger patch test...
Myung, Jeannie; Martinez, Krissia; Nordstrum, Lee
Building a stronger teacher workforce requires the thoughtful orchestration of multiple processes working together in a human capital system. This white paper presents a framework that can be used to take stock of current efforts to enhance the teacher workforce in school districts or educational organizations, as well as their underlying theories…
de Goeij, Moniek C. M.; Bruggink, Jan-Willem; Otten, Ferdy; Kunst, Anton E.
This study investigated, among the Dutch working population, whether job loss during the post-2008 economic crisis is associated with harmful drinking and whether this association is stronger than before the crisis. Repeated cross-sectional data from the Dutch Health Interview Survey 2004-2013 were
Morelli, Annamaria; Sarchielli, Erica; Guarnieri, Giulia; Coppi, Elisabetta; Pantano, Daniela; Comeglio, Paolo; Nardiello, Pamela; Pugliese, Anna M.; Ballerini, Lara; Matucci, Rosanna; Ambrosini, Stefano; Castronovo, Giuseppe; Valente, Rosa; Mazzanti, Benedetta; Bucciantini, Sandra; Maggi, Mario; Casamenti, Fiorella; Gallina, Pasquale; Vannelli, Gabriella B.
The degeneration of cholinergic neurons of the nucleus basalis of Meynert (NBM) in the basal forebrain (BF) is associated to the cognitive decline of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) patients. To date no resolutive therapies exist. Cell-based replacement therapy is a strategy currently under consideration, although the mechanisms underlying the generation of stem cell-derived NBM cholinergic neurons able of functional integration remain to be clarified. Since fetal brain is an optimal source of neuronal cells committed towards a specific phenotype, this study is aimed at isolating cholinergic neurons from the human fetal NBM (hfNBMs) in order to study their phenotypic, maturational and functional properties. Extensive characterization confirmed the cholinergic identity of hfNBMs, including positivity for specific markers (such as choline acetyltransferase) and acetylcholine (Ach) release. Electrophysiological measurements provided the functional validation of hfNBM cells, which exhibited the activation of peculiar sodium (INa) and potassium (IK) currents, as well as the presence of functional cholinergic receptors. Accordingly, hfNBMs express both nicotinic and muscarinic receptors, which were activated by Ach. The hfNBMs cholinergic phenotype was regulated by the nerve growth factor (NGF), through the activation of the high-affinity NGF receptor TrkA, as well as by 17-β-estradiol through a peculiar recruitment of its own receptors. When intravenously administered in NBM-lesioned rats, hfNBMs determined a significant improvement in memory functions. Histological examination of brain sections showed that hfNBMs (labeled with PKH26 fluorescent dye prior to administration) reached the damaged brain areas. The study provides a useful model to study the ontogenetic mechanisms regulating the development and maintenance of the human brain cholinergic system and to assess new lines of research, including disease modeling, drug discovery and cell-based therapy for AD. PMID
Full Text Available The degeneration of cholinergic neurons of the nucleus basalis of Meynert (NBM in the basal forebrain (BF is associated to the cognitive decline of Alzheimer’s disease (AD patients. To date no resolutive therapies exist. Cell-based replacement therapy is a strategy currently under consideration, although the mechanisms underlying the generation of stem cell-derived NBM cholinergic neurons able of functional integration remain to be clarified. Since fetal brain is an optimal source of neuronal cells committed towards a specific phenotype, this study is aimed at isolating cholinergic neurons from the human fetal NBM (hfNBMs in order to study their phenotypic, maturational and functional properties. Extensive characterization confirmed the cholinergic identity of hfNBMs, including positivity for specific markers (such as choline acetyltransferase and acetylcholine (Ach release. Electrophysiological measurements provided the functional validation of hfNBM cells, which exhibited the activation of peculiar sodium (INa and potassium (IK currents, as well as the presence of functional cholinergic receptors. Accordingly, hfNBMs express both nicotinic and muscarinic receptors, which were activated by Ach. The hfNBMs cholinergic phenotype was regulated by the nerve growth factor (NGF, through the activation of the high-affinity NGF receptor TrkA, as well as by 17-β-estradiol through a peculiar recruitment of its own receptors. When intravenously administered in NBM-lesioned rats, hfNBMs determined a significant improvement in memory functions. Histological examination of brain sections showed that hfNBMs (labeled with PKH26 fluorescent dye prior to administration reached the damaged brain areas. The study provides a useful model to study the ontogenetic mechanisms regulating the development and maintenance of the human brain cholinergic system and to assess new lines of research, including disease modeling, drug discovery and cell-based therapy for AD.
Elizabeth A. Dennis
Full Text Available The college transition represents a critical period for maintaining a healthy weight, yet intervention participation and retention represent significant challenges. The objective of this investigation was to evaluate the preliminary efficacy and acceptability of two interventions to prevent freshman weight gain. One intervention provided opportunities to improve outcome expectations and self-efficacy within a social cognitive theory framework (SCT, while the other targeted the same variables but focused on explicit training in self-regulation skills (SCTSR. Methods. Freshmen (n=45 aged >18 years were randomized to a 14-week intervention, SCT or SCTSR; both included online modules and in-class meetings. Of the 45 students randomized, 5 withdrew before the classes began and 39 completed pre- and posttesting. Primary outcomes included body weight/composition, health behaviors, and program acceptability. Analyses included independent sample t-tests, repeated measures ANOVA, and bivariate correlational analyses. Results. Body weight increased over the 14-week period, but there was no group difference. Percent body fat increased in SCTSR but not SCT (mean difference: SCTSR, +1.63 ± 0.52%; SCT, −0.25 ± 0.45%; P=0.01. Class attendance was 100% (SCTSR and 98% (SCT; SCTSR students (>50% remarked that the online tracking required “too much time.” Conclusions. The intervention was well received, although there were no improvements in weight outcomes.
Keogh, Justin W L; Hume, Patria A; Pearson, Simon N; Mellow, Peter J
This study sought to compare the anthropometric profiles of 17 weaker and 17 stronger Australasian and Pacific powerlifters who had competed in a regional-, national-, or international-level powerlifting competition in New Zealand. Stronger lifters were defined as those having a Wilks score greater than 410, whereas those in the weaker group had a Wilks score less than 370. Each powerlifter was assessed for 37 anthropometric dimensions by International Society for the Advancement of Kinanthropometry (ISAK) level II and III accredited anthropometrists. Because all powerlifters were highly mesomorphic and possessed large girths and bone breadths, both in absolute terms and when expressed as Phantom-Z scores compared through the Phantom, relatively few significant anthropometric differences were observed. However, stronger lifters had significantly greater muscle mass and larger muscular girths in absolute terms as well as greater Brugsch Index (chest girth/height) and "Phantom"-normalized muscle mass, upper arm, chest, and forearm girths. In terms of the segment lengths and bone breadths, the only significant difference was that stronger lifters had a significantly shorter lower leg than weaker lifters. Because the majority of the significant differences were for muscle mass and muscular girths, it would appear likely that these differences contributed to the stronger lifters' superior performance. Powerlifters may therefore need to devote some of their training to the development of greater levels of muscular hypertrophy if they wish to continue to improve their performance. To better understand the anthropometric determinants of muscular strength, future research should recruit larger samples (particularly of elite lifters) and follow these subjects prospectively.
Reiter, Johannes G; Hilbe, Christian; Rand, David G; Chatterjee, Krishnendu; Nowak, Martin A
Direct reciprocity is a mechanism for cooperation among humans. Many of our daily interactions are repeated. We interact repeatedly with our family, friends, colleagues, members of the local and even global community. In the theory of repeated games, it is a tacit assumption that the various games that a person plays simultaneously have no effect on each other. Here we introduce a general framework that allows us to analyze "crosstalk" between a player's concurrent games. In the presence of crosstalk, the action a person experiences in one game can alter the person's decision in another. We find that crosstalk impedes the maintenance of cooperation and requires stronger levels of forgiveness. The magnitude of the effect depends on the population structure. In more densely connected social groups, crosstalk has a stronger effect. A harsh retaliator, such as Tit-for-Tat, is unable to counteract crosstalk. The crosstalk framework provides a unified interpretation of direct and upstream reciprocity in the context of repeated games.
Heydorn, S; Andersen, K E; Johansen, J D
elicitation reaction than patch testing with the allergen (hydroxycitronellal) alone, in patients previously patch tested positive to hydroxycitronellal. A stronger patch test elicitation reaction was defined as at least 1 day of patch test reading showing more positive patch tests......Household and cleaning products often contain both allergens and irritants. The aim of this double-blinded, randomized, paired study was to determine whether patch testing with an allergen (hydroxycitronellal) combined with an irritant [sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS)] cause a stronger patch test...... (+, ++ or +++) on the forearm patch tested with 6 concentrations of SLS plus hydroxycitronellal than on the forearm tested with 6 concentrations of hydroxycitronellal alone and no day of patch test readings showing more positive tests on the hydroxycitronellal forearm. 15/20 (75%) had at least 1 day of patch test reading...
Yan, Xiumin; Wang, Kehong; Song, Lihong; Wang, Xuefeng; Wu, Donghui
Warming of the climate system is unequivocal, that is, stronger warming during night-time than during daytime. Here we focus on how soil nematodes respond to the current asymmetric warming. A field infrared heating experiment was performed in the western of the Songnen Plain, Northeast China. Three warming modes, i.e. daytime warming, night-time warming and diurnal warming, were taken to perform the asymmetric warming condition. Our results showed that the daytime and diurnal warming treatmen...
outline for possible World Development Report on institutions, including corruption . Completed • Prepare Europe and Central Asia Region...Management Controls Stronger, but Challenges in Fighting Corruption Remain If , 20000417 062 G A O Accountability * Integrity * Reliability GAO... corruption —broadly defined as the abuse of public office for private gain— ’The "World Bank" and "Bank" refer to the World Bank Group of institutions
Full Text Available A stronger version of matrix convexity, called hyperconvexity is introduced. It is shown that the function is hyperconvex on the set of Hermitian matrices and is hyperconvex on the set of positive definite Hermitian matrices. The new concept makes it possible to consider weighted averages of matrices of different orders. Proofs use properties of the Fisher information matrix, a fundamental concept of mathematical statistics.
Full Text Available Neurological and cognitive impairment persist in more than 20% of cerebral malaria (CM patients long after successful anti-parasitic treatment. We recently reported that long term memory and motor coordination deficits are also present in our experimental cerebral malaria model (ECM. We also documented, in a murine model, a lack of obvious pathology or inflammation after parasite elimination, suggesting that the long-term negative neurological outcomes result from potentially reversible biochemical and physiological changes in brains of ECM mice, subsequent to acute ischemic and inflammatory processes. Here, we demonstrate for the first time that acute ECM results in significantly reduced activation of protein kinase B (PKB or Akt leading to decreased Akt phosphorylation and inhibition of the glycogen kinase synthase (GSK3β in the brains of mice infected with Plasmodium berghei ANKA (PbA compared to uninfected controls and to mice infected with the non-neurotrophic P. berghei NK65 (PbN. Though Akt activation improved to control levels after chloroquine treatment in PbA-infected mice, the addition of lithium chloride, a compound which inhibits GSK3β activity and stimulates Akt activation, induced a modest, but significant activation of Akt in the brains of infected mice when compared to uninfected controls treated with chloroquine with and without lithium. In addition, lithium significantly reversed the long-term spatial and visual memory impairment as well as the motor coordination deficits which persisted after successful anti-parasitic treatment. GSK3β inhibition was significantly increased after chloroquine treatment, both in lithium and non-lithium treated PbA-infected mice. These data indicate that acute ECM is associated with abnormalities in cell survival pathways that result in neuronal damage. Regulation of Akt/GSK3β with lithium reduces neuronal degeneration and may have neuroprotective effects in ECM. Aberrant regulation of Akt
Introductory presentation on cognitive modeling for the course ‘Cognitive control’ of the MSc program Cognitive Neuroscience at Radboud University. It addresses basic questions, such as 'What is a model?', 'Why use models?', and 'How to use models?'
Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu; Fröjd, Sari; Marttunen, Mauri
To study the associations between subjection to sexual harassment and emotional (depression) and behavioural (delinquency) symptoms among 14-to-18-year-old adolescents, and gender differences within these associations. 90,953 boys and 91,746 girls aged 14-18 participated in the School Health Promotion Study (SHPS), a school-based survey designed to examine the health, health behaviours, and school experiences of teenagers. Experiences of sexual harassment were elicited with five questions addressing five separate forms of harassment. Depression was measured by the 13-item Beck Depression Inventory and delinquency with a modified version of the International Self-Report Delinquency Study (ISRD) instrument. Data were analysed using cross-tabulations with Chi-square statistics and logistic regression. All sexual harassment experiences studied were associated with both depression (adjusted odds ratios varied from 2.2 to 2.7 in girls and from 2.0 to 5.1 in boys) and delinquency (adjusted odds ratios 3.1-5.0 in girls and 1.7-6.9 in boys). Sexual name-calling had a stronger association with depression and with delinquency in girls (adjusted odds ratios, respectively, 2.4 and 4.2), than in boys (adjusted odds ratios, respectively, 2.0 and 1.7), but otherwise stronger associations with emotional and behavioural symptoms were seen in boys. Subjection to sexual harassment is associated with both emotional and behavioural symptoms in both girls and boys. The associations are mostly stronger for boys. Boys subjected to sexual harassment may feel particularly threatened regarding their masculinity, and there may be less support available for boys traumatised due to sexual harassment.
This final technical report details the results of total work efforts and progress made from July 2000 - July 2008 under the National Association of State Energy Officials (NASEO) cooperative agreement DE-FC26-00NT40802, Building Stronger State Energy Partnerships with the U.S. Department of Energy. Major topical project areas in this final report include work efforts in the following areas: Rebuild America/Energy Smart Schools, Higher Education Initiative, Winter/Summer Fuels Outlook Conferences, Energy Emergency, Clean Energy Integration, Energy Star, and Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability. All required deliverables have been provided to the National Energy Technology Laboratory and DOE program officials.
Behrns, Kevin E; Copeland, Edward M; Howard, Richard J
Established in 1957, the University of Florida Department of Surgery has a solid foundation on which current faculty are driven to build a stronger tomorrow. The department is focused on promoting patient-centered care, expanding its research portfolio to improve techniques and outcomes, and training the surgical leaders of tomorrow. It fosters an environment where faculty, residents, students, and staff challenge long-held traditions with the goal of improving the health of our patients, the quality of our care, and the vitality of our work environment.
Silva Filho, Elias
The use of gamma radiation to obtain wood-polymer composites is one of the applications of radiation that presents the most commercial interest. The process, denominated radiopolymerization, comprises the impregnation of monomers into the completely dried wood followed by exposure to gamma radiation to induce polymerization of the impregnated monomers. I this context, the present work aimed the application of this process to seven kinds of wood existing in the brazilian forests. The considered monomer is styrene and the gamma source is Cobalt-60. The obtained wood-polystyrene composites were found to have stronger static bending strength. (author)
This final technical report details the results of total work efforts and progress made from October 2007 – September 2011 under the National Association of State Energy Officials (NASEO) cooperative agreement DE-FC26-07NT43264, Building Stronger State Energy Partnerships with the U.S. Department of Energy. Major topical project areas in this final report include work efforts in the following areas: Energy Assurance and Critical Infrastructure, State and Regional Technical Assistance, Regional Initiative, Regional Coordination and Technical Assistance, and International Activities in China. All required deliverables have been provided to the National Energy Technology Laboratory and DOE program officials.
... Policy Sitemap Learn Engage Donate About TSC Cognitive Challenges Approximately 45% to 60% of individuals with TSC develop cognitive challenges (intellectual disabilities), although the degree of intellectual dysfunction ...
Fathelrahman, Ahmed I; Li, Lin; Borland, Ron; Yong, Hua-Hie; Omar, Maizurah; Awang, Rahmat; Sirirassamee, Buppha; Fong, Geoffrey T; Hammond, David
We examined the impact of cigarette pack warning labels on interest in quitting and subsequent quit attempts among adult smokers in Malaysia and Thailand. Two overlapping cohorts of adults who reported smoking factory- made cigarettes from Malaysia and Thailand were interviewed face-to-face (3189 were surveyed at baseline and 1781 re-contacted at Wave 2; 2361 current smokers were surveyed at Wave 2 and 1586 re-contacted at Wave 3). In Thailand at baseline, large text only warnings were assessed, while at Wave 2 new large graphic warnings were assessed. In Malaysia, during both waves small text only warnings were in effect. Reactions were used to predict interest in quitting, and to predict making quit attempts over the following inter-wave interval. Multivariate predictors of "interest in quitting" were comparable across countries, but predictors of quit attempts varied. In both countries, cognitive reactions to warnings (adjusted ORs; 1.57 & 1.69 for Malaysia at wave 1 and wave 2 respectively and 1.29 & 1.19 for Thailand at wave 1 and wave 2 respectively), forgoing a cigarette (except Wave 2 in Malaysia) (adjusted ORs; 1.77 for Malaysia at wave 1 and 1.54 & 2.32 for Thailand at wave 1 and wave 2 respectively), and baseline knowledge (except wave 2 in both countries) (adjusted ORs; 1.71 & 1.51 for Malaysia and Thailand respectively) were positively associated with interest in quitting at that wave. In Thailand only, "cognitive reactions to warnings" (adjusted ORs; 1.12 & 1.23 at wave 1 and wave 2 respectively), "forgoing a cigarette" (adjusted OR = 1.55 at wave 2 only) and "an interest in quitting" (adjusted ORs; 1.61 & 2.85 at wave 1 and wave 2 respectively) were positively associated with quit attempts over the following inter-wave interval. Salience was negatively associated with subsequent quit attempts in both Malaysia and Thailand, but at Wave 2 only (adjusted ORs; 0.89 & 0.88 for Malaysia and Thailand respectively). Warnings appear to have common
Full Text Available In this study, we bridge an important gap in the literature by comparing the extent to which external technology spillovers, as indicated by foreign direct investment (FDI, and internal technology spillovers, as indicated by university-institute-industry cooperation (UIC, influence innovation efficiency in China. We divide the innovation process into two sequential stages, namely the knowledge creation and technology commercialization stages, and employ a network data envelopment analysis approach to measure innovation efficiency at each stage. The spatial analysis of the distribution of knowledge creation efficiency and technology commercialization efficiency reveals the heterogeneity of innovation efficiency at the provincial level. Then, a panel data regression is used to analyze the effect of FDI and UIC on innovation efficiency at each stage, using data from 2009 to 2015 for 30 provinces in China. By comparing FDI with UIC, we find that FDI has a higher coefficient and stronger significance level at the knowledge creation stage, while only industry-institute linkages exhibit a stronger association with innovation efficiency at the technology commercialization stage.
McNaught, C.; O'Brien, J.; Strazzo, S. E.
The El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is an important natural climate variation that affects large portions of the world. We measure ENSO both in terms of its frequency and its magnitude. The different phases of ENSO - El Niño and La Niña - have different properties, and impact the global weather pattern differently. We examine the hypothesis that ENSO's frequency distribution is changing. We demonstrate that, indeed, El Niño's are getting stronger as measured by the maximum anomaly in sea surface temperature (SST). An analysis of the ENSO principal component is conducted using a fast Fourier transform to estimate the spectrum of the SST of the time series. We conclude that the intensity of El Niño events during the period 1970-2010 is statistically significantly higher when compared to the 1930—1970, with a broad spectral peak centered around 4 years. When we compare the SST spectrum for the period 1930-1970 with the spectrum for 1971- 2010, we find the latter period to be much stronger in power. Additionally recently classified ENSO types, including El Niño Modoki and Warm Pool ENSO, are briefly studied.; The first empirical orthogonal function of sea-surface temperatures (1930-2010) accounting for 75% of the variance. The values are indicative of departures from the mean, in °C. Positive (negative) values indicate anomalously higher (lower) sea-surface temperatures ; Normalized first principal component
Carlei, Christophe; Kerzel, Dirk
The orientation-bias hypothesis states that there is a bias to attend to the right visual hemifield (RVF) when there is spatial competition between stimuli in the left and right hemifield [Pollmann, S. (1996). A pop-out induced extinction-like phenomenon in neurologically intact subjects. Neuropsychologia, 34(5), 413-425. doi: 10.1016/0028-3932(95)00125-5 ]. In support of this hypothesis, stronger interference was reported for RVF distractors with contralateral targets. In contrast, previous studies using rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) found stronger interference from distractors in the left visual hemifield (LVF). We used the additional singleton paradigm to test whether this discrepancy was due to the different distractor features that were employed (colour vs. orientation). Interference from the colour distractor with contralateral targets was larger in the RVF than in the LVF. However, the asymmetrical interference disappeared when observers had to search for an inconspicuous colour target instead of the inconspicuous shape target. We suggest that the LVF orienting-bias is limited to situations where search is driven by bottom-up saliency (singleton search) instead of top-down search goals (feature search). In contrast, analysis of the literature suggests the opposite for the LVF bias in RSVP tasks. Thus, the attentional asymmetry may depend on whether the task involves temporal or spatial competition, and whether search is based on bottom-up or top-down signals.
Unusually high rainfall in many parts of the world is a result of climate change, scientists say. Since warmer air can hold more water, the rationale goes, increased temperatures will increase the chances of stronger rainfall events. And when surging seas combine with stronger rain, the outcome is almost certain: floods. Floods are the most frequently occurring natural disasters, and south-east Asia is particularly vulnerable. Climate change and variability are expected to bring about increased typhoon activities, rising sea levels and off-season monsoon rains in southeast Asia and other regions. These can cause devastating floods in countries like Cambodia, Laos, Pakistan, the Philippines, Thailand and Viet Nam. For the residents of these countries who have survived the ravages of major floods, the road to recovery can be long and arduous. As the flood water recedes, they have to contend with new forms of flood: floods of concern and worries as to how to rebuild their houses, their lives and their cities. Governments, too, face huge challenges in rebuilding roads, public buildings, infrastructure and natural resources destroyed or polluted by the flood.
Dalley, Simon E.; Buunk, Abraham P.
This research examined the relative impact of a hoped-for, thin body and a feared, overweight body on weight-loss dieting (WLD) motivation. We hypothesised that the women most motivated to engage in WLD would report a higher similarity to, and a higher cognitive availability of, a feared, overweight
The aim of this research note is to explore the correlation between cognitive abilities and software piracy rates in a sample of more than 100 nations. The results reported in this paper suggest that cognitive capital has significant and negative effect on software piracy rates. Moreover, the effect of democracy on software piracy is stronger in high-IQ societies.
Harndahl, Mikkel Nors; Rasmussen, Michael; Nielsen, Morten
of antigen processing and presentation in defining cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) immunogenicity Assarsson et al., 2007. Using an affinity-balanced approach, we demonstrated that immunogenic peptides tend to be more stably bound to MHC-I molecules compared with non-immunogenic peptides. We also developed......Peptide-MHC class I stability is a stronger predictor of CTL immunogenicity than peptide affinity Mikkel Harndahla, Michael Rasmussena, Morten Nielsenb, Soren Buusa,∗ a Laboratory of Experimental Immunology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Denmark b Center for Biological...... Sequence Analysis, Department of Systems Biology, Technical University of Denmark, Denmark Efficient presentation of peptide-MHC class I (pMHC-I) complexes to immune T cells should benefit from a stable peptide- MHC-I interaction. However, it has been difficult to distinguish stability from other...
[The Influence of the Functioning of Brain Regulatory Systems onto the Voluntary Regulation of Cognitive Performance in Children. Report 2. Neuropsychological and Electrophysiological Assessment of Brain Regulatory Functions in Children Aged 10-12 with Learning Difficulties].
Semenova, O A; Machinskaya, R I
A total number of 172 children aged 10-12 were electrophysiologically and neuropsychologically assessed in order to analyze the influence of the functioning of brain regulatory systems onto the voluntary regulation of cognitive performance during the preteen years. EEG patterns associated with the nonoptimal functioning of brain regulatory systems, particularly fronto-thalamic, limbic and fronto-striatal structures were significantly more often observed in children with learning and behavioral difficulties, as compared to the control group. Neuropsychological assessment showed that the nonoptimal functioning of different brain regulatory systems specifically affect the voluntary regulation of cognitive performance. Children with EEG patterns of fronto-thalamic nonoptimal functioning demonstrated poor voluntary regulation such as impulsiveness and difficulties in continuing the same algorithms. Children with EEG patterns of limbic nonoptimal functioning showed a less pronounced executive dysfunction manifested only in poor switching between program units within a task. Children with EEG patterns of fronto-striatal nonoptimal functioning struggled with such executive dysfunctions as motor and tactile perseverations and emotional-motivational deviations such as poor motivation and communicative skills.
Høi-Hansen, Thomas; Pedersen-Bjergaard, Ulrik; Andersen, Rikke Due; Kristensen, Peter Lommer; Thomsen, Carsten; Kjaer, Troels; Høgenhaven, Hans; Smed, Annelise; Holst, Jens Juul; Dela, Flemming; Boomsma, Frans; Thorsteinsson, Birger
High basal renin-angiotensin system (RAS) activity is associated with increased risk of severe hypoglycaemia in type 1 diabetes. We tested whether this might be explained by more pronounced cognitive dysfunction during hypoglycaemia in patients with high RAS activity than in patients with low RAS activity. Nine patients with type 1 diabetes and high and nine with low RAS activity were subjected to hypoglycaemia and euglycaemia in a cross-over study using an intravenous insulin infusion protocol. Cognitive function, electroencephalography, auditory evoked potentials and hypoglycaemic symptoms were recorded. At a hypoglycaemic nadir of 2.2 (SD 0.3) mmol/L the high RAS group displayed significant deterioration in cognitive performance during hypoglycaemia in the three most complex reaction time tasks. In the low RAS group, hypoglycaemia led to cognitive dysfunction in only one reaction time task. The high RAS group reported lower symptom scores during hypoglycaemia than the low RAS group, suggesting poorer hypoglycaemia awareness. High RAS activity is associated with increased cognitive dysfunction and blunted symptoms during mild hypoglycaemia compared to low RAS activity. This may explain why high RAS activity is a risk factor for severe hypoglycaemia in type 1 diabetes.
Raman K Marwaha
Full Text Available Introduction: There are conflicting reports on the relationship of lean mass (LM and fat mass (FM with bone mineral content (BMC. Given the high prevalence of Vitamin D deficiency in India, we planned the study to evaluate the relationship between LM and FM with BMC in Indian children and adolescents. The objective of the study was to evaluate the relationship of BMC with LM and FM. Materials and Methods: Total and regional BMC, LM, and FM using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry and pubertal staging were assessed in 1403 children and adolescents (boys [B]: 826; girls [G]: 577. BMC index, BMC/LM and BMC/FM ratio, were calculated. Results: The age ranged from 5 to 18 years, with a mean age of 13.2 ± 2.7 years. BMC adjusted for height (BMC index and BMC/height ratio was comparable in both genders. There was no difference in total BMC between genders in the prepubertal group but were higher in more advanced stages of pubertal maturation. The correlation of total as well as regional BMC was stronger for LM (B: Total BMC - 0.880, trunk - 0.715, leg - 0.894, arm - 0.891; G: Total BMC - 0.827, leg - 0.846, arm - 0.815 (all value indicate r2 , P < 0.0001 for all when compared with FM (B: Total BMC - 0.776, trunk - 0.676, leg - 0.772, arm - 0.728; G: Total BMC - 0.781, leg - 0.741, arm - 0.689; all P < 0.0001 except at trunk BMC (LM - 0.682 vs. FM - 0.721; all P < 0.0001, even after controlling for age, height, pubertal stage, and biochemical parameters. Conclusions: BMC had a stronger positive correlation with LM than FM.
Corrales, Andrea; Parisotto, Eduardo B; Vidal, Verónica; García-Cerro, Susana; Lantigua, Sara; Diego, Marian; Wilhem Filho, Danilo; Sanchez-Barceló, Emilio J; Martínez-Cué, Carmen; Rueda, Noemí
Melatonin administered during adulthood induces beneficial effects on cognition and neuroprotection in the Ts65Dn (TS) mouse model of Down syndrome. Here, we investigated the effects of pre- and post-natal melatonin treatment on behavioral and cognitive abnormalities and on several neuromorphological alterations (hypocellularity, neurogenesis impairment and increased oxidative stress) that appear during the early developmental stages in TS mice. Pregnant TS females were orally treated with melatonin or vehicle from the time of conception until the weaning of the offspring, and the pups continued to receive the treatment from weaning until the age of 5 months. Melatonin administered during the pre- and post-natal periods did not improve the cognitive impairment of TS mice as measured by the Morris Water maze or fear conditioning tests. Histological alterations, such as decreased proliferation (Ki67+ cells) and hippocampal hypocellularity (DAPI+ cells), which are typical in TS mice, were not prevented by melatonin. However, melatonin partially regulated brain oxidative stress by modulating the activity of the primary antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase in the cortex and catalase in the cortex and hippocampus) and slightly decreasing the levels of lipid peroxidation in the hippocampus of TS mice. These results show the inability of melatonin to prevent cognitive impairment in TS mice when it is administered at pre- and post-natal stages. Additionally, our findings suggest that to induce pro-cognitive effects in TS mice during the early stages of development, in addition to attenuating oxidative stress, therapies should aim to improve other altered processes, such as hippocampal neurogenesis and/or hypocellularity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Li, Hai; Xue, Zhong; Ellmore, Timothy M; Frye, Richard E; Wong, Stephen T C
Neuroimaging has uncovered both long-range and short-range connectivity abnormalities in the brains of individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). However, the precise connectivity abnormalities and the relationship between these abnormalities and cognition and ASD symptoms have been inconsistent across studies. Indeed, studies find both increases and decreases in connectivity, suggesting that connectivity changes in the ASD brain are not merely due to abnormalities in specific connections, but rather, due to changes in the structure of the network in which the brain areas interact (i.e., network topology). In this study, we examined the differences in the network topology between high-functioning ASD patients and age and gender matched typically developing (TD) controls. After quantitatively characterizing the whole-brain connectivity network using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data, we searched for brain regions with different connectivity between ASD and TD. A measure of oral language ability was then correlated with the connectivity changes to determine the functional significance of such changes. Whole-brain connectivity measures demonstrated greater local connectivity and shorter path length in ASD as compared to TD. Stronger local connectivity was found in ASD, especially in regions such as the left superior parietal lobule, the precuneus and angular gyrus, and the right supramarginal gyrus. The relationship between oral language ability and local connectivity within these regions was significantly different between ASD and TD. Stronger local connectivity was associated with better performance in ASD and poorer performance in TD. This study supports the notion that increased local connectivity is compensatory for supporting cognitive function in ASD. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Høi-Hansen, Thomas; Pedersen-Bjergaard, Ulrik; Andersen, Rikke Due
potentials and hypoglycaemic symptoms were recorded. RESULTS: At a hypoglycaemic nadir of 2.2 (SD 0.3) mmol/L the high RAS group displayed significant deterioration in cognitive performance during hypoglycaemia in the three most complex reaction time tasks. In the low RAS group, hypoglycaemia led......INTRODUCTION: High basal renin-angiotensin system (RAS) activity is associated with increased risk of severe hypoglycaemia in type 1 diabetes. We tested whether this might be explained by more pronounced cognitive dysfunction during hypoglycaemia in patients with high RAS activity than in patients...... with low RAS activity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Nine patients with type 1 diabetes and high and nine with low RAS activity were subjected to hypoglycaemia and euglycaemia in a cross-over study using an intravenous insulin infusion protocol. Cognitive function, electroencephalography, auditory evoked...
Rhodes, Emma; Devlin, Kathryn N; Steinberg, Laurence; Giovannetti, Tania
Various psychological assets have been shown to protect against late-life cognitive impairment by promoting cognitive reserve. While factors such as educational attainment and IQ are well-established contributors to cognitive reserve, noncognitive factors, such as grit, have not been studied in this regard. We examined the contribution of adolescent grit, indexed by high school class rank controlling for IQ, to late-life cognition and its decline among approximately 4000 participants in the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study, a random sample of high school graduates followed from 1957 to 2011. Adolescent grit significantly predicted both immediate and delayed memory at ages 64 and 71, over and above the contribution of IQ. While the relative contributions of IQ and grit to immediate memory were comparable, grit was a stronger predictor of delayed memory. Cognitive reserve has noncognitive, as well as cognitive, components.
[Features of brain mechanisms of regulation of the level of wakefulness, organization of cognitive functions and adaptive reactions in children with attention deficit with hyperactivity syndrome and healthy children].
Iliukhina, V A; Krivoshchapova, M N; Manzhosova, G V
In work results of research of features of infringement superslow cortical-truncal, limbic-reticular and upsegmentary mechanisms of regulation of a level of wakefulness at children of 6-7 years with a syndrome of deficiency of attention and hyperactivity and healthy children, pupils of 1 class of a comprehensive school with different type of psychological adaptation are generalized. At use system-integrativity psychophysiology the approach features are established: a) organization emotional-motivational and cognitive spheres; b) psychophysiology mechanisms of formation of adaptive reactions at tactile interaction about earlier unknown alive object--a dolphin at the surveyed contingent of healthy and ill children.
