WorldWideScience

Sample records for stronger bars tend

  1. Stronger synergies

    CERN Document Server

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2012-01-01

    CERN was founded 58 years ago under the auspices of UNESCO. Since then, both organisations have grown to become world leaders in their respective fields. The links between the two have always existed but today they are even stronger, with new projects under way to develop a more efficient way of exchanging information and devise a common strategy on topics of mutual interest.   CERN and UNESCO are a perfect example of natural partners: their common field is science and education is one of the pillars on which both are built. Historically, they share a common heritage. Both UNESCO and CERN were born of the desire to use scientific cooperation to rebuild peace and security in the aftermath of the Second World War. "Recently, building on our common roots and in close collaboration with UNESCO, we have been developing more structured links to ensure the continuity of the actions taken over the years," says Maurizio Bona, who is in charge of CERN relations with international orga...

  2. Prospects for stronger calandria tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ells, C.E.; Coleman, C.E.; Hosbons, R.R.; Ibrahim, E.F.; Doubt, G.L.

    1990-12-01

    The CANDU calandria tubes, made of seam welded and annealed Zircaloy-2, have given exemplary service in-reactor. Although not designed as a system pressure containment, calandria tubes may remain intact even in the face of pressure tube rupture. One such incident at Pickering Unit 2 demonstrated the economic advantage of such an outcome, and a case can be made for increasing the probability that other calandria tubes would perform in a similar fashion. Various methods of obtaining stronger calandria tubes are available, and reviewed here. When the tubes are internally pressurized, the weld is the weak section of the tube. Increasing the oxygen concentration in the starting sheet, and thickening the weld, are promising routes to a stronger tube

  3. Dominance has a biogeographical component: do plants tend to exert stronger impacts in their invaded rather than native range?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hejda, Martin; Štajerová, Kateřina; Pyšek, Petr

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 44, č. 1 (2017), s. 18-27 ISSN 0305-0270 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP505/11/1112 Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) AP1002 Program:Akademická prémie - Praemium Academiae Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : dominance * biogeographic approach * invasion Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Ecology Impact factor: 4.248, year: 2016

  4. Chemical reaction due to stronger Ramachandran interaction

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The origin of a chemical reaction between two reactant atoms is associated with the activation energy, on the assumption that, high-energy collisions between these atoms, are the ones that overcome the activation energy. Here, we show that a stronger attractive van der Waals (vdW) and electron-ion Coulomb interactions ...

  5. Barred Owl [ds8

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — These data define the current range of Barred and hybrid Barred/Spotted Owls in California. The current range includes the coastal mountains of northern California...

  6. Barred Owl [ds8

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — These data define the current range of Barred and hybrid Barred/Spotted Owls in California. The current range includes the coastal mountains of northern California...

  7. On Modified Bar recursion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oliva, Paulo Borges

    2002-01-01

    Modified bar recursion is a variant of Spector's bar recursion which can be used to give a realizability interpretation of the classical axiom of dependent choice. This realizability allows for the extraction of witnesses from proofs of forall-exists-formulas in classical analysis. In this talk I...... shall report on results regarding the relationship between modified and Spector's bar recursion. I shall also show that a seemingly weak form of modified bar recursion is as strong as "full" modified bar recursion in higher types....

  8. Grave Tending: With Mom at the Cemetery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolyn Ellis

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available This autoethnographic story shows the process of tending the graves of family members. In the past, the author reluctantly accompanied her mother on her visits to the family cemetery. Once there, she took on the role of distant observer as her mother took care of the family cemetery plots. When her mother becomes disabled, the author begins to arrange the flowers on the graves. Doing so leads her to examine the meaning of visiting the cemetery, feel and connect with her losses, and consider the customs she wants to be part of her own death. When her mother dies, the next generation of women in the family—the author, her sister, and sister-in-law—take on the role of tending the graves, connected in their love and respect for their mother and their feelings of family and family responsibility. This story examines the meanings of family rituals around death and how they are passed from generation to generation. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0302285

  9. LHC Season 2: A stronger machine

    CERN Multimedia

    Dominguez, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    1) New magnets / De nouveaux aimants 2) Stronger connections / Des jonctions électriques renforcées 3) Safer magnets / Des aimants plus sûrs 4) Higher energy beams / Des faisceaux d’énergie plus élevée 5) Narrower beams / Des faisceaux plus serrés 6) Smaller but closer proton packets / Des groupes de protons plus petits mais plus rapprochés 7) Higher voltage / Une tension plus haute 8) Superior cryogenics / Un système cryogénique amélioré 9) Radiation-resistant electronics / Une électronique qui résiste aux radiations 10) More secure vacuum / Un vide plus sûr

  10. Bar and Theta Hyperoperations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Vougiouklis

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In questionnaires the replacement of the scale of Likert by a bar was suggested in 2008 by Vougiouklis & Vougiouklis. The use of the bar was rapidly accepted in social sciences. The bar is closely related with fuzzy theory and has several advantages during both the filling-in questionnaires and mainly in the research processing. In this paper we relate hyperstructure theory with questionnaires and we study the obtained hyperstructures which are used as an organising device of the problem.

  11. Bar Code Labels

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    American Bar Codes, Inc. developed special bar code labels for inventory control of space shuttle parts and other space system components. ABC labels are made in a company-developed anodizing aluminum process and consecutively marketed with bar code symbology and human readable numbers. They offer extreme abrasion resistance and indefinite resistance to ultraviolet radiation, capable of withstanding 700 degree temperatures without deterioration and up to 1400 degrees with special designs. They offer high resistance to salt spray, cleaning fluids and mild acids. ABC is now producing these bar code labels commercially or industrial customers who also need labels to resist harsh environments.

  12. Bibliotecas escolares: tendências globais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelley Cristine Gonçalves Dias Gasque

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo aborda as transformações do processo de ensinoaprendizagem e das tecnologias e o impacto dessas nas bibliotecas escolares, especificamente, na formação do acervo, na configuração do espaço e no papel dos bibliotecários. A análise da literatura mostra tendência à adoção de modelos de aprendizagem baseados na construção colaborativa do conhecimento, com ênfase na aprendizagem compreensiva e atividades de ensino em ambientes diversificados. As bibliotecas escolares podem acolher e subsidiar atividades de ensino variadas, transformando-se em locais não apenas de apropriação da informação, mas também de produção do conhecimento por meio de atividades colaborativas, conectadas e diversificadas. O bibliotecário precisa fortalecer o domínio de tecnologias para obtenção, gerenciamento, produção e compartilhamento de informações. O fomento à leitura continua a ser importante, mas precisa ser ampliado para diferentes suportes e formatos.

  13. Gas Marbles: Much Stronger than Liquid Marbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timounay, Yousra; Pitois, Olivier; Rouyer, Florence

    2017-06-01

    Enwrapping liquid droplets with hydrophobic particles allows the manufacture of so-called "liquid marbles" [Aussillous and Quéré Nature (London) 411, 924 (2001); , 10.1038/35082026Mahadevan Nature (London)411, 895 (2001), 10.1038/35082164]. The recent intensive research devoted to liquid marbles is justified by their very unusual physical and chemical properties and by their potential for various applications, from microreactors to water storage, including water pollution sensors [Bormashenko Curr. Opin. Colloid Interface Sci. 16, 266 (2011), 10.1016/j.cocis.2010.12.002]. Here we demonstrate that this concept can be successfully applied for encapsulating and protecting small gas pockets within an air environment. Similarly to their liquid counterparts, those new soft-matter objects, that we call "gas marbles," can sustain external forces. We show that gas marbles are surprisingly tenfold stronger than liquid marbles and, more importantly, they can sustain both positive and negative pressure differences. This magnified strength is shown to originate from the strong cohesive nature of the shell. Those interesting properties could be exploited for imprisoning valuable or polluted gases or for designing new aerated materials.

  14. Bar-tailed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duijns, S.; Hidayati, N.A.; Piersma, T.

    2013-01-01

    Capsule Across the European wintering range Bar-tailed Godwits Limosa lapponica lapponica selected polychaete worms and especially Ragworms Hediste diversicolor, with differences between areas due to variations in prey availability.Aims To determine the diet of Bar-tailed Godwits across their

  15. Exotic open-flavor $bc\\bar{q}\\bar{q}$, $bc\\bar{s}\\bar{s}$ and $qc\\bar{q}\\bar{b}$, $sc\\bar{s}\\bar{b}$ tetraquark states

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Wei; Steele, T. G.; Zhu, Shi-Lin

    2013-01-01

    We study the exotic $bc\\bar{q}\\bar{q}$, $bc\\bar{s}\\bar{s}$ and $qc\\bar{q}\\bar{b}$, $sc\\bar{s}\\bar{b}$ systems by constructing the corresponding tetraquark currents with $J^P=0^+$ and $1^+$. After investigating the two-point correlation functions and the spectral densities, we perform QCD sum rule analysis and extract the masses of these open-flavor tetraquark states. Our results indicate that the masses of both the scalar and axial vector tetraquark states are about $7.1-7.2$ GeV for the $bc\\...

  16. States agree on stronger physical protection regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Delegates from 89 countries agreed on 8 July to fundamental changes that will substantially strengthen the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material (CPPNM). IAEA Director General Mohamed ElBaradei welcomed the agreement in saying 'This new and stronger treaty is an important step towards greater nuclear security by combating, preventing, and ultimately punishing those who would engage in nuclear theft, sabotage or even terrorism. It demonstrates that there is indeed a global commitment to remedy weaknesses in our nuclear security regime.' The amended CPPNM makes it legally binding for States Parties to protect nuclear facilities and material in peaceful domestic use, storage as well as transport. It will also provide for expanded cooperation between and among States regarding rapid measures to locate and recover stolen or smuggled nuclear material, mitigate any radiological consequences of sabotage, and prevent and combat related offences. The original CPPNM applied only to nuclear material in international transport. Conference President Dr. Alec Baer said 'All 89 delegations demonstrated real unity of purpose. They put aside some very genuine national concerns in favour of the global interest and the result is a much improved convention that is better suited to addressing the nuclear security challenges we currently face.' The new rules will come into effect once they have been ratified by two-thirds of the 112 States Parties of the Convention, expected to take several years. 'But concrete actions are already taking place around the world. For more than 3 years, the IAEA has been implementing a systematic Nuclear Security plan, including physical protection activities designed to prevent, detect and respond to malicious acts,' said Anita Nillson, Director of the IAEA's Office of Nuclear Security. The Agency's Nuclear Security Fund, set up after the events of 9/11, has delivered $19.5 million in practical assistance to 121 countries

  17. El Molino Restaurante Bar

    OpenAIRE

    Munera Alvarez, Nicolas; Borda Melguizo, Sebastian

    2012-01-01

    El restaurante El Molino será un nuevo concepto de restaurante bar ubicado en la Calera, enfocado en contemplar todos los factores de entretenimiento y alimentación que una persona puede esperar en la zona.

  18. Comparison of the passivity between cast alloy and laser-welded titanium overdenture bars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paiva, Jose; Givan, Daniel A; Broome, James C; Lemons, Jack E; McCracken, Michael S

    2009-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the fit of cast alloy overdenture and laser-welded titanium-alloy bars by measuring induced strain upon tightening of the bars on a master cast as well as a function of screw tightening sequence. Four implant analogs were secured into Type IV dental stone to simulate a mandibular edentulous patient cast, and two groups of four overdenture bars were fabricated. Group I was four cast alloy bars and Group II was four laser-welded titanium bars. The cast alloy bars included Au-Ag-Pd, Pd-Ag-Au, Au-Ag-Cu-Pd, and Ag-Pd-Cu-Au, while the laser-welded bars were all Ti-Al-V alloy. Bars were made from the same master cast, were torqued into place, and the total strain in the bars was measured through five strain gauges bonded to the bar between the implants. Each bar was placed and torqued 27 times to 30 Ncm per screw using three tightening sequences. Data were processed through a strain amplifier and analyzed by computer using StrainSmart software. Data were analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey's post hoc test. Significant differences were found between alloy types. Laser-welded titanium bars tended to have lower strains than corresponding cast bars, although the Au-Ag-Pd bar was not significantly different. The magnitudes of total strain were the least when first tightening the ends of the bar. The passivity of implant overdenture bars was evaluated using total strain of the bar when tightening. Selecting a high modulus of elasticity cast alloy or use of laser-welded bar design resulted in the lowest average strain magnitudes. While the effect of screw tightening sequence was minimal, tightening the distal ends first demonstrated the lowest strain, and hence the best passivity.

  19. Mechanical properties of weightlifting bars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Loren Z F

    2010-09-01

    Weightlifting training and competition involves lifting a revolving shaft bar loaded with weights. The design of a bar and the location of the weights result in bar deformation during lifting tasks. Because there are many manufacturers of weightlifting bars, the actual deformation of a bar may vary, depending on the steel alloys used. A modified 4-point static bending test was used to assess deformation of 8 weightlifting bars and 1 general purpose weight training bar. The apparent stiffness of the bars was determined by plotting bending moment vs. bar deformation (the vertical height difference between the center vs. ends of the bar). All bars tested had an absence of hysteresis during cyclic loading and unloading in 50-kg increments (up to 220-kg total barbell weight), demonstrating pure elastic properties. At maximum loading, bar deformation was 4-5 cm. A large range existed for apparent stiffness. Based on apparent stiffness calculations, recommendations are made for which bars are suitable for weightlifting training and competition. The deformable nature of weightlifting and weight training bars should be considered before their use in exercise, sport, or research.

  20. Production and collective motion of qq-bar plasma in heavy ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bialas, A.

    1986-01-01

    The Heinz transport equations for qq-bar plasma are generalized to include a term responsible for qq-bar tunneling from vacuum in chromoelectric field. They are used to study the time dependence of the particle and energy densities and other characteristics of qq-bar production in a color flux tube. The energy density larger than 4 GeV/fm 3 is found at the 'formation time' 0,3 fm for a tube five times stronger than the elementary one. The oscillations of the system survive the damping effects brought about by the process of production of qq-bar pairs. 22 refs., 9 figs. (author)

  1. Breaking through the Bar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Katti

    2011-01-01

    Howard University School of Law had a problem, and school officials knew it. Over a 20-year period, 40 percent of its graduates who took the Maryland bar exam failed it on their first try. During the next 24 months--the time frame required to determine its "eventual pass rate"--almost 90 percent of the students did pass. What they did…

  2. Raising the Bar (3)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elhorst, Paul; Abreu, M.; Amaral, P.; Bhattacharjee, A.; Corrado, L.; Fingleton, B.; Fuerst, F.; Garretsen, H.; Igliori, D.; Le Gallo, J.; McCann, P.; Monastiriotis, V.; Pryce, G.; Yu, J.

    This editorial summarizes and comments on the papers published in issue 11(3) so as to raise the bar in applied spatial economic research and highlight new trends. The first paper proposes spatial and a-spatial indicators to describe the networks of airline companies around the world. The second

  3. Stronger Schrödinger-like uncertainty relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Qiu-Cheng; Qiao, Cong-Feng

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A stronger Schrödinger-like uncertainty relation in the sum of variances of two observables is obtained. • An improved Schrödinger-like uncertainty relation in the product of variances of two observables is obtained. • A stronger uncertainty relation in the sum of variances of three observables is proposed. - Abstract: Uncertainty relation is one of the fundamental building blocks of quantum theory. Nevertheless, the traditional uncertainty relations do not fully capture the concept of incompatible observables. Here we present a stronger Schrödinger-like uncertainty relation, which is stronger than the relation recently derived by Maccone and Pati (2014) [11]. Furthermore, we give an additive uncertainty relation which holds for three incompatible observables, which is stronger than the relation newly obtained by Kechrimparis and Weigert (2014) [12] and the simple extension of the Schrödinger uncertainty relation.

  4. Bar codes for nuclear safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keswani, A.N.; Bieber, A.M. Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Bar codes similar to those used in supermarkets can be used to reduce the effort and cost of collecting nuclear materials accountability data. A wide range of equipment is now commercially available for printing and reading bar-coded information. Several examples of each of the major types of commercially available equipment are given, and considerations are discussed both for planning systems using bar codes and for choosing suitable bar code equipment

  5. Cooling of rectangular bars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frainer, V.J.

    1979-01-01

    A solution of the time-transient Heat Transfer Differential Equation in rectangular coordinates is presented, leading to a model which describes the temperature drop with time in rectangular bars. It is similar to an other model for cilindrical bars which has been previously developed in the Laboratory of Mechanical Metallurgy of UFRGS. Following these models, a generalization has been made, which permits cooling time evaluation for all profiles. These results are compared with experimental laboratory data in the 1200 to 800 0 C range. Some other existing models were also studied which have the purpose of studing the same phenomenon. Their mathematical forms and their evaluated values are analyzed and compared with experimental ones. (Author) [pt

  6. The Possible Heavy Tetraquarks $qQ\\bar q \\bar Q$, $qq\\bar Q \\bar Q$ and $qQ\\bar Q \\bar Q$

    OpenAIRE

    Cui, Ying; Chen, Xiao-Lin; Deng, Wei-Zhen; Zhu, Shi-Lin

    2006-01-01

    Assuming X(3872) is a $qc \\bar q \\bar c$ tetraquark and using its mass as input, we perform a schematic study of the masses of possible heavy tetraquarks using the color-magnetic interaction with the flavor symmetry breaking corrections.

  7. Triply heavy tetraquark states with the $QQ\\bar{Q}\\bar{q}$ configuration

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Kan; Liu, Xiang; Wu, Jing; Liu, Yan-Rui; Zhu, Shi-Lin

    2016-01-01

    In the framework of the color-magnetic interaction, we systematically investigate the mass splittings of the $QQ\\bar{Q}\\bar{q}$ tetraquark states and estimated their rough masses in this work. These systems include the explicitly exotic states $cc\\bar{b}\\bar{q}$ and $bb\\bar{c}\\bar{q}$ and the hidden exotic states $cc\\bar{c}\\bar{q}$, $cb\\bar{b}\\bar{q}$, $bc\\bar{c}\\bar{q}$, and $bb\\bar{b}\\bar{q}$. If a state around the estimated mass region could be observed, its nature as a genuine tetraquark ...

  8. Bar coded retroreflective target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vann, Charles S.

    2000-01-01

    This small, inexpensive, non-contact laser sensor can detect the location of a retroreflective target in a relatively large volume and up to six degrees of position. The tracker's laser beam is formed into a plane of light which is swept across the space of interest. When the beam illuminates the retroreflector, some of the light returns to the tracker. The intensity, angle, and time of the return beam is measured to calculate the three dimensional location of the target. With three retroreflectors on the target, the locations of three points on the target are measured, enabling the calculation of all six degrees of target position. Until now, devices for three-dimensional tracking of objects in a large volume have been heavy, large, and very expensive. Because of the simplicity and unique characteristics of this tracker, it is capable of three-dimensional tracking of one to several objects in a large volume, yet it is compact, light-weight, and relatively inexpensive. Alternatively, a tracker produces a diverging laser beam which is directed towards a fixed position, and senses when a retroreflective target enters the fixed field of view. An optically bar coded target can be read by the tracker to provide information about the target. The target can be formed of a ball lens with a bar code on one end. As the target moves through the field, the ball lens causes the laser beam to scan across the bar code.

  9. Observations of offshore bar decay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Troels; Kroon, Aart; Greenwood, Brian

    2010-01-01

    Long-term, net offshore bar migration is a common occurrence on many multiple-barred beaches. The first stage of the process involves the generation of a longshore bar close to the shoreline that oscillates about a mean position for some time, followed by a stage of net offshore migration across...... the upper shoreface, and finally a stage of decaying bar form through loss of sediment volume at the outer boundary of the upper shoreface. The phenomenon has been previously documented in the Netherlands, the USA, the Canadian Great Lakes, and in New Zealand, but our present understanding...... of the morphodynamic processes and sediment transport pathways involved in bar decay is limited. In this paper, long-term, net offshore bar migration is investigated at Vejers Beach, located on the North Sea coast of Denmark where offshore bar migration rates are of the order of 45–55 m a-1. A wave height...

  10. Ukola Club. Bar americano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azpiazu, J. R.

    1961-03-01

    Full Text Available En la calle de Serrano, aprovechando un semisótano dedicado a otro negocio anteriormente, se ha instalado un bar americano, de cuyo interior ofrecemos algunos pormenores. Se han cuidado, especialmente, las condiciones acústicas, resueltas por medio de un techo de escayola perforada, con vitrofib en su parte superior, y paredes de madera, que contribuyen a darle un ambiente cálido y acogedor. El soporte de hierro laminado existente en el centro del local, cuya supresión hubiera sido costosa, se ha revestido con lajas de mármol que le convierten en un elemento decorativo.

  11. Bar piezoelectric ceramic transformers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erhart, Jiří; Pulpan, Půlpán; Rusin, Luboš

    2013-07-01

    Bar-shaped piezoelectric ceramic transformers (PTs) working in the longitudinal vibration mode (k31 mode) were studied. Two types of the transformer were designed--one with the electrode divided into two segments of different length, and one with the electrodes divided into three symmetrical segments. Parameters of studied transformers such as efficiency, transformation ratio, and input and output impedances were measured. An analytical model was developed for PT parameter calculation for both two- and three-segment PTs. Neither type of bar PT exhibited very high efficiency (maximum 72% for three-segment PT design) at a relatively high transformation ratio (it is 4 for two-segment PT and 2 for three-segment PT at the fundamental resonance mode). The optimum resistive loads were 20 and 10 kΩ for two- and three-segment PT designs for the fundamental resonance, respectively, and about one order of magnitude smaller for the higher overtone (i.e., 2 kΩ and 500 Ω, respectively). The no-load transformation ratio was less than 27 (maximum for two-segment electrode PT design). The optimum input electrode aspect ratios (0.48 for three-segment PT and 0.63 for two-segment PT) were calculated numerically under no-load conditions.

  12. Tend to Compare and Tend to Be Fair: The Relationship between Social Comparison Sensitivity and Justice Sensitivity

    OpenAIRE

    Zhen, Shanshan; Yu, Rongjun

    2016-01-01

    Social comparison is a prerequisite for processing fairness, although the two types of cognition may be associated with different emotions. Whereas social comparison may induce envy, the perception of unfairness may elicit anger. Yet, it remains unclear whether people who tend to have a strong sense of fairness also tend to compare themselves more with others. Here, Study 1 used a modified ultimatum game (UG) and a social comparison game (SCG) to examine the relationship between justice sensi...

  13. Women's political participation leads to stronger local economies ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Edgard Rodriguez - IDRC. Women attend a self-help group meeting near Hyderabad, India. Keenara Khanderia. Under changes to India's constitution, Indian women are gaining a stronger political voice. Legal reforms are encouraging women to contribute to economic growth and investments in community growth.

  14. A Stronger Reason for the Right to Sign Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trovato, Sara

    2013-01-01

    Is the right to sign language only the right to a minority language? Holding a capability (not a disability) approach, and building on the psycholinguistic literature on sign language acquisition, I make the point that this right is of a stronger nature, since only sign languages can guarantee that each deaf child will properly develop the…

  15. Implementation of viscoelastic Hopkinson bars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Govender R.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of the properties of soft, viscoelastic materials at high strain rates are important in furthering our understanding of their role during blast or impact events. Testing these low impedance materials using a metallic split Hopkinson pressure bar setup results in poor signal to noise ratios due to impedance mismatching. These difficulties are overcome by using polymeric Hopkinson bars. Conventional Hopkinson bar analysis cannot be used on the polymeric bars due to the viscoelastic nature of the bar material. Implementing polymeric Hopkinson bars requires characterization of the viscoelastic properties of the material used. In this paper, 30 mm diameter Polymethyl Methacrylate bars are used as Hopkinson pressure bars. This testing technique is applied to polymeric foam called Divinycell H80 and H200. Although there is a large body of of literature containing compressive data, this rarely deals with strain rates above 250s−1 which becomes increasingly important when looking at the design of composite structures where energy absorption during impact events is high on the list of priorities. Testing of polymeric foams at high strain rates allows for the development of better constitutive models.

  16. Transgenerational effects and the cost of ant tending in aphids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tegelaar, Karolina; Glinwood, Robert; Pettersson, Jan; Leimar, Olof

    2013-11-01

    In mutualistic interactions, partners obtain a net benefit, but there may also be costs associated with the provision of benefits for a partner. The question of whether aphids suffer such costs when attended by ants has been raised in previous work. Transgenerational effects, where offspring phenotypes are adjusted based on maternal influences, could be important in the mutualistic interaction between aphids and ants, in particular because aphids have telescoping generations where two offspring generations can be present in a mature aphid. We investigated the immediate and transgenerational influence of ant tending on aphid life history and reproduction by observing the interaction between the facultative myrmecophile Aphis fabae and the ant Lasius niger over 13 aphid generations in the laboratory. We found that the effect of ant tending changes dynamically over successive aphid generations after the start of tending. Initially, total aphid colony weight, aphid adult weight and aphid embryo size decreased compared with untended aphids, consistent with a cost of ant association, but these differences disappeared within four generations of interaction. We conclude that transgenerational effects are important in the aphid-ant interactions and that the costs for aphids of being tended by ants can vary over generations.

  17. Bar Coliseo, en Sevilla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de la Peña Neila, Antonio

    1963-10-01

    Full Text Available This bar is situated inside the «Coliseo» building, which houses a cinema, as well as a number of commercial establishments. In order not to break the unity of the total project, no attempt has been made to alter the exterior aspect of the bar. No attempt was made, either, to make it into an intimate, club type of bar, now so much in fashion. Rather has it been given a diaphanous style, seeking the best possible use of the floor space. The windows of the building are elongated, and there is an intermediate floor level, whose detailed structure is metallic. A cleverly designed staircase, of folded sheet metal connects the ground floor, the intermediate floor level and the restaurant. Materials were carefully chosen in accordance with their function. The colour scheme has a sustained unity throughout the building, and care has been taken to avoid surprising or vivid chromatic patterns. Ceramic enamels by the painter Santiago del Campo provide a feature of decoration on the ground floor, and also serve to cover up the return air ducts. On the top floor, the restaurant is fitted with coloured tile facings, the work of the Seville painters Maria Josefa Sánchez, María Dolores Sánchez and Emilio García Ortiz. The bottom joints of the timber beams, in conjunction with the tile patterns, is reminiscent of the traditional Sevillian habit of placing ceramic units between the timber framework of buildings. The initial problem of the architect was to combine the optimum functional efficiency and aesthetic quality of the project, and the final solution is undoubtedly successful.El establecimiento está situado dentro del edificio «Coliseo», complejo formado por una sala de cine, y con la parte lateral destinada a locales comerciales. Formando un conjunto único no se pensó nunca en transformar los revestimientos y molduras de fachada. Tampoco presidió la idea de conseguir un establecimiento íntimo «tipo Club», tan en boga actualmente, sino un

  18. Evaluation of longitudinal joint tie bar system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    "An adequate longitudinal joint tie bar system is essential in the overall performance of concrete pavement. Excessive : longitudinal joint openings are believed to be caused by either inadequate tie bar size or spacing or improper tie bar : installa...

  19. A chiral q-bar q-bar qq nonet?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Napsuciale, Mauro; Rodriguez, Simon

    2004-01-01

    We point out that meson spectrum indicates the existence of a degenerate chiral nonet in the energy region around 1.4 GeV with a slightly inverted spectrum with respect to a q-bar q nonet. Based on this observation and the approximately linear rising of the mass of a hadron with the number of constituent quarks we conjecture the existence of a tetraquark chiral nonet in this energy region with chiral symmetry implemented directly. We realize this idea in a chiral model and take into account the mixing of the tetraquark chiral nonet with a conventional q-bar q nonet. We find that the mass spectrum of mesons below 1.5 GeV is consistent with this picture. In general, pseudoscalar states arise as mainly q-bar q states but scalar states turn out to be strong admixtures of q-bar q and tetraquark states

  20. Fatigue of reinforcing bars during hydro-demolition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyland, C. W. K.; Ouwejan, A.

    2017-05-01

    Reinforcing steel fractured during hydro-demolition of a reinforced concrete pier head due to low cycle flexural fatigue from vibration caused by impact of the high pressure water jet on the exposed length of the bars. Research into the fatigue performance of steel reinforcing steel tends to focus on the high cycle axial performance in reinforced concrete members and re-bending behaviour. However with the increasing use of hydro-demolition of concrete structures as part of remediation works care is required to ensure the steel reinforcement exposed to the high pressure jet of water is not going to suffer relatively low cycle flexural damage that may compromise the designed performance of the completed reinforced concrete structure. This paper describes the failure assessment, fatigue analysis, and metallographic examination that was undertaken. It was found that the rib to flank transition radius on the reinforcement steel was small enough to cause a significant stress concentration effect and was the location of fatigue crack growth. A relatively simple analysis using the maximum unrestrained cantilevered bar length and force exerted by the water jet was used to calculate the maximum expected bending moment. This was compared to the bending capacity at initiation of yielding at the rib flank transition accounting for stress concentration effects. This showed that the observed cyclic reversing ductile crack growth and fracture of the H25 bars was consistent with the loading applied. A method is proposed based on these observations to assess suitable limits for unrestrained bar lengths or maximum working offset of the water jet from the point of bar restraint when undertaking hydro-demolition work. The fatigue critical performance requirements of AS/NZS4671 500E bars are also therefore compared with those of BS4449:2005 and PN EN/ISO 15630-1:2011 for comparable 500C bars

  1. Peptide-MHC class I stability is a stronger predictor of CTL immunogenicity than peptide affinity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harndahl, Mikkel Nors; Rasmussen, Michael; Nielsen, Morten

    2012-01-01

    of antigen processing and presentation in defining cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) immunogenicity Assarsson et al., 2007. Using an affinity-balanced approach, we demonstrated that immunogenic peptides tend to be more stably bound to MHC-I molecules compared with non-immunogenic peptides. We also developed......Peptide-MHC class I stability is a stronger predictor of CTL immunogenicity than peptide affinity Mikkel Harndahla, Michael Rasmussena, Morten Nielsenb, Soren Buusa,∗ a Laboratory of Experimental Immunology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Denmark b Center for Biological...... Sequence Analysis, Department of Systems Biology, Technical University of Denmark, Denmark Efficient presentation of peptide-MHC class I (pMHC-I) complexes to immune T cells should benefit from a stable peptide- MHC-I interaction. However, it has been difficult to distinguish stability from other...

  2. Graphemes Sharing Phonetic Features Tend to Induce Similar Synesthetic Colors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Mi-Jeong; Kim, Yeseul; Shin, Ji-Young; Kim, Chai-Youn

    2017-01-01

    Individuals with grapheme-color synesthesia experience idiosyncratic colors when viewing achromatic letters or digits. Despite large individual differences in grapheme-color association, synesthetes tend to associate graphemes sharing a perceptual feature with similar synesthetic colors. Sound has been suggested as one such feature. In the present study, we investigated whether graphemes of which representative phonemes have similar phonetic features tend to be associated with analogous synesthetic colors. We tested five Korean multilingual synesthetes on a color-matching task using graphemes from Korean, English, and Japanese orthography. We then compared the similarity of synesthetic colors induced by those characters sharing a phonetic feature. Results showed that graphemes associated with the same phonetic feature tend to induce synesthetic color in both within- and cross-script analyses. Moreover, this tendency was consistent for graphemes that are not transliterable into each other as well as graphemes that are. These results suggest that it is the perceptual—i.e., phonetic—properties associated with graphemes, not just conceptual associations such as transliteration, that determine synesthetic color. PMID:28348537

  3. Stronger declines in youth alcohol consumption thanks to stronger integrated alcohol policies? A qualitative comparison of ten Dutch municipalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Goeij, Moniek C M; Harting, Janneke; Kunst, Anton E

    2017-03-02

    Little detailed evidence is available on how integrated policies could impact population health and under what conditions such policies could be realized. The aim of this study was to assess how youth alcohol consumption trends in the province of Noord-Brabant, The Netherlands, were related to the development and implementation of integrated policies. In a retrospective multiple case study, alcohol policies of six municipalities with stronger declines in youth alcohol consumption between 2007 and 2011 (cases) were compared to four municipalities with weaker declines (controls). Information on the policy process in the same period was obtained through semi-structured in-depth interviews with policy advisors. Information on implemented interventions was extracted from policy documents and checked by the interviewees. Interviews were analyzed for thematic content. Only municipalities with stronger declines in alcohol consumption involved sectors other than public health and had started to implement interventions that use regulatory or enforcement strategies. Their involvement was facilitated by framing youth alcohol consumption as a safety rather than a health problem, whereby local media played a substantial role. Implementation of integrated policies was further facilitated by dedicated leadership and sufficient resources. Reductions in youth alcohol consumption in Noord-Brabant were stronger when municipalities started to develop integrated policies. Results suggest that integrated policies framing a health problem as a broader societal problem could positively influence population health.

  4. Triple bar, high efficiency mechanical sealer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pak, Donald J.; Hawkins, Samantha A.; Young, John E.

    2013-03-19

    A clamp with a bottom clamp bar that has a planar upper surface is provided. The clamp may also include a top clamp bar connected to the bottom clamp bar, and a pressure distribution bar between the top clamp bar and the bottom clamp bar. The pressure distribution bar may have a planar lower surface in facing relation to the upper surface of the bottom clamp bar. An object is capable of being disposed in a clamping region between the upper surface and the lower surface. The width of the planar lower surface may be less than the width of the upper surface within the clamping region. Also, the pressure distribution bar may be capable of being urged away from the top clamp bar and towards the bottom clamp bar.

  5. The right of the stronger: The play Sisyphus and critias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordović Ivan

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The Focus of this study is the standpoint of the play Sisyphus and critias the leader of the thirty towards the right of the stronger. this is a question of constant interest in scientific circles, since its answer can serve as the indicator of the influence this famous theory has had. this interest has been encouraged by the fact that critias’ authorship of the play is questionable. however, the question of the author is not of primary importance for this article, because there are some arguments, among some well known ones, which were not considered and which Show that in this satire, regardless of the author and the purpose of this fragment, the right of the stronger is actually non-existant. the first argument to support this theory is that nomosphysis antithesis is nowhere explicitly mentioned although it is the crucial element of the right of the stronger. in addition there is no claim in the play that the exploitation of the strong by the week or by law accrued. the second argument is that despite the incapability of laws to prevent the secret injustice, they and their importance for the human society are depicted in a positive light. it should also be noted that, unlike callicles and glaucon, laws are created to stop the bad and not the good. the third argument is that the invention of religion is accepted as a positive achievement, which finally enables the overcoming of primeval times and lawlessness. the reflection of this argument is a positive characterization of the individual who invented the fear of gods. the fourth argument, which has not been taken into consideration so far is the way the supporters and opponents of lawlessness are described and marked as κακοί and έσξλοί in the satire only physically strong are considered as strong as opposed to callicles, where they are also spiritually superior. intelectually superior in Sisyphus is the inventor of the fear of gods who is also in favor of law and order. the fact

  6. Stronger misdirection in curved than in straight motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge eOtero-Millan

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Illusions developed by magicians are a rich and largely untapped source of insight into perception and cognition. Here we show that curved motion, as employed by the magician in a classic sleight of hand trick, generates stronger misdirection than rectilinear motion, and that this difference can be explained by the differential engagement of the smooth pursuit and the saccadic oculomotor systems. This research moreover exemplifies how the magician’s intuitive understanding of the spectator’s mindset can surpass that of the cognitive scientist in specific instances, and that observation-based behavioral insights developed by magicians are worthy of quantitative investigation in the neuroscience laboratory.

  7. Kepler Planets Tend to Have Siblings of the Same Size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-11-01

    After 8.5 years of observations with the Kepler space observatory, weve discovered a large number of close-in, tightly-spaced, multiple-planet systems orbiting distant stars. In the process, weve learned a lot about the properties about these systems and discovered some unexpected behavior. A new study explores one of the properties that has surprised us: planets of the same size tend to live together.Orbital architectures for 25 of the authors multiplanet systems. The dots are sized according to the planets relative radii and colored according to mass. Planets of similar sizes and masses tend to live together in the same system. [Millholland et al. 2017]Ordering of SystemsFrom Keplers observations of extrasolar multiplanet systems, we have seen that the sizes of planets in a given system arent completely random. Systems that contain a large planet, for example, are more likely to contain additional large planets rather than additional planets of random size. So though there is a large spread in the radii weve observed for transiting exoplanets, the spread within any given multiplanet system tends to be much smaller.This odd behavior has led us to ask whether this clustering occurs not just for radius, but also for mass. Since the multiplanet systems discovered by Kepler most often contain super-Earths and mini-Neptunes, which have an extremely large spread in densities, the fact that two such planets have similar radii does not guarantee that they have similar masses.If planets dont cluster in mass within a system, this would raise the question of why planets coordinate only their radii within a given system. If they do cluster in mass, it implies that planets within the same system tend to have similar densities, potentially allowing us to predict the sizes and masses of planets we might find in a given system.Insight into MassesLed by NSF graduate research fellow Sarah Millholland, a team of scientists at Yale University used recently determined masses for

  8. Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymer Dowel Bar Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymer (GFRP) dowel bars were installed on one new construction project and two dowel bar : retrofit projects to evaluate the performance of this type of dowel bar in comparison to steel dowel bars installed on the same : cont...

  9. Measurement of the asymmetry parameter for the decay $\\bar\\Lambda \\to \\bar p\\pi^+$

    OpenAIRE

    BES collaboration

    2009-01-01

    Based on a sample of $58\\times10^6J/\\psi$ decays collected with the BESII detector at the BEPC, the $\\bar\\Lambda$ decay parameter $\\alpha_{\\bar\\Lambda}$ for $\\bar\\Lambda\\to \\bar p \\pi^+$ is measured using about 9000 $J/\\psi\\to\\Lambda\\bar\\Lambda\\to p \\bar p \\pi^+\\pi^-$ decays. A fit to the joint angular distributions yields $\\alpha_{\\bar\\Lambda}(\\bar\\Lambda\\to \\bar p\\pi^+)=-0.755\\pm0.083\\pm0.063$, where the first error is statistical, and the second systematic.

  10. Estrutura de mercado e tendências da atividade comercial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jefferson Mariano

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo busca realizar uma caracterização do setor comercial, com ênfase na RMSP, destacando o processo de concentração, evidenciado principalmente no segmento de hiper e supermercados. Na primeira seção, busca-se ilustrar o processo de concentração em alguns segmentos do comércio varejista, à luz das teorias de estrutura de mercado. Na segunda, apresenta se um painel com o perfil dessa atividade econômica, com informações agregadas para Brasil, Estado de São Paulo e Região Metropolitana de São Paulo. Na terceira, são apontadas as tendências e perspectivas do setor.

  11. Gastronomia Molecular: Desconstruindo 20 anos de Uma Tendência

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana Pellerano

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A gastronomia molecular gera interesse e controvérsia desde que foi criada, em 1992, nos workshops de Erice, na Itália. Da curiosidade dos cientistas Nicholas Kurti e Hervé This, que desenvolveram a disciplina, à aplicação prática encontrada por chefs de todo o mundo, a gastronomia molecular é perseguida por parecer ser mais complicada do que realmente é: o estudo meticuloso dos alimentos. O objetivo desse artigo é descrever o seu surgimento e o que trouxe ao cenário contemporâneo enquanto tendência gastronômica. Para tanto, foi realizada uma revisão bibliográfica em livros e citações na imprensa estrangeira, o que permitiu descrever os motivos para que essa forma de cozinhar cause tanta polêmica.

  12. Tend to Compare and Tend to Be Fair: The Relationship between Social Comparison Sensitivity and Justice Sensitivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanshan Zhen

    Full Text Available Social comparison is a prerequisite for processing fairness, although the two types of cognition may be associated with different emotions. Whereas social comparison may induce envy, the perception of unfairness may elicit anger. Yet, it remains unclear whether people who tend to have a strong sense of fairness also tend to compare themselves more with others. Here, Study 1 used a modified ultimatum game (UG and a social comparison game (SCG to examine the relationship between justice sensitivity and social comparison sensitivity in 51 young adults. Study 2 examined self-reported social comparison and justice sensitivity in 142 young adults. Both studies showed a positive correlation between social comparison sensitivity and justice sensitivity. We reason that social comparison and justice sensitivity have an important positive correlation in human decision-making. The rejection of self-disadvantageous inequality offers may be due to the social comparison effect, which suggests that the tendency to compare oneself with others may contribute to having a strong sense of justice. Our findings suggest that the predictions of game theory may vary depending on the social culture context and incorporating notions of fairness and social comparison tendency may be essential to better predict the actual behavior of players in social interactive situations.

  13. Tend to Compare and Tend to Be Fair: The Relationship between Social Comparison Sensitivity and Justice Sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhen, Shanshan; Yu, Rongjun

    2016-01-01

    Social comparison is a prerequisite for processing fairness, although the two types of cognition may be associated with different emotions. Whereas social comparison may induce envy, the perception of unfairness may elicit anger. Yet, it remains unclear whether people who tend to have a strong sense of fairness also tend to compare themselves more with others. Here, Study 1 used a modified ultimatum game (UG) and a social comparison game (SCG) to examine the relationship between justice sensitivity and social comparison sensitivity in 51 young adults. Study 2 examined self-reported social comparison and justice sensitivity in 142 young adults. Both studies showed a positive correlation between social comparison sensitivity and justice sensitivity. We reason that social comparison and justice sensitivity have an important positive correlation in human decision-making. The rejection of self-disadvantageous inequality offers may be due to the social comparison effect, which suggests that the tendency to compare oneself with others may contribute to having a strong sense of justice. Our findings suggest that the predictions of game theory may vary depending on the social culture context and incorporating notions of fairness and social comparison tendency may be essential to better predict the actual behavior of players in social interactive situations.

  14. Star formation suppression and bar ages in nearby barred galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, P. A.; Percival, S. M.

    2018-03-01

    We present new spectroscopic data for 21 barred spiral galaxies, which we use to explore the effect of bars on disc star formation, and to place constraints on the characteristic lifetimes of bar episodes. The analysis centres on regions of heavily suppressed star formation activity, which we term `star formation deserts'. Long-slit optical spectroscopy is used to determine H β absorption strengths in these desert regions, and comparisons with theoretical stellar population models are used to determine the time since the last significant star formation activity, and hence the ages of the bars. We find typical ages of ˜1 Gyr, but with a broad range, much larger than would be expected from measurement errors alone, extending from ˜0.25 to >4 Gyr. Low-level residual star formation, or mixing of stars from outside the `desert' regions, could result in a doubling of these age estimates. The relatively young ages of the underlying populations coupled with the strong limits on the current star formation rule out a gradual exponential decline in activity, and hence support our assumption of an abrupt truncation event.

  15. Signaling behind bars: a role for bar domains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Kreuk, B.J.

    2012-01-01

    In this thesis we describe several novel components of growth factor receptor and RhoGTPase activation and signaling. We have demonstrated that the F-BAR protein PACSIN2 is an important regulator of Rac1 output and, as a consequence, cell spreading and migration. This study further established the

  16. Tendências em medicina laboratorial Trends in laboratory medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Aguiar Campana

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available A patologia clínica/medicina laboratorial é uma especialidade direcionada à realização de exames complementares no auxílio ao diagnóstico, com impacto nos diferentes estágios da cadeia de saúde: prevenção, diagnóstico, prognóstico e acompanhamento terapêutico. Diversos elementos apontam para maior utilização da medicina diagnóstica no futuro. Para discutirmos as principais tendências na medicina laboratorial, descrevemos os fatores que colaboram e são fundamentais para o crescimento desse mercado denominados, neste estudo, drivers de crescimento. As principais tendências que terão forte impacto na medicina laboratorial, e que serão descritas neste artigo, são: ferramentas de gestão, inserção de novos testes no mercado e rol de procedimentos, qualidade dos serviços em medicina diagnóstica, modelos de operação, automação, consolidação e integração, tecnologia da informação, medicina personalizada e genética. Sabemos que a medicina diagnóstica demonstra sua importância ao participar de 70% das decisões clínicas, absorvendo uma pequena parte dos custos em saúde (cerca de 10%. Todas as tendências analisadas neste trabalho apontam para um crescimento na utilização dos exames laboratoriais e também para sua importância na cadeia de saúde. Esse novo posicionamento, somado às novas expectativas de alta resolubilidade, pressiona o mercado e as companhias que o compõem a buscar mudanças e novas estratégias de atuação.Clinical pathology/laboratory medicine, a specialty focused on performing complementary tests to aid diagnosis, has impact upon several stages of health care: prevention, diagnosis, prognosis, and therapeutic management. There are several factors that will foster the use of laboratory medicine in the future. In order to discuss the main trends in laboratory medicine, this article describes the major factors that have promoted growth in this market, which herein are referred to as growth

  17. Evaluation of working conditions of workers engaged in tending horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bożena Nowakowicz-Dębek

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available [b]introduction[/b]. A growing interest in the horse business has resulted in the increased engagement of many people in this area, and the health problems occurring among workers create the need to search for prophylactic measures. [b]objective[/b]. The objective of the study was evaluation of the level of exposure to air pollution in a stable, and estimation of the degree of work load among workers engaged in tending horses. [b]material and methods[/b]. The study was conducted twice, during the winter season, in a stable maintaining race horses, and in a social room. In order to evaluate workers’ exposure, air samples were collected by the aspiration method. After the incubation of material, the total number of bacteria and fungi in the air was determined, as well as the number of aerobic mesophilic and thermophilic bacteria, expressed as the number of colony forming units per cubic meter of air (CFU/m[sup]3[/sup]. The measurement of total dust concentration in the air was also performed, simultaneously with the measurement of microclimatic parameters. The study of work load also covered the measurement of energy expenditure, evaluation of static physical load, and monotony of movements performed. [b]conclusions[/b]. The stable may be considered as a workplace with considerable risk of the occurrence of unfavourable health effects.

  18. Conservatives Anticipate and Experience Stronger Emotional Reactions to Negative Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joel, Samantha; Burton, Caitlin M; Plaks, Jason E

    2014-02-01

    The present work examined whether conservatives and liberals differ in their anticipation of their own emotional reactions to negative events. In two studies, participants imagined experiencing positive or negative outcomes in domains that do not directly concern politics. In Study 1, 190 American participants recruited online (64 male, Mage  = 32 years) anticipated their emotional responses to romantic relationship outcomes. In Study 2, 97 Canadian undergraduate students (26 male, Mage  = 21 years) reported on their anticipated and experienced emotional responses to academic outcomes. In both studies, more conservative participants predicted they would feel stronger negative emotions following negative outcomes than did more liberal participants. Furthermore, a longitudinal follow-up of Study 2 participants revealed that more conservative participants actually felt worse than more liberal participants after receiving a lower-than-desired exam grade. These effects remained even when controlling for the Big Five traits, prevention focus, and attachment style (Study 1), and optimism (Study 2). We discuss how the relationship between political orientation and anticipated affect likely contributes to differences between conservatives and liberals in styles of decision and policy choices. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Stronger inducible defences enhance persistence of intraguild prey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kratina, Pavel; Hammill, Edd; Anholt, Bradley R

    2010-09-01

    1. Intraguild predation is widespread in nature despite its potentially destabilizing effect on food web dynamics. 2. Anti-predator inducible defences affect both birth and death rates of populations and have the potential to substantially modify food web dynamics and possibly increase persistence of intraguild prey. 3. In a chemostat experiment, we investigated the long-term effects of inducible defences on the dynamics of aquatic microbial food webs consisting of an intraguild predator, intraguild prey, and a basal resource. We controlled environmental conditions and selected strains of intraguild prey that varied in the strength of expressed inducible defences. 4. We found that intraguild prey with a stronger tendency to induce an anti-predator morphology persist for significantly longer periods of time. In addition, model selection analysis implied that flexibility in defensive phenotype (inducibility itself) is most likely the factor responsible for the enhanced persistence. 5. As patterns at the community level often emerge as a result of the life-history traits of individuals, we propose that inducible defences increase the persistence of populations and may contribute to the widespread occurrence of theoretically unstable intraguild predation systems in nature.

  20. Going Smokefree Matters - Bars and Restaurants Infographic

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Explore the Going Smokefree Matters – Bars and Restaurants Infographic which outlines key facts related to the effects of secondhand smoke exposure in bars and...

  1. Going Smokefree Matters - Bars and Restaurants Infographic

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Explore the Going Smokefree Matters – Bars and Restaurants Infographic which outlines key facts related to the effects of secondhand smoke exposure in bars and...

  2. Tendências no ensino da epidemiologia no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Barradas Barata

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available O ensino da epidemiologia teve início no Brasil na década de 20 e sempre foi voltado para a saúde pública. Na década de 70, o ensino de epidemiologia passou por um crescimento em nível de pós-graduação. Os anos 80 foram marcados pela "epidemiologia social", que incorporava as ciências sociais e seus métodos; a segunda metade da década foi marcada pelo desenvolvimento das técnicas da bioestatística. No momento atual, a definição de diretrizes para o ensino da epidemiologia depende da reflexão acerca de vários pontos, entre os quais a reformulação ou extinção dos programas de residência médica em medicina preventiva, medicina social ou saúde coletiva; implantação de programas de mestrado e doutorado exclusivamente em ; oposição entre formação instrumental e formação teórica; e desenvolvimento de estratégias para o fortalecimento de novos grupos de docentes em instituições de ensino nas regiões mais pobres do país. Existe uma tendência positiva de aproximação entre instituições de ensino e serviços de saúde, tanto para o cumprimento de tarefas de ensino e formação de pessoal, quanto para o assessoramento técnico no planejamento, organização e avaliação de programas. Em relação aos profissionais que atuam em serviços de saúde, a efetividade dos programas em epidemiologia depende da capacidade dos docentes de trabalharem com situações de ensino-aprendizagem que facilitem a apreensão por parte dos alunos nas condições reais de seu trabalho, situações concretas em que a teorização seja uma decorrência natural.

  3. Aprendizagem e tecnologias: Tendências e desafios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isolina Oliveira

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Digital technologies are designed to lead to learning and, in this sense, are increasingly adopted; however, its incorporation into daily practice and teaching-learning processes does not follow as quickly as one would expect. In turn, there seems to be a growing movement for investing more in the use of technologies than in encouraging change practices of teachers. This article intends to contribute to debate about challenges related to the use of digital technologies in people's lives and their relationship to new ways of learning. Analyzes trends in education, based on empirical evidence, emphasizing the use of digital technologies and seeks to situate them in the field of dialogical perspectives. These assume the dialogue as central concept in learning and research on practices and interactions in the new learning scenarios. As tecnologias digitais são projetadas como propiciadoras de aprendizagem e, neste sentido, são cada vez mais adotadas; no entanto, a sua incorporação nas práticas diárias e nos processos de ensino-aprendizagem não decorre tão rapidamente como se esperaria. Por sua vez, parece haver um movimento crescente no sentido de perspectivar o futuro para a aprendizagem investindo mais no uso das tecnologias do que no incentivo à mudança de práticas dos professores. Este artigo pretende contribuir para o debate em torno dos desafios suscitados com a naturalização das tecnologias digitais na vida das pessoas e sua relação com novos modos de aprender. Analisa tendências em educação, baseadas em evidências empíricas, enfatizando o uso das tecnologias digitais e procura situá-las no campo das perspectivas dialógicas que assumem o conceito de diálogo como central na aprendizagem e na investigação sobre práticas e interações nos novos cenários de aprendizagem.

  4. Bar code instrumentation for nuclear safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bieber, A.M. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    This paper presents a brief overview of the basic principles of bar codes and the equipment used to make and to read bar code labels, and a summary of some of the more important factors that need to be considered in integrating bar codes into an information system

  5. Implant retained auricular prosthesis with a modified hader bar: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovely, M; Dathan, Pradeep C; Gopal, Dinesh; George, Biji Thomas; Chandrasekharan Nair, K

    2014-06-01

    Auricular prostheses for defects of external ear are retained either by mechanical means or implants. All implant retained prostheses are retained by various means such as bar and clip, magnetic attachments or a combination of bar, clip and magnets. The commonest problem encountered with the bar and clip system is loosening of the clip after 3-4 months. When magnets are used as retaining component they tend to corrode over a period of time. So various alternative retention methods which possess good retentive qualities, ease of reparability and patient friendly were tried. In the present case a newly modified Hader bar design which can act as an additional retentive feature apart from the clip is employed to increase retention. The major advantages in the modified Hader bar system were that only two implants were employed, the additional loops in the Hader bar prevented micro movements and the retentive acrylic locks were easy to repair if broken. The modified Hader bar has anti-rotational slots which prevents the sliding or rotation of the prosthesis which gave new confidence to the patient who was otherwise worried of inadvertent displacement of the ear prosthesis while playing.

  6. Bars and spirals in tidal interactions with an ensemble of galaxy mass models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettitt, Alex R.; Wadsley, J. W.

    2018-03-01

    We present simulations of the gaseous and stellar material in several different galaxy mass models under the influence of different tidal fly-bys to assess the changes in their bar and spiral morphology. Five different mass models are chosen to represent the variety of rotation curves seen in nature. We find a multitude of different spiral and bar structures can be created, with their properties dependent on the strength of the interaction. We calculate pattern speeds, spiral wind-up rates, bar lengths, and angular momentum exchange to quantify the changes in disc morphology in each scenario. The wind-up rates of the tidal spirals follow the 2:1 resonance very closely for the flat and dark matter-dominated rotation curves, whereas the more baryon-dominated curves tend to wind-up faster, influenced by their inner bars. Clear spurs are seen in most of the tidal spirals, most noticeable in the flat rotation curve models. Bars formed both in isolation and interactions agree well with those seen in real galaxies, with a mixture of `fast' and `slow' rotators. We find no strong correlation between bar length or pattern speed and the interaction strength. Bar formation is, however, accelerated/induced in four out of five of our models. We close by briefly comparing the morphology of our models to real galaxies, easily finding analogues for nearly all simulations presenter here, showing passages of small companions can easily reproduce an ensemble of observed morphologies.

  7. Speed versus endurance tradeoff in plants: Leaves with higher photosynthetic rates show stronger seasonal declines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong-Jiang; Sack, Lawren; Cao, Kun-Fang; Wei, Xue-Mei; Li, Nan

    2017-02-10

    We tested for a tradeoff across species between plant maximum photosynthetic rate and the ability to maintain photosynthesis under adverse conditions in the unfavorable season. Such a trade-off would be consistent with the observed trade-off between maximum speed and endurance in athletes and some animals that has been explained by cost-benefit theory. This trend would have importance for the general understanding of leaf design, and would simplify models of annual leaf carbon relations. We tested for such a trade-off using a database analysis across vascular plants and using an experimental approach for 29 cycad species, representing an ancient plant lineage with diversified evergreen leaves. In both tests, a higher photosynthetic rate per mass or per area in the favorable season was associated with a stronger absolute or percent decline in the unfavorable season. We resolved a possible mechanism based on biomechanics and nitrogen allocation; cycads with high leaf toughness (leaf mass per area) and higher investment in leaf construction than in physiological function (C/N ratio) tended to have lower warm season photosynthesis but less depression in the cool season. We propose that this trade-off, consistent with cost-benefit theory, represents a significant physio-phenological constraint on the diversity and seasonal dynamics of photosynthetic rate.

  8. Is Polar Amplification Deeper and Stronger than Dynamicists Assume?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheff, J.; Maroon, E.

    2017-12-01

    In the CMIP multi-model mean under strong future warming, Arctic amplification is confined to the lower troposphere, so that the meridional gradient of warming reverses around 500 mb and the upper troposphere is characterized by strong "tropical amplification" in which warming weakens with increasing latitude. This model-derived pattern of warming maxima in the upper-level tropics and lower-level Arctic has become a canonical assumption driving theories of the large-scale circulation response to climate change. Yet, several lines of evidence and reasoning suggest that Arctic amplification may in fact extend through the entire depth of the troposphere, and/or may be stronger than commonly modeled. These include satellite Microwave Sounding Unit (MSU) temperature trends as a function of latitude and vertical level, the recent discovery that the extratropical negative cloud phase feedback in models is largely spurious, and the very strong polar amplification observed in past warm and lukewarm climates. Such a warming pattern, with deep, dominant Arctic amplification, would have very different implications for the circulation than a canonical CMIP-like warming: instead of slightly shifting poleward and strengthening, eddies, jets and cells might shift equatorward and considerably weaken. Indeed, surface winds have been mysteriously weakening ("stilling") at almost all stations over the last half-century or so, there has been no poleward shift in northern hemisphere circulation metrics, and past warm climates' subtropics were apparently quite wet (and their global ocean circulations were weak.) To explore these possibilities more deeply, we examine the y-z structure of warming and circulation changes across a much broader range of models, scenarios and time periods than the CMIP future mean, and use an MSU simulator to compare them to the satellite warming record. Specifically, we examine whether the use of historical (rather than future) forcing, AMIP (rather than CMIP

  9. Increasing Arctic sea ice export driven by stronger winds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorteberg, A.; Smedsrud, L. H.; Sirevaag, A.; Kloster, K.

    2010-12-01

    Arctic sea ice area has decreased steadily over the last three decades. A thinner and more seasonal Arctic ice cover, related to increased long wave radiation, has become evident. Changes in circulation, including drift patterns of the Arctic pack ice, have been less obvious. Arctic sea ice export estimates have been hampered by low resolution spatial and temporal satellite imagery, especially during summer, making accurate detection difficult. Here we present a new ice area export dataset calculated from sea ice motion and concentration profiles along 79N. Ice drift vectors are calculated from ice feature displacement using Envisat ASAR WideSwath images every 3 days from 2004 while ice concentration is based on DMSP F13 SSMI and AQUA AMSR-E brightness temperature data. The two data sets are combined to give the ice-area flux in consecutive 3-day periods, uninterrupted year-round coverage along 79N. It is shown that sea ice export variability is closely linked to the geostrophic wind in the Fram Strait (correlation of 0.84). Using geostrophic winds from reanalysis back to the 1950s as a proxy for ice export indicates that the Arctic sea ice has annually lost an increasing area since the 1950's driven by stronger winds. Ice concentration has decreased slightly, but does not contribute significantly. The ice export has overall increased by ~25% over the period. Using cyclone tracking the changes in winds seems directly related to a higher low pressure activity in the Nordic Seas. Our results demonstrate that the changes in atmospheric circulation over the Arctic and sub-Arctic have contributed to a trend in the Fram Strait ice export. The Fram Strait between Greenland and Svalbard with average sea ice concentration for summer (red, June through August) and winter (black, January through March). Solid lines are 50%, dashed lines are 15%. Above mean southward ice drift across 79N from August 2004 to July 2010 in 1 degree bins based on SAR imagery, and mean ice

  10. Jackson Bar Training Structure Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-01

    0.039 7 Creek 0.028 8 Jackson Bar 0.032 9 Jackson Bar Dredge Cut 0.032 10 Left Bridge 0.038 11 Right Bridge 0.038 12 Over Bank 0.04 13 Rip- Rap ...15 20 25 30 35 Si m ul at ed b as e da ta , w at er s ur fa ce el ev at io n N G VD 1 92 9 fe et Leroy field data, water surface elevation...and 1987 WES PM bathymetry 573 ft upstream of the Norfolk Southern railroad bridge. -30 -20 -10 0 10 20 30 40 0 500 1000 1500 2000 El ev at

  11. Bar-holding prosthetic limb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vest, Thomas W. (Inventor); Norton, William E. (Inventor); Belcher, Jewell G. (Inventor); Carden, James R. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A prosthetic device for below-the-elbow amputees is disclosed. The device has a removable effector, which is attached to the end of an arm cuff. The effector is comprised of a pair of C-shaped members that are oriented so as to face each other. Working in concert, the C-shaped members are able to hold a bar such as a chainsaw handle. A flat spring is fitted around the C-shaped members to hold them together.

  12. Galaxy Zoo: Observing secular evolution through bars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheung, Edmond; Faber, S. M.; Koo, David C.; Athanassoula, E.; Bosma, A.; Masters, Karen L.; Nichol, Robert C.; Melvin, Thomas; Bell, Eric F.; Lintott, Chris; Schawinski, Kevin; Skibba, Ramin A.; Willett, Kyle W.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we use the Galaxy Zoo 2 data set to study the behavior of bars in disk galaxies as a function of specific star formation rate (SSFR) and bulge prominence. Our sample consists of 13,295 disk galaxies, with an overall (strong) bar fraction of 23.6% ± 0.4%, of which 1154 barred galaxies also have bar length (BL) measurements. These samples are the largest ever used to study the role of bars in galaxy evolution. We find that the likelihood of a galaxy hosting a bar is anticorrelated with SSFR, regardless of stellar mass or bulge prominence. We find that the trends of bar likelihood and BL with bulge prominence are bimodal with SSFR. We interpret these observations using state-of-the-art simulations of bar evolution that include live halos and the effects of gas and star formation. We suggest our observed trends of bar likelihood with SSFR are driven by the gas fraction of the disks, a factor demonstrated to significantly retard both bar formation and evolution in models. We interpret the bimodal relationship between bulge prominence and bar properties as being due to the complicated effects of classical bulges and central mass concentrations on bar evolution and also to the growth of disky pseudobulges by bar evolution. These results represent empirical evidence for secular evolution driven by bars in disk galaxies. This work suggests that bars are not stagnant structures within disk galaxies but are a critical evolutionary driver of their host galaxies in the local universe (z < 1).

  13. Bar Coding and Tracking in Pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, Matthew G; Pantanowitz, Liron

    2016-03-01

    Bar coding and specimen tracking are intricately linked to pathology workflow and efficiency. In the pathology laboratory, bar coding facilitates many laboratory practices, including specimen tracking, automation, and quality management. Data obtained from bar coding can be used to identify, locate, standardize, and audit specimens to achieve maximal laboratory efficiency and patient safety. Variables that need to be considered when implementing and maintaining a bar coding and tracking system include assets to be labeled, bar code symbologies, hardware, software, workflow, and laboratory and information technology infrastructure as well as interoperability with the laboratory information system. This article addresses these issues, primarily focusing on surgical pathology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. One Year After Fukushima, Nuclear Safety Is Stronger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    Full text: Nuclear power is safer than it was a year ago as the nuclear industry, regulators and governments act on the lessons of Fukushima, but that safety must never be taken for granted, said Yukiya Amano, Director General of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). Speaking ahead of the first anniversary of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident on 11 March, Amano said a culture of constant vigilance and improvement was vital to ensure that the benefits of nuclear power could be harnessed as safely as humanly possible. 'Nuclear safety is stronger than it was a year ago', he said. 'Fukushima Daiichi was a very serious accident, but we know what went wrong and we have a clear course of action to tackle those causes - not only in Japan, but anywhere in the world. 'Now we have to keep up the momentum. Complacency can kill'. On 11 March 2011 a huge earthquake and tsunami left more than 20 000 people dead or missing in eastern Japan. Amidst widespread destruction, the tsunami slammed into the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station, disabling cooling systems and leading to fuel meltdowns in three of the six Units. The accident was a jolt to the nuclear industry, regulators and governments. It was triggered by a massive force of nature, but it was existing weaknesses of design regarding defence against natural hazards, regulatory oversight, accident management and emergency response that allowed it to unfold as it did. For example: The nuclear regulator was not sufficiently independent, allowing weak oversight of the operator, TEPCO, and regulatory requirements fell short of international best practice; Not enough attention was paid to guarding against possible extreme events at the Fukushima Daiichi site, leaving critical safety functions such as cooling systems vulnerable to the tsunami; Training to respond to serious accidents was inadequate, as were mitigation measures to prevent hydrogen explosions and protect the venting system; and Accident command lines

  15. The bridge technique for pectus bar fixation: a method to make the bar un-rotatable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyung Joo; Kim, Kyung Soo; Moon, Young Kyu; Lee, Sungsoo

    2015-08-01

    Pectus bar rotation is a major challenge in pectus repair. However, to date, no satisfactory technique to completely eliminate bar displacement has been introduced. Here, we propose a bar fixation technique using a bridge that makes the bar unmovable. The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of this bridge technique. A total of 80 patients underwent pectus bar repair of pectus excavatum with the bridge technique from July 2013 to July 2014. The technique involved connecting 2 parallel bars using plate-screws at the ends of the bars. To determine bar position change, the angles between the sternum and pectus bars were measured on postoperative day 5 (POD5) and 4 months (POM4) and compared. The mean patient age was 17.5 years (range, 6-38 years). The mean difference between POD5 and POM4 were 0.23° (P=.602) and 0.35° (P=.338) for the upper and lower bars, respectively. Bar position was virtually unchanged during the follow-up, and there was no bar dislocation or reoperation. A "bridge technique" designed to connect 2 parallel bars using plates and screws was demonstrated as a method to avoid pectus bar displacement. This approach was easy to implement without using sutures or invasive devices. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Boric Acid Reclamation System (BARS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kniazewycz, B.G.; Markind, J.

