WorldWideScience

Sample records for strong pulsing outbursts

  1. Pulse phase-resolved analysis of SMC X-3 during its 2016-2017 super-Eddington outburst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hai-Hui; Weng, Shan-Shan; Ge, Ming-Yu; Bian, Wei-Hao; Yuan, Qi-Rong

    2018-02-01

    The Be X-ray pulsar SMC X-3 underwent an extra long and ultraluminous giant outburst from 2016 August to 2017 March. The peak X-ray luminosity is up to ˜10^{39} erg/s, suggesting a mildly super-Eddington accretion onto the strongly magnetized neutron star. It therefore bridges the gap between the Galactic Be/X-ray binaries (LX^{peak} ≤10^{38} erg/s) and the ultraluminous X-ray pulsars (LX^{peak} ≥10^{40} erg/s) found in nearby galaxies. A number of observations were carried out to observe the outburst. In this paper, we perform a comprehensive phase-resolved analysis on the high quality data obtained with the Nustar and XMM-Newton, which were observed at a high and intermediate luminosity levels. In order to get a better understanding on the evolution of the whole extreme burst, we take the Swift results at the low luminosity state into account as well. At the early stage of outburst, the source shows a double-peak pulse profile, the second main peak approaches the first one and merges into the single peak at the low luminosity. The second main peak vanishes beyond 20 keV, and its radiation becomes much softer than that of the first main peak. The line widths of fluorescent iron line vary dramatically with phases, indicating a complicated geometry of accretion flows. In contrast to the case at low luminosity, the pulse fraction increases with the photon energy. The significant small pulse fraction detected below 1 keV can be interpreted as the existence of an additional thermal component located at far away from the central neutron star.

  2. Strong disk winds traced throughout outbursts in black-hole X-ray binaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetarenko, B E; Lasota, J-P; Heinke, C O; Dubus, G; Sivakoff, G R

    2018-02-01

    Recurring outbursts associated with matter flowing onto compact stellar remnants (such as black holes, neutron stars and white dwarfs) in close binary systems provide a way of constraining the poorly understood accretion process. The light curves of these outbursts are shaped by the efficiency of angular-momentum (and thus mass) transport in the accretion disks, which has traditionally been encoded in a viscosity parameter, α. Numerical simulations of the magneto-rotational instability that is believed to be the physical mechanism behind this transport yield values of α of roughly 0.1-0.2, consistent with values determined from observations of accreting white dwarfs. Equivalent viscosity parameters have hitherto not been estimated for disks around neutron stars or black holes. Here we report the results of an analysis of archival X-ray light curves of 21 outbursts in black-hole X-ray binaries. By applying a Bayesian approach to a model of accretion, we determine corresponding values of α of around 0.2-1.0. These high values may be interpreted as an indication either of a very high intrinsic rate of angular-momentum transport in the disk, which could be sustained by the magneto-rotational instability only if a large-scale magnetic field threads the disk, or that mass is being lost from the disk through substantial outflows, which strongly shape the outburst in the black-hole X-ray binary. The lack of correlation between our estimates of α and the accretion state of the binaries implies that such outflows can remove a substantial fraction of the disk mass in all accretion states and therefore suggests that the outflows correspond to magnetically driven disk winds rather than thermally driven ones, which require specific radiative conditions.

  3. Strong disk winds traced throughout outbursts in black-hole X-ray binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetarenko, B. E.; Lasota, J.-P.; Heinke, C. O.; Dubus, G.; Sivakoff, G. R.

    2018-02-01

    Recurring outbursts associated with matter flowing onto compact stellar remnants (such as black holes, neutron stars and white dwarfs) in close binary systems provide a way of constraining the poorly understood accretion process. The light curves of these outbursts are shaped by the efficiency of angular-momentum (and thus mass) transport in the accretion disks, which has traditionally been encoded in a viscosity parameter, α. Numerical simulations of the magneto-rotational instability that is believed to be the physical mechanism behind this transport yield values of α of roughly 0.1–0.2, consistent with values determined from observations of accreting white dwarfs. Equivalent viscosity parameters have hitherto not been estimated for disks around neutron stars or black holes. Here we report the results of an analysis of archival X-ray light curves of 21 outbursts in black-hole X-ray binaries. By applying a Bayesian approach to a model of accretion, we determine corresponding values of α of around 0.2–1.0. These high values may be interpreted as an indication either of a very high intrinsic rate of angular-momentum transport in the disk, which could be sustained by the magneto-rotational instability only if a large-scale magnetic field threads the disk, or that mass is being lost from the disk through substantial outflows, which strongly shape the outburst in the black-hole X-ray binary. The lack of correlation between our estimates of α and the accretion state of the binaries implies that such outflows can remove a substantial fraction of the disk mass in all accretion states and therefore suggests that the outflows correspond to magnetically driven disk winds rather than thermally driven ones, which require specific radiative conditions.

  4. Strong and superstrong pulsed magnetic fields generation

    CERN Document Server

    Shneerson, German A; Krivosheev, Sergey I

    2014-01-01

    Strong pulsed magnetic fields are important for several fields in physics and engineering, such as power generation and accelerator facilities. Basic aspects of the generation of strong and superstrong pulsed magnetic fields technique are given, including the physics and hydrodynamics of the conductors interacting with the field as well as an account of the significant progress in generation of strong magnetic fields using the magnetic accumulation technique. Results of computer simulations as well as a survey of available field technology are completing the volume.

  5. Strong-field short-pulse nondipole dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dimitrovski, Darko; Førre, Morten; Madsen, Lars Bojer

    2009-01-01

    We present a quantitative investigation of strong-field short-pulse nondipole dynamics in laser-matter interactions. We find excellent agreement between ab initio numerical and analytic results obtained using the Magnus expansion. We show that in the short-pulse limit, ultrafast transfer and cont......We present a quantitative investigation of strong-field short-pulse nondipole dynamics in laser-matter interactions. We find excellent agreement between ab initio numerical and analytic results obtained using the Magnus expansion. We show that in the short-pulse limit, ultrafast transfer...... and control of population can be achieved using nondipole effects. The relative importance of nondipole to dipole effects depends on the displacement imparted to a free classical electron....

  6. The Discovery of an Outburst and Pulsed X-ray Flux from SMC X-2 from RXTE Observations

    CERN Document Server

    Corbet, R H D; Coe, M J; Laycock, S; Handler, G

    2001-01-01

    Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer All Sky Monitor observations of SMC X-2 show that the source experienced an outburst in January to April 2000 reaching a peak luminosity of greater than ~10^38 ergs s^-1. RXTE Proportional Counter Array observations during this outburst reveal the presence of pulsations with a 2.37s period. However, optical photometry of the optical counterpart showed the source to be still significantly fainter than it was more than half a year after the outburst in the 1970s when SMC X-2 was discovered.

  7. SUZAKU OBSERVATION OF STRONG FLUORESCENT IRON LINE EMISSION FROM THE YOUNG STELLAR OBJECT V1647 ORI DURING ITS NEW X-RAY OUTBURST

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamaguchi, Kenji; Grosso, Nicolas; Kastner, Joel H.; Richmond, Michael; Weintraub, David A.

    2010-01-01

    The Suzaku X-ray satellite observed the young stellar object (YSO) V1647 Ori on 2008 October 8 during the new mass accretion outburst reported in 2008 August. During the 87 ks observation with a net exposure of 40 ks, V1647 Ori showed a high level of X-ray emission with a gradual decrease in flux by a factor of 5 and then displayed an abrupt flux increase by an order of magnitude. Such enhanced X-ray variability was also seen in XMM-Newton observations in 2004 and 2005 during the 2003-2005 outburst, but has rarely been observed for other YSOs. The spectrum clearly displays emission from Helium-like iron, which is a signature of hot plasma (kT ∼ 5 keV). It also shows a fluorescent iron Kα line with a remarkably large equivalent width (EW) of ∼600 eV. Such a large EW suggests that a part of the incident X-ray emission that irradiates the circumstellar material and/or the stellar surface is hidden from our line of sight. XMM-Newton spectra during the 2003-2005 outburst did not show a strong fluorescent iron Kα line, so that the structure of the circumstellar gas very close to the stellar core that absorbs and re-emits X-ray emission from the central object may have changed in between 2005 and 2008. This phenomenon may be related to changes in the infrared morphology of McNeil's nebula between 2004 and 2008.

  8. Grazing Eclipsing Dwarf Nova CW Monocerotis: Dwarf Nova-Type Outburst in a Possible Intermediate Polar?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Taichi; Uemura, Makoto; Kiyota, Seiichiro; Tanabe, Kenji; Koizumi, Mitsuo; Kida, Mayumi; Nishi, Yuichi; Tanaka, Sawa; Ueoka, Rie; Yasui, Hideki; Vanmunster, Tonny; Nogami, Daisaku; Yamaoka, Hitoshi

    2003-04-01

    We observed the 2002 October-November outburst of the dwarf nova CW Mon.The outburst showed a clear signature of a premaximum halt, and a more rapid decline after reaching the outburst maximum.On two separate occasions, during the premaximum stage and near the outburst maximum, shallow eclipses were recorded. This finding confirms the previously suggested possibility of the grazing eclipsing nature of this system.The separate occurrence of the eclipses and the premaximum halt can be understood as being the result of a combination of a two-step ignition of an outburst and the inside-out propagation of the heating wave.We detected a coherent short-period (0.02549d) signal on two subsequent nights around the optical maximum.This signal was likely present during the maximum phase of the 2000 January outburst.We interpret this signal as being a signature of the intermediate polar (IP) type pulses.The rather strange outburst properties, strong and hard X-ray emission, and the low luminosity of the outburst maximum might be understood as a consequence of the supposed IP nature.The ratio between the suggested spin period and the orbital period, however, is rather unusual for a system having an orbital period of ˜ 0.176 d.

  9. Outbursts of symbiotic novae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenyon, S.J.; Truran, J.W.

    1983-01-01

    We discuss possible conditions under which thermonuclear burning episodes in the hydrogen-rich envelopes of accreting white dwarfs give rise to outbursts similar in nature to those observed in the symbiotic stars AG Peg, RT Ser, RR Tel, AS 239, V1016 Cyg, V1329 Cyg, and HM Sge. In principle, thermonuclear runaways involving low-luminosity white dwarfs accreting matter at low rates produce configurations that evolve into A--F supergiants at maximum visual light and which resemble the outbursts of RR Tel, RT Ser, and AG peg. Very weak, nondegenerage hydrogen shell flashes on white dwarfs accreting matter at high rates (M> or approx. =10 -8 M/sub sun/ yr -1 ) do not produce cool supergiants at maximum, and may explain the outbursts in V1016 Cyg, V1329 Cyg, and HM Sge. The low accretion rates demanded for systems developing strong hydrogen shell flashes on low-luminsoity white dwarfs are not compatible with observations of ''normal'' quiescent symbiotic stars. The extremely slow outbursts of symbiotic novae appear to be typical of accreting white dwarfs in wide binaries, which suggests that the outbursts of classical novae may be accelerated by the interaction of the expanding white dwarf envelope with its close binary companion

  10. Pulsed Neutron Scattering Studies of Strongly Fluctuating solids, Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collin Broholm

    2006-06-22

    The conventional description of a solid is based on a static atomic structure with small amplitude so-called harmonic fluctuations about it. This is a final technical report for a project that has explored materials where fluctuations are sufficiently strong to severely challenge this approach and lead to unexpected and potentially useful materials properties. Fluctuations are enhanced when a large number of configurations share the same energy. We used pulsed spallation source neutron scattering to obtain detailed microscopic information about structure and fluctuations in such materials. The results enhance our understanding of strongly fluctuating solids and their potential for technical applications. Because new materials require new experimental techniques, the project has also developed new techniques for probing strongly fluctuating solids. Examples of material that were studied are ZrW2O8 with large amplitude molecular motion that leads to negative thermal expansion, NiGa2S4 where competing interactions lead to an anomalous short range ordered magnet, Pr1- xBixRu2O7 where a partially filled electron shell (Pr) in a weakly disordered environment produces anomalous metallic properties, and TbMnO3 where competing interactions lead to a magneto-electric phase. The experiments on TbMnO3 exemplify the relationship between research funded by this project and future applications. Magneto-electric materials may produce a magnetic field when an electric field is applied or vise versa. Our experiments have clarified the reason why electric and magnetic polarization is coupled in TbMnO3. While this knowledge does not render TbMnO3 useful for applications it will focus the search for a practical room temperature magneto-electric for applications.

  11. Simulation of condensed matter dynamics in strong femtosecond laser pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wachter, G.

    2014-01-01

    Ultrashort custom-tailored laser pulses can be employed to observe and control the motion of electrons in atoms and small molecules on the (sub-) femtosecond time scale. Very recently, efforts are underway to extend these concepts to solid matter. This monograph theoretically explores first applications of electron control by ultrashort laser pulses in three paradigmatic systems of solid-state density: a metal nano-structure (nanometric metal tip), a bulk dielectric (quartz glass), and the buckminsterfullerene molecule (C60) as arguably the smallest possible nano-particle. The electron motion is resolved on the atomic length and time scale by ab-initio simulations based on time-dependent density functional theory. Our quantum simulations are complemented by classical and semi-classical models elucidating the underlying mechanisms. We compare our results to experiments where already available and find good agreement. With increasing laser intensity, we find a transition from vertical photoexcitation to tunneling-like excitation. For nanostructures, that leads to temporally confined electron photoemission and thereby to quantum interferences in the energy spectra of emitted electrons. Similarly, tunneling can be induced between neighboring atoms inside an insulator. This provides a mechanism for ultrafast light-field controlled currents and modification of the optical properties of the solid, promising to eventually realize light-field electronic devices operating on the femtosecond time scale and nanometer length scale. Electron-electron interaction leads to near field enhancement and spatial localization of the non-linear response and is investigated both classically by solving the Maxwell equations near a nanostructure as well as quantum mechanically for the fullerene molecule. For the latter, we discuss scrutiny of the molecular near-field by the attosecond streaking technique. Our results demonstrate that ultrashort laser pulses can be employed to steer the

  12. Mechanism and Simulation of Generating Pulsed Strong Magnetic Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xian-Jun; Wang, Shuai-Chuang; Deng, Ai-Dong; Gu, Zhuo-Wei; Luo, Hao

    2014-10-01

    A strong magnetic field (over 1000 T) was recently experimentally produced at the Academy of Engineering Physics in China. The theoretical methods, which include a simple model and MHD code, are discussed to investigate the physical mechanism and dynamics of generating the strong magnetic field. The analysis and simulation results show that nonlinear magnetic diffusion contributes less as compared to the linear magnetic diffusion. This indicates that the compressible hydrodynamic effect and solid imploding compression may have a large influence on strong magnetic field generation.

  13. Auger effect in the presence of strong x-ray pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jicai; Sun Yuping; Wang Chuankui; Aagren, Hans; Gel'mukhanov, Faris

    2010-01-01

    We study the role of propagation of strong x-ray free-electron laser pulses on the Auger effect. When the system is exposed to a strong x-ray pulse the stimulated emission starts to compete with the Auger decay. As an illustration we present numerical results for Ar gas with the frequency of the incident x-ray pulse tuned in the 2p 3/2 -4s resonance. It is shown that the pulse propagation is accompanied by two channels of amplified spontaneous emission, 4s-2p 3/2 and 3s-2p 3/2 , which reshape the pulse when the system is inverted. The population inversion is quenched for longer propagation distances where lasing without inversion enhances the Stokes component. The results of simulations show that the propagation of the strong x-ray pulses affect intensively the Auger branching ratio.

  14. Shock Dynamics in Stellar Outbursts. I. Shock Formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ro, Stephen; Matzner, Christopher D., E-mail: ro@astro.utoronto.ca [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 50 St. George Street, Toronto, ON M5S 3H4 (Canada)

    2017-05-20

    Wave-driven outflows and non-disruptive explosions have been implicated in pre-supernova outbursts, supernova impostors, luminous blue variable eruptions, and some narrow-line and superluminous supernovae. To model these events, we investigate the dynamics of stars set in motion by strong acoustic pulses and wave trains, focusing on nonlinear wave propagation, shock formation, and an early phase of the development of a weak shock. We identify the shock formation radius, showing that a heuristic estimate based on crossing characteristics matches an exact expansion around the wave front and verifying both with numerical experiments. Our general analytical condition for shock formation applies to one-dimensional motions within any static environment, including both eruptions and implosions. We also consider the early phase of shock energy dissipation. We find that waves of super-Eddington acoustic luminosity always create shocks, rather than damping by radiative diffusion. Therefore, shock formation is integral to super-Eddington outbursts.

  15. A strong ultraviolet pulse from a newborn type Ia supernova.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yi; Kulkarni, S R; Howell, D Andrew; Gal-Yam, Avishay; Kasliwal, Mansi M; Valenti, Stefano; Johansson, J; Amanullah, R; Goobar, A; Sollerman, J; Taddia, F; Horesh, Assaf; Sagiv, Ilan; Cenko, S Bradley; Nugent, Peter E; Arcavi, Iair; Surace, Jason; Woźniak, P R; Moody, Daniela I; Rebbapragada, Umaa D; Bue, Brian D; Gehrels, Neil

    2015-05-21

    Type Ia supernovae are destructive explosions of carbon-oxygen white dwarfs. Although they are used empirically to measure cosmological distances, the nature of their progenitors remains mysterious. One of the leading progenitor models, called the single degenerate channel, hypothesizes that a white dwarf accretes matter from a companion star and the resulting increase in its central pressure and temperature ignites thermonuclear explosion. Here we report observations with the Swift Space Telescope of strong but declining ultraviolet emission from a type Ia supernova within four days of its explosion. This emission is consistent with theoretical expectations of collision between material ejected by the supernova and a companion star, and therefore provides evidence that some type Ia supernovae arise from the single degenerate channel.

  16. The Extraordinary Outburst in the Massive Protostellar System NGC 6334I-MM1: Emergence of Strong 6.7 GHz Methanol Masers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, T. R.; Brogan, C. L.; MacLeod, G. C.; Cyganowski, C. J.; Chibueze, J. O.; Friesen, R.; Hirota, T.; Smits, D. P.; Chandler, C. J.; Indebetouw, R.

    2018-02-01

    We report the first sub-arcsecond VLA imaging of 6 GHz continuum, methanol maser, and excited-state hydroxyl maser emission toward the massive protostellar cluster NGC 6334I following the recent 2015 outburst in (sub)millimeter continuum toward MM1, the strongest (sub)millimeter source in the protocluster. In addition to detections toward the previously known 6.7 GHz Class II methanol maser sites in the hot core MM2 and the UCHII region MM3 (NGC 6334F), we find new maser features toward several components of MM1, along with weaker features ∼1″ north, west, and southwest of MM1, and toward the nonthermal radio continuum source CM2. None of these areas have heretofore exhibited Class II methanol maser emission in three decades of observations. The strongest MM1 masers trace a dust cavity, while no masers are seen toward the strongest dust sources MM1A, 1B, and 1D. The locations of the masers are consistent with a combination of increased radiative pumping due to elevated dust grain temperature following the outburst, the presence of infrared photon propagation cavities, and the presence of high methanol column densities as indicated by ALMA images of thermal transitions. The nonthermal radio emission source CM2 (2″ north of MM1) also exhibits new maser emission from the excited 6.035 and 6.030 GHz OH lines. Using the Zeeman effect, we measure a line-of-sight magnetic field of +0.5 to +3.7 mG toward CM2. In agreement with previous studies, we also detect numerous methanol and excited OH maser spots toward the UCHII region MM3, with predominantly negative line-of-sight magnetic field strengths of ‑2 to ‑5 mG and an intriguing south–north field reversal.

  17. Nonlinear interaction of charged particles with strong laser pulses in a gaseous media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. K. Avetissian

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The charged particles nonlinear dynamics in the field of a strong electromagnetic wave pulse of finite duration and certain form of the envelope, in the refractive medium with a constant and variable refraction indexes, is investigated by means of numerical integration of the classical relativistic equations of motion. The particle energy dependence on the pulse intensity manifests the nonlinear threshold phenomenon of a particle reflection and capture by actual laser pulses in dielectric-gaseous media that takes place for a plane electromagnetic wave in the induced Cherenkov process. Laser acceleration of the particles in the result of the reflection from the pulse envelope and in the capture regime with the variable refraction index along the pulse propagation direction is investigated.

  18. Instantaneous coherent destruction of tunneling and fast quantum state preparation for strongly pulsed spin qubits in diamond

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wubs, Martijn

    2010-01-01

    Qubits driven by resonant strong pulses are studied and a parameter regime is explored in which the dynamics can be solved in closed form. Instantaneous coherent destruction of tunneling can be seen for longer pulses, whereas shorter pulses allow a fast preparation of the qubit state. Results...... are compared with recent experiments of pulsed nitrogen-vacancy center spin qubits in diamond....

  19. Observation of strongly enhanced ultrashort pulses in 3-D metallic funnel-waveguide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong-Hyub; Choi, Joonhee; Kim, Seungchul; Park, In-Yong; Han, Seunghwoi; Kim, Hyunwoong; Kim, Seung-Woo

    2014-07-14

    For strong field enhancement of ultrashort light pulses, a 3-D metallic funnel-waveguide is analyzed using the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method. Then the maximum intensity enhancement actually developed by the funnel-waveguide upon the injection of femtosecond laser pulses is observed using two-photon luminescence (TPL) microscopy. In addition, the ultrafast dephasing profile of the localized field at the hot spot of the funnel-waveguide is verified through the interferometric autocorrelation of the TPL signal. Finally it is concluded the funnel-waveguide is an effective 3-D nanostructure that is capable of boosting the peak pulse intensity of stronger than 80 TWcm(-2) by an enhancement factor of 20 dB without significant degradation of the ultrafast spatiotemporal characteristics of the original pulses.

  20. Strong-field QED processes in short laser pulses. One- and two-photon Compton scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seipt, Daniel

    2012-12-20

    The purpose of this thesis is to advance the understanding of strong-field QED processes in short laser pulses. The processes of non-linear one-photon and two-photon Compton scattering are studied, that is the scattering of photons in the interaction of relativistic electrons with ultra-short high-intensity laser pulses. These investigations are done in view of the present and next generation of ultra-high intensity optical lasers which are supposed to achieve unprecedented intensities of the order of 10{sup 24} W/cm{sup 2} and beyond, with pulse lengths in the order of some femtoseconds. The ultra-high laser intensity requires a non-perturbative description of the interaction of charged particles with the laser field to allow for multi-photon interactions, which is beyond the usual perturbative expansion of QED organized in powers of the fine structure constant. This is achieved in strong-field QED by employing the Furry picture and non-perturbative solutions of the Dirac equation in the presence of a background laser field as initial and final state wave functions, as well as the laser dressed Dirac-Volkov propagator. The primary objective is a realistic description of scattering processes with regard to the finite laser pulse duration beyond the common approximation of infinite plane waves, which is made necessary by the ultra-short pulse length of modern high-intensity lasers. Non-linear finite size effects are identified, which are a result of the interplay between the ultra-high intensity and the ultra-short pulse length. In particular, the frequency spectra and azimuthal photon emission spectra are studied emphasizing the differences between pulsed and infinite laser fields. The proper description of the finite temporal duration of the laser pulse leads to a regularization of unphysical infinities (due to the infinite plane-wave description) of the laser-dressed Dirac-Volkov propagator and in the second-order strong-field process of two-photon Compton

  1. Strong-field QED processes in short laser pulses. One- and two-photon Compton scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seipt, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to advance the understanding of strong-field QED processes in short laser pulses. The processes of non-linear one-photon and two-photon Compton scattering are studied, that is the scattering of photons in the interaction of relativistic electrons with ultra-short high-intensity laser pulses. These investigations are done in view of the present and next generation of ultra-high intensity optical lasers which are supposed to achieve unprecedented intensities of the order of 10 24 W/cm 2 and beyond, with pulse lengths in the order of some femtoseconds. The ultra-high laser intensity requires a non-perturbative description of the interaction of charged particles with the laser field to allow for multi-photon interactions, which is beyond the usual perturbative expansion of QED organized in powers of the fine structure constant. This is achieved in strong-field QED by employing the Furry picture and non-perturbative solutions of the Dirac equation in the presence of a background laser field as initial and final state wave functions, as well as the laser dressed Dirac-Volkov propagator. The primary objective is a realistic description of scattering processes with regard to the finite laser pulse duration beyond the common approximation of infinite plane waves, which is made necessary by the ultra-short pulse length of modern high-intensity lasers. Non-linear finite size effects are identified, which are a result of the interplay between the ultra-high intensity and the ultra-short pulse length. In particular, the frequency spectra and azimuthal photon emission spectra are studied emphasizing the differences between pulsed and infinite laser fields. The proper description of the finite temporal duration of the laser pulse leads to a regularization of unphysical infinities (due to the infinite plane-wave description) of the laser-dressed Dirac-Volkov propagator and in the second-order strong-field process of two-photon Compton scattering. An

  2. Counteracting radio frequency inhomogeneity in the human brain at 7 Tesla using strongly modulating pulses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulant, N; Mangin, J-F; Amadon, A

    2009-05-01

    We report flip angle and spoiled gradient echo measurements at 7 Tesla on human brains in three-dimensional imaging, using strongly modulating pulses to counteract the transmitted radiofrequency inhomogeneity problem. Compared with the standard square pulse results, three points of improvement are demonstrated, namely: (i) the removal of the bright center (typical at high fields when using a quadrature head coil), (ii) the substantial gain of signal in the regions of low B(1) intensity, and (iii) an increased 35% signal uniformity over the whole brain at the flip angle where maximum contrast between white and gray matter occurs. We also find by means of simulations that standard BIR-4 adiabatic pulses need several times more energy to reach a similar performance at the same field strength. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  3. Strong electromagnetic pulses generated in high-intensity laser-matter interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rączka, P.; Dubois, J.-L.; Hulin, S.; Rosiński, M.; Zaraś-Szydłowska, A.; Badziak, J.

    2018-01-01

    Results are reported of an experiment performed at the Eclipse laser facility in CELIA, Bordeaux, on the generation of strong electromagnetic pulses. Measurements were performed of the target neutralization current, the total target charge and the tangential component of the magnetic field for the laser energies ranging from 45 mJ to 92 mJ with the pulse duration approximately 40 fs, and for the pulse durations ranging from 39 fs to 1000 fs, with the laser energy approximately 90 mJ. It was found that the values obtained for thick (mm scale) Cu targets are visibly higher than values reported in previous experiments, which is argued to be a manifestation of a strong dependence of the target electric polarization process on the laser contrast and hence on the amount of preplasma. It was also found that values obtained for thin (μm scale) Al foils were visibly higher than values for thick Cu targets, especially for pulse durations longer than 100 fs. The correlations between the total target charge versus the maximum value of the target neutralization current, and the maximum value of the tangential component of the magnetic field versus the total target charge were analysed. They were found to be in very good agreement with correlations seen in data from previous experiments, which provides a good consistency check on our experimental procedures.

  4. STRONG SOLAR WIND DYNAMIC PRESSURE PULSES: INTERPLANETARY SOURCES AND THEIR IMPACTS ON GEOSYNCHRONOUS MAGNETIC FIELDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuo, Pingbing; Feng, Xueshang; Wang, Yi; Xie, Yanqiong; Xu, Xiaojun

    2015-01-01

    In this investigation, we first present a statistical result of the interplanetary sources of very strong solar wind dynamic pressure pulses (DPPs) detected by WIND during solar cycle 23. It is found that the vast majority of strong DPPs reside within solar wind disturbances. Although the variabilities of geosynchronous magnetic fields (GMFs) due to the impact of positive DPPs have been well established, there appears to be no systematic investigations on the response of GMFs to negative DPPs. Here, we study both the decompression effects of very strong negative DPPs and the compression from strong positive DPPs on GMFs at different magnetic local time sectors. In response to the decompression of strong negative DPPs, GMFs on the dayside near dawn and near dusk on the nightside, are generally depressed. But near the midnight region, the responses of GMF are very diverse, being either positive or negative. For part of the events when GOES is located at the midnight sector, the GMF is found to abnormally increase as the result of magnetospheric decompression caused by negative DPPs. It is known that under certain conditions magnetic depression of nightside GMFs can be caused by the impact of positive DPPs. Here, we find that a stronger pressure enhancement may have a higher probability of producing the exceptional depression of GMF at the midnight region. Statistically, both the decompression effect of strong negative DPPs and the compression effect of strong positive DPPs depend on the magnetic local time, which are stronger at the noon sector

  5. Curious Consequences of Strong Coupling in NMR Experiments Involving Selective Pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huth, Johannes; Fu, Riqiang; Bodenhausen, Geoffrey

    This study is concerned with the effects of applying selective pulses to systems with strong second-order scalar couplings in isotropic phase, where different transitions ( rs) are associated with different transition matrix elements F+( rs) . Two unusual features can be distinguished: the nutation angle ("flip angle") depends on the matrix element of the irradiated transition ( rs), and, in contrast to the behavior of an isolated spin- {1}/{2} system, the norm of the three single-transition operators [ I( rs) x, I( rs) y, I( rs) z] associated with the fictitious spin- {1}/{2} space of the irradiated transition ( rs) is generally not conserved. It is necessary to consider the single-transition operators [ I( rp) x, I( rp) y, I( rp) z] and [ I( sq) x, I( sq) y, I( sq) z] associated with all connected transitions ( rp) and ( sq) that share a common energy level ror swith the irradiated transition ( rs). If the pulse applied to the ( rs) transition is sufficiently selective, the transverse components I( rp) x, I( rp) y, I( sq) x, and I( sq) y, can be neglected, since their expectation values remain equal to zero after application of a selective pulse to the ( rs) transition, but the longitudinal components I( rp) zand I( sq) zacquire nonvanishing expectation values. When the selective pulse affects several transitions simultaneously, the response varies from one transition to another, depending on the matrix elements and the connectivities. These effects manifest themselves in unusual amplitudes and phases of signals excited by selective pulses, in particular in selective two-dimensional correlation spectra.

  6. Nonlinear propagation of strong-field THz pulses in doped semiconductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turchinovich, Dmitry; Hvam, Jørn Märcher; Hoffmann, Matthias C.

    2012-01-01

    We report on nonlinear propagation of single-cycle THz pulses with peak electric fields reaching 300 kV/cm in n-type semiconductors at room temperature. Dramatic THz saturable absorption effects are observed in GaAs, GaP, and Ge, which are caused by the nonlinear electron transport in THz fields......-effective-mass states in the energy-momentum space of the conduction band. Further, we observe the typical accompanying effects of saturable absorption on the THz pulses, such as an increase of the group delay, as the peak electric field of the pulse increases. In this paper we present the results of nonlinear THz time....... The semiconductor conductivity, and hence the THz absorption, is modulated due to the acceleration of carriers in strong THz fields, leading to an increase of the effective mass of the electron population, as the electrons are redistributed from the low-momentum, low-effective-mass states to the high-momentum, high...

  7. Compression of TW class laser pulses in a planar hollow waveguide for applications in strong-field physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarnac, Amélie; Brizuela, Fernando; Heyl, Christoph M.; Rudawski, Piotr; Campi, Filippo; Kim, Byunghoon; Rading, Linnea; Johnsson, Per; Mysyrowicz, André; L'Huillier, Anne; Houard, Aurélien; Arnold, Cord L.

    2014-12-01

    We demonstrate pulse post-compression of a TW class chirped pulse amplification laser employing a gas-filled planar hollow waveguide. A waveguide throughput of 80% is achieved for 50 mJ input pulse energy. Good focusability is found and after compression with chirped mirrors a pulse duration of sub-15 fs is measured in the beam center. Whereas a total energy efficiency of ≈70% should be achievable, our post-compressor currently delivers 20 mJ output pulse energy (≈40% efficiency), mostly limited by apertures of chirped mirrors and vacuum windows. The viability of the planar hollow waveguide compression scheme for applications in strong-field physics is demonstrated by generating high-order harmonics in a pulsed Ar gas cell. Contribution to the Topical Issue "X-ray Generation from Ultrafast Lasers", edited by Germán J. de Valcárcel, Luis Roso and Amelle Zaïr.

  8. Influence of strong magnetic fields on laser pulse propagation in underdense plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, T. C.; Li, F. Y.; Weikum, M.; Sheng, Z. M.

    2017-06-01

    We examine the interaction between intense laser pulses and strongly magnetised plasmas in the weakly relativistic regime. An expression for the electron Lorentz factor coupling both relativistic and cyclotron motion nonlinearities is derived for static magnetic fields along the laser propagation axis. This is applied to predict modifications to the refractive index, critical density, group velocity dispersion and power threshold for relativistic self-focusing. It is found that electron quiver response is enhanced under right circularly-polarised light, decreasing the power threshold for various instabilities, while a dampening effect occurs under left circularly-polarised light, increasing the power thresholds. Derived theoretical predictions are tested by one- and three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations.

  9. Acceleration of neutral atoms in strong short-pulse laser fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichmann, U; Nubbemeyer, T; Rottke, H; Sandner, W

    2009-10-29

    A charged particle exposed to an oscillating electric field experiences a force proportional to the cycle-averaged intensity gradient. This so-called ponderomotive force plays a major part in a variety of physical situations such as Paul traps for charged particles, electron diffraction in strong (standing) laser fields (the Kapitza-Dirac effect) and laser-based particle acceleration. Comparably weak forces on neutral atoms in inhomogeneous light fields may arise from the dynamical polarization of an atom; these are physically similar to the cycle-averaged forces. Here we observe previously unconsidered extremely strong kinematic forces on neutral atoms in short-pulse laser fields. We identify the ponderomotive force on electrons as the driving mechanism, leading to ultrastrong acceleration of neutral atoms with a magnitude as high as approximately 10(14) times the Earth's gravitational acceleration, g. To our knowledge, this is by far the highest observed acceleration on neutral atoms in external fields and may lead to new applications in both fundamental and applied physics.

  10. The CO/NOx emissions of swirled, strongly pulsed jet diffusion flames

    KAUST Repository

    Liao, Ying-Hao

    2014-05-28

    The CO and NOx exhaust emissions of swirled, strongly pulsed, turbulent jet diffusion flames were studied experimentally in a coflow swirl combustor. Measurements of emissions were performed on the combustor centerline using standard emission analyzers combined with an aspirated sampling probe located downstream of the visible flame tip. The highest levels of CO emissions are generally found for compact, isolated flame puffs, which is consistent with the quenching due to rapid dilution with excess air. The imposition of swirl generally results in a decrease in CO levels by up to a factor of 2.5, suggesting more rapid and compete fuel/air mixing by imposing swirl in the coflow stream. The levels of NO emissions for most cases are generally below the steady-flame value. The NO levels become comparable to the steady-flame value for sufficiently short jet-off times. The swirled coflow air can, in some cases, increase the NO emissions due to a longer combustion residence time due to the flow recirculation within the swirl-induced recirculation zone. Scaling relations, when taking into account the impact of air dilution over an injection cycle on the flame length, reveal a strong correlation between the CO emissions and the global residence time. However, the NO emissions do not successfully correlate with the global residence time. For some specific cases, a compact flame with a simultaneous decrease in both CO and NO emissions compared to the steady flames was observed. © Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

  11. Control of coal and gas outbursts in Huainan mines in China: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Yuan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Coal extraction in Huainan area is basically characterized by one of typical multi-seam mining conditions observed in China, where coal is mined in soft seams characterized by high gas content, high stress, low permeability and difficult geological conditions. The average mining depth in Huainan area is 875 m and continues to increase by 15–25 m annually. The rise in mining depth increases the risk of coal and gas outbursts and makes it more difficult to control outburst risk in Huainan coalmines. This paper reviews the main achievements (e.g. theories, technologies and equipment in outburst control in Huainan, and tries to analyze some key challenging issues, and to present associated strategies to address these issues. It suggests that the outburst control in Huainan must take a combination approach of both regional and localized control in which the former plays a dominant role. Other outburst prevention principles include (1 non-outburst seams protecting outburst seams, (2 less outburst-prone seams protecting strong outburst-prone seams, (3 stress-releasing mining, and (4 the combination of ground and underground gas drainage (the model is dubbed as “walking on two legs”. The paper concludes that we should conduct fundamental researches on outburst mechanism, and develop outburst control technologies and equipment to ensure safe and efficient coal mining of deep coal resources in Huainan area.

  12. Strong-field Breit–Wheeler pair production in two consecutive laser pulses with variable time delay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansen, Martin J.A.; Müller, Carsten, E-mail: c.mueller@tp1.uni-duesseldorf.de

    2017-03-10

    Photoproduction of electron–positron pairs by the strong-field Breit–Wheeler process in an intense laser field is studied. The laser field is assumed to consist of two consecutive short pulses, with a variable time delay in between. By numerical calculations within the framework of scalar quantum electrodynamics, we demonstrate that the time delay exerts a strong impact on the pair-creation probability. For the case when both pulses are identical, the effect is traced back to the relative quantum phase of the interfering S-matrix amplitudes and explained within a simplified analytical model. Conversely, when the two laser pulses differ from each other, the pair-creation probability depends not only on the time delay but, in general, also on the temporal order of the pulses.

  13. Strong electromagnetic pulses generated in high-intensity short-pulse laser interactions with thin foil targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rączka, P.; Dubois, J.-L.; Hulin, S.; Tikhonchuk, V.; Rosiński, M.; Zaraś-Szydłowska, A.; Badziak, J.

    2017-12-01

    Measurements are reported of the target neutralization current, the target charge, and the tangential component of the magnetic field generated as a result of laser-target interaction by pulses with the energy in the range of 45 mJ to 92 mJ on target and the pulse duration from 39 fs to 1000 fs. The experiment was performed at the Eclipse facility in CELIA, Bordeaux. The aim of the experiment was to extend investigations performed for the thick (mm scale) targets to the case of thin (micrometer thickness) targets in a way that would allow for a straightforward comparison of the results. We found that thin foil targets tend to generate 20 to 50 percent higher neutralization current and the target charge than the thick targets. The measurement of the tangential component of the magnetic field had shown that the initial spike is dominated by the 1 ns pulse consistent with the 1 ns pulse of the neutralization current, but there are some differences between targets of different type on sub-ns scale, which is an effect going beyond a simple picture of the target acting as an antenna. The sub-ns structure appears to be reproducible to surprising degree. We found that there is in general a linear correlation between the maximum value of the magnetic field and the maximum neutralization current, which supports the target-antenna picture, except for pulses hundreds of fs long.

  14. Propagation of a strong x-ray pulse: Pulse compression, stimulated Raman scattering, amplified spontaneous emission, lasing without inversion, and four-wave mixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Yuping; Wang Chuankui; Liu Jicai; Gel'mukhanov, Faris

    2010-01-01

    We study the compression of strong x-ray pulses from x-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs) propagating through the resonant medium of atomic argon. The simulations are based on the three-level model with the frequency of the incident x-ray pulse tuned in the 2p 3/2 -4s resonance. The pulse propagation is accompanied by the self-seeded stimulated resonant Raman scattering (SRRS). The SRRS starts from two channels of amplified spontaneous emission (ASE), 4s-2p 3/2 and 3s-2p 3/2 , which form the extensive ringing pattern and widen the power spectrum. The produced seed field triggers the Stokes ASE channel 3s-2p 3/2 . The population inversion is quenched for longer propagation distances where the ASE is followed by the lasing without inversion (LWI), which amplifies the Stokes component. Both ASE and LWI reshape the input pulse: The compressed front part of the pulse (up to 100 as) is followed by the long tail of the ringing and beating between the pump and Stokes frequencies. The pump pulse also generates weaker Stokes and anti-Stokes fields caused by four-wave mixing. These four spectral bands have fine structures caused by the dynamical Stark effect. A slowdown of the XFEL pulse up to 78% of the speed of light in vacuum is found because of a large nonlinear refractive index.

  15. The propagation of a strong x-ray pulse followed by pulse slowdown and compression, amplified spontaneous emission and lasing without inversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun Yuping; Liu Jicai; Gel' mukhanov, Faris, E-mail: jicai@theochem.kth.s [Department of Theoretical Chemistry, School of Biotechnology, Royal Institute of Technology, S-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2009-10-28

    We study self-seeded stimulated resonant x-ray Raman scattering and show a 20-fold compression of the strong XFEL pulse propagating through the resonant medium of atomic argon with the frequency (244.3 eV) tuned to the 2p{sub 3/2}-4s resonance. The strong x-ray pulse inverts the medium and produces an extensive ringing tail which widens the power spectrum. Newly created seed field triggers the Stokes channel 3s-2p{sub 3/2} of amplified spontaneous emission. The population inversions are quenched for longer propagation distances where lasing without inversion enhances the Stokes component. The pump pulse also generates weaker Stokes and anti-Stokes fields caused by four-wave mixing. The group velocity is decreased up to 78% of the speed of light in vacuum. (fast track communication)

  16. The propagation of a strong x-ray pulse followed by pulse slowdown and compression, amplified spontaneous emission and lasing without inversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Yuping; Liu Jicai; Gel'mukhanov, Faris

    2009-01-01

    We study self-seeded stimulated resonant x-ray Raman scattering and show a 20-fold compression of the strong XFEL pulse propagating through the resonant medium of atomic argon with the frequency (244.3 eV) tuned to the 2p 3/2 -4s resonance. The strong x-ray pulse inverts the medium and produces an extensive ringing tail which widens the power spectrum. Newly created seed field triggers the Stokes channel 3s-2p 3/2 of amplified spontaneous emission. The population inversions are quenched for longer propagation distances where lasing without inversion enhances the Stokes component. The pump pulse also generates weaker Stokes and anti-Stokes fields caused by four-wave mixing. The group velocity is decreased up to 78% of the speed of light in vacuum. (fast track communication)

  17. Turbulent structure and dynamics of swirled, strongly pulsed jet diffusion flames

    KAUST Repository

    Liao, Ying-Hao

    2013-11-02

    The structure and dynamics of swirled, strongly pulsed, turbulent jet diffusion flames were examined experimentally in a co-flow swirl combustor. The dynamics of the large-scale flame structures, including variations in flame dimensions, the degree of turbulent flame puff interaction, and the turbulent flame puff celerity were determined from high-speed imaging of the luminous flame. All of the tests presented here were conducted with a fixed fuel injection velocity at a Reynolds number of 5000. The flame dimensions were generally found to be more impacted by swirl for the cases of longer injection time and faster co-flow flow rate. Flames with swirl exhibited a flame length up to 34% shorter compared to nonswirled flames. Both the turbulent flame puff separation and the flame puff celerity generally decreased when swirl was imposed. The decreased flame length, flame puff separation, and flame puff celerity are consistent with a greater momentum exchange between the flame and the surrounding co-flow, resulting from an increased rate of air entrainment due to swirl. Three scaling relations were developed to account for the impact of the injection time, the volumetric fuel-to-air flow rate ratio, and the jet-on fraction on the visible flame length. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

  18. Strong electromagnetic pulses generated in laser-matter interactions with 10TW-class fs laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rączka, Piotr; Rosiński, Marcin; Zaraś-Szydłowska, Agnieszka; Wołowski, Jerzy; Badziak, Jan

    2018-01-01

    The results of an experiment on the generation of electromagnetic pulses (EMP) in the interaction of 10TW fs pulses with thick (mm scale) and thin foil (μm scale) targets are described. Such pulses, with frequencies in the GHz range, may pose a threat to safe and reliable operation of high-power, high-intensity laser facilities. The main point of the experiment is to investigate the fine temporal structure of such pulses using an oscilloscope capable of measurements at very high sampling rate. It is found that the amazing reproducibility of such pulses is confirmed at this high sampling rate. Furthermore, the differences between the EMP signals generated from thick and thin foil targets are clearly seen, which indicates that besides electric polarization of the target and the target neutralization current there may be other factors essential for the EMP emission.

  19. Outbursts in Symbiotic Binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonneborn, George (Technical Monitor); Kenyon, Scott J.

    2004-01-01

    Two models have been proposed for the outbursts of symbiotic stars. In the thermonuclear model, outbursts begin when the hydrogen burning shell of a hot white dwarf reaches a critical mass. After a rapid increase in the luminosity and effective temperature, the white dwarf evolves at constant luminosity to lower effective temperatures, remains at optical maximum for several years, and then returns to quiescence along a white dwarf cooling curve. In disk instability models, the brightness rises when the accretion rate from the disk onto the central white dwarf abruptly increases by factors of 5-20. After a few month to several year period at maximum, both the luminosity and the effective temperature of the disk decline as the system returns to quiescence. If most symbiotic stars undergo thermonuclear eruptions, then symbiotics are probably poor candidates for type I supernovae. However, they can then provide approx. 10% of the material which stars recycle back into the interstellar medium. If disk instabilities are the dominant eruption mechanism, symbiotics are promising type Ia candidates but recycle less material into the interstellar medium.

  20. Investigation of thin manganite films at strong pulsed electric and magnetic fields

    OpenAIRE

    Cimmperman, Piotras

    2006-01-01

    The main aim of this work was to investigate electrical conductivity of La-Ca(Sr)-MnO thin films at high pulsed electric and magnetic fields and to clear up the possibilities to use these materials for high pulsed magnetic field sensor and fault current limiter applications. The dissertation consists of the preface, six chapters, summary and main conclusions, references, list of publications and abstract (in Lithuanian). The main objectives of the work, scientific novelty, goals, valida...

  1. Laser and Plasma Parameters for Laser Pulse Amplification by Stimulated Brillouin Backscattering in the Strong Coupling Regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangolf, Thomas; Blecher, Marius; Bolanos, Simon; Lancia, Livia; Marques, Jean-Raphael; Cerchez, Mirela; Prasad, Rajendra; Aurand, Bastian; Loiseau, Pascal; Fuchs, Julien; Willi, Oswald

    2017-10-01

    In the ongoing quest for novel techniques to obtain ever higher laser powers, plasma amplification has drawn much attention, benefiting from the fact that a plasma can sustain much higher energy densities than a solid state amplifier. As a plasma process, Stimulated Brillouin Backscattering in the strong coupling regime (sc-SBS) can be used to transfer energy from one laser pulse (pump) to another (seed), by a nonlinear ion oscillation forced by the pump laser. Here, we report on experimental results on amplification by sc-SBS using the ARCTURUS Ti:Sapphire multi-beam laser system at the University of Duesseldorf, Germany. Counter-propagating in a supersonic Hydrogen gas jet target, an ultrashort seed pulse with a pulse duration between 30 and 160 fs and an energy between 1 and 12 mJ was amplified by a high-energy pump pulse (1.7 ps, 700 mJ). For some of the measurements, the gas was pre-ionized with a separate laser pulse (780 fs, 460 mJ). Preliminary analysis shows that the amplification was larger for the longer seed pulses, consistent with theoretical predictions.

  2. Mechanism of instantaneous coal outbursts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guan, P.; Wang, H.Y.; Zhang, Y.X. [Peking University, Beijing (China). School of Earth & Space Science

    2009-10-15

    Thousands of mine workers die every year from mining accidents, and instantaneous coal outbursts in underground coal mines are one of the major killers. Various models for these outbursts have been proposed, but the precise mechanism is still unknown. We hypothesize that the mechanism of coal outbursts is similar to magma fragmentation during explosive volcanic eruptions; i.e., it is caused by high gas pressure inside coal but low ambient pressure on it, breaking coal into pieces and releasing the high-pressure gas in a shock wave. Hence, coal outbursts may be regarded as another type of gas-driven eruption, in addition to explosive volcanic, lake, and possible ocean eruptions. We verify the hypothesis by experiments using a shock-tube apparatus. Knowing the mechanism of coal outbursts is the first step in developing prediction and mitigation measures. The new concept of gas-driven solid eruption is also important to a better understanding of salt-gas outbursts, rock-gas outbursts, and mud volcano eruptions.

  3. Systematic study of magnetar outbursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coti Zelati, Francesco; Rea, Nanda; Pons, José A.; Campana, Sergio; Esposito, Paolo

    2018-02-01

    We present the results of the systematic study of all magnetar outbursts observed to date, through a reanalysis of data acquired in about 1100 X-ray observations. We track the temporal evolution of the outbursts' soft X-ray spectral properties and the luminosities of the single spectral components as well as of the total emission. We model empirically all outburst light curves, and estimate the characteristic decay time-scales as well as the energetics involved. We investigate the link between different parameters (e.g. the luminosity at the peak of the outburst and in quiescence, the maximum luminosity increase, the decay time-scale and energy of the outburst, the neutron star surface dipolar magnetic field and characteristic age, etc.), and unveil several correlations among these quantities. We discuss our results in the context of the internal crustal heating and twisted bundle models for magnetar outbursts. This study is complemented by the Magnetar Outburst Online Catalogue (http://magnetars.ice.csic.es), an interactive data base where the user can plot any combination of the parameters derived in this work, and download all data.

  4. Microsecond pulsed DC matching measurements on MOSFETs in strong and weak inversion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andricciola, Pietro; Andricciola, P.; Tuinhout, Hans; Wils, Nicole; Schmitz, Jurriaan

    2011-01-01

    We present a first successful attempt to use microsecond DC pulses for matching measurements on 65-nm MOS transistors down to low current levels. We demonstrate that the interface states that contribute to the mismatch (if they indeed do so) in the weak and moderate inversion region must have

  5. Onset of Coulomb explosion in small silicon clusters exposed to strong-field laser pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayres, S. G.; Ross, M. W.; Castleman, A. W., Jr.

    2012-05-01

    It is now well established that, under intense laser illumination, clusters undergo enhanced ionization compared to their isolated atomic and molecular counterparts being subjected to the same pulses. This leads to extremely high charge states and concomitant Coulomb explosion. Until now, the cluster size necessary for ionization enhancement has not been quantified. Here, we demonstrate that through the comparison of ion signal from small covalently bound silicon clusters exposed to low intensity laser pulses with semi-classical theory, their ionization potentials (IPs) can be determined. At moderate laser intensities the clusters are not only atomized, but all valence electrons are removed from the cluster, thereby producing up to Si4+. The effective IPs for the production of the high charge states are shown to be ˜40% lower than the expected values for atomic silicon. Finally, the minimum cluster size responsible for the onset of the enhanced ionization is determined utilizing the magnitude of the kinetic energy released from the Coulomb explosion.

  6. Atomic structure dependence of nonsequential double ionization of He, Ne and Ar in strong laser pulses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jesus, V L B de; Feuerstein, B; Zrost, K; Fischer, D; Rudenko, A; Afaneh, F; Schroeter, C D; Moshammer, R; Ullrich, J [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, D-69029 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2004-04-28

    The ion momentum spectra for nonsequential double ionization of rare gases (He, Ne and Ar) in 23 fs 795 nm laser pulses were measured in the intensity range 0.075-1.25 PW cm{sup -2}. In the studies published, confusing differences in the shape of momentum distributions among different targets are consistently explained within a recollision scenario: excitation during recollision plus subsequent field ionization, not implemented in most theoretical approaches, evidently plays a decisive role for He and Ar nonsequential double ionization whereas it plays only a minor role for Ne. (letter to the editor)

  7. Magnetic study of a few antiferromagnets in very-strong pulsed fields (450 kOE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krebs, J.

    1968-01-01

    In this thesis we describe a pulsed field device with which we obtain magnetization curves up to 450 kOE at all temperatures between 1. 6 and 300. We have studied the 'spin-flopping'(and therefore the anisotropy) in MnF 2 versus temperature, below the Neel point. We have also studied the antiferromagnets MnSO 4 . and MnSO 4 .H 2 O which have revealed saturation fields respectively of 250 kOE and 320 kOE. (author) [fr

  8. Nova outbursts in the case of mild hibernation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livio, M.; Shankar, A.; Truran, J.W.

    1988-01-01

    The necessary conditions for the production of strong thermonuclear runaways in the hibernation scenario are identified and explored. It is found that a reduction in the accretion rate by a factor of about 100, for a period longer than a few thousand years, is generally sufficient to ensure nova-type outbursts, even in the presence of rather high preoutburst accretion rates. Nova outbursts can be obtained under mild hibernation conditions on 1 solar mass white dwarfs as well as on very massive ones. A reduction in the accretion rate by a factor of 10 only is insufficient to produce a nova outburst, if the preoutburst accretion rate is as high as 10 to the -8th solar mass/yr. 28 references

  9. DAVs: Red Edge and Outbursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luan, Jing

    2018-04-01

    As established by ground based surveys, white dwarfs with hydrogen atmospheres pulsate as they cool across the temperature range, 12500Kred edge is a two-decade old puzzle. Recently, Kepler discovered a number of cool DAVs exhibiting sporadic outbursts separated by days, each lasting several hours, and releasing \\sim 10^{33}-10^{34} {erg}. We provide quantitative explanations for both the red edge and the outbursts. The minimal frequency for overstable modes rises abruptly near the red edge. Although high frequency overstable modes exist below the red edge, their photometric amplitudes are generally too small to be detected by ground based observations. Nevertheless, these overstable parent modes can manifest themselves through nonlinear mode couplings to damped daughter modes which generate limit cycles giving rise to photometric outbursts.

  10. Emission of strong Terahertz pulses from laser wakefields in weakly coupled plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Divya, E-mail: dsingh@rajdhani.du.ac.in [PWAPA Laboratory, Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, New Delhi 110 016 (India); Department of Physics & Electronics, Rajdhani College, University of Delhi, Raja Garden, Ring Road, New Delhi 110015 (India); Malik, Hitendra K. [PWAPA Laboratory, Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, New Delhi 110 016 (India)

    2016-09-01

    The present paper discusses the laser plasma interaction for the wakefield excitation and the role of external magnetic field for the emission of Terahertz radiation in a collisional plasma. Flat top lasers are shown to be more appropriate than the conventional Gaussian lasers for the effective excitation of wakefields and hence, the generation of strong Terahertz radiation through the transverse component of wakefield.

  11. Nucleosynthesis and the nova outburst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starrfield, S.

    1995-01-01

    A nova outburst is the consequence of the accretion of hydrogen rich material onto a white dwarf and it can be considered as the largest hydrogen bomb in the Universe. The fuel is supplied by a secondary star in a close binary system while the strong degeneracy of the massive white dwarf acts to contain the gas during the early stages of the explosion. The containment allows the temperature in the nuclear burning region to exceed 10 8 K under all circumstances. As a result a major fraction of CNO nuclei in the envelope are transformed into β + -unstable nuclei. We discuss the effects of these nuclei on the evolution. Recent observational studies have shown that there are two compositional classes of novae; one which occurs on carbon-oxygen white dwarfs, and a second class that occurs on oxygen-neon-magnesium white dwarfs. In this review we will concentrate on the latter explosions since they produce the most interesting nucleosynthesis. We report both on the results of new observational determinations of nova abundances and, in addition, new hydrodynamic calculations that examine the consequences of the accretion process on 1.0M circle-dot , 1.25M circle-dot , and 1.35M circle-dot white dwarfs. Our results show that novae can produce 22 Na, 26 Al, and other intermediate mass nuclei in interesting amounts. We will present the results of new calculations, done with updated nuclear reaction rates and opacities, which exhibit quantitative differences with respect to published work

  12. Strong coupling effects during X-pulse CPMG experiments recorded on heteronuclear ABX spin systems: artifacts and a simple solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vallurupalli, Pramodh; Scott, Lincoln; Williamson, James R.; Kay, Lewis E.

    2007-01-01

    Simulation and experiment have been used to establish that significant artifacts can be generated in X-pulse CPMG relaxation dispersion experiments recorded on heteronuclear ABX spin-systems, such as 13 C i - 13 C j - 1 H, where 13 C i and 13 C j are strongly coupled. A qualitative explanation of the origin of these artifacts is presented along with a simple method to significantly reduce them. An application to the measurement of 1 H CPMG relaxation dispersion profiles in an HIV-2 TAR RNA molecule where all ribose sugars are protonated at the 2' position, deuterated at all other sugar positions and 13 C labeled at all sugar carbons is presented to illustrate the problems that strong 13 C- 13 C coupling introduces and a simple solution is proposed

  13. Writing of 3D optical integrated circuits with ultrashort laser pulses in the presence of strong spherical aberration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukharin, M. A.; Skryabin, N. N.; Khudyakov, D. V.; Vartapetov, S. K.

    2016-09-01

    A novel technique was proposed for 3D femtosecond writing of waveguides and optical integrated circuits in the presence of strong spherical aberration, caused by inscription at significantly different depth under the surface of optical glasses and crystals. Strong negative effect of spherical aberration and related asymmetry of created structures was reduced due to transition to the cumulative thermal regime of femtosecond interaction with the material. The differences in the influence of spherical aberration effect in a broad depth range (larger than 200 µm) was compensated by dynamic adjustment of laser pulse energy during the process of waveguides recording. The presented approach has been experimentally implemented in fused silica. Obtained results can be used in production of a broad class of femtosecond written three-dimensional integrated optical systems, inscripted at non-optimal (for focusing lens) optical depth or in significantly extended range of depths.

  14. The application of a high pulse repetition rate CO2 laser with high average power for isotope separation by molecular dissociation in a strong IR field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagratashvili, V.N.; Kolomisky, Y.R.; Letokhov, V.S.; Ryabov, E.A.; Baranov, V.Y.; Kazakov, S.A.; Nizjev, V.G.; Pismenny, V.D.; Starodubtsev, A.I.; Velikhov, E.P.

    1977-01-01

    Considering a SF 6 molecule we demonstrate feasibility of using high pulse repetition rate CO 2 laser for isotope separation by selective molecular dissociation in a strong IR field. Dependences of dissociation efficiency as well as separation selectivity on pulse repetition rate up to 150 Hz are investigated. The inherent thermal effects are discussed. (orig.) [de

  15. Strong-field photoelectron holography of atoms by bicircular two-color laser pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Min; Jiang, Wei-Chao; Xie, Hui; Luo, Siqiang; Zhou, Yueming; Lu, Peixiang

    2018-02-01

    We study photoelectron holography in strong bicircular two-color laser fields by solving the time-dependent Schrödinger equation (TDSE) and a semiclassical rescattering model with implementing interference effect. The holographic patterns observed in the TDSE are well recaptured by the semiclassical rescattering model. Four types of photoelectron holographic interferences between the forward scattered and nonscattered trajectories are predicted by the semiclassical rescattering model in the bicircular two-color laser field. We find that those holographic patterns are spatially separated from each other in the electron momentum distribution. We further show that the dependence of the initial transverse momentum at the tunnel exit on the ionization time for the rescattering electron is recorded by the holographic patterns.

  16. Limitations of the strong field approximation in ionization of the hydrogen atom by ultrashort pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arbo, D.G.; Toekesi, K.; Miraglia, J.E.; FCEN, University of Buenos Aires

    2008-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. We presented a theoretical study of the ionization of hydrogen atoms as a result of the interaction with an ultrashort external electric field. Doubly-differential momentum distributions and angular momentum distributions of ejected electrons calculated in the framework of the Coulomb-Volkov and strong field approximations, as well as classical calculations are compared with the exact solution of the time dependent Schroedinger equation. We have shown that the Coulomb-Volkov approximation (CVA) describes the quantum atomic ionization probabilities exactly when the external field is described by a sudden momentum transfer [1]. The velocity distribution of emitted electrons right after ionization by a sudden momentum transfer is given through the strong field approximation (SFA) within both the CVA and CTMC methods. In this case, the classical and quantum time dependent evolutions of an atom subject to a sudden momentum transfer are identical. The difference between the classical and quantum final momentum distributions resides in the time evolution of the escaping electron under the subsequent action of the Coulomb field. Furthermore, classical mechanics is incapable of reproducing the quantum angular momentum distribution due to the improper initial radial distribution used in the CTMC calculations, i.e., the microcanonical ensemble. We find that in the limit of high momentum transfer, based on the SFA, there is a direct relation between the cylindrical radial distribution dP/dρ and the final angular momentum distribution dP/dL. This leads to a close analytical expression for the partial wave populations (dP/dL) SFA-Q given by dP SFA-Q / dL = 4Z 3 L 2 / (Δp) 3 K 1 (2ZL/Δp) which, together with the prescription L = l + 1/2, reproduces quite accurately the quantum (CVA) results. Considering the inverse problem, knowing the final angular momentum distribution can lead to the inference of the initial probability distribution

  17. A game of RF and gradient pulses: Obtaining an efficient homogeneous flip angle with strong inhomogeneous B1 fields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Kalleveen, IML

    2016-01-01

    Adiabatic RF pulses are useful pulses for inhomogeneous B1 fields caused by surface RF coils, however the increase in SAR will lengthen the TR, and possibly also the TE if the adiabatic pulses become too long. Using the superadiabaticity theorem the increase in SAR can already be reduced, making it

  18. Dynamic Test Method Based on Strong Electromagnetic Pulse for Electromagnetic Shielding Materials with Field-Induced Insulator-Conductor Phase Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yun; Zhao, Min; Wang, Qingguo

    2018-01-01

    In order to measure the pulse shielding performance of materials with the characteristic of field-induced insulator-conductor phase transition when materials are used for electromagnetic shielding, a dynamic test method was proposed based on a coaxial fixture. Experiment system was built by square pulse source, coaxial cable, coaxial fixture, attenuator, and oscilloscope and insulating components. S11 parameter of the test system was obtained, which suggested that the working frequency ranges from 300 KHz to 7.36 GHz. Insulating performance is good enough to avoid discharge between conductors when material samples is exposed in the strong electromagnetic pulse field up to 831 kV/m. This method is suitable for materials with annular shape, certain thickness and the characteristic of field-induced insulator-conductor phase transition to get their shielding performances of strong electromagnetic pulse.

  19. V1331 Cyg- An outburst of results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, Arpita; Stecklum, Bringfried; Stapelfeldt, Karl

    2013-07-01

    FU Orionis objects are a class of young stars with large brightness outbursts in the optical. The outbursts lead to strong increase in luminosity due to enhanced accretion and dust removal by the accompanying wind. All FUors have large infrared excess emission from circumstellar dust, and some drive bipolar jets and outflows. V1331 Cyg is a pre-outburst FUor candidate: At distance of ~ 550 pc, at the border of the dark cloud LDN 981. It is associated with an arc-like reflection nebula. It has two nested rings of 9000 and 3300 AU radii respectively, encircled by an expanding CO ring. The HST-WFPC2 imaging was done in 2000 and 2009. The first epoch images were obtained for F606W and F814W filters. The second epoch observations were deeper with one more filter, F450W introduced. Wind-driven expansion has an imprint on the colour profile of the ring, the study of which will be the next step to do. There is a missing ring section to the NW not due to extinction by the dark cloud but represent a shadow, originating close to the star. Our PSF -subtracted planetary camera frames disclosed a knot at ~0.4" from the star in the same direction. Also our analysis of archival Subaru coronagraphic H-band imaging reveals scattered light associated with this feature which was not seen before. Both findings suggest increased height of the matter at distances of ~300 AU which casts the shadow. This might be related to planet formation in the circumstellar disk. The scattering knot is associated with two spiral arms which stretch further out. The UKIDSS JHK images show faint reddened stars in the gap, confirming the presence of dense matter from probably both the protostellar environment and the molecular cloud. Herschel and SCUBA data confirm that V1331 Cyg is the most luminous object in the surroundings, ONLY possible young stellar candidate responsible for the outflow. Narrow-band imaging in the Hα and [SII] line revealed a bipolar outflow, presumed to have a substantial

  20. Observations of classical novae in outburst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starrfield, S.; Stryker, L. L.; Sonneborn, G.; Sparks, Warren M.; Ferland, Gary; Wagner, R. M.; Williams, R. E.; Gehrz, Robert D.; Ney, Edward P.; Kenyon, Scott

    1988-01-01

    The IUE obtained ultraviolet data on novae in outburst. The characteristics of every one of the outbursts are different. Optical and infrared data on many of the same novae were also obtained. Three members of the carbon-oxygen class of novae are presented.

  1. Characterizing the 2016 Perseid Meteor Shower Outburst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaauw, R. C.; Moser, D. E.; Ehlert, S. R.; Kingery, A. M.; Molau, S.; Schult, C.; Stober, G.

    2017-01-01

    The Perseid meteor shower has been observed for millennia and known for its visually spectacular meteors and occasional outbursts. The Perseids were expected to outburst in 2016, primarily due to particles released during the 1862 and 1479 revolutions of Comet Swift-Tuttle. NASA's Meteoroid Environment Office predicted the timing, strength and duration of the outburst for spacecraft risk using the MSFC Meteoroid Stream Model. A double peak was predicted, with an outburst displaying a ZHR of 210 +/- 50 at 00:30 UTC Aug 12, and a traditional peak approximately 12 hours later with rates still heightened from the outburst. Video, visual, and radar observations taken worldwide by various entities were used to characterize the shower and compare to predictions.

  2. Spectral analysis of IGR J01572-7259 during its 2016 outburst

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Palombara, N.; Esposito, P.; Mereghetti, S.; Pintore, F.; Sidoli, L.; Tiengo, A.

    2018-03-01

    We report on the results of the XMM-Newton observation of IGR J01572-7259 during its most recent outburst in 2016 May, the first since 2008. The source reached a flux f ˜ 10-10 erg cm-2 s-1, which allowed us to perform a detailed analysis of its timing and spectral properties. We obtained a pulse period Pspin = 11.58208(2) s. The pulse profile is double peaked and strongly energy dependent, as the second peak is prominent only at low energies and the pulsed fraction increases with energy. The main spectral component is a power-law model, but at low energies, we also detected a soft thermal component, which can be described with either a blackbody or a hot plasma model. Both the EPIC and RGS spectra show several emission lines, which can be identified with the transition lines of ionized N, O, Ne, and Fe and cannot be described with a thermal emission model. The phase-resolved spectral analysis showed that the flux of both the soft excess and the emission lines vary with the pulse phase: the soft excess disappears in the first pulse and becomes significant only in the second, where also the Fe line is stronger. This variability is difficult to explain with emission from a hot plasma, while the reprocessing of the primary X-ray emission at the inner edge of the accretion disc provides a reliable scenario. On the other hand, the narrow emission lines can be due to the presence of photoionized matter around the accreting source.