Nielsen, Sara Kerstine Kaya; Hageman, Ida; Petersen, Anders
Objective: Approximately, 50% of all individuals with anxiety disorders do not benefit from the “gold standard” treatment, namely cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). Reliable predictors of treatment effect are lacking. The primary aim of this study was to investigate the predictive value of emotion...
Näykki, Piia; Isohätälä, Jaana; Järvelä, Sanna; Pöysä-Tarhonen, Johanna; Häkkinen, Päivi
This study examines student teachers' collaborative learning by focusing on socio-cognitive and socio-emotional monitoring processes during more and less active script discussions as well as the near transfer of monitoring activities in the subsequent task work. The participants of this study were teacher education students whose collaborative…
The Relationship Between Symptoms of Eating Disorders and Worry About Body Image, Attachment Styles, and Cognitive Emotion Regulation Strategies Among Students of Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences
Davodi; Firoozi; Zargar
Background There are different assumptions about the factors responsible for the genesis and maintenance of eating disorders. Each of the two main types of eating disorders results from a complex interaction of emotional and psychological factors. Objectives The purpose of the current research was to study the relationship between symptoms of eating disorders and worry about body image, attachment styles, and cognitive emotion reg...
Sharkins, Kimberly A.; Leger, Sarah E.; Ernest, James M.
Early childhood poverty is a prevalent social issue, both in the United States and in the wider international community. It has been well established that factors associated with poverty, including familial income and parental education level, can negatively affect children's language and cognitive development, which can result in academic…
Bø, Kari; Ellstrøm Engh, Marie; Hilde, Gunvor
Today, all healthy pregnant women are encouraged to be physically active throughout pregnancy, with recommendations to participate in at least 30 min of aerobic activity on most days of the week, in addition to perform strength training of the major muscle groups 2-3 days per week, and also pelvic floor muscle training. There is, however, an ongoing debate whether general physical activity enhances or declines pelvic floor muscle function. To compare vaginal resting pressure, pelvic floor muscle strength and endurance in regular exercisers (exercise ≥ 30 minutes ≥ 3 times per week) and non-exercisers at mid-pregnancy. Furthermore, to assess whether regular general exercise or pelvic floor muscle strength was associated with urinary incontinence. This was a cross-sectional study at mean gestational week 20.9 (± 1.4) including 218 nulliparous pregnant women, mean age 28.6 years (range 19-40) and pre-pregnancy body mass index 23.9 kg/m 2 (SD 4.0). Vaginal resting pressure, pelvic floor muscle strength and pelvic floor muscle endurance were measured by a high precision pressure transducer connected to a vaginal balloon. International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire Urinary Incontinence Short Form was used to assess urinary incontinence. Differences between groups were analyzed using Independent Sample T-test. Linear regression analysis was conducted to adjust for pre-pregnancy body mass index, age, smoking during pregnancy and regular pelvic floor muscle training during pregnancy. P-value was set to ≤ 0.05. Regular exercisers had statistically significant stronger ( mean 6.4 cm H 2 O (95% CI: 1.7, 11.2)) and more enduring ( mean 39.9 cm H 2 Osec (95% CI: 42.2, 75.7)) pelvic floor muscles. Only pelvic floor muscle strength remained statistically significant, when adjusting for possible confounders. Pelvic floor muscle strength and not regular general exercise was associated with urinary continence (adjusted B: -6.4 (95% CI: -11.5, -1.4)). Regular
Tang, Wenbo; Shin, Justin D; Frank, Loren M; Jadhav, Shantanu P
Hippocampal sharp-wave ripple (SWR) events occur during both behavior (awake SWRs) and slow-wave sleep (sleep SWRs). Awake and sleep SWRs both contribute to spatial learning and memory, thought to be mediated by the coordinated reactivation of behavioral experiences in hippocampal-cortical circuits seen during SWRs. Current hypotheses suggest that reactivation contributes to memory consolidation processes, but whether awake and sleep reactivation are suited to play similar or different roles remains unclear. Here we addressed that issue by examining the structure of hippocampal (area CA1) and prefrontal (PFC) activity recorded across behavior and sleep stages in male rats learning a spatial alternation task. We found a striking state difference: prefrontal modulation during awake and sleep SWRs was surprisingly distinct, with differing patterns of excitation and inhibition. CA1-PFC synchronization was stronger during awake SWRs, and spatial reactivation, measured using both pairwise and ensemble measures, was more structured for awake SWRs compared with post-task sleep SWRs. Stronger awake reactivation was observed despite the absence of coordination between network oscillations, namely hippocampal SWRs and cortical delta and spindle oscillations, which is prevalent during sleep. Finally, awake CA1-PFC reactivation was enhanced most prominently during initial learning in a novel environment, suggesting a key role in early learning. Our results demonstrate significant differences in awake and sleep reactivation in the hippocampal-prefrontal network. These findings suggest that awake SWRs support accurate memory storage and memory-guided behavior, whereas sleep SWR reactivation is better suited to support integration of memories across experiences during consolidation. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Hippocampal sharp-wave ripples (SWRs) occur both in the awake state during behavior and in the sleep state after behavior. Awake and sleep SWRs are associated with memory
Colosio, Marco; Shestakova, Anna; Nikulin, Vadim V.; Blagovechtchenski, Evgeny; Klucharev, Vasily
Cognitive dissonance theory suggests that our preferences are modulated by the mere act of choosing. A choice between two similarly valued alternatives creates psychological tension (cognitive dissonance) that is reduced by a postdecisional reevaluation of the alternatives. We measured EEG of human subjects during rest and free-choice paradigm. Our study demonstrates that choices associated with stronger cognitive dissonance trigger a larger negative frontocentral evoked response similar to e...
Obesity is an important risk factor for prehypertension and hypertension, and there are sex-specific differences in prevalences of obesity and hypertension. The aim of this study was to determine whether sex influences the relationships of obesity with prehypertension and hypertension. The participants were 28,325 Japanese men and women aged 20-39 years. Obesity was evaluated by BMI (≥ 25 kg/m) and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR ≥ 0.5). Associations of obesity with prehypertension and hypertension were compared in men and women by using odds ratio (OR) and area under the curve (AUC). ORs for prehypertension and hypertension in participants with vs. participants without high BMI or WHtR were significantly higher than a reference level of 1.00 both in men and women and were significantly higher in women than in men. ORs for prehypertension and hypertension of participants with vs. participants without high BMI were 3.10 (2.84-3.38) (men) vs. 5.54 (4.80-6.40) (women) (P men) vs. 34.58 (26.55-45.04) (women) (P men. The results suggest that the associations of obesity with prehypertension and hypertension are stronger in women than in men.
Juul, Holger; Petersen, Dorthe Klint
It is often discussed whether dyslexics show a deviant pattern of reading and spelling development when compared to typically developing students, or whether they follow the same pattern as other students, only at markedly slower rate. The present cross-sectional study investigated phonological encoding skills in dyslexic Danish students. We compared dyslexic and non-dyslexic students from grades 3, 5, 7, and 9 and examined whether effects of item length were stronger in the dyslexic groups. Mixed between-within subjects analyses of variance revealed significant interactions between dyslexia status and item length as the dyslexics at all grade levels were more affected by item length than their non-dyslexic peers. A marked developmental delay was apparent as the dyslexic group from grade 9 performed on approximately the same level as the non-dyslexic group from grade 3. Although the overall difference between these two groups was not significant, a significant interaction between dyslexia status and item length remained because the grade 9 dyslexics were more affected by item length than the younger non-dyslexic students. This difference in error profiles suggests a difference in the developmental patterns of dyslexic vs. non-dyslexic students.
Hoogeveen, Heleen R; Jolij, Jacob; Ter Horst, Gert J; Lorist, Monicque M
Increasingly consumption of healthy foods is advised to improve population health. Reasons people give for choosing one food over another suggest that non-sensory features like health aspects are appreciated as of lower importance than taste. However, many food choices are made in the absence of the actual perception of a food's sensory properties, and therefore highly rely on previous experiences of similar consumptions stored in memory. In this study we assessed the differential strength of food associations implicitly stored in memory, using an associative priming paradigm. Participants (N = 30) were exposed to a forced-choice picture-categorization task, in which the food or non-food target images were primed with either non-sensory or sensory related words. We observed a smaller N400 amplitude at the parietal electrodes when categorizing food as compared to non-food images. While this effect was enhanced by the presentation of a food-related word prime during food trials, the primes had no effect in the non-food trials. More specifically, we found that sensory associations are stronger implicitly represented in memory as compared to non-sensory associations. Thus, this study highlights the neuronal mechanisms underlying previous observations that sensory associations are important features of food memory, and therefore a primary motive in food choice.
Liu, Lemian; Yang, Jun; Lv, Hong; Yu, Xiaoqing; Wilkinson, David M; Yang, Jun
The simultaneous analysis of multiple components of ecosystems is crucial for comprehensive studies of environmental changes in aquatic ecosystems, but such studies are rare. In this study, we analyzed simultaneously the bacterioplankton and phytoplankton communities in three Chinese subtropical reservoirs and compared the response of these two components to seasonal environmental changes. Time-lag analysis indicated that the temporal community dynamics of both bacterioplankton and phytoplankton showed significant directional changes, and variance partitioning suggested that the major reason was the gradual improvement of reservoir water quality from middle eutrophic to oligo-mesotrophic levels during the course of our study. In addition, we found a higher level of temporal stability or stochasticity in the bacterioplankton community than in the phytoplankton community. Potential explanations are that traits associated with bacteria, such as high abundance, widespread dispersal, potential for rapid growth rates, and rapid evolutionary adaptation, may underlie the different stability or stochasticity of bacterioplankton and phytoplankton communities to the environmental changes. In addition, the indirect response of bacterioplankton to nitrogen and phosphorus may result in the fact that environmental deterministic selection was stronger for the phytoplankton than for the bacterioplankton communities.
Luchetti, Martina; Sutin, Angelina R
As an individual's life story evolves across adulthood, the subjective experience (phenomenology) of autobiographical memory likely changes. In addition to age at retrieval, both the recency of the memory and the age when a memory is formed may be particularly important to its phenomenology. The present work examines the effect of three temporal factors on phenomenology ratings: (a) age of the participant, (b) age at the event reported in the memory, and (c) memory age (recency). A large sample of Americans (N = 1120), stratified by chronological age, recalled and rated two meaningful memories, a Turning Point and an Early Childhood Memory. Ratings of phenomenology (e.g., vividness of turning points) were higher among older adults compared to younger adults. Memories of events from the reminiscence bump were more positive in valence than events from other time periods but did not differ on other phenomenological dimensions; recent memories had stronger phenomenology than remote memories. In contrast to phenomenology, narrative content was generally unrelated to participant age, age at the event, or memory age. Overall, the findings indicate age-related differences in how meaningful memories are re-experienced.
Zhang, Yong-Jiang; Sack, Lawren; Cao, Kun-Fang; Wei, Xue-Mei; Li, Nan
We tested for a tradeoff across species between plant maximum photosynthetic rate and the ability to maintain photosynthesis under adverse conditions in the unfavorable season. Such a trade-off would be consistent with the observed trade-off between maximum speed and endurance in athletes and some animals that has been explained by cost-benefit theory. This trend would have importance for the general understanding of leaf design, and would simplify models of annual leaf carbon relations. We tested for such a trade-off using a database analysis across vascular plants and using an experimental approach for 29 cycad species, representing an ancient plant lineage with diversified evergreen leaves. In both tests, a higher photosynthetic rate per mass or per area in the favorable season was associated with a stronger absolute or percent decline in the unfavorable season. We resolved a possible mechanism based on biomechanics and nitrogen allocation; cycads with high leaf toughness (leaf mass per area) and higher investment in leaf construction than in physiological function (C/N ratio) tended to have lower warm season photosynthesis but less depression in the cool season. We propose that this trade-off, consistent with cost-benefit theory, represents a significant physio-phenological constraint on the diversity and seasonal dynamics of photosynthetic rate.
Biochemical reaction networks grow bigger and bigger, fed by the high-throughput data provided by biologists and bred in open repositories of models allowing merging and evolution. Nevertheless, since the available data is still very far from permitting the identification of the increasing number of kinetic parameters of such models, the necessity of structural analyses for describing the dynamics of chemical networks appears stronger every day. Using the structural information, notably from the stoichiometric matrix, of a biochemical reaction system, we state a more strict version of the famous Thomas' necessary condition for multistationarity. In particular, the obvious cases where Thomas' condition was trivially satisfied, mutual inhibition due to a multimolecular reaction and mutual activation due to a reversible reaction, can now easily be ruled out. This more strict condition shall not be seen as some version of Thomas' circuit functionality for the continuous case but rather as related and complementary to the whole domain of the structural analysis of (bio)chemical reaction systems, as pioneered by the chemical reaction network theory.
Zheng, Yong; Chen, Liang; Luo, Cai-Yun; Zhang, Zhen-Hua; Wang, Shi-Ping; Guo, Liang-Dong
Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi play key roles in plant nutrition and plant productivity. AM fungal responses to either plant identity or fertilization have been investigated. However, the interactive effects of different plant species and fertilizer types on these symbiotic fungi remain poorly understood. We evaluated the effects of the factorial combinations of plant identity (grasses Avena sativa and Elymus nutans and legume Vicia sativa) and fertilization (urea and sheep manure) on AM fungi following 2-year monocultures in a sown pasture field study. AM fungal extraradical hyphal density was significantly higher in E. nutans than that in A. sativa and V. sativa in the unfertilized control and was significantly increased by urea and manure in A. sativa and by manure only in E. nutans, but not by either fertilizers in V. sativa. AM fungal spore density was not significantly affected by plant identity or fertilization. Forty-eight operational taxonomic units (OTUs) of AM fungi were obtained through 454 pyrosequencing of 18S rDNA. The OTU richness and Shannon diversity index of AM fungi were significantly higher in E. nutans than those in V. sativa and/or A. sativa, but not significantly affected by any fertilizer in all of the three plant species. AM fungal community composition was significantly structured directly by plant identity only and indirectly by both urea addition and plant identity through soil total nitrogen content. Our findings highlight that plant identity has stronger influence than fertilization on belowground AM fungal community in this converted pastureland from an alpine meadow.
de Goeij, Moniek C M; Bruggink, Jan-Willem; Otten, Ferdy; Kunst, Anton E
This study investigated, among the Dutch working population, whether job loss during the post-2008 economic crisis is associated with harmful drinking and whether this association is stronger than before the crisis. Repeated cross-sectional data from the Dutch Health Interview Survey 2004-2013 were used to define episodic drinking (≥6 glasses on 1 day ≥1/week) and chronic drinking (≥14 glasses/week for women and ≥21 for men). These data were linked to longitudinal data from tax registries, to measure the experience and duration of job loss during a 5-year working history. Before the crisis, job loss experience and duration were not associated with harmful drinking. During the crisis, job loss for more than 6 months was associated with episodic drinking [OR 1.40 (95% CI 1.01; 1.94)], while current job loss was associated with chronic drinking [OR 1.43 (95% CI 1.03; 1.98)]. These associations were most clear in men and different between the pre-crisis and crisis period (p interaction = 0.023 and 0.035, respectively). The results suggest that economic crises strengthen the potential impact of job loss on harmful drinking, predominately among men.
Glei, Dana A; Goldman, Noreen; Shkolnikov, Vladimir M; Jdanov, Dmitri; Shkolnikova, Maria; Vaupel, James W; Weinstein, Maxine
Allostatic load theory implies a relationship between exposure to psychological stress and multi-system physiological dysregulation. We used data from population-based samples of men and women in Russia (Moscow; n = 1800; age, mean 68.6 years), Taiwan (n = 1036; 65.6 years) and the United States (US; n = 1054; 58.0 years) -- which are likely to vary widely with respect to levels of stress exposure and biological markers -- to determine the magnitude of the association between perceived stress and physiological dysregulation. The measure of overall dysregulation was based on 15 markers including standard cardiovascular/metabolic risk factors as well as markers of inflammation and neuroendocrine activity. Subjective psychological stress was measured by the perceived stress scale. Only the Moscow sample demonstrated a positive association with overall dysregulation in both sexes. In the US, we found an association among women but not men. Among the Taiwanese, who report the lowest perceived stress, there was no association in women but an unexpected inverse relationship in men. The effects also varied across system-level subscores: the association with perceived stress was most consistent for standard cardiovascular/metabolic factors. Perceived stress was associated with inflammation and neuroendocrine activity in some samples. Although the evidence that perceived stress is the primary source of physiological dysregulation is generally modest, it was stronger in Russia where the level of perceived stress was particularly high. For Russia only, we had information about heart function based on a 24 h ambulatory electrocardiogram; perceived stress was consistently associated with heart rate dysregulation in Russian men and women.
Richard D Stevens
Full Text Available Inference involving diversity gradients typically is gathered by mechanistic tests involving single dimensions of biodiversity such as species richness. Nonetheless, because traits such as geographic range size, trophic status or phenotypic characteristics are tied to a particular species, mechanistic effects driving broad diversity patterns should manifest across numerous dimensions of biodiversity. We develop an approach of stronger inference based on numerous dimensions of biodiversity and apply it to evaluate one such putative mechanism: the mid-domain effect (MDE. Species composition of 10,000-km(2 grid cells was determined by overlaying geographic range maps of 133 noctilionoid bat taxa. We determined empirical diversity gradients in the Neotropics by calculating species richness and three indices each of phylogenetic, functional and phenetic diversity for each grid cell. We also created 1,000 simulated gradients of each examined metric of biodiversity based on a MDE model to estimate patterns expected if species distributions were randomly placed within the Neotropics. For each simulation run, we regressed the observed gradient onto the MDE-expected gradient. If a MDE drives empirical gradients, then coefficients of determination from such an analysis should be high, the intercept no different from zero and the slope no different than unity. Species richness gradients predicted by the MDE fit empirical patterns. The MDE produced strong spatially structured gradients of taxonomic, phylogenetic, functional and phenetic diversity. Nonetheless, expected values generated from the MDE for most dimensions of biodiversity exhibited poor fit to most empirical patterns. The MDE cannot account for most empirical patterns of biodiversity. Fuller understanding of latitudinal gradients will come from simultaneous examination of relative effects of random, environmental and historical mechanisms to better understand distribution and abundance of the
This technical progress report includes an update of the progress during the third year of cooperative agreement DE-FC26-00NT40802, Building Stronger State Energy Partnerships with the U.S. Department of Energy. The report also describes the barriers in conduct of the effort, and our assessment of future progress and activities. The approach of the project included three tasks during year three. First, NASEO and its Buildings Committee were to focus on raising awareness and coordination of Rebuild activities. Through education, one-on-one communications, and presentations at NASEO meetings and other events, staff and the committee will assist Rebuild officials in stimulating interest in the program and building greater support among State Energy Office Directors. The most recent subtasks added to the project, though not directly related to Rebuild America, fall under this initial task, and support: (a) state plans to implement integrated energy and environmental initiatives, including distributed generation technologies, and (b) initiation of a state collaborative on advanced turbines and hybrid systems. The advanced turbine piece was completed during this year. During the year, a new workplan was accepted by Rebuild America's Dan Sze to supplement the work in this task. This workplan is outlined below. Second, NASEO would work to improve the efficiency of America's schools by assisting states and DOE in promoting projects that result in more energy efficient and clean energy schools and a better learning environment. This task was fully completed during this year. The third task involves energy security issues which NASEO addressed by way of a Summer Fuels Outlook Conference held Tuesday, April 8, 2003. The purpose of this educational event was to inform state, federal, local, and other energy officials about the most recent transportation fuels data and trends. The public benefits part of this task was not funded for Year 3, thus no activity occurred.
Although poor self-esteem is a core component of depression, we still do not know if racial and ethnic groups differ in the magnitude of this link. This study compared Black and White older adults on the association between self-esteem and depressive symptoms. With a cross-sectional design, this study enrolled 1493 older individuals (age 66 or more) from the 2001 Religion, Aging, and Health Survey, a nationally representative study in the United States. Participants were either Blacks (n = 734) or Whites (n = 759). Depressive symptoms and self-esteem were measured using brief measures of the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression scale (CES-D) and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, respectively. Demographics, socioeconomics, and self-rated health (SRH) were covariates and self-identified race was the moderator. Linear regression models were used for data analysis. Low self-esteem was associated with more depressive symptoms (B = 0.17, 95 % CI 0.15-0.28), above and beyond all covariates. We found a significant and positive interaction between race (Black) and poor self-esteem on depressive symptoms (B = 0.34, 95 % CI 0.17-0.36), suggesting a stronger association between self-esteem and depressive symptoms among Blacks compared to Whites. Although low self-esteem is associated with higher depressive symptoms in both Whites and Blacks (p self-esteem and high depressive symptoms are more closely associated among Blacks than Whites. It is not clear whether depression leaves a larger scar on self-esteem for Blacks, or Blacks are more vulnerable to the effect of low self-esteem on depression.
Pereira-Caro, G; Mateos, R; Traka, M H; Bacon, J R; Bongaerts, R; Sarriá, B; Bravo, L; Kroon, P A
The anticarcinogenic activity of hydroxytyrosyl ethyl ether (HTy-Et) compared to its precursor hydroxytyrosol (HTy) has been studied in human Caco-2 colon adenocarcinoma cells. 451 and 977 genes were differentially expressed in Caco-2 cells exposed to HTy or HTy-Et for 24h, respectively, compared with untreated cells (Parrested the cell cycle by up-regulating p21 and CCNG2 and down-regulating CCNB1 protein expression. HTy and HTy-Et also altered the transcription of specific genes involved in apoptosis, as suggested by the up-regulation of BNIP3, BNIP3L, PDCD4 and ATF3 and the activation of caspase-3. Moreover, these polyphenols up-regulated xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes UGT1A10 and CYP1A1, enhancing carcinogen detoxification. In conclusion, these results highlight that HTy and its derivative HTy-Et modulate molecular mechanisms involved in colon cancer, with HTy-Et being more effective than HTy. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Shu, Hong; Edwards, Geoffrey; Qi, Cuihong
In geographic space, it is well known that spatial behaviors of humans are directly driven by their spatial cognition, rather than by the physical or geometrical reality. The cognitive distance in spatial cognition is fundamental in intelligent pattern recognition. More precisely, the cognitive distance can be used to measure the similarities (or relevance) of cognized geographic objects. In the past work, the physical or Euclidean distances are used very often. In practice, many inconsistencies are found between the cognitive distance and the physical distance. Usually the physical distance is overestimated or underestimated in the process of human spatial behaviors and pattern recognition. These inconsistencies are termed distance distortions. The aim of this paper is to illustrate the conceptions of cognitive distance and distance distortion. And if the cognitive distance is argued to be two-dimensional, it exists in heterogeneous space and the property of quasi-metric is shown. If the cognitive distance is multi-dimensional, it exists in homogeneous space and the property of metric is shown. We argue that distance distortions arise from the transformation of homogeneous to heterogeneous space and from the transformation of the two-dimensional cognitive distance to the multi-dimensional cognitive distance. In some sense, the physical distance is an instance of cognitive distance.
Lee, Junghan; Lee, Seojung; Chun, Ji Won; Cho, Hyun; Kim, Dai-jin; Jung, Young-Chul
Increased reports of impulsivity and aggression in male adolescents with Internet gaming might reflect their dysfunction in emotion regulation, particularly in suppression of negative emotions, which should affect the various stages of Internet gaming disorder. This study tested the hypothesis that adolescents with Internet gaming disorder would be more disturbed by the emotional interference and demonstrate compromised dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) activation during a Stroop Match-to-Sample task. In addition, functional connectivity analysis was conducted to examine the interplays between neural correlates involved in emotional processing and how they were altered in adolescents with Internet gaming disorder. The Internet gaming disorder group demonstrated weaker dACC activation and stronger insular activations to interfering angry facial stimuli compared with the healthy control group. Negative functional connectivity between stronger insular activation and weaker dorsolateral prefrontal activation correlated with higher cognitive impulsivity in adolescents with Internet gaming disorder. These findings provide evidence of the compromised prefrontal cognitive control over emotional interference in adolescents with Internet gaming disorder.
Jay G Hosking
Full Text Available Successful decision making in our daily lives requires weighing an option's costs against its associated benefits. The neuromodulator acetylcholine underlies both the etiology and treatment of a number of illnesses in which decision making is perturbed, including Alzheimer's disease, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and schizophrenia. Nicotine acts on the cholinergic system and has been touted as a cognitive enhancer by both smokers and some researchers for its attention-boosting effects; however, it is unclear whether treatments that have a beneficial effect on attention would also have a beneficial effect on decision making. Here we utilize the rodent Cognitive Effort Task (rCET, wherein animals can choose to allocate greater visuospatial attention for a greater reward, to examine cholinergic contributions to both attentional performance and choice based on attentional demand. Following the establishment of baseline behavior, four drug challenges were administered: nicotine, mecamylamine, scopolamine, and oxotremorine (saline plus three doses for each. As per previous rCET studies, animals were divided by their baseline preferences, with "worker" rats choosing high-effort/high-reward options more than their "slacker" counterparts. Nicotine caused slackers to choose even fewer high-effort trials than at baseline, but had no effect on workers' choice. Despite slackers' decreased willingness to expend effort, nicotine improved their attentional performance on the task. Nicotine also increased measures of motor impulsivity in all animals. In contrast, scopolamine decreased animals' choice of high-effort trials, especially for workers, while oxotremorine decreased motor impulsivity for all animals. In sum, the cholinergic system appears to contribute to decision making, and in part these contributions can be understood as a function of individual differences. While nicotine has been considered as a cognitive enhancer, these data suggest
Many organisations and their supply chains are networks of relationships, but greater connectivity, additional connections and more intimate relationships can involve costs and risks as well as confer benefits, while inappropriate relationships can be harmful. Aspects of company law and regulation and contemporary corporate leadership and governance codes, priorities and practices favour some stakeholders over others and can hinder rather than help the building of relationships with a wider r...
Ito, Tsuyoshi; Imai, Hiroshi; Avis, David
We show that some two-party Bell inequalities with two-valued observables are stronger than the CHSH inequality for 3x3 isotropic states in the sense that they are violated by some isotropic states in the 3x3 system that do not violate the CHSH inequality. These Bell inequalities are obtained by applying triangular elimination to the list of known facet inequalities of the cut polytope on nine points. This gives a partial solution to an open problem posed by Collins and Gisin. The results of numerical optimization suggest that they are candidates for being stronger than the I 3322 Bell inequality for 3x3 isotropic states. On the other hand, we found no Bell inequalities stronger than the CHSH inequality for 2x2 isotropic states. In addition, we illustrate an inclusion relation among some Bell inequalities derived by triangular elimination
Goldin, Philippe R; Ziv, Michal; Jazaieri, Hooria; Weeks, Justin; Heimberg, Richard G; Gross, James J
We examined whether Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (CBT) for social anxiety disorder (SAD) would modify self-reported negative emotion and functional magnetic resonance imaging brain responses when reacting to and reappraising social evaluation, and tested whether changes would predict treatment outcome in 59 patients with SAD who completed CBT or waitlist groups. For reactivity, compared to waitlist, CBT resulted in (a) increased brain responses in right superior frontal gyrus (SFG), inferior parietal lobule (IPL), and middle occipital gyrus (MOG) when reacting to social praise, and (b) increases in right SFG and IPL and decreases in left posterior superior temporal gyrus (pSTG) when reacting to social criticism. For reappraisal, compared to waitlist, CBT resulted in greater (c) reductions in self-reported negative emotion, and (d) increases in brain responses in right SFG and MOG, and decreases in left pSTG. A linear regression found that after controlling for CBT-induced changes in reactivity and reappraisal negative emotion ratings and brain changes in reactivity to praise and criticism, reappraisal of criticism brain response changes predicted 24% of the unique variance in CBT-related reductions in social anxiety. Thus, one mechanism underlying CBT for SAD may be changes in reappraisal-related brain responses to social criticism. NCT00380731. http://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00380731?term=social+anxiety+cognitive+behavioral+therapy+Stanford&rank=1. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ciril Bosch-Rosa; Thomas Meissner; Antoni Bosch-Domènech
Smith et al. (1988) reported large bubbles and crashes in experimental asset markets, a result that has been replicated by a large literature. Here we test whether the occurrence of bubbles depends on the experimental subjects' cognitive sophistication. In a two-part experiment, we first run a battery of tests to assess the subjects' cognitive sophistication and classify them into low or high levels of cognitive sophistication. We then invite them separately to two asset market experimen...
This book consists of essays covering issues in visual cognition presenting experimental techniques from cognitive psychology, methods of modeling cognitive processes on computers from artificial intelligence, and methods of studying brain organization from neuropsychology. Topics considered include: parts of recognition; visual routines; upward direction; mental rotation, and discrimination of left and right turns in maps; individual differences in mental imagery, computational analysis and the neurological basis of mental imagery: componental analysis.
Bortolato, Beatrice; Miskowiak, Kamilla W; Köhler, Cristiano A
BACKGROUND: Cognitive dysfunction in major depressive disorder (MDD) encompasses several domains, including but not limited to executive function, verbal memory, and attention. Furthermore, cognitive dysfunction is a frequent residual manifestation in depression and may persist during the remitted...... antidepressant, has significant precognitive effects in MDD unrelated to mood improvement. Lisdexamfetamine dimesylate was shown to alleviate executive dysfunction in an RCT of adults after full or partial remission of MDD. Preliminary evidence also indicates that erythropoietin may alleviate cognitive...
Josje van der Linden
Full Text Available ABSTRACT“This one is stronger.” Spotlights on the lifelong learning professional-in-action Around the world, lifelong learning is being promoted as a strategy for coping with the changing realities of life and work. The fourth Sustainable Development Goal, agreed in September 2015, reflects this: “ensure equitable and inclusive quality education and promote lifelong learning opportunities for all”. Despite its importance, doubts remain about the implementation of this goal in practice (Van der Kamp, 2000; Regmi, 2015. This article looks at the practice of lifelong learning from the point of view of the professionals involved, their actions and the way these actions are challenged, supported and further developed. Following Schön’s “reflection-in-action” (1983, the term “professional-in-action” is used to stress the role of the professional in making the difference on the ground. The leading question is: how can lifelong learning professionals be supported in their contribution to surrounding society and its citizens? The professionals-in-action featured in this article include professionals based in the Netherlands as well as in other, less privileged contexts. Meaningful experiences are used to build a story about challenges, the right to exist, commitment, recognition and room to manoeuvre. The experiences reveal the importance of interacting with the learner and the professional space that is necessary to achieve this. Professionalization in professional learning communities and practice-oriented research must accompany this professional space. SAMENVATTING“Deze is sterker”. Spotlights op de leven lang leren professional-in-actieOm te kunnen omgaan met de veranderende realiteit in leven en werk, wordt wereldwijd een leven lang leren aangemoedigd. Het vierde duurzame ontwikkelingsdoel, vastgesteld in september 2015, weerspiegelt dit: “het verzekeren van kwalitatief goed onderwijs en het bevorderen van de mogelijkheden
Boster, James S
Cognitive anthropology contributes to cognitive science as a complement to cognitive psychology. The chief threat to its survival has not been rejection by other cognitive scientists but by other cultural anthropologists. It will remain a part of cognitive science as long as cognitive anthropologists research, teach, and publish. Copyright © 2012 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.
De Clercq, Mikael; Galand, Benoit; Frenay, Mariane
The aim of this study was to investigate the direction of the effect between goal orientation, self-regulation and deep processing strategies in order to understand the impact of these three constructs on students' achievement. The participants were 110 freshmen from the engineering faculty at the Universite catholique de Louvain in Belgium, who…
The clinical obesity maintenance model: an integration of psychological constructs including mood, emotional regulation, disordered overeating, habitual cluster behaviours, health literacy and cognitive function.
Raman, Jayanthi; Smith, Evelyn; Hay, Phillipa
Psychological distress and deficits in executive functioning are likely to be important barriers to effective weight loss maintenance. The purpose of this paper is twofold. First, in the light of recent evidence in the fields of neuropsychology and obesity, particularly on the deficits in the executive function in overweight and obese individuals, a conceptual and theoretical framework of obesity maintenance is introduced by way of a clinical obesity maintenance model (COMM). It is argued that psychological variables, that of habitual cluster Behaviors, emotional dysregulation, mood, and health literacy, interact with executive functioning and impact on the overeating/binge eating behaviors of obese individuals. Second, cognizant of this model, it is argued that the focus of obesity management should be extended to include a broader range of maintaining mechanisms, including but not limited to cognitive deficits. Finally, a discussion on potential future directions in research and practice using the COMM is provided.
