WorldWideScience

Sample records for strong public option

  1. The 2009 Health Confidence Survey: public opinion on health reform varies; strong support for insurance market reform and public plan option, mixed response to tax cap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fronstin, Paul; Helman, Ruth

    2009-07-01

    PUBLIC SUPPORT FOR HEALTH REFORM: Findings from the 2009 Health Confidence Survey--the 12th annual HCS--indicate that Americans have already formed strong opinions regarding various aspects of health reform, even before details have been released regarding various key factors. These issues include health insurance market reform, the availability of a public plan option, mandates on employers and individuals, subsidized coverage for the low-income population, changes to the tax treatment of job-based health benefits, and regulatory oversight of health care. These opinions may change as details surface, especially as they concern financing options. In the absence of such details, the 2009 HCS finds generally strong support for the concepts of health reform options that are currently on the table. U.S. HEALTH SYSTEM GETS POOR MARKS, BUT SO DOES A MAJOR OVERHAUL: A majority rate the nation's health care system as fair (30 percent) or poor (29 percent). Only a small minority rate it excellent (6 percent) or very good (10 percent). While 14 percent of Americans think the health care system needs a major overhaul, 51 percent agree with the statement "there are some good things about our health care system, but major changes are needed." NATIONAL HEALTH PLAN ELEMENTS RATED HIGHLY: Between 68 percent and 88 percent of Americans either strongly or somewhat support health reform ideas such as national health plans, a public plan option, guaranteed issue, expansion of Medicare and Medicaid, and employer and individual mandates. MIXED REACTION TO HEALTH BENEFITS TAX CAP: Reaction to capping the current tax exclusion of employment-based health benefits is mixed. Nearly one-half of Americans (47 percent) would switch to a lower-cost plan if the tax exclusion were capped, 38 percent would stay on their current plan and pay the additional taxes, and 9 percent don't know. CONTINUED FAITH IN EMPLOYMENT-BASED BENEFITS, BUT DOUBTS ON AFFORDABILITY: Individuals with employment

  2. Heterogeneous Beliefs, Public Information, and Option Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qin, Zhenjiang

    In an incomplete market setting with heterogeneous prior beliefs, I show that public information and strike price of option have substantial infl‡uence on asset pricing in option markets, by investigating an absolute option pricing model with negative exponential utility investors and normally...... a necessary nor sufficient condition for generating speculations in option markets. With heterogeneous beliefs, options are non-redundant assets which can facilitate side-betting and enable investors to take advantage of the disagreements and the differences in con…dence. This fact leads to a higher growth...

  3. Replicator dynamics for optional public good games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauert, C.; De Monte, Silvia; Hofbauer, J.

    2002-01-01

    The public goods game represents a straightforward generalization of the prisoner's dilemma to an arbitrary number of players. Since the dominant strategy is to defect, both classical and evolutionary game theory predict the asocial outcome that no player contributes to the public goods....... In contrast to the compulsory public goods game, optional participation provides a natural way to avoid deadlocks in the state of mutual defection. The three resulting strategies-collaboration or defection in the public goods game, as well as not joining at all-are studied by means of a replicator dynamics...... participation makes cooperation feasible. But for each strategy, the average payoff value remains equal to the earnings of those not participating in the public goods game....

  4. Public attitudes toward political and technological options for biofuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delshad, Ashlie B.; Raymond, Leigh; Sawicki, Vanessa; Wegener, Duane T.

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores detailed public attitudes regarding the expanding range of biofuels technologies and policy options. Subjects from 34 in-depth focus groups in central Indiana were fairly knowledgeable about biofuels technologies, but uninformed about biofuels policies despite being from a state where biofuels are a salient political issue. A narrow majority was supportive of biofuels in general, but expressed greater enthusiasm about 'second generation' biofuels. Subject beliefs about biofuels' economic and environmental impacts were most important in shaping these opinions, rather than concerns about energy independence or other issues. In terms of policy options, subjects were most supportive of an alternative fuels standard and least supportive of a fixed subsidy and a cap and trade policy. In contrast to arguments about technologies, participants primarily framed their attitudes toward policies in terms of fairness. Although discussion did not substantially change aggregate preferences for most policies, it did increase support significantly for at least one policy proposal-a variable subsidy for ethanol. It is particularly noteworthy that subjects generally did not support the most common biofuel technology-corn-based ethanol-or the most prominent biofuels policy option-the fixed subsidy-despite residing in a state hosting a strong corn industry and staunch political advocates for both positions.

  5. Malawi - Public Expenditures : Issues and Options

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2001-01-01

    This report argues that public expenditure outcomes in Malawi, can be improved in the next few years, provided 1) additional spending on priority items is balanced by expenditure cut-backs in low priority areas, so that public expenditures remain within fiscal parameters to restore macroeconomic stability; 2) incentives for improving the budget process are strengthened; 3) intra-sectoral a...

  6. Replicator dynamics for optional public good games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauert, C.; De Monte, Silvia; Hofbauer, J.

    2002-01-01

    The public goods game represents a straightforward generalization of the prisoner's dilemma to an arbitrary number of players. Since the dominant strategy is to defect, both classical and evolutionary game theory predict the asocial outcome that no player contributes to the public goods. In contr......The public goods game represents a straightforward generalization of the prisoner's dilemma to an arbitrary number of players. Since the dominant strategy is to defect, both classical and evolutionary game theory predict the asocial outcome that no player contributes to the public goods......, which can be completely analysed in spite of the fact that the payoff terms are nonlinear. If cooperation is valuable enough, the dynamics exhibits a rock-scissors-paper type of cycling between the three strategies, leading to sizeable average levels of cooperation in the population. Thus, voluntary...

  7. Real options methodology in public-private partnership projects valuation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakić Biljana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available PPP offers numerous benefits to both public and private partners in delivery of infrastructure projects. However this partnership also involves great risks which have to be adequately managed and mitigated. Private partners are especially sensitive to revenue risk, since they are mostly interested in the financial viability of the project. Thus they often expect public partners to provide some kind of risk-sharing mechanism in the form of Minimum Revenue Guarantees or abandonment options. The objective of this paper is to investigate whether the real option of abandoning the project increases its value. Therefore the binominal option pricing model and risk-neutral probability approach have been implemented to price the European and American abandonment options for the Build-Operate-Transfer (BOT toll road investment. The obtained results suggest that the project value with the American abandonment option is greater than with the European abandonment option, hence implying that American options offer greater flexibility and are more valuable for private partners. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 179066 and III 42006

  8. Fuel options for public bus fleets in Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Xylia, Maria; Silveira, Semida

    2015-01-01

    The Swedish public transport sector has defined two major targets, i.e., to run 90% of the total vehicle kilometers of the fleet on non-fossil fuels and double the volume of travel via public transport by 2020, increasing the share of public transport in relation to the total personal transport in the country . The f3 report Fuel options for public bus fleets in Sweden highlights the challenges and solutions encountered, particularly when it comes to the adoption of renewable fuels in the reg...

  9. Optional contributions have positive effects for volunteering public goods games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Qi-Qing; Li, Zhen-Peng; Fu, Chang-He; Wang, Lai-Sheng

    2011-11-01

    Public goods (PG) games with the volunteering mechanism are referred to as volunteering public goods (VPG) games, in which loners are introduced to the PG games, and a loner obtains a constant payoff but not participating the game. Considering that small contributions may have positive effects to encourage more players with bounded rationality to contribute, this paper introduces optional contributions (high value or low value) to these typical VPG games-a cooperator can contribute a high or low payoff to the public pools. With the low contribution, the logit dynamics show that cooperation can be promoted in a well mixed population comparing to the typical VPG games, furthermore, as the multiplication factor is greater than a threshold, the average payoff of the population is also enhanced. In spatial VPG games, we introduce a new adjusting mechanism that is an approximation to best response. Some results in agreement with the prediction of the logit dynamics are found. These simulation results reveal that for VPG games the option of low contributions may be a better method to stimulate the growth of cooperation frequency and the average payoff of the population.

  10. Issues related to public perception of radioactive waste management options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, D.M.

    2007-01-01

    Public perceptions about radioactive waste are generally rather or even strongly negative. They are also very poorly informed. This is rather unfortunate as it is these perceptions that appear to greatly influence the Public views on nuclear energy in general. This, in turn, has had an influence on political decisions. On the other hand, in a very clear majority of the Member States of the European Union, the Public have already indicated that they would be ready to accept the important role of nuclear in their future energy mix as long as all the radioactive wastes can be safely managed. However perceptions about nuclear energy and radioactive waste should be seen in the context of the Public wider perceptions on energy and, in particular, the role in the future of different sources. It may be wrong for political decisions on nuclear energy in the future to rely to heavily on the Public perceptions. (author)

  11. Optional Extended Year Program. FEEDBACK. Publication No. 97.20.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idol, Lorna

    The Optional Extended Year (OEY) program was initiated in Texas in 1995 and first implemented in the Austin Independent School District (AISD) in 1996. The primary focus of the OEY programs is to reduce student retention in grade through four school day options: (1) extended day; (2) extended week; (3) intersessions for year-round schools; and (4)…

  12. Mapping public policy options responding to obesity: the case of Spain

    OpenAIRE

    González Zapata, Laura Inés; Ortiz-Moncada, Rocío; Álvarez-Dardet, Carlos

    2006-01-01

    This study assesses the opinions of the main Spanish stakeholders from food and physical exercise policy networks on public policy options for responding to obesity. We followed the multi-criteria mapping methodology in the framework of the European project ‘Policy options in responding to obesity’ (PorGrow), through a structured interview to 21 stakeholders. A four-step approach was taken: options, criteria, scoring and weighting, obtaining in this way a measure of the performance of each op...

  13. Cannabis legalization with strict regulation, the overall superior policy option for public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehm, J; Fischer, B

    2015-06-01

    Cannabis is the most prevalently used drug globally, with many jurisdictions considering varying reform options to current policies to deal with this substance and associated harm. Three policy options are available: prohibition, decriminalization, and legalization, with prohibition currently the dominant model globally. This contribution gives reasons why legalization with strict regulation should be considered superior to other options with respect to public health in high income countries in North America. © 2015 ASCPT.

  14. 75 FR 14658 - Invitation for Public Comment on Mitigation Options for Global Positioning System Satellite...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-26

    ... Public Comment on Mitigation Options for Global Positioning System Satellite Vehicle Number 49 AGENCY... options prior to changing the health status of Global Positioning System (GPS) satellite IIR-20M (satellite vehicle number 49--SVN 49) from unhealthy to healthy. The potential mitigations are each designed...

  15. Book Review: Regulating Private Tutoring for Public Good: Policy Options for Supplementary Education in Asia

    OpenAIRE

    T. Marimuthu

    2015-01-01

    Book Review Regulating Private Tutoring for Public Good: Policy Options for Supplementary Education in Asia By Mark Bray and Ora Kwo (2014), 93pp. ISBN: 978-988-17852-9-9, Hong Kong: Comparative Education Research Centre.

  16. Publisiteitsbevele as Vonnisopsie Vir Regspersone (Publicity Orders as Sentencing Option for Juristic Persons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pieter du Toit

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This contribution addresses the issue of adverse publicity orders as a possible supplementary sentencing option for corporate offenders. In South Africa fines are the primary sentencing option available to courts when imposing sentences on juristic persons. Fines, however, do not adequately serve the purposes of corporate sentencing. Publicity orders require the publication of an offender’s conviction, sentence and the details of the offence to individuals or a group of persons (such as shareholders. An adverse publication damages the corporate offender’s reputation – a valuable asset to a corporate entity. It therefore serves the purpose of corporate deterrence. In this contribution criticism is levelled against the fine as primary sentencing option for juristic persons; the notion of corporate reputation is considered from a social and legal perspective; a functional comparative study of adverse publication orders is presented and recommendations are made regarding the content of effective publication orders.

  17. Public meeting: Western New York Nuclear Service Center options study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-04-01

    This document is a transcript of the meeting, with additional written comments. The main topic is the West Valley Processing Plant and how to dispose of it and its high-level wastes. Objective is to get public input on this topic

  18. Energy and the European public opinion: options and technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poireau, M.; Rossetti Divaldalbero, D.; Huemer, M.