  3. Multidimensional Simulations of Colliding Outbursts from very Massive Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ke-Jung; Woosley, Stan

    2015-08-01

    Massive stars that end their lives with helium cores in the range of 35 to 65 solar masses are known to produce repeated thermonuclear outbursts due to a recurring pair-instability. In some of these events, solar masses of material are ejected in repeated outbursts of several times 1050 erg each. Such models can be used to explain the strong mass loss rates at the last moment before the massive stars die. Collisions between these shells can sometimes produce very luminous transients. Previous 1D studies of these events produce thin,high-density shells as one ejection plows into another. We present the first multidimensional simulations of these collisions, we show that the development of a Rayleigh-Taylor instability truncates the growth of the high density spike and drives mixing between the shells.

  4. Suppression of parasitic noise by strong Langmuir wave damping in quasitransient regimes of backward Raman amplification of intense laser pulses in plasmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malkin, Vladimir; Fisch, Nathaniel

    2009-11-01

    Currently built powerful soft x-ray sources may be able to access intensities needed for backward Raman amplification (BRA) of x-ray pulses in plasmas. However, high plasma densities, needed to provide enough coupling between the pump and seed x-ray pulsed, cause strong damping of the Langmuir wave that mediates energy transfer from the pump to the seed pulse. Such damping could reduce the coupling, thus making efficient BRA impossible. This work shows that efficient BRA can survive despite the Langmuir wave damping significantly exceeding the linear BRA growth rate. Moreover, the strong Langmuir wave damping can suppress deleterious instabilities of BRA seeded by the thermal noise. This shows that it may be feasible to observe x-ray BRA for the first time soon.

  5. Laser imprint reduction for the critical-density foam buffered target driven by a relatively strong foot pulse at early stage of laser implosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, J. W., E-mail: li-jiwei@iapcm.ac.cn; He, X. T. [Key Lab of High Energy Density Physics Simulation, Center for Applied Physics and Technology, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics, P. O. Box 8009, Beijing 100094 (China); Kang, W. [Key Lab of High Energy Density Physics Simulation, Center for Applied Physics and Technology, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Li, J. H.; Zheng, W. D. [Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics, P. O. Box 8009, Beijing 100094 (China)

    2015-12-15

    In order to reduce the effect of laser imprint in direct-drive ignition scheme a low-density foam buffered target has been proposed. This target is driven by a laser pulse with a low-intensity foot at the early stage of implosion, which heats the foam and elongates the thermal conduction zone between the laser absorption region and ablation front, increasing the thermal smoothing effect. In this paper, a relatively strong foot pulse is adopted to irradiate the critical-density foam buffered target. The stronger foot, near 1 × 10{sup 14 }W/cm{sup 2}, is able to drive a radiative shock in the low-density foam, which helps smooth the shock and further reduce the effect of laser imprint. The radiative shock also forms a double ablation front structure between the two ablation fronts to further stabilize the hydrodynamics, achieving the similar results to a target with a high-Z dopant in the ablator. 2D analysis shows that for the critical-density foam buffered target irradiated by the strong foot pulse, the laser imprint can be reduced due to the radiative shock in the foam and an increased thermal smoothing effect. It seems viable for the critical-density foam buffered target to be driven by a relatively strong foot pulse with the goal of reducing the laser imprint and achieving better implosion symmetry in the direct-drive laser fusion.

  6. Laser imprint reduction for the critical-density foam buffered target driven by a relatively strong foot pulse at early stage of laser implosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, J. W.; He, X. T.; Kang, W.; Li, J. H.; Zheng, W. D.

    2015-01-01

    In order to reduce the effect of laser imprint in direct-drive ignition scheme a low-density foam buffered target has been proposed. This target is driven by a laser pulse with a low-intensity foot at the early stage of implosion, which heats the foam and elongates the thermal conduction zone between the laser absorption region and ablation front, increasing the thermal smoothing effect. In this paper, a relatively strong foot pulse is adopted to irradiate the critical-density foam buffered target. The stronger foot, near 1 × 10 14  W/cm 2 , is able to drive a radiative shock in the low-density foam, which helps smooth the shock and further reduce the effect of laser imprint. The radiative shock also forms a double ablation front structure between the two ablation fronts to further stabilize the hydrodynamics, achieving the similar results to a target with a high-Z dopant in the ablator. 2D analysis shows that for the critical-density foam buffered target irradiated by the strong foot pulse, the laser imprint can be reduced due to the radiative shock in the foam and an increased thermal smoothing effect. It seems viable for the critical-density foam buffered target to be driven by a relatively strong foot pulse with the goal of reducing the laser imprint and achieving better implosion symmetry in the direct-drive laser fusion

  7. Outbursts In Symbiotic Binaries (FUSE 2000)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenyon, Scott J.; Sonneborn, George (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    During the past year, we made good progress on analysis of FUSE observations of the symbiotic binary Z And. For background, Z And is a binary system composed of a red giant and a hot component of unknown status. The orbital period is roughly 750 days. The hot component undergoes large-scale eruptions every 10-20 yr. An outburst began several years ago, triggering this FUSE opportunity. First, we obtained an excellent set of ground-based optical data in support, of the FUSE observations. We used FAST, a high throughput low resolution spectrograph on the 1.5-m telescope at Mt. Hopkins, Arizona. A 300 g/ mm grating blazed at 4750 A, a 3 in. slit, and a thinned Loral 512 x 2688 CCD gave us spectra covering 3800-7500 A at a resolution of 6 A. The wavelength solution for each spectrum has a probable error of +/- 0.5 A or better. Most of the resulting spectra have moderate signal-to-noise, S/.N approx. greater than 30 per pixel. The time coverage for these spectra is excellent. Typically, we acquired spectra every 1-2 nights during dark runs at Mt. Hopkins. These data cover most of the rise and all of the decline of the recent outburst. The spectra show a wealth of emission lines, including H I, He I, He II, [Fe V11], and the Raman scattering bands at 6830 A and 7088 A. The Raman bands and other high ionization features vary considerably throughout the outburst. These features will enable us to correlate variations in the FUSE spectra with variations in the optical spectra. Second, we began an analysis of FUSE spectra of Z And. We have carefully examined the spectra, identifying real features and defects. We have identified and measured fluxes for all strong emission lines, including the O VI doublet at 1032 A and 1038 A. These and several other strong emission lines display pronounced P Cygni absorption components indicative of outgrowing gas. We will attempt to correlate these velocities with similar profiles observed on optical spectra. The line velocities - together

  8. Living on a Flare: Relativistic Reflection in V404 Cyg Observed by NuSTAR during Its Summer 2015 Outburst

    OpenAIRE

    Walton, Dominic James; Mooley, K; King, AL; Tomsick, JA; Miller, JM; Dauser, T; García, JA; Bachetti, M; Brightman, M; Fabian, Andrew Christopher; Forster, K; Fürst, F; Gandhi, P; Grefenstette, BW; Harrison, FA

    2017-01-01

    We present first results from a series of $\\textit{NuSTAR}$ observations of the black hole X-ray binary V404 Cyg obtained during its summer 2015 outburst, primarily focusing on observations during the height of this outburst activity. The $\\textit{NuSTAR}$ data show extreme variability in both the flux and spectral properties of the source. This is partly driven by strong and variable line-of-sight absorption, similar to previous outbursts. The latter stages of this observation are dominated ...

  9. Neutron stars with outbursts from superfluid crust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminker, A. D.; Chaikin, E. A.; Kaurov, A. A.; Yakovlev, D. G.

    2017-12-01

    We model heat propagation and the thermal surface luminosity L{s}^∞ ≤ft( t \\right) of a neutron star after an internal outburst in its crust. Simulations take into account superfluidity of free neutrons and the thickness of the outbursting layer (heater) in the crust. Crustal superfluidity can shorten and intensify variations of L{s}^∞ ≤ft( t \\right).

  10. Counterintuitive angular shifts in the photoelectron momentum distribution for atoms in strong few-cycle circularly polarized laser pulses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martiny, Christian; Abu-Samha, Mahmoud; Madsen, Lars Bojer

    2009-01-01

    We solve the three-dimensional time-dependent Schrödinger equation for a three-cycle circularly polarized laser pulse interacting with an atom. The photoelectron momentum distributions show counterintuitive shifts, similar to those observed in a recent experiment (Eckle et al 2008 Science 322 1525...

  11. A New Stellar Outburst Associated with the Magnetic Activities of the K-type Dwarf in a White Dwarf Binary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qian, S.-B.; Han, Z.-T.; Zhang, B.; Zhu, L.-Y.; Zhao, E.-G.; Liao, W.-P.; Tian, X.-M.; Wang, Z.-H. [Yunnan Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), P.O. Box 110, 650011 Kunming (China); Zejda, M. [Department of Theoretical Physics and Astrophysics, Masaryk University, Kotlářská 2, CZ-611 37 Brno (Czech Republic); Michel, R., E-mail: qsb@ynao.ac.cn [Instituto de Astronomía, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Ensenada, Baja California, México (Mexico)

    2017-10-20

    1SWASP J162117.36+441254.2 was originally classified as an EW-type binary with a period of 0.20785 days. However, it was detected to have undergone a stellar outburst on 2016 June 3. Although the system was later classified as a cataclysmic variable (CV) and the event was attributed as a dwarf nova outburst, the physical reason is still unknown. This binary has been monitored photometrically since 2016 April 19, and many light curves were obtained before, during, and after the outburst. Those light and color curves observed before the outburst indicate that the system is a special CV. The white dwarf is not accreting material from the secondary and there are no accretion disks surrounding the white dwarf. By comparing the light curves obtained from 2016 April 19 to those from September 14, it was found that magnetic activity of the secondary is associated with the outburst. We show strong evidence that the L {sub 1} region on the secondary was heavily spotted before and after the outburst and thus quench the mass transfer, while the outburst is produced by a sudden mass accretion of the white dwarf. These results suggest that J162117 is a good astrophysical laboratory to study stellar magnetic activity and its influences on CV mass transfer and mass accretion.

  12. Time- and frequency-resolved detection of atomic coherence in the regime of strong-field interaction with intense femtosecond laser pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konorov, S. O.; Hepburn, J. W.; Milner, V.

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the effect of strong laser pulses on the evolution of an atomic or molecular wave function is important in the context of coherent control in the strong-field regime, when power broadening and dynamic Stark shifts become comparable with or bigger than the bandwidth of the control field. We experimentally demonstrate the method of complete characterization of a complex-valued amplitude of a quantum state driven by a strong two-photon field. The method is based on coherent scattering of a weak probe pulse from the strong-field-induced atomic coherence, followed by the detection of the time- and frequency-resolved parametric four-wave-mixing signal. We show that the proposed technique corresponds to a cross-correlation frequency-resolved optical gating (XFROG) of the highly perturbed evolution of an atomic quantum state. Utilizing the XFROG retrieval algorithm, we determine both the amplitude and phase of an atomic wave function at any time moment throughout the interaction with the driving field. The direct retrieval of the time-dependent phase of the wave function, rather than the population dynamics only, enables us to observe the strong-field effects with arbitrary time and frequency resolution.

  13. Two giant outbursts of V0332+53 observed with INTEGRAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrigno, Carlo; Ducci, Lorenzo; Bozzo, Enrico; Kretschmar, Peter; Kühnel, Matthias; Malacaria, Christian; Pottschmidt, Katja; Santangelo, Andrea; Savchenko, Volodymyr; Wilms, Jörn

    2016-10-01

    Context. In July 2015, the high-mass X-ray binary V0332+53 underwent a giant outburst, a decade after the previous one. V0332+53 hosts a strongly magnetized neutron star. During the 2004-2005 outburst, an anti-correlation between the centroid energy of its fundamental cyclotron resonance scattering features (CRSFs) and the X-ray luminosity was observed. Aims: The long (≈100 d) and bright (Lx ≈ 1038 erg s-1) 2015 outburst provided the opportunity to study the unique properties of the fundamental CRSF during another outburst and to study its dependence on the X-ray luminosity. Methods: The source was observed by the INTEGRAL satellite for ~330 ks. We exploit the spectral resolution at high energies of the SPectrometer on INTEGRAL (SPI) and the Joint European X-ray Monitors to characterize its spectral properties, focusing in particular on the CRSF-luminosity dependence. We complement the data of the 2015 outburst with those collected by SPI in 2004-2005, which have so far been left unpublished. Results: We find a highly significant anti-correlation of the centroid energy of the fundamental CRSF and the 3-100 keV luminosity of E1 ∝ -0.095(8)L37 keV. This trend is observed for both outbursts. We confirm the correlation between the width of the fundamental CRSF and the X-ray luminosity previously found in the JEM-X and IBIS dataset of the 2004-2005 outburst. By exploiting the RXTE/ASM and Swift/BAT monitoring data, we also report on the detection of a ~34 d modulation superimposed on the mean profiles and roughly consistent with the orbital period of the pulsar. We discuss possible interpretations of such variability.

  14. Magnetic field interpretation for the outburst of CH Cygni

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wdowiak, T.J.

    1977-01-01

    The possible appearance of kilogauss magnetic structure in and above the photosphere of a red giant during helium-shell flash is examined as a mechanism for the outburst of the apparently single star, CH Cyg. Strong magnetic fields created by dynamo action in a temporary connection zone of a red giant core, by virtue of their intrinsic buoyancy, would rise quickly to the stellar surface. It is suggested that if the field is coupled with the large-scale convective structure of the envelope, the energy contained and rate of release would be sufficient to produce the emission features of the spectrum of CH Cyg

  15. The Shape of Long Outbursts in U Gem Type Dwarf Novae from AAVSO Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannizzo, John K.

    2012-01-01

    We search the American Association of Variable Star Observers (AAVSO) archives of the two best studied dwarf novae in an attempt to find light curves for long out bursts that are extremely well-characterized. The systems are U Gem and S8 Cyg. Our goal is to search for embedded precursors such as those that have been found recently in the high fidelity Kepler data for superoutbursts of some members of the 8U UMa subclass of dwarf novae. For the vast majority of AAV80 data, the combination of low data cadence and large errors associated with individual measurements precludes one from making any strong statement about the shape of the long outbursts. However, for a small number of outbursts, extensive long term monitoring with digital photometry yields high fidelity light curves. We report the finding of embedded precursors in two of three candidate long outbursts. This reinforces van Paradijs' finding that long outbursts in dwarf novae above the period gap and superoutbursts in systems below the period gap constitute a unified class. The thermal-tidal instability to account for superoutbursts in the SU UMa stars predicts embedded precursors only for short orbital period dwarf novae, therefore the presence of embedded precursors in long orbital period systems - U Gem and SS Cyg - argues for a more general mechanism to explain long outbursts.

  16. Signatures of the self-similar regime of strongly coupled stimulated brillouin scattering for efficient short laser pulse amplification

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lancia, L.; Giribono, A.; Vassura, L.; Chiaramello, M.; Riconda, C.; Weber, Stefan A.; Castan, A.; Chatelain, A.; Frank, A.; Gangolf, T.; Quinn, M.N.; Fuchs, J.; Marqués, J.-R.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 116, č. 7 (2016), 1-5, č. článku 075001. ISSN 0031-9007 R&D Projects: GA MŠk EF15_008/0000162; GA MŠk ED1.1.00/02.0061 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 284464 - LASERLAB-EUROPE Grant - others:ELI Beamlines(XE) CZ.02.1.01/0.0/0.0/15_008/0000162; ELI Beamlines(XE) CZ.1.05/1.1.00/02.0061 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : light-pulses * compression * plasmas * Raman Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 8.462, year: 2016

  17. Crystal Growth of High-Quality Protein Crystals under the Presence of an Alternant Electric Field in Pulse-Wave Mode, and a Strong Magnetic Field with Radio Frequency Pulses Characterized by X-ray Diffraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adela Rodríguez-Romero

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The first part of this research was devoted to investigating the effect of alternate current (AC using four different types of wave modes (pulse-wave at 2 Hz on the crystal growth of lysozyme in solution. The best results, in terms of size and crystal quality, were obtained when protein crystals were grown under the influence of electric fields in a very specific wave mode (“breathing” wave, giving the highest resolution up to 1.34 Å in X-ray diffraction analysis compared with controls and with those crystals grown in gel. In the second part, we evaluated the effect of a strong magnetic field of 16.5 Tesla combined with radiofrequency pulses of 0.43 μs on the crystal growth in gels of tetragonal hen egg white (HEW lysozyme. The lysozyme crystals grown, both in solution applying breathing-wave and in gel under the influence of this strong magnetic field with pulses of radio frequencies, produced the larger-in-size crystals and the highest resolution structures. Data processing and refinement statistics are very good in terms of the resolution, mosaicity and Wilson B factor obtained for each crystal. Besides, electron density maps show well-defined and distinctly separated atoms at several selected tryptophan residues for the crystal grown using the “breathing wave pulses”.

  18. Comparison Study of Strong-Field Ionization of Molecules and Atoms by Bicircular Two-Color Femtosecond Laser Pulses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Kang; Jia, Xinyan; Yu, Zuqing; He, Feng; Ma, Junyang; Li, Hui; Gong, Xiaochun; Song, Qiying; Ji, Qinying; Zhang, Wenbin; Li, Hanxiao; Lu, Peifen; Zeng, Heping; Chen, Jing; Wu, Jian

    2017-11-17

    We experimentally investigate the single and double ionization of N_{2} and O_{2} molecules in bicircular two-color femtosecond laser pulses, and compare with their companion atoms of Ar and Xe with comparable ionization thresholds. Electron recollision assisted enhanced ionization is observed in N_{2} and Ar by controlling the helicity and field ratio between the two colors, whereas the enhanced ionization via the recollision is almost absent in O_{2} and Xe. Our S-matrix simulations clearly reveal the crucial role of the detailed electronic structures of N_{2} and O_{2} on the two-dimensional recollision of the electrons driven by the bicircular two-color laser fields. As compared to Ar, the resonant multiphoton excitation dominates the double ionization of Xe.

  19. Theory of atoms in strong, pulsed electromagnetic fields: 2, A free electron and a harmonically bound electron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Multiple scale methods are used to treat several ingredients of the theory of atoms in strong electromagnetic fields. First, a focused electromagnetic field is expanded. Second, a classical electron is described giving the ponderomotive potential. Third, the quantum electron is treated in the WKB approximation. Fourth, the one dimensional quantum harmonic oscillator is solved; and last the one dimensional square well, showing the low intensity limit of the theory

  20. Sound wave generation by a spherically symmetric outburst and AGN feedback in galaxy clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xiaping; Churazov, Eugene

    2017-07-01

    We consider the evolution of an outburst in a uniform medium under spherical symmetry, having in mind active galactic nucleus feedback in the intracluster medium. For a given density and pressure of the medium, the spatial structure and energy partition at a given time tage (since the onset of the outburst) are fully determined by the total injected energy Einj and the duration tb of the outburst. We are particularly interested in the late phase evolution when the strong shock transforms into a sound wave. We studied the energy partition during such transition with different combinations of Einj and tb. For an instantaneous outburst with tb → 0, which corresponds to the extension of classic Sedov-Taylor solution with counter-pressure, the fraction of energy that can be carried away by sound waves is ≲12 per cent of Einj. As tb increases, the solution approaches the 'slow piston' limit, with the fraction of energy in sound waves approaching zero. We then repeat the simulations using radial density and temperature profiles measured in Perseus and M87/Virgo clusters. We find that the results with a uniform medium broadly reproduce an outburst in more realistic conditions once proper scaling is applied. We also develop techniques to map intrinsic properties of an outburst (Einj, tb and tage) to the observables like the Mach number of the shock and radii of the shock and ejecta. For the Perseus cluster and M87, the estimated (Einj, tb and tage) agree with numerical simulations tailored for these objects with 20-30 per cent accuracy.

  1. Pulse pressure strongly predicts cardiovascular disease risk in patients with type 2 diabetes from the Swedish National Diabetes Register (NDR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, P M; Cederholm, J; Eeg-Olofsson, K; Eliasson, B; Zethelius, B; Gudbjörnsdóttir, S

    2009-12-01

    To analyze pulse pressure (PP) as a risk predictor for coronary heart disease (CHD), stroke and cardiovascular disease (CVD; CHD and/or stroke) in type 2 diabetic patients. A total of 11,128 female and male type 2 diabetic patients with known baseline PP values and no CVD, aged 50-74 years, were followed for a mean duration of 5.6 years (1998-2003). A subgroup of 5521 patients with known mean PP values (mean values at baseline and at the end of the study) was also included. Hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% CI for fatal/nonfatal CHD with baseline or mean PP>or=75mmHg, compared to diabetes duration, HbA(1c), body mass index (BMI), lipid-reducing drugs, microalbuminuria > 20microg/min, antihypertensive drugs and hypoglycaemic treatment, using Cox regression analyses. Fully-adjusted respective HRs for stroke were 1.17 (0.98-1.39) and 1.21 (0.90-1.61) and, for CVD, 1.23 (1.10-1.37; Por=75mmHg were to be avoided, then 15% and 17% of CHD and or CVD, cases, respectively, in such a cohort might be prevented after multivariable adjustments, with a further 10% of cases avoided if also adjusted for MBP and age. Increasing baseline MBP, age and microalbuminuria were independently and significantly associated (Prisk predictor of CVD in type 2 diabetic patients, and lowering PP can lead to a marked reduction in risk.

  2. Experimental characterization of a strongly coupled solid density plasma generated in a short-pulse laser target interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregori, G.; Hansen, S.B.; Key, M.H.; King, J.; Mackinnon, A.J.; Park, H.; Patel, P.K.; Shepard, R.; Snavely, R.A.; Wilks, S.C.; Glenzer, S.H.

    2005-01-01

    We have measured high resolution copper Kα spectra from a picosecond high intensity laser produced plasma. By fitting the shape of the experimental spectra with a self-consistent-field model which includes all the relevant line shifts from multiply ionized atoms, we are able to infer time and spatially averaged electron temperatures (T e ) and ionization state (Z) in the foil. Our results show increasing values for T e and Z when the overall mass of the target is reduced. In particular, we measure temperatures in excess of 200 eV with Z ∼ 13-14. For these conditions the ion-ion coupling constant is Λ ii ∼ 8-9, thus suggesting the achievement of a strongly coupled plasma regime

  3. A New Low Magnetic Field Magnetar: The 2011 Outburst of Swift J1822.3-1606

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rea, N.; Israel, G.L.; Esposito, P.; Pons, J. A.; Camero-Arramz, A.; Mignani, R. P.; Turolla, R.; Zane, S..; Burgay, M.; Possenti, A.; hide

    2012-01-01

    We report on the long-term X-ray monitoring with Swift, RXTE, Suzaku, Chandra, and XMM-Newton of the outburst of the newly discovered magnetar Swift J1822.3-1606 (SGR 1822-1606), from the first observations soon after the detection of the short X-ray bursts which led to its discovery, through the first stages of its outburst decay (covering the time span from 2011 July until the end of 2012 April).We also report on archival ROSAT observations which detected the source during its likely quiescent state, and on upper limits on Swift J1822.3-1606's radio-pulsed and optical emission during outburst, with the Green Bank Telescope and the Gran Telescopio Canarias, respectively. Our X-ray timing analysis finds the source rotating with a period of P = 8.43772016(2) s and a period derivative P-dot = 8.3(2)×10(exp -14) s/ s, which implies an inferred dipolar surface magnetic field of B approx. = 2.7×10(exp 13) G at the equator. This measurement makes Swift J1822.3-1606 the second lowest magnetic field magnetar (after SGR 0418+5729). Following the flux and spectral evolution from the beginning of the outburst, we find that the flux decreased by about an order of magnitude, with a subtle softening of the spectrum, both typical of the outburst decay of magnetars. By modeling the secular thermal evolution of Swift J1822.3-1606, we find that the observed timing properties of the source, as well as its quiescent X-ray luminosity, can be reproduced if it was born with a poloidal and crustal toroidal fields of B(sup p) approx.. 1.5×10(exp 14) G and B(sub tor) approx.. 7×10(exp 14) G, respectively, and if its current age is approx. 550 kyr.

  4. Time-resolved pulse-counting lock-in detection of laser induced fluorescence in the presence of a strong background emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelissier, B.; Sadeghi, N.

    1996-01-01

    We describe a time-resolved pulse-counting system well adapted for the detection of continuous laser induced fluorescence (LIF) signals in repetitive phenomena, when a strong background emission is present. It consists of 256 channels coupled to a first in first out memory and interfaced to a 486 DX 33 PC, for data storage. It accepts time-averaged count rates up to 450 kcount/s. Time between channels can be set from 12.5 ns to several μs and the dead time between two consecutive cycles of the physical phenomena is less than 20 ns. In phase with a chopper, which modulates the laser beam, it adds the observed photon signal to the channel memories when the beam is on and substracts it when the beam is stopped, acting like a lock-in amplifier which detect only the modulated part of the signal. The minimum detectivity on the LIF signal is only limited by the shot noise of the plasma induced emission signal. As an application, we studied the time variation of the Ar + *( 2 G 9/2 ) metastable ions, detected by LIF, in two types of plasmas. Their radiative lifetime and collisional quenching frequencies were deduced from their decay rate in the afterglow of a pulsed Helicon reactor. We also observed the evolution of their density in a 455 kHz capacitively coupled argon discharge. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  5. Time-resolved pulse-counting lock-in detection of laser induced fluorescence in the presence of a strong background emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelissier, B.; Sadeghi, N.

    1996-10-01

    We describe a time-resolved pulse-counting system well adapted for the detection of continuous laser induced fluorescence (LIF) signals in repetitive phenomena, when a strong background emission is present. It consists of 256 channels coupled to a first in first out memory and interfaced to a 486 DX 33 PC, for data storage. It accepts time-averaged count rates up to 450 kcount/s. Time between channels can be set from 12.5 ns to several μs and the dead time between two consecutive cycles of the physical phenomena is less than 20 ns. In phase with a chopper, which modulates the laser beam, it adds the observed photon signal to the channel memories when the beam is on and substracts it when the beam is stopped, acting like a lock-in amplifier which detect only the modulated part of the signal. The minimum detectivity on the LIF signal is only limited by the shot noise of the plasma induced emission signal. As an application, we studied the time variation of the Ar+*(2G9/2) metastable ions, detected by LIF, in two types of plasmas. Their radiative lifetime and collisional quenching frequencies were deduced from their decay rate in the afterglow of a pulsed Helicon reactor. We also observed the evolution of their density in a 455 kHz capacitively coupled argon discharge.

  6. Thoresby colliery outburst: a lesson learned

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevenson, R. [Health and Safety Executive, Sheffield (United Kingdom)

    1999-08-01

    On Thursday, 12 October 1995, an outburst of mineral in association with an oil-water-gas mixture occurred in the Northeast development heading at Thoresby Colliery, Nottinghamshire, UK. Nine persons were involved, of whom one died, seven made their own escape and one was rescued alive by the Mines Rescue Service. A review of the historical background of oil contamination of the Top Hard and Parkgate Seams at several mines in the Nottinghamshire coalfield and, in particular, where they are closely associated with the Bothamsall Fault and oilfield is given. Both geological features are briefly described. The events leading up to the outburst and the incident itself are described in conjunction with hydrocarbon gas analysis from samples taken before, during and after the incident. Conclusions based on the results are given. Finally, details are presented of the recommendations made and actions taken following the outburst in the areas of escape and rescue operations, research into hydrocarbon gas precursors and seismic listening, scientific services, risk assessment and communications. The paper was presented at the Yorkshire Branch meeting of the Institution of Mining Engineers held on 8 January 1998 in Pontefract, UK. Discussion is included. 4 refs., 9 figs., 5 tabs.

  7. Observational and theoretical studies of the nova outburst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Starrfield, S.; Vanlandingham, K.; Schwarz, G. [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy] [and others

    1998-04-01

    A nova outburst is one consequence of the accretion of hydrogen rich material onto a white dwarf in a close binary system. The strong electron degeneracy of a massive white dwarf drives the temperatures in the nuclear burning region to values exceeding 108K under all circumstances. As a result, a major fraction of the CNO nuclei in the envelope are transformed into e{sup +}-decay nuclei, which constrains the nuclear energy generation and yields non-solar CNO isotopic abundance ratios. In addition, the observations demonstrate that white dwarf core material is dredged up into the accreted layers and these nuclei are the catalysts for producing peak rates of energy generation that can exceed 10{sup 16} erg gm{sup -1}s{sup -1}. Observations show that there are two compositional classes of novae, one that occurs on a carbon-oxygen white dwarf and the other that occurs on an oxygen-neon-magnesium white dwarf.

  8. FORMATION AND RECONDENSATION OF COMPLEX ORGANIC MOLECULES DURING PROTOSTELLAR LUMINOSITY OUTBURSTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taquet, Vianney; Wirström, Eva S.; Charnley, Steven B.

    2016-01-01

    During the formation of stars, the accretion of surrounding material toward the central object is thought to undergo strong luminosity outbursts followed by long periods of relative quiescence, even at the early stages of star formation when the protostar is still embedded in a large envelope. We investigated the gas-phase formation and recondensation of the complex organic molecules (COMs) di-methyl ether and methyl formate, induced by sudden ice evaporation processes occurring during luminosity outbursts of different amplitudes in protostellar envelopes. For this purpose, we updated a gas-phase chemical network forming COMs in which ammonia plays a key role. The model calculations presented here demonstrate that ion–molecule reactions alone could account for the observed presence of di-methyl ether and methyl formate in a large fraction of protostellar cores without recourse to grain-surface chemistry, although they depend on uncertain ice abundances and gas-phase reaction branching ratios. In spite of the short outburst timescales of about 100 years, abundance ratios of the considered species higher than 10% with respect to methanol are predicted during outbursts due to their low binding energies relative to water and methanol which delay their recondensation during cooling. Although the current luminosity of most embedded protostars would be too low to produce complex organics in the hot-core regions that are observable with current sub-millimetric interferometers, previous luminosity outburst events would induce the formation of COMs in extended regions of protostellar envelopes with sizes increasing by up to one order of magnitude

  9. X-ray outbursts and high-state episodes of HETE J1900.1-2455

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šimon, Vojtěch

    2018-03-01

    HETE J1900.1-2455 is an ultra-compact low-mass X-ray binary which underwent a long-lasting (about ten years) active state. The analysis presented here of its activity uses the observations of RXTE/ASM, Swift/BAT, and ISS/MAXI for investigating this active state and the relation of time evolution of fluxes in the hard and medium X-ray bands. We show that the variations of the flux of HETE J1900.1-2455 on the timescales of days and weeks have the form both of the outbursts and occasional high-state episodes. These outbursts are accompanied by the large changes of the hardness of the spectrum in the surroundings of the peaks of their soft X-ray flux. The very strong peaks of these outbursts occur in the soft X-ray band (2-4 keV) and are accompanied by a large depression in the 15-50 keV band flux. We interpret these events as an occasional occurrence of a thermal-viscous instability of the accretion disc which gives rise to the outbursts similar to those in the soft X-ray transients. On the other hand, the 2-4 keV and the 15-50 keV band fluxes are mutually correlated in the high-state episodes, much longer than the outbursts. In the interpretation, the episodes of the X-ray high states of HETE J1900.1-2455 during the active state bear some analogy to the standstills in the Z Cam type of cataclysmic variables.

  10. Formation and Recondensation of Complex Organic Molecules during Protostellar Luminosity Outbursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taquet, Vianney; Wirström, Eva S.; Charnley, Steven B.

    2016-04-01

    During the formation of stars, the accretion of surrounding material toward the central object is thought to undergo strong luminosity outbursts followed by long periods of relative quiescence, even at the early stages of star formation when the protostar is still embedded in a large envelope. We investigated the gas-phase formation and recondensation of the complex organic molecules (COMs) di-methyl ether and methyl formate, induced by sudden ice evaporation processes occurring during luminosity outbursts of different amplitudes in protostellar envelopes. For this purpose, we updated a gas-phase chemical network forming COMs in which ammonia plays a key role. The model calculations presented here demonstrate that ion-molecule reactions alone could account for the observed presence of di-methyl ether and methyl formate in a large fraction of protostellar cores without recourse to grain-surface chemistry, although they depend on uncertain ice abundances and gas-phase reaction branching ratios. In spite of the short outburst timescales of about 100 years, abundance ratios of the considered species higher than 10% with respect to methanol are predicted during outbursts due to their low binding energies relative to water and methanol which delay their recondensation during cooling. Although the current luminosity of most embedded protostars would be too low to produce complex organics in the hot-core regions that are observable with current sub-millimetric interferometers, previous luminosity outburst events would induce the formation of COMs in extended regions of protostellar envelopes with sizes increasing by up to one order of magnitude.

  11. Spectral variability of 4U1145-619 during X-ray outburst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, M.C.; Warwick, R.S.

    1987-01-01

    A series of observations of the X-ray pulsar 4U1145-619 were performed by EXOSAT during successive X-ray outbursts on this source in 1984 July and 1985 January. On all occasions the source exhibited a very hard power-law X-ray spectrum (photon spectral index approx. 1.0) with a high-energy cut-off above approx. 6 keV. The low-energy cut-off in the X-ray spectrum, in contrast to the other spectral parameters, exhibited significant variations over the observations. Optical spectroscopy of the Be star Hen 715, identified as the optical counterpart of 4U1145-619, was performed during the 1985 January X-ray outburst. The resulting spectra revealed a marked decrease in the strength of the broad blue component of the dominant Hα emission line as the X-ray outburst progressed. There was, however, no evidence for any pulse phase dependency or short-term variability in either the Hα or Hβ emission lines. (author)

  12. Spectral evolution of dwarf nova outbursts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cannizzo, J.K.; Kenyon, S.J.

    1987-01-01

    The disk instability model for dwarf nova eruptions is investigated by computing the spectral development of the accretion disk through a complete limit cycle. Observed stellar spectra are used to model the radiation emitted by optically thick annuli within the disc. The general findings agree with those of Smak (1984) and Pringle et al. (1986). It is suggested that the dwarf nova oscillations might be a source of information concerning the evolution of the inner disk and that detailed observations of this phenomenon can be used to test various outburst mechanisms. 74 references

  13. Observational aspects of outbursting black hole sources: Evolution ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy; Volume 39; Issue 1. Observational aspects of ... We report on our attempt to understand the outbursting profile of Galactic Black Hole sources, keeping in mind the evolution of temporal and spectral features during the outburst. We present results of evolution of ...

  14. The experience of aggressive outbursts in Intermittent Explosive Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulper, Daniel A; Kleiman, Evan M; McCloskey, Michael S; Berman, Mitchell E; Coccaro, Emil F

    2015-02-28

    Conceptualizations of Intermittent Explosive Disorder (IED) have suffered from a scarcity of research investigating the subjective experience and phenomenology of the aggressive outbursts among those with IED relative to those who partake in more normative forms of aggression. Furthermore, though some studies have shown that individuals with IED are more impaired and have a poorer quality of life, few studies looked at negative outcomes specific to an individual with IED׳s aggressive behavior. The purpose of this study was to examine the subjective experience and social, occupational, and legal consequences of aggressive outbursts in IED. We assessed individuals with IED (n=410), psychiatric controls (n=133), and healthy controls (HC) (n=154) in the experiential correlates present before, during, and after an aggressive outburst as well as the consequences of aggressive outbursts. Results indicated that before and during aggressive outbursts, individuals with IED experienced more intense anger, physiological reactivity, and feelings of dyscontrol as well as more remorse after an aggressive outburst. Furthermore, individuals with IED report more negative consequences of their aggressive outbursts. These results provide an account of how the subjective experience and consequences of aggressive outbursts in IED differ from those with more normative forms of aggression. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Properties of Recurrent Nova T Pyxidis Based on 2011 Outburst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Tanabe

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available We reexamine the properties of the recurrent nova T Pyxidis based on our own spectroscopic data accompanying with the photometric ones by VSOLJ (Variable Star Observers League in Japan during 2011 outburst. One of the purpose of this paper is whether a missing outburst could be happen around 1988-1989. Comparing the 2011 outburst data with previous ones, we may conclude that any essential difference can not be found. Accordingly it is difficult to deny a small possibility of a ”missing” outburst from 1988 to 1989, taking into account the seasonal gap in its observation for northern hemisphere observers . The problem whether IM Normae belongs to be a member of T Pyx subclass or not is to be postponed by its next outburst taking into account of T Pyx’s peculiar spectral behavior.

  16. EVIDENCE FOR AN FU ORIONIS-LIKE OUTBURST FROM A CLASSICAL T TAURI STAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, Adam A.; Poznanski, Dovi; Silverman, Jeffrey M.; Kleiser, Io K. W.; Cenko, S. Bradley; Bloom, Joshua S.; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Hillenbrand, Lynne A.; Kasliwal, Mansi M.; Ofek, Eran O.; Quimby, Robert M.; Covey, Kevin R.; Rojas-Ayala, Barbara; Muirhead, Philip S.; Law, Nicholas M.; Dekany, Richard G.; Rahmer, Gustavo; Hale, David; Smith, Roger; Nugent, Peter

    2011-01-01

    We present pre- and post-outburst observations of the new FU Orionis-like young stellar object PTF 10qpf (also known as LkHα 188-G4 and HBC 722). Prior to this outburst, LkHα 188-G4 was classified as a classical T Tauri star (CTTS) on the basis of its optical emission-line spectrum superposed on a K8-type photosphere and its photometric variability. The mid-infrared spectral index of LkHα 188-G4 indicates a Class II-type object. LkHα 188-G4 exhibited a steady rise by ∼1 mag over ∼11 months starting in August 2009, before a subsequent more abrupt rise of >3 mag on a timescale of ∼2 months. Observations taken during the eruption exhibit the defining characteristics of FU Orionis variables: (1) an increase in brightness by ∼>4 mag, (2) a bright optical/near-infrared reflection nebula appeared, (3) optical spectra are consistent with a G supergiant and dominated by absorption lines, the only exception being Hα which is characterized by a P Cygni profile, (4) near-infrared spectra resemble those of late K-M giants/supergiants with enhanced absorption seen in the molecular bands of CO and H 2 O, and (5) outflow signatures in H and He are seen in the form of blueshifted absorption profiles. LkHα 188-G4 is the first member of the FU Orionis-like class with a well-sampled optical to mid-infrared spectral energy distribution in the pre-outburst phase. The association of the PTF 10qpf outburst with the previously identified CTTS LkHα 188-G4 (HBC 722) provides strong evidence that FU Orionis-like eruptions represent periods of enhanced disk accretion and outflow, likely triggered by instabilities in the disk. The early identification of PTF 10qpf as an FU Orionis-like variable will enable detailed photometric and spectroscopic observations during its post-outburst evolution for comparison with other known outbursting objects.

  17. Multi-instrumental observations of the 2014 Ursid meteor outburst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Ibáñez, Manuel; Trigo-Rodríguez, Josep M.; Madiedo, José María; Vaubaillon, Jérémie; Williams, Iwan P.; Gritsevich, Maria; Morillas, Lorenzo G.; Blanch, Estefanía; Pujols, Pep; Colas, François; Dupouy, Philippe

    2017-06-01

    The Ursid meteor shower is an annual shower that usually shows little activity. However, its Zenith hourly rate sometimes increases, usually either when its parent comet, 8P/Tuttle, is close to its perihelion or its aphelion. Outbursts when the comet is away from perihelion are not common and outbursts when the comet is close to aphelion are extremely rare. The most likely explanation offered to date is based on the orbital mean motion resonances. The study of the aphelion outburst of 2000 December provided a means of testing that hypothesis. A new aphelion outburst was predicted for 2014 December. The SPanish Meteor Network, in collaboration with the French Fireball Recovery and InterPlanetary Observation Network, set up a campaign to monitor this outburst and eventually retrieve orbital data that expand and confirm previous preliminary results and predictions. Despite unfavourable weather conditions over the south of Europe over the relevant time period, precise trajectories from multistation meteor data recorded over Spain were obtained, as well as orbital and radiant information for four Ursid meteors. The membership of these four meteors to the expected dust trails that were to provoke the outburst is discussed, and we characterize the origin of the outburst in the dust trail produced by the comet in the year ad 1392.

  18. Z Camelopardalis - Outburst P Cygni profiles and quiescent continuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szkody, P.; Mateo, M.

    1986-01-01

    The first orbital study of the C IV P Cygni profile in the dwarf nova Z Cam, a system of intermediate inclination. A modulation of the absorption equivalent width is apparent, with phases suggesting an effect from the mass-transfer stream. Over the outburst cycle, the strength of the P Cygni absorption and emission components is greater after outburst than during the standstill configuration, while the terminal velocities and central absorption wavelengths are similar. The continuum flux distributions during the decline from outburst and during quiescence are discussed.

  19. Outburst flood evolution at Russell Glacier, western Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carrivick, Jonathan L.; Turner, Andy G.D.; Russell, Andrew J.

    2013-01-01

    Glacial lake outburst floods have produced a distinctive and widespread Quaternary record both onshore and offshore via widespread and intense geomorphological impacts, yet these impacts remain poorly understood due to a lack of modern analogues. This study therefore makes a systematic quantifica......Glacial lake outburst floods have produced a distinctive and widespread Quaternary record both onshore and offshore via widespread and intense geomorphological impacts, yet these impacts remain poorly understood due to a lack of modern analogues. This study therefore makes a systematic...... of including intermediary lakes. Modern hazard mitigation studies could usefully note the potential use of reservoirs as an outburst flood alleviation resource....

  20. X-ray softening during the 2008 outburst of XTE J1810-189

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Shan-Shan; Zhang, Shuang-Nan; Yi, Shu-Xu; Rong, Yu; Gao, Xu-Dong

    2015-07-01

    XTE J1810-189 underwent an outburst in 2008, and was observed over ˜100 d by RXTE. Performing a time-resolved spectral analysis on the photospheric radius expansion burst detected on 2008 May 4, we obtain the source distance in the range 3.5-8.7 kpc for the first time. During its outburst, XTE J1810-189 did not enter into the high/soft state, and both the soft and hard colours decreased with decreasing flux. The fractional rms remained at high values (˜30 per cent). The RXTE/PCA spectra for 3-25 keV can be described by an absorbed power-law component with an additional Gaussian component, and the derived photon index Γ increased from 1.84 ± 0.01 to 2.25 ± 0.04 when the unabsorbed X-ray luminosity at 3-25 keV dropped from 4 × 1036 to 6 × 1035 erg s-1. The relatively high flux, dense observations and broad-band spectra are strong evidence that the softening behaviour detected in the outburst of XTE J1810-189 originates from the evolution of a non-thermal component rather than the thermal component (i.e. neutron star surface emission).

  1. THE ROLE OF INFORMATION ASYMETRY IN THE OUTBURST AND THE DEEPENING OF THE CONTEMPORARY ECONOMIC CRISIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANDRADA BUSUIOC

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available An analysis of the outburst and deepening of the contemporary economic crisis that takes into account the information asymmetry is highly opportune. This point of view is strongly supported by the latter years’ developments regarding this theory, which may be able to explain the current evolutions of the economic and financial markets. Thus, the paper argues that adverse selection and moral hazard played a key role in the evolution of the contemporary economic crisis and that its routs can be detected away in history. In this regard, we analyze the situation prior to the outburst of the subprime crisis in the U.S. and how it developed in a context of asymmetry information, fueled by the government’s actions. Given the importance of certitude, quantity and quality of data and information and the way they are interpreted, it becomes crucial to isolate the role of information asymmetry. The paper shows that issues related to all these aspects are instruments of in-depth analysis that can explain the mechanisms of outburst, spread and, mostly, persistence for more than three years of the crisis.

  2. The First Six Outbursting Cool DA White Dwarf Pulsators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, K. J.; Hermes, J. J.; Montgomery, M. H.; Winget, D. E.; Gentile Fusillo, N. P.; Raddi, R.; Gänsicke, B. T.

    2017-03-01

    Extensive observations from the Kepler spacecraft have recently revealed a new outburst phenomenon operating in cool pulsating DA (hydrogen atmosphere) white dwarfs (DAVs). With the introduction of two new outbursting DAVs from K2 Fields 7 (EPIC 229228364) and 8 (EPIC 220453225) in these proceedings, we presently know of six total members of this class of object. We present the observational commonalities of the outbursting DAVs: (1) outbursts that increase the mean stellar flux by up to ≍15%, last many hours, and recur irregularly on timescales of days; (2) effective temperatures that locate them near the cool edge of the DAV instability strip; and (3) rich pulsation spectra with modes that are observed to wander in amplitude/frequency.

  3. Look at Epilepsy: Electrical Outbursts in the Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... November 2015 Print this issue A Look at Epilepsy Electrical Outbursts in the Brain En español Send us your comments When you hear the word epilepsy, you might think of intense seizures with muscle ...

  4. Outburst flood evolution at Russell Glacier, western Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carrivick, Jonathan; Russell, Andrew; Ingeman-Nielsen, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Outburst floods have produced a distinctive and widespread Quaternary record both onshore and offshore via widespread and intense geomorphological impacts, yet these impacts remain poorly understood due to a lack of modern analogues. This study therefore makes the first systematic quantification...... floods should consider the importance of including intermediary lakes. Modern hazard mitigation studies could usefully note the potential use of reservoirs as an outburst flood alleviation resource....

  5. Dust formation and nucleosynthesis in the nova outburst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starrfield, S.; Gehrz, R. D.; Truran, J. W.

    1997-01-01

    The nova outburst is a consequence of the accretion of hydrogen-rich material onto a white dwarf (WD) in a close binary system. The strong degeneracy of the massive WD prevents the expansion of the gas and drives the temperatures in the nuclear burning region to values exceeding 10 8 K under all circumstances. As a result, a major fraction of the CNO nuclei in the envelope are transformed into β-decay nuclei. The energy released from the decay of these nuclei is responsible for ejecting 10 -5 M · to 10 -4 M · of gas at high velocities. A major fraction of novae in outburst are observed to form dust in the ejected matter and we review the infrared (IR) observations which reveal the onset and evolution of this dust formation phase. We discuss the characteristics of nova dust and show that it may be the most interesting dust produced by any astrophysical object. IR observations show, in addition, that novae appear capable of condensing dust with at least four different chemical and mineral compositions. We argue that the class of ONeMg novae may form dust grains that carry the Ne-E and 26 Mg anomalies observed in meteoritic grains. We also report on the results of new calculations of thermonuclear runaways on both carbon-oxygen and oxygen-neon-magnesium white dwarfs using our one-dimensional, fully implicit, hydrodynamic stellar evolution code that includes a large nuclear reaction network. We have updated both the nuclear reaction network and the nuclear reaction rates. Our results show that the changes in the reaction rates and opacities produce quantitative changes with respect to our earlier studies. The causes are (1) that the new opacities are larger than those we previously used, which results in less mass being accreted onto the white dwarf, and (2) that the protoncapture reaction rates for some of the intermediate mass nuclei near 26 Al have increased so that the evolution to higher mass nuclei is enhanced

  6. Sound wave generation by a spherically symmetric outburst and AGN feedback in galaxy clusters II: impact of thermal conduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xiaping; Churazov, Eugene

    2018-04-01

    We analyze the impact of thermal conduction on the appearance of a shock-heated gas shell which is produced when a spherically symmetric outburst of a supermassive black hole inflates bubbles of relativistic plasma at the center of a galaxy cluster. The presence of the hot and low-density shell can be used as an ancillary indicator for a high rate of energy release during the outburst, which is required to drive strong shocks into the gas. Here we show that conduction can effectively erase such shell, unless the diffusion of electrons is heavily suppressed. We conclude that a more robust proxy to the energy release rate is the ratio between the shock radius and bubble radius. We also revisited the issue of sound waves dissipation induced by thermal conduction in a scenario, where characteristic wavelength of the sound wave is set by the total energy of the outburst. For a fiducial short outburst model, the dissipation length does not exceed the cooling radius in a typical cluster, provided that the conduction is suppressed by a factor not larger than ˜100. For quasi-continuous energy injection neither the shock-heated shell nor the outgoing sound wave are important and the role of conduction is subdominant.

  7. A Fisher’s Criterion-Based Linear Discriminant Analysis for Predicting the Critical Values of Coal and Gas Outbursts Using the Initial Gas Flow in a Borehole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaowei Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The risk of coal and gas outbursts can be predicted using a method that is linear and continuous and based on the initial gas flow in the borehole (IGFB; this method is significantly superior to the traditional point prediction method. Acquiring accurate critical values is the key to ensuring accurate predictions. Based on ideal rock cross-cut coal uncovering model, the IGFB measurement device was developed. The present study measured the data of the initial gas flow over 3 min in a 1 m long borehole with a diameter of 42 mm in the laboratory. A total of 48 sets of data were obtained. These data were fuzzy and chaotic. Fisher’s discrimination method was able to transform these spatial data, which were multidimensional due to the factors influencing the IGFB, into a one-dimensional function and determine its critical value. Then, by processing the data into a normal distribution, the critical values of the outbursts were analyzed using linear discriminant analysis with Fisher’s criterion. The weak and strong outbursts had critical values of 36.63 L and 80.85 L, respectively, and the accuracy of the back-discriminant analysis for the weak and strong outbursts was 94.74% and 92.86%, respectively. Eight outburst tests were simulated in the laboratory, the reverse verification accuracy was 100%, and the accuracy of the critical value was verified.

  8. Evolution and Outbursts of Cataclysmic Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.-B. Qian

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Mass transfer and accretion are very important to understand the evolution and observational properties of cataclysmic variables (CVs. Due to the lack of an accretion disk, eclipsing profiles of polars are the best source to study the character of mass transfer in CVs. By analyzing long-term photometric variations in the eclipsing polar HU Aqr, the property of mass transfer and accretion are investigated. The correlation between the brightness state change and the variation of the ingress profile suggests that both the accretion hot spot and the accretion stream are produced instantaneously. The observations clearly show that it is the variation of mass transfer causing the brightness state changes that is a direct evidence of variable mass transfer in a CV. It is shown that it is the local dark-spot activity near the L1 point to cause the change of the mass transfer rather than the activity cycles of the cool secondary star. Our results suggest that the evolution of CVs is more complex than that predicted by the standard model and we should consider the effect of variable mass accretion in nova and dwarf nova outbursts.

  9. Clinical features of young children referred for impairing temper outbursts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Amy K; Klein, Rachel G; Angelosante, Aleta; Bar-Haim, Yair; Leibenluft, Ellen; Hulvershorn, Leslie; Dixon, Erica; Dodds, Alice; Spindel, Carrie

    2013-11-01

    In light of the current controversy about whether severe temper outbursts are diagnostic of mania in young children, we conducted a study to characterize such children, focusing on mania and other mood disorders, emotion regulation, and parental psychiatric history. Study participants included 51 5-9-year-old children with frequent, impairing outbursts (probands) and 24 non-referred controls without outbursts. Parents completed a lifetime clinical interview about their child, and rated their child's current mood and behavior. Teachers completed a behavior rating scale. To assess emotion regulation, children were administered the Balloons Game, which assesses emotion expressivity in response to frustration, under demands of high and low regulation. Parental lifetime diagnoses were ascertained in blind clinical interviews. No child had bipolar disorder, bipolar disorder not otherwise specified (NOS), or major depression (MDD). The most prevalent disorder was oppositional defiant disorder (88.2%), followed by attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (74.5%), anxiety disorders (49.0%), and non-MDD depressive disorders (33.3%). Eleven probands (21.6%) met criteria for severe mood dysregulation. During the Balloons Game, when there were no demands for self-regulation, children with severe outbursts showed reduced positive expressivity, and also showed significant deficits in controlling negative facial expressions when asked to do so. Anxiety disorders were the only diagnoses significantly elevated in probands' mothers. Overall, young children with severe temper outbursts do not present with bipolar disorder. Rather, disruptive behavior disorders with anxiety and depressive mood are common. In children with severe outbursts, deficits in regulating emotional facial expressions may reflect deficits controlling negative affect. This work represents a first step towards elucidating mechanisms underlying severe outbursts in young children.

  10. 2014–2015 MULTIPLE OUTBURSTS OF 15P/FINLAY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishiguro, Masateru; Kwon, Yuna Grace; Kim, Yoonyoung; Lee, Myung Gyoon [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Gwanak, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Kuroda, Daisuke; Yanagisawa, Kenshi [Okayama Astrophysical Observatory, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Asakuchi, Okayama 719-0232 (Japan); Hanayama, Hidekazu; Miyaji, Takeshi [Ishigakijima Astronomical Observatory, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 1024-1 Arakawa, Ishigaki, Okinawa 907-0024 (Japan); Watanabe, Makoto [Department of Applied Physics, Faculty of Science, Okayama University of Science, 1-1 Ridai-cho, Okayama-si, Okayama 700-0005 (Japan); Akitaya, Hiroshi; Kawabata, Koji; Itoh, Ryosuke; Nakaoka, Tatsuya; Yoshida, Michitoshi [Hiroshima Astrophysical Science Center, Hiroshima University, Higashihiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8526 (Japan); Imai, Masataka [Department of Cosmosciences, Graduate School of Science, Hokkaido University, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-0810 (Japan); Sarugaku, Yuki [Kiso Observatory, Institute of Astronomy, Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, Mitake, Kiso-machi, Kiso, Nagano, 397-0101 (Japan); Ohta, Kouji [Department of Astronomy, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Kawai, Nobuyuki [Department of Physics, Tokyo Institute of Technology 2-12-1 Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan); Fukushima, Hideo [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Mitaka, Tokyo, 181-8588 (Japan); Honda, Satoshi, E-mail: ishiguro@astro.snu.ac.kr [Nishi-Harima Astronomical Observatory, Center for Astronomy, University of Hyogo, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5313 (Japan); and others

    2016-12-01

    Multiple outbursts of a Jupiter-family comet (JFC), 15P/Finlay, occurred from late 2014 to early 2015. We conducted an observation of the comet after the first outburst and subsequently witnessed another outburst on 2015 January 15.6–15.7. The gas, consisting mostly of C{sub 2} and CN, and dust particles expanded at speeds of 1110 ± 180 m s{sup −1} and 570 ± 40 m s{sup −1} at a heliocentric distance of 1.0 au. We estimated the maximum ratio of solar radiation pressure with respect to the solar gravity β {sub max} = 1.6 ± 0.2, which is consistent with porous dust particles composed of silicates and organics. We found that 10{sup 8}–10{sup 9} kg of dust particles (assumed to be 0.3 μ m–1 mm) were ejected through each outburst. Although the total mass is three orders of magnitude smaller than that of the 17P/Holmes event observed in 2007, the kinetic energy per unit mass (10{sup 4} J kg{sup −1}) is equivalent to the estimated values of 17P/Holmes and 332P/2010 V1 (Ikeya–Murakami), suggesting that the outbursts were caused by a similar physical mechanism. From a survey of cometary outbursts on the basis of voluntary reports, we conjecture that 15P/Finlay-class outbursts occur >1.5 times annually and inject dust particles from JFCs and Encke-type comets into interplanetary space at a rate of ∼10 kg s{sup −1} or more.

  11. 2014–2015 MULTIPLE OUTBURSTS OF 15P/FINLAY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishiguro, Masateru; Kwon, Yuna Grace; Kim, Yoonyoung; Lee, Myung Gyoon; Kuroda, Daisuke; Yanagisawa, Kenshi; Hanayama, Hidekazu; Miyaji, Takeshi; Watanabe, Makoto; Akitaya, Hiroshi; Kawabata, Koji; Itoh, Ryosuke; Nakaoka, Tatsuya; Yoshida, Michitoshi; Imai, Masataka; Sarugaku, Yuki; Ohta, Kouji; Kawai, Nobuyuki; Fukushima, Hideo; Honda, Satoshi

    2016-01-01

    Multiple outbursts of a Jupiter-family comet (JFC), 15P/Finlay, occurred from late 2014 to early 2015. We conducted an observation of the comet after the first outburst and subsequently witnessed another outburst on 2015 January 15.6–15.7. The gas, consisting mostly of C 2 and CN, and dust particles expanded at speeds of 1110 ± 180 m s −1 and 570 ± 40 m s −1 at a heliocentric distance of 1.0 au. We estimated the maximum ratio of solar radiation pressure with respect to the solar gravity β max  = 1.6 ± 0.2, which is consistent with porous dust particles composed of silicates and organics. We found that 10 8 –10 9 kg of dust particles (assumed to be 0.3 μ m–1 mm) were ejected through each outburst. Although the total mass is three orders of magnitude smaller than that of the 17P/Holmes event observed in 2007, the kinetic energy per unit mass (10 4 J kg −1 ) is equivalent to the estimated values of 17P/Holmes and 332P/2010 V1 (Ikeya–Murakami), suggesting that the outbursts were caused by a similar physical mechanism. From a survey of cometary outbursts on the basis of voluntary reports, we conjecture that 15P/Finlay-class outbursts occur >1.5 times annually and inject dust particles from JFCs and Encke-type comets into interplanetary space at a rate of ∼10 kg s −1 or more.

  12. Impacts of the 2016 outburst flood on the Bhote Koshi River valley, central Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Kristen; Andermann, Christoff; Gimbert, Florent; Hovius, Niels; Adhikari, Basanta

    2017-04-01

    The central Nepal Himalaya is a region of rapid erosion where fluvial processes are largely driven by the annual Indian Summer Monsoon, which delivers up to several meters of precipitation each year. However, the rivers in this region are also subject to rare catastrophic floods caused by the sudden failure of landslide or moraine dams. Because these floods happen rarely, it has been difficult to isolate their impact on the rivers and adjacent hillslopes, and their importance for the long-term evolution of Himalayan rivers is poorly constrained. On the 5th of July, 2016, the Bhote Koshi River in central Nepal was hit by a glacial lake outburst flood (GLOF). The flood passed through a seismic and hydrological observatory installed along the river in June 2015, and we have used the resulting data to constrain the timing, duration, and bedload transport properties of the outburst flood. The impact of the flood on the river can be further observed with hourly time-lapse photographs, daily measurements of suspended sediment load, repeat lidar surveys, and satellite imagery. Overall, our observatory data span two monsoon seasons, allowing us to evaluate the impacts of the outburst flood relative to the annual monsoon flood. The outburst flood affected the river on several timescales. In the short term, it transported large amounts of coarse sediment and restructured the river bed during the hours of the flood pulse itself. Over intermediate timescales it resulted in elevated bedload and suspended load transport for several weeks following the flood. Over longer timescales the flood undercut and destabilized the river banks and hillslopes in a number of locations, leading to bank collapses, slumps, and landslides. We map changes in the channel and associated mass wasting using rapidEye imagery from Oct. 2015 and Oct. 2016. We also use repeat terrestrial lidar scans to quantify the magnitude of change in multiple locations along the river channel and to measure bank

  13. Glacial lake inventory and lake outburst potential in Uzbekistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, Maxim A; Sabitov, Timur Y; Tomashevskaya, Irina G; Glazirin, Gleb E; Chernomorets, Sergey S; Savernyuk, Elena A; Tutubalina, Olga V; Petrakov, Dmitriy A; Sokolov, Leonid S; Dokukin, Mikhail D; Mountrakis, Giorgos; Ruiz-Villanueva, Virginia; Stoffel, Markus

    2017-08-15

    Climate change has been shown to increase the number of mountain lakes across various mountain ranges in the World. In Central Asia, and in particular on the territory of Uzbekistan, a detailed assessment of glacier lakes and their evolution over time is, however lacking. For this reason we created the first detailed inventory of mountain lakes of Uzbekistan based on recent (2002-2014) satellite observations using WorldView-2, SPOT5, and IKONOS imagery with a spatial resolution from 2 to 10m. This record was complemented with data from field studies of the last 50years. The previous data were mostly in the form of inventories of lakes, available in Soviet archives, and primarily included localized in-situ data. The inventory of mountain lakes presented here, by contrast, includes an overview of all lakes of the territory of Uzbekistan. Lakes were considered if they were located at altitudes above 1500m and if lakes had an area exceeding 100m 2 . As in other mountain regions of the World, the ongoing increase of air temperatures has led to an increase in lake number and area. Moreover, the frequency and overall number of lake outburst events have been on the rise as well. Therefore, we also present the first outburst assessment with an updated version of well-known approaches considering local climate features and event histories. As a result, out of the 242 lakes identified on the territory of Uzbekistan, 15% are considered prone to outburst, 10% of these lakes have been assigned low outburst potential and the remainder of the lakes have an average level of outburst potential. We conclude that the distribution of lakes by elevation shows a significant influence on lake area and hazard potential. No significant differences, by contrast, exist between the distribution of lake area, outburst potential, and lake location with respect to glaciers by regions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Evidence for an intense solar outburst in prehistory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peratt, A L; Yao, W F

    2008-01-01

    A past intense solar outburst and its effect on Earth was proposed by Gold (1962 Pontificiae Acad. Sci. Scr. Varia 25 159) who, along with others, based his hypotheses on strong astronomical and geophysical evidence. The discovery that objects from the Neolithic or Early Bronze Age carry patterns associated with high-current Z-pinches, as would result from an intense plasma impinging Earth, provides a possible insight into the origin and meaning of these ancient symbols produced by humans. Peratt (2003 Trans. Plasma Sci. 31 1192) dealt with the comparison of graphical and radiation data from high-current Z-pinches to petroglyphs, geoglyphs and megaliths. Peratt (2007 Trans. Plasma Sci. 35 778) focused primarily, but not exclusively, on petroglyphs of some 84 different morphologies; pictures found in laboratory experiments and carved on rock. These corresponded to mankind's visual observations of ancient aurora as might be produced if the solar wind had increased at times between one and two orders of magnitude, millennia ago (Gold 1962 Pontificiae Acad. Sci. Scr. Varia 25 159). In Peratt (2007 Trans. Plasma Sci. 35 778), the data were given on the source of light and its temporal change from a current-increasing Z-pinch or dense plasma focus aurora. Orientation and field-of-view data are given as surveyed and contributed from 139 countries, from sites and fields containing several millions of these objects, the latest data coming from a 300 km survey along the Orinoco river basin in Venezuela. In this paper, we include additional petroglyph figures derivable from experiment and computer. This information allows a reconstruction of the auroral form presumably associated with extreme geomagnetic storms and shows, based on existent geophysical evidence, relativistic electron flow inward at Earth's south polar axis and hypervelocity proton impacts around the north polar axis.

  15. Evidence for an intense solar outburst in prehistory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peratt, A L [Applied Physics Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Yao, W F [Albuquerque Public Schools System, State of New Mexico, NM 87105 (United States)], E-mail: alp@ieeetps.org

    2008-10-15

    A past intense solar outburst and its effect on Earth was proposed by Gold (1962 Pontificiae Acad. Sci. Scr. Varia 25 159) who, along with others, based his hypotheses on strong astronomical and geophysical evidence. The discovery that objects from the Neolithic or Early Bronze Age carry patterns associated with high-current Z-pinches, as would result from an intense plasma impinging Earth, provides a possible insight into the origin and meaning of these ancient symbols produced by humans. Peratt (2003 Trans. Plasma Sci. 31 1192) dealt with the comparison of graphical and radiation data from high-current Z-pinches to petroglyphs, geoglyphs and megaliths. Peratt (2007 Trans. Plasma Sci. 35 778) focused primarily, but not exclusively, on petroglyphs of some 84 different morphologies; pictures found in laboratory experiments and carved on rock. These corresponded to mankind's visual observations of ancient aurora as might be produced if the solar wind had increased at times between one and two orders of magnitude, millennia ago (Gold 1962 Pontificiae Acad. Sci. Scr. Varia 25 159). In Peratt (2007 Trans. Plasma Sci. 35 778), the data were given on the source of light and its temporal change from a current-increasing Z-pinch or dense plasma focus aurora. Orientation and field-of-view data are given as surveyed and contributed from 139 countries, from sites and fields containing several millions of these objects, the latest data coming from a 300 km survey along the Orinoco river basin in Venezuela. In this paper, we include additional petroglyph figures derivable from experiment and computer. This information allows a reconstruction of the auroral form presumably associated with extreme geomagnetic storms and shows, based on existent geophysical evidence, relativistic electron flow inward at Earth's south polar axis and hypervelocity proton impacts around the north polar axis.

  16. The Post-outburst Pulsations of GW Librae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chote, P.; Mukadam, A. S.; Aungwerojwit, A.; Szkody, P.; Gänsicke, B. T.; Sullivan, D. J.; Poshyachinda, S.; Reichart, D. E.; Haislip, J. B.; Moore, J. P.

    2017-03-01

    We present new observations of GW Librae obtained between 2012 and 2016. GW Librae was the first accreting white dwarf to be discovered with non-radial pulsations, which were wiped out in 2007 when a dwarf nova outburst heated the surface of the WD outside the instability strip. In the years that followed, we have seen pulsations return with periods near 280 and 1200 seconds, but find that their periods and amplitudes vary on timescales longer than a few hours. Some of these changes are found to correlate with changes in the mysterious 2/3/4 hour modulation that has been seen both before and after the outburst.

  17. Radio frequency self-resonant coil for contactless AC-conductivity in 100 T class ultra-strong pulse magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, D.; Altarawneh, M. M.; Takeyama, S.

    2018-03-01

    A contactless measurement system of electrical conductivity was developed for application under pulsed high magnetic fields over 100 T by using a self-resonant-type, high-frequency circuit. Electromagnetic fields in the circuit were numerically analysed by the finite element method, to show how the resonant power spectra of the circuit depends on the electrical conductivity of a sample set on the probe-coil. The performance was examined using a high-temperature cuprate superconductor, La2-x Sr x CuO4, in magnetic fields up to 102 T with a high frequency of close to 800 MHz. As a result, the upper critical field could be determined with a good signal-to-noise ratio.