The Clinical Obesity Maintenance Model: An Integration of Psychological Constructs including Mood, Emotional Regulation, Disordered Overeating, Habitual Cluster Behaviours, Health Literacy and Cognitive Function
Full Text Available Psychological distress and deficits in executive functioning are likely to be important barriers to effective weight loss maintenance. The purpose of this paper is twofold. First, in the light of recent evidence in the fields of neuropsychology and obesity, particularly on the deficits in the executive function in overweight and obese individuals, a conceptual and theoretical framework of obesity maintenance is introduced by way of a clinical obesity maintenance model (COMM. It is argued that psychological variables, that of habitual cluster Behaviors, emotional dysregulation, mood, and health literacy, interact with executive functioning and impact on the overeating/binge eating behaviors of obese individuals. Second, cognizant of this model, it is argued that the focus of obesity management should be extended to include a broader range of maintaining mechanisms, including but not limited to cognitive deficits. Finally, a discussion on potential future directions in research and practice using the COMM is provided.
Mikkelsen, Mai Bjørnskov; Mehlsen, Mimi Yung; Lyby, Marlene Skovgaard
A sample of older and younger adults rated affective pictures according to valence, arousal and emotion category (happiness, sadness and disgust). Results indicate that older age is associated with a stronger linear association between ratings of arousal and valence. Further, the strength...
Lök, Neslihan; Bademli, Kerime
In this study, randomized controlled interventional study pattern was used to examine the effects of the "First You Should Get Stronger" program on the caregiving burden and healthy life style behavior of caregivers of dementia patients. "Zarit Caregiver Burden Scale" and "Healthy Life Style Behavior Scale" were used. The study was completed with 40 caregivers in total with 20 in the intervention group and 20 in the control group. A statistically significant difference was determined between the "Zarit Caregiving Burden Scale" and "Healthy Life Style Behavior Scale" score averages of the intervention group that participated in the "First You Should Get Stronger" program in comparison with those of the control group. It is important for the healths of caregivers to include similar programs for the caregivers of dementia patients in continuous and regular applications. The results highlight the importance of the "First You Should Get Stronger" program significantly decreased the caregiving burden and significantly developed the healthy lifestyle behaviors of caregivers in the intervention group. Since dementia is a difficult neurological syndrome with patients cared at home, it generally wears out the caregivers significantly. It is suggested that the nurses and healthcare professionals working with dementia patients are evaluated separately and that they carry out caregiving applications within the scope of the "First You Should Get Stronger" program. Copyright Â© 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available One of the consequences of extensive mindfulness practice is a reduction of anxiety and depression, but also a capacity to regulate negative emotions. In this study, we explored four key questions concerning mindfulness training: (1 What are the processes by which mindfulness regulates our emotions? (2 Can mindfulness be applied to social emotions? (3 Does mindfulness training affect emotionally driven behavior towards others? (4 Does mindfulness alter physiological reactivity? To address these questions, we tested, in two experiments, the ability of mindfulness meditators to regulate interpersonal emotions (Experiment 1 and interactive behaviors (Experiment 2 as compared to naïve controls. To better understand the mechanisms by which mindfulness regulates emotions, we asked participants to apply two strategies: a cognitive strategy (mentalizing, a form of reappraisal focused on the intentions of others and an experiential strategy derived from mindfulness principles (mindful detachment. Both groups were able to regulate interpersonal emotions by means of cognitive (mentalizing and experiential (mindful detachment strategies. In Experiment 1, a simple effect of meditation, independent from the implementation of the strategies, resulted in reduced emotional and physiological reactivity, as well as in increased pleasantness for meditators when compared to controls, providing evidence of baseline regulation. In Experiment 2, one visible effect of the strategy was that meditators outperformed controls in the experiential (mindful detachment but not in the cognitive (mentalize strategy, showing stronger modulation of their interactive behavior (less punishments and providing evidence of a strategic behavioral regulation. Based on these results, we suggest that mindfulness can influence interpersonal emotional reactions through an experiential mechanism, both at a baseline level and a strategic level, thereby altering the subjective and physiological
Grecucci, Alessandro; De Pisapia, Nicola; Kusalagnana Thero, Derangala; Paladino, Maria Paola; Venuti, Paola; Job, Remo
One of the consequences of extensive mindfulness practice is a reduction of anxiety and depression, but also a capacity to regulate negative emotions. In this study, we explored four key questions concerning mindfulness training: (1) What are the processes by which mindfulness regulates our emotions? (2) Can mindfulness be applied to social emotions? (3) Does mindfulness training affect emotionally driven behavior towards others? (4) Does mindfulness alter physiological reactivity? To address these questions, we tested, in two experiments, the ability of mindfulness meditators to regulate interpersonal emotions (Experiment 1) and interactive behaviors (Experiment 2) as compared to naïve controls. To better understand the mechanisms by which mindfulness regulates emotions, we asked participants to apply two strategies: a cognitive strategy (mentalizing, a form of reappraisal focused on the intentions of others) and an experiential strategy derived from mindfulness principles (mindful detachment). Both groups were able to regulate interpersonal emotions by means of cognitive (mentalizing) and experiential (mindful detachment) strategies. In Experiment 1, a simple effect of meditation, independent from the implementation of the strategies, resulted in reduced emotional and physiological reactivity, as well as in increased pleasantness for meditators when compared to controls, providing evidence of baseline regulation. In Experiment 2, one visible effect of the strategy was that meditators outperformed controls in the experiential (mindful detachment) but not in the cognitive (mentalize) strategy, showing stronger modulation of their interactive behavior (less punishments) and providing evidence of a strategic behavioral regulation. Based on these results, we suggest that mindfulness can influence interpersonal emotional reactions through an experiential mechanism, both at a baseline level and a strategic level, thereby altering the subjective and physiological
Grecucci, Alessandro; De Pisapia, Nicola; Kusalagnana Thero, Derangala; Paladino, Maria Paola; Venuti, Paola; Job, Remo
One of the consequences of extensive mindfulness practice is a reduction of anxiety and depression, but also a capacity to regulate negative emotions. In this study, we explored four key questions concerning mindfulness training: (1) What are the processes by which mindfulness regulates our emotions? (2) Can mindfulness be applied to social emotions? (3) Does mindfulness training affect emotionally driven behavior towards others? (4) Does mindfulness alter physiological reactivity? To address these questions, we tested, in two experiments, the ability of mindfulness meditators to regulate interpersonal emotions (Experiment 1) and interactive behaviors (Experiment 2) as compared to naïve controls. To better understand the mechanisms by which mindfulness regulates emotions, we asked participants to apply two strategies: a cognitive strategy (mentalizing, a form of reappraisal focused on the intentions of others) and an experiential strategy derived from mindfulness principles (mindful detachment). Both groups were able to regulate interpersonal emotions by means of cognitive (mentalizing) and experiential (mindful detachment) strategies. In Experiment 1, a simple effect of meditation, independent from the implementation of the strategies, resulted in reduced emotional and physiological reactivity, as well as in increased pleasantness for meditators when compared to controls, providing evidence of baseline regulation. In Experiment 2, one visible effect of the strategy was that meditators outperformed controls in the experiential (mindful detachment) but not in the cognitive (mentalize) strategy, showing stronger modulation of their interactive behavior (less punishments) and providing evidence of a strategic behavioral regulation. Based on these results, we suggest that mindfulness can influence interpersonal emotional reactions through an experiential mechanism, both at a baseline level and a strategic level, thereby altering the subjective and physiological
Dunn, Barnaby D
The importance of developing a better understanding of positive emotion regulation in both healthy and clinical populations is now recognised. This special edition brings together leading figures in the positive emotion regulation field and has contributions characterizing positive phenomena, differentiating them from negative phenomena, and evaluating underlying psychological mechanisms that drive these phenomena. This commentary reviews these articles to highlight challenges and opportunities for this emerging field, including the need to better characterize positive phenomena, to be more explicit about how the links between negative and positive phenomena are conceptualised, to evaluate more robustly underlying mechanisms, to standardize measurement of positive constructs, and to ensure that these scientific findings lead to meaningful changes in real-world policy and practice.
This collection of research papers on visual cognition first appeared as a special issue of Cognition: International Journal of Cognitive Science. The study of visual cognition has seen enormous progress in the past decade, bringing important advances in our understanding of shape perception, visual imagery, and mental maps. Many of these discoveries are the result of converging investigations in different areas, such as cognitive and perceptual psychology, artificial intelligence, and neuropsychology. This volume is intended to highlight a sample of work at the cutting edge of this research area for the benefit of students and researchers in a variety of disciplines. The tutorial introduction that begins the volume is designed to help the nonspecialist reader bridge the gap between the contemporary research reported here and earlier textbook introductions or literature reviews.
Pe, Madeline Lee; Raes, Filip; Kuppens, Peter
The ability to regulate emotions is a critical component of healthy emotional functioning. Therefore, it is important to determine factors that contribute to the efficacy of emotion regulation. The present article examined whether the ability to update emotional information in working memory is a predictor of the efficacy of rumination and reappraisal on affective experience both at the trait level (Study 1) and in daily life (Study 2). In both studies, results revealed that the relationship between use of reappraisal and high arousal negative emotions was moderated by updating ability. Specifically, use of reappraisal was associated with decreased high arousal negative emotions for participants with high updating ability, while no significant relationship was found for those with low updating ability. In addition, both studies also revealed that the relationship between rumination and high arousal negative emotions was moderated by updating ability. In general, use of rumination was associated with elevated high arousal negative emotions. However, this relationship was blunted for participants with high updating ability. That is, use of rumination was associated with less elevated high arousal negative emotions for participants with high updating ability. These results identify the ability to update emotional information in working memory as a crucial process modulating the efficacy of emotion regulation efforts.
Huh, Hyu Jung; Baek, Kwangyeol; Kwon, Jae-Hyung; Jeong, Jaeseung; Chae, Jeong-Ho
Although poor decision-making ultimately impairs quality of life in depression, few studies describe the clinical characteristics of patients suffering from dysfunctional decision-making. This study aims to delineate the effect of childhood trauma and other personality factors on risk-aversive and loss-aversive patterns of decision-making in patients with depression. A total of 50 depressive patients completed surveys for the measurement of sociodemographic factors, trauma loads and other clinical characteristics, including depression, anxiety, and strategies for emotion regulation. Risk aversion and loss aversion were quantified using probability discounting task and a 50:50 gamble on monetary decision-making task under specified risks. Stepwise multiple regression analysis was performed to determine the factors, predicting risk aversion or loss aversion in depression. Childhood trauma was the most prominent factor predicting loss aversion in patients with depressive disorders. Overall maladaptive emotion regulation strategies were associated with risk aversion. Childhood trauma and specific strategies of emotion regulation contribute to risk or loss aversion in patients with depression. These findings may provide useful insight into elaborative evaluation and interventions to improve decision-making and quality of life in patients with depression.
Colosio, Marco; Shestakova, Anna; Nikulin, Vadim V; Blagovechtchenski, Evgeny; Klucharev, Vasily
Cognitive dissonance theory suggests that our preferences are modulated by the mere act of choosing. A choice between two similarly valued alternatives creates psychological tension (cognitive dissonance) that is reduced by a postdecisional reevaluation of the alternatives. We measured EEG of human subjects during rest and free-choice paradigm. Our study demonstrates that choices associated with stronger cognitive dissonance trigger a larger negative frontocentral evoked response similar to error-related negativity, which has in turn been implicated in general performance monitoring. Furthermore, the amplitude of the evoked response is correlated with the reevaluation of the alternatives. We also found a link between individual neural dynamics (long-range temporal correlations) of the frontocentral cortices during rest and follow-up neural and behavioral effects of cognitive dissonance. Individuals with stronger resting-state long-range temporal correlations demonstrated a greater postdecisional reevaluation of the alternatives and larger evoked brain responses associated with stronger cognitive dissonance. Thus, our results suggest that cognitive dissonance is reflected in both resting-state and choice-related activity of the prefrontal cortex as part of the general performance-monitoring circuitry. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Contrary to traditional decision theory, behavioral studies repeatedly demonstrate that our preferences are modulated by the mere act of choosing. Difficult choices generate psychological (cognitive) dissonance, which is reduced by the postdecisional devaluation of unchosen options. We found that decisions associated with a higher level of cognitive dissonance elicited a stronger negative frontocentral deflection that peaked ∼60 ms after the response. This activity shares similar spatial and temporal features as error-related negativity, the electrophysiological correlate of performance monitoring. Furthermore, the frontocentral resting
Full Text Available The psychological functioning of an individual includes well-being, cognitions, emotions and behaviors as a whole. In the current models of psychopathologies, as similar to well-being, reciprocal interaction between emotions, behaviors and cognitions is emphasized. Notwithstanding that the effects of these three components on cognitive behavior therapies can be mentioned too, it can be claimed that emotions were remained in the background by the behaviors and cognitions until the third wave of cognitive behavior therapies. Emotions have became prominent with the third wave approaches in the field of cognitive behavior therapy. In this review article, similarities and differences of third wave of cognitive behavior therapy with other waves, the constructs of emotion and emotion regulation in the third wave and the impacts of these on treatment were included. Additionally, throughout this perspective, treatment processes focusing on emotion regulation skills were discussed. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2016; 8(3.000: 190-203
Thienel, Matthias; Heinrichs, Markus; Fischer, Stefan; Ott, Volker; Born, Jan; Hallschmid, Manfred
Oxytocin is an evolutionarily highly preserved neuropeptide that contributes to the regulation of social interactions including the processing of facial stimuli. We hypothesized that its improving effect on social approach behavior depends on perceived sexual features and, consequently, on sexual orientation. In 19 homosexual and 18 heterosexual healthy young men, we investigated the acute effect of intranasal oxytocin (24IU) and placebo, respectively, on the processing of social stimuli as assessed by ratings of trustworthiness, attractiveness and approachability for male and female faces. Faces were each presented with a neutral, a happy, and an angry expression, respectively. In heterosexual subjects, the effect of oxytocin administration was restricted to a decrease in ratings of trustworthiness for angry female faces (poxytocin administration robustly increased ratings of attractiveness and approachability for male faces regardless of the facial expression (all p ≤ 0.05), as well as ratings of approachability for happy female faces (poxytocin's enhancing impact on social approach tendencies, suggesting that differences in sexual orientation imply differential oxytocinergic signaling. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
ABSTRACT Cells are interactive living systems where proteins movements, interactions and regulation are substantially free from centralized management. How protein physico‐chemical and geometrical properties determine who interact with whom remains far from fully understood. We show that characterizing how a protein behaves with many potential interactors in a complete cross‐docking study leads to a sharp identification of its cellular/true/native partner(s). We define a sociability index, or S‐index, reflecting whether a protein likes or not to pair with other proteins. Formally, we propose a suitable normalization function that accounts for protein sociability and we combine it with a simple interface‐based (ranking) score to discriminate partners from non‐interactors. We show that sociability is an important factor and that the normalization permits to reach a much higher discriminative power than shape complementarity docking scores. The social effect is also observed with more sophisticated docking algorithms. Docking conformations are evaluated using experimental binding sites. These latter approximate in the best possible way binding sites predictions, which have reached high accuracy in recent years. This makes our analysis helpful for a global understanding of partner identification and for suggesting discriminating strategies. These results contradict previous findings claiming the partner identification problem being solvable solely with geometrical docking. Proteins 2016; 85:137–154. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27802579
International Journal of Behavioral Development, 1985
Investigates (1) the relationships between cognitive performance and cognitive styles and predictive possibilities and (2) performance differences by sex, school, grade, and income in 92 Indian adolescents. Assessment measures included Liquid Conservation, Islands, Goat-Lion, Hanoi-Tower, Rabbits (Piagetian); Block Design (WISC-R); Paper Cutting…
Colzato, Lorenza S; Sellaro, Roberta; Samara, Iliana; Hommel, Bernhard
Here we consider the possibility that meditation has an immediate impact on information processing. Moreover, we were interested to see whether this impact affects attentional input control, as previous observations suggest, or the handling of response conflict. Healthy adults underwent a brief single session of either focused attention meditation (FAM), which is assumed to increase top-down control, or open monitoring meditation (OMM), which is assumed to weaken top-down control, before performing a Simon task-which assesses conflict-resolution efficiency. While the size of the Simon effect (reflecting the efficiency of handling response conflict) was unaffected by type of meditation, the amount of dynamic behavioral adjustments (i.e., trial-to-trial variability of the Simon effect: the Gratton effect) was considerably smaller after OMM than after FAM. Our findings suggest that engaging in meditation instantly creates a cognitive-control state that has a specific impact on conflict-driven control adaptations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Goldin, Philippe R.; Ziv, Michal; Jazaieri, Hooria; Weeks, Justin; Heimberg, Richard G.; Gross, James J.
We examined whether Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (CBT) for social anxiety disorder (SAD) would modify self-reported negative emotion and functional magnetic resonance imaging brain responses when reacting to and reappraising social evaluation, and tested whether changes would predict treatment outcome in 59 patients with SAD who completed CBT or waitlist groups. For reactivity, compared to waitlist, CBT resulted in (a) increased brain responses in right superior frontal gyrus (SFG), inferior parietal lobule (IPL), and middle occipital gyrus (MOG) when reacting to social praise, and (b) increases in right SFG and IPL and decreases in left posterior superior temporal gyrus (pSTG) when reacting to social criticism. For reappraisal, compared to waitlist, CBT resulted in greater (c) reductions in self-reported negative emotion, and (d) increases in brain responses in right SFG and MOG, and decreases in left pSTG. A linear regression found that after controlling for CBT-induced changes in reactivity and reappraisal negative emotion ratings and brain changes in reactivity to praise and criticism, reappraisal of criticism brain response changes predicted 24% of the unique variance in CBT-related reductions in social anxiety. Thus, one mechanism underlying CBT for SAD may be changes in reappraisal-related brain responses to social criticism. PMID:25193002
Rosati, Alexandra G; Wobber, Victoria; Hughes, Kelly; Santos, Laurie R
The fields of developmental and comparative psychology both seek to illuminate the roots of adult cognitive systems. Developmental studies target the emergence of adult cognitive systems over ontogenetic time, whereas comparative studies investigate the origins of human cognition in our evolutionary history. Despite the long tradition of research in both of these areas, little work has examined the intersection of the two: the study of cognitive development in a comparative perspective. In the current article, we review recent work using this comparative developmental approach to study non-human primate cognition. We argue that comparative data on the pace and pattern of cognitive development across species can address major theoretical questions in both psychology and biology. In particular, such integrative research will allow stronger biological inferences about the function of developmental change, and will be critical in addressing how humans come to acquire species-unique cognitive abilities.
The tutorial will discuss the definition of cognitive systems as the possibilities to extend the current systems engineering paradigm in order to perceive, learn, reason and interact robustly in open-ended changing environments. I will also address cognitive systems in a historical perspective an...... in cognitive systems include e.g. personalized information systems, sensor network systems, social dynamics system and Web2.0, and cognitive components analysis. I will use example from our own research and link to other research activities.......The tutorial will discuss the definition of cognitive systems as the possibilities to extend the current systems engineering paradigm in order to perceive, learn, reason and interact robustly in open-ended changing environments. I will also address cognitive systems in a historical perspective...... to be modeled within a limited set of predefined specifications. There will inevitably be a need for robust decisions and behaviors in novel situations that include handling of conflicts and ambiguities based on the capability and knowledge of the artificial cognitive system. Further, there is a need...
Jensen, Mark P; Thorn, Beverly E; Carmody, James; Keefe, Francis J; Burns, John W
Pain-related cognitive content (what people think about pain) and cognitive processes (how people think about pain; what they do with their pain-related thoughts) and their interaction are hypothesized to play distinct roles in patient function. However, questions have been raised regarding whether it is possible or practical to assess cognitive content and cognitive process as distinct domains. The aim of this study was to determine the extent to which measures that seem to assess mostly pain-related cognitive content, cognitive processes, and content and process, are relatively independent from each other and contribute unique variance to the prediction of patient function. Individuals with chronic low back pain (N=165) participating in an ongoing RCT were administered measures of cognitions, pain, and function (depressive symptoms and pain interference) pretreatment. Analyses provided support for the hypothesis that cognitive content and cognitive process, while related, can be assessed as distinct components. However, the measure assessing a cognitive process-mindfulness-evidenced relatively weak associations with function, especially compared with the stronger and more consistent findings for the measures of content (catastrophizing and self-efficacy). The results provide preliminary evidence for the possibility that mindfulness could have both benefits and costs. Research to evaluate this possibility is warranted.
Butler, Michael J R; Senior, Carl
The research strategy adopted in this article is to connect two different discourses and the ideas, methods, and outputs they contain-these being cognitive neuroscience and organization theory. The main contribution of the article is to present an agenda for the field of organizational cognitive neuroscience. We define what is meant by the term, outline its background, identify why it is important as a new research direction, and then conclude by drawing on Damasio's levels of life regulation as a framework to bind together existing organizational cognitive neuroscience. The article begins by setting the wider debate behind the emergence of organizational cognitive neuroscience by revisiting the nature-nurture debate and uses Pinker to demonstrate that the connection between mind and matter has not been resolved, that new directions are opening up to better understand human nature, and that organizational cognitive neuroscience is one fruitful path forward.
Day, Jeremy J; Sweatt, J David
Epigenetic mechanisms integrate signals from diverse intracellular transduction cascades and in turn regulate genetic readout. Accumulating evidence has revealed that these mechanisms are critical components of ongoing physiology and function in the adult nervous system, and are essential for many cognitive processes, including learning and memory. Moreover, a number of psychiatric disorders and syndromes that involve cognitive impairments are associated with altered epigenetic function. In this review, we will examine how epigenetic mechanisms contribute to cognition, consider how changes in these mechanisms may lead to cognitive impairments in a range of disorders and discuss the potential utility of therapeutic treatments that target epigenetic machinery. Finally, we will comment on a number of caveats associated with interpreting epigenetic changes and using epigenetic treatments, and suggest future directions for research in this area that will expand our understanding of the epigenetic changes underlying cognitive disorders.
Prakash, Ruchika Shaurya; Whitmoyer, Patrick; Aldao, Amelia; Schirda, Brittney
Research shows that dispositional mindfulness is associated with metrics of overall well-being, with enhanced emotion regulation potentially underlying these salutary effects. However, the role of regulation strategy use remains poorly understood. In this study, we examined age-variant associations between dispositional mindfulness, emotion regulation strategies, and emotion dysregulation. Self-report data were collected from 50 older and 50 young adults on mindfulness, emotion dysregulation, and recent strategy use. For the current study, we examined if cognitive reappraisal, experiential suppression, and thought avoidance use mediated the association between mindfulness and emotion dysregulation. Thought avoidance, but not reappraisal or suppression strategies, partially mediated the association between mindfulness and emotion dysregulation. Age group moderated the observed mediation, such that for young adults, lower mindfulness was associated with greater use of thought avoidance, and in turn with greater emotion dysregulation (e.g., difficulties engaging in goal-directed behavior in the face of strong emotions). The current cross-sectional study suggests that reduced avoidance of thoughts may partially explain the relationship between trait mindfulness and enhanced emotion regulation, with this mediational pathway being stronger for young compared with older adults.
Patin, Alexandra; Hurlemann, René
Social cognition is a major problem underlying deficiencies in interpersonal relationships in several psychiatric populations. And yet there is currently no gold standard for pharmacological treatment of psychiatric illness that directly targets these social cognitive areas. This chapter serves to illustrate some of the most innovative attempts at pharmacological modulation of social cognition in psychiatric illnesses including schizophrenia, borderline personality disorder, autism spectrum disorders, antisocial personality disorder and psychopathy, social anxiety disorder, and posttraumatic stress disorder. Pharmacological modulation includes studies administering oxytocin, ecstasy (MDMA), modafinil, methylphenidate, and D-cycloserine. Furthermore, some background on social cognition research in healthy individuals, which could be helpful in developing future treatments, is provided as well as the potential for each drug as a long-term treatment option.
Schleim, Stephan; Clausen, Jens; Levy, Neil
Research on moral cognition is a growing and heavily multidisciplinary field. This section contains chapters addressing foundational psychological, neuroscientific, and philosophical issues of research on moral decision-making. Further- more, beyond summarizing the state of the art of their
Because chemicals can adversely affect cognitive function in humans, considerable effort has been made to characterize their effects using animal models. Information from such models will be necessary to: evaluate whether chemicals identified as potentially neurotoxic by screenin...
faced with risk and uncertainty. The purpose of this dissertation is to contribute to this latter stream of research by examining how individuals differ in their cognition and behaviors in situations of risk and uncertainty in a controlled environment. More specifically, the dissertation explores how...... and final essay, I test individuals’ sensitivity to a lack of predictive information when making choices under uncertainty. In sum, the dissertation contributes to a more nuanced understanding of entrepreneurial cognition in situations of risk and uncertainty by illustrating the direct link between...... cognition and behavior. Since the dissertation focuses on individuals with limited entrepreneurial experience, it makes important practical contributions with respect to novice entrepreneurs and their cognition in cases of risk and uncertainty. As a result, it provides important insights into how...
Mello, Alan; Figueiredo, Fabrício; Figueiredo, Rafael
This book focuses on the next generation optical networks as well as mobile communication technologies. The reader will find chapters on Cognitive Optical Network, 5G Cognitive Wireless, LTE, Data Analysis and Natural Language Processing. It also presents a comprehensive view of the enhancements and requirements foreseen for Machine Type Communication. Moreover, some data analysis techniques and Brazilian Portuguese natural language processing technologies are also described here. .
Visual cognition, high-level vision, mid-level vision and top-down processing all refer to decision-based scene analyses that combine prior knowledge with retinal input to generate representations. The label "visual cognition" is little used at present, but research and experiments on mid- and high-level, inference-based vision have flourished, becoming in the 21st century a significant, if often understated part, of current vision research. How does visual cognition work? What are its moving parts? This paper reviews the origins and architecture of visual cognition and briefly describes some work in the areas of routines, attention, surfaces, objects, and events (motion, causality, and agency). Most vision scientists avoid being too explicit when presenting concepts about visual cognition, having learned that explicit models invite easy criticism. What we see in the literature is ample evidence for visual cognition, but few or only cautious attempts to detail how it might work. This is the great unfinished business of vision research: at some point we will be done with characterizing how the visual system measures the world and we will have to return to the question of how vision constructs models of objects, surfaces, scenes, and events. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
A novel cognitive impairment mechanism that astrocytic p-connexin 43 promotes neuronic autophagy via activation of P2X7R and down-regulation of GLT-1 expression in the hippocampus following traumatic brain injury in rats.
Sun, Liqian; Gao, Junling; Zhao, Manman; Cui, Jianzhong; Li, Youxiang; Yang, Xinjian; Jing, Xiaobin; Wu, Zhongxue
Connexin 43 (Cx43) is one of the major gap junction proteins in astrocytes. Our previous studies reported that astrocytic phosphorylated Cx43 (p-CX43) regulated neuronic autophagy levels in the rat hippocampus after traumatic brain injury (TBI). In this study, we explored the underlying molecular mechanism by which gap junctional intercellular communication influenced neuronic autophagy and therefore initiated cognitive and memory impairments after TBI. The gap junctional blocker carbenoxolone (CBX) or autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine (3-MA) reduced latencies, as compared to TBI rats. Similarly, CBX or 3-MA restored long-term potentiation (LTP), relative to TBI hippocampal slices. Immunoblotting analysis showed that the expression of autophagy-related gene Beclin-1 in the hippocampus post-TBI were decreased in response to treatment with CBX, the P2X7 receptor (P2X7R) antagonist Oxidized ATP (OxATP) or ceftriaxone (Cef) which increased the expression and activity of the glutamate transporter (GLT-1) in the central nervous system (CNS). Moreover, CBX or OxATP pretreatment increased GLT-1 level in the rat hippocampus after TBI. However, CBX pretreatment suppressed P2X7R expression whereas maintained P2X7 level post-TBI. Confocal images revealed that p-CX43, P2X7 and GLT-1 strongly colocalized with glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). Taken together, these results implied that Cx43, might induce neuronic autophagy by activation of P2X7R and reduce the expression of GLT-1 in the hippocampus, promoting TBI-induced cognitive deficits repair. Therefore, control of this communication may be serve as therapeutic strategies for intervention against TBI. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Ellwardt, Lea; Van Tilburg, Theo G.; Aartsen, MarjaJ.
Stronger engagement of older adults in social activities and greater embeddedness in networks is often argued to buffer cognitive decline and lower risks of dementia. One of the explanations is that interaction with other people trains the brain, thereby enhancing cognitive functioning. However,
Ellwardt, L.; van Tilburg, T.G.; Aartsen, M.J.
Stronger engagement of older adults in social activities and greater embeddedness in networks is often argued to buffer cognitive decline and lower risks of dementia. One of the explanations is that interaction with other people trains the brain, thereby enhancing cognitive functioning. However,
Cecilia U D Stenfors
associated with future cognitive complaints after adjustment for general confounders. The associations between quantitative demands and future cognitive complaints were stronger in women. DISCUSSION/CONCLUSIONS: The findings indicate that psychosocial working conditions should be taken into account when considering cognitive complaints among employees.
Physical-Verbal Aggression and Depression in Adolescents: The Role of Cognitive Emotion Regulation Strategies / Agresión físico-verbal y depresión en adolescentes: el papel de las estrategias cognitivas de regulación emocional
Lourdes Rey Peña
Full Text Available The present study examined the relationships between the use of cognitive emotion regulation strategies, physical-verbal aggression and depression in a sample of 248 adolescents. Specific emotion regulation strategies such as acceptance, rumination and catastrophizing explained significant variancein depression in adolescents. With respect to physical-verbal aggression, our results showed that the use of self-blame and rumination only predicted levels of aggression in boys but not girls. Regarding gender differences, girls tend to ruminate and to report more catastrophic thoughts than boys. Our findings suggest a profile of cognitive emotion regulation strategies related to physical-verbal aggression and depressive symptoms which might be taken into account in future socio-emotional learning programs for adolescents.
Nicotinamide riboside restores cognition through an upregulation of proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator 1α regulated β-secretase 1 degradation and mitochondrial gene expression in Alzheimer’s mouse models
Gong, Bing; Pan, Yong; Vempati, Prashant; Zhao, Wei; Knable, Lindsay; Ho, Lap; Wang, Jun; Sastre, Magdalena; Ono, Kenjiro; Sauve, Anthony A.; Pasinetti, Giulio M.
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD)+, a coenzyme involved in redox activities in the mitochondrial electron transport chain, has been identified as a key regulator of the lifespan-extending effects, and the activation of NAD+ expression has been linked with a decrease in beta-amyloid (Aβ) toxicity in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Nicotinamide riboside (NR) is a NAD+ precursor, it promotes peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator 1 (PGC)-1α expression in the brain. Evidence has shown that PGC-1α is a crucial regulator of Aβ generation because it affects β-secretase (BACE1) degradation. In this study we tested the hypothesis that NR treatment in an AD mouse model could attenuate Aβ toxicity through the activation of PGC-1α-mediated BACE1 degradation. Using the Tg2576 AD mouse model, using in vivo behavioral analyses, biochemistry assays, small hairpin RNA (shRNA) gene silencing and electrophysiological recording, we found (1) dietary treatment of Tg2576 mice with 250 mg/kg/day of NR for 3 months significantly attenuates cognitive deterioration in Tg2576 mice and coincides with an increase in the steady-state levels of NAD+ in the cerebral cortex; (2) application of NR to hippocampal slices (10 µM) for 4 hours abolishes the deficits in long-term potentiation recorded in the CA1 region of Tg2576 mice; (3) NR treatment promotes PGC-1α expression in the brain coinciding with enhanced degradation of BACE1 and the reduction of Aβ production in Tg2576 mice. Further in vitro studies confirmed that BACE1 protein content is decreased by NR treatment in primary neuronal cultures derived from Tg2576 embryos, in which BACE1 degradation was prevented by PGC-1α-shRNA gene silencing; and (4) NR treatment and PGC-1α overexpression enhance BACE1 ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation. Our studies suggest that dietary treatment with NR might benefit AD cognitive function and synaptic plasticity, inpart by promoting PGC-1α-mediated BACE1
Nicotinamide riboside restores cognition through an upregulation of proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator 1α regulated β-secretase 1 degradation and mitochondrial gene expression in Alzheimer's mouse models.