    2003-01-01

    What is the attitude of the Europeans concerning energy and energy technology? This is the question that the Department of Research (working with the Department of Energy and Transport) of the European Commission has attempted to answer with the launch of its 'Eurobarometer' survey to gauge European public opinion. Launched under the 'Science and Society' banner, one of the new priorities of the sixth framework research and technological development programme of the European Union, this 'Eurobarometer' is aimed at helping us to better understand the perceptions of the public in Europe vis-a-vis energy and to highlight questions to be discussed for the future of energy technology with regard to social acceptability. (authors)

  19. Promoting Psychiatry as a Career Option for Ghanaian Medical Students through a Public-Speaking Competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agyapong, Vincent Israel Opoku; McLoughlin, Declan

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Authors assessed the impact of a public-speaking competition on the level of interest in psychiatry of Ghanaian medical students. Method: An inter-medical school public-speaking competition was organized to promote psychiatry as a fulfilling career option for Ghanaian medical students. Feedback questionnaires were completed by the…

  20. Mapping public policy options responding to obesity: the case of Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Zapata, L I; Ortiz-Moncada, R; Alvarez-Dardet, C

    2007-05-01

    This study assesses the opinions of the main Spanish stakeholders from food and physical exercise policy networks on public policy options for responding to obesity. We followed the multi-criteria mapping methodology in the framework of the European project 'Policy options in responding to obesity' (PorGrow), through a structured interview to 21 stakeholders. A four-step approach was taken: options, criteria, scoring and weighting, obtaining in this way a measure of the performance of each option which integrates qualitative and quantitative information. In an overall analysis, the more popular policy options where those grouped as educational initiatives: include food and health in the school curriculum, improve health education to the general public, improve the training of health professionals in obesity care and prevention, incentives to caterers to provide healthier menus and improve community sports facilities. Fiscal measures as subsidies and taxes had the lowest support. The criteria assessed as priorities were grouped as efficacy and societal benefits. Obesity in Spain can be approached through public policies, although the process will not be easy or immediate. The feasibility of changes requires concerned public policymakers developing long-term actions taking into account the map of prioritized options by the stakeholders.

  1. Advanced policy options to regulate sugar-sweetened beverages to support public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomeranz, Jennifer L

    2012-02-01

    Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) has increased worldwide. As public health studies expose the detrimental impact of SSBs, consumer protection and public health advocates have called for increased government control. A major focus has been on restricting marketing of SSBs to children, but many innovative policy options--legally defensible ways to regulate SSBs and support public health--are largely unexplored. We describe the public health, economic, and retail marketing research related to SSBs (including energy drinks). We review policy options available to governments, including mandatory factual disclosures, earmarked taxation, and regulating sales, including placement within retail and food service establishments, and schools. Our review describes recent international initiatives and classifies options available in the United States by jurisdiction (federal, state, and local) based on legal viability.

  2. Strong lens search in the ESO public Survey KiDS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Napolitano, N. R.; Covone, G.; Roy, N.; Tortora, C.; Barbera, F. La; Radovich, M.; Getman, F.; Capaccioli, M.; Colonna, A.; Paolillo, M.; Kleijn, G. A. Verdoes; Koopmans, L. V. E.; Valentijn, E; Napolitano, Nicola R.; Longo, Giuseppe; Marconi, Marcella; Paolillo, Maurizio; Lodice, Enrichetta

    2015-01-01

    We have started a systematic search for strong lens candidates in the ESO public survey KiDS based on the visual inspection of massive galaxies in the redshift range 0. 1 < z < 0. 5. As a pilot program we have inspected 100 deg2, which overlap with SDSS and where there are known lenses to use as a

  3. Weak and strong publics: drawing on Nancy Fraser to explore parental participation in neonatal networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Andrew J.; Lewando‐Hundt, Gillian; Blaxter, Loraine

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Aims  We draw on the work of Nancy Fraser, and in particular her concepts of weak and strong publics, to analyze the process of parental involvement in managed neonatal network boards. Background  Public involvement has moved beyond the individual level to include greater involvement of both patients and the public in governance. However, there is relatively little literature that explores the nature and outcomes of long‐term patient involvement initiatives or has attempted to theorize, particularly at the level of corporate decision making, the process of patient and public involvement. Methods  A repeated survey of all neonatal network managers in England was carried out in 2006–07 to capture developments and changes in parental representation over this time period. This elicited information about the current status of parent representation on neonatal network boards. Four networks were also selected as case studies. This involved interviews with key members of each network board, interviews with parent representatives, observation of meetings and access to board minutes. Results  Data collected show that a wide range of approaches to involving parents has been adopted. These range from decisions not to involve parents at this level to relatively well‐developed systems designed to link parent representatives on network boards to parents in neonatal units. Conclusion  Despite these variations, we suggest that parental participation within neonatal services remains an example of a weak public because the parent representatives had limited participation with little influence on decision making. PMID:22040481

  4. Concession Period Decision Models for Public Infrastructure Projects Based on Option Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Concession period is an important decision-making variable for the investment and construction of public infrastructure projects. However, we currently have few scientific methods to exactly determine the concession period. This paper managed to seek out concession period decision models for public infrastructure with option game theory, studied the influence of minimum government income guarantee and government investment on concession period, and demonstrated those models in the formulas mentioned in the paper. The research results showed that the increase of minimum government income guarantee value would shorten the concession period, while the increase of income volatility, that is, the uncertainty, would lengthen the concession period. In terms of government investment, optimal concession period would lengthen to some extent with the increase of government investment ratio and the income and the decrease of its guarantee value. Yet, optimal concession period would shorten in case of extreme highness of the government investment ratio due to its high guarantee value. And the government would accordingly shorten the concession period in case of the unchanged government investment ratio with the increased income volatility and risks. Still, the paper put forward the argument that the government would apply various guarantee methods and implement flexible concession period in accordance with the specific circumstances of public infrastructure projects.

  5. Communication and Public Involvement An obligation, not an option - An opportunity, not a burden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, Derek M.

    2006-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: In the European Union, all companies must communicate with the Public about any major new projects in the energy sector. It is not an option - but a legal requirement. This is the case for all major nuclear projects just as it is for new gas and oil pipelines, electricity transmission lines, wind farms etc. The main piece of legislation requiring this is most commonly known as the 'Environmental Impact Assessment' (EIA) Directive. This already dates from 1985 and clearly specifies the wide range of nuclear facilities that must be covered. This Directive was revised in 1997 and its scope extended to cover, among other things, the decommissioning of nuclear power plants. This Directive was complemented in 2001 by the 'Strategic Environmental Impact Assessment' (SEA) Directive that required consultations with the Public on all new major plans and programmes that are prepared and/or adopted by any authority at national, regional or local level. Also in 2001 the Aarhus Convention on 'Access to Information, Public Participation in Decision-Making and Access to Justice in Environmental Matters' entered into force. Because it is a signatory to the Convention, the European Union must now modify its legislation covering the three pillars of the Convention - information, participation and access to justice. Most of the necessary - often far reaching - changes have already been made to European law. Of particular importance to the nuclear sector are the resulting changes to the EIA and SEA Directives. It is vitally important that public bodies and industry are fully aware and act on the basis of the new legislation or they could face expensive court battles or even lose major projects. However, it would be wrong to regard the preparation of an EIA or an SEA as an administrative burden that must be complied with but brings little or no benefit. They should be regarded them as an opportunity in which to engage the public fully in a well defined

  6. Cooperative option of pursuit game with two pursuers and one evader. A strong stability of division variety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor D. Shiryayev

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The article deals with a simple differential game on the plane of pursuit with two consistently active players and one evader E; the game is considered in the form of the characteristic function. Materials and Methods: The geometric constructions and methods are used for solving the problem. The security zone of the escapee is bounded by the Apollonius circle, the pursuit team uses a strategy of parallel approach. Results: A method of finding the optimal players strategies and the optimal players’ trajectory is proposed. The way of forming the characteristic function is provided. All the variety of division is considered as a solution. However, the use of the results of cooperative theory of differential games is impossible without solving the problems associated with the specifics of differential equations of motion. Foremost, it is the problem of dynamic stability of optimality principles. The article introduces an auxiliary function of making the redistribution of winnings in time, keeping his total winnings throughout the game. The dynamic stability of the cooperative solution is determined with the help of this function. Strong dynamic stability of the entire set of solutions is shown. Discussion and Conclusions: The obtained results are consistent with similar research of other authors. Further research in this field can be used in the development of methods for “regularization” of optimality principles, for which the condition of dynamic stability is always fulfilled.

  7. Global oscillations in the Optional Public Goods Game under spatial diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valverde, Pablo A.; da Silva, Roberto; Stock, Eduardo V.

    2017-05-01

    Social dilemmas lead to natural conflict between cooperation and self interests among individuals in large populations. The emergence of cooperation and its maintenance is the key for the understanding of fundamental concepts about the evolution of species. In order to comprehend the mechanisms involved in this framework, here we study the Optional Public Good Games with focus on the effects of diffusive aspects in the emergent patterns of cyclic dominance between the strategies. Differently from other works, we showed that rock-paper-scissors (RPS) patterns occur by introducing a simple kind of random mobility in a lattice sparsely occupied. Such pattern has been revealed to be very important in the conservation of the species in ecological and social environments. The goal of this paper is to show that we do not need more elaborated schemes for construction of the neighbourhood in the game to observe RPS patterns as suggested in the literature. As an interesting additional result, in this contribution we also propose an alternative method to quantify the RPS density in a quantitative context of the game theory which becomes possible to perform a finite size scaling study. Such approach can be very interesting to be applied in other games generically.

  8. Summary and analysis of public comments on NUREG-1317: Regulatory options for nuclear plant license renewal: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ligon, D.M.; Seth, S.S.

    1989-03-01

    On August 29, 1988, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) issued an Advance Notice of Proposed Rulemaking on nuclear plant license renewal and solicited public comments on NUREG-1317, ''Regulatory Options for Nuclear Plant License Renewal.'' NUREG-1317 presents a discussion of fifteen topics involving technical, environmental, and procedural issues and poses a set of related questions. As part of its ongoing task for the NRC, The MITRE Corporation has summarized and analyzed the public comments received. Fifty-three written comments were received. Of these, 83 percent were from nuclear industry representatives; the remaining comments represented federal and state agencies, public interest groups, and a private citizen

  9. Building Strong Bonds with Program Sponsors--Public Relations Ideas To Make It Happen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Karen

    2003-01-01

    Lists public relations strategies for child care center directors seeking to cultivate relationships with their program sponsors. Suggests ways to identify a public relations message, make the sponsor part of the child care family, become part of the sponsor's family, give public recognition, and share the children's accomplishments. (JPB)

  10. The Concept of a Single-sex Optional Discussion Session in Introductory Astronomy at a Publicly Funded University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shawl, S.

    1996-12-01

    The concept of single-sex education for science and mathematics has recently received renewed discussion in both the popular and professional literature. So important is the topic within higher education that the Duke Journal of Gender Law and Policy sponsored a symposium called "Gender & The Higher Education Classroom: Maximizing the Learning Environment" in February 1996 (http://www.duke.edu/ jrd4/djgcnf96.htm). The concept is especially controversial in publicly supported educational institutions. The idea of offering an optional discussion session limited to a single sex in a university-level introductory astronomy course at a State-supported school was considered through discussions with a number of faculty and administrators, and through a questionnaire aimed at determining student attitudes toward the concept. The results of the student questionnaire will be presented. (While the questionnaire results will be seen to be in favor of such an optional discussion session, such sessions have not been offered.)

  11. Building and Sustaining Strong Public Health Agencies: Determinants of Workforce Turnover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourshaban, Deena; Basurto-Dávila, Ricardo; Shih, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    Workforce shortages have been identified as a priority for US public health agencies. Voluntary turnover results in loss of expertise and institutional knowledge as well as high costs to recruit and train replacement workers. To analyze patterns and predictors of voluntary turnover among public health workers. Descriptive analysis and linear probability regression models. Employees of state health agencies in the United States who participated in the Public Health Workforce Interests and Needs Survey (PH WINS). Intended retirement and voluntary departure; pay satisfaction; job satisfaction. Nearly 25% of workers reported plans to retire before 2020, and an additional 18% reported the intention to leave their current organization within 1 year. Four percent of staff are considering leaving their organization in the next year for a job at a different health department. There was significant heterogeneity by demographic, socioeconomic, and job characteristics. Areas such as administration/management, health education, health services, social services, and epidemiology may be particularly vulnerable to turnover. The strongest predictors of voluntary departure were pay and job satisfaction, which were associated with 9 (P intention to leave. Our findings suggest that if all workers were satisfied with their job and pay, intended departure would be 7.4%, or less than half the current 18% rate. Controlling for salary levels, higher levels of education and longer work experience were associated with lower pay satisfaction, except for physicians, who were 11 percentage points (P = .02) more likely to be satisfied with their pay than employees with doctoral degrees. Several workplace characteristics related to relationships with supervisors, workplace environment, and employee motivation/morale were significantly associated with job satisfaction. Our findings suggest that public health agencies may face significant pressure from worker retirement and voluntary departures in

  12. Weak and Strong Compensation for the Prioritization of Public Investments: Multidimensional Analysis for Pools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluigi De Mare

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite the economic crisis still heavily affecting most of Europe, a possible resumption can be found in the revitalization of public and private investments. These investments should be directed not only towards the strategic areas of infrastructures and production, but also to those which allow for a higher level of the quality of life (sports facilities, parks, etc.. In such cases, the need to balance the reasons of financial sustainability with environmental and social profiles is even more evident. Thus, multicriteria techniques, supporting complex assessments, should be implemented together with a monetary feasibility study (cost-benefit analysis. Multidimensional methods allow for the aggregation of different profiles into overall indicators. This study gives an account of how the application and comparison of multi-criteria approaches based on tools characterized by a higher or lower level of compensation between criteria can broaden the spectrum of analysis of the problems and lead to a more subtle logic of funding for public works and works of public utility, with a more current and mature sharing of profitability between private investors and users of community infrastructures.