  18. Discovery and Evolution of the New Black Hole Candidate Swift J1539.2-6227 During Its 2008 Outburst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krimm, H. A.; Tomsick, J. A.; Markwardt, C. B.; Brocksopp, C.; Grise, F.; Kaaret, P.; Romano, P.

    2010-01-01

    We report on the discovery by the Swift Gamma-Ray Burst Explorer of the black hole candidate Swift J1539.2-6227 and the subsequent course of an outburst beginning in November 2008 and lasting at least seven months. The source was discovered during normal observations with the Swift Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) on 2008 November 25. An extended observing campaign with the Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) and Swift provided near-daily coverage over 176 days, giving us a rare opportunity to track the evolution of spectral and timing parameters with fine temporal resolution through a series of spectral states. The source was first detected in a hard state during which strong low-frequency quasiperiodic oscillations (QPOs) were detected. The QPOs persisted for about 35 days and a signature of the transition from the hard to soft intermediate states was seen in the timing data. The source entered a short-lived thermal state about 40 days after the start of the outburst. There were variations in spectral hardness as the source flux declined and returned to a hard state at the end of the outburst. The progression of spectral states and the nature of the timing features provide strong evidence that Swift J1539.2-6227 is a candidate black hole in a low-mass X-ray binary system.

  19. Strong doping of the n-optical confinement layer for increasing output power of high- power pulsed laser diodes in the eye safe wavelength range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryvkin, Boris S.; Avrutin, Eugene A.; Kostamovaara, Juha T.

    2017-12-01

    An analytical model for internal optical losses at high power in a 1.5 μm laser diode with strong n-doping in the n-side of the optical confinement layer is created. The model includes intervalence band absorption by holes supplied by both current flow and two-photon absorption (TPA), as well as the direct TPA effect. The resulting losses are compared with those in an identical structure with a weakly doped waveguide, and shown to be substantially lower, resulting in a significant improvement in the output power and efficiency in the structure with a strongly doped waveguide.

  20. Magnetic study of a few antiferromagnets in very-strong pulsed fields (450 kOE); Etude magnetique de quelques antiferromagnetiques dans des champs pulses tres intenses (450 k OE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krebs, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-01-01

    In this thesis we describe a pulsed field device with which we obtain magnetization curves up to 450 kOE at all temperatures between 1. 6 and 300. We have studied the 'spin-flopping'(and therefore the anisotropy) in MnF{sub 2} versus temperature, below the Neel point. We have also studied the antiferromagnets MnSO{sub 4}. and MnSO{sub 4}.H{sub 2}O which have revealed saturation fields respectively of 250 kOE and 320 kOE. (author) [French] Ce memoire est consacre a la fabrication et a la mise au point d'un appareillage utilisant la decharge d'une batterie de condensateurs, afin de faire des mesures d'aimantation en champs pulses jusqu'a 450 kOE a toute temperature entre 1,6 K et 300 K. Nous avons etudie le deplacement de la transition de 'spin-flopping' dans MnF{sub 2} en fonction de la temperature et nous en avons deduit la variation de la constante d'anisotropie en fonction de T au-dessous du point de Neel. Nous avons egalement fait l'etude magnetique des antiferromagnetiques MnSO{sub 4} et MnSO{sub 4}.H{sub 2}O et nous avons mis en evidence la saturation de ces deux substances pour des champs respectifs de 250 kOE et 320 kOE. (auteur)

  1. SAX J2103.5+4545 in outburst

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galis, R.; Beckmann, V.; Bianchin, V.

    2008-01-01

    We report an intense hard X-ray outburst detected from the Be/ neutron star HMXB SAX J2103.5+4545 (Blay et al. 2004, A&A, 427, 293), which is known to be a pulsar. The source was detected during INTEGRAL observations of the Galactic Plane in the Cygnus region, starting at 2007-04-25T09:14 (UTC). ...

  2. On the impact of the elastic-plastic flow upon the process of destruction of the solenoid in a super strong pulsed magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krivosheev, S. I.; Magazinov, S. G.; Alekseev, D. I.

    2018-01-01

    At interaction of super strong magnetic fields with a solenoid material, a specific mode of the material flow forms. To describe this process, magnetohydrodynamic approximation is traditionally used. The formation of plastic shock-waves in material in a rapidly increasing pressure of 100 GPa/μs, can significantly alter the distribution of the physical parameters in the medium and affect the flow modes. In this paper, an analysis of supporting results of numerical simulations in comparison with available experimental data is presented.

  3. X-Ray Observations of Magnetar SGR 0501+4516 from Outburst to Quiescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mong, Y.-L.; Ng, C.-Y.

    2018-01-01

    Magnetars are neutron stars having extreme magnetic field strengths. Study of their emission properties in quiescent state can help understand effects of a strong magnetic field on neutron stars. SGR 0501+4516 is a magnetar that was discovered in 2008 during an outburst, which has recently returned to quiescence. We report its spectral and timing properties measured with new and archival observations from the Chandra X-ray Observatory, XMM-Newton, and Suzaku. We found that the quiescent spectrum is best fit by a power-law plus two blackbody model, with temperatures of kT low ∼ 0.26 keV and kT high ∼ 0.62 keV. We interpret these two blackbody components as emission from a hotspot and the entire surface. The hotspot radius shrunk from 1.4 km to 0.49 km since the outburst, and there was a significant correlation between its area and the X-ray luminosity, which agrees well with the prediction by the twisted magnetosphere model. We applied the two-temperature spectral model to all magnetars in quiescence and found that it could be a common feature among the population. Moreover, the temperature of the cooler blackbody shows a general trend with the magnetar field strength, which supports the simple scenario of heating by magnetic field decay.

  4. What Powers the 2006 Outburst of the Symbiotic Star BF Cygni?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Skopal

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available BF Cygni is a classical symbiotic binary. Its optical light curve occasionally shows outbursts of the Z And-type, whose nature is not well understood. During the 2006 August, BF Cyg underwent the recent outburst, and continues its active phase to the present. The aim of this contribution is to determine the fundamental parameters of the hot component in the binary during the active phase. For this purpose we used a high- and low-resolution optical spectroscopy and the multicolour UBV RCIC photometry. Our photometric monitoring revealed that a high level of the star’s brightness lasts for unusually long time of > 7 years. A sharp violet-shifted absorption component and broad emission wings in the Hα profile developed during the whole active phase. From 2009, our spectra revealed a bipolar ejection from the white dwarf (WD. Modelling the spectral energy distribution (SED of the low-resolution spectra showed simultaneous presence of a warm (< 10 000 K disk-like pseudophotosphere and a strong nebular component of radiation (emission measure of ~1061 cm−3. The luminosity of the hot active object was estimated to > 5−8×103 Lʘ. Such high luminosity, sustained for the time of years, can be understood as a result of an enhanced transient accretion rate throughout a large disk, leading also to formation of collimated ejection from the WD.

  5. Optical Parametric Amplification Techniques for the Generation of High-Energy Few-Optical-Cycles IR Pulses for Strong Field Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna G. Ciriolo

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Over the last few decades, the investigation of ultrafast phenomena occurring in atoms, molecules and solid-state systems under a strong-field regime of light-matter interaction has attracted great attention. The increasing request for a suitable optical technology is significantly boosting the development of powerful ultrafast laser sources. In this framework, Optical Parametric Amplification (OPA is currently becoming a leading solution for applications in high-power ultra-broadband light burst generation. The main advantage provided by the OPA scheme consists of the possibility of exploring spectral ranges that are inaccessible by other laser technologies, as the InfraRed (IR window. In this paper, we will give an overview on recent progress in the development of high-power few-optical-cycle parametric amplifiers in the near-IR and in the mid-IR spectral domain. In particular, the design of the most advanced OPA implementations is provided, containing a discussion on the key technical aspects. In addition, a review on their application to the study of strong-field ultrafast physical processes is reported.

  6. The effect of a tectonic stress field on coal and gas outbursts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Fenghua; Cheng, Yuanping

    2014-01-01

    Coal and gas outbursts have always been a serious threat to the safe and efficient mining of coal resources. Ground stress (especially the tectonic stress) has a notable effect on the occurrence and distribution of outbursts in the field practice. A numerical model considering the effect of coal gas was established to analyze the outburst danger from the perspective of stress conditions. To evaluate the outburst tendency, the potential energy of yielded coal mass accumulated during an outburst initiation was studied. The results showed that the gas pressure and the strength reduction from the adsorbed gas aggravated the coal mass failure and the ground stress altered by tectonics would affect the plastic zone distribution. To demonstrate the outburst tendency, the ratio of potential energy for the outburst initiation and the energy consumption was used. Increase of coal gas and tectonic stress could enhance the potential energy accumulation ratio, meaning larger outburst tendency. The component of potential energy for outburst initiation indicated that the proportion of elastic energy was increased due to tectonic stress. The elastic energy increase is deduced as the cause for a greater outburst danger in a tectonic area from the perspective of stress conditions.

  7. Donor T cells primed on leukemia lysate-pulsed recipient APCs mediate strong graft-versus-leukemia effects across MHC barriers in full chimeras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Arnab; Koestner, Wolfgang; Hapke, Martin; Schlaphoff, Verena; Länger, Florian; Baumann, Rolf; Koenecke, Christian; Cornberg, Markus; Welte, Karl; Blazar, Bruce R; Sauer, Martin G

    2009-04-30

    Antigen-presenting cells (APCs) of host origin drive graft-versus-leukemia (GVL) effects but can also trigger life-threatening graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) after hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) across major histocompatibility complex (MHC) barriers. We show that in vitro priming of donor lymphocytes can circumvent the need of recipient-derived APCs in vivo for mediating robust GVL effects and significantly diminishes the risk of severe GVHD. In vitro, generated and expanded T cells (ETCs) mediate anti-leukemia effects only when primed on recipient-derived APCs. Loading of APCs in vitro with leukemia cell lysate, chimerism status of the recipient, and timing of adoptive transfer after HCT are important factors determining the outcome. Delayed transfer of ETCs resulted in strong GVL effects in leukemia-bearing full chimera (FC) and mixed chimera (MC) recipients, which were comparable with the GVL/GVHD rates observed after the transfer of naive donor lymphocyte infusion (DLI). Upon early transfer, GVL effects were more pronounced with ETCs but at the expense of significant GVHD. The degree of GVHD was most severe in MCs after transfer of ETCs that had been in vitro primed either on nonpulsed recipient-derived APCs or with donor-derived APCs.

  8. Swift/BAT detects an outburst from UX Ari

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krimm, H. A.; Barthelmy, S. D.; Baumgartner, W.; Cummings, J.; Gehrels, N.; Lien, A. Y.; Markwardt, C. B.; Palmer, D.; Sakamoto, T.; Stamatikos, M.; Ukwatta, T.

    2014-02-01

    The RS Canum Venaticorum type variable star UX Ari is currently in outburst as detected in the Swift/BAT hard X-ray transient monitor in the 15-50 keV band. The current outburst began on 2014 February 14 (MJD 56702) when it had a count rate of 0.004 +/- 0.002 ct/s/cm^2 (~20 mCrab). It continued to brighten, reaching a rate of 0.013 +/- 0.003 ct/s/cm^2 (~60 mCrab) on 2014 February 17. It has since faded somewhat, with a rate of 0.005 +/- 0.002 ct/s/cm^2 (~20 mCrab) on 2014 February 19.

  9. Long-term photometric behaviour of outbursting AM CVn systems

    OpenAIRE

    Levitan, David; Groot, Paul J.; Prince, Thomas A.; Kulkarni, Shrinivas R.; Laher, Russ; Ofek, Eran O.; Sesar, Branimir; Surace, Jason

    2015-01-01

    The AM CVn systems are a class of He-rich, post-period minimum, semidetached, ultracompact binaries. Their long-term light curves have been poorly understood due to the few systems known and the long (hundreds of days) recurrence times between outbursts. We present combined photometric light curves from the Lincoln Near Earth Asteroid Research, Catalina Real-Time Transient Survey, and Palomar Transient Factory synoptic surveys to study the photometric variability of these systems over an almo...

  10. Accretion outbursts in self-gravitating protoplanetary disks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Jaehan; Hartmann, Lee [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48105 (United States); Zhu, Zhaohuan [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, 4 Ivy Lane, Peyton Hall, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Nelson, Richard P., E-mail: jaehbae@umich.edu, E-mail: lhartm@umich.edu, E-mail: zhuzh@astro.princeton.edu, E-mail: r.p.nelson@qmul.ac.uk [Astronomy Unit, Queen Mary University of London, Mile End Road, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom)

    2014-11-01

    We improve on our previous treatments of the long-term evolution of protostellar disks by explicitly solving disk self-gravity in two dimensions. The current model is an extension of the one-dimensional layered accretion disk model of Bae et al. We find that gravitational instability (GI)-induced spiral density waves heat disks via compressional heating (i.e., PdV work), and can trigger accretion outbursts by activating the magnetorotational instability (MRI) in the magnetically inert disk dead zone. The GI-induced spiral waves propagate well inside of the gravitationally unstable region before they trigger outbursts at R ≲ 1 AU where GI cannot be sustained. This long-range propagation of waves cannot be reproduced with the previously used local α treatments for GI. In our standard model where zero dead-zone residual viscosity (α{sub rd}) is assumed, the GI-induced stress measured at the onset of outbursts is locally as large as 0.01 in terms of the generic α parameter. However, as suggested in our previous one-dimensional calculations, we confirm that the presence of a small but finite α{sub rd} triggers thermally driven bursts of accretion instead of the GI + MRI-driven outbursts that are observed when α{sub rd} = 0. The inclusion of non-zero residual viscosity in the dead zone decreases the importance of GI soon after mass feeding from the envelope cloud ceases. During the infall phase while the central protostar is still embedded, our models stay in a 'quiescent' accretion phase with M-dot {sub acc}∼10{sup −8}--10{sup −7} M{sub ⊙} yr{sup −1} over 60% of the time and spend less than 15% of the infall phase in accretion outbursts. While our models indicate that episodic mass accretion during protostellar evolution can qualitatively help explain the low accretion luminosities seen in most low-mass protostars, detailed tests of the mechanism will require model calculations for a range of protostellar masses with some constraint on the

  11. Hot Spot in Eclipsing Dwarf Nova IY Ursae Majoris during Quiescence and Normal Outburst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bąkowska, K.; Olech, A.

    2015-12-01

    We present the analysis of hot spot brightness in light curves of the eclipsing dwarf nova IY UMa during its normal outburst in March 2013 and in quiescence in April 2012 and in October 2015. Examination of four reconstructed light curves of the hot spot eclipses showed directly that the brightness of the hot spot changed significantly only during the outburst. The brightness of the hot spot, before and after the outburst, was on the same level. Thus, based on the behavior of the hot spot, IY UMa during its normal outburst follows the disk-instability model.

  12. HIGH-RESOLUTION CHANDRA HETG SPECTROSCOPY OF V404 CYGNI IN OUTBURST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, Ashley L.; Morningstar, Warren [Department of Physics, 382 Via Pueblo Mall, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Miller, Jon M.; Reynolds, Mark T. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 1085 S. University Avenue, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1107 (United States); Raymond, John, E-mail: ashking@stanford.edu [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2015-11-10

    As one of the best-characterized stellar-mass black holes, with good measurements of its mass, distance, and inclination, V404 Cyg is the ideal candidate to study Eddington-limited accretion episodes. After a long quiescent period, V404 Cyg underwent a new outburst in 2015 June. We obtained two Chandra HETG exposures of 20 and 25 ks. Many strong emission lines are observed; the ratio of Si He-like triplet lines gives an estimate for the formation region distance of 4 × 10{sup 11} cm. A narrow Fe Kα line is detected with an equivalent width greater than 1 keV in many epochs, signaling that we do not directly observe the central engine. Obscuration of the central engine and strong narrow emission lines signal that the outer disk may be illuminated, and its structure may help to drive the strong variability observed in V404 Cyg. In the highest flux phases, strong P-Cygni profiles consistent with a strong disk wind are observed, likely radiation or thermally driven as V404 Cyg approaches its Eddington limit. The kinetic power of this wind may be extremely high at >0.1 L{sub Bol}.

  13. Using seismic arrays to quantify the physics of a glacial outburst flood and its legacy on upland river dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimbert, Florent; Cook, Kristen; Andermann, Christoff; Hovius, Niels; Turowski, Jens

    2017-04-01

    In the Himalayas fluvial erosion is thought to be controlled by the intense annual Indian Summer Monsoon precipitation. However, this region is also exposed to catastrophic floods generated by the sudden failure of landslides or moraine dams. These floods are rare and particularly devastating. Thus they have a strong impact on rivers and adjacent hillslopes, and they represent a hazard for local populations. Due to the difficulties to observe these floods and quantify their physics using traditional methods, their importance for the long-term evolution of Himalayan Rivers remains largely unknown, and no consistent early warning system exists to anticipate these events, especially in trans-boundary regions. Here we show that seismic arrays can be used to (i) reliably anticipate outburst floods and to (ii) quantify multiple and key fluvial processes associated with their propagation and their lasting impacts on upland river dynamics. We report unique seismic observations of a glacial lake outburst flood event that occurred the 5th of July 2016 in the Bhote Koshi River (Central Nepal). Precursory seismic signals are identified from the onset of the lake drainage event such that an early warning alarm may be turned on about an hour before the outburst flood wave reaches areas with an exposed population. Using our network of stations we observe for the first time that the outburst flood wave is in fact made of two distinct waves, namely a water flow wave and a bedload sediment wave. As expected these two waves travel at different speeds. We find that the ratio between the two wave speeds matches with that previously found at much smaller scales in flume laboratory experiments. Based on the physical modelling of both water-flow- and bedload- induced seismic noise we provide estimates of flow depth and bedload transport characteristics (flux, moving grains sizes) prior, during and after the flood. In particular we show that bedload sediment flux is enhanced by up to a

  14. A nova outburst powered by shocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kwan-Lok; Metzger, Brian D.; Chomiuk, Laura; Vurm, Indrek; Strader, Jay; Finzell, Thomas; Beloborodov, Andrei M.; Nelson, Thomas; Shappee, Benjamin J.; Kochanek, Christopher S.; Prieto, José L.; Kafka, Stella; Holoien, Thomas W.-S.; Thompson, Todd A.; Luckas, Paul J.; Itoh, Hiroshi

    2017-10-01

    Classical novae are runaway thermonuclear burning events on the surfaces of accreting white dwarfs in close binary star systems, sometimes appearing as new naked-eye sources in the night sky1. The standard model of novae predicts that their optical luminosity derives from energy released near the hot white dwarf, which is reprocessed through the ejected material2-5. Recent studies using the Fermi Large Area Telescope have shown that many classical novae are accompanied by gigaelectronvolt γ-ray emission6,7. This emission likely originates from strong shocks, providing new insights into the properties of nova outflows and allowing them to be used as laboratories for the study of the unknown efficiency of particle acceleration in shocks. Here, we report γ-ray and optical observations of the Milky Way nova ASASSN-16ma, which is among the brightest novae ever detected in γ-rays. The γ-ray and optical light curves show a remarkable correlation, implying that the majority of the optical light comes from reprocessed emission from shocks rather than the white dwarf8. The ratio of γ-ray to optical flux in ASASSN-16ma directly constrains the acceleration efficiency of non-thermal particles to be around 0.005, favouring hadronic models for the γ-ray emission9. The need to accelerate particles up to energies exceeding 100 gigaelectronvolts provides compelling evidence for magnetic field amplification in the shocks.

  15. Synthesis of C-rich dust in CO nova outbursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    José, Jordi; Halabi, Ghina M.; El Eid, Mounib F.

    2016-09-01

    Context. Classical novae are thermonuclear explosions that take place in the envelopes of accreting white dwarfs in stellar binary systems. The material transferred onto the white dwarf piles up under degenerate conditions, driving a thermonuclear runaway. In these outbursts, about 10-7-10-3 M⊙, enriched in CNO and sometimes other intermediate-mass elements (e.g., Ne, Na, Mg, or Al for ONe novae) are ejected into the interstellar medium. The large concentrations of metals spectroscopically inferred in the nova ejecta reveal that the solar-like material transferred from the secondary mixes with the outermost layers of the underlying white dwarf. Aims: Most theoretical models of nova outbursts reported to date yield, on average, outflows characterized by O > C, from which, in principle, only oxidized condensates (e.g., O-rich grains) would be expected. Methods: To specifically address whether CO novae can actually produce C-rich dust, six different hydrodynamic nova models have been evolved, from accretion to the expansion and ejection stages, with different choices for the composition of the substrate with which the solar-like accreted material mixes. Updated chemical profiles inside the H-exhausted core have been used, based on stellar evolution calculations for a progenitor of 8 M⊙ through H- and He-burning phases. Results: We show that these profiles lead to C-rich ejecta after the nova outburst. This extends the possible contribution of novae to the inventory of presolar grains identified in meteorites, particularly in a number of carbonaceous phases (I.e., nanodiamonds, silicon carbides, and graphites).

  16. Eruptive star V1180 Cas now in outburst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoniucci, S.; Arkharov, A. A.; Efimova, N.; Kopatskaya, E. N.; Larionov, V. M.; Di Paola, A.; Giannini, T.; Li Causi, G.; Lorenzetti, D.; Vitali, F.

    2013-09-01

    In the framework of our optical/near-IR EXor monitoring program dubbed EXORCISM (EXOR optiCal Infrared Systematic Monitoring - Antoniucci et al. PPVI), we have been observing since two months the variable star V1180 Cas, associated with the dark cloud Lynds 1340. This source has been originally recognized as a young eruptive object by Kun et al. (2011, ApJ 733, L8), who observed a powerful outburst (5-6 mag in the Ic band) in the period 2005-2008.

  17. Connecting the progenitors, pre-explosion variability and giant outbursts of luminous blue variables with Gaia16cfr

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilpatrick, Charles D.; Foley, Ryan J.; Drout, Maria R.; Pan, Yen-Chen; Panther, Fiona H.; Coulter, David A.; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Marion, G. Howard; Piro, Anthony L.; Rest, Armin; Seitenzahl, Ivo R.; Strampelli, Giovanni; Wang, Xi E.

    2018-02-01

    We present multi-epoch, multicolour pre-outburst photometry and post-outburst light curves and spectra of the luminous blue variable (LBV) outburst Gaia16cfr discovered by the Gaia satellite on 2016 December 1 UT. We detect Gaia16cfr in 13 epochs of Hubble Space Telescope imaging spanning phases of 10 yr to 8 months before the outburst and in Spitzer Space Telescope imaging 13 yr before outburst. Pre-outburst optical photometry is consistent with an 18 M⊙ F8 I star, although the star was likely reddened and closer to 30 M⊙. The pre-outburst source exhibited a significant near-infrared excess consistent with a 120 au shell with 4 × 10-6 M⊙ of dust. We infer that the source was enshrouded by an optically thick and compact shell of circumstellar material from an LBV wind, which formed a pseudo-photosphere consistent with S Dor-like variables in their 'maximum' phase. Within a year of outburst, the source was highly variable on 10-30 d time-scales. The outburst light curve closely matches that of the 2012 outburst of SN 2009ip, although the observed velocities are significantly slower than in that event. In H α, the outburst had an excess of blueshifted emission at late times centred around -1500 km s-1, similar to that of double-peaked Type IIn supernovae and the LBV outburst SN 2015bh. From the pre-outburst and post-outburst photometry, we infer that the outburst ejecta are evolving into a dense, highly structured circumstellar environment from precursor outbursts within years of the 2016 December event.

  18. Temper outbursts in Prader-Willi syndrome: causes, behavioural and emotional sequence and responses by carers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunnicliffe, P; Woodcock, K; Bull, L; Oliver, C; Penhallow, J

    2014-02-01

    Temper outbursts are common in Prader-Willi syndrome but rarely described in detail. This study investigated the phenomenology of temper outbursts in terms of antecedents, sequence of behaviours and emotions and intervention strategies used. A semi-structured interview about temper outbursts was conducted with the main carers of seven children (9.5 to 16.7 years) and seven adults (24.7 to 47.10 years) with Prader-Willi syndrome (10 male, 4 female). Reliability and validity of the interview results was established. Various setting events increased and reduced the likelihood of temper outbursts. The most common antecedent was a change to routine or expectation. There were marked similarities in the sequence of behaviours and emotions during temper outbursts, with anger rising quickly followed by expressions of remorse and distress at the end of an outburst. The sequence of behaviours and emotions within outbursts was similar to that described in temper tantrums in typical development. Cognitive and emotional processes are likely to be important in the understanding of temper outbursts with implications for early intervention. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd, MENCAP & IASSIDD.

  19. Classification of coal seam outburst hazards and evaluation of the importance of influencing factors

    OpenAIRE

    Shi Xianzhi; Song Dazhao; Qian Ziwei

    2017-01-01

    Coal and gas outbursts are the result of several geological factors related to coal seam gas (coal seam gas pressure P, coal seam sturdiness coefficient f and coal seam gas content W), and these parameters can be used to classify the outburst hazard level of a coal seam.

  20. Swift/BAT confirms the giant outburst of H 1417-624

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krimm, H. A.; Barthelmy, S. D.; Cummings, J. R.; Lien, A. Y.; Markwardt, C. B.; Palmer, D. M.; Sakamoto, T.; Stamatikos, M.; Ukwatta, T. N.

    2018-04-01

    The Swift/BAT transient monitor confirms the current outburst from the Be/X-ray binary pulsar, H 1417-624 ( = 2S 1417-624) (Nakajima et al., ATel #11479). In the BAT 15-50 keV energy band, the outburst began approximately on 20 March 2018 (MJD 57467) and the count rate has been steadily rising since that time.

  1. Temper Outbursts in Paediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder and Their Association with Depressed Mood and Treatment Outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krebs, Georgina; Bolhuis, Koen; Heyman, Isobel; Mataix-Cols, David; Turner, Cynthia; Stringaris, Argyris

    2013-01-01

    Background: Temper outbursts in youth with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) are a common source of concern, but remain poorly understood. This study examined a set of hypotheses related to: (a) the prevalence of temper outbursts in paediatric OCD, (b) the associations of temper outbursts with OCD severity and depressive symptoms; and (c) the…

  2. UV spectroscopy of Z Chamaeleontis. II - The 1988 January normal outburst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harlaftis, E. T.; Naylor, T.; Hassall, B. J. M.; Charles, P. A.; Sonneborn, G.; Bailey, J.

    1992-01-01

    IUE observations taken during the 1988 January normal outburst of Z Cha are presented and a detailed comparison with the 1987 April superoutburst is made. The most important difference from the superoutburst is that the normal outburst continuum flux shows less than 10 percent orbital variation away from the eclipse, implying that there is no 'cool' bulge on the disk to occult the brighter inner disk periodically. The implications for the outburst mechanism in the types of outburst are discussed. The evolution of the continuum flux distribution and emission-line fluxes, the modulation of the continuum and line fluxes with orbital phase, and the behavior of the mideclipse spectral during normal outburst are investigated.

  3. Comet 17P/Holmes: contrast in activity between before and after the 2007 outburst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishiguro, Masateru; Kim, Yoonyoung; Warjurkar, Dhanraj S.; Ham, Ji-Beom [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Gwanak, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Junhan [Department of Astronomy and Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Usui, Fumihiko [Department of Astronomy, Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Vaubaillon, Jeremie J. [Observatoire de Paris, I.M.C.C.E., Denfert Rochereau, Bat. A., F-75014 Paris (France); Ishihara, Daisuke [Department of Physics, School of Science, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8602 (Japan); Hanayama, Hidekazu [Ishigakijima Astronomical Observatory, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Ishigaki, Okinawa 907-0024 (Japan); Sarugaku, Yuki; Hasegawa, Sunao [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, Chuo-ku, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan); Kasuga, Toshihiro; Watanabe, Jun-ichi [National Astronomical Observatory, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Pyo, Jeonghyun [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, Daejeon 305-348 (Korea, Republic of); Kuroda, Daisuke [National Institutes of Natural Sciences, Okayama Astrophysical Observatory, Kamogata-cho, Okayama 719-0232 (Japan); Ootsubo, Takafumi [Astronomical Institute, Tohoku University, Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); Sakamoto, Makoto; Narusawa, Shin-ya; Takahashi, Jun [Nishi-Harima Astronomical Observatory, Center for Astronomy, University of Hyogo, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5313 (Japan); Akisawa, Hiroki, E-mail: ishiguro@astro.snu.ac.kr [Himeji City Science Museum, Himeji, Hyogo 671-2222 (Japan)

    2013-11-20

    A Jupiter-family comet, 17P/Holmes, underwent outbursts in 1892 and 2007. In particular, the 2007 outburst is known as the greatest outburst over the past century. However, little is known about the activity before the outburst because it was unpredicted. In addition, the time evolution of the nuclear physical status has not been systematically studied. Here, we study the activity of 17P/Holmes before and after the 2007 outburst through optical and mid-infrared observations. We found that the nucleus was highly depleted in its near-surface icy component before the outburst but that it became activated after the 2007 outburst. Assuming a conventional 1 μm sized grain model, we derived a surface fractional active area of 0.58% ± 0.14% before the outburst whereas the area was enlarged by a factor of ∼50 after the 2007 outburst. We also found that large (≥1 mm) particles could be dominant in the dust tail observed around aphelion. Based on the size of the particles, the dust production rate was ≳170 kg s{sup –1} at a heliocentric distance of r{sub h} = 4.1 AU, suggesting that the nucleus was still active around the aphelion passage. The nucleus color was similar to that of the dust particles and average for a Jupiter-family comet but different from that of most Kuiper Belt objects, implying that color may be inherent to icy bodies in the solar system. On the basis of these results, we concluded that more than 76 m of surface material was blown off by the 2007 outburst.

  4. Isotopic ratios in outbursting comet C/2015 ER61

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bin; Hutsemékers, Damien; Shinnaka, Yoshiharu; Opitom, Cyrielle; Manfroid, Jean; Jehin, Emmanuël; Meech, Karen J.; Hainaut, Olivier R.; Keane, Jacqueline V.; Gillon, Michaël

    2018-02-01

    Isotopic ratios in comets are critical to understanding the origin of cometary material and the physical and chemical conditions in the early solar nebula. Comet C/2015 ER61 (PANSTARRS) underwent an outburst with a total brightness increase of 2 magnitudes on the night of 2017 April 4. The sharp increase in brightness offered a rare opportunity to measure the isotopic ratios of the light elements in the coma of this comet. We obtained two high-resolution spectra of C/2015 ER61 with UVES/VLT on the nights of 2017 April 13 and 17. At the time of our observations, the comet was fading gradually following the outburst. We measured the nitrogen and carbon isotopic ratios from the CN violet (0, 0) band and found that 12C/13C = 100 ± 15, 14N/15N = 130 ± 15. In addition, we determined the 14N/15N ratio from four pairs of NH2 isotopolog lines and measured 14N/15N = 140 ± 28. The measured isotopic ratios of C/2015 ER61 do not deviate significantly from those of other comets.

  5. The 2011 Outburst of Recurrent Nova T Pyx: X-Ray Observations Expose the White Dwarf Mass and Ejection Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chomiuk, Laura; Nelson, Thomas; Mukai, Koji; Solokoski, J. L.; Rupen, Michael P.; Page, Kim L.; Osborne, Julian P.; Kuulkers, Erik; Mioduszewski, Amy J.; Roy, Nirupam; hide

    2014-01-01

    The recurrent nova T Pyx underwent its sixth historical outburst in 2011, and became the subject of an intensive multi-wavelength observational campaign.We analyze data from the Swift and Suzaku satellites to produce a detailed X-ray light curve augmented by epochs of spectral information. X-ray observations yield mostly non-detections in the first four months of outburst, but both a super-soft and hard X-ray component rise rapidly after Day 115. The super-soft X-ray component, attributable to the photosphere of the nuclear-burning white dwarf, is relatively cool (approximately 45 electron volts) and implies that the white dwarf in T Pyx is significantly below the Chandrasekhar mass (approximately 1 M). The late turn-on time of the super-soft component yields a large nova ejecta mass (approximately greater than 10(exp -5) solar mass), consistent with estimates at other wavelengths. The hard X-ray component is well fit by a approximately 1 kiloelectron volt thermal plasma, and is attributed to shocks internal to the 2011 nova ejecta. The presence of a strong oxygen line in this thermal plasma on Day 194 requires a significantly super-solar abundance of oxygen and implies that the ejecta are polluted by white dwarf material. The X-ray light curve can be explained by a dual-phase ejection, with a significant delay between the first and second ejection phases, and the second ejection finally released two months after outburst. A delayed ejection is consistent with optical and radio observations of T Pyx, but the physical mechanism producing such a delay remains a mystery.

  6. The evolution of the X-ray phase lags during the outbursts of the black hole candidate GX 339-4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altamirano, Diego; Méndez, Mariano

    2015-06-01

    Owing to the frequency and reproducibility of its outbursts, the black hole candidate GX 339-4 has become the standard against which the outbursts of other black hole candidate are matched up. Here we present the first systematic study of the evolution of the X-ray lags of the broad-band variability component (0.008-5 Hz) in GX 339-4 as a function of the position of the source in the hardness-intensity diagram. The hard photons always lag the soft ones, consistent with previous results. In the low-hard state the lags correlate with X-ray intensity, and as the source starts the transition to the intermediate/soft states, the lags first increase faster, and then appear to reach a maximum, although the exact evolution depends on the outburst and the energy band used to calculate the lags. The time of the maximum of the lags appears to coincide with a sudden drop of the optical/near-infrared flux, the fractional rms amplitude of the broad-band component in the power spectrum, and the appearance of a thermal component in the X-ray spectra, strongly suggesting that the lags can be very useful to understand the physical changes that GX 339-4 undergoes during an outburst. We find strong evidence for a connection between the evolution of the cut-off energy of the hard component in the energy spectrum and the phase lags, suggesting that the average magnitude of the lags is correlated with the properties of the corona/jet rather than those of the disc. Finally, we show that the lags in GX 339-4 evolve in a similar manner to those of the black hole candidate Cygnus X-1, suggesting similar phenomena could be observable in other black hole systems.

  7. Recent outburst activity of the super-soft X-ray binary AG Draconis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merc, J.; Gális, R.; Leedjärv, L.

    2017-07-01

    AG Draconis is a bright symbiotic binary consisting of a white dwarf and a pulsating cool giant. Moreover, it is the most intense X-ray source among symbiotic stars, and one of the best representatives of the super-soft X-ray objects. The system undergoes characteristic symbiotic activity with alternating quiescent and active stages. The active ones consist of several outbursts repeating at about a one-year interval. The recent activity stage of AG Dra began with the weak pre-outburst in 2015 followed by a more prominent outburst in 2016. According to photometric and some spectroscopic observations, both brightenings belong to the minor (hot) outbursts of AG Dra. Such behavior of the active stage is quite unusual because more often, the activity of AG Dra starts with a major (cool) outburst. Moreover, the behavior of Raman scattered OVI lines at λ 6825 Å and λ 7082 Å suggest that the minor outburst of AG Dra in April 2016 has the characteristics of both the hot and cool outbursts. Based on the above, an open question is the next evolution of activity of the symbiotic binary AG Dra in 2017 and beyond.

  8. On the morphology of outbursts of accreting millisecond X-ray pulsar Aquila X-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güngör, C.; Ekşi, K. Y.; Göğüş, E.

    2017-10-01

    We present the X-ray light curves of the last two outbursts - 2014 & 2016 - of the well known accreting millisecond X-ray pulsar (AMXP) Aquila X-1 using the monitor of all sky X-ray image (MAXI) observations in the 2-20 keV band. After calibrating the MAXI count rates to the all-sky monitor (ASM) level, we report that the 2016 outburst is the most energetic event of Aql X-1, ever observed from this source. We show that 2016 outburst is a member of the long-high class according to the classification presented by Güngör et al. with ˜ 68 cnt/s maximum flux and ˜ 60 days duration time and the previous outburst, 2014, belongs to the short-low class with ˜ 25 cnt/s maximum flux and ˜ 30 days duration time. In order to understand differences between outbursts, we investigate the possible dependence of the peak intensity to the quiescent duration leading to the outburst and find that the outbursts following longer quiescent episodes tend to reach higher peak energetic.

  9. Evidence of Eta Aquariid outbursts recorded in the classic Maya hieroglyphic script using orbital integrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinsman, J. H.; Asher, D. J.

    2017-09-01

    No firm evidence has existed that the ancient Maya civilization recorded specific occurrences of meteor showers or outbursts in the corpus of Maya hieroglyphic inscriptions. In fact, there has been no evidence of any pre-Hispanic civilization in the Western Hemisphere recording any observations of any meteor showers on any specific dates. The authors numerically integrated meteoroid-sized particles released by Comet Halley as early as 1404 BC to identify years within the Maya Classic Period, AD 250-909, when Eta Aquariid outbursts might have occurred. Outbursts determined by computer model were then compared to specific events in the Maya record to see if any correlation existed between the date of the event and the date of the outburst. The model was validated by successfully explaining several outbursts around the same epoch in the Chinese record. Some outbursts observed by the Maya were due to recent revolutions of Comet Halley, within a few centuries, and some to resonant behavior in older Halley trails, of the order of a thousand years. Examples were found of several different Jovian mean motion resonances as well as the 1:3 Saturnian resonance that have controlled the dynamical evolution of meteoroids in apparently observed outbursts.

  10. A method of working a coal seam which has coal and gas outbursts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batmanov, Y.K.; Bakhtin, A.F.; Mochseev, M.A.; Petukhov, I.M.; Saratikyants, S.A.; Voronin, V.A.

    1983-01-01

    The purpose of this invention is to reduce expenditures on the working of an outburst-prone formation. This is achieved by using the method of working a coal seam which is prone to coal and gas outbursts; this method involves local safety excavation in the protection formation and opening air passage and ventilation workings; the ventilation working proceeds through the formation which is prone to gas and coal outbursts, while the local protection excavation in the protection formation is performed on both sides of the air passage working simultaneously with the ventilation working which is connected occasionally to the air passage working by blind shafts.

  11. The accretion disk of a rare jet-driving symbiotic binary during its brightest outburst in a century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucy, Adrian

    2015-09-01

    The current optical outburst (ATel#8653) of the symbiotic star (interacting white dwarf [WD] + red giant) MWC 560, its brightest in >87 years, provides a rare opportunity to examine the physics of jet production in the otherwise well-understood context of WD accretion. This proposal's goal is to use X-ray emission from the accretion-disk boundary layer to characterize changes in the disk associated with strong jet production/acceleration. MWC 560 drives a jet, and optical spectra taken over 2 months during the peak of the last outburst, 26 years ago, showed Balmer absorption velocities increasing from 3000 km/s to their record velocity of 6000 km/s (Tomov et al. 1990). 300-2800 km/s Balmer troughs have just been observed, suggesting the early phase of jet acceleration. Chandra will reveal whether the jet-driving disk remains intact and brightens in X-rays (we expect the boundary layer to remain optically thin) or the degree to which the inner disk is evacuated (as in X-ray binaries).

  12. DETECTION OF VERY LOW-FREQUENCY, QUASI-PERIODIC OSCILLATIONS IN THE 2015 OUTBURST OF V404 CYGNI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huppenkothen, D. [Center for Data Science, New York University, 726 Broadway, 7th Floor, New York, NY 10003 (United States); Younes, G.; Kouveliotou, C. [Department of Physics, The George Washington University, Washington, DC 20052 (United States); Ingram, A.; Van der Klis, M. [Anton Pannekoek Institute, University of Amsterdam, Science Park 904, 1098 XH Amsterdam (Netherlands); Göğüş, E. [Sabancı University, Orhanlı-Tuzla, İstanbul 34956 (Turkey); Bachetti, M. [INAF/Osservatorio Astronomico di Cagliari, via della Scienza 5, I-09047 Selargius (Italy); Sánchez-Fernández, C.; Kuulkers, E. [European Space Astronomy Centre (ESA/ESAC), Science Operations Department, E-28691 Villanueva de la Cañada, Madrid (Spain); Chenevez, J. [DTU Space—National Space Institute, Technical University of Denmark, Elektrovej 327-328, DK-2800 Lyngby (Denmark); Motta, S. [University of Oxford, Department of Physics, Astrophysics, Denys Wilkinson Building, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Granot, J. [Department of Natural Sciences, The Open University of Israel, 1 University Road, P.O. Box 808, Raanana 43537 (Israel); Gehrels, N. [Astrophysics Science Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Mail Code 661, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Tomsick, J. A. [Space Sciences Laboratory, 7 Gauss Way, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-7450 (United States); Walton, D. J., E-mail: daniela.huppenkothen@nyu.edu [Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2017-01-01

    In 2015 June, the black hole X-ray binary (BHXRB) V404 Cygni went into outburst for the first time since 1989. Here, we present a comprehensive search for quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) of V404 Cygni during its recent outburst, utilizing data from six instruments on board five different X-ray missions: Swift /XRT, Fermi /GBM, Chandra /ACIS, INTEGRAL ’s IBIS/ISGRI and JEM-X, and NuSTAR . We report the detection of a QPO at 18 mHz simultaneously with both Fermi /GBM and Swift /XRT, another example of a rare but slowly growing new class of mHz-QPOs in BHXRBs linked to sources with a high orbital inclination. Additionally, we find a duo of QPOs in a Chandra /ACIS observation at 73 mHz and 1.03 Hz, as well as a QPO at 136 mHz in a single Swift /XRT observation that can be interpreted as standard Type-C QPOs. Aside from the detected QPOs, there is significant structure in the broadband power, with a strong feature observable in the Chandra observations between 0.1 and 1 Hz. We discuss our results in the context of current models for QPO formation.

  13. Flickering of the symbiotic variable CH Cygni during outburst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slovak, M.H.; Africano, J.

    1978-01-01

    High-speed and conventional BVRI photometry are reported for the bright symbiotic variable CH Cygni (M6 IIIe), obtained during the course of a recent outburst. Unlike the quiescent symbiotic stars, the presence of flickering similar in nature to that seen in the cataclysmic variables has been confirmed during this active phase. The BVRI photometry for a sample of stars in the field is used to derive the reddening and the distance to CH Cyg. A composite energy distribution is derived from 0.35 to 11.0 μm which clearly establishes the existence of a variable, blue continuum. The lack of variability in the near infrared suggests that the blue continuum arises from a hot companion. A binary model including a subluminous hot companion accreting material from the stellar wind of an SRa variable is discussed to account for the observed photometric properties. (author)

  14. Glacial lake outburst floods and fluvial erosion in the Himalaya - insights from the 2016 Bhote Koshi GLOF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, K. L.; Gimbert, F.; Andermann, C.; Hovius, N.; Adhikari, B. R.

    2017-12-01

    The Himalaya is a region of rapid erosion where fluvial processes are assumed to be driven by precipitation delivered during the annual Indian Summer Monsoon. However, the rivers in this region are also subject to catastrophic floods caused by the failure of glacial lake and landslide dams. Because these floods are rarely observed, it has been difficult to isolate their impact on the rivers and adjacent hillslopes, and their importance for the long-term evolution of Himalayan valleys is largely unknown. In July 2016, the Bhotekoshi/Sunkoshi River in central Nepal was hit by a glacial lake outburst flood (GLOF) that caused substantial changes to the channel bed, banks, and adjacent hillslopes, causing at least 26 landslides and an average of 11 m of channel widening. The flood passed through a seismic and hydrological observatory installed along the river in June 2015, and we have used the resulting data to constrain the timing, duration, and bedload transport properties of the outburst flood. The impact of the flood on the river can be further observed with hourly time-lapse photographs, daily measurements of suspended sediment load, repeat lidar surveys, and satellite imagery. The outburst flood affected the river on several timescales. In the short term, it transported large amounts of coarse sediment and restructured the river bed during the hours of the flood pulse itself. Over intermediate timescales it resulted in elevated bedload and suspended load transport for several weeks following the flood. Over longer timescales the flood undercut and destabilized the river banks and hillslopes in a number of locations, leading to bank collapses, slumps, and landslides. Our data indicate that impacts of the GLOF far exceed those driven by the annual summer monsoon, likely due to extremely coarse sediment that armors much of the channel. The relatively frequent occurrence of GLOFs and the extremely high discharges relative to monsoon floods suggest that GLOFs may

  15. Pulse Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, Lawrence (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    An apparatus and a computer-implemented method for generating pulses synchronized to a rising edge of a tachometer signal from rotating machinery are disclosed. For example, in one embodiment, a pulse state machine may be configured to generate a plurality of pulses, and a period state machine may be configured to determine a period for each of the plurality of pulses.

  16. Multicolor Photometry of 1SWASP J162117.36+441254.2 during the 2016 Outburst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pit, N. V.; Pavlenko, E. P.; Antonyuk, K. A.; Belan, S. P.

    2017-06-01

    We present preliminary results of BVRcIc photometric observations of 1SWASP J162117.36+441254.2 during the 2016 outburst. Observations were carried out at 1.25-m telescope located in Crimean Astrophysical Observatory. Previously this star was thought as eclipsing variable of the W UMa-type until the outburst, but with the help of numerous worldwide observations this object was classified as the long-term dwarf nova. Our findings demonstrate the dramatic changes of the light curves profile in all color bands during the outburst. This can be interpreted as the presence of erupted accretion disk at the early stages of outburst and the emergence of ellipsoid effect of the secondary component of the system at a later stage.

  17. Development of a web-based, underground coalmine gas outburst information management system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naj Aziz; Richard Caladine; Lucia Tome; Ken Cram; Devendra Vyas [University of Wollongong, NSW (Australia)

    2007-04-15

    The primary objective of this project was to develop an online coal mine outburst information management system to provide the coal mining industry with the necessary information and knowledge on outbursts via the World Wide Web. The Website has been constructed using the standard web format. Access to the site is by standard web browsers. The address of the site is http://www.uow.edu.au/eng/outburst. The website has 85 conference papers which were held in Australia, dating as far back as the 1980's, various seminar presentations, more than 250 references, a limited but important collection of international papers, direct links to ACARP and NERRDC publication lists, links to several leading organisations of particular interest in mine gas and outburst control. These links include both private and government organisations, and a forum for discussion.

  18. Black hole and neutron star soft X-ray transients: a hard X-ray view of their outbursts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, W.

    2004-01-01

    The RXTE public observations of the outbursts of black hole soft X-ray transients XTE J1550-564, XTE J1859+226, 4U 1630-47, XTE J1118+480, XTE J1650-500, and the neutron star soft X-ray transients 4U 1608-52, Aquila X-1, including a variable 'persistent' neutron star low mass X-ray binary 4U 1705-44, are summarized in this paper. The hard X-ray view of those outbursts, which is quite different from that of the soft X-ray band, suggests that there are several types of outbursts which result in different hard X-ray outburst profile - the outburst profiles are energy dependent. One type is the low/hard state outbursts, the other type is the outburst showing transitions from the low/hard state to the high/soft state, or to the intermediate or to the very high state. The later has an initial low/hard state, introducing the phenomena that the hard X-ray precedes the soft X-ray in the outburst rise. Such outbursts in XTE J1550-564, Aql X-1 and 4U 1705-44 support a two-accretion-flow model which involves one Keplerian disk flow and one sub-Keplerian flow for the initial outburst rise

  19. Outbursts from Cool Pulsating White Dwarfs in Kepler and K2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Keaton J.; Hermes, J. J.; Montgomery, Michael H.; Winget, Donald E.

    2017-01-01

    Data from the Kepler and K2 missions have captured the signatures of a new pulsation-related phenomenon in hydrogen atmosphere white dwarfs. Some pulsating white dwarfs within 500 K of the empirical cool edge of the ZZ Ceti instability strip exhibit outburst-like brightness enhancements of up to 15% that last many hours and recur irregularly on timescales on days. In this thesis talk, I summarize the observational characteristics of this new outbursting class of ZZ Ceti.

  20. X-ray Observation of XTE J2012+381 during the 1998 Outburst

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The outburst of X-ray transient source XTE J2012+381 was detected by the RXTE All-Sky Monitor on 1998 May 24th. Following the outburst, X-ray observations of the source were made in the 2-18keV energy band with the Pointed Proportional Counters of the Indian X-ray Astronomy Experiment (IXAE) on-board the Indian ...

  1. X-ray Observation of XTE J2012+ 381 during the 1998 Outburst

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The outburst of X-ray transient source XTE J2012+381 was detected by the RXTE All-Sky Monitor on 1998 May 24th. Following the outburst, X-ray observations of the source were made in the 2-18keV energy band with the Pointed Proportional Counters of the Indian X-ray Astronomy Experiment (IXAE) on-board the Indian ...

  2. Glacial Lake Outburst Flood Risk in the Poiqu/Bhote Koshi/Sun Koshi River Basin in the Central Himalayas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narendra Raj Khanal

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The Himalayas have experienced several glacial lake outburst floods (GLOFs, and the risk of GLOFs is now increasing in the context of global warming. Poiqu watershed in the Tibet Autonomous Region, China, also known as the Bhote Koshi and Sun Koshi downstream in Nepal, has been identified as highly prone to GLOFs. This study explored the distribution of and changes in glacial lakes, past GLOFs and the resulting losses, risk from potential future GLOFs, and risk reduction initiatives within the watershed. A relationship was established between lake area and volume of lake water based on data from 33 lakes surveyed within the Hindu Kush Himalayan region, and the maximum possible discharge was estimated using this and other previously developed empirical equations. We recommend different strategies to reduce GLOF risk and highlight the need for a glacial lake monitoring and early-warning system. We also recommend strong regional cooperation, especially on issues related to transboundary rivers.

  3. Detection of outbursts and modeling of the activity during the summer of 2015 with Rosetta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gicquel, Adeline; von Allmen, Paul; Hofstadter, Mark; MIRO, OSIRIS

    2017-10-01

    The ESA (European Space Agency) Rosetta spacecraft was launched on March 2, 2004 and reached comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko (67P) in August 2014.Close to perihelion in August 2015, a display of outbursts on 67P, known as the summer fireworks (Vincent et al. 2016), was observed with the Optical, Spectroscopic, and Infrared Remote Imaging System (OSIRIS) and the NAVCAM. Vincent et al. (2016) reported the detection of 34 outbursts with one on average every 2.4 nucleus rotations.In the case of the Microwave Instrument for the Rosetta Orbiter (MIRO), the most useful scan pattern for tracking gas abundance before, during, and after an outburst was a series of raster scans across the nucleus along the comet-Sun direction. We identified a spectral feature that is indicative of high velocity gas moving toward the spacecraft as being associated with outbursts. In this particular study, we will report the detection of 6 outbursts with MIRO during the summer of 2015. One of the outbursts detected by MIRO was not observed with OSIRIS or the NAVCAM. We will present results for the gas production rate, as obtained from the H216O emission line observed with MIRO and a numerical model of the radiative transfer in the coma.Our goal is to better understand the physics of outbursts and how the dust is lifted by the gas, by comparing model results to OSIRIS images (sensitive to the dust abundance) and MIRO spectra (sensitive to the gas abundance and velocity). We used a Collisionless Gas Simulation tool developed at JPL to study the gas flow close to the nucleus and the dust trajectories as determined by the three main forces acting on the grains: the drag force, gravity and the radiative pressure. Our main objective is to understand the mechanisms responsible for the outburst and the activity. Past studies have shown that outbursts are in fact a combination of both gas and dust, in which the active surface at the source of the outburst is believed to be approximately 10 times more

  4. Modeling AGN outbursts from supermassive black hole binaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanaka T.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available When galaxies merge to assemble more massive galaxies, their nuclear supermassive black holes (SMBHs should form bound binaries. As these interact with their stellar and gaseous environments, they will become increasingly compact, culminating in inspiral and coalescence through the emission of gravitational radiation. Because galaxy mergers and interactions are also thought to fuel star formation and nuclear black hole activity, it is plausible that such binaries would lie in gas-rich environments and power active galactic nuclei (AGN. The primary difference is that these binaries have gravitational potentials that vary – through their orbital motion as well as their orbital evolution – on humanly tractable timescales, and are thus excellent candidates to give rise to coherent AGN variability in the form of outbursts and recurrent transients. Although such electromagnetic signatures would be ideally observed concomitantly with the binary’s gravitational-wave signatures, they are also likely to be discovered serendipitously in wide-field, high-cadence surveys; some may even be confused for stellar tidal disruption events. I discuss several types of possible “smoking gun” AGN signatures caused by the peculiar geometry predicted for accretion disks around SMBH binaries.

  5. The 2014 KCG Meteor Outburst: Clues to a Parent Body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moorhead, Althea V.; Brown, Peter G.; Spurny, Pavel; Cooke, William J.

    2015-01-01

    The Kappa Cygnid (KCG) meteor shower exhibited unusually high activity in 2014, producing ten times the typical number of meteors. The shower was detected in both radar and optical systems and meteoroids associated with the outburst spanned at least five decades in mass. In total, the Canadian Meteor Orbit Radar, European Network, and NASA All Sky and Southern Ontario Meteor Network produced thousands of KCG meteor trajectories. Using these data, we have undertaken a new and improved characterization of the dynamics of this little-studied, variable meteor shower. The Cygnids have a di use radiant and a significant spread in orbital characteristics, with multiple resonances appearing to play a role in the shower dynamics. We conducted a new search for parent bodies and found that several known asteroids are orbitally similar to the KCGs. N-body simulations show that the two best parent body candidates readily transfer meteoroids to the Earth in recent centuries, but neither produces an exact match to the KCG radiant, velocity, and solar longitude. We nevertheless identify asteroid 2001 MG1 as a promising parent body candidate.

  6. The evolution of the timing properties of the black-hole transient GX 339-4 during its 2002/2003 outburst

    OpenAIRE

    Belloni, T.; Homan, J.; Casella, P.; van der Klis, M.; Nespoli, E.; Lewin, W.H.G.; Miller, J.M.; Méndez, R.M.

    2005-01-01

    We present the results of the timing and color analysis of more than two hundred RXTE/PCA observations of the bright black-hole transient GX 339-4 obtained during its 2002/2003 outburst. The color-intensity evolution of the system, coupled to the properties of its fast time variability, allow the identification of four separate states. Depending on the state, strong noise is detected, together with a variety of quasi-periodic oscillations at frequencies from 0.2 to 8 Hz. We present a characte...

  7. [Violent outburst from teenagers in the pediatric emergency room: Complex cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, L; Gras-Le Guen, C; Fleury, J; Caldagues, E; Dreno, L; Picherot, G; Vabres, N

    2017-12-01

    Teenagers admitted to the emergency room for a violent attacks episode are increasingly numerous. The source of agitation is multifactorial for these teenagers, often with a complex course. They jeopardize hospital wards, which are often ill-suited for and overwhelmed during these outbursts. This study aims to identify and describe all the teenagers admitted to the hospital over 1 year for a violent outburst and discuss their management. Retrospective and descriptive study of teenagers admitted to the pediatric emergency department of the Nantes University Hospital for a violent outburst in 2015. During this 1-year study, 99 teenagers out of a total of 182 consultations were admitted for a violent outburst. We noted that 85% of them had a previous history of a violent outburst, 70% of them were seeing a psychologist, and 56% were followed by the child welfare services. Most of the outbursts took place at home and were hetero-aggressive. Upon arrival at the pediatric emergency ward, 90% of the teenagers had calmed down. The mean time spent in the emergency ward was 3h42min. Finally, 31% of the teenagers were hospitalized in the general pediatric unit, 14% in the children's psychiatric department, and 8% in the adult psychiatry ward. We observed a high proportion of complex cases in the teenagers admitted to our emergency department for a violent outburst. These teenagers in distress, with a complex previous history, illustrated the relation between violence against themselves and their own violent behavior toward others. Developing short-stay units for a temporary isolation could be an advantageous multidisciplinary approach to allow somatic, psychological, and social evaluation of these vulnerable patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Simulation Experiment and Acoustic Emission Study on Coal and Gas Outburst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Feng, Zengchao; Zhao, Dong; Duan, Dong

    2017-08-01

    A coal and gas outburst is an extreme hazard in underground mining. The present paper conducts a laboratory simulation of a coal and gas outburst combined with acoustic emission analysis. The experiment uses a three-dimensional stress loading system and a PCI-2 acoustic emission monitoring system. Furthermore, the development of a coal and gas outburst is numerically studied. The results demonstrate that the deformation and failure of a coal sample containing methane under three-dimensional stress involves four stages: initial compression, elastic deformation, plastic deformation and failure. The development of internal microscale fractures within a coal sample containing methane is reflected by the distribution of acoustic emission events. We observed that the deformation and failure zone for a coal sample under three-dimensional stress has an ellipsoid shape. Primary acoustic emission events are generated at the weak structural surface that compresses with ease due to the external ellipsoid-shaped stress. The number of events gradually increases until an outburst occurs. A mathematical model of the internal gas pressure and bulk stress is established through an analysis of the internal gas pressure and bulk stress of a coal sample, and it is useful for reproducing experimental results. The occurrence of a coal and gas outburst depends not only on the in situ stress, gas pressure and physical and mechanical characteristics of the coal mass but also on the free weak surface of the outburst outlet of the coal mass. It is more difficult for an outburst to occur from a stronger free surface.

  9. The galactic center GeV excess from a series of leptonic cosmic-ray outbursts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cholis, Ilias [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Evoli, Carmelo [Univ. Hamburg, Hamburg (Germany); Calore, Francesca [Univ. of Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Linden, Tim [Univ. of Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States); Weniger, Christoph [Univ. of Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Hooper, Dan [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Univ. of Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2015-06-16

    It has been proposed that a recent outburst of cosmic-ray electrons could account for the excess of GeV-scale gamma rays observed from the region surrounding the Galactic Center. After studying this possibility in some detail, we identify scenarios in which a series of leptonic cosmic-ray outbursts could plausibly generate the observed excess. The morphology of the emission observed outside of ~1° – 2° from the Galactic Center can be accommodated with two outbursts, one which took place approximately ~106 years ago, and another (injecting only about 10% as much energy as the first) about ~105 years ago. The emission observed from the innermost ~1° – 2° requires one or more additional recent outbursts and/or a contribution from a centrally concentrated population of unresolved millisecond pulsars. Furthermore, in order to produce a spectrum that is compatible with the measured excess (whose shape is approximately uniform over the region of the excess), the electrons from the older outburst must be injected with significantly greater average energy than those injected more recently, enabling their spectra to be similar after ~106 years of energy losses.

  10. Propagation characteristics of pulverized coal and gas two-phase flow during an outburst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Aitao; Wang, Kai; Fan, Lingpeng; Tao, Bo

    2017-01-01

    Coal and gas outbursts are dynamic failures that can involve the ejection of thousands tons of pulverized coal, as well as considerable volumes of gas, into a limited working space within a short period. The two-phase flow of gas and pulverized coal that occurs during an outburst can lead to fatalities and destroy underground equipment. This article examines the interaction mechanism between pulverized coal and gas flow. Based on the role of gas expansion energy in the development stage of outbursts, a numerical simulation method is proposed for investigating the propagation characteristics of the two-phase flow. This simulation method was verified by a shock tube experiment involving pulverized coal and gas flow. The experimental and simulated results both demonstrate that the instantaneous ejection of pulverized coal and gas flow can form outburst shock waves. These are attenuated along the propagation direction, and the volume fraction of pulverized coal in the two-phase flow has significant influence on attenuation of the outburst shock wave. As a whole, pulverized coal flow has a negative impact on gas flow, which makes a great loss of large amounts of initial energy, blocking the propagation of gas flow. According to comparison of numerical results for different roadway types, the attenuation effect of T-type roadways is best. In the propagation of shock wave, reflection and diffraction of shock wave interact through the complex roadway types.

  11. Propagation characteristics of pulverized coal and gas two-phase flow during an outburst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Aitao; Wang, Kai; Fan, Lingpeng; Tao, Bo

    2017-01-01

    Coal and gas outbursts are dynamic failures that can involve the ejection of thousands tons of pulverized coal, as well as considerable volumes of gas, into a limited working space within a short period. The two-phase flow of gas and pulverized coal that occurs during an outburst can lead to fatalities and destroy underground equipment. This article examines the interaction mechanism between pulverized coal and gas flow. Based on the role of gas expansion energy in the development stage of outbursts, a numerical simulation method is proposed for investigating the propagation characteristics of the two-phase flow. This simulation method was verified by a shock tube experiment involving pulverized coal and gas flow. The experimental and simulated results both demonstrate that the instantaneous ejection of pulverized coal and gas flow can form outburst shock waves. These are attenuated along the propagation direction, and the volume fraction of pulverized coal in the two-phase flow has significant influence on attenuation of the outburst shock wave. As a whole, pulverized coal flow has a negative impact on gas flow, which makes a great loss of large amounts of initial energy, blocking the propagation of gas flow. According to comparison of numerical results for different roadway types, the attenuation effect of T-type roadways is best. In the propagation of shock wave, reflection and diffraction of shock wave interact through the complex roadway types. PMID:28727738

  12. PULSE GENERATOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roeschke, C.W.

    1957-09-24

    An improvement in pulse generators is described by which there are produced pulses of a duration from about 1 to 10 microseconds with a truly flat top and extremely rapid rise and fall. The pulses are produced by triggering from a separate input or by modifying the current to operate as a free-running pulse generator. In its broad aspect, the disclosed pulse generator comprises a first tube with an anode capacitor and grid circuit which controls the firing; a second tube series connected in the cathode circuit of the first tube such that discharge of the first tube places a voltage across it as the leading edge of the desired pulse; and an integrator circuit from the plate across the grid of the second tube to control the discharge time of the second tube, determining the pulse length.

  13. Optical pulse compression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glass, A.J.

    1975-01-01

    The interest in using large lasers to achieve a very short and intense pulse for generating fusion plasma has provided a strong impetus to reexamine the possibilities of optical pulse compression at high energy. Pulse compression allows one to generate pulses of long duration (minimizing damage problems) and subsequently compress optical pulses to achieve the short pulse duration required for specific applications. The ideal device for carrying out this program has not been developed. Of the two approaches considered, the Gires--Tournois approach is limited by the fact that the bandwidth and compression are intimately related, so that the group delay dispersion times the square of the bandwidth is about unity for all simple Gires--Tournois interferometers. The Treacy grating pair does not suffer from this limitation, but is inefficient because diffraction generally occurs in several orders and is limited by the problem of optical damage to the grating surfaces themselves. Nonlinear and parametric processes were explored. Some pulse compression was achieved by these techniques; however, they are generally difficult to control and are not very efficient. (U.S.)

  14. An isotopic study of the role of carbon dioxide in outbursts in coal mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, J.W.; Gould, K.W.

    1980-01-01

    The occurrence of instantaneous outbursting in the Bulli coal seam at the West Cliff Colliery, Appin, NSW can be correlated directly with an increase in concentration (0.5 to 75%) and a related decrease in the 13 C content (delta 13 C + 16 to -0.8% PDB) of the CO 2 in the seam gas. Two sources of CO 2 are required. The greater incidence of outbursting in CO 2 -rich zones is explained by the conversion to bicarbonate of cleat and fracture filling calcite deep within the coal and the transport of this bicarbonate in water to mine openings. The weakening of the resistance of the coal to shear by this removal of carbonate is an additional factor to be considered in assessing outbursting situations. (author)

  15. The new outburst of the EXor V1180 Cas as observed at X and NIR wavelengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nucita, Achille

    2013-09-01

    EXORs are pre-main sequence stars that show recurrent luminosity changes of short duration superposed to longer quiescence periods, see e.g. Audard et al. 2014. Although a general consensus exists about the nature of such outbursts (i.e. events of enhanced magnetospheric accretion from the circumstellar disk), the physical mechanisms regulating the outbursts and how these latter affect the circumstellar disk structure and its evolution are not clarified yet. We recently started an observational programme on this class of objects (EXORCISM, EXOR OptiCal and Infrared Systematic Monitoring, Antoniucci et al. 2013). Optical and near-IR studies of EXORs rapidly increased in the last decade but little is known about the X-ray properties, in particular whether X-rays come from the corona of the star (being in this case unaffected by the outbursts) or, conversely, originate in accretion events.

  16. The 26th anniversary outburst of jet-driving symbiotic binary MWC 560: results from Chandra, Swift, and optical spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucy, Adrian B.; Sokoloski, J. L.; Munari, U.; Kuin, N. P. M.; Darnley, M. J.; Luna, G. J. M.; Knigge, C.; Valisa, P.; Milani, A.

    2016-03-01

    The symbiotic star MWC 560 = V694 Mon, which is believed to usually drive a jet along the line of sight (e.g., Schmid et al. 2001), is undergoing a sustained outburst (ATel #8653) rivaling its previous brightest outburst of 1990 (Tomov et al. 1990, Leibowitz and Formiggini 2015).

  17. NuSTAR and SWIFT Observations of the Black Hole Candidate XTE J1908+094 during its 2013 Outburst

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tao, Lian; Tomsick, John A.; Walton, Dominic J.

    2015-01-01

    The black hole (BH) candidate XTE J1908+094 went into outburst for the first time since 2003 in 2013 October. We report on an observation with the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) and monitoring observations with Swift during the outburst. NuSTAR caught the source in the soft state...

  18. Detection of Very Low-Frequency Quasi-Periodic Oscillations in the 2015 Outburst of V404 Cygni

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huppenkothen, D.; Younes, G.; Ingram, A.

    2016-01-01

    In June 2015, the black hole X-ray binary (BHXRB) V404 Cygni went into outburst for the first time since 1989. Here, we present a comprehensive search for quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) of V404 Cygni during its recent outburst, utilizing data from six instruments on board five different X...