    1986-03-01

    KLM Technologies' personnel have identified a Boric Acid Reclamation System (BARS) utilizing reverse osmosis and ultrafiltration to produce a recyclable grade of otherwise waste boric acid at PWRs, thus reducing a major source of low-level radwaste. The design of a prototype BARS as a compact volume reduction system was the result of KLM's Phase 1 Program, and based upon a preliminary feasibility program, which assessed the applicability of membrane technology to refurbish and recycle waste boric acid from floor and equipment drain streams. The analysis of the overall program indicated a substantial savings regarding off-site disposal costs. Today's economic scenario indicates that optimization of volume reduction operation procedures could significantly reduce waste management costs, especially where burial penalties have become more severe. As a reaction to the economic burden imposed by final disposal, many nuclear plants are currently modifying their design and operating philosophies concerning liquid radwaste processing systems to meet stricter environmental regulations, and to derive potential economic benefits by reducing the ever-increasing volumes of wastes that are produced. To effect these changes, innovative practices in waste management and more efficient processing technologies are being successfully implemented

  17. BaBar Data Aquisition

    CERN Document Server

    Scott, I; Grosso, P; Hamilton, R T; Huffer, M E; O'Grady, C; Russell, J J

    1998-01-01

    The BaBar experiment at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center is designed to perform a search for CP violation by analysing the decays of a very large sample of B and Bbar mesons produced at the high luminosity PEP-11 accelerator. The data acquisition system must cope with a sustained high event rate, while supporting real time feature extraction and data compression with minimal dead time. The BaBar data acquisition system is based around a common VME interface to the electronics read-out of the separate detector subsystems. Data from the front end electronics is read into commercial VME processors via a custom "personality card" and PCI interface. The commercial CPUs run the Tornado operating system to provide a platform for detector subsystem code to perform the necessary data processing. The data are read out via a non-blocking network switch to a farm of commercial UNIX processors. Careful design of the core data acquisition code has enabled us to sustain events rates in excess of 20 kHz while maintaini...

  18. Extruded bar reinforced structure and manufacturing procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Truchet, J.M.; Bozetto, P.

    1989-01-01

    A cooling tower has horizontal hoops connected by two inclined sets of bars to form a trellis of equilateral triangle anchored in the ground. The bars and hoops are connected at the corners of the triangle. A skin stretched over the trellis defines the tower. The bars are made with thermosetting resin reinforced by fibres. The fabrication of such tower is cheep and simple it can be used for every type of electrical power station, nuclear or not [fr

  19. IMPROVED BAR IMPACT TESTS USING A PHOTONIC DOPPLER VELOCIMETER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bless, S J; Tolman, J; Levinson, S; Nguyen, J

    2009-08-24

    Bar impact tests, using the techniques described elsewhere in this symposium, were used to measure compressive and tensile strengths of borosilicate glass, soda lime glass, and a glass ceramic. The glass ceramic was 25% crystalline spinel, furnished by Corning Inc. There are two measures of compressive strength: the peak stress that can be transmitted in unconfined compression, and the 'steady state' strength. For borosilicate glass and soda lime glass, these values were similar, being about 1.8 and 1.5 GPa, respectively. The glass ceramic (25% spinel) was almost 50% stronger. Tensile failure in the glass and glass ceramic takes places via surface flaws, and thus tensile strength is an extrinsic, as opposed to intrinsic property.

  20. Interactive SIGHT: textual access to simple bar charts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, Seniz; Oliver, David; Schwartz, Edward; Elzer, Stephanie; Carberry, Sandra; Mccoy, Kathleen F.; Chester, Daniel

    2010-12-01

    Information graphics, such as bar charts and line graphs, are an important component of many articles from popular media. The majority of such graphics have an intention (a high-level message) to communicate to the graph viewer. Since the intended message of a graphic is often not repeated in the accompanying text, graphics together with the textual segments contribute to the overall purpose of an article and cannot be ignored. Unfortunately, these visual displays are provided in a format which is not readily accessible to everyone. For example, individuals with sight impairments who use screen readers to listen to documents have limited access to the graphics. This article presents a new accessibility tool, the Interactive SIGHT (Summarizing Information GrapHics Textually) system, that is intended to enable visually impaired users to access the knowledge that one would gain from viewing information graphics found on the web. The current system, which is implemented as a browser extension that works on simple bar charts, can be invoked by a user via a keystroke combination while navigating the web. Once launched, Interactive SIGHT first provides a brief summary that conveys the underlying intention of a bar chart along with the chart's most significant and salient features, and then produces history-aware follow-up responses to provide further information about the chart upon request from the user. We present two user studies that were conducted with sighted and visually impaired users to determine how effective the initial summary and follow-up responses are in conveying the informational content of bar charts, and to evaluate how easy it is to use the system interface. The evaluation results are promising and indicate that the system responses are well-structured and enable visually impaired users to answer key questions about bar charts in an easy-to-use manner. Post-experimental interviews revealed that visually impaired participants were very satisfied with

  1. Nuss bar migrations: occurrence and classification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binkovitz, Lauren E.; Binkovitz, Larry A.; Zendejas, Benjamin; Moir, Christopher R.

    2016-01-01

    Pectus excavatum results from dorsal deviation of the sternum causing narrowing of the anterior-posterior diameter of the chest. It can result in significant cosmetic deformities and cardiopulmonary compromise if severe. The Nuss procedure is a minimally invasive technique that involves placing a thin horizontally oriented metal bar below the dorsal sternal apex for correction of the pectus deformity. To identify the frequency and types of Nuss bar migrations, to present a new categorization of bar migrations, and to present examples of true migrations and pseudomigrations. We retrospectively reviewed the electronic medical records and all pertinent radiologic studies of 311 pediatric patients who underwent a Nuss procedure. We evaluated the frequency and type of bar migrations. Bar migration was demonstrated in 23 of 311 patients (7%) and occurred within a mean period of 26 days after surgery. Bar migrations were subjectively defined as deviation of the bar from the position demonstrated on the immediate postoperative radiographs and categorized as superior, inferior, rotation, lateral or flipped using a new classification system. Sixteen of the 23 migrations required re-operation. Nuss bar migration can be diagnosed with careful evaluation of serial radiographs. Nuss bar migration has a wide variety of appearances and requires exclusion of pseudomigration resulting from changes in patient positioning between radiologic examinations. (orig.)

  2. Nuss bar migrations: occurrence and classification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binkovitz, Lauren E.; Binkovitz, Larry A. [Mayo Clinic, Department of Radiology, Rochester, MN (United States); Zendejas, Benjamin; Moir, Christopher R. [Mayo Clinic, Department of Surgery, Rochester, MN (United States)

    2016-12-15

    Pectus excavatum results from dorsal deviation of the sternum causing narrowing of the anterior-posterior diameter of the chest. It can result in significant cosmetic deformities and cardiopulmonary compromise if severe. The Nuss procedure is a minimally invasive technique that involves placing a thin horizontally oriented metal bar below the dorsal sternal apex for correction of the pectus deformity. To identify the frequency and types of Nuss bar migrations, to present a new categorization of bar migrations, and to present examples of true migrations and pseudomigrations. We retrospectively reviewed the electronic medical records and all pertinent radiologic studies of 311 pediatric patients who underwent a Nuss procedure. We evaluated the frequency and type of bar migrations. Bar migration was demonstrated in 23 of 311 patients (7%) and occurred within a mean period of 26 days after surgery. Bar migrations were subjectively defined as deviation of the bar from the position demonstrated on the immediate postoperative radiographs and categorized as superior, inferior, rotation, lateral or flipped using a new classification system. Sixteen of the 23 migrations required re-operation. Nuss bar migration can be diagnosed with careful evaluation of serial radiographs. Nuss bar migration has a wide variety of appearances and requires exclusion of pseudomigration resulting from changes in patient positioning between radiologic examinations. (orig.)

  3. Performance simulation of BaBar DIRC bar boxes in TORCH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Föhl, K.; Brook, N.; Castillo García, L.; Cussans, D.; Forty, R.; Frei, C.; Gao, R.; Gys, T.; Harnew, N.; Piedigrossi, D.; Rademacker, J.; Ros García, A.; van Dijk, M.

    2017-12-01

    TORCH is a large-area precision time-of-flight detector based on the DIRC principle. The DIRC bar boxes of the BaBar experiment at SLAC could possibly be reused to form a part of the TORCH detector time-of-flight wall area, proposed to provide positive particle identification of low momentum kaons in the LHCb experiment at CERN. For a potential integration of BaBar bar boxes into TORCH, new imaging readout optics are required. From the several designs of readout optics that have been considered, two are used in this paper to study the effect of BaBar bar optical imperfections on the detector reconstruction performance. The kaon-pion separation powers obtained from analysing simulated photon hit patterns show the performance reduction for a BaBar bar of non-square geometry compared to a perfectly rectangular cross section.

  4. submitter Performance simulation of BaBar DIRC bar boxes in TORCH

    CERN Document Server

    Föhl, K; Castillo García, L; Cussans, D; Forty, R; Frei, C; Gao, R; Gys, T; Harnew, N; Piedigrossi, D; Rademacker, J; Ros García, A; van Dijk, M

    2017-01-01

    TORCH is a large-area precision time-of-flight detector based on the DIRC principle. The DIRC bar boxes of the BaBar experiment at SLAC could possibly be reused to form a part of the TORCH detector time-of-flight wall area, proposed to provide positive particle identification of low momentum kaons in the LHCb experiment at CERN. For a potential integration of BaBar bar boxes into TORCH, new imaging readout optics are required. From the several designs of readout optics that have been considered, two are used in this paper to study the effect of BaBar bar optical imperfections on the detector reconstruction performance. The kaon-pion separation powers obtained from analysing simulated photon hit patterns show the performance reduction for a BaBar bar of non-square geometry compared to a perfectly rectangular cross section.

  5. Search for CP Violation in Hyperon Decay: $\\Xi^- / \\bar{\\Xi}^+$ and $\\Lambda / \\bar{\\Lambda}$

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leros, Nicolas [Lausanne U.

    2001-06-01

    The HyperCP(EB71) experiment, performed at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory in the United States, provides a primary search for direct OP violation in the decays of $\\Xi^-/\\bar{\\Xi}^+$ and $\\Lambda/ \\bar{\\Lambda}$ hyperons....

  6. Bar formation in Cosmological Haloes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curir, A.; Mazzei, P.; Murante, G.

    2003-06-01

    We investigate the growth of bar instability in stellar disks embedded in fully cosmological halos. We choose a Lambda -CDM cosmology (i.e. Omega_Λ() = 0.7, Omegam() = 0.3, H[0] = 70 km/s/Mpc) with 25h-1 Mpc of box size. The halo was selected from a low-resolution run (128^3 particles), it doesn't suffer major mergers since z = 5 and it lives in a low-density environment. Then we re-simulate the halo at 8 times higher resolution, following the whole simulation box with a multi-mass tecnique to account for the large-scale tidal forces. The stellar disk is embedded in the halo at a redshift z = 2. The evolution of the system spans more than 10 Gyr down to z = 0.

  7. On the Relation between Spector's Bar Recursion and Modified Bar Recursion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oliva, Paulo Borges

    2002-01-01

    We introduce a variant of Spector's Bar Recursion in finite types to give a realizability interpretation of the classical axiom of dependent choice allowing for the extraction of witnesses from proofs of Sigma_1 formulas in classical analysis. We also give a bar recursive definition of the fan...... functional and study the relationship of our variant of Bar Recursion with others....

  8. The cc-bar and bb-bar spectroscopy in the two-step potential model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulshreshtha, D.S.; Kaiserslautern Univ.

    1984-07-01

    We investigate the spectroscopy of the charmonium (cc-bar) and bottonium (bb-bar) bound states in a static flavour independent nonrelativistic quark-antiquark (qq-bar) two-step potential model proposed earlier. Our predictions are in good agreement with experimental data and with other theoretical predictions. (author)

  9. Too Much Bar and Not Enough Mitzvah? A Proposed Research Agenda on Bar/Bat Mitzvah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenfeld, Stuart

    2010-01-01

    Jewish educators are understandably interested in research on how bar/bat mitzvah affect Jewish education or research on what Jewish schools have done to avoid the distortions of a focus on bar/bat mitzvah. Research might also focus on the somewhat different and more ambitious topic of the role that bar/bat mitzvah play in contemporary Jewish…

  10. Bank pull or bar push: What drives scroll-bar formation in meandering rivers?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Lageweg, W. I.; van Dijk, W. M.; Baar, A. W.; Rutten, J.; Kleinhans, M. G.

    2014-01-01

    One of the most striking features of meandering rivers are quasi-regular ridges of the point bar, evidence of a pulsed lateral migration of meander bends. Scroll bars formed on the inner bend are preserved on the point-bar surface as a series of ridges as meanders migrate, and in the subsurface of

  11. Bar Study Stories. Issues in Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This issue of "Issues in Prevention" focuses on the impact of the availability of drinks in licensed establishments, such as bars and taverns on student drinking. This issue contains the following articles: (1) Cheap Drinks at College Bars Can Escalate Student Drinking (John D. Clapp); (2) High Alcohol Outlet Density: A Problem for Campuses and…

  12. Needle bar for warp knitting machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagel, Adolf; Thumling, Manfred

    1979-01-01

    Needle bar for warp knitting machines with a number of needles individually set into slits of the bar and having shafts cranked to such an extent that the head section of each needle is in alignment with the shaft section accommodated by the slit. Slackening of the needles will thus not influence the needle spacing.

  13. Development of an effective pinch bar

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ottermann, RW

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available an impact in addressing rock fall fatalities and injuries associated with making safe or barring activities. The tools will also improve the overall quality of barring, especially in excavations requiring a lot of work, and this will reduce the rock fall...

  14. The Bar Tack Machine. Module 16.

    Science.gov (United States)

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia. Office of Vocational Education.

    This module on the bar tack machine, one in a series dealing with industrial sewing machines, their attachments, and operation, covers one topic: performing special operations on the bar tack machine. These components are provided: an introduction, directions, an objective, learning activities, student information, a student self-check, and a…

  15. Stronger learning recruits additional cell-signaling cascades: c-Jun-N-terminal kinase 1 (JNK1) is necessary for expression of stronger contextual fear conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, Prescott T; Kenney, Justin W; Gould, Thomas J

    2015-02-01

    Increased training often results in stronger memories but the neural changes responsible for these stronger memories are poorly understood. It is proposed here that higher levels of training that result in stronger memories recruit additional cell signaling cascades. This study specifically examined if c-Jun N-terminal kinase 1 (JNK1) is involved in the formation of stronger fear conditioning memories. Wildtype (WT), JNK1 heterozygous (Het), and JNK1 knockout (KO) mice were fear conditioned with 1 trial, 2 trials, or 4 trials. All mice learned both contextual (hippocampus-dependent) and cued (hippocampus-independent) fear conditioning but for contextual fear conditioning only, the JNK1 KO mice did not show higher levels of learning with increased trials. That is, WT mice showed a significant linear increase in contextual fear conditioning as training trials increased from 1 to 2 to 4 trials whereas KO mice showed the same level of contextual fear conditioning as WT mice for 1 trial training but did not have increased levels of contextual fear conditioning with additional trials. These data suggest that JNK1 may not be critical for learning but when higher levels of hippocampus-dependent learning occur, JNK1 signaling is recruited and is necessary for stronger hippocampus-dependent memory formation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Deciphering the BAR code of membrane modulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salzer, Ulrich; Kostan, Julius; Djinović-Carugo, Kristina

    2017-07-01

    The BAR domain is the eponymous domain of the "BAR-domain protein superfamily", a large and diverse set of mostly multi-domain proteins that play eminent roles at the membrane cytoskeleton interface. BAR domain homodimers are the functional units that peripherally associate with lipid membranes and are involved in membrane sculpting activities. Differences in their intrinsic curvatures and lipid-binding properties account for a large variety in membrane modulating properties. Membrane activities of BAR domains are further modified and regulated by intramolecular or inter-subunit domains, by intermolecular protein interactions, and by posttranslational modifications. Rather than providing detailed cell biological information on single members of this superfamily, this review focuses on biochemical, biophysical, and structural aspects and on recent findings that paradigmatically promote our understanding of processes driven and modulated by BAR domains.

  17. Charmonium and bottomonium in bar pp interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pordes, S.

    1993-12-01

    In this talk, I presented some examples of data from the CDF collaboration on J/ψ, χ, ψ' and Γ production. Such data are used to test models of production dynamics and for the understanding of rates for b quark production. I am not a member of the CDF experiment and showed their data with permission as an interested and impressed spectator. Data from D0 may be found in the talk of D. Denisov. As a complement to this data from the highest energy accelerator experiment, operating at √ bar s= 1.8 TeV, I also showed data from Fermilab experiment E760 on masses, widths, states and branching ratios in the Charmonium system, obtained by studying resonant formation of c bar c states in p bar p annihilation at √ bar s = m(c bar c)

  18. Orbits in weak and strong bars

    CERN Document Server

    Contopoulos, George

    1980-01-01

    The authors study the plane orbits in simple bar models embedded in an axisymmetric background when the bar density is about 1% (weak), 10% (intermediate) or 100% (strong bar) of the axisymmetric density. Most orbits follow the stable periodic orbits. The basic families of periodic orbits are described. In weak bars with two Inner Lindblad Resonances there is a family of stable orbits extending from the center up to the Outer Lindblad Resonance. This family contains the long period orbits near corotation. Other stable families appear between the Inner Lindblad Resonances, outside the Outer Lindblad Resonance, around corotation (short period orbits) and around the center (retrograde). Some families become unstable or disappear in strong bars. A comparison is made with cases having one or no Inner Lindblad Resonance. (12 refs).

  19. The Carnegie-Irvine Galaxy Survey. V. Statistical Study of Bars and Buckled Bars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Zhao-Yu [Key Laboratory for Research in Galaxies and Cosmology, Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, Chinese Academy of Science, 80 Nandan Road, Shanghai 200030 (China); Ho, Luis C. [Kavli Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Barth, Aaron J., E-mail: lizy@shao.ac.cn [Department of Physics and Astronomy, 4129 Frederick Reines Hall, University of California, Irvine, CA, 92697-4575 (United States)

    2017-08-10

    Simulations have shown that bars are subject to a vertical buckling instability that transforms thin bars into boxy or peanut-shaped structures, but the physical conditions necessary for buckling to occur are not fully understood. We use the large sample of local disk galaxies in the Carnegie-Irvine Galaxy Survey to examine the incidence of bars and buckled bars across the Hubble sequence. Depending on the disk inclination angle ( i ), a buckled bar reveals itself as either a boxy/peanut-shaped bulge (at high i ) or as a barlens structure (at low i ). We visually identify bars, boxy/peanut-shaped bulges, and barlenses, and examine the dependence of bar and buckled bar fractions on host galaxy properties, including Hubble type, stellar mass, color, and gas mass fraction. We find that the barred and unbarred disks show similar distributions in these physical parameters. The bar fraction is higher (70%–80%) in late-type disks with low stellar mass ( M {sub *} < 10{sup 10.5} M {sub ⊙}) and high gas mass ratio. In contrast, the buckled bar fraction increases to 80% toward massive and early-type disks ( M {sub *} > 10{sup 10.5} M {sub ⊙}), and decreases with higher gas mass ratio. These results suggest that bars are more difficult to grow in massive disks that are dynamically hotter than low-mass disks. However, once a bar forms, it can easily buckle in the massive disks, where a deeper potential can sustain the vertical resonant orbits. We also find a probable buckling bar candidate (ESO 506−G004) that could provide further clues to understand the timescale of the buckling process.

  20. REGULARIZED D-BAR METHOD FOR THE INVERSE CONDUCTIVITY PROBLEM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Kim; Lassas, Matti; Mueller, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    A strategy for regularizing the inversion procedure for the two-dimensional D-bar reconstruction algorithm based on the global uniqueness proof of Nachman [Ann. Math. 143 (1996)] for the ill-posed inverse conductivity problem is presented. The strategy utilizes truncation of the boundary integral...... equation and the scattering transform. It is shown that this leads to a bound on the error in the scattering transform and a stable reconstruction of the conductivity; an explicit rate of convergence in appropriate Banach spaces is derived as well. Numerical results are also included, demonstrating...... the convergence of the reconstructed conductivity to the true conductivity as the noise level tends to zero. The results provide a link between two traditions of inverse problems research: theory of regularization and inversion methods based on complex geometrical optics. Also, the procedure is a novel...

  1. BAR domain proteins regulate Rho GTPase signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aspenström, Pontus

    2014-01-01

    BAR proteins comprise a heterogeneous group of multi-domain proteins with diverse biological functions. The common denominator is the Bin-Amphiphysin-Rvs (BAR) domain that not only confers targeting to lipid bilayers, but also provides scaffolding to mold lipid membranes into concave or convex surfaces. This function of BAR proteins is an important determinant in the dynamic reconstruction of membrane vesicles, as well as of the plasma membrane. Several BAR proteins function as linkers between cytoskeletal regulation and membrane dynamics. These links are provided by direct interactions between BAR proteins and actin-nucleation-promoting factors of the Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein family and the Diaphanous-related formins. The Rho GTPases are key factors for orchestration of this intricate interplay. This review describes how BAR proteins regulate the activity of Rho GTPases, as well as how Rho GTPases regulate the function of BAR proteins. This mutual collaboration is a central factor in the regulation of vital cellular processes, such as cell migration, cytokinesis, intracellular transport, endocytosis, and exocytosis.

  2. A Modern Picture of Barred Galaxy Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Michael; Weinberg, Martin; Katz, Neal

    2018-01-01

    Observations of disk galaxies suggest that bars are responsible for altering global galaxy parameters (e.g. structures, gas fraction, star formation rate). The canonical understanding of the mechanisms underpinning bar-driven secular dynamics in disk galaxies has been largely built upon the analysis of linear theory, despite galactic bars being clearly demonstrated to be nonlinear phenomena in n-body simulations. We present simulations of barred Milky Way-like galaxy models designed to elucidate nonlinear barred galaxy dynamics. We have developed two new methodologies for analyzing n-body simulations that give the best of both powerful analytic linear theory and brute force simulation analysis: orbit family identification and multicomponent torque analysis. The software will be offered publicly to the community for their own simulation analysis.The orbit classifier reveals that the details of kinematic components in galactic disks (e.g. the bar, bulge, thin disk, and thick disk components) are powerful discriminators of evolutionary paradigms (i.e. violent instabilities and secular evolution) as well as the basic parameters of the dark matter halo (mass distribution, angular momentum distribution). Multicomponent torque analysis provides a thorough accounting of the transfer of angular momentum between orbits, global patterns, and distinct components in order to better explain the underlying physics which govern the secular evolution of barred disk galaxies.Using these methodologies, we are able to identify the successes and failures of linear theory and traditional n-body simulations en route to a detailed understanding of the control bars exhibit over secular evolution in galaxies. We present explanations for observed physical and velocity structures in observations of barred galaxies alongside predictions for how structures will vary with dynamical properties from galaxy to galaxy as well as over the lifetime of a galaxy, finding that the transfer of angular

  3. First Measurement of σ(gg → t$\\bar{t}$)/σ(p$\\bar{p}$ → t$\\bar{t}$)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alamdari, Shabnaz Pashapour [Univ. of Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2008-01-01

    The work presented here is the first measurement of the fraction of top quark pair production through gluon-gluon fusion. We use an integrated luminosity of 0.96 ± 0.06 fb-1 of p{bar p} collisions at √s of 1.96 TeV collected by the CDF II detector. We select t$\\bar{t}$ candidates by identifying a high-pT lepton candidate, a large missing ET as evidence for a neutrino candidate and at least four high ET jets, one of which has to be identified as originating from a b quark. The challenge is to discriminate between the two production processes with the identical final state, gg → t$\\bar{t}$ and q$\\bar{p}$ → t$\\bar{t}$. We take advantage of the fact that compared to a quark, a gluon is more likely to radiate a low momentum gluon and therefore, one expects a larger number of charged particles with low pT in a process involving more gluons. Given the large uncertainties associated with the modeling of the low pT charged particle multiplicity, a data-driven technique was employed. Using calibration data samples, we show there exists a clear correlation between the observed average number of low pT charged particles and the average number of gluons involved in the production process predicted by Monte Carlo calculations. Given the correlation, one can identify low pT charged particle multiplicity distributions associated with specific average number of gluons. The W + 0 jet sample and dijets sample with leading jet ET in the range of 80-100 GeV are used to find no-gluon and gluon-rich low p{sub T} charged particle multiplicity distributions, respectively. Using these no-gluon and gluon-rich distributions in a likelihood fit, we find the fraction of gluon-rich events in t{bar t} candidates. This fraction has contributions from the signal and background events. Taking into account these contributions and the gg → t$\\bar{t}$ and q$\\bar{q}$ → t$\\bar

  4. What Makes the Family of Barred Disc Galaxies So Rich: Damping Stellar Bars in Spinning Haloes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, Angela; Shlosman, Isaac; Heller, Clayton

    2018-02-01

    We model and analyze the secular evolution of stellar bars in spinning dark matter (DM) haloes with the cosmological spin λ ˜ 0 - 0.09. Using high-resolution stellar and DM numerical simulations, we focus on angular momentum exchange between stellar discs and DM haloes of various axisymmetric shapes — spherical, oblate and prolate. We find that stellar bars experience a diverse evolution which is guided by the ability of parent haloes to absorb angular momentum, J, lost by the disc through the action of gravitational torques, resonant and non-resonant. We confirm that dynamical bar instability is accelerated via resonant J-transfer to the halo. Our main findings relate to the long-term, secular evolution of disc-halo systems: with an increasing λ, bars experience less growth and basically dissolve after they pass through vertical buckling instability. Specifically, with increasing λ, (1) The vertical buckling instability in stellar bars colludes with inability of the inner halo to absorb J — this emerges as the main factor weakening or destroying bars in spinning haloes; (2) Bars lose progressively less J, and their pattern speeds level off; (3) Bars are smaller, and for λ ≳ 0.06 cease their growth completely following buckling; (4) Bars in λ > 0.03 halos have ratio of corotation-to-bar radii, RCR/Rb > 2, and represent so-called slow bars without offset dust lanes. We provide a quantitative analysis of J-transfer in disc-halo systems, and explain the reasons for absence of growth in fast spinning haloes and its observational corollaries. We conclude that stellar bar evolution is substantially more complex than anticipated, and bars are not as resilient as has been considered so far.

  5. Quantifying the forcing effect of channel width variations on free bars: Morphodynamic modeling based on characteristic dissipative Galerkin scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Fu-Chun; Shao, Yun-Chuan; Chen, Yu-Chen

    2011-09-01

    The forcing effect of channel width variations on free bars is investigated in this study using a two-dimensional depth-averaged morphodynamic model. The novel feature of the model is the incorporation of a characteristic dissipative Galerkin (CDG) upwinding scheme in the bed evolution module. A correction for the secondary flows induced by streamline curvature is also included, allowing for simulations of bar growth and migration in channels with width variations beyond the small-amplitude regimes. The model is tested against a variety of experimental data ranging from purely forced and free bars to coexisting bed forms in the variable-width channel. The CDG scheme effectively dissipates local bed oscillations, thus sustains numerical stabilities. The results show that the global effect of width variations on bar height is invariably suppressive. Such effect increases with the dimensionless amplitude AC and wave number λC of width variations. For small AC, λC has little effects on bar height; for AC beyond small amplitudes, however, the suppressing effect depends on both AC and λC. The suppressing effect on bar length increases also with both AC and λC, but is much weaker than that on bar height. The global effect of width variations on bar celerity can be suppressive or enhancive, depending on the combination of AC and λC. For smaller λC, the effect on bar celerity is enhancive; for larger λC, bar celerity tends to increase at small AC but decreases for AC beyond small amplitudes. We present herein an unprecedented data set verifying the theoretical prediction on celerity enhancement. Full suppression of bar growth above the theoretically predicted threshold AC was not observed, regardless of the adopted amplitude of initial bed perturbation A. The global effects of width variations on free bars can be quantified using a forcing factor FC that integrates the effects of AC and λC. The suppressing effects on bar height and length are both proportional to FC

  6. Resonant-bar gravitational radiation antennas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blair, D.G.

    1987-01-01

    This paper reviews the concept of gravitational radiation, and describes the worldwide research programme for the development of high-sensitivity resonant-bar antennas which are aimed at detecting gravitational radiation from astrophysical sources. (author)

  7. Ultrasound-Guided Bar Edge Labeling in the Perioperative Assessment of Nuss Bar Removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Incerti, Filippo; Bertocchini, Alessia; Ghionzoli, Marco; Messineo, Antonio

    2017-12-01

    Nuss bar removal after minimally invasive repair of pectus excavatum in patients where bar ends are not palpable, can be a challenging procedure for the surgeon; a blind dissection toward the bar edges may lead to intercostal vessels or deep intercostal muscle injuries. In this article, we describe a fast, repeatable, low-cost technique to detect bar edge and stabilizers. A perioperative scan is performed by means of a portable ultrasonograph a few minutes before the operation. The bar edge stabilizer is detected as a hyperechogenic image with a concentric crescent while the bar edge is detected as a hyperechogenic dashed line with net edges. The scan is performed, and the actual projection on the skin of the metal plaque bulk is then labeled on the patient's chest by an ink marker. We believe that this method may improve morbidity, operative time, and consequently, hospitalization length and costs.

  8. Intelligent Bar Chart Plagiarism Detection in Documents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Dabbagh, Mohammed Mumtaz; Salim, Naomie; Alkawaz, Mohammed Hazim; Saba, Tanzila; Al-Rodhaan, Mznah; Al-Dhelaan, Abdullah

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a novel features mining approach from documents that could not be mined via optical character recognition (OCR). By identifying the intimate relationship between the text and graphical components, the proposed technique pulls out the Start, End, and Exact values for each bar. Furthermore, the word 2-gram and Euclidean distance methods are used to accurately detect and determine plagiarism in bar charts. PMID:25309952

  9. Intelligent bar chart plagiarism detection in documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Dabbagh, Mohammed Mumtaz; Salim, Naomie; Rehman, Amjad; Alkawaz, Mohammed Hazim; Saba, Tanzila; Al-Rodhaan, Mznah; Al-Dhelaan, Abdullah

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a novel features mining approach from documents that could not be mined via optical character recognition (OCR). By identifying the intimate relationship between the text and graphical components, the proposed technique pulls out the Start, End, and Exact values for each bar. Furthermore, the word 2-gram and Euclidean distance methods are used to accurately detect and determine plagiarism in bar charts.

  10. Chocolate Bars Based on Human Nutritional Requirements

    OpenAIRE

    Robson , Anthony ,

    2013-01-01

    International audience; Key Points * The nutritional value of chocolate bars should be based on the nutritional value of the low energy dense late Paleolithic human diet to help reduce mental ill health, obesity, and other postprandial insults. * Current chocolate bars have a high energy density (>2 kcal/g). * Cocoa can be sweetened by the addition of calorie-free Purefruit™ (Tate & Lyle) monk fruit ( Siraitia grosvenorii ) extract. PUREFRUIT™ is approximately 200 times sweeter than sugar and...

  11. Companions of Bright Barred Shapley Ames Galaxies

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia-Barreto, J. Antonio; Carrillo, Rene; Vera-Villamizar, Nelson

    2003-01-01

    Companion galaxy environment for a subset of 78 bright and nearby barred galaxies from the Shapley Ames Catalog is presented. Among spiral barred galaxies there are Seyfert galaxies, galaxies with circumnuclear structures, galaxies not associated with any large scale galaxy cloud structure, galaxies with peculiar disk morphology (crooked arms) and galaxies with normal disk morphology; the list includes all Hubble types. The companion galaxy list includes number of companion galaxies within 20...

  12. The hydrogen 700 project - 700 Bar Co

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gambone, L.; Webster, C.

    2004-01-01

    'Full text:' Major automotive companies, including DaimlerChrysler, Ford, Hyundai, Nissan, PSA Peugeot-Citroen, and Toyota, are co-operating in the Hydrogen 700 project at Powertech to establish a global basis for high pressure hydrogen fuel systems for vehicles. The fuel systems will store compressed hydrogen on-board at pressures up to 700 bar (10,000psi). It is anticipated that the 700 bar storage pressure will provide hydrogen powered vehicles with a range comparable to the range of petroleum-fueled vehicles. The Hydrogen 700 project has contracted world leaders in high pressure technologies to provide 700 bar fuel system components for evaluation. The data from these tests will be used as the basis for the development of relevant standards and regulations. In a development that complements the Hydrogen 700 project, Powertech Labs has established the world's first 700 bar hydrogen station for fast filling operations. This prototype station will be used to evaluate the performance of the 700 bar vehicle fuel system components. The presentation will provide an overview of the Hydrogen 700 project. Safety issues surrounding the use of compressed hydrogen gas as a vehicle fuel, as well as the use of higher storage pressures, will be reviewed. Test data involving the fire testing of vehicles containing hydrogen fuel systems will be presented. The project is intended to result in the introduction of 700 bar fuel systems in the next generation of hydrogen powered vehicles. (author)

  13. 32 CFR 776.66 - Bar admission and disciplinary matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bar admission and disciplinary matters. 776.66... ADVOCATE GENERAL Rules of Professional Conduct § 776.66 Bar admission and disciplinary matters. (a) Bar admission and disciplinary matters. A covered attorney, in connection with any application for bar admission...

  14. 21 CFR 886.1650 - Ophthalmic bar prism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ophthalmic bar prism. 886.1650 Section 886.1650...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1650 Ophthalmic bar prism. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic bar prism is a device that is a bar composed of fused prisms of gradually increasing...

  15. Cultural Factors Related to Smoking in San Francisco's Irish Bars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satterlund, Travis D.; Antin, Tamar M. J.; Lee, Juliet P.; Moore, Roland S.

    2009-01-01

    California's Smoke-Free Workplace Act was extended to include bars in 1998. While the majority of bars in the state have become smoke free, in many bars patrons and staff continue to smoke despite the law. The authors present findings from a study which assessed cultural factors related to continued smoking in bars in the city of San Francisco. In…

  16. Chemical enrichment in isolated barred spiral galaxies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martel, Hugo; Carles, Christian; Robichaud, Fidéle; Ellison, Sara L.; Williamson, David J.

    2018-04-01

    To investigate the role of bars in the chemical evolution of isolated disc galaxies, we performed a series of 39 gas dynamical simulations of isolated barred and unbarred galaxies with various masses, initial gas fractions, and AGN feedback models. The presence of a bar drives a substantial amount of gas toward the central region of the galaxy. In the most massive galaxies, this results in a violent starburst, followed by a drop in star formation resulting from gas exhaustion. The time delay between Type Ia and Type II supernovae explosions means that barred galaxies experience a rapid increase in [O/H] in the central region, and a much more gradual increase in [Fe/H]. In unbarred galaxies, star formation proceeds at a slow and steady rate, and oxygen and iron are produced at steady rates which are similar except for a time offset. Comparing the abundance ratios in barred and unbarred galaxies with the same central stellar mass M*, we find in barred galaxies an enhancement of 0.07 dex in [O/H], 0.05 dex in [Fe/H], and 0.05 dex in [O/Fe]. The [O/H] enhancement is in excellent agreement with observations from the SDSS. The initial gas fraction has very little effect on the abundance ratios in barred and unbarred galaxies, unless the galaxies experience a starburst. We considered AGN-host galaxies located near the bottom of the AGN regime, M* ≳ 3 × 1010M⊙, where AGN feedback dominates over supernovae feedback. We found that the impact of AGN feedback on the central abundances is marginal.

  17. Membrane-sculpting BAR domains generate stable lipid microdomains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Hongxia; Michelot, Alphée; Koskela, Essi V.

    2013-01-01

    Bin-Amphiphysin-Rvs (BAR) domain proteins are central regulators of many cellular processes involving membrane dynamics. BAR domains sculpt phosphoinositide-rich membranes to generate membrane protrusions or invaginations. Here, we report that, in addition to regulating membrane geometry, BAR...... domains can generate extremely stable lipid microdomains by "freezing" phosphoinositide dynamics. This is a general feature of BAR domains, because the yeast endocytic BAR and Fes/CIP4 homology BAR (F-BAR) domains, the inverse BAR domain of Pinkbar, and the eisosomal BAR protein Lsp1 induced...... phosphoinositide clustering and halted lipid diffusion, despite differences in mechanisms of membrane interactions. Lsp1 displays comparable low diffusion rates in vitro and in vivo, suggesting that BAR domain proteins also generate stable phosphoinositide microdomains in cells. These results uncover a conserved...

  18. Everyday mood and emotions after eating a chocolate bar or an apple.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macht, Michael; Dettmer, Dorothee

    2006-05-01

    Emotional changes after eating chocolate were examined in everyday life. Thirty-seven healthy, normal-weight women ate a chocolate bar, an apple or nothing and rated their subjective state 5, 30, 60 and 90min after eating. Both chocolate and the apple reduced hunger, elevated mood and increased activation, but the effects of the chocolate were stronger. Eating chocolate was also followed by joy and, in some women, by guilt. Guilt responders experienced less intense positive emotions. Whereas positive emotional responses appear to be due to sensory pleasure and it's anticipation and may also be related to reduced hunger, guilt responses are probably induced by negative food-related cognitions.

  19. Bar code usage in nuclear materials accountability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mee, W.T.

    1983-01-01

    The age old method of physically taking an inventory of materials by listing each item's identification number has lived beyond its usefulness. In this age of computerization, which offers the local grocery store a quick, sure, and easy means to inventory, it is time for nuclear materials facilities to automate accountability activities. The Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant began investigating the use of automated data collection devices in 1979. At that time, bar code and optical-character-recognition (OCR) systems were reviewed with the purpose of directly entering data into DYMCAS (Dynamic Special Nuclear Materials Control and Accountability System). Both of these systems appeared applicable; however, other automated devices already employed for production control made implementing the bar code and OCR seem improbable. However, the DYMCAS was placed on line for nuclear material accountability, a decision was made to consider the bar code for physical inventory listings. For the past several months a development program has been underway to use a bar code device to collect and input data to the DYMCAS on the uranium recovery operations. Programs have been completed and tested, and are being employed to ensure that data will be compatible and useful. Bar code implementation and expansion of its use for all nuclear material inventory activity in Y-12 is presented

  20. Numerical modeling of the autumnal thermal bar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsydenov, Bair O.

    2018-03-01

    The autumnal riverine thermal bar of Kamloops Lake has been simulated using atmospheric data from December 1, 2015, to January 4, 2016. The nonhydrostatic 2.5D mathematical model developed takes into account the diurnal variability of the heat fluxes and wind on the lake surface. The average values for shortwave and longwave radiation and latent and sensible heat fluxes were 19.7 W/m2, - 95.9 W/m2, - 11.8 W/m2, and - 32.0 W/m2 respectively. Analysis of the wind regime data showed prevailing easterly winds and maximum speed of 11 m/s on the 8th and 19th days. Numerical experiments with different boundary conditions at the lake surface were conducted to evaluate effects of variable heat flux and wind stress. The results of modeling demonstrated that the variable heat flux affects the process of thermal bar evolution, especially during the lengthy night cooling. However, the wind had the greatest impact on the behavior of the autumnal thermal bar: The easterly winds contributed to an earlier appearance of the thermal bar, but the strong winds generating the intensive circulations (the velocity of the upper lake flow increased to 6 cm/s) may destroy the thermal bar front.

  1. Subsurface flow in lowland river gravel bars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, E. N.; Dunne, T.

    2017-09-01

    Geomorphic and hydraulic processes, which form gravel bars in large lowland rivers, have distinctive characteristics that control the magnitude and spatial patterns of infiltration and exfiltration between rivers and their immediate subsurface environments. We present a bedform-infiltration relation together with a set of field measurements along two reaches of the San Joaquin River, CA to illustrate the conditions required for infiltration and exfiltration of flow between a stream and its undulating bed, and a numerical model to investigate the factors that affect paths and residence times of flow through barforms at different discharges. It is shown that asymmetry of bar morphology is a first-order control on the extent and location of infiltration, which would otherwise produce equal areas of infiltration and exfiltration under the assumption of sinusoidal bedforms. Hydraulic conductivity varies by orders of magnitude due to fine sediment accumulation and downstream coarsening related to the process of bar evolution. This systematic variability not only controls the magnitude of infiltration, but also the residence time of flow through the bed. The lowest hydraulic conductivity along the reach occurred where the difference between the topographic gradient and the water-surface gradient is at a maximum and thus where infiltration would be greatest into a homogeneous bar, indicating the importance of managing sand supply to maintain the ventilation and flow through salmon spawning riffles. Numerical simulations corroborate our interpretation that infiltration patterns and rates are controlled by distinctive features of bar morphology.

  2. Numerical simulations of wave propagation in long bars with application to Kolsky bar testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corona, Edmundo [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-11-01

    Material testing using the Kolsky bar, or split Hopkinson bar, technique has proven instrumental to conduct measurements of material behavior at strain rates in the order of 103 s-1. Test design and data reduction, however, remain empirical endeavors based on the experimentalist's experience. Issues such as wave propagation across discontinuities, the effect of the deformation of the bar surfaces in contact with the specimen, the effect of geometric features in tensile specimens (dog-bone shape), wave dispersion in the bars and other particulars are generally treated using simplified models. The work presented here was conducted in Q3 and Q4 of FY14. The objective was to demonstrate the feasibility of numerical simulations of Kolsky bar tests, which was done successfully.

  3. Bar formation in simulations of interacting galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luna-Sánchez, Juan Carlos; Rodríguez-Meza, M A; Arrieta, A; Gabbasov, R

    2014-01-01

    In this work we present a study of interacting galaxies using N-body simulations. The initial condition of galaxies are such that they are composed of a bulge, a disc (Freeman model, with no gas), and a halo. For bulge and halo we follow the Dehnen density-pair spherical models. Galaxies are set in a parabolic encounter characterised by the impact parameter and the collision angle subtended by the planes containing each individual galactic discs. The evolution of galaxies are given in terms of the morphology (bar formation, geometry of the bar, minor and major axis length), and the kinematical bar rotation. We show how this characteristics depend on the collision geometry. The dynamics of the collision is given in terms of individual rotation curves, dispersion of velocities of the disc and mass function as functions of the distance to the center of mass of each individual galaxy

  4. Evidence for B+ -> K*0bar K*+

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aubert, B.; Bona, M.; Karyotakis, Y.; Lees, J.P.; Poireau, V.; Prencipe, E.; Prudent, X.; Tisserand, V.; /Annecy, LAPP; Garra Tico, J.; Grauges, E.; /Barcelona U., ECM; Lopez, L.; Palano, A.; Pappagallo, M.; /INFN, Bari /Bari U.; Eigen, G.; Stugu, B.; Sun, L.; /Bergen U.; Battaglia, M.; Brown, D.N.; Kerth, L.T.; Kolomensky, Yu.G.; Lynch, G.; /LBL, Berkeley /UC, Berkeley /Birmingham U. /Ruhr U., Bochum /British Columbia U. /Brunel U. /Novosibirsk, IYF /UC, Irvine /UCLA /UC, Riverside /UC, San Diego /UC, Santa Barbara /UC, Santa Cruz /Caltech /Cincinnati U. /Colorado U. /Colorado State U. /Dortmund U. /Dresden, Tech. U. /Ecole Polytechnique /Edinburgh U. /INFN, Ferrara /Ferrara U. /INFN, Ferrara /INFN, Ferrara /Ferrara U. /INFN, Ferrara /INFN, Ferrara /Ferrara U. /Frascati /INFN, Genoa /Genoa U. /INFN, Genoa /Genoa U. /INFN, Genoa /INFN, Genoa /Genoa U. /INFN, Genoa /INFN, Genoa /Genoa U. /Harvard U. /Heidelberg U. /Humboldt U., Berlin /Imperial Coll., London /Iowa U. /Iowa State U. /Johns Hopkins U. /Orsay, LAL /LLNL, Livermore /Liverpool U. /Queen Mary, U. of London /Royal Holloway, U. of London /Louisville U. /Karlsruhe U., EKP /Manchester U. /Maryland U. /Massachusetts U., Amherst /MIT, LNS /McGill U. /INFN, Milan /Milan U. /INFN, Milan /INFN, Milan /Milan U. /Mississippi U. /Montreal U. /Mt. Holyoke Coll. /INFN, Naples /Naples U. /INFN, Naples /INFN, Naples /Naples U. /NIKHEF, Amsterdam /Notre Dame U. /Ohio State U. /Oregon U. /INFN, Padua /Padua U. /INFN, Padua /INFN, Padua /Padua U. /Paris U., VI-VII /Pennsylvania U. /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U. /INFN, Pisa /Pisa U. /INFN, Pisa /Pisa, Scuola Normale Superiore /INFN, Pisa /Pisa U. /INFN, Pisa /Princeton U. /INFN, Rome /INFN, Rome /Rome U. /INFN, Rome /INFN, Rome /Rome U. /INFN, Rome /INFN, Rome /Rome U. /INFN, Rome /INFN, Rome /Rome U. /INFN, Rome /Rostock U. /Rutherford /DSM, DAPNIA, Saclay /South Carolina U. /SLAC /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SUNY, Albany /Tennessee U. /Texas U. /Texas U., Dallas /INFN, Turin /Turin U. /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U. /Valencia U., IFIC /Victoria U. /Warwick U. /Wisconsin U., Madison

    2009-06-19

    We present measurements of the branching fraction and fraction of longitudinal polarization for the decay B{sup +} {yields} {bar K}*{sup 0} K*{sup +} with a sample of 467 {+-} 5 million B{bar B} pairs collected with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II asymmetric-energy e{sup +}e{sup -} collider at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory. We obtain the branching fraction {Beta}(B{sup +} {yields} {bar K}*{sup 0} K*{sup +}) = (1.2 {+-} 0.5 {+-} 0.1) x 10{sup ?6} with a significance of 3.7 standard deviations including systematic uncertainties. We measure the fraction of longitudinal polarization f{sub L} = 0.75{sub -0.26}{sup +0.16} {+-} 0.03. The first error quoted is statistical and the second is systematic.

  5. Newtorites in bar detectors of gravitational wave

    CERN Document Server

    Ronga, F

    2016-01-01

    The detection of particles with only gravitational interactions (Newtorites) in gravitational bar detectors was studied in 1984 by Bernard, De Rujula and Lautrup. The negative results of dark matter searches suggest to look to exotic possibilities like Newtorites. The limits obtained with the Nautilus bar detector will be presented and the possible improvements will be discussed. Since the gravitational coupling is very weak, the possible limits are very far from what is needed for dark matter, but for large masses are the best limits obtained on the Earth. An update of limits for MACRO particles will be given.

  6. Imaging of physeal bars in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, David C. [Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Deeney, Vincent; Roach, James W. [Children' s Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC, Department of Orthopedics, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Shah, Amisha J. [Children' s Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC, Department of Radiology, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2015-08-15

    The growth plate, also known as the physis or epiphyseal plate, is essential for longitudinal growth of bones in the immature skeleton. A variety of insults to the growth plate from trauma to infection to idiopathic causes can lead to physeal bar formation, an interruption in normal growth plate cartilage, where a bony or fibrous bridge develops between the metaphysis and epiphysis. This bridge restricts subsequent bone growth, leading to limb shortening and/or angular deformities. Early recognition of the presence of a physeal bar can help direct appropriate surgical management to restore linear growth of the bone. (orig.)

  7. Sine-Bar Attachment For Machine Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Franklin D.

    1988-01-01

    Sine-bar attachment for collets, spindles, and chucks helps machinists set up quickly for precise angular cuts that require greater precision than provided by graduations of machine tools. Machinist uses attachment to index head, carriage of milling machine or lathe relative to table or turning axis of tool. Attachment accurate to 1 minute or arc depending on length of sine bar and precision of gauge blocks in setup. Attachment installs quickly and easily on almost any type of lathe or mill. Requires no special clamps or fixtures, and eliminates many trial-and-error measurements. More stable than improvised setups and not jarred out of position readily.

  8. Jazz Chants Born in a Piano Bar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Graham

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available When I first arrived in New York in the late sixties, I began teaching ESL at New York University. I didn`t really think of teaching as a profession for me. I just thought it would pay the rent so I could do what I really wanted to do which was to sing and play ragtime piano in the piano bars. When I got my first piano job in an Irish Bar it was uptown, far away from NYU so I didn`t feel it was necessary to mention this night job to my boss.

  9. 50 CFR Figures 14a and 14b to Part... - Maximum Angle of Deflector Bars With Straight Bars Attached to the Bottom of the Frame and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Maximum Angle of Deflector Bars With Straight Bars Attached to the Bottom of the Frame and Maximum Angle of Deflector Bars With Bent Bars... 223—Maximum Angle of Deflector Bars With Straight Bars Attached to the Bottom of the Frame and Maximum...

  10. BaBar Explores CP Violation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karyotakis, Jean Yannis

    2003-05-16

    The most recent results obtained by the BABAR experiment at the PEP-II asymmetric-energy B Factory at SLAC on CP-violating asymmetries and branching fractions for neutral and charged B decays are presented here. The analysis was performed on a data sample of {approx} 88 million {Upsilon}(4S) {yields} B{bar B} decays collected between 1999 and 2002. Using b {yields} c{bar c}s decays, we measure sin2{beta} = 0.741 {+-} 0.067(stat) {+-} 0.034(syst). We also present sin2{beta} measurements from, b {yields} s{bar s}s and b {yields} c{bar c}d processes. From neutral B meson decays to two-body final states of charged pions and kaons, we derive for the CP violating parameters, S{sub {pi}{pi}} = 0.02 {+-} 0.34 {+-} 0.05 [-0.54, +0.58] and C{sub {pi}{pi}} = -0.30 {+-} 0.25 {+-} 0.04 [-0.72, +0.12]. First results for B {yields} {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup 0} and K{sup {+-}}{pi}{sup {-+}}{pi}{sup 0} final states dominated by the {rho}{sup {+-}} resonance, are also presented.

  11. My Bar Graph Tells a Story

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillen, Sue; McMillen, Beth

    2010-01-01

    Connecting stories to qualitative coordinate graphs has been suggested as an effective instructional strategy. Even students who are able to "create" bar graphs may struggle to correctly "interpret" them. Giving children opportunities to work with qualitative graphs can help them develop the skills to interpret, describe, and compare information…

  12. Dowel bar retrofit performance in Wisconsin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    In 1999, WisDOT constructed test sections on I-39 to evaluate the dowel bar retrofit (DBR) rehabilitation technique for faulted concrete pavement slabs. Two years later, mortar deterioration and debonding were noted in the dowel slots. In response to...

  13. 49 CFR 236.705 - Bar, locking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bar, locking. 236.705 Section 236.705 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES, STANDARDS, AND INSTRUCTIONS GOVERNING THE INSTALLATION, INSPECTION...

  14. Adaptive Virtual Tow Bar, research results 2016

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willemsen, D.M.C.; Hueting, T.F.; Joosten, B.; Uittenbogaard, J.; Martens, M.H.

    2017-01-01

    This document reports the advances made in 2016 for the Early Research Program (ERP) Human Enhancement: Adaptive Automation, sub-project Adaptive Virtual Tow Bar. The ambition of the large scale TNO Early Research Program (ERP) Human Enhancement is to develop a transparent (human-in-the-loop)

  15. The BaBar Data Acquisition System

    CERN Document Server

    Scott, I; Grosso, P; Huffer, M E; O'Grady, C; Russell, J J

    1999-01-01

    The BaBar experiment at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center is designed to perform a search for CP violation by ana-lyzing the decays of a very large sample of B and B(Bar) mesons produced at the high luminosity PEP-II accelerator. The data acquisition system must cope with a sustained high event rate, while supporting real time feature extraction and data compression with minimal dead time. The BaBar data acquisition system is based around a common VME interface to the electronics read-out of the separate detec-tor subsystems. Data from the front end electronics is read into commercial VME processors via a custom "Personality Card" and PCI interface. The commercial CPUs run the Tornado operating system to provide a platform for detector subsystem code to perform the necessary data processing. The data is read out via a non-blocking network switch to a farm of commercial UNIX processors. The current implementation of the BaBar data acquisition sys-tem has been shown to sustain a Level 1 trigger rate of 1.3...

  16. The bar coil for NMR tomograph

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogorodzki, P.; Piatkowski, A.; Wasielewski, J.

    1995-01-01

    The bar coil (bi-planar) for the NMR tomograph, designed for medical diagnostics, has been described. The tests of coil shown that it generates good homogenous magnetic field in a big volume what results in improving of the signal-to-noise ratio

  17. Divorce and Bar Mitzvah: A First Look.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geffen, Michael; Kaplan, Earl

    After an introductory discussion and review of literature on divorce among Jewish families, this document presents and analyzes two case studies which show the adverse effect of divorce and child-custody battles on the children of Jewish families who subsequently plan a B'nai Mitzvah (Bar or Bat Mitzvah) ceremony--a joyous ritual of initiation…

  18. Predatory blue crabs induce stronger nonconsumptive effects in eastern oysters Crassostrea virginica than scavenging blue crabs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avery E. Scherer

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available By influencing critical prey traits such as foraging or habitat selection, predators can affect entire ecosystems, but the nature of cues that trigger prey reactions to predators are not well understood. Predators may scavenge to supplement their energetic needs and scavenging frequency may vary among individuals within a species due to preferences and prey availability. Yet prey reactions to consumers that are primarily scavengers versus those that are active foragers have not been investigated, even though variation in prey reactions to scavengers or predators might influence cascading nonconsumptive effects in food webs. Oysters Crassostrea virginica react to crab predators by growing stronger shells. We exposed oysters to exudates from crabs fed live oysters or fed aged oyster tissue to simulate scavenging, and to controls without crab cues. Oysters grew stronger shells when exposed to either crab exudate, but their shells were significantly stronger when crabs were fed live oysters. The stronger response to predators than scavengers could be due to inherent differences in diet cues representative of reduced risk in the presence of scavengers or to degradation of conspecific alarm cues in aged treatments, which may mask risk from potential predators subsisting by scavenging.

  19. Stronger Accent Following a Stroke: The Case of a Trilingual with Aphasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Erika S.; Goral, Mira; De Diesbach, Catharine Castelluccio; Law, Franzo, II

    2011-01-01

    This study documents patterns of change in speech production in a multilingual with aphasia following a cerebrovascular accident (CVA). EC, a right-handed Hebrew-English-French trilingual man, had a left fronto-temporo-parietal CVA, after which he reported that his (native) Hebrew accent became stronger in his (second language) English. Recordings…

  20. Peptide-MHC class I stability is a stronger predictor of CTL immunogenicity than peptide affinity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harndahl, Mikkel Nors; Rasmussen, Michael; Nielsen, Morten

    2012-01-01

    Peptide-MHC class I stability is a stronger predictor of CTL immunogenicity than peptide affinity Mikkel Harndahla, Michael Rasmussena, Morten Nielsenb, Soren Buusa,∗ a Laboratory of Experimental Immunology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Denmark b Center for Biological Seq...... al., 2007. J. Immunol. 178, 7890–7901. doi:10.1016/j.molimm.2012.02.025...

  1. First-order dominance: stronger characterization and a bivariate checking algorithm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Range, Troels Martin; Østerdal, Lars Peter Raahave

    2018-01-01

    distributions. Utilizing that this problem can be formulated as a transportation problem with a special structure, we provide a stronger characterization of multivariate first-order dominance and develop a linear time complexity checking algorithm for the bivariate case. We illustrate the use of the checking...

  2. Fasting insulin is a stronger cardiovascular risk factor in women than in men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oterdoom, Leendert H.; de Vries, Aiko P. J.; Gansevoort, Ron T.; de Jong, Paul E.; Gans, Reinold O. B.; Bakker, Stephan J. L.

    Diabetes is a stronger risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in women than in men. It is not known whether there is also a sex difference in the association between hyperinsulinaemia, reflecting insulin resistance, and CVD. Fasting insulin was assessed with a specific assay in 6916 fasting,

  3. A stronger patch test elicitation reaction to the allergen hydroxycitronellal plus the irritant sodium lauryl sulfate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heydorn, S; Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Johansen, Jeanne Duus

    2003-01-01

    Household and cleaning products often contain both allergens and irritants. The aim of this double-blinded, randomized, paired study was to determine whether patch testing with an allergen (hydroxycitronellal) combined with an irritant [sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS)] cause a stronger patch test...

  4. A Human Capital Framework for a Stronger Teacher Workforce. Advancing Teaching--Improving Learning. White Paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myung, Jeannie; Martinez, Krissia; Nordstrum, Lee

    2013-01-01

    Building a stronger teacher workforce requires the thoughtful orchestration of multiple processes working together in a human capital system. This white paper presents a framework that can be used to take stock of current efforts to enhance the teacher workforce in school districts or educational organizations, as well as their underlying theories…

  5. Harmful drinking after job loss: a stronger association during the post-2008 economic crisis?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Goeij, Moniek C. M.; Bruggink, Jan-Willem; Otten, Ferdy; Kunst, Anton E.

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated, among the Dutch working population, whether job loss during the post-2008 economic crisis is associated with harmful drinking and whether this association is stronger than before the crisis. Repeated cross-sectional data from the Dutch Health Interview Survey 2004-2013 were

  6. Can absolute and proportional anthropometric characteristics distinguish stronger and weaker powerlifters?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keogh, Justin W L; Hume, Patria A; Pearson, Simon N; Mellow, Peter J

    2009-11-01

    This study sought to compare the anthropometric profiles of 17 weaker and 17 stronger Australasian and Pacific powerlifters who had competed in a regional-, national-, or international-level powerlifting competition in New Zealand. Stronger lifters were defined as those having a Wilks score greater than 410, whereas those in the weaker group had a Wilks score less than 370. Each powerlifter was assessed for 37 anthropometric dimensions by International Society for the Advancement of Kinanthropometry (ISAK) level II and III accredited anthropometrists. Because all powerlifters were highly mesomorphic and possessed large girths and bone breadths, both in absolute terms and when expressed as Phantom-Z scores compared through the Phantom, relatively few significant anthropometric differences were observed. However, stronger lifters had significantly greater muscle mass and larger muscular girths in absolute terms as well as greater Brugsch Index (chest girth/height) and "Phantom"-normalized muscle mass, upper arm, chest, and forearm girths. In terms of the segment lengths and bone breadths, the only significant difference was that stronger lifters had a significantly shorter lower leg than weaker lifters. Because the majority of the significant differences were for muscle mass and muscular girths, it would appear likely that these differences contributed to the stronger lifters' superior performance. Powerlifters may therefore need to devote some of their training to the development of greater levels of muscular hypertrophy if they wish to continue to improve their performance. To better understand the anthropometric determinants of muscular strength, future research should recruit larger samples (particularly of elite lifters) and follow these subjects prospectively.

  7. Prevalence and predictors of smoking in "smoke-free" bars. Findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Europe Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagelhout, Gera E; Mons, Ute; Allwright, Shane; Guignard, Romain; Beck, François; Fong, Geoffrey T; de Vries, Hein; Willemsen, Marc C

    2011-05-01

    National level smoke-free legislation is implemented to protect the public from exposure to second-hand tobacco smoke (SHS). The first aim of this study was to investigate how successful the smoke-free hospitality industry legislation in Ireland (March 2004), France (January 2008), the Netherlands (July 2008), and Germany (between August 2007 and July 2008) was in reducing smoking in bars. The second aim was to assess individual smokers' predictors of smoking in bars post-ban. The third aim was to examine country differences in predictors and the fourth aim was to examine differences between educational levels (as an indicator of socioeconomic status). This study used nationally representative samples of 3147 adult smokers from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Europe Surveys who were surveyed pre- and post-ban. The results reveal that while the partial smoke-free legislation in the Netherlands and Germany was effective in reducing smoking in bars (from 88% to 34% and from 87% to 44%, respectively), the effectiveness was much lower than the comprehensive legislation in Ireland and France which almost completely eliminated smoking in bars (from 97% to 3% and from 84% to 3% respectively). Smokers who were more supportive of the ban, were more aware of the harm of SHS, and who had negative opinions of smoking were less likely to smoke in bars post-ban. Support for the ban was a stronger predictor in Germany. SHS harm awareness was a stronger predictor among less educated smokers in the Netherlands and Germany. The results indicate the need for strong comprehensive smoke-free legislation without exceptions. This should be accompanied by educational campaigns in which the public health rationale for the legislation is clearly explained. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Correlation of Selected Subsize Charpy Bars versus the Standard Charpy Bar

    Science.gov (United States)

    1958-05-01

    acceptance testing of specimens which must be obtained from thin sections, a study was made of the Charpy V notch impact properties of steels over a...values for any steel may be determined from testing any of the subsize Charpy bar geometries used in this investigation at temperatures. outside the... TEST PROCEDURE V notched Charpy bars in various sizes, ranging from full size (standard) to one-ninth size (cross-sectional area measurement), were

  9. DYNAMICAL CALCULATIONS OF (K)over-bar AND MULTI-(K)over-bar NUCLEI

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gazda, D.; Mareš, Jiří; Friedman, E.; Gal, A.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 24, 2-3 (2009), s. 438-441 ISSN 0217-751X. [Conference MESON 2008. Jagiellonian Univ, Cracow, 06.06.2008-10.06.2008] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100480617 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : (K)over-bar-nuclear RMF calculations * (K)over-bar-nuclear bound states * kaon condensation Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 0.941, year: 2009

  10. Smoking tends to decrease glutathione and increase malondialdehyde levels in medical students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safyudin Safyudin

    2016-08-01

    Smoking tends to decrease plasma GSH levels and increase plasma MDA levels in medical students. Smoking history could be evidence of oxidative stress and an impaired oxidant defense system. In particular, young smokers should quit promptly before health problems arise, so as to have the optimal benefits of cessation.

  11. (K)over-bar* meson in nuclear matter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tolos, Laura; Molina, Raquel; Oset, E.; Ramos, A.

    2011-01-01

    The properties of the (K) over bar* meson in dense matter are studied using a unitary approach in coupled channels within the framework of the local hidden gauge formalism. We obtain the (K) over bar* spectral function in the nuclear medium and we found that the (K) over bar* develops an in-medium

  12. Membrane-Sculpting BAR Domains Generate Stable Lipid Microdomains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hongxia; Michelot, Alphée; Koskela, Essi V.; Tkach, Vadym; Stamou, Dimitrios; Drubin, David G.; Lappalainen, Pekka

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Bin-Amphiphysin-Rvs (BAR) domain proteins are central regulators of many cellular processes involving membrane dynamics. BAR domains sculpt phosphoinositide-rich membranes to generate membrane protrusions or invaginations. Here, we report that, in addition to regulating membrane geometry, BAR domains can generate extremely stable lipid microdomains by “freezing” phosphoinositide dynamics. This is a general feature of BAR domains, because the yeast endocytic BAR and Fes/CIP4 homology BAR (F-BAR) domains, the inverse BAR domain of Pinkbar, and the eisosomal BAR protein Lsp1 induced phosphoinositide clustering and halted lipid diffusion, despite differences in mechanisms of membrane interactions. Lsp1 displays comparable low diffusion rates in vitro and in vivo, suggesting that BAR domain proteins also generate stable phosphoinositide microdomains in cells. These results uncover a conserved role for BAR superfamily proteins in regulating lipid dynamics within membranes. Stable microdomains induced by BAR domain scaffolds and specific lipids can generate phase boundaries and diffusion barriers, which may have profound impacts on diverse cellular processes. PMID:24055060

  13. 21 CFR 886.5800 - Ophthalmic bar reader.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ophthalmic bar reader. 886.5800 Section 886.5800...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 886.5800 Ophthalmic bar reader. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic bar reader is a device that consists of a magnifying lens intended for use by a...