  13. Newborn screening for congenital cytomegalovirus: Options for hospital-based and public health programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosse, Scott D; Dollard, Sheila; Ross, Danielle S; Cannon, Michael

    2009-12-01

    Congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is a leading cause of sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) and developmental disability in children. Early identification of infected children through screening could allow for early intervention and improvement in functional outcomes among the subset who develop sequelae. To outline potential options and strategies for screening newborns for congenital CMV infection and to discuss barriers to screening and data needs to inform future policy decisions. Commentary based on the literature and expert opinion on newborn dried blood spot screening, newborn hearing screening/Early Hearing Detection and Intervention (EHDI) programs, and congenital CMV. Although no population-based screening for congenital CMV is underway, pilot newborn screening studies using a variety of assays with urine or dried blood spot specimens are underway. Challenges to screening are both practical-uncertain sensitivity of blood spot assays suitable for large-scale screening and lack of infrastructure for collection of urine specimens; and evidentiary-the need to demonstrate improved outcomes and value of screening to offset the expense and potential adverse psychosocial consequences for children and families whose children require periodic monitoring but never develop sequelae. Screening for congenital CMV infection is a potentially important intervention that merits additional research, including the logistical feasibility of different screening options and psychosocial consequences for families.

  14. Sewer-mining: A water reuse option supporting circular economy, public service provision and entrepreneurship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makropoulos, C; Rozos, E; Tsoukalas, I; Plevri, A; Karakatsanis, G; Karagiannidis, L; Makri, E; Lioumis, C; Noutsopoulos, C; Mamais, D; Rippis, C; Lytras, E

    2018-06-15

    Water scarcity, either due to increased urbanisation or climatic variability, has motivated societies to reduce pressure on water resources mainly by reducing water demand. However, this practice alone is not sufficient to guarantee the quality of life that high quality water services underpin, especially within a context of increased urbanisation. As such, the idea of water reuse has been gaining momentum for some time and has recently found a more general context within the idea of the Circular Economy. This paper is set within the context of an ongoing discussion between centralized and decentralized water reuse techniques and the investigation of trade-offs between efficiency and economic viability of reuse at different scales. Specifically, we argue for an intermediate scale of a water reuse option termed 'sewer-mining', which could be considered a reuse scheme at the neighbourhood scale. We suggest that sewer mining (a) provides a feasible alternative reuse option when the geography of the wastewater treatment plant is problematic, (b) relies on mature treatment technologies and (c) presents an opportunity for Small Medium Enterprises (SME) to be involved in the water market, securing environmental, social and economic benefits. To support this argument, we report on a pilot sewer-mining application in Athens, Greece. The pilot, integrates two subsystems: a packaged treatment unit and an information and communications technology (ICT) infrastructure. The paper reports on the pilot's overall performance and critically evaluates the potential of the sewer-mining idea to become a significant piece of the circular economy puzzle for water. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Challenges and options for animal and public health services in the next two decades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, S E

    2006-04-01

    Trade in livestock and livestock products makes up approximately one sixth of global agriculture trade. This trade is demand driven, primarily by growing human populations, changing economies, and consumer preferences in developing countries. Different rates of population growth, economic growth, urbanisation, environmental sustainability, and technology transfer will determine which countries will reap the greatest benefits. Global trends in demand and supply for food, not terrorism, will drive the future of animal and public health service delivery. To benefit the greatest number of people and countries, animal and public health services should support policies that temper growing disparities among rich and poor countries, city and rural populations, and the sexes. Economic growth is critical to overcoming disparities between countries and best supported by integrated animal health, public health, labour, and foreign policies. Opportunities for job growth will be the greatest along the value added chain of food production and will require significant investments in science- (risk-) based education.

  16. Public meeting: Western New York Nuclear Service Center options study. [Problem of West Valley plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-04-01

    This document is a transcript of the meeting, with additional written comments. The main topic is the West Valley Processing Plant and how to dispose of it and its high-level wastes. Objective is to get public input on this topic. (DLC)

  17. Lifestyle Vaccines and Public Health: Exploring Policy Options for a Vaccine to Stop Smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolters, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Experimental vaccines are being developed for the treatment of ‘unhealthy lifestyles’ and associated chronic illnesses. Policymakers and other stakeholders will have to deal with the ethical issues that this innovation path raises: are there morally justified reasons to integrate these innovative biotechnologies in future health policies? Should public money be invested in further research? Focusing on the case of an experimental nicotine vaccine, this article explores the ethical aspects of ‘lifestyle vaccines’ for public health. Based on findings from a qualitative study into a vaccine for smoking cessation, the article articulates possible value conflicts related to nicotine vaccination as an intervention in tobacco control. The ‘vaccinization’ of lifestyle disease piggybacks on the achievements of classic vaccines. Contrary to expectations of simplicity and success, quitting smoking with a vaccine requires a complex supportive network. Social justice and public trust may become important ethical challenges when deciding whether to use further public funds for research or whether to implement these innovative vaccines in the future. PMID:27551304

  18. The Nuclear Energy Option for the U.S. - How Far Are We from Public Acceptance?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biedscheid, J.A.; Devarakonda, M.

    2004-01-01

    The recent rise of oil and gasoline prices accompanied by reluctant acknowledgement that traditional sources of energy are limited has renewed public interest in renewable energy sources. This perspective on energy is focusing attention on and facilitating acceptance of alternative energy concepts, such as solar, wind, and biomass. The nuclear energy alternative, while clean with potentially abundant fuel supplies and associated with low costs, is burdened with the frequently negative public opinion reserved for things nuclear. Coincident with the heightened examination of alternative energy concepts, 2004 marks the 25-year anniversary of the Three Mile Island accident. Since this pivotal accident in 1979, no new reactor licenses have been granted in the U.S. The resolution of the issues of nuclear waste management and disposition are central to and may advance public discussions of the future use of nuclear energy. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is currently preparing the licensing application for Yucca Mountain, which was designated in 2003 as the site for a high-level waste and spent nuclear fuel repository in the U.S. The DOE also has been operating a deep geologic repository for the permanent disposal of transuranic (TRU) waste since 1999. The operational status of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) as a repository for TRU waste was successfully realized along with the lesson learned that stakeholder trust and acceptance are as critical to the success of a repository program as the resolution of technical issues and obtaining regulatory approvals. For the five years of its operation and for decades prior, the challenge of attaining public acceptance of the WIPP has persisted for reasons aligned with the opposition to nuclear energy. Due to this commonality, the nuclear waste approach to public acceptance, with its pros and cons, provides a baseline for the examination of an approach for the public acceptance of nuclear energy in the U.S. This paper

  19. Public health dental hygiene: an option for improved quality of care and quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmsted, Jodi L; Rublee, Nancy; Zurkawski, Emily; Kleber, Laura

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of this research was to document quality of life (QoL) and quality of care (QoC) measures for families receiving care from dental hygienists within public health departments, and to consider if oral health for families with economic disparities and cultural differences was improved. A descriptive research study using a retrospective record review was conducted considering QoC. A review of state epid "Do preventive oral health programs based in local health departments provide quality care services, thus impacting QoL for underserved populations?" A dental hygienist working in public health made significant contributions to improving access to care and QoL in a rural, socioeconomically disadvantaged community. A total of 2,364 children received education, 1,745 received oral screenings and 1,511 received dental sealants. Of these, 804 children with caries were referred, with 463 receiving restorations and follow-up care. QoL metrics basis assessed Health Outcomes & Health Determinants. Initial QoL data was ranked in the bottom half of the state, while 70% of original determinant data was also ranked in the bottom half of reported metrics. Dental hygienists in public health settings can positively affect patients offering preventive care outreach services. Education and sealant placement were considered effective as measured by access, delivery and, when required, referral for restorative care. Improvement in QoL for individuals was noted through improved health outcomes and determinant metrics.

  20. Variation in Pregnancy Options Counseling and Referrals, And Reported Proximity to Abortion Services, Among Publicly Funded Family Planning Facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebert, Luciana E; Fabiyi, Camille; Hasselbacher, Lee A; Starr, Katherine; Gilliam, Melissa L

    2016-06-01

    As frontline providers, publicly funded family planning clinics represent a critical link in the health system for women seeking information about pregnancy options, yet scant information exists on their provision of relevant services. Understanding their practices is important for gauging how well these facilities serve patients' needs. A 2012 survey of 567 publicly funded family planning facilities in 16 states gathered information on referral-making for adoption and abortion services, and perceived proximity to abortion services. Chi-square, multivariable logistic regression and multinomial logistic regression analyses were performed to assess differences among facilities in referral-making and reported proximity to abortion services. Abortion referrals were provided by a significantly smaller proportion of providers than were adoption referrals (84% vs. 97%). Health departments and community health centers were significantly less likely than comprehensive reproductive health centers to refer for abortion services and to have a list of abortion providers available (odds ratios, 0.1-0.2). Rural facilities were more likely than urban ones to report a distance of more than 100 miles to the closest first-trimester abortion provider (relative risk ratio, 11.4), second-trimester abortion provider (8.7) and medication abortion provider (8.0). Health departments were more likely than comprehensive reproductive health centers not to know the location of the closest first-trimester, second-trimester or medication abortion provider (2.5-3.5). A better understanding of disparities in provision of pregnancy options counseling and referrals at publicly funded family planning clinics is needed to ensure that women get timely care. Copyright © 2016 by the Guttmacher Institute.

  1. Study of the art as a new way to measure nuclear public option

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oberhofer, M.; Abdel-Hay, F.

    1997-01-01

    In the recent last years, it became increasingly evident that people must learn more about the atom and radiation, in order to be able to live with it without fear. More efforts are needed to make them familiar with the benefits of its applications in the modern lives. The recent accidents of Chernobyl and Goiania in Brazil created an immense negative public reaction against nuclear energy. It is therefore important to consider using art as an approach to make people listen more and understand better. 6 refs, 14 figs, 4 tabs

  2. Energy policy options--from the perspective of public attitudes and risk perceptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viklund, Mattias

    2004-01-01

    In the present study a representative sample (N=797) of the Swedish population was surveyed, with regard to attitudes related to energy policy issues (e.g., environmental attitudes, risk perceptions, and attitudes towards different energy production systems), and self-reported electricity saving behavior. These factors were considered relevant in a Swedish energy policy context, due to the planned phase-out of nuclear power. Citizens' attitudes have traditionally been important factors in energy policy-making, especially nuclear policy. One of the conditions for a successful phase-out is decreased levels of electricity consumption among households and in industry, in order to compensate for the loss in energy production. Respondents reported positive attitudes to the environment in general and to electricity saving, while the attitudes to nuclear power as an energy production system in Sweden were relatively negative. Perceived risk was an important predictor of these attitudes and it was concluded that it is important to investigate factors behind this variable. The relationship between attitudes towards electricity saving and electricity saving behavior was weak. It is suggested that a contribution of psychological knowledge in energy conservation campaigns could be to elaborate on people's willingness to be public-spirited citizens in combination with their pro-environmental attitudes. Viklund (1999, Electricity saving: Attitudes and behavior of Swedish households. Center for Risk Research, Stockholm.) presented more data from the survey referred to here

  3. What do Americans think about federal tax options to support public transit, highways, and local streets and roads? Results from year six of a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    This report summarizes the results of year six of a national random-digit-dial public opinion poll asking 1,503 respondents if they : would support various tax options for raising federal transportation revenues, with a special focus on understanding...

  4. What do Americans think about federal tax options to support public transit, highways, and local streets and roads? Results from year five of a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    This report summarizes the results of year five of a national random-digit-dial public opinion poll asking 1,503 respondents if they : would support various tax options for raising federal transportation revenues, with a special focus on understandin...

  5. What do Americans think about federal tax options to support public transit, highways, and local streets and roads? Results from year four of a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    This report summarizes the results of year four of a national random-digit-dial public opinion poll asking 1,501 respondents : if they would support various tax options for raising federal transportation revenues, with a special focus on understandin...

  6. What do Americans think about federal tax options to support public transit, highways, and local streets and roads? results from year 3 of a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    This report summarizes the results of a national random-digit-dial public opinion poll that asked 1,519 respondents if they would support various tax options for raising federal transportation revenues, with a special focus on understanding support f...