  19. Local Communities and Glacial Lake Outburst Flood Mitigation: Lessons from Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Mark

    2010-05-01

    Discourse in recent years among scientists and non-scientists increasingly promotes the involvement of local people in hazard mitigation, including inhabitants of floodplains in valleys below moraine-dammed glacial lakes. Despite advances in understanding human vulnerability to glacial lake outburst floods, there has been much less research on how these vulnerable populations are involved (or ignored) in the actual outburst flood mitigation process. Which groups should be involved? Are they in fact participating? Is that involvement successful? Peru's Cordillera Blanca mountain range provides an ideal site to help answer these questions because its moraine-dammed glacial lakes have produced more than a dozen outburst floods since ~1860. After floods in 1941, 1945, and 1950 killed approximately 6,000, the national government created a state agency, which still exists today, to monitor glacial lakes and prevent future outburst floods. Using this region as a case study to answer the above questions, this paper has three components. First, it provides historical examples of local people's participation in disaster mitigation, but shows that the outcome of such local involvement frequently turned out differently than scientists, engineers, and planners anticipated. Second, it shows the challenges and difficulties of involving local groups. Recent efforts in workshops, aid projects, and government programs show only limited success in community participation in disaster mitigation agendas. Third, the paper suggests that in many cases local indigenous people, as icons of the Andean region but often not the most vulnerable group, are disproportionately victimized and tacitly invited into disaster mitigation discussions. Poor urban residents inhabiting floodplains are often neglected, even though they are the most vulnerable to outburst floods. As other world regions such as the Himalayas increasingly contend with potential glacial lake outburst floods, these lessons from

  20. Social capital at the outburst of the economic crisis in Greece, 2008-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Daskalopoulou

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – Social capital and its core components of social trust and associational activity are widely acknowledged as a core feature of strong and active civil societies that promote effective democratic governance and economic prosperity. Within this context the present study sets out to explore two important research questions. The first one relates to the stock of social capital characterizing Greece and its change during a highly sensitive era, that of the outburst of the economic crisis. The second research question relates to analyzing the group of civil servants as carriers of higher or lower levels of social capital compared to the other citizens. Design/methodology/approach – Based on the available knowledge in the field social capital is measured via the measurement of six main constructs comprising the soft and hard attributes of the concept, namely social trust, social altruism, equality, tolerance, humanitarianism and civic participation. Data are drawn from the European Social Value round 4 (2008 and round 5 (2010 surveys for Greece. Findings – Overall, empirical analysis indicates that the country experiences a statistically significant decline in its social capital level while public servants hold higher levels of social capital albeit also declining as for the rest of the country's citizens. Research limitations/implications – Important policy implications arise as a result of these findings related to issues of democratic legitimation and social participation. Originality/value –the research questions analysed here are important as they can help us sketch the country’s profile with regard to the important concept of social capital that is highly associated with civil empowerment, democratization and increased civil participation levels.

  1. NuSTAR Discovery of a Cyclotron Line in the Be/X-ray Binary RX J0520.5-6932 During Outburst

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tendulkar, Shriharsh P.; Fürst, Felix; Pottschmidt, Katja

    2014-01-01

    We present spectral and timing analysis of NuSTAR observations of RX J0520.5$-$6932 in the 3-79 keV band collected during its outburst in January 2014. The target was observed on two epochs and we report the detection of a cyclotron resonant scattering feature with central energies of $E...... difference between the peak of the cyclotron energy variation and the peak of the flux variation....... that have a cyclotron line observed at luminosities in excess of $10^{38}\\,\\mathrm{erg\\,s^{-1}}$. A broad ($\\sigma\\approx0.45$ keV) Fe emission line is observed in the spectrum at a central energy of $6.58_{-0.05}^{+0.05}$ keV in both epochs. The pulse profile of the pulsar was observed to be highly...

  2. Short-term variability of dwarf nova SS Cyg during outbursts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voloshina, I; Metlov, V; Rovithis-Livaniou, H

    2009-01-01

    Here we report the results of CCD observations of classical dwarf nova SS Cyg carried out with the two 60-cm telescopes in Crimea during the last years. These observations cover a few outbursts in 2006, 2007 and 2008. Power spectrum analysis of our CCD data clearly shows the existence of rapid periodic oscillations in the light curve of SS Cyg at the stage of decline after maximum. CCD observations of SS Cyg in autumn 2006 outburst revealed oscillations with the two periods 10 s and 76 s, in November 2007 - with 41 s period and in January 2008 with 98 s. We interpret detected variations as quasi-periodic oscillations.

  3. Short-term variability of dwarf nova SS Cyg during outbursts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voloshina, I; Metlov, V; Rovithis-Livaniou, H, E-mail: vib@sai.msu.r [Section of Astrophysics, Astronomy and Mechanics, Department of Physics, Athens University, Zagrafos 15784, Athens (Greece)

    2009-06-01

    Here we report the results of CCD observations of classical dwarf nova SS Cyg carried out with the two 60-cm telescopes in Crimea during the last years. These observations cover a few outbursts in 2006, 2007 and 2008. Power spectrum analysis of our CCD data clearly shows the existence of rapid periodic oscillations in the light curve of SS Cyg at the stage of decline after maximum. CCD observations of SS Cyg in autumn 2006 outburst revealed oscillations with the two periods 10 s and 76 s, in November 2007 - with 41 s period and in January 2008 with 98 s. We interpret detected variations as quasi-periodic oscillations.

  4. Control of coal and gas outbursts in Huainan mines in China: A review

    OpenAIRE

    Liang Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Coal extraction in Huainan area is basically characterized by one of typical multi-seam mining conditions observed in China, where coal is mined in soft seams characterized by high gas content, high stress, low permeability and difficult geological conditions. The average mining depth in Huainan area is 875 m and continues to increase by 15–25 m annually. The rise in mining depth increases the risk of coal and gas outbursts and makes it more difficult to control outburst risk in Huainan coalm...

  5. Detection of X-ray spectral state transitions in mini-outbursts of black hole transient GRS 1739-278

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Zhen; Yu, Wenfei

    2017-10-01

    We report the detection of the state transitions and hysteresis effect in the two mini-outbursts of the black hole (BH) transient GRS 1739-278 following its 2014 major outburst. The X-ray spectral evolutions in these two mini-outbursts are similar to the major outburst in spite of their peak luminosities and the outburst durations are one order of magnitude lower. We found L_hard{-to-soft} and Lpeak,soft of the mini-outbursts also follow the correlation previously found in other X-ray binaries. L_hard{-to-soft} of the mini-outbursts is still higher than that of the persistent BH binary Cyg X-1, which supports that there is a link between the maximum luminosity a source can reach in the hard state and the corresponding non-stationary accretion represented by substantial rate of change in the mass accretion rate during flares/outbursts. The detected luminosity range of these two mini-outbursts is roughly in 3.5 × 10-5 to 0.015 (D/7.5 kpc)2(M/8M⊙) LEdd. The X-ray spectra of other BH transients at such low luminosities are usually dominated by a power-law component, and an anti-correlation is observed between the photon index and the X-ray luminosity below 1 per cent LEdd. So, the detection of X-ray spectral state transitions indicates that the accretion flow evolution in these two mini-outbursts of GRS 1739-278 are different from other BH systems at such low-luminosity regime.

  6. Simultaneous optical/X-ray study of GS 1354-64 (=BW Cir) during hard outburst: evidence for optical cyclo-synchrotron emission from the hot accretion flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahari, Mayukh; Gandhi, Poshak; Charles, Philip A.; Kotze, Marissa M.; Altamirano, Diego; Misra, Ranjeev

    2017-07-01

    We present results from simultaneous optical [South African Large Telescope (SALT)] and X-ray (Swift and INTEGRAL) observations of GS 1354-64/BW Cir during the 2015 hard state outburst. During the rising phase, optical/X-ray time series shows a strong anti-correlation with X-ray photons lagging optical. Optical and X-ray power spectra show quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) at a frequency of ˜18 mHz with a confidence level of at least 99 per cent. Simultaneous fitting of Swift/XRT and INTEGRAL spectra in the range 0.5-1000.0 keV shows non-thermal, power-law-dominated (>90 per cent) spectra with a hard power-law index of 1.48 ± 0.03, inner disc temperature of 0.12 ± 0.01 keV and an inner disc radius of ˜3000 km. All evidence is consistent with cyclo-synchrotron radiation in a non-thermal, hot electron cloud extending to ˜100 Schwarzschild radii being a major physical process for the origin of optical photons. At outburst peak about one month later, when the X-ray flux rises and the optical drops, the apparent features in the optical/X-ray correlation vanish and the optical auto correlation widens. Although ˜0.19 Hz QPO is observed from the X-ray power spectra, the optical variability is dominated by the broad-band noise, and the inner disc temperature increases. These results support a change in the dominant optical emission source between outburst rise and peak, consistent with a weakening of hot flow as the disc moves in.

  7. Pulse Oximetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... American Thoracic Society www. thoracic. org American Thoracic Society PATIENT EDUCATION | INFORMATION SERIES How accurate is the pulse oximeter? The ... patient. co. uk/ doctor/ Pulse- Oximetry. htm This ... service of the American Thoracic Society. The content is for educational purposes only. It ...

  8. Double pulse laser wakefield accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Changbum [Department of Physics, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: chbkim@postech.ac.kr; Kim, Jin-Cheol B. [Department of Physics, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kukhee [National Fusion Reserch Center, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Ko, In Soo [Department of Physics, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Suk, Hyyong [Center for Advanced Accelerators, Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute, Changwon 641-120 (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-10-22

    Two-dimensional simulation studies are performed for modified laser wakefield acceleration. After one laser pulse, another identical laser pulse is sent to the plasma to amplify the wake wave resonantly. The simulation results show that the number of injected electrons is bigger than that of the single pulse case and the beam energy is higher as well. In addition, increase of the transverse amplitude is noticed in the wake wave after the second laser pulse. This shows that the transverse motion of the wake wave enhances the wave breaking for strong injection and acceleration of electron beams.

  9. Experimental Research on the Impactive Dynamic Effect of Gas-Pulverized Coal of Coal and Gas Outburst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haitao Sun

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Coal and gas outburst is one of the major serious natural disasters during underground coal, and the shock air flow produced by outburst has a huge threat on the mine safety. In order to study the two-phase flow of a mixture of pulverized coal and gas of a mixture of pulverized coal and gas migration properties and its shock effect during the process of coal and gas outburst, the coal samples of the outburst coal seam in Yuyang Coal Mine, Chongqing, China were selected as the experimental subjects. By using the self-developed coal and gas outburst simulation test device, we simulated the law of two-phase flow of a mixture of pulverized coal and gas in the roadway network where outburst happened. The results showed that the air in the roadway around the outburst port is disturbed by the shock wave, where the pressure and temperature are abruptly changed. For the initial gas pressure of 0.35 MPa, the air pressure in different locations of the roadway fluctuated and eventually remain stable, and the overpressure of the outburst shock wave was about 20~35 kPa. The overpressure in the main roadway and the distance from the outburst port showed a decreasing trend. The highest value of temperature in the roadway increased by 0.25 °C and the highest value of gas concentration reached 38.12% during the experiment. With the action of shock air flow, the pulverized coal transportation in the roadway could be roughly divided into three stages, which are the accelerated movement stage, decelerated movement stage and the particle settling stage respectively. Total of 180.7 kg pulverized coal of outburst in this experiment were erupted, and most of them were accumulated in the main roadway. Through the analysis of the law of outburst shock wave propagation, a shock wave propagation model considering gas desorption efficiency was established. The relationships of shock wave overpressure and outburst intensity, gas desorption rate, initial gas pressure, cross

  10. Heat of solution: A new source of thermal energy in the subsurface of cometary nuclei and the gas-exsolution mechanism driving outbursts of Comet 29P/Schwassmann‒Wachmann and other comets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Richard

    2016-07-01

    , hydrophilic phases rich in aqueous CH3OH and other organic oxygenates, e.g. CH2O, able to form low melting point eutectic mixtures. A generalised outburst mechanism is described involving the containment of gases as solutes in cryomagma beneath consolidated surface crustal regions. Disruption of the crust and associated pressure loss render the cryomagma supersaturated, and the concomitant explosive exsolution of gases provokes a cometary outburst. The CO gas-exsolution mechanism operates at ∼65 to 95 K and accounts for activity of 29P and other distant comets up to rh = ∼15 AU. A similar mechanism can operate at ∼150 to 200 K driven by CO2 in aqueous CH3OH and may account for rare outbursts of Jupiter-family comets such as 17P/Holmes. At least 10-15% of all periodic comets may be subject to gas-exsolution outbursts, the majority of which are weak and go undetected. Possible surface morphologies of the nucleus of Comet 29P are discussed. The mechanism may also explain the phenomenon of strong cometary outbursts triggering secondary events, as observed for 17P, 29P and 41P.

  11. Faulkes Telescope monitoring of the current outburst of IGR J00291+5934

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Russell, D.M.; Lewis, F.; Linares, M.; Roche, P.; Maitra, D.

    2008-01-01

    As part of an optical monitoring project of low-mass X-ray binaries (Lewis et al. 2008, http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AIPC.1010..204L), we report on recent observations just prior to, and during the current outburst of the millisecond X-ray pulsar IGR J00291+5934 (ATel #1660, #1664, #1665). The

  12. Experimental Analyses of the Major Parameters Affecting the Intensity of Outbursts of Coal and Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, W.; Peng, S. J.; Xu, J.; Liu, L. R.; Wang, G.; Geng, J. B.

    2014-01-01

    With an increase in mining depth and production, the intensity and frequency of outburst of coal and gas have a tendency to increase. Estimating the intensity of outbursts of coal and gas plays an important role because of its relation with the risk value. In this paper, we described the semiquantitative relations between major parameters and intensity of outburst based on physical experiments. The results showed increment of geostress simulated by horizontal load (from 1.4, 2.4, 3.2, to 3.4 MPa) or vertical load (from 2, 3, 3.6, to 4 MPa) improved the relative intensity rate (3.763–7.403% and 1.273–7.99%); the increment of porosity (from 1.57, 2.51, 3, to 3.6%) improved the relative intensity rate from 3.8 to 13.8%; the increment of gas pressure (from 0, 0.5, 0.65, 0.72, 1, to 1.5 Mpa) induced the relative intensity rate to decrease from 38.22 to 0%; the increment of water content (from 0, 2, 4, to 8%) caused the relative intensity rate to drop from 5.425 to 0.5%. Furthermore, sensitivity and range analysis evaluates coupled factors affecting the relative intensity. In addition, the distinction with initiation of outburst of coal and gas affected by these parameters is discussed by the relative threshold of gas content rate. PMID:25162042

  13. Infrared spectroscopy of the superluminal Galactic source GRS 1915+105 during the 1994 September outburst

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    CastroTirado, A.J.; Geballe, T.R.; Lund, Niels

    1996-01-01

    We have obtained K-band IR spectra of the superluminal Galactic source GRS 1915+105 on two different dates. The second spectrum, obtained immediately after a bright X-ray outburst in 1994 September, has shown prominent H and He emission lines. The lines are not Doppler shifted, as are those...

  14. THE 2008 OUTBURST IN THE YOUNG STELLAR SYSTEM Z CMa: THE FIRST DETECTION OF TWIN JETS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whelan, E. T.; Dougados, C.; Bonnefoy, M.; Bouvier, J.; Chauvin, G.; Garcia, P. J. V.; Malbet, F.; Perrin, M. D.; Bains, I.; Redman, M. P.; Ray, T. P.; Bouy, H.; Benisty, M.; Grankvin, K.

    2010-01-01

    The Z CMa binary is understood to undergo both FU Orionis (FUOR) and EX Orionis (EXOR) type outbursts. While the SE component has been spectroscopically classified as an FUOR, the NW component, a Herbig Be star, is the source of the EXOR outbursts. The system has been identified as the source of a large outflow; however, previous studies have failed to identify the driver. Here, we present adaptive optics assisted [Fe II] spectro-images which reveal for the first time the presence of two small-scale jets. Observations made using OSIRIS at the Keck Observatory show the Herbig Be star to be the source of the parsec-scale outflow, which within 2'' of the source shows signs of wiggling and the FUOR to be driving a ∼0.''4 jet. The wiggling of the Herbig Be star's jet is evidence for an additional companion which could in fact be generating the EXOR outbursts, the last of which began in 2008. Indeed, the dynamical scale of the wiggling corresponds to a timescale of 4-8 years which is in agreement with the timescale of these outbursts. The spectro-images also show a bow-shock-shaped feature and possible associated knots. The origin of this structure is as of yet unclear. Finally, interesting low velocity structure is also observed. One possibility is that it originates in a wide-angle outflow launched from a circumbinary disk.

  15. Evolution and outburst risk analysis of moraine-dammed lakes in the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tinued monitoring well into the 21st century as glacier retreat ... 53 E) and Galongco. (28. ◦. 19 N, 85. ◦. 51 E) are moraine-dammed lakes. ('co' means lake in the Tibetan language), located at elevations of 5220 m and 5089 m a.s.l. on the southeastern ..... Russia) and modeling of their potential outburst; Nat. Hazards 61 ...

  16. Evolution and outburst risk analysis of moraine-dammed lakes in the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    and Nepal) GLOF disasters. Therefore, there is an urgent need to strengthen integrated risk management of glacial lake outburst disasters with multiple objectives and modes. 1. Introduction. As global climate warms, glaciers generally shrink and their retreat sometimes allows unstable forma- tion of moraine-dammed lakes.

  17. INTEGRAL observations of the BHC IGR J17091-3624 in outburst

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Capitanio, F.; Tramacere, A.; Del Santo, M.

    2011-01-01

    During the monitoring of the RX J1712.7-3946 region (PI. R. Terrier), INTEGRAL observed the currently ongoing outburst of the BHC IGRJ17091-3624 (Atels #3144, #3148, #3150). These observations were performed from 2011 Feb. 07 at 11:53 to 2011 Feb. 08 at 18:56 (UTC). The source was detected by IBI...

  18. Outburst from the SFXT IGR J17544-2619 detected by INTEGRAL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paizis, A.; Kuulkers, E.; Chenevez, J.

    2015-01-01

    During public INTEGRAL Galactic bulge monitoring observations (ATel #438) performed on 2015 February 20-21 at UT 23:04-02:45, we detected the SFXT IGR J17544-2619 (see ATel #7137 for the recent Swift detection of the source outburst). The source was detected using IBIS/ISGRI in the 18-40 keV rang...

  19. Seismic Monitoring and Characterization of the 2012 Outburst Flood of the Ice-Dammed Lake A.P.Olsen (NE Greenland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behm, M.; Walter, J. I.; Binder, D.; Mertl, S.

    2017-12-01

    Since the Zackenberg Research Station (ZRS) in NE-Greenland was established in 1995, regular floods of the adjacent Zackenberg River have been observed. The floods result from the sudden discharge of a marginal, ice-dammed lake at the pre-dominantly cold-based A.P. Olsen Ice Cap about 35 km inland. The lake filling usually starts with the melting season in May/June and ends with the flood sometime after early July. The run-off water from the lake discharges through the subsurface of the adjacent Argo glacier. The actual migration paths and depth of the water within the glacier are unknown until it re-appears at the glacier terminus at a distance of 4 km to the ice-dam. In spring 2012 a surface seismic monitoring network was installed on Argo glacier in 2-3 m boreholes near the lake to acquire continuous data for the whole fill- and drain cycle from start of May to end of November. The network comprises 3 stations with three-component sensors and 2 stations designed as tripartite arrays with vertically oriented sensors. The maximum interstation distance is 1.2 km. Microseismic event detection and localization is facilitated by the homogenous seismic structure of the ice and the extremely high S/N ratio of the borehole installations. An initial detection based on an STA/LTA algorithm and event assocator results in order-of-magnitude 100,000 seismic events. These events are generally attributed to the opening of surface crevasses due to the presence of weak body waves and strong surface wave energy, interpreted to be Rayleigh waves with dominant frequencies around 1-4 Hz. Time-lapse cross-correlations of the ambient seismic noise field reconstruct the surface waves travelling between the stations. Weekly stacks of the cross-correlations are stable, and show a distinct change correlated with the outburst flood. Apparent surface wave velocities increase slightly several weeks prior to the outburst event, which itself is characterized by a decrease in the correlation

  20. Glacier Lake Outburst Floods in Norway 2001 - 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Miriam; Engeset, Rune

    2010-05-01

    Several GLOFs or jøkulhlaups occurred in Norway during the first decade of the millennium, the most significant being several from Rundvassbreen, an outlet glacier of Blåmannsisen and one from Flatbreen, an outlet glacier of Jostedalsbreen. A number of minor flood events occurred also. Many of the glaciers in Norway, especially the maritime glaciers with high winter balance, demonstrated frontal advance and positive mass balance in the 1990s. However, since 2000 most glaciers have had a negative mass balance, and undergone frontal retreat and a corresponding decrease in area. The outburst flood from Flatbreen in 2004 was from a moraine-dammed lake that usually drains under the glacier itself. The immediate cause of the flood was a sudden period of warm, wet weather and the sudden increase of additional water into the lake caused the moraine to rupture. Over 50 000 m3 of water drained from the lake, and the resulting debris flow from the lake to the valley 1000 m lower had a volume of 240 000 m3. Fortunately there were no injuries from this flood, but extensive material damage to farmland on the valley floor. Previous, but smaller events occurred from this lake in 1924 and 1947. The moraine is still partially ruptured, thus the potential for a new jøkulhlaup of the same magnitude as that in 2004 is greatly reduced. Several floods occurred from a glacier-dammed lake at the glacier Blåmannsisen in Nothern Norway, the first occurring in 2001, and subsequently in 2005, 2007 and 2009. The jøkulhlaups all occurred in late summer, but at different water levels of the lake. The first two events occurred when the lake was full and 35 - 40 million m3 of water drained. However, the second event occurred a year after the lake had filled again, with the excess water in the meantime draining over a spillway and away from the glacier, as it had done prior to 2001. The two subsequent events occurred before the lake was completely full, and were half the size of the first two

  1. Regulation of black-hole accretion by a disk wind during a violent outburst of V404 Cygni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Darias, T; Casares, J; Mata Sánchez, D; Fender, R P; Armas Padilla, M; Linares, M; Ponti, G; Charles, P A; Mooley, K P; Rodriguez, J

    2016-06-02

    Accretion of matter onto black holes is universally associated with strong radiative feedback and powerful outflows. In particular, black-hole transients have outflows whose properties are strongly coupled to those of the accretion flow. This includes X-ray winds of ionized material, expelled from the accretion disk encircling the black hole, and collimated radio jets. Very recently, a distinct optical variability pattern has been reported in the transient stellar-mass black hole V404 Cygni, and interpreted as disrupted mass flow into the inner regions of its large accretion disk. Here we report observations of a sustained outer accretion disk wind in V404 Cyg, which is unlike any seen hitherto. We find that the outflowing wind is neutral, has a large covering factor, expands at one per cent of the speed of light and triggers a nebular phase once accretion drops sharply and the ejecta become optically thin. The large expelled mass (>10(-8) solar masses) indicates that the outburst was prematurely ended when a sizeable fraction of the outer disk was depleted by the wind, detaching the inner regions from the rest of the disk. The luminous, but brief, accretion phases shown by transients with large accretion disks imply that this outflow is probably a fundamental ingredient in regulating mass accretion onto black holes.

  2. Temporal changes in the carbon isotope ratio of CO2 occurences in the environs of a heavy gas outburst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kecskes, A.; Cornides, I.; Petik, P.A.

    1982-01-01

    A considerable temporal change in the carbon isotopic composition of CO 2 occurences in the environs of a heavy gas outburst is reported. As part of a geochemical survey program of the last decade with the objective to map the variations of the delta 13 C vaule of CO 2 occurencies in the Carpathian Basin, temporal variations were also checked, but prior to this outburst no changes were detected by mass spectroscopy. The interpretation of the temporal change is proposed on the basis of the subsurface mixing of two isotopically different carbon dioxides existing in the surroundings of the outburst. (Sz.J.)

  3. Consequences and potential problems of operating room outbursts and temper tantrums by surgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, George B; Wille, Rosanne L

    2012-01-01

    Anecdotal tales of colorful temper tantrums and outbursts by surgeons directed at operating room nurses and at times other health care providers, like residents and fellows, are part of the history of surgery and include not only verbal abuse but also instrument throwing and real harassment. Our Editor-in-Chief, Dr. Nancy Epstein, has made the literature review of "Are there truly any risks and consequences when spine surgeons mistreat their predominantly female OR nursing staff/colleagues, and what can we do about it?," an assigned topic for members of the editorial board as part of a new category entitled Ethical Note for our journal. This is a topic long overdue and I chose to research it. There is no medical literature to review dealing with nurse abuse. To research this topic, one has to involve business, industry, educational institutions, compliance standards and practices, and existing state and federal laws. I asked Dr. Rosanne Wille to co-author this paper since, as the former Dean of Nursing and then Provost and Senior Vice President for Academic Affairs at a major higher educational institution, she had personal experience with compliance regulations and both sexual harassment and employment discrimination complaints, to make this review meaningful. A review of the existing business practices and both state and federal laws strongly suggests that although there has not been any specific legal complaint that is part of the public record, any surgeon who chooses to act out his or her frustration and nervous energy demands by abusing co-workers on the health care team, and in this case specifically operating room personnel, is taking a chance of making legal history with financial outcomes which only an actual trial can predict or determine. Even more serious outcomes of an out-of-control temper tantrum and disruptive behavior can terminate, after multiple hearings and appeals, in adverse decisions affecting hospital privileges. Surgeons who abuse other

  4. Disc-jet Coupling in the 2009 Outburst of the Black Hole Candidate H1743-322

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller-Jones, J. C. A.; Sivakoff, G. R.; Altamirano, D.; Coriat, M.; Corbel, S.; Dhawan, V.; Krimm, H. A.; Remillard, R. A.; Rupen, M. P.; Russell, D. M.; hide

    2012-01-01

    We present an intensive radio and X-ray monitoring campaign on the 2009 outburst of the Galactic black hole candidate X-ray binary H1743-322. With the high angular resolution of the Very Long Baseline Array, we resolve the jet ejection event and measure the proper motions of the jet ejecta relative to the position of the compact core jets detected at the beginning of the outburst. This allows us to accurately couple the moment when the jet ejection event occurred with X-ray spectral and timing signatures. We find that X-ray timing signatures are the best diagnostic of the jet ejection event in this outburst, which occurred as the X-ray variability began to decrease and the Type C quasi-periodic oscillations disappeared from the X-ray power density spectrum. However, this sequence of events does not appear to be replicated in all black hole X-ray binary outbursts, even within an individual source. In our observations of H1743-322, the ejection was contemporaneous with a quenching of the radio emission, prior to the start of the major radio flare. This contradicts previous assumptions that the onset of the radio flare marks the moment of ejection. The jet speed appears to vary between outbursts with a positive correlation outburst luminosity. The compact core radio jet reactivated on transition to the hard intermediate state at the end of the outburst and not when the source reached the low hard spectral state. Comparison with the known near-infrared behaviour of the compact jets suggests a gradual evolution of the compact jet power over a few days near beginning the and end of an outburst

  5. Simultaneous Multiwavelength Observations of V404 Cygni during its 2015 June Outburst Decay Strengthen the Case for an Extremely Energetic Jet-base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maitra, Dipankar; Scarpaci, John F.; Grinberg, Victoria; Reynolds, Mark T.; Markoff, Sera; Maccarone, Thomas J.; Hynes, Robert I.

    2017-12-01

    We present results of multiband optical photometry of the black hole X-ray binary system V404 Cyg obtained using Wheaton College Observatory’s 0.3 m telescope, along with strictly simultaneous INTEGRAL and Swift observations during 2015 June 25.15–26.33 UT, and 2015 June 27.10–27.34 UT. These observations were made during the 2015 June outburst of the source when it was going through an epoch of violent activity in all wavelengths ranging from radio to γ-rays. The multiwavelength variability timescale favors a compact emission region, most likely originating in a jet outflow, for both observing epochs presented in this work. The simultaneous INTEGRAL/Imager on Board the Integral Satellite (IBIS) 20–40 keV light curve obtained during the June 27 observing run correlates very strongly with the optical light curve, with no detectable delay between the optical bands as well as between the optical and hard X-rays. The average slope of the dereddened spectral energy distribution was roughly flat between the {I}C- and V-bands during the June 27 run, even though the optical and X-ray flux varied by >25× during the run, ruling out an irradiation origin for the optical and suggesting that the optically thick to optically thin jet synchrotron break during the observations was at a frequency larger than that of V-band, which is quite extreme for X-ray binaries. These observations suggest that the optical emission originated very close to the base of the jet. A strong {{H}}α emission line, probably originating in a quasi-spherical nebula around the source, also contributes significantly in the R C -band. Our data, in conjunction with contemporaneous data at other wavelengths presented by other groups, strongly suggest that the jet-base was extremely compact and energetic during this phase of the outburst.

  6. Pulse plating

    CERN Document Server

    Hansal, Wolfgang E G; Green, Todd; Leisner, Peter; Reichenbach, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    The electrodeposition of metals using pulsed current has achieved practical importance in recent years. Although it has long been known that changes in potential, with or without polarity reversal, can significantly affect the deposition process, the practical application of this has been slow to be adopted. This can largely be explained in terms of the complex relationship between the current regime and its effect on the electrodeposition process. In order to harness these effects, an understanding of the anodic and cathodic electrochemical processes is necessary, together with the effects of polarity reversal and the rate of such reversals. In this new monograph, the basics of metal electrodeposition from solution are laid out in great detail in seven distinct chapters. With this knowledge, the reader is able to predict how a given pulse train profile can be adopted to achieve a desired outcome. Equally important is the choice of a suitable rectifier and the ancillary control circuits to enable pulse platin...

  7. High-energy Gamma-Ray Activity from V404 Cygni Detected by AGILE during the 2015 June Outburst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piano, G.; Munar-Adrover, P.; Tavani, M. [INAF-IAPS, Via del Fosso del Cavaliere 100, I-00133 Roma (Italy); Verrecchia, F. [ASI Data Center (ASDC), Via del Politecnico snc, I-00133 Roma (Italy); Trushkin, S. A., E-mail: giovanni.piano@iaps.inaf.it [Special Astrophysical Observatory RAS, Karachaevo-Cherkassian Republic, Nizhnij Arkhyz 36916 (Russian Federation)

    2017-04-20

    The AGILE satellite detected transient high-energy γ -ray emission from the X-ray binary V404 Cygni, during the 2015 June outburst observed in radio, optical, X-ray, and soft γ -ray frequencies. The activity was observed by AGILE in the 50–400 MeV energy band, between 2015 June 24 UT 06:00:00 and 2015 June 26 UT 06:00:00 (MJD 57197.25–57199.25), with a detection significance of ∼4.3 σ . The γ -ray detection, consistent with a contemporaneous observation by Fermi -LAT, is correlated with a bright flare observed at radio and hard X-ray frequencies, and with a strong enhancement of the 511 keV line emission, possibly indicating plasmoid ejections in a lepton-dominated transient jet. The AGILE observations of this binary system are compatible with a microquasar scenario in which transient jets are responsible for the high-energy γ -ray emission.

  8. Accretion Flow Properties of Swift J1753.5-0127 during Its 2005 Outburst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debnath, Dipak; Jana, Arghajit; Chakrabarti, Sandip K.; Chatterjee, Debjit; Mondal, Santanu

    2017-11-01

    Galactic X-ray binary black hole candidate Swift J1753.5-0127 was discovered on 2005 June 30 by the Swift/BAT instrument. In this paper, we make a detailed analysis of spectral and timing properties of its 2005 outburst using the archival data of the RXTE/PCA instrument. A simultaneous observation of Swift/XRT with PCA is also used to study the broadband features. Here, we study the evolution of the spectral properties of the source from spectral analysis with an additive table model fits file of the Chakrabarti-Titarchuk two-component advective flow (TCAF) solution. From the spectral fit, we extract physical flow parameters, such as the Keplerian disk accretion rate, sub-Keplerian halo rate, shock location, and shock compression ratio, etc. We also study the evolution of temporal properties, such as the observation of low-frequency quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs), and the variation of X-ray intensity throughout the outburst. From the nature of the variation of QPOs, and accretion rate ratios (ARRs = ratio of halo to disk rates), we classify the entire 2005 outburst into two harder (hard-intermediate and hard) spectral states. No signatures of softer (soft-intermediate and soft) spectral states are seen. This may be because of a significant halo rate throughout the outburst. This behavior is similar to a class of other short-orbital-period sources, such as MAXI J1836-194, MAXI J1659-152, and XTE J1118+480. We estimate the probable mass range of the source to be in between {5.35}-0.60+0.55 {M}⊙ based on our spectral analysis.

  9. Japanese Mutual Funds before and after the Crisis Outburst: A Style- and Performance-Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Stephanos Papadamou; Nikolaos A. Kyriazis; Lydia Mermigka

    2017-01-01

    This paper investigates how mutual funds performed in Japan before and after the 2008 outburst of the global financial crisis, that is during the extension of an extraordinary unconventional monetary policy by the Bank of Japan. Style and performance analyses are employed in order to investigate whether active or passive management has been affected by unconventional times and to what extent. Evidence indicates that in four out of eight funds, asset selection presents a significant contributi...

  10. Repetitive outbursts of fast carbon and fluorine ions from sub-nanosecond laser-produced plasma

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krása, Josef; Velyhan, Andriy; Jungwirth, Karel; Krouský, Eduard; Láska, Leoš; Rohlena, Karel; Pfeifer, Miroslav; Ullschmied, Jiří

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 1 (2009), 171-178 ISSN 0263-0346 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC528; GA AV ČR IAA100100715 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100523; CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : laser-produced plasma * outbursts of fast ions Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 4.420, year: 2008

  11. DETECTION OF REMNANT DUST CLOUD ASSOCIATED WITH THE 2007 OUTBURST OF 17P/HOLMES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishiguro, Masateru; Kim, Yoonyoung; Kwon, Yuna G.; Sarugaku, Yuki; Kuroda, Daisuke; Maehara, Hiroyuki; Hanayama, Hidekazu; Takahashi, Jun; Terai, Tsuyoshi; Usui, Fumihiko; Vaubaillon, Jeremie J.; Morokuma, Tomoki; Kobayashi, Naoto; Watanabe, Jun-ichi

    2016-01-01

    This article reports a new optical observation of 17P/Holmes one orbital period after the historical outburst event in 2007. We detected not only a common dust tail near the nucleus but also a long narrow structure that extended along the position angle 274.°6 ± 0.°1 beyond the field of view (FOV) of the Kiso Wide Field Camera, i.e., >0.°2 eastward and >2.°0 westward from the nuclear position. The width of the structure decreased westward with increasing distance from the nucleus. We obtained the total cross section of the long extended structure in the FOV, C FOV  = (2.3 ± 0.5) × 10 10 m 2 . From the position angle, morphology, and mass, we concluded that the long narrow structure consists of materials ejected during the 2007 outburst. On the basis of the dynamical behavior of dust grains in the solar radiation field, we estimated that the long narrow structure would be composed of 1 mm–1 cm grains having an ejection velocity of >50 m s −1 . The velocity was more than one order of magnitude faster than that of millimeter–centimeter grains from typical comets around a heliocentric distance r h of 2.5 AU. We considered that sudden sublimation of a large amount of water-ice (≈10 30 mol s −1 ) would be responsible for the high ejection velocity. We finally estimated a total mass of M TOT  = (4–8) × 10 11 kg and a total kinetic energy of E TOT  = (1–6) × 10 15 J for the 2007 outburst ejecta, which are consistent with those of previous studies that were conducted soon after the outburst

  12. Characterizing Outbursts and Nucleus Properties of Comet 29P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Yanga

    2015-10-01

    Today's comets are remnant bodies leftover from the era of planet formation in our own Solar System. Therefore characterizing cometary structure and composition can give clues to the thermal, physical, and chemical environment of the protoplanetary disk. However before this long-term 'holy grail' of planetary astronomy can be achieved, we must understand cometary evolution so that we can know how comets have changed since their formation. The phenomenon of cometary activity, where a porous matrix of icy and rocky material turns into the gases and the dust grains we see in a comet's coma, remains a poorly-understood puzzle of short-term cometary evolution. We are in the midst of an ongoing project to understand cometary activity in a particular comet, 29P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 1, by taking advantage of existing imaging datasets that show the comet in outburst. Outbursts are useful for constraining the nucleus's spin state and the location of active areas. We propose here to analyze archival WFPC2 images of comet 29P obtained in March 1996 (Cycle 5, Project 5829), spanning 21 hours, that show the comet in outburst. These data are the highest-resolution imaging of this comet ever obtained while it was in outburst. We will analyze the morphology of the comet's dust coma to constrain properties of the nucleus and of the dust grains themselves. Additionally, we will analyze images taken in May 2000 (Cycle 8, Project 8274) that show the comet at its steady-state level of activity but may also allow us to place further constraints on the nucleus's active regions.

  13. Limits and challenges to compiling and developing a database of glacial lake outburst floods

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Emmer, Adam; Vilímek, V.; Huggel, C.; Klimeš, Jan; Schaub, Y.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 13, feb (2016), s. 1579-1584 ISSN 1612-510X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415; GA MŠk(CZ) LG15007 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 ; RVO:67985891 Keywords : Database * Glacial lake outburst floods * GLOF * ICL/IPL activities * Natural hazards Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour; DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography (USMH-B) Impact factor: 3.657, year: 2016

  14. A CHALLENGING VIEW OF THE 2015 SUMMER V404 CYG OUTBURST AT HIGH ENERGY WITH INTEGRAL /SPI: THE FINALE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jourdain, Elisabeth; Roques, Jean-Pierre; Rodi, James

    2017-01-01

    During its strong outburst of 2015 June/July, the X-ray transient V404 Cygni (=GS2023+338) was observed up to a level of 50 Crab in the hard X-ray domain. We focus here on a particularly intense episode preceeding a definitive decline of the source activity. We benefit from large signal-to-noise ratios to investigate the source spectral variability, on a timescale of five minutes. A hardness–intensity study of three broad bands reveals clearly different behaviors at low and high energy (below and above ∼100 keV). In particular, on two occasions, the source intensity varies by a factor of 3–4 in amplitude while keeping the same spectral shape. On the other hand, at the end of the major flare, the emission presents a clear anticorrelation between flux and hardness. These behaviors strongly suggest the presence of two spectral components related to emission processes varying in a largely independent way. The first component ( E < 100–150 keV) is classically identified with a Comptonizing thermal electron population, and requires either an unusual seed photon population or a specific geometry with strong absorbing/reflecting material. The second component is modeled by a cutoff power-law, which could correspond to a second hotter Comptonizing population or another mechanism (synchrotron, non-thermal Comptonization...). In the framework of such a model, hardness–intensity and flux–flux diagrams clearly demonstrate that the source evolution follows a well-organized underlying scheme. They reveal unique information about the hard X-ray emission processes and connections between them.

  15. An outburst from a massive star 40 days before a supernova explosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ofek, E O; Sullivan, M; Cenko, S B; Kasliwal, M M; Gal-Yam, A; Kulkarni, S R; Arcavi, I; Bildsten, L; Bloom, J S; Horesh, A; Howell, D A; Filippenko, A V; Laher, R; Murray, D; Nakar, E; Nugent, P E; Silverman, J M; Shaviv, N J; Surace, J; Yaron, O

    2013-02-07

    Some observations suggest that very massive stars experience extreme mass-loss episodes shortly before they explode as supernovae, as do several models. Establishing a causal connection between these mass-loss episodes and the final explosion would provide a novel way to study pre-supernova massive-star evolution. Here we report observations of a mass-loss event detected 40 days before the explosion of the type IIn supernova SN 2010mc (also known as PTF 10tel). Our photometric and spectroscopic data suggest that this event is a result of an energetic outburst, radiating at least 6 × 10(47) erg of energy and releasing about 10(-2) solar masses of material at typical velocities of 2,000 km s(-1). The temporal proximity of the mass-loss outburst and the supernova explosion implies a causal connection between them. Moreover, we find that the outburst luminosity and velocity are consistent with the predictions of the wave-driven pulsation model, and disfavour alternative suggestions.

  16. STUCTURE OF PULSED BED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Bokun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The structure of pulsed layer is proposed which can be suggested as a state of particulates that is blown by intermittent gas flow with speed which has the force to start material moving. Layer during one cycle is in a suspension, falling down and immobile state resulting in changes of particles arrangement as well as ways of gas flowing through layer. Moreover, it allows carrying out effective interphase heat exchange even adamant real granulation.The process of formation of impact flows is considered aw well as their influence on formation of air bubbles in pulsed layer. At startup of air blast the balance between the force of hydro-dynamic resistance is broken, on one side, and forces of gravity, particles inertia and their links with walls on the other side. The layer is transferred in the state of pulsed pseudo-fluidization, and presents gas-disperse mixture, inside of which impulse of pressure increasing is spreading to all sides as pressure waves (compression. These waves are the sources of impact flows’ formation, the force of which is two times more than during the stationary flow.The waves of pressure are divided into weak and strong ones depending on movement velocity within gas-disperse system. Weak waves are moving with a sound speed and strong ones in active phase of pulsed layer are moving over the speed of sound limit within gas-disperse system. The peculiarity of strong wave is that parameters of system (pressure, density and others are changing in discrete steps.The article describes the regime of layer’s falling down in the passive stage of cycle, which begins after finishing of gas impulse action. And suspension layer of moving up granular material is transferred in the state of falling resulting in change of the layer structure.

  17. RXTE Observation of 4U 1630-47 During its 1998 Outburst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieters, Stefan W.

    1999-01-01

    During the 1998 outburst of 4U 1630-47 it was extensively observed with the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE). In order to cover the outburst more thoroughly our data (Obs. ID: 30178-0[1-2]- ) were combined with those of Cui et al. (Obs. ID: 30188-02-). These observations were later compared with the complementary observations. Power density and energy spectra have been made for each observation. The data was used to place radio and hard X-ray observations within context. Analysis of SAX (Satellite per Astronomia a raggi X) and BATSE (Burst and Transient Source Experiment) data was also included within the study. The count rate and position in hardness-intensity, color-color diagrams and simple spectral fits are used to track the concurrent spectral changes. The source showed seven distinct types of timing behavior, most of which show differences with the canonical black hole spectral/timing states. In marked contrast to previous outbursts, we find quasi-periodic oscillation (QPO) signals during nearly all stages of the outburst with frequencies between 0.06 Hz and 14 Hz and a remarkable variety of other characteristics. In particular we find large (up to 23% rms) amplitude QPO on the early rise. Later, slow 0.1 Hz semi- regular short (- 5 sec), 9 to 16% deep dips dominate the light curve. At this time there are two QPOS, one stable near 13.5 Hz and the other whose frequency drops from 6-8 Hz to - 4.5 Hz during the dips. BeppoSAX observations during the very late declining phase show 4U 1630-47 in a low state. These results will shortly be published. We are completing a detailed analysis of the energy spectra (in preparation). The QPO/noise properties are being correlated with the concurrent spectral changes. Detailed studies of the QPO are being undertaken using sophisticated timing analysis methods. Finally a comparison with the other outbursts of 1630-47 is being made.

  18. The Outburst Decay of the Low Magnetic Field Magnetar SGR 0418+5729

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rea, N.; Israel, G. L.; Pons, J. A.; Turolla, R.; Viganò, D.; Zane, S.; Esposito, P.; Perna, R.; Papitto, A.; Terreran, G.; Tiengo, A.; Salvetti, D.; Girart, J. M.; Palau, Aina; Possenti, A.; Burgay, M.; Göğüş, E.; Caliandro, G. A.; Kouveliotou, C.; Götz, D.; Mignani, R. P.; Ratti, E.; Stella, L.

    2013-06-01

    We report on the long-term X-ray monitoring of the outburst decay of the low magnetic field magnetar SGR 0418+5729 using all the available X-ray data obtained with RXTE, Swift, Chandra, and XMM-Newton observations from the discovery of the source in 2009 June up to 2012 August. The timing analysis allowed us to obtain the first measurement of the period derivative of SGR 0418+5729: \\dot{P}=4(1)\\times 10^{-15} s s-1, significant at a ~3.5σ confidence level. This leads to a surface dipolar magnetic field of B dip ~= 6 × 1012 G. This measurement confirms SGR 0418+5729 as the lowest magnetic field magnetar. Following the flux and spectral evolution from the beginning of the outburst up to ~1200 days, we observe a gradual cooling of the tiny hot spot responsible for the X-ray emission, from a temperature of ~0.9 to 0.3 keV. Simultaneously, the X-ray flux decreased by about three orders of magnitude: from about 1.4 × 10-11 to 1.2 × 10-14 erg s-1 cm-2. Deep radio, millimeter, optical, and gamma-ray observations did not detect the source counterpart, implying stringent limits on its multi-band emission, as well as constraints on the presence of a fossil disk. By modeling the magneto-thermal secular evolution of SGR 0418+5729, we infer a realistic age of ~550 kyr, and a dipolar magnetic field at birth of ~1014 G. The outburst characteristics suggest the presence of a thin twisted bundle with a small heated spot at its base. The bundle untwisted in the first few months following the outburst, while the hot spot decreases in temperature and size. We estimate the outburst rate of low magnetic field magnetars to be about one per year per galaxy, and we briefly discuss the consequences of such a result in several other astrophysical contexts.

  19. Monitoring of Bashkara glacial lakes (the Central Caucasus) and modelling of their potential outburst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krylenko, I.; Norin, S.; Petrakov, D.; Tutubalina, O.; Chernomorets, S.

    2009-04-01

    In recent decades due to glacier retreat the glacial lakes in the Central Caucasus, as well as in other high-mountainous areas of the world, have expanded intensively. As result the risk of lake outbursts and destructive floods is raising. In this paper we present one of the most potentially hazardous lakes of this region - a group of glacial lakes near the Bashkara glacier in the upper Adylsu river valley, to the southeast of Mt. Elbrus. Total area of these lakes is about 100,000m2, and a total volume exceeds 1,000,000 m3. The biggest of them - the Bashkara lake has formed in late 1930s - early 1940s and the small Lapa lake has appeared in the end of 1980s. The Bashkara lake outburst occurred twice in the end of 1950s and produced devastating debris flows of ca. 2 million m3. We have monitored these lakes since 1999. Our work includes detailed field research: constant measurements of water level during warm period, annually repeated bathymetric surveys, geodetic surveys, observations on dam condition and some special measurements (i.e. water temperature distribution, current velocity). Also we use aerial and satellite images to obtain data about dynamic of areas for the lakes. From 2001 to 2006 years volume of the Lapa lake has increased 5 times (from 30,000 m3 to 140,000 m3), the Bashkara lake in this period was quasi-stable. In 2006-2008 volume of the Lapa lake has decreased due to sedimentation, however, rapid growth of water level in Bashkara lake (more than 20 sm. per day) has suddenly begun. As a result, volume of the Bashkara lake exceeded 1,000000 m3 in July 2008 whereas in 2001 -2007 year it was about 800,000 m3. Previous maximum of water level was exceeded on 3,5 m, moraine dam with ice core was overtopped and overflow has started. Thus, Bashkara glacier lakes are unstable and risk of outburst is increasing. To assess parameters and zones of potential outburst flood in the Adylsu River valley we have carried out hydrodynamic simulation. Two computer

  20. Challenges in understanding, modelling, and mitigating Lake Outburst Flood Hazard: experiences from Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mergili, Martin; Schneider, Demian; Andres, Norina; Worni, Raphael; Gruber, Fabian; Schneider, Jean F.

    2010-05-01

    Lake Outburst Floods can evolve from complex process chains like avalanches of rock or ice that produce flood waves in a lake which may overtop and eventually breach glacial, morainic, landslide, or artificial dams. Rising lake levels can lead to progressive incision and destabilization of a dam, to enhanced ground water flow (piping), or even to hydrostatic failure of ice dams which can cause sudden outflow of accumulated water. These events often have a highly destructive potential because a large amount of water is released in a short time, with a high capacity to erode loose debris, leading to a powerful debris flow with a long travel distance. The best-known example of a lake outburst flood is the Vajont event (Northern Italy, 1963), where a landslide rushed into an artificial lake which spilled over and caused a flood leading to almost 2000 fatalities. Hazards from the failure of landslide dams are often (not always) fairly manageable: most breaches occur in the first few days or weeks after the landslide event and the rapid construction of a spillway - though problematic - has solved some hazardous situations (e.g. in the case of Hattian landslide in 2005 in Pakistan). Older dams, like Usoi dam (Lake Sarez) in Tajikistan, are usually fairly stable, though landsildes into the lakes may create floodwaves overtopping and eventually weakening the dams. The analysis and the mitigation of glacial lake outburst flood (GLOF) hazard remains a challenge. A number of GLOFs resulting in fatalities and severe damage have occurred during the previous decades, particularly in the Himalayas and in the mountains of Central Asia (Pamir, Tien Shan). The source area is usually far away from the area of impact and events occur at very long intervals or as singularities, so that the population at risk is usually not prepared. Even though potentially hazardous lakes can be identified relatively easily with remote sensing and field work, modeling and predicting of GLOFs (and also

  1. Pulsed power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    The key element of our pulsed power program is concentration of power in time and space by suppression of breakdown in dielectrics and in vacuum. Magnetically insulated vacuum transmission lines and magnetic suppression of insulator flashover have continued as the main reserch directions. Vacuum insulated line studies at Physics International have been expanded and a test bed at Sandia, called MITE (Magnetically Insulated Transmission Experiment), is under development. The choice for the baseline EBFA design will depend on the outcome of these studies and should be made in July 1977. The slow and intermediate speed pulsed power approaches to EBFA will be based on Proto I and Proto II results and several of the projected EBFA subsystems are presently being tested in Proto II. A further stage of power concentration, within the vacuum diode itself, would considerably ease the burden on dielectrics; methods of power multiplication involving magnetically imploded plasmas are being considered and tests have begun using the Ripple III apparatus

  2. Pulse interactions in a quantum dot waveguide in the regime of electromagnetically Induced transparency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per; Nielsen, Henri; Mørk, Jesper

    2006-01-01

    The interaction of optical pulses in a quantum dot waveguide in the slow-light regime is investigated. Dipole oscillations lead to strong interactions between the two pulses, implying a minimum pulse separation for optical buffer applications.......The interaction of optical pulses in a quantum dot waveguide in the slow-light regime is investigated. Dipole oscillations lead to strong interactions between the two pulses, implying a minimum pulse separation for optical buffer applications....

  3. Lightning initiation: Strong pulses of VHF radiation accompany preliminary breakdown

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kolmašová, Ivana; Santolík, Ondřej; Defer, E.; Rison, W.; Coquillat, S.; Pedeboy, S.; Lán, Radek; Uhlíř, Luděk; Lambert, D.; Pinty, J.P.; Prieur, S.; Pont, V.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 1 (2018), č. článku 3650. ISSN 2045-2322 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA17-07027S Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) AP1401 Program:Akademická prémie - Praemium Academiae Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : controlled study * article * electromagnetic radiation * magnetic field * waveform * lightning * mapping array * discharges * ionosphere * luminosity * flashes * leaders * system Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics OBOR OECD: Fluids and plasma physics (including surface physics ) Impact factor: 4.259, year: 2016 https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-018-21972-z

  4. Interpretation of the H2O maser outbursts in Orion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strel'nitskij, V.S.

    1982-01-01

    It is shown, that the H 2 O maser that flared up in Orion (+8 km/s) was partly unsaturated. The anti-correlation between the line width and intensity, the asymmetry of the profile and the changes of the visibility function within it are explained by blending of two componenets, one of which has experienced a flare. From the observed polarization properties the upper limit to the electron density (nsub(e) 5 cm -3 ), the strength of the magnetic field (B approximately 10 -2 G) and its direction (position angle phi approximately -15 deg) within the source are deduced. According to the proposed physical model the source is a gas condensation, pressed, heated and accelerated by the strong stellar wind from a young star (possibly IRc4). The maser is pumped by the CCr-process at sup(n)H approximately 10 11 -10 12 cm -3 . If the condensation is a remnant of a circumstellar gas-dust disk, the magnetic field within the disk must be essentially azimuthal [ru

  5. Measurement and Control of Attosecond Pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-25

    To use the quantum path interference, present in any attosecond pulse, to resolve the strongly-driven attosecond time-scale electron dynamics in...color pulse is then incident on a gas target placed some distance away where it creates an isolated attosecond pulse in Xenon , Krypton and probably...scale electron dynamics in selected ions. Figure 5: Beamlets as measured in the far field plotted with their angle of propagation shown for

  6. Pulse radiolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenshields, H.; Seddon, W.A.

    1982-03-01

    This supplement to two bibliographies published in 1970 and 1972 lists 734 references to the literature of pulse radiolysis, arranged under eight broad subject headings. The references were compiled by searching Biological Abstracts, Chemical Abstracts, Nuclear Science Abstracts and the Weekly List of Papers in Radiation Chemistry issued by the Radiation Chemistry Data Center of Notre Dame University. Full bibliographic data is given for papers published in the period 1971 to 1974. A personal author index listing more than 600 authors and a similar number of co-authors is included

  7. PULSE COLUMN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimmett, E.S.

    1964-01-01

    This patent covers a continuous countercurrent liquidsolids contactor column having a number of contactor states each comprising a perforated plate, a layer of balls, and a downcomer tube; a liquid-pulsing piston; and a solids discharger formed of a conical section at the bottom of the column, and a tubular extension on the lowest downcomer terminating in the conical section. Between the conical section and the downcomer extension is formed a small annular opening, through which solids fall coming through the perforated plate of the lowest contactor stage. This annular opening is small enough that the pressure drop thereacross is greater than the pressure drop upward through the lowest contactor stage. (AEC)

  8. MINUTE-TIMESCALE >100 MeV γ -RAY VARIABILITY DURING THE GIANT OUTBURST OF QUASAR 3C 279 OBSERVED BY FERMI -LAT IN 2015 JUNE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ackermann, M.; Buehler, R. [Deutsches Elektronen Synchrotron DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen (Germany); Anantua, R.; Baldini, L.; Blandford, R. D.; Bloom, E. D.; Bottacini, E.; Caliandro, G. A.; Cameron, R. A. [W. W. Hansen Experimental Physics Laboratory, Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Department of Physics and SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Asano, K. [Institute for Cosmic-Ray Research, University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba, 277-8582 (Japan); Barbiellini, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Trieste, I-34127 Trieste (Italy); Bastieri, D. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Padova, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Gonzalez, J. Becerra [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Bellazzini, R. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Bissaldi, E.; Caragiulo, M. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy); Bonino, R. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Torino, I-10125 Torino (Italy); Bruel, P. [Laboratoire Leprince-Ringuet, École polytechnique, CNRS/IN2P3, F-91128 Palaiseau (France); Caraveo, P. A. [INAF-Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica Cosmica, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Cavazzuti, E. [Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI) Science Data Center, I-00133 Roma (Italy); and others

    2016-06-20

    On 2015 June 16, Fermi -LAT observed a giant outburst from the flat spectrum radio quasar 3C 279 with a peak >100 MeV flux of ∼3.6 × 10{sup −5} photons cm{sup −2} s{sup −1}, averaged over orbital period intervals. It is historically the highest γ -ray flux observed from the source, including past EGRET observations, with the γ -ray isotropic luminosity reaching ∼10{sup 49} erg s{sup −1}. During the outburst, the Fermi spacecraft, which has an orbital period of 95.4 minutes, was operated in a special pointing mode to optimize the exposure for 3C 279. For the first time, significant flux variability at sub-orbital timescales was found in blazar observations by Fermi -LAT. The source flux variability was resolved down to 2-minute binned timescales, with flux doubling times of less than 5 minutes. The observed minute-scale variability suggests a very compact emission region at hundreds of Schwarzschild radii from the central engine in conical jet models. A minimum bulk jet Lorentz factor (Γ) of 35 is necessary to avoid both internal γ -ray absorption and super-Eddington jet power. In the standard external radiation Comptonization scenario, Γ should be at least 50 to avoid overproducing the synchrotron self-Compton component. However, this predicts extremely low magnetization (∼5 × 10{sup −4}). Equipartition requires Γ as high as 120, unless the emitting region is a small fraction of the dissipation region. Alternatively, we consider γ rays originating as synchrotron radiation of γ {sub e} ∼ 1.6 × 10{sup 6} electrons, in a magnetic field B ∼ 1.3 kG, accelerated by strong electric fields E ∼ B in the process of magnetoluminescence. At such short distance scales, one cannot immediately exclude the production of γ -rays in hadronic processes.

  9. Evolution of the reverberation lag in GX 339-4 at the end of an outburst

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Marco, B.; Ponti, G.; Petrucci, P. O.; Clavel, M.; Corbel, S.; Belmont, R.; Chakravorty, S.; Coriat, M.; Drappeau, S.; Ferreira, J.; Henri, G.; Malzac, J.; Rodriguez, J.; Tomsick, J. A.; Ursini, F.; Zdziarski, A. A.

    2017-10-01

    We studied X-ray reverberation lags in the Black hole X-ray binary (BHXRB) GX 339-4 at the end of the 2014-2015 outburst. We analysed data from an XMM-Newton campaign covering the end of the transition from the soft to hard state, and the decrease of luminosity in the hard state. During all the observations we detected, at high frequencies, significant disc variability, responding to variations of the power-law emission with an average time delay of ∼0.009 ± 0.002 s. These new detections of disc thermal reverberation add to those previously obtained and suggest the lag to be always present in hard and hard-intermediate states. Our study reveals a net decrease of lag amplitude as a function of luminosity. We ascribe this trend to variations of the inner flow geometry. A possible scenario implies a decrease of the inner disc truncation radius as the luminosity increases at the beginning of the outburst, followed by an increase of the inner disc truncation radius as the luminosity decreases at the end of the outburst. Finally, we found hints of FeK reverberation (∼3σ significance) during the best quality observation of the XMM monitoring. The lag at the FeK energy has similar amplitude as that of the thermally reprocessed component, as expected if the same irradiated region of the disc is responsible for producing both the thermalized and reflected components. This finding suggests FeK reverberation in BHXRBs to be at the reach of current detectors provided observations of sufficiently long exposure are available.

  10. Strong field laser physics

    CERN Document Server

    2008-01-01

    Since the invention of the laser in the 1960s, people have strived to reach higher intensities and shorter pulse durations. High intensities and ultrashort pulse durations are intimately related. Recent developments have shown that high intensity lasers also open the way to realize pulses with the shortest durations to date, giving birth to the field of attosecond science (1 asec = 10-18s). This book is about high-intensity lasers and their applications. The goal is to give an up to date introduction to the technology behind these laser systems and to the broad range of intense laser applications. These applications include AMO (atomic molecular and optical) physics, x-ray science, attosecond science, plasma physics and particle acceleration, condensed matter science and laser micromachining, and finally even high-energy physics.

  11. Rare Low State of DO Dra, the Magnetic Dwarf Nova=Outbursting Intermediate Polar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breus, Vitalii V.; Andronov, Ivan L.; Yoon, Joh-Na; Dubovský, Pavol

    2017-06-01

    DO Dra is an exotic cataclysmic variable which shows properties either of the intermediate polars, or dwarf novae. It may represent a new subclass of "magnetic Dwarf Nova=outbursting intermediate polar". Very rare low luminosity state (of =16.095±0.007) was detected on June 8/9, 2017. The light curve shows a double-humped shape with a phase of the orbital period, with two unequal maxima, arguing not only for an ellipticity effect, but for a bright spot as well. Totally, we have detected 3 lows states.

  12. Multi-Wavelength Analysis of the Quasar CTA102 during a Dramatic Outburst in 2016 December

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorstad, Svetlana G.; Marscher, Alan P.; Williamson, Karen E.; Larionov, Valeri M.; Smith, Paul S.; Gurwell, Mark A.; Lahteenmaki, Anne

    2017-08-01

    Abstract: The quasar CTA102 underwent a dramatic outburst from gamma-ray toradio wavelengths in late 2016. The gamma-ray emission at 0.1-200 GeV roseup to (12.1+-0.7)x10^{-6} phot/s/cm^2, with a significant flattening of the spectral index. The blazar reached an optical brightness level never observed previously, funded in part by NASA through Fermi Guest Investigator grant NNX14AQ58G and by the National Science Foundation through grant AST-1615796.

  13. An ongoing, record-breaking outburst of the unique symbiotic binary MWC 560 = V694 Mon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munari, U.; Righetti, G. L.; Dallaporta, S.; Moretti, S.; Graziani, M.; Valisa, P.

    2016-02-01

    The unique symbiotic binary MWC 560 = V694 Mon is on a steep rise in brightness, about to surpass the record level attained during the last - and much studied - outburst of 1990 (Tomov et al. 1990, Nature 346, 637), the brightest event in the historical light-curve of the object (Leibowitz and Formiggini 2014, AJ 150, 52). At that time MWC 560 attracted special interest by showing deep and broad absorptions, blue-shifted by 6000 km/s and completely detached from corresponding emission lines, as if originating in discrete blobs, ejected from the central star and rapidly accelerated to large velocities.

  14. DETECTION OF REMNANT DUST CLOUD ASSOCIATED WITH THE 2007 OUTBURST OF 17P/HOLMES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishiguro, Masateru; Kim, Yoonyoung; Kwon, Yuna G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Gwanak, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Sarugaku, Yuki [Kiso Observatory, Institute of Astronomy, Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, Mitake, Kiso-machi, Kiso, Nagano 397-0101 (Japan); Kuroda, Daisuke; Maehara, Hiroyuki [Okayama Astrophysical Observatory, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Asakuchi, Okayama 719-0232 (Japan); Hanayama, Hidekazu [Ishigakijima Astronomical Observatory, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 1024-1 Arakawa, Ishigaki, Okinawa 907-0024 (Japan); Takahashi, Jun [Nishi-Harima Astronomical Observatory, Center for Astronomy, University of Hyogo, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5313 (Japan); Terai, Tsuyoshi [Subaru Telescope, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Usui, Fumihiko [Department of Astronomy, Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Vaubaillon, Jeremie J. [Observatoire de Paris, I.M.C.C.E., Denfert Rochereau, Bat. A., F-75014 Paris (France); Morokuma, Tomoki; Kobayashi, Naoto [Institute of Astronomy, Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-0015 (Japan); Watanabe, Jun-ichi [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan)

    2016-01-20

    This article reports a new optical observation of 17P/Holmes one orbital period after the historical outburst event in 2007. We detected not only a common dust tail near the nucleus but also a long narrow structure that extended along the position angle 274.°6 ± 0.°1 beyond the field of view (FOV) of the Kiso Wide Field Camera, i.e., >0.°2 eastward and >2.°0 westward from the nuclear position. The width of the structure decreased westward with increasing distance from the nucleus. We obtained the total cross section of the long extended structure in the FOV, C{sub FOV} = (2.3 ± 0.5) × 10{sup 10} m{sup 2}. From the position angle, morphology, and mass, we concluded that the long narrow structure consists of materials ejected during the 2007 outburst. On the basis of the dynamical behavior of dust grains in the solar radiation field, we estimated that the long narrow structure would be composed of 1 mm–1 cm grains having an ejection velocity of >50 m s{sup −1}. The velocity was more than one order of magnitude faster than that of millimeter–centimeter grains from typical comets around a heliocentric distance r{sub h} of 2.5 AU. We considered that sudden sublimation of a large amount of water-ice (≈10{sup 30} mol s{sup −1}) would be responsible for the high ejection velocity. We finally estimated a total mass of M{sub TOT} = (4–8) × 10{sup 11} kg and a total kinetic energy of E{sub TOT} = (1–6) × 10{sup 15} J for the 2007 outburst ejecta, which are consistent with those of previous studies that were conducted soon after the outburst.

  15. Two AM CVn systems in outburst - V406 Hya and SDSS J0129+3842

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barclay, T.; Ramsay, G.; Steeghs, D.; Wheatley, P.; Rosen, S.

    2009-12-01

    We are conducting a campaign of monitoring AM CVn systems visible from the Northern Hemisphere once a week using the Liverpool Telescope on La Palma. On the night of 3/4 December 2009 we observed two of the AM CVn systems to be in a state of outburst, V406 Hya (RA=09:05:54.79, Dec=-05:36:08.6) and SDSS J0129+3842 (RA=01:29:40.06, Dec=+38:42:10.4). V406 Hya (also known as 2003aw) has a typical quiescent brightness of g~20.2.

  16. The evolution of the X-ray phase lags during the outbursts of the black hole candidate GX 339-4

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Altamirano, Diego; Méndez, Mariano

    2015-01-01

    Owing to the frequency and reproducibility of its outbursts, the black hole candidate GX 339-4 has become the standard against which the outbursts of other black hole candidate are matched up. Here we present the first systematic study of the evolution of the X-ray lags of the broad-band variability

  17. Strong-field-ionization suppression by light-field control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Räsänen, Esa; Madsen, Lars Bojer

    2012-01-01

    in the intensity and thus preventing tunneling. In contrast, at high frequencies in the extreme ultraviolet regime the optimized pulses strongly couple with the (de)-excitations of the system, which leads to different pulse characteristics. Finally, we show that the applied target functional works, to some extent...

  18. Testing strong interaction theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, J.

    1979-01-01

    The author discusses possible tests of the current theories of the strong interaction, in particular, quantum chromodynamics. High energy e + e - interactions should provide an excellent means of studying the strong force. (W.D.L.)

  19. A review of the thermonuclear runaway model of a nova outburst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sparks, W.M.; Truran, J.W.