  14. Verification of Properties of Concrete Reinforcement Bars: Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nekky Umera

    reinforcement bars in the Nigeria bar market with a view to determining the extent to which they conform to the requirements of ... dimensions of the test pieces. The tensile test was carried out in accordance with the .... fairly equal mix of 19 and 20mm bars. The implication of this fact is that concrete structures reinforced with ...

  15. 33 CFR 13.01-10 - Gold and silver bars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Gold and silver bars. 13.01-10... DECORATIONS, MEDALS, RIBBONS AND SIMILAR DEVICES Gold and Silver Lifesaving Medals, Bars, and Miniatures § 13.01-10 Gold and silver bars. No person shall receive more than one Gold Lifesaving Medal and one...

  16. Membrane-Sculpting BAR Domains Generate Stable Lipid Microdomains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongxia Zhao

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Bin-Amphiphysin-Rvs (BAR domain proteins are central regulators of many cellular processes involving membrane dynamics. BAR domains sculpt phosphoinositide-rich membranes to generate membrane protrusions or invaginations. Here, we report that, in addition to regulating membrane geometry, BAR domains can generate extremely stable lipid microdomains by “freezing” phosphoinositide dynamics. This is a general feature of BAR domains, because the yeast endocytic BAR and Fes/CIP4 homology BAR (F-BAR domains, the inverse BAR domain of Pinkbar, and the eisosomal BAR protein Lsp1 induced phosphoinositide clustering and halted lipid diffusion, despite differences in mechanisms of membrane interactions. Lsp1 displays comparable low diffusion rates in vitro and in vivo, suggesting that BAR domain proteins also generate stable phosphoinositide microdomains in cells. These results uncover a conserved role for BAR superfamily proteins in regulating lipid dynamics within membranes. Stable microdomains induced by BAR domain scaffolds and specific lipids can generate phase boundaries and diffusion barriers, which may have profound impacts on diverse cellular processes.

  17. Prediction of Vibration Transmission within Periodic Bar Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Domadiya, Parthkumar Gandalal; Andersen, Lars Vabbersgaard; Sorokin, Sergey

    2012-01-01

    The present analysis focuses on vibration transmission within semi-infinite bar structure. The bar is consisting of two different materials in a periodic manner. A periodic bar model is generated using two various methods: The Finite Element method (FEM) and a Floquet theory approach. A parameter...

  18. Gravel bars can be critical for biodiversity conservation: a case study on scaly-sided Merganser in South china.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Qing; Shi, Linlu; Wen, Li; Chen, Junzhu; Duo, Hairui; Lei, Guangchun

    2015-01-01

    Gravel bars are characteristic components of river landscapes and are increasingly recognized as key sites for many waterbirds, though detailed studies on the ecological function of gravel bars for waterbirds are rare. In this study, we surveyed the endangered Scaly-sided Merganser Mergus squamatus along a 40 km river section of Yuan River, in Central China, for three consecutive winters. We derived the landscape metrics of river gravel bars from geo-rectified fine resolution (0.6 m) aerial image data. We then built habitat suitability models (Generalized Linear Models-GLMs) to study the effects of landscape metrics and human disturbance on Scaly-sided Merganser presence probability. We found that 1) the Scaly-sided Merganser tended to congregate at river segments with more gravel patches; 2) the Scaly-sided Merganser preferred areas with larger and more contiguous gravel patches; and 3) the number of houses along the river bank (a proxy for anthropogenic disturbance) had significantly negative impacts on the occurrence of the Scaly-sided Merganser. Our results suggest that gravel bars are vital to the Scaly-sided Merganser as shelters from disturbance, as well as sites for feeding and roosting. Therefore, maintaining the exposure of gravel bars in regulated rivers during the low water period in winter might be the key for the conservation of the endangered species. These findings have important implications for understanding behavioral evolution and distribution of the species and for delineating between habitats of different quality for conservation and management.

  19. Gravel bars can be critical for biodiversity conservation: a case study on scaly-sided Merganser in South china.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Zeng

    Full Text Available Gravel bars are characteristic components of river landscapes and are increasingly recognized as key sites for many waterbirds, though detailed studies on the ecological function of gravel bars for waterbirds are rare. In this study, we surveyed the endangered Scaly-sided Merganser Mergus squamatus along a 40 km river section of Yuan River, in Central China, for three consecutive winters. We derived the landscape metrics of river gravel bars from geo-rectified fine resolution (0.6 m aerial image data. We then built habitat suitability models (Generalized Linear Models-GLMs to study the effects of landscape metrics and human disturbance on Scaly-sided Merganser presence probability. We found that 1 the Scaly-sided Merganser tended to congregate at river segments with more gravel patches; 2 the Scaly-sided Merganser preferred areas with larger and more contiguous gravel patches; and 3 the number of houses along the river bank (a proxy for anthropogenic disturbance had significantly negative impacts on the occurrence of the Scaly-sided Merganser. Our results suggest that gravel bars are vital to the Scaly-sided Merganser as shelters from disturbance, as well as sites for feeding and roosting. Therefore, maintaining the exposure of gravel bars in regulated rivers during the low water period in winter might be the key for the conservation of the endangered species. These findings have important implications for understanding behavioral evolution and distribution of the species and for delineating between habitats of different quality for conservation and management.

  20. $\\chi^{\\vphantom\\dagger}_{c0}(3915)$ As the Lightest $c\\bar c s \\bar s$ State

    CERN Document Server

    Lebed, Richard F.

    2016-05-23

    The state $\\chi^{\\vphantom\\dagger}_{c0}(3915)$ has recently been demoted by the Particle Data Group from its previous status as the conventional $c\\bar c$ $2 {}^3P_0$ state, largely due to the absence of expected $D\\bar D$ decays. We propose that $\\chi^{\\vphantom\\dagger}_{c0}(3915)$ is actually the lightest $c\\bar c s \\bar s$ state, and calculate the spectrum of such states using the diquark model, identifying many of the observed charmoniumlike states that lack open-charm decay modes as $c\\bar c s \\bar s$. Among other results, we argue that $Y(4140)$ is a $J^{PC} = 1^{++}$ $c\\bar c s \\bar s$ state that has been not been seen in two-photon fusion largely as a consequence of the Landau-Yang theorem.

  1. Crosstalk in concurrent repeated games impedes direct reciprocity and requires stronger levels of forgiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiter, Johannes G; Hilbe, Christian; Rand, David G; Chatterjee, Krishnendu; Nowak, Martin A

    2018-02-07

    Direct reciprocity is a mechanism for cooperation among humans. Many of our daily interactions are repeated. We interact repeatedly with our family, friends, colleagues, members of the local and even global community. In the theory of repeated games, it is a tacit assumption that the various games that a person plays simultaneously have no effect on each other. Here we introduce a general framework that allows us to analyze "crosstalk" between a player's concurrent games. In the presence of crosstalk, the action a person experiences in one game can alter the person's decision in another. We find that crosstalk impedes the maintenance of cooperation and requires stronger levels of forgiveness. The magnitude of the effect depends on the population structure. In more densely connected social groups, crosstalk has a stronger effect. A harsh retaliator, such as Tit-for-Tat, is unable to counteract crosstalk. The crosstalk framework provides a unified interpretation of direct and upstream reciprocity in the context of repeated games.

  2. A stronger patch test elicitation reaction to the allergen hydroxycitronellal plus the irritant sodium lauryl sulfate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heydorn, S; Andersen, K E; Johansen, J D

    2003-01-01

    elicitation reaction than patch testing with the allergen (hydroxycitronellal) alone, in patients previously patch tested positive to hydroxycitronellal. A stronger patch test elicitation reaction was defined as at least 1 day of patch test reading showing more positive patch tests......Household and cleaning products often contain both allergens and irritants. The aim of this double-blinded, randomized, paired study was to determine whether patch testing with an allergen (hydroxycitronellal) combined with an irritant [sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS)] cause a stronger patch test...... (+, ++ or +++) on the forearm patch tested with 6 concentrations of SLS plus hydroxycitronellal than on the forearm tested with 6 concentrations of hydroxycitronellal alone and no day of patch test readings showing more positive tests on the hydroxycitronellal forearm. 15/20 (75%) had at least 1 day of patch test reading...

  3. Strengthening of timber beams using FRP bars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todorović Marija

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The growing need for the reinforcement of timber beams (required due to deterioration or damage to the material or change of use has led to the development of new methods of reinforcement with modern materials. In the recent years the use of fibre reinforced polymers (FRP as reinforcement materials for structures has been made possible thanks to the increased availability and lower costs. This paper presents FRP bars as products for strengthening timber structures. Strengthening timber with glass, carbon and basalt FRP can provide better features of timber beams, such as improved load capacity, rigidity and ductility. Also, the paper describes the theoretical model developed in order to predict the flexural capacity and flexural stiffness of timber beams reinforced with FRP bars.

  4. A train for the bus(bars)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2013-01-01

    On 8 April, the first SMACC (Superconducting Magnets and Circuits Consolidation) teams began work in the LHC tunnel. They are responsible for opening the interconnects between the magnets, laying the groundwork for the series of operations that will be performed by the team riding the ‘consolidation train’.   A technician installs the machine tool that allows them to prepare the surface of the section of the bar where the shunt will be fixed. The LHC’s 1,670 dipoles and quadrupoles are powered by power converters and connected by copper 'busbars’. The superconducting cables run through these bars, carrying a current of up to 11,850 amps. Six superconducting cables meet at each interconnect, where they are held together by a soldered (see box) electrical connection sandwiched between two pieces of copper, forming the splice between the busbars of the neighbouring magnets. The integrity of the electrical circuit is depen...

  5. Daytime warming has stronger negative effects on soil nematodes than night-time warming

    OpenAIRE

    Yan, Xiumin; Wang, Kehong; Song, Lihong; Wang, Xuefeng; Wu, Donghui

    2017-01-01

    Warming of the climate system is unequivocal, that is, stronger warming during night-time than during daytime. Here we focus on how soil nematodes respond to the current asymmetric warming. A field infrared heating experiment was performed in the western of the Songnen Plain, Northeast China. Three warming modes, i.e. daytime warming, night-time warming and diurnal warming, were taken to perform the asymmetric warming condition. Our results showed that the daytime and diurnal warming treatmen...

  6. World Bank: Management Controls Stronger, But Challenges in Fighting Corruption Remain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-04-01

    outline for possible World Development Report on institutions, including corruption . Completed • Prepare Europe and Central Asia Region...Management Controls Stronger, but Challenges in Fighting Corruption Remain If , 20000417 062 G A O Accountability * Integrity * Reliability GAO... corruption —broadly defined as the abuse of public office for private gain— ’The "World Bank" and "Bank" refer to the World Bank Group of institutions

  7. A stronger version of matrix convexity as applied to functions of Hermitian matrices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kagan Abram

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available A stronger version of matrix convexity, called hyperconvexity is introduced. It is shown that the function is hyperconvex on the set of Hermitian matrices and is hyperconvex on the set of positive definite Hermitian matrices. The new concept makes it possible to consider weighted averages of matrices of different orders. Proofs use properties of the Fisher information matrix, a fundamental concept of mathematical statistics.

  8. Longitudinal ultrasonic waves dispersion in bars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suarez Antola, R.

    2001-01-01

    The exhibition intends to review some aspects of the propagation of the longitudinal ultrasonic pulses shortly in bars of traverse section uniform.Aspects they are part of the denominated geometric dispersion of the pulses.This phenomenon It can present like an additional complication in the ultrasonic essay of low frequency of thin pieces in structures and machines but takes place former ex professed in some applications of the wave guides been accustomed to in the prosecution of signs

  9. Measurement of $\\sigma_{t\\bar{t}b\\bar{b}}/\\sigma_{t\\bar{t}jj}$ ratio at 13 TeV with the CMS Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Jo, Young-kwon

    2016-01-01

    The measurement of the cross section ratio $\\sigma_{t\\bar{t}b\\bar{b}}/\\sigma_{t\\bar{t}jj}$ is presented using a data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 2.3~$\\rm{fb}^{-1}$ collected in pp collisions at \\\\ $\\sqrt{s}$ = 13TeV with the CMS detector at the LHC. Events with two leptons and at least four reconstructed jets, including at least two identified as b quark jets, in the final state are selected. The measured ratio is $0.022 \\pm 0.003$(stat.)$\\pm0.006$(syst.) in the full phase space. The measured cross section $\\sigma_{t\\bar{t}b\\bar{b}}$ is $3.9 \\pm 0.6$(stat.)$\\pm1.3$(syst.) pb and $\\sigma_{t\\bar{t}jj}$ is $176 \\pm 5$(stat.)$ \\pm 33 $(syst.) pb.

  10. Interplay between chaotic and regular motion in a time-dependent barred galaxy model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manos, T.; Bountis, T.; Skokos, Ch

    2013-06-01

    We study the distinction and quantification of chaotic and regular motion in a time-dependent Hamiltonian barred galaxy model. Recently, a strong correlation was found between the strength of the bar and the presence of chaotic motion in this system, as models with relatively strong bars were shown to exhibit stronger chaotic behavior compared to those having a weaker bar component. Here, we attempt to further explore this connection by studying the interplay between chaotic and regular behavior of star orbits when the parameters of the model evolve in time. This happens for example when one introduces linear time dependence in the mass parameters of the model to mimic, in some general sense, the effect of self-consistent interactions of the actual N-body problem. We thus observe, in this simple time-dependent model also, that the increase of the bar’s mass leads to an increase of the system’s chaoticity. We propose a new way of using the generalized alignment index (GALI) method as a reliable criterion to estimate the relative fraction of chaotic versus regular orbits in such time-dependent potentials, which proves to be much more efficient than the computation of Lyapunov exponents. In particular, GALI is able to capture subtle changes in the nature of an orbit (or ensemble of orbits) even for relatively small time intervals, which makes it ideal for detecting dynamical transitions in time-dependent systems. This article is part of a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical devoted to ‘Lyapunov analysis: from dynamical systems theory to applications’.

  11. Antihydrogen Production in $ \\bar{p} $ Z - interaction

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    % PS210 \\\\ \\\\ The production of the antihydrogen atom $ \\bar {H}^0 \\equiv \\bar{p}e $ as the simplest atomic bound state of antimatter has been studied. Nine $ \\bar {H}^0 $ have been observed.\\\\ \\\\ The production of $ \\bar {H}^0 $ is predominantly mediated by the two-photon mechanism in the antiproton-nucleus interaction. In principle $ \\bar {H}^0 $ is well suited for investigations of fundamental CPT violation studies under different forces, however, in the present experiment we concentrated on the production of this antimatter object, since so far it never had been observed.

  12. Decays of Higgs bosons to bb-bar, ττ-bar, and cc-bar as signatures of supersymmetry and CP phases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, Tarek; Nath, Pran

    2003-01-01

    The branching ratio of the lightest Higgs boson decay into bb(bar sign), ττ-bar and cc-bar is sensitive to supersymmetric effects. We include in this work the effects of CP phases on the Higgs boson decays. Specifically we compute the deviation of the CP phase dependent branching ratio from the standard model result. The analysis includes the full one loop corrections of fermion masses including CP phases involving the gluino, the chargino and the neutralino exchanges. The analysis shows that the supersymmetric effects with CP phases can change the branching ratios by as much as 100% for the lightest Higgs boson decay into bb(bar sign) and ττ-bar with similar results holding for the heavier Higgs boson decays. A detailed analysis is also given for the effects of CP phases on the Higgs boson decays into cc-bar. The deviations of R b/τ and R b/c from the standard model result are investigated as a possible signature of supersymmetry and CP effects. Thus a measurement of the decays of the Higgs boson into bb-bar, ττ-bar and cc-bar may provide important clues regarding the existence of supersymmetry and CP phases

  13. Snack bar compositions and their acute glycaemic and satiety effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Mary R; Parsons, Andrew; Whalley, Gillian A; Kelleher, John; Rush, Elaine C

    Maintaining blood glucose within homeostatic limits and eating foods that sup-press hunger and promote satiety have beneficial impacts for health. This study investigated the glycaemic re-sponse and satiety effects of a serving size of a healthier snack bar, branded Nothing Else, that met the required nutrient profiling score criteria for a health claim, in comparison to two top-selling commercial snack bars. In an experimental study, 24 participants aged >=50 years were recruited. On three different days blood glucose concentration was measured twice at baseline and 15, 30, 45, 60, 90 and 120 minutes after consumption of a serving size of each bar. Satiety effects were self-reported hunger, fullness, desire to eat, and amount could eat ratings on visual analogue scales. The incremental area under the blood glucose response curve (iAUC) over two hours for the Nothing Else bar was 30% lower than commercial Bar 2 (psnack bars. At two hours, fullness induced by the Nothing Else bar was twice that of Bar 2 (p=0.019), but not different to Bar 1 (p=0.212). The Nothing Else snack bar developed using the nutrient profiling scheme as a guideline, with its high protein and dietary fibre contents, had a lower glycaemic impact and induced a higher subjective satiety than the two commercial snack bars of equal weight.

  14. Ceramic bar impact experiments for improved material model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brar, N.S.; Proud, W.G.; Rajendran, A.M.

    2004-01-01

    Ceramic bar-on-bar (uniaxial stress) experiments are performed to extend uniaxial strain deformation states imposed in flyer plate impact experiments. A number of investigators engaged in modeling the bar-on-bar experiments have varying degrees of success in capturing the observed fracture modes in bars and correctly simulating the measured in-situ axial stress or free surface velocity histories. The difficulties encountered are related to uncertainties in understanding the dominant failure mechanisms as a function of different stress states imposed in bar impacts. Free surface velocity of the far end of the target AD998 bar were measured using a VISAR in a series of bar-on-bar impact experiments at nominal impact speeds of 100 m/s, 220 m/s, and 300 m/s. Velocity history data at an impact of 100 m/s show the material response as elastic. At higher impact velocities of 200 m/s and 300 m/s the velocity history data suggest an inelastic material response. A high-speed (Imacon) camera was employed to examine the fracture and failure of impactor and target bars. High speed photographs provide comprehensive data on geometry of damage and failure patterns as a function of time to check the validity of a particular constitutive material model for AD998 alumina used in numerical simulations of fracture and failure of the bars on impact

  15. Predatory behavior of Pseudodorus clavatus (Diptera, Syrphidae on aphids tended by ants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Bächtold

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Predatory behavior of Pseudodorus clavatus (Diptera, Syrphidae on aphids tended by ants. In this study, we examined the interactions between myrmecophilous aphids, their ant-guards and a predatory syrphid species, Pseudodorus clavatus (F.. Larvae of this predator were found in the colonies of three aphid species: Aphis gossypii, A. spiraecola and Toxoptera sp., which were tended by eight ant species, especially Camponotus. Hoverfly larvae managed to infiltrate the aphid colonies and consume nymphs. Predator larvae exhibited inconspicuous movements and were not detected by ants which were commonly observed touching and antennating the larvae they come into contact. These results suggest that behavioral and chemical cues are involved in the infiltration and on the successful predation of syrphids upon aphids.

  16. Empreendedorismo no Brasil: situação e tendências

    OpenAIRE

    Magali Geovana Ramlow Campelli; Nelson Casarotto Filho; Myriam Eugênia Ramalho Prata Barbejat; Gilberto de Oliveira Moritz

    2011-01-01

    Este artigo apresenta as tendências do empreendedorismo no Brasil. Neste trabalho são destacadas as iniciativas adotadas no País com enfoque para a avaliação dos resultados produzidos pelo programa Empretec e o desempenho apontado pelos relatórios do Global Entrepreneurship Monitor – GEM. Temas recentes também são introduzidos no cenário atual, tais como, o empreendedorismo social e o educacional.

  17. Serum carcinoembryonic antigen tends to decrease in poorly-differentiated colorectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ester Morina Silalahi

    2015-12-01

    This was a cross-sectional study conducted on 40 CRC subjects from July 2012 until May 2013. Determination of serum CEA and CA 19-9 levels and histopathological (cellular differentiation grades in CRC biopsies was done in all subjects. RESULTS The study involved forty CRC patients, consisting of 22 males and 18 females, with mean age of 51.93 ± 11.63 years, CEA levels of 51.93 ± 84.07 ng/ml and CA 19-9 levels of 33.81 ± 62.39 U/ml. Carcino-embryonic antigen levels tended to decrease with decreasing CRC histopathological grade, while CA 19-9 levels increased in well-differentiated CRC. However, both relationships were statistically not significant (with p=0.314 and p=0.787, respectively. CONCLUSIONS Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA levels tend to decrease with decreasing histopathological grade of CRC, and CA 19-9 levels tend to increase in well-differentiated CRC.

  18. Apparent Motives for Aggression in the Social Context of the Bar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Kathryn; Bernards, Sharon; Osgood, D. Wayne; Parks, Michael; Abbey, Antonia; Felson, Richard B.; Saltz, Robert F.; Wells, Samantha

    2013-01-01

    Objective Little systematic research has focused on motivations for aggression and most of the existing research is qualitative and atheoretical. This study increases existing knowledge by using the theory of coercive actions to quantify the apparent motives of individuals involved in barroom aggression. Objectives were to examine: gender differences in the use of compliance, grievance, social identity, and excitement motives; how motives change during an aggressive encounter; and the relationship of motives to aggression severity. Method We analyzed 844 narrative descriptions of aggressive incidents observed in large late-night drinking venues as part of the Safer Bars evaluation. Trained coders rated each type of motive for the 1,507 bar patrons who engaged in aggressive acts. Results Women were more likely to be motivated by compliance and grievance, many in relation to unwanted sexual overtures from men; whereas men were more likely to be motivated by social identity concerns and excitement. Aggressive acts that escalated tended to be motivated by identity or grievance, with identity motivation especially associated with more severe aggression. Conclusions A key factor in preventing serious aggression is to develop approaches that focus on addressing identity concerns in the escalation of aggression and defusing incidents involving grievance and identity motives before they escalate. In bars, this might include training staff to recognize and defuse identity motives and eliminating grievance-provoking situations such as crowd bottlenecks and poorly managed queues. Preventive interventions generally need to more directly address the role of identity motives, especially among men. PMID:24224117

  19. More concerns and stronger beliefs about the necessity of medication in patients with acromegaly are associated with negative illness perceptions and impairment in quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andela, Cornelie D; Biermasz, Nienke R; Kaptein, Adrian A; Pereira, Alberto M; Tiemensma, Jitske

    2015-10-01

    Patients with acromegaly can be treated with surgery, radiotherapy and/or medical treatment. In general, patients' beliefs about medication are associated with illness perceptions, a contributory factor of Quality of Life (QoL). At present, there are no quantitative studies on medication beliefs in patients with acromegaly. Here, we aimed to examine possible associations between medication beliefs, illness perceptions, and QoL. Furthermore we aimed to explore whether illness perceptions of patients with remission of acromegaly receiving medical treatment differ from patients without medical treatment. Cross-sectional evaluation of 73 patients with remission of acromegaly (n = 28 patients with medication, n = 45 without medication). The Beliefs about Medicines Questionnaire (BMQ), Illness Perception Questionnaire-Revised (IPQ-R), EuroQoL-5D, and AcroQoL were used for the assessment. Stronger beliefs about the necessity of medical treatment and stronger concerns about the adverse effects were associated with attributing more symptoms to acromegaly, perceiving more negative consequences, and having a stronger belief in a cyclical timeline (BMQ, all P IPQ-R, P = 0.002). Negative medication beliefs were related to more negative illness perceptions and worse disease-specific QoL. Patients receiving medical treatment for acromegaly tend to perceive a more chronic timeline of their disease, compared to patients with remission without medical treatment. These psychological factors need to be taken into account when treating patients and developing a psychosocial education program aiming to improve QoL. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. A Search for Top Quarks in $\\bar{P}P$ Collisions Using Dileptons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Andrew James [Illinois U., Urbana

    1996-04-01

    A search for $t\\bar{t}$ pairs in $\\bar{p}p$ collisions with a center of mass energy $\\sqrt{s}$ = 1.8 TeV is presented. The analysis looks for $t\\bar{t}$ pairs which decayed through the chain $t\\bar{t} \\to W^+ bW^- \\bar{b} \\to \\ell^+ \\bar{\

  1. (Ln-bar, g)-spaces. General relativity over V4-bar - spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manoff, S.; Kolarov, A.; Dimitrov, B.

    1998-01-01

    The results from the considerations of differentiable manifolds with contravariant and covariant affine connections and metrics are specialized for the case of (L n bar, g)-spaces with metric transport (∇ ξ g = 0 for all ξ is T (M), g ij;k = 0 and f j i = e φ · g j i (the s.c. (pseudo)Riemannian spaces with contravariant and covariant symmetric affine connections). Einstein's theory of gravitation is considered in (pseudo)Riemannian spaces with different (not only by sign) contravariant and covariant affine connections ((V n bar)-spaces, n = 4). The Euler-Lagrange equations and the corresponding energy-momentum tensors (EMT-s) are obtained and compared with the Einstein equations and the EMT-s in V 4 -spaces. The geodesic and autoparallel equations in V 4 bar -spaces are found as different equations in contrast to the case of V 4 -spaces

  2. Tendência da mortalidade neonatal na cidade de Salvador (Bahia-Brasil, 1996-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annelise C. Gonçalves

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos:analisar a tendência da mortalidade neonatal, principais causas e potenciais fatores de risco, em Salvador-Bahia, 1996-2012.Métodos:estudo de série temporal tendo como fontes de dados os Sistemas de Informação sobre Mortalidade e sobre Nascidos Vivos/NV e Cadastro Nacional de Estabelecimentos de Saúde. Parâmetros da tendência temporal do coeficiente de mortalidade neonatal/CMN e da proporção de NV segundo características maternas, do recém-nascido e de atenção à saúde foram obtidos mediante Regressão Linear Simples. Coeficiente de Correlação de Spearman avaliou relação entre estas variáveis.Resultados:observou-se declínio de 21,2% no CMN, principalmente devido ao componente precoce (β= - 0,730; p=0,006; R2= 0,423. Acompanhou esta tendência, a proporção de NV de mães adolescentes e sem instrução. A proporção de NV de mães com idade > 35 anos, nascimentos prematuros e de partos cesáreos exibiram crescimento. Predominaram mortes neonatais por Infecções específicas do período perinatal (13,2%, Hipóxia intrauterina/Asfixia ao nascer (8,4% e Transtornos relacionados à prematuridade/baixo peso ao nascer (15,9%, estas últimas com tendência de crescimento (β= 1,319; p=0,006; R2= 0,428.Conclusões:a mortalidade neonatal e potenciais fatores de risco estão decrescendo em Salvador. Iniciativas voltadas para melhoria da atenção ao recém-nascido e das condições de vida da população podem estar contribuindo para esta tendência.

  3. A Study of {bar B}{sup 0} --> D(*){sup 0} {bar K}(*){sup 0} Decays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aubert, B.

    2004-08-13

    The authors presented evidence for the decay {bar B}{sup 0} --> D*{sup 0}{bar K}{sup 0} as well as new measurements of the branching fractions for the decays {bar B}{sup 0} --> D{sup 0}{bar K}{sup 0} and D{sup 0}{bar K}*{sup 0}. Their measurements are in agreement with the expectation derived from a cited reference and with previous measurements. They use the central value of their measurement for B({bar B}{sup 0} --> {bar D}{sup 0}K*{sup 0}) and obtain {tau} < 0.8 at the 90% C.L. from a central value of {tau} = 0.4 {+-} 0.2 (stat.) {+-} 0.2 (syst.). The main contribution to the systematic uncertainty is from the estimated peaking background since most systematic uncertainties on the branching fractions cancel in the ratio.

  4. Sexual harassment and emotional and behavioural symptoms in adolescence: stronger associations among boys than girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu; Fröjd, Sari; Marttunen, Mauri

    2016-08-01

    To study the associations between subjection to sexual harassment and emotional (depression) and behavioural (delinquency) symptoms among 14-to-18-year-old adolescents, and gender differences within these associations. 90,953 boys and 91,746 girls aged 14-18 participated in the School Health Promotion Study (SHPS), a school-based survey designed to examine the health, health behaviours, and school experiences of teenagers. Experiences of sexual harassment were elicited with five questions addressing five separate forms of harassment. Depression was measured by the 13-item Beck Depression Inventory and delinquency with a modified version of the International Self-Report Delinquency Study (ISRD) instrument. Data were analysed using cross-tabulations with Chi-square statistics and logistic regression. All sexual harassment experiences studied were associated with both depression (adjusted odds ratios varied from 2.2 to 2.7 in girls and from 2.0 to 5.1 in boys) and delinquency (adjusted odds ratios 3.1-5.0 in girls and 1.7-6.9 in boys). Sexual name-calling had a stronger association with depression and with delinquency in girls (adjusted odds ratios, respectively, 2.4 and 4.2), than in boys (adjusted odds ratios, respectively, 2.0 and 1.7), but otherwise stronger associations with emotional and behavioural symptoms were seen in boys. Subjection to sexual harassment is associated with both emotional and behavioural symptoms in both girls and boys. The associations are mostly stronger for boys. Boys subjected to sexual harassment may feel particularly threatened regarding their masculinity, and there may be less support available for boys traumatised due to sexual harassment.

  5. Search for narrow structures in pp-barπ+ and Λp-bar+- systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, S.U.; Etkin, A.; Fernow, R.C.; Foley, K.J.; Goldman, J.H.; Kirk, H.; Kopp, J.; Lesnik, A.; Love, W.A.; Morris, T.W.; Ozaki, S.; Platner, E.D.; Protopopescu, S.D.; Saulys, A.; Weygand, D.P.; Wheeler, C.D.; Willen, E.H.; Winik, M.; Bensinger, J.; Morris, W.; Lindenbaum, S.J.; Kramer, M.A.; Mallik, U.; Bar-Yam, Z.; Dowd, J.; Kern, W.; Button-Shafer, J.; Dhar, S.; Lichti, R.

    1981-01-01

    We have performed a high-statistics search for narrow meson states (GAMMA - p interactions at 16 GeV/c and decaying into pp-barπ + or Λp-barπ +- . This is the first systematic search in channels requiring exchange of exotic mesons. The cross section for production of such states is ruled out at the 95% confidence level with upper limits ranging from approx.10 nb at 2.3 GeV to approx.40 nb at 2.8 GeV

  6. Building Stronger State Energy Partnerships with the U.S. Department of Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Terry

    2008-09-30

    This final technical report details the results of total work efforts and progress made from July 2000 - July 2008 under the National Association of State Energy Officials (NASEO) cooperative agreement DE-FC26-00NT40802, Building Stronger State Energy Partnerships with the U.S. Department of Energy. Major topical project areas in this final report include work efforts in the following areas: Rebuild America/Energy Smart Schools, Higher Education Initiative, Winter/Summer Fuels Outlook Conferences, Energy Emergency, Clean Energy Integration, Energy Star, and Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability. All required deliverables have been provided to the National Energy Technology Laboratory and DOE program officials.

  7. The University of Florida Department of Surgery: building a stronger tomorrow on yesterday's foundation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrns, Kevin E; Copeland, Edward M; Howard, Richard J

    2012-01-01

    Established in 1957, the University of Florida Department of Surgery has a solid foundation on which current faculty are driven to build a stronger tomorrow. The department is focused on promoting patient-centered care, expanding its research portfolio to improve techniques and outcomes, and training the surgical leaders of tomorrow. It fosters an environment where faculty, residents, students, and staff challenge long-held traditions with the goal of improving the health of our patients, the quality of our care, and the vitality of our work environment.

  8. Production of plastified wood with stronger static bending strength means of polymerization induced by gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva Filho, Elias

    1999-01-01

    The use of gamma radiation to obtain wood-polymer composites is one of the applications of radiation that presents the most commercial interest. The process, denominated radiopolymerization, comprises the impregnation of monomers into the completely dried wood followed by exposure to gamma radiation to induce polymerization of the impregnated monomers. I this context, the present work aimed the application of this process to seven kinds of wood existing in the brazilian forests. The considered monomer is styrene and the gamma source is Cobalt-60. The obtained wood-polystyrene composites were found to have stronger static bending strength. (author)

  9. Building Stronger State Energy Partnerships with the U.S. Department of Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marks, Kate

    2011-09-30

    This final technical report details the results of total work efforts and progress made from October 2007 – September 2011 under the National Association of State Energy Officials (NASEO) cooperative agreement DE-FC26-07NT43264, Building Stronger State Energy Partnerships with the U.S. Department of Energy. Major topical project areas in this final report include work efforts in the following areas: Energy Assurance and Critical Infrastructure, State and Regional Technical Assistance, Regional Initiative, Regional Coordination and Technical Assistance, and International Activities in China. All required deliverables have been provided to the National Energy Technology Laboratory and DOE program officials.

  10. Search for the decay of a B0 or B0bar meson to K*0bar K0 or K*0 K0bar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aubert, B.

    2006-06-27

    The authors present a search for the decay of a B{sup 0} or {bar B}{sup 0} meson to a {bar K}*{sup 0} K{sup 0} or K*{sup 0} {bar K}{sup 0} final state, using a sample of approximately 232 million B{bar B} events collected with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II asymmetric energy e{sup +}e{sup -} collider at SLAC. The measured branching fraction is {Beta}(B{sup 0} {yields} {bar K}*{sup 0} K{sup 0}) + {Beta}(B{sup 0} {yields} K*{sup 0} {bar K}{sup 0}) = (0.2{sub -0.8, -0.3}{sup +0.9, +0.1}) x 10{sup -6}. They obtain the following upper limit for the branching fraction at 90% confidence level: {Beta}(B{sup 0} {yields} {bar K}*{sup 0} K{sup 0}) + {Beta}(B{sup 0} {yields} K*{sup 0} {bar K}{sup 0}) < 1.9 x 10{sup -6}. They use our result to constrain the Standard Model prediction for the deviation of the CP asymmetry in B{sup 0} {yields} {phi}K{sup 0} from sin 2{beta}.

  11. Hadronic Physics Studies at BaBar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stroili, R.

    2006-01-01

    A new resonance Y(4260) with a mass of 4259 ± 8 -6 +2 MeV/c 2 and J PC = 1 -- , discovered by the BaBar experiment shows peculiar behavior in his decay mode. The Λ c + baryon mass has been measured, using its decays to ΛK S 0 K + and Σ 0 K S 0 K + , and its value is 2286.46 ± 0.14 MeV/c 2 , the precision is greatly improved w.r.t. PDG value. Ξ c 0 and (Omega) c 0 decays and production have been studied with results greatly improved w.r.t. PDG

  12. Strong Interactions Physics at BaBar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pioppi, M.

    2005-03-14

    Recent results obtained by BABAR experiment and related to strong interactions physics are presented, with particular attention to the extraction of the first four hadronic-mass moments and the first three lepton-energy moments in semileptonic decays. From a simultaneous fit to the moments, the CKM element |V{sub cb}|, the inclusive B {yields} X{sub c}lv and other heavy quark parameters are derived. The second topic is the ambiguity-free measurement of cos(2{beta}) in B {yields} J/{Psi}K* decays. With approximately 88 million of B{bar B} pairs, negative solutions for cos(2{beta}) are excluded at 89%.

  13. CP Violation at BaBar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeche, Christophe; /DSM, DAPNIA, Saclay

    2011-11-15

    We report recent measurements of the three CKM angles of the Unitarity Triangle using about 383 millions b{bar b} pairs collected with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II asymmetric-energy B Factory at SLAC. The results of the angles ({beta}, {alpha}, {gamma}) of the unitarity triangle are consistent with Belle results, and with other CKM constraints such as the measurement of {epsilon}{sub K}, the length of the sides of the unitarity triangle determined from the measurements of {Delta}m{sub d}, {Delta}m{sub s}, |V{sub ub}|. This is an impressive confirmation of Standard Model in quark-flavor sector.

  14. Do External or Internal Technology Spillovers Have a Stronger Influence on Innovation Efficiency in China?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xionghe Qin

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we bridge an important gap in the literature by comparing the extent to which external technology spillovers, as indicated by foreign direct investment (FDI, and internal technology spillovers, as indicated by university-institute-industry cooperation (UIC, influence innovation efficiency in China. We divide the innovation process into two sequential stages, namely the knowledge creation and technology commercialization stages, and employ a network data envelopment analysis approach to measure innovation efficiency at each stage. The spatial analysis of the distribution of knowledge creation efficiency and technology commercialization efficiency reveals the heterogeneity of innovation efficiency at the provincial level. Then, a panel data regression is used to analyze the effect of FDI and UIC on innovation efficiency at each stage, using data from 2009 to 2015 for 30 provinces in China. By comparing FDI with UIC, we find that FDI has a higher coefficient and stronger significance level at the knowledge creation stage, while only industry-institute linkages exhibit a stronger association with innovation efficiency at the technology commercialization stage.

  15. The El Niño Southern Oscillation is Getting Bigger and Stronger

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNaught, C.; O'Brien, J.; Strazzo, S. E.

    2012-12-01

    The El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is an important natural climate variation that affects large portions of the world. We measure ENSO both in terms of its frequency and its magnitude. The different phases of ENSO - El Niño and La Niña - have different properties, and impact the global weather pattern differently. We examine the hypothesis that ENSO's frequency distribution is changing. We demonstrate that, indeed, El Niño's are getting stronger as measured by the maximum anomaly in sea surface temperature (SST). An analysis of the ENSO principal component is conducted using a fast Fourier transform to estimate the spectrum of the SST of the time series. We conclude that the intensity of El Niño events during the period 1970-2010 is statistically significantly higher when compared to the 1930—1970, with a broad spectral peak centered around 4 years. When we compare the SST spectrum for the period 1930-1970 with the spectrum for 1971- 2010, we find the latter period to be much stronger in power. Additionally recently classified ENSO types, including El Niño Modoki and Warm Pool ENSO, are briefly studied.; The first empirical orthogonal function of sea-surface temperatures (1930-2010) accounting for 75% of the variance. The values are indicative of departures from the mean, in °C. Positive (negative) values indicate anomalously higher (lower) sea-surface temperatures ; Normalized first principal component

  16. Stronger interference from distractors in the right hemifield during visual search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlei, Christophe; Kerzel, Dirk

    2018-03-01

    The orientation-bias hypothesis states that there is a bias to attend to the right visual hemifield (RVF) when there is spatial competition between stimuli in the left and right hemifield [Pollmann, S. (1996). A pop-out induced extinction-like phenomenon in neurologically intact subjects. Neuropsychologia, 34(5), 413-425. doi: 10.1016/0028-3932(95)00125-5 ]. In support of this hypothesis, stronger interference was reported for RVF distractors with contralateral targets. In contrast, previous studies using rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) found stronger interference from distractors in the left visual hemifield (LVF). We used the additional singleton paradigm to test whether this discrepancy was due to the different distractor features that were employed (colour vs. orientation). Interference from the colour distractor with contralateral targets was larger in the RVF than in the LVF. However, the asymmetrical interference disappeared when observers had to search for an inconspicuous colour target instead of the inconspicuous shape target. We suggest that the LVF orienting-bias is limited to situations where search is driven by bottom-up saliency (singleton search) instead of top-down search goals (feature search). In contrast, analysis of the literature suggests the opposite for the LVF bias in RSVP tasks. Thus, the attentional asymmetry may depend on whether the task involves temporal or spatial competition, and whether search is based on bottom-up or top-down signals.

  17. When surging seas meet stronger rain: Nuclear techniques in flood management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quevenco, Rodolfo

    2015-01-01

    Unusually high rainfall in many parts of the world is a result of climate change, scientists say. Since warmer air can hold more water, the rationale goes, increased temperatures will increase the chances of stronger rainfall events. And when surging seas combine with stronger rain, the outcome is almost certain: floods. Floods are the most frequently occurring natural disasters, and south-east Asia is particularly vulnerable. Climate change and variability are expected to bring about increased typhoon activities, rising sea levels and off-season monsoon rains in southeast Asia and other regions. These can cause devastating floods in countries like Cambodia, Laos, Pakistan, the Philippines, Thailand and Viet Nam. For the residents of these countries who have survived the ravages of major floods, the road to recovery can be long and arduous. As the flood water recedes, they have to contend with new forms of flood: floods of concern and worries as to how to rebuild their houses, their lives and their cities. Governments, too, face huge challenges in rebuilding roads, public buildings, infrastructure and natural resources destroyed or polluted by the flood.

  18. Soy-isoflavone supplementation tends to reduce menopausal symptoms in postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raditya Wratsangka

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Menopausal symptoms in postmenopausal women tend to decrease health-related quality of life (HRQoL. The present study’s objective was to determine the effect of daily supplementation of 100 mg soy isoflavones on menopausal symptoms of healthy postmenopausal women. Isoflavones are phytoestrogens abundantly found in soy beans, and several studies have demonstrated that isoflavones are the best among the phytoestrogens. Methods The study was a community-based double blind randomized controlled trial involving 60 healthy postmenopausal women, aged between 48–60 years, in the Mampang Prapatan District, South Jakarta. Participants were block-randomized to receive either 100 mg soy-isoflavone + 500 mg calcium carbonate (intervention group or 500 mg calcium carbonate only (control group. Both supplements were taken daily for 12 weeks, from January to April 2010. Menopausal symptoms (measured by Menopause Rating Scale questionnaire were assessed at baseline and after supplementation. Chi-square test was used to examine the effect of soy isoflavone supplementation on menopausal symptoms. Results Fifty-six (93.3% of participants completed the study. There were no statistically significant differences (p>0.05 in the prevalence of menopausal symptoms between the isoflavone group and the control group. However, supplementation of soy isoflavones for 12 weeks tended to decrease the prevalence of menopausal symptoms in women with normal body mass index and adequate daily dietary isoflavone intake. Conclusion Daily supplementation of 100 mg soy isoflavones for 12 weeks tend to decrease the incidence of menopausal symptoms in postmenopausal women.

  19. Nurse honeybee workers tend capped brood, which does not require feeding, around the clock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagari, Moshe; Brenner, Yafit; Bloch, Guy

    2017-11-15

    'Nurse' honeybees tend brood around the clock with attenuated or no circadian rhythms, but the brood signals inducing this behavior remain elusive. We first tested the hypothesis that worker circadian rhythms are regulated by brood pheromones. We monitored locomotor activity of individually isolated nurse bees that were exposed to either various doses of larval extract or synthetic brood ester pheromone (BEP). Bees orally treated with larval extract showed attenuated circadian rhythms in one of four tested colonies; a similar but statistically non-significant trend was seen in two additional colonies. Nurse bees treated with synthetic BEP showed rhythm attenuation in one of three tested colonies. Next, we tested the hypothesis that capped brood, which does not require feeding, nevertheless induces around-the-clock activity in nurses. By combining a new protocol that enables brood care by individually isolated nurse bees, detailed behavioral observations and automatic high-resolution monitoring of locomotor activity, we found that isolated nurses tended capped brood around the clock with attenuated circadian rhythms. Bees individually isolated in similar cages but without brood showed strong circadian rhythms in locomotor activity and rest. This study shows for the first time that the need to feed hungry larvae is not the only factor accounting for around-the-clock activity in nurse bees. Our results further suggest that the transition between activity with and without circadian rhythms is not a simple switch triggered by brood pheromones. Around-the-clock tending may enhance brood development and health in multiple ways that include improved larval feeding, thermoregulation or hygienic behavior. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  20. The TENDL neutron data library and the TEND1038 38-group neutron constant system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abramovich, S.N.; Gorelov, V.P.; Gorshikhin, A.A.; Grebennikov, A.N.; Il'in, V.N.; Krut'ko, N.A.; Farafontov, G.G.

    2002-01-01

    The library contains neutron data for 103 nuclei - i.e. for 38 actinide nuclei (from 232 Th to 249 Cm), 26 fission fragment nuclei and 39 nuclei in structural and technological materials. The 38-group constants were obtained from TENDL. The high-energy group boundary is 20 MeV. The energy range below 1.2 eV contains 11 groups. Temperature and resonance effects were taken into account. The delayed neutron parameters for 6 groups and the yields of 40 fission fragments were obtained (light and heavy, stable and non-stable). The fast neutron features of spherical critical assemblies were calculated using constants from TEND1038. (author)

  1. Roturas agudas do tendão de aquiles: tratamento conservador versus cirúrgico

    OpenAIRE

    Cunha, Ana Catarina Martins da

    2015-01-01

    Trabalho final de mestrado integrado em Medicina (Ortopedia), apresentado à Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de Coimbra. Introdução: O tendão de Aquiles, apesar do seu tamanho e robustez, é a estrutura tendinosa que mais frequentemente sofre rotura. A rotura aguda afeta sobretudo indivíduos do sexo masculino de meia idade, ocorrendo geralmente durante a prática desportiva. Apesar do diagnóstico desta patologia ser bastante acessível, uma vez que a história clínica associada ao exame f...

  2. Rotura bilateral de tendón cuadricipital asociado a tratamiento con atorvastatina.

    OpenAIRE

    Martorell Matoses, S.; Gilabert, E.; Ribas García-Peñuela, J.; López Peris, J.L.

    2013-01-01

    La rotura del tendón del cuádriceps es una lesión relativamente poco frecuente. Puede asociarse a enfermedades sistémicas, trasplante renal, tratamientos crónicos u ocurrir de forma espontánea. Presentamos un caso de rotura bilateral de cuádriceps asociada a tratamiento crónico con atorvastatina. Quadriceps tendon rupture is a relatively rare lesion. It has been associated with chronic systemic diseases, renal transplantation or it may occur spontaneously. We present a case of bil...

  3. Empreendedorismo no Brasil: situação e tendências

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magali Geovana Ramlow Campelli

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo apresenta as tendências do empreendedorismo no Brasil. Neste trabalho são destacadas as iniciativas adotadas no País com enfoque para a avaliação dos resultados produzidos pelo programa Empretec e o desempenho apontado pelos relatórios do Global Entrepreneurship Monitor – GEM. Temas recentes também são introduzidos no cenário atual, tais como, o empreendedorismo social e o educacional.

  4. Implant-retained mandibular bar-supported overlay dentures: a finite element stress analysis of four different bar heights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rismanchian, Mansoor; Dakhilalian, Mansour; Bajoghli, Farshad; Ghasemi, Ehsan; Sadr-Eshkevari, Pooyan

    2012-04-01

    Proper stress distribution on dental implants is necessary in bar-retained implant overlay dentures. We aimed to comparatively assess this stress distribution according to different bar heights using finite element models. A three-dimensional (3D) computer model of mandible with 2 implants (ITI, 4.1 mm diameter and 12 mm length) in canine areas and an overlying implant-supported bar-retained overlay denture were simulated with 0-, 1-, 2-, and 3-mm bar heights using ABAQUS software. A vertical force was applied to the left first molar and gradually increased from 0 to 50 N. The resultant stress distribution was evaluated. Bars of 1 and 2 mm in height transferred the least stress to the implants (3.882 and 3.896 MPa, respectively). The 0-mm height of the bar connection transferred the highest stress value (4.277 MPa). The amount of stress transferred by 3-mm heights of the bar connection was greater than that of 1- and 2-mm bar connections and smaller than that of 0-mm bar connection (4.165 kgN). This 3D finite element analysis study suggested that the use of Dolder bar attachment with 1- and 2-mm heights could be associated with appropriate stress distribution for implant-retained overlay dentures.

  5. Analysis of FRP bars used as reinforcement in concrete structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kinga Brózda

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In the design and construction of building and engineering structures, it is of utmost importance to provide their reliability and safety. The use of FRP (Fiber Reinforced Polymers bars as reinforcement of structural concrete elements could help reducing the typical defects of reinforced concrete and increase its strength parameters. In the paper the selected FRP bar characteristic properties are presented and advantages derived therefrom are specified. Furthermore, the most commonly used in construction types of FRP bars, depending on the raw material used during the production process are listed. In addition, the possibility of recycling of elements reinforced with FRP bars is presented and compared with traditional reinforced concrete (reinforced with steel bars. The production method of FRP bars (pultrusion is shown. Moreover, the advantages and disadvantages of using this method are discussed.

  6. Heritability of Tpeak-Tend Interval and T-wave Amplitude: A Twin Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haarmark, Christian; Kyvik, Kirsten O; Vedel-Larsen, Esben

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: -Tpeak-Tend interval (TpTe) and T-wave amplitude (Tamp) carry diagnostic and prognostic information regarding cardiac morbidity and mortality. Heart rate and QT interval are known to be heritable traits. The heritability of T-wave morphology parameters such as TpTe and Tamp is unknown....... TpTe and Tamp were evaluated in a large sample of twins. METHODS AND RESULTS: -Twins from the GEMINAKAR study (611 pairs, 246 monozygotic, 365 dizygotic, aged 38±11 years, 49 % men) who had an ECG performed during 1997-2000 were included. Tamp was measured in leads V1 and V5. Duration variables (RR...... of additive genetics and unique environment. All variables had considerable genetic components. Adjusted heritability estimates were: TpTe 46%, Tamp lead V1 34%, Tamp lead V5 47%, RR interval 55%, QT interval 67% and QTcB 42%. CONCLUSIONS: -RR interval, QT-interval, T-wave amplitude and Tpeak-Tend interval...

  7. Desinserción espontánea y bilateral del tendón cuadricipital.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesuan Zordan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available La ruptura espontánea bilateral del tendón cuadricipital es una patología infrecuente (<5% de todas las rupturas cuadricipitales. El mayor número de casos reportados, se asocia a insuficiencia renal crónica,  obesidad, diabetes, lupus eritematoso sistémico, vasculitis e hiperparatiroidismo. Nuestro paciente, de 41 años de edad presenta insuficiencia renal crónica en tratamiento con hemodiálisis desde hace 8 años, asociada a hiperparatiroidismo secundario. Ingresa a nuestro servicio por incapacidad a la extensión de ambos miembros inferiores, tras incorporarse desde una silla, destacando en el examen físico una depresión palpable suprarrotuliana. Se realizan radiografías de ambas rodillas frente y perfil, ecografía de zona suprarrotuliana y resonancia magnética nuclear. Al  constatar lesión bilateral a nivel del tendón cuadricipital, se programa su reparación quirúrgica, la cual se realizó por cuestiones ajenas a nuestro servicio a los 30 días del diagnóstico. Se intervinieron de manera simultánea ambas rodillas utilizando como técnica, tunelización patelar y empleando suturas no reabsorbible. Se obtuvo un resultado excelente en ambos miembros inferiores según el Score Knee Society (S.N.S..

  8. Concrete Cover Influence on Inelastic Buckling of Longitudinal Reinforcing Bars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korentz, Jacek; Kucharczyk, Anna

    2017-10-01

    The paper presents the results of numerical analyses of post yielding behaviour of compressed reinforcing bars, taking into account the impact of concrete cover on static equilibrium path. Concrete cover was modelled as a transverse ties with characteristics like for the tensioned concrete. The calculations were performed for various parameters of concrete cover and bar slenderness, with the use commercial system Abaqus/CAE. The results of analysis showed that the concrete cover has a significant impact on inelastic buckling of reinforcing bars.

  9. Characterizing bars in low surface brightness disc galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Wesley; Kuzio de Naray, Rachel

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, we use B-band, I-band, and 3.6 μm azimuthal light profiles of four low surface brightness galaxies (LSBs; UGC 628, F568-1, F568-3, F563-V2) to characterize three bar parameters: length, strength, and corotation radius. We employ three techniques to measure the radius of the bars, including a new method using the azimuthal light profiles. We find comparable bar radii between the I-band and 3.6 μm for all four galaxies when using our azimuthal light profile method, and that our bar lengths are comparable to those in high surface brightness galaxies (HSBs). In addition, we find the bar strengths for our galaxies to be smaller than those for HSBs. Finally, we use Fourier transforms of the B-band, I-band, and 3.6 μm images to characterize the bars as either `fast' or `slow' by measuring the corotation radius via phase profiles. When using the B- and I-band phase crossings, we find three of our galaxies have faster than expected relative bar pattern speeds for galaxies expected to be embedded in centrally dense cold dark matter haloes. When using the B-band and 3.6 μm phase crossings, we find more ambiguous results, although the relative bar pattern speeds are still faster than expected. Since we find a very slow bar in F563-V2, we are confident that we are able to differentiate between fast and slow bars. Finally, we find no relation between bar strength and relative bar pattern speed when comparing our LSBs to HSBs.

  10. Barred galaxies in the EAGLE cosmological hydrodynamical simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algorry, David G.; Navarro, Julio F.; Abadi, Mario G.; Sales, Laura V.; Bower, Richard G.; Crain, Robert A.; Dalla Vecchia, Claudio; Frenk, Carlos S.; Schaller, Matthieu; Schaye, Joop; Theuns, Tom

    2017-07-01

    We examine the properties of barred disc galaxies in a ΛCDM cosmological hydrodynamical simulation from the EAGLE project. Our study follows the formation of 269 discs identified at z = 0 in the stellar mass range 10.6 < log M*/M⊙ < 11. These discs show a wide range of bar strengths, from unbarred discs (≈60 per cent) to weak bars (≈20 per cent) and to strongly barred systems (≈20 per cent). Bars in these systems develop after redshift ≈1.3, on time-scales that depend sensitively on the strength of the pattern. Strong bars develop relatively quickly (in a few Gyr, or roughly ∼10 disc rotation periods) in systems that are disc dominated, gas poor, and have declining rotation curves. Weak bars develop more slowly in systems where the disc is less gravitationally important, and are still growing at z = 0. Unbarred galaxies are comparatively gas-rich discs whose rotation speeds do not exceed the maximum circular velocity of the haloes they inhabit. Bar lengths compare favourably with observations, ranging from 0.2 to 0.8 times the radius containing 90 per cent of the stars. Bars slow down remarkably quickly as they grow, causing the inner regions of the surrounding dark halo to expand. At z = 0 strong bars in simulated galaxies have corotation radii roughly 10 times the bar length. Such slow bars are inconsistent with the few cases where pattern speeds have been measured or inferred observationally, a discrepancy that, if confirmed, might prove a challenge for disc galaxy formation in ΛCDM.

  11. Principles and Practices of Bar and Beverage Management

    OpenAIRE

    Murphy, James Peter

    2013-01-01

    Principles and Practices of Bar and Beverage Management is a comprehensive text and resource book designed to explain the latest developments and new complexities of managing modern bars - be they stand alone or part of larger institutions such as hotels and resorts. Consumer expectations have changed, and a bar today must deliver an integrated social experience in a safe modern environment, which also offers the latest products and services in a professional and engaging fashion. Against ...

  12. Stability of cassava flour-based food bars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica Caroline da Silva

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The consumption of Brazilian cassava has been reduced due to a lack of adjustment to the modern lifestyle. To reverse this trend, new products could be developed specifically targeted to high-value niche markets. Cereal bars stand out as fast food high in nutritional value. A bar formula mimicking cereal bars was prepared using a mixture of Brazilian cassava flour, hydrogenated vegetable fat, dried bananas, ground cashew nuts, and glucose syrup. After being pressed, the bars were dried for 1 hour at 65 °C, packaged in films, and stored under ambient conditions. Its stability was continuously monitored for 210 days in order to ensure its safety and enable its introduction to the market. Texture loss was observed in the packed bars after 90 days of storage, but the sensory characteristics allowed the testers to perceive this tendency after only 30 days of storage. However, chemical, physical, and microbial analyses confirmed that the bars were safe for consumption for 180 days. The results showed that a 45 g cassava flour-based bar enriched with nuts and dried fruits can meet 6% of the recommended daily fiber intake with a caloric value between that of the common cereal bar and that of an energy bar. Adapting the formula with ingredients (fruits, nuts from different regions of Brazil may add value to this traditional product as a fast food.

  13. A young person's game: immersion and distancing in bar work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, Thomas; MacNeela, Pádraig

    2012-01-01

    Previous research indicates that bar workers report high levels of alcohol consumption, but the bar work experience itself has been little studied as a means to understand health threats associated with this job role. The subjective experience and meaning of bar work was explored in this study by interviewing current and ex-bar workers from a district in an Irish city that had a high density of bars and busy tourism industry. A total of 12 participants took part in focus groups (FGs) and seven in individual interviews. Four themes were identified in a thematic analysis. The central depiction of bar work was of an initial immersion in an intensive lifestyle characterised by heavy drinking, with subsequent distancing from the extremes of the lifestyle. The participants affiliated strongly with the bar work occupational identity, which included alcohol use in group scenarios for drinking during work, after work and on time off. The bar work lifestyle was most intense in the 'superpub' environment, characterised by permissive staff drinking norms and reported stress. Although an important identity, bar work was ultimately a transient role. The findings are considered in relation to research on occupation-specific stress and alcohol use, social identity and developmental needs in young adulthood.

  14. DWPF Melter No.2 Prototype Bus Bar Test Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordon, J.

    2003-01-01

    Characterization and performance testing of a prototype DWPF Melter No.2 Dome Heater Bus Bar are described. The prototype bus bar was designed to address the design features of the existing system which may have contributed to water leaks on Melter No.1. Performance testing of the prototype revealed significant improvement over the existing design in reduction of both bus bar and heater connection maximum temperature, while characterization revealed a few minor design and manufacturing flaws in the bar. The prototype is recommended as an improvement over the existing design. Recommendations are also made in the area of quality control to ensure that critical design requirements are met

  15. Experimental Study on Basic Mechanical Properties of BFRP Bars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xiaochun; Xu, Ting; Zhou, Zhengrong; Zhou, Xun

    2017-10-01

    Basalt Fiber Reinforced Polymer (BFRP) bars have the advantages of corrosion resistance, high strength, light weight, good dielectric properties, and they are new type of green reinforced alternative material. In order to determine the mechanical properties of BFRP bars, the tensile strength of basalt fiber bars was necessary to be studied. The diameters of the basalt fiber bars were compared by means of uniaxial tensile test in this article. Then the stress-strain curve can be drawn out. The results show that the stress - strain curve of BFRP bars present straight line relation, and there is no sign before failure; there is no yield platform on the stress-strain curve of BFRP bars, which are typical brittle material;the tensile strength of BFRP bars is about 3 times higher than that of ordinary steel bars. and the elastic modulus is about 1/5 of that of ordinary steel; the ultimate tensile strength of BFRP bars varies little with the increase of diameter, but there exist some differences in modulus values.

  16. Description of continuous data using bar graphs: a misleading approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Edson Zangiacomi

    2015-01-01

    With the ease provided by current computational programs, medical and scientific journals use bar graphs to describe continuous data. This manuscript discusses the inadequacy of bars graphs to present continuous data. Simulated data show that box plots and dot plots are more-feasible tools to describe continuous data. These plots are preferred to represent continuous variables since they effectively describe the range, shape, and variability of observations and clearly identify outliers. By contrast, bar graphs address only measures of central tendency. Bar graphs should be used only to describe qualitative data.

  17. Bone mineral content has stronger association with lean mass than fat mass among Indian urban adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raman K Marwaha

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There are conflicting reports on the relationship of lean mass (LM and fat mass (FM with bone mineral content (BMC. Given the high prevalence of Vitamin D deficiency in India, we planned the study to evaluate the relationship between LM and FM with BMC in Indian children and adolescents. The objective of the study was to evaluate the relationship of BMC with LM and FM. Materials and Methods: Total and regional BMC, LM, and FM using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry and pubertal staging were assessed in 1403 children and adolescents (boys [B]: 826; girls [G]: 577. BMC index, BMC/LM and BMC/FM ratio, were calculated. Results: The age ranged from 5 to 18 years, with a mean age of 13.2 ± 2.7 years. BMC adjusted for height (BMC index and BMC/height ratio was comparable in both genders. There was no difference in total BMC between genders in the prepubertal group but were higher in more advanced stages of pubertal maturation. The correlation of total as well as regional BMC was stronger for LM (B: Total BMC - 0.880, trunk - 0.715, leg - 0.894, arm - 0.891; G: Total BMC - 0.827, leg - 0.846, arm - 0.815 (all value indicate r2 , P < 0.0001 for all when compared with FM (B: Total BMC - 0.776, trunk - 0.676, leg - 0.772, arm - 0.728; G: Total BMC - 0.781, leg - 0.741, arm - 0.689; all P < 0.0001 except at trunk BMC (LM - 0.682 vs. FM - 0.721; all P < 0.0001, even after controlling for age, height, pubertal stage, and biochemical parameters. Conclusions: BMC had a stronger positive correlation with LM than FM.

  18. Tendências de gerenciamento de unidades de saúde e de pessoas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Maria André

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Identificar que fatores produzem novas tendências no gerenciamento das unidades básicas de saúde e mudanças nos modelos de gestão. MÉTODOS: Estudo prospectivo com dez gestores de unidades de saúde e dez especialistas da área de saúde de São Paulo, SP, em 2010. Foi adotada a metodologia Delphi. Foram utilizadas quatro rodadas para a coleta de dados, três quantitativas e a quarta qualitativa. Nas três primeiras foram levantadas as tendências de mudança nos modelos de gestão; no perfil do gestor e nas competências requeridas para a função, foi utilizado o teste estatístico de Mann Whitney. A quarta rodada ocorreu por meio de um painel com os envolvidos, tendo sido escolhida a análise temática. RESULTADOS: Foram identificados os principais fatores que estão impulsionando o gerenciamento das unidades básicas de saúde, como as mudanças nos modelos de gestão. Foi consenso de que as dificuldades no gerenciamento das equipes e nas políticas influemciam nesse processo. Verificou-se que os gestores estão a par das tendências do macrocontexto com o advento das organizações sociais de saúde, mas ainda não estão se antecipando nas ações institucionais. CONCLUSÕES: A formação acadêmica deve ser revista não só quanto aos conteúdos, mas quanto ao desenvolvimento desses profissionais. O recrutamento, a seleção, o desenvolvimento e a avaliação devem ser norteados por essas competências alinhadas à missão, à visão, aos valores e aos modelos de gestão das organizações no contexto do Sistema Único de Saúde.

  19. Tendências de teses e dissertações sobre ensino de astronomia no Brasil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bretones, P. S.; Megid Neto, J.

    2003-08-01

    Neste trabalho são apresentados os resultados de uma pesquisa do tipo estado da arte sobre teses e dissertações defendidas no Brasil e relativas ao ensino de Astronomia. Teve por objetivo identificar essa produção e conhecer as principais tendências da pesquisa nesse campo. O procedimento inicial consistiu de um levantamento bibliográfico junto ao Centro de Documentação em Ensino de Ciências (CEDOC) da Faculdade de Educação da UNICAMP e ao Banco de Teses da CAPES disponível na Internet. Foram localizadas 13 dissertações de mestrado e 3 teses de doutorado, as quais foram estudadas em função dos seguintes aspectos: instituição, ano de defesa, nível escolar abrangido no estudo, foco temático do estudo e gênero de trabalho acadêmico. Deste conjunto de pesquisas, 13 (81,3%) delas foram defendidas a partir da segunda metade dos anos 90, indicando uma preocupação mais recente com temas relativos ao ensino de Astronomia no conjunto da produção acadêmica em programas de pós-graduação no Brasil. Verificou-se que 43,7% dos trabalhos foram produzidas na USP e 18,8% na UNICAMP. Quanto ao nível escolar abrangido nos estudos, predominaram os estudos direcionados ao Ensino Fundamental de 5a a 8a séries (62,5%). No que diz respeito ao foco temático das pesquisas, as principais tendências voltaram-se: 56,3% para Conteúdo e Método; 43,8% para Concepções do Professor; 37,5% para Currículo e Programas; 37,5% para Recursos Didáticos. Quanto ao gênero de trabalho acadêmico, verificou-se que 43,8% são de Pesquisa Experimental e 31,3% de Pesquisa de Análise de Conteúdo. Estudos de revisão bibliográfica como este visam colaborar com a divulgação ampla da produção acadêmica em determinada área, traçando algumas de suas tendências. Ao mesmo tempo possibilita, a partir de investigações decorrentes, apontar as suas contribuições para o ensino e sinalizar com necessidades a serem supridas por futuras pesquisas.