  7. Options in Education: Program No. 88. Sex and Sexism in Education, Part II. Transcripts of a Weekly Series Broadcast by Member Stations of National Public Radio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Public Radio, Washington, DC.

    This booklet is a transcription of a program from the radio series, "Options in Education." It is part 2 of a two-part series dealing with sexism in education. It deals with sex discrimination in various aspects of public education, including textbooks, teacher promotion, sports programs and children's literature. There is also a…

  8. Private Education in the Absence of a Public Option: The Cases of the United Arab Emirates and Qatar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridge, Natasha Y.; Shami, Soha; Kippels, Susan M.

    2016-01-01

    In the face of rising demand for private schooling in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) and Qatar, a lack of affordable schooling options, monopolistic behavior of private education providers, and unpredictable government regulations have created a complex and unequal education sector. This research employs a mixed methods comparative approach to…

  9. 78 FR 19442 - Public Safety and Homeland Security Bureau Seeks To Refresh the Record Regarding Options for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    ... (Commission) Public Safety and Homeland Security Bureau (PSHSB) seeks to refresh the record regarding the... CONTACT: Eric Ehrenreich, Policy and Licensing Division, Public Safety and Homeland Security Bureau, at..., Public Safety and Homeland Security Bureau. [FR Doc. 2013-06814 Filed 3-29-13; 8:45 am] BILLING CODE 6712...

  10. Public health economic evaluation of different European Union-level policy options aimed at reducing population dietary trans fat intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Saborido, Carlos; Mouratidou, Theodora; Livaniou, Anastasia; Caldeira, Sandra; Wollgast, Jan

    2016-11-01

    The adverse relation between dietary trans fatty acid (TFA) intake and coronary artery disease risk is well established. Many countries in the European Union (EU) and worldwide have implemented different policies to reduce the TFA intake of their populations. The aim of this study was to assess the added value of EU-level action by estimating the cost-effectiveness of 3 possible EU-level policy measures to reduce population dietary TFA intake. This was calculated against a reference situation of not implementing any EU-level policy (i.e., by assuming only national or self-regulatory measures). We developed a mathematical model to compare different policy options at the EU level: 1) to do nothing beyond the current state (reference situation), 2) to impose mandatory TFA labeling of prepackaged foods, 3) to seek voluntary agreements toward further reducing industrially produced TFA (iTFA) content in foods, and 4) to impose a legislative limit for iTFA content in foods. The model indicated that to impose an EU-level legal limit or to make voluntary agreements may, over the course of a lifetime (85 y), avoid the loss of 3.73 and 2.19 million disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs), respectively, and save >51 and 23 billion euros when compared with the reference situation. Implementing mandatory TFA labeling can also avoid the loss of 0.98 million DALYs, but this option incurs more costs than it saves compared with the reference option. The model indicates that there is added value of an EU-level action, either via a legal limit or through voluntary agreements, with the legal limit option producing the highest additional health benefits. Introducing mandatory TFA labeling for the EU common market may provide some additional health benefits; however, this would likely not be a cost-effective strategy.

  11. Good Health, Strong Families, and Positive Early Learning Experiences: Promoting Better Public Policies for America's Infants and Toddlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lally, J. Ronald; Lurie-Hurvitz, Erica; Cohen, Julie

    2006-01-01

    The ZERO TO THREE Policy Center has three areas of focus: good health, strong families, and positive early learning experiences. Effective policies must promote healthy functioning in all domains, including cognitive, physical, and social and emotional development. Comprehensive services are essential to meeting the needs of very young children…

  12. Indonesian options

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anderluh, J.H.M.; van der Weide, J.A.M.

    2006-01-01

    Jakarta Stock Exchange Indonesia has started to trade Indonesian options at September 9th, 2004. An Indonesian option can be considered as an American style barrier option with immediate (forced) exercise if the price hits or crosses the barrier before maturity. The payoff of the option is based on

  13. Hinkley Point 'C' power station public inquiry: proof of evidence on comparison of non-fossil options to Hinkley Point 'C'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goddard, S.C.

    1988-09-01

    A public inquiry has been set up to examine the planning application made by the Central Electricity Generating Board (CEGB) for the construction of a 1200 MW Pressurized Water Reactor power station at Hinkley Point (Hinkley Point ''C'') in the United Kingdom. This evidence to the Inquiry sets out and explains the non-fossil fuel options, with particular reference to renewable energy sources and other PWR locations; gives feasibility, capital cost, performance and total resource estimates for the renewable sources; and shows that no other non-fossil fuel source is to be preferred to Hinkley Point ''C''. (author)

  14. For partner services, do we need "face-time," or FaceTime?: Trends in relative proportion of in-person notifications and HIV testing after introduction of a telephone option for HIV exposure notification by public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udeagu, Chi-Chi N; Bocour, Angelica; Shepard, Colin W

    2014-11-01

    Public health usually notifies partners of STD exposure in-person despite availability of other options. We examined trends in in-person versus telephone notification for HIV 3 years after the introduction of a telephone option. Most notifications were made by telephone. Partners notified doubled; however, the proportion HIV testing declined slightly.

  15. Buying power and human rights in the supply chain: legal options for socially responsible public procurement of electronic goods

    OpenAIRE

    Martin-Ortega, Olga; Outhwaite, Opi; Rook, William

    2015-01-01

    Several scandals involving well-known electronics brands have highlighted the exploitative and unsafe conditions under which many workers operate in the industry’s long and complex supply chains. As large-scale consumers of electronic goods, public buyers potentially hold significant leverage over the behaviour of their suppliers through their buying power. Consequently, public procurement has the potential to be a significant influence on these supply chains and ultimately the human rights o...

  16. Enhancing public participation in natural resource management using Soft OR - an application of strategic option development and analysis in tactical forest planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjortsø, Carsten Nico Portefée

    2004-01-01

    , communication of stakeholder perspectives, identification and management of conflicts, decision process transparency, and agency accountability for final planning outcomes. The primary problems encountered relate to the difficulty of reading the cognitive maps, time requirements, and selection of facilitator......This article presents a case study where a modified version of strategic option development and analysis (SODA) is applied to enhance the level of citizens’ participation in a strategic forest management planning process managed by the Danish Forest and Nature Agency. The case is interesting...... because of structural differences between traditional Soft OR and public participation settings. Research shows that SODA can nevertheless improve public involvement in several ways, including stakeholders’ perception of being involved, stakeholders’ commitment, structuring of the planning context...

  17. Methodological and ideological options. Global governance for sustainable energy: the contribution of a global public goods approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karlsson-Vinkhuyzen, S.I.S.E.; Jollands, N.; Staudt, L.

    2012-01-01

    Achieving a sustainable energy future requires a revolution in the energy system. At the heart of such a transformation lies strong and coherent governance at all political levels, including the global level. While the need for global governance is taken for granted in a number of issue areas such

  18. Rehabilitation Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Speech Pathology Occupational Therapy Art Therapy Recreational therapy Neuropsychology Home Care Options Advanced Care Planning Palliative Care ... Speech Pathology Occupational Therapy Art Therapy Recreational therapy Neuropsychology Home Care Options Advanced Care Planning Palliative Care ...

  19. The effect of ostracism and optional participation on the evolution of cooperation in the voluntary public goods game.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayuko Nakamaru

    Full Text Available Not only animals, plants and microbes but also humans cooperate in groups. The evolution of cooperation in a group is an evolutionary puzzle, because defectors always obtain a higher benefit than cooperators. When people participate in a group, they evaluate group member's reputations and then decide whether to participate in it. In some groups, membership is open to all who are willing to participate in the group. In other groups, a candidate is excluded from membership if group members regard the candidate's reputation as bad. We developed an evolutionary game model and investigated how participation in groups and ostracism influence the evolution of cooperation in groups when group members play the voluntary public goods game, by means of computer simulation. When group membership is open to all candidates and those candidates can decide whether to participate in a group, cooperation cannot be sustainable. However, cooperation is sustainable when a candidate cannot be a member unless all group members admit them to membership. Therefore, it is not participation in a group but rather ostracism, which functions as costless punishment on defectors, that is essential to sustain cooperation in the voluntary public goods game.

  20. Status of the public debate on the general options of management of high and intermediate activity and long-lived radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The law from December 30, 1991, precisely defines 3 axes of researches for the management of high level and long-lived radioactive wastes: separation/transmutation, surface storage and underground disposal. A global evaluation report about these researches is to be supplied in 2006 by the French government to the Parliament. A first synthesis of the knowledge gained after 14 years of research has led the national commission of the public debate (CNDP) to organize a national debate about the general options of management of high-level and long-lived radioactive wastes before the 2006 date line. The debate comprised 4 public hearings (September 2005: Bar-le-Duc, Saint-Dizier, Pont-du-Gard, Cherbourg), 12 round-tables (October and November 2005: Paris, Joinville, Caen, Nancy, Marseille), a synthesis meeting (December 2005, Dunkerque) and a closing meeting (January 2006, Lyon). This document is a status of the general organisation and progress of the debate from its preparing to its end in mid-January 2006. It shows the challenges the CNDP had to take up to treat the scientifical and technical questions in an accessible way, allowing the participation and the hearing of the large public. A status is made of the deception and satisfaction of the public. A lack of confidence in public authorities and scientists has been expressed several times. No pro-nuclear/anti-nuclear shock has occurred and the debate has revealed a remarkable richness in its content. One contribution of the debate to the future project of law is its enlargement to the overall nuclear wastes and valorizable materials and not only to the high/intermediate-level and long-lived wastes. (J.S.)

  1. Public debate on the general options relative to the management of high-medium activity and long-lived radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-09-01

    The law from December 30, 1991, precisely defines 3 axes of researches for the management of high level and long-lived radioactive wastes: separation/transmutation, surface storage and underground disposal. A global evaluation report about these researches is to be supplied in 2006 by the French government to the Parliament. A first synthesis of the knowledge gained after 14 years of research has led the national commission of the public debate (CNDP) to organize a national debate about the general options of management of high-level and long-lived radioactive wastes before the 2006 date line. This document presents the organizational aspects of the debate: origin, organization committee (mission, members, commitments), framework (the December 31, 1991 law, technical enlargement, society aspects), topics (summary of the debate in ten questions), organization modalities (4 main steps, schedule, venues), objectives and perspectives (sharing information, decision making processes to be implemented by 2006). (J.S.)

  2. Underground pedestrian routes as an option for arranging the transfer from one type of public transport to another

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glozman, O.

    2017-10-01

    The article highlights the issues of pedestrian movements within cities and focuses on the architectural and planning organization of transfer between two types of public transport. The amount of time citizens lose on the pedestrian sections of their way from home to work were analyzed. The article describes factors that influence the speed and the comfort of pedestrian movements as well as provides rationalization for connecting two types of transport in the underground space. The article also touches upon the issue of the negative cost impact caused by excessive time losses, including the ones that appear on the pedestrian sections of the route. Architectural methods that may ease a pedestrian’s psychological adaptation to the underground space are listed in the article. The results of experimental designing that prove the reduction of the travel time by forming underground pedestrian ways in cities were described. The article features the model of a multi-functional underground space under Serpukhovskaya Zastava square in Moscow. It is noted that pedestrian routes in the cities which do not allow easy movement on the above-the-surface space provide comfortable movement for the citizens.

  3. Measles lessons in an anti-vaccination era: public health is a social duty, not a political option.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancella, L; Di Camillo, C; Vittucci, A C; Boccuzzi, E; Bozzola, E; Villani, A

    2017-11-15

    measles, occurred in one 9-girl-year-age patient with genetic disorders who was unvaccinated. Measles still represents a serious public health problem worldwide. Vaccination against measles is safe, effective, and cost-effective. High vaccination coverage (>95%) with two doses of measles vaccine is crucial to elimination. Health care professionals play an important role in vaccination uptake and prevention of measles spread during an outbreak.