Gong, Bing; Pan, Yong; Vempati, Prashant; Zhao, Wei; Knable, Lindsay; Ho, Lap; Wang, Jun; Sastre, Magdalena; Ono, Kenjiro; Sauve, Anthony A; Pasinetti, Giulio M
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD)(+), a coenzyme involved in redox activities in the mitochondrial electron transport chain, has been identified as a key regulator of the lifespan-extending effects, and the activation of NAD(+) expression has been linked with a decrease in beta-amyloid (Aβ) toxicity in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Nicotinamide riboside (NR) is a NAD(+) precursor, it promotes peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator 1 (PGC)-1α expression in the brain. Evidence has shown that PGC-1α is a crucial regulator of Aβ generation because it affects β-secretase (BACE1) degradation. In this study we tested the hypothesis that NR treatment in an AD mouse model could attenuate Aβ toxicity through the activation of PGC-1α-mediated BACE1 degradation. Using the Tg2576 AD mouse model, using in vivo behavioral analyses, biochemistry assays, small hairpin RNA (shRNA) gene silencing and electrophysiological recording, we found (1) dietary treatment of Tg2576 mice with 250 mg/kg/day of NR for 3 months significantly attenuates cognitive deterioration in Tg2576 mice and coincides with an increase in the steady-state levels of NAD(+) in the cerebral cortex; (2) application of NR to hippocampal slices (10 μM) for 4 hours abolishes the deficits in long-term potentiation recorded in the CA1 region of Tg2576 mice; (3) NR treatment promotes PGC-1α expression in the brain coinciding with enhanced degradation of BACE1 and the reduction of Aβ production in Tg2576 mice. Further in vitro studies confirmed that BACE1 protein content is decreased by NR treatment in primary neuronal cultures derived from Tg2576 embryos, in which BACE1 degradation was prevented by PGC-1α-shRNA gene silencing; and (4) NR treatment and PGC-1α overexpression enhance BACE1 ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation. Our studies suggest that dietary treatment with NR might benefit AD cognitive function and synaptic plasticity, in part by promoting PGC-1α-mediated BACE1
Khng, Kiat Hui
A pre-test/post-test, intervention-versus-control experimental design was used to examine the effects, mechanisms and moderators of deep breathing on state anxiety and test performance in 122 Primary 5 students. Taking deep breaths before a timed math test significantly reduced self-reported feelings of anxiety and improved test performance. There was a statistical trend towards greater effectiveness in reducing state anxiety for boys compared to girls, and in enhancing test performance for students with higher autonomic reactivity in test-like situations. The latter moderation was significant when comparing high-versus-low autonomic reactivity groups. Mediation analyses suggest that deep breathing reduces state anxiety in test-like situations, creating a better state-of-mind by enhancing the regulation of adaptive-maladaptive thoughts during the test, allowing for better performance. The quick and simple technique can be easily learnt and effectively applied by most children to immediately alleviate some of the adverse effects of test anxiety on psychological well-being and academic performance.
de Dreu, C.K.W.; Dussel, D.B.; ten Velden, F.S.
Parochial altruism is decomposed in a tendency to benefit the in-group along with a tendency to ignore, derogate, and harm rivaling out-groups. Building off recent work suggesting that decisions to cooperate can be relatively fast and intuitive, we examine parochial altruism in intergroup conflict
The study of human cognition encompasses the study of all mental phenomena, from the receipt and interpretation of sensory information to the final control of the motor system in the performance of action. The cognitive scientist examines all intermediary processes, including thought, decision making, and memory and including the effects of motivation, states of arousal and stress, the study of language, and the effects of social factors. The field therefore ranges over an enormous territory, covering all that is known or that should be known about human behavior. It is not possible to summarize the current state of knowledge about cognition with any great confidence that we know the correct answer about any aspect of the work. Nontheless, models provide good characterizations of certain aspects of the data and situations. Even if these models should prove to be incorrect, they do provide good approximate descriptions of people's behavior in some situations, and these approximations will still apply even when the underlying theories have changed. A quick description is provided of models within a number of areas of human cognition and skill and some general theoretical frameworks with which to view human cognition. The frameworks are qualitative descriptions that provide a way to view the development of more detailed, quantitative models and, most important, a way of thinking about human performance and skill
Cognitive linguistics is one of the fastest growing and influential perspectives on the nature of language, the mind, and their relationship with sociophysical (embodied) experience. It is a broad theoretical and methodological enterprise, rather than a single, closely articulated theory. Its primary commitments are outlined. These are the Cognitive Commitment-a commitment to providing a characterization of language that accords with what is known about the mind and brain from other disciplines-and the Generalization Commitment-which represents a dedication to characterizing general principles that apply to all aspects of human language. The article also outlines the assumptions and worldview which arises from these commitments, as represented in the work of leading cognitive linguists. WIREs Cogn Sci 2012, 3:129-141. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1163 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Gilkey, Roderick; Kilts, Clint
Recent neuroscientific research shows that the health of your brain isn't, as experts once thought, just the product of childhood experiences and genetics; it reflects your adult choices and experiences as well. Professors Gilkey and Kilts of Emory University's medical and business schools explain how you can strengthen your brain's anatomy, neural networks, and cognitive abilities, and prevent functions such as memory from deteriorating as you age. The brain's alertness is the result of what the authors call cognitive fitness -a state of optimized ability to reason, remember, learn, plan, and adapt. Certain attitudes, lifestyle choices, and exercises enhance cognitive fitness. Mental workouts are the key. Brain-imaging studies indicate that acquiring expertise in areas as diverse as playing a cello, juggling, speaking a foreign language, and driving a taxicab expands your neural systems and makes them more communicative. In other words, you can alter the physical makeup of your brain by learning new skills. The more cognitively fit you are, the better equipped you are to make decisions, solve problems, and deal with stress and change. Cognitive fitness will help you be more open to new ideas and alternative perspectives. It will give you the capacity to change your behavior and realize your goals. You can delay senescence for years and even enjoy a second career. Drawing from the rapidly expanding body of neuroscience research as well as from well-established research in psychology and other mental health fields, the authors have identified four steps you can take to become cognitively fit: understand how experience makes the brain grow, work hard at play, search for patterns, and seek novelty and innovation. Together these steps capture some of the key opportunities for maintaining an engaged, creative brain.
Full Text Available Cognitive radio (CR) technology has become one of the buzzwords within the wireless communications community over the past 12 years. Its ability to learn, decide and adapt to the external environment made CR attractive to regulators, researchers...
A new type of damage-tolerant metallic glass, demonstrating a strength and toughness beyond that of steel or any other known material, has been developed and tested by a collaboration of researchers from Berkeley Lab and Caltech.
Elsner, J.; Jagger, T.
A cumulative logistic model for tornado damage category is developed and examined. Damage path length and width are significantly correlated to the odds of a tornado receiving the next highest damage category. Given values for the cube root of path length and square root of path width, the model predicts a probability for each category. The length and width coefficients are insensitive to the switch to the Enhanced Fujita (EF) scale and to distance from nearest city although these variables are statistically significant in the model. The width coefficient is sensitive to whether or not the tornado caused at least one fatality. This is likely due to the fact that the dimensions and characteristics of the damage path for such events are always based on ground surveys. The model predicted probabilities across the categories are then multiplied by the center wind speed from the categorical EF scale to obtain an estimate of the highest tornado wind speed on a continuous scale in units of meters per second. The estimated wind speeds correlate at a level of .82 (.46, .95) [95% confidence interval] to wind speeds estimated independently from a doppler radar calibration. The estimated wind speeds allow analyses to be done on the tornado database that are not possible with the categorical scale. The modeled intensities can be used in climatology and in environmental and engineering applications. More work needs to be done to understand the upward trends in path length and width. The increases lead to an apparent increase in tornado intensity across all EF categories.
Full Text Available Background: Cognitive control has been linked to both the microstructure of individual tracts and the structure of whole-brain networks, but their relative contributions in health and disease remain unclear. Objective: To determine the contribution of both localised white matter tract damage and disruption of global network architecture to cognitive control, in older age and Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI.Methods: 25 patients with MCI and 20 age, sex and intelligence-matched healthy volunteers were investigated with 3 Tesla structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. Cognitive control and episodic memory were evaluated with established tests. Structural network graphs were constructed from diffusion MRI-based whole-brain tractography. Their global measures were calculated using graph theory. Regression models utilized both global network metrics and microstructure of specific connections, known to be critical for each domain, to predict cognitive scores. Results: Global efficiency and the mean clustering coefficient of networks were reduced in MCI. Cognitive control was associated with global network topology. Episodic memory, in contrast, correlated with individual temporal tracts only. Relationships between cognitive control and network topology were attenuated by addition of single tract measures to regression models, consistent with a partial mediation effect. The mediation effect was stronger in MCI than healthy volunteers, explaining 23-36% of the effect of cingulum microstructure on cognitive control performance. Network clustering was a significant mediator in the relationship between tract microstructure and cognitive control in both groups. Conclusions: The status of critical connections and large-scale network topology are both important for maintenance of cognitive control in MCI. Mediation via large-scale networks is more important in patients with MCI than healthy volunteers. This effect is domain-specific, and true for cognitive
Cocking, Rodney R.; Mestre, Jose P.
The focus of this paper is on cognitive science as a model for understanding the application of human skills toward effective problem-solving. Sections include: (1) "Introduction" (discussing information processing framework, expert-novice distinctions, schema theory, and learning process); (2) "Application: The Expert-Novice…
Siegler, Robert S.
Children's thinking is highly variable at every level of analysis, from neural and associative levels to the level of strategies, theories, and other aspects of high-level cognition. This variability exists within people as well as between them; individual children often rely on different strategies or representations on closely related problems…
Bari, Rafijul; Thapa, Rajoo; Bao, Ju; Li, Ying; Zheng, Jie; Leung, Wing
KIR2DL2 and KIR2DL3 segregate as alleles of a single locus in the centromeric motif of the killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR) gene family. Although KIR2DL2/L3 polymorphism is known to be associated with many human diseases and is an important factor for donor selection in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, the molecular determinant of functional diversity among various alleles is unclear. In this study we found that KIR2DL2/L3 with glutamic acid at position 35 (E35) are functionally stronger than those with glutamine at the same position (Q35). Cytotoxicity assay showed that NK cells from HLA-C1 positive donors with KIR2DL2/L3-E35 could kill more target cells lacking their ligands than NK cells with the weaker -Q35 alleles, indicating better licensing of KIR2DL2/L3+ NK cells with the stronger alleles. Molecular modeling analysis reveals that the glutamic acid, which is negatively charged, interacts with positively charged histidine located at position 55, thereby stabilizing KIR2DL2/L3 dimer and reducing entropy loss when KIR2DL2/3 binds to HLA-C ligand. The results of this study will be important for future studies of KIR2DL2/L3-associated diseases as well as for donor selection in allogeneic stem cell transplantation.
Alimardani, Maryam; Nishio, Shuichi; Ishiguro, Hiroshi
Body ownership illusions provide evidence that our sense of self is not coherent and can be extended to non-body objects. Studying about these illusions gives us practical tools to understand the brain mechanisms that underlie body recognition and the experience of self. We previously introduced an illusion of body ownership transfer (BOT) for operators of a very humanlike robot. This sensation of owning the robot's body was confirmed when operators controlled the robot either by performing the desired motion with their body (motion-control) or by employing a brain-computer interface (BCI) that translated motor imagery commands to robot movement (BCI-control). The interesting observation during BCI-control was that the illusion could be induced even with a noticeable delay in the BCI system. Temporal discrepancy has always shown critical weakening effects on body ownership illusions. However the delay-robustness of BOT during BCI-control raised a question about the interaction between the proprioceptive inputs and delayed visual feedback in agency-driven illusions. In this work, we compared the intensity of BOT illusion for operators in two conditions; motion-control and BCI-control. Our results revealed a significantly stronger BOT illusion for the case of BCI-control. This finding highlights BCI's potential in inducing stronger agency-driven illusions by building a direct communication between the brain and controlled body, and therefore removing awareness from the subject's own body.
Exploring individual cognitions, self-regulation skills, and environmental-level factors as mediating variables of two versions of a Web-based computer-tailored nutrition education intervention aimed at adults: A randomized controlled trial.
Springvloet, Linda; Lechner, Lilian; Candel, Math J J M; de Vries, Hein; Oenema, Anke
This study explored whether the determinants that were targeted in two versions of a Web-based computer-tailored nutrition education intervention mediated the effects on fruit, high-energy snack, and saturated fat intake among adults who did not comply with dietary guidelines. A RCT was conducted with a basic (tailored intervention targeting individual cognitions and self-regulation), plus (additionally targeting environmental-level factors), and control group (generic nutrition information). Participants were recruited from the general Dutch adult population and randomly assigned to one of the study groups. Online self-reported questionnaires assessed dietary intake and potential mediating variables (behavior-specific cognitions, action- and coping planning, environmental-level factors) at baseline and one (T1) and four (T2) months post-intervention (i.e. four and seven months after baseline). The joint-significance test was used to establish mediating variables at different time points (T1-mediating variables - T2-intake; T1-mediating variables - T1-intake; T2-mediating variables - T2-intake). Educational differences were examined by testing interaction terms. The effect of the plus version on fruit intake was mediated (T2-T2) by intention and fruit availability at home and for high-educated participants also by attitude. Among low/moderate-educated participants, high-energy snack availability at home mediated (T1-T1) the effect of the basic version on high-energy snack intake. Subjective norm mediated (T1-T1) the effect of the basic version on fat intake among high-educated participants. Only some of the targeted determinants mediated the effects of both intervention versions on fruit, high-energy snack, and saturated fat intake. A possible reason for not finding a more pronounced pattern of mediating variables is that the educational content was tailored to individual characteristics and that participants only received feedback for relevant and not for all
Noor, Ahmed K.
Cognitive computing and cognitive technologies are game changers for future engineering systems, as well as for engineering practice and training. They are major drivers for knowledge automation work, and the creation of cognitive products with higher levels of intelligence than current smart products. This paper gives a brief review of cognitive computing and some of the cognitive engineering systems activities. The potential of cognitive technologies is outlined, along with a brief description of future cognitive environments, incorporating cognitive assistants - specialized proactive intelligent software agents designed to follow and interact with humans and other cognitive assistants across the environments. The cognitive assistants engage, individually or collectively, with humans through a combination of adaptive multimodal interfaces, and advanced visualization and navigation techniques. The realization of future cognitive environments requires the development of a cognitive innovation ecosystem for the engineering workforce. The continuously expanding major components of the ecosystem include integrated knowledge discovery and exploitation facilities (incorporating predictive and prescriptive big data analytics); novel cognitive modeling and visual simulation facilities; cognitive multimodal interfaces; and cognitive mobile and wearable devices. The ecosystem will provide timely, engaging, personalized / collaborative, learning and effective decision making. It will stimulate creativity and innovation, and prepare the participants to work in future cognitive enterprises and develop new cognitive products of increasing complexity. http://www.aee.odu.edu/cognitivecomp
Noor, Ahmed K.
Cognitive computing and cognitive technologies are game changers for future engineering systems, as well as for engineering practice and training. They are major drivers for knowledge automation work, and the creation of cognitive products with higher levels of intelligence than current smart products. This paper gives a brief review of cognitive computing and some of the cognitive engineering systems activities. The potential of cognitive technologies is outlined, along with a brief description of future cognitive environments, incorporating cognitive assistants - specialized proactive intelligent software agents designed to follow and interact with humans and other cognitive assistants across the environments. The cognitive assistants engage, individually or collectively, with humans through a combination of adaptive multimodal interfaces, and advanced visualization and navigation techniques. The realization of future cognitive environments requires the development of a cognitive innovation ecosystem for the engineering workforce. The continuously expanding major components of the ecosystem include integrated knowledge discovery and exploitation facilities (incorporating predictive and prescriptive big data analytics); novel cognitive modeling and visual simulation facilities; cognitive multimodal interfaces; and cognitive mobile and wearable devices. The ecosystem will provide timely, engaging, personalized / collaborative, learning and effective decision making. It will stimulate creativity and innovation, and prepare the participants to work in future cognitive enterprises and develop new cognitive products of increasing complexity. http://www.aee.odu.edu/cognitivecomp
social media activities are presented as an example of a cognitive fingerprint. 1 Introduction The science of autonomy requires new methods for the ver...Abramson and Aha 2013). Here, we’ve improved upon this approach by randomizing the selection of a subset of learn- ers from a pool of learners for each...point represent the av- erage of 5 user trials. ensemble learning method (number of features, learner pool size, number of selected learners , evaluation
Deary, Ian J; Batty, G David
This glossary provides a guide to some concepts, findings and issues of discussion in the new field of research in which intelligence test scores are associated with mortality and morbidity. Intelligence tests are devised and studied by differential psychologists. Some of the major concepts in differential psychology are explained, especially those regarding cognitive ability testing. Some aspects of IQ (intelligence) tests are described and some of the major tests are outlined. A short guide...
de Rooij, Susanne R; Dekker, Jacqueline M; Kozakova, Michaela
OBJECTIVE: Fasting insulin concentrations are often used as a surrogate measure of insulin resistance. We investigated the relative contributions of fasting insulin and insulin resistance to cardiometabolic risk and preclinical atherosclerosis. DESIGN AND METHODS: The Relationship between Insulin...... insulin, a simple and practical measure, may be a stronger and independent contributor to cardiometabolic risk and atherosclerosis in a healthy population than hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp-derived insulin sensitivity.......OBJECTIVE: Fasting insulin concentrations are often used as a surrogate measure of insulin resistance. We investigated the relative contributions of fasting insulin and insulin resistance to cardiometabolic risk and preclinical atherosclerosis. DESIGN AND METHODS: The Relationship between Insulin...... of the metabolic syndrome in 1177 participants. Carotid artery intima media thickness (IMT) was measured by ultrasound to assess preclinical atherosclerosis. RESULTS: Fasting insulin was correlated with all elements of the metabolic syndrome. Insulin sensitivity (M/I) was correlated with most elements. The odds...
Full Text Available Collective nostalgia refers to longing for the way society used to be. We tested whether collective nostalgia is associated with ingroup-favoring collective action and whether this association is mediated by outgroup-directed anger and outgroup-directed contempt. We conducted an online study of Hong Kong residents (N = 111 during a large-scale democratic social movement, the Umbrella Movement, that took place in Hong Kong in 2014 in response to proposed electoral reforms by the Chinese government in Mainland China. Reported collective nostalgia for Hong Kong’s past was high in our sample and collective nostalgia predicted stronger involvement in ingroup-favoring collective action, and it did so indirectly via higher intensity of outgroup-directed anger (but not through outgroup-directed contempt. We argue that collective nostalgia has implications for strengthening ingroup-serving collective action, and we highlight the importance of arousal of group-based emotions in this process.
Henderson, Victor W; Sherwin, Barbara B
Women who undergo both natural and surgical menopause experience the loss of cyclic ovarian production of estrogen, but hormonal and demographic differences distinguish these two groups of women. Our objective was to review published evidence on whether the premature cessation of endogenous estrogen production in women who underwent a surgical menopause has deleterious consequences for cognitive aging and to determine whether consequences differ for women if they undergo natural menopause. Studies of estrogen-containing hormone therapy are relevant to this issue. We reviewed evidence-based research, including the systematic identification of randomized clinical trials of hormone therapy with cognitive outcomes that included an objective measure of episodic memory. As inferred from very small, short-term, randomized, controlled trials of high-dose estrogen treatment, surgical menopause may be accompanied by cognitive impairment that primarily affects verbal episodic memory. Observational evidence suggests that the natural menopausal transition is not accompanied by substantial changes in cognitive abilities. For initiation of hormone therapy during perimenopause or early postmenopause when the ovaries are intact, limited clinical trial data provide no consistent evidence of short-term benefit or harm. There is stronger clinical trial evidence that initiation of hormone therapy in late postmenopause does not benefit episodic memory or other cognitive skills. Further research is needed on the long-term cognitive consequences of surgical menopause and long-term cognitive consequences of hormone therapy initiated near the time of surgical or natural menopause. A potential short-term cognitive benefit might be weighed when a premenopausal woman considers initiation of estrogen therapy at the time of, or soon after, hysterectomy and oophorectomy for benign conditions, although data are still quite limited and estrogen is not approved for this indication. Older
Sabeti, Manuel; Jeremian, Lusine; Graf, Alexandra; Kandelhart, Robert
Rhythmic gymnastics (RG) unites aesthetic, ballet-like motion, and all aspects of gymnastics. To reach elite level, girls begin at early age the intensive training. To date it is unclear if such demanding training influences the incidence and intensity of painful overuse injuries. The purpose of this study is to analyze anatomical painful regions and pain intensity in elite level rhythmic gymnasts (elRG) and compare results with an age-matched control group (CG). This prospective field study was carried out at the European Championship in RG 2013 (218 participating athletes, Vienna, Austria). Volunteering athletes were interviewed according to a preformed questionnaire. As CG secondary school pupils without any competitive sports experience were analyzed accordingly. Overall, 243 young females (144 elRG/66 % of all participants and 99 CG) were observed. ElRGs were significantly (s.) smaller, lighter, and had s. stronger pain (p < 0.001). A total of 72 % of athletes reported to have at least one painful body region compared with 52 % of CG (p < 0.001). ElRG had nearly three times more serious injuries than the CG. In all 23 % off all elRG reported to have had no access to professional medical care. ElRGs were s. more frequently (25 vs 9 %) affected at the lumbar spine and the ankle joint (17.4 vs 7 %). To our knowledge, this trial analyzes the largest cohort of elRG to date. Hence, it is clearly alluded that intensive training in RG is a significant factor causing more and stronger pain than in a CG.
Widrow, Bernard; Aragon, Juan Carlos
Regarding the workings of the human mind, memory and pattern recognition seem to be intertwined. You generally do not have one without the other. Taking inspiration from life experience, a new form of computer memory has been devised. Certain conjectures about human memory are keys to the central idea. The design of a practical and useful "cognitive" memory system is contemplated, a memory system that may also serve as a model for many aspects of human memory. The new memory does not function like a computer memory where specific data is stored in specific numbered registers and retrieval is done by reading the contents of the specified memory register, or done by matching key words as with a document search. Incoming sensory data would be stored at the next available empty memory location, and indeed could be stored redundantly at several empty locations. The stored sensory data would neither have key words nor would it be located in known or specified memory locations. Sensory inputs concerning a single object or subject are stored together as patterns in a single "file folder" or "memory folder". When the contents of the folder are retrieved, sights, sounds, tactile feel, smell, etc., are obtained all at the same time. Retrieval would be initiated by a query or a prompt signal from a current set of sensory inputs or patterns. A search through the memory would be made to locate stored data that correlates with or relates to the prompt input. The search would be done by a retrieval system whose first stage makes use of autoassociative artificial neural networks and whose second stage relies on exhaustive search. Applications of cognitive memory systems have been made to visual aircraft identification, aircraft navigation, and human facial recognition. Concerning human memory, reasons are given why it is unlikely that long-term memory is stored in the synapses of the brain's neural networks. Reasons are given suggesting that long-term memory is stored in DNA or RNA
Chung, Y. Anny; Sinsabaugh, Robert L; Kuske, Cheryl R.; Reed, Sasha C.; Rudgers, Jennifer A.
Increased atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition can have wide-ranging effects on plant community structure and ecosystem function, some of which may be indirectly mediated by soil microbial responses to an altered biogeochemical environment. In this study, soils from a field N fertilization experiment that spanned a soil texture gradient were used as inocula in the greenhouse to assess the indirect effects of soil microbial communities on growth of a desert grass. Plant performance and interaction with soil microbiota were evaluated via plant above- and belowground biomass, leaf N concentration, and root fungal colonization. Nitrogen fertilization in the field increased the benefits of soil microbial inoculation to plant leaf N concentration, but did not alter the effect of soil microbes on plant growth. Plant-microbe interaction outcomes differed most strongly among sites with different soil textures, where the soil microbial community from the sandiest site was most beneficial to host plant growth. The findings of this study suggest that in a desert grassland, increases in atmospheric N deposition may exert a more subtle influence on plant-microbe interactions by altering plant nutrient status, whereas edaphic factors can alter the whole-plant growth response to soil microbial associates.
Budde, Katharina B; González-Martínez, Santiago C; Navascués, Miguel; Burgarella, Concetta; Mosca, Elena; Lorenzo, Zaida; Zabal-Aguirre, Mario; Vendramin, Giovanni G; Verdú, Miguel; Pausas, Juli G; Heuertz, Myriam
The recurrence of wildfires is predicted to increase due to global climate change, resulting in severe impacts on biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. Recurrent fires can drive plant adaptation and reduce genetic diversity; however, the underlying population genetic processes have not been studied in detail. In this study, the neutral and adaptive evolutionary effects of contrasting fire regimes were examined in the keystone tree species Pinus halepensis Mill. (Aleppo pine), a fire-adapted conifer. The genetic diversity, demographic history and spatial genetic structure were assessed at local (within-population) and regional scales for populations exposed to different crown fire frequencies. Eight natural P. halepensis stands were sampled in the east of the Iberian Peninsula, five of them in a region exposed to frequent crown fires (HiFi) and three of them in an adjacent region with a low frequency of crown fires (LoFi). Samples were genotyped at nine neutral simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and at 251 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from coding regions, some of them potentially important for fire adaptation. Fire regime had no effects on genetic diversity or demographic history. Three high-differentiation outlier SNPs were identified between HiFi and LoFi stands, suggesting fire-related selection at the regional scale. At the local scale, fine-scale spatial genetic structure (SGS) was overall weak as expected for a wind-pollinated and wind-dispersed tree species. HiFi stands displayed a stronger SGS than LoFi stands at SNPs, which probably reflected the simultaneous post-fire recruitment of co-dispersed related seeds. SNPs with exceptionally strong SGS, a proxy for microenvironmental selection, were only reliably identified under the HiFi regime. An increasing fire frequency as predicted due to global change can promote increased SGS with stronger family structures and alter natural selection in P. halepensis and in plants with similar life history traits
Farrell, Lara J; Waters, Allison M; Zimmer-Gembeck, Melanie J
Multiple cognitive biases associated with adult obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) were tested in a clinical sample of children (ages 7-11) and adolescents (12-17) and their mothers. This study examined (a) the associations between child cognitive biases and OCD severity, (b) maternal cognitive biases and child OCD severity, and (c) maternal cognitive bias and child cognitive bias. It was hypothesized that age would significantly moderate these relationships, with stronger associations with OCD severity for cognitive bias in adolescents (relative to children), and maternal cognitive bias in younger children (relative to adolescents). Forty-six children and adolescents diagnosed with OCD and their mothers completed questionnaires assessing responsibility bias, thought-action fusion (TAF), thought suppression, and metacognitive beliefs. OCD symptoms were assessed using structured diagnostic interviews and semistructured symptom interviews. As predicted, age significantly moderated associations between (a) child cognitive variables and OCD severity-specifically between child responsibility and child metacognition, which were associated with OCD severity for adolescents only; (b) maternal cognitive biases and child OCD severity-specifically for maternal responsibility and thought suppression, which were significantly and positively associated with child OCD severity but not adolescent OCD severity; and (c) maternal cognitive biases and child cognitive bias-such that significant associations were evident only in the younger child sample, and only between maternal TAF self and metacognition, with child suppression and child TAF moral, respectively. Maternal cognitive biases are more consistently linked to greater OCD severity among younger children, whereas personal cognitive biases are associated with greater OCD symptoms in adolescents. Treatments for pediatric OCD are likely to be improved by age-specific considerations for the role of maternal and child cognitive
Calvo, P.; Keijzer, F.A.
To what extent can plants be considered cognitive from the perspective of embodied cognition? Cognition is interpreted very broadly within embodied cognition, and the current evidence for plant intelligence might find an important theoretical background here. However, embodied cognition does stress
Lee, Chwee Beng; Koh, Noi Keng; Cai, Xin Le; Quek, Choon Lang
The purpose of this study was to understand how children use meta-cognition in their everyday problem-solving, particularly making monetary decisions. A particular focus was to identify components of meta-cognition, such as regulation of cognition and knowledge of cognition observed in children's monetary decision-making process, the roles of…
Te-I Albert Tsai
Full Text Available New Urbanist development in the U.S. aims at enhancing a sense of community and seeks to return to the design of early transitional neighborhoods which have pedestrian-oriented environments with retail shops and services within walking distances of housing. Meanwhile, 6000 of Taiwan’s community associations have been running community empowerment programs supported by the Council for Cultural Affairs that have helped many neighborhoods to rebuild so-called community cohesion. This research attempts to evaluate whether neighborhoods with facilities near housing and shorter travel distances within a neighborhood would promote stronger social interactions and form a better community attachment than neighborhoods that have various opportunities for residents to participate in either formal or informal social gatherings. After interviewing and surveying residents from 19 neighborhoods in Taipei’s Beitou District, and correlating the psychological sense of community with inner neighborhood’s daily travel distances and numbers of participatory activities held by community organizations under empowerment programs together with frequencies of regular individual visits and casual meetings, statistical evidence yielded that placing public facilities near residential locations is more effective than providing various programs for elevating a sense of community.
Chang, Jinfa; Feng, Ligang; Liu, Changpeng; Xing, Wei
PtRu is regarded as the best catalyst for direct methanol fuel cells, but the performance decay resulting from the loss of Ru seriously hinders commercial applications. Herein, we demonstrated that the presence of Ni2 P largely reduces Ru loss, which thus makes the application of PtRu much stronger in direct methanol fuel cells. Outstanding catalytic activity and stability were observed by cyclic voltammetry. Upon integrating the catalyst material into a practical direct methanol fuel cell, the highest maximum power density was achieved on the PtRu-Ni2P/C catalyst among the reference catalysts at different temperatures. A maximum power density of 69.9 mW cm(-2) at 30 °C was obtained on PtRu-Ni2P/C, which is even higher than the power density of the state-of-the-art commercial PtRu catalyst at 70 °C (63.1 mW cm(-2)). Moreover, decay in the performance resulting from Ru loss was greatly reduced owing to the presence of Ni2 P, which is indicative of very promising applications. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Veenstra, Esther M; de Jong, Peter J
A striking feature of the restricting subtype of anorexia nervosa (AN) is that these patients are extremely successful in restricting their food intake. Possibly, they are highly efficient in avoiding attentional engagement of food cues, thereby preventing more elaborate processing of food cues and thus subsequent craving. This study examined whether patients diagnosed with restrictive eating disorders ('restricting AN-like patients'; N=88) indeed show stronger attentional avoidance of visual food stimuli than healthy controls (N=76). Attentional engagement and disengagement were assessed by means of a pictorial exogenous cueing task, and (food and neutral) pictures were presented for 300, 500, or 1000 ms. In the 500 ms condition, both restricting AN-like patients and healthy controls demonstrated attentional avoidance of high-fat food as indexed by a negative cue-validity effect and impaired attentional engagement with high-fat food, whereas no evidence was found for facilitated disengagement from high-fat food. Within the group of restricting AN-like patients, patients with relatively severe eating pathology showed relatively strong attentional engagement with low-fat food. There was no evidence for attentional bias in the 300 and 1000 ms condition. The pattern of findings indicate that attentional avoidance of high-fat food is a common phenomenon that may become counterproductive in restricting AN-like patients, as it could facilitate their restricted food intake. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hochkirch, Axel; Mertes, Tamara; Rautenberg, Julia
Biological invasions can affect the structure and function of ecosystems and threaten native plant species. Since most weeds rely on mutualistic relationships in their new environment, they may act as new competitors for pollinators. Pollinator competition is likely to be density dependent, but it is often difficult to disentangle competition caused by flower quality from effects caused by flower quantity. In order to test the effects of the presence and number of flowers of the invasive weed Bunias orientalis on the insect visitation rates in a native species ( Sinapis arvensis), we performed two replacement experiments using plants with standardised flower numbers. The visitation rates in S. arvensis were significantly higher than in B. orientalis and the number of insect visits dropped significantly with increasing density of S. arvensis flowers. These results suggest that intraspecific competition among flowers of S. arvensis is stronger than the competitive effect of alien flowers. As flowers of B. orientalis do not seem to distract visitors from S. arvensis, it is unlikely that pollinator competition between these two plant species plays a crucial role. However, it cannot be excluded that mass blossom stands of B. orientalis may distract flower visitors from native species.
Chivers, Claire E.; Koner, Apurba L.; Lowe, Edward D.; Howarth, Mark
The interaction between SA (streptavidin) and biotin is one of the strongest non-covalent interactions in Nature. SA is a widely used tool and a paradigm for protein–ligand interactions. We previously developed a SA mutant, termed Tr (traptavidin), possessing a 10-fold lower off-rate for biotin, with increased mechanical and thermal stability. In the present study, we determined the crystal structures of apo-Tr and biotin–Tr at 1.5 Å resolution. In apo-SA the loop (L3/4), near biotin's valeryl tail, is typically disordered and open, but closes upon biotin binding. In contrast, L3/4 was shut in both apo-Tr and biotin–Tr. The reduced flexibility of L3/4 and decreased conformational change on biotin binding provide an explanation for Tr's reduced biotin off- and on-rates. L3/4 includes Ser45, which forms a hydrogen bond to biotin consistently in Tr, but erratically in SA. Reduced breakage of the biotin–Ser45 hydrogen bond in Tr is likely to inhibit the initiating event in biotin's dissociation pathway. We generated a Tr with a single biotin-binding site rather than four, which showed a simi-larly low off-rate, demonstrating that Tr's low off-rate was governed by intrasubunit effects. Understanding the structural features of this tenacious interaction may assist the design of even stronger affinity tags and inhibitors. PMID:21241253
Sulz, Michael C; Kröger, Arne; Prakash, Meher; Manser, Christine N; Heinrich, Henriette; Misselwitz, Benjamin
Low-quality bowel preparation reduces efficacy of colonoscopy. We aimed to summarize effects of bowel preparation on detection of adenomas, advanced adenomas and colorectal cancer. A systematic literature search was performed regarding detection of colonic lesions after normal and low-quality bowel preparation. Reported bowel preparation quality was transformed to the Aronchick scale with its qualities "excellent", "good", "fair", "poor", and "insufficient" or "optimal" (good/excellent), "suboptimal" (fair/poor/insufficient), "adequate" (good/excellent/fair) and "inadequate" (poor/insufficient). We identified two types of studies: i) Comparative studies, directly comparing lesion detection according to bowel preparation quality, and ii) repeat colonoscopy studies, reporting results of a second colonoscopy after previous low-quality preparation. The detection of early adenomas was reduced with inadequate vs. adequate bowel preparation (Odds Ratio (OR) 0.53, CI: 0.46-0.62, panalysis resulted in smaller confidence intervals compared to earlier studies. Classifying the bowel-preparation quality as suboptimal vs. optimal led to the same qualitative conclusion (OR: 0.81, CI: 0.74-0.89, pdetection were insufficient. Inadequate bowel preparation affects detection of early colonic lesions stronger than advanced lesions.