    1977-01-01

    This paper considers the hydrogen-rich material that settles onto the white dwarf. Kraft (1963) proposed that this material eventually becomes degenerate. This degenerate hydrogen-rich matter heats up as more material is accreted on top of it and eventually reaches ignition temperatures. Now degenerate material has the property that to the first order the pressure is not a function of the temperature. Thus, the energy generation is not limited by expansion until degeneracy is lifted. This leads to a thermonuclear runaway which was proposed by Kraft as the cause of the nova outburst. Later models, including hydrodynamics, are reviewed and the effects of excess energy in a stellar envelope with subsequent shock ejection are considered. Developments from Krafts' model using an implicit hydrodynamics lagrangian computer code are presented and the importance of the fast CNO cycle is shown. The nova outburst is triggered by the explosive CNO burning in the outer regions of the prenova at temperatures greater than 10 8 K and densities between 10 3 and 10 5 g cm -3 . (M.J.C.)

  20. Model Atmosphere Spectrum Fit to the Soft X-Ray Outburst Spectrum of SS Cyg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. F. Suleimanov

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The X-ray spectrum of SS Cyg in outburst has a very soft component that can be interpreted as the fast-rotating optically thick boundary layer on the white dwarf surface. This component was carefully investigated by Mauche (2004 using the Chandra LETG spectrum of this object in outburst. The spectrum shows broad ( ≈5 °A spectral features that have been interpreted as a large number of absorption lines on a blackbody continuum with a temperature of ≈250 kK. Because the spectrum resembles the photospheric spectra of super-soft X-ray sources, we tried to fit it with high gravity hot LTE stellar model atmospheres with solar chemical composition, specially computed for this purpose. We obtained a reasonably good fit to the 60–125 °A spectrum with the following parameters: Teff = 190 kK, log g = 6.2, and NH = 8 · 1019 cm−2, although at shorter wavelengths the observed spectrum has a much higher flux. The reasons for this are discussed. The hypothesis of a fast rotating boundary layer is supported by the derived low surface gravity.

  1. Diagnostic implications of informant disagreement about rage outbursts: bipolar disorder or another condition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Gabrielle A; Dyson, Margaret

    2012-01-01

    Modest agreement between parent- and teacher-reports of child behavior is a common finding. This study examines diagnoses made when significant disparity occurs in parent- and teacher-reports of rage behaviors. Parents and teachers of 911 5-18 year-olds referred for psychiatric outpatient services completed rating scales and received a psychiatric evaluation blind to parent- and teacher-ratings. Children with rage outbursts (n=431, 47.2%) were assessed for diagnosis, family history, and clinical variables. Children were 12.0 (3.6) years; 26.5% were female. Bipolar disorder was rare (11.2%) in this sample; however, in children with parent- and teacher-reported rages, severe mood dysregulation was the most common condition (54.4%). In parent only reported rages, anxiety disorders were most common (40.6%) diagnoses, and in teacher only reported rages, learning/language disorders were the most common (46.0%) diagnoses. The context in which a rage outburst occurs may impact the diagnosis; however, diagnosis alone does not explain this difficult and impairing behavior.

  2. The FU Orionis outburst as a thermal accretion event: Observational constraints for protostellar disk models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, K. R.; Lin, D. N. C.; Hartmann, L. W.; Kenyon, S. J.

    1995-01-01

    The results of the time-dependent disk models developed in Bell & Lin are compared with observed properties of FU Orionis variables. Specific models are fit to the light curves of Fu Ori, V1515 Cyg, and V1057 Cyg. The slow risetime of V1515 Cyg can be matched by a self-regulated outburst model. The rapid risetimes of FU Ori and V1057 Cyg can be fitted with the application of modest perturbations to the disk surface density. Model disks display spectral features characteristic of observed objects. The color evolution of V1057 Cyg is naturally explained if mass flux drops in the inner disk (r less than 1/4 AU) while remaining steady in the outer disk. The decrease in optical line width (rotational velocity) observed during the decay of V1057 Cyg may be accounted for by an outward-propagating ionization front. We predict that before final decay to the quiescent phase, short-wavelength line widths (lambda less than 1.5 microns) will again increase. It is suggested that FU Orionis outbursts primarily occur to systems during the embedded phase with ages less than several times 10(exp 5) yr.

  3. Geomorphic change caused by outburst floods and debris flows at Mount Rainier, Washington, with emphasis on Tahoma Creek valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walder, J.S.; Driedger, C.L.

    1994-01-01

    Debris flows have caused rapid geomorphic change in several glacierized drainages on Mount Rainier, Washington. Nearly all of these flows began as glacial outburst floods, then transformed to debris flows by incorporating large masses of sediment in channel reaches where streams have incised proglacial sediments and stagnant glacier ice. This stagnant ice is a relic of advanced glacier positions achieved during the mid-nineteenth century Little Ice Age maximum and the readvance of the 1960's and 1970's. Debris flows have been especially important agents of geomorphic change along Tahoma Creek, which drains South Tahoma Glacier. Debris flows in Tahoma Creek valley have transported downstream about 107 m3 Of sediment since 1967, causing substantial aggradation and damage to roads and facilities in Mount Rainier National Park. The average denudation rate in the upper part of the Tahoma Creek drainage basin in the same period has been extraordinarily high: more than 20 millimeters per year, a value exceeded only rarely in basins affected by debris flows. However, little or none of this sediment has yet passed out of the Tahoma Creek drainage basin. Outburst floods from South Tahoma Glacier form by release of subglacially stored water. The volume of stored water discharged during a typical outburst flood would form a layer several tens of millimeters thick over the bed of the entire glacier, though it is more likely that large linked cavities account for most of the storage. Statistical analysis shows that outburst floods usually occur during periods of atypically hot or rainy weather in summer or early autumn, and that the probability of an outburst increases with temperature (a proxy measure of ablation rate) or rainfall rate. On the basis of these results, we suggest that outburst floods are triggered when rapid input of water to the glacier bed causes transient increase in water pressure, thereby destabilizing the linked-cavity system. The probabilistic nature of

  4. Noise Pulses in Large Area Optical Modules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aiello, Sebastiano; Leonora, Emanuele; Giordano, Valentina

    2013-06-01

    A great number of large area photomultipliers are widely used in neutrino and astro-particle detector to measure Cherenkov light in medium like water or ice. The key element of these detectors are the so-called 'optical module', which consist in photodetectors closed in a transparent pressure-resistant container to protect it and ensure good light transmission. The noise pulses present on the anode of each photomultiplier affect strongly the performance of the detector. A large study was conducted on noise pulses of large area photomultipliers, considering time and charge distributions of dark pulses, prepulses, delayed pulses, and after pulses. The contribution to noise pulses due to the presence of the external glass spheres was also studied, even comparing two vessels of different brands. (authors)

  5. Pulse pile-up. II: Tailed pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkinson, D.H.

    1990-07-01

    The considerations of the preceding paper are extended to the case of pulses having infinite (exponential) tails. Exact solutions are presented for pure exponential pulses all of the same height; ruin theory is applied for pulses of more realistic form. (Author) (2 refs., 9 figs.)

  6. The Outburst

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jonas Østergaard

    2010-01-01

    Since the major Sahelian droughts and famines of the early 1970s and 1980s, international development and aid organizations have played a large role in the small village of Biidi 2, located in northern Burkina Faso. This article explores how a visit by a development 'expert' to the village can...... be analyzed as a social situation in which normal social control is suspended and negotiated. Focusing on gender relations, the analysis shows how the women of Biidi 2 involved in the event were relatively free to construct alternative definitions of their identity and social position vis-à-vis the men...

  7. NuSTAR and XMM-Newton Observations of the 2015 Outburst Decay of GX 339-4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stiele, H.; Kong, A. K. H., E-mail: hstiele@mx.nthu.edu.tw [National Tsing Hua University, Department of Physics and Institute of Astronomy, No. 101 Sect. 2 Kuang-Fu Road, 30013, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China)

    2017-07-20

    The extent of the accretion disk in the low/hard state of stellar mass black hole X-ray binaries remains an open question. There is some evidence suggesting that the inner accretion disk is truncated and replaced by a hot flow, while the detection of relativistic broadened iron emission lines seems to require an accretion disk extending fully to the innermost stable circular orbit. We present comprehensive spectral and timing analyses of six Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array and XMM-Newton observations of GX 339–4 taken during outburst decay in the autumn of 2015. Using a spectral model consisting of a thermal accretion disk, Comptonized emission, and a relativistic reflection component, we obtain a decreasing photon index, consistent with an X-ray binary during outburst decay. Although we observe a discrepancy in the inner radius of the accretion disk and that of the reflector, which can be attributed to the different underlying assumptions in each model, both model components indicate a truncated accretion disk that resiles with decreasing luminosity. The evolution of the characteristic frequency in Fourier power spectra and their missing energy dependence support the interpretation of a truncated and evolving disk in the hard state. The XMM-Newton data set allowed us to study, for the first time, the evolution of the covariance spectra and ratio during outburst decay. The covariance ratio increases and steeps during outburst decay, consistent with increased disk instabilities.

  8. Past explosive outbursts of entrapped carbon dioxide in salt mines provide a new perspective on the hazards of carbon dioxide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedlund, Frank Huess

    2013-01-01

    . The Menzengraben mine experienced an extreme outburst in 1953, possibly involving a several thousand tons of carbon dioxide. This source of accidents fills an important gap in the available carbon dioxide accident history and may provide a unique empirical perspective on the hazards of handling very large amounts...

  9. Sedimentary and rock magnetic signatures and event scenarios of deglacial outburst floods from the Laurentian Channel Ice Stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leng, Wei; von Dobeneck, Tilo; Bergmann, Fenna; Just, Janna; Mulitza, Stefan; Chiessi, Cristiano M.; St-Onge, Guillaume; Piper, David J. W.

    2018-04-01

    Eastern Canadian margin sediments bear testimony to several catastrophic deglacial meltwater discharges from the retreating Laurentide Ice Sheet. The reddish-brown plumite layers deposited on the levees of the Laurentian Fan valleys have been recognized as indications of multiple outburst floods between Heinrich events 2 and 1. Five event layers have been consistently recorded in three new gravity cores retrieved on the SW Grand Banks slope and comply with the previously published Laurentian Fan core MD95-2029. The apparently huge extent of these outburst plumes around the Laurentian Fan as well as their causes and consequences are investigated in this study using physical properties, rock magnetic and grain-size analyses, together with seismoacoustic profiling. We provide the first detailed 14C ages of the outburst event sequence and discuss their recurrence intervals in the context of regional ice retreat. Compared to the hemipelagic interlayers, event layers have overall uniform and systematic changes of rock-magnetic properties. Hematite contents increase over time and proximally while magnetite grain sizes fine upwards and spatially away from the fan. Based on the sediment composition and load, we argue that these plumites were formed by recurrent erosion of glacial mud deposits in the Laurentian Channel by meltwater outbursts. Three alternative glaciological scenarios are evaluated: in each case, the provenance of the transported sediment is not an indicator of the precise source of the meltwater.

  10. The High-Energy Emission of GRO J1655-40 As Revealed with INTEGRAL Spectroscopy of the 2005 Outburst

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caballero García, M.D.; Miller, J.M.; Kuulkers, E.; Díaz Trigo, M.; Homan, J.; Lewin, W.H.G.; Kretschmar, P.; Domingo, A.; Mas-Hesse, J.M.; Wijnands, R.; Fabian, A.C.; Fender, R.P.; van der Klis, M.

    2007-01-01

    We present broadband (3-500 keV) INTEGRAL X-ray spectra and X-ray/optical light curves of the luminous black hole X-ray transient and relativistic jet source GRO J1655-40. Our analysis covers four Target of Opportunity observations of the outburst that started in 2005 February. We find that the

  11. An energetic AGN outburst powered by a rapidly spinning supermassive black hole or an accreting ultramassive black hole

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McNamara, B.R.; Kazemzadeh, F.; Rafferty, D.A.; Bîrzan, L.; Nulsen, P.E.J.; Kirkpatrick, C.C.; Wise, M.W.

    2009-01-01

    Powering the 10(62) erg nuclear outburst in the MS0735.6+7421 cluster central galaxy by accretion with a 10% mass-to-energy conversion efficiency implies that its putative supermassive black hole (SMBH) grew by similar to 6 x 10(8) M-circle dot over the past 100 Myr. Guided by data at several

  12. Overview of an extensive multi-wavelength study of GX 339-4 during the 2010 outburst

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cadolle Bel, M.; Rodriguez, J.; D'Avanzo, P.; Russell, D.M.; Tomsick, J.; Corbel, S.; Lewis, F. W.; Rahoui, F.; Buxton, M.; Goldoni, P.; Kuulkers, E.

    2011-01-01

    Context. The microquasar GX 339−4 experienced a new outburst in 2010: it was observed simultaneously at various wavelengths from radio up to soft γ-rays. We focus on observations that are quasi-simultaneous with those made with the INTEGRAL and RXTE satellites: these were collected in 2010

  13. NuSTAR and XMM-Newton Observations of the 2015 Outburst Decay of GX 339-4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiele, H.; Kong, A. K. H.

    2017-07-01

    The extent of the accretion disk in the low/hard state of stellar mass black hole X-ray binaries remains an open question. There is some evidence suggesting that the inner accretion disk is truncated and replaced by a hot flow, while the detection of relativistic broadened iron emission lines seems to require an accretion disk extending fully to the innermost stable circular orbit. We present comprehensive spectral and timing analyses of six Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array and XMM-Newton observations of GX 339-4 taken during outburst decay in the autumn of 2015. Using a spectral model consisting of a thermal accretion disk, Comptonized emission, and a relativistic reflection component, we obtain a decreasing photon index, consistent with an X-ray binary during outburst decay. Although we observe a discrepancy in the inner radius of the accretion disk and that of the reflector, which can be attributed to the different underlying assumptions in each model, both model components indicate a truncated accretion disk that resiles with decreasing luminosity. The evolution of the characteristic frequency in Fourier power spectra and their missing energy dependence support the interpretation of a truncated and evolving disk in the hard state. The XMM-Newton data set allowed us to study, for the first time, the evolution of the covariance spectra and ratio during outburst decay. The covariance ratio increases and steeps during outburst decay, consistent with increased disk instabilities.

  14. Continuous X-ray monitoring of the third outburst of the magnetar CXOU J164710.2-455216

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borghese, Alice; Zelati, Francesco Coti; Rea, Nanda; Esposito, Paolo

    2017-10-01

    We are currently tracking the X-ray activity of the magnetar CXOU J164710.2-455216 since the onset of its third outburst on 2017 May 16, when Swift BAT triggered on an SGR-like burst from a direction consistent with the position of the magnetar (trigger=753085; D'Ai et al. 2017, GCN 21095).

  15. Following the 2008 outburst decay of the black hole candidate H 1743-322 in X-ray and radio

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonker, P.G.; Miller-Jones, J.; Homan, J.; Gallo, E.; Rupen, M.; Tomsick, J.; Fender, R.P.; Kaaret, P.; Steeghs, D.T.H.; Torres, M.A.P.; Wijnands, R.; Markoff, S.; Lewin, W.H.G.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we report on radio (Very Large Array and Austrialian Telescope Compact Array) and X-ray (RXTE, Chandra and Swift) observations of the outburst decay of the transient black hole candidate H 1743-322 in early 2008. We find that the X-ray light curve followed an exponential decay,

  16. Fuzzy Cognitive Maps for Glacier Hazards Assessment: Application to Predicting the Potential for Glacier Lake Outbursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furfaro, R.; Kargel, J. S.; Fink, W.; Bishop, M. P.

    2010-12-01

    Glaciers and ice sheets are among the largest unstable parts of the solid Earth. Generally, glaciers are devoid of resources (other than water), are dangerous, are unstable and no infrastructure is normally built directly on their surfaces. Areas down valley from large alpine glaciers are also commonly unstable due to landslide potential of moraines, debris flows, snow avalanches, outburst floods from glacier lakes, and other dynamical alpine processes; yet there exists much development and human occupation of some disaster-prone areas. Satellite remote sensing can be extremely effective in providing cost-effective and time- critical information. Space-based imagery can be used to monitor glacier outlines and their lakes, including processes such as iceberg calving and debris accumulation, as well as changing thicknesses and flow speeds. Such images can also be used to make preliminary identifications of specific hazardous spots and allows preliminary assessment of possible modes of future disaster occurrence. Autonomous assessment of glacier conditions and their potential for hazards would present a major advance and permit systematized analysis of more data than humans can assess. This technical leap will require the design and implementation of Artificial Intelligence (AI) algorithms specifically designed to mimic glacier experts’ reasoning. Here, we introduce the theory of Fuzzy Cognitive Maps (FCM) as an AI tool for predicting and assessing natural hazards in alpine glacier environments. FCM techniques are employed to represent expert knowledge of glaciers physical processes. A cognitive model embedded in a fuzzy logic framework is constructed via the synergistic interaction between glaciologists and AI experts. To verify the effectiveness of the proposed AI methodology as applied to predicting hazards in glacier environments, we designed and implemented a FCM that addresses the challenging problem of autonomously assessing the Glacier Lake Outburst Flow

  17. Hard X-ray variability of V404 Cygni during the 2015 outburst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Fernández, C.; Kajava, J. J. E.; Motta, S. E.; Kuulkers, E.

    2017-06-01

    Aims: Hard X-ray spectra of black hole binaries (BHB) are produced by Comptonization of soft seed photons by hot electrons near the black hole. The slope of the resulting energy spectra is governed by two main parameters: the electron temperature (Te) and optical depth (τ) of the emitting plasma. Given the extreme brightness of V404 Cyg during the 2015 outburst, we aim to constrain the source spectral properties using an unprecedented time resolution in hard X-rays, and to monitor the evolution of Te and τ over the outburst. Methods: We have extracted and analysed 602 X-ray spectra of V404 Cyg obtained by the IBIS/ISGRI instrument on-board INTEGRAL during the 2015 June outburst, using effective integration times ranging between 8 and 176 000 s. We fitted the resulting spectra in the 20-200 keV energy range. Results: We find that while the light curve and soft X-ray spectra of V404 Cyg are remarkably different from those of other BHBs, the spectral evolution of V404 Cyg in hard X-rays and the relations between the spectral parameters are consistent with those observed in other BHBs. We identify a hard branch in which the Te is anti-correlated with the hard X-ray flux, and a soft flaring branch in which the relation reverses. In addition, we find that during long X-ray plateaus detected at intermediate fluxes, the thermal Comptonization models fail to describe the spectra. However, the statistics improve if we allow NH to vary freely in the fits to these spectra. Conclusions: We conclude that the hard branch in V404 Cyg is analogous to the canonical hard state of BHBs. V404 Cyg never seems to enter the canonical soft state, although the soft flaring branch bears resemblance to the BHB intermediate state and ultra-luminous state. The X-ray plateaus are likely the result of absorption by a Compton-thick outflow (NH ≳ 1024 cm-2) which reduces the observed flux by a factor of about 10. Variable covering of the central source by this Compton-thick material may be the

  18. Dust Trails of SP/Tuttle and the Unusual Outbursts of the Ursid Shower

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenniskens, Peter; Lyytinen, E.; deLignie, M. C.; Johannink, C.; Jobse, K.; Schievink, R.; Langbroek, M.; Koop, M.; Gural, P.; Wilson, M.; hide

    2001-01-01

    Halley-type comets tend to have a series of dust trails that remain spatially correlated for extended periods of time, each dating from a specific return of the comet. Encounters with 1 - 9 revolution old individual dust trails of 55P/Tempel-Tuttle have led to well recognized Leonid shower maxim, the peak time of which was well predicted by recent models. Now. we used the same model to calculate the position of dust trails of comet Shuttle, a Halley-type comet in an (approximately) 13.6 year orbit passing just outside of Earth's orbit. We discovered that the meteoroids tend to be trapped in the 14:12 mean motion resonance with Jupiter, while the comet librates in a slightly shorter period orbit around the 13:15 resonance. It takes six centuries to change the orbit enough to intersect Earth's orbit. During that time, the meteoroids and comet separate in mean anomaly by six years. thus explaining the unusual aphelion occurrences of Ursid outbursts. The resonances also prevent dispersion, so that the dust trail encounters (specifically, from dust trails of AD 1378 - 1405) occur only in one year in each orbit. We predicted enhanced activity on December 22, 2000, at around 7:29 and 8:35 UT (universal time) from dust trails dating to the 1405 and 1392 return, respectively. This event was observed from California using video and photographic techniques. At the same time, five Global-MS-Net stations in Finland, Japan and Belgium counted meteors using forward meteor scatter. The outburst peaked at 8:06:07 UT, December 22, at Zenith Hourly Rate (approx.) 90 per hour. The Ursid rates were above half peak intensity during 4.2 hours. This is only the second Halley type comet for which a meteor outburst can be dated to a specific return of the parent comet, and traces their presence back form 9 to at least 45 revolutions of the comet. New orbital elements of Ursid meteoroids are presented. We find that most orbits do scatter around the anticipated positions, confirming the link

  19. OUTBURST OF COMET 17P/HOLMES OBSERVED WITH THE SOLAR MASS EJECTION IMAGER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jing; Jewitt, David; Clover, John M.; Jackson, Bernard V.

    2011-01-01

    We present time-resolved photometric observations of the Jupiter family comet 17P/Holmes during its dramatic 2007 outburst. The observations, from the orbiting Solar Mass Ejection Imager (SMEI), provide the most complete measure of the whole-coma brightness, free from the effects of instrumental saturation and with a time resolution well matched to the rapid brightening of the comet. The light curve is divided into two distinct parts. A rapid rise between the first SMEI observation on UT 2007 October 24 06h 37m (mid-integration) and UT 2007 October 25 is followed by a slow decline until the last SMEI observation on UT 2008 April 6 22h 16m (mid-integration). We find that the rate of change of the brightness is reasonably well described by a Gaussian function having a central time of UT 2007 October 24.54 ± 0.01 and a full width at half-maximum of 0.44 ± 0.02 days. The maximum rate of brightening occurs some 1.2 days after the onset of activity. At the peak, the scattering cross-section grows at 1070 ± 40 km 2 s -1 while the (model-dependent) mass loss rates inferred from the light curve reach a maximum at 3 x 10 5 kg s -1 . The integrated mass in the coma lies in the range (2-90) x 10 10 kg, corresponding to 0.2%-10% of the nucleus mass, while the kinetic energy of the ejecta is (0.7-30) megatonnes TNT. The particulate coma mass could be contained within a shell on the nucleus of thickness 1-60 m. This is also the approximate distance traveled by conducted heat in the century since the previous outburst of 17P/Holmes. This coincidence is consistent with, but does not prove, the idea that the outburst was triggered by the action of conducted heat, possibly through the crystallization of buried amorphous ice.

  20. Ultrafast control of strong light–matter coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Christoph; Cancellieri, Emiliano; Panna, Dmitry; Whittaker, David M.; Steger, Mark; Snoke, David W.; Pfeiffer, Loren N.; West, Kenneth W.; Hayat, Alex

    2018-01-01

    We dynamically modulate strong light–matter coupling in a GaAs/AlGaAs microcavity using intense ultrashort laser pulses tuned below the interband exciton energy, which induce a transient Stark shift of the cavity polaritons. For 225-fs pulses, shorter than the cavity Rabi cycle period of 1000 fs, this shift decouples excitons and cavity photons for the duration of the pulse, interrupting the periodic energy exchange between photonic and electronic states. For 1500-fs pulses, longer than the Rabi cycle period, however, the Stark shift does not affect the strong coupling. The two regimes are marked by distinctly different line shapes in ultrafast reflectivity measurements—regardless of the Stark field intensity. The crossover marks the transition from adiabatic to diabatic switching of strong light–matter coupling.

  1. Analysis of IUE data on V426 Ophiuchi - Outburst and orbital variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szkody, Paula; Mateo, Mario

    1988-01-01

    Time-resolved IUE spectra throughout two orbits of the dwarf nova V426 Oph during quiescence are presented. It is found that the visual and C IV fluxes remain relatively constant during both orbits, whereas the UV coninua and Mg II lines vary by 20-30 percent. The time scales of this variability are discussed. Analysis of other spectra at brighter optical magnitudes shows that the UV lags the optical during a probable rise to outburst, similar to the behavior of SS Cyg. The reddening of V426 Oph is determined to be E(B-V) = 0.1. The contribution of the white dwarf to the UV flux at quiescence is estimated to be 25 percent, based on the system parameters of Hessman (1988) and the period-temperature relation of Sion (1987).

  2. Bipolar ejection by the symbiotic binary system Z And during its 2006 outburst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomov, N. A.; Tomova, M. T.; Bisikalo, D. V.

    2007-03-01

    High-resolution data in the region of the Hα line have been obtained at the time of light maximum and after it for the 2006 optical outburst of the symbiotic binary Z And. A blueshifted absorption component indicating an outflow velocity of about 1400 km s-1, as well as additional emission components with similar velocities, situated on the two sides of the main peak of the line, were observed during that time. It is suggested that all of them are spectral signatures of bipolar outflow, observed for the first time in the optical spectrum of this binary. The emission measure and the mass of the nebular part of the streams have been estimated approximately, reaching values of up to about 6 × 1057 cm-3 and 8 × 10-8Msolar. Based on observations collected at the National Astronomical Observatory Rozhen, Bulgaria. E-mail: tomov@astro.bas.bg

  3. Parental Responses to Temper Outbursts in Children With ADHD: The Role of Psychological Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godovich, Sheina A; Adelsberg, Samantha; Roy, Amy Krain

    2017-12-01

    Children with ADHD frequently exhibit temper outbursts (TO). One related factor may be parental responses, such as harsh discipline and accommodation. This study tests the hypotheses that these responses will be associated with greater TO, and parental characteristics of higher anger and lower sense of competence, in children with ADHD. Participants included 79 5- to 9-year-old children with ADHD (77.22% boys). Regressions were used to determine the association between parental psychological factors and responses to TO while covarying for TO frequency, severity, and duration. Parental anger and sense of competence were not significantly related to any discipline responses after covarying for TO characteristics, although sense of competence predicted spanking at trend-level significance. Both parental anger and sense of competence significantly predicted accommodation over and above TO characteristics. Results underscore the importance of parental anger and sense of competency in predicting parental behavior, specifically parental accommodation.

  4. MAXI J1659-152: The shortest orbital period black-hole transient in outburst

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuulkers, E.; Kouveliotou, C.; Belloni, T.

    2013-01-01

    display drops in intensity at regular intervals, which we interpret as absorption dips. About three weeks into the outbursts, again drops in intensity are seen. These dips have, however, a spectral behaviour opposite to that of the absorption dips, and are related to fast spectral state changes (hence...... to the line of sight is estimated to be 65–80°. We propose the companion to the black-hole candidate to be close to an M5 dwarf star, with a mass and radius of about 0.15–0.25 M⊙ and 0.2–0.25 R⊙, respectively. We derive that the companion had an initial mass of about 1.5 M⊙, which evolved to its current mass...

  5. Random pulse generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Ya'nan; Jin Dapeng; Zhao Dixin; Liu Zhen'an; Qiao Qiao; Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing

    2007-01-01

    Due to the randomness of radioactive decay and nuclear reaction, the signals from detectors are random in time. But normal pulse generator generates periodical pulses. To measure the performances of nuclear electronic devices under random inputs, a random generator is necessary. Types of random pulse generator are reviewed, 2 digital random pulse generators are introduced. (authors)

  6. Outbursting Comet P/2010 V1 (Ikeya-Murakami): A Miniature Comet Holmes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishiguro, Masateru; Jewitt, David; Hanayama, Hidekazu; Usui, Fumihiko; Sekiguchi, Tomohiko; Yanagisawa, Kenshi; Kuroda, Daisuke; Yoshida, Michitoshi; Ohta, Kouji; Kawai, Nobuyuki; Miyaji, Takeshi; Fukushima, Hideo; Watanabe, Jun-ichi

    2014-05-01

    The short-period comet P/2010 V1 (Ikeya-Murakami, hereafter "V1") was discovered visually by two amateur astronomers. The appearance of the comet was peculiar, consisting of an envelope, a spherical coma near the nucleus and a tail extending in the anti-solar direction. We investigated the brightness and the morphological development of the comet by taking optical images with ground-based telescopes. Our observations show that V1 experienced a large-scale explosion between UT 2010 October 31 and November 3. The color of the comet was consistent with the Sun (g' - R C = 0.61 ± 0.20, R C - I C = 0.20 ± 0.20, and B - R C = 0.93 ± 0.25), suggesting that dust particles were responsible for the brightening. We used a dynamical model to understand the peculiar morphology, and found that the envelope consisted of small grains (0.3-1 μm) expanding at a maximum speed of 500 ± 40 m s-1, while the tail and coma were composed of a wider range of dust particle sizes (0.4-570 μm) and expansion speeds 7-390 m s-1. The total mass of ejecta is ~5 × 108 kg and kinetic energy ~5 × 1012 J. These values are much smaller than in the historic outburst of 17P/Holmes in 2007, but the energy per unit mass (1 × 104 J kg-1) is comparable. The energy per unit mass is about 10% of the energy released during the crystallization of amorphous water ice suggesting that crystallization of buried amorphous ice can supply the mass and energy of the outburst ejecta.

  7. Outbursting comet P/2010 V1 (Ikeya-Murakami): A miniature comet Holmes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishiguro, Masateru [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Gwanak, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Jewitt, David [Department of Earth, Planetary and Space Sciences, University of California at Los Angeles, 595 Charles Young Drive East, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1567 (United States); Hanayama, Hidekazu; Miyaji, Takeshi; Fukushima, Hideo; Watanabe, Jun-ichi [Ishigakijima Astronomical Observatory, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Ishigaki, Okinawa 907-0024 (Japan); Usui, Fumihiko [Department of Astronomy, Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Sekiguchi, Tomohiko [Department of Teacher Training, Hokkaido University of Education, 9 Hokumon, Asahikawa 070-8621 (Japan); Yanagisawa, Kenshi; Kuroda, Daisuke [Okayama Astrophysical Observatory, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Asaguchi, Okayama 719-0232 (Japan); Yoshida, Michitoshi [Hiroshima Astrophysical Science Center, Hiroshima University, 1-3-1 Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8526 (Japan); Ohta, Kouji [Department of Astronomy, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Kawai, Nobuyuki [Department of Physics, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan)

    2014-05-20

    The short-period comet P/2010 V1 (Ikeya-Murakami, hereafter {sup V}1{sup )} was discovered visually by two amateur astronomers. The appearance of the comet was peculiar, consisting of an envelope, a spherical coma near the nucleus and a tail extending in the anti-solar direction. We investigated the brightness and the morphological development of the comet by taking optical images with ground-based telescopes. Our observations show that V1 experienced a large-scale explosion between UT 2010 October 31 and November 3. The color of the comet was consistent with the Sun (g' – R {sub C} = 0.61 ± 0.20, R {sub C} – I {sub C} = 0.20 ± 0.20, and B – R {sub C} = 0.93 ± 0.25), suggesting that dust particles were responsible for the brightening. We used a dynamical model to understand the peculiar morphology, and found that the envelope consisted of small grains (0.3-1 μm) expanding at a maximum speed of 500 ± 40 m s{sup –1}, while the tail and coma were composed of a wider range of dust particle sizes (0.4-570 μm) and expansion speeds 7-390 m s{sup –1}. The total mass of ejecta is ∼5 × 10{sup 8} kg and kinetic energy ∼5 × 10{sup 12} J. These values are much smaller than in the historic outburst of 17P/Holmes in 2007, but the energy per unit mass (1 × 10{sup 4} J kg{sup –1}) is comparable. The energy per unit mass is about 10% of the energy released during the crystallization of amorphous water ice suggesting that crystallization of buried amorphous ice can supply the mass and energy of the outburst ejecta.

  8. Programmable pulse generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xue Zhihua; Lou Binqiao; Duan Xiaohui

    2002-01-01

    The author introduces the design of programmable pulse generator that is based on a micro-controller and controlled by RS232 interface of personal computer. The whole system has good stability. The pulse generator can produce TTL pulse and analog pulse. The pulse frequency can be selected by EPLD. The voltage amplitude and pulse width of analog pulse can be adjusted by analog switches and digitally-controlled potentiometers. The software development tools of computer is National Instruments LabView5.1. The front panel of this virtual instrumentation is intuitive and easy-to-use. Parameters can be selected and changed conveniently by knob and slide

  9. Dual-Pulse Pulse Position Modulation (DPPM) for Deep-Space Optical Communications: Performance and Practicality Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Hylton, Alan; Budinger, James; Nappier, Jennifer; Downey, Joseph; Raible, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Due to its simplicity and robustness against wavefront distortion, pulse position modulation (PPM) with photon counting detector has been seriously considered for long-haul optical wireless systems. This paper evaluates the dual-pulse case and compares it with the conventional single-pulse case. Analytical expressions for symbol error rate and bit error rate are first derived and numerically evaluated, for the strong, negative-exponential turbulent atmosphere; and bandwidth efficiency and throughput are subsequently assessed. It is shown that, under a set of practical constraints including pulse width and pulse repetition frequency (PRF), dual-pulse PPM enables a better channel utilization and hence a higher throughput than it single-pulse counterpart. This result is new and different from the previous idealistic studies that showed multi-pulse PPM provided no essential information-theoretic gains than single-pulse PPM.

  10. Strongly Correlated Topological Insulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-03

    Strongly Correlated Topological Insulators In the past year, the grant was used for work in the field of topological phases, with emphasis on finding...surface of topological insulators. In the past 3 years, we have started a new direction, that of fractional topological insulators. These are materials...in which a topologically nontrivial quasi-flat band is fractionally filled and then subject to strong interactions. The views, opinions and/or

  11. Strong Cosmic Censorship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isenberg, James

    2017-01-01

    The Hawking-Penrose theorems tell us that solutions of Einstein's equations are generally singular, in the sense of the incompleteness of causal geodesics (the paths of physical observers). These singularities might be marked by the blowup of curvature and therefore crushing tidal forces, or by the breakdown of physical determinism. Penrose has conjectured (in his `Strong Cosmic Censorship Conjecture`) that it is generically unbounded curvature that causes singularities, rather than causal breakdown. The verification that ``AVTD behavior'' (marked by the domination of time derivatives over space derivatives) is generically present in a family of solutions has proven to be a useful tool for studying model versions of Strong Cosmic Censorship in that family. I discuss some of the history of Strong Cosmic Censorship, and then discuss what is known about AVTD behavior and Strong Cosmic Censorship in families of solutions defined by varying degrees of isometry, and discuss recent results which we believe will extend this knowledge and provide new support for Strong Cosmic Censorship. I also comment on some of the recent work on ``Weak Null Singularities'', and how this relates to Strong Cosmic Censorship.

  12. Pulsed water jet generated by pulse multiplication

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dvorský, R.; Sitek, Libor; Sochor, T.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 23, č. 4 (2016), s. 959-967 ISSN 1330-3651 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1406; GA MŠk ED2.1.00/03.0082 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : high-pressure pulses * pulse intensifier * pulsed water jet * water hammer effect Subject RIV: JQ - Machines ; Tools Impact factor: 0.723, year: 2016 http://hrcak.srce.hr/163752?lang=en

  13. Propagation and reflection of chirped pulses in the nonuniform ionospheric plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levitsky, S.M.

    2009-01-01

    By passing of a chirped pulse in a inhomogeneous ionospheric plasma this pulses due to the dispersion futures of the plasma becomes deformed and can be strongly compressed. The chirped pulse can be compressed also being reflected by the ionosphere. This can give some advantage using such pulses in the experiments of ionospheric zoning.

  14. Strong Arcwise Connectedness

    OpenAIRE

    Espinoza, Benjamin; Gartside, Paul; Kovan-Bakan, Merve; Mamatelashvili, Ana

    2012-01-01

    A space is `n-strong arc connected' (n-sac) if for any n points in the space there is an arc in the space visiting them in order. A space is omega-strong arc connected (omega-sac) if it is n-sac for all n. We study these properties in finite graphs, regular continua, and rational continua. There are no 4-sac graphs, but there are 3-sac graphs and graphs which are 2-sac but not 3-sac. For every n there is an n-sac regular continuum, but no regular continuum is omega-sac. There is an omega-sac ...

  15. Abortion: Strong's counterexamples fail

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Nucci, Ezio

    2009-01-01

    This paper shows that the counterexamples proposed by Strong in 2008 in the Journal of Medical Ethics to Marquis's argument against abortion fail. Strong's basic idea is that there are cases--for example, terminally ill patients--where killing an adult human being is prima facie seriously morally......'s scenarios have some valuable future or admitted that killing them is not seriously morally wrong. Finally, if "valuable future" is interpreted as referring to objective standards, one ends up with implausible and unpalatable moral claims....

  16. Strong seismic ground motion propagation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seale, S.; Archuleta, R.; Pecker, A.; Bouchon, M.; Mohammadioun, G.; Murphy, A.; Mohammadioun, B.

    1988-10-01

    At the McGee Creek, California, site, 3-component strong-motion accelerometers are located at depths of 166 m, 35 m and 0 m. The surface material is glacial moraine, to a depth of 30.5 m, overlying homfels. Accelerations were recorded from two California earthquakes: Round Valley, M L 5.8, November 23, 1984, 18:08 UTC and Chalfant Valley, M L 6.4, July 21, 1986, 14:42 UTC. By separating out the SH components of acceleration, we were able to determine the orientations of the downhole instruments. By separating out the SV component of acceleration, we were able to determine the approximate angle of incidence of the signal at 166 m. A constant phase velocity Haskell-Thomson model was applied to generate synthetic SH seismograms at the surface using the accelerations recorded at 166 m. In the frequency band 0.0 - 10.0 Hz, we compared the filtered synthetic records to the filtered surface data. The onset of the SH pulse is clearly seen, as are the reflections from the interface at 30.5 m. The synthetic record closely matches the data in amplitude and phase. The fit between the synthetic accelerogram and the data shows that the seismic amplification at the surface is a result of the contrast of the impedances (shear stiffnesses) of the near surface materials

  17. Laser pulse stacking method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moses, E.I.

    1992-12-01

    A laser pulse stacking method is disclosed. A problem with the prior art has been the generation of a series of laser beam pulses where the outer and inner regions of the beams are generated so as to form radially non-synchronous pulses. Such pulses thus have a non-uniform cross-sectional area with respect to the outer and inner edges of the pulses. The present invention provides a solution by combining the temporally non-uniform pulses in a stacking effect to thus provide a more uniform temporal synchronism over the beam diameter. 2 figs.

  18. A strong comeback

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marier, D.

    1992-01-01

    This article presents the results of a financial rankings survey which show a strong economic activity in the independent energy industry. The topics of the article include advisor turnover, overseas banks, and the increase in public offerings. The article identifies the top project finance investors for new projects and restructurings and rankings for lenders

  19. Pulse Compression of Ultrashort UV Pulses by Self-Phase Modulation in Bulk Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eberhard Riedle

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The bandwidth of ultrafast pulses in the UV is limited by the finite acceptance bandwidth of the nonlinear crystals used for their generation. For fundamental laser pulses it is well established that spectral broadening can be used to overcome intrinsic bandwidth limits. We show that self-phase modulation of UV pulses in bulk materials leads to large spectral broadening and allows for a significant reduction of the pulse duration. We find that for pulse energies in the range of a few μJ, a thin crystal is favorable due to the strong dispersion in the UV and the limitations set by self-focusing. In contrast to spectral broadening in gaseous media, the self-focus has to lie outside the crystal to avoid beam break up. We focus UV pulses into a 1 mm thick CaF2 crystal. For moderately short input pulses, a shortening factor up to 2.4 is achieved: the 120 fs long third harmonic output of a Ti:sapphire amplifier is compressed down to 50 fs FWHM. For a central wavelength of 315 nm, we generate pulses as short as 14.9 fs after compression with an UV pulse shaper. In both cases the resulting beam shape is close to Gaussian and fully usable for spectroscopic experiments. We use the pulses in a collinear 2D-UV experiment and clearly resolve vibronic off-diagonal peaks of the S2 1B2u vibronic progression of pyrene.

  20. Yaku-cedar tells cosmic outbursts in ancient times. Anomalies of cosmic ray intensity in AD 774-775 and AD 993-994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyake, Fusa; Masuda, Kimiaki

    2014-01-01

    Measurements of cosmogenic nuclides, which are radioisotopes produced by cosmic rays in the atmosphere, provide important information regarding extraterrestrial high-energy events. We present 14 C measurements in annual rings of Japanese cedar trees with 1- and 2-year resolutions, and a finding of two sudden increases of 14 C content by significant amount from AD 774 to 775 and AD 993 to 994. The short-term increases of radioactive nuclide production were also found in tree rings of Europe and Antarctic ice core. This strongly indicates that the anomalies were not due to local terrestrial events, but triggered by cosmic outbursts that affected the whole planet. Several conjectures have been made upon the origin of the events, e.g. nearby supernovae (∼200 pc), Galactic short gamma-ray bursts, and violent solar mass ejections like SPEs (solar proton events) or super flares. We investigated energetics and the frequencies of occurrence of the phenomena, and demonstrate that SPE is likely to be the origin of the two 14 C increase events. Astrophysical significances and impact to modern human society are also discussed. (author)

  1. Observations of V0332+53 during the 2015 outburst using Fermi/GBM, MAXI, Swift and INTEGRAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Zachary A.; Cherry, Michael L.; Rodi, James

    2017-06-01

    We present the light curves, spectra and hardness-intensity diagram (HID) of the high-mass X-ray binary V0332+53 using Fermi/GBM, MAXI, Swift/BAT and INTEGRAL through its 2015 Type II outburst. We observe characteristic features in the X-ray emission (2-50 keV) due to periastron passages, the dynamical time-scale of the accretion disc, and changes within the accretion column between a radiation-dominated flow and a flow dominated by Coulomb interactions. Based on the HID and the light curves, the critical luminosity is observed to decrease by ˜5 per cent to 7 per cent during the outburst, signalling a decrease in the magnetic field.

  2. Behavioral Outbursts in a Child with a Deletion Syndrome, Generalized Epilepsy, Global Developmental Delay, and Failure to Thrive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Adam H; Chugh, Ankur; Sobotka, Sarah A

    2018-03-01

    A 7-year-old girl with 20q13.33 deletion and a history of generalized convulsive epilepsy presented to the Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics Clinic due to concerns about her behavioral outbursts in the context of overall delayed development. Evaluation by the Developmental and Behavioral and Gastroenterology teams revealed failure to thrive (FTT) as the primary cause of the behavioral outbursts and developed a high-calorie, high-fat, high-protein nutritional counseling plan. Children who have FTT and a genetic disorder are often thought to not thrive because of their underlying genetic disorder; however, feeding skills and nutritional intake need to be thoroughly investigated before determining an etiology for FTT. Motoric, communicative, and developmental skills in children with genetic disorders may impede appropriate feeding mechanisms, inducing or exaggerating FTT in these children with developmental disabilities due to genetic etiologies. [Pediatr Ann. 2018;47(3):e130-e134.]. Copyright 2018, SLACK Incorporated.

  3. Aftermath of an outburst flood: Holocene channel and floodplain development in the semi-arid lower Sycan River, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, P.; McDowell, P. F.; O'Connor, J. E.

    2009-12-01

    Water and pumice accumulated behind a dam that, upon failure, scoured the clay-dominated floodplain and deposited a lobe of pumice sands across the Sycan Valley. The pumice originated from the eruption of Mount Mazama (approximately 7660 cal yr BP) and dam failure occurred very shortly afterward. In response to the flood the lower Sycan River underwent episodes of channel aggradation and degradation. This study presents the history of channel evolution for the lower Sycan River from 11,000 years ago to present, based on floodplain stratigraphy and radiocarbon chronology. Seven primary periods of channel and floodplain development are identified: I. Early Holocene Dynamic Equilibrium; II. Sycan Outburst Flood; III. Initial Channel Formation; IV. Degradation & Widening; V. Aggradation & Lateral Migration; VI. (Secondary) Degradation & Widening; VII. Modern Quasi Dynamic-Equilibrium. The active floodplain of the modern lower Sycan River is flanked by terraces of the rapidly abandoned Sycan Outburst Flood deposits.

  4. Pulse to pulse klystron diagnosis system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowak, J.; Davidson, V.; Genova, L.; Johnson, R.; Reagan, D.

    1981-03-01

    This report describes a system used to study the behavior of SLAC high powered klystrons operating with a twice normal pulse width of 5 μs. At present, up to eight of the klystrons installed along the accelerator can be operated with long pulses and monitored by this system. The report will also discuss some of the recent findings and investigations

  5. INTEGRAL detects the recurrent transients XTE J1709-267 and XTE J1739-285 in outburst

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanchez-Fernandez, C.; Chenevez, Jérôme; Pavan, L.

    2012-01-01

    in the 20-40 keV band. We estimate a rough flux of ~8 mCrab (5 sigma) for an effective ISGRI exposure time of 21 ks. A preliminary spectral fit to the JEM-X data is consistent with an absorbed disk blackbody model of temperature ~2.2 keV. The onset of this outburst was also detected by MAXI http://maxi.riken.jp/top/index.php...

  6. Response to Comments on "Outburst flood at 1920 BCE supports historicity of China's Great Flood and the Xia dynasty".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qinglong; Zhao, Zhijun; Liu, Li; Granger, Darryl E; Wang, Hui; Cohen, David J; Wu, Xiaohong; Ye, Maolin; Bar-Yosef, Ofer; Lu, Bin; Zhang, Jin; Zhang, Peizhen; Yuan, Daoyang; Qi, Wuyun; Cai, Linhai; Bai, Shibiao

    2017-03-31

    Wu et al , Han, and Huang et al question our reconstruction of a large outburst flood and its possible relationship to China's Great Flood and the Xia dynasty. Here, we clarify misconceptions concerning geologic evidence of the flood, its timing and magnitude, and the complex social-cultural response. We also further discuss how this flood may be related to ancient accounts of the Great Flood and origins of the Xia dynasty. Copyright © 2017, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  7. KIC 4552982: outbursts and pulsations in the longest-ever pseudo-continuous light curve of a ZZ Ceti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bell K. J.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available KIC 4552982 was the first ZZ Ceti (hydrogen-atmosphere pulsating white dwarf identified to lie in the Kepler field, resulting in the longest pseudo-continuous light curve ever obtained for this type of variable star. In addition to the pulsations, this light curve exhibits stochastic episodes of brightness enhancement unlike any previously studied white dwarf phenomenon. We briefly highlight the basic outburst and pulsation properties in these proceedings.

  8. Landslides in moraines as triggers of glacial lake outburst floods: example from Palcacocha Lake (Cordillera Blanca, Peru)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Klimeš, Jan; Novotný, J.; Novotná, I.; Urries de, B.J.; Vilímek, V.; Emmer, Adam; Strozzi, T.; Kusák, Michal; Rapre, A.C.; Hartvich, Filip; Frey, H.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 6 (2016), s. 1461-1477 ISSN 1612-510X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP209/11/1000 Institutional support: RVO:67985891 ; RVO:67179843 Keywords : landslides * moraines * glacial lakes * slope stability calculation * glacial lake outburst floods * impact wave models * Cordillera Blanca Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography; DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography (UEK-B) Impact factor: 3.657, year: 2016

  9. Extremely organic-rich coma of comet C/2010 G2 (Hill) during its outburst in 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawakita, Hideyo; Kobayashi, Hitomi; Russo, Neil Dello; Vervack, Ron Jr.; Weaver, Harold A.; DiSanti, Mike A.; Opitom, Cyrielle; Jehin, Emmanuel; Manfroid, Jean; Gillon, Michael; Cochran, Anita L.; Harris, Walter M.; Bockelée-Morvan, Dominique; Biver, Nicolas; Crovisier, Jacques; McKay, Adam J.

    2014-01-01

    We performed high-dispersion near-infrared spectroscopic observations of comet C/2010 G2 (Hill) at 2.5 AU from the Sun using NIRSPEC (R ≈ 25,000) at the Keck II Telescope on UT 2012 January 9 and 10, about a week after an outburst had occurred. Over the two nights of our observations, prominent emission lines of CH 4 and C 2 H 6 , along with weaker emission lines of H 2 O, HCN, CH 3 OH, and CO were detected. The gas production rate of CO was comparable to that of H 2 O during the outburst. The mixing ratios of CO, HCN, CH 4 , C 2 H 6 , and CH 3 OH with respect to H 2 O were higher than those for normal comets by a factor of five or more. The enrichment of CO and CH 4 in comet Hill suggests that the sublimation of these hypervolatiles sustained the outburst of the comet. Some fraction of water in the inner coma might exist as icy grains that were likely ejected from nucleus by the sublimation of hypervolatiles. Mixing ratios of volatiles in comet Hill are indicative of the interstellar heritage without significant alteration in the solar nebula.

  10. An improved rolled strip pulse forming line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Song; Qian, Bao-Liang; Yang, Han-Wu; Gao, Jing-Ming; Liu, Zhao-Xi

    2013-06-01

    The rolled strip pulse forming line (RSPFL) has advantages of compactness, portability, and long pulse achievability which could well meet the requirements of industrial application of the pulse power technology. In this paper, an improved RSPFL with an additional insulator between the grounded conductors is investigated numerically and experimentally. Results demonstrate that the jitter on the flat-top of the output voltage waveform is reduced to 3.8% due to the improved structure. Theoretical analysis shows that the electromagnetic coupling between the conductors of the RSPFL strongly influences the output voltage waveform. Therefore, the new structure was designed to minimize the detrimental effect of the electromagnetic coupling. Simulation results show that the electromagnetic coupling can be efficiently reduced in the improved RSPFL. Experimental results illustrate that the improved RSPFL, with dimensions and weight of Φ 290 × 250 mm and 16 kg, when used as a simple pulse forming line, could generate a well shaped quasi-square pulse with output power of hundreds of MW and pulse duration of 250 ns. Importantly, the improved RSPFL was successfully used as a Blumlein pulse forming line, and a 10.8 kV, 260 ns quasi-square pulse was obtained on a 2 Ω dummy load. Experiments show reasonable agreement with numerical analysis.

  11. Strong Electroweak Symmetry Breaking

    CERN Document Server

    Grinstein, Benjamin

    2011-01-01

    Models of spontaneous breaking of electroweak symmetry by a strong interaction do not have fine tuning/hierarchy problem. They are conceptually elegant and use the only mechanism of spontaneous breaking of a gauge symmetry that is known to occur in nature. The simplest model, minimal technicolor with extended technicolor interactions, is appealing because one can calculate by scaling up from QCD. But it is ruled out on many counts: inappropriately low quark and lepton masses (or excessive FCNC), bad electroweak data fits, light scalar and vector states, etc. However, nature may not choose the minimal model and then we are stuck: except possibly through lattice simulations, we are unable to compute and test the models. In the LHC era it therefore makes sense to abandon specific models (of strong EW breaking) and concentrate on generic features that may indicate discovery. The Technicolor Straw Man is not a model but a parametrized search strategy inspired by a remarkable generic feature of walking technicolor,...

  12. Plasmons in strong superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldo, M.; Ducoin, C.

    2011-01-01

    We present a study of the possible plasmon excitations that can occur in systems where strong superconductivity is present. In these systems the plasmon energy is comparable to or smaller than the pairing gap. As a prototype of these systems we consider the proton component of Neutron Star matter just below the crust when electron screening is not taken into account. For the realistic case we consider in detail the different aspects of the elementary excitations when the proton, electron components are considered within the Random-Phase Approximation generalized to the superfluid case, while the influence of the neutron component is considered only at qualitative level. Electron screening plays a major role in modifying the proton spectrum and spectral function. At the same time the electron plasmon is strongly modified and damped by the indirect coupling with the superfluid proton component, even at moderately low values of the gap. The excitation spectrum shows the interplay of the different components and their relevance for each excitation modes. The results are relevant for neutrino physics and thermodynamical processes in neutron stars. If electron screening is neglected, the spectral properties of the proton component show some resemblance with the physical situation in high-T c superconductors, and we briefly discuss similarities and differences in this connection. In a general prospect, the results of the study emphasize the role of Coulomb interaction in strong superconductors.

  13. Analysis on Response of Dynamic Systems to Pulse Sequences Excitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xie Lili

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Near-fault ground motions with long-period pulses can place severe demands on structures near an active fault. These pulse-type ground motions can be represented by pulse sequences with simple shapes. Half-sinusoidal pulse sequences are used to approximate recorded ground motions and dynamic responses of SDOF system under the excitation of these pulse sequences are studied. Four cases are considered: (1 variation in duration of successor sub-pulse; (2 variation in duration of predecessor sub-pulse; (3 variation in amplitude of successor sub-pulse; and (4 variation in amplitude of predecessor sub-pulse. The corresponding acceleration, velocity and displacement response spectra of these pulse sequences are studied. The analysis on SDOF system shows that in some cases the responses are strongly affected by the changes of duration and/or amplitude of the sub-pulse. The study can be useful to understand the influences of sub-pulse in the near-fault pulse-type ground motions.

  14. Pulsed Drift Tube Accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faltens, A.

    2004-01-01

    The pulsed drift-tube accelerator (DTA) concept was revived by Joe Kwan and John Staples and is being considered for the HEDP/WDM application. It could be used to reach the full energy or as an intermediate accelerator between the diode and a high gradient accelerator such as multi-beam r.f. In the earliest LBNL HIF proposals and conceptual drivers it was used as an extended injector to reach energies where an induction linac with magnetic quadrupoles is the best choice. For HEDP, because of the very short pulse duration, the DTA could provide an acceleration rate of about 1MV/m. This note is divided into two parts: the first, a design based on existing experience; the second, an optimistic extrapolation. The first accelerates 16 parallel K + beams at a constant line charge density of 0.25(micro) C/m per beam to 10 MeV; the second uses a stripper and charge selector at around 4MeV followed by further acceleration to reach 40 MeV. Both benefit from more compact sources than the present 2MV injector source, although that beam is the basis of the first design and is a viable option. A pulsed drift-tube accelerator was the first major HIF experiment at LBNL. It was designed to produce a 2(micro)s rectangular 1 Ampere C s + beam at 2MeV. It ran comfortably at 1.6MeV for several years, then at lower voltages and currents for other experiments, and remnants of that experiment are in use in present experiments, still running 25 years later. The 1A current, completely equivalent to 1.8A K + , was chosen to be intermediate between the beamlets appropriate for a multi-beam accelerator, and a single beam of, say, 10A, at injection energies. The original driver scenarios using one large beam on each side of the reactor rapidly fell out of favor because of the very high transverse and longitudinal fields from the beam space charge, circa 1MV/cm and 250 kV/cm respectively, near the chamber and because of aberrations in focusing a large diameter beam down to a 1mm radius spot at a

  15. Bit rate and pulse width dependence of four-wave mixing of short optical pulses in semiconductor optical amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diez, S.; Mecozzi, A.; Mørk, Jesper

    1999-01-01

    We investigate the saturation properties of four-wave mixing of short optical pulses in a semiconductor optical amplifier. By varying the gain of the optical amplifier, we find a strong dependence of both conversion efficiency and signal-to-background ratio on pulse width and bit rate. In particu......We investigate the saturation properties of four-wave mixing of short optical pulses in a semiconductor optical amplifier. By varying the gain of the optical amplifier, we find a strong dependence of both conversion efficiency and signal-to-background ratio on pulse width and bit rate...

  16. Moderately strong pump-induced ultrafast dynamics in solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, H.F. [Shanghai Advanced Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Sciences (China); School of Physical Science and Technology, ShanghaiTech University (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences (China); Zhang, Yizhu, E-mail: zhangyz@sari.ac.cn [Shanghai Advanced Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Sciences (China); Yan, T.-M., E-mail: yantm@sari.ac.cn [Shanghai Advanced Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Sciences (China); Wang, Z.Y. [Shanghai Advanced Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Sciences (China); School of Physical Science and Technology, ShanghaiTech University (China); Jiang, Y.H., E-mail: jiangyh@sari.ac.cn [Shanghai Advanced Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Sciences (China); School of Physical Science and Technology, ShanghaiTech University (China)

    2016-09-12

    Graphical abstract: Moderately strong pump pulse is applied to the transient absorption spectrum. The pump and dump processes (resonant impulsive stimulated Raman scattering) finished in one single pump pulse in moderately strong regime make the observation of high-lying excited state dynamics possible. - Highlights: • The pulse intensity in transient absorption spectrum are experimentally studied. • The higher nonlinear susceptibility responses are observed. • The resonant impulsive stimulated Raman scattering. • New dynamics information in strong pump field. - Abstract: The transient transmittance spectra of laser dye IR144 in methanol were investigated experimentally in the moderately strong pump-probe field. Observed emission spectra in the red edge of the incident-field bandwidth, created by resonant impulsive stimulated Raman scattering (RISRS), display significant nonlinear intensity dependence as the pulse intensity increases. Dynamic perspectives of RISRS spectra can be understood well in a wavepacket picture. The excitation of high vibrational levels in the ground electronic state leading to the redshift of emissions presents high dependence of the pump-pulse intensity and ultrafast dynamical features, mapping the spatial overlap and separation of ground and excited wave functions and resolving the ultrafast vibrational relaxation in the femtosecond regime.

  17. Glacier change and glacial lake outburst flood risk in the Bolivian Andes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. J. Cook

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Glaciers of the Bolivian Andes represent an important water resource for Andean cities and mountain communities, yet relatively little work has assessed changes in their extent over recent decades. In many mountain regions, glacier recession has been accompanied by the development of proglacial lakes, which can pose a glacial lake outburst flood (GLOF hazard. However, no studies have assessed the development of such lakes in Bolivia despite recent GLOF incidents here. Our mapping from satellite imagery reveals an overall areal shrinkage of 228.1 ± 22.8 km2 (43.1 % across the Bolivian Cordillera Oriental between 1986 and 2014. Shrinkage was greatest in the Tres Cruces region (47.3 %, followed by the Cordillera Apolobamba (43.1 % and Cordillera Real (41.9 %. A growing number of proglacial lakes have developed as glaciers have receded, in accordance with trends in most other deglaciating mountain ranges, although the number of ice-contact lakes has decreased. The reasons for this are unclear, but the pattern of lake change has varied significantly throughout the study period, suggesting that monitoring of future lake development is required as ice continues to recede. Ultimately, we use our 2014 database of proglacial lakes to assess GLOF risk across the Bolivian Andes. We identify 25 lakes that pose a potential GLOF threat to downstream communities and infrastructure. We suggest that further studies of potential GLOF impacts are urgently required.

  18. Development of Petrov glacial-lake system (Tien Shan and outburst risk assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Torgoev

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Global climate warming causes an intensive melting and retreat of glaciers in the Tien Shan mountains. Melting water of glaciers causes overfilling of high mountain lakes. The increase of the surface and volume of the Petrov Lake accompanied with the decrease of stability of the dam represents an extremely dangerous situation that can produce a natural disaster. Failure can happen due to erosion, a buildup of water pressure, an earthquake or if a large enough portion of a glacier breaks off and massively displaces the waters in a glacial lake at its base. In case of the lake dam rupture, flooding of a disposal site of highly toxic tailing from the gold mine Kumtor is a threat. If this happens, the toxic waste containing cyanides would contaminate a large area in the Naryn (Syrdarya river basin. Even if the flooding of the disposal site does not occur, the damage after lake dam fracture will be immense due to the glacial lake outburst flood may be a devastating mudslide. In order to prevent or reduce the risk of this event we recommend performing engineering surveys for the development and implementation of the project for the controlled reduction of water level in the Blue Bay of the Petrov Lake to a safe volume.

  19. SPECTRAL ENERGY DISTRIBUTION OF MARKARIAN 501: QUIESCENT STATE VERSUS EXTREME OUTBURST

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acciari, V. A.; Benbow, W.; Arlen, T.; Aune, T.; Beilicke, M.; Buckley, J. H.; Bugaev, V.; Dickherber, R.; Boettcher, M.; Boltuch, D.; Bradbury, S. M.; Cannon, A.; Cesarini, A.; Ciupik, L.; Cui, W.; Finley, J. P.; Duke, C.; Errando, M.; Falcone, A.; Finnegan, G.

    2011-01-01

    The very high energy (VHE; E > 100 GeV) blazar Markarian 501 (Mrk 501) has a well-studied history of extreme spectral variability and is an excellent laboratory for studying the physical processes within the jets of active galactic nuclei. However, there are few detailed multiwavelength studies of Mrk 501 during its quiescent state, due to its low luminosity. A short-term multiwavelength study of Mrk 501 was coordinated in 2009 March, focusing around a multi-day observation with the Suzaku X-ray satellite and including γ-ray data from VERITAS, MAGIC, and the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope with the goal of providing a well-sampled multiwavelength baseline measurement of Mrk 501 in the quiescent state. The results of these quiescent-state observations are compared to the historically extreme outburst of 1997 April 16, with the goal of examining variability of the spectral energy distribution (SED) between the two states. The derived broadband SED shows the characteristic double-peaked profile. We find that the X-ray peak shifts by over two orders of magnitude in photon energy between the two flux states while the VHE peak varies little. The limited shift in the VHE peak can be explained by the transition to the Klein-Nishina (KN) regime. Synchrotron self-Compton models are matched to the data and the implied KN effects are explored.

  20. Double station observation of Draconid meteor outburst from two moving aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koten, Pavel; Vaubaillon, Jeremie; Margonis, Anastasios; Tóth, Juraj; Ďuriš, František; McAulliffe, Jonathan; Oberst, Jürgen

    2015-12-01

    A Draconid meteor shower outburst was observed from the boards of two scientific aircraft on 8 October 2011. In this paper we report the results of this double station experiment. The beginning and terminal heights are similar to other Draconid observations and confirm the fragile nature of the meteoroids. From the distribution function of terminal heights, a critical mass was found to be about 3.5 g. A behaviour of the terminal heights changes at this point. Light curves of Draconid meteors show great variability with a maximum of the F-number distribution around 0.35, which also confirms fragility of the material. Observed radiants of the meteors are in agreement with the theoretical model. Although encounters with two different filaments were predicted, it is impossible to distinguish between them from the radiants as well as the orbital data. Despite the complications with the data processing the airborne mission shows that such double station experiment is possible and provides valuable insight into meteor structure and dynamics.

  1. Colors of the pulsations and flickering of Sy Cancri during outburst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Middleditch, J.; Cordova, F.A.

    1982-01-01

    The spectra of the short period (approx.30 s) oscillations and flickering of the dwarf nova Sy Cnc have been determined by simultaneous measuring the optical flux in three broad, contiguous spectral bands during an optical outburst of the star. The spectrum of the oscillation rises too rapidly toward short wavelengths to be consistent with any simple thermal model. The colors of the flickering are even more extreme (i.e., more ultraviolet) than those of the pulsations. No timing differences were detected to a fraction of a second between the ultraviolet (U), cyan (B+V, or C) and red (R, to 9000 A) bands of the pulsations; thus, the optical oscillations appear to arise from a single physical location in the binary system. Without a detailed study of a more complicated class of models, which may include recombination radiation from H I, He I, and He II in addition to a thermal model, it is impossible to assign a temperature to the oscillations and thereby determine whether they are produced directly on the white dwarf or in the accretion disk

  2. The extreme carbon dioxide outburst at the Menzengraben potash mine 7 July 1953

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedlund, Frank Huess

    2012-01-01

    . It is concluded that 1100–3900 tonnes of CO2 were blown out of the mine shaft, possibly with intensities around 4 tonnes/s. It is also concluded that the large majority of the gas escaped as a near-vertical high-velocity jet with only little loss of momentum due to impingement. The release was modelled using......Carbon dioxide is an asphyxiant and an irritant gas. An extreme outburst of carbon dioxide took place 7 July 1953 in a potash mine in the former East Germany. During 25 min, a large amount of CO2 was blown out of the mine shaft with great force. It was wind still and concentrated CO2 accumulated...... PHAST. Output from the model is inconsistent with the asphyxiation harm observed. The high-momentum release is predicted to disperse safely and never reach the ground. Carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) schemes will involve handling and transportation of unprecedented quantities of CO2. Case...

  3. Climate change and the global pattern of moraine-dammed glacial lake outburst floods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Stephan; Kargel, Jeffrey S.; Huggel, Christian; Reynolds, John; Shugar, Dan H.; Betts, Richard A.; Emmer, Adam; Glasser, Neil; Haritashya, Umesh K.; Klimeš, Jan; Reinhardt, Liam; Schaub, Yvonne; Wiltshire, Andy; Regmi, Dhananjay; Vilímek, Vít

    2018-04-01

    Despite recent research identifying a clear anthropogenic impact on glacier recession, the effect of recent climate change on glacier-related hazards is at present unclear. Here we present the first global spatio-temporal assessment of glacial lake outburst floods (GLOFs) focusing explicitly on lake drainage following moraine dam failure. These floods occur as mountain glaciers recede and downwaste. GLOFs can have an enormous impact on downstream communities and infrastructure. Our assessment of GLOFs associated with the rapid drainage of moraine-dammed lakes provides insights into the historical trends of GLOFs and their distributions under current and future global climate change. We observe a clear global increase in GLOF frequency and their regularity around 1930, which likely represents a lagged response to post-Little Ice Age warming. Notably, we also show that GLOF frequency and regularity - rather unexpectedly - have declined in recent decades even during a time of rapid glacier recession. Although previous studies have suggested that GLOFs will increase in response to climate warming and glacier recession, our global results demonstrate that this has not yet clearly happened. From an assessment of the timing of climate forcing, lag times in glacier recession, lake formation and moraine-dam failure, we predict increased GLOF frequencies during the next decades and into the 22nd century.

  4. Timing Analysis of V404 Cyg during Its Brightest Outburst with INTEGRAL/SPI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodi, J.; Jourdain, E.; Roques, J. P.