  4. Cost-effectiveness of public-health policy options in the presence of pretreatment NNRTI drug resistance in sub-Saharan Africa: a modelling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Andrew N; Cambiano, Valentina; Nakagawa, Fumiyo; Revill, Paul; Jordan, Michael R; Hallett, Timothy B; Doherty, Meg; De Luca, Andrea; Lundgren, Jens D; Mhangara, Mutsa; Apollo, Tsitsi; Mellors, John; Nichols, Brooke; Parikh, Urvi; Pillay, Deenan; Rinke de Wit, Tobias; Sigaloff, Kim; Havlir, Diane; Kuritzkes, Daniel R; Pozniak, Anton; van de Vijver, David; Vitoria, Marco; Wainberg, Mark A; Raizes, Elliot; Bertagnolio, Silvia

    2018-03-01

    There is concern over increasing prevalence of non-nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) resistance in people initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART) in low-income and middle-income countries. We assessed the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of alternative public health responses in countries in sub-Saharan Africa where the prevalence of pretreatment drug resistance to NNRTIs is high. The HIV Synthesis Model is an individual-based simulation model of sexual HIV transmission, progression, and the effect of ART in adults, which is based on extensive published data sources and considers specific drugs and resistance mutations. We used this model to generate multiple setting scenarios mimicking those in sub-Saharan Africa and considered the prevalence of pretreatment NNRTI drug resistance in 2017. We then compared effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of alternative policy options. We took a 20 year time horizon, used a cost effectiveness threshold of US$500 per DALY averted, and discounted DALYs and costs at 3% per year. A transition to use of a dolutegravir as a first-line regimen in all new ART initiators is the option predicted to produce the most health benefits, resulting in a reduction of about 1 death per year per 100 people on ART over the next 20 years in a situation in which more than 10% of ART initiators have NNRTI resistance. The negative effect on population health of postponing the transition to dolutegravir increases substantially with higher prevalence of HIV drug resistance to NNRTI in ART initiators. Because of the reduced risk of resistance acquisition with dolutegravir-based regimens and reduced use of expensive second-line boosted protease inhibitor regimens, this policy option is also predicted to lead to a reduction of overall programme cost. A future transition from first-line regimens containing efavirenz to regimens containing dolutegravir formulations in adult ART initiators is predicted to be effective and cost-effective in

  5. Budget Options

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2000-01-01

    This volume-part of the Congressional Budget Office's (CBO's) annual report to the House and Senate Committees on the Budget-is intended to help inform policymakers about options for the federal budget...

  6. 2005 resource options report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, T.

    2005-01-01

    This resource options report (ROR) fulfils regulatory requirements in British Columbia's two-year resource planning process. It identifies a wide range of resources and technologies that could be used to meet BC Hydro's future electricity demand. As such, it facilitates a transparent public review of resource options which include both supply-side and demand-side options. The resource options that will be used in the 2005 integrated electricity plan (IEP) were characterized. This ROR also documents where there is a general agreement or disagreement on the resource type characterization, based on the First Nations and Stakeholder engagement. BC Hydro used current information to provide realistic ranges on volume and cost to characterize environmental and social attributes. The BC Hydro system was modelled to assess the benefit and cost of various resource options. The information resulting from this ROR and IEP will help in making decisions on how to structure competitive acquisition calls and to determine the level of transmission services needed to advance certain BC Hydro projects. The IEP forecasts the nature and quantity of domestic resources required over the next 20 years. A strategic direction on how those needs will be met has been created to guide the management of BC Hydro's energy resources. Supply-side options include near-commercial technologies such as energy storage, ocean waves, tidal, fuel cells and integrated coal gasification combined cycle technology. Supply-side options also include natural gas, coal, biomass, geothermal, wind, and hydro. 120 refs., 39 tabs., 21 figs., 6 appendices

  7. Central Station Design Options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of EDISON Work Package 4.1 is the evaluation of possible Central (charging) Stations design options for making possible the public charging of Electric Vehicles (EVs). A number of scenarios for EVs are assessed, with special emphasis on the options of Fast Charging and Battery Swapping....... With the 3-phase AC quick charging options of 11, 22 kW and 43 kW, (IEC 62196, EN60038, EN 61851) both the Danish and Bornholm environments offer a good chance for EV integration [1]. Dealing with Fast Charging, the study determined that 300kW Fast Charging, which corresponds to 10 minutes charging for a 50...... charging, rated at 50 kW, fast charging would be easier in both Denmark and Bornholm scenarios. For each scenario and charging power level, the possible number of EVs is estimated and finally architectural design options are proposed. Technical assessment is performed for evaluating the benefits...

  8. Nevada Transportation Options Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    P. GEHNER; E.M. WEAVER; L. FOSSUM

    2006-01-01

    This study performs a cost and schedule analysis of three Nevada Transportation options that support waste receipt at the repository. Based on the U.S. Department of Energy preference for rail transportation in Nevada (given in the Final Environmental Impact Statement), it has been assumed that a branch rail line would be constructed to support waste receipt at the repository. However, due to potential funding constraints, it is uncertain when rail will be available. The three Nevada Transportation options have been developed to meet a varying degree of requirements for transportation and to provide cost variations used in meeting the funding constraints given in the Technical Direction Letter guidelines for this study. The options include combinations of legal-weight truck, heavy-haul truck, and rail. Option 1 uses a branch rail line that would support initial waste receipt at the repository in 2010. Rail transportation would be the primary mode, supplemented by legal weight trucks. This option provides the highest level of confidence in cost and schedule, lowest public visibility, greatest public acceptability, lowest public dose, and is the recommended option for support of waste receipt. The completion of rail by 2010 will require spending approximately $800 million prior to 2010. Option 2 uses a phased rail approach to address a constrained funding scenario. To meet funding constraints, Option 2 uses a phased approach to delay high cost activities (final design and construction) until after initial waste receipt in 2010. By doing this, approximately 95 percent of the cost associated with completion of a branch rail line is deferred until after 2010. To support waste receipt until a branch rail line is constructed in Nevada, additional legal-weight truck shipments and heavy-haul truck shipments (on a limited basis for naval spent nuclear fuel) would be used to meet the same initial waste receipt rates as in Option 1. Use of heavy-haul shipments in the absence

  9. Expensing options solves nothing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahlman, William A

    2002-12-01

    The use of stock options for executive compensation has become a lightning rod for public anger, and it's easy to see why. Many top executives grew hugely rich on the back of the gains they made on their options, profits they've been able to keep even as the value they were supposed to create disappeared. The supposed scam works like this: Current accounting regulations let companies ignore the cost of option grants on their income statements, so they can award valuable option packages without affecting reported earnings. Not charging the cost of the grants supposedly leads to overstated earnings, which purportedly translate into unrealistically high share prices, permitting top executives to realize big gains when they exercise their options. If an accounting anomaly is the problem, then the solution seems obvious: Write off executive share options against the current year's revenues. The trouble is, Sahlman writes, expensing option grants won't give us a more accurate view of earnings, won't add any information not already included in the financial statements, and won't even lead to equal treatment of different forms of executive pay. Far worse, expensing evades the real issue, which is whether compensation (options and other-wise) does what it's supposed to do--namely, help a company recruit, retain, and provide the right people with appropriate performance incentives. Any performance-based compensation system has the potential to encourage cheating. Only ethical management, sensible governance, adequate internal control systems, and comprehensive disclosure will save the investor from disaster. If, Sahlman warns, we pass laws that require the expensing of options, thinking that's fixed the fundamental flaws in corporate America's accounting, we will have missed a golden opportunity to focus on the much more extensive defects in the present system.

  10. Status of the public debate on the general options of management of high and intermediate activity and long-lived radioactive wastes; Bilan du debat public sur les options generales en matiere de gestion des dechets radioactifs de haute activite et de moyenne activite a vie longue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-01-15

    The law from December 30, 1991, precisely defines 3 axes of researches for the management of high level and long-lived radioactive wastes: separation/transmutation, surface storage and underground disposal. A global evaluation report about these researches is to be supplied in 2006 by the French government to the Parliament. A first synthesis of the knowledge gained after 14 years of research has led the national commission of the public debate (CNDP) to organize a national debate about the general options of management of high-level and long-lived radioactive wastes before the 2006 date line. The debate comprised 4 public hearings (September 2005: Bar-le-Duc, Saint-Dizier, Pont-du-Gard, Cherbourg), 12 round-tables (October and November 2005: Paris, Joinville, Caen, Nancy, Marseille), a synthesis meeting (December 2005, Dunkerque) and a closing meeting (January 2006, Lyon). This document is a status of the general organisation and progress of the debate from its preparing to its end in mid-January 2006. It shows the challenges the CNDP had to take up to treat the scientifical and technical questions in an accessible way, allowing the participation and the hearing of the large public. A status is made of the deception and satisfaction of the public. A lack of confidence in public authorities and scientists has been expressed several times. No pro-nuclear/anti-nuclear shock has occurred and the debate has revealed a remarkable richness in its content. One contribution of the debate to the future project of law is its enlargement to the overall nuclear wastes and valorizable materials and not only to the high/intermediate-level and long-lived wastes. (J.S.)

  11. Public debate on the general options relative to the management of high-medium activity and long-lived radioactive wastes; Debat public sur les options generales en matiere de gestion des dechets radioactifs de haute activite et de moyenne activite a vie longue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-09-15

    The law from December 30, 1991, precisely defines 3 axes of researches for the management of high level and long-lived radioactive wastes: separation/transmutation, surface storage and underground disposal. A global evaluation report about these researches is to be supplied in 2006 by the French government to the Parliament. A first synthesis of the knowledge gained after 14 years of research has led the national commission of the public debate (CNDP) to organize a national debate about the general options of management of high-level and long-lived radioactive wastes before the 2006 date line. This document presents the organizational aspects of the debate: origin, organization committee (mission, members, commitments), framework (the December 31, 1991 law, technical enlargement, society aspects), topics (summary of the debate in ten questions), organization modalities (4 main steps, schedule, venues), objectives and perspectives (sharing information, decision making processes to be implemented by 2006). (J.S.)

  12. Strong Geometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American School and University, 1981

    1981-01-01

    The new multi-use Public Affairs Center houses administrative offices, academic offices, conference areas, and classrooms as well as food service facilities. Other features are a studio theater, a 2,200 seat auditorium, and simulation gaming facilities. (Author/MLF)

  13. Options theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markland, J.T.

    1992-01-01

    Techniques used in conventional project appraisal are mathematically very simple in comparison to those used in reservoir modelling, and in the geosciences. Clearly it would be possible to value assets in mathematically more sophisticated ways if it were meaningful and worthwhile so to do. The DCf approach in common use has recognized limitations; the inability to select a meaningful discount rate being particularly significant. Financial Theory has advanced enormously over the last few years, along with computational techniques, and methods are beginning to appear which may change the way we do project evaluations in practice. The starting point for all of this was a paper by Black and Scholes, which asserts that almost all corporate liabilities can be viewed as options of varying degrees of complexity. Although the financial presentation may be unfamiliar to engineers and geoscientists, some of the concepts used will not be. This paper outlines, in plain English, the basis of option pricing theory for assessing the market value of a project. it also attempts to assess the future role of this type of approach in practical Petroleum Exploration and Engineering economics. Reference is made to relevant published Natural Resource literature

  14. A strong comeback

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marier, D.

    1992-01-01

    This article presents the results of a financial rankings survey which show a strong economic activity in the independent energy industry. The topics of the article include advisor turnover, overseas banks, and the increase in public offerings. The article identifies the top project finance investors for new projects and restructurings and rankings for lenders

  15. Proceedings of the public debate on the general options of management of high and intermediate activity and long-lived radioactive wastes; Compte-rendu du debat public sur les options generales en matiere de gestion des dechets radioactifs de haute activite et de moyenne activite a vie longue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-01-15

    The law from December 30, 1991, precisely defines 3 axes of researches for the management of high level and long-lived radioactive wastes: separation/transmutation, surface storage and underground disposal. A global evaluation report about these researches is to be supplied in 2006 by the French government to the Parliament. A first synthesis of the knowledge gained after 14 years of research has led the national commission of the public debate (CNDP) to organize a national debate about the general options of management of high-level and long-lived radioactive wastes before the 2006 date line. The debate comprised 4 public hearings (September 2005: Bar-le-Duc, Saint-Dizier, Pont-du-Gard, Cherbourg), 12 round-tables (October and November 2005: Paris, Joinville, Caen, Nancy, Marseille), a synthesis meeting (December 2005, Dunkerque) and a closing meeting (January 2006, Lyon). This document is a summary of the main questions tackled during this debate from its preparation to its closing meeting and dealing with: the acceptation of the debate, the progress of the debate, the socio-technical problem of gathering the different points to be debated with respect to the different areas in concern, the general questions about the overall nuclear wastes and materials (radioactivity, health, radioprotection, management, reprocessing, control, actors organization, knowledge sharing, perenniality of the financing), the specific questions about long-lived wastes (inventory, separation-transmutation feasibility, nuclear energy and energy policy, management solutions, storage and geologic disposal feasibility, impact of debates on the 2006 law, long-lived waste territories), the conclusions for the 2006 law: mastering the overall nuclear wastes and materials and step-by-step building up of a solution for long-lived wastes (difficulties, lessons learnt from foreign experience, first draft of the 2006 law). Some opinions expressed by some participants about these proposals conclude

  16. Public Response to Wildfire: Is the Australian "Stay and Defend or Leave Early" Approach an Option for Wildfire Management in the United States?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarah M. McCaffrey; Alan Rhodes

    2009-01-01

    In the United States, the increasing costs and negative impacts of wildfires are causing fire managers and policymakers to reexamine traditional approaches to fire management including whether mass evacuation of populations threatened by wildfire is always the most appropriate option. This article examines the Australian "stay and defend or leave early" (SDLE...