Sjödin, Anders Mikael
on the scientific substantiation of a health claim related to V0137, a ‘DHA-enriched fish oil’, and ‘helps to slow the age-related cognitive decline in domains such as memory and executive function’. The food, V0137, which is the subject of the health claim, is sufficiently characterised. The Panel considers...... that a reduced loss of cognitive function is a beneficial physiological effect. The applicant submitted five human studies for the substantiation of the health claim, four of which were carried out with foods other than V0137. No conclusions could be drawn from these four studies for the scientific...... groups for changes in the composite cognitive score at 36 months. The Panel concludes that a cause and effect relationship has not been established between the consumption of V0137 and a reduced loss of cognitive function....
Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) Overview Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is an intermediate stage between the expected cognitive decline of normal aging and the more-serious decline of dementia. It can involve ...
Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) Overview Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is an intermediate stage between the expected cognitive decline of normal aging and the more-serious decline of dementia. It ...
Becker, E.S.; Vrijsen, J.N.; Hofmann, S.G.; Asmundson, G.J.G.
Automatic cognitive processing helps us navigate the world. However, if the emotional and cognitive interplay becomes skewed, those cognitive processes can become maladaptive and result in psychopathology. Although biases are present in most mental disorders, different disorders are characterized by
Irina B. Shmigirilova
Full Text Available The research is aimed at identifying the essence of the cognitive competence concept in comparison with the concepts of cognitive independence and activity.Methods: The methodology implies a theoretical analysis of psychopedagogical and methodological materials on the cognitive competence formation; generalized teaching experience; empirical methods of direct observations of educational process in the secondary school classrooms; interviews with school teachers and pupils.Results: The research outcomes reveal a semantic intersection between the cognitive competence, independence and activity, and their distinctive features. The paper emphasizes the importance of cognitive competence as an adaptive mechanism in situations of uncertainty and instability.Scientific novelty: The author clarifies the concept of cognitive competence regarding it as a multi-component and systematic characteristic of a personality.Practical significance: The research findings can be used by specialists in didactics developing the teaching techniques of cognitive competence formation for schoolchildren.
Martiny, Kristian Møller Moltke; Aggerholm, Kenneth
the theoretical authority in current cognitive science, there are only sporadic examples of EC-based therapy, and no established framework. We aim to build such a framework on the aims, methods and techniques of the current third-wave of CBT. There appears to be a possibility for cross-fertilization between EC...... and CBT that could contribute to the development of theory and practice for both of them. We present a case-study of an EC-based model of intervention for working with self-control in cerebral palsy.We centre the results of the study and its discussion on how we should understand and work with self......-control in a more general sense from both an EC and a CBT perspective.We end by elaborating the five learning objectives and present suggestions for follow-up reading...
Elhai, Jon D; Hall, Brian J; Erwin, Meredith Claycomb
A sample of 359 students participated in a web survey, administered the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire, and Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21 (DASS-21) as a pre-test. We subsequently randomly assigned subjects to either 1) a smart phone loss group or 2) social media accounts loss group. We asked them to imagine losing two days' access to the technology in their respective group, and rate associated symptoms using the DASS-21. Compared to subjects in the smartphone loss group, social media loss subjects evidenced stronger relations between suppressive emotion regulation with depression, anxiety and stress from imagined loss. Controlling for age and gender, social media loss subjects' increased use of suppression, and decreased use of cognitive reappraisal in emotion regulation, were related to depression, stress and (for suppression only) anxiety due to imagined lost social media. Emotion regulation was not related to psychopathology for subjects in the smartphone loss scenario. Results suggest that emotion dysregulation may be associated with psychopathology from social media loss. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We recently showed that in preschoolers risk factors for overweight show stronger associations with BMI in children with high BMI values. However, it is unclear whether these findings might also pertain to adolescents. METHODS: We extracted data on 3-10 year-old (n = 7,237 and 11-17 year-old (n = 5,986 children from a representative cross-sectional German health survey (KiGGS conducted between 2003 and 2006 and calculated quantile regression models for each age group. We used z-scores of children's body mass index (BMI as outcome variable and maternal BMI, maternal smoking in pregnancy, low parental socioeconomic status, exclusive formula-feeding and high TV viewing time as explanatory variables. RESULTS: In both age groups, the estimated effects of all risk factors except formula-feeding on BMI z-score were greatest for children with the highest BMI z-score. The median BMI z-score of 11-17 year-old children with high TV viewing time, for example, was 0.11 [95% CI: 0.03, 0.19] units higher than the median BMI z-score of teenage children with low TV viewing time. This risk factor was associated with an average difference of 0.18 [0.06, 0.30] units at the 90(th percentile of BMI z-score and of 0.20 [0.07, 0.33] units at the 97(th percentile. CONCLUSIONS: We confirmed that risk factors for childhood overweight are associated with greater shifts in the upper parts of the children's BMI distribution than in the middle and lower parts. These findings pertain also to teenagers and might possibly help to explain the secular shift in the upper BMI percentiles in children and adolescents.
Martín-Sómer, Ana; Lamsabhi, Al Mokhtar; Yáñez, Manuel; Dávalos, Juan Z; González, Javier; Ramos, Rocío; Guillemin, Jean-Claude
The gas-phase acidity of a series of amine-borane complexes has been investigated through the use of electrospray mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), with the application of the extended Cooks kinetic method, and high-level G4 ab initio calculations. The most significant finding is that typical nitrogen bases, such as aniline, react with BH(3) to give amine-borane complexes, which, in the gas phase, have acidities as high as those of either phosphoric, oxalic, or salicylic acid; their acidity is higher than many carboxylic acids, such as formic, acetic, and propanoic acid. Indeed the complexation of different amines with BH(3) leads to a substantial increase (from 167 to 195 kJ mol(-1)) in the intrinsic acidity of the system; in terms of ionization constants, this increase implies an increase as large as fifteen orders of magnitude. Interestingly, this increase in acidity is almost twice as large as that observed for the corresponding phosphine-borane analogues. The agreement between the experimental and the G4-based calculated values is excellent. The analysis of the electron-density rearrangements of the amine and the borane moieties indicates that the dative bond is significantly stronger in the N-deprotonated anion than in the corresponding neutral amine-borane complex, because the deprotonated amine is a much better electron donor than the neutral amine. On the top of that, the newly created lone pair on the nitrogen atom in the deprotonated species, conjugates with the BN bonding pair. The dispersion of the extra electron density into the BH(3) group also contributes to the increased stability of the deprotonated species. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Wang, Yuwei; Yang, Chun; He, Yonglin; Zhan, Xingxing; Xu, Lei
Tuberculosis is a major challenge to global public health. However, the Bacille Calmette‑Guérin (BCG), the only vaccine available against tuberculosis, has been questioned for the low protective effect. The present study used the mouse gene intracellular pathogen resistance I (Ipr1) gene to alter the current BCG vaccine and evaluated its immunity effect against tuberculosis. This study also investigated the intrinsic relationships of Ipr1 and innate immunity. The reformed BCG (BCGi) carrying the Ipr1 gene was constructed. The mice were intranasally challenged with the M. tuberculosis H37Rv strain after vaccination with BCGi. Protection efficacy of the vaccine was assessed by the organ coefficient, bacterial load and pathological changes in the lung. The differential expression of 113 immune‑related genes between BCGi and BCG groups were detected by an oligo microarray. According to the results of organ coefficient, bacterial load and pathological changes in the organization, BCGi had been shown to have stronger protective effects against M. tuberculosis than BCG. The oligo microarray and reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction further revealed that the Ipr1 gene could upregulate the expression of 13 genes, including a >3‑fold increase in Toll‑like receptor (TLR)4 and 10‑fold increase in surfactant protein D (sftpd). The two genes not only participate in innate immunity against pathogens, but also are closely interrelated. Ipr1 could activate the TLR4 and sftpd signaling pathway and improve the innate immunity against tuberculosis, therefore Ipr1 modified BCG may be a candidate vaccine against M. tuberculosis.
Full Text Available Etching agents such as ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA and phosphoric acid which are widely used in adhesive restoration system aimed to increase for retention of restorative materials, may act a chemical irritant that induce inflammation of dental pulp. Inflammation is a body response against irritant and infectious agents. Matrix metalloproteinase-8, the major collagenolytic enzyme, degrades collagen type 1. This enzyme is expressed in low level in normal condition, however, the expression will increase during inflammation. The purpose of the present research was to study the effect of 19% EDTA and 37% phosphoric acid application as an etching agents on the MMP-8 expression of dental pulp. Forty-five male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into 3 groups. Cavity preparation was made on the occlusal surface of maxillary first molar using a round diamond bur. 19% EDTA, 37% phosphoric acid, and distilled water were applied on the surface of the cavity of the teeth in group I, II, and III subsequently. The cavity then filed by glass ionomer cements. The rats were sacrified at 1, 3, 5, 7, and 14 days after the treatment (n=3 for each day. The specimens were then processed histologically. Immunohistochemical (IHC analysis was performed using rabbit anti rat MMP-8 polyclonal antibody to examine MMP-8 expression and HE (Hematoxylen Eosin staining to observe the number of macrophages. The results showed 37% phosphoric acid application induced stronger expression of MMP-8 and higher number of macrophages than 19% EDTA. The strongest expression of MMP-8 seems on 5 days after the treatment where the highest number of macrophages were also found.
Cognitive science can intersect with economics in at least three productive ways: by providing richer models of individual behaviour for use in economic analysis; by drawing from economic theory in order to model distributed cognition; and jointly to create more powerful 'rational' models of cognitive processes and social interaction. There is the prospect of moving from behavioural economics to a genuinely cognitive economics. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Chrysikou, Evangelia G; Weber, Matthew J; Thompson-Schill, Sharon L
The prefrontal cortex exerts top-down influences on several aspects of higher-order cognition by functioning as a filtering mechanism that biases bottom-up sensory information toward a response that is optimal in context. However, research also indicates that not all aspects of complex cognition benefit from prefrontal regulation. Here we review and synthesize this research with an emphasis on the domains of learning and creative cognition, and outline how the appropriate level of cognitive control in a given situation can vary depending on the organism's goals and the characteristics of the given task. We offer a matched filter hypothesis for cognitive control, which proposes that the optimal level of cognitive control is task-dependent, with high levels of cognitive control best suited to tasks that are explicit, rule-based, verbal or abstract, and can be accomplished given the capacity limits of working memory and with low levels of cognitive control best suited to tasks that are implicit, reward-based, non-verbal or intuitive, and which can be accomplished irrespective of working memory limitations. Our approach promotes a view of cognitive control as a tool adapted to a subset of common challenges, rather than an all-purpose optimization system suited to every problem the organism might encounter. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Fortier, Jonathan; Besnard, Jérémy; Allain, Philippe
The concept of social cognition refers to a set of skills and to emotional and social experiences regulating relationships between individuals. This concept is appropriate in order to help us to explain individual human behaviours and behaviours in groups. Social cognition involves social knowledge, perception and processing of social cues, and the representation of mental states. The concept of social cognition thus refers to a multitude of skills. This paper stops on several of them, namely theory of mind, empathy, moral reasoning, emotional processing and emotional regulation. We propose a conceptual approach to each of these skills also stopping on their cerebral underpinnings. We also make an inventory of knowledge about the effects of age and neurodegenerative diseases on social cognition.
Ready, Rebecca E; Santorelli, Gennarina D
Older adults may devote more cognitive resources to the processing and regulation of emotion stimuli than younger adults, but no studies have determined associations between episodic memory performance and naturalistic emotion recovery in a mixed-age sample. The current study ascertained if episodic memory scores were associated with emotion recovery in younger and midlife/older adults and if these associations were moderated by age. Participants watched a montage of film clips about interpersonal loss. Self-reported negative and positive emotions were assessed prior to the video, immediately after, and again 10 min after the video. Executive functions, processing speed, and episodic memory were assessed. Participants with better episodic memory recovered more quickly from the mood induction than participants with lower scores. Age moderated the association between joviality recovery and memory. Specifically, there was a significantly stronger, positive association between joviality recovery and memory in midlife/older adults relative to younger adults. Stronger memory may facilitate emotion recovery, and this may be particularly true for older adults. Older adults with memory impairment may be at risk for emotion dysregulation.
Mark G Baxter
Full Text Available Several recent studies in nonhuman primates have provided new insights into the role of the medial thalamus in different aspects of cognitive function. The mediodorsal nucleus of the thalamus (MD, by virtue of its connectivity with the frontal cortex, has been implicated in an array of cognitive functions. Rather than serving as an engine or relay for the prefrontal cortex, this area seems to be more specifically involved in regulating plasticity and flexibility of prefrontal-dependent cognitive functions. Focal damage to MD may also exacerbate the effects of damage to other subcortical relays. Thus a wide range of distributed circuits and cognitive functions may be disrupted from focal damage within the medial thalamus (for example as a consequence of stroke or brain injury. Conversely, this region may make an interesting target for neuromodulation of cognitive function via deep brain stimulation or related methods, in conditions associated with dysfunction of these neural circuits.
Lorist, Monicque M; Tops, Mattie
Effects of caffeine and fatigue are discussed with special attention to adenosine-dopamine interactions. Effects of caffeine on human cognition are diverse. Behavioural measurements indicate a general improvement in the efficiency of information processing after caffeine, while the EEG data support the general belief that caffeine acts as a stimulant. Studies using ERP measures indicate that caffeine has an effect on attention, which is independent of specific stimulus characteristics. Behavioural effects on response related processes turned out to be mainly related to more peripheral motor processes. Recent insights in adenosine and dopamine physiology and functionality and their relationships with fatigue point to a possible modulation by caffeine of mechanisms involved in the regulation of behavioural energy expenditure.
Eskes, Gail A; Longman, Stewart; Brown, Allison D; McMorris, Carly A; Langdon, Kristopher D; Hogan, David B; Poulin, Marc
Studies of the effects of physical fitness on cognition suggest that exercise can improve cognitive abilities in healthy older adults, as well as delay the onset of age-related cognitive decline. The mechanisms for the positive benefit of exercise and how these effects interact with other variables known to influence cognitive function (e.g., involvement in cognitive activities) are less well understood. The current study examined the associations between the physical fitness, cerebrovascular blood flow regulation and involvement in cognitive activities with neuropsychological function in healthy post-menopausal women. Forty-two healthy women between the ages of 55 and 90 were recruited. Physical fitness (V˙O2 max), cerebrovascular reserve (cerebral blood flow during rest and response to an increase in end-tidal (i.e., arterial) PCO2), and cognitive activity (self-reported number and hours of involvement in cognitive activities) were assessed. The association of these variables with neuropsychological performance was examined through linear regression. Physical fitness, cerebrovascular reserve and total number of cognitive activities (but not total hours) were independent predictors of cognitive function, particularly measures of overall cognitive performance, attention and executive function. In addition, prediction of neuropsychological performance was better with multiple variables than each alone. Cognitive function in older adults is associated with multiple factors, including physical fitness, cerebrovascular health and cognitive stimulation. Interestingly, cognitive stimulation effects appear related more to the diversity of activities, rather than the duration of activity. Further examination of these relationships is ongoing in a prospective cohort study.
is of this framing of an expanded unit of analysis in a cognitive vocabulary. I focus on possible consequences for how cognitive engineering practitioners think about function allocation in system design, and on what the relative benefits and costs are of having a common framework and vocabulary for talking about...... that there is not anything special about the biological boundary of the skin and skull per se, rather than some positive claim about where the boundaries of extended or distributed cognitive systems really are. I also examine the role of the concept of cognition in the theoretical frameworks of Distributed Cognition, Joint...
Cognitive processes, cognitive psychology tells us, unfold in our heads. In contrast, several approaches in cognitive engineering argue for a shift of unit of analysis from what is going on in the heads of operators to the workings of whole socio-technical systems. This shift is sometimes present...... both human and technical system components. I argue for what I call an *expansive but deflated conception of cognition*, primarily on pragmatic grounds. In addition, I claim that the important lesson of the “boundaries of cognition” debate in cognitive science is the negative claim...
Gail A Eskes
Full Text Available Studies of the effects of physical fitness on cognition suggest that exercise can improve cognitive abilities in healthy older adults, as well as delay the onset of age-related cognitive decline. The mechanisms for the positive benefit of exercise and how these effects interact with other variables known to influence cognitive function (e.g., involvement in cognitive activities are less well understood. The current study examined the associations between the physical fitness, cerebrovascular blood flow regulation and involvement in cognitive activities with neuropsychological function in healthy postmenopausal women. Methods: Forty-two healthy women between the ages of 55 and 90 were recruited. Physical fitness (V˙ o2max, cerebrovascular reserve (cerebral blood flow during rest and response to an increase in end-tidal (i.e., arterial PCO2, and cognitive activity (self-reported number and hours of involvement in cognitive activities were assessed. The association of these variables with neuropsychological performance was examined through linear regression. Results: Physical fitness, cerebrovascular reserve and total number of cognitive activities (but not total hours were independent predictors of cognitive function, particularly measures of overall cognitive performance, attention and executive function. In addition, prediction of neuropsychological performance was better with multiple variables than each alone. Conclusions: Cognitive function in older adults is associated with multiple factors, including physical fitness, cerebrovascular health and cognitive stimulation. Interestingly, cognitive stimulation effects appear related more to the diversity of activities, rather than the duration of activity. Further examination of these relationships is ongoing in a prospective cohort study.
The majority of consumers, in particular European consumers oppose genetic modifi-cation of food. Although consumers oppose strongly genetic modification of food, genetically modified food production increases world wide. The co-existence of both, genetically modified food production and food production free of genetic modification cannot be ensured. There is always a risk that non-genetically modified food gets contaminated despite safety regulations. Thus, even organic production, which is ...
Pintér, Krisztina; Balogh, János; Koncz, Péter; Hidy, Dóra; Cserhalmi, Dóra; Papp, Marianna; Fóti, Szilvia; Nagy, Zoltán
Effect of grazing vs. mowing on carbon balance of a grassland was investigated by a paired eddy towers (one of them measuring the grazed, the another the mowed treatment) experiment at the Bugacpuszta sandy grassland site (HU-Bug, 46.69° N, 19.6° E, 114m asl, 10.4 ° C annual mean temperature, 562 mm annual precipitation sum) located in the Hungarian Plain. Eddy covariance measurements started in July, 2002. The area of the mowed treatment is 1 ha, it is located within the grazed treatment (500 ha). Electric fence was set up around the selected area in spring of 2011. Study years include 2011, 2012 and 2013. The pasture is managed extensively (average grazing pressure of 0.5 cattle per hectare), the cattle herd regularly took several kilometres during a grazing day. Annual net ecosystem exchange (NEE) of the grassland is strongly limited by precipitation, there were 2 source years within the 11 years (2003-2013) of measurements, during which the average annual balance was -109 gCm-2year-1 with standard deviation of 106 gCm-2year-1. Carbon sink activity of the grassland was stronger in the grazed treatment than in the mowed treatment during the three year study period (paired t-test, P=0.058). In the grazed treatment the average sink strength was -142.8 ±40 gCm-2year-1, while in the mowed treatment the average sink strength was -61.5 ±46.5 gCm-2year-1. Differences of carbon balances between the treatments were positively correlated to the annual sum of evapotranspiration (ET), while ETs of the treatments were almost identical (differences within a 10mm year-1 range) in each study year. Water use efficiency in the mowed treatment was 44% of that in the grazed treatment (P=0.045) as a result of the differences in sink capacity. The higher sensitivity to drought by the mowed treatment manifested in decreased sink capacity during summer and in decreased regeneration capacity during autumn rains as shown by the cumulative NEE in the different years. Minor but
Pearce, Marcus; Rohrmeier, Martin
Why should music be of interest to cognitive scientists, and what role does it play in human cognition? We review three factors that make music an important topic for cognitive scientific research. First, music is a universal human trait fulfilling crucial roles in everyday life. Second, music has an important part to play in ontogenetic development and human evolution. Third, appreciating and producing music simultaneously engage many complex perceptual, cognitive, and emotional processes, rendering music an ideal object for studying the mind. We propose an integrated status for music cognition in the Cognitive Sciences and conclude by reviewing challenges and big questions in the field and the way in which these reflect recent developments. Copyright © 2012 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.
Cody, Shameka L; Vance, David E
The medications used to treat HIV have reduced the severity of cognitive deficits; yet, nearly half of adults with HIV still exhibit some degree of cognitive deficits, referred to as HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder or HAND. These cognitive deficits interfere with everyday functioning such as emotional regulation, medication adherence, instrumental activities of daily living, and even driving a vehicle. As adults are expected to live a normal lifespan, the process of aging in this clinical population may exacerbate such cognitive deficits. Therefore, it is important to understand the neurobiological mechanisms of HIV on cognitive reserve and develop interventions that are either neuroprotective or compensate for such cognitive deficits. Within the context of cognitive reserve, this article delivers a state of the science perspective on the causes of HAND and provides possible interventions for addressing such cognitive deficits. Suggestions for future research are also provided. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Aznar, Susana; Klein, Anders Bue
The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is involved in mediating important higher-order cognitive processes such as decision making, prompting thereby our actions. At the same time, PFC activation is strongly influenced by emotional reactions through its functional interaction with the amygdala...... and the striatal circuitry, areas involved in emotion and reward processing. The PFC, however, is able to modulate amygdala reactivity via a feedback loop to this area. A role for serotonin in adjusting for this circuitry of cognitive regulation of emotion has long been suggested based primarily on the positive...... pharmacological effect of elevating serotonin levels in anxiety regulation. Recent animal and human functional magnetic resonance studies have pointed to a specific involvement of the 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)2A serotonin receptor in the PFC feedback regulatory projection onto the amygdala. This receptor...
Social cognitive determinants of nutrition and physical activity among web-health users enrolling in an online intervention: the influence of social support, self-efficacy, outcome expectations, and self-regulation.
Anderson-Bill, Eileen Smith; Winett, Richard A; Wojcik, Janet R
The Internet is a trusted source of health information for growing majorities of Web users. The promise of online health interventions will be realized with the development of purely online theory-based programs for Web users that are evaluated for program effectiveness and the application of behavior change theory within the online environment. Little is known, however, about the demographic, behavioral, or psychosocial characteristics of Web-health users who represent potential participants in online health promotion research. Nor do we understand how Web users' psychosocial characteristics relate to their health behavior-information essential to the development of effective, theory-based online behavior change interventions. This study examines the demographic, behavioral, and psychosocial characteristics of Web-health users recruited for an online social cognitive theory (SCT)-based nutrition, physical activity, and weight gain prevention intervention, the Web-based Guide to Health (WB-GTH). Directed to the WB-GTH site by advertisements through online social and professional networks and through print and online media, participants were screened, consented, and assessed with demographic, physical activity, psychosocial, and food frequency questionnaires online (taking a total of about 1.25 hours); they also kept a 7-day log of daily steps and minutes walked. From 4700 visits to the site, 963 Web users consented to enroll in the study: 83% (803) were female, participants' mean age was 44.4 years (SD 11.03 years), 91% (873) were white, and 61% (589) were college graduates; participants' median annual household income was approximately US $85,000. Participants' daily step counts were in the low-active range (mean 6485.78, SD 2352.54) and overall dietary levels were poor (total fat g/day, mean 77.79, SD 41.96; percent kcal from fat, mean 36.51, SD 5.92; fiber g/day, mean 17.74, SD 7.35; and fruit and vegetable servings/day, mean 4.03, SD 2.33). The Web-health users
Lee, Seung-Hwan; Sung, Kyongae; Lee, Kyong-Sang; Moon, Eunok; Kim, Chang-Gyu
Mismatch negativity (MMN) is known to be associated with neurocognition, social cognition, and functional outcomes. The present study explored the relationships of MMN with neurocognition, theory of mind, and functional outcomes in patients with schizophrenia, first-degree relatives of patients with schizophrenia, and healthy controls. Twenty-five patients with schizophrenia, 21 first-degree relatives of patients with schizophrenia, and 29 healthy controls were recruited. We examined symptom severity, neurocognition, theory of mind, functional outcomes, and MMN. MMN amplitudes decreased in order of patients with schizophrenia, then first-degree relatives, then healthy controls. MMN amplitude was significantly correlated with measures of neurocognition, theory of mind, and functional outcome measurements in patients with schizophrenia. However, the most powerful correlations were those between MMN in the frontal region and measures of functional outcomes. The power and frequency of the correlations were weaker in first-degree relatives and healthy controls than in patients with schizophrenia. Hierarchical regression analysis revealed that functional outcomes (relative to measures of neurocognition and theory of mind) constituted the most powerful predictor of MMN. Our results suggest that MMN reflects functional outcomes more efficiently than do measures of neurocognition and theory of mind in patients with schizophrenia. © 2013.
Rimkus, Carolina de Medeiros; Avolio, Isabella Maria Bello; Miotto, Eliane Correa; Pereira, Samira Apostolos; Mendes, Maria Fernanda; Callegaro, Dagoberto; Leite, Claudia da Costa
worse average cognition and T2-LL in the high-education level group, compared to the patients with low-education level; in MS patients with longer disease duration, we observed a stronger correlation between lesion burden and cognitive impairment in both groups. Education attainment is a source of intellectual enrichment and can enhance the cognitive reserve in MS patients. The protective effect of a high-education level was stronger in patients with less than five years of disease, suggesting a stronger role of cognitive reserve in short-term disease. In long-term disease we observed a greater impact of increased inflammatory activity on cognition. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Cognitive distortions are negative biases in thinking that are theorized to represent vulnerability factors for depression and dysphoria. Despite the emphasis placed on cognitive distortions in the context of cognitive behavioural theory and practice, a paucity of research has examined the mechanisms through which they impact depressive symptomatology. Both adaptive and maladaptive styles of humor represent coping strategies that may mediate the relation between cognitive distortions and depressive symptoms. The current study examined the correlations between the frequency and impact of cognitive distortions across both social and achievement-related contexts and types of humor. Cognitive distortions were associated with reduced use of adaptive Affiliative and Self-Enhancing humor styles and increased use of maladaptive Aggressive and Self-Defeating humor. Reduced use of Self-Enhancing humor mediated the relationship between most types of cognitive distortions and depressed mood, indicating that distorted negative thinking may interfere with an individual’s ability to adopt a humorous and cheerful outlook on life (i.e., use Self-Enhancing humor as a way of regulating emotions and coping with stress, thereby resulting in elevated depressive symptoms. Similarly, Self-Defeating humor mediated the association of the social impact of cognitive distortions with depression, such that this humor style may be used as a coping strategy for dealing with distorted thinking that ultimately backfires and results in increased dysphoria.
Rnic, Katerina; Dozois, David J A; Martin, Rod A
Cognitive distortions are negative biases in thinking that are theorized to represent vulnerability factors for depression and dysphoria. Despite the emphasis placed on cognitive distortions in the context of cognitive behavioural theory and practice, a paucity of research has examined the mechanisms through which they impact depressive symptomatology. Both adaptive and maladaptive styles of humor represent coping strategies that may mediate the relation between cognitive distortions and depressive symptoms. The current study examined the correlations between the frequency and impact of cognitive distortions across both social and achievement-related contexts and types of humor. Cognitive distortions were associated with reduced use of adaptive Affiliative and Self-Enhancing humor styles and increased use of maladaptive Aggressive and Self-Defeating humor. Reduced use of Self-Enhancing humor mediated the relationship between most types of cognitive distortions and depressed mood, indicating that distorted negative thinking may interfere with an individual's ability to adopt a humorous and cheerful outlook on life (i.e., use Self-Enhancing humor) as a way of regulating emotions and coping with stress, thereby resulting in elevated depressive symptoms. Similarly, Self-Defeating humor mediated the association of the social impact of cognitive distortions with depression, such that this humor style may be used as a coping strategy for dealing with distorted thinking that ultimately backfires and results in increased dysphoria.
Numerical cognition relies on interactions within and between multiple functional brain systems, including those subserving quantity processing, working memory, declarative memory, and cognitive control. This chapter describes recent advances in our understanding of memory and control circuits in mathematical cognition and learning. The working memory system involves multiple parietal–frontal circuits which create short-term representations that allow manipulation of discrete quantities over several seconds. In contrast, hippocampal–frontal circuits underlying the declarative memory system play an important role in formation of associative memories and binding of new and old information, leading to the formation of long-term memories that allow generalization beyond individual problem attributes. The flow of information across these systems is regulated by flexible cognitive control systems which facilitate the integration and manipulation of quantity and mnemonic information. The implications of recent research for formulating a more comprehensive systems neuroscience view of the neural basis of mathematical learning and knowledge acquisition in both children and adults are discussed. PMID:27339012
Numerical cognition relies on interactions within and between multiple functional brain systems, including those subserving quantity processing, working memory, declarative memory, and cognitive control. This chapter describes recent advances in our understanding of memory and control circuits in mathematical cognition and learning. The working memory system involves multiple parietal-frontal circuits which create short-term representations that allow manipulation of discrete quantities over several seconds. In contrast, hippocampal-frontal circuits underlying the declarative memory system play an important role in formation of associative memories and binding of new and old information, leading to the formation of long-term memories that allow generalization beyond individual problem attributes. The flow of information across these systems is regulated by flexible cognitive control systems which facilitate the integration and manipulation of quantity and mnemonic information. The implications of recent research for formulating a more comprehensive systems neuroscience view of the neural basis of mathematical learning and knowledge acquisition in both children and adults are discussed. © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Karaca-Mandic, Pinar; Fulton, Brent D; Hollingshead, Ann; Scheffler, Richard M
States have varying degrees of review authority over health insurance carriers' rates, including prior approval authority over proposed rates and requirements for loss ratios, the proportion of premium revenues spent on medical claims. The Affordable Care Act (ACA) requires carriers in certain categories of health insurance to provide public justification for rate increases of 10 percent or more. We collected data on how states changed their rate review authority and requirements during 2010-13, the years immediately after enactment of the ACA, and we combined these data with carrier filings. We found that adjusted premiums in the individual market in states that had prior-approval authority combined with loss ratio requirements were lower in 2010-13 ($3,489) than premiums in states with no rate review authority or that had only file-and-use regulations, which gave the states no authority to block rate increases ($3,617). Adjusted premiums declined modestly in prior-approval states with loss ratio requirements, from $3,526 in 2010 to $3,452 in 2013, while premiums increased from $3,422 to $3,683 in states with no rate review authority or file-and-use regulations only. Our findings suggest that states with prior approval authority and loss ratio requirements constrained health insurance premium increases. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.
Shen, Ying-Ling; Chen, Shao-Tsu; Chan, Tzu-Yi; Hung, Tsai-Wei; Tao, Pao-Luh; Liao, Ruey-Ming; Chan, Ming-Huan; Chen, Hwei-Hsien
Prenatal morphine (PM) affects the development of brain reward system and cognitive function. The present study aimed to determine whether PM exposure increases the vulnerability to MA addiction. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were administered saline or morphine during embryonic days 3-20. The acquisition, extinction and reinstatement of methamphetamine (MA) conditioned place preference (CPP) and intravenous self-administration (SA) paradigms were assessed in the male adult offspring. There was no difference in the acquisition and expression of MA CPP between saline- and PM-exposed rats, whereas PM-exposed rats exhibited slower extinction and greater MA priming-induced reinstatement of drug-seeking behavior than controls. Similarly, MA SA under progressive ratio and fixed ratio schedules was not affected by PM exposure, but PM-exposed rats required more extinction sessions to reach the extinction criteria and displayed more severe MA priming-, but not cue-induced, reinstatement. Such alterations in extinction and reinstatement were not present when PM-exposed rats were tested in an equivalent paradigm assessing operant responding for food pellets. Our results demonstrate that PM exposure did not affect the association memory formation during acquisition of MA CPP or SA, but impaired extinction learning and increased MA-primed reinstatement in both tasks. These findings suggest that the offspring of women using morphine or heroin during pregnancy might predict persistent MA seeking during extinction and enhanced propensity to MA relapse although they might not be more susceptible to the reinforcing effect of MA during initiation of drug use. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Hadjistavropoulos, Heather D.; Craig, Kenneth D.