  20. Study of J/psi -> p(p)over-bar and J/psi -> n(n)over-bar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ablikim, M.; Achasov, M. N.; Ambrose, D. J.; An, F. F.; An, Q.; An, Z. H.; Bai, J. Z.; Ban, Y.; Becker, J.; Berger, N.; Bertani, M.; Bian, J. M.; Boger, E.; Bondarenko, O.; Boyko, I.; Briere, R. A.; Bytev, V.; Cai, X.; Calcaterra, A.; Cao, G. F.; Chang, J. F.; Chelkov, G.; Chen, G.; Chen, H. S.; Chen, J. C.; Chen, M. L.; Chen, S. J.; Chen, Y.; Chen, Y. B.; Cheng, H. P.; Chu, Y. P.; Cronin-Hennessy, D.; Dai, H. L.; Dai, J. P.; Dedovich, D.; Deng, Z. Y.; Denig, A.; Denysenko, I.; Destefanis, M.; Ding, W. M.; Ding, Y.; Dong, L. Y.; Dong, M. Y.; Du, S. X.; Fang, J.; Fang, S. S.; Fava, L.; Feldbauer, F.; Feng, C. Q.; Ferroli, R. B.; Fu, C. D.; Fu, J. L.; Gao, Y.; Geng, C.; Goetzen, K.; Gong, W. X.; Gradl, W.; Greco, M.; Gu, M. H.; Gu, Y. T.; Guan, Y. H.; Guo, A. Q.; Guo, L. B.; Guo, Y. P.; Han, Y. L.; Hao, X. Q.; Harris, F. A.; He, K. L.; He, M.; He, Z. Y.; Held, T.; Heng, Y. K.; Hou, Z. L.; Hu, H. M.; Hu, J. F.; Hu, T.; Huang, B.; Huang, G. M.; Huang, J. S.; Huang, X. T.; Huang, Y. P.; Hussain, T.; Ji, C. S.; Ji, Q.; Ji, X. B.; Ji, X. L.; Jia, L. K.; Jiang, L. L.; Jiang, X. S.; Jiao, J. B.; Jiao, Z.; Jin, D. P.; Jin, S.; Jing, F. F.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Kavatsyuk, M.; Kuehn, W.; Lai, W.; Lange, J. S.; Leung, J. K. C.; Li, C. H.; Li, Cheng; Li, Cui; Li, D. M.; Li, F.; Li, G.; Li, H. B.; Li, J. C.; Li, K.; Li, Lei; Li, N. B.; Li, Q. J.; Li, S. L.; Li, W. D.; Li, W. G.; Li, X. L.; Li, X. N.; Li, X. Q.; Li, X. R.; Li, Z. B.; Liang, H.; Liang, Y. F.; Liang, Y. T.; Liao, G. R.; Liao, X. T.; Liu, B. J.; Liu, B. J.; Liu, C. L.; Liu, C. X.; Liu, C. Y.; Liu, F. H.; Liu, Fang; Liu, Feng; Liu, H.; Liu, H. B.; Liu, H. H.; Liu, H. M.; Liu, H. W.; Liu, J. P.; Liu, K. Y.; Liu, Kai; Liu, Kun; Liu, P. L.; Liu, S. B.; Liu, X.; Liu, X. H.; Liu, Y.; Liu, Y. B.; Liu, Z. A.; Liu, Zhiqiang; Liu, Zhiqing; Loehner, H.; Lu, G. R.; Lu, H. J.; Lu, J. G.; Lu, Q. W.; Lu, X. R.; Lu, Y. P.; Luo, C. L.; Luo, M. X.; Luo, T.; Luo, X. L.; Lv, M.; Ma, C. L.; Ma, F. C.; Ma, H. L.; Ma, Q. M.; Ma, S.; Ma, T.; Ma, X. Y.; Ma, Y.; Maas, F. E.; Maggiora, M.; Malik, Q. A.; Mao, H.; Mao, Y. J.; Mao, Z. P.; Messchendorp, J. G.; Min, J.; Min, T. J.; Mitchell, R. E.; Mo, X. H.; Morales, C. Morales; Motzko, C.; Muchnoi, N. Yu.; Nefedov, Y.; Nicholson, C.; Nikolaev, I. B.; Ning, Z.; Olsen, S. L.; Ouyang, Q.; Pacetti, S.; Park, J. W.; Pelizaeus, M.; Peters, K.; Ping, J. L.; Ping, R. G.; Poling, R.; Prencipe, E.; Pun, C. S. J.; Qi, M.; Qian, S.; Qiao, C. F.; Qin, X. S.; Qin, Y.; Qin, Z. H.; Qiu, J. F.; Rashid, K. H.; Rong, G.; Ruan, X. D.; Sarantsev, A.; Schulze, J.; Shao, M.; Shen, C. P.; Shen, X. Y.; Sheng, H. Y.; Shepherd, M. R.; Song, X. Y.; Spataro, S.; Spruck, B.; Sun, D. H.; Sun, G. X.; Sun, J. F.; Sun, S. S.; Sun, X. D.; Sun, Y. J.; Sun, Y. Z.; Sun, Z. J.; Sun, Z. T.; Tang, C. J.; Tang, X.; Thorndike, E. H.; Tian, H. L.; Toth, D.; Ullrich, M.; Varner, G. S.; Wang, B.; Wang, B. Q.; Wang, K.; Wang, L. L.; Wang, L. S.; Wang, M.; Wang, P.; Wang, P. L.; Wang, Q.; Wang, Q. J.; Wang, S. G.; Wang, X. F.; Wang, X. L.; Wang, Y. D.; Wang, Y. F.; Wang, Y. Q.; Wang, Z.; Wang, Z. G.; Wang, Z. Y.; Wei, D. H.; Weidenkaff, P.; Wen, Q. G.; Wen, S. P.; Werner, M.; Wiedner, U.; Wu, L. H.; Wu, N.; Wu, S. X.; Wu, W.; Wu, Z.; Xia, L. G.; Xiao, Z. J.; Xie, Y. G.; Xiu, Q. L.; Xu, G. F.; Xu, G. M.; Xu, H.; Xu, Q. J.; Xu, X. P.; Xu, Y.; Xu, Z. R.; Xue, F.; Xue, Z.; Yan, L.; Yan, W. B.; Yan, Y. H.; Yang, H. X.; Yang, T.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Y. X.; Ye, H.; Ye, M.; Ye, M. H.; Yu, B. X.; Yu, C. X.; Yu, J. S.; Yu, S. P.; Yuan, C. Z.; Yuan, W. L.; Yuan, Y.; Zafar, A. A.; Zallo, A.; Zeng, Y.; Zhang, B. X.; Zhang, B. Y.; Zhang, C. C.; Zhang, D. H.; Zhang, H. H.; Zhang, H. Y.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, J. G.; Zhang, J. Q.; Zhang, J. W.; Zhang, J. Y.; Zhang, J. Z.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, S. H.; Zhang, T. R.; Zhang, X. J.; Zhang, X. Y.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, Y. H.; Zhang, Y. S.; Zhang, Z. P.; Zhang, Z. Y.; Zhao, G.; Zhao, H. S.; Zhao, J. W.; Zhao, K. X.; Zhao, Lei; Zhao, Ling; Zhao, M. G.; Zhao, Q.; Zhao, S. J.; Zhao, T. C.; Zhao, X. H.; Zhao, Y. B.; Zhao, Z. G.; Zhemchugov, A.; Zheng, B.; Zheng, J. P.; Zheng, Y. H.; Zheng, Z. P.; Zhong, B.; Zhong, J.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, X. K.; Zhou, X. R.; Zhu, C.; Zhu, K.; Zhu, K. J.; Zhu, S. H.; Zhu, X. L.; Zhu, X. W.; Zhu, Y. M.; Zhu, Y. S.; Zhu, Z. A.; Zhuang, J.; Zou, B. S.; Zou, J. H.; Zuo, J. X.

    2012-01-01

    The decays J/psi -> p (p) over bar and J/psi -> n (n) over bar have been investigated with a sample of 225.2 x 10(6) J/psi events collected with the BESIII detector at the BEPCII e(+)e(-) collider. The branching fractions are determined to be B(J/psi -> p (p) over bar) = (2.112 +/- 0.004 +/- 0.031 x

  1. Geographical constraints are stronger than invasion patterns for European urban floras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricotta, Carlo; Celesti-Grapow, Laura; Kühn, Ingolf; Rapson, Gillian; Pyšek, Petr; La Sorte, Frank A; Thompson, Ken

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the mechanisms that affect invasion success of alien species is an important prerequisite for the effective management of present and future aliens. To gain insight into this matter we asked the following questions: Are the geographical patterns of species distributions in urban floras different for native compared with alien plant species? Does the introduction of alien species contribute to the homogenization of urban floras? We used a Mantel test on Jaccard dissimilarity matrices of 30 urban floras across the British Isles, Italy and central Europe to compare the spatial distribution of native species with four classes of alien species: archaeophytes, all neophytes, non-invasive neophytes, and invasive neophytes. Archaeophytes and neophytes are species that were introduced into Europe before and after 1500 AD, respectively. To analyze the homogenizing effect of alien species on the native urban floras, we tested for differences in the average dissimilarity of individual cities from their group centroid in ordination space. Our results show that the compositional patterns of native and alien species seem to respond to the same environmental drivers, such that all four classes of alien species were significantly related to native species across urban floras. In this framework, alien species may have an impact on biogeographic patterns of urban floras in ways that reflect their history of introduction and expansion: archaeophytes and invasive neophytes tended to homogenize, while non-invasive neophytes tended to differentiate urban floras.

  2. Geographical constraints are stronger than invasion patterns for European urban floras.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Ricotta

    Full Text Available Understanding the mechanisms that affect invasion success of alien species is an important prerequisite for the effective management of present and future aliens. To gain insight into this matter we asked the following questions: Are the geographical patterns of species distributions in urban floras different for native compared with alien plant species? Does the introduction of alien species contribute to the homogenization of urban floras? We used a Mantel test on Jaccard dissimilarity matrices of 30 urban floras across the British Isles, Italy and central Europe to compare the spatial distribution of native species with four classes of alien species: archaeophytes, all neophytes, non-invasive neophytes, and invasive neophytes. Archaeophytes and neophytes are species that were introduced into Europe before and after 1500 AD, respectively. To analyze the homogenizing effect of alien species on the native urban floras, we tested for differences in the average dissimilarity of individual cities from their group centroid in ordination space. Our results show that the compositional patterns of native and alien species seem to respond to the same environmental drivers, such that all four classes of alien species were significantly related to native species across urban floras. In this framework, alien species may have an impact on biogeographic patterns of urban floras in ways that reflect their history of introduction and expansion: archaeophytes and invasive neophytes tended to homogenize, while non-invasive neophytes tended to differentiate urban floras.

  3. Rede nacional de postos de vigia : Tendências para o futuro?

    OpenAIRE

    Viana, João

    2010-01-01

    O presente trabalho está subordinado ao tema: “Rede Nacional de Postos de Vigia – tendências para o futuro?” Sendo Portugal um dos países da Europa que mais é afectado por incêndios florestais, conduzindo anualmente a graves prejuízos sociais, económicos e ambientais, torna-se necessário a rápida e eficaz detecção dos focos de incêndio a par da prevenção e do combate com vista a evitar a ocorrência de grandes incêndios. Para tal, além do invest...

  4. Malassezia globosa tends to grow actively in summer conditions more than other cutaneous Malassezia species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akaza, Narifumi; Akamatsu, Hirohiko; Takeoka, Shiori; Sasaki, Yasuyuki; Mizutani, Hiroshi; Nakata, Satoru; Matsunaga, Kayoko

    2012-07-01

    Malassezia globosa is a major pathogen of Malassezia folliculitis (MF) and the predominant species on human skin. The aim of this study was to clarify the differences between M. globosa and other cutaneous Malassezia species, M. restricta, M. dermatis, M. sympodialis and M. furfur. The optimum growth temperature, effects of compounds of sweat and free fatty acids on growth, and lipase activities of five cutaneous Malassezia species were determined. The growth of M. globosa was promoted strongly by the compounds of sweat and high temperature unlike that of other cutaneous Malassezia species. This result clarified that M. globosa tended to grow actively in summer conditions more than other cutaneous Malassezia species. Furthermore, M. globosa showed high lipase activity. We consider these characteristics of M. globosa to relate to the pathogenesis of MF. © 2012 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  5. Robotic and Human-Tended Collaborative Drilling Automation for Subsurface Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Brian; Cannon, Howard; Stoker, Carol; Davis, Kiel

    2005-01-01

    Future in-situ lunar/martian resource utilization and characterization, as well as the scientific search for life on Mars, will require access to the subsurface and hence drilling. Drilling on Earth is hard - an art form more than an engineering discipline. Human operators listen and feel drill string vibrations coming from kilometers underground. Abundant mass and energy make it possible for terrestrial drilling to employ brute-force approaches to failure recovery and system performance issues. Space drilling will require intelligent and autonomous systems for robotic exploration and to support human exploration. Eventual in-situ resource utilization will require deep drilling with probable human-tended operation of large-bore drills, but initial lunar subsurface exploration and near-term ISRU will be accomplished with lightweight, rover-deployable or standalone drills capable of penetrating a few tens of meters in depth. These lightweight exploration drills have a direct counterpart in terrestrial prospecting and ore-body location, and will be designed to operate either human-tended or automated. NASA and industry now are acquiring experience in developing and building low-mass automated planetary prototype drills to design and build a pre-flight lunar prototype targeted for 2011-12 flight opportunities. A successful system will include development of drilling hardware, and automated control software to operate it safely and effectively. This includes control of the drilling hardware, state estimation of both the hardware and the lithography being drilled and state of the hole, and potentially planning and scheduling software suitable for uncertain situations such as drilling. Given that Humans on the Moon or Mars are unlikely to be able to spend protracted EVA periods at a drill site, both human-tended and robotic access to planetary subsurfaces will require some degree of standalone, autonomous drilling capability. Human-robotic coordination will be important

  6. Questões Sociais Existenciais, Tendências de Desenvolvimento e Modernidade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Maurício Domingues

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO O objetivo deste artigo é retornar a alguns temas clássicos, mas hoje muito mal explorados, centrais no passado da sociologia ou daqueles que por ela foram incorporados como seus pais fundadores e hoje a rigor abandonados. Nele se discutem a multidimensionalidade da vida social e as tendências de desenvolvimento que, em particular na modernidade, a impulsionam. Teoricamente esses temas seguem, ou deveriam seguir, sendo decisivos, sem deixar de sê-lo igualmente do ponto de vista da prática social. Enfim, recolocá-los nos permite até certo ponto sugerir uma visão mais complexa e menos etnocêntrica da humanidade em seus aspectos diretamente sociais e, com isso, situar mais precisamente as características diferenciais da própria modernidade.

  7. A Preliminary Study on Detecting Fake Gold Bars Using Prompt Gamma Activation Analysis: Simulation of Neutron Transmission in Gold Bar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, K. M.; Sun, G. M.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop fake gold bar detecting method by using Prompt-gamma activation analysis (PGAA) facility at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI). PGAA is an established nuclear analytical technique for non-destructive determination of elemental and isotopic compositions. For a preliminary study on detecting fake gold bar, Monte Carlo simulation of neutron transmission in gold bar was conducted and the possibility for detecting fake gold bar was confirmed. Under the gold bullion standard, it guaranteed the government would redeem any amount of currency for its value in gold. After the gold bullion standard ended, gold bars have been the target for investment as ever. But it is well known that fake gold bar exist in the gold market. This cannot be identified easily without performing a testing as it has the same appearance as the pure gold bar. In order to avoid the trading of fake gold bar in the market, they should be monitored thoroughly. Although the transmissivity of cold neutrons are low comparing that of thermal neutrons, the slower neutrons are more apt to be absorbed in a target, and can increase the prompt gamma emission rate. Also the flux of both thermal and cold neutron beam is high enough to activate thick target. If the neutron beam is irradiated on the front and the reverse side of gold bar, all insides of it can be detected

  8. Pectus bar removal: surgical technique and strategy to avoid complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyung Joo; Kim, Kyung Soo

    2016-01-01

    Pectus bar removal is the final stage of the procedure for minimally invasive repair of pectus excavatum. Based on our experience with one of the largest scale data, we would like to address the important issues in pectus bar removal, such as appropriate duration of bar maintenance, techniques for bar removal, and strategies to avoid complications. Between September 1999 and August 2015, we operated on 2,553 patients with pectus excavatum and carinatum using pectus bars for a minimally invasive approach. Among them, 1,821 patients (71.3%) underwent pectus bar removal as a final stage of pectus deformity repair, and their data were analyzed retrospectively to identify the outcomes and adverse effects of the pectus bar removal procedure. The mean age of the patients was 9.13 years (range, 16 months to 44 years) and the male to female ratio was 3.55. The study is approved by the Institutional Review Board (IRB), the ethical committee of Seoul St. Mary's Hospital. The IRB has exempted the informed consent from every patient in this study due to this is a retrospective chart review without revealing any patients' personal data. Our technique involved straightening of the bar in a supine position. The overall mean duration of pectus bar maintenance was 2.57 years (range, 4 months to 14 years). The mean duration was 2.02 years (range, 4 months to 7 years) for children under 12 years, 2.99 years (range, 7 months to 9 years) for teenagers aged 12-20 years, and 3.53 years (range, 3 months to 14 years) for adults over 20 years. Forty-eight patients (2.6%) underwent bar removal more than 5 years after bar insertion and 58 patients (3.2%) underwent bar removal earlier than initially planned. The most common adverse reaction after bar removal was wound seroma including infection (43 patients, 2.36%). Recurrence after bar removal occurred in nine patients (0.49%), and seven of these required redo repair (0.38%). Pectus bar removal is a safe and straightforward procedure with a

  9. INFLUENCING OF FRICTION IN HINGES FORCE SIZE OF BARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BOHOMAZ V. N.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Formulation of the problem. The size of critical force of bar on the traditional method of calculation is determined in supposition of ideal hinge in the place of fixing of bar. There are both a hinge resistance at the turn of bar ends and their moving in the real hinges. Thus, there is the necessity of influencing character determination of these hinge imperfections on the size of critical force. In the existent scientific labours is devoted the alike problems, influencing of friction in the hinges of bar fastening on the size of critical force was not taken into account. At determination of bars stability with no ideality of hinges friction in them it is possible to take into account by the eccentric appendix of loading or appendix of moment. However at such approach it is difficult enough to define the size of attached force or moment. Purpose. To set influencing of friction in the hinge of bar fastening on of his critical force size in sense of Euler, and also build dependences for determination of bar critical force taking into account mechanical descriptions of hinges materials. Conclusion. For the task of determination the size of bar critical force with the joint fastening on ends are got the dependences which take into account mechanical descriptions of material hinge. The received dependences allow to define more exact meaning of critical force for bars. The examples of calculation of whole bar and bar with undercuting in the middle are resulted that values of critical force, certain on a traditional method are overpriced.

  10. Bus bar electrical feedthrough for electrorefiner system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Mark; Wiedmeyer, Stanley G; Willit, James L; Barnes, Laurel A; Blaskovitz, Robert J

    2013-12-03

    A bus bar electrical feedthrough for an electrorefiner system may include a retaining plate, electrical isolator, and/or contact block. The retaining plate may include a central opening. The electrical isolator may include a top portion, a base portion, and a slot extending through the top and base portions. The top portion of the electrical isolator may be configured to extend through the central opening of the retaining plate. The contact block may include an upper section, a lower section, and a ridge separating the upper and lower sections. The upper section of the contact block may be configured to extend through the slot of the electrical isolator and the central opening of the retaining plate. Accordingly, relatively high electrical currents may be transferred into a glovebox or hot-cell facility at a relatively low cost and higher amperage capacity without sacrificing atmosphere integrity.

  11. /bar p/p collider physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, D.

    1989-03-01

    This note encompasses a set of six lectures given at the summer school held at Campos Do Jordao in January of 1989 near Sao Paulo, Brazil. The intent of the lectures was to describe the physics of /bar p/p at CERN and Fermilab. Particular attention has been paid to making a self contained presentation to a prospective audience of graduate students. Since large Monte Carlo codes might not be available to all members of this audience, great reliance was placed on ''back of the envelope estimates.'' Emphasis was also placed on experimental data rather than theoretical speculation, since predictions for, for example, supersymmetric particle production are easily obtained by transcription of formulae already obtained. 9 refs., 67 figs., 2 tabs

  12. p-bar p collider physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, D.

    1989-01-01

    This note encompasses a set of six lectures given at the summer school held at Campos do Jordao on January of 1989 near Sao Paulo, Brazil. The intent of the lectures was to describe the physics of p-bar p at CERN and Fermilab. Particular attention has been paid to make a self contained presentation to a prospective audience of graduate students. Since large Monte Carlo codes might not be available to all members of this audience, great reliance was placed on back of the envelope estimates. Emphasis was also placed on experimental data rather than theoretical speculation, since predictions for, for example, supersymmetric particle production are easily obtained by transcription of formulae already obtained. (author)

  13. Predicting Vertical Jump Height from Bar Velocity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amador García-Ramos, Igor Štirn, Paulino Padial, Javier Argüelles-Cienfuegos, Blanca De la Fuente, Vojko Strojnik, Belén Feriche

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to assess the use of maximum (Vmax and final propulsive phase (FPV bar velocity to predict jump height in the weighted jump squat. FPV was defined as the velocity reached just before bar acceleration was lower than gravity (-9.81 m·s-2. Vertical jump height was calculated from the take-off velocity (Vtake-off provided by a force platform. Thirty swimmers belonging to the National Slovenian swimming team performed a jump squat incremental loading test, lifting 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% of body weight in a Smith machine. Jump performance was simultaneously monitored using an AMTI portable force platform and a linear velocity transducer attached to the barbell. Simple linear regression was used to estimate jump height from the Vmax and FPV recorded by the linear velocity transducer. Vmax (y = 16.577x - 16.384 was able to explain 93% of jump height variance with a standard error of the estimate of 1.47 cm. FPV (y = 12.828x - 6.504 was able to explain 91% of jump height variance with a standard error of the estimate of 1.66 cm. Despite that both variables resulted to be good predictors, heteroscedasticity in the differences between FPV and Vtake-off was observed (r2 = 0.307, while the differences between Vmax and Vtake-off were homogenously distributed (r2 = 0.071. These results suggest that Vmax is a valid tool for estimating vertical jump height in a loaded jump squat test performed in a Smith machine.

  14. New Observables In the Decay Mode \\bar B_d \\-->\\bar K^{0*} \\ell^+ \\ell^-

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egede, U.; /Imperial Coll., London; Hurth, T.; /CERN /SLAC; Matias, J.; Ramon, M.; /Barcelona, IFAE; Reece, W.; /Imperial Coll., London

    2008-08-07

    We discuss the large set of observables available from the angular distributions of the decay {bar B}{sub d} {yields} {bar K}*{sup 0}{ell}{sup +}{ell}{sup -}. We present a NLO analysis of all observables based on the QCD factorization approach in the low-dilepton mass region and an estimate of {Lambda}/m{sub b} corrections. Moreover, we discuss their sensitivity to new physics. We explore the experimental sensitivities at LHCb (10 fb{sup -1}) and SuperLHCb (100 fb{sup -1}) based on a full-angular fit method and explore the sensitivity to right handed currents. We also show that the previously discussed transversity amplitude A{sub T}{sup (1)} cannot be measured at the LHCb experiment or at future B factory experiments as it requires a measurement of the spin of the final state particles.

  15. On bar growth and decay during interannual net offshore migration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walstra, D.J.R.; Reniers, A.J.H.M.; Ranasinghe, R.; Roelvink, J.A.; Ruessink, B.G.

    2012-01-01

    Multiple bar systems often show a cyclic net offshore directed migration with return periods on the order of years. Generally, a bar is generated near the shoreline, grows in height and width, while migrating offshore before finally decaying at the seaward limit of the surf zone. Based on a

  16. Objectivity in Grading: The Promise of Bar Codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jae, Haeran; Cowling, John

    2009-01-01

    This article proposes the use of a new technology to assure student anonymity and reduce bias hazards: identifying students by using bar codes. The limited finding suggests that the use of bar codes for assuring student anonymity could potentially cause students to perceive that grades are assigned more fairly and reassure teachers that they are…

  17. 49 CFR 393.90 - Buses, standee line or bar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Buses, standee line or bar. 393.90 Section 393.90 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY... NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION Miscellaneous Parts and Accessories § 393.90 Buses, standee line or bar. Except...

  18. Sweet! Candy Bar Activity Teaches CAD, Math, and Graphics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granlund, George

    2009-01-01

    By far, the tastiest technology learning activity that the author's students work on is the development of the design of a chocolate candy bar. This article describes how the author implemented the candy bar activity. The activity gives students an opportunity to design a product and to take it from concept through to production.

  19. HCN and HCO+ images of the Orion Bar photodissociation region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Owl, RCY; Meixner, MM; Wolfire, M; Tielens, AGGM; Tauber, J

    2000-01-01

    The Orion Bar is an ideal astrophysical laboratory for studying photodissociation regions because of its nearly edge-on orientation in the observer's line of sight. High angular resolution (similar to 9") maps of the Orion Bar in the J = 1-0 emission lines of HCO+ and HCN have been made by combining

  20. Selective sampling and edge enhancement in bar code laser scanning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shellhammer, Stephen J.; Goren, David P.; Pavlidis, Theo

    1996-03-01

    This paper describes the basic design principles for a new series of bar code scanners from Symbol Technologies. Traditional bar code scanners include an edge detector which has several innate limitations. We propose replacing this edge detector with a selective sampling circuit. While the superiority of decoding the analog signal has been demonstrated, its implementation is too costly because of the need for considerable additional memory. Selective sampling achieves most of the advantages of analog decoding at a cost comparable to that of conventional decoders. Instead of sampling the signal periodically, it is only sampled when a certain event (e.g. an edge) is detected. At each edge two data values are produced: the edge time and the sampled value, often referred to as the edge strength. This strength value gives a measure of the intensity of the edge. Using selective sampling the new scanners can read poorly printed and noisy bar codes that cannot be read by traditional scanners. Another innate limitation of bar code laser scanners is the density of bar code that can be read. This limitation is due to the blurring of the bar code when scanned by a laser beam with a finite spot size. We propose the addition of an edge enhancement filter to the scanner, which compensates for the finite width of the optical beam. The proposed filter is designed to enhance the edges of the bar code so that for a given optical focusing it is possible to read higher density bar codes.

  1. Mechanical Properties of Welded Deformed Reinforcing Steel Bars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghafur H. Ahmed

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Reinforcement strength, ductility and bendability properties are important components in design of reinforced concrete members, as the strength of any member comes mainly from reinforcement. Strain compatibility and plastic behaviors are mainly depending on reinforcement ductility. In construction practice, often welding of the bars is required. Welding of reinforcement is an instant solution in many cases, whereas welding is not a routine connection process. Welding will cause deficiencies in reinforcement bars, metallurgical changes and re-crystallization of microstructure of particles. Weld metal toughness is extremely sensitive to the welding heat input that decreases both of its strength and ductility. For determining the effects of welding in reinforcement properties, 48 specimens were tested with 5 different bar diameters, divided into six groups. Investigated parameters were: properties of un-welded bars; strength, ductility and density of weld metal; strength and ductility reduction due to heat input for bundled bars and transverse bars; welding effect on bars’ bending properties; behavior of different joint types; properties of three weld groove shapes also the locations and types of failures sections. Results show that, strength and elongation of the welded bars decreased by (10-40% and (30-60% respectively. Cold bending of welded bars and groove welds shall be prevented.

  2. Defining the formative discharge for alternate bars in alluvial rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redolfi, M.; Carlin, M.; Tubino, M.; Adami, L.; Zolezzi, G.

    2017-12-01

    We investigate the properties of alternate bars in long straight reaches of channelized streams subject to an unsteady, irregular flow regime. To this aim we propose a novel integration of a statistical approach with the analytical perturbation model of Tubino (1991) which predicts the evolution of bar properties (namely amplitude and wavelength) as consequence of a flood. The outcomes of our integrated modelling approach are probability distribution of the bar properties, which depend essentially on two ingredients: (i) the statistical properties of the flow regime (duration, frequency and magnitude of the flood events, and (ii) the reach-averaged hydro-geomorphic characteristics of the channel (bed material, channel gradient and width). This allows to define a "bar-forming" discharge value as the flow value which would reproduce the most likely bar properties in a river reach under unsteady flow. Alternate bars are often migrating downstream and growing or declining during flood events. The timescale of bar growth and migration is often comparable with the duration of the floods: consequently, bar properties such as height and wavelength do not respond instantaneously to discharge variations (i.e. quasi-equilibrium response) but may depend on previous flood events. Theoretical results are compared with observations in three Alpine, channelized gravel bed rivers with encouraging outcomes.png" class="documentimage" >

  3. Wave boundary layer hydrodynamics during onshore bar migration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henriquez, M.; Reniers, A.; Ruessink, G.; Stive, M.J.F.

    2010-01-01

    To study onshore bar migration and the accompanying intra-wave sediment transport a wave flume experiment was conducted. The wave flume had a rigid bottom with a single bar profile. The focus of the experiment was to measure the hydrodynamics in the wave bottom boundary layer. The results show that

  4. STELLAR, GAS, AND DARK MATTER CONTENT OF BARRED GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cervantes Sodi, Bernardo, E-mail: b.cervantes@crya.unam.mx [Instituto de Radioastronomía y Astrofísica, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Campus Morelia, A.P. 3-72, C.P. 58089 Michoacán, México (Mexico)

    2017-01-20

    We select a sample of galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7 (SDSS-DR7) where galaxies are classified, through visual inspection, as hosting strong bars, weak bars, or as unbarred galaxies, and make use of H i mass and kinematic information from the Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA survey catalog, to study the stellar, atomic gas, and dark matter content of barred disk galaxies. We find, in agreement with previous studies, that the bar fraction increases with increasing stellar mass. A similar trend is found with total baryonic mass, although the dependence is not as strong as with stellar mass, due to the contribution of gas. The bar fraction shows a decrease with increasing gas mass fraction. This anticorrelation between the likelihood of a galaxy hosting a bar with the gas richness of the galaxy results from the inhibiting effect the gas has in the formation of bars. We also find that for massive galaxies with stellar masses larger than 10{sup 10} M {sub ⊙}, at fixed stellar mass, the bar fraction decreases with increasing global halo mass (i.e., halo mass measured up to a radius of the order of the H i disk extent).

  5. The X-Bar Theory of Phrase Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornai, Andras; Pullman, Geoffrey K.

    1990-01-01

    This paper demonstrates that a formalization of the content of X-bar theory reveals very little substance in its claims. Six conditions that encapsulate X-bar theory are discussed: lexicality, succession, uniformity, maximality, centrality, and optionality. (50 references) (JL)

  6. Trends in packaging of high power semiconductor laser bars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solarz, R.W.; Emanuel, M.A.; Skidmore, J.A.; Freitas, B.L.; Krupke, W.F.

    1997-07-01

    Several different approaches to packaging high power diode laser bars for pumping solid state lasers or for direct diode laser applications are examined. The benefit and utility of each package is strongly dependent upon the fundamental optoelectronic properties of the individual diode laser bars. Factors which influence these properties are outlined and comparisons of packaging approaches for these materials are made.

  7. Behavior of Reworked Steel Reinforcement Bars in Reinforced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Steel reinforcement bars are a key component in reinforced concrete and are mainly employed to carry tensile stresses since concrete on its own is weak in tension. Sometimes these bars are wrongly bent, straightened and re bent, resulting in the altering of their original characteristics. Some of such steel has been used ...

  8. Regular Exercisers Have Stronger Pelvic Floor Muscles than Non-Regular Exercisers at Midpregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bø, Kari; Ellstrøm Engh, Marie; Hilde, Gunvor

    2017-12-26

    Today, all healthy pregnant women are encouraged to be physically active throughout pregnancy, with recommendations to participate in at least 30 min of aerobic activity on most days of the week, in addition to perform strength training of the major muscle groups 2-3 days per week, and also pelvic floor muscle training. There is, however, an ongoing debate whether general physical activity enhances or declines pelvic floor muscle function. To compare vaginal resting pressure, pelvic floor muscle strength and endurance in regular exercisers (exercise ≥ 30 minutes ≥ 3 times per week) and non-exercisers at mid-pregnancy. Furthermore, to assess whether regular general exercise or pelvic floor muscle strength was associated with urinary incontinence. This was a cross-sectional study at mean gestational week 20.9 (± 1.4) including 218 nulliparous pregnant women, mean age 28.6 years (range 19-40) and pre-pregnancy body mass index 23.9 kg/m 2 (SD 4.0). Vaginal resting pressure, pelvic floor muscle strength and pelvic floor muscle endurance were measured by a high precision pressure transducer connected to a vaginal balloon. International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire Urinary Incontinence Short Form was used to assess urinary incontinence. Differences between groups were analyzed using Independent Sample T-test. Linear regression analysis was conducted to adjust for pre-pregnancy body mass index, age, smoking during pregnancy and regular pelvic floor muscle training during pregnancy. P-value was set to ≤ 0.05. Regular exercisers had statistically significant stronger ( mean 6.4 cm H 2 O (95% CI: 1.7, 11.2)) and more enduring ( mean 39.9 cm H 2 Osec (95% CI: 42.2, 75.7)) pelvic floor muscles. Only pelvic floor muscle strength remained statistically significant, when adjusting for possible confounders. Pelvic floor muscle strength and not regular general exercise was associated with urinary continence (adjusted B: -6.4 (95% CI: -11.5, -1.4)). Regular

  9. Hippocampal-Prefrontal Reactivation during Learning Is Stronger in Awake Compared with Sleep States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Wenbo; Shin, Justin D; Frank, Loren M; Jadhav, Shantanu P

    2017-12-06

    Hippocampal sharp-wave ripple (SWR) events occur during both behavior (awake SWRs) and slow-wave sleep (sleep SWRs). Awake and sleep SWRs both contribute to spatial learning and memory, thought to be mediated by the coordinated reactivation of behavioral experiences in hippocampal-cortical circuits seen during SWRs. Current hypotheses suggest that reactivation contributes to memory consolidation processes, but whether awake and sleep reactivation are suited to play similar or different roles remains unclear. Here we addressed that issue by examining the structure of hippocampal (area CA1) and prefrontal (PFC) activity recorded across behavior and sleep stages in male rats learning a spatial alternation task. We found a striking state difference: prefrontal modulation during awake and sleep SWRs was surprisingly distinct, with differing patterns of excitation and inhibition. CA1-PFC synchronization was stronger during awake SWRs, and spatial reactivation, measured using both pairwise and ensemble measures, was more structured for awake SWRs compared with post-task sleep SWRs. Stronger awake reactivation was observed despite the absence of coordination between network oscillations, namely hippocampal SWRs and cortical delta and spindle oscillations, which is prevalent during sleep. Finally, awake CA1-PFC reactivation was enhanced most prominently during initial learning in a novel environment, suggesting a key role in early learning. Our results demonstrate significant differences in awake and sleep reactivation in the hippocampal-prefrontal network. These findings suggest that awake SWRs support accurate memory storage and memory-guided behavior, whereas sleep SWR reactivation is better suited to support integration of memories across experiences during consolidation. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Hippocampal sharp-wave ripples (SWRs) occur both in the awake state during behavior and in the sleep state after behavior. Awake and sleep SWRs are associated with memory

  10. A Full Hydro- and Morphodynamic Description of Breaker Bar Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Niels Gjøl

    net cross shore suspended sediment transport flux as a function of either of the variables $\\zeta_0$, $\\Omega$, or $\\Omega_{HK}$. Secondly, the bed is allowed to evolve under the influence of the sediment transport processes. The development of breaker bars in both laboratory scale settings...... and prototype scale settings is considered. The temporal development of the cross shore profile is simulated for several combinations of wave forcing and sediment grain diameters. The variation is described with emphasis on the development of the crest level of the breaker bar, the variation in the bed shear...... stress on the crest of the breaker bar, and its migration speed. Additionally, a net onshore current over a breaker bar is considered, where this current mimics the presence of a horizontal circulation cell. The development of the breaker bar is described for different values of the net onshore current...

  11. qqq-barq-bar system in a potential model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weinstein, J.; Isgur, N.

    1983-02-01

    We have examined the qqq-barq-bar system in a nonrelativistic potential model with color-dependent confinement forces and hyperfine interactions by solving the four-particle Schroedinger equation variationally. We find that normally the ground state of this system consists of two free mesons, but that exceptions to this rule probably occur for KK-bar systems, where we find weakly bound 0/sup + +/ states with a meson-meson structure reminiscent of the nucleon-nucleon structure of the deuteron. We show that these states may be identified with the S* and delta just below KK-bar threshold. We further argue that the qqq-barq-bar system is not only nearly barren of bound states, but that it is unlikely to support any resonances. Finally, independent of their identification with observed states, we note that the qqq-barq-bar bound states are a model for the weak binding and color-singlet clustering observed in nuclei.

  12. Microbial contamination of "In use" bar soap in dental clinics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hegde P

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Bar soap from 18 different dental clinics were investigated for microbial contamination, while it was "in-use". Of the 32 samples obtained from the bar soap, 100% yielded positive culture. A total of 8 different genera of organisms were isolated. Each bar soap was found to harbor 2-5 different genera of micro organisms. Heavily used soap had more micro organisms compared to less used soap. The microbial load of the "in-use" bar soap constituted a mixed flora of gram positive, gram negative, aerobes, anaerobes, and fungi. The results indicate that the bar soap under "in-use" condition is a reservoir of microorganisms and handwashing with such a soap may lead to spread of infection.

  13. Dynamics of membrane nanotubes coated with I-BAR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farhangibarooji, Younes; Rørvig-Lund, Andreas; Semsey, Szabolcs

    2016-01-01

    domains can efficiently deform negatively charged membranes into tubules without any other proteins present. Here, we show that the IM domain (also called I-BAR domain) from the protein ABBA, forms semi-flexible nanotubes protruding into Giant Unilamellar lipid Vesicles (GUVs). By simultaneous...... quantification of tube intensity and tubular shape we find both the diameter and stiffness of the nanotubes. I-BAR decorated tubes were quantified to have a diameter of ~50 nm and exhibit no stiffening relative to protein free tubes of the same diameter. At high protein density the tubes are immobile whereas...... at lower density the tubes diffuse freely on the surface of the GUV. Bleaching experiments of the fluorescently tagged I-BAR confirmed that the mobility of the tubes correlates with the mobility of the I-BAR on the GUV membrane. Finally, at low density of I-BAR the protein upconcentrates within tubes...

  14. Linear diode laser bar optical stretchers for cell deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sraj, Ihab; Marr, David W.M.; Eggleton, Charles D.

    2010-01-01

    To investigate the use of linear diode laser bars to optically stretch cells and measure their mechanical properties, we present numerical simulations using the immersed boundary method (IBM) coupled with classic ray optics. Cells are considered as three-dimensional (3D) spherical elastic capsules immersed in a fluid subjected to both optical and hydrodynamic forces in a periodic domain. We simulate cell deformation induced by both single and dual diode laser bar configurations and show that a single diode laser bar induces significant stretching but also induces cell translation of speed < 10 µm/sec for applied 6.6 mW/µm power in unconfined systems. The dual diode laser bar configuration, however, can be used to both stretch and optically trap cells at a fixed position. The net cell deformation was found to be a function of the total laser power and not the power distribution between single or dual diode laser bar configurations. PMID:21258483

  15. Stronger associations of obesity with prehypertension and hypertension in young women than in young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakabayashi, Ichiro

    2012-07-01

    Obesity is an important risk factor for prehypertension and hypertension, and there are sex-specific differences in prevalences of obesity and hypertension. The aim of this study was to determine whether sex influences the relationships of obesity with prehypertension and hypertension. The participants were 28,325 Japanese men and women aged 20-39 years. Obesity was evaluated by BMI (≥ 25 kg/m) and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR ≥ 0.5). Associations of obesity with prehypertension and hypertension were compared in men and women by using odds ratio (OR) and area under the curve (AUC). ORs for prehypertension and hypertension in participants with vs. participants without high BMI or WHtR were significantly higher than a reference level of 1.00 both in men and women and were significantly higher in women than in men. ORs for prehypertension and hypertension of participants with vs. participants without high BMI were 3.10 (2.84-3.38) (men) vs. 5.54 (4.80-6.40) (women) (P men) vs. 34.58 (26.55-45.04) (women) (P men. The results suggest that the associations of obesity with prehypertension and hypertension are stronger in women than in men.

  16. Stronger activation of SREBP-1a by nucleus-localized HBx

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Qi; Qiao, Ling; Yang, Jian; Zhou, Yan; Liu, Qiang

    2015-01-01

    We previously showed that hepatitis B virus (HBV) X protein activates the sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1a (SREBP-1a). Here we examined the role of nuclear localization of HBx in this process. In comparison to the wild-type and cytoplasmic HBx, nuclear HBx had stronger effects on SREBP-1a and fatty acid synthase transcription activation, intracellular lipid accumulation and cell proliferation. Furthermore, nuclear HBx could activate HBV enhancer I/X promoter and was more effective on up-regulating HBV mRNA level in the context of HBV replication than the wild-type HBx, while the cytoplasmic HBx had no effect. Our results demonstrate the functional significance of the nucleus-localized HBx in regulating host lipogenic pathway and HBV replication. - Highlights: • Nuclear HBx is more effective on activating SREBP-1a and FASN transcription. • Nuclear HBx is more effective on enhancing intracellular lipid accumulation. • Nuclear HBx is more effective on enhancing cell proliferation. • Nuclear HBx up-regulates HBV enhancer I/X promoter activity. • Nuclear HBx increases HBV mRNA level in the context of HBV replication

  17. Stronger activation of SREBP-1a by nucleus-localized HBx

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Qi [VIDO-InterVac, Veterinary Microbiology, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon (Canada); Qiao, Ling [VIDO-InterVac, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan (Canada); Yang, Jian [Drug Discovery Group, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan (Canada); Zhou, Yan [VIDO-InterVac, Veterinary Microbiology, Vaccinology and Immunotherapeutics, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan (Canada); Liu, Qiang, E-mail: qiang.liu@usask.ca [VIDO-InterVac, Veterinary Microbiology, Vaccinology and Immunotherapeutics, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan (Canada)

    2015-05-08

    We previously showed that hepatitis B virus (HBV) X protein activates the sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1a (SREBP-1a). Here we examined the role of nuclear localization of HBx in this process. In comparison to the wild-type and cytoplasmic HBx, nuclear HBx had stronger effects on SREBP-1a and fatty acid synthase transcription activation, intracellular lipid accumulation and cell proliferation. Furthermore, nuclear HBx could activate HBV enhancer I/X promoter and was more effective on up-regulating HBV mRNA level in the context of HBV replication than the wild-type HBx, while the cytoplasmic HBx had no effect. Our results demonstrate the functional significance of the nucleus-localized HBx in regulating host lipogenic pathway and HBV replication. - Highlights: • Nuclear HBx is more effective on activating SREBP-1a and FASN transcription. • Nuclear HBx is more effective on enhancing intracellular lipid accumulation. • Nuclear HBx is more effective on enhancing cell proliferation. • Nuclear HBx up-regulates HBV enhancer I/X promoter activity. • Nuclear HBx increases HBV mRNA level in the context of HBV replication.

  18. Length effects in pseudo-word spelling: stronger in dyslexic than in non-dyslexic students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juul, Holger; Petersen, Dorthe Klint

    2017-10-01

    It is often discussed whether dyslexics show a deviant pattern of reading and spelling development when compared to typically developing students, or whether they follow the same pattern as other students, only at markedly slower rate. The present cross-sectional study investigated phonological encoding skills in dyslexic Danish students. We compared dyslexic and non-dyslexic students from grades 3, 5, 7, and 9 and examined whether effects of item length were stronger in the dyslexic groups. Mixed between-within subjects analyses of variance revealed significant interactions between dyslexia status and item length as the dyslexics at all grade levels were more affected by item length than their non-dyslexic peers. A marked developmental delay was apparent as the dyslexic group from grade 9 performed on approximately the same level as the non-dyslexic group from grade 3. Although the overall difference between these two groups was not significant, a significant interaction between dyslexia status and item length remained because the grade 9 dyslexics were more affected by item length than the younger non-dyslexic students. This difference in error profiles suggests a difference in the developmental patterns of dyslexic vs. non-dyslexic students.

  19. Brain Potentials Highlight Stronger Implicit Food Memory for Taste than Health and Context Associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoogeveen, Heleen R; Jolij, Jacob; Ter Horst, Gert J; Lorist, Monicque M

    2016-01-01

    Increasingly consumption of healthy foods is advised to improve population health. Reasons people give for choosing one food over another suggest that non-sensory features like health aspects are appreciated as of lower importance than taste. However, many food choices are made in the absence of the actual perception of a food's sensory properties, and therefore highly rely on previous experiences of similar consumptions stored in memory. In this study we assessed the differential strength of food associations implicitly stored in memory, using an associative priming paradigm. Participants (N = 30) were exposed to a forced-choice picture-categorization task, in which the food or non-food target images were primed with either non-sensory or sensory related words. We observed a smaller N400 amplitude at the parietal electrodes when categorizing food as compared to non-food images. While this effect was enhanced by the presentation of a food-related word prime during food trials, the primes had no effect in the non-food trials. More specifically, we found that sensory associations are stronger implicitly represented in memory as compared to non-sensory associations. Thus, this study highlights the neuronal mechanisms underlying previous observations that sensory associations are important features of food memory, and therefore a primary motive in food choice.

  20. Phytoplankton Communities Exhibit a Stronger Response to Environmental Changes than Bacterioplankton in Three Subtropical Reservoirs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lemian; Yang, Jun; Lv, Hong; Yu, Xiaoqing; Wilkinson, David M; Yang, Jun

    2015-09-15

    The simultaneous analysis of multiple components of ecosystems is crucial for comprehensive studies of environmental changes in aquatic ecosystems, but such studies are rare. In this study, we analyzed simultaneously the bacterioplankton and phytoplankton communities in three Chinese subtropical reservoirs and compared the response of these two components to seasonal environmental changes. Time-lag analysis indicated that the temporal community dynamics of both bacterioplankton and phytoplankton showed significant directional changes, and variance partitioning suggested that the major reason was the gradual improvement of reservoir water quality from middle eutrophic to oligo-mesotrophic levels during the course of our study. In addition, we found a higher level of temporal stability or stochasticity in the bacterioplankton community than in the phytoplankton community. Potential explanations are that traits associated with bacteria, such as high abundance, widespread dispersal, potential for rapid growth rates, and rapid evolutionary adaptation, may underlie the different stability or stochasticity of bacterioplankton and phytoplankton communities to the environmental changes. In addition, the indirect response of bacterioplankton to nitrogen and phosphorus may result in the fact that environmental deterministic selection was stronger for the phytoplankton than for the bacterioplankton communities.

  1. Age differences in autobiographical memory across the adult lifespan: older adults report stronger phenomenology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luchetti, Martina; Sutin, Angelina R

    2018-01-01

    As an individual's life story evolves across adulthood, the subjective experience (phenomenology) of autobiographical memory likely changes. In addition to age at retrieval, both the recency of the memory and the age when a memory is formed may be particularly important to its phenomenology. The present work examines the effect of three temporal factors on phenomenology ratings: (a) age of the participant, (b) age at the event reported in the memory, and (c) memory age (recency). A large sample of Americans (N = 1120), stratified by chronological age, recalled and rated two meaningful memories, a Turning Point and an Early Childhood Memory. Ratings of phenomenology (e.g., vividness of turning points) were higher among older adults compared to younger adults. Memories of events from the reminiscence bump were more positive in valence than events from other time periods but did not differ on other phenomenological dimensions; recent memories had stronger phenomenology than remote memories. In contrast to phenomenology, narrative content was generally unrelated to participant age, age at the event, or memory age. Overall, the findings indicate age-related differences in how meaningful memories are re-experienced.

  2. A stronger necessary condition for the multistationarity of chemical reaction networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliman, Sylvain

    2013-11-01

    Biochemical reaction networks grow bigger and bigger, fed by the high-throughput data provided by biologists and bred in open repositories of models allowing merging and evolution. Nevertheless, since the available data is still very far from permitting the identification of the increasing number of kinetic parameters of such models, the necessity of structural analyses for describing the dynamics of chemical networks appears stronger every day. Using the structural information, notably from the stoichiometric matrix, of a biochemical reaction system, we state a more strict version of the famous Thomas' necessary condition for multistationarity. In particular, the obvious cases where Thomas' condition was trivially satisfied, mutual inhibition due to a multimolecular reaction and mutual activation due to a reversible reaction, can now easily be ruled out. This more strict condition shall not be seen as some version of Thomas' circuit functionality for the continuous case but rather as related and complementary to the whole domain of the structural analysis of (bio)chemical reaction systems, as pioneered by the chemical reaction network theory.

  3. Plant Identity Exerts Stronger Effect than Fertilization on Soil Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi in a Sown Pasture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yong; Chen, Liang; Luo, Cai-Yun; Zhang, Zhen-Hua; Wang, Shi-Ping; Guo, Liang-Dong

    2016-10-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi play key roles in plant nutrition and plant productivity. AM fungal responses to either plant identity or fertilization have been investigated. However, the interactive effects of different plant species and fertilizer types on these symbiotic fungi remain poorly understood. We evaluated the effects of the factorial combinations of plant identity (grasses Avena sativa and Elymus nutans and legume Vicia sativa) and fertilization (urea and sheep manure) on AM fungi following 2-year monocultures in a sown pasture field study. AM fungal extraradical hyphal density was significantly higher in E. nutans than that in A. sativa and V. sativa in the unfertilized control and was significantly increased by urea and manure in A. sativa and by manure only in E. nutans, but not by either fertilizers in V. sativa. AM fungal spore density was not significantly affected by plant identity or fertilization. Forty-eight operational taxonomic units (OTUs) of AM fungi were obtained through 454 pyrosequencing of 18S rDNA. The OTU richness and Shannon diversity index of AM fungi were significantly higher in E. nutans than those in V. sativa and/or A. sativa, but not significantly affected by any fertilizer in all of the three plant species. AM fungal community composition was significantly structured directly by plant identity only and indirectly by both urea addition and plant identity through soil total nitrogen content. Our findings highlight that plant identity has stronger influence than fertilization on belowground AM fungal community in this converted pastureland from an alpine meadow.

  4. Harmful drinking after job loss: a stronger association during the post-2008 economic crisis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Goeij, Moniek C M; Bruggink, Jan-Willem; Otten, Ferdy; Kunst, Anton E

    2017-06-01

    This study investigated, among the Dutch working population, whether job loss during the post-2008 economic crisis is associated with harmful drinking and whether this association is stronger than before the crisis. Repeated cross-sectional data from the Dutch Health Interview Survey 2004-2013 were used to define episodic drinking (≥6 glasses on 1 day ≥1/week) and chronic drinking (≥14 glasses/week for women and ≥21 for men). These data were linked to longitudinal data from tax registries, to measure the experience and duration of job loss during a 5-year working history. Before the crisis, job loss experience and duration were not associated with harmful drinking. During the crisis, job loss for more than 6 months was associated with episodic drinking [OR 1.40 (95% CI 1.01; 1.94)], while current job loss was associated with chronic drinking [OR 1.43 (95% CI 1.03; 1.98)]. These associations were most clear in men and different between the pre-crisis and crisis period (p interaction = 0.023 and 0.035, respectively). The results suggest that economic crises strengthen the potential impact of job loss on harmful drinking, predominately among men.

  5. Profissão docente: algumas dimensões e tendências

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisete Medianeira Tomazetti

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo objetiva apontar e refletir sobre algumas questões teóricas acerca da profissão e da profissionalidade de professores. Inicialmente, faz-se uma apresentação do conceito de profissão, do ponto de vista histórico/sociológico e do ponto de vista teórico/epistemológico. No segundo momento, analisa-se o processo de constituição da profissão docente no Brasil a partir das categorias da estatização do ensino, da institucionalização da formação de professores e da cientifização da pedagogia (Nóvoa, 1995. No terceiro momento, comenta-se sobre como a profissiolização docente foi pensada pelo Manifesto dos Pioneiros da Educação Nova no Brasil. A seguir, são tecidos comentários entre as idéias de Anísio Teixeira e de Donald Shön. Finalizando, apontam-se algumas tendências atuais na questão da formação e profissionalização de professores no Brasil.Palavras-chave: Profissão Docente. Profissionalização. Saberes Profissionais.

  6. A transição nutricional no Brasil: tendências regionais e temporais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batista Filho Malaquias

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Tendo como principal fonte de informações três estudos transversais realizados nas décadas de 70, 80 e 90, faz-se uma análise da transição nutricional do Brasil, referenciada no rápido declínio da prevalência de desnutrição em crianças e elevação, num ritmo mais acelerado, da prevalência de sobrepeso/obesidade em adultos. A correção dos déficits de estatura foi de 72% em crianças urbanas e de 54,4% no meio rural, enquanto a ocorrência de obesidade duplicou ou triplicou em homens e mulheres adultos nos extremos da série temporal analisada. Com exceção do Nordeste rural, a prevalência de desnutrição em mulheres adultas declinou para taxas aceitáveis (em torno de 5% a partir de 1989. Inversamente, as anemias continuam com prevalências elevadas e indicações de tendências epidêmicas. Descreve-se a evolução do estado nutricional da população brasileira segundo macrorregiões e distribuição social, analisando-se os prováveis fatores das mudanças ocorridas.

  7. Mechanized systems for early stand tending in central and eastern Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryans, M.; St-Amour, M. [Forest Engineering Research Inst. of Canada, Pointe Claire, PQ (Canada)

    1996-12-31

    Machines are currently being used for early stand tending in central and eastern Canada, but account for only 1 to 2% of the annual total for mechanical treatments (including manual and motor-manual operations). Selective and non-selective systems are used, depending on the application and stand conditions. Plantation cleaning operations and precommercial thinning (spacing) of naturally regenerated and seeded stands have been mechanized. Selective methods, primarily for plantation cleaning, use equipment with specialized prime movers, booms and controls, and cutting heads. This paper describes the Canadian experience to date based on FERIC`s studies of successful and unsuccessful operations, and lists the key features of a machine suitable for use in selective treatments. Strip precommercial thinning is used in denser natural stands, but limited improvements in crop-tree growth occur unless a motor-manual follow-up releases crop trees in the leave strips. Most off-the-shelf brushcutting equipment is not optimal for this application, primarily because it is too wide to meet local spacing prescriptions. Some applications such as the spacing of older natural stands have proven difficult to mechanize. Technical, biological, operational , regulatory, economic and social constraints prevent wider use of mechanized systems. Nonetheless, some machines are in operational use, and mechanized plantation cleaning is tested in some regions as an alternative to herbicides. 11 refs, 2 figs, 1 tab

  8. Keeping it simple: flowering plants tend to retain, and revert to, simple leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geeta, R; Dávalos, Liliana M; Levy, André; Bohs, Lynn; Lavin, Mathew; Mummenhoff, Klaus; Sinha, Neelima; Wojciechowski, Martin F

    2012-01-01

    • A wide range of factors (developmental, physiological, ecological) with unpredictable interactions control variation in leaf form. Here, we examined the distribution of leaf morphologies (simple and complex forms) across angiosperms in a phylogenetic context to detect patterns in the directions of changes in leaf shape. • Seven datasets (diverse angiosperms and six nested clades, Sapindales, Apiales, Papaveraceae, Fabaceae, Lepidium, Solanum) were analysed using maximum likelihood and parsimony methods to estimate asymmetries in rates of change among character states. • Simple leaves are most frequent among angiosperm lineages today, were inferred to be ancestral in angiosperms and tended to be retained in evolution (stasis). Complex leaves slowly originated ('gains') and quickly reverted to simple leaves ('losses') multiple times, with a significantly greater rate of losses than gains. Lobed leaves may be a labile intermediate step between different forms. The nested clades showed mixed trends; Solanum, like the angiosperms in general, had higher rates of losses than gains, but the other clades had higher rates of gains than losses. • The angiosperm-wide pattern could be taken as a null model to test leaf evolution patterns in particular clades, in which patterns of variation suggest clade-specific processes that have yet to be investigated fully. © 2011 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2011 New Phytologist Trust.

  9. Estudo Delphi: atores sociais e tendências do sistema de saúde brasileiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Francisco Piola

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo sintetiza o Informe Final publicado pelo Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada contendo os resultados do Estudo Delphi, realizado no ano 2000, com o objetivo de identificar as principais tendências da saúde no Brasil para a primeira década do século XXI, segundo o entendimento de formadores de opinião selecionados entre diversos segmentos sociais mais diretamente envolvidos nas questões setoriais. Foram ouvidos 138 painelistas, dos quais 105 (76,1% participaram das duas etapas do estudo (1º e 2º questionários. A primeira grande conclusão de ordem geral do estudo é a improbabilidade de qualquer cenário de ruptura com o modelo atual. A segunda se refere à presença do contraditório nas opiniões dos diferentes grupos em inúmeras questões. A salutar ausência do pensamento único é evidenciada mesmo quando todos os segmentos representados no painel apontam na mesma direção, já que o grau de otimismo (ou pessimismo difere em cada grupo.

  10. A mathematical high bar-human body model for analysing and interpreting mechanical-energetic processes on the high bar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arampatzis, A; Brüggemann, G P

    1998-12-01

    The aims of this study were: 1. To study the transfer of energy between the high bar and the gymnast. 2. To develop criteria from the utilisation of high bar elasticity and the utilisation of muscle capacity to assess the effectiveness of a movement solution. 3. To study the influence of varying segment movement upon release parameters. For these purposes a model of the human body attached to the high bar (high bar-human body model) was developed. The human body was modelled using a 15-segment body system. The joint-beam element method (superelement) was employed for modelling the high bar. A superelement consists of four rigid segments connected by joints (two Cardan joints and one rotational-translational joint) and springs (seven rotation springs and one tension-compression spring). The high bar was modelled using three superelements. The input data required for the high bar human body model were collected with video-kinematographic (50 Hz) and dynamometric (500 Hz) techniques. Masses and moments of inertia of the 15 segments were calculated using the data from the Zatsiorsky et al. (1984) model. There are two major phases characteristic of the giant swing prior to dismounts from the high bar. In the first phase the gymnast attempts to supply energy to the high bar-humanbody system through muscle activity and to store this energy in the high bar. The difference between the energy transferred to the high bar and the reduction in the total energy of the body could be adopted as a criterion for the utilisation of high bar elasticity. The energy previously transferred into the high bar is returned to the body during the second phase. An advantageous increase in total body energy at the end of the exercise could only be obtained through muscle energy supply. An index characterising the utilisation of muscle capacity was developed out of the difference between the increase in total body energy and the energy returned from the high bar. A delayed and initially slow but

  11. Measurement of the $\\bar{p}p \\rightarrow \\bar{n}n$ Charge-Exchange Differential Cross-Section

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this proposal is a measurement of the differential cross-section of the $\\bar{p}$p $\\rightarrow$ $\\bar{n}$n charge-exchange reaction with a point-to-point precision of 1\\% in the forward direction, and an absolute normalization error of 3\\%. The high precision of the data should allow, inter alia, a determination of the $\\pi$NN coupling constant to better than 2\\%.\\\\ \\\\ The measurement will be done using the existing neutron and antineutron detectors built for experiment PS199 and liquid hydrogen target. In one week of running time, with a $\\bar{p}$ beam intensity of 3 $ 10 ^{5} $ $\\bar{p}$/sec, the reaction will be measured at a few $\\bar{p}$ momenta, in the range 500 to 900~MeV/c.

  12. Feasibility and acceptability of a bar-based sexual risk reduction intervention for bar patrons in Tshwane, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morojele, Neo K; Kitleli, Naledi; Ngako, Kgalabi; Kekwaletswe, Connie T; Nkosi, Sebenzile; Fritz, Katherine; Parry, Charles D H

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol consumption is a recognised risk factor for HIV infection. Alcohol serving establishments have been identified as appropriate venues in which to deliver HIV prevention interventions. This paper describes experiences and lessons learnt from implementing a combined HIV prevention intervention in bar settings in one city- and one township-based bar in Tshwane, South Africa. The intervention consisted of peer-led and brief intervention counselling sub-components. Thirty-nine bar patrons were recruited and trained, and delivered HIV and alcohol risk reduction activities to their peers as peer interventionists. At the same time, nine counsellors received training and visited the bars weekly to provide brief motivational interviewing counselling, advice, and referrals to the patrons of the bars. A responsible server sub-component that had also been planned was not delivered as it was not feasible to train the staff in the two participating bars. Over the eight-month period the counsellors were approached by and provided advice and counselling for alcohol and sexual risk-related problems to 111 bar patrons. The peer interventionists reported 1323 risk reduction interactions with their fellow bar patrons during the same period. The intervention was overall well received and suggests that bar patrons and servers can accept a myriad of intervention activities to reduce sexual risk behaviour within their drinking settings. However, HIV- and AIDS-related stigma hindered participation in certain intervention activities in some instances. The buy-in that we received from the relevant stakeholders (i.e. bar owners/managers and patrons, and the community at large) was an important contributor to the feasibility and acceptability of the intervention.

  13. Retrospectiva e tendência da alfacicultura brasileira Retrospective and trends of Brazilian lettuce crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Cesar Sala

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A alface é considerada a principal hortaliça folhosa no Brasil. Nas ultimas décadas, houve muitas mudanças quanto aos tipos varietais predominantes no país bem como para a preferência do uso de semente peletizada. O domínio do cultivo da alface lisa foi até a década de 90 com as cultivares do tipo 'manteiga' e 'Regina'. Posteriormente, houve uma mudança para o tipo crespa e que, atualmente, corresponde ao principal segmento cultivado no Brasil. A ausência de formação de cabeça aliada à presença de folhas flabeladas conferiram a esse tipo de alface uma melhor adaptação no cultivo de verão com altas temperaturas e índices de pluviosidade. A preferência brasileira pela alface crespa é um fato único na alfacicultura mundial. A alface americana vem apresentando maiores índices de crescimento e aceitação pelo mercado consumidor. Apesar de apresentar formação de cabeça e que tem limitado seu cultivo no verão, na ausência de cultivo protegido, suas folhas mais espessas têm conferido melhor sabor, crocância e durabilidade pós-colheita na alface americana. Alface com folha espessa é mandatória para o mercado de processamento que apresenta alta tendência de crescimento. Considerações sobre o melhoramento genético para contribuir, pelo menos em parte, com essa situação são discutidas com o surgimento de novos tipos varietais tropicalizados, com a tendência de segmentação de mercado e da necessidade de uma cadeia pós-colheita mais eficiente.Lettuce is considered the main leafy vegetable crop in Brazil. In recent decades, many changes occurred towards the varietal types as well as in the preference for pelleted seeds. Until mid 90 decade, the dominant varieties of looseleaf lettuce were the type 'White Boston' and 'Regina'. Later, there was a change toward the Grand Rapids type which represents the main varietal segment grown in Brazil. The non-head Grand Rapids type with its earliness performed better adaptation

  14. High spatial resolution 100 micron observations of the M83 bar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, B.J.; Lester, D.F.; Harvey, P.M.