  17. Public health economic evaluation of different European Union–level policy options aimed at reducing population dietary trans fat intake12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouratidou, Theodora; Livaniou, Anastasia

    2016-01-01

    Background: The adverse relation between dietary trans fatty acid (TFA) intake and coronary artery disease risk is well established. Many countries in the European Union (EU) and worldwide have implemented different policies to reduce the TFA intake of their populations. Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the added value of EU-level action by estimating the cost-effectiveness of 3 possible EU-level policy measures to reduce population dietary TFA intake. This was calculated against a reference situation of not implementing any EU-level policy (i.e., by assuming only national or self-regulatory measures). Design: We developed a mathematical model to compare different policy options at the EU level: 1) to do nothing beyond the current state (reference situation), 2) to impose mandatory TFA labeling of prepackaged foods, 3) to seek voluntary agreements toward further reducing industrially produced TFA (iTFA) content in foods, and 4) to impose a legislative limit for iTFA content in foods. Results: The model indicated that to impose an EU-level legal limit or to make voluntary agreements may, over the course of a lifetime (85 y), avoid the loss of 3.73 and 2.19 million disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs), respectively, and save >51 and 23 billion euros when compared with the reference situation. Implementing mandatory TFA labeling can also avoid the loss of 0.98 million DALYs, but this option incurs more costs than it saves compared with the reference option. Conclusions: The model indicates that there is added value of an EU-level action, either via a legal limit or through voluntary agreements, with the legal limit option producing the highest additional health benefits. Introducing mandatory TFA labeling for the EU common market may provide some additional health benefits; however, this would likely not be a cost-effective strategy. PMID:27680991

  18. Deliberating emission reduction options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dowd, A.M.; Rodriguez, M.; Jeanneret, T. [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation CSIRO, 37 Graham Rd, Highett VIC 3190 (Australia); De Best-Waldhober, M.; Straver, K.; Mastop, J.; Paukovic, M. [Energy research Centre of the Netherlands ECN, Policy Studies, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2012-06-15

    For more than 20 years there has been a concerted international effort toward addressing climate change. International conventions, such as the United Nations Foreign Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC; ratified in 1994), have been established by committed nations seeking to address global climate change through the reduction of greenhouse gases emitted into the Earth's atmosphere (Global CCS Institute, 2011). Long recognised as the most crucial of the greenhouse gases to impact global warming, the majority of carbon dioxide's anthropogenic global emissions are directly related to fuel combustion of which both Australia and the Netherlands' energy production is significantly reliant. Both these nations will need to consider many opinions and make hard decisions if alternative energy options are to be implemented at the scale that is required to meet international emission targets. The decisions that are required not only need to consider the many options available but also their consequences. Along with politicians, policy developers and industry, the general public also need to be active participants in deciding which energy options, and their subsequent consequences, are acceptable for implementation at the national level. Access to balanced and factual information is essential in establishing informed opinions on the many policy options available. Past research has used several methods to measure public perceptions and opinions yet for complex issues, such as emission reduction, some of these methods have shown to be problematic. For example, semi structured interviews can provide data that is flexible and context rich yet is does also come with the limitations such as it seldom provides a practical assessment that can be utilised from researcher to researcher, across disciplines and public participation techniques. Surveys on the other hand usually address these limitations but surveys that do not encourage comparison of information or ask

  19. APPRAISING THE STRONGLY ASSOCIATED IMPACTS TO CHOOSE THE MODE OF PUBLIC TRANSPORT: A CASE STUDY OF COLOMBO METROPOLITAN AREA IN SRI LANKA

    OpenAIRE

    Manjula Madhuwanthi; Ashuboda Marasinghe; Shusaku Nomura

    2016-01-01

    This study examines a model to evaluate the probability of choosing the mode of public transport with finding most significant aspects related to the characteristic of the journey, characteristic of the traveler and the personal behavior of the traveler. The study area was focused on eleven Divisional Secretariat Divisions of the Colombo Metropolitan Area in the Western Province of Sri Lanka. This area has the most economically advanced functions as the commercial capital of Sri Lanka. The cu...

  20. What do Americans think about federal tax options to support public transit, highways, and local streets and roads? results from year 3 of a national survey [research brief].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    This research brief summarizes the results of Year 3 of a national random-digit-dial survey that explored public support for raising federal transportation revenues through gas, mileage, and sales taxes. This years survey added a special focus on ...

  1. The Factor Structure in Equity Options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Peter; Fournier, Mathieu; Jacobs, Kris

    Principal component analysis of equity options on Dow-Jones firms reveals a strong factor structure. The first principal component explains 77% of the variation in the equity volatility level, 77% of the variation in the equity option skew, and 60% of the implied volatility term structure across...... equities. Furthermore, the first principal component has a 92% correlation with S&P500 index option volatility, a 64% correlation with the index option skew, and a 80% correlation with the index option term structure. We develop an equity option valuation model that captures this factor structure...... on a large set of index and equity option data on which the model provides a good fit. The equity option data support the cross-sectional implications of the estimated model....

  2. Spent fuel reprocessing options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-08-01

    The objective of this publication is to provide an update on the latest developments in nuclear reprocessing technologies in the light of new developments on the global nuclear scene. The background information on spent fuel reprocessing is provided in Section One. Substantial global growth of nuclear electricity generation is expected to occur during this century, in response to environmental issues and to assure the sustainability of the electrical energy supply in both industrial and less-developed countries. This growth carries with it an increasing responsibility to ensure that nuclear fuel cycle technologies are used only for peaceful purposes. In Section Two, an overview of the options for spent fuel reprocessing and their level of development are provided. A number of options exist for the treatment of spent fuel. Some, including those that avoid separation of a pure plutonium stream, are at an advanced level of technological maturity. These could be deployed in the next generation of industrial-scale reprocessing plants, while others (such as dry methods) are at a pilot scale, laboratory scale or conceptual stage of development. In Section Three, research and development in support of advanced reprocessing options is described. Next-generation spent fuel reprocessing plants are likely to be based on aqueous extraction processes that can be designed to a country specific set of spent fuel partitioning criteria for recycling of fissile materials to advanced light water reactors or fast spectrum reactors. The physical design of these plants must incorporate effective means for materials accountancy, safeguards and physical protection. Section four deals with issues and challenges related to spent fuel reprocessing. The spent fuel reprocessing options assessment of economics, proliferation resistance, and environmental impact are discussed. The importance of public acceptance for a reprocessing strategy is discussed. A review of modelling tools to support the

  3. Pricing and Applications of Digital Installment Options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierangelo Ciurlia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available For its theoretical interest and strong impact on financial markets, option valuation is considered one of the cornerstones of contemporary mathematical finance. This paper specifically studies the valuation of exotic options with digital payoff and flexible payment plan. By means of the Incomplete Fourier Transform, the pricing problem is solved in order to find integral representations of the upfront price for European call and put options. Several applications in the areas of corporate finance, insurance, and real options are discussed. Finally, a new type of digital derivative named supercash option is introduced and some payment schemes are also presented.

  4. Option-implied measures of equity risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chang, Bo-Young; Christoffersen, Peter; Vainberg, Gregory

    2012-01-01

    Equity risk measured by beta is of great interest to both academics and practitioners. Existing estimates of beta use historical returns. Many studies have found option-implied volatility to be a strong predictor of future realized volatility. We find that option-implied volatility and skewness...... are also good predictors of future realized beta. Motivated by this finding, we establish a set of assumptions needed to construct a beta estimate from option-implied return moments using equity and index options. This beta can be computed using only option data on a single day. It is therefore potentially...

  5. Servicios Publicos/Negocios Agricolas. Libro del Profesor (Public Services/Agribusiness. Teacher's Guide). B4. CHOICE (Challenging Options in Career Education).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mid-Hudson Migrant Education Center, New Paltz, NY.

    Written in Spanish, this guide comprises the third grade unit of a career education curriculum developed for migrant students. The guide covers 11 jobs in the public services and agribusiness fields--nursing aide, sanitation worker, mail carrier, librarian, fire fighter, police officer, gardener, farmer, logger, miner, and forest ranger. Student…

  6. Impact of strong selection for the PrP major gene on genetic variability of four French sheep breeds (Open Access publication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pantano Thais

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Effective selection on the PrP gene has been implemented since October 2001 in all French sheep breeds. After four years, the ARR "resistant" allele frequency increased by about 35% in young males. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of this strong selection on genetic variability. It is focussed on four French sheep breeds and based on the comparison of two groups of 94 animals within each breed: the first group of animals was born before the selection began, and the second, 3–4 years later. Genetic variability was assessed using genealogical and molecular data (29 microsatellite markers. The expected loss of genetic variability on the PrP gene was confirmed. Moreover, among the five markers located in the PrP region, only the three closest ones were affected. The evolution of the number of alleles, heterozygote deficiency within population, expected heterozygosity and the Reynolds distances agreed with the criteria from pedigree and pointed out that neutral genetic variability was not much affected. This trend depended on breed, i.e. on their initial states (population size, PrP frequencies and on the selection strategies for improving scrapie resistance while carrying out selection for production traits.

  7. Public expectations about access fees and road closures on public lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cline, K.; Lamb, B.L.; Ponds, P.D.

    2006-01-01

    It is sometimes suggested that land managers could better communicate with the general public by relying on people who are active in community affairs to frame the message. By comparing responses from the 'attentive' and general public on the Colorado Plateau in the USA, this study investigated the expected effects of using recreation access fees or road closures to manage recreation on public lands. Although neither the attentive nor general public strongly anticipated benefits from the two management options, the attentive public was more likely than the general public to report positive expectations. Those more likely to expect fewer benefits from the management options do so because of factors that are outside the influence of managers (e.g., socio-demographics and value orientation). The results point out challenges for building public support through mobilizing the attentive public to develop a positive management atmosphere with fees and road closures. ?? 2006 University of Newcastle upon Tyne.

  8. The Factor Structure in Equity Options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Peter; Fournier, Mathieu; Jacobs, Kris

    Equity options display a strong factor structure. The first principal components of the equity volatility levels, skews, and term structures explain a substantial fraction of the cross-sectional variation. Furthermore, these principal components are highly correlated with the S&P500 index option ...

  9. The Factor Structure in Equity Options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Peter; Fournier, Mathieu; Jacobs, Kris

    2018-01-01

    Equity options display a strong factor structure. The first principal components of the equity volatility levels, skews, and term structures explain a substantial fraction of the crosssectional variation. Furthermore, these principal components are highly correlated with the S&P 500 index option ...

  10. Organized Communities and Potable Water Public Utilities in Colombia: Advocacy for the Third Economic Option Based on the Common-pool Resources Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jhonny Moncada Mesa

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Based on the theory and institutional principles proposed by Elinor Ostrom, this paper explores whether Colombian organized communities are able to provide potable water public utility in a sustainable manner and manage it as a common-pool resource (CPR. For this purpose, a set of Colombian community aqueducts is selected and compared against the eight principles proposed by this theory. The results have shown that, in general it complies with institutional principles but it also highlights difficulties, particularly in regards to the "minimal recognition of organization rights" principle.

  11. Options with Extreme Strikes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingjiong Zhu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this short paper, we study the asymptotics for the price of call options for very large strikes and put options for very small strikes. The stock price is assumed to follow the Black–Scholes models. We analyze European, Asian, American, Parisian and perpetual options and conclude that the tail asymptotics for these option types fall into four scenarios.

  12. Australian Asian Options

    OpenAIRE

    Manuel Moreno; Javier F. Navas

    2003-01-01

    We study European options on the ratio of the stock price to its average and viceversa. Some of these options are traded in the Australian Stock Exchange since 1992, thus we call them Australian Asian options. For geometric averages, we obtain closed-form expressions for option prices. For arithmetic means, we use different approximations that produce very similar results.

  13. Responsible Investment (RI: An Alternative Funding Option for Roads-Bridges Management in Nigeria Under the Public-Private Partnership Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukman Raimi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Tolling is an age long revenue collection system institutionalised by public authorities for accumulating funds required for roads and bridges construction, maintenance and management. In spite of the merits of tolling as a major source of revenue in Nigeria, it was abruptly abrogated by the government few years ago because of reasons linked to ineffective governance, endemic corruption and lack of probity. The purpose of this paper is to make a case for responsible investment as an alternative funding mechanism for roads-bridges management (RBM in Nigeria under a Public-Private Partnership (PPP framework. The paper adopts a discursive approach, relying on government policy documents, journal articles, online resources, working papers and reports on tolling best practices. The numerical and non-numerical data were critically analysed using content analysis enriched by tables and figures. The first finding indicates there are enormous potentials in tolls collection from privately funded roads and bridges for responsible investors in Nigeria under the PPP framework. The second finding identifies eight (8 PPP typologies that could be explored by investors under government’s new tolling policy. The paper concludes that the success of any tolls collection systems depend largely on effectiveness of governance, probity and accountability, which are core elements of responsible investment in the contemporary times

  14. The Strategic Options of Supreme Audit Institutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klarskov Jeppesen, Kim; Carrington, Thomas; Catasús, Bino

    2017-01-01

    Based on the theory of professional competition, this paper identifies and investigates four strategic options of supreme audit institutions (SAIs) through a case study of four Nordic national audit offices: a performance auditing strategy; a financial auditing strategy; a portfolio strategy...... options for public sector auditing....