Divided 90 chronic low back pain patients into those who demonstrated signs that were congruent or incongruent with underlying anatomical and physiological principles. Low socioeconomic status, compensation claims, use of opiate analgesics, greater disability, catastrophizing cognitions, stronger emotionality, and passive coping were more…
Full Text Available Reappraisal is an adaptive emotion regulation strategy while the role of self-perspective in reappraisal process of depressed patients is largely unknown in terms of goals (valence/arousal and tactics (detachment/immersion. In this study, 12 depressed individuals and 15 controls were scanned with MRI during which they either attend naturally to emotional stimuli, or adopt detachment/immersion strategy. Behaviorally, no group differences in self-reported emotion regulation effectiveness were found. In addition, we observed that (1 patients were less able to downregulate amygdala activation with recruitment of more dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC when adopting detachment strategy regardless of valence, and this preserved ability to regulate emotion was inversely associated with severity of symptoms; (2 patients had deficits in upregulating amygdala activation when adopting immersion strategy, with less inferior frontal gyrus (IFG activation and strengthening coupling of dlPFC and ventral medial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC with amygdala; (3 comparison between groups yielded that patients showed stronger vmPFC activation under either self-detached or self-immersed condition. In conclusion, impaired modulatory effects of amygdala in depressed patients are compensated with strengthening cognitive control resources, with dissociable effects for different self-perspectives in reappraisal. These results may help clarify the role of self-perspective underlying reappraisal in major depression.
Tucker, A M; Stern, Y
Cognitive reserve explains why those with higher IQ, education, occupational attainment, or participation in leisure activities evidence less severe clinical or cognitive changes in the presence of age-related or Alzheimer's disease pathology. Specifically, the cognitive reserve hypothesis is that individual differences in how tasks are processed provide reserve against brain pathology. Cognitive reserve may allow for more flexible strategy usage, an ability thought to be captured by executive functions tasks. Additionally, cognitive reserve allows individuals greater neural efficiency, greater neural capacity, and the ability for compensation via the recruitment of additional brain regions. Taking cognitive reserve into account may allow for earlier detection and better characterization of age-related cognitive changes and Alzheimer's disease. Importantly, cognitive reserve is not fixed but continues to evolve across the lifespan. Thus, even late-stage interventions hold promise to boost cognitive reserve and thus reduce the prevalence of Alzheimer's disease and other age-related problems.
Swart, M.; Fonseca Guerra, C.; Bickelhaupt, F.M.
Recently, Vakonakis and LiWang (J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2004, 126, 5688) reported experimental evidence for stronger hydrogen bonds in RNA A:U than in DNA A:T base pairs, which was based on differences in NMR shielding for adenine C2. We have analyzed the proposed correlation between NMR shielding and
Sidney D'MELLO, Stan FRANKLIN
Full Text Available Although it is a relatively new field of study, the animal cognition literature is quite extensive and difficult to synthesize. This paper explores the contributions a comprehensive, computational, cognitive model can make toward organizing and assimilating this literature, as well as toward identifying important concepts and their interrelations. Using the LIDA model as an example, a framework is described within which to integrate the diverse research in animal cognition. Such a framework can provide both an ontology of concepts and their relations, and a working model of an animal’s cognitive processes that can compliment active empirical research. In addition to helping to account for a broad range of cognitive processes, such a model can help to comparatively assess the cognitive capabilities of different animal species. After deriving an ontology for animal cognition from the LIDA model, we apply it to develop the beginnings of a database that maps the cognitive facilities of a variety of animal species. We conclude by discussing future avenues of research, particularly the use of computational models of animal cognition as valuable tools for hypotheses generation and testing [Current Zoology 57 (4: 499–513, 2011].
Proulx, Christine M; Curl, Angela L; Ermer, Ashley E
The present study examines the association between formal volunteering and cognitive functioning over time. We also examine the moderating roles of race, sex, education, and time. Using 11,100 participants aged 51 years and older and nine waves of data from the Health and Retirement Survey, we simultaneously modeled the longitudinal associations between engaging in formal volunteering and changes in cognitive functioning using multilevel models. Formal volunteering was associated with higher levels of cognitive functioning over time, especially with aspects of cognitive functioning related to working memory and processing. This association was stronger for women than it was for men, and for those with below average levels of education. The positive association between formal volunteering and cognitive functioning weakened over time when cognitive functioning was conceptualized as memory, but strengthened over time when conceptualized as working memory and processing. Volunteering is a productive activity that is beneficial not just to society, but to volunteers' levels of cognitive functioning in older age. For women and those with lower levels of education, formal volunteering appears particularly beneficial to working memory and processing. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Grassi, Massimo; Meneghetti, Chiara; Toffalini, Enrico; Borella, Erika
Musicians represent a model for examining brain and behavioral plasticity in terms of cognitive and auditory profile, but few studies have investigated whether elderly musicians have better auditory and cognitive abilities than nonmusicians. The aim of the present study was to examine whether being a professional musician attenuates the normal age-related changes in hearing and cognition. Elderly musicians still active in their profession were compared with nonmusicians on auditory performance (absolute threshold, frequency intensity, duration and spectral shape discrimination, gap and sinusoidal amplitude-modulation detection), and on simple (short-term memory) and more complex and higher-order (working memory [WM] and visuospatial abilities) cognitive tasks. The sample consisted of adults at least 65 years of age. The results showed that older musicians had similar absolute thresholds but better supra-threshold discrimination abilities than nonmusicians in four of the six auditory tasks administered. They also had a better WM performance, and stronger visuospatial abilities than nonmusicians. No differences were found between the two groups' short-term memory. Frequency discrimination and gap detection for the auditory measures, and WM complex span tasks and one of the visuospatial tasks for the cognitive ones proved to be very good classifiers of the musicians. These findings suggest that life-long music training may be associated with enhanced auditory and cognitive performance, including complex cognitive skills, in advanced age. However, whether this music training represents a protective factor or not needs further investigation.
Full Text Available Musicians represent a model for examining brain and behavioral plasticity in terms of cognitive and auditory profile, but few studies have investigated whether elderly musicians have better auditory and cognitive abilities than nonmusicians. The aim of the present study was to examine whether being a professional musician attenuates the normal age-related changes in hearing and cognition. Elderly musicians still active in their profession were compared with nonmusicians on auditory performance (absolute threshold, frequency intensity, duration and spectral shape discrimination, gap and sinusoidal amplitude-modulation detection, and on simple (short-term memory and more complex and higher-order (working memory [WM] and visuospatial abilities cognitive tasks. The sample consisted of adults at least 65 years of age. The results showed that older musicians had similar absolute thresholds but better supra-threshold discrimination abilities than nonmusicians in four of the six auditory tasks administered. They also had a better WM performance, and stronger visuospatial abilities than nonmusicians. No differences were found between the two groups' short-term memory. Frequency discrimination and gap detection for the auditory measures, and WM complex span tasks and one of the visuospatial tasks for the cognitive ones proved to be very good classifiers of the musicians. These findings suggest that life-long music training may be associated with enhanced auditory and cognitive performance, including complex cognitive skills, in advanced age. However, whether this music training represents a protective factor or not needs further investigation.
Allard, Joanne S.; Ntekim, Oyonumo; Johnson, Steven P.; Ngwa, Julius S.; Bond, Vernon; Pinder, Dynell; Gillum, Richard F.; Fungwe, Thomas V.; Kwagyan, John; Obisesan, Thomas O.
Possession of the Apolipoprotein E (APOE) gene ε4 allele is the most prevalent genetic risk factor for late onset Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Recent evidence suggests that APOE genotype differentially affects the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Notably, aerobic exercise-induced upregulation of BDNF is well documented; and exercise has been shown to improve cognitive function. As BDNF is known for its role in neuroplasticity and survival, its upregulation is a proposed me...
M. van Wijk-Herbrink (Marjolein); H. Andrea (Helene); R. Verheul (Roel)
textabstractThis study investigates the associations between cognitive coping (as measured with the Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire; CERQ), defense mechanisms (as measured with the Defense Style Questionnaire- 60; DSQ-60) and personality disorders (PDs; as measured with the SIDP-IV
van Wijk-Herbrink, M.; Andrea, H.; Verheul, R.
This study investigates the associations between cognitive coping (as measured with the Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire; CERQ), defense mechanisms (as measured with the Defense Style Questionnaire-60; DSQ-60) and personality disorders (PDs; as measured with the SIDP-IV interview) in a
Marmot, Michael G; Glymour, Maria; Sabia, Séverine; Kivimäki, Mika; Dugravot, Aline
Objectives Cognitive reserve is associated with a lower risk of dementia but the extent to which it shapes cognitive aging trajectories remains unclear. Our objective is to examine the impact of three markers of reserve from different points in the lifecourse on cognitive function and decline in late adulthood. Methods Data are from 5234 men and 2220 women, mean age 56 years (standard deviation=6) at baseline, from the Whitehall II cohort study. Memory, reasoning, vocabulary, phonemic and semantic fluency were assessed three times over 10 years. Linear mixed models were used to assess the association between markers of reserve (height, education, and occupation) and cognitive decline, using the 5 cognitive tests and a global cognitive score composed of these tests. Results All three reserve measures were associated with baseline cognitive function, with strongest associations with occupation and the weakest with height. All cognitive functions except vocabulary declined over the 10 year follow-up period. On the global cognitive test, there was greater decline in the high occupation group (−0.27; 95% confidence interval (CI): −0.28, −0.26) compared to the intermediate (−0.23; 95% CI: −0.25, −0.22) and low groups (−0.21; 95% CI: −0.24, −0.19); p=0.001. The decline in reserve groups defined by education (p=0.82) and height (p=0.55) was similar. Interpretation Cognitive performance over the adult lifecourse was remarkably higher in the high reserve groups. However, rate of cognitive decline did not differ between reserve groups except occupation where there was some evidence of greater decline in the high occupation group. PMID:21563209
Vaz-Serra, Adriano; Palha, António; Figueira, Maria Luísa; Bessa-Peixoto, Alberto; Brissos, Sofia; Casquinha, Paula; Damas-Reis, Filipe; Ferreira, Luís; Gago, Joaquim; Jara, José; Relvas, João; Marques-Teixeira, João
The major reviews of the literature support the idea that a significant proportion of patients with schizophrenia present cognitive deficits in several domains, more marked in the domains of verbal memory, vigilance and attention, memory, intellectual quotient, language and executive functioning. Such deficits appear to be one of the main determinants of these patients' functional outcome. More recently, social cognition deficits have been described. Social cognition may be understood as a separate and independent dimension of neurocognition or non-social cognition and may constitute a mediator between the neurocognition and functioning. However, there has been controversy concerning the real meaning of deficits observed due to the diversity of analysis methodologies employed and the fact that the available neuropsychological tests and batteries have not been specifically designed to evaluate cognitive deficits in patients with schizophrenia. In this paper, the Working Group on Schizophrenia (GTE) describes and highlights the existing clinical and scientific evidence, performs a critical review of cognitive functioning, social cognition and its impact on functional outcome, in patients with schizophrenia. The authors review definitions of (neuro)cognition, social cognition and functioning, analyze the existing methods for its assessment, describe the treatments available in this context and summarize the evidence of dysfunctions in these three concepts, taking into account their interconnection. Overall, the GTE considered the need for a standardized battery of tests to measure neurocognition, social cognition and functioning, consensually accepting the use of MATRICS as the standard tool for assessing neurocognition in schizophrenia. It was also recognized that verbal memory and vigilance deficits may be the best predictors of functional outcome in schizophrenia. In addition, the GTE has established social cognition as a priority area in the study of schizophrenia
Litwin, Howard; Schwartz, Ella; Damri, Noam
The aim of the inquiry was to examine whether cognitively stimulating leisure activity (CSLA) can delay or reduce cognitive decline in late life and whether its effect is moderated by education, age, or activity pattern. Employing secondary analysis of data on respondents aged 65 and older from the 4th and 5th waves of the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (N = 16,572), the inquiry regressed cognitive function (memory, numeracy, and fluency) at Time 2 on frequency of engagement in CSLA at baseline, controlling for cognitive function scores at baseline and a range of confounders. The study also considered education by CSLA and age by CSLA interactions, as well as the effect of CSLA patterns. CSLA frequency was found to be positively related to subsequent cognitive functioning on all measures, 2 years later. The effect of CSLA on memory and fluency was stronger among those with lower education, whereas the age by CSLA interaction was not significant. Respondents who started CSLA after baseline showed better cognitive functioning at Time 2 than those who did not engage in CSLA at all and those who had engaged in such activity at baseline but stopped. The study documents that CSLAs constitute a potential source for the delay or reduction of cognitive decline, regardless of one's age. As such, practitioners should recognize the value of this medium and encourage its greater use in appropriate settings. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Butler, Anderson A; Webb, William M; Lubin, Farah D
The diverse functions of noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) can influence virtually every aspect of the transcriptional process including epigenetic regulation of genes. In the CNS, regulatory RNA networks and epigenetic mechanisms have broad relevance to gene transcription changes involved in long-term memory formation and cognition. Thus, it is becoming increasingly clear that multiple classes of ncRNAs impact neuronal development, neuroplasticity, and cognition. Currently, a large gap exists in our knowledge of how ncRNAs facilitate epigenetic processes, and how this phenomenon affects cognitive function. In this review, we discuss recent findings highlighting a provocative role for ncRNAs including lncRNAs and piRNAs in the control of epigenetic mechanisms involved in cognitive function. Furthermore, we discuss the putative roles for these ncRNAs in cognitive disorders such as schizophrenia and Alzheimer's disease.
Butler, Anderson A; Webb, William M; Lubin, Farah D
The diverse functions of noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) can influence virtually every aspect of the transcriptional process including epigenetic regulation of genes. In the CNS, regulatory RNA networks and epigenetic mechanisms have broad relevance to gene transcription changes involved in long-term memory formation and cognition. Thus, it is becoming increasingly clear that multiple classes of ncRNAs impact neuronal development, neuroplasticity, and cognition. Currently, a large gap exists in our knowledge of how ncRNAs facilitate epigenetic processes, and how this phenomenon affects cognitive function. In this review, we discuss recent findings highlighting a provocative role for ncRNAs including lncRNAs and piRNAs in the control of epigenetic mechanisms involved in cognitive function. Furthermore, we discuss the putative roles for these ncRNAs in cognitive disorders such as schizophrenia and Alzheimer's disease. PMID:26366811
Park, Inchan; Igarashi, Hiroya; Yamanaka, Toshimasa
The purpose of this research is to explore factors that create cognitive diversity. We studied two different ways of recognizing images in our preliminary experiment: attribute-oriented thoughts and relationship-oriented thoughts. We examined whether we could observe the divergences in recognition processes between Asian and European cultures. From the result, we found that European (Dutch and British) subjects had stronger tendencies in attribute-oriented thoughts than the Korean subjects. However, in spite of their regional similarity, the Japanese subjects had greater tendencies in attribute-oriented thoughts than Korean subjects when comparing two Asian countries. This result made us question if there would be any other factors that could create the cognitive differences. Through the consideration of the participants' educational background, we found a possibility that the mathematical thoughts of the European and Japanese subjects were greater than the Korean subjects. Furthermore, in our subsequent study, we discovered that mathematical minds (skill and interest) effected on creating attribute-oriented thoughts as factors. We found the interesting discovery of the Japanese male participants, who had different cognitive tendencies with their mathematical skills and interests; the male subjects who had high-leveled mathematical skills, and who liked mathematics showed stronger tendencies of Attribute-oriented thoughts than those who did not. Based on the result, a possibility was suggested that the Japanese males' strong mathematical minds might be one of the factors that create the cognitive difference between Japanese and Korean subjects in the preliminary experiment.
Frankel, Christian; Galland, Jean-Pierre
This paper focuses on the European Regulatory system which was settled both for opening the Single Market for products and ensuring the consumers' safety. It claims that the New Approach and Standardization, and the Global Approach to conformity assessment, which suppressed the last technical...... barriers to trade in Europe, realized the free movement of products by organizing progressively several orders of markets and regulation. Based on historical and institutional documents, on technical publications, and on interviews, this article relates how the European Commission and the Member States had...... alternatively recourse to markets and to regulations, at the three main levels of the New Approach Directives implementation. The article focuses also more specifically on the Medical Devices sector, not only because this New Approach sector has long been controversial in Europe, and has recently been concerned...
Esti Hayu Purnamaningsih
Full Text Available The emotions has many important functions in our life such as in relation of interpersonal communication, and health. In interpersonal communicative function aimed to signal to other information about internal state. Emotions manifests in specific cognitive, behavioural, and physiological reactions, thus closely related to health. There is wide variety of ways for individuals to regulate their emotion. In this regard, there are two kinds of emotion regulation strategy; first Antecedent-focused emotion regulation consisting of situation selection, situation modification, attentional deployment, cognitive change and second, Response-focused emotion regulation consisting of suppression. The purpose of this research is to investigate personality factors relate with emotion regulation strategies. 339 students from Faculty of Psychology, Universitas Gadjah Mada were participating in this study and given The Big Five Personality Factors (Ramdhani, 2012, adaptation, and the modified version of the Emotion Regulation Scale was used, Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (John & Gross, 2004 which measure personality and emotion regulation respectively. Using multiple regression analysis, the study indicated that personality predicts emotion regulation strategies.
Grant, Jon E; Leppink, Eric W; Redden, Sarah A
adjustment and delay aversion) and the Spatial Working Memory task (total errors). This study adds to the growing literature on the role of COMT in impulsive behaviors by showing that the Val/Val genotype was associated with specific clinical and cognitive elements among young adults who gamble......Neuropsychological studies of adults with problem gambling indicate impairments across multiple cognitive domains. Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) plays a unique role in the regulation of dopamine in the prefrontal cortex, and has been implicated in the cognitive dysfunction evident in problem...... gambling. This study examined adults with varying levels of gambling behavior to determine whether COMT genotype was associated with differences in gambling symptoms and cognitive functioning. 260 non-treatment-seeking adults aged 18-29 years with varying degrees of gambling behavior provided saliva...
Rawlings, Andreea Monica; Sang, Yingying; Sharrett, Albert Richey; Coresh, Josef; Griswold, Michael; Kucharska-Newton, Anna Maria; Palta, Priya; Wruck, Lisa Miller; Gross, Alden Lawrence; Deal, Jennifer Anne; Power, Melinda Carolyn; Bandeen-Roche, Karen Jean
Longitudinal studies of cognitive performance are sensitive to dropout, as participants experiencing cognitive deficits are less likely to attend study visits, which may bias estimated associations between exposures of interest and cognitive decline. Multiple imputation is a powerful tool for handling missing data, however its use for missing cognitive outcome measures in longitudinal analyses remains limited. We use multiple imputation by chained equations (MICE) to impute cognitive performance scores of participants who did not attend the 2011-2013 exam of the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study. We examined the validity of imputed scores using observed and simulated data under varying assumptions. We examined differences in the estimated association between diabetes at baseline and 20-year cognitive decline with and without imputed values. Lastly, we discuss how different analytic methods (mixed models and models fit using generalized estimate equations) and choice of for whom to impute result in different estimands. Validation using observed data showed MICE produced unbiased imputations. Simulations showed a substantial reduction in the bias of the 20-year association between diabetes and cognitive decline comparing MICE (3-4 % bias) to analyses of available data only (16-23 % bias) in a construct where missingness was strongly informative but realistic. Associations between diabetes and 20-year cognitive decline were substantially stronger with MICE than in available-case analyses. Our study suggests when informative data are available for non-examined participants, MICE can be an effective tool for imputing cognitive performance and improving assessment of cognitive decline, though careful thought should be given to target imputation population and analytic model chosen, as they may yield different estimands.
attention, divided attention and alternating attention) is the prerequisite for basic as well as complex behaviors involving memory , judgment, social ...Attention Memory Executive functioning Social pragmatics Problem solving training Error management training Emotional regulation training... Memory Executive functioning Social pragmatics Integrated use of individual and group cognitive, psychological and functional interventions
Corina, David; Singleton, Jenny
The condition of deafness presents a developmental context that provides insight into the biological, cultural, and linguistic factors underlying the development of neural systems that impact social cognition. Studies of visual attention, behavioral regulation, language development, and face and human action perception are discussed. Visually…
Abrahamse, Elger; Braem, Senne; Notebaert, Wim; Verguts, Tom
Cognitive control covers a broad range of cognitive functions, but its research and theories typically remain tied to a single domain. Here we outline and review an associative learning perspective on cognitive control in which control emerges from associative networks containing perceptual, motor, and goal representations. Our review identifies 3 trending research themes that are shared between the domains of conflict adaptation, task switching, response inhibition, and attentional control: Cognitive control is context-specific, can operate in the absence of awareness, and is modulated by reward. As these research themes can be envisaged as key characteristics of learning, we propose that their joint emergence across domains is not coincidental but rather reflects a (latent) growth of interest in learning-based control. Associative learning has the potential for providing broad-scaled integration to cognitive control theory, and offers a promising avenue for understanding cognitive control as a self-regulating system without postulating an ill-defined set of homunculi. We discuss novel predictions, theoretical implications, and immediate challenges that accompany an associative learning perspective on cognitive control. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Schroeder, Scott R; Marian, Viorica
The objectives of the present research were to examine the cognitive consequences of trilingualism and explain them relative to the cognitive consequences of bilingualism. A comparison of cognitive abilities in trilinguals and bilinguals was conducted. In addition, we proposed a cognitive plasticity framework to account for cognitive differences and similarities between trilinguals and bilinguals. Three aspects of cognition were analyzed: (1) cognitive reserve in older adults, as measured by age of onset of Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment; (2) inhibitory control in children and younger adults, as measured by response times on behavioral Simon and flanker tasks; and (3) memory generalization in infants and toddlers, as measured by accuracy on behavioral deferred imitation tasks. Results were considered within a framework of cognitive plasticity, which took into account several factors that may affect plasticity, including the age of learning a third language and the extent to which additional cognitive resources are needed to learn the third language. A mixed pattern of results was observed. In some cases, such as cognitive reserve in older adults, trilinguals showed larger advantages than bilinguals. On other measures, for example inhibitory control in children and younger adults, trilinguals were found to exhibit the same advantages as bilinguals. In still other cases, like memory generalization in infants and toddlers, trilinguals did not demonstrate the advantages seen in bilinguals. This study is the first comprehensive analysis of how learning a third language affects the cognitive abilities that are modified by bilingual experience, and the first to propose a cognitive plasticity framework that can explain and predict trilingual-bilingual differences. This research shows that the cognitive consequences of trilingualism are not simply an extension of bilingualism's effects; rather, trilingualism has distinct consequences, with theoretical
Sumowski, James F.; Benedict, Ralph; Enzinger, Christian; Filippi, Massimo; Geurts, Jeroen J.; Hamalainen, Paivi; Hulst, Hanneke; Inglese, Matilde; Leavitt, Victoria M.; Rocca, Maria A.; Rosti-Otajarvi, Eija M.; Rao, Stephen
Cognitive decline is recognized as a prevalent and debilitating symptom of multiple sclerosis (MS), especially deficits in episodic memory and processing speed. The field aims to (1) incorporate cognitive assessment into standard clinical care and clinical trials, (2) utilize state-of-the-art neuroimaging to more thoroughly understand neural bases of cognitive deficits, and (3) develop effective, evidence-based, clinically feasible interventions to prevent or treat cognitive dysfunction, whic...
Crowe, Michael; Clay, Olivio J; Martin, Roy C; Howard, Virginia J; Wadley, Virginia G; Sawyer, Patricia; Allman, Richard M
The association between years of education and cognitive function in older adults has been studied extensively, but the role of quality of education is unknown. We examined indicators of childhood educational quality as predictors of cognitive performance and decline in later life. Participants included 433 older adults (52% African American) who reported living in Alabama during childhood and completed in-home assessments of cognitive function at baseline and 4 years later. Reports of residence during school years were matched to county-level data from the 1935 Alabama Department of Education report for school funding (per student), student-teacher ratio, and school year length. A composite measure of global cognitive function was utilized in analyses. Multilevel mixed effects models accounted for clustering of educational data within counties in examining the association between cognitive function and the educational quality indices. Higher student-teacher ratio was associated with worse cognitive function and greater school year length was associated with better cognitive function. These associations remained statistically significant in models adjusted for education level, age, race, gender, income, reading ability, vascular risk factors, and health behaviors. The observed associations were stronger in those with lower levels of education (≤12 years), but none of the education quality measures were related to 4-year change in cognitive function. Educational factors other than years of schooling may influence cognitive performance in later life. Understanding the role of education in cognitive aging has substantial implications for prevention efforts as well as accurate identification of older adults with cognitive impairment.
Law, Lena L.; Schultz, Stephanie A.; Boots, Elizabeth A.; Einerson, Jean A.; Dougherty, Ryan J.; Oh, Jennifer M.; Korcarz, Claudia E.; Edwards, Dorothy F.; Koscik, Rebecca L.; Dowling, N. Maritza; Gallagher, Catherine L.; Bendlin, Barbara B.; Carlsson, Cynthia M.; Asthana, Sanjay; Hermann, Bruce P.; Sager, Mark A.; Johnson, Sterling C.; Cook, Dane B.; Stein, James H.; Okonkwo, Ozioma C.
The objective of this study was to examine the association of chronotropic response (CR) and heart rate (HR) recovery—two indices of cardiovascular function within the context of a graded exercise test—with cognitive performance in a cognitively healthy, late-middle-aged cohort at risk for Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Ninety participants (age=63.52±5.86 years; 65.6% female) from the Wisconsin Registry for Alzheimer’s Prevention participated in this study. They underwent graded exercise testing and a comprehensive neuropsychological assessment that assessed the following four cognitive domains: Immediate Memory, Verbal & Learning Memory, Working Memory, and Speed & Flexibility. Regression analyses, adjusted for age, sex, and education, were used to examine the association between CR, HR recovery, and cognition. We found significant associations between CR and cognitive performance in the domains of Immediate Memory, Verbal Learning & Memory, and Speed & Flexibility. In contrast, HR recovery was not significantly associated with cognitive function. The association between CR and cognition persisted even after controlling for HR recovery. Together, these findings indicate that, in a cognitively normal, late-middle-aged cohort, CR is a stronger correlate of cognitive performance than HR recovery. Overall, this study reinforces the idea that cardiovascular health plays an important role in cognitive function, specifically in a cohort at risk for AD; and that interventions that promote vascular health may be a viable pathway to preventing or slowing cognitive decline due to AD. PMID:27911299
Jennifer N Vega
Full Text Available Cognitive changes after menopause are a common complaint, especially as the loss of estradiol at menopause has been hypothesized to contribute to the higher rates of dementia in women. To explore the neural processes related to subjective cognitive complaints, this study examined resting state functional connectivity in 31 postmenopausal women (aged 50-60 in relationship to cognitive complaints following menopause. A cognitive complaint index was calculated using responses to a 120-item questionnaire. Seed regions were identified for resting state brain networks important for higher-order cognitive processes and for areas that have shown differences in volume and functional activity associated with cognitive complaints in prior studies. Results indicated a positive correlation between the executive control network and cognitive complaint score, weaker negative functional connectivity within the frontal cortex, and stronger positive connectivity within the right middle temporal gyrus in postmenopausal women who report more cognitive complaints. While longitudinal studies are needed to confirm this hypothesis, these data are consistent with previous findings suggesting that high levels of cognitive complaints may reflect changes in brain connectivity and may be a potential marker for the risk of late-life cognitive dysfunction in postmenopausal women with otherwise normal cognitive performance.
Law, Lena L; Schultz, Stephanie A; Boots, Elizabeth A; Einerson, Jean A; Dougherty, Ryan J; Oh, Jennifer M; Korcarz, Claudia E; Edwards, Dorothy F; Koscik, Rebecca L; Dowling, N Maritza; Gallagher, Catherine L; Bendlin, Barbara B; Carlsson, Cynthia M; Asthana, Sanjay; Hermann, Bruce P; Sager, Mark A; Johnson, Sterling C; Cook, Dane B; Stein, James H; Okonkwo, Ozioma C
The objective of this study was to examine the association of chronotropic response (CR) and heart rate (HR) recovery- two indices of cardiovascular function within the context of a graded exercise test- with cognitive performance in a cognitively healthy, late-middle-aged cohort at risk for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Ninety participants (age = 63.52±5.86 years; 65.6% female) from the Wisconsin Registry for Alzheimer's Prevention participated in this study. They underwent graded exercise testing and a comprehensive neuropsychological assessment that assessed the following four cognitive domains: Immediate Memory, Verbal & Learning Memory, Working Memory, and Speed & Flexibility. Regression analyses, adjusted for age, sex, and education, were used to examine the association between CR, HR recovery, and cognition. We found significant associations between CR and cognitive performance in the domains of Immediate Memory, Verbal Learning & Memory, and Speed & Flexibility. In contrast, HR recovery was not significantly associated with cognitive function. The association between CR and cognition persisted even after controlling for HR recovery. Together, these findings indicatethat, in a cognitively normal, late-middle-aged cohort, CR is a stronger correlate of cognitive performance than HR recovery. Overall, this study reinforces the idea that cardiovascular health plays an important role in cognitive function, specifically in a cohort at risk for AD; and that interventions that promote vascular health may be a viable pathway to preventing or slowing cognitive decline due to AD.
Stufflebeam, Steven M.; Rosen, Bruce
Cognitive functions are fundamental to being human. Although tremendous progress has been made in the science of cognition using neuroimaging, the clinical applications of neuroimaging are just beginning to be realized. A unifying theme of this chapter is the concept that a more complete understanding of cognition only comes through integration of multimodal structural and functional imaging technologies.
van Rooij, Iris
The recognition that human minds/brains are finite systems with limited resources for computation has led some researchers to advance the "Tractable Cognition thesis": Human cognitive capacities are constrained by computational tractability. This thesis, if true, serves cognitive psychology by constraining the space of computational-level theories…
Rooij, I.J.E.I. van
The recognition that human minds/brains are finite systems with limited resources for computation has led some researchers to advance the Tractable Cognition thesis: Human cognitive capacities are constrained by computational tractability. This thesis, if true, serves cognitive psychology by
Chapagain, Durga; Range, Friederike; Huber, Ludwig; Virányi, Zsófia
A decline in the physical or mental health of older dogs can be a challenge for the owners, whose relationship with their dog is compromised by the cognitive and behavioral changes in their dogs. Although dog owners tend to consider many physiological and behavioral changes in old dogs as part of the normal aging process, it is important to differentiate between normal aging and pathologic aging, since behavioral changes may be the first indication of declining health and welfare in old dogs. Most reviews on cognitive aging in dogs have focused on translational approaches to human Alzheimer's disease; from a practical perspective, however, understanding normal cognitive aging in pet dogs and screening cognitively affected dogs are important in their own right. Here we review the literature on different cognitive functions that decline during aging, signs of cognitive dysfunction, screening methods, and preventive measures for age-related cognitive decline. Moreover, we discuss the drawbacks of using questionnaires as subjective measures of aging and propose the development of objective methods to distinguish normal cognitive aging from severe cognitive dysfunction. We suggest that multi-targeted approaches that combine owner-evaluated questionnaires with neuropsychological tests can be most effective in screening cognitively affected dogs from normally aging dogs. Regarding preventive measures, we conclude that combinations of dietary intervention and behavioral enrichment may be more beneficial than single-pathway manipulations in delaying cognitive aging or retaining various cognitive functions during aging. © 2017 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.
Cooke, Nancy J.; Gorman, Jamie C.; Myers, Christopher W.; Duran, Jasmine L.
Cognition in work teams has been predominantly understood and explained in terms of shared cognition with a focus on the similarity of static knowledge structures across individual team members. Inspired by the current zeitgeist in cognitive science, as well as by empirical data and pragmatic concerns, we offer an alternative theory of team…
Koh, Sharon; Napa Scollon, Christie; Wirtz, Derrick
There are individual and cultural differences in how memories of our emotions are cognitively represented. This article examines the cognitive representation of emotions in different cultures, as a result of emotional (in)consistency in different cultures. Using a continuous semantic priming task, we showed in two studies that individuals who were less emotionally consistent across relationships have stronger associations of their emotions within those relationships. Further, we found (in Study 2) that in a culture characterised by higher levels of emotional inconsistency across relationships (Singapore), stronger associations between emotions within relationships were found than in a culture characterised by emotional consistency (USA). This cultural difference in cognitive representation was fully mediated by individual differences in cross-situational consistency levels.
Using social capital to construct a conceptual International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health Children and Youth version-based framework for stronger inclusive education policies in Europe.
Maxwell, Gregor; Koutsogeorgou, Eleni
Inclusive education is part of social inclusion; therefore, social capital can be linked to an inclusive education policy and practice. This association is explored in this article, and a practical measure is proposed. Specifically, the World Health Organization's International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health Children and Youth Version (ICF-CY) is proposed as the link between social capital and inclusive education. By mapping participation and trust indicators of social capital to the ICF-CY and by using the Matrix to Analyse Functioning in Education Systems (MAFES) to analyze the functioning of inclusive education policies and systems, a measure for stronger inclusive education policies is proposed. Such a tool can be used for policy planning and monitoring to ensure better inclusive education environments. In conclusion, combining enhanced social capital linked to stronger inclusive education policies, by using the ICF-CY, can lead to better health and well-being for all.