    1990-01-01

    A program of high spatial resolution far-infrared observations of galaxies using the Kuiper Airborne Observatory (KAO), was conducted to better understand the role of star formation, the general interstellar radiation field, and non-thermal activity in powering the prodigious far-infrared luminosities seen in spiral and interacting galaxies. Here, researchers present observations of the central region of the well-known barred spiral M83 (NGC 5236). The resultant channel 3 scans for M83 and IRC + 10216, after co-addition and smoothing, are shown. These data show that M83 is extended at 100 microns compared to a point source. A simple Gaussian deconvolution of the M83 data with the point source profile from IRC+10216 gives a full width half maximum (FWHM) of about 19 seconds for M83. By comparison with IRC+10216, researchers obtain a flux for the unresolved component in M83 of about 110 Jy. This is about 1/6 the total flux for M83 (Rice et al. 1988) and about 1/2 the PSC flux. The M83 and IRC+10216 profiles in the cross-scan direction (SE-NW) were also compared, and show that M83 is extended in this direction as well, with a width of about 18 seconds. A comparison of the different channel profiles for M83 and IRC+10216 shows that there is an asymmetry in the M83 data, in that the maximum in the profiles shifts from southeast to northwest as channel number increases. This corresponds to the extension in the bar seen in the CO data. Thus the far-infrared emission in the central region of M83 tends to trace the CO bar. The new 100 micron data is also compared with previous H alpha observations from the literature, to determine how well the far-infrared traces the stellar structure, the star formation as measured by H alpha, and the optical colors

  15. Perceived stress and biological risk: is the link stronger in Russians than in Taiwanese and Americans?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glei, Dana A; Goldman, Noreen; Shkolnikov, Vladimir M; Jdanov, Dmitri; Shkolnikova, Maria; Vaupel, James W; Weinstein, Maxine

    2013-07-01

    Allostatic load theory implies a relationship between exposure to psychological stress and multi-system physiological dysregulation. We used data from population-based samples of men and women in Russia (Moscow; n = 1800; age, mean 68.6 years), Taiwan (n = 1036; 65.6 years) and the United States (US; n = 1054; 58.0 years) -- which are likely to vary widely with respect to levels of stress exposure and biological markers -- to determine the magnitude of the association between perceived stress and physiological dysregulation. The measure of overall dysregulation was based on 15 markers including standard cardiovascular/metabolic risk factors as well as markers of inflammation and neuroendocrine activity. Subjective psychological stress was measured by the perceived stress scale. Only the Moscow sample demonstrated a positive association with overall dysregulation in both sexes. In the US, we found an association among women but not men. Among the Taiwanese, who report the lowest perceived stress, there was no association in women but an unexpected inverse relationship in men. The effects also varied across system-level subscores: the association with perceived stress was most consistent for standard cardiovascular/metabolic factors. Perceived stress was associated with inflammation and neuroendocrine activity in some samples. Although the evidence that perceived stress is the primary source of physiological dysregulation is generally modest, it was stronger in Russia where the level of perceived stress was particularly high. For Russia only, we had information about heart function based on a 24 h ambulatory electrocardiogram; perceived stress was consistently associated with heart rate dysregulation in Russian men and women.

  16. Stronger tests of mechanisms underlying geographic gradients of biodiversity: insights from the dimensionality of biodiversity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard D Stevens

    Full Text Available Inference involving diversity gradients typically is gathered by mechanistic tests involving single dimensions of biodiversity such as species richness. Nonetheless, because traits such as geographic range size, trophic status or phenotypic characteristics are tied to a particular species, mechanistic effects driving broad diversity patterns should manifest across numerous dimensions of biodiversity. We develop an approach of stronger inference based on numerous dimensions of biodiversity and apply it to evaluate one such putative mechanism: the mid-domain effect (MDE. Species composition of 10,000-km(2 grid cells was determined by overlaying geographic range maps of 133 noctilionoid bat taxa. We determined empirical diversity gradients in the Neotropics by calculating species richness and three indices each of phylogenetic, functional and phenetic diversity for each grid cell. We also created 1,000 simulated gradients of each examined metric of biodiversity based on a MDE model to estimate patterns expected if species distributions were randomly placed within the Neotropics. For each simulation run, we regressed the observed gradient onto the MDE-expected gradient. If a MDE drives empirical gradients, then coefficients of determination from such an analysis should be high, the intercept no different from zero and the slope no different than unity. Species richness gradients predicted by the MDE fit empirical patterns. The MDE produced strong spatially structured gradients of taxonomic, phylogenetic, functional and phenetic diversity. Nonetheless, expected values generated from the MDE for most dimensions of biodiversity exhibited poor fit to most empirical patterns. The MDE cannot account for most empirical patterns of biodiversity. Fuller understanding of latitudinal gradients will come from simultaneous examination of relative effects of random, environmental and historical mechanisms to better understand distribution and abundance of the

  17. BUILDING STRONGER STATE ENERGY PARTNERSHIPS WITH THE U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kate Burke

    2003-09-01

    This technical progress report includes an update of the progress during the third year of cooperative agreement DE-FC26-00NT40802, Building Stronger State Energy Partnerships with the U.S. Department of Energy. The report also describes the barriers in conduct of the effort, and our assessment of future progress and activities. The approach of the project included three tasks during year three. First, NASEO and its Buildings Committee were to focus on raising awareness and coordination of Rebuild activities. Through education, one-on-one communications, and presentations at NASEO meetings and other events, staff and the committee will assist Rebuild officials in stimulating interest in the program and building greater support among State Energy Office Directors. The most recent subtasks added to the project, though not directly related to Rebuild America, fall under this initial task, and support: (a) state plans to implement integrated energy and environmental initiatives, including distributed generation technologies, and (b) initiation of a state collaborative on advanced turbines and hybrid systems. The advanced turbine piece was completed during this year. During the year, a new workplan was accepted by Rebuild America's Dan Sze to supplement the work in this task. This workplan is outlined below. Second, NASEO would work to improve the efficiency of America's schools by assisting states and DOE in promoting projects that result in more energy efficient and clean energy schools and a better learning environment. This task was fully completed during this year. The third task involves energy security issues which NASEO addressed by way of a Summer Fuels Outlook Conference held Tuesday, April 8, 2003. The purpose of this educational event was to inform state, federal, local, and other energy officials about the most recent transportation fuels data and trends. The public benefits part of this task was not funded for Year 3, thus no activity occurred.

  18. Association Between Self-Esteem and Depressive Symptoms Is Stronger Among Black than White Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assari, Shervin

    2017-08-01

    Although poor self-esteem is a core component of depression, we still do not know if racial and ethnic groups differ in the magnitude of this link. This study compared Black and White older adults on the association between self-esteem and depressive symptoms. With a cross-sectional design, this study enrolled 1493 older individuals (age 66 or more) from the 2001 Religion, Aging, and Health Survey, a nationally representative study in the United States. Participants were either Blacks (n = 734) or Whites (n = 759). Depressive symptoms and self-esteem were measured using brief measures of the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression scale (CES-D) and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, respectively. Demographics, socioeconomics, and self-rated health (SRH) were covariates and self-identified race was the moderator. Linear regression models were used for data analysis. Low self-esteem was associated with more depressive symptoms (B = 0.17, 95 % CI 0.15-0.28), above and beyond all covariates. We found a significant and positive interaction between race (Black) and poor self-esteem on depressive symptoms (B = 0.34, 95 % CI 0.17-0.36), suggesting a stronger association between self-esteem and depressive symptoms among Blacks compared to Whites. Although low self-esteem is associated with higher depressive symptoms in both Whites and Blacks (p self-esteem and high depressive symptoms are more closely associated among Blacks than Whites. It is not clear whether depression leaves a larger scar on self-esteem for Blacks, or Blacks are more vulnerable to the effect of low self-esteem on depression.

  19. Abstinent Heroin Addicts Tend to Take Risks: ERP and Source Localization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinglin Zhao

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Abnormal decision making is a behavioral characteristic of drug addiction. Indeed, drug addicts prefer immediate rewards at the expense of future interests. Assessing the neurocognitive basis of decision-making related to drug dependence, combining event-related potential (ERP analysis and source localization techniques, may provide new insights into understanding decision-making deficits in drug addicts and further guide withdrawal treatment. In this study, EEG was performed in 20 abstinent heroin addicts (AHAs and 20 age-, education- and gender-matched healthy controls (HCs while they participated in a simple two-choice gambling task (99 vs. 9. Our behavioral results showed that AHAs tend to select higher-risk choices compared with HCs (i.e., more “99” choices than “9”. ERP results showed that right hemisphere preponderance of stimulus-preceding negativity was disrupted in AHAs, but not in HCs. Feedback-related negativity of difference wave was higher in AHAs than HCs, with the P300 amplitude associated with risk magnitude and valence. Using source localization that allows identification of abnormal brain activity in consequential cognitive stages, including the reward expectation and outcome evaluation stages, we found abnormalities in both behavioral and neural responses on gambling in AHAs. Taken together, our findings suggest AHAs have risk-prone tendency and dysfunction in adaptive decision making, since they continue to choose risky options even after accruing considerable negative scores, and fail to shift to a safer strategy to avoid risk. Such abnormal decision-making bias to risk and immediate reward seeking may be accompanied by abnormal reward expectation and evaluation in AHAs, which explains their high risk-seeking and impulsivity.

  20. Orlando, ou a tendência social da androginia Orlando. The social tendency of androginy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nízia Maria Alvarenga

    1997-10-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo analisa o filme Orlando por ser expressão de uma das tendências que vêm despontando no processo atual de mudanças sociais no conjunto das sociedades capitalistas ocidentais. A dimensão simbólica destas sociedades abrange representações tais como racionalidade, objetividade, pragmatismo, impessoalidade, utilitarismo, disciplina e neutralidade afetiva, que constituem o cerne do sistema de valores sociais predominantes. Uma alteração desta dimensão significa uma revolução em seu modo de ser social. Orlando sugere uma reconciliação entre razão, sensibilidade, emoções, sentimentos e fantasia, abrindo espaço para uma sociedade andrógina, presidida pelo princípio erótico. A dinâmica produtivista do capitalismo é substituída por uma forma de sociabilidade marcada pela amorosidade e o desfrute da vida.This article analyzes the film Orlando because it is representative of one of the trends which are emerging in the actual process of social changes occurring in the west capitalist societies. The symbolic dimension of these societies comprehends representations such as rationality, objectivity, pragmatism, unpersonalty, utilitarianism, discipline and affective neutrality which constitute the nucleous of the system of predominant social values. A change of this dimension signifies a revolution on the way of social being. Orlando suggests a reconciliation between reason, sensibility, emotions, feelings and phantasy, opening place for a androgynous society presided by the erotic principle. The productive dynamic of the capitalism is substituted by a form of sociability marked by affection and enjoyment of living.

  1. Serum hyaluronic acid in polymyositis: high serum levels tend to correlate with disease activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, M B; Silva, M G; Shinjo, S K

    2014-01-01

    Polymyositis (PM) is a rare systemic idiopathic inflammatory myopathy. Hyaluronic acid (HA) is closely linked to inflammatory cellular reactions and disease activity. Increased serum levels of HA have been reported in several inflammatory diseases, but currently, there are no studies analysing the HA in PM. Thus, clinical association of HA with PM in patients was determined in the present study. The present cross-sectional study was performed at one centre from 2012 to 2013 and included 35 consecutive adult patients with PM (Bohan and Peter criteria, 1975) and 38 adult healthy volunteers. The serum HA was assessed with anti-HA antibody, using the specific ELISA/EIA kits according to the manufacturer's protocol. The average age, distribution of females and ethnicity were comparable in patients with PM and the control group. Regarding disease status, patients with PM had a median patient visual analogue score (VAS) of 2 [0-6], physician VAS of 1 [0-3], MMT-8 of 74 [68-80] and HAQ of 0.48 [0.00-1.14]. The serum levels of HA were also significantly increased in patients with PM (390±412 ng/mL) compared to healthy subjects (129±119 ng/mL), p=0.001. In an additional analysis, the serum levels of HA did not correlate with PM demographic data (gender and ethnicity), current organ involvement or autoantibodies and were not been influenced by the use of prednisolone and/or immunosuppressives by the PM patients. However, there was a positive correlation between serum levels of HA and VAS (patient and physician), and a negative correlation between serum levels of HA and MMT-8. High serum levels of HA were observed in patients with PM and tended to correlate with PM disease activity. Additional studies are needed to assess this correlation, as well as to understand the mechanism involved in the pathogenesis of PM by HA.

  2. Dehydration kinetics of talc at 1 bar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganguly, J.; Bose, K.

    1991-01-01

    Experimental results on the dehydration kinetics of talc, which is likely to be a major potential resource for water and hydrogen in carbonaceous chondrites, is presented. The rate of dehydration of an essentially pure Mg-end member natural talc, (Mg(.99)Fe(.01))3Si4O10(OH)2, was studied by measuring in situ weight change under isothermal condition at 1 bar as a function of time in the temperature range 775 to 985 C. The grain size of the starting material was 0.7 to 1 micron. It was found that the data up to 50 to 60 percent dehydration can be fitted by an equation of the form alpha = exp(-Kt(exp n)), where alpha is the weight fraction of talc remaining, K is a rate constant and n is a numerical constant for a given temperature. For any set of isothermal data, there is a major change in the value of n for larger dehydration. For up to approximately 50 percent dehydration, all rate constants can be described by an Arrheniun relation with an activation energy of 432 (+/- 30) kJ/mol; n has a nearly constant value of 0.54 between 775 and 875 C, but increases almost linearly according to n = -10.77 + 0.012T C at T greater than or equal to 875 C.

  3. A xylophone bar magnetometer for micro/pico satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamy, Hervé; Niyonzima, Innocent; Rochus, Pierre; Rochus, Véronique

    2010-10-01

    The Belgian Institute of Space Aeronomy (BIRA-IASB), "Centre Spatial de Liège" (CSL), "Laboratoire de Techniques Aéronautiques et Spatiales" (LTAS) of University of Liège, and the Microwave Laboratory of University of Louvain-La-Neuve (UCL) are collaborating in order to develop a miniature version of a xylophone bar magnetometer (XBM) using Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS) technology. The device is based on a classical resonating xylophone bar. A sinusoidal current is supplied to the bar oscillating at the fundamental transverse resonant mode of the bar. When an external magnetic field is present, the resulting Lorentz force causes the bar to vibrate at its fundamental frequency with an amplitude directly proportional to the vertical component of the ambient magnetic field. In this paper we illustrate the working principles of the XBM and the challenges to reach the required sensitivity in space applications (measuring magnetic fields with an accuracy of approximately of 0.1 nT). The optimal dimensions of the MEMS XBM are discussed as well as the constraints on the current flowing through the bar. Analytical calculations as well as simulations with finite element methods have been used. Prototypes have been built in the Microwave Laboratory using silicon on insulator (SOI) and bulk micromachining processes. Several methods to accurately measure the displacement of the bar are proposed.

  4. Experience with FiberWire for pectus bar attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, L E; Johnson, K N; Jaroszewski, D E; Acosta, J M; Egan, J C; Bae, J; Ngyuen, H; Notrica, D M

    2014-08-01

    Minimally invasive repair of pectus excavatum has become an established method for repair of pectus excavatum. Bar displacement or rotation remains the most common complication of this repair requiring return to the operating room. Retrospective review of all patients at a single institution who underwent repair of pectus excavatum using FiberWire for bar stabilization between December 2009 and March 2013 was undertaken. 93 patients underwent minimally invasive pectus repair using FiberWire during the study period. The patients included 73 males and 20 females, with an average age of 14.6years (range 7-21years). Mean operative time was 102minutes (range 56-198minutes). No patients developed wound complications, two patients developed pain because of bar migration and required return to the OR, and no patients had recurrence of their pectus defect because of bar migration during the study period. Median length of follow-up was 17months (range 3-36months). Stabilization of pectus bars using circumferential rib fixation with FiberWire at multiple points on both sides of the bar appears to be effective in preventing bar rotation and displacement, and requires minimal change to the operation as it has been previously described. Early experience shows a low rate of complications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Numerical Simulations of the Kolsky Compression Bar Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corona, Edmundo [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-10-01

    The Kolsky compression bar, or split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB), is an ex- perimental apparatus used to obtain the stress-strain response of material specimens at strain rates in the order of 10 2 to 10 4 1/s. Its operation and associated data re- duction are based on principles of one-dimensional wave propagation in rods. Second order effects such as indentation of the bars by the specimen and wave dispersion in the bars, however, can significantly affect aspects of the measured material response. Finite element models of the experimental apparatus were used here to demonstrate these two effects. A procedure proposed by Safa and Gary (2010) to account for bar indentation was also evaluated and shown to improve the estimation of the strain in the bars significantly. The use of pulse shapers was also shown to alleviate the effects of wave dispersion. Combining the two can lead to more reliable results in Kolsky compression bar testing.

  6. Shepherding tidal debris with the Galactic bar: the Ophiuchus stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattori, Kohei; Erkal, Denis; Sanders, Jason L.

    2016-07-01

    The dynamics of stellar streams in rotating barred potentials is explained for the first time. Naturally, neighbouring stream stars reach pericentre at slightly different times. In the presence of a rotating bar, these neighbouring stream stars experience different bar orientations during pericentric passage and hence each star receives a different torque from the bar. These differing torques reshape the angular momentum and energy distribution of stars in the stream, which in turn changes the growth rate of the stream. For a progenitor orbiting in the same sense as the bar's rotation and satisfying a resonance condition, the resultant stream can be substantially shorter or longer than expected, depending on whether the pericentric passages of the progenitor occur along the bar's minor or major axis, respectively. We present a full discussion of this phenomenon focusing mainly on streams confined to the Galactic plane. In stark contrast with the evolution in static potentials, which give rise to streams that grow steadily in time, rotating barred potentials can produce dynamically old, short streams. This challenges the traditional viewpoint that the inner halo necessarily consists of well phase-mixed material whilst the tidally disrupted structures in the outer halo are more spatially coherent. We argue that this mechanism may play an important role in explaining the mysteriously short Ophiuchus stream that was recently discovered near the bulge region of the Milky Way.

  7. The Charge asymmetry in W bosons produced in p$\\bar{p}$ collisions at √s = 1.96 TeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torborg, Julie M. [Univ. of Notre Dame, IN (United States)

    2005-07-01

    The primary mode of production of W+ bosons in a p$\\bar{p}$ collider is u + $\\bar{d}$ → W+. The u quark generally carries more momentum than the $\\bar{d}$ and the resultant W+ tends to be boosted in the proton direction. Similarly, W bosons are boosted in the anti-proton direction. This is observed as an asymmetry in the rapidity distributions of positive and negative W bosons. Measurement of this asymmetry serves as a probe of the momentum distribution of partons within the proton. These distributions are required as input to the calculation of every p$\\bar{p}$ production cross section. This thesis presents the first measurement at D0 of the charge asymmetry of the W boson production cross section as measured in W → ev decays in 0.3 fb-1 of p$\\bar{p}$ collisions collected with the D0 Detector. Theoretical predictions made using the CTEQ6.1M and MRST(2004) parton distribution functions are compared with the measurement.

  8. Spectral narrowing of a 980 nm tapered diode laser bar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vijayakumar, Deepak; Jensen, Ole Bjarlin; Lucas Leclin, Gaëlle

    2011-01-01

    in wavelength specific applications and hence, it is vital to stabilize the emission spectrum of these devices. In our experiment, we describe the wavelength narrowing of a 12 element 980 nm tapered diode laser bar using a simple Littman configuration. The tapered laser bar which suffered from a big smile has...... been "smile corrected" using individual phase masks for each emitter. The external cavity consists of the laser bar, both fast and slow axis micro collimators, smile correcting phase mask, 6.5x beam expanding lens combination, a 1200 lines/mm reflecting grating with 85% efficiency in the first order...

  9. Stability of cassava flour-based food bars Estabilidade de alimento em barra à base de farinha de mandioca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica Caroline da Silva

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The consumption of Brazilian cassava has been reduced due to a lack of adjustment to the modern lifestyle. To reverse this trend, new products could be developed specifically targeted to high-value niche markets. Cereal bars stand out as fast food high in nutritional value. A bar formula mimicking cereal bars was prepared using a mixture of Brazilian cassava flour, hydrogenated vegetable fat, dried bananas, ground cashew nuts, and glucose syrup. After being pressed, the bars were dried for 1 hour at 65 °C, packaged in films, and stored under ambient conditions. Its stability was continuously monitored for 210 days in order to ensure its safety and enable its introduction to the market. Texture loss was observed in the packed bars after 90 days of storage, but the sensory characteristics allowed the testers to perceive this tendency after only 30 days of storage. However, chemical, physical, and microbial analyses confirmed that the bars were safe for consumption for 180 days. The results showed that a 45 g cassava flour-based bar enriched with nuts and dried fruits can meet 6% of the recommended daily fiber intake with a caloric value between that of the common cereal bar and that of an energy bar. Adapting the formula with ingredients (fruits, nuts from different regions of Brazil may add value to this traditional product as a fast food.A farinha de mandioca apresenta redução de consumo por não se adequar ao estilo de vida moderno. Para inverter esta tendência, novos produtos poderão ser desenvolvidos e direcionados a mercados valorizados. As barras de cereais destacam-se como fast food de bom perfil nutricional. Uma fórmula foi usada para mimetizar as barras de cereais, usando uma mistura de farinha de mandioca, gordura vegetal, bananas secas, castanha de caju e xarope de glicose. As barras prensadas foram secas por 1 hora a 65 °C, embaladas em filmes e armazenadas em condição ambiente. A estabilidade do produto foi acompanhada

  10. A Study of $e^+e^-\\to p\\bar{p}$ Using Initial StateRadiation with BaBar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aubert, B.; Barate, R.; Boutigny, D.; Couderc, F.; Karyotakis, Y.; Lees, J.P.; Poireau, V.; Tisserand, V.; Zghiche, A.; /Annecy, LAPP; Grauges, E.; /Barcelona, IFAE; Palano, A.; Pappagallo, M.; Pompili, A.; /Bari U. /INFN, Bari; Chen, J.C.; Qi, N.D.; Rong, G.; Wang, P.; Zhu, Y.S.; /Beijing, Inst. High Energy Phys.; Eigen, G.; Ofte, I.; Stugu, B.

    2005-12-13

    The e{sup +}e{sup -} {yields} p{bar p} cross-section is determined over a range of p{bar p} masses, from threshold to 4.5 GeV/c{sup 2}, by studying the e{sup +}e{sup -} {yields} p{bar p}{gamma} process. The data set corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 232 fb{sup -1}, collected with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II storage ring, at an e{sup +}e{sup -} center-of-mass energy of 10.6 GeV. The mass dependence of the ratio of electric and magnetic form factors, |G{sub E}/G{sub M}|, is measured for p{bar p} masses below 3 GeV/c{sup 2}; its value is found to be significantly larger than 1 for masses up to 2.2 GeV/c{sup 2}. We also measure J/{psi} {yields} p{bar p} and {psi}(2S) {yields} p{bar p} branching fractions and set an upper limit on Y(4260) {yields} p{bar p} production and decay.

  11. Considerações sobre a tendência da tuberculose no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina Czeresnia Costa

    1985-09-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho analisa os vários aspectos que influenciam no padrão da mortalidade e morbidade da tuberculose: a variação nas condições de vida, os efeitos da quimioterapia e a dinâmica de transmissão da doença. Caracteriza os indicadores utilizados na medida da tuberculose que são construídos a partir de inquéritos de prevalência e dos dados de notificação. Os principais indicadores são: risco de infecção; mortalidade; coeficiente de incidência de meningite tuberculosa; coeficientes de incidência de casos de tuberculose, especialmente os pulmonares bacilíferos, etc. O trabalho analisa dados recentes de incidência de casos pulmonares bacilíferos nos estados do Pará e Rio Grande do Sul e mortalidade por tuberculose nas capitais do Pará, Rio Grande do Sul, Pernambuco e Rio de Janeiro, que revelam uma tendência à queda, ainda que em ritmo diferenciado. Discute-se a maneira que a crise econômica atual do país repercutiria no número de casos e mortes pela doença.This paper analises the various factors which affect the rate of mortality and illness from tuberculosis i.e. the variation in the quality of life of the people affected, the effects o f chemotherapy and the dynamics of the transmission of the disease. It describes the epidemiological indices used to measure the spread of tuberculosis. These indices are built up from inquiries of prevalence of the disease and the number of notified cases. The main indices are: the risk of infection, mortality, the coefficient of the incidence of tubercular meningitis, the coefficient of the incidence of cases of tuberculosis, especially smear positives, etc. The paper also analises recent data of incidence of cases of smear positives in the states of Pará and Rio Grande do Sul and the mortality rate from tuberculosis in the state capitals of Pará, Rio Grande do Sul, Pernambuco and Rio de Janeiro, which reveal a downward trend, thought at different rates. The nature of how the

  12. Clever sillies: why high IQ people tend to be deficient in common sense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlton, Bruce G

    2009-12-01

    In previous editorials I have written about the absent-minded and socially-inept 'nutty professor' stereotype in science, and the phenomenon of 'psychological neoteny' whereby intelligent modern people (including scientists) decline to grow-up and instead remain in a state of perpetual novelty-seeking adolescence. These can be seen as specific examples of the general phenomenon of 'clever sillies' whereby intelligent people with high levels of technical ability are seen (by the majority of the rest of the population) as having foolish ideas and behaviours outside the realm of their professional expertise. In short, it has often been observed that high IQ types are lacking in 'common sense'--and especially when it comes to dealing with other human beings. General intelligence is not just a cognitive ability; it is also a cognitive disposition. So, the greater cognitive abilities of higher IQ tend also to be accompanied by a distinctive high IQ personality type including the trait of 'Openness to experience', 'enlightened' or progressive left-wing political values, and atheism. Drawing on the ideas of Kanazawa, my suggested explanation for this association between intelligence and personality is that an increasing relative level of IQ brings with it a tendency differentially to over-use general intelligence in problem-solving, and to over-ride those instinctive and spontaneous forms of evolved behaviour which could be termed common sense. Preferential use of abstract analysis is often useful when dealing with the many evolutionary novelties to be found in modernizing societies; but is not usually useful for dealing with social and psychological problems for which humans have evolved 'domain-specific' adaptive behaviours. And since evolved common sense usually produces the right answers in the social domain; this implies that, when it comes to solving social problems, the most intelligent people are more likely than those of average intelligence to have novel but

  13. B-bar B mixing in SLD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baltay, C.

    1993-01-01

    The mixing of B 0 and bar B 0 is one of the most important topics in B physics because the mixing occurs through second order weak box diagrams involving t to d and t to s quark transitions. The mixing parameters are thus sensitive to the CKM matrix elements V td and V ts which are presently difficult to assess experimentally in other ways. Mixing in the B 0 d system has been observed in the ARGUS, CLEO and UA1 detectors. They measured the mixing integrated over time xd=mixed/(mixed + unmixed) = (1/2)x 2 d /(1+(x d ) 2 ), and obtained a value of x d ∼ 0.7 where x d is defined as Δ/Γ in the B 0 d system. Since V ts is expected to be larger than V td , the authors expect the mixing to be substantially larger in the B 0 s system. In this case, χ s → 1/2 and a time integrated mixing measurement is not very sensitive to x s . It is thus imperative to measure the time dependence of B 0 s mixing which is proportional to cos(x s t) and is thus sensitive to x s in the expected range of values. At this time there is a preliminary measurement from ALEPH of the time dependence of B 0 d mixing, but there are no measurements of the time dependence of B 0 s mixing. Such a measurement is one of the aims of an extended SLD program

  14. Bell inequalities stronger than the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt inequality for three-level isotropic states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Tsuyoshi; Imai, Hiroshi; Avis, David

    2006-01-01

    We show that some two-party Bell inequalities with two-valued observables are stronger than the CHSH inequality for 3x3 isotropic states in the sense that they are violated by some isotropic states in the 3x3 system that do not violate the CHSH inequality. These Bell inequalities are obtained by applying triangular elimination to the list of known facet inequalities of the cut polytope on nine points. This gives a partial solution to an open problem posed by Collins and Gisin. The results of numerical optimization suggest that they are candidates for being stronger than the I 3322 Bell inequality for 3x3 isotropic states. On the other hand, we found no Bell inequalities stronger than the CHSH inequality for 2x2 isotropic states. In addition, we illustrate an inclusion relation among some Bell inequalities derived by triangular elimination

  15. Obtention control bars patterns for a BWR using Tabo search

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castillo, A.; Ortiz, J.J.; Alonso, G.; Morales, L.B.; Valle, E. del

    2004-01-01

    The obtained results when implementing the technique of tabu search, for to optimize patterns of control bars in a BWR type reactor, using the CM-PRESTO code are presented. The patterns of control bars were obtained for the designs of fuel reloads obtained in a previous work, using the same technique. The obtained results correspond to a cycle of 18 months using 112 fresh fuels enriched at the 3.53 of U-235. The used technique of tabu search, prohibits recently visited movements, in the position that correspond to the axial positions of the control bars, additionally the tiempo t abu matrix is used for to manage a size of variable tabu list and the objective function is punished with the frequency of the forbidden movements. The obtained patterns of control bars improve the longitude of the cycle with regard to the reference values and they complete the restrictions of safety. (Author)

  16. Deterioration of J-bar reinforcement in abutments and piers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-31

    Deterioration and necking of J-bars has been reportedly observed at the interface of the footing and stem wall during the demolition : of older retaining walls and bridge abutments. Similar deterioration has been reportedly observed between the pier ...

  17. Nondestructive Method for Bulk Chemical Characterization of Barred Olivine Chondrules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya-Perez, M. A.; Cervantes-de la Cruz, K. E.; Ruvalcaba-Sil, J. L.

    2017-05-01

    This work develops a bulk chemical characterization of barred olivine chondrules based on the XRF analysis using a portable equipment at the National Research and Conservation Science Laboratory of Cultural Heritage (LANCIC-IF) in Mexico City.

  18. CP violation and B0-(B0)-bar mixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleksan, R.

    1996-01-01

    The status of CP violation and B 0 -(B 0 )-bar mixing is given and the subsequent constraints in the framework of the Standard Model are discussed. Recent result on CP violation in the kaon system and related topics are reviewed, including the status of T violation and the tests of the CPT symmetry. The results on B 0 -(B 0 )-bar mixing are presented followed by the studies on B d 0 -(B d 0 )-bar and B s 0 -(B s 0 )-bar oscillations. Finally, the prospects of progress on understanding CP violation are discussed in framework of the new projects expected to produce results at the turn of the century. (author)

  19. Energy Drinks and Food Bars: Power or Hype?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of nutritional bang for the buck include trail mix, fresh or dried fruits, and whole-grain cereals. Cutting Through the Hype There's some clever marketing behind energy bars and drinks, and you've ...

  20. Black silicon solar cells with black bus-bar strings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Rasmus Schmidt; Tang, Peter Torben; Mizushima, Io

    2016-01-01

    We present the combination of black silicon texturing and blackened bus-bar strings as a potential method for obtaining all-black solar panels, while using conventional, front-contacted solar cells. Black silicon was realized by maskless reactive ion etching resulting in total, average reflectance...... below 0.5% across a 156x156 mm2 silicon wafer. Four different methods to obtain blackened bus-bar strings were compared with respect to reflectance, and two of these methods (i.e., oxidized copper and etched solder) were used to fabricate functional allblack solar 9-cell panels. The black bus-bars (e.......g., by oxidized copper) have a reflectance below 3% in the entire visible wavelength range. The combination of black silicon cells and blackened bus-bars results in aesthetic, all-black panels based on conventional, front-contacted solar cells without compromising efficiency....

  1. Transorbital orbitocranial penetrating injury caused by a metal bar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Arslan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Transorbital intracranial injury is uncommon, representing 0.04% of penetrating head trauma with a high mortality rate. Orbital penetrating injuries may cause severe brain injury if the cranium is entered, typically via the orbital roof, the superior orbital fissure, or the optic canal. A 13-year-old male sustained a severe brain injury due to penetration of the right orbit with an iron bar. The bar entered the inferiomedial aspect of the orbit and emerged from the left occipital bone. Neurological examination revealed deep coma (GCS: E1M2V1 with fixed, dilated, and non-reactive pupils. The bar followed an intracranial trajectory, through the third ventricle and suprasellar cistern. The patient underwent an immediate exploration with removal of the bar. Unfortunately, he died 10 days postoperatively due to severe diencephalic injury with brainstem herniation. In this case report, we discuss the radiologic diagnosis and surgical management of transorbital orbitocranial injury by foreign body penetration.

  2. Transorbital orbitocranial penetrating injury caused by a metal bar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Mehmet; Eseoğlu, Metehan; Güdü, Burhan Oral; Demir, Ismail

    2012-05-01

    Transorbital intracranial injury is uncommon, representing 0.04% of penetrating head trauma with a high mortality rate. Orbital penetrating injuries may cause severe brain injury if the cranium is entered, typically via the orbital roof, the superior orbital fissure, or the optic canal. A 13-year-old male sustained a severe brain injury due to penetration of the right orbit with an iron bar. The bar entered the inferiomedial aspect of the orbit and emerged from the left occipital bone. Neurological examination revealed deep coma (GCS: E1M2V1) with fixed, dilated, and non-reactive pupils. The bar followed an intracranial trajectory, through the third ventricle and suprasellar cistern. The patient underwent an immediate exploration with removal of the bar. Unfortunately, he died 10 days postoperatively due to severe diencephalic injury with brainstem herniation. In this case report, we discuss the radiologic diagnosis and surgical management of transorbital orbitocranial injury by foreign body penetration.

  3. TECHNOLOGICAL PROCESSES OF PRODUCTION OF THE MASS FUNCTION CAST BARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Krutilin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A number of scientifically grounded technical decisions, the whole set of which has enabled to create technological processes of production of high-quality cast bars of mass appointment is offered.

  4. Optimization of patterns of control bars using neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mejia S, D.M.; Ortiz S, J.J.

    2005-01-01

    In this work the RENOPBC system that is based on a recurrent multi state neural network, for the optimization of patterns of control bars in a cycle of balance of a boiling water reactor (BWR for their initials in English) is presented. The design of patterns of bars is based on the execution of operation thermal limits, to maintain criticizes the reactor and that the axial profile of power is adjusted to one predetermined along several steps of burnt. The patterns of control bars proposed by the system are comparable to those proposed by human experts with many hour-man of experience. These results are compared with those proposed by other techniques as genetic algorithms, colonies of ants and tabu search for the same operation cycle. As consequence it is appreciated that the proposed patterns of control bars, have bigger operation easiness that those proposed by the other techniques. (Author)

  5. The Semileptonic Decay Modes {bar{B} rightarrow Dell bar{ν}} and {bar{B}s rightarrow Ds ell bar{ν}}: A New Analysis in Potential Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanabadi, H.; Rahmani, S.; Zarrinkamar, S.

    2016-04-01

    We consider the Schrödinger equation with a combination of Deng-Fan-type and harmonic terms. To solve the corresponding differential equation, we split the equation to two parts: the parent and the perturbation terms. We use the Nikiforov-Uvarov technique to solve the parent part. For the perturbation part, we apply the series expansion method. Next, using the calculated wave function, we investigate some bottom and charm mesons within the Isgur-Wise function formalism. We present especially semileptonic {bar{B} rightarrow Dell bar{ν}} and {bar{B}s rightarrow D_s ell bar{ν }} decay widths, branching ratios and {|V_{cb}|} (element of the CKM matrix). Masses of some pseudoscalar mesons are also indicated. Comparisons of our results with experimental values and other approaches are included.

  6. Multiple-photon effects in asymmetries: μ bar μ vs b bar b

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jadach, S.

    1990-01-01

    We present an analysis of the effects of multiple-photon emission, in the context of Z 0 physics at the SLAC Linear Collider and the CERN e + e - collider LEP, on the forward-backward, left-right, and polarized forward-backward asymmetries for e + e - →μ + μ - +n(γ) and e + e - →b bar b+n(γ). We focus on this Z 0 -physics scenario in the presence of detector cuts. Realistic calculations are carried out with our Monte Carlo--based Yennie-Frautschi-Suura event-by-event approach to SU 2L xU 1 radiative corrections at high energies. We conclude that the multiple-photon effects should be taken into account for high-precision Z 0 physics. We find further that, for high-luminosity unpolarized Z 0 physics, the b bar b+n(γ) final state looks much more promising as a way to measure the respective forward-backward asymmetry when it is compared to μ + μ - +n(γ) insofar as radiative corrections are concerned

  7. Measurement of the absolute branching fraction of D-vertical bar -> (K)over-bar(0)e(vertical bar) nu(e) via (K)over-bar(0) -> pi(0)pi(0)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ablikim, M.; Achasov, N.; Ai, X. C.; Albayrak, O.; Albrecht, M.; Ambrose, D. J.; Amoroso, A.; An, F. F.; An, Q.; Bai, J. Z.; Ferroli, R. Baldini; Ban, Y.; Bennett, D. W.; Bennett, J. V.; Bertani, M.; Bettonin, D.; Bian, J. M.; Bianchi, F.; Boger, E.; Boyko, I.; Briere, R. A.; Cai, H.; Cai, X.; Cakir, O.; Caleaterra, A.; Cao, G. F.; Cetin, S. A.; Chang, J. F.; Chelkov, G.; Chen, G.; Chen, H. S.; Chen, H. Y.; Chen, J. C.; Chen, M. L.; Chen, S.; Chen, S. J.; Chen, X.; Chen, X. R.; Chen, Y. B.; Cheng, H. P.; Chu, X. K.; Cibinetto, G.; Dai, H. L.; Dai, J. P.; Dbeyssi, A.; Dedovich, D.; Deng, Z. Y.; Denig, A.; Denysenko, I.; Destefanis, M.; De Mori, F.; Ding, Y.; Dong, C.; Dong, J.; Dong, L. Y.; Dong, M. Y.; Dou, Z. L.; Du, S. X.; Duan, P. F.; Fan, J. Z.; Fang, J.; Fang, S. S.; Fang, X.; Fang, Y.; Farinelli, R.; Fava, L.; Fedorov, O.; Feldbauer, F.; Felici, G.; Feng, C. Q.; Fioravanti, E.; Fritsch, M.; Fu, C. D.; Gao, Q.; Gao, X. L.; Gao, X. Y.; Gao, Y.; Gao, Z.; Garzia, I.; Goetzen, K.; Gong, L.; Gong, W. X.; Gradl, W.; Greco, M.; Gu, M. H.; Gu, Y. T.; Guan, Y. H.; Guo, A. Q.; Guo, L. B.; Guo, R. P.; Guo, Y.; Guo, Y. P.; Haddadi, Z.; Hafner, A.; Han, S.; Hao, X. Q.; Harris, F. A.; He, K. L.; Held, T.; Heng, Y. K.; Hou, Z. L.; Hu, C.; Hu, H. M.; Hu, J. F.; Hu, T.; Hu, Y.; Huang, G. S.; Huang, J. S.; Huang, X. T.; Huang, X. Z.; Huang, Y.; Huang, Z. L.; Hussain, T.; Ji, Q.; Ji, Q. P.; Ji, X. B.; Ji, X. L.; Jiang, L. W.; Jiang, X. S.; Jiang, X. Y.; Jiao, J. B.; Jiao, Z.; Jin, D. P.; Jin, S.; Johansson, T.; Julin, A.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Kang, X. L.; Kang, X. S.; Kavatsyuk, M.; Ke, B. C.; Kiese, P.; Kliemt, R.; Kloss, B.; Kolc, O. B.; Kopf, B.; Kornicer, M.; Kupse, A.; Kuehn, W.; Lange, J. S.; Lara, M.; Larin, P.; Leng, C.; Li, C.; Li, Cheng; Li, D. M.; Li, F.; Li, F. Y.; Li, G.; Li, H. B.; Li, H. J.; Li, J. C.; Li, Jin; Li, K.; Li, K.; Li, Lei; Li, P. R.; Li, Q. Y.; Li, T.; Li, W. D.; Li, W. G.; Li, X. L.; Li, X. N.; Li, X. Q.; Li, Y. B.; Li, Z. B.; Liang, H.; Liang, Y. F.; Liang, Y. T.; Liao, G. R.; Lin, D. X.; Liu, B.; Liu, B. J.; Liu, C. X.; Liu, D.; Liu, F. H.; Liu, Fang; Liu, Feng; Liu, H. B.; Liu, H. H.; Liu, H. H.; Liu, H. M.; Liu, J.; Liu, J. B.; Liu, J. P.; Liu, J. Y.; Liu, K.; Liu, K. Y.; Liu, L. D.; Liu, P. L.; Liu, Q.; Liu, S. B.; Liu, X.; Liu, Y. B.; Liu, Z. A.; Liu, Zhiqing; Loehner, H.; Lou, X. C.; Lu, H. J.; Lu, J. G.; Lu, Y.; Lu, Y. P.; Luo, C. L.; Luo, M. X.; Luo, T.; Luo, X. L.; Lu, X. R.; Ma, F. C.; Ma, H. L.; Ma, L. L.; Ma, M. M.; Ma, Q. M.; Ma, T.; Ma, X. N.; Ma, X. Y.; Ma, Y. M.; Maas, F. E.; Maggiora, M.; Mao, Y. J.; Mao, Z. P.; Marcello, S.; Messchendorp, J. G.; Min, J.; Min, T. J.; Mitchell, R. E.; Mo, X. H.; Mo, Y. J.; Morales, C. Morales; Muchnoi, N. Yu.; Muramatsu, H.; Nefedov, Y.; Nerling, F.; Nikolaev, I. B.; Ning, Z.; Nisar, S.; Niu, S. L.; Niu, X. Y.; Olsen, S. L.; Ouyang, Q.; Pacetti, S.; Pan, Y.; Patteri, P.; Pelizaeus, M.; Peng, H. P.; Peters, K.; Pettersson, J.; Ping, J. L.; Ping, R. G.; Poling, R.; Prasad, V.; Qi, H. R.; Qi, M.; Qian, S.; Qiao, C. F.; Qin, L. Q.; Qin, N.; Qin, X. S.; Qin, Z. H.; Qiu, J. F.; Rashid, K. H.; Redmer, C. F.; Ripka, M.; Rong, G.; Rosner, Ch.; Ruan, X. D.; Sarantsev, A.; Savrie, M.; Schoenning, K.; Schumann, S.; Shan, W.; Shao, M.; Shen, C. P.; Shen, P. X.; Shen, X. Y.; Sheng, H. Y.; Shi, M.; Song, W. M.; Song, X. Y.; Sosio, S.; Spataro, S.; Sun, G. X.; Sun, J. F.; Sun, S. S.; Sun, X. H.; Sun, Y. J.; Sun, Y. Z.; Sun, Z. J.; Sun, Z. T.; Tang, C. J.; Tang, X.; Tapan, I.; Thorndike, E. H.; Tiemens, M.; Ullrich, M.; Uman, I.; Varner, G. S.; Wang, B.; Wang, B. L.; Wang, D.; Wang, D. Y.; Wang, K.; Wang, L. L.; Wang, L. S.; Wang, M.; Wang, P.; Wang, P. L.; Wang, W.; Wang, W. P.; Wang, X. F.; Wang, Y.; Wang, Y. D.; Wang, Y. F.; Wang, Y. Q.; Wang, Z.; Wang, Z. G.; Wang, Z. H.; Wang, Z. Y.; Wang, Z. Y.; Weber, T.; Wei, D. H.; Weidenkaff, P.; Wen, S. P.; Wiedner, U.; Wolke, M.; Wu, L. H.; Wu, L. J.; Wu, Z.; Xia, L.; Xia, Y.; Xiao, D.; Xiao, H.; Xiao, Z. J.; Xie, Y. G.; Xiu, Q. L.; Xu, G. F.; Xu, J. J.; Xu, L.; Xu, Q. J.; Xu, Q. N.; Xu, X. P.; Yan, L.; Yan, W. B.; Yan, W. C.; Yan, Y. H.; Yang, H. J.; Yang, H. X.; Yang, L.; Yang, Y. X.; Ye, M.; Ye, M. H.; Yin, J. H.; Yu, B. X.; Yu, C. X.; Yu, J. S.; Yuan, C. Z.; Yuan, W. L.; Yuan, Y.; Yuncu, A.; Zafar, A. A.; Zallo, A.; Zeng, Y.; Zeng, Z.; Zhang, B. X.; Zhang, B. Y.; Zhang, C.; Zhang, C. C.; Zhang, D. H.; Zhang, H. H.; Zhang, H. Y.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, J. J.; Zhang, J. L.; Zhang, J. Q.; Zhang, J. W.; Zhang, J. Y.; Zhang, J. Z.; Zhang, K.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, S. Q.; Zhang, X. Y.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, Y. H.; Zhang, Y. N.; Zhang, Y. T.; Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Z. H.; Zhang, Z. P.; Zhang, Z. Y.; Zhao, G.; Zhao, J. W.; Zhao, J. Y.; Zhao, J. Z.; Zhao, Lei; Zhao, Ling; Zhao, M. G.; Zhao, Q.; Zhao, Q. W.; Zhao, S. J.; Zhao, T. C.; Zhao, Y. B.; Zhao, Z. G.; Zhemchugov, A.; Zheng, B.; Zheng, J. P.; Zheng, W. J.; Zheng, Y. H.; Zhong, B.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, X.; Zhou, X. K.; Zhou, X. R.; Zhou, X. Y.; Zhu, K.; Zhu, K. J.; Zhu, S.; Zhu, S. H.; Zhu, X. L.; Zhu, Y. C.; Zhu, Y. S.; Zhu, Z. A.; Zhuangig, J.; Zotti, L.; Zou, B. S.; Zou, J. H.

    2016-01-01

    By analyzing 2.93 fb(-1) data collected at the center-of-mass energy root s = 3.773 GeV with the BESIII detector, we measure the absolute branching fraction of the semileptonic decay D+ -> (K) over bar (0)e(+)nu(e) to be B(D (+) -> (K) over bar (0)e(+)nu(e)) = (8.59 +/- 0.14 +/- 0.21)% using (K)

  8. Tendências na assistência hospitalar Trends in hospital care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo Vecina Neto

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo analisa as tendências observadas na assistência hospitalar brasileira, no que diz respeito ao cenário, situação atual, desafios e ao que necessita ser feito, tendo em vista os itens anteriores. As variáveis com as quais se trabalhou o cenário geral foram a demografia, o perfil epidemiológico, os recursos humanos, a tecnologia, a medicalização, os custos, a revisão do papel do cidadão, a legislação, a eqüidade, o hospitalocentrismo e a regionalização, o fracionamento do cuidado e a oferta de leitos. O cenário nacional foi estudado mediante o modelo empregado na assistência médica supletiva, o financiamento e a cadeia de produção na área de serviços de saúde. A situação atual apresenta os modelos de avaliação externa, a terceirização, o relacionamento público-privado, a desospitalização e o financiamento. Os desafios a serem enfrentados analisam a necessidade de se olhar o longo prazo, a busca por novos modelos jurídicos para o "negócio", o uso da informação e a informatização, o controle de custos e a necessidade do aumento da eficiência e do cumprimento dos ditames legais, de garantia de acesso e de integralidade na assistência, a incorporação da prevenção primária ao processo de atenção, a integração entre os setores público e privado e a incorporação do médico na solução dos problemas.This paper analyses trends in the delivery of hospital services in Brazil, considering the setting, the current situation and its challenges, examining what still remains to be done. The variables studied for the analysis of the setting are: demography, epidemiological profile, human resources, technology, medicalization, costs, review of the role of the citizen, legislation, equity, hospital-centricity and regionalization, care fractioning and bed availability. The Brazilian setting was studied through the supplementary healthcare model, financing and the healthcare area production chain. The

  9. Do Undergraduate Journalism Students Tend to Write Report-Books on Human Rights?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Antônio Zibordi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this article is to present updated results of incipient research on report-book production (Lima, 2009 by journalism undergraduate students. We relate three data sets to support the premise that these authors tend to focus on humanitarian topics, regardless of the Brazilian region and the course type, public or private. A private educational institution in the city of São Paulo is being systematically researched and in this article we publish results between 2015 and 2017 regarding the journalistic products made by the undergraduate students, mainly report-books. This information is intersected with the winning works of two national awards, the Brazilian Association of Investigative Journalism (Abraji and the Experimental Research in Communication Exhibition (Expocom, whose journalistic products and selected topics in annual competitions adopt the same perspective of those produced in the researched institution of São Paulo, indicating that, for the time being, at least the hypothesis of this research is justified. O objetivo deste artigo é apresentar resultados atualizados de incipiente pesquisa sobre produção de livros-reportagem (Lima, 2009 por graduandos de Jornalismo. Relacionamos três conjuntos de dados para sustentar a premissa de que esses autores tendem a pautar temas humanitários, independente da região do Brasil e do tipo de curso, público ou particular. Uma instituição de ensino privada da capital paulista está sendo sistematicamente pesquisada e neste artigo publicamos resultados entre 2015 e 2017 referentes aos produtos jornalísticos realizados pelos concluintes, sobretudo livros-reportagem. Essas informações são cruzadas com os trabalhos vencedores de duas premiações nacionais, a da Associação Brasileira de Jornalismo Investigativo (Abraji e a da Exposição de Pesquisa Experimental em Comunicação (Expocom, cujos produtos jornalísticos e temas selecionados em certames anuais adotam a mesma

  10. SECULAR DAMPING OF STELLAR BARS IN SPINNING DARK MATTER HALOS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, Stacy; Shlosman, Isaac [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506-0055 (United States); Heller, Clayton [Department of Physics, Georgia Southern University, Statesboro, GA 30460 (United States)

    2014-03-01

    We demonstrate using numerical simulations of isolated galaxies that growth of stellar bars in spinning dark matter halos is heavily suppressed in the secular phase of evolution. In a representative set of models, we show that for values of the cosmological spin parameter λ ≳ 0.03, bar growth (in strength and size) becomes increasingly quenched. Furthermore, the slowdown of the bar pattern speed weakens considerably with increasing λ until it ceases completely. The terminal structure of the bars is affected as well, including extent and shape of their boxy/peanut bulges. The essence of this effect lies in the modified angular momentum exchange between the disk and the halo facilitated by the bar. For the first time we have demonstrated that a dark matter halo can emit and not purely absorb angular momentum. Although the halo as a whole is not found to emit, the net transfer of angular momentum from the disk to the halo is significantly reduced or completely eliminated. The paradigm shift implies that the accepted view that disks serve as sources of angular momentum and halos serve as sinks must be revised. Halos with λ ≳ 0.03 are expected to form a substantial fraction, based on the lognormal distribution of λ. The dependence of secular bar evolution on halo spin, therefore, implies profound corollaries for the cosmological evolution of galactic disks.

  11. Treatment of concrete bars from the dismantling of hot cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graf, A.; Stutz, U.; Valencia, L.

    2002-01-01

    The Central Decontamination Operations Department (HDB) of the Karlsruhe Research Center operates facilities for the disposal of radioactive waste. In general, their objective is to decontaminate radioactive residues for unrestricted release in order to minimize the volume of waste products suitable for repository storage. In the case of about 120 concrete bars from the dismantling of hot cells, we reduce the volume of radioactive waste by sawing off the most contaminated parts of the bar. If there are no insertions such as cables or ventilation systems, the rest of the bar is sandblasted and its activity manually measured to ensure compliance with the release criteria. Otherwise, the bar is minced into small pieces by a power shovel. Afterwards, the rubble is filled into drums and its activity is measured by the clearance measurement facility. If the rubble and the sandblasted bars do not exceed the activity limit specified by the release criteria, the material is disposed of without further regulations for unrestricted use. Those parts of the bars which can not be released must be stored in special containers suitable for the KONRAD final disposal. Using this method, about 70 % of the total mass can be released. (author)

  12. Discrete shear-transformation-zone plasticity modeling of notched bars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondori, Babak; Amine Benzerga, A.; Needleman, Alan

    2018-02-01

    Plane strain tension analyses of un-notched and notched bars are carried out using discrete shear transformation zone plasticity. In this framework, the carriers of plastic deformation are shear transformation zones (STZs) which are modeled as Eshelby inclusions. Superposition is used to represent a boundary value problem solution in terms of discretely modeled Eshelby inclusions, given analytically for an infinite elastic medium, and an image solution that enforces the prescribed boundary conditions. The image problem is a standard linear elastic boundary value problem that is solved by the finite element method. Potential STZ activation sites are randomly distributed in the bars and constitutive relations are specified for their evolution. Results are presented for un-notched bars, for bars with blunt notches and for bars with sharp notches. The computed stress-strain curves are serrated with the magnitude of the associated stress-drops depending on bar size, notch acuity and STZ evolution. Cooperative deformation bands (shear bands) emerge upon straining and, in some cases, high stress levels occur within the bands. Effects of specimen geometry and size on the stress-strain curves are explored. Depending on STZ kinetics, notch strengthening, notch insensitivity or notch weakening are obtained. The analyses provide a rationale for some conflicting findings regarding notch effects on the mechanical response of metallic glasses.

  13. Do Low Surface Brightness Galaxies Host Stellar Bars?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cervantes Sodi, Bernardo; Sánchez García, Osbaldo

    2017-01-01

    With the aim of assessing if low surface brightness galaxies host stellar bars and by studying the dependence of the occurrence of bars as a function of surface brightness, we use the Galaxy Zoo 2 data set to construct a large volume-limited sample of galaxies and then segregate these galaxies as having low or high surface brightness in terms of their central surface brightness. We find that the fraction of low surface brightness galaxies hosting strong bars is systematically lower than that found for high surface brightness galaxies. The dependence of the bar fraction on the central surface brightness is mostly driven by a correlation of the surface brightness with the spin and the gas richness of the galaxies, showing only a minor dependence on the surface brightness. We also find that the length of the bars is strongly dependent on the surface brightness, and although some of this dependence is attributed to the gas content, even at a fixed gas-to-stellar mass ratio, high surface brightness galaxies host longer bars than their low surface brightness counterparts, which we attribute to an anticorrelation of the surface brightness with the spin.

  14. BENDING OF REINFORCING BARS TESTING METHOD AND INFLUENCE ON STRUCTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hari Warsianto

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Reinforcing bars in concrete elements functions as the component carrying tensile stresses after concretecracking. This is due to that fact that concrete exhibit very high compression strength combined with avery low tensile capacity. The tensile stressed are transferred to the bars by the bond between thereinforcement and the concrete.Bars are generally produced in strands 6 to 12 meter in length so that bending for transportation andhandling purposes becomes necessary. At the site bars are straightened, and then sometimes re-bent forassembling purposes. This process will result in a loading and re-loading of steel.The ASTM E-290 mandated that bars have to pass the bending test, whereas reinforcing steel bars arebend to almost 1800 to ensure material ductility. In the past five years the Construction and MaterialLaboratory, Diponegoro University has been questioned with the issue as to how far this bending andstraightening influences the quality and what the significance of testing is.This paper will evaluate theinfluence of bending and straightening and the testing procedure involved.

  15. Offline detection of broken rotor bars in AC induction motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Craig Stephen

    ABSTRACT. OFFLINE DETECTION OF BROKEN ROTOR BARS IN AC INDUCTION MOTORS. The detection of the broken rotor bar defect in medium- and large-sized AC induction machines is currently one of the most difficult tasks for the motor condition and monitoring industry. If a broken rotor bar defect goes undetected, it can cause a catastrophic failure of an expensive machine. If a broken rotor bar defect is falsely determined, it wastes time and money to physically tear down and inspect the machine only to find an incorrect diagnosis. Previous work in 2009 at Baker/SKF-USA in collaboration with the Korea University has developed a prototype instrument that has been highly successful in correctly detecting the broken rotor bar defect in ACIMs where other methods have failed. Dr. Sang Bin and his students at the Korea University have been using this prototype instrument to help the industry save money in the successful detection of the BRB defect. A review of the current state of motor conditioning and monitoring technology for detecting the broken rotor bar defect in ACIMs shows improved detection of this fault is still relevant. An analysis of previous work in the creation of this prototype instrument leads into the refactoring of the software and hardware into something more deployable, cost effective and commercially viable.

  16. "This one is stronger". Spotlights on the lifelong learning professional-in-action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josje van der Linden

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT“This one is stronger.” Spotlights on the lifelong learning professional-in-action Around the world, lifelong learning is being promoted as a strategy for coping with the changing realities of life and work. The fourth Sustainable Development Goal, agreed in September 2015, reflects this: “ensure equitable and inclusive quality education and promote lifelong learning opportunities for all”. Despite its importance, doubts remain about the implementation of this goal in practice (Van der Kamp, 2000; Regmi, 2015. This article looks at the practice of lifelong learning from the point of view of the professionals involved, their actions and the way these actions are challenged, supported and further developed. Following Schön’s “reflection-in-action” (1983, the term “professional-in-action” is used to stress the role of the professional in making the difference on the ground. The leading question is: how can lifelong learning professionals be supported in their contribution to surrounding society and its citizens? The professionals-in-action featured in this article include professionals based in the Netherlands as well as in other, less privileged contexts. Meaningful experiences are used to build a story about challenges, the right to exist, commitment, recognition and room to manoeuvre. The experiences reveal the importance of interacting with the learner and the professional space that is necessary to achieve this. Professionalization in professional learning communities and practice-oriented research must accompany this professional space. SAMENVATTING“Deze is sterker”. Spotlights op de leven lang leren professional-in-actieOm te kunnen omgaan met de veranderende realiteit in leven en werk, wordt wereldwijd een leven lang leren aangemoedigd. Het vierde duurzame ontwikkelingsdoel, vastgesteld in september 2015, weerspiegelt dit: “het verzekeren van kwalitatief goed onderwijs en het bevorderen van de mogelijkheden

  17. Extraction of the KK-bar isovector scattering length from pp->dK+K-bar 0 data near threshold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemmer, R.H.

    2006-01-01

    The results of a recent experiment measuring the reaction pp->dK + K-bar 0 near threshold are interpreted in terms of a spectator model that encapsulates the main features of the observed K + K-bar 0 invariant mass distribution. A χ 2 fit to this data leads to an imaginary part of the isovector scattering length in the KK-bar channel of Im(a 1 )=-(0.63+/-0.24) fm. We then use the Flatte representation of the scattering amplitude to infer a value Re(a 1 )=-(0.02+/-0.02) fm for the real part under the assumption that scaling [V. Baru, J. Haidenbauer, C. Hanhart, A. Kudryavtsev, U.G. Meissner, Eur. Phys. J. A 23 (2005) 523] is approximately satisfied. We show further that it is not possible to exclude the effects of π + η to K + K-bar 0 channel coupling within the context of our model

  18. Associated production of $H(b\\bar b, c \\bar c)$ with a $W$ or a $Z$ Boson in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Nielsen, Jason; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    Results are presented from the ATLAS search for Standard Model Higgs bosons decaying to a $b\\bar b$ or $c \\bar c$ pair, produced in association with $W$ or $Z$ bosons. The analyzed data correspond to 36.1 fb$^{-1}$ of 13 TeV proton-proton collision data collected in Run 2 of the Large Hadron Collider. The combination of Run 1 and Run 2 data in the $b\\bar b$ channel yields a ratio of the measured production rate to the SM prediction equal to $0.90 \\pm 0.18 \\text{(stat.)} ^{+0.21}_{-0.19} \\text{(syst.)}$. The observed significance of $3.6\\sigma$ provides evidence for the direct $Hbb$ Yukawa coupling. A similar search for $c \\bar c$ decays results in an upper limit on the production cross section times branching ratio.

  19. El Barón de Humboldt.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Academia Nacional de Medicina

    1979-10-01

    Full Text Available

    No llegaron los viajeros científicos enviados a la Nueva Granada por el emperador de Austria, aquéllos en cuya prevención había procedido Caballero y Góngora a fundar la Expedición del Nuevo Reino.
    Pero vino - y en plena oportunidad y con todas las condiciones previstas y buscada por el arzobispo virrey - otro explorador, el mayor de la América Equinoccial, quien había de consagrar para el mundo científico europeo y para la posteridad, dándole toda su trascendencia humana y nacional, la obra de Mutis y de su escuela: Federico Enrique Alejandro, Barón de Humboldt.

    Había nacido en Berlin el 14 de septiembre de 1769 y en los 90 años que había de durarle lá vida no tendrían las ciencias naturales otra personificación tan completa ni otro ejemplar tan audaz, tan resuelto, tan codicioso y afortunado, los exploradores; ni la naturaleza americana contaría con un admirador tan convencido, ni los americanos con un profeta de sus destinos tan inspirado, como este hombre descrito en su pasaporte para América como de edad veintiocho años, cabello ligeramente rojizo, ojos grises, nariz larga, boca más bien grande, barbilla bien conformada, frente espaciosa, picado de viruela .... que viajaba con el
    fin de adquirir conocimientos.

    El encuentro en la retirada Santa Fe, de Mutis y Humboldt, juntó dos órbitas tan dispares como eran la ciencia ibérica y la alemana en el siglo XIX, pero que coincidían en su pasión por los estudios positivos, en su altivez nacionalista, en su tesón titánico y en la trascendencia que pretendían dar a sus lucubraciones.
    Humboldt es para las ciencias alemanas, el alfa que para nosotros representa José Celestino Mutis...

  20. A Study of B→c$\\bar{c}$γK in the BaBar Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fulsom, Brian Gregory [Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2009-04-01

    The BABAR Collaboration is a high energy physics experiment located at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. The primary goal of the experiment is to study charge and parity violation in the B-meson sector, however the copious production of B mesons decaying to other final states allows for a wide-ranging physics program. In particular, one can access the charmonium system via colour-suppressed b → c decays of the type B → c$\\bar{c}$K. This thesis presents a study of B →c$\\bar{c}$γK decays where c$\\bar{c}$ includes J/Ψ and Ψ(2S), and K includes K±, KS0 and K*(892). The particular emphasis is on a search for the radiative decays X(3872) → J/Ψγ and X(3872) → Ψ(2S)γ. The X(3872) state is a recently-discovered resonance of undetermined quark composition, speculatively a conventional charmonium state or exotic four-quark di-meson molecule. This research is also sensitive to the well-known radiative charmonium decays B → χc1,2K, which are used as verification for the analysis technique. This dissertation sets the best B → χc1K branching fraction measurements to date, and sees the first evidence for factorization-suppressed B0 → χc2}K*0 decay at a level of 3.6σ. It also provides evidence for X(3872) → J/Ψγ and X(3872) → Ψ(2S)γ with 3.6σ and 3.3σ significance, respectively. The product of branching fractions β(B± → X(3872)K±) • β(X(3872) → J/Ψγ) = (2.8 ± 0.8(stat.) ± 0.2(syst.)) x 10{sup -6} and β(B{± → X(3872)K±) → β(X(3872) → Ψ(2S)γ) = (9.5 ± 2.7(stat.) ± 0.9(syst.)) x 10-6 are measured. These results improve upon previous X(3872) → J/Ψγ measurements, and represent the first evidence for X(3872) → Ψ(2S)γ.

  1. The origin of the LMC stellar bar: clues from the SFH of the bar and inner disc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteagudo, L.; Gallart, C.; Monelli, M.; Bernard, E. J.; Stetson, P. B.