    2017-10-01

    The outburst of V404 Cyg during the summer of 2015 reached unparalleled intensities at X-ray and soft gamma-ray energies with fluxes > 50 Crab in the 20-50 keV energy band. To date, studies in the hard X-ray/soft gamma-ray energy domain have focused primarily on the energy spectra. In this work, a timing analysis has been performed with INTEGRAL/SPI data in the 20-300 keV energy range for INTEGRAL revolution 1557, which corresponds to the brightest flare of V404 Cyg (on 2015 June 26). The power spectra are fit with broken power-law and multi-Lorentzian models and compared with previously reported results of V404 Cyg flaring activity from 1989 and 2015. Also, we took advantage of the good signal-to-noise ratio obtained above 70 keV to quantify the timing/fast-variability properties of the source as a function of energy. We then point out similarities of V404 Cyg with the black hole transient V4641 Sgr. Like V4641 Sgr, we found that the power spectra of V404 Cyg during high flux periods did not possess the expected flat-top feature typically seen in a hard spectral state. Interpretations are proposed in the framework of the fluctuating-propagation model to explain the observed properties.

  5. Japanese Mutual Funds before and after the Crisis Outburst: A Style- and Performance-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanos Papadamou

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates how mutual funds performed in Japan before and after the 2008 outburst of the global financial crisis, that is during the extension of an extraordinary unconventional monetary policy by the Bank of Japan. Style and performance analyses are employed in order to investigate whether active or passive management has been affected by unconventional times and to what extent. Evidence indicates that in four out of eight funds, asset selection presents a significant contribution to returns. The Selection Sharpe Ratios for sectoral and style analyses exhibit positive values added per unit of risk due to active management for the majority of our funds in the pre-Lehman default period. Nevertheless, none of them presents statistical significance according to the t-statistic. Moreover, over the post-Lehman default, only two out of eight funds achieved lower volatility levels and higher returns due to active management. A style drift to big capitalization stocks with low values of book to market ratio is to be held responsible for the outperformance. Overall, our findings imply that active management in a monetary easing environment does not add significant value to the mutual fund performance.

  6. Strong-coupling approximations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbott, R.B.

    1984-03-01

    Standard path-integral techniques such as instanton calculations give good answers for weak-coupling problems, but become unreliable for strong-coupling. Here we consider a method of replacing the original potential by a suitably chosen harmonic oscillator potential. Physically this is motivated by the fact that potential barriers below the level of the ground-state energy of a quantum-mechanical system have little effect. Numerically, results are good, both for quantum-mechanical problems and for massive phi 4 field theory in 1 + 1 dimensions. 9 references, 6 figures

  7. Strong interaction and QFD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebata, T.

    1981-01-01

    With an assumed weak multiplet structure for bosonic hadrons, which is consistent with the ΔI = 1/2 rule, it is shown that the strong interaction effective hamiltonian is compatible with the weak SU(2) x U(1) gauge transformation. Especially the rho-meson transforms as a triplet under SU(2)sub(w), and this is the origin of the rho-photon analogy. It is also shown that the existence of the non-vanishing Cabibbo angle is a necessary condition for the absence of the exotic hadrons. (orig.)

  8. X-Ray and Radio Observations of the Magnetar SGR J1935+2154 during Its 2014, 2015, and 2016 Outbursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younes, George; Kouveliotou, Chryssa; Jaodand, Amruta; Baring, Matthew G.; van der Horst, Alexander J.; Harding, Alice K.; Hessels, Jason W. T.; Gehrels, Neil; Gill, Ramandeep; Huppenkothen, Daniela; Granot, Jonathan; Göğüş, Ersin; Lin, Lin

    2017-10-01

    We analyzed broadband X-ray and radio data of the magnetar SGR J1935+2154 taken in the aftermath of its 2014, 2015, and 2016 outbursts. The source soft X-ray spectrum law (BB+PL) or 2BB model during all three outbursts. Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array observations revealed a hard X-ray tail, with a PL photon index Γ = 0.9, extending up to 50 keV, with flux comparable to the one detected <10 keV. Imaging analysis of Chandra data did not reveal small-scale extended emission around the source. Following the outbursts, the total 0.5-10 keV flux from SGR J1935+2154 increased in concordance to its bursting activity, with the flux at activation onset increasing by a factor of ˜7 following its strongest 2016 June outburst. A Swift/X-Ray Telescope observation taken 1.5 days prior to the onset of this outburst showed a flux level consistent with quiescence. We show that the flux increase is due to the PL or hot BB component, which increased by a factor of 25 compared to quiescence, while the cold BB component kT = 0.47 keV remained more or less constant. The 2014 and 2015 outbursts decayed quasi-exponentially with timescales of ˜40 days, while the stronger 2016 May and June outbursts showed a quick short-term decay with timescales of about four days. Our Arecibo radio observations set the deepest limits on the radio emission from a magnetar, with a maximum flux density limit of 14 μJy for the 4.6 GHz observations and 7 μJy for the 1.4 GHz observations. We discuss these results in the framework of the current magnetar theoretical models.

  9. ELECTRICAL PULSE COUNTER APPARATUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, W.M.; Jeeves, T.A.

    1962-09-01

    A progressive electrical pulse counter circuit rs designed for the counting of a chain of input pulses. The circuit employs a series of direct connected bistable counting stages simultaneously pulsed by each input pulse and a delay means connected between each of the stages. Each bistable stage has two d-c operative states, which stage, when in its initial state, prevents the next succeeding stage from changing its condition when the latter stage is pulsed. Since the delay circuits between the stages prevents the immediate decay of the d-c state of each stage when the stages are pulsed, only one stage will change its state for each input pulse, thereby providing progressive stage-by-stage counting. (AEC)

  10. Strong Coupling Holography

    CERN Document Server

    Dvali, Gia

    2009-01-01

    We show that whenever a 4-dimensional theory with N particle species emerges as a consistent low energy description of a 3-brane embedded in an asymptotically-flat (4+d)-dimensional space, the holographic scale of high-dimensional gravity sets the strong coupling scale of the 4D theory. This connection persists in the limit in which gravity can be consistently decoupled. We demonstrate this effect for orbifold planes, as well as for the solitonic branes and string theoretic D-branes. In all cases the emergence of a 4D strong coupling scale from bulk holography is a persistent phenomenon. The effect turns out to be insensitive even to such extreme deformations of the brane action that seemingly shield 4D theory from the bulk gravity effects. A well understood example of such deformation is given by large 4D Einstein term in the 3-brane action, which is known to suppress the strength of 5D gravity at short distances and change the 5D Newton's law into the four-dimensional one. Nevertheless, we observe that the ...

  11. Topics in strong Langmuir turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skoric, M.M.

    1981-01-01

    This thesis discusses certain aspects of the turbulence of a fully ionised non-isothermal plasma dominated by the Langmuir mode. Some of the basic properties of strongly turbulent plasmas are reviewed. In particular, interest is focused on the state of Langmuir turbulence, that is the turbulence of a simple externally unmagnetized plasma. The problem of the existence and dynamics of Langmuir collapse is discussed, often met as a non-linear stage of the modulational instability in the framework of the Zakharov equations (i.e. simple time-averaged dynamical equations). Possible macroscopic consequences of such dynamical turbulent models are investigated. In order to study highly non-linear collapse dynamics in its advanced stage, a set of generalized Zakharov equations are derived. Going beyond the original approximation, the author includes the effects of higher electron non-linearities and a breakdown of slow-timescale quasi-neutrality. He investigates how these corrections may influence the collapse stabilisation. Recently, it has been realised that the modulational instability in a Langmuir plasma will be accompanied by the collisionless-generation of a slow-timescale magnetic field. Accordingly, a novel physical situation has emerged which is investigated in detail. The stability of monochromatic Langmuir waves in a self-magnetized Langmuir plasma, is discussed, and the existence of a novel magneto-modulational instability shown. The wave collapse dynamics is investigated and a physical interpretation of the basic results is given. A problem of the transient analysis of an interaction of time-dependent electromagnetic pulses with linear cold plasma media is investigated. (Auth.)

  12. Tracing the Jet Contribution to the Mid-IR over the 2005 Outburst of GRO J1655-40 via Broadband Spectral Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migliari, S.; Tomsick, J. A.; Markoff, S.; Kalemci, E.; Bailyn, C. D.; Buxton, M.; Corbel, S; Fender, R. P.; Kaaret, P.

    2007-01-01

    We present new results from a multi-wavelength (radio/infrared/optical/X-ray) study of the black hole Xray binary GRO 51655-40 during its 2005 outburst. We detected, for the first time, mid-infrared emission at 24 micron from the compact jet of a black hole X-ray binary during its hard state, when the source shows emission from a radio compact jet, as well as a strong non-thermal hard X-ray component. These detections strongly constrain the optically thick part of the synchrotron spectrum of the compact jet, which is consistent with it being flat over 4 orders of magnitude in frequency. Moreover, using this unprecedented coverage, and especially thanks to the new Spitzer observations, we can test broadband disk and jet models during the hard state. Two of the hard-state broadband spectra are reasonably well fitted using a jet model with parameters that overall are similar to those previously found for Cyg X-1 and GX 339-4. Differences are also present; most notably, the jet power in GRO J1655-40 appears to be a factor of at least approximately 3-5 higher (depending on the distance) than those of Cyg X-1 and GX-339-4 at comparable disk luminosities. Furthermore, a few discrepancies between the model and the data, previously not found for the other two black hole systems for which there was no mid-IR/IR and optical coverage, are evident, and will help to constrain and refine theoretical models.

  13. Stable states in a strong IR field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Changchun; Robicheaux, Francis

    2015-05-01

    It is found that 10% of atoms stay in the quasi-stable states after being exposed to intense laser or microwave (MW) pulses, even though the pulses' intensity is much stronger than that needed for static fields ionization. The reason why atoms survive those strong pulses has attracted growing attentions. A. Arakelyan et al. have observed the optical spectra of the surviving Lithium atoms after interaction with intense 38-GHz MW fields for more than 1000 cycles, and the spectra exhibit a periodic train of peaks 38 GHz apart. It suggests that those weakly bound Rydberg electrons seldom go back to the ionic core, where the cycle average energy exchange happens. In this study, we are interested in the electron behavior in the presence of intense infrared fields with a much shorter wavelength (1000 nm). By solving the full 3D time dependent Schrodinger equation, we calculate the spectra of the surviving atoms under intense IR fields. Our numerical calculations show atoms survive the intense field in quasi-stable states for a long time, and the optical spectra are obviously modulated by the IR frequency. Through tuning the ponderomotive energy, we see how field parameters affect the behavior of electrons. Different atoms, such as Hydrogen, Helium, Lithium, and Sodium, are tested to see how atom's energy structures influence the results.

  14. LIGO: The strong belief

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2016-01-01

    Twenty years of designing, building and testing a number of innovative technologies, with the strong belief that the endeavour would lead to a historic breakthrough. The Bulletin publishes an abstract of the Courier’s interview with Barry Barish, one of the founding fathers of LIGO.   The plots show the signals of gravitational waves detected by the twin LIGO observatories at Livingston, Louisiana, and Hanford, Washington. (Image: Caltech/MIT/LIGO Lab) On 11 February, the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) and Virgo collaborations published a historic paper in which they showed a gravitational signal emitted by the merger of two black holes. These results come after 20 years of hard work by a large collaboration of scientists operating the two LIGO observatories in the US. Barry Barish, Linde Professor of Physics, Emeritus at the California Institute of Technology and former Director of the Global Design Effort for the Internat...

  15. Nonlinear Pulse Shaping in Fibres for Pulse Generation and Optical Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Boscolo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of new all-optical technologies for data processing and signal manipulation is a field of growing importance with a strong potential for numerous applications in diverse areas of modern science. Nonlinear phenomena occurring in optical fibres have many attractive features and great, but not yet fully explored, potential in signal processing. Here, we review recent progress on the use of fibre nonlinearities for the generation and shaping of optical pulses and on the applications of advanced pulse shapes in all-optical signal processing. Amongst other topics, we will discuss ultrahigh repetition rate pulse sources, the generation of parabolic shaped pulses in active and passive fibres, the generation of pulses with triangular temporal profiles, and coherent supercontinuum sources. The signal processing applications will span optical regeneration, linear distortion compensation, optical decision at the receiver in optical communication systems, spectral and temporal signal doubling, and frequency conversion.

  16. Electron emitter pulsed-type cylindrical IEC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miley, G.H.; Gu, Y.; Stubbers, R.; Zich, R.; Anderl, R.; Hartwell, J.

    1997-01-01

    A cylindrical version of the single grid Inertial Electrostatic Confinement (IEC) device (termed the C-device) has been developed for use as a 2.5-MeV D-D fusion neutron source for neutron activation analysis. The C-device employs a hollow-tube type cathode with similar anodes backed up by ''reflector'' dishes. The resulting discharge differs from a conventional hollow cathode discharge, by creating an explicit ion beam which is ''pinched'' in the cathode region. Resulting fusion reactions generate ∼10 6 neutron/s. A pulsed version is under development for applications requiring higher fluxes. Several pulsing techniques are under study, including an electron emitter (e-emitter) assisted discharge in a thorated tungsten wire emitter located behind a slotted area in the reflector dishes. Pulsing is initiated after establishing a low power steady-state discharge by pulsing the e-emitter current using a capacitor switch type circuit. The resulting electron jet, coupled with the discharge by the biased slot array, creates a strong pulse in the pinched ion beam. The pulse length/repetition rate are controlled by the e-emitter pulse circuit. Typical parameters in present studies are ∼30micros, 10Hz and 1-amp ion current. Corresponding neutron measurements are an In-foil type activation counter for time averaged rates. Results for a wide variety of operating conditions are presented

  17. New outburst of the accreting millisecond X-ray pulsar NGC 6440 X-2 and discovery of a strong 1 Hz modulation in the light-curve

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Patruno, A.; Yang, Y.; Altamirano, D.; Armas-Padilla, M.; Cavecchi, Y.; Degenaar, N.; Kalamkar, M.; Kaur, R.; Klis, M. Van Der; Watts, A.; Wijnands, R.; Linares, M.; Casella, P.; Rea, N.; Soleri, P.; Markwardt, C.; Strohmayer, T.; Heinke, C.

    On June 11th, 2010, RXTE/PCA galactic bulge scan observations showed an increase in activity from the globular cluster NGC 6440. Two accreting millisecond X-ray pulsars (AMXPs) and 22 other X-ray binaries are known in NGC 6440 (see Pooley et al. 2002, ApJ 573, 184, Altarmirano et al. 2010, ApJL 712,

  18. Cavitation pulse extraction and centrifugal pump analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Hong Lind Shaoran [University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu (China); Yu, Bo; Qing, Biao [Xihua University, Chengdu (China)

    2017-03-15

    This study extracted cavitation pulses from hydrophone signals sampled in a centrifugal pump and analyzed their characteristics. The modified and simplified Empirical mode decomposition (EMD) algorithm was proposed for extracting cavitation pulses from strong background noise. Experimental results showed that EMD can effectively suppress noise and obtain clear cavitation pulses, facilitating the identification of the number of pulses associated with the degree of cavitation. The cavitation characteristics were modeled to predict the value of incipient cavitation. Then, we proposed a method for detecting the wear of the impeller surface. That is, the information on the impeller surface of the centrifugal pump, including the roughness of the impeller surface and its wear trends, were quantified based on the net positive suction head available of incipient cavitation. The findings indicate that the proposed technique is suitable for condition monitoring of the pump.

  19. Sound pulse broadening in stressed granular media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langlois, Vincent; Jia, Xiaoping

    2015-02-01

    The pulse broadening and decay of coherent sound waves propagating in disordered granular media are investigated. We find that the pulse width of these compressional waves is broadened when the disorder is increased by mixing the beads made of different materials. To identify the responsible mechanism for the pulse broadening, we also perform the acoustic attenuation measurement by spectral analysis and the numerical simulation of pulsed sound wave propagation along one-dimensional disordered elastic chains. The qualitative agreement between experiment and simulation reveals a dominant mechanism by scattering attenuation at the high-frequency range, which is consistent with theoretical models of sound wave scattering in strongly random media via a correlation length.

  20. Propagating Characteristics of Pulsed Laser in Rain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Guo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To understand the performance of laser ranging system under the rain weather condition, we need to know the propagating characteristics of laser pulse in rain. In this paper, the absorption and attenuation coefficients were calculated based on the scattering theories in discrete stochastic media, and the propagating characteristics of laser pulse in rain were simulated and analyzed using Monte-Carlo method. Some simulation results were verified by experiments, and the simulation results are well matched with the experimental data, with the maximal deviation not less than 7.5%. The results indicated that the propagating laser beam would be attenuated and distorted due to the scattering and absorption of raindrops, and the energy attenuation and pulse shape distortion strongly depended on the laser pulse widths.

  1. Ablation of silicon with bursts of femtosecond laser pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudiuso, Caterina; Kämmer, Helena; Dreisow, Felix; Ancona, Antonio; Tünnermann, Andreas; Nolte, Stefan

    2016-03-01

    We report on an experimental investigation of ultrafast laser ablation of silicon with bursts of pulses. The pristine 1030nm-wavelength 200-fs pulses were split into bursts of up to 16 sub-pulses with time separation ranging from 0.5ps to 4080ps. The total ablation threshold fluence was measured depending on the burst features, finding that it strongly increases with the number of sub-pulses for longer sub-pulse delays, while a slowly increasing trend is observed for shorter separation time. The ablation depth per burst follows two different trends according to the time separation between the sub-pulses, as well as the total threshold fluence. For delays shorter than 4ps it decreases with the number of pulses, while for time separations longer than 510ps, deeper craters were achieved by increasing the number of subpulses in the burst, probably due to a change of the effective penetration depth.

  2. Time-Resolved Photoelectron Angular Distributions from Strong-Field Ionization of Rotating Naphthalene Molecules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jonas Lerche; Stapelfeldt, Henrik; Dimitrovski, Darko

    2011-01-01

    A nanosecond laser pulse confines the spatial orientation of naphthalene in 1D or 3D while a femtosecond kick pulse initiates rotation of the molecular plane around the fixed long axis. Time-dependent photoelectron angular distributions (PADs), resulting from ionization by an intense femtosecond...... probe pulse, exhibit pronounced changes as the molecular plane rotates. Enhanced 3D alignment, occurring shortly after the kick pulse, provides strongly improved contrast in molecular-frame PADs. Calculations in the strong-field approximation show that the striking structures observed in the PADs...

  3. John Strong (1941 - 2006)

    CERN Multimedia

    Wickens, F

    Our friend and colleague John Strong was cruelly taken from us by a brain tumour on Monday 31st July, a few days before his 65th birthday John started his career working with a group from Westfield College, under the leadership of Ted Bellamy. He obtained his PhD and spent the early part of his career on experiments at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL), but after the early 1970s his research was focussed on experiments in CERN. Over the years he made a number of notable contributions to experiments in CERN: The Omega spectrometer adopted a system John had originally developed for experiments at RAL using vidicon cameras to record the sparks in the spark chambers; He contributed to the success of NA1 and NA7, where he became heavily involved in the electronic trigger systems; He was responsible for the second level trigger system for the ALEPH detector and spent five years leading a team that designed and built the system, which ran for twelve years with only minor interventions. Following ALEPH he tur...

  4. Stirring Strongly Coupled Plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Fadafan, Kazem Bitaghsir; Rajagopal, Krishna; Wiedemann, Urs Achim

    2009-01-01

    We determine the energy it takes to move a test quark along a circle of radius L with angular frequency w through the strongly coupled plasma of N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills (SYM) theory. We find that for most values of L and w the energy deposited by stirring the plasma in this way is governed either by the drag force acting on a test quark moving through the plasma in a straight line with speed v=Lw or by the energy radiated by a quark in circular motion in the absence of any plasma, whichever is larger. There is a continuous crossover from the drag-dominated regime to the radiation-dominated regime. In the crossover regime we find evidence for significant destructive interference between energy loss due to drag and that due to radiation as if in vacuum. The rotating quark thus serves as a model system in which the relative strength of, and interplay between, two different mechanisms of parton energy loss is accessible via a controlled classical gravity calculation. We close by speculating on the implicati...

  5. Strong-interaction nonuniversality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkas, R.R.; Foot, R.; He, X.; Joshi, G.C.

    1989-01-01

    The universal QCD color theory is extended to an SU(3) 1 direct product SU(3) 2 direct product SU(3) 3 gauge theory, where quarks of the ith generation transform as triplets under SU(3)/sub i/ and singlets under the other two factors. The usual color group is then identified with the diagonal subgroup, which remains exact after symmetry breaking. The gauge bosons associated with the 16 broken generators then form two massive octets under ordinary color. The interactions between quarks and these heavy gluonlike particles are explicitly nonuniversal and thus an exploration of their physical implications allows us to shed light on the fundamental issue of strong-interaction universality. Nonuniversality and weak flavor mixing are shown to generate heavy-gluon-induced flavor-changing neutral currents. The phenomenology of these processes is studied, as they provide the major experimental constraint on the extended theory. Three symmetry-breaking scenarios are presented. The first has color breaking occurring at the weak scale, while the second and third divorce the two scales. The third model has the interesting feature of radiatively induced off-diagonal Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix elements

  6. 21st century Himalayan hydropower: Growing exposure to glacial lake outburst floods?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwanghart, Wolfgang; Worni, Raphael; Huggel, Christian; Stoffel, Markus; Korup, Oliver

    2014-05-01

    Primary energy demand in China and India has increased fivefold since 1980. To avoid power shortages and blackouts, the hydropower infrastructure in the Hindu Kush-Himalaya region is seeing massive development, a strategy supported by the policy of the World Bank and in harmony with the framework of the Kyoto Protocol. The targeted investments in clean energy from water resources, however, may trigger far-reaching impacts to downstream communities given that hydropower projects are planned and constructed in close vicinity to glaciated areas. We hypothesize that the location of these new schemes may be subject to higher exposure to a broad portfolio of natural hazards that proliferate in the steep, dissected, and tectonically active topography of the Himalayas. Here we focus on the hazard from glacial lake outburst floods (GLOF), and offer an unprecedented regional analysis for the Hindu Kush-Himalaya orogen. We compiled a database of nearly 4,000 proglacial lakes that we mapped from satellite imagery; and focus on those as potential GLOF sources that are situated above several dozen planned and existing hydropower plants. We implemented a scenario-based flood-wave propagation model of hypothetic GLOFs, and compared thus simulated peak discharges with those of the local design floods at the power plants. Multiple model runs confirm earlier notions that GLOF discharge may exceed meteorological, i.e. monsoon-fed, flood peaks by at least an order of magnitude throughout the Hindu Kush-Himalaya. We further show that the current trend in hydropower development near glaciated areas may lead to a >15% increase of projects that may be impacted by future GLOFs. At the same time, the majority of the projects are to be sited where outburst flood modelling produces its maximum uncertainty, highlighting the problem of locating minimum risk sites for hydropower. Exposure to GLOFs is not uniformly distributed in the Himalayas, and is particularly high in rivers draining the Mt

  7. Reconstructing the past outburst history of Eta Carinae from WFPC2 proper motions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Nathan

    2016-10-01

    The HST archive contains multiple epochs of WFPC2 images of the nebula around Eta Carinae taken over a 15-year timespan, although only the earliest few years of data have been analyzed and published. The fact that all these images were taken with the same instrument, with the same pixel sampling and field distortion, makes them an invaluable resource for accurately measuring the expanding ejecta. The goal of a previously accepted AR proposal was to analyze the full set of appropriate continuum-filter HST images to place precise constraints on the avereage ejection date of the Homunculus Nebula; this analysis is now complete (Smith et al 2016) and the nebula appears to have been ejected in the second half of 1847. Here we propose to continue this project by constraining the motion of the more extended and much older Outer Ejecta around Eta Carinae. Older material outside the main bipolar nebula traces previous major outbursts of the star with no recorded historical observations. We propose an ambitious reduction and analysis of the complete WFPC2 imaging dataset of Eta Car. These data can reconstruct its violent mass-loss history over the past thousand years. We have already started this by analyzing two epochs of ACS F658N images, and astonishingly, these data suggested two previous eruptions in the 13th and 15th centuries assuming ballistic motion. WFPC2 images will extend the baseline by 10 yr, and critically, more than 2 epochs allow us to measure any deceleration in the ejecta. We will also analyze Doppler shifts in ground-based spectra in order to reconstruct the 3D geometry of past mass ejection. This AR proposal will fund the final year of a PhD thesis.

  8. RECOGNITION OF DRAINAGE TUNNELS DURING GLACIER LAKE OUTBURST EVENTS FROM TERRESTRIAL IMAGE SEQUENCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Schwalbe

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, many glaciers all over the world have been distinctly retreating and thinning. One of the consequences of this is the increase of so called glacier lake outburst flood events (GLOFs. The mechanisms ruling such GLOF events are still not yet fully understood by glaciologists. Thus, there is a demand for data and measurements that can help to understand and model the phenomena. Thereby, a main issue is to obtain information about the location and formation of subglacial channels through which some lakes, dammed by a glacier, start to drain. The paper will show how photogrammetric image sequence analysis can be used to collect such data. For the purpose of detecting a subglacial tunnel, a camera has been installed in a pilot study to observe the area of the Colonia Glacier (Northern Patagonian Ice Field where it dams the Lake Cachet II. To verify the hypothesis, that the course of the subglacial tunnel is indicated by irregular surface motion patterns during its collapse, the camera acquired image sequences of the glacier surface during several GLOF events. Applying tracking techniques to these image sequences, surface feature motion trajectories could be obtained for a dense raster of glacier points. Since only a single camera has been used for image sequence acquisition, depth information is required to scale the trajectories. Thus, for scaling and georeferencing of the measurements a GPS-supported photogrammetric network has been measured. The obtained motion fields of the Colonia Glacier deliver information about the glacier’s behaviour before during and after a GLOF event. If the daily vertical glacier motion of the glacier is integrated over a period of several days and projected into a satellite image, the location and shape of the drainage channel underneath the glacier becomes visible. The high temporal resolution of the motion fields may also allows for an analysis of the tunnels dynamic in comparison to the changing

  9. Recognition of Drainage Tunnels during Glacier Lake Outburst Events from Terrestrial Image Sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwalbe, E.; Koschitzki, R.; Maas, H.-G.

    2016-06-01

    In recent years, many glaciers all over the world have been distinctly retreating and thinning. One of the consequences of this is the increase of so called glacier lake outburst flood events (GLOFs). The mechanisms ruling such GLOF events are still not yet fully understood by glaciologists. Thus, there is a demand for data and measurements that can help to understand and model the phenomena. Thereby, a main issue is to obtain information about the location and formation of subglacial channels through which some lakes, dammed by a glacier, start to drain. The paper will show how photogrammetric image sequence analysis can be used to collect such data. For the purpose of detecting a subglacial tunnel, a camera has been installed in a pilot study to observe the area of the Colonia Glacier (Northern Patagonian Ice Field) where it dams the Lake Cachet II. To verify the hypothesis, that the course of the subglacial tunnel is indicated by irregular surface motion patterns during its collapse, the camera acquired image sequences of the glacier surface during several GLOF events. Applying tracking techniques to these image sequences, surface feature motion trajectories could be obtained for a dense raster of glacier points. Since only a single camera has been used for image sequence acquisition, depth information is required to scale the trajectories. Thus, for scaling and georeferencing of the measurements a GPS-supported photogrammetric network has been measured. The obtained motion fields of the Colonia Glacier deliver information about the glacier's behaviour before during and after a GLOF event. If the daily vertical glacier motion of the glacier is integrated over a period of several days and projected into a satellite image, the location and shape of the drainage channel underneath the glacier becomes visible. The high temporal resolution of the motion fields may also allows for an analysis of the tunnels dynamic in comparison to the changing water level of the lake.

  10. Kettle holes formed by glacial outburst floods: identification when their surface expression has been removed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marren, Philip; Fay, Helen; Duller, Robert

    2014-05-01

    Kettle holes and obstacle marks formed by the transport, deposition and burial of ice-blocks during glacial outburst floods (jökulhlaups) are a common geomorphological feature on proglacial outwash plains. Indeed, they represent one of the few features which can unequivocally identify glacially-sourced flood deposits in the geomorphological and sedimentary record. Despite an abundance of work on the surface expression of jökulhlaup-generated ice-block structures, descriptions of the subsurface expression of these features in the sedimentary record are limited. There is currently no comprehensive model of the sedimentary characteristics of these features. This is a major gap in our knowledge, as the positive identification of ice-block features constitutes an unambiguous criterion for the identification of former jökulhlaup deposits in the Quaternary sedimentary record. We address this by describing several examples of ice-block impact in the sedimentary record from southern Iceland. Our work recognizes key criteria for the identification of ice-block impact in the sedimentary record, enabling them to be identified in sedimentary sections where their geomorphological expression has since been removed or buried. These key criterion combine: (1) structures formed by the interaction of water flow with the ice-block body during transportation and immobilization; (2) distinctive sedimentological features of surrounding deposits; and, (3) the post-burial mechanical disruption on the deposits. Formulating a suite of key criteria with which to positively identify the sedimentary impact of ice-blocks limits the possibility of misidentification in the sedimentary record, and provides a means of identifying previously unrecognized Quaternary catastrophic glacial floods.

  11. Massive Multispecies, Multilevel Non-LTE Model Atmospheres for Novae in Outburst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Short, C. Ian; Hauschildt, Peter H.; Baron, E.

    1999-01-01

    We have used our PHOENIX multipurpose model atmosphere code to calculate atmospheric models that represent novae in the optically thick wind phases of their outburst. We have improved the treatment of non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) effects by expanding the number of elements that are included in the calculations from 15 to 19 and the number of ionization stages from 36 to 87. The code can now treat a total of 10,713 levels and 102,646 lines in NLTE. Al, P, K, and Ni are included for the first time in the NLTE treatment, and most elements now have at least the lowest six ionization stages included in the NLTE calculation. We have investigated the effects of expanded NLTE treatment on the chemical concentration of astrophysically significant species in the atmosphere, the equilibrium structure of the atmosphere, and the emergent flux distribution. Although we have found general qualitative agreement with previous, more limited NLTE models, the expanded NLTE treatment leads to significantly different values for the size of many of the NLTE deviations. In particular, for the hottest model presented here (T eff =35,000 K), for which NLTE effects are largest, we find that the expanded NLTE treatment reduces the NLTE effects for these important variables: H i concentration, pressure structure, and emergent far-UV flux. Moreover, we find that the addition of new NLTE species may greatly affect the concentration of species that were already treated in NLTE, so that, generally, all species that contribute significantly to the e - reservoir or to the total opacity, or whose line spectrum overlaps or interlocks with that of a species of interest, must be treated in NLTE to ensure an accurate result for any particular species. (c) (c) 1999. The American Astronomical Society

  12. An autonomous image based approach for detecting glacial lake outburst floods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koschitzki, R.; Schwalbe, E.; Maas, H.-G.

    2014-06-01

    The potential danger caused by glacier margin lakes and the related risk of glacier lake outburst floods (GLOF) increases constantly due to glaciers retreating in many parts of the world. Reasons for this development are on the one hand the new formation and enlargement of glacier margin lakes due to melt water. On the other hand, retreating and thinning glacier tongues lead to a decrease of the back pressure against the dammed glacier lakes. The paper describes the design of a photogrammetric GLOF monitoring system, based on monoscopic image sequence analysis for automatic detection of water level changes. The presented approach for measuring the water line in an image sequence is based on directional edge detection in LoG-filtered image data. After that, the water level is determined by a transformation of image measurements into object space based on orientation parameters of the camera and a geo-referenced lake basin model. The model can for instance be determined by photogrammetric methods after a GLOF; it may also be determined portion-wise by analysing shore lines at various water levels. Camera orientation parameters are determined by a local GPS-supported photogrammetric network. Comparing the determined water level changes with reference data provided by a water gauge, the precision is estimated in the order of one decimetre. A major challenge is the automatic detection of the water line in image sequences under varying light and visibility conditions. The paper will also discuss promising approaches such as multispectral images as well as a statistical analysis of grey value changes over short image sequences to eliminate disturbing reflections on the rough water surface.

  13. An autonomous image based approach for detecting glacial lake outburst floods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Koschitzki

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The potential danger caused by glacier margin lakes and the related risk of glacier lake outburst floods (GLOF increases constantly due to glaciers retreating in many parts of the world. Reasons for this development are on the one hand the new formation and enlargement of glacier margin lakes due to melt water. On the other hand, retreating and thinning glacier tongues lead to a decrease of the back pressure against the dammed glacier lakes. The paper describes the design of a photogrammetric GLOF monitoring system, based on monoscopic image sequence analysis for automatic detection of water level changes. The presented approach for measuring the water line in an image sequence is based on directional edge detection in LoG-filtered image data. After that, the water level is determined by a transformation of image measurements into object space based on orientation parameters of the camera and a geo-referenced lake basin model. The model can for instance be determined by photogrammetric methods after a GLOF; it may also be determined portion-wise by analysing shore lines at various water levels. Camera orientation parameters are determined by a local GPS-supported photogrammetric network. Comparing the determined water level changes with reference data provided by a water gauge, the precision is estimated in the order of one decimetre. A major challenge is the automatic detection of the water line in image sequences under varying light and visibility conditions. The paper will also discuss promising approaches such as multispectral images as well as a statistical analysis of grey value changes over short image sequences to eliminate disturbing reflections on the rough water surface.

  14. Debris flows resulting from glacial-lake outburst floods in tibet, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, P.; Dang, C.; Cheng, Z.; Scott, K.

    2010-01-01

    During the last 70 years of general climatic amelioration, 18 glacial-lake outburst floods (GLOFs) and related debris flows have occurred from 15 moraine-dammed lakes in Tibet, China. Catastrophic loss of life and property has occurred because of the following factors: the large volumes of water discharged, the steep gradients of the U-shaped channels, and the amount and texture of the downstream channel bed and bank material. The peak discharge of each GLOF exceeded 1000 m3/s. These flood discharges transformed to non-cohesive debris flows if the channels contained sufficient loose sediment for entrainment (bulking) and if their gradients were >1%. We focus on this key element, transformation, and suggest that it be included in evaluating future GLOF-related risk, the probability of transformation to debris flow and hyperconcentrated flow. The general, sequential evolution of the flows can be described as from proximal GLOFs, to sedimentladen streamflow, to hyperconcentrated flow, to non-cohesive debris flow (viscous or cohesive debris flow only if sufficient fine sediment is present), and then, distally, back to hyperconcentrated flow and sediment-laden streamflow as sediment is progressively deposited. Most of the Tibet examples transformed only to non-cohesive debris flows. The important lesson for future hazard assessment and mitigation planning is that, as a GLOF entrains (bulks) enough sediment to become a debris flow, the flow volume must increase by at least three times (the "bulking factor"). In fact, the transforming flow waves overrun and mix with downstream streamflow, in addition to adding the entrained sediment (and thus enabling addition of yet more sediment and a bulking factor in excess of three times). To effectively reduce the risk of GLOF debris flows, reducing the level of a potentially dangerous lake with a siphon or excavated spillway or installing gabions in combination with a downstream debris dam are the primary approaches.

  15. High voltage pulse conditioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Springfield, R.M.; Wheat, R.M.

    1990-01-01

    This patent describes an apparatus for conditioning high voltage pulses from particle accelerators in order to shorten the rise times of the pulses. Flashover switches in the cathode stalk of the transmission line hold off conduction for a determinable period of time, reflecting the early portion of the pulses. Diodes upstream of the switches divert energy into the magnetic and electrostatic storage of the capacitance and inductance inherent to the transmission line until the switches close

  16. Ultrashort Laser Pulse Phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Diels, Jean-Claude

    2006-01-01

    Ultrashort Laser Pulse Phenomena, 2e serves as an introduction to the phenomena of ultra short laser pulses and describes how this technology can be used to examine problems in areas such as electromagnetism, optics, and quantum mechanics. Ultrashort Laser Pulse Phenomena combines theoretical backgrounds and experimental techniques and will serve as a manual on designing and constructing femtosecond (""faster than electronics"") systems or experiments from scratch. Beyond the simple optical system, the various sources of ultrashort pulses are presented, again with emphasis on the basic

  17. Response of debris-covered glaciers in the Mount Everest region to recent warming, and implications for outburst flood hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benn, D. I.; Bolch, T.; Hands, K.; Gulley, J.; Luckman, A.; Nicholson, L. I.; Quincey, D.; Thompson, S.; Toumi, R.; Wiseman, S.

    2012-08-01

    In areas of high relief, many glaciers have extensive covers of supraglacial debris in their ablation zones, which alters both rates and spatial patterns of melting, with important consequences for glacier response to climate change. Wastage of debris-covered glaciers can be associated with the formation of large moraine-dammed lakes, posing risk of glacier lake outburst floods (GLOFs). In this paper, we use observations of glaciers in the Mount Everest region to present an integrated view of debris-covered glacier response to climate change, which helps provide a long-term perspective on evolving GLOF risks. In recent decades, debris-covered glaciers in the Everest region have been losing mass at a mean rate of ~ 0.32 m yr- 1, although in most cases there has been little or no change in terminus position. Mass loss occurs by 4 main processes: (1) melting of clean ice close to glacier ELAs; (2) melting beneath surface debris; (3) melting of ice cliffs and calving around the margins of supraglacial ponds; and (4) calving into deep proglacial lakes. Modelling of processes (1) and (2) shows that Everest-region glaciers typically have an inverted ablation gradient in their lower reaches, due to the effects of a down-glacier increase in debris thickness. Mass loss is therefore focused in the mid parts of glacier ablation zones, causing localised surface lowering and a reduction in downglacier surface gradient, which in turn reduce driving stress and glacier velocity, so the lower ablation zones of many glaciers are now stagnant. Model results also indicate that increased summer temperatures have raised the altitude of the rain-snow transition during the summer monsoon period, reducing snow accumulation and ice flux to lower elevations. As downwasting proceeds, formerly efficient supraglacial and englacial drainage networks are broken up, and supraglacial lakes form in hollows on the glacier surface. Ablation rates around supraglacial lakes are typically one or two

  18. Swift observations of V404 Cyg during the 2015 outburst: X-ray outflows from super-Eddington accretion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motta, S. E.; Kajava, J. J. E.; Sánchez-Fernández, C.; Beardmore, A. P.; Sanna, A.; Page, K. L.; Fender, R.; Altamirano, D.; Charles, P.; Giustini, M.; Knigge, C.; Kuulkers, E.; Oates, S.; Osborne, J. P.

    2017-10-01

    The black hole (BH) binary V404 Cyg entered the outburst phase in 2015 June after 26 yr of X-ray quiescence, and with its behaviour broke the outburst evolution pattern typical of most BH binaries. We observed the entire outburst with the Swift satellite and performed time-resolved spectroscopy of its most active phase, obtaining over a thousand spectra with exposures from tens to hundreds of seconds. All the spectra can be fitted with an absorbed power-law model, which most of the time required the presence of a partial covering. A blueshifted iron-Kα line appears in 10 per cent of the spectra together with the signature of high column densities, and about 20 per cent of the spectra seem to show signatures of reflection. None of the spectra showed the unambiguous presence of soft disc-blackbody emission, while the observed bolometric flux exceeded the Eddington value in 3 per cent of the spectra. Our results can be explained assuming that the inner part of the accretion flow is inflated into a slim disc that both hides the innermost (and brightest) regions of the flow, and produces a cold, clumpy, high-density outflow that introduces the high absorption and fast spectral variability observed. We argue that the BH in V404 Cyg might have been accreting erratically or even continuously at Eddington/super-Eddington rates - thus sustaining a surrounding slim disc - while being partly or completely obscured by the inflated disc and its outflow. Hence, the largest flares produced by the source might not be accretion-driven events, but instead the effects of the unveiling of the extremely bright source hidden within the system.

  19. X-Ray Timing and Spectral Observations of Galactic Black Hole Candidate XTE J1550--564 During Outburst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reilly, Kaice T

    2002-12-11

    Soft X-ray transients (SXTs), a sub-class of low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs), provide a unique opportunity to test General Relativity and to probe fundamental physics under conditions terrestrially unattainable. SXT outbursts are of great interest because they allow the study of LMXBs under a wide range of accretion rates. The majority of known SXTs contain black holes, therefore SXT outbursts are key to understanding accretion physics around black holes and in active galactic nuclei, which are thought to contain supermassive, M {approx} 10{sup 6} - 10{sup 10} M{circle_dot}, where M{circle_dot} is one solar mass, central compact objects. These compact objects are most likely black holes, which exhibit, on a much larger scale, accretion physics similar to that around black holes in SXTs. In this work, the timing and spectral properties of the SXT and microquasar XTE J1550-564 during outburst are studied. Observations made by the Unconventional Stellar Aspect (USA) Experiment on board the Advanced Research and Global Observation Satellite (ARGOS) are emphasized. USA data show a low-frequency quasi-periodic oscillation (LFQPO) with a centroid frequency that tends to increase with increasing USA flux and a fractional rms amplitude which is correlated with the USA hardness ratio (4-16 keV/1-4 keV). Several high-frequency quasi-periodic oscillations (HFQPOs) were detected by the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE), during periods where the LFQPO is seen to be weakening or not detectable at all. The evolution of the USA hardness ratio with time and source flux is examined. The hardness-intensity diagram shows counterclockwise cyclical evolution and possibly indicates the presence of two independent accretion flows: a geometrically thin, optically thick accretion disk and a hot sub-Keplerian flow.

  20. THE LONG-TERM DECAY IN PRODUCTION RATES FOLLOWING THE EXTREME OUTBURST OF COMET 17P/HOLMES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schleicher, David G.

    2009-01-01

    Numerous sets of narrowband filter photometry were obtained of Comet 17P/Holmes from Lowell Observatory during the interval of 2007 November 1 to 2008 March 5. Observations began 8 days following its extreme outburst, at which time the derived water production rate, based on OH measurements, was 5 x 10 29 molecule s -1 and the derived proxy of dust production, A(θ)fρ, was about 5 x 10 5 cm. Relative production rates for the other gas species, CN, C 2 , C 3 , and NH, are consistent with 'typical' composition (based on our update to the classifications by A'Hearn et al.). An exponential decay in the logarithm of measured production rates as a function of time was observed for all species, with each species dropping by factors of about 200-500 after 125 days. All gas species exhibited clear trends with aperture size, and these trends are consistent with larger apertures having a greater proportion of older material that was released when production rates were higher. Much larger aperture trends were measured for the dust, most likely because the dust grains have smaller outflow velocities and longer lifetimes than the gas species; therefore, a greater proportion of older, i.e., higher production dust is contained within a given aperture. By extrapolating to a sufficiently small aperture size, we derive near-instantaneous water and dust production rates throughout the interval of observation, and also estimate values immediately following the outburst. The finite lifetime of the gas species requires that much higher ice vaporization rates were taking place throughout the observation interval than occurred prior to the outburst, likely due to the continued release of icy grains from the nucleus. The relatively small aperture trends for the gas species also imply that the bulk of fresh, excess volatiles are confined to the nucleus and near-nucleus regime, rather than being associated with the outburst ejecta cloud. A minimum of about 0.1% of the total nucleus volume

  1. The 2005 outburst of GRO J1655-40: spectral evolution of the rise, as observed by Swift

    OpenAIRE

    Brocksopp, C.; McGowan, K. E.; Krimm, H.; Godet, O.; Roming, P.; Mason, K. O.; Gehrels, N.; Still, M.; Page, K.; Moretti, A.; Shrader, C. R.; Campana, S.; Kennea, J.

    2005-01-01

    We present Swift observations of the black hole X-ray transient, GRO J1655-40, during the recent outburst. With its multiwavelength capabilities and flexible scheduling, Swift is extremely well-suited for monitoring the spectral evolution of such an event. GRO J1655-40 was observed on 20 occasions and data were obtained by all instruments for the majority of epochs. X-ray spectroscopy revealed spectral shapes consistent with the ``canonical'' low/hard, high/soft and very high states at variou...

  2. Strong eld ionization of naphthalene: angular shifts and molecular potential

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dimitrovski, Darko; Maurer, Jochen; Christensen, Lauge

    We analyze the photoelectron momentum distributions from strong eld ionization of xed-in-space naphthalene molecules by circularly polarized laser pulses. By direct comparison between experiment and theory, we show that the angular shifts in the photoelectron momentum distributions are very...

  3. Opportunities in pulse combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenchley, D. L.; Bomelburg, H. J.

    1985-10-01

    In most pulse combustors, the combustion occurs near the closed end of a tube where inlet valves operate in phase with the pressure amplitude variations. Thus, within the combustion zone, both the temperature and the pressure oscillate around a mean value. However, the development of practical applications of pulse combustion has been hampered because effective design requires the right combination of the combustor's dimensions, valve characteristics, fuel/oxidizer combination, and flow pattern. Pulse combustion has several additional advantages for energy conversion efficiency, including high combustion and thermal efficiency, high combustion intensity, and high convective heat transfer rates. Also, pulse combustion can be self-aspirating, generating a pressure boost without using a blower. This allows the use of a compact heat exchanger that may include a condensing section and may obviate the need for a chimney. In the last decade, these features have revived interest in pulse combustion research and development, which has resulted in the development of a pulse combustion air heater by Lennox, and a pulse combustion hydronic unit by Hydrotherm, Inc. To appraise this potential for energy savings, a systematic study was conducted of the many past and present attempts to use pulse combustion for practical purposes. The authors recommended areas where pulse combustion technology could possibly be applied in the future and identified areas in which additional R and D would be necessary. Many of the results of the study project derived from a special workshop on pulse combustion. This document highlights the main points of the study report, with particular emphasis on pulse combustion application in chemical engineering.

  4. Pulse duration discriminator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosakovskij, L.F.

    1980-01-01

    Basic circuits of a discriminator for discrimination of pulses with the duration greater than the preset one, and of a multifunctional discriminator allowing to discriminate pulses with the duration greater (tsub(p)>tsub(s)) and lesser (tsub(p) tsub(s) and with the duration tsub(p) [ru

  5. PULSE HEIGHT ANALYZER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnstone, C.W.

    1958-01-21

    An anticoincidence device is described for a pair of adjacent channels of a multi-channel pulse height analyzer for preventing the lower channel from generating a count pulse in response to an input pulse when the input pulse has sufficient magnitude to reach the upper level channel. The anticoincidence circuit comprises a window amplifier, upper and lower level discriminators, and a biased-off amplifier. The output of the window amplifier is coupled to the inputs of the discriminators, the output of the upper level discriminator is connected to the resistance end of a series R-C network, the output of the lower level discriminator is coupled to the capacitance end of the R-C network, and the grid of the biased-off amplifier is coupled to the junction of the R-C network. In operation each discriminator produces a negative pulse output when the input pulse traverses its voltage setting. As a result of the connections to the R-C network, a trigger pulse will be sent to the biased-off amplifier when the incoming pulse level is sufficient to trigger only the lower level discriminator.

  6. Sources of pulsed radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sauer, M.C. Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Characteristics of various sources of pulsed radiation are examined from the viewpoint of their importance to the radiation chemist, and some examples of uses of such sources are mentioned. A summary is given of the application of methods of physical dosimetry to pulsed sources, and the calibration of convenient chemical dosimeters by physical dosimetry is outlined. 7 figures, 1 table

  7. Pulsed neutron generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bespalov, D.F.; Bykovskii, Yu.A.; Vergun, I.I.; Kozlovskii, K.I.; Kozyrev, Yu.P.; Leonov, R.K.; Simagin, B.I.; Tsybin, A.S.; Shikanov, A.Ie.

    1986-03-01

    The paper describes a new device for generating pulsed neutron fields, utilized in nuclear geophysics for carrying out pulsed neutron logging and activation analysis under field conditions. The invention employs a sealed-off neutron tube with a laser ion source which increases neutron yield to the level of 10 neutrons per second or higher. 2 refs., 1 fig

  8. Gas phase pulse radiolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonah, C.D.; Andong Liu; Mulac, W.A.

    1987-01-01

    Gas phase pulse radiolysis, a technique which can be used to study many different phenomena in chemistry and physics, is discussed. As a source of small radicals, pulse radiolysis is important to the field of chemistry, particularly to combustion and atmospheric kinetics. The reactions of 1,3-butadiene, allene, ethylene and acetylene with OH are presented. 52 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  9. The 2014-2017 outburst of the young star ASASSN-13db. A time-resolved picture of a very-low-mass star between EXors and FUors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicilia-Aguilar, A.; Oprandi, A.; Froebrich, D.; Fang, M.; Prieto, J. L.; Stanek, K.; Scholz, A.; Kochanek, C. S.; Henning, Th.; Gredel, R.; Holoien, T. W.-S.; Rabus, M.; Shappee, B. J.; Billington, S. J.; Campbell-White, J.; Zegmott, T. J.

    2017-11-01

    Context. Accretion outbursts are key elements in star formation. ASASSN-13db is a M5-type star with a protoplanetary disk, the lowest-mass star known to experience accretion outbursts. Since its discovery in 2013, it has experienced two outbursts, the second of which started in November 2014 and lasted until February 2017. Aims: We explore the photometric and spectroscopic behavior of ASASSN-13db during the 2014-2017 outburst. Methods: We use high- and low-resolution spectroscopy and time-resolved photometry from the ASAS-SN survey, the LCOGT and the Beacon Observatory to study the light curve of ASASSN-13db and the dynamical and physical properties of the accretion flow. Results: The 2014-2017 outburst lasted for nearly 800 days. A 4.15 d period in the light curve likely corresponds to rotational modulation of a star with hot spot(s). The spectra show multiple emission lines with variable inverse P-Cygni profiles and a highly variable blue-shifted absorption below the continuum. Line ratios from metallic emission lines (Fe I/Fe II, Ti I/Ti II) suggest temperatures of 5800-6000 K in the accretion flow. Conclusions: Photometrically and spectroscopically, the 2014-2017 event displays an intermediate behavior between EXors and FUors. The accretion rate ([Ṁ]= 1-3 × 10-7 M⊙/yr), about two orders of magnitude higher than the accretion rate in quiescence, is not significantly different from the accretion rate observed in 2013. The absorption features in the spectra suggest that the system is viewed at a high angle and drives a powerful, non-axisymmetric wind, maybe related to magnetic reconnection. The properties of ASASSN-13db suggest that temperatures lower than those for solar-type stars are needed for modeling accretion in very-low-mass systems. Finally, the rotational modulation during the outburst reveals that accretion-related structures settle after the beginning of the outburst and can be relatively stable and long-lived. Our work also demonstrates the power

  10. Propagation delay of femtosecond pulses in an optical amplifier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poel, Mike van der; Mørk, Jesper; Hvam, Jørn Märcher

    of 2.6 THz, through a quantum-dot (QD) semiconductor amplifier (SOA) at room temperature. This extremely large bandwidth, on the other hand, is at the cost of a rather small group index change of ?ng=4*10-3. We have performed two types of femtosecond pulse slow-down and advancement experiments....... In the first experiment, we prepare a narrow peak or dip in the SOA gain spectrum by injection of a strong pump pulse4. The resulting dispersion feature is then probed by a weak pulse. In the second experiment, we measure self-slowdown or advancement as pulse energy isincreased5. In both cases, we perform...

  11. Pulse Distortion in Saturated Fiber Optical Parametric Chirped Pulse Amplification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lali-Dastjerdi, Zohreh; Da Ros, Francesco; Rottwitt, Karsten

    2012-01-01

    Fiber optical parametric chirped pulse amplification is experimentally compared for different chirped pulses in the picosecond regime. The amplified chirped pulses show distortion appearing as pedestals after recompression when the amplifier is operated in saturation.......Fiber optical parametric chirped pulse amplification is experimentally compared for different chirped pulses in the picosecond regime. The amplified chirped pulses show distortion appearing as pedestals after recompression when the amplifier is operated in saturation....

  12. Magnetization reversal in ultrashort magnetic field pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, M.; Lopusnik, R.; Fassbender, J.; Hillebrands, B.

    2000-01-01

    We report the switching properties of a thin magnetic film subject to an ultrashort, laterally localized magnetic field pulse, obtained by numerical investigations. The magnetization distribution in the film is calculated on a grid assuming Stoner-like coherent rotation within the grid square size. Perpendicularly and in-plane magnetized films exhibit a magnetization reversal due to a 4 ps magnetic field pulse. Outside the central region the pulse duration is short compared to the precession period. In this area the evolution of the magnetization during the field pulse does not depend strongly on magnetic damping and/or pulse shape. However, the final magnetization distribution is affected by the magnetic damping. Although the pulse duration is short compared to the precession period, the time needed for the relaxation of the magnetization to the equilibrium state is rather large. The influence of the different magnetic anisotropy contributions and the magnetic damping parameter enters into the magnetization reversal process. Comparing the case of perpendicular anisotropy with different kinds of in-plane anisotropies, a principal difference is found due to the symmetry of the shape anisotropy with respect to the anisotropy in question

  13. Radio Pulse Search and X-Ray Monitoring of SAX J1808.4−3658: What Causes Its Orbital Evolution?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patruno, Alessandro; King, Andrew R. [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, Neils Bohrweg 2, 2333 CA, Leiden (Netherlands); Jaodand, Amruta; Hessels, Jason W. T. [ASTRON, the Netherlands Institute for Radio Astronomy, Postbus 2, 7900 AA, Dwingeloo (Netherlands); Kuiper, Lucien [SRON-National Institute for Space Research, Sorbonnelaan 2, NL-3584 CA, Utrecht (Netherlands); Bult, Peter; Wijnands, Rudy; Van der Klis, Michiel [Anton Pannekoek Institute for Astronomy, University of Amsterdam, Science Park 904, 1098 XH, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Knigge, Christian [University of Southampton, School of Physics and Astronomy, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom)

    2017-06-01

    The accreting millisecond X-ray pulsar SAX J1808.4−3658 shows a peculiar orbital evolution that proceeds at a very fast pace. It is important to identify the underlying mechanism responsible for this behavior because it can help to understand how this system evolves and which physical processes (such as mass loss or spin–orbit coupling) are occurring in the binary. It has also been suggested that, when in quiescence, SAX J1808.4−3658 turns on as a radio pulsar, a circumstance that might provide a link between accreting millisecond pulsars and black-widow (BW) radio pulsars. In this work, we report the results of a deep radio pulsation search at 2 GHz using the Green Bank Telescope in 2014 August and an X-ray study of the 2015 outburst with Chandra , Swift XRT, and INTEGRAL . In quiescence, we detect no radio pulsations and place the strongest limit to date on the pulsed radio flux density of any accreting millisecond pulsar. We also find that the orbit of SAX J1808.4−3658 continues evolving at a fast pace. We compare the orbital evolution of SAX J1808.4−3658 to that of several other accreting and nonaccreting binaries, including BWs, redbacks, cataclysmic variables, black holes, and neutron stars in low-mass X-ray binaries. We discuss two possible scenarios: either the neutron star has a large moment of inertia and is ablating the donor, generating mass loss with an efficiency of 40%, or the donor star has a strong magnetic field of at least 1 kG and is undergoing quasi-cyclic variations due to spin–orbit coupling.

  14. An outburst scenario for the X-ray spectral variability in 3C 111

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tombesi, F.; Reeves, J. N.; Reynolds, C. S.; García, J.; Lohfink, A.

    2013-09-01

    We present a combined Suzaku and Swift BAT broad-band E = 0.6-200 keV spectral analysis of three 3C 111 observations obtained in 2010. The data are well described with an absorbed power-law continuum and a weak (R ≃ 0.2) cold reflection component from distant material. We constrain the continuum cutoff at EC ≃ 150-200 keV, which is in accordance with X-ray Comptonization corona models and supports claims that the jet emission is only dominant at much higher energies. Fe XXVI Lyα emission and absorption lines are also present in the first and second observations, respectively. The modelling and interpretation of the emission line is complex and we explore three possibilities. If originating from ionized-disc reflection, this should be emitted at rin ≥ 50 rg or, in the lamp-post configuration, the illuminating source should be at a height of h ≥ 30 rg above the black hole. Alternatively, the line could be modelled with a hot collisionally ionized plasma with temperature kT = 22.0^{+6.1}_{-3.2} keV or a photoionized plasma with log ξ = 4.52^{+0.10}_{-0.16} erg s-1 cm and column density NH > 3 × 1023 cm-2. However, the first and second scenarios are less favoured on statistical and physical grounds, respectively. The blueshifted absorption line in the second observation can be modelled as an ultrafast outflow (UFO) with ionization parameter log ξ = 4.47^{+0.76}_{-0.04} erg s-1 cm, column density N_H = (5.3^{+1.8}_{-1.3})× 10^{22} cm-2 and outflow velocity vout = 0.104 ± 0.006c. Interestingly, the parameters of the photoionized emission model remarkably match those of the absorbing UFO, supporting the possibility that the same material could be responsible for both emission and absorption. We suggest an outburst scenario in which an accretion disc wind, initially lying out of the line of sight and observed in emission, then crosses our view to the source and it is observed in absorption as a mildly relativistic UFO.

  15. Photogrammetric recognition of subglacial drainage channels during glacier lake outburst events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwalbe, Ellen; Koschitzki, Robert

    2016-04-01

    In recent years, many glaciers all over the world have been distinctly retreating and thinning. One of the consequences of this is the increase of so called glacier lake outburst flood events (GLOFs): Lakes that have been dammed by a glacier spontaneously start to drain through a subglacial channel underneath the glacier due to their outweighing hydrostatic pressure. In a short period of time, the lake water drains under the glacier and causes floods in downstream valleys. In many cases the latter become hazardous for people and their property. Due to glacier movement, the tunnel will soon collapse, and the glacier lake refills, thus starting a new GLOF cycle. The mechanisms ruling GLOF events are yet still not fully understood by glaciologists. Thus, there is a demand for data and measurement values that can help to understand and model the phenomena. In view of the above, we will show how photogrammetric image sequence analysis can be used to collect data which allows for drawing conclusions about the location and development of a subglacial channel. The work is a follow-up on earlier work on a photogrammetric GLOF early warning system (Mulsow et. al., 2013). For the purpose of detecting the subglacial tunnel, a camera has been installed in a pilot study to observe the area of the Colonia glacier (Northern Patagonian ice field) where it dams the lake Lago Cachet II. To verify the hypothesis, that the course of the subglacial tunnel is indicated by irregular surface motion patterns during its collapse, the camera acquired image sequences of the glacier surface during several GLOF events. Applying LSM-based tracking techniques to these image sequences, surface feature motion trajectories could be obtained for a dense raster of glacier points. Since only a single camera has been used for image sequence acquisition, depth information is required to scale the trajectories. Thus, for scaling and georeferencing of the measurements a GPS-supported photogrammetric network

  16. PILOT STUDIES WITH A PHOTOGRAMMETRIC GLACIER LAKE OUTBURST FLOOD EARLY WARNING SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. G. Maas

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Glacier Lake Outburst Floods (GLOFs depict an environmental risk with an increasing damage potential in many regions of the world. GLOFs are often caused by glacier margin lakes, which suddenly find a drainage path underneath the bottom of a glacier, which is destabilized and retreating as a consequence of local or global climate changes. In a typical GLOF event, a glacier margin lake may drain completely in 24 hours, causing a large flood wave in the area downstream the glacier. The paper documents some recent GLOF events in the Northern Patagonian Icefield (Chile and presents a terrestrial photogrammetric glacier margin lake monitoring system. The system is based on a camera taking images at regular time intervals. In these images, variations of the water level can be detected by tracking the water-land interface at pre-defined image spots. Due to the drainage mechanism, which is characterized by progressive erosion and melting at the bottom of the glacier, GLOFs are indicated by a progressive water level drop in the lake. Water level changes may be detected with subpixel accuracy by image sequence processing methods. If a 3D model of the lake bottom topography (or at least one height profile through the lake exists, water level changes in monoscopic image sequences may be transformed into volume loss. The basic idea herein is the intersection of a terrain profile with a water level detected in the image and projected into object space. The camera orientation is determined through a GPS-supported photogrammetric network. Camera orientation changes, which may for instance be induced by wind, can be compensated by tracking some fiducial marks in the image. The system has been used in a pilot study at two glacier margin lakes in the Northern Patagonian Icefield. These lakes have a depth of about 80 - 100 meters. The larger one has a length of 5 km and a maximum volume of about 200,000,000 cubic meters. During the pilot study, several GLOF events

  17. An Outburst Scenario for the X-ray Spectral Variability in 3C 111

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tombesi, Francesco; Reeves, J. N.; Reynolds, Christopher S.; Garcia, J.; Lohfink, A.

    2013-01-01

    We present a combined Suzaku and Swift BAT broad-band E=0.6-200 keV spectral analysis of three 3C 111 observations obtained in 2010. The data are well described with an absorbed power-law continuum and a weak (R approximately equal to 0.2) cold reflection component from distant material. We constrain the continuum cutoff at E(sub C) approximately equal to 150- 200 keV, which is in accordance with X-ray Comptonization corona models and supports claims that the jet emission is only dominant at much higher energies. Fe XXVI Ly alpha emission and absorption lines are also present in the first and second observations, respectively. The modelling and interpretation of the emission line is complex and we explore three possibilities. If originating from ionized disc reflection, this should be emitted at r(sub in) greater than or equal to 50 r(sub g) or, in the lamp-post configuration, the illuminating source should be at a height of h greater than or equal to 30 r(sub g) over the black hole. Alternatively, the line could be modeled with a hot collisionally ionized plasma with temperature kT = 22.0(sup +6.1)(sub -3.2) keV or a photo-ionized plasma with logXi=4.52(sup +0.10)(sub -0.16) erg per second cm, and column density N(sub H) greater than 3×10(sup 23) per square centimeter. However, the first and second scenarios are less favored on statistical and physical grounds, respectively. The blue-shifted absorption line in the second observation can be modelled as an ultra-fast outflow (UFO) with ionization parameter logXi=4.47(sup +0.76) (sub -0.04) erg per second cm, column density NH=(5.3(sup +1.8)(sub -1.3))×10(sup 22) per square centimeter and outflow velocity v(sub out) = 0.104+/-0.006c. Interestingly, the parameters of the photoionized emission model remarkably match those of the absorbing UFO, supporting the possibility that the same material could be responsible for both emission and absorption. We suggest an outburst scenario in which an accretion disc wind

  18. The Application of New Optical Meteor Flux Routines to the 2014 May Camelopardalid Outburst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaauw, Rhiannon; Campbell-Brown, Margaret; Kingery, Aaron

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Meteoroid Environment Office (MEO) is charged with monitoring the meteoroid environment in near-Earth space for the protection of satellites and spacecraft. The MEO has recently established eight wide-field meteor cameras, four cameras each at two separate stations to calculate automated meteor fluxes in the millimeter size range. Each camera consists of a 17 mm focal length Schneider lens on a Watec 902H2 Ultimate CCD video camera, producing a 21.7 x 15.5 degree field of view. This configuration has a limiting meteor magnitude of about +5. One station is located at Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama and the other is 31.8 kilometers away at a school in Decatur, Alabama. Both single-station and double-station fluxes are calculated every morning using data from the previous night. The flux algorithms employed here differ from others currently in use in that they do not assume a single height for all meteors observed in the common camera volume. In the MEO system, the volume is broken up into a set of height intervals, with the collecting areas determined by the position of the active shower or sporadic source radiant. The flux per height interval is calculated and summed to obtain the total meteor flux. As the mass is also computed from the photometry, a mass flux can also be calculated. First, a weather algorithm indicates if sky conditions are clear enough to calculate fluxes, at which point a limiting magnitude algorithm is employed. The limiting magnitude algorithm performs a fit of stellar magnitudes versus camera intensities. The stellar limiting magnitude is derived from this and converted to a limiting meteor magnitude for the active shower or sporadic source. The fluxes are scaled to an average limiting magnitude throughout the night and zenithal hourly rate (ZHR's) are output daily along with flux values. In addition to this process, results will be presented as applied to the 2014 May Camelopardalid outburst, using data from several

  19. Glacial Lake Outburst Flood Risk in Nepal and Their Mitigation Practices in Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurung, S.

    2017-12-01

    Glacial lakes in Nepal face a huge risk of Glacial Lake Outburst Flood (GLOF) due to the ongoing effects of climate change leading to considerable amount of snow and glacier melt thus weakening the natural barriers holding these high altitude glacial lakes. Nepal is at an ever growing risk every year and always waiting for an inevitable natural disaster. Since GLOF can cause extreme huge loss of human lives and physical properties, it has now become very important to design a proper mechanism which helps in reducing hazards from such events. There is little we can do to stop natural disasters, but we can implement pro-active control measures to minimize the loss. Early Warning System is the provision of timely and effective information, which allows individuals exposed to hazards to take action, avoid or reduce risk to life and property and prepare for effective response. The basic idea behind Early Warning System is that, the earlier and more accurately we are able to predict potential risks associated with natural hazards especially flood, the more likely we will be able to manage and mitigate the disasters' impact on society, economies and environment. We are currently focused on the development of early warning system for Imja Glacial Lake. The objective of developing early warning system for Imja GLOF is to help reduce economic losses and mitigate the number of injuries or deaths by providing information that allows individuals and communities downstream of Imja Lake to protect their lives and properties by using the latest and most advanced technology available. We have installed one Automatic Weather Station near the left lateral moraine of Imja Lake to study the effects of different meteorological parameters so as to predict occurrence of any GLOF event. The sensor includes pluviometer, pyranometer, temperature and humidity sensor, wind sensor, Snowdepth sensor. Two radar level sensors are installed at the outlet of Imja Lake and downstream of Imja river

  20. New Geomorphic map of SW Fraser Lowland, NW Washington, Shows Multiple Post-LGM Moraines, Fossil Shorelines, Outburst Flood and Glacial Outwash Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easterbrook, D. J.; Kovanen, D. J.; Haugerud, R. A.