Døssing, Felix Sebastian; Piovesan, Marco; Wengström, Erik Roland
We study the effect of intuitive and reflective processes on cooperation using cognitive load. Compared with time constraint, which has been used in the previous literature, cognitive load is a more direct way to block reflective processes, and thus a more suitable way to study the link between...... intuition and cooperation. Using a repeated public goods game, we study the effect of different levels of cognitive load on contributions. We show that a higher cognitive load increases the initial level of cooperation. In particular, subjects are significantly less likely to fully free ride under high...... cognitive load....
I first identify two different distinctions: between Cartesian cognition and embodied cognition, and between calculative rationality and intuitive know-how. I then suggest that, in the nursing literature, these two distinctions are run together, to create an opposition between 'Cartesian rationality' and 'embodied know-how'. However, it is vital to keep the two distinctions apart, because 'embodied knowing' is very frequently rational. In separating the idea of embodied cognition from non-rational intuition, I show how 'embodiment' leads to the concepts of distributed cognition and distributed expertise. This has extensive and important implications for how we understand clinical cognition in nursing.
of documentaries. Dealing with cognitive theories of film and media and with memory studies, the article analyses how a cognitive approach to documentaries can increase our under-standing of how documentaries influence us on a cognitive and emotional level and contribute to the forming of our social and cultural......This article deals with the benefits of using cognitive theory in documentary film studies. The article outlines general aspects of cognitive theory in humanities and social science, however the main focus is on the role of narrative, visual style and emotional dimensions of different types...
Soren Van Hout Solari
Full Text Available Interactions between the cerebral cortex, thalamus, and basal ganglia form the basis ofcognitive information processing in the mammalian brain. Understanding the principles ofneuroanatomical organization in these structures is critical to understanding the functions theyperform and ultimately how the human brain works. We have manually distilled and synthesizedhundreds of primate neuroanatomy facts into a single interactive visualization. The resultingpicture represents the fundamental neuroanatomical blueprint upon which cognitive functionsmust be implemented. Within this framework we hypothesize and detail 7 functional circuitscorresponding to psychological perspectives on the brain: consolidated long-term declarativememory, short-term declarative memory, working memory/information processing, behavioralmemory selection, behavioral memory output, cognitive control, and cortical information flow regulation. Each circuit is described in terms of distinguishable neuronal groups including thecerebral isocortex (9 pyramidal neuronal groups, parahippocampal gyrus and hippocampus,thalamus (4 neuronal groups, basal ganglia (7 neuronal groups, metencephalon, basal forebrainand other subcortical nuclei. We focus on neuroanatomy related to primate non-primary corticalsystems to elucidate the basis underlying the distinct homotypical cognitive architecture. To dis-play the breadth of this review, we introduce a novel method of integrating and presenting datain multiple independent visualizations: an interactive website (www.cognitiveconsilience.comand standalone iPhone and iPad applications. With these tools we present a unique, annotatedview of neuroanatomical consilience (integration of knowledge.
Zaki, Jamil; Williams, W Craig
Contemporary emotion regulation research emphasizes intrapersonal processes such as cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression, but people experiencing affect commonly choose not to go it alone. Instead, individuals often turn to others for help in shaping their affective lives. How and under what circumstances does such interpersonal regulation modulate emotional experience? Although scientists have examined allied phenomena such as social sharing, empathy, social support, and prosocial behavior for decades, there have been surprisingly few attempts to integrate these data into a single conceptual framework of interpersonal regulation. Here we propose such a framework. We first map a "space" differentiating classes of interpersonal regulation according to whether an individual uses an interpersonal regulatory episode to alter their own or another person's emotion. We then identify 2 types of processes--response-dependent and response-independent--that could support interpersonal regulation. This framework classifies an array of processes through which interpersonal contact fulfills regulatory goals. More broadly, it organizes diffuse, heretofore independent data on "pieces" of interpersonal regulation, and identifies growth points for this young and exciting research domain.
Full Text Available Several reviews of the literature support the idea that cognitive deficits observed in a large percentage of patients with schizophrenia are responsible for the cognitive performance deficit and functional disability associated with the disease. The grow- ing importance of neurocognition in Psychiatry, especially with regard to planning strategies and rehabilitative therapies to improve the prognosis of patients contrib- utes to the interest of achieving this literature review on cognitive rehabilitation in schizophrenia. In this work, drawn from research in the areas of schizophrenia, cog- nition, cognitive rehabilitation and cognitive remediation (2000-2012 through PubMed and The Cochrane Collaboration, it is intended, to describe the types of psychological and behavioral therapies recommended in the treatment of cognitive disabilities in patients diagnosed with schizophrenia. This review will also highlight the clinical and scientific evidence of each of these therapies, as their effect on cognitive performance, symptoms and functionality in patients with schizophrenia.
Spaten, Ole Michael; Hansen, Tia G. B.; Gulbrandsen, Knut Arild
Coaching is an expanding area of professional work, and recent years have brought forward the notion of cognitive coaching (Costa, 2006; Oestrich, 2005) which adapts theory and techniques from cognitive therapy to serve self-enhancement in non-clinical populations. We suggest that a cognitive...... coaching module in the graduate curriculum for students of psychology is a rewarding introduction to cognitive behavioural approaches, since it allows combination of traditional lectures with “action-reflection-learning” workshops, during which students train cognitive behavioural techniques in their own...... repertoire. The skills needed for cognitive coaching reflect all therapeutic techniques but at a less advanced psychotherapeutic level, and still prepare for future clinical work and development. In the poster, we summarise a cognitive coaching course syllabus as well as results from data collected...
Full Text Available Patients with schizophrenia display alterations in social cognition, as well as in the realm of neurocognition. It is still unclear to what extent these two cognitive domains represent two separate dimensions or different expressions of a unified deficit. Tasks used to assess social cognition subcomponents cover basic social cognition, such as mentalisation, data collection and making conclusions, source monitoring and characteristics of life-styles. The variety of findings of various studies is probably related to the fact that most studies considered social cognition as one-dimensional construct represented, for example, by unique measurements of emotional recognition. Research results dealing with social cognition suggest that the impairment of social cognition is the characteristic feature of schizophrenia and have important implications for the development, course and outcome of this disorder.
Commentary: What's in a word (or words) - on the relations among self-regulation, self-control, executive functioning, effortful control, cognitive control, impulsivity, risk-taking, and inhibition for developmental psychopathology - reflections on Nigg (2017).
In Nigg's excellent article, he deals with a variety of complex conceptual issues related to the constructs of self-regulation and executive functioning (EF). Overall, I agree that the terminology proposed by Nigg should be adopted; moreover, the conceptual distinctions he provides should help the field to move forward with regard to the understanding of varied constructs related to self-regulation. In the spirit of further clarification, I questioned Nigg's suggestions that (a) working memory should be considered as part of the construct of top-down regulation and (b) planning is a higher level component of EF but not part of effortful control. In addition, I discussed my perspective on the role of automaticity in defining top-down versus bottom-up self-regulatory processes and the role of flexibility in top-down self-regulatory processes and their relation to personality resiliency. © 2017 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.
Wu, Xiaofei; Guo, Tingting; Tang, Tengteng; Shi, Baoguo; Luo, Jing
As a well-recognized and widely adopted emotional regulation strategy, cognitive reappraisal has generally been proven to be efficient. However, the cognitive mechanism underlying regulatory efficiency, particularly the role of creativity, in cognitive reappraisal is unclear. Although previous studies have evaluated the relationship between creativity and reappraisal from the perspectives of generation (i.e., generating cognitive reappraisals and generating creative ideas involve similar cognitive neural networks) and individual differences (i.e., the ability to generate different cognitive reappraisals can be predicted by scores on creativity-related tests), how cognitive reappraisal's efficiency can be related to creativity is still unknown. In this research, we assessed the relationship between cognitive reappraisal's creativity and its effectiveness in regulating negative emotion. In Study 1, participants were asked to generate reappraisals of negative stimuli and then evaluate the creativity and regulatory effectiveness of these reappraisals. The results indicated positive correlation between creativity rating and regulatory effectiveness, but we found that it was difficult for the participants to generate highly creative reappraisals on their own. Therefore, in Study 2, we showed participants well-prepared reappraisal materials that varied in their creativity and asked them to evaluate their regulatory effectiveness and creativity. The results suggested that creativity and appropriateness were significant predictors of the regulating effects of the reappraisal and that creativity was the most dominant predictor. In summary, both experiments found a positive correlation between reappraisal's creativity and effectiveness, thus implying that creativity plays an important role in reappraisal.
Vishkin, Allon; Bigman, Yochanan E; Porat, Roni; Solak, Nevin; Halperin, Eran; Tamir, Maya
Although religiosity is often accompanied by more intense emotions, we propose that people who are more religious may be better at using 1 of the most effective emotion regulation strategies-namely, cognitive reappraisal. We argue that religion, which is a meaning-making system, is linked to better cognitive reappraisal, which involves changing the meaning of emotional stimuli. Four studies (N = 2,078) supported our hypotheses. In Study 1, religiosity was associated with more frequent use of cognitive reappraisal in 3 distinct religions (i.e., Islam, Christianity, Judaism). In Studies 2A-2B, we replicated these findings using 2 indices of cognitive reappraisal and in a large representative sample. In Studies 3-4, individuals more (vs. less) religious were more effective in using cognitive reappraisal in the laboratory. We discuss how these findings inform our understanding of the psychology of religion and of emotion regulation. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Ghosh-Dastidar, Bonnie; Margolis, Karen L.; Slaughter, Mary E.; Jewell, Adria; Bird, Chloe E.; Eibner, Christine; Denburg, Natalie L.; Ockene, Judith; Messina, Catherine R.; Espeland, Mark A.
Objectives. We examined whether neighborhood socioeconomic status (NSES) is associated with cognitive functioning in older US women and whether this relationship is explained by associations between NSES and vascular, health behavior, and psychosocial factors. Methods. We assessed women aged 65 to 81 years (n = 7479) who were free of dementia and took part in the Women's Health Initiative Memory Study. Linear mixed models examined the cross-sectional association between an NSES index and cognitive functioning scores. A base model adjusted for age, race/ethnicity, education, income, marital status, and hysterectomy. Three groups of potential confounders were examined in separate models: vascular, health behavior, and psychosocial factors. Results. Living in a neighborhood with a 1-unit higher NSES value was associated with a level of cognitive functioning that was 0.022 standard deviations higher (P = .02). The association was attenuated but still marginally significant (P < .1) after adjustment for confounders and, according to interaction tests, stronger among younger and non-White women. Conclusions. The socioeconomic status of a woman's neighborhood may influence her cognitive functioning. This relationship is only partially explained by vascular, health behavior, or psychosocial factors. Future research is needed on the longitudinal relationships between NSES, cognitive impairment, and cognitive decline. PMID:21778482
Franzmeier, Nicolai; Göttler, Jens; Grimmer, Timo; Drzezga, Alexander; Áraque-Caballero, Miguel A; Simon-Vermot, Lee; Taylor, Alexander N W; Bürger, Katharina; Catak, Cihan; Janowitz, Daniel; Müller, Claudia; Duering, Marco; Sorg, Christian; Ewers, Michael
Reserve refers to the phenomenon of relatively preserved cognition in disproportion to the extent of neuropathology, e.g., in Alzheimer's disease. A putative functional neural substrate underlying reserve is global functional connectivity of the left lateral frontal cortex (LFC, Brodmann Area 6/44). Resting-state fMRI-assessed global LFC-connectivity is associated with protective factors (education) and better maintenance of memory in mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Since the LFC is a hub of the fronto-parietal control network that regulates the activity of other networks, the question arises whether LFC-connectivity to specific networks rather than the whole-brain may underlie reserve. We assessed resting-state fMRI in 24 MCI and 16 healthy controls (HC) and in an independent validation sample (23 MCI/32 HC). Seed-based LFC-connectivity to seven major resting-state networks (i.e., fronto-parietal, limbic, dorsal-attention, somatomotor, default-mode, ventral-attention, visual) was computed, reserve was quantified as residualized memory performance after accounting for age and hippocampal atrophy. In both samples of MCI, LFC-activity was anti-correlated with the default-mode network (DMN), but positively correlated with the dorsal-attention network (DAN). Greater education predicted stronger LFC-DMN-connectivity (anti-correlation) and LFC-DAN-connectivity. Stronger LFC-DMN and LFC-DAN-connectivity each predicted higher reserve, consistently in both MCI samples. No associations were detected for LFC-connectivity to other networks. These novel results extend our previous findings on global functional connectivity of the LFC, showing that LFC-connectivity specifically to the DAN and DMN, two core memory networks, enhances reserve in the memory domain in MCI.
Full Text Available Reserve refers to the phenomenon of relatively preserved cognition in disproportion to the extent of neuropathology, e.g., in Alzheimer’s disease. A putative functional neural substrate underlying reserve is global functional connectivity of the left lateral frontal cortex (LFC, Brodmann Area 6/44. Resting-state fMRI-assessed global LFC-connectivity is associated with protective factors (education and better maintenance of memory in mild cognitive impairment (MCI. Since the LFC is a hub of the fronto-parietal control network that regulates the activity of other networks, the question arises whether LFC-connectivity to specific networks rather than the whole-brain may underlie reserve. We assessed resting-state fMRI in 24 MCI and 16 healthy controls (HC and in an independent validation sample (23 MCI/32 HC. Seed-based LFC-connectivity to seven major resting-state networks (i.e., fronto-parietal, limbic, dorsal-attention, somatomotor, default-mode, ventral-attention, visual was computed, reserve was quantified as residualized memory performance after accounting for age and hippocampal atrophy. In both samples of MCI, LFC-activity was anti-correlated with the default-mode network (DMN, but positively correlated with the dorsal-attention network (DAN. Greater education predicted stronger LFC-DMN-connectivity (anti-correlation and LFC-DAN-connectivity. Stronger LFC-DMN and LFC-DAN-connectivity each predicted higher reserve, consistently in both MCI samples. No associations were detected for LFC-connectivity to other networks. These novel results extend our previous findings on global functional connectivity of the LFC, showing that LFC-connectivity specifically to the DAN and DMN, two core memory networks, enhances reserve in the memory domain in MCI.
Full Text Available The association between body mass index (BMI and cognitive function is a public health issue. This study investigated the relationship between obesity and cognitive impairment which was assessed by the Korean version of the Mini-mental state examination (K-MMSE among mid- and old-aged people in South Korea.A cohort of 5,125 adults, age 45 or older with normal cognitive function (K-MMSE≥24 at baseline (2006, was derived from the Korean Longitudinal Study of Aging (KLoSA 2006~2012. The association between baseline BMI and risk of cognitive impairment was assessed using multiple logistic regression models. We also assessed baseline BMI and change of cognitive function over the 6-year follow-up using multiple linear regressions.During the follow-up, 358 cases of severe cognitive impairment were identified. Those with baseline BMI≥25 kg/m2 than normal-weight (18.5≤BMI<23 kg/m2 were marginally less likely to experience the development of severe cognitive impairment (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 0.73, 95% CI = 0.52 to 1.03; Ptrend = 0.03. This relationship was stronger among female (aOR = 0.63, 95% CI = 0.40 to 1.00; Ptrend = 0.01 and participants with low-normal K-MMSE score (MMSE: 24-26 at baseline (aOR = 0.59, 95% CI = 0.35 to 0.98; Ptrend<0.01. In addition, a slower decline of cognitive function was observed in obese individuals than those with normal weight, especially among women and those with low-normal K-MMSE score at baseline.In this nationally representative study, we found that obesity was associated with lower risk of cognitive decline among mid- and old-age population.
Penney, Jay; Tsai, Li-Huei
Over the past 30 years, lysine acetylation of histone and nonhistone proteins has become established as a key modulator of gene expression regulating numerous aspects of cell biology. Neuronal growth and plasticity are no exception; roles for lysine acetylation and deacetylation in brain function and dysfunction continue to be uncovered. Transcriptional programs coupling synaptic activity to changes in gene expression are critical to the plasticity mechanisms underlying higher brain functions. These transcriptional programs can be modulated by changes in histone acetylation, and in many cases, transcription factors and histone-modifying enzymes are recruited together to plasticity-associated genes. Lysine acetylation, catalyzed by lysine acetyltransferases (KATs), generally promotes cognitive performance, whereas the opposing process, catalyzed by histone lysine deacetylases (HDACs), appears to negatively regulate cognition in multiple brain regions. Consistently, mutation or deregulation of different KATs or HDACs contributes to neurological dysfunction and neurodegeneration. HDAC inhibitors have shown promise as a treatment to combat the cognitive decline associated with aging and neurodegenerative disease, as well as to ameliorate the symptoms of depression and posttraumatic stress disorder, among others. In this review, we discuss the evidence for the roles of HDACs in cognitive function as well as in neurological disorders and disease. In particular, we focus on HDAC2, which plays a central role in coupling lysine acetylation to synaptic plasticity and mediates many of the effects of HDAC inhibition in cognition and disease. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.
Full Text Available Learning technologies are an indispensable tool for students’ cognitive improvement and assessment. ICTs in coordination with a concrete pedagogical framework may provide students and teachers flexible, engaging, cost-effective and above all, personalized learning experiences, which focus on the adoption of the 21st century cognitive skills into the actual learning process. Such higher order thinking skills (HOTS entail critical thinking, problem solving, independent inquiry, creativity, communication, collaboration, digital literacy. Therefore, technologically-supported educational environments aim at self-regulated and inquisitive, constructivist, knowledge building rather than knowledge accumulation.
Consuelo H Wilkins
Full Text Available Consuelo H Wilkins1,2, Jose Mathews2, Yvette I Sheline21Department of Medicine (Division of Geriatrics and Nutritional Science; 2Department of Psychiatry, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, USAAbstract: Older adults with depression often present with signs and symptoms indicative of functional or cognitive impairment. These somatic symptoms make evaluating and treating depression in older adults more complex. Late life depression (LLD, depression in adults over the age of 65, is more frequently associated with cognitive changes. Cognitive impairment in LLD may be a result of the depressive disorder or an underlying dementing condition. Memory complaints are also common in older adults with depression. There is a wide range of cognitive impairment in LLD including decreased central processing speed, executive dysfunction, and impaired short-term memory. The etiology of cognitive impairment in LLD may include cerebrovascular disease, a significant risk factor for LLD, which likely interrupts key pathways between frontal white matter and subcortical structures important in mood regulation. Because depressive symptoms often coexist with dementia, it is important to determine the temporal relationship between depressive symptoms and cognitive change. If depressive symptoms pre-date the cognitive impairment and cognitive symptoms are mild and temporary, LLD is the likely etiology of the cognitive impairment. If cognitive changes appear prior to depressive symptoms and persist after LLD is successfully treated, an underlying dementia is more likely. Clinicians should be exclude common conditions such as thyroid disease which can contribute to depressive symptoms and cognitive impairment prior to treating LLD. Both antidepressants and psychotherapy can be effective in treating LLD. Subsequent evaluations following treatment should also reassess cognition.Keywords: late life depression, cognitive impairment, diagnosis, treatment
Mauss, Iris B.; Troy, Allison S.; LeBourgeois, Monique K.
Theoretical models suggest a positive relationship between sleep quality and individuals' ability to regulate emotion. However, few studies have empirically tested this hypothesized link using standardized laboratory measures of emotion-regulation ability. The present research examined the relationship between sleep quality and the ability to implement a type of emotion regulation that has particularly important implications for psychological health: cognitive reappraisal (cognitively reframi...
Full Text Available As a leading risk factor for stroke, hypertension is also an important risk factor for cognitive impairment. Midlife hypertension doubles the risk of dementia later in life and accelerates the progression of dementia, but the correlation between late-life blood pressure and cognitive impairment is still unclear. Beside blood pressure, the effect of pulse pressure, blood pressure variability and circadian rhythm of blood pressure on cognition is currently attracting more and more attention. Hypertension induces alterations in cerebrovascular structure and functions, which lead to brain lesions including cerebral atrophy, stroke, lacunar infarcts, diffuse white matter damage, microinfarct and microhemorrhage, resuling in cognitive impairment. Hypertension also impairs the metabolism and transfer of amyloid-β protein (Aβ, thus accelerates cognitive impairment. Individualized therapy, focusing on characteristics of hypertensive patients, may be a good choice for prevention and treatment of cognitive impairment. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2015.08.004
This book clarifies the role and relevance of the body in social interaction and cognition from an embodied cognitive science perspective. Theories of embodied cognition have during the last decades offered a radical shift in explanations of the human mind, from traditional computationalism, to emphasizing the way cognition is shaped by the body and its sensorimotor interaction with the surrounding social and material world. This book presents a theoretical framework for the relational nature of embodied social cognition, which is based on an interdisciplinary approach that ranges historically in time and across different disciplines. It includes work in cognitive science, artificial intelligence, phenomenology, ethology, developmental psychology, neuroscience, social psychology, linguistics, communication, and gesture studies. The theoretical framework is illustrated by empirical work that provides some detailed observational fieldwork on embodied actions captured in three different episodes of spontaneous s...
Following an application from Dextro Energy GmbH & Co. KG, submitted for the authorisation of a health claim pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 via the Competent Authority of Germany, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) was asked to deliver an....... Such amounts can be consumed as part of a balanced diet. The target population is the general population....
Brown, Gary P.; Clark, David A.
This volume brings together leading experts to explore the state of the art of cognitive clinical assessment and identify cutting-edge approaches of interest to clinicians and researchers. The book highlights fundamental problems concerning the validity of assessments that are widely used in cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT). Key directions for further research and development are identified. Updated cognitive assessment methods are described in detail, with particular attention to transdiag...
Feng, Zhiyong; Zhang, Ping
This brief examines the current research in cognitive wireless networks (CWNs). Along with a review of challenges in CWNs, this brief presents novel theoretical studies and architecture models for CWNs, advances in the cognitive information awareness and delivery, and intelligent resource management technologies. The brief presents the motivations and concepts of CWNs, including theoretical studies of temporal and geographic distribution entropy as well as cognitive information metrics. A new architecture model of CWNs is proposed with theoretical, functional and deployment architectures suppo
An, Hong; He, Ri-Hui; Zheng, Yun-Rong; Tao, Ran
Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is the main method of psychotherapy generally accepted in the field of substance addiction and non-substance addiction. This chapter mainly introduces the methods and technology of cognitive-behavior therapy of substance addiction, especially in order to prevent relapse. In the cognitive-behavior treatment of non-substance addiction, this chapter mainly introduces gambling addiction and food addiction.
Andela, Cornelie D; Biermasz, Nienke R; Kaptein, Adrian A; Pereira, Alberto M; Tiemensma, Jitske
Patients with acromegaly can be treated with surgery, radiotherapy and/or medical treatment. In general, patients' beliefs about medication are associated with illness perceptions, a contributory factor of Quality of Life (QoL). At present, there are no quantitative studies on medication beliefs in patients with acromegaly. Here, we aimed to examine possible associations between medication beliefs, illness perceptions, and QoL. Furthermore we aimed to explore whether illness perceptions of patients with remission of acromegaly receiving medical treatment differ from patients without medical treatment. Cross-sectional evaluation of 73 patients with remission of acromegaly (n = 28 patients with medication, n = 45 without medication). The Beliefs about Medicines Questionnaire (BMQ), Illness Perception Questionnaire-Revised (IPQ-R), EuroQoL-5D, and AcroQoL were used for the assessment. Stronger beliefs about the necessity of medical treatment and stronger concerns about the adverse effects were associated with attributing more symptoms to acromegaly, perceiving more negative consequences, and having a stronger belief in a cyclical timeline (BMQ, all P IPQ-R, P = 0.002). Negative medication beliefs were related to more negative illness perceptions and worse disease-specific QoL. Patients receiving medical treatment for acromegaly tend to perceive a more chronic timeline of their disease, compared to patients with remission without medical treatment. These psychological factors need to be taken into account when treating patients and developing a psychosocial education program aiming to improve QoL. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Nielsen, Julie Vendelbo; Olesen, Rasmus Hansen; Lauridsen, Jesper Krogh
. Using microarray data analysis from 145 neurologically sound adults, this study investigated the association between body mass index (BMI) and ABCB1 expression in the frontal cortex. Increasing BMI values were associated with a statistically significantly reduced expression of ABCB1. Investigation...... of DNA methylation patterns in a subgroup of 52 individuals found that the methylation/expression ratios of ABCB1 were unaffected by increasing BMI values. Interestingly, the effect of BMI on ABCB1 expression appeared stronger in African Americans than in Caucasians.The Pharmacogenomics Journal advance...
Stufflebeam, Steven M; Rosen, Bruce R
Cognitive functions are fundamental to being human. Although tremendous progress has been made in the science of cognition using neuroimaging, the clinical applications of neuroimaging are just beginning to be realized. This article focuses on selected technologies, analysis techniques, and applications that have, or will soon have, direct clinical impact. The authors discuss how cognition can be imaged using MR imaging, functional MR imaging, positron emission tomography, magnetoencephalography and electroencephalography, and MR imaging diffusion tensor imaging. A unifying theme of this article is the concept that a more complete understanding of cognition only comes through integration of multimodal structural and functional imaging technologies.
Full Text Available The term schizophrenia was coined by Eugene Bleuler. Symptoms of schizophrenia are arranged into groups or clusters called as domains. The domains of dysfunctions are positive symptoms, negative symptoms, cognitive impairments, mood and suicidity, and aggression. Cognition is the sum total of mental processes that makes us acquire knowledge and keeps us aware of our surroundings and thus enables us to arrive at appropriate judgments. Cognitive deficits are recognized as enduring and persistent features in schizophrenia and can be neuro-cognitive or relating to social cognition. Neurocognitive deficits are deficits in speed of processing, attention / vigilance, working memory, verbal memory, visual memory, reasoning and problem solving, social cognition. Cognitive function can be assessed by various methods like experimental approach, neuropsychological and psychometric and ecologic approach. Cognitive deficits are present at onset of illness producing substantial impairment. Unlike psychotic symptoms, which remit with treatment, functional impairments remain stable over time. Detail understanding of such symptoms will help in disability limitation. Various cognitive remediation programmes are underway with such intent. Articles till March, 2012 were searched through PubMed and Google Scholar, which were studied in an attempt of understanding the topic. The information was structured and organized.
Fiona A. H. M. Cleutjens
Full Text Available Over the past few decades, chronic obstructive lung disease (COPD has been considered a disease of the lungs, often caused by smoking. Nowadays, COPD is regarded as a systemic disease. Both physical effects and effects on brains, including impaired psychological and cognitive functioning, have been demonstrated. Patients with COPD may have cognitive impairment, either globally or in single cognitive domains, such as information processing, attention and concentration, memory, executive functioning, and self-control. Possible causes are hypoxemia, hypercapnia, exacerbations, and decreased physical activity. Cognitive impairment in these patients may be related to structural brain abnormalities, such as gray-matter pathologic changes and the loss of white matter integrity which can be induced by smoking. Cognitive impairment can have a negative impact on health and daily life and may be associated with widespread consequences for disease management programs. It is important to assess cognitive functioning in patients with COPD in order to optimize patient-oriented treatment and to reduce personal discomfort, hospital admissions, and mortality. This paper will summarize the current knowledge about cognitive impairment as extrapulmonary feature of COPD. Hereby, the impact of smoking on cognitive functioning and the impact of cognitive impairment on smoking behaviour will be examined.
Tucker, Adrienne M.; Stern, Yaakov
Cognitive reserve explains why those with higher IQ, education, occupational attainment, or participation in leisure activities evidence less severe clinical or cognitive changes in the presence of age-related or Alzheimer’s disease pathology. Specifically, the cognitive reserve hypothesis is that individual differences in how tasks are processed provide reserve against brain pathology. Cognitive reserve may allow for more flexible strategy usage, an ability thought to be captured by executive functions tasks. Additionally, cognitive reserve allows individuals greater neural efficiency, greater neural capacity, and the ability for compensation via the recruitment of additional brain regions. Taking cognitive reserve into account may allow for earlier detection and better characterization of age-related cognitive changes and Alzheimer’s disease. Importantly, cognitive reserve is not fixed but continues to evolve across the lifespan. Thus, even late-stage interventions hold promise to boost cognitive reserve and thus reduce the prevalence of Alzheimer’s disease and other age-related problems. PMID:21222591
Depp, Colin A; Harmell, Alexandria; Vahia, Ipsit V
Given the rapid rate of population aging, basic science and public health efforts have increasingly focused on the determinants of successful cognitive aging. In this chapter, we review the definition and biological, psychological, and environmental determinants of cognitive health in later life. Successful cognitive aging is a multi-dimensional construct that lacks a consensus operationalized definition, and has been variously conceptualized in an ipsative, normative, or criterion-referenced manner. Nevertheless, there are a number of biomarkers, at the genetic and cellular level, that provide indicators of cognitive health in aging. Functional and structural neuroimaging suggest multiple pathways to successful cognitive aging, by way of brain reserve and cognitive reserve. A number of behavioral and environmental interventions, including dietary restriction, physical activity, and cognitive stimulation, are promising avenues for extending the cognitive healthspan associated with normal aging. Thus, there is a variety of recent findings providing optimism that successful cognitive aging, howsoever defined, will be attainable by more older adults in the future.
Federal Laboratory Consortium — This laboratory conducts basic and applied human research studies to characterize cognitive performance as influenced by militarily-relevant contextual and physical...
Pinkham, Amy E
The topic of social cognition has attracted considerable interest in schizophrenia over the last several years. This construct generally refers to the detection, processing, and utilization of social information and, within the field of schizophrenia, includes several skills such as recognizing emotion, understanding the thoughts and intentions of others, and interpreting social cues. Individuals with schizophrenia show significant impairments in social cognition, and these impairments are strongly related to functional outcome. Treating social cognition yields significant improvements in real-world outcomes, including social functioning and social skill. Importantly, social cognitive abilities are linked to specific neural circuits that have been shown to be abnormal in individuals with schizophrenia. Investigations of these neural networks in patients have also demonstrated that brain activation is significantly correlated with social functioning, which suggests that abnormal activation in social cognitive networks may serve as a mechanism for social dysfunction in schizophrenia. Among the many challenges in this area is the issue of measurement. There is disagreement about which tasks best measure social cognition and many existing measures show poor psychometric properties. A recent project, called the Social Cognition Psychometric Evaluation (SCOPE) study, aims to address these problems by providing the field with a well-validated battery of social cognitive tasks that can be used in treatment outcome trials. Research is honing in on the potential mechanisms of social cognitive impairment in patients, and with improved measurement, there is promise for optimizing behavioral and pharmacologic interventions and remediation strategies. © Copyright 2014 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.
Bourne, Lyle E., Jr.; Yaroush, Rita A.
Research in cognitive psychology has made a significant contribution to our understanding of how acute and chronic stress affect performance. It has done so by identifying some of the factors that contribute to operator error and by suggesting how operators might be trained to respond more effectively in a variety of circumstances. The major purpose of this paper was to review the literature of cognitive psychology as it relates to these questions and issues. Based on the existence of earlier reviews (e.g., Hamilton, & Warburton, 1979; Hockey, 1983) the following investigation was limited to the last 15 years (1988-2002) and restricted to a review of the primary peer-reviewed literature. The results of this examination revealed that while cognitive psychology has contributed in a substantive way to our understanding of stress impact on various cognitive processes, it has also left many questions unanswered. Concerns about how we define and use the term stress and the gaps that remain in our knowledge about the specific effects of stressors on cognitive processes are discussed in the text.
Piotrowski, Jessica Taylor; Lapierre, Matthew A; Linebarger, Deborah L
Children who possess less self-regulatory skill are at a disadvantage when compared to children who demonstrate greater skill at regulating their emotions, cognitions and behavior. Children with these regulatory deficits have difficulty connecting with peers, generating relationships with teachers, negotiating their social world, and succeeding academically. By understanding the correlates of self-regulatory abilities, interventions can be developed to ensure that children at-risk for poor self-regulation receive the support necessary to enhance their regulatory skills. Using data from a nationally representative survey of English-speaking American parents with children between the ages of two and eight ( n = 1,141), we evaluated a host of demographic and parenting variables to isolate the correlates of self-regulation. Older children were found to have fewer regulatory problems than younger children while children from low-income homes and male children were found to have greater problems with self-regulation. Minority status, household composition (single vs multi-parent), and parental education were not significant correlates of self-regulation. Findings also illustrate the powerful relationship between parenting style and self-regulation. Parents who rely on nurturing parenting practices that reinforce the child's sense of autonomy while still maintaining a consistent parenting presence (i.e., authoritative parenting) have children who demonstrate stronger self-regulatory skills. Parents who exert an excess of parental control (i.e., authoritarian parents) have children with weaker self-regulatory skills. And lastly, parents who have notable absence of control (i.e., permissive parents) are more likely to have children with considerable regulatory deficits. Results offer implications for both practitioners and scholars.