    2018-01-01

    We discuss the origin of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) stellar bar by comparing the star formation histories (SFHs) obtained from deep colour-magnitude diagrams (CMDs) in the bar and in a number of fields in different directions within the inner disc. The CMDs, reaching the oldest main-sequence turn-offs in these very crowded fields, have been obtained with VIMOS on the Very Large Telescope in the service mode, under very good seeing conditions. We show that the SFHs of all fields share the same patterns, with consistent variations of the star formation rate as a function of time in all of them. We therefore conclude that no specific event of star formation can be identified with the formation of the LMC bar, which instead likely formed from a redistribution of disc material which occurred when the LMC disc became bar unstable, and shared a common SFH with the inner disc thereafter. The strong similarity between the SFH of the centre and edge of the bar rules out the expected significant spatial variations of the SFH across the bar.

  2. Estudio comparativo de cirugía percutánea del tendón de Aquiles asistida ecográficamente con la cirugía abierta convencional en roturas de tendón de Aquiles

    OpenAIRE

    Rubio Lorenzo, Mónica

    2017-01-01

    RESUMEN:El tendón de Aquiles es el tendón que con más frecuencia se rompe del cuerpo humano. Generalmente ocurre en la etapa laboral y deportiva de la vida, y conllevan complicaciones postquirúrgicas, tiempo de incapacidad laboral y restringen la calidad de vida de los pacientes, limitando su actividad deportiva y cotidiana posterior. Desarrollamos una técnica percutánea ecoguiada, y lo comparamos con la técnica convencional abierta. Encontramos que: existen diferencias significativa...

  3. Stronger Association Between Valence- and Arousal Ratings of Affective Pictures with Older Age: Evidence for Variation Across Emotion Categories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Mai Bjørnskov; Mehlsen, Mimi Yung; Lyby, Marlene Skovgaard

    A sample of older and younger adults rated affective pictures according to valence, arousal and emotion category (happiness, sadness and disgust). Results indicate that older age is associated with a stronger linear association between ratings of arousal and valence. Further, the strength...

  4. Pilot testing of the "First You Should Get Stronger" program among caregivers of older adults with dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lök, Neslihan; Bademli, Kerime

    In this study, randomized controlled interventional study pattern was used to examine the effects of the "First You Should Get Stronger" program on the caregiving burden and healthy life style behavior of caregivers of dementia patients. "Zarit Caregiver Burden Scale" and "Healthy Life Style Behavior Scale" were used. The study was completed with 40 caregivers in total with 20 in the intervention group and 20 in the control group. A statistically significant difference was determined between the "Zarit Caregiving Burden Scale" and "Healthy Life Style Behavior Scale" score averages of the intervention group that participated in the "First You Should Get Stronger" program in comparison with those of the control group. It is important for the healths of caregivers to include similar programs for the caregivers of dementia patients in continuous and regular applications. The results highlight the importance of the "First You Should Get Stronger" program significantly decreased the caregiving burden and significantly developed the healthy lifestyle behaviors of caregivers in the intervention group. Since dementia is a difficult neurological syndrome with patients cared at home, it generally wears out the caregivers significantly. It is suggested that the nurses and healthcare professionals working with dementia patients are evaluated separately and that they carry out caregiving applications within the scope of the "First You Should Get Stronger" program. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Do aphid carcasses on the backs of larvae of green lacewing work as chemical mimicry against aphid-tending ants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Masayuki; Choh, Yasuyuki; Nakamuta, Kiyoshi; Nomura, Masashi

    2014-06-01

    Ants attack and exclude natural enemies of aphids in ant-aphid mutualisms. However, larvae of the green lacewing, Mallada desjardinsi, prey on the cowpea aphid, Aphis craccivora, without exclusion by aphid-tending ants. Lacewing larvae are protected from ants by carrying aphid carcasses on their backs. Here, we tested whether cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) of aphid carcasses affected the aggressiveness of aphid-tending ants. Aphid carcasses were washed with n-hexane to remove lipids. Lacewing larvae with washed aphid carcasses were attacked by aphid-tending ants more frequently than those with untreated aphid carcasses. We measured the aggressiveness of aphid-tending ants to lacewing larvae that were either carrying a piece of cotton wool (a dummy aphid carcass) treated with CHCs from aphids or lacewing larvae, or carrying aphid carcasses. The rates of attack by ants on lacewing larvae carrying CHCs of aphids or aphid carcasses were lower than that of attack on lacewing larvae with conspecific CHCs. Chemical analysis by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry showed similarity of CHCs between aphids and aphid carcasses. These results suggest that aphid carcasses on the backs of lacewing larvae function via chemical camouflage to limit attacks by aphid-tending ants.

  6. Developments and trends in fruit bar production and characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orrego, C E; Salgado, N; Botero, C A

    2014-01-01

    Fruits serve as a source of energy, vitamins, minerals, and dietary fiber. One of the barriers in increasing fruit and vegetables consumption is time required to prepare them. Overall, fruit bars have a far greater nutritional value than the fresh fruits because all nutrients are concentrated and, therefore, would be a convenience food assortment to benefit from the health benefits of fruits. The consumers prefer fruit bars that are more tasted followed by proper textural features that could be obtained by establishing the equilibrium of ingredients, the proper choosing of manufacturing stages and the control of the product final moisture content. Fruit bar preparations may include a mixture of pulps, fresh or dried fruit, sugar, binders, and a variety of minor ingredients. Additionally to the conventional steps of manufacturing (pulping, homogenizing, heating, concentrating, and drying) there have been proposed the use of gelled fruit matrices, dried gels or sponges, and extruders as new trends for processing fruit bars. Different single-type dehydration or combined methods include, in order of increasing process time, air-infrared, vacuum and vacuum-microwave drying convective-solar drying, convective drying, and freeze drying are also suggested as alternative to solar traditional drying stage. The dehydration methods that use vacuum exhibited not only higher retention of antioxidants but also better color, texture, and rehydration capacity. Antioxidant activity resulting from the presence of phenolic compounds in the bars is well established. Besides this, fruit bars are also important sources of carbohydrates and minerals. Given the wide range of bioactive factors in fresh fruits that are preserved in fruit bars, it is plausible that their uptake consumption have a positive effect in reducing the risk of many diseases.

  7. Comparação entre dois modelos polinomiais para avaliar a tendência da linha de costa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heithor Alexandre de Araújo Queiroz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A linha de costa é uma feição dinâmica e o conhecimento do seu comportamento posicional no presente, passado e possíveis tendências futuras torna-se fundamental para o planejamento e gestão costeira integrada. O objetivo desta contribuição científica foi avaliar a tendência da linha de costa aplicando o Método dos Mínimos Quadrados em uma série temporal comparando dois modelos matemáticos: o polinomial linear e o quadrático. A área de estudo contempla a Praia do Seixas, Paraiba, através de observações provenientes de ortofotos, imagens de satélite e levantamentos GNSS, totalizando desta forma 8 observações temporais para um intervalo de 17 anos. Para avaliar os modelos matemáticos foram obtidas as tendências para o ano de 2015. Como resultado de tendência dos modelos têm-se a comparação com a linha de costa de 2015 apresentando, para o setor norte, discrepância de 3,6m e 8,9m e para o setor sul de 3,0m e 11,4m considerando o modelo linear e o quadrático respectivamente. Quando comparado a tendência a longo prazo neste caso considerando um horizonte de 40 anos, foi possível verificar diferenças na ordem de 200m entre os modelos matemáticos testados. Os resultados indicam que é necessário ter cautela na escolha de um modelo matemático para o caso do comportamento de tendência da linha de costa.

  8. É possível prever o comprimento de tendões flexores do joelho por antropometria?

    OpenAIRE

    Stieven Filho,Edmar; Sampaio,Eduardo B.; Namba,Mario; Silva,João Luiz Vieira da; Albano,Mauro; Rocha,Luis Eduardo Munhoz da; Agulham,Miguel Ângelo; Cunha,Luiz Antonio Munhoz da

    2010-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Comparar os dados de antropometria e prática esportiva com as dimensões dos tendões flexores do joelho, de forma prospectiva, a fim de criar uma regra para pré-determinar suas dimensões. MÉTODOS: Foram coletados os dados gerais e antropométricos de 30 pacientes submetidos à reconstrução do ligamento cruzado anterior e correlacionados com os dados de comprimento e diâmetro dos tendões flexores do joelho. Os dados coletados foram: altura, peso, idade, joelho acometido, índice de massa...

  9. Hardening of high-protein nutrition bars and sugar/polyol-protein phase separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, D J; Adams, S L; McManus, W R

    2009-08-01

    Use of hydrolyzed proteins is known to delay hardening of high-protein nutrition bars. Bars were formulated using ratios of 0%, 25%, 50%, 75%, or 100% partially hydrolyzed whey protein isolate (HWPI) to nonhydrolyzed whey protein isolate (WPI) in one experiment, and either WPI or HWPI combined with high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) or sorbitol syrup (SS) in a 2nd experiment along with vegetable shortening such that initial a(w) was 0.59 for HWPI bars and 0.64 for WPI bars. After mixing, the dough was extruded into bars and stored at 32 degrees C for accelerated shelf-life testing. Hardness, color, and microstructure were measured during 42 d of storage. Bars initially had similar hardness of approximately 3.4 N that increased during storage. Bars with HWPI were softest with hardness at 37 d of 10 to 15 N compared to almost 100 N for bars with WPI. Water activity increased for WPI bars to 0.69 by 34 d. Bars became darker during storage depending on amount of Maillard browning reactants, that is, HWPI/HFCS bars > HWPI/SS > WPI/HFCS bars > WPI/SS bars. Bar microstructure at day 2 showed protein and fat dispersed in particulate form throughout the carbohydrate syrup within the bar matrix. During storage, a single nonlipid phase developed in HWPI bars while in WPI bars a phase separation occurred between protein and carbohydrate. We propose that such phase separation initiates bar hardening and promotes subsequent protein aggregation. Successful formulation of HPN bars depends on cosolvent properties of the polyol/sugar toward the proteins and their preferential exclusion from the solvation layer surrounding the proteins. High-protein nutrition bars can be formulated so they remain soft during storage by selecting proteins and sugars that are compatible with each other. Otherwise, the protein and sugar will separate from each other which can then lead to hardening.

  10. Suspended-sediment inflows to Watts Bar Reservoir. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ewing, L.K.

    1993-09-01

    Suspended-sediment inflows to Watts Bar Reservoir are important data that are required in numerical modeling of transport and deposition of sediment in the reservoir. Acceptable numerical modeling requires sediment inflow rates and locations in order to be able to compute the location and quantity of sediment deposited within the reservoir. Therefore, the representativeness of modeling results is highly dependent on the characteristics of sediment input to the model. The following recommendations, that account for suspended-sediment inflows to be used in the numerical modeling of sediment transport and deposition in Watts Bar Reservoir, were developed through an evaluation of available watershed and sediment deposition data. (1) Use the suspended-sediment rating regression equations of Gaydos et al., for Emory River at Oakdale, TN, and for Poplar Creek near Oak Ridge, TN, to represent the suspended-sediment inflows into Watts Bar Reservoir from its tributaries; (2) Use a suspended-sediment rating regression equation that was derived from suspended-sediment and streamflow data of the Little Tennessee River at McGhee, TN, to represent sediment inflow from the Little Tennessee River for simulation of any historical year before the completion of Tellico Dam; (3) Check the appropriateness of any assumption for suspended-sediment inflows from upstream reservoirs by using its long-term relationship to local suspended-sediment inflows and to the suspended-sediment outflow through Watts Bar Dam; and (4) Focus refinements to suspended-sediment inflow rates on the Clinch arm of Watts Bar Reservoir.

  11. [Amaranth bars enriched with fructans: acceptability and nutritional value].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias Capriles, Vanessa; Gomes Arêas, José Alfredo

    2010-09-01

    There is an increasing appeal for convenience foods with potential health benefits to the consumer. Raw materials with high nutritional value and functional properties must be used on the development of these food products. Amaranth is a gluten-free grain with high nutrition value. Inulin and oligofructose are prebiotic ingredients presenting effects as the enhancement of calcium absorption. Amaranth bars enriched with inulin and oligofructose were developed in the flavors: banana, Brazilian nuts and dried grape, coconut, peach, strawberry and wall nut. The proximate composition were determined and compared to commercial cereal bars, available in traditional (n=59), light (n=60), diet (n=8), with soy (n=10) and quinoa (n=1) categories. Amaranth bars present mean global acceptance values from 6.3 to 7.6 on a 9-point hedonic scale, nutritional advantages as compared to commercial cereal bars (caloric reduction and higher levels of dietary fiber). Although amaranth is an unknown raw material in Brazil, it shows good potential to be used in the manufacturing of ready-to-eat products. As they are gluten free, these amaranth bars are also an alternative product for celiacs, also contributing to the enhancement of calcium absorption, a problem frequently observed in these patients.

  12. Stellar Bar Evolution in the Absence of Dark Matter Halo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roshan, Mahmood

    2018-02-01

    We study the stellar bar growth in high-resolution numerical galaxy models with and without dark matter halos. In all models, the galactic disk is exponential, and the halos are rigid or live Plummer spheres. More specifically, when there is no dark matter halo, we modify the gravitational force between point particles. To do so, we use the weak field limit of an alternative theory of dark matter known as MOG in the literature. The galaxy model in MOG has the same initial conditions as galaxy models with a dark matter halo. On the other hand, the initial random velocities and Toomre’s local stability parameter are the same for all of the models. We show that the evolution and growth of the bar in MOG is substantially different from the standard cases including dark matter halo. More importantly, we find that the bar growth rate and its final magnitude are smaller in MOG. On the other hand, the maximum value of the bar in MOG is smaller than that in the Newtonian models. It is shown that although the live dark matter halo may support bar instability, MOG has stabilizing effects. Furthermore, we show that MOG supports fast pattern speeds, and unlike in the dark matter halo models, the pattern speed does not decrease with time. These differences, combined with the relevant observations, may help to distinguish between dark matter and modified gravity in galactic scales.

  13. KLM's Boric Acid Reclamation System (BARS): An update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuelke, D.; Kniazewycz, B.G.; Markind, J.; Brossart, M.A.; Choi, R.C.

    1987-02-01

    KLM Technologies has implemented its Department of Energy Phase II Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) demonstration program for a radioactive waste Boric Acid Reclamation System (BARS). Preliminary performance indicates enhanced treatment by the BARS technique over state of the art process methods for selective removal of silica and other impurities from borated water matrices. At optimal system recovery of 96 to 97%, BARS removes nominal levels of boric acid while achieving significant rejection for soluble silica and selective radioisotopes. This is indicative of superior performance compared to existing data governing standard boric acid process treatment in the presence of silica and other contaminants. Conventional technologies have also proven to be relatively expensive, utilizing costly chemically treated disposable resins for primary waste removal. The overall BARS program indicates substantial savings regarding off-site disposal costs based on reduced waste generation. Optimization of the BARS technology could have potential impact on conventional process technologies that are essentially non-selective in removal capacities. 2 figs

  14. Unstoppable brane-flux decay of (D6)-bar branes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danielsson, UniversityH. [Institutionen för Fysik och Astronomi, Uppsala Universitet, Uppsala (Sweden); Gautason, F.F. [Institut de Physique Théorique, Université Paris Saclay, CEA, CNRS, Orme des Merisiers, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Riet, T. Van [Instituut voor Theoretische Fysica, K.University Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium)

    2017-03-27

    We investigate p (D6)-bar branes inside a flux throat that carries K×M D6 charges with K the 3-form flux quantum and M the Romans mass. In such a setup brane-flux annihilation can proceed through the nucleation of KK5 branes. We find that within the calculable supergravity regime where g{sub s}p is large, the (D6)-bar branes annihilate immediately against the fluxes despite the existence of a metastable state at small p/M in the probe approximation. The crucial property that causes this naive conflict with effective field theory is a singularity in the 3-form flux, which we cut off at string scale. Our result explains the absence of regular solutions at finite temperature and suggests there should be a smooth time-dependent solution. We also discuss the qualitative differences between (D6)-bar branes and (D3)-bar branes, which makes it a priori not obvious to conclude the same instability for (D3)-bar branes.

  15. Unstoppable brane-flux decay of (D6)-bar branes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danielsson, UniversityH.; Gautason, F.F.; Riet, T. Van

    2017-01-01

    We investigate p (D6)-bar branes inside a flux throat that carries K×M D6 charges with K the 3-form flux quantum and M the Romans mass. In such a setup brane-flux annihilation can proceed through the nucleation of KK5 branes. We find that within the calculable supergravity regime where g s p is large, the (D6)-bar branes annihilate immediately against the fluxes despite the existence of a metastable state at small p/M in the probe approximation. The crucial property that causes this naive conflict with effective field theory is a singularity in the 3-form flux, which we cut off at string scale. Our result explains the absence of regular solutions at finite temperature and suggests there should be a smooth time-dependent solution. We also discuss the qualitative differences between (D6)-bar branes and (D3)-bar branes, which makes it a priori not obvious to conclude the same instability for (D3)-bar branes.

  16. Tending the Soul: A Teaching Module for Increasing Student Sensitivity to the Spiritual Needs of Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Kathryn S.; Furman, Rich; Hackman, Ruthanne; Bender, Kim; Bruce, Elizabeth A.

    2007-01-01

    Social work educators and practitioners have long recognized the influence of the realm of the soul and spirituality on an individual's health and well-being. This paper presents a four part teaching module used with students who are learning knowledge, values, and skills when working with diverse populations. The teaching module, "Tending the…

  17. Speculations on Bar-Driven Evolution of the Galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevenster, M. N.

    The Galaxy's has a weak Bar, of SAB-type, and the corotation radius is near 3.5 kpc with the inner-ultra-harmonic resonance near 2.5 kpc, as derived from an unbiased set of stellar positions and losa velocities. I speculate upon - and present some evidence for - a scenario in which the Bar formed about 5 Gyr ago and induced an inward flow of gas that increased the galactic-centre metallicity. The central concentration of the density distribution of the Galaxy may have increased enough to trigger periodic star bursts and the formation of an inner-Lindblad resonance near 1.5 kpc, which may now and in future be the cause for the ongoing dissolution of the Bar.

  18. Optimization of steel bar manufacturing process using six sigma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naeem, Khawar; Ullah, Misbah; Tariq, Adnan; Maqsood, Shahid; Akhtar, Rehman; Nawaz, Rashid; Hussain, Iftikhar

    2016-03-01

    Optimization of a manufacturing process results in higher productivity and reduced wastes. Production parameters of a local steel bar manufacturing industry of Pakistan is optimized by using six Sigma-Define, measure, analyze, improve, and controlmethodology. Production data is collected and analyzed. After analysis, experimental design result is used to identify significant factors affecting process performance. The significant factors are controlled to optimized level using two-level factorial design method. A regression model is developed that helps in the estimation of response under multi variable input values. Model is tested, verified, and validated by using industrial data collected at a local steel bar manufacturing industry of Peshawar(Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan). The sigma level of the manufacturing process is improved to 4.01 from 3.58. The novelty of the research is the identification of the significant factors along with the optimum levels that affects the process yield, and the methodology to optimize the steel bar manufacturing process.

  19. The BaBar instrumented flux return performance: lessons learned

    CERN Document Server

    Anulli, F; Baldini, R; Band, H R; Bionta, R; Brau, J E; Brigljevic, V; Buzzo, A; Calcaterra, A; Carpinelli, M; Cartaro, C; Cavallo, N; Crosetti, G; De Nardo, Gallieno; De Sangro, R; Eichenbaum, A; Fabozzi, F; Falciai, D; Ferrarotto, F; Ferroni, F; Finocchiaro, G; Forti, F; Frey, R; Gatto, C; Graug; Iakovlev, N I; Iwasaki, M; Johnson, J R; Lange, D J; Lista, L; Lo Vetere, M; Lü, C; Macri, M; Messner, R; Moore, T B; Morganti, S; Neal, H; Neri, N; Palano, A; Paoloni, E; Paolucci, P; Passaggio, S; Pastore, F C; Patteri, P; Peruzzi, I; Piccolo, D; Piccolo, M; Piredda, G; Robutti, E; Roodman, A; Santroni, A; Sciacca, C; Sinev, N B; Soha, A; Strom, D; Tosi, S; Vavra, J; Wisniewski, W J; Wright, D M; Xie, Y; Zallo, A

    2002-01-01

    The BaBar Collaboration has operated an instrumented flux return (IFR) system covering over 2000 m sup 2 with resistive plate chambers (RPCs) for nearly 3 years. The chambers are constructed of bakelite sheets separated by 2 mm. The inner surfaces are coated with linseed oil. This system provides muon and neutral hadron detection for BaBar. Installation and commissioning were completed in 1998, and operation began mid-year 1999. While initial performance of the system reached design, over time, a significant fraction of the RPCs demonstrated significant degradation, marked by increased currents and reduced efficiency. A coordinated effort of investigations have identified many of the elements responsible for the degradation. This article presents our current understanding of the aging process of the BaBar RPCs along with the action plan to combat performance degradation of the IFR system.

  20. A Kolsky tension bar technique using a hollow incident tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman, O.; Frew, D. J.; Chen, W.

    2011-04-01

    Load control of the incident pulse profiles in compression Kolsky bar experiments has been widely used to subject the specimen to optimal testing conditions. Tension Kolsky bars have been used to determine dynamic material behavior since the 1960s with limited capability to shape the loading pulses due to the pulse-generating mechanisms. We developed a modified Kolsky tension bar where a hollow incident tube is used to carry the incident stress waves. The incident tube also acts as a gas gun barrel that houses the striker for impact. The main advantage of this new design is that the striker impacts on an impact cap of the incident tube. Compression pulse shapers can be attached to the impact cap, thus fully utilizing the predictive compression pulse-shaping capability in tension experiments. Using this new testing technique, the dynamic tensile material behavior for Al 6061-T6511 and TRIP 800 (transformation-induced plasticity) steel has been obtained.

  1. A Kolsky tension bar technique using a hollow incident tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guzman, O; Frew, D J; Chen, W

    2011-01-01

    Load control of the incident pulse profiles in compression Kolsky bar experiments has been widely used to subject the specimen to optimal testing conditions. Tension Kolsky bars have been used to determine dynamic material behavior since the 1960s with limited capability to shape the loading pulses due to the pulse-generating mechanisms. We developed a modified Kolsky tension bar where a hollow incident tube is used to carry the incident stress waves. The incident tube also acts as a gas gun barrel that houses the striker for impact. The main advantage of this new design is that the striker impacts on an impact cap of the incident tube. Compression pulse shapers can be attached to the impact cap, thus fully utilizing the predictive compression pulse-shaping capability in tension experiments. Using this new testing technique, the dynamic tensile material behavior for Al 6061-T6511 and TRIP 800 (transformation-induced plasticity) steel has been obtained

  2. Dynamics of five-bar COBOT using differential mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li-Xun; Lu, Dun-Min; Wang, Lan; Shen, Jin-Hua; Bernhard, R.

    2003-12-01

    COBOT is a new kind of collaborative robot, which can work with people in a shared space. In this paper a new kind of CVT using differential mechanism is introduced, which is major parts of five-bar COBOT and based the feature of nonhlonnmic constraint. The dynamic model of differential mechanism and five-bar architecture COBOT is founded. There are two kinds of coupled mode of two CVT:serial and parallel. In this paper, we present the dynamic model of serial and parallel COBOT take five-bar COBOT as research object. From the dynamic analysis foregoing, both serial and parallel COBOT model are have the feature of nonholonomic constraint. The ending track and moving state are controlled by the force of control motor and operator. The control motor can not control the movement and ending track of COBOT without the cooperation of operator.

  3. Quality and Sensorial Characteristics of Raw-Vegan Bars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liana Claudia Salanţă

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Increased consumer interest in healthier food products is driven by a variety of factors including growing awareness of the link between diet and health, the desire to age ‘gracefully’ by maintaining good health, greater convenience in meeting nutritional needs and preventing chronic diseases. In raw food diet, food is consumed predominantly or exclusively as uncooked and unprocessed raw food; the main components of the diet are fruits, nuts, seeds, and sprouted grains and beans. The aim of this study was to obtain two raw-vegan bars using dry raw materials and to establish the physicochemical and sensory characteristics of the products. Raw-vegan bars were formulated using fruits and seeds (cranberries, figs, raisins, raspberries, cashew, chia seeds, etc. and binding agents (honey. Raw-vegan bars stands out among fast foods due to their balanced nutritional content and convenience.  

  4. Análise de Tendências em Dados de Precipitação e Temperatura no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Figueiredo Salviano

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Resumo A concentração de gases de efeito estufa (GEE na atmosfera tem aumentado acentuadamente desde a revolução industrial, o que levou a intensificação do efeito estufa e consequentemente vem causando o aquecimento global. A análise espacial de tendências permite observar as mudanças no comportamento e determinar em quais regiões uma determinada variável vem sofrendo mudanças ao longo do tempo. Diante disso, o objetivo do presente trabalho foi analisar as tendências temporais da precipitação e da temperatura média no Brasil, utilizando o método Contextual Mann-Kendall (CMK, utilizando dados espacialmente distribuídos elaborados pelo Climatic Research Unit (CRU, entre os anos 1961 e 2011. A umidade relativa e a evapotranspiração foram analisadas no intuito de auxiliar na interpretação dos resultados da precipitação e temperatura. Os resultados mostraram tendências não significativas em mais de 70% do território brasileiro em todos os meses na precipitação, porém a temperatura média apresentou tendência positiva significativa em grande parte do Brasil ao longo de todo ano. Em geral, a evapotranspiração apresentou um comportamento diretamente proporcional à temperatura, enquanto que a umidade relativa apresentou comportamento inversamente proporcional. A continuidade dessas tendências poderá resultar em impactos na agricultura e no ciclo hidrológico, e consequentemente para a fauna e flora e para a população.

  5. Search for $t\\bar{t}H$ production in the $H \\rightarrow b\\bar{b}$ channel

    CERN Document Server

    David, Claire; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    A search for the Standard Model Higgs boson produced in association with top-quark pair, $t\\bar{t}H$, and targeting the $H \\rightarrow b\\bar{b}$ decay mode is presented. The analysis uses 36.1 fb$^{-1}$ of $pp$ collision data at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 13 TeV collected with the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider in 2015 and 2016. Events must contain either one or two electrons or muons from the top-quark decays and are further categorized according to the multiplicities of jets and jets containing a b-hadron (b-jets). Two-stage multivariate techniques are used to discriminate between signal and the dominant background $t\\bar{t}$ + jets. The ratio of the measured $t\\bar{t}H$ signal cross-section to the Standard Model expectation is found to be $\\mu = 0.84^{+0.64}_{-0.61}$. A value of μ greater than 2.0 is excluded at 95% confidence level. The expected upper limit is $\\mu$ < 1.2 in the absence of a $t\\bar{t}H$ signal.

  6. Transport measurements and simulations of GaAs/AlGaAs ``anti-Hall-bar within a Hall bar'' devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriisa, Annika; Mani, Ramesh G.

    2009-03-01

    Hall effect measurements are often carried out in the Hall geometry, which is a thin rectangular plate with current and Hall voltage contacts at the external boundary. The motivation of this study is to further understand the impact on Hall effect when a hole is inserted inside Hall geometry. One way on conducting this investigation is to superimpose an ``anti-Hall bar'' inside the standard Hall bar, where the anti Hall bar is actually the hole inside the Hall device with contacts on the inside boundary of this hole. This configuration is thought to generate an ordinary Hall effect within the interior boundary such that the interior Hall voltage divided by the interior injected current equals the Hall resistance. One believes that it might also be possible to simultaneously realize multiple independent Hall effects by injecting multiple currents into the multiply connected device [1]. We have studied Hall effect in the doubly connected ``anti-Hall bar within a Hall bar'' geometry fabricated out of the GaAs/AlGaAs semiconductor system. Also the simulations of the distribution of the Hall current and potential profile within the specimen are conducted. To attain understanding of how the Hall effect arises in this geometry, the simulation plots are compared to the experimental results. [1] R. G. Mani and K. von Klitzing, App. Phys. Lett. 1993, 64, 1262-1264.

  7. Measurement of the $t\\bar{t}$ production cross section using dilepton events in $p\\bar{p}$ collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abazov, Victor Mukhamedovich; /Dubna, JINR; Abbott, Braden Keim; /Oklahoma U.; Acharya, Bannanje Sripath; /Tata Inst.; Adams, Mark Raymond; /Illinois U., Chicago; Adams, Todd; /Florida State U.; Alexeev, Guennadi D.; /Dubna, JINR; Alkhazov, Georgiy D.; /St. Petersburg, INP; Alton, Andrew K.; /Michigan U. /Augustana Coll., Sioux Falls; Alverson, George O.; /Northeastern U.; Alves, Gilvan Augusto; /Rio de Janeiro, CBPF; Ancu, Lucian Stefan; /Nijmegen U. /Fermilab

    2011-05-01

    We present a measurement of the t{bar t} production cross section {sigma}{sub t{bar t}} in p{bar p} collisions at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV using 5.4 fb{sup -1} of integrated luminosity collected with the D0 detector. We consider final states with at least two jets and two leptons (ee, e{mu}, {mu}{mu}), and events with one jet for the the e{mu} final state as well. The measured cross section is {sigma}{sub t{bar t}} = 7.36{sub -0.79}{sup +0.90} (stat + syst) pb. This result combined with the cross section measurement in the lepton + jets final state yields {sigma}{sub t{bar t}} = 7.56{sub -0.56}{sup +0.63}(stat + syst) pb, which agrees with the standard model expectation. The relative precision of 8% of this measurement is comparable to the latest theoretical calculations.

  8. Comparison of Failure Process of Bended Beams Reinforced with Steel Bars and GFRP Bars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaszyńska, Maria; Błyszko, Jarosław; Olczyk, Norbert

    2017-10-01

    load were tested. Both types of beams were designed to have the same bearing capacity. Beams reinforced with GFRP rebar exhibited much bigger cracking than traditionally reinforced bars. The width of cracks appearing in beams reinforced with GFRP bars was equal or greater than limit values (0.4 mm) even though the ratio of moment of resistance and cracking moment was greater than 3. The composite rebar exhibits many significant advantages over steel rebar, but its rather low Young’s modulus comparing to steel causes exceeded deflection and cracking of bended concrete elements.

  9. Megascale rhythmic shoreline forms on a beach with multiple bars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew Pruszak

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The study, carried out in 2003 and 2006 at the Lubiatowo Coastal ResearchStation (Poland, located on the non-tidal southern Baltic coast(tidal range < 0.06 m, focused on larger rhythmic forms (mega-cusps withwavelengths in the interval 500 m > Lc > 20 m. Statistical analyses of detailed shoreline configurations were performed mostly with the Discrete Wavelet Transformmethod (DWT. The beach is composed of fine sand with grain diameter D50 ≈ 0.22 mm, which produces 4 longshore sandbars and a gently sloping seabed with β = 0.015. The analysis confirms the key role of bars in hydro- and morphodynamic surf zone processes.The hypothesis was therefore set up that, in a surf zone with multiple bars, the bars and mega-scale shoreline rhythmic forms form one integrated physical system; experimental evidence to substantiate this hypothesis was also sought.In such a system not only do self-regulation processes include swash zone phenomena, they also incorporate processes in offshore surf zone locations.The longshore dimensions of large cusps are thus related to the distances between periodically active large bed forms (bars. The spatial dimension of bar system activity (number of active bars depends, at a given time scale, on the associated hydrodynamic conditions. It was assumed that such a time scale could include either the development and duration of a storm, or a period of stable, yet distinct waves, capable of remodelling the beach configuration.The indentation to wavelength ratio of mega-cusps for the studied non-tidal dissipative environment may be one order of magnitude greater than for mesotidal, reflective beaches.

  10. Origin of the high vlos feature in the Galactic bar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aumer, Michael; Schönrich, Ralph

    2015-12-01

    We analyse a controlled N-body+smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulation of a growing disc galaxy within a non-growing, live dark halo. The disc is continuously fed with gas and star particles on near-circular orbits and develops a bar comparable in size to the one of the Milky Way (MW). We extract line-of-sight velocity vlos distributions from the model and compare it to data recently obtained from the Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE) survey which show distinct high-velocity features around vlos ˜ 200 km s-1. With an APOGEE-like selection function, but without any scaling nor adjustment, we find vlos distributions very similar to those in APOGEE. The stars that make up the high vlos features at positive longitudes l are preferentially young bar stars (age τ ≲ 2-3 Gyr) which move away from us along the rear side of the bar. At negative l, we find the corresponding low vlos feature from stars moving towards us. At l > 10 deg, the highest vlos stars are a mixture of bar and background disc stars which complicates the interpretation of observations. The main peak in vlos is dominated by fore- and background stars. At a given time, ˜40-50 per cent of high vlos stars occupy x1-like orbits, but a significant fraction are on more complex orbits. The observed feature is likely due to a population of dynamically cool, young stars formed from gas just outside the bar and subsequently captured by the growing bar. The high vlos features disappear at high latitudes |b| ≳ 2 deg which explains the non-detection of such features in other surveys.

  11. (Ln-bar, g)-spaces. Ordinary and tensor differentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manoff, S.; Dimitrov, B.

    1998-01-01

    Different types of differentials as special cases of differential operators acting on tensor fields over (L n bar, g)-spaces are considered. The ordinary differential, the covariant differential as a special case of the covariant differential operator, and the Lie differential as a special case of the Lie differential operator are investigated. The tensor differential and its special types (Covariant tensor differential, and Lie tensor differential) are determined and their properties are discussed. Covariant symmetric and antisymmetric (external) tensor differentials, Lie symmetric, and Lie antisymmetric (external) tensor differentials are determined and considered over (L n bar, g)-spaces

  12. Spondylocarpotarsal synostosis syndrome (with a posterior midline unsegmented bar)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaissi, A. Al; Ghachem, M. Ben; Nassib, N.; Chehida, F. Ben [Hospital d' Enfants, Service d' orthopedie infantile, Tunis (Tunisia); Kozlowski, K. [Department of Medical Imaging, Sydney (Australia)

    2005-06-01

    Spondylocarpotarsal synostosis syndrome (SSS) is characterised by malsegmentation of the thoracic spine and carpal/tarsal fusions. A unilateral or bilateral unsegmented bar may be present in the thoracic spine. Presenting clinical signs are congenital scoliosis early in life, and shortening of the trunk with scoliosis and/or lordosis in older children. We report a 13-year-old girl with SSS and a midline unsegmented bar running along the spinal processes of T3 to L2 and extending into the posterior vertebral elements. (orig.)

  13. Symmetry Perspectives on Some Auxetic Body-Bar Frameworks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick W. Fowler

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Scalar mobility counting rules and their symmetry extensions are reviewed for finite frameworks and also for infinite periodic frameworks of the bar-and-joint, body-joint and body-bar types. A recently published symmetry criterion for the existence of equiauxetic character of an infinite framework is applied to two long known but apparently little studied hinged-hexagon frameworks, and is shown to detect auxetic behaviour in both. In contrast, for double-link frameworks based on triangular and square tessellations, other affine deformations can mix with the isotropic expansion mode.

  14. Metallicity and kinematics of the bar in situ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babusiaux, C.; Katz, D.; Hill, V.; Royer, F.; Gómez, A.; Arenou, F.; Combes, F.; Di Matteo, P.; Gilmore, G.; Haywood, M.; Robin, A. C.; Rodriguez-Fernandez, N.; Sartoretti, P.; Schultheis, M.

    2014-03-01

    Context. Constraints on the Galactic bulge and bar structures and on their formation history from stellar kinematics and metallicities mainly come from relatively high-latitude fields (|b| > 4°) where a complex mix of stellar population is seen. Aims: We aim here to constrain the formation history of the Galactic bar by studying the radial velocity and metallicity distributions of stars in situ (|b| ≤ 1°). Methods: We observed red clump stars in four fields along the bar's major axis (l = 10°, -6°, 6° and b = 0° plus a field at l = 0°, b = 1°) with low-resolution spectroscopy from FLAMES/GIRAFFE at the VLT, observing around the Ca ii triplet. We developed robust methods for extracting radial velocity and metallicity estimates from these low signal-to-noise spectra. We derived distance probability distributions using Bayesian methods rigorously handling the extinction law. Results: We present radial velocities and metallicity distributions, as well as radial velocity trends with distance. We observe an increase in the radial velocity dispersion near the Galactic plane. We detect the streaming motion of the stars induced by the bar in fields at l = ±6°, the highest velocity components of this bar stream being metal-rich ([Fe/H] ~ 0.2 dex). Our data is consistent with a bar that is inclined at 26 ± 3° from the Sun-Galactic centre line. We observe a significant fraction of metal-poor stars, in particular in the field at l = 0°, b = 1°. We confirm the flattening of the metallicity gradient along the minor axis when getting closer to the plane, with a hint that it could actually be inverted. Conclusions: Our stellar kinematics corresponds to the expected behaviour of a bar issued from the secular evolution of the Galactic disc. The mix of several populations, seen further away from the plane, is also seen in the bar in situ since our metallicity distributions highlight a different spatial distribution between metal-poor and metal-rich stars, the more

  15. Black silicon with black bus-bar strings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Rasmus Schmidt; Tang, Peter Torben; Mizushima, Io

    2016-01-01

    We present the combination of black silicon texturing and blackened bus-bar strings as a potential method for obtaining all-black solar panels, while using conventional, front-contacted solar cells. Black silicon was realized by mask-less reactive ion etching resulting in total, average reflectance...... below 0.5% across a 156x156 mm2 silicon wafer. Black bus-bars were realized by oxidized copper resulting in reflectance below 3% in the entire visible wavelength range. The combination of these two technologies may result in aesthetic, all-black panels based on conventional, front-contacted solar cells...

  16. "The fans' complot": soccer and masculine performance in bars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Édison Gastaldo

    Full Text Available This paper issues some topics of the social interaction occurrant in bars where football matches are transmitted, particularly aspects of gender performance. The data analysed refer to an ethnographic fieldwork being held since the beginning of 2004 in bars of the Greater Porto Alegre area, in Brazil. Three performatic modalities are discussed: the presence on the setting as performance, verbal challenges between the participants and joking dramatizations. I consider that these elements - among others - reveal part of the complex field of meanings related to masculinity in Brazilian society, being a constitutive part of the phenomenon that I call "football joking relationships".

  17. Designing the operation of a Vape Bar

    OpenAIRE

    Sultanzade, Teymur

    2017-01-01

    This bachelor thesis aims to propose the design of the operation for a Vape Bar using operation management tools. Moreover, this BT provides first standards for operations of a Vape bar business in Prague. In the first chapter, Vape economy and its importance around the world is presented. This shows that its potentials are growing constantly and that the absence of such a business in Prague is an opportunity. The thesis then adheres the methodology of the process design framework, where it d...

  18. Bandwagon effects and error bars in particle physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeng, Monwhea

    2007-01-01

    We study historical records of experiments on particle masses, lifetimes, and widths, both for signs of expectation bias, and to compare actual errors with reported error bars. We show that significant numbers of particle properties exhibit 'bandwagon effects': reported values show trends and clustering as a function of the year of publication, rather than random scatter about the mean. While the total amount of clustering is significant, it is also fairly small; most individual particle properties do not display obvious clustering. When differences between experiments are compared with the reported error bars, the deviations do not follow a normal distribution, but instead follow an exponential distribution for up to ten standard deviations

  19. Bandwagon effects and error bars in particle physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeng, Monwhea

    2007-02-01

    We study historical records of experiments on particle masses, lifetimes, and widths, both for signs of expectation bias, and to compare actual errors with reported error bars. We show that significant numbers of particle properties exhibit "bandwagon effects": reported values show trends and clustering as a function of the year of publication, rather than random scatter about the mean. While the total amount of clustering is significant, it is also fairly small; most individual particle properties do not display obvious clustering. When differences between experiments are compared with the reported error bars, the deviations do not follow a normal distribution, but instead follow an exponential distribution for up to ten standard deviations.

  20. Remedial investigation/feasibility study report for lower Watts Bar Reservoir Operable Unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-08-01

    This document is the combined Remedial Investigation and Feasibility Study Report for the Lower Watts Bar Reservoir (LWBR) Operable Unit (OU). The LWBR is located in Roane, Rhea, and Meigs counties, Tennessee, and consists of Watts Bar Reservoir downstream of the Clinch River. This area has received hazardous substances released over a period of 50 years from the U.S. Department of Energy's Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), a National Priority List site established under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA). As required by this law, the ORR and all off-site areas that have received containments, including LWBR, must be investigated to determine the risk to human health and the environment resulting from these releases, the need for any remedial action to reduce these risks, and the remedial actions that are most feasible for implementation in this OU. Contaminants from the ORR are primarily transported to the LWBR via the Clinch River. Water-soluble contaminants released to ORR surface waters are rapidly diluted upon entering the Clinch River and then quickly transported downstream to the Tennessee River where further dilution occurs. Almost the entire quantity of these diluted contaminants rapidly flows through LWBR. In contrast, particle-associated contaminants tend to accumulate in the lower Clinch River and in LWBR in areas of sediment deposition. Those particle-associated contaminants that were released in peak quantities during the early years of ORR operations (e.g., mercury and 137 Cs) are buried under as much as 80 cm of cleaner sediment in LWBR. Certain contaminants, most notably polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), have accumulated in LWBR biota. The contamination of aquatic biota with PCBs is best documented for certain fish species and extends to reservoirs upstream of the ORR, indicating a contamination problem that is regional in scope and not specific to the ORR

  1. Different functional modes of BAR domain proteins in formation and plasticity of mammalian postsynapses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessels, Michael M; Qualmann, Britta

    2015-09-01

    A plethora of cell biological processes involve modulations of cellular membranes. By using extended lipid-binding interfaces, some proteins have the power to shape membranes by attaching to them. Among such membrane shapers, the superfamily of Bin-Amphiphysin-Rvs (BAR) domain proteins has recently taken center stage. Extensive structural work on BAR domains has revealed a common curved fold that can serve as an extended membrane-binding interface to modulate membrane topologies and has allowed the grouping of the BAR domain superfamily into subfamilies with structurally slightly distinct BAR domain subtypes (N-BAR, BAR, F-BAR and I-BAR). Most BAR superfamily members are expressed in the mammalian nervous system. Neurons are elaborately shaped and highly compartmentalized cells. Therefore, analyses of synapse formation and of postsynaptic reorganization processes (synaptic plasticity) - a basis for learning and memory formation - has unveiled important physiological functions of BAR domain superfamily members. These recent advances, furthermore, have revealed that the functions of BAR domain proteins include different aspects. These functions are influenced by the often complex domain organization of BAR domain proteins. In this Commentary, we review these recent insights and propose to classify BAR domain protein functions into (1) membrane shaping, (2) physical integration, (3) action through signaling components, and (4) suppression of other BAR domain functions. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  2. Crossing the bar the adventures of a san francisco bay bar pilot

    CERN Document Server

    Lobo, Paul

    2016-01-01

    There is nothing placid about San Francisco Bay. Its raucous waters have hosted brutal storms, daring rescues, horrendous accidents, and countless hours of drama and tension. Captain Paul Lobo knows that better than most people. As a licensed harbor pilot in those treacherous waters, Lobo captained nearly 6,500 boats in a thirty-one year career—everything from mega-yachts to the USS Enterprise to the Love Boat. Each trip tells its own story, and Lobo shares many. Here readers will find gripping, tense adventure stories, all well told. Reading Crossing the Bar is like being on the rolling bridge with Lobo. Here are tragic deaths and lives saved, inspiring rescues, devastating storms, and the infamous and horrendous oil spill after the Cosco Busan rammed the Oakland Bay Bridge—which resulted in the first imprisonment of a maritime pilot for making an error. Readers will also find a December sea rescue Lobo assisted with in hurricane strength winds and monstrous seas. Without Lobo's pilot boat and its crews' s...

  3. An alternative analysis of the LSND neutrino oscillation search data on bar νμ→ bar νe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, J.E.

    1995-01-01

    This analysis of data from the Liquid Scintillator Neutrino Detector (LSND) at the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF) sets bounds on neutrino oscillations in the appearance channel bar ν μ → bar ν e by searching for the signature of the reaction bar ν e p→e + n: an e + followed by a 2.2 MeV γ ray from neutron capture. Five e ± -γ coincidences are observed in time with the LAMPF beam, with an estimated background of 6.2 events. The 90% confidence limits obtained in this analysis are Δm 2 2 for sin 2 2θ=1, and sin 2 2θ -3 for Δm 2 approx-gt 20 eV 2 . The possible signal at the edge of the detector's sensitivity is mentioned

  4. Tendências na incidência e mortalidade por acidentes de trabalho no Brasil, 1998 a 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Souza e Silva de Almeida

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do estudo foi avaliar as tendências na incidência e mortalidade por acidentes de trabalho no Brasil, de 1998 a 2008. Trata-se de estudo ecológico de séries temporais, que incluiu, para a análise, os acidentes de trabalho registrados nas estatísticas oficiais do Governo Federal. Foram calculadas as variações percentuais anuais (APC nas taxas de incidência e de mortalidade, através da modelagem pelo método Joinpoint, usando o ano calendário como variável regressora. Observou-se tendência significativa de decréscimo na taxa de incidência de acidentes de trabalho, o mesmo ocorrendo para os acidentes de trabalho típicos. Para ambos, o número de casos aumentou nesse período. O número de casos de acidentes de trabalho de trajeto e sua incidência mostraram tendência significativa de aumento. O número de óbitos e a taxa de mortalidade registraram tendência de decréscimo. São discutidos como fatores contribuintes para o declínio das taxas de incidência de acidentes de trabalho e de mortalidade por esta causa: melhoria das condições de trabalho, maior crescimento do setor de serviços do que do setor industrial, subnotificação dos acidentes de trabalho e terceirização dos serviços. O aumento dos acidentes de trabalho de trajeto sugere a influência da violência dos centros urbanos.

  5. Lines and Pies and Bars, Oh My! Making Math Fun.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarnati, James T.; Platt, Robert B.

    1991-01-01

    The article discusses strategies for parents to help their children improve math skills. It examines graphing skills and looks at three types of graphs (line graph, bar graph, and pie chart). Various simple activities illustrate what all scientists and mathematicians do when conducting experiments or developing mathematical models. (SM)

  6. 5 CFR 9701.305 - Bar on collective bargaining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Pay and Pay Administration General § 9701.305 Bar on collective... Section 9701.305 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT... design of pay structures, the setting and adjustment of pay levels, pay administration rules and policies...

  7. Mandatory Identification Bar Checks: How Bouncers Are Doing Their Job

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monk-Turner, Elizabeth; Allen, John; Casten, John; Cowling, Catherine; Gray, Charles; Guhr, David; Hoofnagle, Kara; Huffman, Jessica; Mina, Moises; Moore, Brian

    2011-01-01

    The behavior of bouncers at on site establishments that served alcohol was observed. Our aim was to better understand how bouncers went about their job when the bar had a mandatory policy to check identification of all customers. Utilizing an ethnographic decision model, we found that bouncers were significantly more likely to card customers that…

  8. Dowel Bar Retrofit Mix Design and Specification : Technical Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Current INDOT specifications for repair materials to be used in dowel bar retrofit (DBR) applications (Sections 507.08 and 901.07 of INDOTs Book of Specifications) are based, in large part, on the requirements of ASTM C 928 and the manufacturer-pr...

  9. Laying performances and egg quality of local barred hens under ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: This study was designated to evaluate the laying performances and egg traits in local barred hens. Sixteen (16) hens and 4 cocks were used, divided into 4 experimental units of 4 hens and 1 cock per unit. Methodology and Results: The following parameters were studied: feed intake (g/bird/day), egg production ...

  10. Precision measurements of Γ (Z→bb-bar)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perret, P.

    1993-01-01

    Measurements of the branching fraction of Z→bb-bar relative to all hadronic decays of the Z are reviewed. Results are obtained with the four detectors ALEPH, DELPHI, L3 and OPAL at the CERN LEP e + e - collider, using data collected in 1990 and 1991 with typically more than 400 000 hadronic Z per experiment. (author) 34 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs

  11. Connecting Global to Local Parameters in Barred Galaxy Models

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    Abstract. We present connections between global and local parame- ters in a realistic dynamical model, describing motion in a barred galaxy. Expanding the global model in the vicinity of a stable Lagrange point, we find the potential of a two-dimensional perturbed harmonic oscillator, which describes local motion near the ...

  12. On wave dark matter in spiral and barred galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez-Medina, Luis A.; Matos, Tonatiuh [Departamento de Física, Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN, A.P. 14-740, 07000 México D.F., México. (Mexico); Bray, Hubert L., E-mail: lmedina@fis.cinvestav.mx, E-mail: bray@math.duke.edu, E-mail: tmatos@fis.cinvestav.mx [Mathematics Department, Duke University, Box 90320, Durham, NC 27708 (United States)

    2015-12-01

    We recover spiral and barred spiral patterns in disk galaxy simulations with a Wave Dark Matter (WDM) background (also known as Scalar Field Dark Matter (SFDM), Ultra-Light Axion (ULA) dark matter, and Bose-Einstein Condensate (BEC) dark matter). Here we show how the interaction between a baryonic disk and its Dark Matter Halo triggers the formation of spiral structures when the halo is allowed to have a triaxial shape and angular momentum. This is a more realistic picture within the WDM model since a non-spherical rotating halo seems to be more natural. By performing hydrodynamic simulations, along with earlier test particles simulations, we demonstrate another important way in which wave dark matter is consistent with observations. The common existence of bars in these simulations is particularly noteworthy. This may have consequences when trying to obtain information about the dark matter distribution in a galaxy, the mere presence of spiral arms or a bar usually indicates that baryonic matter dominates the central region and therefore observations, like rotation curves, may not tell us what the DM distribution is at the halo center. But here we show that spiral arms and bars can develop in DM dominated galaxies with a central density core without supposing its origin on mechanisms intrinsic to the baryonic matter.

  13. Study of the decay B0bar -> D* omega pi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aubert, B.

    2006-04-24

    We report on a study of the decay {bar B}{sup 0} {yields} D*{sup +}{omega}{pi}{sup -} with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II B-factory at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. Based on a sample of 232 million B{bar B} decays, we measure the branching fraction {Beta}({bar B}{sup 0} {yields} D*{sup +}{omega}{pi}{sup -}) = (2.88 {+-} 0.21(stat.) {+-} 0.31(syst.)) x 10{sup -3}. We study the invariant mass spectrum of the {omega}{pi}{sup -} system in this decay. This spectrum is in good agreement with expectations based on factorization and the measured spectrum in {tau}{sup -} {yields} {omega}{pi}{sup -} {nu}{sub {tau}}. We also measure the polarization of the D*{sup +} as a function of the {omega}{pi}{sup -} mass. In the mass region 1.1 to 1.9 GeV we measure the fraction of longitudinal polarization of the D*{sup +} to be {Lambda}{sub L}/{Lambda} = 0.654 {+-} 0.042(stat.) {+-} 0.016(syst.). This is in agreement with the expectations from heavy-quark effective theory and factorization assuming that the decay proceeds as {bar B}{sup 0} {yields} D*{sup +}{rho}(1450), {rho}(1450) {yields} {omega}{pi}{sup -}.

  14. Bars to Jars: Bamboo Value Chains in Cameroon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ingram, V.J.; Tieguhong, C.

    2013-01-01

    Bamboo is a well know and versatile material, which is a common sight across Cameroon's diverse ecosystems, from dry to humid tropical and Afromontane forests. Its numerous uses range from storage jars to decorating restaurant-bars, beehives to knives, fences, fodder, and fuel. Responding to the

  15. Bars to jars: bamboo value chains in Cameroon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ingram, V.; Tieguhong, J.C.

    2013-01-01

    Bamboo is a well know and versatile material, which is a common sight across Cameroon's diverse ecosystems, from dry to humid tropical and Afromontane forests. Its numerous uses range from storage jars to decorating restaurant-bars, beehives to knives, fences, fodder, and fuel. Responding to the

  16. Free riding and the provision of candy bars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haan, M.A.; Kooreman, P.

    A wealth of experimental literature studies the effect of repetition and group size on the extent of free riding in the provision of public goods. In this paper, we use data from honor systems for candy bars in 166 firms to test whether such effects can be found outside the laboratory. We find that