  15. <strong>Policy options for the improvement of the European patent systemstrong>

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elsmore, Matthew J.

    2008-01-01

    and their distribution. Finding the right balance is important, since the reward offered to inventors in the form of exclusive rights provides the incentive to innovate, but if the reward is too excessive, it may hamper innovation and the distribution of knowledge. The general premise of this report is that the European...

  16. Alberta Environment's weir safety program : options for rehabilitation to improve public safety : a case study of the Calgary weir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    Alberta Environment's water management operations (WMO) own and operates 46 dams and 800 km of canals. This presentation discussed a rehabilitation program designed to improve the safety of the WMO's Calgary weir which was built in 1908 to encourage settlement in the province. The weir includes a 32 m wide sluiceway, a 2.5 m concrete weir, and a fish ladder. A portage trail has been built to accommodate canoes, and signs are posted to indicate the hazards associated with the weir. The WMO has also launched an advertising campaign to outline hazards to the general public. The WMO has a contract with the Calgary fire department (CFD) to maintain a safety boom and provide rescue operations at the weir. The weir project aims to accommodate access and safety while enhancing flood conveyance capabilities of the weir. The project will allow upstream passage for patrol boats operated by the Calgary fire department's aquatic rescue service. The final design of the weir will include a series of drops constructed downstream of the weir to create pool and riffle structures that will eliminate hydraulic rollers. Notches will be cut in the weir to regulate flows moving through the new low and high flow channels. Case studies of other low-head dams operated by the WMO were also presented. tabs., figs.

  17. For a strong international public service

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2012-01-01

    The importance of international organizations in Europe The numerous international and European organizations based in Europe employ together many tens of thousands of international and European civil servants. The members of personnel of these organizations are subject to various legal regimes and have to appeal against administrative decisions before different administrative tribunals (e.g., ILOAT, UNAT, EUCST, OECDAT). CERN being one of the larger European organizations, it is important that we stay abreast of the latest developments in this area. Therefore, the Staff Association sent two representatives to a colloquium “New developments in the legal protection of international and European civil servants”, held in Luxembourg the 1st and 2nd of April 2011.  This is not the place to review in detail the different aspects of the recent evolution in the various legal systems, which were presented there (the proceedings can be consulted in the Secretariat of the Staff Associatio...

  18. Traditional preventive treatment options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Longbottom, C; Ekstrand, K; Zero, D

    2009-01-01

    Preventive treatment options can be divided into primary, secondary and tertiary prevention techniques, which can involve patient- or professionally applied methods. These include: oral hygiene (instruction), pit and fissure sealants ('temporary' or 'permanent'), fluoride applications (patient...... options....

  19. Distributed Energy Implementation Options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shah, Chandralata N [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-13

    This presentation covers the options for implementing distributed energy projects. It distinguishes between options available for distributed energy that is government owned versus privately owned, with a focus on the privately owned options including Energy Savings Performance Contract Energy Sales Agreements (ESPC ESAs). The presentation covers the new ESPC ESA Toolkit and other Federal Energy Management Program resources.

  20. TANK SPACE OPTIONS REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WILLIS WL; AHRENDT MR

    2009-08-11

    Since this report was originally issued in 2001, several options proposed for increasing double-shell tank (DST) storage space were implemented or are in the process of implementation. Changes to the single-shell tank (SST) waste retrieval schedule, completion of DST space saving options, and the DST space saving options in progress have delayed the projected shortfall of DST storage space from the 2007-2011 to the 2018-2025 timeframe (ORP-11242, River Protection Project System Plan). This report reevaluates options from Rev. 0 and includes evaluations of new options for alleviating projected restrictions on SST waste retrieval beginning in 2018 because of the lack of DST storage space.

  1. Submission of the national commission of the public debate on the options concerning the long life high and medium activity radioactive wastes management; Saisine de la commission nationale du debat public sur les options generales en matiere de gestion des dechets radioactifs de haute activite et de moyenne activite a vie longue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    This document deals with the presentation of a public debate on the radioactive wastes management and the opportunities of its organization. It presents successively the long life high and medium activity radioactive wastes, the today radioactive wastes management policy and some questions and topics which could be discussed during the debate. (A.L.B.)

  2. Nuclear technology options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salvatores, Massimo

    2013-01-01

    Different strategies and motivations in different countries have led to diverse options. In Europe the SNETP (Sustainable Nuclear Energy Technology Platform) has the objective of developing R&D supporting GEN-II (present) and GEN-III nuclear systems under development; allowing sustainability and minimisation of waste burden, promoting advanced Gen-IV Fast Reactors; and accounting for a Nuclear Cogeneration Industrial Initiative. A remarkable initiative in the USA has been the promotion of small modular reactors (SMRs) – at less than 300 MWe in capacity, much smaller than typical reactors – which can be an ideal choice for (remote) areas which cannot support a larger reactor. Compact scalable design offers a host of potential safety, construction and economic benefits. More “upbeat” strategies are expected in other areas of the world where significant increase in nuclear energy demand is predicted in the next decades. If this growth materialises, future fuel cycles characteristics, feasibility and acceptability will be crucial. This paper will discuss different scenarios for future fuel cycles, resources optimisation and/or waste minimization, the range from full fast reactor deployment to phase-out, management of spent nuclear fuel and the significant potential benefits of advanced cycles. The next 45 years will be dominated by deployment of standard large or medium size plants operating for 60 years. Available resources do allow it. However, fuel cycle will be a growing and most challenging issue and early assessments will be needed for public acceptance and policy decisions.

  3. Americal options analyzed differently

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwenhuis, J.W.

    2003-01-01

    In this note we analyze in a discrete-time context and with a finite outcome space American options starting with the idea that every tradable should be a martingale under a certain measure. We believe that in this way American options become more understandable to people with a good working

  4. Options in Compensation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flor, Christian Riis; Frimor, Hans; Munk, Claus

    2014-01-01

    to motivate effort. If rewarding low outcomes is infeasible, compensation consisting of stocks and options is a near-efficient means of overcoming the manager's induced aversion to undertaking risky investments, whereas stock compensation is not. However, stock plus option compensation may induce excessively...

  5. [Treatment options for patellar tendinopathy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duthon, V B; Borloz, S; Ziltener, J-L

    2012-07-25

    Patellar tendinopathy is also called jumper's knee because of its high incidence in athletes with jumping or cutting activities as soccer, basketball, volleyball. Many different treatment methods have been described. However, no consensus exists regarding the optimal treatment for this condition. According to the literature, eccentric exercise-based physical therapy should be proposed first because of its strong scientific evidence. Shockwave therapy and injections may be useful but their real efficacy still has to be proven by randomized controlled study. For patients recalcitrant to more conservative options, operative management may be indicated.

  6. Traffic Light Options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Peter Løchte

    This paper introduces, prices, and analyzes traffic light options. The traffic light option is an innovative structured OTC derivative developed independently by several London-based investment banks to suit the needs of Danish life and pension (L&P) companies, which must comply with the traffic...... 2006, and supervisory authorities in many other European countries have implemented similar regulation. Traffic light options are therefore likely to attract the attention of a wider audience of pension fund managers in the future. Focusing on the valuation of the traffic light option we set up a Black...... light scenarios. These stress scenarios entail drops in interest rates as well as in stock prices, and traffic light options are thus designed to pay off and preserve sufficient capital when interest rates and stock prices fall simultaneously. Sweden's FSA implemented a traffic light system in January...

  7. Testing strong interaction theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, J.

    1979-01-01

    The author discusses possible tests of the current theories of the strong interaction, in particular, quantum chromodynamics. High energy e + e - interactions should provide an excellent means of studying the strong force. (W.D.L.)

  8. Polish Toxic Currency Options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldemar Gontarski

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Toxic currency options are defined on the basis of the opposition to the nature (essence of an option contract, which is justified in terms of norms founded on the general law clause of characteristics (nature of a relation (which represents an independent premise for imposing restrictions on the freedom of contracts. So-understood toxic currency options are unlawful. Indeed they contravene iuris cogentis regulations. These include for instance option contracts, which are concluded with a bank, if the bank has not informed about option risk before concluding the contract; or the barrier options, which focus only on the protection of banks interests. Therefore, such options may appear to be invalid. Therefore, performing contracts for toxic currency options may be qualified as a criminal mismanagement. For the sake of security, the manager should then take into consideration filing a claim for stating invalidity (which can be made in a court verdict. At the same time, if the supervisory board member in a commercial company, who can also be a subject to mismanagement offences, commits an omission involving lack of reaction (for example, if he/she fails to notify of the suspected offence committed by the management board members acting to the companys detriment when the management board makes the company conclude option contracts which are charged with absolute invalidity the supervisory board member so acting may be considered to act to the companys detriment. In the most recent Polish jurisprudence and judicature the standard of a good host is treated to be the last resort for determining whether the managers powers resulting from criminal regulations were performed. The manager of the exporter should not, as a rule, issue any options. Issuing options always means assuming an obligation. In the case of currency put options it is an absolute obligation to purchase a given amount in euro at exchange rate set in advance. On the other hand issuing

  9. Early Option Exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heje Pedersen, Lasse; Jensen, Mads Vestergaard

    A classic result by Merton (1973) is that, except just before expiration or dividend payments, one should never exercise a call option and never convert a convertible bond. We show theoretically that this result is overturned when investors face frictions. Early option exercise can be optimal when...... it reduces short-sale costs, transaction costs, or funding costs. We provide consistent empirical evidence, documenting billions of dollars of early exercise for options and convertible bonds using unique data on actual exercise decisions and frictions. Our model can explain as much as 98% of early exercises...

  10. Early Option Exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mads Vestergaard; Heje Pedersen, Lasse

    2016-01-01

    A classic result by Merton (1973) is that, except just before expiration or dividend payments, one should never exercise a call option and never convert a convertible bond. We show theoretically that this result is overturned when investors face frictions. Early option exercise can be optimal when...... it reduces short-sale costs, transaction costs, or funding costs. We provide consistent empirical evidence, documenting billions of dollars of early exercise for options and convertible bonds using unique data on actual exercise decisions and frictions. Our model can explain as much as 98% of early exercises...

  11. Real Option Analysis (ROA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armanto Witjaksono

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Net Present Value (NPV method have populer since middle 70’s and now most of expert felt that method has several limitation, especially if used to analyse big scale investment alocation capital. Another method that begin to popular is Real Option Analysis (ROA that use to replace Net Present Value (NPV method. The strenght of Real Option Analysis (ROA method is the flexiblelity in giving information for the decision maker. The weakness of Real Option Analysis (ROA method is the simple mathematic formula, as the formula in NPV method, is not found yet. 

  12. Thermometers: Understand the Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the options Thermometers come in a variety of styles. Understand the different types of thermometers and how ... MA. Fever in infants and children: Pathophysiology and management. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed July 23, ...

  13. Traffic Light Options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Peter Løchte

    2007-01-01

    This paper introduces, prices, and analyzes traffic light options. The traffic light option is an innovative structured OTC derivative developed independently by several London-based investment banks to suit the needs of Danish life and pension (L&P) companies, which must comply with the traffic...... light solvency stress test system introduced by the Danish Financial Supervisory Authority (DFSA) in June 2001. This monitoring system requires L&P companies to submit regular reports documenting the sensitivity of the companies' base capital to certain pre-defined market shocks - the red and yellow...... light scenarios. These stress scenarios entail drops in interest rates as well as in stock prices, and traffic light options are thus designed to pay off and preserve sufficient capital when interest rates and stock prices fall simultaneously. Sweden's FSA implemented a traffic light system in January...

  14. 42 CFR 436.229 - Optional targeted low-income children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Optional targeted low-income children. 436.229... Options for Coverage as Categorically Needy Options for Coverage of Families and Children and Aged, Blind, and Disabled Individuals, Including Pregnant Women § 436.229 Optional targeted low-income children...