    2008-12-01

    We have interpreted a ~1 pulse/m2 lidar survey (acquired in 2006 in leaf-on conditions under contract to the USGS) to construct a geomorphic map of western Whatcom County. The new lidar data reveal the existence of previously unrecognized landforms. Within this landscape, we see these features that reflect a rich post-LGM history: Glacial: Ice contact deposits interpreted as moraines reveal at least 8 successive moraines associated with the late Pleistocene Fraser Glaciation. At least two of the moraine crests were formed during ice re- advance; others may mark stillstands during ice retreat. All are older than about 10,250 14C yrs BP, based on basal peat from a kettle in outwash associated with the youngest moraine. Marine: Extensive and successive fossil shorelines, wave-cut notches, wave-washed surfaces, down- slope truncation of gullies, and deltas along the fringe of uplands surrounding the SW Fraser Lowland document former relative sea level and probable glacioisostatic tilting. The highest shorelines are at nearly 150 m above sea level. Some shorelines are cut into moraines, while others are truncated by them. Uplifted back-beach surfaces of likely mid-Holocene age at Birch Bay and Neptune Beach (elevations ~1 m and ~3 m higher than modern back-beach surfaces) suggest Holocene uplift. Glaciofluvial: Large, stepped, sediment wave bed-forms, with wavelengths of 430 to 850 m and heights from 1 to 3.5 m, record deposition associated with high discharge and rapid water release. Sub-parallel, narrow scour troughs are up to 4 km in length and 8 m in depth. These high energy geomorphic features record at least three large discharge events. Their apparent associations with former ice margins indicate that they are the result of outburst floods. Multiple outwash surfaces in the lowland are also related to former ice margins. Fluvial: At present the Nooksack River flows west from the town of Everson and reaches Bellingham Bay just south of Ferndale. Relatively low

  1. Properties of Short Gamma-ray Burst Pulses from a BATSE TTE GRB Pulse Catalog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakkila, Jon; Horváth, István; Hofesmann, Eric; Lesage, Stephen

    2018-03-01

    We analyze pulse properties of short gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) from a new catalog containing 434 pulses from 387 BATSE time-tagged event (TTE) GRBs. Short GRB pulses exhibit correlated properties of duration, fluence, hardness, and amplitude, and they evolve hard to soft while undergoing similar triple-peaked light curves similar to those found in long/intermediate bursts. We classify pulse light curves using their temporal complexities, demonstrating that short GRB pulses exhibit a range of complexities from smooth to highly variable. Most of the bright, hard, chaotic emission seen in complex pulses seems to represent a separate highly variable emission component. Unlike long/intermediate bursts, as many as 90% of short GRBs are single-pulsed. However, emission in short multipulsed bursts is coupled such that the first pulse’s duration is a predictor of both the interpulse separation and subsequent pulse durations. These results strongly support the idea that external shocks produce the prompt emission seen in short GRBs. The similarities between the triple-peaked structures and spectral evolution of long, short, and intermediate GRBs then suggests that external shocks are responsible for the prompt emission observed in all GRB classes. In addition to these findings, we identify a new type of gamma-ray transient in which peak amplitudes occur at the end of the burst rather than at earlier times. Some of these “crescendo” bursts are preceded by rapid-fire “staccato” pulses, whereas the remaining are preceded by a variable episode that could be unresolved staccato pulses.

  2. Observation of enhanced field-free molecular alignment by two laser pulses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, Christer; Poulsen, Mikael Dahlerup; Peronne, Emmanuel

    2004-01-01

    We show experimentally that field-free alignment of iodobenzene molecules, induced by a single, intense, linearly polarized 1.4-ps-long laser pulse, can be strongly enhanced by dividing the pulse into two optimally synchronized pulses of the same duration. For a given total energy of the two...

  3. RF Pulsed Heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pritzkau, David P.

    2002-01-03

    RF pulsed heating is a process by which a metal is heated from magnetic fields on its surface due to high-power pulsed RF. When the thermal stresses induced are larger than the elastic limit, microcracks and surface roughening will occur due to cyclic fatigue. Pulsed heating limits the maximum magnetic field on the surface and through it the maximum achievable accelerating gradient in a normal conducting accelerator structure. An experiment using circularly cylindrical cavities operating in the TE{sub 011} mode at a resonant frequency of 11.424 GHz is designed to study pulsed heating on OFE copper, a material commonly used in normal conducting accelerator structures. The high-power pulsed RF is supplied by an X-band klystron capable of outputting 50 MW, 1.5 {micro}s pulses. The test pieces of the cavity are designed to be removable to allow testing of different materials with different surface preparations. A diagnostic tool is developed to measure the temperature rise in the cavity utilizing the dynamic Q change of the resonant mode due to heating. The diagnostic consists of simultaneously exciting a TE{sub 012} mode to steady-state in the cavity at 18 GHz and measuring the change in reflected power as the cavity is heated from high-power pulsed RF. Two experimental runs were completed. One run was executed at a calculated temperature rise of 120 K for 56 x 10{sup 6} pulses. The second run was executed at a calculated temperature rise of 82 K for 86 x 10{sup 6} pulses. Scanning electron microscope pictures show extensive damage occurring in the region of maximum temperature rise on the surface of the test pieces.

  4. Climate change and diverse dimensions of glacial lake outburst floods (GLOFs): Lake Palcacocha case study, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmer, Adam; Walker-Crawford, Noah; Carey, Mark; Huggel, Christian; Verheyen, Roda; Wallimann-Helmer, Ivo

    2017-04-01

    Post-Little Ice Age (LIA) climate change has led to worldwide glacier retreat, formation and evolution of glacial lakes, occasionally followed by glacier lake outburst floods (GLOFs). Hundreds of GLOFs are documented throughout the 20th and 21st century, of which a certain number that caused massive downstream destruction and up to thousands of lives lost. Management of GLOF hazards and risks has typically been a local concern, focusing on the implementation of specific technical and engineering measures. Recently, however, researchers have realized that the complexity of both the risks and the socio-environmental context requires a broader understanding and response beyond the more typical local perception and management. The growing cumulative greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, for instance, increase the anthropogenic contribution to glacier retreat, lake formation and growth and eventually to GLOF. GLOF hazard and risk management is inherently linked to the global scale from this perspective. It implies that additional important dimensions enter the debate, including ethical and legal questions about the responsibility for damage and loss due to GLOFs. Here we analyze the conditions at an emblematic case in Peru's Cordillera Blanca, which has made international headlines repeatedly since it first generated one of the world's most deadly GLOFs in 1941 to its present-day growth and instability. Situated upstream from the regional center of Huaráz (population ˜120,000), Lake Palcacocha has attracted significant attention in recent years within Peru and at an international level. Perspectives on Palcacocha lack truly cross-disciplinary research, missing more comprehensive insight. This contribution is unique for its analysis of diverse dimensions, which also provide a framework for other GLOF hazard, risk, and climate-related studies. The main aim of this constribution is to understand the links between them, their drivers and inhibitors. Four dimensions were studied

  5. The Extraordinary X-ray Light Curve of the Classical Nova V1494 Aql in Outburst: The Discovery of Pulsations and a ``Burst''

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starrfield, Sumner; Drake, Jeremy

    2001-09-01

    V1494 Aql (Nova Aql 1999 No. 2) was discovered on 2 December 1999. It reached Vmax ~4 making it the brightest northern hemisphere nova since V1500 Cyg erupted in 1975. Our early optical spectra showed that it was an ``Fe II'' class nova (Williams, R.E. AJ, 104, 725, 1992). We activated our CHANDRA Target of Opportunity proposal for bright novae in outburst and obtained ACIS-I spectra on 15 April and 7 June 2000 which showed only emission lines. Our third observation, on 6 August, showed that its spectrum had evolved into that characteristic of a Super Soft X-ray Source (at low resolution it resembled an ``emission'' line with a peak ~ 0.5 keV). We obtained HRC-S+LETG spectra on 28 September (8 ksec) and 1 October 2000 (17 ksec). These spectra qualitatively resembled those of CAL 83 obtained with XMM (Paerels, F., et al. 2001, A&A, 365, L308) and demonstrated that we were observing the atmosphere of a hot white dwarf which was probably still undergoing nuclear burning near the surface. An abundance analysis of the X-ray spectrum is in progress using new Non-LTE stellar atmospheres. We then analyzed the X-ray light curve of our grating observations and, to our surprise, found that we had discovered both a short time scale ``burst'' and that the nova was oscillating. Neither of these phenomena have ever been seen in the light curve of a nova in outburst. The ``burst'' was a factor of 6 rise in X-ray counts near the middle of the second observation which lasted about 1000 sec and exhibited at least two peaks plus other structure. Currently, we have no explanation for the cause of this burst. Our time series analysis of the combined 25 ksec observation showed a peak at 2500 sec which was present in independent analyses of both the zeroth order image and the dispersed spectrum. We also analyzed the light curves of the HRC-S+LETG observations of HZ 43, Sirius B, and V382 Vel (Nova Vel 1999) and found no sign of any periodic behavior in the data which implied that the

  6. Optimal pulse fishing policy in stage-structured models with birth pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Shujing; Chen Lansun; Sun Lihua

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we propose exploited models with stage structure for the dynamics in a fish population for which periodic birth pulse and pulse fishing occur at different fixed time. Using the stroboscopic map, we obtain an exact cycle of system, and obtain the threshold conditions for its stability. Bifurcation diagrams are constructed with the birth rate (or pulse fishing time or harvesting effort) as the bifurcation parameter, and these are observed to display complex dynamic behaviors, including chaotic bands with period windows, period-doubling, multi-period-halving and incomplete period-doubling bifurcation, pitch-fork and tangent bifurcation, non-unique dynamics (meaning that several attractors or attractor and chaos coexist) and attractor crisis. This suggests that birth pulse and pulse fishing provide a natural period or cyclicity that make the dynamical behaviors more complex. Moreover, we show that the pulse fishing has a strong impact on the persistence of the fish population, on the volume of mature fish stock and on the maximum annual-sustainable yield. An interesting result is obtained that, after the birth pulse, the population can sustain much higher harvesting effort if the mature fish is removed as early as possible

  7. Pulse-width discriminators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budyashov, Yu.G.; Grebenyuk, V.M.; Zinov, V.G.

    1978-01-01

    A pulse duration discriminator is described which is intended for processing signals from multilayer scintillators. The basic elements of the scintillator are: an input gate, a current generator, an integrating capacitor, a Schmidt trigger and an anticoincidence circuit. The basic circuit of the discriminator and its time diagrams explaining its operating are given. The discriminator is based on microcircuits. Pulse duration discrimination threshold changes continuously from 20 to 100 ns, while its amplitude threshold changes within 20 to 100 mV. The temperature instability of discrimination thresholds (both in pulse width and in amplitude) is better than 0.1 per cent/deg C

  8. Radio frequency pulse compression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farkas, Z.D.

    1988-12-01

    High gradients require peak powers. One possible way to generate high peak powers is to generate a relatively long pulse at a relatively low power and compress it into a shorter pulse with higher peak power. It is possible to compress before dc to rf conversion as is done for the relativistic klystron or after dc to rf conversion as is done with SLED. In this note only radio frequency pulse compression (RFPC) is considered. Three methods of RFPC will be discussed: SLED, BEC, and REC. 3 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab

  9. High performance pulse generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grothaus, Michael G.; Moran, Stuart L.; Hardesty, Leonard W.

    1992-06-01

    The device is a compact Marx-type generator capable of producing a high-voltage burst of pulses having risetimes less than 10 nanoseconds at repetition rates up to 10 kHz. High-pressure hydrogen switches are used as the switching elements to achieve high rep-rate. A small coaxial design provides low inductance and a fast risetime. The device may be used as a high-rep-rate high-voltage trigger generator, or as a high-voltage pulse source capable of producing up to 1 MV pulses at high repetition rates.

  10. DogPulse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard, Christoffer; Thomsen, Josephine Raun; Verdezoto, Nervo

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents DogPulse, an ambient awareness system to support the coordination of dog walking among family members at home. DogPulse augments a dog collar and leash set to activate an ambient shape-changing lamp and visualize the last time the dog was taken for a walk. The lamp gradually...... changes its form and pulsates its lights in order to keep the family members aware of the dog walking activity. We report the iterative prototyping of DogPulse, its implementation and its preliminary evaluation. Based on our initial findings, we present the limitations and lessons learned as well...

  11. Pulse joining cartridges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golovashchenko, Sergey Fedorovich; Bonnen, John Joseph Francis

    2017-09-26

    A pulsed joining tool includes a tool body that defines a cavity that receives an inner tubular member and an outer tubular member and a pulse joining cartridge. The tubular members are nested together with the cartridge being disposed around the outer tubular member. The cartridge includes a conductor, such as a wire or foil, that extends around the outer tubular member and is insulated to separate a supply segment from a return segment. A source of stored electrical energy is discharged through the conductor to join the tubular members with an electromagnetic force pulse.

  12. The effect of applied electric field on pulsed radio frequency and pulsed direct current plasma jet array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, J. T.; Liu, X. Y.; Liu, J. H.; Xiong, Z. L.; Liu, D. W.; Lu, X. P.; Iza, F.; Kong, M. G.

    2012-01-01

    Here we compare the plasma plume propagation characteristics of a 3-channel pulsed RF plasma jet array and those of the same device operated by a pulsed dc source. For the pulsed-RF jet array, numerous long life time ions and metastables accumulated in the plasma channel make the plasma plume respond quickly to applied electric field. Its structure similar as “plasma bullet” is an anode glow indeed. For the pulsed dc plasma jet array, the strong electric field in the vicinity of the tube is the reason for the growing plasma bullet in the launching period. The repulsive forces between the growing plasma bullets result in the divergence of the pulsed dc plasma jet array. Finally, the comparison of 309 nm and 777 nm emissions between these two jet arrays suggests the high chemical activity of pulsed RF plasma jet array.

  13. The evolution of the timing properties of the black-hole transient GX 339-4 during its 2002/2003 outburst

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belloni, T.; Homan, J.; Casella, P.; van der Klis, M.; Nespoli, E.; Lewin, W.H.G.; Miller, J.M.; Méndez, R.M.

    2005-01-01

    We present the results of the timing and color analysis of more than two hundred RXTE/PCA observations of the bright black-hole transient GX 339-4 obtained during its 2002/2003 outburst. The color-intensity evolution of the system, coupled to the properties of its fast time variability, allow the

  14. Rages or Temper Tantrums? The Behavioral Organization, Temporal Characteristics, and Clinical Significance of Angry-Agitated Outbursts in Child Psychiatry Inpatients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potegal, Michael; Carlson, Gabrielle; Margulies, David; Gutkovitch, Zinoviy; Wall, Melanie

    2009-01-01

    Angry, agitated outbursts (AAOs) are a common precipitant of children's psychiatric hospitalization. In the hospital, AAOs present both management and diagnostic challenges, e.g., while they have recently been described as manic "rages", older studies suggest that they may be exacerbated temper tantrums. Factor analyses of 109 AAOs had by 46…

  15. On the Origin of Radio Emission in the X-Ray States of XTE J1650-500 during the 2001-2002 Outburst

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corbel, S.; Fender, R.P.; Tomsick, J.A.; Tzioumis, A.K.; Tingay, S.

    2004-01-01

    We report on simultaneous radio and X-ray observations of the black hole candidate XTE J1650-500 during the course of its 2001-2002 outburst. The scheduling of the observations allowed us to sample the properties of XTE J1650-500 in different X-ray spectral states, namely, the hard state, the steep

  16. Correlated optical, X-ray, and γ-ray flaring activity seen with INTEGRAL during the 2015 outburst of V404 Cygni

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodriguez, J.; Cadolle Bel, M.; Alfonso-Garzón, J.

    2015-01-01

    After 25 years of quiescence, the microquasar V404 Cyg entered a new period of activity in June 2015. This X-ray source is known to undergo extremely bright and variable outbursts seen at all wavelengths. It is therefore an object of prime interest to understand the accretion-ejection connections...

  17. The Correlation between Hard X-Ray Peak Flux and Soft X-Ray Peak Flux in the Outburst Rise of Low-Mass X-Ray Binaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yu, W.; van der Klis, M.; Fender, R.P.

    2004-01-01

    We have analyzed Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer pointed observations of the outbursts of black hole and neutron star soft X-ray transients in which an initial low/hard state, or ``island'' state, followed by a transition to a softer state was observed. In three sources-the black hole transient XTE

  18. INTEGRAL and XMM-Newton spectroscopy of GX 339-4 during hard/soft intermediate and high/soft states in the 2007 outburst

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caballero-García, M.D.; Miller, J.M.; Díaz Trigo, M.; Kuulkers, E.; Fabian, A.C.; Mas-Hesse, J.M.; Steeghs, D.; van der Klis, M.

    2009-01-01

    We present simultaneous XMM-Newton and International Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory (INTEGRAL) observations of the luminous black hole transient and relativistic jet source GX 339-4. GX 339-4 started an outburst on 2006 November and our observations were undertaken from 2007 January to March. We

  19. INTEGRAL detection of the on-going outbursts from 1RXS J180408.9-342058 and GRO J1750-27

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boissay, R.; Chenevez, J.; Wilms, J.

    2015-01-01

    During the observations of the Galactic Center (from 2015 February 16 12:46 to February 17 at 4:25 UTC), INTEGRAL detected the two sources 1RXS J180408.9-342058 (Atel #6997, #7008, #7039) and GRO J1750-27 (Atel #1385, #1400, #6839) which were recently reported to undergo new outbursts. 1RXS J1804...

  20. Pulse holographic measurement techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Cheol Jung; Baik, Seong Hoon; Hong, Seok Kyung; Kim, Jeong Moog; Kim, Duk Hyun

    1992-01-01

    With the development of laser, remote inspection techniques using laser have been growing on. The inspection and measurement techniques by pulse holography are well-established technique for precise measurement, and widely used in various fields of industry now. In nuclear industry, this technology is practically used because holographic inspection is remote, noncontact, and precise measurement technique. In relation to remote inspection technology in nuclear industry, state-of-the art of pulse HNDT (Holographic non-destructive testing) and holographic measurement techniques are examined. First of all, the fundamental principles as well as practical problems for applications are briefly described. The fields of pulse holography have been divided into the HNDT, flow visualization and distribution study, and other application techniques. Additionally holographic particle study, bubble chamber holography, and applications to other visualization techniques are described. Lastly, the current status for the researches and applications of pulse holography to nuclear industry which are carried out actively in Europe and USA, is described. (Author)

  1. IAE pulsed electrostatic accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afanas'ev, V.P.; Ganzhelyuk, M.L.; Kozlov, L.D.; Koltypin, E.A.; Molchanov, Yu.D.; Otroshchenko, G.A.; Yan'kov, G.B.

    1976-01-01

    The modernized pulse electrostatic accelerator using the klystron ion grouping and the beam interruption system prior to acceleration is described. The accelerator is modernized in order to improve parameters of a current pulse and to decrease the background in the measurement room. The ion beam of needed dimensions is obtained with the help of a high-frequency source and a beam grouping and deflection system. The general view of the beam grouping and deflection system is shown. The ion beam forming process is considered in detail. The modernized electrostatic accelerator permits to obtain a pulse current with a pulse length of 1.5 ns and an amplitude of 1.5 - 2 μA. With the repetition frequency of 2 MHz, the average target current is about 6 μA

  2. Pulsed Lorentz Accelerator

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Pulsed Lorentz Accelerator (PLA) is proposed to fill the propulsion gap for 6U and smaller satellites. The primary objective is to demonstrate the basic...

  3. Online measurement method for pulse amplitude in pulsed extraction columns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xinghai; Li Shichang; Chen Jing

    2009-01-01

    Online measurement of pulse amplitude by air purge was studied. The pulse amplitude in a pulsed extraction column was calculated online by measurement of characteristic parameters of the signal's curve. The method can be used for calculation of different pulsed extraction columns. (authors)

  4. Realtime aspects of pulse-to-pulse modulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steiner, R.; Riedel, C.; Roesch, W.

    1992-01-01

    The pulse-to-pulse modulation of the SIS-ESR control system is described. Fast response to operator interaction and to changes in process conditions is emphasized as well as the essential part played by the timing system in pulse-to-pulse modulation. (author)

  5. Pulsed spallation neutron sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpenter, J.M.

    1996-01-01

    This paper reviews the early history of pulsed spallation neutron source development ar Argonne and provides an overview of existing sources world wide. A number of proposals for machines more powerful than currently exist are under development, which are briefly described. The author reviews the status of the Intense Pulsed Neutron Source, its instrumentation, and its user program, and provide a few examples of applications in fundamental condensed matter physics, materials science and technology

  6. Pulsed spallation Neutron Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpenter, J.M.

    1994-01-01

    This paper reviews the early history of pulsed spallation neutron source development at Argonne and provides an overview of existing sources world wide. A number of proposals for machines more powerful than currently exist are under development, which are briefly described. The author reviews the status of the Intense Pulsed Neutron Source, its instrumentation, and its user program, and provides a few examples of applications in fundamental condensed matter physics, materials science and technology

  7. Ultrashort pulse induced nanogratings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nolte Stefan

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available When intense femtosecond laser pulses are focused into a glass substrate, self-organized periodic nanostructures, so-called nanogratings, are generated in a certain parameter regime. To clarify the ultimate structure of the nanogratings we employed focused ion beam (FIB milling and small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS. The results considerably show that voids are the primary constituents and their number increases with ongoing exposure to laser pulses. Potential applications will be highlighted.

  8. Coherence and quasistable states in a strong infrared field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Changchun; Robicheaux, F.

    2016-03-01

    We study the quasistability of UV-pulse-train-excited H atoms in a strong infrared (IR) laser as a function of the phase delay of the UV pulse train relative to the IR laser. The UV pulse train contains two frequency components. When the two components have frequencies separated by two IR photons, the population of surviving electrons is modulated by up to ten percent. When electrons are excited to right above or below the threshold, the survival probabilities have inverted phase delay dependence, which can be explained classically. When the two frequencies are one IR photon apart, the angular symmetry of the quasistable electrons is broken, and the asymmetry is also controlled by the phase delay. The asymmetrical distribution can be observed while the IR is on and smoothly evolves to a nonzero asymmetry that only weakly depends on the duration of the IR field.

  9. Rapid Jet Precession During the 2015 Outburst of the Black Hole X-ray Binary V404 Cygni

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivakoff, Gregory R.; Miller-Jones, James; Tetarenko, Alex J.

    2017-08-01

    In stellar-mass black holes that are orbited by lower-mass companions (black hole low-mass X-ray binaries), the accretion process can undergo dramatic outbursts that can be accompanied by the launching of powerful relativistic jets. We still do not know the exact mechanism responsible for launching these jets, despite decades of research and the importance of determining this mechanism given the clear analogue of accreting super-massive black holes and their jets. The two main models for launching jets involve the extraction of the rotational energy of a spinning black hole (Blandford-Znajek) and the centrifugal acceleration of particles by open magnetic field lines rotating with the accretion flow (Blandford-Payne). Since some relativistic jets are not fully aligned with the angular momentum of the binary's orbit, the inner accretion flow of some black hole X-ray binaries may precess due to frame-dragging by a spinning black hole (Lense-Thirring precession). This precession has been previously observed close to the black hole as second-timescale quasi-periodic (X-ray) variability. In this talk we will present radio-through-sub-mm timing and high-angular resolution radio imaging (including a high-timing resolution movie) of the black hole X-ray binary V404 Cygni during its 2015 outburst. These data show that at the peak of the outburst the relativistic jets in this system were precessing on timescales of hours. We will discuss how rapid precession can be explained by Lense-Thirring precession of a vertically-extended slim disc that is maintained out to a radius of 6 X 1010 cm by a highly super-Eddington accretion rate. This would imply that the jet axis of V404 Cyg is not aligned with the black hole spin. More importantly, this places a key requirement on any model for launching jets, and may favour launching the jet from the rotating magnetic fields threading the disc.

  10. Mega deposits and erosive features related to the glacial lake Nedre Glomsjø outburst flood, southeastern Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Høgaas, Fredrik; Longva, Oddvar

    2016-11-01

    In this paper we present a suite of erosional remnants, mega deposits and subtle bar morphology that we relate to the outburst flood from the glacial lake Nedre Glomsjø at the end of the last Ice Age. By using large datasets of airborne LiDAR data implemented in a geographic information system (GIS), we have mapped flood related features along the Glomma and Vrangselva rivers in southeastern Norway. The unprecedented overview of the valley reaches obtained by the vegetation-free LiDAR-derived digital elevation models (DEM) has revealed a set of hitherto undocumented landforms. Persisting erosive lines - indicators of the uppermost flooded level - are carved into surficial deposits in the hillsides and are found as high as 80-90 m above the modern valley floor. By using the indicators as an upper flood boundary, we have computed cross-sectional profiles showing that the flood in some reaches inundated more than 120 000 m2 of the valley. Large, streamlined bed forms, which we interpret as flood bars, drape sections of the valley floor, some several kilometers long. The most morphologically striking - pendant bars - are developed behind flood flow projections, such as bedrock knolls or in lee of a valley bend. Flood bars occur in the entire study area, but are more widespread in the north and generally decrease in size moving in a downstream direction. Kettle holes and ice-block obstacle marks from icebergs arrested during the flood are common. These features support the theory of a catastrophic drainage event, but also indicate a pattern of differential erosion and deposition that allowed us to interpret palaeoflow on individual bars. Vast aeolian dune fields in the region are interpreted as a secondary product of the flood, as deposits related to the event were mobilised by northerly winds momentarily after the flood waned. The dune fields cover an excess of 50 km2 and reveal that the region was a highly active periglacial desert after the flood. Our mapping

  11. Automatically detecting Himalayan Glacial Lake Outburst Floods in LANDSAT time series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veh, Georg; Korup, Oliver; Roessner, Sigrid; Walz, Ariane

    2017-04-01

    More than 5,000 meltwater lakes currently exist in the Himalayas, and some of them have grown rapidly in past decades due to glacial retreat. This trend might raise the risk of Glacial Lake Outburst Floods (GLOFs), which have caused catastrophic damage and several hundred fatalities in historic time. Yet the growing number and size of Himalayan glacial lakes have no detectable counterpart in increasing GLOF frequency. Only 35 events are documented in detail since the 1950s, mostly in the Himalayas of Eastern Nepal and Bhutan. Observations are sparse in the far eastern and totally missing in the northwestern parts of the mountain belt. The GLOF record is prone to a censoring bias, such that mainly larger floods or flood impacts have been registered. Thus, establishing a more complete record and learning from past GLOFs is essential for hazard assessment and regional planning. To detect previously unreported GLOFs in the Himalayas, we developed an automated processing chain for generating GLOF related surface-cover time series from LANDSAT data. We downloaded more than 5,000 available LANDSAT TM, ETM+ and OLI images from 1987 to present. We trained a supervised machine-learning classifier with >4,000 randomly selected image pixels and topographic variables derived from digital topographic data (SRTM and ALOS DEMs), defining water, sediment, shadow, clouds, and ice as the five main classes. We hypothesize that GLOFs significantly decrease glacial lake area while increasing the amount of sediment cover in the channel network downstream simultaneously. Thus we excluded shadows, clouds, and lake ice from the analysis. We derived surface cover maps from the fitted model for each satellite image and compiled a pixelwise time-series stack. Customized rule sets were applied to systematically remove misclassifications and to check for a sediment fan in the flow path downstream of the former lake pixels. We verified our mapping approach on thirteen GLOFs documented in the

  12. The analysis of filling pulse parameters influence on ICTS data of GaAs MIS structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drewniak, Ł.; Kochowski, S.; Nitsch, K.; Paszkiewicz, R.; Paszkiewicz, B.

    2013-07-01

    The results of analysis of filling pulse parameters influence on the ICTS spectra recorded for Au/Pd/Ti-SiO2 - (n) GaAs MIS structures have been presented. It was demonstrated that the amplitude and the width of filling pulse strongly affects: the shape, the amplitude and the position of ICTS peaks. Furthermore it was found that the pulse amplitude of 1 V, in the case of investigated structures, corresponds to a small pulse and the width of filling pulse is not connected in simple way with the pulse amplitude as follows from literature. It was shown that both the measurements at short and long time of filling pulse reveal a complex structure of ICTS spectrum. It was also demonstrated that different time constants of interface states are obtained when the measurements are not performed with a small pulse and when the filling pulse time is not long enough to achieve a complete states filling.

  13. Optical Precursors to Black Hole X-Ray Binary Outbursts: An Evolving Synchrotron Jet Spectrum in Swift J1357.2–0933

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, David M.; Qasim, Ahlam Al; Bernardini, Federico; Plotkin, Richard M.; Lewis, Fraser; Koljonen, Karri I. I.; Yang, Yi-Jung

    2018-01-01

    We present six years of optical monitoring of the black hole (BH) candidate X-ray binary Swift J1357.2–0933, during and since its discovery outburst in 2011. On these long timescales, the quiescent light curve is dominated by high amplitude, short-term (seconds–days) variability spanning ∼2 mag, with an increasing trend of the mean flux from 2012 to 2017 that is steeper than in any other X-ray binary found to date (0.17 mag yr‑1). We detected the initial optical rise of the 2017 outburst of Swift J1357.2–0933, and we report that the outburst began between 2017 April 1 and 6. Such a steep optical flux rise preceding an outburst is expected according to disk instability models, but the high amplitude variability in quiescence is not. Previous studies have shown that the quiescent spectral, polarimetric, and rapid variability properties of Swift J1357.2–0933 are consistent with synchrotron emission from a weak compact jet. We find that a variable optical/infrared spectrum is responsible for the brightening: a steep, red spectrum before and soon after the 2011 outburst evolves to a brighter, flatter spectrum since 2013. The evolving spectrum appears to be due to the jet spectral break shifting from the infrared in 2012 to the optical in 2013, then back to the infrared by 2016–2017 while the optical remains relatively bright. Swift J1357.2–0933 is a valuable source to study BH jet physics at very low accretion rates and is possibly the only quiescent source in which the optical jet properties can be regularly monitored.

  14. Regional-scale GIS-models for assessment of hazards from glacier lake outbursts: evaluation and application in the Swiss Alps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Huggel

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Debris flows triggered by glacier lake outbursts have repeatedly caused disasters in various high-mountain regions of the world. Accelerated change of glacial and periglacial environments due to atmospheric warming and increased anthropogenic development in most of these areas raise the need for an adequate hazard assessment and corresponding modelling. The purpose of this paper is to pro-vide a modelling approach which takes into account the current evolution of the glacial environment and satisfies a robust first-order assessment of hazards from glacier-lake outbursts. Two topography-based GIS-models simulating debris flows related to outbursts from glacier lakes are presented and applied for two lake outburst events in the southern Swiss Alps. The models are based on information about glacier lakes derived from remote sensing data, and on digital elevation models (DEM. Hydrological flow routing is used to simulate the debris flow resulting from the lake outburst. Thereby, a multiple- and a single-flow-direction approach are applied. Debris-flow propagation is given in probability-related values indicating the hazard potential of a certain location. The debris flow runout distance is calculated on the basis of empirical data on average slope trajectory. The results show that the multiple-flow-direction approach generally yields a more detailed propagation. The single-flow-direction approach, however, is more robust against DEM artifacts and, hence, more suited for process automation. The model is tested with three differently generated DEMs (including aero-photogrammetry- and satellite image-derived. Potential application of the respective DEMs is discussed with a special focus on satellite-derived DEMs for use in remote high-mountain areas.

  15. Forecast and Prevention of Coal and Gas Outbursts in the Case of Application of a New Mining Method - Drilling of a Coal Pillar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlastimil Hudeček

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Coal and gas outbursts are one of risk factors accompanying the mining of coal in low seams in the Ostrava-Karviná Coalfield.At the use of the method of longwall mining, all coal reserves have not been mined out owing to tectonic faults. For mining outthe residual reserves, the application of a new mining method - drilling of a coal pillar was proposed.The method of mining of a coal seam utilizing long large diameter boreholes is verified in the Paskov Mine (company OKD, JSC –Czech Republic under conditions of rock mass with hazard of rock and gas outbursts in localities of residual pillars left in seams afterfinishing the mining operations performed with using the classical method of longwall working along the strike. [5]Forecast and preventive measures applied to the verification of the new method were based on previous experience withthe mining of seams with hazard of coal and gas outbursts. They accepted fully valid legislation, i.e. Ordinance of Ostrava RegionalMining Authority No. 3895/2002 and supplementary materials (Instructions and Guidelines. The proposed measures respectedthe character of the method being verified. [4]For all areas being mined, projects containing also chapters specifying the problems of ensuring the safety of mining worksand operation under conditions of hazard of coal and gas outbursts were prepared.In the contributions, basic proposals for the principles of coal and gas outburst forecast and prevention when applying the newmining method – drilling of a coal pillar are presented

  16. Particle acceleration by electromagnetic pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai, H.M.

    1982-01-01

    Particle interaction with plane electromagnetic pulses is studied. It is shown that particle acceleration by a wavy pulse, depending on the shape of the pulse, may not be small. Further, a diffusive-type particle acceleration by multiple weak pulses is described and discussed. (author)

  17. Dynamics of traveling reaction pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dovzhenko, A. Yu.; Rumanov, E. N.

    2007-01-01

    The growth of activator losses is accompanied by the decay of a traveling reaction pulse. In a ring reactor, this propagation threshold is present simultaneously with a threshold related to the ring diameter. The results of numerical experiments with pulses of an exothermal reaction reveal the transition from pulse propagation to a homogeneous hot regime, established regimes with periodic variations of the pulse velocity, and oscillatory decay of the pulse. When the medium becomes 'bistable' as a result of the variation in parameters, this factor does not prevent the propagation of pulses, but leads to changes in the pulse structure

  18. High voltage pulse generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasching, George E.

    1977-03-08

    An improved high-voltage pulse generator has been provided which is especially useful in ultrasonic testing of rock core samples. An N number of capacitors are charged in parallel to V volts and at the proper instance are coupled in series to produce a high-voltage pulse of N times V volts. Rapid switching of the capacitors from the paralleled charging configuration to the series discharging configuration is accomplished by using silicon-controlled rectifiers which are chain self-triggered following the initial triggering of a first one of the rectifiers connected between the first and second of the plurality of charging capacitors. A timing and triggering circuit is provided to properly synchronize triggering pulses to the first SCR at a time when the charging voltage is not being applied to the parallel-connected charging capacitors. Alternate circuits are provided for controlling the application of the charging voltage from a charging circuit to be applied to the parallel capacitors which provides a selection of at least two different intervals in which the charging voltage is turned "off" to allow the SCR's connecting the capacitors in series to turn "off" before recharging begins. The high-voltage pulse-generating circuit including the N capacitors and corresponding SCR's which connect the capacitors in series when triggered "on" further includes diodes and series-connected inductors between the parallel-connected charging capacitors which allow sufficiently fast charging of the capacitors for a high pulse repetition rate and yet allow considerable control of the decay time of the high-voltage pulses from the pulse-generating circuit.

  19. FERMI-LARGE AREA TELESCOPE OBSERVATIONS OF THE EXCEPTIONAL GAMMA-RAY OUTBURSTS OF 3C 273 IN 2009 SEPTEMBER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdo, A. A.; Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Bechtol, K.; Berenji, B.; Blandford, R. D.; Bloom, E. D.; Borgland, A. W.; Bouvier, A.; Baldini, L.; Bellazzini, R.; Bregeon, J.; Brez, A.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Bonamente, E.; Brigida, M.; Bruel, P.; Burnett, T. H.

    2010-01-01

    We present the light curves and spectral data of two exceptionally luminous gamma-ray outbursts observed by the Large Area Telescope experiment on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope from 3C 273 in 2009 September. During these flares, having a duration of a few days, the source reached its highest γ-ray flux ever measured. This allowed us to study, in some details, their spectral and temporal structures. The rise and the decay are asymmetric on timescales of 6 hr, and the spectral index was significantly harder during the flares than during the preceding 11 months. We also found that short, very intense flares put out the same time-integrated energy as long, less intense flares like that observed in 2009 August.

  20. Increasing risk of glacial lake outburst floods as a consequence of climate change in the Himalayan region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somana Riaz

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The greater Himalayan Mountains host the largest snow covered area outside the polar regions and serves as the source for some of the major fluvial systems of the world. The region acts as the lifeline for approximately 10% of the world’s population. The terrain is geologically active, highly susceptible to climate change processes and plays a significant role in global hydro-meteorological cycles and biodiversity. With the increasing impacts of climate change to the glaciers and ice caps during the past few decades, people living in the Himalayas have become vulnerable to a higher risk of floods, avalanches and glacial lake outburst floods(GLOFs. This study reviewed the work carried out by earlier researchers to understand the history and science of GLOFs and their potential risk to the communities in the Himalayanbelt, particularly in Pakistan.

  1. USA Observation of Spectral and Timing Evolution During the 2000 Outburst of XTE J1550--564

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reilly, Kaice T

    2002-12-06

    We report on timing and spectral observations of the 2000 outburst of XTE J1550--564 made by the Unconventional Stellar Aspect (USA) Experiment on board the Advanced Research and Global Observation Satellite (ARGOS). We observe a low-frequency quasi-periodic oscillation (LFQPO) with a centroid frequency that tends to increase with increasing flux and a fractional rms amplitude which is correlated with the hardness ratio. Several high-frequency quasi-periodic oscillations (HFQPO) were detected by RXTE, during periods where the LFQPO is seen to be weakening or not detectable at all. The evolution of the hardness ratio (4-16 keV/1-4 keV) with time and source flux is examined. The hardness-intensity diagram (HID) shows a cyclical movement in the counterclockwise direction and possibly indicates the presence of two independent accretion flows: a thin disk and a hot sub-Keplerian flow.

  2. Strong-field control landscapes of coherent electronic excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayer, Tim; Wollenhaupt, Matthias; Baumert, Thomas

    2008-04-01

    We report on physical mechanisms behind resonant strong-field coherent control. To this end, we study multi-photon ionization of potassium atoms using intense shaped femtosecond laser pulses. The measured photoelectron spectra are discussed in terms of selective population of dressed states (SPODS). A physically motivated pulse parameterization is introduced which opens up two-dimensional parameter spaces comprising pulse sequences as well as chirped pulses. The control topologies of these subspaces are mapped out experimentally and are presented in the form of strong-field control landscapes (SFCLs). In the SFCLs, complementary realizations of SPODS via photon locking and rapid adiabatic passage are observed. Moreover, the combined effect, termed Multi-RAP, arises when both mechanisms are at play simultaneously. In order to better understand the performance of adaptive optimization procedures, we experimentally study their capability to find optimal solutions on a given parameter space. The evolution of different optimization procedures is visualized by means of control trajectories on the surface of the measured SFCL.

  3. Quantum electrodynamics of strong fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greiner, W.

    1983-01-01

    Quantum Electrodynamics of Strong Fields provides a broad survey of the theoretical and experimental work accomplished, presenting papers by a group of international researchers who have made significant contributions to this developing area. Exploring the quantum theory of strong fields, the volume focuses on the phase transition to a charged vacuum in strong electric fields. The contributors also discuss such related topics as QED at short distances, precision tests of QED, nonperturbative QCD and confinement, pion condensation, and strong gravitational fields In addition, the volume features a historical paper on the roots of quantum field theory in the history of quantum physics by noted researcher Friedrich Hund

  4. Spectral and timing evolution of the bright failed outburst of the transient black hole Swift J174510.8-262411

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Santo, M.; Belloni, T. M.; Tomsick, J. A.; Sbarufatti, B.; Cadolle Bel, M.; Casella, P.; Castro-Tirado, A.; Corbel, S.; Grinberg, V.; Homan, J.; Kalemci, E.; Motta, S.; Muñoz-Darias, T.; Pottschmidt, K.; Rodriguez, J.; Wilms, J.

    2016-03-01

    We studied time variability and spectral evolution of the Galactic black hole transient Swift J174510.8-262411 during the first phase of its outburst. INTEGRAL and Swift observations collected from 2012 September 16 until October 30 have been used. The total squared fractional rms values did not drop below 5 per cent and quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs), when present, were type-C, indicating that the source never made the transition to the soft-intermediate state. Even though the source was very bright (up to 1 Crab in hard X-rays), it showed a so called failed outburst as it never reached the soft state. XRT and IBIS broad-band spectra, well represented by a hybrid thermal/non-thermal Comptonization model, showed physical parameters characteristic of the hard and intermediate states. In particular, the derived temperature of the geometrically thin disc blackbody was about 0.6 keV at maximum. We found a clear decline of the optical depth of the corona electrons (close to values of 0.1), as well as of the total compactness ratio ℓh/ℓs. The hard-to-hard/intermediate state spectral transition is mainly driven by the increase in the soft photon flux in the corona, rather than small variations of the electron heating. This, associated with the increasing of the disc temperature, is consistent with a disc moving towards the compact object scenario, I.e. the truncated-disc model. Moreover, this scenario is consistent with the decreasing fractional squared rms and increasing of the noise and QPO frequency. In our final group of observations, we found that the contribution from the non-thermal Comptonization to the total power supplied to the plasma is 0.59^{+0.02}_{-0.05} and that the thermal electrons cool to kTe < 26 keV.

  5. Helical Tomography of an Accretion Disk by Superhump Light Curves of the 2001 Outburst of WZ Sagittae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osaki, Yoji

    2003-06-01

    A new method for analyzing complex superhump light curves for the 2001 outburst of WZ Sagittae is proposed. The complexity arises because intrinsically time-varying and non-axisymmetric distributions of superhump light sources are coupled with the aspect effects around the binary orbital phase because of its high orbital inclination. The new method can disentangle these complexities by separating the non-axisymmetric spatial distribution in the disk from the time variation with the superhump period. It may be called a helical tomography of an accretion disk because it can reconstruct a series of disk images (i.e., disk's azimuthal structures) at different superhump phases. The power spectral data of superhump light curves of the 2001 outburst of WZ Sge by Patterson et al. (2002, PASP, 114, 721) are now interpreted under a new light based on the concept of helical tomography, and the azimuthal wave numbers of various frequency modes are identified. In particular, a frequen! cy component, nω0 - Ω, where ω0 and Ω are the orbital frequency and a low frequency of the apsidal precession of the eccentric disk, is understood as an (n - 1)-armed traveling wave in the disk. A vigorous excitation of a wave component of cos(2Θ - 3ω0t) in the first week of the superhump era of WZ Sge, where Θ is the azimuthal angle, supports Lubow's (1991, AAA 54.064.175) theory of non-linear wave coupling of the eccentric Lindblad resonance for the superhump phenomenon. This method can in principle be applied to other SU UMa stars with high orbital inclination if light curves are fully covered over the beat cycle.

  6. Terawatt-scale optical half-cycle attosecond pulses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jiancai; Shen, Baifei; Zhang, Xiaomei; Shi, Yin; Ji, Liangliang; Zhang, Lingang; Xu, Tongjun; Wang, Wenpeng; Zhao, Xueyan; Xu, Zhizhan

    2018-02-08

    Extreme-ultravoilet (XUV) attosecond pulses with durations of a few tens of attosecond have been successfully applied for exploring ultrafast electron dynamics at the atomic scale. But their weak intensities limit the further application in demonstrating nonlinear responses of inner-shell electrons. Optical attosecond pulses will provide sufficient photon flux to initiate strong-field processes. Here we proposed a novel method to generate an ultra-intense isolated optical attosecond pulse through relativistic multi-cycle laser pulse interacting with a designed gas-foil target. The underdense gas target sharpens the multi-cycle laser pulse, producing a dense layer of relativistic electrons with a thickness of a few hundred nanometers. When the dense electron layer passes through an oblique foil, it emits single ultra-intense half-cycle attosecond pulse in the visible and ultraviolet spectral range. The emitted pulse has a peak intensity exceeding 10 18  W/cm 2 and full-width-half-maximum duration of 200 as. The peak power of this attosecond light source reaches 2 terawatt. The proposed method relaxes the single-cycle requirement on the driving pulse for isolated attosecond pulse generation and significantly boosts the peak power, thus it may open up the route to new experiments tracking the nonlinear response of inner-shell electrons as well as nonlinear attosecond phenomena investigation.

  7. Electromagnetic pulses at the boundary of a nonlinear plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satorius, E.H.

    1975-01-01

    An investigation was made of the behavior of strong electromagnetic pulses at the boundary of a nonlinear, cold, collisionless, and uniform plasma. The nonlinearity considered here is due to the nonlinear terms in the fluid equation which is used to describe the plasma. Two cases are studied. First, the case where there is a voltage pulse applied across the plane boundary of a semi-infinite, nonlinear plasma. Two different voltage pulses are considered, i.e., a delta function pulse and a suddenly turned-on sinusoidal pulse. The resulting electromagnetic fields propagating in the nonlinear plasma are found in this case. In the second case, the reflection of incident E-polarized and H-polarized, electromagnetic pulses at various angles of incidence from a nonlinear, semi-infinite plasma are considered. Again, two forms of incident pulses are considered: a delta function pulse and a suddenly turned-on sinusoidal pulse. In case two, the reflected electromagnetic fields are found. In both cases, the method used for finding the fields is to first solve the fluid equation (which describes the plasma) for the nonlinear conduction current in terms of the electric field using a perturbation method (since the nonlinear effects are assumed to be small). Next, this current is substituted into Maxwell's equations, and finally the electromagnetic fields which satisfy the boundary conditions are found. (U.S.)

  8. HydroPulse Drilling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.J. Kolle

    2004-04-01

    Tempress HydroPulse{trademark} tool increases overbalanced drilling rates by generating intense suction pulses at the drill bit. This report describes the operation of the tool; results of pressure drilling tests, wear tests and downhole drilling tests; and the business case for field applications. The HydroPulse{trademark} tool is designed to operate on weighted drilling mud at conventional flow rates and pressures. Pressure drilling tests confirm that the HydroPulse{trademark} tool provides 33% to 200% increased rate of penetration. Field tests demonstrated conventional rotary and mud motor drilling operations. The tool has been operated continuous for 50 hours on weighted mud in a wear test stand. This level of reliability is the threshold for commercial application. A seismic-while-drilling version of the tool was also developed and tested. This tool was used to demonstrate reverse vertical seismic profiling while drilling an inclined test well with a PDC bit. The primary applications for the HydroPulse{trademark} tool are deep onshore and offshore drilling where rate of penetration drives costs. The application of the seismic tool is vertical seismic profiling-while-drilling and look-ahead seismic imaging while drilling.

  9. Relativistically strong electromagnetic radiation in a plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulanov, S. V.; Esirkepov, T. Zh.; Kando, M.; Kiriyama, H.; Kondo, K.

    2016-03-01

    Physical processes in a plasma under the action of relativistically strong electromagnetic waves generated by high-power lasers have been briefly reviewed. These processes are of interest in view of the development of new methods for acceleration of charged particles, creation of sources of bright hard electromagnetic radiation, and investigation of macroscopic quantum-electrodynamical processes. Attention is focused on nonlinear waves in a laser plasma for the creation of compact electron accelerators. The acceleration of plasma bunches by the radiation pressure of light is the most efficient regime of ion acceleration. Coherent hard electromagnetic radiation in the relativistic plasma is generated in the form of higher harmonics and/or electromagnetic pulses, which are compressed and intensified after reflection from relativistic mirrors created by nonlinear waves. In the limit of extremely strong electromagnetic waves, radiation friction, which accompanies the conversion of radiation from the optical range to the gamma range, fundamentally changes the behavior of the plasma. This process is accompanied by the production of electron-positron pairs, which is described within quantum electrodynamics theory.

  10. Laser-Induced Damage with Femtosecond Pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kafka, Kyle R. P.

    The strong electric fields of focused femtosecond laser pulses lead to non-equilibrium dynamics in materials, which, beyond a threshold intensity, causes laser-induced damage (LID). Such a strongly non-linear and non-perturbative process renders important LID observables like fluence and intensity thresholds and damage morphology (crater) extremely difficult to predict quantitatively. However, femtosecond LID carries a high degree of precision, which has been exploited in various micro/nano-machining and surface engineering applications, such as human eye surgery and super-hydrophobic surfaces. This dissertation presents an array of experimental studies which have measured the damage behavior of various materials under femtosecond irradiation. Precision experiments were performed to produce extreme spatio-temporal confinement of the femtosecond laser-solid damage interaction on monocrystalline Cu, which made possible the first successful direct-benchmarking of LID simulation with realistic damage craters. A technique was developed to produce laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) in a single pulse (typically a multi-pulse phenomenon), and was used to perform a pump-probe study which revealed asynchronous LIPSS formation on copper. Combined with 1-D calculations, this new experimental result suggests more drastic electron heating than expected. Few-cycle pulses were used to study the LID performance and morphology of commercial ultra-broadband optics, which had not been systematically studied before. With extensive surface analysis, various morphologies were observed, including LIPSS, swelling (blisters), simple craters, and even ring-shaped structures, which varied depending on the coating design, number of pulses, and air/vacuum test environment. Mechanisms leading to these morphologies are discussed, many of which are ultrafast in nature. The applied damage behavior of multi-layer dielectric mirrors was measured and compared between long pulse (150 ps

  11. Current Extensions on PULSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanda Dragos

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Using a learning management system (LMS is a common practise nowadays. Such instruments are used in educational institutions to enhance and support the teaching act as well as in industry for training purposes. In a computer science department of an university such instrument tends to be a basic requirement. That is because not only it allows a better management of courses and a better communication between students and professors, but can also serve as a perfect instrument for presenting teaching related materials for computer science subjects. During the years I have created and used several such instruments: a System with Interactive ackNowledgement and Evaluation of students work during laboratory sessions (SINE, a Php Utility used in Laboratories for Student Evaluation (PULSE, and PULSE Extended. The aim of this paper is to present the current enhancements of PULSE.

  12. Discharge pulse phenomenology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederickson, A. R.

    1985-01-01

    A model was developed which places radiation induced discharge pulse results into a unified conceptual framework. Only two phenomena are required to interpret all space and laboratory results: (1) radiation produces large electrostatic fields inside insulators via the trapping of a net space charge density; and (2) the electrostatic fields initiate discharge streamer plasmas similar to those investigated in high voltage electrical insulation materials; these streamer plasmas generate the pulsing phenomena. The apparent variability and diversity of results seen is an inherent feature of the plasma streamer mechanism acting in the electric fields which is created by irradiation of the dielectrics. The implications of the model are extensive and lead to constraints over what can be done about spacecraft pulsing.

  13. Strong WW Interaction at LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelaez, Jose R

    1998-12-14

    We present a brief pedagogical introduction to the Effective Electroweak Chiral Lagrangians, which provide a model independent description of the WW interactions in the strong regime. When it is complemented with some unitarization or a dispersive approach, this formalism allows the study of the general strong scenario expected at the LHC, including resonances.

  14. Strong-back safety latch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeSantis, G.N.

    1995-01-01

    The calculation decides the integrity of the safety latch that will hold the strong-back to the pump during lifting. The safety latch will be welded to the strong-back and will latch to a 1.5-in. dia cantilever rod welded to the pump baseplate. The static and dynamic analysis shows that the safety latch will hold the strong-back to the pump if the friction clamps fail and the pump become free from the strong-back. Thus, the safety latch will meet the requirements of the Lifting and Rigging Manual for under the hook lifting for static loading; it can withstand shock loads from the strong-back falling 0.25 inch

  15. Strong-back safety latch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeSantis, G.N.

    1995-03-06

    The calculation decides the integrity of the safety latch that will hold the strong-back to the pump during lifting. The safety latch will be welded to the strong-back and will latch to a 1.5-in. dia cantilever rod welded to the pump baseplate. The static and dynamic analysis shows that the safety latch will hold the strong-back to the pump if the friction clamps fail and the pump become free from the strong-back. Thus, the safety latch will meet the requirements of the Lifting and Rigging Manual for under the hook lifting for static loading; it can withstand shock loads from the strong-back falling 0.25 inch.

  16. Pulse Doppler radar

    CERN Document Server

    Alabaster, Clive

    2012-01-01

    This book is a practitioner's guide to all aspects of pulse Doppler radar. It concentrates on airborne military radar systems since they are the most used, most complex, and most interesting of the pulse Doppler radars; however, ground-based and non-military systems are also included. It covers the fundamental science, signal processing, hardware issues, systems design and case studies of typical systems. It will be a useful resource for engineers of all types (hardware, software and systems), academics, post-graduate students, scientists in radar and radar electronic warfare sectors and milit

  17. Millimicrosecond pulse techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Lewis, Ian A D

    1959-01-01

    Millimicrosecond Pulse Techniques, Second Edition focuses on millimicrosecond pulse techniques and the development of devices of large bandwidth, extending down to comparatively low frequencies (1 Mc/s). Emphasis is on basic circuit elements and pieces of equipment of universal application. Specific applications, mostly in the field of nuclear physics instrumentation, are considered. This book consists of eight chapters and opens with an introduction to some of the terminology employed by circuit engineers as well as theoretical concepts, including the laws of circuit analysis, Fourier analysi

  18. Long Pulse Technology Tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jernigan, T.C.

    1978-01-01

    The LPTT tokamak is a non-circular tokamak (R = 1.5 m, a = .45 m) proposed by ORNL for extended pulse operation at high β (5%) and reactor level wall power loading (40 w/cm 2 ). The toroidal field coils are superconducting and a super-conducting bundle divertor is proposed for active impurity control. All systems are designed for continuous operation which will provide pulse lengths > 20 seconds with a 6 to 10 weber flux swing. Experimental access and flexibility in operation are primary design goals

  19. Process Performances of 2 ns Pulsed Discharge Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Takao; Wang, Douyan; Namihira, Takao; Akiyama, Hidenori

    2011-08-01

    Pulsed discharge plasmas have been used to treat exhaust gases. Since pulse duration and the rise time of applied voltage to the discharge electrode has a strong influence on the energy efficiency of pollutant removal, the development of a short-pulse generator is of paramount importance for practical applications. In this work, it is demonstrated that the non thermal plasma produced by the 2 ns pulsed discharge has a higher energy efficiency than the 5 ns pulsed discharge plasma for NO removal and ozone generation. Typically, the NO removal efficiency was 1.0 mol kW-1 h-1 for 70% NO removal (initial NO concentration = 200 ppm, gas flow = 10 L/min). Meanwhile, the ozone yield was 500 g kW-1 h-1 for 20 g/m3 ozone concentration in the case of oxygen feeding. These energy efficiencies are the highest in the literature.

  20. Quantum theory of strong-field frustrated tunneling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popruzhenko, S. V.

    2018-01-01

    We show how the strong-field approximation, widely used for description of multiphoton and tunneling ionization, can be extended to analyse the excitation of bound states in intense low-frequency laser pulses. The proposed theory is based on the formalism of quantum trajectories and fills the gap between the numerical solution of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation and classical simulations. In particular, it allows identifying non-adiabatic and interference effects in strong-field excitation of Rydberg states.

  1. Prediction, prevention and fight automatic control in mining an outburst prone coal seam; Control Automatico de las Medidas de Prediccion, Prevencion y Lucha, para la Explotacion Mecanizada de una Capa Susceptible de desprendimientos Instantaneos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    Outburst are instantaneous catastrophic failure of the coal mine structure, characterised by emissions of large quantities of finely divided coal dust and gas from a coal face. In Spain, outbursts have represented a serious problem in the zone of Aller (Asturias), particularly in San Antonio mine. The main objective of the research work was to determine whether outburst precursory micro seismic activity could be discerned by monitoring the coal mining district of San Antonio. Micro seismic activity on the underground seismometer contains distinct style of events: natural events, stress events and outburst events. The correlation between the rate of extraction and the number of micro seismic activity has been analysed. A real time software was developed which would discriminate mining activity from background seismic noise. the algorithm used for event detection in based on comparing the short term average (STA) with the long term average (LTA) of the signal energy. (Author)

  2. Pulse power modulators - an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkatramani, N.

    2006-01-01

    Pulse power modulators are electronic devices to provide, high voltage, high current, power bursts. Ideally, a modulator, with the means to shape and control the pulses, acts as a switch between a high voltage power supply and its load. This article gives an overview of the pulse power modulators: starting with the basics of pulse and modulation, it covers modulation topologies, different types of modulators, major subsystems and pulse measurement techniques. The various applications of pulse power modulators and the recent trends have been included at the end. (author)

  3. SNMR pulse sequence phase cycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, David O; Grunewald, Elliot D

    2013-11-12

    Technologies applicable to SNMR pulse sequence phase cycling are disclosed, including SNMR acquisition apparatus and methods, SNMR processing apparatus and methods, and combinations thereof. SNMR acquisition may include transmitting two or more SNMR pulse sequences and applying a phase shift to a pulse in at least one of the pulse sequences, according to any of a variety cycling techniques. SNMR processing may include combining SNMR from a plurality of pulse sequences comprising pulses of different phases, so that desired signals are preserved and indesired signals are canceled.

  4. Characteristics and Applications of Spatiotemporally Focused Femtosecond Laser Pulses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenrui Jing

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Simultaneous spatial and temporal focusing (SSTF of femtosecond laser pulses gives rise to strong suppression of nonlinear self-focusing during the propagation of the femtosecond laser beam. In this paper, we begin with an introduction of the principle of SSTF, followed by a review of our recent experimental results on the characterization and application of the spatiotemporally focused pulses for femtosecond laser micromachining. Finally, we summarize all of the results and give a future perspective of this technique.

  5. Titanium: light, strong, and white

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodruff, Laurel; Bedinger, George

    2013-01-01

    Titanium (Ti) is a strong silver-gray metal that is highly resistant to corrosion and is chemically inert. It is as strong as steel but 45 percent lighter, and it is twice as strong as aluminum but only 60 percent heavier. Titanium dioxide (TiO2) has a very high refractive index, which means that it has high light-scattering ability. As a result, TiO2 imparts whiteness, opacity, and brightness to many products. ...Because of the unique physical properties of titanium metal and the whiteness provided by TiO2, titanium is now used widely in modern industrial societies.

  6. Pulsed electric fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    The concept of pulsed electric fields (PEF) was first proposed in 1967 to change the behavior or microorganisms. The electric field phenomenon was identified as membrane rupture theory in the 1980s. Increasing the membrane permeability led to the application of PEF assisted extraction of cellular co...

  7. Differential pulse code modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, C. F. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    A differential pulse code modulation (DPCM) encoding and decoding method is described along with an apparatus which is capable of transmission with minimum bandwidth. The apparatus is not affected by data transition density, requires no direct current (DC) response of the transmission link, and suffers from minimal ambiguity in resolution of the digital data.

  8. Pulsed Power Supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The patent describes a step-up power supply which is provided by a plurality of transistors arranged to drive respective, equal turn primary windings...winding, thus maximizing the total voltage applied to the transformer. The power supply amplifies pulses from a blocking oscillator to drive a tuned-plate, tuned-grid transmitter.

  9. Analog pulse processor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessendorf, Kurt O.; Kemper, Dale A.

    2003-06-03

    A very low power analog pulse processing system implemented as an ASIC useful for processing signals from radiation detectors, among other things. The system incorporates the functions of a charge sensitive amplifier, a shaping amplifier, a peak sample and hold circuit, and, optionally, an analog to digital converter and associated drivers.

  10. Hose-Modulation Instability of Laser Pulses in Plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sprangle, P.; Krall, J.; Esarey, E.

    1994-01-01

    A laser pulse propagating in a uniform plasma or a preformed plasma density channel is found to undergo a combination of hose and modulation instabilities, provided the pulse centroid has an initial tilt. Coupled equations for the laser centroid and envelope are derived and solved for a finite-length laser pulse. Significant coupling between the centroid and the envelope, harmonic generation in the envelope, and strong modification of the wake field can occur. Methods to reduce the growth rate of the laser hose instability are demonstrated

  11. Design of the pulse rod drive mechanism for pulsed reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    You Keyi

    1988-07-01

    The pulse rod drive mechanism is a critical movable device for a pulsed reactor. It is an executor under pulse operations, and it may be used in a shim rod under steady-state operations. The pneumatic-electromechanical driving method is taken in the designing. The structure, operating, calculation of parameters and designing methods of the pulse rod drive mechanism are briefly described in this paper. The testing results of the prototypical mechanism are also presented

  12. The design of nuclear magnetic resonance programmable pulsed source based SOPC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Qingshun; Zhang Yakun; Wang Wenli

    2012-01-01

    The design of pulse source in the equipment of pulsed Nuclear Magnetic Resonance is studied based on SOPC. The strong processing power of Nios Ⅱ embedded processor and the design flexibility of FPGA are fully used. The SOPC system is built. The overall design plan for the pulse source is described. The design of programmable multi-pulse generation logic user-defined components in the FPGA is introduced mainly. Part of the implementation program and the task logic simulation waveforms are presented. The pulse source has better application value because a clear, stable and good quality multi-pulse output waveform can be shown on the oscilloscope finally. The system software and hardware are easy to be modified and upgraded, meeting different application of pulsed NMR pulse sequence in variety of requirements. (authors)

  13. Effect of laser pulse parameters on the size and fluorescence of nanodiamonds formed upon pulsed-laser irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bai, Peikang [School of Materials Science and Engineering, North University of China, Taiyuan 030051 (China); Hu, Shengliang, E-mail: hsliang@yeah.net [Key Laboratory of Instrumentation Science and Dynamic Measurement (North University of China), Ministry of Education, National Key Laboratory Science and Technology on Electronic Test and Measurement, Taiyuan 030051 (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, North University of China, Taiyuan 030051 (China); Zhang, Taiping; Sun, Jing [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Cao, Shirui [School of Materials Science and Engineering, North University of China, Taiyuan 030051 (China)

    2010-07-15

    The size of nanodiamonds formed upon laser irradiation could be easily controlled over simply adjusting laser pulse parameters. The stable size and structure of nanodiamonds were mostly determined by laser power density and pulse width. Both large nanodiamonds with multiply twinning structure (MTS) and small nanodiamonds with single crystalline structure (SCS) emitted strong visible light after surface passivation, and their fluorescence quantum yield (QY) was 4.6% and 7.1%, respectively.

  14. Effect of laser pulse parameters on the size and fluorescence of nanodiamonds formed upon pulsed-laser irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai, Peikang; Hu, Shengliang; Zhang, Taiping; Sun, Jing; Cao, Shirui

    2010-01-01

    The size of nanodiamonds formed upon laser irradiation could be easily controlled over simply adjusting laser pulse parameters. The stable size and structure of nanodiamonds were mostly determined by laser power density and pulse width. Both large nanodiamonds with multiply twinning structure (MTS) and small nanodiamonds with single crystalline structure (SCS) emitted strong visible light after surface passivation, and their fluorescence quantum yield (QY) was 4.6% and 7.1%, respectively.

  15. A compact nanosecond pulse modulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sha, Jizhang; Xue, Jianchao; Qiang, Bohan

    Two circuits of nanosecond pulse modulator which generate two different width rectangular pulses respectively are described. The basic configuration of the modulator is the Marx circuit, in which avalanche transistors are used as switching devices. In order to obtain the rectangular pulses a pulse-forming network (PFN) is introduced and fitted into the Marx. A multi-parallel arrangement of the Marx is used to satisfy the broad pulse requirement. Experiments have shown that the two different width rectangular pulses which have 130 V amplitudes and 30 and 200 ns widths respectively can be obtained at a 50 ohms load. The two pulses have steep front edges (3.6 ns and 10 ns respectively) and flat tops with less than + or - 5 percent ripples. Therefore, the modulator can meet the requirements of the nanosecond pulse radar.

  16. Pharmaco-genetically guided treatment of recurrent rage outbursts in an adult male with 15q13.3 deletion syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cubells, Joseph F; Deoreo, Elizabeth H; Harvey, Philip D; Garlow, Steven J; Garber, Kathryn; Adam, Margaret P; Martin, Christa Lese

    2011-04-01

    15q13.3 deletion syndrome (15q13.3DS) is a common recurrent genomic disorder associated with epilepsy, intellectual impairment, aggressive behavior, schizophrenia, and autism. A 39-year-old male presented with 15q13.3DS, epilepsy, intellectual impairment, psychosis, and recurrent episodes of aggressive rage. We hypothesized that the patient's aggressive behavior reflected deficits in α7 nicotinic cholinergic receptor (NChR)-mediated neurotransmission, arising from haploinsufficiency of the structural gene CHRNA7 due to the deletion. Treatment with the NChR allosteric modulator and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitor, galantamine, led to a dramatic decline in the frequency and intensity of rage outbursts, suggesting that enhancement of α7 NChR function can ameliorate 15q13.3DS-associated rage outbursts. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. Application and opportunities of pulses in food system: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asif, Muhammad; Rooney, Lloyd W; Ali, Rashida; Riaz, Mian N

    2013-01-01

    Pulses are highly nutritious seeds of pod-bearing leguminous plants, specifically dry peas, lentils, and chickpeas. US farmers harvest about 2.6 million pounds of pulses every year but 75% of this is being exported internationally because of its increased consumption in the developing countries. In the current scenario, increasing costs of production, bad economy, and fluctuating food commodity prices have made a strong case for US producers to seek opportunities to increase domestic consumption of pulses through value-added products. Pulses are the richest sources of plant proteins and provide approximately 10% of the total dietary requirements of the proteins world over. Pulses are also high in dietary fibers and complex carbohydrates leading to low GI (glycemic index) foods. Pulses help to lower cholesterol and triglycerides as leguminous fibers are hypoglycosuria because of consisting more amylose than amylopectin. Pulses provide tremendous opportunities to be utilized in the processed foods such as bakery products, bread, pasta, snack foods, soups, cereal bar filing, tortillas, meat, etc. These show excellent opportunities in frozen dough foods either as added flour or as fillings. Pulses in view of their nutrient profile, seem to be ideal for inclusion in designing snack foods, baby, and sports foods.