  17. The BaBar detector: Upgrades, operation and performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aubert, B.; Barate, R.; Boutigny, D.; Couderc, F.; del Amo Sanchez, P.; Gaillard, J. -M.; Hicheur, A.; Karyotakis, Y.; Lees, J. P.; Poireau, V.; Prudent, X.; Robbe, P.; Tisserand, V.; Zghiche, A.; Grauges, E.; Garra Tico, J.; Lopez, L.; Martinelli, M.; Palano, A.; Pappagallo, M.; Pompili, A.; Chen, G. P.; Chen, J. C.; Qi, N. D.; Rong, G.; Wang, P.; Zhu, Y. S.; Eigen, G.; Stugu, B.; Sun, L.; Abrams, G. S.; Battaglia, M.; Borgland, A. W.; Breon, A. B.; Brown, D. N.; Button-Shafer, J.; Cahn, R. N.; Charles, E.; Clark, A. R.; Day, C. T.; Furman, M.; Gill, M. S.; Groysman, Y.; Jacobsen, R. G.; Kadel, R. W.; Kadyk, J. A.; Kerth, L. T.; Kolomensky, Yu. G.; Kral, J. F.; Kukartsev, G.; LeClerc, C.; Levi, M. E.; Lynch, G.; Merchant, A. M.; Mir, L. M.; Oddone, P. J.; Orimoto, T. J.; Osipenkov, I. L.; Pripstein, M.; Roe, N. A.; Romosan, A.; Ronan, M. T.; Shelkov, V. G.; Suzuki, A.; Tackmann, K.; Tanabe, T.; Wenzel, W. A.; Zisman, M.; Barrett, M.; Bright-Thomas, P. G.; Ford, K. E.; Harrison, T. J.; Hart, A. J.; Hawkes, C. M.; Knowles, D. J.; Morgan, S. E.; O' Neale, S. W.; Penny, R. C.; Smith, D.; Soni, N.; Watson, A. T.; Watson, N. K.; Goetzen, K.; Held, T.; Koch, H.; Kunze, M.; Lewandowski, B.; Pelizaeus, M.; Peters, K.; Schmuecker, H.; Schroeder, T.; Steinke, M.; Fella, A.; Antonioli, E.; Boyd, J. T.; Chevalier, N.; Cottingham, W. N.; Foster, B.; Mackay, C.; Walker, D.; Abe, K.; Asgeirsson, D. J.; Cuhadar-Donszelmann, T.; Fulsom, B. G.; Hearty, C.; Knecht, N. S.; Mattison, T. S.; McKenna, J. A.; Thiessen, D.; Khan, A.; Kyberd, P.; McKemey, A. K.; Randle-Conde, A.; Saleem, M.; Sherwood, D. J.; Teodorescu, L.; Blinov, V. E.; Bukin, A. D.; Buzykaev, A. R.; Druzhinin, V. P.; Golubev, V. B.; Korol, A. A.; Kravchenko, E. A.; Onuchin, A. P.; Serednyakov, S. I.; Skovpen, Yu. I.; Solodov, E. P.; Telnov, V. I.; Todyshev, K. Yu.; Yushkov, A. N.; Best, D. S.; Bondioli, M.; Bruinsma, M.; Chao, M.; Curry, S.; Eschrich, I.; Kirkby, D.; Lankford, A. J.; Mandelkern, M.; Martin, E. C.; McMahon, S.; Mommsen, R. K.; Stoker, D. P.; Abachi, S.; Buchanan, C.; Hartfiel, B. L.; Weinstein, A. J. R.; Atmacan, H.; Foulkes, S. D.; Gary, J. W.; Layter, J.; Liu, F.; Long, O.; Shen, B. C.; Vitug, G. M.; Wang, K.; Yasin, Z.; Zhang, L.; Hadavand, H. K.; Hill, E. J.; Paar, H. P.; Rahatlou, S.; Schwanke, U.; Sharma, V.; Berryhill, J. W.; Campagnari, C.; Cunha, A.; Dahmes, B.; Hong, T. M.; Kovalskyi, D.; Kuznetsova, N.; Levy, S. L.; Lu, A.; Mazur, M. A.; Richman, J. D.; Verkerke, W.; Beck, T. W.; Beringer, J.; Eisner, A. M.; Flacco, C. J.; Grillo, A. A.; Grothe, M.; Heusch, C. A.; Kroseberg, J.; Lockman, W. S.; Martinez, A. J.; Nesom, G.; Schalk, T.; Schmitz, R. E.; Schumm, B. A.; Seiden, A.; Spencer, E.; Spradlin, P.; Turri, M.; Walkowiak, W.; Wang, L.; Wilder, M.; Williams, D. C.; Wilson, M. G.; Winstrom, L. O.; Chen, E.; Cheng, C. H.; Doll, D. A.; Dorsten, M. P.; Dvoretskii, A.; Echenard, B.; Erwin, R. J.; Fang, F.; Flood, K.; Hitlin, D. G.; Metzler, S.; Narsky, I.; Oyang, J.; Piatenko, T.; Porter, F. C.; Ryd, A.; Samuel, A.; Yang, S.; Zhu, R. Y.; Andreassen, R.; Devmal, S.; Geld, T. L.; Jayatilleke, S.; Mancinelli, G.; Meadows, B. T.; Mishra, K.; Sokoloff, M. D.; Abe, T.; Antillon, E. A.; Barillari, T.; Becker, J.; Blanc, F.; Bloom, P. C.; Chen, S.; Clifton, Z. C.; Derrington, I. M.; Destree, J.; Dima, M. O.; Ford, W. T.; Gaz, A.; Gilman, J. D.; Hachtel, J.; Hirschauer, J. F.; Johnson, D. R.; Kreisel, A.; Nagel, M.; Nauenberg, U.; Olivas, A.; Rankin, P.; Roy, J.; Ruddick, W. O.; Smith, J. G.; Ulmer, K. A.; van Hoek, W. C.; Wagner, S. R.; West, C. G.; Zhang, J.; Ayad, R.; Blouw, J.; Chen, A.; Eckhart, E. A.; Harton, J. L.; Hu, T.; Toki, W. H.; Wilson, R. J.; Winklmeier, F.; Zeng, Q. L.; Altenburg, D.; Feltresi, E.; Hauke, A.; Jasper, H.; Karbach, M.; Merkel, J.; Petzold, A.; Spaan, B.; Wacker, K.; Brandt, T.; Brose, J.; Colberg, T.; Dahlinger, G.; Dickopp, M.; Eckstein, P.; Futterschneider, H.; Kaiser, S.; Kobel, M. J.; Krause, R.; Müller-Pfefferkorn, R.; Mader, W. F.; Maly, E.; Nogowski, R.; Otto, S.; Schubert, J.; Schubert, K. R.; Schwierz, R.; Sundermann, J. E.; Volk, A.; Wilden, L.; Bernard, D.; Brochard, F.; Cohen-Tanugi, J.; Dohou, F.; Ferrag, S.; Latour, E.; Mathieu, A.; Renard, C.; Schrenk, S.; T' Jampens, S.; Thiebaux, Ch.; Vasileiadis, G.; Verderi, M.; Anjomshoaa, A.; Bernet, R.; Clark, P. J.; Lavin, D. R.; Muheim, F.; Playfer, S.; Robertson, A. I.; Swain, J. E.; Watson, J. E.; Xie, Y.; Andreotti, D.; Andreotti, M.; Bettoni, D.; Bozzi, C.; Calabrese, R.; Carassiti, V.; Cecchi, A.; Cibinetto, G.; Cotta Ramusino, A.; Evangelisti, F.; Fioravanti, E.; Franchini, P.; Garzia, I.; Landi, L.; Luppi, E.; Malaguti, R.; Negrini, M.; Padoan, C.; Petrella, A.; Piemontese, L.; Santoro, V.; Sarti, A.; Anulli, F.; Baldini-Ferroli, R.; Calcaterra, A.; Finocchiaro, G.; Pacetti, S.; Patteri, P.; Peruzzi, I. M.; Piccolo, M.; Rama, M.; de Sangro, R.; Santoni, M.; Zallo, A.; Bagnasco, S.; Buzzo, A.; Capra, R.; Contri, R.; Crosetti, G.; Lo Vetere, M.; Macri, M. M.; Minutoli, S.; Monge, M. R.; Musico, P.; Passaggio, S.; Pastore, F. C.; Patrignani, C.; Pia, M. G.; Robutti, E.; Santroni, A.; Tosi, S.; Bhuyan, B.; Prasad, V.; Bailey, S.; Brandenburg, G.; Chaisanguanthum, K. S.; Lee, C. L.; Morii, M.; Won, E.; Wu, J.; Adametz, A.; Dubitzky, R. S.; Marks, J.; Schenk, S.; Uwer, U.; Klose, V.; Lacker, H. M.; Aspinwall, M. L.; Bhimji, W.; Bowerman, D. A.; Dauncey, P. D.; Egede, U.; Flack, R. L.; Gaillard, J. R.; Gunawardane, N. J. W.; Morton, G. W.; Nash, J. A.; Nikolich, M. B.; Panduro Vazquez, W.; Sanders, P.; Smith, D.; Taylor, G. P.; Tibbetts, M.; Behera, P. K.; Chai, X.; Charles, M. J.; Grenier, G. J.; Hamilton, R.; Lee, S. -J.; Mallik, U.; Meyer, N. T.; Chen, C.; Cochran, J.; Crawley, H. B.; Dong, L.; Eyges, V.; Fischer, P. -A.; Lamsa, J.; Meyer, W. T.; Prell, S.; Rosenberg, E. I.; Rubin, A. E.; Gao, Y. Y.; Gritsan, A. V.; Guo, Z. J.; Lae, C. K.; Schott, G.; Albert, J. N.; Arnaud, N.; Beigbeder, C.; Breton, D.; Davier, M.; Derkach, D.; Dû, S.; Firmino da Costa, J.; Grosdidier, G.; Höcker, A.; Laplace, S.; Le Diberder, F.; Lepeltier, V.; Lutz, A. M.; Malaescu, B.; Nief, J. Y.; Petersen, T. C.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pruvot, S.; Roudeau, P.; Schune, M. H.; Serrano, J.; Sordini, V.; Stocchi, A.; Tocut, V.; Trincaz-Duvoid, S.; Wang, L. L.; Wormser, G.; Bionta, R. M.; Brigljević, V.; Lange, D. J.; Simani, M. C.; Wright, D. M.; Bingham, I.; Burke, J. P.; Chavez, C. A.; Coleman, J. P.; Forster, I. J.; Fry, J. R.; Gabathuler, E.; Gamet, R.; George, M.; Hutchcroft, D. E.; Kay, M.; Parry, R. J.; Payne, D. J.; Schofield, K. C.; Sloane, R. J.; Touramanis, C.; Azzopardi, D. E.; Bellodi, G.; Bevan, A. J.; Clarke, C. K.; Cormack, C. M.; Di Lodovico, F.; Dixon, P.; George, K. A.; Menges, W.; Potter, R. J. L.; Sacco, R.; Shorthouse, H. W.; Sigamani, M.; Strother, P.; Vidal, P. B.; Brown, C. L.; Cowan, G.; Flaecher, H. U.; George, S.; Green, M. G.; Hopkins, D. A.; Jackson, P. S.; Kurup, A.; Marker, C. E.; McGrath, P.; McMahon, T. R.; Paramesvaran, S.; Salvatore, F.; Vaitsas, G.; Winter, M. A.; Wren, A. C.; Brown, D. N.; Davis, C. L.; Denig, A. G.; Fritsch, M.; Gradl, W.; Griessinger, K.; Hafner, A.; Prencipe, E.; Allison, J.; Alwyn, K. E.; Bailey, D. S.; Barlow, N. R.; Barlow, R. J.; Chia, Y. M.; Edgar, C. L.; Forti, A. C.; Fullwood, J.; Hart, P. A.; Hodgkinson, M. C.; Jackson, F.; Jackson, G.; Kelly, M. P.; Kolya, S. D.; Lafferty, G. D.; Lyon, A. J.; Naisbit, M. T.; Savvas, N.; Weatherall, J. H.; West, T. J.; Williams, J. C.; Yi, J. I.; Anderson, J.; Farbin, A.; Hulsbergen, W. D.; Jawahery, A.; Lillard, V.; Roberts, D. A.; Schieck, J. R.; Simi, G.; Tuggle, J. M.; Blaylock, G.; Dallapiccola, C.; Hertzbach, S. S.; Kofler, R.; Koptchev, V. B.; Li, X.; Moore, T. B.; Salvati, E.; Saremi, S.; Staengle, H.; Willocq, S. Y.; Cowan, R.; Dujmic, D.; Fisher, P. H.; Henderson, S. W.; Koeneke, K.; Lang, M. I.; Sciolla, G.; Spitznagel, M.; Taylor, F.; Yamamoto, R. K.; Yi, M.; Zhao, M.; Zheng, Y.; Klemetti, M.; Lindemann, D.; Mangeol, D. J. J.; Mclachlin, S. E.; Milek, M.; Patel, P. M.; Robertson, S. H.; Biassoni, P.; Cerizza, G.; Lazzaro, A.; Lombardo, V.; Neri, N.; Palombo, F.; Pellegrini, R.; Stracka, S.; Bauer, J. M.; Cremaldi, L.; Eschenburg, V.; Kroeger, R.; Reidy, J.; Sanders, D. A.; Summers, D. J.; Zhao, H. W.; Godang, R.; Brunet, S.; Cote, D.; Nguyen, X.; Simard, M.; Taras, P.; Viaud, B.; Nicholson, H.; Cavallo, N.; De Nardo, G.; Fabozzi, F.; Gatto, C.; Lista, L.; Monorchio, D.; Onorato, G.; Paolucci, P.; Piccolo, D.; Sciacca, C.; Baak, M. A.; Raven, G.; Snoek, H. L.; Jessop, C. P.; Knoepfel, K. J.; LoSecco, J. M.; Wang, W. F.; Allmendinger, T.; Benelli, G.; Brau, B.; Corwin, L. A.; Gan, K. K.; Honscheid, K.; Hufnagel, D.; Kagan, H.; Kass, R.; Morris, J. P.; Rahimi, A. M.; Regensburger, J. J.; Smith, D. S.; Ter-Antonyan, R.; Wong, Q. K.; Blount, N. L.; Brau, J.; Frey, R.; Igonkina, O.; Iwasaki, M.; Kolb, J. A.; Lu, M.; Potter, C. T.; Rahmat, R.; Sinev, N. B.; Strom, D.; Strube, J.; Torrence, E.; Borsato, E.; Castelli, G.; Colecchia, F.; Crescente, A.; Dal Corso, F.; Dorigo, A.; Fanin, C.; Furano, F.; Gagliardi, N.; Galeazzi, F.; Margoni, M.; Marzolla, M.; Michelon, G.; Morandin, M.; Posocco, M.; Rotondo, M.; Simonetto, F.; Solagna, P.; Stevanato, E.; Stroili, R.; Tiozzo, G.; Voci, C.; Akar, S.; Bailly, P.; Ben-Haim, E.; Bonneaud, G.; Briand, H.; Chauveau, J.; Hamon, O.; John, M. J. J.; Lebbolo, H.; Leruste, Ph.; Malclès, J.; Marchiori, G.; Martin, L.; Ocariz, J.; Perez, A.; Pivk, M.; Prendki, J.; Roos, L.; Sitt, S.; Stark, J.; Thérin, G.; Vallereau, A.; Biasini, M.; Covarelli, R.; Manoni, E.; Pennazzi, S.; Pioppi, M.; Angelini, C.; Batignani, G.; Bettarini, S.; Bosi, F.; Bucci, F.; Calderini, G.; Carpinelli, M.; Cenci, R.; Cervelli, A.; Forti, F.; Giorgi, M. A.; Lusiani, A.; Marchiori, G.; Morganti, M.; Morsani, F.; Paoloni, E.; Raffaelli, F.; Rizzo, G.; Sandrelli, F.; Triggiani, G.; Walsh, J. J.; Haire, M.; Judd, D.; Biesiada, J.; Danielson, N.; Elmer, P.; Fernholz, R. E.; Lau, Y. P.; Lu, C.; Miftakov, V.; Olsen, J.; Lopes Pegna, D.; Sands, W. R.; Smith, A. J. S.; Telnov, A. V.; Tumanov, A.; Varnes, E. W.; Baracchini, E.; Bellini, F.; Bulfon, C.; Buccheri, E.; Cavoto, G.; D' Orazio, A.; Di Marco, E.; Faccini, R.; Ferrarotto, F.; Ferroni, F.; Gaspero, M.; Jackson, P. D.; Lamanna, E.; Leonardi, E.; Li Gioi, L.; Lunadei, R.; Mazzoni, M. A.; Morganti, S.; Piredda, G.; Polci, F.; del Re, D.; Renga, F.; Safai Tehrani, F.; Serra, M.; Voena, C.; Bünger, C.; Christ, S.; Hartmann, T.; Leddig, T.; Schröder, H.; Wagner, G.; Waldi, R.; Adye, T.; Bly, M.; Brew, C.; Condurache, C.; De Groot, N.; Franek, B.; Geddes, N. I.; Gopal, G. P.; Olaiya, E. O.; Ricciardi, S.; Roethel, W.; Wilson, F. F.; Xella, S. M.; Aleksan, R.; Bourgeois, P.; Emery, S.; Escalier, M.; Esteve, L.; Gaidot, A.; Ganzhur, S. F.; Giraud, P. -F.; Georgette, Z.; Graziani, G.; Hamel de Monchenault, G.; Kozanecki, W.; Langer, M.; Legendre, M.; London, G. W.; Mayer, B.; Micout, P.; Serfass, B.; Vasseur, G.; Yèche, Ch.; Zito, M.; Allen, M. T.; Akre, R.; Aston, D.; Azemoon, T.; Bard, D. J.; Bartelt, J.; Bartoldus, R.; Bechtle, P.; Becla, J.; Benitez, J. F.; Berger, N.; Bertsche, K.; Boeheim, C. T.; Bouldin, K.; Boyarski, A. M.; Boyce, R. F.; Browne, M.; Buchmueller, O. L.; Burgess, W.; Cai, Y.; Cartaro, C.; Ceseracciu, A.; Claus, R.; Convery, M. R.; Coupal, D. P.; Craddock, W. W.; Crane, G.; Cristinziani, M.; DeBarger, S.; Decker, F. J.; Dingfelder, J. C.; Donald, M.; Dorfan, J.; Dubois-Felsmann, G. P.; Dunwoodie, W.; Ebert, M.; Ecklund, S.; Erickson, R.; Fan, S.; Field, R. C.; Fisher, A.; Fox, J.; Franco Sevilla, M.; Fulsom, B. G.; Gabareen, A. M.; Gaponenko, I.; Glanzman, T.; Gowdy, S. J.; Graham, M. T.; Grenier, P.; Hadig, T.; Halyo, V.; Haller, G.; Hamilton, J.; Hanushevsky, A.; Hasan, A.; Hast, C.; Hee, C.; Himel, T.; Hryn' ova, T.; Huffer, M. E.; Hung, T.; Innes, W. R.; Iverson, R.; Kaminski, J.; Kelsey, M. H.; Kim, H.; Kim, P.; Kharakh, D.; Kocian, M. L.; Krasnykh, A.; Krebs, J.; Kroeger, W.; Kulikov, A.; Kurita, N.; Langenegger, U.; Leith, D. W. G. S.; Lewis, P.; Li, S.; Libby, J.; Lindquist, B.; Luitz, S.; Lüth, V.; Lynch, H. L.; MacFarlane, D. B.; Marsiske, H.; McCulloch, M.; McDonald, J.; Melen, R.; Menke, S.; Metcalfe, S.; Messner, R.; Moss, L. J.; Mount, R.; Muller, D. R.; Neal, H.; Nelson, D.; Nelson, S.; Nordby, M.; Nosochkov, Y.; Novokhatski, A.; O' Grady, C. P.; O' Neill, F. G.; Ofte, I.; Ozcan, V. E.; Perazzo, A.; Perl, M.; Petrak, S.; Piemontese, M.; Pierson, S.; Pulliam, T.; Ratcliff, B. N.; Ratkovsky, S.; Reif, R.; Rivetta, C.; Rodriguez, R.; Roodman, A.; Salnikov, A. A.; Schietinger, T.; Schindler, R. H.; Schwarz, H.; Schwiening, J.; Seeman, J.; Smith, D.; Snyder, A.; Soha, A.; Stanek, M.; Stelzer, J.; Su, D.; Sullivan, M. K.; Suzuki, K.; Swain, S. K.; Tanaka, H. A.; Teytelman, D.; Thompson, J. M.; Tinslay, J. S.; Trunov, A.; Turner, J.; van Bakel, N.; van Winkle, D.; Va' vra, J.; Wagner, A. P.; Weaver, M.; Weinstein, A. J. R.; Weber, T.; West, C. A.; Wienands, U.; Wisniewski, W. J.; Wittgen, M.; Wittmer, W.; Wright, D. H.; Wulsin, H. W.; Yan, Y.; Yarritu, A. K.; Yi, K.; Yocky, G.; Young, C. C.; Ziegler, V.; Chen, X. R.; Liu, H.; Park, W.; Purohit, M. V.; Singh, H.; Weidemann, A. W.; White, R. M.; Wilson, J. R.; Yumiceva, F. X.; Sekula, S. J.; Bellis, M.; Burchat, P. R.; Edwards, A. J.; Majewski, S. A.; Meyer, T. I.; Miyashita, T. S.; Petersen, B. A.; Roat, C.; Ahmed, M.; Ahmed, S.; Alam, M. S.; Bula, R.; Ernst, J. A.; Jain, V.; Liu, J.; Pan, B.; Saeed, M. A.; Wappler, F. R.; Zain, S. B.; Gorodeisky, R.; Guttman, N.; Peimer, D.; Soffer, A.; De Silva, A.; Lund, P.; Krishnamurthy, M.; Ragghianti, G.; Spanier, S. M.; Wogsland, B. J.; Eckmann, R.; Ritchie, J. L.; Ruland, A. M.; Satpathy, A.; Schilling, C. J.; Schwitters, R. F.; Wray, B. C.; Drummond, B. W.; Izen, J. M.; Kitayama, I.; Lou, X. C.; Ye, S.; Bianchi, F.; Bona, M.; Gallo, F.; Gamba, D.; Pelliccioni, M.; Bomben, M.; Borean, C.; Bosisio, L.; Cossutti, F.; Della Ricca, G.; Dittongo, S.; Grancagnolo, S.; Lanceri, L.; Poropat, P.; Rashevskaya, I.; Vitale, L.; Vuagnin, G.; Manfredi, P. F.; Re, V.; Speziali, V.; Frank, E. D.; Gladney, L.; Guo, Q. H.; Panetta, J.; Azzolini, V.; Lopez-March, N.; Martinez-Vidal, F.; Milanes, D. A.; Oyanguren, A.; Agarwal, A.; Albert, J.; Banerjee, Sw.; Bernlochner, F. U.; Brown, C. M.; Choi, H. H. F.; Fortin, D.; Fransham, K. B.; Hamano, K.; Kowalewski, R.; Lewczuk, M. J.; Nugent, I. M.; Roney, J. M.; Sobie, R. J.; Back, J. J.; Gershon, T. J.; Harrison, P. F.; Ilic, J.; Latham, T. E.; Mohanty, G. B.; Puccio, E.; Band, H. R.; Chen, X.; Cheng, B.; Dasu, S.; Datta, M.; Eichenbaum, A. M.; Hollar, J. J.; Hu, H.; Johnson, J. R.; Kutter, P. E.; Li, H.; Liu, R.; Mellado, B.; Mihalyi, A.; Mohapatra, A. K.; Pan, Y.; Pierini, M.; Prepost, R.; Scott, I. J.; Tan, P.; Vuosalo, C. O.; von Wimmersperg-Toeller, J. H.; Wu, S. L.; Yu, Z.; Greene, M. G.; Kordich, T. M. B.

    2013-11-01

    The BaBar detector operated successfully at the PEP-II asymmetric e+e- collider at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory from 1999 to 2008. This report covers upgrades, operation, and performance of the collider and the detector systems, as well as the trigger, online and offline computing, and aspects of event reconstruction since the beginning of data taking.

  18. CERN access cards - Introduction of a bar code (Reminder)

    CERN Multimedia

    Relations with the Host States Service

    2004-01-01

    In accordance with the latest revised version of the implementation measures relating to Operational Circular No. 2, CERN access cards may bear a bar code transcribing the holder's identification number (the revised version of this subsidiary document to the aforementioned Circular will be published shortly). Relations with the Host States Service http://www.cern.ch/relations/ relations.secretariat@cern.ch Tel. 72848

  19. College Students' Exposure to Tobacco Marketing in Nightclubs and Bars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridner, S. Lee; Myers, John A.; Hahn, Ellen J.; Ciszewski, Tiffany N.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To examine whether a college student's exposure to tobacco marketing in nightclubs and bars was affected by the presence of a smoke-free law. Participants: A random sample (N = 478) of students participated in the survey (no smoke-free law, n = 240; smoke-free law, n = 238). The analysis was limited to students who reported being in…

  20. ORIGINAL ARTICLE ORIG ORIG Postinfective physeal bars – MRI ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    46. SA JOURNAL OF RADIOLOGY • September 2007. ORIG fracture/trauma. Other insults to the physis with formation of a physeal bar include infection, radiation, tumours, thermal injury, vascular injury and corticosteroid therapy, and some are considered idiopathic.1-3, 6. Meningococcaemia (due to infection with Neisseria ...

  1. Mihhail Barõshnikov voshol v mirovuju pjatjorku

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2000-01-01

    23ndat korda anti välja Kennedy Keskuse auhinnad kõige väljapaistvamatele kunsti interpreetidele. Teiste hulgas said auhinna näitleja ja režissöör Clint Eastwood, teatri- ja filminäitleja Angela Lansbury ja balletitantsija ning filminäitleja Mihhail Barõshnikov

  2. ANALYSIS OF INDUCTION MOTOR WITH BROKEN BARS AND ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    coupled electric circuit with 2D finite element electromagnetic field analysis. The ... Rotor electric circuit model. Coupled rotor bar elements. End-ring resistance. Coupled stator coil winding elements. Voltage source. Fig.1. Stator electric circuit model. Fig.2. ..... Electronics and Drives, Vienna Austria, 7-9 Sep. 2005.

  3. Broken-Rotor-Bar Diagnosis for Induction Motors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jinjiang; Gao, Robert X; Yan Ruqiang

    2011-01-01

    Broken rotor bar is one of the commonly encountered induction motor faults that may cause serious motor damage to the motor if not detected timely. Past efforts on broken rotor bar diagnosis have been focused on current signature analysis using spectral analysis and wavelet transform. These methods require accurate slip estimation to localize fault-related frequency. This paper presents a new approach to broken rotor bar diagnosis without slip estimation, based on the ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD) and the Hilbert transform. Specifically, the Hilbert transform first extracts the envelope of the motor current signal, which contains broken rotor fault-related frequency information. Subsequently, the envelope signal is adaptively decomposed into a number of intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) by the EEMD algorithm. Two criteria based on the energy and correlation analyses have been investigated to automate the IMF selection. Numerical and experimental studies have confirmed that the proposed approach is effective in diagnosing broken rotor bar faults for improved induction motor condition monitoring and damage assessment.

  4. studies of radiative penguin decays at BaBar

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We summarize results on a number of observations of penguin dominated radiative decays of the meson. Such decays are forbidden at tree level and proceed via electroweak loops. As such they may be sensitive to physics beyond the standard model. The observations have been made at the BaBar experiment at PEP-II, ...

  5. Static balancing of an inverted pendulum with prestressed torsion bars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Radaelli, G.; Buskermolen, R; Barents, R; Herder, J.L.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a method for the design of a statically balanced inverted pendulum. The non-linear moment-rotation characteristic of the pendulum's weight is approximated by a piecewise linear characteristic. Each transition is realized by engaging or disengaging one or more torsion bars, by

  6. Bars in dark matter-dominated dwarf galaxy discs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marasco, A.; Oman, K. A.; Navarro, J. F.; Frenk, C. S.; Oosterloo, T.

    2018-02-01

    We study the shape and kinematics of simulated dwarf galaxy discs in the APOSTLE suite of ΛCDM cosmological hydrodynamical simulations. We find that a large fraction of these gas-rich, star-forming discs show weak bars in their stellar component, despite being dark matter-dominated systems. The bar pattern shape and orientation reflect the ellipticity of the dark matter potential, and its rotation is locked to the slow figure rotation of the triaxial dark halo. The bar-like nature of the potential induces non-circular motions in the gas component, including strong bisymmetric flows that can be readily seen as m = 3 harmonic perturbations in the H I line-of-sight velocity fields. Similar bisymmetric flows are seen in many galaxies of the THINGS and LITTLE THINGS surveys, although on average their amplitudes are a factor of ˜2 weaker than in our simulated discs. Our results indicate that bar-like patterns may arise even when baryons are not dominant, and that they are common enough to warrant careful consideration when analyzing the gas kinematics of dwarf galaxy discs.

  7. CERN access card: Introduction of a bar code

    CERN Multimedia

    Relations with the Host States Service

    2004-01-01

    Before the latest version of the implementation measures relating to Operational Circular No. 2 comes into force, we would like to inform you that, in future, CERN access cards may bear a bar code to transcribe the holder's identification number. Relations with the Host States Service http://www.cern.ch/relations/ Tel. 72848

  8. D0 - D0bar mixing: theory basics

    OpenAIRE

    Guadagnoli, Diego

    2007-01-01

    I discuss how the novel experimental data on D0 - D0bar mixing can be combined to provide information on the fundamental theoretical quantities describing the mixing itself. I then discuss the theoretical impact of the new data, focusing in particular on the MSSM.

  9. Measurement of the Time Reversal Asymmetry for the Decay $\\bar{B}^{0}\\rightarrow\\Lambda\\bar{p}\\pi^{+}$ and Observation of the Decay $\\bar{B}^{0}_{s}\\rightarrow\\Lambda\\bar{p}K^{+}$ with the LHCb Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00000638

    This Analysis presents the measurement of the time reversal asymmetry in the decay $\\bar{B}{}^{0}\\rightarrow\\Lambda\\bar{p}\\pi^{+}$ based on a triple product given by \\begin{equation*} \\mathcal{O} = \\vec{s}_{\\Lambda} \\cdot \\left( \\vec{p}_\\Lambda \\times \\vec{p}_\\pi \\right) \\quad , \\end{equation*} where $\\vec{s}_{\\Lambda}$ is the \\Lambda spin vector, $\\vec{p}_\\Lambda$ and $\\vec{p}_\\pi$ are the momentum vectors of the $\\Lambda$ and $\\pi$, respectively. The triple product is evaluated in the $\\bar{B}{}^{0}$ rest frame. The Time reversal asymmetry is determined to be \\begin{equation*} \\mathcal{A}_T = (7.6 \\pm 27.0(\\mathrm{stat} )\\pm 1.1(\\mathrm{syst}))\\% \\quad . \\end{equation*} Allowing for CP violation in the $\\Lambda$ decay, the asymmetry is determined to be \\begin{equation*} \\mathcal{A}_T^{\\rm CPV} = ({4.3}^{22.1}_{22.0}(\\mathrm{stat}) \\pm 1.2(\\mathrm{syst}))\\% \\quad . \\end{equation*} Both are in agreement with the theoretical predictions but also with $\\mathcal{A}_T = 0$. The decays $\\bar{B}{}^{0}_{s}\\ri...

  10. Age and growth of narrow-barred Spanish mackerel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The narrow-barred Spanish mackerel Scomberomorus commerson is one of the most important linefish species caught in KwaZulu-Natal and southern Mozambique waters, forming the basis of important commercial, artisanal and recreational fisheries. A total of 439 S. commerson were sampled along the east coast of ...

  11. Torsion of bars with regular polygonal sections | Zongo | Global ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this article, the study of the torsion of cylindrical bars using large singular finite elements method leads to the resolution of the system of linear equations using MATLAB software. Particularly, the numerical solution of the problem of beams with regular section shows clearly the precision of the method depending upon the ...

  12. 21 CFR 201.25 - Bar code label requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Number/Uniform Code Council (EAN.UCC) or Health Industry Business Communications Council (HIBCC... alternative regulatory program or method of product use renders the bar code unnecessary for patient safety... Evaluation and Research, Food and Drug Administration, 5600 Fishers Lane, Rockville, MD 20857 (requests...

  13. SYNTHESIS, ANALYSIS AND SIMULATION OF A FOUR-BAR ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Generation problem of kinematic synthesis of a four-bar mechanism. The synthesized mechanism is then analyzed .for determining its motion characteristics. These results are then used for the animation of the mechanism. Conventional mechanism design procedures using card board models, prototypes of the mechanism,.

  14. Phenological Characteristics of the Barred Chicken in Western ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Between May and June 2011, the growth performance and phenological characteristics of local barred chicken of the Western Highland Cameroon was carried out in the Teaching and Research Farm of the University of Dschang. The data on body weight, body measurements and carcass characteristics were collected on ...

  15. Measurement of the location of tie-bar shoulders

    CERN Multimedia

    Hubert Gerwig

    2001-01-01

    The inner vactank is machined on a length of 13m at the location of the rails for HCAL. in addition at one side the inner vactank has shoulders to lodge the M48 tie-bars that will guarantee the fixation to the swivelling platform actually produced at HANJUNG Company in South Korea

  16. Using a Spreadsheet Scroll Bar to Solve Equilibrium Concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raviolo, Andres

    2012-01-01

    A simple, conceptual method is described for using the spreadsheet scroll bar to find the composition of a system at chemical equilibrium. Simulation of any kind of chemical equilibrium can be carried out using this method, and the effects of different disturbances can be predicted. This simulation, which can be used in general chemistry…

  17. Dynamic high-temperature Kolsky tension bar techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Bo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Kolsky tension bar techniques were modified for dynamic high-temperature tensile characterization of thin-sheet alloys. An induction coil heater was used to heat the specimen while a cooling system was applied to keep the bars at room temperature during heating. A preload system was developed to generate a small pretension load in the bar system during heating in order to compensate for the effect of thermal expansion generated in the high-temperature tensile specimen. A laser system was applied to directly measure the displacements at both ends of the tensile specimen in order to calculate the strain in the specimen. A pair of high-sensitivity semiconductor strain gages was used to measure the weak transmitted force due to the low flow stress in the thin specimen at elevated temperatures. As an example, the high-temperature Kolsky tension bar was used to characterize a DOP-26 iridium alloy in high-strain-rate tension at 860 s−1/1030 ∘C.

  18. On wave dark matter in spiral and barred galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez-Medina, Luis A.; Matos, Tonatiuh; Bray, Hubert L.

    2015-01-01

    We recover spiral and barred spiral patterns in disk galaxy simulations with a Wave Dark Matter (WDM) background (also known as Scalar Field Dark Matter (SFDM), Ultra-Light Axion (ULA) dark matter, and Bose-Einstein Condensate (BEC) dark matter). Here we show how the interaction between a baryonic disk and its Dark Matter Halo triggers the formation of spiral structures when the halo is allowed to have a triaxial shape and angular momentum. This is a more realistic picture within the WDM model since a non-spherical rotating halo seems to be more natural. By performing hydrodynamic simulations, along with earlier test particles simulations, we demonstrate another important way in which wave dark matter is consistent with observations. The common existence of bars in these simulations is particularly noteworthy. This may have consequences when trying to obtain information about the dark matter distribution in a galaxy, the mere presence of spiral arms or a bar usually indicates that baryonic matter dominates the central region and therefore observations, like rotation curves, may not tell us what the DM distribution is at the halo center. But here we show that spiral arms and bars can develop in DM dominated galaxies with a central density core without supposing its origin on mechanisms intrinsic to the baryonic matter

  19. Análise de tendência do mercado internacional de aglomerado Analysis of international particleboard market tendency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rommel Noce

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Neste estudo, analisou-se, pelo método da regressão linear, a tendência do mercado internacional de aglomerado no período de 1990 a 2004. Observou-se tendência de crescimento tanto de produção quanto de exportação, com a ressalva de que o Brasil expande sua produção em ritmo mais acelerado que a produção mundial. Conclui-se que China, Ucrânia e EUA apresentaram maior crescimento, quanto à produção, exportação e importação, entre os mercados tradicionais, respectivamente, e que os mercados não-tradicionais mudaram tendências de crescimento superiores ao grupo dos principais importadores, especialmente o leste europeu.This study analyzed international particleboard market tendency in the period from 1990 to 2004, using the linear regression method. Growth tendency was observed both for production and export, stressing that Brazil's production is expanding in a more accelerated rhythm than the world production. China, Ukraine and USA presented a greater production, export and import growth among the traditional markets, respectively, and the nontraditional markets presented greater growth tendencies, compared to the major import groups, especially East Europe.

  20. Chemical abundances in LMC stellar populations. II. The bar sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Swaelmen, M.; Hill, V.; Primas, F.; Cole, A. A.

    2013-12-01

    Aims: This paper compares the chemical evolution of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) to that of the Milky Way (MW) and investigates the relation between the bar and the inner disc of the LMC in the context of the formation of the bar. Methods: We obtained high-resolution and mid signal-to-noise ratio spectra with FLAMES/GIRAFFE at ESO/VLT and performed a detailed chemical analysis of 106 and 58 LMC field red giant stars (mostly older than 1 Gyr), located in the bar and the disc of the LMC respectively. To validate our stellar parameter determinations and abundance measurement procedures, we performed thorough tests using the well-known mildly metal-poor Milky-Way thick disc giant Arcturus (HD 124897, α Boo). We measured elemental abundances for O, Mg, Si, Ca, Ti (α-elements), Na (light odd element), Sc, V, Cr, Co, Ni, Cu (iron-peak elements), Y, Zr, Ba, La, and Eu (s- and r-elements). Results: We find that the α-element ratios [Mg/Fe] and [O/Fe] are lower in the LMC than in the MW while the LMC has similar [Si/Fe], [Ca/Fe], and [Ti/Fe] to the MW. As for the heavy elements, [Ba,La/Eu] exhibit a strong increase with increasing metallicity starting from [Fe/H] ≈ -0.8 dex, and the LMC has lower [Y + Zr/Ba + La] ratios than the MW. Cu is almost constant over all metallicities and about 0.5 dex lower in the LMC than in the MW. The LMC bar and inner disc exhibit differences in their [α/ Fe] (slightly larger scatter for the bar in the metallicity range [-1, -0.5]), their Eu (the bar trend is above the disc trend for [Fe/H] ≥ -0.5 dex), their Y and Zr, their Na and their V (offset between the bar and the disc distributions). Conclusions: Our results show that the chemical history of the LMC experienced a strong contribution from type Ia supernovae as well as a strong s-process enrichment from metal-poor AGB winds. Massive stars made a smaller contribution to the chemical enrichment compared to the MW. The observed differences between the bar and the disc speak in

  1. An investigation of the tri-bar gripping system on isometric muscular endurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drury, Daniel G; Faggiono, Heath; Stuempfle, Kristin J

    2004-11-01

    Recently, a new product called the Tri-Bar has been introduced as an alternative to the standard round weightlifting bar. The Tri-Bar has the same weight, length, and circumference as a standard weightlifting bar and differs only in that the shape of the bar is formed like a triangle with rounded edges. Theoretically, the shape of the bar will enhance gripping comfort and increase muscular endurance. We studied 32 moderately trained males who were free from upper-body injury or limitation. Each participant completed 4 visits to the lab as part of 2 separate investigations. The first investigation was a comparison of straight-arm hang times while grasping a standard Olympic bar or a Tri-Bar attached to the top of a power rack. The second investigation involved grasping a standard revolving cable handle or a Tri-Bar revolving handle attached to a weight equal to half the subject's body weight. In both investigations, time was used as a measure of isometric muscular endurance. Differences were determined using a dependent t-test, and a level of significance was set at p < 0.05. Mean hang times were significantly longer when the men hung from the Tri-Bar (107.6 seconds) versus the standard bar (95.4 seconds) (p = 0.015). Conversely, in the investigation using the revolving handles, the round bar produced longer grasping times (71.5 seconds) than the Tri-Bar (62.6 seconds) (p = 0.000). The results of this investigation indicate that a fixed and stable Tri-Bar may help to increase hang time, but a Tri-Bar free to rotate within the grasp may decrease grasping time in comparison to a standard round handle. With regard to exercises that require isometric grasping, the Tri-Bar may be an effective alternative to the standard bar for increasing isometric grasping endurance.

  2. Towards understanding the dynamics of the bar/bulge region in our Galaxy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanassoula E.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available I review some of the work on bars which is closely linked to the bar/bulge system in our Galaxy. Several independent studies, using totally independent methods, come to the same results about the 3D structure of a bar, i.e., that a bar is composed of a vertically thick inner part and a vertically thin outer part. I give examples of this from simulations and substantiate the discussion with input from orbital structure analysis and from observations. The thick part has a considerably shorter radial extent than the thin part. I then see how this applies to our Galaxy, where two bars have been reported, the COBE/DIRBE bar and the Long bar. Comparing their extents and making the reasonable and necessary assumption that our Galaxy has properties similar to those of other galaxies of similar type, leads to the conclusion that these two bars can not form a standard double bar system. I then discuss arguments in favour of the two bars being simply different parts of the same bar, the COBE/DIRBE bar being the thick inner part and the Long bar being the thin outer part of this bar. I also very briefly discuss some related new results. I first consider bar formation and evolution in disc galaxies with a gaseous component – including star formation, feedback and evolution – and a triaxial halo. Then I consider bar formation in a fully cosmological context using hydrodynamical LCDM simulations, where the host galaxies grow, accrete matter and significantly evolve during the formation and evolution of the bar.

  3. Medium-term dynamics of a middle Adriatic barred beach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Postacchini

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, attention has been paid to beach protection by means of soft and hard defenses. Along the Italian coast of the Adriatic Sea, sandy beaches are the most common landscape feature and around 70 % of the Marche region's coast (central Adriatic is protected by defense structures. The longest free-from-obstacle nearshore area in the region includes the beach of Senigallia, frequently monitored in the last decades and characterized by a multiple bar system, which represents a natural beach defense. The bathymetries surveyed in 2006, 2010, 2011, 2012 and 2013 show long-term stability, confirmed by a good adaptation of an analyzed stretch of the beach to the Dean-type equilibrium profile, though a strong short- to medium-term variability of the wave climate has been observed during the monitored periods. The medium-term dynamics of the beach, which deal with the evolution of submerged bars and are of the order of years or seasons, have been related to the wave climate collected, during the analyzed temporal windows, by a wave buoy located about 40 km off Senigallia. An overall interpretation of the hydrodynamics, sediment characteristics and seabed morphology suggests that the wave climate is fundamental for the morphodynamic changes of the beach in the medium term. These medium-term time ranges during which waves mainly come from NNE/ESE are characterized by a larger/smaller steepness and by a larger/smaller relative wave height, and seem to induce seaward/shoreward bar migration as well as bar smoothing/steepening. Moving southeastward, the bar dimension increases, while the equilibrium profile shape suggests the adaptation to a decreasing sediment size in the submerged beach. This is probably due to the presence of both the harbor jetty and river mouth north of the investigated area.

  4. Medium-term dynamics of a middle Adriatic barred beach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postacchini, Matteo; Soldini, Luciano; Lorenzoni, Carlo; Mancinelli, Alessandro

    2017-09-01

    In recent years, attention has been paid to beach protection by means of soft and hard defenses. Along the Italian coast of the Adriatic Sea, sandy beaches are the most common landscape feature and around 70 % of the Marche region's coast (central Adriatic) is protected by defense structures. The longest free-from-obstacle nearshore area in the region includes the beach of Senigallia, frequently monitored in the last decades and characterized by a multiple bar system, which represents a natural beach defense. The bathymetries surveyed in 2006, 2010, 2011, 2012 and 2013 show long-term stability, confirmed by a good adaptation of an analyzed stretch of the beach to the Dean-type equilibrium profile, though a strong short- to medium-term variability of the wave climate has been observed during the monitored periods. The medium-term dynamics of the beach, which deal with the evolution of submerged bars and are of the order of years or seasons, have been related to the wave climate collected, during the analyzed temporal windows, by a wave buoy located about 40 km off Senigallia. An overall interpretation of the hydrodynamics, sediment characteristics and seabed morphology suggests that the wave climate is fundamental for the morphodynamic changes of the beach in the medium term. These medium-term time ranges during which waves mainly come from NNE/ESE are characterized by a larger/smaller steepness and by a larger/smaller relative wave height, and seem to induce seaward/shoreward bar migration as well as bar smoothing/steepening. Moving southeastward, the bar dimension increases, while the equilibrium profile shape suggests the adaptation to a decreasing sediment size in the submerged beach. This is probably due to the presence of both the harbor jetty and river mouth north of the investigated area.

  5. Automatic detection of service initiation signals used in bars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian eLoth

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Recognising the intention of others is important in all social interactions, especially in the service domain. Enabling a bartending robot to serve customers is particularly challenging as the system has to recognise the social signals produced by customers and respond appropriately. Detecting whether a customer would like to order is essential for the service encounter to succeed. This detection is particularly challenging in a noisy environment with multiple customers. Thus, a bartending robot has to be able to distinguish between customers intending to order, chatting with friends or just passing by. In order to study which signals customers use to initiate a service interaction in a bar, we recorded real-life customer-staff interactions in several German bars. These recordings were used to generate initial hypotheses about the signals customers produce when bidding for the attention of bar staff. Two experiments using snapshots and short video sequences then tested the validity of these hypothesised candidate signals. The results revealed that bar staff responded to a set of two non-verbal signals: first, customers position themselves directly at the bar counter and, secondly, they look at a member of staff. Both signals were necessary and, when occurring together, sufficient. The participants also showed a strong agreement about when these cues occurred in the videos. Finally, a signal detection analysis revealed that ignoring a potential order is deemed worse than erroneously inviting customers to order. We conclude that a these two easily recognisable actions are sufficient for recognising the intention of customers to initiate a service interaction, but other actions such as gestures and speech were not necessary, and b the use of reaction time experiments using natural materials is feasible and provides ecologically valid results.

  6. Automatic detection of service initiation signals used in bars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loth, Sebastian; Huth, Kerstin; De Ruiter, Jan P

    2013-01-01

    Recognizing the intention of others is important in all social interactions, especially in the service domain. Enabling a bartending robot to serve customers is particularly challenging as the system has to recognize the social signals produced by customers and respond appropriately. Detecting whether a customer would like to order is essential for the service encounter to succeed. This detection is particularly challenging in a noisy environment with multiple customers. Thus, a bartending robot has to be able to distinguish between customers intending to order, chatting with friends or just passing by. In order to study which signals customers use to initiate a service interaction in a bar, we recorded real-life customer-staff interactions in several German bars. These recordings were used to generate initial hypotheses about the signals customers produce when bidding for the attention of bar staff. Two experiments using snapshots and short video sequences then tested the validity of these hypothesized candidate signals. The results revealed that bar staff responded to a set of two non-verbal signals: first, customers position themselves directly at the bar counter and, secondly, they look at a member of staff. Both signals were necessary and, when occurring together, sufficient. The participants also showed a strong agreement about when these cues occurred in the videos. Finally, a signal detection analysis revealed that ignoring a potential order is deemed worse than erroneously inviting customers to order. We conclude that (a) these two easily recognizable actions are sufficient for recognizing the intention of customers to initiate a service interaction, but other actions such as gestures and speech were not necessary, and (b) the use of reaction time experiments using natural materials is feasible and provides ecologically valid results.

  7. The company they keep: drinking group attitudes and male bar aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumas, Tara M; Graham, Kathryn; Wells, Samantha

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess (a) similarities in self-reported bar-aggression-related attitudes and behaviors among members of young male groups recruited on their way to bars and (b) group-level variables associated with individual members' self-reported likelihood of perpetrating physical bar aggression in the past year, controlling for individual attitudes. Young, male, natural drinking groups recruited on their way to a bar district Thursday, Friday, and Saturday nights (n = 167, 53 groups) completed an online survey that measured whether they had perpetrated physical aggression at a bar in the past year and constructs associated with bar aggression, including attitudes toward male bar aggression and frequency of heavy episodic drinking in the past year. Intraclass correlations and chi-square tests demonstrated significant within-group similarity on bar-aggression-related attitudes and behaviors (ps bar aggression were significantly associated with individuals' likelihood of perpetrating physical bar aggression, controlling for individual attitudes (p bar aggression was nonsignificant in the full model. This study suggests that the most important group influence on young men's bar aggression is the attitudes of other group members. These attitudes were associated with group members' likelihood of engaging in bar aggression over and above individuals' own attitudes. A better understanding of how group attitudes and behavior affect the behavior of individual group members is needed to inform aggression-prevention programming.

  8. O tratamento com ácido ascórbico acelera o processo de reparo do tendão calcâneo em modelo de lesão tendínea em ratos

    OpenAIRE

    SOUZA, Martha Costa de

    2015-01-01

    A ruptura do tendão calcâneo acomete uma grande parte da população, principalmente atletas e idosos e seu processo de reparo ainda necessita de maiores esclarecimentos, possibilitando novos tratamentos. O ácido ascórbico (AA) é uma substância conhecida pela participação na hidroxilação de prolina e lisina, importante para síntese da matriz extracelular, bem como eficiência comprovada em diversos tratamentos por suas propriedades antioxidantes. Dessa forma, o presente estudo tem como objetivo ...

  9. First observations of $\\bar{B}_s^0\\to D^+D^-$, $D_s^+D^-$ and $D^0\\bar{D}^0$ decays

    CERN Document Server

    Aaij, R; Adeva, B; Adinolfi, M; Adrover, C; Affolder, A; Ajaltouni, Z; Albrecht, J; Alessio, F; Alexander, M; Ali, S; Alkhazov, G; Alvarez Cartelle, P; Alves Jr, A A; Amato, S; Amerio, S; Amhis, Y; Anderlini, L; Anderson, J; Andreassen, R; Appleby, R B; Aquines Gutierrez, O; Archilli, F; Artamonov, A; Artuso, M; Aslanides, E; Auriemma, G; Bachmann, S; Back, J J; Baesso, C; Balagura, V; Baldini, W; Barlow, R J; Barschel, C; Barsuk, S; Barter, W; Bauer, Th; Bay, A; Beddow, J; Bedeschi, F; Bediaga, I; Belogurov, S; Belous, K; Belyaev, I; Ben-Haim, E; Benayoun, M; Bencivenni, G; Benson, S; Benton, J; Berezhnoy, A; Bernet, R; Bettler, M -O; van Beuzekom, M; Bien, A; Bifani, S; Bird, T; Bizzeti, A; Bjørnstad, P M; Blake, T; Blanc, F; Blouw, J; Blusk, S; Bocci, V; Bondar, A; Bondar, N; Bonivento, W; Borghi, S; Borgia, A; Bowcock, T J V; Bowen, E; Bozzi, C; Brambach, T; van den Brand, J; Bressieux, J; Brett, D; Britsch, M; Britton, T; Brook, N H; Brown, H; Burducea, I; Bursche, A; Busetto, G; Buytaert, J; Cadeddu, S; Callot, O; Calvi, M; Calvo Gomez, M; Camboni, A; Campana, P; Carbone, A; Carboni, G; Cardinale, R; Cardini, A; Carranza-Mejia, H; Carson, L; Carvalho Akiba, K; Casse, G; Cattaneo, M; Cauet, Ch; Charles, M; Charpentier, Ph; Chen, P; Chiapolini, N; Chrzaszcz, M; Ciba, K; Cid Vidal, X; Ciezarek, G; Clarke, P E L; Clemencic, M; Cliff, H V; Closier, J; Coca, C; Coco, V; Cogan, J; Cogneras, E; Collins, P; Comerma-Montells, A; Contu, A; Cook, A; Coombes, M; Coquereau, S; Corti, G; Couturier, B; Cowan, G A; Craik, D; Cunliffe, S; Currie, R; D'Ambrosio, C; David, P; David, P N Y; De Bonis, I; De Bruyn, K; De Capua, S; De Cian, M; De Miranda, J M; De Oyanguren Campos, M; De Paula, L; De Silva, W; De Simone, P; Decamp, D; Deckenhoff, M; Del Buono, L; Derkach, D; Deschamps, O; Dettori, F; Di Canto, A; Dijkstra, H; Dogaru, M; Donleavy, S; Dordei, F; Dosil Suárez, A; Dossett, D; Dovbnya, A; Dupertuis, F; Dzhelyadin, R; Dziurda, A; Dzyuba, A; Easo, S; Egede, U; Egorychev, V; Eidelman, S; van Eijk, D; Eisenhardt, S; Eitschberger, U; Ekelhof, R; Eklund, L; El Rifai, I; Elsasser, Ch; Elsby, D; Falabella, A; Färber, C; Fardell, G; Farinelli, C; Farry, S; Fave, V; Ferguson, D; Fernandez Albor, V; Ferreira Rodrigues, F; Ferro-Luzzi, M; Filippov, S; Fitzpatrick, C; Fontana, M; Fontanelli, F; Forty, R; Francisco, O; Frank, M; Frei, C; Frosini, M; Furcas, S; Furfaro, E; Gallas Torreira, A; Galli, D; Gandelman, M; Gandini, P; Gao, Y; Garofoli, J; Garosi, P; Garra Tico, J; Garrido, L; Gaspar, C; Gauld, R; Gersabeck, E; Gersabeck, M; Gershon, T; Ghez, Ph; Gibson, V; Gligorov, V V; Göbel, C; Golubkov, D; Golutvin, A; Gomes, A; Gordon, H; Grabalosa Gándara, M; Graciani Diaz, R; Granado Cardoso, L A; Graugés, E; Graziani, G; Grecu, A; Greening, E; Gregson, S; Grünberg, O; Gui, B; Gushchin, E; Guz, Yu; Gys, T; Hadjivasiliou, C; Haefeli, G; Haen, C; Haines, S C; Hall, S; Hampson, T; Hansmann-Menzemer, S; Harnew, N; Harnew, S T; Harrison, J; Hartmann, T; He, J; Heijne, V; Hennessy, K; Henrard, P; Hernando Morata, J A; van Herwijnen, E; Hicks, E; Hill, D; Hoballah, M; Hombach, C; Hopchev, P; Hulsbergen, W; Hunt, P; Huse, T; Hussain, N; Hutchcroft, D; Hynds, D; Iakovenko, V; Idzik, M; Ilten, P; Jacobsson, R; Jaeger, A; Jans, E; Jaton, P; Jing, F; John, M; Johnson, D; Jones, C R; Jost, B; Kaballo, M; Kandybei, S; Karacson, M; Karbach, T M; Kenyon, I R; Kerzel, U; Ketel, T; Keune, A; Khanji, B; Kochebina, O; Komarov, I; Koopman, R F; Koppenburg, P; Korolev, M; Kozlinskiy, A; Kravchuk, L; Kreplin, K; Kreps, M; Krocker, G; Krokovny, P; Kruse, F; Kucharczyk, M; Kudryavtsev, V; Kvaratskheliya, T; La Thi, V N; Lacarrere, D; Lafferty, G; Lai, A; Lambert, D; Lambert, R W; Lanciotti, E; Lanfranchi, G; Langenbruch, C; Latham, T; Lazzeroni, C; Le Gac, R; van Leerdam, J; Lees, J -P; Lefèvre, R; Leflat, A; Lefrançois, J; Leo, S; Leroy, O; Leverington, B; Li, Y; Li Gioi, L; Liles, M; Lindner, R; Linn, C; Liu, B; Liu, G; von Loeben, J; Lohn, S; Lopes, J H; Lopez Asamar, E; Lopez-March, N; Lu, H; Lucchesi, D; Luisier, J; Luo, H; Machefert, F; Machikhiliyan, I V; Maciuc, F; Maev, O; Malde, S; Manca, G; Mancinelli, G; Marconi, U; Märki, R; Marks, J; Martellotti, G; Martens, A; Martin, L; Martín Sánchez, A; Martinelli, M; Martinez Santos, D; Martins Tostes, D; Massafferri, A; Matev, R; Mathe, Z; Matteuzzi, C; Maurice, E; Mazurov, A; McCarthy, J; McNulty, R; Mcnab, A; Meadows, B; Meier, F; Meissner, M; Merk, M; Milanes, D A; Minard, M -N; Molina Rodriguez, J; Monteil, S; Moran, D; Morawski, P; Morello, M J; Mountain, R; Mous, I; Muheim, F; Müller, K; Muresan, R; Muryn, B; Muster, B; Naik, P; Nakada, T; Nandakumar, R; Nasteva, I; Needham, M; Neufeld, N; Nguyen, A D; Nguyen, T D; Nguyen-Mau, C; Nicol, M; Niess, V; Niet, R; Nikitin, N; Nikodem, T; Nomerotski, A; Novoselov, A; Oblakowska-Mucha, A; Obraztsov, V; Oggero, S; Ogilvy, S; Okhrimenko, O; Oldeman, R; Orlandea, M; Otalora Goicochea, J M; Owen, P; Pal, B K; Palano, A; Palutan, M; Panman, J; Papanestis, A; Pappagallo, M; Parkes, C; Parkinson, C J; Passaleva, G; Patel, G D; Patel, M; Patrick, G N; Patrignani, C; Pavel-Nicorescu, C; Pazos Alvarez, A; Pellegrino, A; Penso, G; Pepe Altarelli, M; Perazzini, S; Perego, D L; Perez Trigo, E; Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo, A; Perret, P; Perrin-Terrin, M; Pessina, G; Petridis, K; Petrolini, A; Phan, A; Picatoste Olloqui, E; Pietrzyk, B; Pilař, T; Pinci, D; Playfer, S; Plo Casasus, M; Polci, F; Polok, G; Poluektov, A; Polycarpo, E; Popov, D; Popovici, B; Potterat, C; Powell, A; Prisciandaro, J; Pugatch, V; Puig Navarro, A; Punzi, G; Qian, W; Rademacker, J H; Rakotomiaramanana, B; Rangel, M S; Raniuk, I; Rauschmayr, N; Raven, G; Redford, S; Reid, M M; dos Reis, A C; Ricciardi, S; Richards, A; Rinnert, K; Rives Molina, V; Roa Romero, D A; Robbe, P; Rodrigues, E; Rodriguez Perez, P; Roiser, S; Romanovsky, V; Romero Vidal, A; Rouvinet, J; Ruf, T; Ruffini, F; Ruiz, H; Ruiz Valls, P; Sabatino, G; Saborido Silva, J J; Sagidova, N; Sail, P; Saitta, B; Salzmann, C; Sanmartin Sedes, B; Sannino, M; Santacesaria, R; Santamarina Rios, C; Santovetti, E; Sapunov, M; Sarti, A; Satriano, C; Satta, A; Savrie, M; Savrina, D; Schaack, P; Schiller, M; Schindler, H; Schlupp, M; Schmelling, M; Schmidt, B; Schneider, O; Schopper, A; Schune, M -H; Schwemmer, R; Sciascia, B; Sciubba, A; Seco, M; Semennikov, A; Senderowska, K; Sepp, I; Serra, N; Serrano, J; Seyfert, P; Shapkin, M; Shapoval, I; Shatalov, P; Shcheglov, Y; Shears, T; Shekhtman, L; Shevchenko, O; Shevchenko, V; Shires, A; Silva Coutinho, R; Skwarnicki, T; Smith, N A; Smith, E; Smith, M; Sokoloff, M D; Soler, F J P; Soomro, F; Souza, D; Souza De Paula, B; Spaan, B; Sparkes, A; Spradlin, P; Stagni, F; Stahl, S; Steinkamp, O; Stoica, S; Stone, S; Storaci, B; Straticiuc, M; Straumann, U; Subbiah, V K; Swientek, S; Syropoulos, V; Szczekowski, M; Szczypka, P; Szumlak, T; T'Jampens, S; Teklishyn, M; Teodorescu, E; Teubert, F; Thomas, C; Thomas, E; van Tilburg, J; Tisserand, V; Tobin, M; Tolk, S; Tonelli, D; Topp-Joergensen, S; Torr, N; Tournefier, E; Tourneur, S; Tran, M T; Tresch, M; Tsaregorodtsev, A; Tsopelas, P; Tuning, N; Ubeda Garcia, M; Ukleja, A; Urner, D; Uwer, U; Vagnoni, V; Valenti, G; Vazquez Gomez, R; Vazquez Regueiro, P; Vecchi, S; Velthuis, J J; Veltri, M; Veneziano, G; Vesterinen, M; Viaud, B; Vieira, D; Vilasis-Cardona, X; Vollhardt, A; Volyanskyy, D; Voong, D; Vorobyev, A; Vorobyev, V; Voß, C; Voss, H; Waldi, R; Wallace, R; Wandernoth, S; Wang, J; Ward, D R; Watson, N K; Webber, A D; Websdale, D; Whitehead, M; Wicht, J; Wiechczynski, J; Wiedner, D; Wiggers, L; Wilkinson, G; Williams, M P; Williams, M; Wilson, F F; Wishahi, J; Witek, M; Wotton, S A; Wright, S; Wu, S; Wyllie, K; Xie, Y; Xing, F; Xing, Z; Yang, Z; Young, R; Yuan, X; Yushchenko, O; Zangoli, M; Zavertyaev, M; Zhang, F; Zhang, L; Zhang, W C; Zhang, Y; Zhelezov, A; Zhokhov, A; Zhong, L; Zvyagin, A

    2013-01-01

    First observations and measurements of the branching fractions of the $\\bar{B}_s^0\\to D^+D^-$, $\\bar{B}_s^0\\to D_s^+D^-$ and $\\bar{B}_s^0\\to D^0\\bar{D}^0$ decays are presented using $1.0$~fb$^{-1}$ of data collected by the LHCb experiment. These branching fractions are normalized to those of $\\bar{B}^0\\to D^+D^-$, $B^0\\to D_s^+D^-$ and $B^-\\to D^0D_s^-$, respectively. An excess of events consistent with the decay $\\bar{B}^0\\to D^0\\bar{D}^0$ is also seen, and its branching fraction is measured relative to that of $B^-\\to D^0D_s^-$. Improved measurements of the branching fractions ${\\cal{B}}(\\bar{B}_s^0\\to D_s^+D_s^-)$ and ${\\cal{B}}(B^-\\to D^0D_s^-)$ are reported, each relative to ${\\cal{B}}(B^0\\to D_s^+D^-)$. The ratios of branching fractions are \\begin{align*} {{\\cal{B}}(\\bar{B}_s^0\\to D^+D^-)\\over {\\cal{B}}(\\bar{B}^0\\to D^+D^-)} &= 1.08\\pm 0.20\\pm0.10, \

  10. Study of $ \\bar{p} $ and $ \\bar{n} $ annihilations at LEAR with OBELIX, a large acceptance and high resolution detector based on the Open Axial Field Spectrometer

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    % PS201 Study of $\\bar{p}$ and $\\bar{n}$ annihilations at LEAR with OBELIX, a large acceptance and high resolution detector based on the Open Axial Field Spectrometer \\\\ \\\\OBELIX is designed to study exclusive final states of antiproton and antineutron annihilations at low energies with protons and nuclei. \\\\ \\\\The physics motivations of the experiment are:\\\\ \\\\\\begin{itemize} \\item (gg, ggg), hybrids ($ q \\bar{q} g $), multiquarks ($ q q \\bar{q} \\bar{q} $) and light mesons ($ q \\bar{q} $) produced in $ N \\bar{N} $ annihilations and study of their spectroscopy and decays. Also broad structures will be searched for by comparing identical decay modes in exclusive final states of the same type occuring from initial states with different angular momentum or isospin. \\item Study of the dynamics of $ N \\bar{N} $ interactions and of the dependence of the final and intermediate resonant states of annihilation upon the quantum numbers of the initial $ N \\bar{N} $ state (angular momentum: S and P-wave in $\\bar{p}p $ at...

  11. Glass Stronger than Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarris, Lynn

    2011-03-28

    A new type of damage-tolerant metallic glass, demonstrating a strength and toughness beyond that of steel or any other known material, has been developed and tested by a collaboration of researchers from Berkeley Lab and Caltech.

  12. Are Tornadoes Getting Stronger?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsner, J.; Jagger, T.

    2013-12-01

    A cumulative logistic model for tornado damage category is developed and examined. Damage path length and width are significantly correlated to the odds of a tornado receiving the next highest damage category. Given values for the cube root of path length and square root of path width, the model predicts a probability for each category. The length and width coefficients are insensitive to the switch to the Enhanced Fujita (EF) scale and to distance from nearest city although these variables are statistically significant in the model. The width coefficient is sensitive to whether or not the tornado caused at least one fatality. This is likely due to the fact that the dimensions and characteristics of the damage path for such events are always based on ground surveys. The model predicted probabilities across the categories are then multiplied by the center wind speed from the categorical EF scale to obtain an estimate of the highest tornado wind speed on a continuous scale in units of meters per second. The estimated wind speeds correlate at a level of .82 (.46, .95) [95% confidence interval] to wind speeds estimated independently from a doppler radar calibration. The estimated wind speeds allow analyses to be done on the tornado database that are not possible with the categorical scale. The modeled intensities can be used in climatology and in environmental and engineering applications. More work needs to be done to understand the upward trends in path length and width. The increases lead to an apparent increase in tornado intensity across all EF categories.

  13. Selecting and Effectively Using Sports Drinks, Carbohydrate Gels and Energy Bars

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Effectively Using Sports Drinks, Carbohydrate Gels and Energy Bars Depending upon the length of your workout ... can hinder performance. Sports drinks, carbohydrate gels and energy bars can help restore your body’s fluids and ...

  14. Engineering studies on joint bar integrity, part II : finite element analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-02

    This paper is the second in a two-part series describing : research sponsored by the Federal Railroad Administration : (FRA) to study the structural integrity of joint bars. In Part I, : observations from field surveys of joint bar inspections : cond...

  15. Evaluation of dowel bar inserter practices in PCC pavements with magnetic tomography technology : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Dowel Bar Inserters (DBI) are automated mechanical equipment that position dowel bars in Portland Cement Concrete (PCC) after concrete is placed. Compared to the alternative approach, which is using dowel baskets, DBIs offer advantages in cost and sp...

  16. Measurement of the charged multiplicity of Z0 → b bar b events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burrows, P.N.

    1994-08-01

    Using an impact parameter tag to select an enriched sample of Z 0 → b bar b events, the authors have measured the difference between the average charged multiplicity of Z 0 → b bar b and Z 0 → hadrons to be bar n b - bar n had = 2.24 ± 0.30(stat.) ± 0.33(syst.) tracks per event. From this, they have derived bar n b - bar n uds = 3.31 ± 0.41 ± 0.79. Comparing this measurement with those at lower center-of-mass energies, the authors find no evidence that bar n b - bar n uds depends on energy, in agreement with a precise prediction of perturbative QCD

  17. Health monitoring of precast bridge deck panels reinforced with glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP) bars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    The present research project investigates monitoring concrete precast panels for bridge decks that are reinforced with Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymer (GFRP) bars. Due to the lack of long term research on concrete members reinforced with GFRP bars, lo...

  18. Pinkbar is an epithelial-specific BAR domain protein that generates planar membrane structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pykäläinen, Anette; Boczkowska, Malgorzata; Zhao, Hongxia; Saarikangas, Juha; Rebowski, Grzegorz; Jansen, Maurice; Hakanen, Janne; Koskela, Essi V.; Peränen, Johan; Vihinen, Helena; Jokitalo, Eija; Salminen, Marjo; Ikonen, Elina; Dominguez, Roberto; Lappalainen, Pekka (Helsinki); (Penn)

    2013-05-29

    Bin/amphipysin/Rvs (BAR)-domain proteins sculpt cellular membranes and have key roles in processes such as endocytosis, cell motility and morphogenesis. BAR domains are divided into three subfamilies: BAR- and F-BAR-domain proteins generate positive membrane curvature and stabilize cellular invaginations, whereas I-BAR-domain proteins induce negative curvature and stabilize protrusions. We show that a previously uncharacterized member of the I-BAR subfamily, Pinkbar, is specifically expressed in intestinal epithelial cells, where it localizes to Rab13-positive vesicles and to the plasma membrane at intercellular junctions. Notably, the BAR domain of Pinkbar does not induce membrane tubulation but promotes the formation of planar membrane sheets. Structural and mutagenesis analyses reveal that the BAR domain of Pinkbar has a relatively flat lipid-binding interface and that it assembles into sheet-like oligomers in crystals and in solution, which may explain its unique membrane-deforming activity.

  19. A Review of the Biomechanical Differences Between the High-Bar and Low-Bar Back-Squat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glassbrook, Daniel J; Helms, Eric R; Brown, Scott R; Storey, Adam G

    2017-09-01

    Glassbrook, DJ, Helms, ER, Brown, SR, and Storey, AG. A review of the biomechanical differences between the high-bar and low-bar back-squat. J Strength Cond Res 31(9): 2618-2634, 2017-The back-squat is a common exercise in strength and conditioning for a variety of sports. It is widely regarded as a fundamental movement to increase and measure lower-body and trunk function, as well as an effective injury rehabilitation exercise. There are typically 2 different bar positions used when performing the back-squat: the traditional "high-bar" back-squat (HBBS) and the "low-bar" back-squat (LBBS). Different movement strategies are used to ensure that the center of mass remains in the base of support for balance during the execution of these lifts. These movement strategies manifest as differences in (a) joint angles, (b) vertical ground reaction forces, and (c) the activity of key muscles. This review showed that the HBBS is characterized by greater knee flexion, lesser hip flexion, a more upright torso, and a deeper squat. The LBBS is characterized by greater hip flexion and, therefore, a greater forward lean. However, there are limited differences in vertical ground reaction forces between the HBBS and LBBS. The LBBS can also be characterized by a greater muscle activity of the erector spinae, adductors, and gluteal muscles, whereas the HBBS can be characterized by greater quadriceps muscle activity. Practitioners seeking to develop the posterior-chain hip musculature (i.e., gluteal, hamstring, and erector muscle groups) may seek to use the LBBS. In comparison, those seeking to replicate movements with a more upright torso and contribution from the quadriceps may rather seek to use the HBBS in training.

  20. KIR2DL2/2DL3-E35 alleles are functionally stronger than -Q35 alleles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bari, Rafijul; Thapa, Rajoo; Bao, Ju; Li, Ying; Zheng, Jie; Leung, Wing

    2016-03-01

    KIR2DL2 and KIR2DL3 segregate as alleles of a single locus in the centromeric motif of the killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR) gene family. Although KIR2DL2/L3 polymorphism is known to be associated with many human diseases and is an important factor for donor selection in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, the molecular determinant of functional diversity among various alleles is unclear. In this study we found that KIR2DL2/L3 with glutamic acid at position 35 (E35) are functionally stronger than those with glutamine at the same position (Q35). Cytotoxicity assay showed that NK cells from HLA-C1 positive donors with KIR2DL2/L3-E35 could kill more target cells lacking their ligands than NK cells with the weaker -Q35 alleles, indicating better licensing of KIR2DL2/L3+ NK cells with the stronger alleles. Molecular modeling analysis reveals that the glutamic acid, which is negatively charged, interacts with positively charged histidine located at position 55, thereby stabilizing KIR2DL2/L3 dimer and reducing entropy loss when KIR2DL2/3 binds to HLA-C ligand. The results of this study will be important for future studies of KIR2DL2/L3-associated diseases as well as for donor selection in allogeneic stem cell transplantation.

  1. The impact of gambling advertising: Problem gamblers report stronger impacts on involvement, knowledge, and awareness than recreational gamblers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanss, Daniel; Mentzoni, Rune A; Griffiths, Mark D; Pallesen, Ståle

    2015-06-01

    Although there is a general lack of empirical evidence that advertising influences gambling participation, the regulation of gambling advertising is hotly debated among academic researchers, treatment specialists, lobby groups, regulators, and policymakers. This study contributes to the ongoing debate by investigating perceived impacts of gambling advertising in a sample of gamblers drawn from the general population in Norway (n = 6,034). Three dimensions of advertising impacts were identified, representing perceived impacts on (a) gambling-related attitudes, interest, and behavior ("involvement"); (b) knowledge about gambling options and providers ("knowledge"); and (c) the degree to which people are aware of gambling advertising ("awareness"). Overall, impacts were strongest for the knowledge dimension, and, for all 3 dimensions, the impact increased with level of advertising exposure. Those identified as problem gamblers in the sample (n = 57) reported advertising impacts concerning involvement more than recreational gamblers, and this finding was not attributable to differences in advertising exposure. Additionally, younger gamblers reported stronger impacts on involvement and knowledge but were less likely to agree that they were aware of gambling advertising than older gamblers. Male gamblers were more likely than female gamblers to report stronger impacts on both involvement and knowledge. These findings are discussed with regard to existing research on gambling advertising as well as their implications for future research and policy-making. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Removal of proprioception by BCI raises a stronger body ownership illusion in control of a humanlike robot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alimardani, Maryam; Nishio, Shuichi; Ishiguro, Hiroshi

    2016-09-22

    Body ownership illusions provide evidence that our sense of self is not coherent and can be extended to non-body objects. Studying about these illusions gives us practical tools to understand the brain mechanisms that underlie body recognition and the experience of self. We previously introduced an illusion of body ownership transfer (BOT) for operators of a very humanlike robot. This sensation of owning the robot's body was confirmed when operators controlled the robot either by performing the desired motion with their body (motion-control) or by employing a brain-computer interface (BCI) that translated motor imagery commands to robot movement (BCI-control). The interesting observation during BCI-control was that the illusion could be induced even with a noticeable delay in the BCI system. Temporal discrepancy has always shown critical weakening effects on body ownership illusions. However the delay-robustness of BOT during BCI-control raised a question about the interaction between the proprioceptive inputs and delayed visual feedback in agency-driven illusions. In this work, we compared the intensity of BOT illusion for operators in two conditions; motion-control and BCI-control. Our results revealed a significantly stronger BOT illusion for the case of BCI-control. This finding highlights BCI's potential in inducing stronger agency-driven illusions by building a direct communication between the brain and controlled body, and therefore removing awareness from the subject's own body.