Cheng, Grand H-L; Chan, Angelique; Lo, June C
Aging is accompanied by cognitive decline that is escalated in older adults reporting extreme sleep duration. Social relationships can influence health outcomes and thus may qualify the association between sleep duration and cognitive function. The present study examines the moderating effects of marital status, household size, and social network with friends and relatives on the sleep-cognition association among older adults. Data (N = 4,169) came from the Social Isolation, Health, and Lifestyles Survey, a nationally representative survey of community-dwelling older Singaporeans (≥ 60 years). Sleep duration and social relationships were self-reported. Cognitive function was assessed with the Short Portable Mental Status Questionnaire. Regression analysis revealed that the inverted U-shaped association between sleep duration and cognitive function was less profound among older adults who were married (vs. unmarried) and those who had stronger (vs. weaker) social networks. In contrast, it was more prominent among individuals who had more (vs. fewer) household members. Being married and having stronger social networks may buffer against the negative cognitive impact of extreme sleep duration. But larger household size might imply more stress for older persons, and therefore strengthen the sleep duration-cognitive function association. We discuss the potential biological underpinnings and the policy implications of the findings. Although our findings are based on a large sample, replication studies using objective measures of sleep duration and other cognitive measures are needed.
Liu, Jie; Huang, Yuling; Chen, Guojuan; Liu, Xiaoxue; Wang, Zhijun; Cao, Yibin; Li, Haitao; Song, Lu; Li, Chunhui; Zhao, Hualing; Chen, Shuohua; Wang, Yiming; Zhang, Ruiying; Wang, Anxin; Wu, Shouling
Abstract The association between systolic blood pressure (SBP) and cognitive function is controversial in elderly adults. In addition, few studies focused on the cumulative effect of SBP. We aimed to investigate the association between cumulative SBP exposure and cognitive function among middle-aged and elderly adults. The analysis was based on the Asymptomatic Polyvascular Abnormalities Community (APAC) study. The primary predictor was the cumulative SBP calculated by consecutive SBP values measured through baseline (2006–2007) up to the fourth examination (2012–2013). The cognitive function was estimated by mini-mental state examination (MMSE) in the fourth examination. Linear regression and logistic regression analyses were used to investigate the association between cumulative SBP and cognitive function. Among 2211 participants (41.4% female, aged 40–94 years), 167 (7.55%) were diagnosed with cognitive impairment (MMSE score < 24). Higher cumulative exposure to SBP (per SD increment) was independently associated with poor cognitive performance after controlling for multiple factors (P < 0.001). We observed nondifferential association between men and women. However, higher cumulative SBP in the adults aged ≥60 years had a stronger association with poor cognitive performance compared with that in adults aged 40 to 60 years. Greater exposure to cumulative SBP is associated with worse cognitive performance among middle-aged and elderly adults. This association is similar between men and women, but stronger in elderly adults. PMID:27902618
Butler, Michael; Johnson, Amy S
Melanin has been associated with increased resistance to abrasion, decreased wear and lowered barb breakage in feathers. But, this association was inferred without considering barb position along the rachis as a potentially confounding variable. We examined the cross-sectional area, breaking force, breaking stress, breaking strain and toughness of melanized and unmelanized barbs along the entire rachis of a primary feather from an osprey (Pandion haliaetus). Although breaking force was higher for melanized barbs, breaking stress (force divided by cross-sectional area) was greater for unmelanized barbs. But when position was considered, all mechanical differences between melanized and unmelanized barbs disappeared. Barb breaking stress, breaking strain and toughness decreased, and breaking stiffness increased, distally along the rachis. These proximal-distal material property changes are small and seem unlikely to affect flight performance of barbs. Our observations of barb bending, breaking and morphology, however, lead us to propose a design principle for barbs. We propose that, by being thicker-walled dorso-ventrally, the barb's flexural stiffness is increased during flight; but, by allowing for twisting when loaded with dangerously high forces, barbs firstly avoid failure by bending and secondly avoid complete failure by buckling rather than rupturing.
Are we witnessing a transformation of the EU from a strong supranational institution into a weaker Union dominated by governments? This chapter analyzes developments in the past two decades, investigating whether we have seen a shift in power from the EU to member state governments. Is there a sh......Are we witnessing a transformation of the EU from a strong supranational institution into a weaker Union dominated by governments? This chapter analyzes developments in the past two decades, investigating whether we have seen a shift in power from the EU to member state governments....... Is there a shift in the EU towards a new, more intergovernmental Union? The argument in this chapter is that what we are seeing is actually the gradual strengthening of the supranational character of the Union, following a typical trajectory. When a policy area is first included as part of the EU, decision...
The odorisation of Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) is undertaken to improve the safe use and transport of this popular fuel. Effective LPG odorisation should enable leaks to be detected by any person with a normal sense of smell before gas concentrations reach a hazardous level. The objective is identical to that for odorising natural gas. However, the physical characteristics of propane and butane present particular difficulties. These do not occur with natural gas, which has a dynamic, flowing, simple-phase system. (author)
The odorisation of Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) is undertaken to improve the safe use and transport of this popular fuel. Effective LPG odorisation should enable leaks to be detected by any person with a normal sense of smell before gas concentrations reach a hazardous level. The objective is identical to that for odorising natural gas. However, the physical characteristics of propane and butane present particular difficulties. These do not occur with natural gas, which has a dynamic, flowing, simple-phase system. (author)
The Toronto Olympic Bid Committee is reported to have adopted a strong environmental orientation in its bid to bring the 2008 Olympic Games to Toronto. In a recent address, the President of the Committee outlined details of the bid's environmental component which emphasizes the role of sustainable development within the Olympics and the consequences of this orientation on the design, construction and operation of facilities. The Toronto Bid Committee has gained inspiration and momentum for its 'green bid' from the host city of the 2000 Olympic Games, Sidney, Australia, which has won widespread praise for its efforts to clean up Homebush Bay, a brownfield site long seen as a liability for the city. The Toronto Bid Committee is making itself accountable for: creating the healthiest possible conditions for the athletes, visitors and residents; designing for sustainability; protecting, restoring and enhancing human and natural habitats; conserving resources and minimizing the ecological impact of the Games; promoting innovative, technically proven Canadian environmental technology; and fostering environmental awareness and education. The Committee intends to make the environment a priority and not just an afterthought in the bidding process. It hopes to develop specific goals and where possible, quantifiable targets in non-polluting designs for all Olympic housing and sports facilities. Wherever possible renewable power such as wind, solar and fuel cells will be used, and cleaner fuels such as natural gas where green power is not a viable option
Jensen, Vibeke Myrup
classroom hours in literacy and maths on ninth grade (aged 16) student performance in writing and maths, respectively. Using population data for Denmark in 2003-2006, I exploit unique policy-induced variation in classroom hours.On average, the reform changed classroom hours by 2.2-3.3% in literacy and maths...
Full Text Available The aim of the HTA report is to evaluate the effectiveness of cognitive training methods to treat cognitive disorders of dementia and other diseases with cognitive deficits. For this purpose, a systematic literature search was carried out first based on the DIMDI superbase retrieval. The identified publications were judged and selected by two independent, methodically competent experts. 33 publications were included in the report. Based on the studies for a normal cognitive development in old age a theory that healthy older people have a considerable capacity reserve for an improved performance in abstract abilities of thinking can be assumed. The first symptoms for older people at risk for dementia are a reduced cognitive capacity reserve. Cognitive training methods therefore focus abilities of abstract memory. Apart from types of dementia another two groups of diseases with cognitive deficits were included in the HTA report: cerebral lesions and schizophrenic psychoses. Studies with mild as well as forms of dementia heavy forms including the Alzheimer disease were included. The described training methods were very heterogeneous with regard to their contents, the temporal sequence and the outcome parameter. The studies were methodically partly contestable. Approximately a third of the studies of all publications could show improvements in the cognitive achievements by the training. Three studies concerning cognitive training methods in case of cerebral lesions were included. All three studies demonstrated a significant improvement in the training group in some outcome parameters. Special cognitive training methods were used for the treatment of cognitive deficits at schizophrenic psychoses. The neurocognitive training (NET, the "Cognitive Remediation Therapy" as well as the strategic training with coaching proved to be effective. The studies, however, were hardly comparable and very heterogeneous in detail. Summarising the cognitive training
Zhong, Rong-Lin; Xu, Hong-Liang; Li, Zhi-Ru
An increasing number of chemists have focused on the two-electron/multicenter bond (2e/mc) that was first introduced to interpret the bonding mechanism of radical dimers. Herein, we report the polar two-electron/twelve center (2e/12c) bonding character in a series of phenalenyl-azaphenalenyl radical hetero-dimers. Interestingly, the bonding energy of weaker polar hetero-dimer (P-TAP) is dominated by the overlap of the two different singly occupied molecular orbital of radicals, while that of stronger polar hetero-dimer (P-HAP) is dominated by the electrostatic attraction. Results show that the difference between the electronegativity of the monomers plays a prominent role in the essential attribution of the polar 2e/12c bond. Correspondingly, a stronger stacking interaction in the hetero-dimer could be effectively achieved by increasing the difference of nitrogen atoms number between the monomers. It is worthy of note that an interesting interlayer charge transfer character is induced in the polar hetero-dimers, which is dependent on the difference between the electronegativity of the monomers. It is our expectation that the new knowledge about the bonding nature of radical hetero-dimers might provide important information for designing radical based functional materials with various applications.
Mader, Tara L; Novotny, Susan A; Lin, Angela S; Guldberg, Robert E; Lowe, Dawn A; Warren, Gordon L
Bone loss due to age and disuse contributes to osteoporosis and increases fracture risk. It has been hypothesized that such bone loss can be attenuated by modulation of the C-C chemokine receptor 2 (CCR2) and/or its ligands. The objectives of this study were to examine the effects of genetic elimination of CCR2 on cortical and trabecular bones in the mouse tibia and how bone loss was impacted following disuse and estrogen loss. Female CCR2 knockout (CCR2(-/-)) and wildtype mice underwent ovariectomy (OVX) or denervation of musculature adjacent to the tibia (DEN) to induce bone loss. Cortical and trabecular structural properties as well as mechanical properties (i.e., strength) of tibial bones were measured. Compared to wildtype mice, CCR2(-/-) mice had tibiae that were up to 9% larger and stronger; these differences could be explained mainly by the 17% greater body mass (P bone loss per se. These findings indicate that while CCR2(-/-) mice do have larger and stronger bones than do wildtype mice, there is minimal evidence that CCR2 elimination provides protection against bone loss during disuse and estrogen loss.
Marquet, Manon; Missotten, Pierre; Adam, Stéphane
Stigmatization related to age (i.e., ageism) is a widespread phenomenon in the modern industrial societies where older people are perceived as cognitively incompetent. Therefore negative stereotypes about age-related cognitive decline may have a detrimental influence on older adults on their cognitive performance. The aim of the present review is to understand how stereotypes can influence the performance of the elderly on cognitive tests. We first describe the stereotype threat phenomenon by providing an overview of situations likely to produce stereotype threat, as well as contextual and personal characteristics that moderate its effects. Possible mechanisms underlying these influences on cognitive performance are also presented. Secondly, we address self-stereotyping, which explains long-term negative effects of stereotypes and their unconscious influence on older adults' cognitive performance. However, some age stereotypes have also positive effects on aged people, as shown by some studies describing such beneficial effects of positive stereotypes on cognitive performance. Finally we try to understand why negative age stereotyping has a much stronger influence on important behavioral outcomes among older adults than does positive age stereotyping. Given all these results, we examine how negative age stereotypes may impact older adults' cognitive performance in real-world settings such as during a cognitive assessment.
Gr ver Aukrust, Vibeke, Ed.
This collection of 58 articles from the recently-published third edition of the International Encyclopedia of Education focuses on learning, memory, attention, problem solving, concept formation, and language. Learning and cognition is the foundation of cognitive psychology and encompasses many topics including attention, memory, categorization,…
Hansen, Lars Kai; Ahrendt, Peter; Larsen, Jan
Cognitive component analysis (COCA) is here defined as the process of unsupervised grouping of data such that the ensuing group structure is well-aligned with that resulting from human cognitive activity. We have earlier demonstrated that independent components analysis is relevant for representi...
Steinmetz, J.; Rasmussen, L.S.
Delirium and postoperative cognitive dysfunction are important and common complications after surgery. Risk factors are first of all increasing age and type of surgery, whereas the type of anaesthesia does not seem to play an important role. Mortality is higher among patients with cognitive...
Korman, Joanna; Voiklis, John; Malle, Bertram F
We begin by illustrating that long before the cognitive revolution, social psychology focused on topics pertaining to what is now known as social cognition: people's subjective interpretations of social situations and the concepts and cognitive processes underlying these interpretations. We then examine two questions: whether social cognition entails characteristic concepts and cognitive processes, and how social processes might themselves shape and constrain cognition. We suggest that social cognition relies heavily on generic cognition but also on unique concepts (e.g., agent, intentionality) and unique processes (e.g., projection, imitation, joint attention). We further suggest that social processes play a prominent role in the development and unfolding of several generic cognitive processes, including learning, attention, and memory. Finally, we comment on the prospects of a recently developing approach to the study of social cognition (social neuroscience) and two potential future directions (computational social cognition and social-cognitive robotics). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available A growing trend of neuroimaging, behavioural and computational research has investigated the topic of outcome uncertainty in decision-making. Although evidence to date indicates that humans are very effective in learning to adapt to uncertain situations, the nature of the specific cognitive processes involved in the adaptation to uncertainty are still a matter of debate. In this article, we reviewed evidence suggesting that cognitive control processes are at the heart of uncertainty in decision-making contexts. Available evidence suggests that: (1 There is a strong conceptual overlap between the constructs of uncertainty and cognitive control; (2 There is a remarkable overlap between the neural networks associated with uncertainty and the brain networks subserving cognitive control; (3 The perception and estimation of uncertainty might play a key role in monitoring processes and the evaluation of the need for control; (4 Potential interactions between uncertainty and cognitive control might play a significant role in several affective disorders.
Cowley, Stephen; Secchi, Davide
inner processes, but as the basis for pursuing organizational matters. To develop a theory of organizational cognition, the current work presents an agent-based simulation model based on the case of how individual perception of scientific value is affected by and affects organizational intelligence...... units' (e.g., research groups', departmental) framing of the notorious impact factor. Results show that organizational cognition cannot be described without an intermediate meso scale - called here social organizing - that both filters and enables the many kinds of socially enabled perception, action......This article offers an alternative perspective on organizational cognition based on e-cognition whereby appeal to systemic cognition replaces the traditional computational model of the mind that is still extremely popular in organizational research. It uses information processing, not to explore...
de Miguel, Ignacio; Duran, Ramon J.; Jimenez, Tamara
The use of cognition is a promising element for the control of heterogeneous optical networks. Not only are cognitive networks able to sense current network conditions and act according to them, but they also take into account the knowledge acquired through past experiences; that is, they include...... learning with the aim of improving performance. In this paper, we review the fundamentals of cognitive networks and focus on their application to the optical networking area. In particular, a number of cognitive network architectures proposed so far, as well as their associated supporting technologies......, are reviewed. Moreover, several applications, mainly developed in the framework of the EU FP7 Cognitive Heterogeneous Reconfigurable Optical Network (CHRON) project, are also described....
People with cognitive disabilities are gaining in a long struggle for recognition of their right to control their lives. In the information society access to the Web is essential to this control. Cognitive barriers to this access are diverse, reflecting the complexity of human cognitive faculties. These barriers are not well managed in current accessibility practice and policy, in part because cognitive accessibility, like usability, cannot be reduced to a checklist of simple attributes. Advances in representing the meaning as well as the form of information, and in supporting configurable presentation and interaction methods, will yield progress. Increased inclusion of people with cognitive disabilities in the processes of technology development and policy making will also pay off.
Hinnant-Crawford, Brandi Nicole; Faison, Morgan Z.; Chang, Mei-Lin
Purpose: Self-regulation is defined as strategic, metacognitive behavior, motivation and cognition aimed at a goal (Zimmmerman and Schunk, 2011). Co-regulation, arguably more aligned with norms in communal cultures, is the process of learners sharing "a common problem-solving plane" through which self-regulatory strategies are learned…
Koch, Alexander; Nafziger, Julia
Goals are an important source of motivation. But little is known about why and how people set them. We address these questions in a model based on two stylized facts from psychology and behavioral economics: i) Goals serve as reference points for performance. ii) Present-biased preferences create...... self-control problems. We show how goals permit self-regulation, but also that they are painful self-disciplining devices. Greater self-control problems therefore lead to stronger self-regulation through goals only up to a certain point. For severely present-biased preferences, the required goal...
Biddie, Simon C.; Conway-Campbell, Becky L.; Lightman, Stafford L.
Activation of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) by endogenous and synthetic glucocorticoids regulates hundreds of genes to control regulatory networks in development, metabolism, cognition and inflammation. Elucidation of the mechanisms that regulate glucocorticoid action has highlighted the dynamic nature of hormone signalling and provides novel insights into genomic glucocorticoid actions. The major factors that regulate GR function include chromatin structure, epigenetics, genetic variation...
Ingber, Adam P; Hassenstab, Jason; Fagan, Anne M; Benzinger, Tammie L S; Grant, Elizabeth A; Holtzman, David M; Morris, John C; Roe, Catherine M
The influence of reserve variables and Alzheimer's disease (AD) biomarkers on cognitive test performance has been fairly well-characterized. However, less is known about the influence of these factors on "non-cognitive" outcomes, including functional abilities and mood. We examined whether cognitive and brain reserve variables mediate how AD biomarker levels in cognitively normal persons predict future changes in function, mood, and neuropsychiatric behavior. Non-cognitive outcomes were examined in 328 individuals 50 years and older enrolled in ongoing studies of aging and dementia at the Knight Alzheimer Disease Research Center (ADRC). All participants were cognitively normal at baseline (Clinical Dementia Rating [CDR] 0), completed cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and structural neuroimaging studies within one year of baseline, and were followed for an average of 4.6 annual visits. Linear mixed effects models explored how cognitive reserve and brain reserve variables mediate the relationships between AD biomarker levels and changes in function, mood, and neuropsychiatric behavior in cognitively normal participants. Education levels did not have a significant effect on predicting non-cognitive decline. However, participants with smaller brain volumes exhibited the worst outcomes on measures of mood, functional abilities, and behavioral disturbance. This effect was most pronounced in individuals who also had abnormal CSF biomarkers. The findings suggest that brain reserve plays a stronger, or earlier, role than cognitive reserve in protecting against non-cognitive impairment in AD.
Minor, Kyle S; Lysaker, Paul H
Intact neurocognition has been posited as a necessary, but not sufficient prerequisite for efficient social cognition and metacognition in schizophrenia. Disorganized symptoms likely play a prominent role in these cognitive processes, given the detrimental effects of disorganization on one's ability to synthesize discrete information into an organized whole. However, the relationship between disorganized symptoms and cognitive processes remains unclear. In this study, we examined whether disorganized symptoms: 1) exhibited stronger inverse relationships with cognitive processes than other symptoms, and 2) moderated links between neurocognition and a) social cognition, and b) metacognition. Trained raters assessed psychotic symptoms, neurocognition, social cognition, and metacognition in patients with schizophrenia from a Midwestern VA Medical Center (n=68) using validated, clinician-rated instruments. We observed significantly greater inverse associations with cognitive processes for disorganized compared to reality distortion symptoms; inverse associations with neurocognition and social cognition were significantly greater for disorganized than negative symptoms. Our hypotheses that disorganized symptoms would moderate relationships between neurocognition and a) social cognition, and b) metacognition were also supported. These findings highlight the importance of disorganized symptoms in elucidating links between neurocognition and social cognitive and metacognitive abilities. Future work should assess whether similar findings occur across the schizophrenia-spectrum, and investigate if targeting disorganization can ameliorate social cognitive and metacognitive impairments in schizophrenia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Wu, XianMing; Hurst, Laurence D.
The nearly neutral theory predicts that small effective population size provides the conditions for weakened selection. This is postulated to explain why our genome is more “bloated” than that of, for example, yeast, ours having large introns and large intergene spacer. If a bloated genome is also an error prone genome might it, however, be the case that selection for error-mitigating properties is stronger in our genome? We examine this notion using splicing as an exemplar, not least because large introns can predispose to noisy splicing. We thus ask whether, owing to genomic decay, selection for splice error-control mechanisms is stronger, not weaker, in species with large introns and small populations. In humans much information defining splice sites is in cis-exonic motifs, most notably exonic splice enhancers (ESEs). These act as splice-error control elements. Here then we ask whether within and between-species intron size is a predictor of the commonality of exonic cis-splicing motifs. We show that, as predicted, the proportion of synonymous sites that are ESE-associated and under selection in humans is weakly positively correlated with the size of the flanking intron. In a phylogenetically controlled framework, we observe, also as expected, that mean intron size is both predicted by Ne.μ and is a good predictor of cis-motif usage across species, this usage coevolving with splice site definition. Unexpectedly, however, across taxa intron density is a better predictor of cis-motif usage than intron size. We propose that selection for splice-related motifs is driven by a need to avoid decoy splice sites that will be more common in genes with many and large introns. That intron number and density predict ESE usage within human genes is consistent with this, as is the finding of intragenic heterogeneity in ESE density. As intronic content and splice site usage across species is also well predicted by Ne.μ, the result also suggests an unusual circumstance in
Weuve, Jennifer; Wilson, Robert S.; Bültmann, Ute; Evans, Denis A.; Mendes de Leon, Carlos F.
Objective: To examine whether occupational cognitive requirements, as a marker of adulthood cognitive activity, are associated with late-life cognition and cognitive decline. Methods: Main lifetime occupation information for 7,637 participants aged >65 years of the Chicago Health and Aging Project (CHAP) was linked with standardized data on worker attributes and job characteristics from the Occupational Information Network (O*NET). Ratings of cognitive processes required in 10 work-related tasks were used to create a summary measure of occupational cognitive requirements (possible range 0–7). Multivariable-adjusted linear mixed models were used to estimate the association of occupational cognitive requirements score (OCRS) with cognitive function and rate of cognitive decline. Results: Higher OCRS corresponded to significantly better late-life cognitive performance at baseline in 1993 (p cognitive function over time (p = 0.004). Within a genotyped subsample (n = 4,104), the associations of OCRS with rate of cognitive decline did not differ significantly by APOE ε4 carriership (p = 0.11). Conclusions: Findings suggest that occupational cognitive requirements are associated with better cognition and a slower rate of cognitive decline in older age. Adulthood cognitive activity may contribute to cognitive reserve in late life. PMID:26984944
Ahmed, Anthony O; Richardson, Jenae; Buckner, Alex; Romanoff, Sabrina; Feder, Michelle; Oragunye, Njideka; Ilnicki, Andriana; Bhat, Ishrat; Hoptman, Matthew J; Lindenmayer, Jean-Pierre
Schizophrenia is associated with an elevated risk of aggression. Cognitive deficits have been associated with inpatient aggression and future violence. The relationship between cognitive deficits and violent behavior has however been inconsistent across studies. In addition, studies have failed to inform how cognitive deficits may contribute to aggression in schizophrenia. The current study examined the association of cognitive deficits with schizophrenia-related aggression and violent offending. It also explored the putative mediating role of negative emotionality on the impact of cognitive deficits on aggression. People with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder (N = 78) were recruited from a state hospital. Participants were classified based on their history of violent offending. Participants completed measures of cognition, symptoms, and aggression. Deficits in working memory, reasoning/problem-solving, and verbal learning were the most prioritized for the prediction of violent offender status. Violent offenders demonstrated greater impairments in most cognitive domains especially working memory and verbal learning. Offenders also demonstrated greater negative emotionality, excitement/agitation, and incidents of verbal and physical aggression. Negative emotionality and excitement/agitation fully transmitted the effect of cognitive deficits on impulsive aggression in meditational models. Cognitive deficits increase the risk of impulsive aggression in schizophrenia via inefficient regulation of negative affective states. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Li, Qin; Vo, Hai T; Wang, Jing; Fox-Quick, Stephanie; Dobrunz, Lynn E; King, Gwendalyn D
Global klotho overexpression extends lifespan while global klotho-deficiency shortens it. As well, klotho protein manipulations inversely regulate cognitive function. Mice without klotho develop rapid onset cognitive impairment before they are 2months old. Meanwhile, adult mice overexpressing klotho show enhanced cognitive function, particularly in hippocampal-dependent tasks. The cognitive enhancing effects of klotho extend to humans with a klotho polymorphism that increases circulating klotho and executive function. To affect cognitive function, klotho could act in or on the synapse to modulate synaptic transmission or plasticity. However, it is not yet known if klotho is located at synapses, and little is known about its effects on synaptic function. To test this, we fractionated hippocampi and detected klotho expression in both pre and post-synaptic compartments. We find that loss of klotho enhances both pre and post-synaptic measures of CA1 hippocampal synaptic plasticity at 5weeks of age. However, a rapid loss of synaptic enhancement occurs such that by 7weeks, when mice are cognitively impaired, there is no difference from wild-type controls. Klotho overexpressing mice show no early life effects on synaptic plasticity, but decreased CA1 hippocampal long-term potentiation was measured at 6months of age. Together these data suggest that klotho affects cognition, at least in part, by regulating hippocampal synaptic plasticity. Copyright © 2017 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Schrodt, Fabian; Kneissler, Jan; Ehrenfeld, Stephan; Butz, Martin V
In line with Allen Newell's challenge to develop complete cognitive architectures, and motivated by a recent proposal for a unifying subsymbolic computational theory of cognition, we introduce the cognitive control architecture SEMLINCS. SEMLINCS models the development of an embodied cognitive agent that learns discrete production rule-like structures from its own, autonomously gathered, continuous sensorimotor experiences. Moreover, the agent uses the developing knowledge to plan and control environmental interactions in a versatile, goal-directed, and self-motivated manner. Thus, in contrast to several well-known symbolic cognitive architectures, SEMLINCS is not provided with production rules and the involved symbols, but it learns them. In this paper, the actual implementation of SEMLINCS causes learning and self-motivated, autonomous behavioral control of the game figure Mario in a clone of the computer game Super Mario Bros. Our evaluations highlight the successful development of behavioral versatility as well as the learning of suitable production rules and the involved symbols from sensorimotor experiences. Moreover, knowledge- and motivation-dependent individualizations of the agents' behavioral tendencies are shown. Finally, interaction sequences can be planned on the sensorimotor-grounded production rule level. Current limitations directly point toward the need for several further enhancements, which may be integrated into SEMLINCS in the near future. Overall, SEMLINCS may be viewed as an architecture that allows the functional and computational modeling of embodied cognitive development, whereby the current main focus lies on the development of production rules from sensorimotor experiences. Copyright © 2017 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.
Benedict, Ralph; Enzinger, Christian; Filippi, Massimo; Geurts, Jeroen J.; Hamalainen, Paivi; Hulst, Hanneke; Inglese, Matilde; Leavitt, Victoria M.; Rocca, Maria A.; Rosti-Otajarvi, Eija M.; Rao, Stephen
Cognitive decline is recognized as a prevalent and debilitating symptom of multiple sclerosis (MS), especially deficits in episodic memory and processing speed. The field aims to (1) incorporate cognitive assessment into standard clinical care and clinical trials, (2) utilize state-of-the-art neuroimaging to more thoroughly understand neural bases of cognitive deficits, and (3) develop effective, evidence-based, clinically feasible interventions to prevent or treat cognitive dysfunction, which are lacking. There are obstacles to these goals. Our group of MS researchers and clinicians with varied expertise took stock of the current state of the field, and we identify several important practical and theoretical challenges, including key knowledge gaps and methodologic limitations related to (1) understanding and measurement of cognitive deficits, (2) neuroimaging of neural bases and correlates of deficits, and (3) development of effective treatments. This is not a comprehensive review of the extensive literature, but instead a statement of guidelines and priorities for the field. For instance, we provide recommendations for improving the scientific basis and methodologic rigor for cognitive rehabilitation research. Toward this end, we call for multidisciplinary collaborations toward development of biologically based theoretical models of cognition capable of empirical validation and evidence-based refinement, providing the scientific context for effective treatment discovery. PMID:29343470
Portnoy, Sara; Girling, Isabella; Fredman, Glenda
This article describes the 'Beads of Life' approach--a five-part methodology informed by narrative therapy to enable children and young people to make sense of their cancer journey in ways that make them stronger. Young people are invited to use beads as prompts to tell preferred stories of their identity to create a safe place to stand from which to story their cancer journey. The approach positions young people as experts in their lives. It aims to change their relationship with cancer to reduce its negative impact on life by lessening isolation. By enabling medical staff to get to know the young person apart from the cancer, this approach aims to create hope for the future and improve quality of care. © The Author(s) 2015.
Borges, Alvaro Humberto Diniz; O'Connor, Jemma L; Phillips, Andrew N
BACKGROUND: Interleukin 6 (IL-6), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), and D-dimer levels are linked to adverse outcomes in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, but the strength of their associations with different clinical end points warrants investigation. METHODS: Participants...... receiving standard of care in 2 HIV trials with measured biomarker levels were followed to ascertain all-cause death, non-AIDS-related death, AIDS, cardiovascular disease (CVD), and non-AIDS-defining malignancies. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of each end point for quartiles and log......-dimer (P = .20) as a predictor for different end points. CONCLUSIONS: IL-6 is a stronger predictor of fatal events than of CVD and non-AIDS-defining malignancies. Adjuvant antiinflammatory and antithrombotic therapies should be tested in HIV-infected individuals....
Habarta, Nancy; Boudewyns, Vanessa; Badal, Hannah; Johnston, Jennie; Uhrig, Jennifer; Green, Donata; Ruddle, Paul; Rosenthal, Jacqueline; Stryker, Jo Ellen
This study assessed exposure among Black gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (BMSM) to a communication campaign, Testing Makes Us Stronger (TMUS), and its association with HIV testing to determine campaign effectiveness. Data from an online survey (N = 3,105) were analyzed using propensity score weight-adjusted logistic regression to examine the effect of exposure on HIV testing. Among BMSM aged 18-44 (n = 702), 43.2% reported TMUS exposure. The majority of those exposed were aged 25-34 (54%), HIV-negative (65%), and had some college education (87%). TMUS exposure was associated with reported increased HIV testing behaviors at 6- and 12-month frequencies. Communication campaigns with clear implementation strategies, focused objectives, and online and event presence can be associated with longer-term outcomes such as HIV testing.
Stevenson, Richard J; Prescott, John
Cognition influences what, when and how much we eat, which in turn affects the brain and hence cognition. In this overview, focusing mainly on the human literature, we start by examining cognitive influences on food and eating. This includes food preferences and choices (e.g., effects of learning, advertising, and cultural taboos), food habits relating to when and how much to eat (e.g., the concept of meals, dieting, and hunger strikes), the perception of food (e.g., the influence of appearance, food labels, and conceptions of naturalness), and how food perception is influenced by expertise. We also review how these various influences are disrupted by abnormalities of cognition (e.g., Gourmand syndrome, amnesia, and anorexia nervosa). The second part of the overview focuses on how diet affects cognition. We start by looking at the acute effects of diet, notably the impact of breakfast on cognitive performance in children. This is followed by a review of the effects of extended dietary exposures-years and lifetimes of particular diets. Here we look at the impacts of protein-energy malnourishment and Western-style diets, and their different, but adverse affects on cognition, and the beneficial effects on cognition of breast-feeding and certain dietary practices. We then outline how diet and cooking may have allowed the evolution of the large energy-hungry human brain. This overview serves to illustrate the multiple interactions that exist between cognition and diet, their importance to health and disease, and their impact on thinking about the role of conscious processes in decision making. WIREs Cogn Sci 2014, 5:463-475. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1290 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. The authors have declared no conflicts of interest for this article. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Wolfe, Christy D.; Bell, Martha Ann
This study was an attempt to integrate cognitive development (i.e., cognitive control) and emotional development (i.e., emotion regulation) in the first years of life. The construct of temperament was used to unify cognition and emotion because of its focus on attentional and regulatory behaviors. Children were seen at 8 months and 4 1/2-years of…
Hantke, Nathan C; Gyurak, Anett; Van Moorleghem, Katie; Waring, Jill D; Adamson, Maheen M; O'Hara, Ruth; Beaudreau, Sherry A
Recent research suggests cognition has a bidirectional relationship with emotional processing in older adults, yet the relationship is still poorly understood. We aimed to examine a potential relationship between late-life cognitive function, mental health symptoms, and emotional conflict adaptation. We hypothesized that worse cognitive control abilities would be associated with poorer emotional conflict adaptation. We further hypothesized that a higher severity of mental health symptoms would be associated with poorer emotional conflict adaptation. Participants included 83 cognitively normal community-dwelling older adults who completed a targeted mental health and cognitive battery, and emotion and gender conflict-adaptation tasks. Consistent with our hypothesis, poorer performance on components of cognitive control, specifically attention and working memory, was associated with poorer emotional conflict adaptation. This association with attention and working memory was not observed in the non-affective-based gender conflict adaptation task. Mental health symptoms did not predict emotional conflict adaptation, nor did performance on other cognitive measures. Our findings suggest that emotion conflict adaptation is disrupted in older individuals who have poorer attention and working memory. Components of cognitive control may therefore be an important potential source of inter-individual differences in late-life emotion regulation and cognitive affective deficits. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.