  18. On the Location of the gamma-Ray Outburst Emission in the BL Lacertae Object AO 0235 + 164 Through Observations Across the Electromagnetic Spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agudo, Ivan; Marscher, Alan P.; Jorstad, Svetlana G.; Larionov, Valeri M.; Gomez, Jose L.; Laehteenmaeki, Anne; Smith, Paul S.; Nilsson, Kari; Readhead, Anthony C. S.; Aller, Margo F.; hide

    2011-01-01

    We present observations of a major outburst at centimeter, millimeter, optical, X-ray, and gamma-ray wavelengths of the BL Lacertae object AO 0235+164. We analyze the timing of multi-waveband variations in the flux and linear polarization, as well as changes in Very Long Baseline Array images at A = 7 mm with approx.0.15 milliarcsec resolution. The association of the events at different wavebands is confirmed at high statistical significance by probability arguments and Monte Carlo simulations. A series of sharp peaks in optical linear polarization, as well as a pronounced maximum in the 7 mm polarization of a superluminal jet knot, indicate rapid fluctuations in the degree of ordering of the magnetic field. These results lead us to conclude that the outburst occurred in the jet both in the quasi-stationary "core" and in the superluminal knot, both parsecs downstream of the supermassive black hole. We interpret the outburst as a consequence of the propagation of a disturbance, elongated along the line of sight by light-travel time delays, that passes through a standing recollimation shock in the core and propagates down the jet to create the superluminal knot. The multi-wavelength light curves vary together on long timescales (months/ years), but the correspondence is poorer on shorter timescales. This, as well as the variability of the polarization and the dual location of the outburst, agrees with the expectations of a multi-zone emission model in which turbulence plays a major role in modulating the synchrotron and inverse Compton fluxes.

  19. THE NATURE AND FREQUENCY OF THE GAS OUTBURSTS IN COMET 67P/CHURYUMOV–GERASIMENKO OBSERVED BY THE ALICE FAR-ULTRAVIOLET SPECTROGRAPH ON ROSETTA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feldman, Paul D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The Johns Hopkins University, 3400 N. Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); A’Hearn, Michael F.; Feaga, Lori M. [Astronomy Department, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Bertaux, Jean-Loup [LATMOS, CNRS/UVSQ/IPSL, 11 Boulevard d’Alembert, F-78280 Guyancourt (France); Noonan, John; Parker, Joel Wm.; Schindhelm, Eric; Steffl, Andrew J.; Stern, S. Alan [Southwest Research Institute, Department of Space Studies, Suite 300, 1050 Walnut Street, Boulder, CO 80302 (United States); Weaver, Harold A., E-mail: pfeldman@jhu.edu [Space Exploration Sector, Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, 11100 Johns Hopkins Road, Laurel, MD 20723-6099 (United States)

    2016-07-01

    ALICE is a far-ultraviolet imaging spectrograph on board Rosetta that, among multiple objectives, is designed to observe emissions from various atomic and molecular species from within the coma of comet 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko. The initial observations, made following orbit insertion in 2014 August, showed emissions of atomic hydrogen and oxygen spatially localized close to the nucleus and attributed to photoelectron impact dissociation of H{sub 2}O vapor. Weaker emissions from atomic carbon were subsequently detected and also attributed to electron impact dissociation, of CO{sub 2}, the relative H i and C i line intensities reflecting the variation of CO{sub 2} to H{sub 2}O column abundance along the line of sight through the coma. Beginning in 2015 mid-April, Alice sporadically observed a number of outbursts above the sunward limb characterized by sudden increases in the atomic emissions, particularly the semi-forbidden O i λ 1356 multiplet, over a period of 10–30 minutes, without a corresponding enhancement in long-wavelength solar reflected light characteristic of dust production. A large increase in the brightness ratio O i λ 1356/O i λ 1304 suggests O{sub 2} as the principal source of the additional gas. These outbursts do not correlate with any of the visible images of outbursts taken with either OSIRIS or the navigation camera. Beginning in 2015 June the nature of the Alice spectrum changed considerably with CO Fourth Positive band emission observed continuously, varying with pointing but otherwise fairly constant in time. However, CO does not appear to be a major driver of any of the observed outbursts.

  20. The origin of pits on 9P/Tempel 1 and the geologic signature of outbursts in Stardust-NExT images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belton, Michael J. S.; Thomas, Peter; Carcich, Brian; Quick, Andrew; Veverka, Joseph; Jay Melosh, H.; A'Hearn, Michael F.; Li, Jian-Yang; Brownlee, Donald; Schultz, Peter; Klaasen, Kenneth; Sarid, Gal

    2013-02-01

    We consider the origin of ˜380 quasi-circular depressions (pits) seen to be distributed in a broad band across the surface of 9P/Tempel 1 and show that possibly ˜96% may be due to outburst activity. Of the rest, Lisse, C.M., Holloway, M., Rho, J. [2010]. Icarus 208, 276-292) based on IR observations of 17P.

  1. The pulse-pair algorithm as a robust estimator of turbulent weather spectral parameters using airborne pulse Doppler radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxa, Ernest G., Jr.; Lee, Jonggil

    1991-01-01

    The pulse pair method for spectrum parameter estimation is commonly used in pulse Doppler weather radar signal processing since it is economical to implement and can be shown to be a maximum likelihood estimator. With the use of airborne weather radar for windshear detection, the turbulent weather and strong ground clutter return spectrum differs from that assumed in its derivation, so the performance robustness of the pulse pair technique must be understood. Here, the effect of radar system pulse to pulse phase jitter and signal spectrum skew on the pulse pair algorithm performance is discussed. Phase jitter effect may be significant when the weather return signal to clutter ratio is very low and clutter rejection filtering is attempted. The analysis can be used to develop design specifications for airborne radar system phase stability. It is also shown that the weather return spectrum skew can cause a significant bias in the pulse pair mean windspeed estimates, and that the poly pulse pair algorithm can reduce this bias. It is suggested that use of a spectrum mode estimator may be more appropriate in characterizing the windspeed within a radar range resolution cell for detection of hazardous windspeed gradients.

  2. Post-Outburst Observations of the Magnetically Active Pulsar J1846-0258: A New Braking Index, Increased Timing Noise, and Radiative Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingstone, Margaret A.; Ng, C.-Y.; Kaspi, Victoria M.; Gavriil, Fotis P.; Gotthelf, E. V.

    2010-01-01

    The approx.800yr-old pulsar J1846-0258 is a unique transition object between rotation-powered pulsars and magnetars: though behaving like a rotation-powered pulsar most of the time, in 2006 it exhibited a distinctly magnetar-like outburst accompanied by a large glitch. Here we present X-ray timing observations taken with the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer over a 2.2-yr period after the X-ray outburst and glitch had recovered. We observe that the braking index of the pulsar, previously measured to be n = 2.65+/-0.01, is now n = 2.16+/-0.13, a decrease of 18+/-5%. We also note a persistent increase in the timing noise relative to the pre-outburst level. Despite the timing changes, a 2009 Chandra X-ray Observatory observation shows that the X-ray flux and spectrum of the pulsar and its wind nebula are consistent with the quiescent levels observed in 2000. Subject headings: pulsars: general pulsars: individual (PSR J1846-0258) supernovae: individual (Kes 75 X-rays: stars)

  3. A CHANDRA OBSERVATION OF 3C 288-REHEATING THE COOL CORE OF A 3 keV CLUSTER FROM A NUCLEAR OUTBURST at z = 0.246

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lal, D. V.; Kraft, R. P.; Forman, W. R.; Jones, C.; Nulsen, P. E. J.; Evans, D. A.; Lee, J. C.; Hardcastle, M. J.; Croston, J. H.

    2010-01-01

    We present results from a 42 ks Chandra/ACIS-S observation of the transitional FR I/FR II radio galaxy 3C 288 at z = 0.246. We detect ∼3 keV gas extending to a radius of ∼0.5 Mpc with a 0.5-2.0 keV luminosity of 6.6 x 10 43 erg s -1 , implying that 3C 288 lies at the center of a poor cluster. We find multiple surface brightness discontinuities in the gas indicative of either a shock driven by the inflation of the radio lobes or a recent merger event. The temperature across the discontinuities is roughly constant with no signature of a cool core, thus disfavoring either the merger cold front or sloshing scenarios. We argue therefore that the discontinuities are shocks due to the supersonic inflation of the radio lobes. If they are shocks, the energy of the outburst is ∼10 60 erg, or roughly 30% of the thermal energy of the gas within the radius of the shock, assuming that the shocks are part of a front produced by a single outburst. The cooling time of the gas is ∼10 8 yr, so that the energy deposited by the nuclear outburst could have reheated and efficiently disrupted a cool core.

  4. Hazard Assessment of Glacial Lake Outburst Flood and Potential of ICTs for Coping: A Case of Eastern Himalaya of Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattarai, D. R.; Pradhananga, D.

    2014-12-01

    Alarming rate of retreat of glaciers and formation of glacial lakes in higher elevation of Nepal Himalaya has been reported to be related with the pronounced atmospheric temperature rise in the region. Glacier Lake Outburst Floods (GLOF) are the growing climate induced hazards in the Himalaya increasing the vulnerability of community living in the mountain valley, and the fragile ecosystem. This study tried to come up with the potential impacts from glacial lake outburst flood (GLOF) in highland of eastern region of Nepal and potential role of Information Communication Technologies (ICT) in coping. I analyzed the trend of climatic pattern (temperature and precipitation) of the Eastern Himalaya Region of Nepal available from Department of Hydrology and Meteorology (DHM), Government of Nepal, and also prepared the latest location map of the glacial lakes using google earth and ArcGIS application in the highland of the Kanchanjungha Conservation Area of the region. Tiptala glacial lake, located at an elevation of 4950 masl, within the conservation area, was selected for the GLOF hazard assessment. I used semi-structured questioner survey and key informants interviews in the community living below the lake in the highland of the study area in order to assess the potential hazard of GLOF. Analysis shows the increasing trend of atmospheric temperature in the region. With the varying sizes, 46 glacial lakes were located in the region, which covers over 2.57 sq. km in total. Though the larger portion of the downstream area of the Tiptala glacial lake fall in the remote location away from major residential area, few villages, major pasture lands for Yaks, foot trails, and several bridges across the Tamor River below the lake are in risk of GLOF. Poor access due to extreme geographical remoteness and capacity to afford the modern technologies in the community is seen as the major limiting factor to the knowledge and information about the climate change and related impacts

  5. A delayed transition to the hard state for 4U 1630-47 at the end of its 2010 outburst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomsick, John A. [Space Sciences Laboratory, 7 Gauss Way, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-7450 (United States); Yamaoka, Kazutaka [Solar-Terrestrial Environment Laboratory, Department of Particles and Astronomy, Nagoya University, Furocho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8601 (Japan); Corbel, Stephane [AIM - Unité Mixte de Recherche CEA - CNRS - Université Paris VII - UMR 7158, CEA-Saclay, Service d' Astrophysique, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Kalemci, Emrah [Sabanci University, Orhanli-Tuzla, Istanbul 34956 (Turkey); Migliari, Simone [Department d' Astronomia i Meteorologia, Universitat de Barcelona, Marti I Franques 1, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain); Kaaret, Philip, E-mail: jtomsick@ssl.berkeley.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Iowa, Van Allen Hall, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States)

    2014-08-10

    Here we report on Swift and Suzaku observations near the end of an outburst from the black hole transient 4U 1630-47 and Chandra observations when the source was in quiescence. 4U 1630-47 made a transition from a soft state to the hard state ∼50 days after the main outburst ended. During this unusual delay, the flux continued to drop, and one Swift measurement found the source with a soft spectrum at a 2-10 keV luminosity of L = 1.07 × 10{sup 35} erg s{sup –1} for an estimated distance of 10 kpc. While such transients usually make a transition to the hard state at L/L{sub Edd} = 0.3%-3%, where L{sub Edd} is the Eddington luminosity, the 4U 1630-47 spectrum remained soft at L/L{sub Edd} = 0.008 M{sub 10}{sup −1}% (as measured in the 2-10 keV band), where M{sub 10} is the mass of the black hole in units of 10 M{sub ☉}. An estimate of the luminosity in the broader 0.5-200 keV bandpass gives L/L{sub Edd} = 0.03 M{sub 10}{sup −1}%, which is still an order of magnitude lower than typical. We also measured an exponential decay of the X-ray flux in the hard state with an e-folding time of 3.39 ± 0.06 days, which is much less than previous measurements of 12-15 days during decays by 4U 1630-47 in the soft state. With the ∼100 ks Suzaku observation, we do not see evidence for a reflection component, and the 90% confidence limits on the equivalent width of a narrow iron Kα emission line are <40 eV for a narrow line and <100 eV for a line of any width, which is consistent with a change of geometry (either a truncated accretion disk or a change in the location of the hard X-ray source) in the hard state. Finally, we report a 0.5-8 keV luminosity upper limit of <2 × 10{sup 32} erg s{sup –1} in quiescence, which is the lowest value measured for 4U 1630-47 to date.

  6. The SNAP Strong Lens Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marshall, P.

    2005-01-03

    Basic considerations of lens detection and identification indicate that a wide field survey of the types planned for weak lensing and Type Ia SNe with SNAP are close to optimal for the optical detection of strong lenses. Such a ''piggy-back'' survey might be expected even pessimistically to provide a catalogue of a few thousand new strong lenses, with the numbers dominated by systems of faint blue galaxies lensed by foreground ellipticals. After sketching out our strategy for detecting and measuring these galaxy lenses using the SNAP images, we discuss some of the scientific applications of such a large sample of gravitational lenses: in particular we comment on the partition of information between lens structure, the source population properties and cosmology. Understanding this partitioning is key to assessing strong lens cosmography's value as a cosmological probe.

  7. Strong coupling phase in QED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, Ken-ichi

    1988-01-01

    Existence of a strong coupling phase in QED has been suggested in solutions of the Schwinger-Dyson equation and in Monte Carlo simulation of lattice QED. In this article we recapitulate the previous arguments, and formulate the problem in the modern framework of the renormalization theory, Wilsonian renormalization. This scheme of renormalization gives the best understanding of the basic structure of a field theory especially when it has a multi-phase structure. We resolve some misleading arguments in the previous literature. Then we set up a strategy to attack the strong phase, if any. We describe a trial; a coupled Schwinger-Dyson equation. Possible picture of the strong coupling phase QED is presented. (author)

  8. Fast pulse amplifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lepetit, J.; Poussier, E.

    1984-01-01

    This amplifier comprises an inverter transformer, the primary circuit of which receives a pulse and the secondary circuit of which is connected to several amplifying elements in parallel. The inverter transformer is made of coaxial cable segments winded around a magnetic torus; the cable cores connected in series constitute the primary circuit and the braiding of cables, connected in parallel, are the secondary circuit. The transformer comprises, besides, delay lines in series with each braiding of the secondary circuit, these ones are such that pulses issued from each braiding arrive together to the secondary circuit connectors. This invention applies, noticeably in the case of a high voltage amplifier, to the control of deflection blocks of particles used in medicine or in particle accelerators [fr

  9. Short pulse neutron generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elizondo-Decanini, Juan M.

    2016-08-02

    Short pulse neutron generators are described herein. In a general embodiment, the short pulse neutron generator includes a Blumlein structure. The Blumlein structure includes a first conductive plate, a second conductive plate, a third conductive plate, at least one of an inductor or a resistor, a switch, and a dielectric material. The first conductive plate is positioned relative to the second conductive plate such that a gap separates these plates. A vacuum chamber is positioned in the gap, and an ion source is positioned to emit ions in the vacuum chamber. The third conductive plate is electrically grounded, and the switch is operable to electrically connect and disconnect the second conductive plate and the third conductive plate. The at least one of the resistor or the inductor is coupled to the first conductive plate and the second conductive plate.

  10. Pulsed fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    This summer school specialized in examining specific fusion center systems. Papers on scientific feasibility are first presented: confinement of high-beta plasma, liners, plasma focus, compression and heating and the use of high power electron beams for thermonuclear reactors. As for technological feasibility, lectures were on the theta-pinch toroidal reactors, toroidal diffuse pinch, electrical engineering problems in pulsed magnetically confined reactors, neutral gas layer for heat removal, the conceptual design of a series of laser fusion power plants with ''Saturn'', implosion experiments and the problem of the targets, the high brightness lasers for plasma generation, and topping and bottoming cycles. Some problems common to pulsed reactors were examined: energy storage and transfer, thermomechanical and erosion effects in the first wall and blanket, the problems of tritium production, radiation damage and neutron activation in blankets, and the magnetic and inertial confinement

  11. Pulsed rf operation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puglisi, M.; Cornacchia, M.

    1981-01-01

    The need for a very low final amplifier output impedance, always associated with class A operation, requires a very large power waste in the final tube. The recently suggested pulsed rf operation, while saving a large amount of power, increases the inherent final amplifier non linearity. A method is presented for avoiding the large signal non linear analysis and it is shown how each component of the beam induced voltage depends upon all the beam harmonics via some coupling coefficients which are evaluated

  12. Optical generation of intense ultrashort magnetic pulses at the nanoscale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsiatmas, Anagnostis; Atmatzakis, Evangelos; Papasimakis, Nikitas; Fedotov, Vassili; Luk'yanchuk, Boris; Zheludev, Nikolay I.; García de Abajo, F. Javier

    2013-11-01

    Generating, controlling and sensing strong magnetic fields at ever shorter time and length scales is important for both fundamental solid-state physics and technological applications such as magnetic data recording. Here, we propose a scheme for producing strong ultrashort magnetic pulses localized at the nanoscale. We show that a bimetallic nanoring illuminated by femtosecond laser pulses responds with transient thermoelectric currents of picosecond duration, which in turn induce Tesla-scale magnetic fields in the ring cavity. Our method provides a practical way of generating intense nanoscale magnetic fields with great potential for materials characterization, terahertz radiation generation and data storage applications.

  13. Pulse radiolysis of gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, O.J.

    1984-04-01

    The pulse radiolysis equipment and technique are described and its relevance to atmospheric chemistry is discussed. Pulse radiolysis of a number of different chemical systems have been used to check the validity of the proposed mechanisms: 1) The hydrogen atom yield in the pulse radiolysis of H 2 was measured by four independent calibration techniques, using reactions of H with O 2 , C1NO, and HI. The H atom yield was compared with O 2 yields in pure O 2 and in O 2 /SF 6 mixtures which lead to a value G(H) = 17.6. The rate constants at room temperature of several reactions were determined. 2) OH radical reactions with tetraalkyllead at room temperature and with ethane, methane, and a series of C1- and F-substituted methanes at 300-400 K were studied. Arrhenius parameters, A and Esub(a), were determined for several reactions. The lifetime of Pb(CH 3 ) 4 and Pb(C 2 H 5 ) 4 in ambient air is estimated. CF 2 C1 2 was found to be a very efficient third body, M, in the reaction OH + OH + M arrow H 2 O 2 + M. 3) In the H 2 S systems the HS extinction coefficient at 3242 AA was determined to 9.5 x 10 2 cm -1 mol -1 . Four rate constants at room temperature were determined. (author)

  14. Strong Decomposition of Random Variables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann-Jørgensen, Jørgen; Kagan, Abram M.; Pitt, Loren D.

    2007-01-01

    A random variable X is stongly decomposable if X=Y+Z where Y=Φ(X) and Z=X-Φ(X) are independent non-degenerated random variables (called the components). It is shown that at least one of the components is singular, and we derive a necessary and sufficient condition for strong decomposability...

  15. Strong interaction at finite temperature

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. We review two methods discussed in the literature to determine the effective parameters of strongly interacting particles as they move through a heat bath. The first one is the general method of chiral perturbation theory, which may be readily applied to this problem. The other is the method of thermal QCD sum rules ...

  16. Strong-strong beam-beam simulation on parallel computer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiang, Ji

    2004-08-02

    The beam-beam interaction puts a strong limit on the luminosity of the high energy storage ring colliders. At the interaction points, the electromagnetic fields generated by one beam focus or defocus the opposite beam. This can cause beam blowup and a reduction of luminosity. An accurate simulation of the beam-beam interaction is needed to help optimize the luminosity in high energy colliders.

  17. Strong-strong beam-beam simulation on parallel computer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiang, Ji

    2004-01-01

    The beam-beam interaction puts a strong limit on the luminosity of the high energy storage ring colliders. At the interaction points, the electromagnetic fields generated by one beam focus or defocus the opposite beam. This can cause beam blowup and a reduction of luminosity. An accurate simulation of the beam-beam interaction is needed to help optimize the luminosity in high energy colliders

  18. Nonlinear Compton scattering in ultrashort laser pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackenroth, F.; Di Piazza, A.

    2011-01-01

    A detailed analysis of the photon emission spectra of an electron scattered by a laser pulse containing only very few cycles of the carrying electromagnetic field is presented. The analysis is performed in the framework of strong-field quantum electrodynamics, with the laser field taken into account exactly in the calculations. We consider different emission regimes depending on the laser intensity, placing special emphasis on the regime of one-cycle beams and of high laser intensities, where the emission spectra depend nonperturbatively on the laser intensity. In this regime, we, in particular, present an accurate stationary phase analysis of the integrals that are shown to determine the computed emission spectra. The emission spectra show significant differences with respect to those in a long pulsed or monochromatic laser field: The emission lines obtained here are much broader, and more important, no dressing of the electron mass is observed.

  19. Foundations of pulsed power technology

    CERN Document Server

    Lehr, Janet

    2018-01-01

    Pulsed power technologies could be an answer to many cutting-edge applications. The challenge is in how to develop this high-power/high-energy technology to fit current market demands of low-energy consuming applications. This book provides a comprehensive look at pulsed power technology and shows how it can be improved upon for the world of today and tomorrow. Foundations of Pulsed Power Technology focuses on the design and construction of the building blocks as well as their optimum assembly for synergetic high performance of the overall pulsed power system. Filled with numerous design examples throughout, the book offers chapter coverage on various subjects such as: Marx generators and Marx-like circuits; pulse transformers; pulse-forming lines; closing switches; opening switches; multi-gigawatt to multi-terawatt systems; energy storage in capacitor banks; electrical breakdown in gases; electrical breakdown in solids, liquids and vacuum; pulsed voltage and current measurements; electromagnetic interferen...

  20. 3C 279 IN OUTBURST IN 2015 JUNE: A BROADBAND SED STUDY BASED ON THE INTEGRAL DETECTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bottacini, Eugenio [W.W. Hansen Experimental Physics Laboratory and Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Stanford University (United States); Böttcher, Markus [Centre for Space Research, North-West University, Potchefstroom 2531 (South Africa); Pian, Elena [INAF, Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica Cosmica, via P. Gobetti 101, I-40129 Bologna (Italy); Collmar, Werner, E-mail: eugenio.bottacini@stanford.edu [Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbach, D-85748 Garching (Germany)

    2016-11-20

    Blazars radiate from radio through gamma-ray frequencies and thereby make ideal targets for multifrequency studies. Such studies allow the properties of the emitting jet to be constrained. 3C 279 is among the most notable blazars and therefore subject to extensive multifrequency campaigns. We report the results of a campaign ranging from near-IR to gamma-ray energies that targeted an outburst of 3C 279 in 2015 June. The campaign pivots around the detection in only 50 ks by INTEGRAL , whose IBIS/ISGRI data pin down the high-energy component of the spectral energy distribution (SED) between Swift -XRT data and Fermi -LAT data. The overall SED from near-IR to gamma rays can be well represented by either a leptonic or a lepto-hadronic radiation transfer model. Even though the data are equally well represented by the two models, their inferred parameters challenge the physical conditions in the jet. In fact, the leptonic model requires parameters with a magnetic field far below equipartition with the relativistic particle energy density. In contrast, equipartition may be achieved with the lepto-hadronic model, although this implies an extreme total jet power close to the Eddington luminosity.

  1. PREFACE: Strongly correlated electron systems Strongly correlated electron systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Siddharth S.; Littlewood, P. B.

    2012-07-01

    This special section is dedicated to the Strongly Correlated Electron Systems Conference (SCES) 2011, which was held from 29 August-3 September 2011, in Cambridge, UK. SCES'2011 is dedicated to 100 years of superconductivity and covers a range of topics in the area of strongly correlated systems. The correlated electronic and magnetic materials featured include f-electron based heavy fermion intermetallics and d-electron based transition metal compounds. The selected papers derived from invited presentations seek to deepen our understanding of the rich physical phenomena that arise from correlation effects. The focus is on quantum phase transitions, non-Fermi liquid phenomena, quantum magnetism, unconventional superconductivity and metal-insulator transitions. Both experimental and theoretical work is presented. Based on fundamental advances in the understanding of electronic materials, much of 20th century materials physics was driven by miniaturisation and integration in the electronics industry to the current generation of nanometre scale devices. The achievements of this industry have brought unprecedented advances to society and well-being, and no doubt there is much further to go—note that this progress is founded on investments and studies in the fundamentals of condensed matter physics from more than 50 years ago. Nevertheless, the defining challenges for the 21st century will lie in the discovery in science, and deployment through engineering, of technologies that can deliver the scale needed to have an impact on the sustainability agenda. Thus the big developments in nanotechnology may lie not in the pursuit of yet smaller transistors, but in the design of new structures that can revolutionise the performance of solar cells, batteries, fuel cells, light-weight structural materials, refrigeration, water purification, etc. The science presented in the papers of this special section also highlights the underlying interest in energy-dense materials, which

  2. Nonlinear dynamics of semiconductors in strong THz electric fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarekegne, Abebe Tilahun

    weak THz and near infrared pulses as probes. Firstly, an intense THz pulse is used to study THz-induced impact ionization (IMI) dynamics in silicon. Local field enhancement by metallic dipole antenna arrays has been used to generate strong electric fields of several MV/cm in the hot spots near...... uniquely. Finally it is demonstrated for the first time that SiC can be tailored to have extremely fast THz-induced nonlinear behavior in moderate THz electric fields by addition of appropriate dopants. A 4H-SiC sample with high concentrations of nitrogen and boron dopants shows a nonlinear THz......In this thesis, we investigate nonlinear interactions of an intense terahertz (THz) field with semiconductors, in particular the technologically relevant materials silicon and silicon carbide. We reveal the time-resolved dynamics of the nonlinear processes by pump-probe experiments that involve...

  3. Theoretical Femtosecond Physics Atoms and Molecules in Strong Laser Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Grossmann, Frank

    2008-01-01

    Theoretical femtosecond physics is a new field of research. Theoretical investigations of atoms and molecules interacting with pulsed or continuous wave lasers of up to atomic field strengths are leading to an understanding of many challenging experimental discoveries. Laser-matter interaction is treated on a nonperturbative level in the book using approximate and numerical solutions of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation. The light field is treated classically. Physical phenomena, ranging from ionization of atoms to the ionization and dissociation of molecules and the control of chemical reactions are presented and discussed. Theoretical background for experiments with strong and short laser pulses is given. Several exercises are included in the main text. Some detailed calculations are performed in the appendices.

  4. Colloquium: Strong-field phenomena in periodic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruchinin, Stanislav Yu.; Krausz, Ferenc; Yakovlev, Vladislav S.

    2018-04-01

    The advent of visible-infrared laser pulses carrying a substantial fraction of their energy in a single field oscillation cycle has opened a new era in the experimental investigation of ultrafast processes in semiconductors and dielectrics (bulk as well as nanostructured), motivated by the quest for the ultimate frontiers of electron-based signal metrology and processing. Exploring ways to approach those frontiers requires insight into the physics underlying the interaction of strong high-frequency (optical) fields with electrons moving in periodic potentials. This Colloquium aims at providing this insight. Introduction to the foundations of strong-field phenomena defines and compares regimes of field-matter interaction in periodic systems, including (perfect) crystals as well as optical and semiconductor superlattices, followed by a review of recent experimental advances in the study of strong-field dynamics in crystals and nanostructures. Avenues toward measuring and controlling electronic processes up to petahertz frequencies are discussed.

  5. Single attosecond pulse from terahertz-assisted high-order harmonic generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balogh, Emeric; Kovacs, Katalin; Dombi, Peter; Fulop, Jozsef A.; Farkas, Gyozo; Hebling, Janos; Tosa, Valer; Varju, Katalin

    2011-08-01

    High-order harmonic generation by few-cycle 800 nm laser pulses in neon gas in the presence of a strong terahertz (THz) field is investigated numerically with propagation effects taken into account. Our calculations show that the combination of THz fields with up to 12 fs laser pulses can be an effective gating technique to generate single attosecond pulses. We show that in the presence of the strong THz field only a single attosecond burst can be phase matched, whereas radiation emitted during other half cycles disappears during propagation. The cutoff is extended and a wide supercontinuum appears in the near-field spectra, extending the available spectral width for isolated attosecond pulse generation from 23 to 93 eV. We demonstrate that phase-matching effects are responsible for the generation of isolated attosecond pulses, even in conditions when single-atom response yields an attosecond pulse train.

  6. Single attosecond pulse from terahertz-assisted high-order harmonic generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balogh, Emeric; Kovacs, Katalin; Dombi, Peter; Farkas, Gyozo; Fulop, Jozsef A.; Hebling, Janos; Tosa, Valer; Varju, Katalin

    2011-01-01

    High-order harmonic generation by few-cycle 800 nm laser pulses in neon gas in the presence of a strong terahertz (THz) field is investigated numerically with propagation effects taken into account. Our calculations show that the combination of THz fields with up to 12 fs laser pulses can be an effective gating technique to generate single attosecond pulses. We show that in the presence of the strong THz field only a single attosecond burst can be phase matched, whereas radiation emitted during other half cycles disappears during propagation. The cutoff is extended and a wide supercontinuum appears in the near-field spectra, extending the available spectral width for isolated attosecond pulse generation from 23 to 93 eV. We demonstrate that phase-matching effects are responsible for the generation of isolated attosecond pulses, even in conditions when single-atom response yields an attosecond pulse train.

  7. Single attosecond pulse from terahertz-assisted high-order harmonic generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balogh, Emeric [Department of Optics and Quantum Electronics, University of Szeged, H-6701 Szeged (Hungary); Kovacs, Katalin [Department of Optics and Quantum Electronics, University of Szeged, H-6701 Szeged (Hungary); National Institute for R and D of Isotopic and Molecular Technologies, RO-400293 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Dombi, Peter; Farkas, Gyozo [Research Institute for Solid State Physics and Optics, H-1525 Budapest (Hungary); Fulop, Jozsef A.; Hebling, Janos [Department of Experimental Physics, University of Pecs, H-7624 Pecs (Hungary); Tosa, Valer [National Institute for R and D of Isotopic and Molecular Technologies, RO-400293 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Varju, Katalin [HAS Research Group on Laser Physics, University of Szeged, H-6701 Szeged (Hungary)

    2011-08-15

    High-order harmonic generation by few-cycle 800 nm laser pulses in neon gas in the presence of a strong terahertz (THz) field is investigated numerically with propagation effects taken into account. Our calculations show that the combination of THz fields with up to 12 fs laser pulses can be an effective gating technique to generate single attosecond pulses. We show that in the presence of the strong THz field only a single attosecond burst can be phase matched, whereas radiation emitted during other half cycles disappears during propagation. The cutoff is extended and a wide supercontinuum appears in the near-field spectra, extending the available spectral width for isolated attosecond pulse generation from 23 to 93 eV. We demonstrate that phase-matching effects are responsible for the generation of isolated attosecond pulses, even in conditions when single-atom response yields an attosecond pulse train.

  8. Partitioning the Outburst Energy of a Low Eddington Accretion Rate AGN at the Center of an Elliptical Galaxy: The Recent 12 Myr History of the Supermassive Black Hole in M87

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forman, W.; Jones, C.; Kraft, R.; Vikhlinin, A. [Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Churazov, E. [MPI für Astrophysik, Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 1, D-85740 Garching (Germany); Heinz, S., E-mail: wrf@cfa.harvard.edu [University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin (United States)

    2017-08-01

    M87, the active galaxy at the center of the Virgo cluster, is ideal for studying the interaction of a supermassive black hole (SMBH) with a hot, gas-rich environment. A deep Chandra observation of M87 exhibits an approximately circular shock front (13 kpc radius, in projection) driven by the expansion of the central cavity (filled by the SMBH with relativistic radio-emitting plasma) with projected radius ∼1.9 kpc. We combine constraints from X-ray and radio observations of M87 with a shock model to derive the properties of the outburst that created the 13 kpc shock. Principal constraints for the model are (1) the measured Mach number ( M ∼ 1.2), (2) the radius of the 13 kpc shock, and (3) the observed size of the central cavity/bubble (the radio-bright cocoon) that serves as the piston to drive the shock. We find that an outburst of ∼5 × 10{sup 57} erg that began about 12 Myr ago and lasted ∼2 Myr matches all the constraints. In this model, ∼22% of the energy is carried by the shock as it expands. The remaining ∼80% of the outburst energy is available to heat the core gas. More than half the total outburst energy initially goes into the enthalpy of the central bubble, the radio cocoon. As the buoyant bubble rises, much of its energy is transferred to the ambient thermal gas. For an outburst repetition rate of about 12 Myr (the age of the outburst), 80% of the outburst energy is sufficient to balance the radiative cooling.

  9. Partitioning the Outburst Energy of a Low Eddington Accretion Rate AGN at the Center of an Elliptical Galaxy: The Recent 12 Myr History of the Supermassive Black Hole in M87

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forman, W.; Churazov, E.; Jones, C.; Heinz, S.; Kraft, R.; Vikhlinin, A.

    2017-08-01

    M87, the active galaxy at the center of the Virgo cluster, is ideal for studying the interaction of a supermassive black hole (SMBH) with a hot, gas-rich environment. A deep Chandra observation of M87 exhibits an approximately circular shock front (13 kpc radius, in projection) driven by the expansion of the central cavity (filled by the SMBH with relativistic radio-emitting plasma) with projected radius ˜1.9 kpc. We combine constraints from X-ray and radio observations of M87 with a shock model to derive the properties of the outburst that created the 13 kpc shock. Principal constraints for the model are (1) the measured Mach number (M ˜ 1.2), (2) the radius of the 13 kpc shock, and (3) the observed size of the central cavity/bubble (the radio-bright cocoon) that serves as the piston to drive the shock. We find that an outburst of ˜5 × 1057 erg that began about 12 Myr ago and lasted ˜2 Myr matches all the constraints. In this model, ˜22% of the energy is carried by the shock as it expands. The remaining ˜80% of the outburst energy is available to heat the core gas. More than half the total outburst energy initially goes into the enthalpy of the central bubble, the radio cocoon. As the buoyant bubble rises, much of its energy is transferred to the ambient thermal gas. For an outburst repetition rate of about 12 Myr (the age of the outburst), 80% of the outburst energy is sufficient to balance the radiative cooling.

  10. Theory of strong-field attosecond transient absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Mengxi; Chen, Shaohao; Camp, Seth; Schafer, Kenneth J; Gaarde, Mette B

    2016-01-01

    Attosecond transient absorption is one of the promising new techniques being developed to exploit the availability of sub-femtosecond extreme ultraviolet (XUV) pulses to study the dynamics of the electron on its natural time scale. The temporal resolution in a transient absorption setup comes from the control of the relative delay and coherence between pump and probe pulses, while the spectral resolution comes from the characteristic width of the features that are being probed. In this review we focus on transient absorption scenarios where an attosecond pulse of XUV radiation creates a broadband excitation that is subsequently probed by a few cycle infrared (IR) laser. Because the attosecond XUV pulses are locked to the IR field cycle, the exchange of energy in the laser–matter interaction can be studied with unprecedented precision. We focus on the transient absorption by helium atoms of XUV radiation around the first ionization threshold, where we can simultaneoulsy solve the time-dependent Schrödinger equation for the single atom response and the Maxwell wave equation for the collective response of the nonlinear medium. We use a time-domain method that allows us to treat on an equal footing all the different linear and nonlinear processes by which the medium can exchange energy with the fields. We present several simple models, based on a few-level system interacting with a strong IR field, to explain many of the novel features found in attosecond transient absorption spectrograms. These include the presence of light-induced states, which demonstrate the ability to probe the dressed states of the atom. We also present a time-domain interpretation of the resonant pulse propagation features that appear in absorption spectra in dense, macroscopic media. We close by reviewing several recent experimental results that can be explained in terms of the models we discuss. Our aim is to present a road map for understanding future attosecond transient absorption

  11. Effect of electromagnetic and phonon pulses on a photon echo in LaF3: Pr3+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shegeda, A.M.; Khabibullin, B.M.; Lisin, V.N.

    1995-01-01

    The effect of electromagnetic-field pulses of the nanosecond duration on the inverted two-pulse, three-pulse, and long-lived three-pulse photon echoes in LaF 3 :Pr 3+ is studied. The eletromagnetic pulses were produced by a current pulse flowing through a thin metal film evaporated on the sample surface parallel to the C 3- axis. A strong decrease in echo signals is observed, even if the eletromagnetic pulses were switched on prior to laser pulses. The experimental results can be qualitatively interpreted under the assumption that during the flowing of current through the metal film, the generation of transverse acoustic and electromagnetic fields occurs that induces the pseudo-Stark splitting of energy levels of Pr 3+ ions and, as a consequence, the decrease in echo signals, if the current was switched on prior to or, correspondingly, at the instant of the action of the laser pulses. 12 refs., 5 figs

  12. Attosecond pulse generation in noble gases in the presence of extreme high intensity THz pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balogh, E.; Varju, K.

    2010-01-01

    from 0 to 100 MV/cm (the highest field strength currently available). The generated spectra is calculated for each half-cycle, and coherently summed. As a result of the presence of the THz field, the half-cycle periodicity of the HHG process is broken, leading to the appearance of both odd and even harmonics and a radiation with a spectrum split to two plateaus. The two cutoffs are set by the radiation produced in the consecutive half-cycles. The higher cutoff increases, whereas the lower cutoff decreases with increasing THz field strength. In cases when THz field is added to a few cycle laser pulse a broad super-continuum part in the spectra can be obtained. The broad spectrum of the produced radiation would support the synthesis of single attosecond pulses in the absence of a strong chirp. The method presented here allows for the production of a broader spectral range of harmonics, leading to the synthesis of even shorter attosecond pulses.

  13. Strongly correlated systems experimental techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Mancini, Ferdinando

    2015-01-01

    The continuous evolution and development of experimental techniques is at the basis of any fundamental achievement in modern physics. Strongly correlated systems (SCS), more than any other, need to be investigated through the greatest variety of experimental techniques in order to unveil and crosscheck the numerous and puzzling anomalous behaviors characterizing them. The study of SCS fostered the improvement of many old experimental techniques, but also the advent of many new ones just invented in order to analyze the complex behaviors of these systems. Many novel materials, with functional properties emerging from macroscopic quantum behaviors at the frontier of modern research in physics, chemistry and materials science, belong to this class of systems. The volume presents a representative collection of the modern experimental techniques specifically tailored for the analysis of strongly correlated systems. Any technique is presented in great detail by its own inventor or by one of the world-wide recognize...

  14. Strongly Correlated Systems Theoretical Methods

    CERN Document Server

    Avella, Adolfo

    2012-01-01

    The volume presents, for the very first time, an exhaustive collection of those modern theoretical methods specifically tailored for the analysis of Strongly Correlated Systems. Many novel materials, with functional properties emerging from macroscopic quantum behaviors at the frontier of modern research in physics, chemistry and materials science, belong to this class of systems. Any technique is presented in great detail by its own inventor or by one of the world-wide recognized main contributors. The exposition has a clear pedagogical cut and fully reports on the most relevant case study where the specific technique showed to be very successful in describing and enlightening the puzzling physics of a particular strongly correlated system. The book is intended for advanced graduate students and post-docs in the field as textbook and/or main reference, but also for other researchers in the field who appreciates consulting a single, but comprehensive, source or wishes to get acquainted, in a as painless as po...

  15. Strongly correlated systems numerical methods

    CERN Document Server

    Mancini, Ferdinando

    2013-01-01

    This volume presents, for the very first time, an exhaustive collection of those modern numerical methods specifically tailored for the analysis of Strongly Correlated Systems. Many novel materials, with functional properties emerging from macroscopic quantum behaviors at the frontier of modern research in physics, chemistry and material science, belong to this class of systems. Any technique is presented in great detail by its own inventor or by one of the world-wide recognized main contributors. The exposition has a clear pedagogical cut and fully reports on the most relevant case study where the specific technique showed to be very successful in describing and enlightening the puzzling physics of a particular strongly correlated system. The book is intended for advanced graduate students and post-docs in the field as textbook and/or main reference, but also for other researchers in the field who appreciate consulting a single, but comprehensive, source or wishes to get acquainted, in a as painless as possi...

  16. Strongly nonlinear oscillators analytical solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Cveticanin, Livija

    2014-01-01

    This book provides the presentation of the motion of pure nonlinear oscillatory systems and various solution procedures which give the approximate solutions of the strong nonlinear oscillator equations. The book presents the original author’s method for the analytical solution procedure of the pure nonlinear oscillator system. After an introduction, the physical explanation of the pure nonlinearity and of the pure nonlinear oscillator is given. The analytical solution for free and forced vibrations of the one-degree-of-freedom strong nonlinear system with constant and time variable parameter is considered. Special attention is given to the one and two mass oscillatory systems with two-degrees-of-freedom. The criteria for the deterministic chaos in ideal and non-ideal pure nonlinear oscillators are derived analytically. The method for suppressing chaos is developed. Important problems are discussed in didactic exercises. The book is self-consistent and suitable as a textbook for students and also for profess...

  17. Flavour Democracy in Strong Unification

    CERN Document Server

    Abel, S A; Abel, Steven; King, Steven

    1998-01-01

    We show that the fermion mass spectrum may naturally be understood in terms of flavour democratic fixed points in supersymmetric theories which have a large domain of attraction in the presence of "strong unification". Our approach provides an alternative to the approximate Yukawa texture zeroes of the Froggatt-Nielsen mechanism. We discuss a particular model based on a broken gauged $SU(3)_L\\times SU(3)_R$ family symmetry which illustrates our approach.

  18. Laser Energy Monitor for Double-Pulsed 2-Micrometer IPDA Lidar Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Refaat, Tamer F.; Petros, Mulugeta; Remus, Ruben; Yu, Jirong; Singh, Upendra N.

    2014-01-01

    Integrated path differential absorption (IPDA) lidar is a remote sensing technique for monitoring different atmospheric species. The technique relies on wavelength differentiation between strong and weak absorbing features normalized to the transmitted energy. 2-micron double-pulsed IPDA lidar is best suited for atmospheric carbon dioxide measurements. In such case, the transmitter produces two successive laser pulses separated by short interval (200 microseconds), with low repetition rate (10Hz). Conventional laser energy monitors, based on thermal detectors, are suitable for low repetition rate single pulse lasers. Due to the short pulse interval in double-pulsed lasers, thermal energy monitors underestimate the total transmitted energy. This leads to measurement biases and errors in double-pulsed IPDA technique. The design and calibration of a 2-micron double-pulse laser energy monitor is presented. The design is based on a high-speed, extended range InGaAs pin quantum detectors suitable for separating the two pulse events. Pulse integration is applied for converting the detected pulse power into energy. Results are compared to a photo-electro-magnetic (PEM) detector for impulse response verification. Calibration included comparing the three detection technologies in single-pulsed mode, then comparing the pin and PEM detectors in double-pulsed mode. Energy monitor linearity will be addressed.

  19. Terahertz pulse driven Josephson junctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camerlingo, Carlo, E-mail: c.camerlingo@cib.na.cnr.it [CNR - Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Istituto di Cibernetica ' E. Caianiello' , Via Campi Flegrei 34, I-80078 Pozzuoli (Italy)

    2011-09-15

    Theoretical model of the ac Josephson effect in pulsed current driven junctions. Evaluation of the voltage response of a THz pulsed radiation driven Josephson junction. The pulsed current bias induces steps in the junction I/V characteristics for voltages depending on the pulse rate. Working principles of a fast response detector for THz pulsed radiation. The voltage response of a Josephson junction to a pulsed terahertz current is evaluated in the limit of a negligible junction capacitance (overdamped limit). The time-dependent superconductor phase difference across the junction is calculated in the framework of the standard resistive shunted junction model by using a perturbative method. The pulsed current bias affects the time average value of the voltage across the junction and current steps are induced in the current-voltage characteristics for voltage values depending on the pulse repetition rate. The current step height is proportional to the square of the pulse time width ({tau}) to the period (T) ratio. A fast response detector for pulsed Terahertz radiation is proposed, with an expected responsivity of the order of 0.1 V/W and an equivalent noise power of about 3 x 10{sup -10} W/Hz{sup 1/2}.

  20. High current transistor pulse generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesterov, V.; Cassel, R.

    1991-05-01

    A solid state pulse generator capable of delivering high current trapezoidally shaped pulses into an inductive load has been developed at SLAC. Energy stored in the capacitor bank of the pulse generator is switched to the load through a pair of Darlington transistors. A combination of diodes and Darlington transistors is used to obtain trapezoidal or triangular shaped current pulses into an inductive load and to recover the remaining energy in the same capacitor bank without reversing capacitor voltage. The transistors work in the switch mode, and the power losses are low. The rack mounted pulse generators presently used at SLAC contain a 660 microfarad storage capacitor bank and can deliver 400 amps at 800 volts into inductive loads up to 3 mH. The pulse generators are used in several different power systems, including pulse to pulse bipolar power supplies and in application with current pulses distributed into different inductive loads. The current amplitude and discharge time are controlled by the central computer system through a specially developed multichannel controller. Several years of operation with the pulse generators have proven their consistent performance and reliability.

  1. High current transistor pulse generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nesterov, V.; Cassel, R.

    1991-05-01

    A solid state pulse generator capable of delivering high current trapezoidally shaped pulses into an inductive load has been developed at SLAC. Energy stored in the capacitor bank of the pulse generator is switched to the load through a pair of Darlington transistors. A combination of diodes and Darlington transistors is used to obtain trapezoidal or triangular shaped current pulses into an inductive load and to recover the remaining energy in the same capacitor bank without reversing capacitor voltage. The transistors work in the switch mode, and the power losses are low. The rack mounted pulse generators presently used at SLAC contain a 660 microfarad storage capacitor bank and can deliver 400 amps at 800 volts into inductive loads up to 3 mH. The pulse generators are used in several different power systems, including pulse to pulse bipolar power supplies and in application with current pulses distributed into different inductive loads. The current amplitude and discharge time are controlled by the central computer system through a specially developed multichannel controller. Several years of operation with the pulse generators have proven their consistent performance and reliability. 8 figs

  2. Coiled transmission line pulse generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Kenneth Fox

    2010-11-09

    Methods and apparatus are provided for fabricating and constructing solid dielectric "Coiled Transmission Line" pulse generators in radial or axial coiled geometries. The pour and cure fabrication process enables a wide variety of geometries and form factors. The volume between the conductors is filled with liquid blends of monomers, polymers, oligomers, and/or cross-linkers and dielectric powders; and then cured to form high field strength and high dielectric constant solid dielectric transmission lines that intrinsically produce ideal rectangular high voltage pulses when charged and switched into matched impedance loads. Voltage levels may be increased by Marx and/or Blumlein principles incorporating spark gap or, preferentially, solid state switches (such as optically triggered thyristors) which produce reliable, high repetition rate operation. Moreover, these Marxed pulse generators can be DC charged and do not require additional pulse forming circuitry, pulse forming lines, transformers, or an a high voltage spark gap output switch. The apparatus accommodates a wide range of voltages, impedances, pulse durations, pulse repetition rates, and duty cycles. The resulting mobile or flight platform friendly cylindrical geometric configuration is much more compact, light-weight, and robust than conventional linear geometries, or pulse generators constructed from conventional components. Installing additional circuitry may accommodate optional pulse shape improvements. The Coiled Transmission Lines can also be connected in parallel to decrease the impedance, or in series to increase the pulse length.

  3. Modeling of Pulsed Direct-Current Glow Discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Mu; Zheng Yaru; Fan Yujia; Zhang Nan; Liu Chengsen; Wang Dezhen

    2010-01-01

    A self-consistent model was adopted to study the time evolution of low-voltage pulsed DC glow discharge. The distributions of electric field, ion density and electron density in nitrogen were investigated in our simulation, and the temporal shape of the discharge current was also obtained. Our results show that the dynamic behaviors of the discharge depends strongly on the applied pulse voltage, and the use of higher pulse voltages results in a significantly increase of discharge current and a decrease of discharge delay time. The current-voltage characteristic calculated by adjusting secondary electron emission coefficient for different applied pulse voltage under the gas pressure of 1 Torr is found in a reasonable agreement with the experimental results.

  4. Volkov transform generalized projection algorithm for attosecond pulse characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keathley, P D; Bhardwaj, S; Moses, J; Laurent, G; Kärtner, F X

    2016-01-01

    An algorithm for characterizing attosecond extreme ultraviolet pulses that is not bandwidth-limited, requires no interpolation of the experimental data, and makes no approximations beyond the strong-field approximation is introduced. This approach fully incorporates the dipole transition matrix element into the retrieval process. Unlike attosecond retrieval methods such as phase retrieval by omega oscillation filtering (PROOF), or improved PROOF, it simultaneously retrieves both the attosecond and infrared (IR) pulses, without placing fundamental restrictions on the IR pulse duration, intensity or bandwidth. The new algorithm is validated both numerically and experimentally, and is also found to have practical advantages. These include an increased robustness to noise, and relaxed requirements for the size of the experimental dataset and the intensity of the streaking pulse. (paper)

  5. Proposal of Application of Pulsed Vision Chip for Retinal Prosthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohta, Jun; Yoshida, Norikatsu; Kagawa, Keiichiro; Nunoshita, Masahiro

    2002-04-01

    A vision chip based on pulse frequency modulation (PFM) is proposed as a retinal prosthesis device for use in subretinal implantation. A pixel circuit of PFM has been fabricated using standard CMOS technology. A dynamic range of 40 dB is demonstrated at a low power supply voltage of 1 V. It is found that the competition between the charge current to the photodiode and the photocurrent affects the output pulse characteristics under the conditionds of low power supply voltage and strong light illumination. For in vitro and in vivo experiments, two methods of improving the PFM circuits are considered. One is controlling the pulse frequency. By adding one transistor to the PFM circuit, the output pulse frequency can be experimentally controlled by a factor of two. The other is using a biphasic output, which is required to keep a charge balance in a living body. By introducing differential circuits, the biphasic output has been confirmed by simulation.

  6. Bremsstrahlung from the interaction of short laser pulses with dielectrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, G M; Palastro, J P; Peñano, J

    2017-05-01

    An intense, short laser pulse incident on a transparent dielectric can excite electrons from the valence to the conduction band. As these electrons undergo scattering, both from phonons and ions, they emit bremsstrahlung. Here we present a theory of bremsstrahlung emission appropriate for the interaction of laser pulses with dielectrics. Simulations of the interaction, incorporating this theory, illustrate characteristics of the radiation (power, energy, and spectra) for arbitrary ratios of electron collision frequency to radiation frequency. The conversion efficiency of laser pulse energy into bremsstrahlung depends strongly on both the intensity and duration of the pulse, saturating at values of about 10^{-5}. Depending on whether the intensity is above or below the damage threshold of the material, the emission can originate either from the surface or the bulk of the dielectric, respectively. The bremsstrahlung emission may provide a broadband light source for diagnostics.

  7. Channeling and stability of laser pulses in plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sprangle, P.; Krall, J.; Esarey, E.

    1995-01-01

    A laser pulse propagating in a plasma is found to undergo a combination of hose and modulation instabilities. The coupled equations for the laser beam envelope and centroid are derived and solved for a laser pulse of finite length propagating through either a uniform plasma or preformed plasma density channel. The laser envelope equation describes the pulse self-focusing and optical guiding in plasmas and is used to analyze the self-modulation instability. The laser centroid equation describes the transverse motion of the laser pulse (hosing) in plasmas. Significant coupling between the centroid and envelope motion as well as harmonic generation in the envelope can occur. In addition, the transverse profile of the generated wake field is strongly affected by the laser hose instability. Methods to reduce the laser hose instability are demonstrated. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics

  8. Versatile pulse programmer for pulsed nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adduci, D.J.

    1979-05-01

    A description of the sequence of events and the decisions leading to the design of a versatile pulse programmer for pulsed NMR are presented. Background and application information is discussed in order that the reader might better understand the role of the pulse programmer in a NMR spectrometer. Various other design approaches are presented as a basis for comparison. Specifications for this design are proposed, the hardware implementation of the specifications is discussed, and the software operating system is presented.

  9. Versatile pulse programmer for pulsed nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adduci, D.J.

    1979-05-01

    A description of the sequence of events and the decisions leading to the design of a versatile pulse programmer for pulsed NMR are presented. Background and application information is discussed in order that the reader might better understand the role of the pulse programmer in a NMR spectrometer. Various other design approaches are presented as a basis for comparison. Specifications for this design are proposed, the hardware implementation of the specifications is discussed, and the software operating system is presented

  10. Microwave and Pulsed Power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freytag, E.K.

    1993-03-01

    The goals of the Microwave and Pulsed Power thrust area are to identify realizable research and development efforts and to conduct high-quality research in those pulse power and microwave technologies that support existing and emerging programmatic requirements at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Our main objective is to work on nationally important problems while enhancing our basic understanding of enabling technologies such as component design and testing, compact systems packaging, exploratory physics experiments, and advanced systems integration and performance. During FY-92, we concentrated our research efforts on the six project areas described in this report. (1) We are investigating the superior electronic and thermal properties of diamond that may make it an ideal material for a high-power, solid-state switch. (2) We are studying the feasibility of using advanced Ground Penetrating Imaging Radar technology for reliable non-destructive evaluation of bridges and other high-value concrete structures. These studies include conceptual designs, modeling, experimental verifications, and image reconstruction of simulated radar data. (3) We are exploring the efficiency of pulsed plasma processing techniques used for the removal of NO{sub x} from various effluent sources. (4) We have finished the investigation of the properties of a magnetically delayed low-pressure gas switch, which was designed here at LLNL. (5) We are applying statistical electromagnetic theory techniques to help assess microwave effects on electronic subsystems, by using a mode stirred chamber as our measurement tool. (6) We are investigating the generation of perfluoroisobutylene (PFIB) in proposed CFC replacement fluids when they are subjected to high electrical stresses and breakdown environments.

  11. A Pulsed Sphere Tutorial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cullen, Dermott E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-01-30

    Here I attempt to explain what physically happens when we pulse an object with neutrons, specifically what we expect the time dependent behavior of the neutron population to look like. Emphasis is on the time dependent emission of both prompt and delayed neutrons. I also describe how the TART Monte Carlo transport code models this situation; see the appendix for a complete description of the model used by TART. I will also show that, as we expect, MCNP and MERCURY, produce similar results using the same delayed neutron model (again, see the appendix).

  12. Control and dynamics of attosecond electron wave packets in strong laser fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnsson, P.; Remetter, T.; Varju, K.; L'Huillier; Lopez-Martens, R.; Valentin, C.; Balcou, P.; Kazamias, S.; Mauritsson, J.; Gaarde, M.B.; Schafer, K.J.; Mairess, Y.; Wabnitz, H.; Boutu, W.; Salieres, P.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Trains of attosecond pulses, emerging from the phase-locking of high-order harmonics generated in a strong laser field are now being routinely produced and characterized in a few laser laboratories. Attosecond pulse trains (APTs) are flexible attosecond sources, since the amplitude and relative phase of the spectral components (the harmonics) can be tailored, allowing us to vary both the duration and the carrier frequency of the pulses. Attosecond pulses interacting with a gas of atoms generate electron wave packets (EWPs), which are temporally localized with approximately the same duration as the attosecond pulses. In contrast to the tunneling electron wave packets giving rise to processes such as high-order harmonic generation and above-threshold-ionization (ATI), the properties of these EWPs are inherited from the attosecond pulses through the single-photon ionization step. Thus the energy and temporal characteristics of the EWPs can be varied independently of the process under investigation, by controlling the properties of the attosecond pulses. This talk will describe two recent experiments done in Lund. First we report on the generation, compression and delivery on target of ultrashort extreme-ultraviolet light pulses using external amplitude and phase control. The APT is synthesized from the 13 th to 35 th harmonics of a 35 fs Ti:sapphire laser. The harmonics are generated by focusing the laser beam into a window-less gas cell, filled with argon. To achieve the required on-target attosecond pulses, the harmonics are filtered spatially, using a fixed aperture, and spectrally using aluminum filters. The aluminum filters also serve the purpose of compressing the attosecond pulses, using the negative group-delay dispersion of aluminum to compensate for the intrinsic positive chirp of the attosecond pulses. This experiment demonstrates a practical method for the synthesis and control of attosecond waveforms, and in this case the production of pulses

  13. Matter in strong fields: from molecules to living cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathur, D

    2007-01-01

    Strong optical fields induce multiple ionization in irradiated molecules. The ionization dynamics are governed by optical-field-induced distortions of molecular potential energy surfaces and molecular dissociation is the expected by-product. Recent experiments have even shown, quite counter-intuitively, that strong optical fields may even induce bond formation processes in molecules. All such processes are all manifestations of how intense light affects matter. In turn, matter also affects intense light. A visually dramatic manifestation of matter affecting light is obtained when ultrashort pulses of intense light propagate though condensed matter. The temporal and spatial properties of the incident light pulse are modified, and such modifications manifest themselves in an enlarged optical frequency sweep, resulting in the generation of broadband radiation (white light) known as supercontinuum production. Although the physics that governs supercontinuum generation is not properly understood, some recent progress is summarized. Novel applications of strong field phenomena are reported that are of relevance in the biomedical and life sciences

  14. Supercoherent phenomena in pulsed power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Rourke, R.C.

    1983-01-01

    This chapter proposes the formulation of programs of basic physics research to transform Pulsed Power Technology (PPT) to Pulsed Power Science and Technology (PPS and T) by formulating the laws of the quantized microscopic electromagnetic field; applying the microscopic electromagnetic field theory to the generation, propagation and deposition of pulses in nonlinear networks; learning more about the basic super coherent ''micro-structure'' in space and time of the many-photon states of pulsed laser beams; learning more about the basic super coherent ''micro-structure'' in space and time of the many-electronstates of pulsed electron and ion laser beams; and learning everything about the ''micro-picture'' of so-called ''dielectric breakdown'' and the associated absolute time delays. Promotes the idea that laser, electron and ion beams are similar kinds of pulses in the microscopic electromagnetic field. Presents expression for the microscopic electromagnetic field in order to show the role of supercoherence in PPS and T

  15. Evaluation of temperature–pulse centile charts in identifying serious bacterial illness: observational cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brent, Andrew J; Lakhanpaul, Monica; Ninis, Nelly; Levin, Michael; MacFaul, Roddy; Thompson, Matthew

    2011-01-01

    Background Distinguishing serious bacterial infection (SBI) from milder/self-limiting infections is often difficult. Interpretation of vital signs is confounded by the effect of temperature on pulse and respiratory rate. Temperature–pulse centile charts have been proposed to improve the predictive value of pulse rate in the clinical assessment of children with suspected SBI. Objectives To assess the utility of proposed temperature–pulse centile charts in the clinical assessment of children with suspected SBI. Study design and participants The predictive value for SBI of temperature–pulse centile categories, pulse centile categories and Advanced Paediatric Life Support (APLS) defined tachycardia were compared among 1360 children aged 3 months to 10 years presenting with suspected infection to a hospital emergency department (ED) in England; and among 325 children who presented to hospitals in the UK with meningococcal disease. Main outcome measure SBI. Results Among children presenting to the ED, 55 (4.0%) had SBI. Pulse centile category, but not temperature–pulse centile category, was strongly associated with risk of SBI (p=0.0005 and 0.288, respectively). APLS defined tachycardia was also strongly associated with SBI (OR 2.90 (95% CI 1.60 to 5.26), p=0.0002). Among children with meningococcal disease, higher pulse and temperature–pulse centile categories were both associated with more severe disease (p=0.004 and 0.041, respectively). Conclusions Increased pulse rate is an important predictor of SBI, supporting National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence recommendations that pulse rate be routinely measured in the assessment of febrile children. Temperature–pulse centile charts performed more poorly than pulse alone in this study. Further studies are required to evaluate their utility in monitoring the clinical progress of sick children over time. PMID:21233079

  16. Evaluation of temperature-pulse centile charts in identifying serious bacterial illness: observational cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brent, Andrew J; Lakhanpaul, Monica; Ninis, Nelly; Levin, Michael; MacFaul, Roddy; Thompson, Matthew

    2011-04-01

    Distinguishing serious bacterial infection (SBI) from milder/self-limiting infections is often difficult. Interpretation of vital signs is confounded by the effect of temperature on pulse and respiratory rate. Temperature-pulse centile charts have been proposed to improve the predictive value of pulse rate in the clinical assessment of children with suspected SBI. To assess the utility of proposed temperature-pulse centile charts in the clinical assessment of children with suspected SBI. The predictive value for SBI of temperature-pulse centile categories, pulse centile categories and Advanced Paediatric Life Support (APLS) defined tachycardia were compared among 1360 children aged 3 months to 10 years presenting with suspected infection to a hospital emergency department (ED) in England; and among 325 children who presented to hospitals in the UK with meningococcal disease. SBI. Among children presenting to the ED, 55 (4.0%) had SBI. Pulse centile category, but not temperature-pulse centile category, was strongly associated with risk of SBI (p=0.0005 and 0.288, respectively). APLS defined tachycardia was also strongly associated with SBI (OR 2.90 (95% CI 1.60 to 5.26), p=0.0002). Among children with meningococcal disease, higher pulse and temperature-pulse centile categories were both associated with more severe disease (p=0.004 and 0.041, respectively). Increased pulse rate is an important predictor of SBI, supporting National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence recommendations that pulse rate be routinely measured in the assessment of febrile children. Temperature-pulse centile charts performed more poorly than pulse alone in this study. Further studies are required to evaluate their utility in monitoring the clinical progress of sick children over time.

  17. Clean HMBC: Suppression of strong-coupling induced artifacts in HMBC spectra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Würtz, Peter; Permi, Perttu; Nielsen, Niels Chr.

    2008-01-01

    in HMBC spectra, but they have apparently been overlooked, presumably because they have been assigned to inefficiency of low-pass J filters or not noticed because of a coarse digital resolution in the spectra. Clean HMBC is the HMBC technique of choice for molecules notorious for strong coupling among......A new experiment, clean HMBC, is introduced for suppression of strong-coupling induced artifacts in HMBC spectra. The culprits of these artifacts are an inherent shortcoming of low-pass J filters in the presence of strong coupling and the 1H p pulse in the middle of the evolution period aimed...... at suppressing evolution under heteronuclear J couplings and 1H chemical shifts. A p pulse causes coherence transfer in strongly coupled spin systems and, as is well known in e.g., homonuclear J spectra, this leads to peaks that would not be there in the absence of strong coupling. Similar artifacts occur...

  18. Atoms in strong laser fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    L'Huillier, A.

    2002-01-01

    When a high-power laser focuses into a gas of atoms, the electromagnetic field becomes of the same magnitude as the Coulomb field which binds a 1s electron in a hydrogen atom. 3 highly non-linear phenomena can happen: 1) ATI (above threshold ionization): electrons initially in the ground state absorb a large number of photons, many more than the minimum number required for ionization; 2) multiple ionization: many electrons can be emitted one at a time, in a sequential process, or simultaneously in a mechanism called direct or non-sequential; and 3) high order harmonic generation (HHG): efficient photon emission in the extreme ultraviolet range, in the form of high-order harmonics of the fundamental laser field can occur. The theoretical problem consists in solving the time dependent Schroedinger equation (TDSE) that describes the interaction of a many-electron atom with a laser field. A number of methods have been proposed to solve this problem in the case of a hydrogen atom or a single-active electron atom in a strong laser field. A large effort is presently being devoted to go beyond the single-active approximation. The understanding of the physics of the interaction between atoms and strong laser fields has been provided by a very simple model called ''simple man's theory''. A unified view of HHG, ATI, and non-sequential ionization, originating from the simple man's model and the strong field approximation, expressed in terms of electrons trajectories or quantum paths is slowly emerging. (A.C.)

  19. Bipolar pulse forming line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Mark A.

    2008-10-21

    A bipolar pulse forming transmission line module for linear induction accelerators having first, second, third, fourth, and fifth planar conductors which form an interleaved stack with dielectric layers between the conductors. Each conductor has a first end, and a second end adjacent an acceleration axis. The first and second planar conductors are connected to each other at the second ends, the fourth and fifth planar conductors are connected to each other at the second ends, and the first and fifth planar conductors are connected to each other at the first ends via a shorting plate adjacent the first ends. The third planar conductor is electrically connectable to a high voltage source, and an internal switch functions to short a high voltage from the first end of the third planar conductor to the first end of the fourth planar conductor to produce a bipolar pulse at the acceleration axis with a zero net time integral. Improved access to the switch is enabled by an aperture through the shorting plate and the proximity of the aperture to the switch.

  20. Strongly Interacting Light Dark Matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Bruggisser, Francesco Riva, Alfredo Urbano

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In the presence of approximate global symmetries that forbid relevant interactions, strongly coupled light Dark Matter (DM can appear weakly coupled at small energy and generate a sizable relic abundance. Fundamental principles like unitarity restrict these symmetries to a small class, where the leading interactions are captured by effective operators up to dimension-8. Chiral symmetry, spontaneously broken global symmetries and non-linearly realized supersymmetry are examples of this. Their DM candidates (composite fermions, pseudo Nambu-Goldstone Bosons and Goldstini are interesting targets for LHC missing-energy searches.