  3. Secondhand hookah smoke: an occupational hazard for hookah bar employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Sherry; Behrooz, Leili; Weitzman, Michael; Pan, Grace; Vilcassim, Ruzmyn; Mirowsky, Jaime E; Breysee, Patrick; Rule, Ana; Gordon, Terry

    2017-01-01

    Despite the increasing popularity of hookah bars, there is a lack of research assessing the health effects of hookah smoke among employees. This study investigated indoor air quality in hookah bars and the health effects of secondhand hookah smoke on hookah bar workers. Air samples were collected during the work shift of 10 workers in hookah bars in New York City (NYC). Air measurements of fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ), fine black carbon (BC 2.5 ), carbon monoxide (CO), and nicotine were collected during each work shift. Blood pressure and heart rate, markers of active smoking and secondhand smoke exposure (exhaled CO and saliva cotinine levels), and selected inflammatory cytokines in blood (ineterleukin (IL)-1b, IL-6, IL-8, interferon γ (IFN-γ), tumour necrosis factor (TNF-α)) were assessed in workers immediately prior to and immediately after their work shift. The PM 2.5 (gravimetric) and BC 2.5 concentrations in indoor air varied greatly among the work shifts with mean levels of 363.8 µg/m 3 and 2.2 µg/m 3 , respectively. The mean CO level was 12.9 ppm with a peak value of 22.5 ppm CO observed in one hookah bar. While heart rate was elevated by 6 bpm after occupational exposure, this change was not statistically significant. Levels of inflammatory cytokines in blood were all increased at postshift compared to preshift testing with IFN-Υ increasing from 0.85 (0.13) to 1.6 (0.25) (mean (standard error of the mean; SEM)) pg/mL (p90 ppm exhaled CO. These results demonstrate that hookah bars have elevated concentrations of indoor air pollutants that appear to cause adverse health effects in employees. These data indicate the need for further research and a marked need for better air quality monitoring and policies in such establishments to improve the indoor air quality for workers and patrons. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  4. Assessing exposure to secondhand smoke in restaurants and bars 2 years after the smoking regulations in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, R; Jiang, Y; Li, Q; Hammond, S K

    2014-08-01

    protect the population from SHS exposure in restaurants and bars and that more efforts are needed to pass stronger smoking regulations and ensure better compliance in Beijing, China. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Different Properties of the (K)over-bar N N and (K)over-bar (K)over-bar N Systems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Shevchenko, Nina V.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 58, č. 2 (2017), č. článku 63. ISSN 0177-7963. [23rd European Conference on Few-Body Problems in Physics . Aarhaus, 08.08.2016-12.08.2016] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-04301S Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : (K)over-bar * three-body * two-body Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics OBOR OECD: Atomic, molecular and chemical physics ( physics of atoms and molecules including collision, interaction with radiation, magnetic resonances, Mössbauer effect) Impact factor: 0.877, year: 2016

  6. Tendência da mortalidade por câncer nas capitais e interior do Brasil entre 1980 e 2006

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Gulnar Azevedo e; Gamarra, Carmen Justina; Girianelli, Vania Reis; Valente, Joaquim Gonçalves

    2011-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Analisar a tendência corrigida da mortalidade geral por câncer e principais tipos nas capitais e demais municípios do Brasil entre 1980 e 2006. MÉTODOS: Os dados sobre óbitos (n = 2.585.012) decorrentes de câncer entre 1980 e 2006 foram obtidos no Sistema de Informações sobre Mortalidade, e os demográficos, no Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística. As taxas de mortalidade geral por câncer e principais tipos foram corrigidas redistribuindo proporcionalmente 50% das mortes m...

  7. Lesión de "tennis leg" asociada a rotura parcial del tendón de Aquiles

    OpenAIRE

    Rodas Font, Gil; Bove, Toni; Martinez, Xavier; Pedret Carballido, Carles; Dalmau, Antoni

    2010-01-01

    La rotura de la porción distal del músculo gemelo interno también es conocida como la lesión de "tennis leg". Es frecuente que esta patología esté asociada a la rotura del músculo sóleo o la del músculo plantar delgado, así como la trombosis venosa profunda. Presentamos el caso de un jugador profesional de baloncesto con antecedentes de tendinopatía aquílea y bursitis retrocalcánea que presenta un "tennis-leg" asociado a una rotura parcial del tendón de Aquiles.

  8. Rotura completa do tendão distal do semitendinoso num atleta profissional de futebol : um estudo de caso

    OpenAIRE

    Álvaro, Gonçalo José Fontes de Albuquerque

    2012-01-01

    Mestrado em Ciências da Fisioterapia Introdução: O objectivo do estudo foi estabelecer o perfil muscular do joelho e sua comparação bilateral, num atleta profissional de futebol, determinando Mmáx e o RI/Q, em dinamometria isocinética, antes e depois da ocorrência do episódio lesional. Metodologia: O estudo foi redigido com base num caso de um atleta de 31 anos que sofreu duas lesões algo relacionadas. A 29 de Julho de 2010, rotura completa do tendão distal do semitendinoso à direita. A...

  9. 77 FR 49818 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Bar Code Label...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-17

    ...] Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Bar Code Label... allow 60 days for public comment in response to the notice. This notice solicits comments on the bar... technology. Bar Code Label Requirement for Human Drug and Biological Products--(OMB Control Number 0910-0537...

  10. 78 FR 7395 - Stainless Steel Bar From India: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-533-810] Stainless Steel Bar From... steel bar (SSB) from India. The period of review (POR) is February 1, 2011, through January 31, 2012... Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review: Stainless Steel Bar from India'' dated...

  11. 77 FR 40644 - Specialty Bar Products Company; A Subsidiary of Doncasters, Inc., Blairsville, PA; Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-10

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration [TA-W-80,511] Specialty Bar Products... Application for Reconsideration for the workers and former workers of Specialty Bar Products Company, a... resulted in reduction of work force within Specialty Bar Products.'' Information obtained during the...

  12. Genderedness of Bar Drinking Culture and Alcohol-Related Harms: A Multi-Country Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Sarah C. M.; Bond, Jason; Korcha, Rachael; Greenfield, Thomas K.

    2013-01-01

    This study explores whether associations between consuming alcohol in bars and alcohol-related harms are consistent across countries and whether country-level characteristics modify associations. We hypothesized that genderedness of bar drinking modifies associations, such that odds of harms associated with bar drinking increase more rapidly in…

  13. 75 FR 70226 - Mackay Bar Corporation; Notice of Authorization for Continued Project Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-17

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Project No. 3041-004] Mackay Bar... Mackay Bar Corporation, licensee for the Hettinger Hydroelectric Project, filed an Application to..., notice is hereby given that an annual license for Project No. 3041 is issued to the Mackay Bar...

  14. 28 CFR 51.64 - Bar to termination of coverage (bailout).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bar to termination of coverage (bailout... ADMINISTRATION OF SECTION 5 OF THE VOTING RIGHTS ACT OF 1965, AS AMENDED Sanctions § 51.64 Bar to termination of... pendency. (b) In defending bailout actions, the Attorney General will not consider as a bar to bailout...

  15. 77 FR 45239 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Bar Harbor, ME

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-31

    ...-1366; Airspace Docket No. 11-ANE-13] Amendment of Class E Airspace; Bar Harbor, ME AGENCY: Federal... area at Bar Harbor, ME, as the Surry Non-Directional Radio Beacon (NDB) has been decommissioned and new Standard Instrument Approach Procedures have been developed at Hancock County-Bar Harbor Airport. This...

  16. 78 FR 4383 - Stainless Steel Bar From Brazil: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-351-825] Stainless Steel Bar From... steel bar (SSB) from Brazil. The period of review (POR) is February 1, 2011, through January 31, 2012... Review: Stainless Steel Bar from Brazil'' dated concurrently with this notice (``Preliminary Decision...

  17. 38 CFR 3.363 - Bar to benefits under 38 U.S.C. 1151.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bar to benefits under 38... Purposes § 3.363 Bar to benefits under 38 U.S.C. 1151. (a) Claims subject to this section. This section.... (b) Administrative award, compromises, or settlements, or judgments that bar benefits under 38 U.S.C...

  18. 76 FR 1599 - Stainless Steel Bar From Brazil: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-11

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-351-825] Stainless Steel Bar From... duty order on stainless steel bar from Brazil. The review covers one producer/exporter of the subject... its administrative review of the antidumping duty order on stainless steel bar (SSB) from Brazil. See...

  19. 76 FR 34964 - Stainless Steel Bar From India: Partial Rescission of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-15

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-533-810] Stainless Steel Bar From... the antidumping duty order on stainless steel bar from India for the period of review February 1, 2010....; Outokumpu Stainless Bar, Inc.; Universal Stainless & Alloy Products, Inc.; and Valbruna Slater Stainless...

  20. Where are the stars of the bar of NGC 1530 forming?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zurita, A.; Perez, I.

    Aims. NGC 1530 has one of the strongest bars ever observed and recent star formation sites are distributed across its bar. Our aim is to study the photometric properties of the bar and its H II regions, to elucidate the conditions under which H II regions form and their spatial relation to the

  1. 77 FR 39467 - Stainless Steel Bar From India: Final Results of the Antidumping Duty Administrative Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-533-810] Stainless Steel Bar From... duty order on stainless steel bar from India. The review covers shipments of subject merchandise to the... Bar From India: Preliminary Results and Partial Rescission of the Antidumping Duty Administrative...

  2. 77 FR 27666 - Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Bar Harbor, ME

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-11

    ...-1366; Airspace Docket No. 11-ANE-13] Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Bar Harbor, ME AGENCY... action proposes to amend Class E Airspace at Bar Harbor, ME, as the Surry Non-Directional Radio Beacon... Hancock County-Bar Harbor Airport. This action would enhance the safety and airspace management of...

  3. Where are the massive stars of the bar of NGC 1530 forming?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zurita, A.

    2008-01-01

    NGC 1530 has one of the strongest bars ever observed and recent star formation sites are distributed across its bar. Our aim is to study the photometric properties of the bar and its Hii regions, to elucidate the conditions under which Hii regions form and their spatial relation to the principal

  4. 77 FR 41969 - Stainless Steel Bar From Japan: Rescission of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-17

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-588-833] Stainless Steel Bar From... order on stainless steel bar from Japan (the Order) covering the period February 1, 2010, through... Suruga to the Secretary, ``Stainless Steel Bar--Withdrawal of Request for Administrative Review,'' dated...

  5. [Glycemic response to consumption of a cereals and legume (Phaseolus vulgaris) bar on healthy individuals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambrano, Rosaura; Granito, Marisela; Valero, Yolmar

    2013-06-01

    The objective of this work was to formulate a cereals and legume (Phaseolus vulgaris) bar and assess its impact on the glycemic response of healthy individuals, in order to contribute to the healthy food supply beneficial to consumers. A mixture of cereals (corn and oats) and different percentages (20 and 30%) of Phaseolus vulgaris was used to formulate the bar. Additionally, a legume cereal bar without legumes (bar control) was prepared. The bar with 30% of Phaseolus vulgaris was selected through sensory evaluation, being scored with better flavor and texture. This combination of cereals and legumes aminoacid improves complementation and reaches the formulation criteria previously established. Chemical characterization indicated a higher protein content in the bar with 30% of Phaseolus vulgaris (13.55%) relative to the bar control (8.5%). The contents of fat, ash and dietary fiber did not differ between the two bars evaluated. However, the soluble fiber and resistant starch of the selected bar was a 32.05% and 18.67%, respectively, than in the control bar; this may contribute to decreasing the rate of glucose uptake. The selected bar presented a low glycemic index (49) and intermediate glycemic load (12.0) in healthy volunteers, which could lead to a possible reduction in the rate of absorption of glucose into the bloodstream, associated with a carbohydrate content of slow absorption. This bar represents a proposal of a healthy snack for the consumer.

  6. Prevalence and Implementation Practices of School Salad Bars Across Grade Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruening, Meg; Adams, Marc A; Ohri-Vachaspati, Punam; Hurley, Jane

    2017-01-01

    To assess the prevalence of school salad bars in Arizona and to describe common practices of salad bar use among school nutrition managers across grade level. Cross-sectional web-based surveys. School nutrition managers from elementary, middle, high, and K-12 schools (N = 648). Prevalence of salad bars; implementation practices such as years with salad bar, salad bar type, location, monitor, and reimbursement practices; and food-related components of salad bars including frequency of items, popular items, and sources of food. Descriptive analyses were conducted including Fisher exact test, analysis of variance, and the Kruskal-Wallis test comparing practices across grade level (elementary, middle, high, and K-12 schools). Overall, 61.1% of respondents had a salad bar; there were significant differences in the prevalence across grade level: elementary, middle, high, and K-12 schools had prevalence of 67.3%, 75.0%, 45.5%, and 51.1%, respectively ( P related components of salad bars across grade levels including type, salad bar location, sources of food, and frequency of serving cut vegetables. This study provides insights on the prevalence of salad bars and is the first to report on implementation practices of school salad bars. These results may also guide the development of interventions for nutrition educators to use for the promotion fruit and vegetable consumption via school salad bars.

  7. Evaluation of stress distribution characteristics on various bar designs of three-implant-supported mandibular overdentures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emre Tokar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Implant-supported-overdentures, instead of conventional complete dentures, are frequently recommended to rehabilitate patients having edentulous mandible. The aim of this study was to evaluate the stress distribution characteristics of mandibular implant-supported overdentures with four different bar attachment designs. Materials and Method: A photoelastic mandibular model with three implants (3.75 mm - 13 mm placed at the interforaminal region was generated from a cast of an edentulous mandible. Four mandibular bar overdenture designs were fabricated: bar-clip, bar-galvano, bar-locator, and bar-ceka. Axial vertical loads (135 N were applied to the central fossa of the right first molar area for each overdenture design. Stress concentrations were recorded photographically and analyzed visually. Results: The tested bar attachment designs revealed low and moderate stress levels. The lowest stress was observed with the bar-clip design, followed by bar-locator, bar-ceka, and bar-galvano designs. Conclusion: The loads were distributed to all of the implants. Studied designs experienced moderate stress levels around the loaded side implant. Bars with distally placed stud attachments and surface treatment with electroforming seems to increase stress levels around the implants.

  8. Vibrations of a connecting system of curved bars, in-plane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Katsuyoshi; Takahashi, Shin; Asakura, Akira.

    1979-01-01

    Piping systems were simulated with the combined bars with many kinds of curved and straight shapes. The system consists of straight bars and a circular arc bar, an elliptic arc bar and a catenary curved bar. The inplane vibration of a complicated bar system of any shape, which is indicated by two-dimensional center line, was analyzed strictly and simply, utilizing Lagrangean equation. The theoretical and analytical equations of vibration were derived, such as Lagrangean equation, Euler's equation, and those for bending moment, shearing force, tangential force, deformation, inclination, amplitude frequency, etc. The calculations were conducted on the U-shaped bars, namely the elliptic arc bar connected to straight bars and the catenary bar connected to straight bars, with the boundary condition of fixed ends. The analytical in-plane vibrating characteristics including natural frequency and vibration mode are shown. In the relating experiment, the frequency was measured with the U-shaped test pieces, changing the parameters of the length ratio of elliptic arc and straight part. Both ends were fixed. The test result showed that the vibration characteristics were consistent with the analytical result comparatively. This method is advantageous especially for complicated piping systems. The material and the cross section of bars were not varied in this analysis as the analytical condition. (Nakai, Y.)

  9. Vibrations of a connecting system of curved bar, out-plane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Katsuyoshi; Takahashi, Shin

    1979-01-01

    Piping systems were simulated with the combined bars with many kinds of curved and straight shapes. The system consists of straight bars and a circular arc bar, an elliptic arc bar or a catenary curved bar. The vibration outside the plane of a complicated bar system of any shape, which is indicated by two dimensional center line, was analyzed strictly and simply, utilizing Lagrangean equation. The theoretical and analytical equations were derived for Lagrangean, bending moment, shearing force, torsional moment, deformation, inclination, amplitude, frequency, etc. The calculations were conducted on the U-shaped bars, namely the elliptic arc bar connected to straight bars and the catenary bar connected to straight bars, with the boundary condition of fixed ends. The analytical characteristics of vibration outside the plane, including natural frequency and vibration mode, are shown. In the relating experiment, the frequency was measured with the U-shaped test pieces, changing the parameters of the length ratio of elliptic arc and straight part. Both ends were fixed. The test result showed that the vibration characteristics were consistent with the analytical result comparatively. This method is advantageous especially for complicated piping systems. The material and the cross section of bars were not varied in this analysis as the analytical condition. (Nakai, Y.)

  10. Changes in Smoking-Related Norms in Bars Resulting from California's Smoke-Free Workplace Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satterlund, Travis D.; Lee, Juliet P.; Moore, Roland S.

    2012-01-01

    California's Smoke-Free Workplace Act--CA Labor Code Sec. 6404.5(a)--was extended to bars in 1998. This article analyzes changes in normative beliefs and behaviors related to bar smoking in the decade following the adoption of the Act. In a series of studies evaluating the smoke-free workplace law in bars, researchers conducted extensive…

  11. 77 FR 64127 - Steel Concrete Reinforcing Bar From Belarus, China, Indonesia, Latvia, Moldova, Poland, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-18

    ...)] Steel Concrete Reinforcing Bar From Belarus, China, Indonesia, Latvia, Moldova, Poland, and Ukraine... determine whether revocation of the antidumping duty orders on steel concrete reinforcing bar from Belarus... concrete reinforcing bar from Latvia and Moldova. The Commission found that the respondent interested party...

  12. 78 FR 43858 - Steel Concrete Reinforcing Bars From Belarus, Indonesia, Latvia, Moldova, Poland, the People's...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-22

    ...-860; A-822-804; A-823-809; A- 841-804] Steel Concrete Reinforcing Bars From Belarus, Indonesia, Latvia... antidumping duty orders \\1\\ on steel concrete reinforcing bars from Belarus, Indonesia, Latvia, Moldova... orders. \\1\\ See Antidumping Duty Orders: Steel Concrete Reinforcing Bars From Belarus, Indonesia, Latvia...

  13. 77 FR 71631 - Steel Concrete Reinforcing Bar From Belarus, China, Indonesia, Latvia, Moldova, Poland, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-03

    ...)] Steel Concrete Reinforcing Bar From Belarus, China, Indonesia, Latvia, Moldova, Poland, and Ukraine; Scheduling of Full Five-Year Reviews Concerning the Antidumping Duty Orders on Steel Concrete Reinforcing Bar...) to determine whether revocation of the antidumping duty orders on steel concrete reinforcing bar from...

  14. 77 FR 39254 - Steel Concrete Reinforcing Bar From Belarus, China, Indonesia, Latvia, Moldova, Poland, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-02

    ...)] Steel Concrete Reinforcing Bar From Belarus, China, Indonesia, Latvia, Moldova, Poland, and Ukraine; Institution of Five-Year Reviews Concerning the Antidumping Duty Orders on Steel Concrete Reinforcing Bar From... revocation of the antidumping duty orders on steel concrete reinforcing bar from Belarus, China, Indonesia...

  15. Physicochemical and sensory characteristics of no-bake wheat-soy snack bars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aramouni, Fadi M; Abu-Ghoush, Mahmoud H

    2011-01-15

    Health and wellness is a trend observed throughout ready-to-eat cereals, cereal health bars. Therefore, the main objectives of this research were to produce a low cost, acceptable, nutritious and healthy wheat- and soy-based bar under no-bake conditions. Also, the physical, chemical, microbial, acceptability and the nutritional value of this product were studied. Six different bars were produced: a wheat bar (WB), a wheat bar with coating (WBC), a wheat and soy bar with coating (WSBC), a soy bar with coating (SBC), a wheat bar with 3% glycerin (WB3%), and a wheat bar with 6% glycerine (WB6%). WB and WBC had the highest water activities while WSBC had the lowest. The three bars with coating had higher L and lower b values, which indicates that they were lighter and not as highly yellow coloured as the wheat samples. WSBC had the lowest value for hardness while the SBC and WBC had the highest. SBC received the highest scores for overall acceptability, appearance, sweetness, flavour and texture while WSBC received the second highest score in all categories. It appears that consumers prefer the soy varieties to the wheat bars. These types of bars can aid in feeding the general population, which is becoming increasingly concerned with nutrition and convenience. Copyright © 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. 76 FR 48802 - Certain Steel Concrete Reinforcing Bars From Turkey; Notice of Amended Final Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-09

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Steel Concrete Reinforcing Bars From Turkey; Notice of Amended Final... antidumping duty order on certain steel concrete reinforcing bars (rebar) from Turkey. See Certain Steel Concrete Reinforcing Bars From Turkey; Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review and...

  17. 33 CFR 13.01-35 - Description of gold and silver bars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Description of gold and silver... SECURITY GENERAL DECORATIONS, MEDALS, RIBBONS AND SIMILAR DEVICES Gold and Silver Lifesaving Medals, Bars, and Miniatures § 13.01-35 Description of gold and silver bars. (a) The bar is plain and horizontal...

  18. Tables or bar graphs? Presenting test results in electronic medical records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Noel T; Gilkey, Melissa B; Lillie, Sarah E; Hesse, Bradford W; Sheridan, Stacey L

    2012-01-01

    Electronic personal health records offer a promising way to communicate medical test results to patients. We compared the usability of tables and horizontal bar graphs for presenting medical test results electronically. We conducted experiments with a convenience sample of 106 community-dwelling adults. In the first experiment, participants viewed either table or bar graph formats (between subjects) that presented medical test results with normal and abnormal findings. In a second experiment, participants viewed table and bar graph formats (within subjects) that presented test results with normal, borderline, and abnormal findings. Participants required less viewing time when using bar graphs rather than tables. This overall difference was due to superior performance of bar graphs in vignettes with many test results. Bar graphs and tables performed equally well with regard to recall accuracy and understanding. In terms of ease of use, participants did not prefer bar graphs to tables when they viewed only one format. When participants viewed both formats, those with experience with bar graphs preferred bar graphs, and those with experience with tables found bar graphs equally easy to use. Preference for bar graphs was strongest when viewing tests with borderline results. Compared to horizontal bar graphs, tables required more time and experience to achieve the same results, suggesting that tables can be a more burdensome format to use. The current practice of presenting medical test results in a tabular format merits reconsideration.

  19. THE OCCURRENCE OF FAULT BARS IN THE PLUMAGE OF NESTLING OSPREYS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MACHMER, MM; ESSELINK, H; STEEGER, C; YDENBERG, RC

    1992-01-01

    We document the occurrence of fault bars in a population of nestling Ospreys Pandion haliaetus under natural conditions. Ospreys had an average of 9.9 fault bars on their rectrices, however variation was large. Fault bar formation declined linearly with age and increased symmetrically from outer to

  20. Evolution of crack paths and compliance in round bars under cyclic tension and bending

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Toribio

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to calculate how the surface crack front and the dimensionless compliance evolve in cracked cylindrical bars subjected to cyclic tension or bending with different initial crack geometries (crack depths and aspect ratios. To this end, a computer application (in the Java programming language that calculates the crack front’s geometric evolution and the dimensionless compliance was made by discretizing the crack front (characterized with elliptical shape and assuming that every point advances perpendicularly to the crack front according to the Paris law, and using a three-parameter stress intensity factor (SIF. The results show that in fatigue crack propagation, relative crack depth influences more on dimensionless compliance than the aspect ratio, because the crack front tends to converge when the crack propagates from different initial geometries, showing greater values for tension than for bending. Furthermore, during fatigue crack growth, materials with higher values of the exponent of the Paris law produce slightly greater dimensionless compliance and a better convergence between the results for straight-fronted and circular initial cracks.

  1. Spatial and temporal correlation between beach and wave processes: implications for bar-berm sediment transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joevivek, V.; Chandrasekar, N.; Saravanan, S.; Anandakumar, H.; Thanushkodi, K.; Suguna, N.; Jaya, J.

    2017-06-01

    Investigation of a beach and its wave conditions is highly requisite for understanding the physical processes in a coast. This study composes spatial and temporal correlation between beach and nearshore processes along the extensive sandy beach of Nagapattinam coast, southeast peninsular India. The data collection includes beach profile, wave data, and intertidal sediment samples for 2 years from January 2011 to January 2013. The field data revealed significant variability in beach and wave morphology during the northeast (NE) and southwest (SW) monsoon. However, the beach has been stabilized by the reworking of sediment distribution during the calm period. The changes in grain sorting and longshore sediment transport serve as a clear evidence of the sediment migration that persevered between foreshore and nearshore regions. The Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF) analysis and Canonical Correlation Analysis (CCA) were utilized to investigate the spatial and temporal linkages between beach and nearshore criterions. The outcome of the multivariate analysis unveiled that the seasonal variations in the wave climate tends to influence the bar-berm sediment transition that is discerned in the coast.

  2. Influence of the weighing bar size to determine optimal time of biodiesel-glycerol separation by using the buoyancy weighing-bar method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tambun, R.; Sibagariang, Y.; Manurung, J.

    2018-02-01

    The buoyancy weighing-bar method is a novel method in the particle size distribution measurement. This method can measure particle size distributions of the settling particles and floating particles. In this study, the buoyancy weighing-bar method is applied to determine optimal time of biodiesel-glycerol separation. The buoyancy weighing-bar method can be applied to determine the separation time because biodiesel and glycerol have the different densities. The influences of diameter of weighing-bar by using the buoyancy weighing-bar method would be experimentally investigated. The diameters of weighing-bar in this experiment are 8 mm, 10 mm, 15 mm and 20 mm, while the graduated cylinder (diameter : 65 mm) is used as vessel. The samples used in this experiment are the mixture of 95 % of biodiesel and 5 % of glycerol. The data obtained by the buoyancy weighing-bar method are analized by using the gas chromatography to determine the purity of biodiesel. Based on the data obtained, the buoyancy weighing-bar method can be used to detect the separation time of biodiesel-glycerol by using the weighing-bar diameter of 8 mm, 10 mm, 15 mm and 20 mm, but the most accuracy in determination the biodiesel-glycerol separation time is obtained by using the weighing-bar diameter of 20 mm. The biodiesel purity of 97.97 % could be detected at 64 minutes by using the buoyancy weighing-bar method when the weighing-bar diameter of 20 mm is used.

  3. Strengthing of Beams and Columns using GFRP Bars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, C. B.; Tade, M. K.; Thakare, S. B., Dr.

    2017-08-01

    Nowadays infrastructure development is raising its pace. Many reinforced high concrete and masonry buildings are constructed annually around the globe. There are large numbers of structures which deteriorate or become unsafe to use because of changes in use, changes in loading condition, change in the design configuration, inferior building material used or natural calamities. Thus repairing and retrofitting of these structures for safe usage of has a great market. There are several situations in which a civil structure would require strengthening due to lack of strength, stiffness, ductility and durability. Beams, columns may be strengthened in flexure by using GFRP in tension zone. In this present work comparative study will be made with and without GFRP circular bars in a beam and column. An experiment study will be carried out to study the change in the structural behavior of beams & columns with GFRP circular bars of different thickness, varying span to depth ratio.

  4. Performances of RPCs in the BaBar Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Messner, Robert

    2003-09-26

    The BaBar experiment uses a big system based on RPC detectors to discriminate muons from pions and to identify neutral hadrons. About 2000 m{sup 2} of RPC chambers have been working at SLAC since the end of 1998. We report on the performances of the RPC chambers focusing on new problems discovered in the RPC behavior. These problems started very soon after the installation of the chambers on the detector when the high ambient temperature triggered an increase of dark currents inside the chambers and a reduction of the efficiency. Careful analysis of the BaBar data and dedicated R&D efforts in the laboratory have helped to identify the main source of the trouble in the linseed oil varnish on the bakelite electrodes.

  5. Use of hafnium in control bars of nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez S, J.R.; Alonso V, G.

    2003-01-01

    Recently the use of hafnium as neutron absorber material in nuclear reactors has been reason of investigation by virtue of that this material has nuclear properties as to the neutrons absorption and structural that can prolong the useful life of the control mechanisms of the nuclear reactors. In this work some of those more significant hafnium properties are presented like nuclear material. Also there are presented calculations carried out with the HELIOS code for fuel cells of uranium oxide and of uranium and plutonium mixed oxides under controlled conditions with conventional bars of boron carbide and also with similar bars to which are substituted the absorbent material by metallic hafnium, the results are presented in this work. (Author)

  6. Performances of RPCs in the BaBar experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anulli, F.; Baldini, R.; Band, H.; Bionta, R.; Brau, J.; Brigljevic, V.; Buzzo, A.; Calcaterra, A.; Carpinelli, M.; Cartaro, T.; Cavallo, N.; Crosetti, G.; De Nardo, G.; De Sangro, R.; Eichenbaum, A.; Falciai, D.; Fabozzi, F.; Ferroni, F.; Finocchiaro, G.; Forti, F.; Frey, R.; Johnson, J.; Gatto, C.; Grauges-Pous, E.; Iwasaki, M.; Lange, D.; Lista, L.; Lo Vetere, M.; Lu, C.; Neal, H.; Neri, N.; Macri, M.; Messener, B.; Monge, M.R.; Moore, T.; Morganti, S.; Palano, A.; Paoloni, E.; Paolucci, P.; Passaggio, S.; Pastore, F.; Patrignani, C.; Patteri, P.; Peruzzi, I.; Piccolo, D.; Piccolo, M.; Piredda, G.; Pompili, A.; Robutti, E.; Roodman, A.; Santroni, A.; Sciacca, C.; Sinev, N.; Soha, A.; Storm, D.; Tosi, S.; Va'vra, J.; Xie, Y.; Wright, D.; Wisniewski, W.

    2003-01-01

    The BaBar experiment uses a big system based on RPC detectors to discriminate muons from pions and to identify neutral hadrons. About 2000 m 2 of RPC chambers have been working at SLAC since the end of 1998. We report on the performances of the RPC chambers focusing on new problems discovered in the RPC behaviour. These problems started very soon after the installation of the chambers on the detector when the high-ambient temperature triggered an increase of dark currents inside the chambers and a reduction of the efficiency. Careful analysis of the BaBar data and dedicated R and D efforts in the laboratory have helped to identify the main source of the trouble in the linseed oil varnish on the bakelite electrodes

  7. Corrosion of reinforcement bars in steel ibre reinforced concrete structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solgaard, Anders Ole Stubbe

    Steel fibres have been known as an alternative to traditional reinforcement bars for special applications of structural concrete for decades and the use of steel fibre reinforced concrete (SFRC) has gradually increased in recent years. Steel fibres lead to reduced crack widths in concrete formed......, among other reasons, due to shrinkage and/or mechanical loading. Steel fibres are nowadays also used in combination with traditional reinforcement for structural concrete, where the role of the fibres is to minimize the crack widths whereas the traditional reinforcement bars are used for structural...... purpose. Although such, so-called, combined reinforcement systems, are gaining impact within the construction industry, they are only marginally covered by existing guidelines for structural design and the literature concerning their mechanical and, in particular their durability aspects, is sparse...

  8. Deflection of Steel Reinforced Concrete Beam Prestressed With CFRP Bar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selvachandran P.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Carbon Fiber Reinforced polymer (CFRP bars are weak in yielding property which results in sudden failure of structure at failure load. Inclusion of non-pretensioned steel reinforcement in the tension side of CFRP based prestressed concrete beam will balance the yielding requirements of member and it will show the definite crack failure pattern before failure. Experimental investigation has been carried out to study the deflection behavior of partially prestressed beam. Experimental works includes four beam specimens stressed by varying degree of prestressing. The Partial Prestressing Ratio (PPR of specimen is considered for experimental works in the range of 0.6 to 0.8. A new deflection model is recommended in the present study considering the strain contribution of CFRP bar and steel reinforcement for the fully bonded member. New deflection model converges to experimental results with the error of less than 5% .

  9. Social branding to decrease smoking among young adults in bars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Pamela M; Lee, Youn Ok; Hong, Juliette; Neilands, Torsten B; Jordan, Jeffrey W; Glantz, Stanton A

    2014-04-01

    We evaluated a Social Branding antitobacco intervention for "hipster" young adults that was implemented between 2008 and 2011 in San Diego, California. We conducted repeated cross-sectional surveys of random samples of young adults going to bars at baseline and over a 3-year follow-up. We used multinomial logistic regression to evaluate changes in daily smoking, nondaily smoking, and binge drinking, controlling for demographic characteristics, alcohol use, advertising receptivity, trend sensitivity, and tobacco-related attitudes. During the intervention, current (past 30 day) smoking decreased from 57% (baseline) to 48% (at follow-up 3; P = .002), and daily smoking decreased from 22% to 15% (P Branding campaigns are a promising strategy to decrease smoking in young adult bar patrons.

  10. Occupational noise exposure of nightclub bar employees in Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Aoife C; Boyd, Sara M; Henehan, Gary T M; Chambers, Gordon

    2012-01-01

    Due to the transposition of the EU Directive 2003/10/EC into Irish Law, the entertainment sector was obligated to comply with the requirements of the Safety, Health and Welfare at Work (General Application) Regulations 2007, Chapter 1 Part 5: Control of Noise at Work since February 2008. Compliance with the Noise Regulations was examined in 9 nightclubs in Ireland. The typical daily noise exposure of 19 bar employees was measured using 2 logging dosimeters and a Type 1 fixed position sound level meter. Physical site inspections identified nightclub noise control measures. Interviews and questionnaires were used to assess the managers and employees awareness of the noise legislation. The average bar employee daily noise exposure (L(EX, 8h)) was 92 dBA, almost 4 times more than the accepted legal limit. None of the venues examined were fully compliant with the requirements of the 2007 Noise Regulations, and awareness of this legislation was limited.

  11. Occupational noise exposure of nightclub bar employees in Ireland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aoife C Kelly

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the transposition of the EU Directive 2003/10/EC into Irish Law, the entertainment sector was obligated to comply with the requirements of the Safety, Health and Welfare at Work (General Application Regulations 2007, Chapter 1 Part 5: Control of Noise at Work since February 2008. Compliance with the Noise Regulations was examined in 9 nightclubs in Ireland. The typical daily noise exposure of 19 bar employees was measured using 2 logging dosimeters and a Type 1 fixed position sound level meter. Physical site inspections identified nightclub noise control measures. Interviews and questionnaires were used to assess the managers and employees awareness of the noise legislation. The average bar employee daily noise exposure (L EX, 8h was 92 dBA, almost 4 times more than the accepted legal limit. None of the venues examined were fully compliant with the requirements of the 2007 Noise Regulations, and awareness of this legislation was limited.

  12. Identification of a different-type homeobox gene, BarH1, possibly causing Bar (B) and Om(1D) mutations in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, T; Ishimaru, S; Higashijima, S; Takayama, E; Akimaru, H; Sone, M; Emori, Y; Saigo, K

    1991-05-15

    The Bar mutation B of Drosophila melanogaster and optic morphology mutation Om(1D) of Drosophila ananassae result in suppression of ommatidium differentiation at the anterior portion of the eye. Examinations was made to determine the genes responsible for these mutations. Both loci were found to share in common a different type of homeobox gene, which we call "BarH1." Polyptides encoded by D. melanogaster and D. ananassae BarH1 genes consist of 543 and 604 amino acids, respectively, with homeodomains identical in sequence except for one amino acid substitution. A unique feature of these homeodomains is that the phenylalanine residue in helix 3, conserved in all metazoan homeodomains so far examined, is replaced by a tyrosine residue. By Northern blotting, considerably more BarH1 RNA was detected in the Bar mutant than in wild type. P element-mediated transformation showed Bar-like eye malformation to be induced by transient overexpression of the BarH1 gene in the late third-instar larvae. Somatic recombination analysis indicated normal gene functions of the Bar region, including the BarH1 gene, to be required for normal eye morphogenesis.

  13. [The "wine bar", or a different way of caring].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guastella, Virginie; Raynaud, Nathalie

    2016-04-01

    The "wine bar" in the palliative care unit of Clermont-Ferrand general hospital is an example of a different way of providing care. It defends the right of patients at the end of life to treat themselves and others. Acknowledging that life is present right up until the end, patients are invited to drink wine at mealtimes and caregivers are encouraged to learn the basics of oenology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. (Ln-bar, g)-spaces. Special tensor fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manoff, S.; Dimitrov, B.

    1998-01-01

    The Kronecker tensor field, the contraction tensor field, as well as the multi-Kronecker and multi-contraction tensor fields are determined and the action of the covariant differential operator, the Lie differential operator, the curvature operator, and the deviation operator on these tensor fields is established. The commutation relations between the operators Sym and Asym and the covariant and Lie differential operators are considered acting on symmetric and antisymmetric tensor fields over (L n bar, g)-spaces

  15. Ultrasonic guided wave for monitoring corrosion of steel bar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xi; Qin, Lei; Huang, Bosheng

    2018-01-01

    Steel corrosion of reinforced concrete structures has become a serious problem all over the word. In this paper, the work aims at monitoring steel corrosion using ultrasonic guided wave (UGW). Ultrasonic guided wave monitoring is a dynamic and non-destructive testing technology. The advantages of ultrasonic guided wave monitoring for reinforcement corrosion are real-time, online and continuous. In addition, it can judge the different stages of steel bar corrosion, which achieved non-destructive detection.

  16. Salad bar selection patterns of elementary school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Black, Geraldine; Stockard, Jean

    2018-01-01

    From the perspective of child-focused nutrition research, the analysis of the school cafeteria culture and environment is critical. Most children eat at least one meal at school per school day, thus elementary schools are a good setting for influencing the early development of healthy eating habits. The salad bar in particular has gained attention as a means of increasing fruit and vegetable consumption. The purpose of the present study was to provide insight about the types of items children choose or do not choose from the salad bar. Our aims were to document elementary school children's food selection patterns by examining photographs of 2903 cafeteria trays. Our results show students in this study took very few items - and a substantial number did not take any at all. We examined three factors, gender, grade, and item placement, in relation to food selection. Gender was the most significant factor, with girls being more likely to choose both fruits and vegetables. Students in lower grades were more likely to select vegetables and to choose more of them. Finally, item placement did not affect choice. Our findings lead us to suggest the importance of integrating information about fruits and vegetables into the school curriculum and that schools strongly consider which items to offer because our results indicate children consistently do not choose certain items and probably do not conceive of them in the context of the adult concept of a salad. Finally, because a child's choice of food is not always a simple act we suggest ethnographic research on how children perceive and use salad bars would provide important insight into the value of retaining or expanding salad bars in elementary schools. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Improving radiopharmaceutical supply chain safety by implementing bar code technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matanza, David; Hallouard, François; Rioufol, Catherine; Fessi, Hatem; Fraysse, Marc

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to describe and evaluate an approach for improving radiopharmaceutical supply chain safety by implementing bar code technology. We first evaluated the current situation of our radiopharmaceutical supply chain and, by means of the ALARM protocol, analysed two dispensing errors that occurred in our department. Thereafter, we implemented a bar code system to secure selected key stages of the radiopharmaceutical supply chain. Finally, we evaluated the cost of this implementation, from overtime, to overheads, to additional radiation exposure to workers. An analysis of the events that occurred revealed a lack of identification of prepared or dispensed drugs. Moreover, the evaluation of the current radiopharmaceutical supply chain showed that the dispensation and injection steps needed to be further secured. The bar code system was used to reinforce product identification at three selected key stages: at usable stock entry; at preparation-dispensation; and during administration, allowing to check conformity between the labelling of the delivered product (identity and activity) and the prescription. The extra time needed for all these steps had no impact on the number and successful conduct of examinations. The investment cost was reduced (2600 euros for new material and 30 euros a year for additional supplies) because of pre-existing computing equipment. With regard to the radiation exposure to workers there was an insignificant overexposure for hands with this new organization because of the labelling and scanning processes of radiolabelled preparation vials. Implementation of bar code technology is now an essential part of a global securing approach towards optimum patient management.

  18. Fracture toughness evaluation of circumferentially-cracked round bars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scibetta, M.

    1996-05-01

    The measure of the fracture toughness of a circumferentially-cracked round bar is generally performed through approximate formulae. Comparison of existing formulae to finite element results does not always show good agreement. Therefore an eta factor is introduced in order to improve the existing analytical formula. The axisymmetrical geometry is generally considered to be a high constrained geometry. Finite element calculations are performed to verify and quantify the constraint relative to the three point bending configuration (precracked Charpy)

  19. Effects of the bench shirt on sagittal bar path.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver, Tobin; Fortenbaugh, Dave; Williams, Ryan

    2009-07-01

    Powerlifting, like many sports, uses specialized equipment to enhance performance and decrease the chance of injury. The purpose of this exploratory study was to determine whether wearing a bench press shirt would alter the natural mechanics of the bench press, causing a more efficient lift when pressing the same weight as without the bench shirt. Participants (n = 5) completed 2 series of 1-repetition maximum (1RM) bench press tests, with 1 week of rest in between 1 series without the bench shirt (no-shirt), and 1 series with a bench shirt (bench shirt). Results revealed that the vertical bar path ranges were significantly less in the bench shirt condition (35.7 +/- 4.8 cm) compared with the no-shirt condition (40.2 +/- 7.0 cm) (p < 0.05). Significant differences were found between the bar's optimal (81.4 +/- 14.2 cm) and observed (96.7 +/- 19.1 cm) total distances traveled in the no-shirt condition (p < 0.01), but no significant differences were found between the bar's optimal (71.6 +/- 12.7 cm) and observed (86.3 +/- 10.5 cm) total distances traveled in the bench shirt condition. These findings suggest that the bar path in bench shirt trials is more efficient and consistent than in the no-shirt trials. This pattern demonstrates that a bench shirt can improve load capacity. It is also possible that the bench shirt decreases the forces that act on the shoulder for a given weight and, thus, may decrease the risk of injury.

  20. TITAN - a 9 MW, 179 bar pressurised water rig

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mogford, D.J.; Lee, D.H.

    1987-02-01

    The report describes the TITAN rig built at Winfrith for thermal hydraulic experiments with water at up to 179 bar pressure. A power supply of 9 MW is available. The report describes three typical experiments that show the versatility of the rig. The first is a 25 rod pressurized water reactor fuel bundle critical heat flux experiment, the second is a parallel channel evaporator test and the third is a model jet pump test. (author)

  1. Thermal conductivity of carbon nanotube cross-bar structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, William J; Keblinski, Pawel

    2010-01-01

    We use non-equilibrium molecular dynamics (NEMD) to compute the thermal conductivity (κ) of orthogonally ordered cross-bar structures of single-walled carbon nanotubes. Such structures exhibit extremely low thermal conductivity in the range of 0.02-0.07 W m -1 K -1 . These values are five orders of magnitude smaller than the axial thermal conductivity of individual carbon nanotubes, and are comparable to the thermal conductivity of still air.

  2. Introduction to the Mechanics of Deformable Solids Bars and Beams

    CERN Document Server

    H Allen, David

    2013-01-01

    Introduction to the Mechanics of Deformable Solids: Bars and Beams introduces the theory of beams and bars, including axial, torsion, and bending loading and analysis of bars that are subjected to combined loadings, including resulting complex stress states using Mohr’s circle. The book  provides failure analysis based on maximum stress criteria and introduces design using models developed in the text. Throughout the book, the author emphasizes fundamentals, including consistent mathematical notation. The author also presents the fundamentals of the mechanics of solids in such a way that the beginning student is able to progress directly to a follow-up course that utilizes two- and three-dimensional finite element codes imbedded within modern software packages for structural design purposes. As such, excessive details included in the previous generation of textbooks on the subject are obviated due to their obsolescence with the availability of today’s finite element software packages. This book also:...

  3. Automatic ball bar for a coordinate measuring machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jostlein, Hans

    1997-01-01

    An automatic ball bar for a coordinate measuring machine determines the accuracy of a coordinate measuring machine having at least one servo drive. The apparatus comprises a first and second gauge ball connected by a telescoping rigid member. The rigid member includes a switch such that inward radial movement of the second gauge ball relative to the first gauge ball causes activation of the switch. The first gauge ball is secured in a first magnetic socket assembly in order to maintain the first gauge ball at a fixed location with respect to the coordinate measuring machine. A second magnetic socket assembly secures the second gauge ball to the arm or probe holder of the coordinate measuring machine. The second gauge ball is then directed by the coordinate measuring machine to move radially inward from a point just beyond the length of the ball bar until the switch is activated. Upon switch activation, the position of the coordinate measuring machine is determined and compared to known ball bar length such that the accuracy of the coordinate measuring machine can be determined.

  4. Sound quality assessment of wood for xylophone bars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aramaki, Mitsuko; Baillères, Henri; Brancheriau, Loïc; Kronland-Martinet, Richard; Ystad, Sølvi

    2007-04-01

    Xylophone sounds produced by striking wooden bars with a mallet are strongly influenced by the mechanical properties of the wood species chosen by the xylophone maker. In this paper, we address the relationship between the sound quality based on the timbre attribute of impacted wooden bars and the physical parameters characterizing wood species. For this, a methodology is proposed that associates an analysis-synthesis process and a perceptual classification test. Sounds generated by impacting 59 wooden bars of different species but with the same geometry were recorded and classified by a renowned instrument maker. The sounds were further digitally processed and adjusted to the same pitch before being once again classified. The processing is based on a physical model ensuring the main characteristics of the wood are preserved during the sound transformation. Statistical analysis of both classifications showed the influence of the pitch in the xylophone maker judgement and pointed out the importance of two timbre descriptors: the frequency-dependent damping and the spectral bandwidth. These descriptors are linked with physical and anatomical characteristics of wood species, providing new clues in the choice of attractive wood species from a musical point of view.

  5. The BaBar Software Architecture and Infrastructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cosmo, Gabriele

    2003-01-01

    The BaBar experiment has in place since 1995 a software release system (SRT Software Release Tools) based on CVS (Concurrent Version System) which is in common for all the software developed for the experiment, online or offline, simulation or reconstruction. A software release is a snapshot of all BaBar code (online, offline, utilities, scripts, makefiles, etc.). This set of code is tested to work together, and is indexed by a release number (e.g., 6.8.2) so a user can refer to a particular release and get reproducible results. A release will involve particular versions of packages. A package generally consists of a set of code for a particular task, together with a GNU makefile, scripts and documentation. All BaBar software is maintained in AFS (Andrew File System) directories, so the code is accessible worldwide within the Collaboration. The combination SRT, CVS, AFS, has demonstrated to be a valid, powerful and efficient way of organizing the software infrastructure of a modern HEP experiment with collaborating Institutes distributed worldwide, both in a development and production phase

  6. Monitoring functions in managed microbial systems by cytometric bar coding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Christin; Fetzer, Ingo; Schmidt, Thomas; Harms, Hauke; Müller, Susann

    2013-02-05

    Cytometric monitoring of microbial community dynamics can be used to estimate stability of technical microbial processes like biogas production by analysis of segregated cell abundance changes. In this study, structure variations of a biogas community were cytometrically recorded over 9 months and found to be of diagnostic value for process details. The reactor regime was intentionally disturbed with regard to substrate overload or H(2)S accumulation. A single-cell based approach called cytometric bar coding (CyBar) for fast identification of reactive subcommunities was used. Functionality of specific subcommunities was uncovered by processing CyBar data with abiotic reactor parameters using Spearman's correlation coefficient. Twenty subcommunities showed a discrete and divergent behavior. For example, a 4-fold substrate overload increased the cell number of two acidogenic index subcommunities to 176 and 193% within three days. Supplementary analyses were done using DNA fingerprinting, cloning, and sequencing. Bioreactor perturbations were shown to create cell abundance changes in subcommunities rather than variations in their phylogenetic composition. The used workflow and macros are ready-to-use tools and allow on-site monitoring and interpretation of variation in microbial community functions within a few hours.

  7. Measurement of the Branching Fractions of the Decays \\bar{B}^0 to Lambda_c^+ \\bar{p} and B^- to Lambda_c^+ \\bar{p} pi^-

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aubert, B.; Barate, R.; Bona, M.; Boutigny, D.; Couderc, F.; Karyotakis, Y.; Lees, J.P.; Poireau, V.; Tisserand, V.; Zghiche, A.; /Annecy, LAPP; Grauges, E.; /Barcelona; Palano, A.; /Bari U. /INFN, Bari; Chen, J.C.; Qi, N.D.; Rong, G.; Wang, P.; Zhu, Y.S.; /Beijing, Inst. High Energy Phys.; Eigen, G.; Ofte, I.; Stugu, B.; /Bergen U.; Abrams, G.S.; /LBL, Berkeley /UC, Berkeley /Birmingham U. /Ruhr U., Bochum /Bristol U. /British Columbia U. /Brunel U. /UC, Irvine /UCLA /UC, Riverside /UC, San Diego /UC, Santa Barbara /UC,

    2006-12-06

    The authors present studies of two-body and three-body charmed baryonic B decays in a sample of 232 million B{bar B} pairs collected with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II e{sup +}e{sup -} storage ring. The branching fractions of the decays {bar B}{sup 0} {yields} {Lambda}{sub c}{sup +}{bar p} and B{sup -} {yields} {Lambda}{sub c}{sup +} {bar p}{pi}{sup -} are measured to be (2.15 {+-} 0.36 {+-} 0.13 {+-} 0.56) x 10{sup -5} and (3.53 {+-} 0.18 {+-} 0.31 {+-} 0.92) x 10{sup -4}, respectively. The uncertainties quoted are statistical, systematic, and from the {Lambda}{sub c}{sup +} {yields} pK{sup -} {pi}{sup +} branching fraction. They observe a baryon-antibaryon threshold enhancement in the {Lambda}{sub c}{sup +}{bar p} invariant mass spectrum of the three-body mode and measure the ratio of the branching fractions to be {Beta}(B{sup -} {yields} {Lambda}{sub c}{sup +}{bar p}{pi}{sup -})/{Beta}({bar B}{sup 0} {yields} {Lambda}{sub c}{sup +}{bar p}) = 16.4 {+-} 2.9 {+-} 1.4. These results are preliminary.

  8. Fasting insulin has a stronger association with an adverse cardiometabolic risk profile than insulin resistance: the RISC study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Rooij, Susanne R; Dekker, Jacqueline M; Kozakova, Michaela

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Fasting insulin concentrations are often used as a surrogate measure of insulin resistance. We investigated the relative contributions of fasting insulin and insulin resistance to cardiometabolic risk and preclinical atherosclerosis. DESIGN AND METHODS: The Relationship between Insulin...... insulin, a simple and practical measure, may be a stronger and independent contributor to cardiometabolic risk and atherosclerosis in a healthy population than hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp-derived insulin sensitivity.......OBJECTIVE: Fasting insulin concentrations are often used as a surrogate measure of insulin resistance. We investigated the relative contributions of fasting insulin and insulin resistance to cardiometabolic risk and preclinical atherosclerosis. DESIGN AND METHODS: The Relationship between Insulin...... of the metabolic syndrome in 1177 participants. Carotid artery intima media thickness (IMT) was measured by ultrasound to assess preclinical atherosclerosis. RESULTS: Fasting insulin was correlated with all elements of the metabolic syndrome. Insulin sensitivity (M/I) was correlated with most elements. The odds...

  9. Collective Nostalgia Is Associated With Stronger Outgroup-Directed Anger and Participation in Ingroup-Favoring Collective Action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wing-Yee Cheung

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Collective nostalgia refers to longing for the way society used to be. We tested whether collective nostalgia is associated with ingroup-favoring collective action and whether this association is mediated by outgroup-directed anger and outgroup-directed contempt. We conducted an online study of Hong Kong residents (N = 111 during a large-scale democratic social movement, the Umbrella Movement, that took place in Hong Kong in 2014 in response to proposed electoral reforms by the Chinese government in Mainland China. Reported collective nostalgia for Hong Kong’s past was high in our sample and collective nostalgia predicted stronger involvement in ingroup-favoring collective action, and it did so indirectly via higher intensity of outgroup-directed anger (but not through outgroup-directed contempt. We argue that collective nostalgia has implications for strengthening ingroup-serving collective action, and we highlight the importance of arousal of group-based emotions in this process.

  10. Wavelength beam combining of a 980-nm tapered diode laser bar in an external cavity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vijayakumar, Deepak; Jensen, Ole Bjarlin; Thestrup Nielsen, Birgitte

    2010-01-01

    . By adapting a bar geometry, the output power could be scaled even up to several tens of watts. Unfortunately, the high divergence which is a characteristic feature of the bar geometry could lead to a degradation of the overall beam quality of the laser bar. However, spectral beam combining is an effective...... solution for preserving the beam quality of the bar in the range of that of a single emitter and at the same time, enabling the power scaling. We report spectral beam combining applied to a 12 emitter tapered laser bar at 980 nm. The external cavity has been designed for a wavelength separation of 4.0 nm...

  11. Elite level rhythmic gymnasts have significantly more and stronger pain than peers of similar age: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabeti, Manuel; Jeremian, Lusine; Graf, Alexandra; Kandelhart, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Rhythmic gymnastics (RG) unites aesthetic, ballet-like motion, and all aspects of gymnastics. To reach elite level, girls begin at early age the intensive training. To date it is unclear if such demanding training influences the incidence and intensity of painful overuse injuries. The purpose of this study is to analyze anatomical painful regions and pain intensity in elite level rhythmic gymnasts (elRG) and compare results with an age-matched control group (CG). This prospective field study was carried out at the European Championship in RG 2013 (218 participating athletes, Vienna, Austria). Volunteering athletes were interviewed according to a preformed questionnaire. As CG secondary school pupils without any competitive sports experience were analyzed accordingly. Overall, 243 young females (144 elRG/66 % of all participants and 99 CG) were observed. ElRGs were significantly (s.) smaller, lighter, and had s. stronger pain (p < 0.001). A total of 72 % of athletes reported to have at least one painful body region compared with 52 % of CG (p < 0.001). ElRG had nearly three times more serious injuries than the CG. In all 23 % off all elRG reported to have had no access to professional medical care. ElRGs were s. more frequently (25 vs 9 %) affected at the lumbar spine and the ankle joint (17.4 vs 7 %). To our knowledge, this trial analyzes the largest cohort of elRG to date. Hence, it is clearly alluded that intensive training in RG is a significant factor causing more and stronger pain than in a CG.

  12. Tendência do baixo peso, sobrepeso e obesidade de crianças e adolescentes brasileiros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa S. Flores

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever e analisar a tendência da ocorrência do baixo peso, sobrepeso e obesidade de escolares. MÉTODOS: Estudo longitudinal de tendência realizado em uma amostra voluntária de crianças e adolescentes brasileiros. A amostra foi agrupada em ano de coleta (Período I: 2005 e 2006; Período II: 2007 e 2008; e Período III: 2009 a 2011, categoria de idade (crianças: sete a 10 anos, e adolescentes: 11 a 14 anos, e estratificada por sexo. O índice de massa corporal foi utilizado para classificar o perfil nutricional. A análise da tendência foi verificada através da Regressão Logística Multinomial (p < 0,05. RESULTADOS: As médias de ocorrências foram de 2,11% no baixo peso, 22,27% no sobrepeso e 6,8% na obesidade. Identificou-se chance do baixo peso diminuir do período I para o II nos adolescentes do sexo masculino, e de aumentar nas crianças do sexo feminino do período II para o III. No sobrepeso, encontramos chance de aumento seguida de diminuição nas crianças do sexo masculino. Na obesidade, em todas as categorias de idade e em ambos os sexos, houve chance de aumento do período I para o II. CONCLUSÃO: A prevalência do baixo peso apresenta valores menores que 5% em todas as categorias de idade e sexo. No entanto, na categoria do sobrepeso e da obesidade, encontramos ocorrências mais elevadas, atingindo, juntas, quase 30% da população infanto-juvenil brasileira; além disso, evidenciamos uma chance de aumento na prevalência da obesidade até o ano de 2008 e, após, uma manutenção destas altas prevalências.

  13. 25 tooli : Euroopa Nõukogu kohvik "Bar Europe" = 25 Chairs : Council of Europe Cafe "Bar Europe" / Maria Orlova

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Orlova, Maria

    2005-01-01

    Euroopa Nõukogu - Justus Lipsius - hoonest Brüsselis. Kohviku "Bar Europe" kujundusest, mille tegi Hollandi büroo Droog Design. Kohviku interjöör põhineb Hollandi 17. sajandi kultuuripärandi interpreteerimisel. Lisaks tavalistele toolidele on ruumi toodud 25 tooli 25 EL-i liikmesriigist. Eestit esindava tooli "John" autoriks on Toivo Raidmets. 5 värv. sisevaadet

  14. Calculations of antiproton-nucleus quasi-bound states using the Paris N bar N potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrtánková, Jaroslava; Mareš, Jiří

    2018-01-01

    An optical potential constructed using the p bar N scattering amplitudes derived from the 2009 version of the Paris N bar N potential is applied in calculations of p bar quasi-bound states in selected nuclei across the periodic table. A proper self-consistent procedure for treating energy dependence of the amplitudes in a nucleus appears crucial for evaluating p bar binding energies and widths. Particular attention is paid to the role of P-wave amplitudes. While the P-wave potential nearly does not affect calculated p bar binding energies, it reduces considerably the corresponding widths. The Paris S-wave potential supplemented by a phenomenological P-wave term yields in dynamical calculations p bar binding energies Bpbar ≈ 200 MeV and widths Γpbar ∼ 200- 230 MeV, which is very close to the values obtained within the RMF model consistent with p bar -atom data.

  15. Unit-bar migration and bar-trough deposition: impacts on hydraulic conductivity and grain size heterogeneity in a sandy streambed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korus, Jesse T.; Gilmore, Troy E.; Waszgis, Michele M.; Mittelstet, Aaron R.

    2018-03-01

    The hydrologic function of riverbeds is greatly dependent upon the spatiotemporal distribution of hydraulic conductivity and grain size. Vertical hydraulic conductivity ( K v) is highly variable in space and time, and controls the rate of stream-aquifer interaction. Links between sedimentary processes, deposits, and K v heterogeneity have not been well established from field studies. Unit bars are building blocks of fluvial deposits and are key to understanding controls on heterogeneity. This study links unit bar migration to K v and grain size variability in a sand-dominated, low-sinuosity stream in Nebraska (USA) during a single 10-day hydrologic event. An incipient bar formed parallel to the thalweg and was highly permeable and homogenous. During high flow, this bar was submerged under 10-20 cm of water and migrated 100 m downstream and toward the channel margin, where it became markedly heterogeneous. Low- K v zones formed in the subsequent heterogeneous bar downstream of the original 15-40-cm-thick bar front and past abandoned bridge pilings. These low- K v zones correspond to a discontinuous 1-cm layer of fine sand and silt deposited in the bar trough. Findings show that K v heterogeneity relates chiefly to the deposition of suspended materials in low-velocity zones downstream of the bar and obstructions, and to their subsequent burial by migration of the bar during high flow. Deposition of the unit bar itself, although it emplaced the vast majority of the sediment volume, was secondary to bar-trough deposition as a control on the overall pattern of heterogeneity.

  16. Unit-bar migration and bar-trough deposition: impacts on hydraulic conductivity and grain size heterogeneity in a sandy streambed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korus, Jesse T.; Gilmore, Troy E.; Waszgis, Michele M.; Mittelstet, Aaron R.

    2017-09-01

    The hydrologic function of riverbeds is greatly dependent upon the spatiotemporal distribution of hydraulic conductivity and grain size. Vertical hydraulic conductivity (K v) is highly variable in space and time, and controls the rate of stream-aquifer interaction. Links between sedimentary processes, deposits, and K v heterogeneity have not been well established from field studies. Unit bars are building blocks of fluvial deposits and are key to understanding controls on heterogeneity. This study links unit bar migration to K v and grain size variability in a sand-dominated, low-sinuosity stream in Nebraska (USA) during a single 10-day hydrologic event. An incipient bar formed parallel to the thalweg and was highly permeable and homogenous. During high flow, this bar was submerged under 10-20 cm of water and migrated 100 m downstream and toward the channel margin, where it became markedly heterogeneous. Low-K v zones formed in the subsequent heterogeneous bar downstream of the original 15-40-cm-thick bar front and past abandoned bridge pilings. These low-K v zones correspond to a discontinuous 1-cm layer of fine sand and silt deposited in the bar trough. Findings show that K v heterogeneity relates chiefly to the deposition of suspended materials in low-velocity zones downstream of the bar and obstructions, and to their subsequent burial by migration of the bar during high flow. Deposition of the unit bar itself, although it emplaced the vast majority of the sediment volume, was secondary to bar-trough deposition as a control on the overall pattern of heterogeneity.

  17. Measurements of the $B \\to D^*$ Form Factors Using the Decay $\\bar{B}^0 \\to D^{*+} e^- \\bar{\

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gill, M

    2006-02-24

    We measure the dependence of {bar B}{sup 0} {yields} D*{sup +}e{sup -}{bar {nu}}{sub e} on the decay angles and momentum transfer. The data sample consists of {approx} 86 x 10{sup 6} B{bar B}-pairs accumulated on the {Upsilon}(4S) resonance by the BABAR detector at the asymmetric e{sup +}e{sup -} collider PEP-II. We specify the three form factors by two ratios R{sub 1} and R{sub 2}, and by a single parameter {rho}{sup 2} characterizing the polynomial representing h{sub A{sub 1}}, the function which describes the momentum-transfer dependence of the form factor A{sub 1}. We determine R{sub 1}, R{sub 2}, and {rho}{sup 2} using an unbinned maximum likelihood fit to the full decay distribution. The results are R{sub 1} = 1.396 {+-} 0.060 {+-} 0.035 {+-} 0.027, R{sub 2} = 0.885 {+-} 0.040 {+-} 0.022 {+-} 0.013, and {rho}{sup 2} = 1.145 {+-} 0.059 {+-} 0.030 {+-} 0.035. The stated uncertainties are the statistical from the data, statistical from the size of the Monte Carlo sample and the systematic uncertainty, respectively. In addition, based on this measurement, we give an updated value for the CKM matrix element |V{sub cb}|.

  18. Sensitivity study of the Hb$\\bar{b}$ and Hc$\\bar{c}$ couplings for e$^+$- e$^-$ collisions at FCC

    CERN Document Server

    Heckmann, Lea Alina

    2017-01-01

    The Future Circular Collider (FCC) is one of the possible future projects proposed at CERN. With a circumference of 80 - 100km it should initially serve as an e$^+$- e$^-$ collider reaching energies between 90 - 350 GeV. While operating at centre of mass energies of 240 GeV and luminosities of 5*10$^{34}$ cm$^{-2}$s$^{-1}$ FCC should be used as a Higgs factory with the aim of validating standard model predictions. Therefore, it should be able to measure the Higgs couplings with precisions around 1%. In order to estimate the sensitivity of the branching ratio for $H\\rightarrow c\\bar{c}$ (BR(Hcc)) a simultaneous simulation and analysis of Hb$\\bar{b}$ and Hc$\\bar{c}$ is necessary. Therefore, events were generated for both cases and afterwards the CMS detector with an added c-tagging method was used to simulate the detector response. Relevant events were selected and afterwards used for optimising a simultaneous fit determining BR(Hbb) and BR(Hcc) and its uncertainties. The same procedure was applied while chang...

  19. Psicologia escolar no Brasil e no Maranhão: percursos históricos e tendências atuais

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho,Tatiana Oliveira de; Marinho-Araujo,Claisy Maria

    2009-01-01

    Discute-se o cenário atual da Psicologia Escolar no Maranhão, tendo como parâmetro as transformações ocorridas nas últimas décadas em âmbito nacional. Foi realizado um estudo bibliográfico sobre o tema, a partir do qual se levantaram reflexões sobre o histórico e as tendências atuais no âmbito da formação e atuação do psicólogo escolar no estado. Considera-se que no Maranhão necessita-se da contribuição de psicólogos escolares que, seguros de seu papel e intencionalidade, construam uma identi...

  20. A European study on alcohol and drug use among young drivers: the TEND by Night study design and methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siliquini Roberta

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Young individuals are the age group with the highest risk of car accidents. One of main explanations relies on the use of psychoactive substances (alcohol, illegal and medicinal drugs, which are known to be major risk factors of road accidents, and whose consumption is almost universally more common among younger drivers. Although the correlation between psychoactive substances use and decrease in driving performance has been established in controlled experimental or laboratory settings, few studies were conducted in naturalistic circumstances. The TEND by Night project has been designed to evaluate the relationship between driving performance and psychoactive substances assumption in young drivers enrolled at typical places of consumption. Methods/Design The TEND by Night project, endorsed by the European Commission, is a multidisciplinary, multi-centric, cross-sectional study conducted in six European countries (Italy, Belgium/Netherlands, Bulgaria, Spain, Poland and Latvia. The study population consists of 5000 young drivers aged 16-34 years, attending recreational sites during weekend nights. The intervention is based on the portal survey technique and includes several steps at the entrance and exit of selected sites, including the administration of semi-structured questionnaires, breath alcohol test, several drug assumption test, and measurement of the reaction time using a driving simulator. The main outcome is the difference in reaction time between the entrance and exit of the recreation site, and its correlation with psychoactive substances use. As a secondary outcome it will be explored the relationship between reaction time difference and the amount of consumption of each substance. All analyses will be multivariate. Discussion The project methodology should provide some relevant advantages over traditional survey systems. The main strengths of the study include the large and multicentric sample, the objective