  15. Alternative energy options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, K.F.

    1983-01-01

    It is accepted that coal will continue to play the major role in the supply of energy to the country for the remainder of the century. In this paper, however, emphasis has been directed to those options which could supplement coal in an economic and technically sound manner. The general conclusion is that certain forms of solar energy hold the most promise and it is in this direction that research, development and implementation programmes should be directed. Tidal energy, fusion energy, geothermal energy, hydrogen energy and fuel cells are also discussed as alternative energy options

  16. Tank Space Options Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BOYLES, V.C.

    2001-01-01

    A risk-based priority for the retrieval of Hanford Site waste from the 149 single-shell tanks (SSTs) has been adopted as a result of changes to the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (HFFACO) (Ecology et al. 1997) negotiated in 2000. Retrieval of the first three tanks in the retrieval sequence fills available capacity in the double-shell tanks (DSTs) by 2007. As a result, the HFFACO change established a milestone (M-45-12-TO1) requiring the determination of options that could increase waste storage capacity for single-shell tank waste retrieval. The information will be considered in future negotiations. This document fulfills the milestone requirement. This study presents options that were reviewed for the purpose of increasing waste storage capacity. Eight options are identified that have the potential for increasing capacity from 5 to 10 million gallons, thus allowing uninterrupted single-shell tank retrieval until the planned Waste Treatment Plant begins processing substantial volumes of waste from the double-shell tanks in 2009. The cost of implementing these options is estimated to range from less than $1 per gallon to more than $14 per gallon. Construction of new double-shell tanks is estimated to cost about $63 per gallon. Providing 5 to 10 million gallons of available double-shell tank space could enable early retrieval of 5 to 9 high-risk single-shell tanks beyond those identified for retrieval by 2007. These tanks are A-101, AX-101, AX-103, BY-102, C-107, S-105, S-106, S-108, and S-109 (Garfield et al. 2000). This represents a potential to retrieve approximately 14 million total curies, including 3,200 curies of long-lived mobile radionuclides. The results of the study reflect qualitative analyses conducted to identify promising options. The estimated costs are rough-order-of magnitude and, therefore, subject to change. Implementing some of the options would represent a departure from the current baseline and may adversely impact the

  17. Lighting Options for Homes.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, W.S.

    1991-04-01

    This report covers many aspects of various lighting options for homes. Types of light sources described include natural light, artificial light, incandescent lamps, fluorescent lamps, and high intensity discharge lamps. A light source selection guide gives the physical characteristics of these, design considerations, and common applications. Color, strategies for efficient lighting, and types of lighting are discussed. There is one section giving tips for various situations in specific rooms. Rooms and types of fixtures are shown on a matrix with watts saved by using the recommended type lighting for that room and room location. A major emphasis of this report is saving energy by utilizing the most suitable, recommended lighting option. (BN)

  18. Thermal test options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koski, J.A.; Keltner, N.R.; Sobolik, K.B.

    1993-02-01

    Shipping containers for radioactive materials must be qualified to meet a thermal accident environment specified in regulations, such at Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 71. Aimed primarily at the shipping container design, this report discusses the thermal testing options available for meeting the regulatory requirements, and states the advantages and disadvantages of each approach. The principal options considered are testing with radiant heat, furnaces, and open pool fires. The report also identifies some of the facilities available and current contacts. Finally, the report makes some recommendations on the appropriate use of these different testing methods

  19. Novel preventive treatment options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Longbottom, C; Ekstrand, K; Zero, D

    2009-01-01

    A number of novel preventive treatment options which, as with traditional methods, can be differentiated into 3 categories of prevention (primary, secondary and tertiary), have been and are being currently investigated. Those reviewed are either commercially available or appear relatively close...... of these techniques show considerable promise and dentists should be aware of these developments and follow their progress, the evidence for each of these novel preventive treatment options is currently insufficient to make widespread recommendations. Changes in dental practice should be explored to see how oral...

  20. Spent fuel storage choices: What public opinion polls tell us

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bisconti, A.S.

    1995-01-01

    The crux of the issue of spent nuclear fuel for much of the American public is that taking car of our waste now instead of leaving it for future generations is the safe and environmentally responsible think to do. This article summarizes a number of public opinion surveys. Although it is important to recognize that most people are not familiar with specifics, much of the American public has a strong opinions about the fundamental guiding principles for safely managing radioactive waste. First there is clear agreement that we need action. Second, safety means taking the waste to a permanent disposal facility instead of leaving it in many different locations. Third, most of the public would like to keep nuclear energy as a supply option. Fourth, the majority of the public agreed with the statement that the availability of nuclear energy as an option for future energy supply depends on building a national waste storage or disposal facility

  1. Strongly Correlated Topological Insulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-03

    Strongly Correlated Topological Insulators In the past year, the grant was used for work in the field of topological phases, with emphasis on finding...surface of topological insulators. In the past 3 years, we have started a new direction, that of fractional topological insulators. These are materials...in which a topologically nontrivial quasi-flat band is fractionally filled and then subject to strong interactions. The views, opinions and/or

  2. Strong Cosmic Censorship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isenberg, James

    2017-01-01

    The Hawking-Penrose theorems tell us that solutions of Einstein's equations are generally singular, in the sense of the incompleteness of causal geodesics (the paths of physical observers). These singularities might be marked by the blowup of curvature and therefore crushing tidal forces, or by the breakdown of physical determinism. Penrose has conjectured (in his `Strong Cosmic Censorship Conjecture`) that it is generically unbounded curvature that causes singularities, rather than causal breakdown. The verification that ``AVTD behavior'' (marked by the domination of time derivatives over space derivatives) is generically present in a family of solutions has proven to be a useful tool for studying model versions of Strong Cosmic Censorship in that family. I discuss some of the history of Strong Cosmic Censorship, and then discuss what is known about AVTD behavior and Strong Cosmic Censorship in families of solutions defined by varying degrees of isometry, and discuss recent results which we believe will extend this knowledge and provide new support for Strong Cosmic Censorship. I also comment on some of the recent work on ``Weak Null Singularities'', and how this relates to Strong Cosmic Censorship.

  3. Heterogeneity and option pricing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benninga, Simon; Mayshar, Joram

    2000-01-01

    An economy with agents having constant yet heterogeneous degrees of relative risk aversion prices assets as though there were a single decreasing relative risk aversion pricing representative agent. The pricing kernel has fat tails and option prices do not conform to the Black-Scholes formula.

  4. Idaho's Energy Options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert M. Neilson

    2006-03-01

    This report, developed by the Idaho National Laboratory, is provided as an introduction to and an update of the status of technologies for the generation and use of energy. Its purpose is to provide information useful for identifying and evaluating Idaho’s energy options, and for developing and implementing Idaho’s energy direction and policies.

  5. Mixed waste management options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owens, C.B.; Kirner, N.P.

    1992-01-01

    Currently, limited storage and treatment capacity exists for commercial mixed waste streams. No commercial mixed waste disposal is available, and it has been estimated that if and when commercial mixed waste disposal becomes available, the costs will be high. If high disposal fees are imposed, generators may be willing to apply extraordinary treatment or regulatory approaches to properly dispose of their mixed waste. This paper explores the feasibility of several waste management scenarios and management options. Existing data on commercially generated mixed waste streams are used to identify the realm of mixed waste known to be generated. Each waste stream is evaluated from both a regulatory and technical perspective in order to convert the waste into a strictly low-level radioactive or a hazardous waste. Alternative regulatory approaches evaluated in this paper include a delisting petition) no migration petition) and a treatability variance. For each waste stream, potentially available treatment options are identified that could lead to these variances. Waste minimization methodology and storage for decay are also considered. Economic feasibility of each option is discussed broadly. Another option for mixed waste management that is being explored is the feasibility of Department of Energy (DOE) accepting commercial mixed waste for treatment, storage, and disposal. A study has been completed that analyzes DOE treatment capacity in comparison with commercial mixed waste streams. (author)

  6. Option Pricing and Momentum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodriguez, J.C.

    2007-01-01

    If managers are reluctant to fully adjust dividends to changes in earnings, stock returns and changes in the dividend yield will tend to be negatively correlated. When this is the case, stock returns will exhibit positive autocorrelation, or mo- mentum. This paper studies the pricing of options in

  7. Our Energy Options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, Paul A.; Witt, Frank C.

    Presented is an analysis of alternatives available to the United States in dealing with energy problems. Options explained and evaluated include coal, solar, hydroelectric, nuclear, geothermal, wind, biomass, and energy conservation. The booklet is part of Project APEC (America's Possible Energy Choices), a nationally validated Title IVc project…

  8. Public Health Risks of Enterobacterial Isolates Producing Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamases or AmpC β-Lactamases in Food and Food-Producing Animals: An EU Perspective of Epidemiology, Analytical Methods, Risk Factors, and Control Options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liebana, Ernesto; Carattoli, Alessandra; Coque, Teresa M.

    2013-01-01

    The blaESBL and blaAmpC genes are spread by plasmid-mediated integrons, insertion sequences, and transposons, some of which are homologous in food animals and humans. Cephalosporin usage in animal production is an important risk factor; restricting such use would be an effective control option....

  9. Option dealing strategies and the related risk management procedures

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    M.Com. (Financial Management) During the last decade, options, which are financial instruments used for trading and hedging, have shown greater development than any other financial instrument over the same period of time. Because option dealing is perceived in the market-place as an instrument which is technically advanced, innovative and, complex, many potential option players do not take part in trading. This process' of withdrawal is fuelled by constant negative publicity given to optio...

  10. Options for Reducing the Deficit: 2017 to 2026

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    incorporated in the United States are subject to U.S. taxes on both their domestic income and their foreign income. To offset potential double taxation , a...Share of the Unemployment Insurance System 175 Taxation of Income From Businesses and Other EntitiesOption 25 Increase Corporate Income Tax Rates by 1...187Option 31 Subject All Publicly Traded Partnerships to the Corporate Income Tax 189Option 32 Repeal the Low-Income Housing Tax Credit 190 Taxation of

  11. Pricing Power Options within the Heston Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti N.I. Ibrahim

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Numerous studies have presented evidence that certain financial assets may exhibit stochastic volatility or jumps, which cannot be captured within the Black-Scholes environment. This work investigates the valuation of power options when the variance follows the Heston model of stochastic volatility. A closed form representation of the characteristic function of the process is derived from the partial differential equation (PDE of the replicating portfolio. The characteristic function is essential for the computation of the European power option prices via the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT technique. Numerical results are presented. © 2012 Published by NTMSCI Selection and/or peer review under responsibility of NTMSCI Publication Society

  12. Strong Arcwise Connectedness

    OpenAIRE

    Espinoza, Benjamin; Gartside, Paul; Kovan-Bakan, Merve; Mamatelashvili, Ana

    2012-01-01

    A space is `n-strong arc connected' (n-sac) if for any n points in the space there is an arc in the space visiting them in order. A space is omega-strong arc connected (omega-sac) if it is n-sac for all n. We study these properties in finite graphs, regular continua, and rational continua. There are no 4-sac graphs, but there are 3-sac graphs and graphs which are 2-sac but not 3-sac. For every n there is an n-sac regular continuum, but no regular continuum is omega-sac. There is an omega-sac ...

  13. Abortion: Strong's counterexamples fail

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Nucci, Ezio

    2009-01-01

    This paper shows that the counterexamples proposed by Strong in 2008 in the Journal of Medical Ethics to Marquis's argument against abortion fail. Strong's basic idea is that there are cases--for example, terminally ill patients--where killing an adult human being is prima facie seriously morally......'s scenarios have some valuable future or admitted that killing them is not seriously morally wrong. Finally, if "valuable future" is interpreted as referring to objective standards, one ends up with implausible and unpalatable moral claims....

  14. [Perioral treatment options in cosmetic facial surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bierenbroodspot, F; Schouten, H J; Schepers, R H; Jansma, J

    2017-06-01

    The perioral region is unique and important in the face, both from a functional and an aesthetic point of view. There is a strong relationship between the perioral soft tissues, such as the lips and the corners of the mouth, and the underlying dentition and the jaws. Perioral ageing phenomena, such as depressed corners of the mouth, volume loss and wrinkles, can be improved, however, to a limited extent with intraoral treatment. These ageing phenomena can usually be treated more effectively with several extraoral treatment modalities that also enhance perioral aesthetics. The perioral cosmetic treatment options can be divided into various lifting procedures and volumising techniques. Considering that the dentist has to deal regularly with patients with perioral aesthetic wishes and also functional problems, it is important that one has knowledge of the different perioral treatment options, for both cosmetic and functional options.

  15. Osteoporosis: Therapeutic Options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanova Stefka

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The definition of osteoporosis was originally formulated at a conference of the World Health Organization (WHO in 1993 as ‘a systemic skeletal disease characterized by decreased bone mass and altered micro-architecture of bone tissue, leading to enhanced bone fragility and risk of fractures’. Osteoporosis is characterized by low bone mineral density (BMD and loss of the structural and bio-mechanical properties that are required to maintain bone homeostasis. This review aims to address the currently available options in prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. Management of osteoporosis includes non-pharmacological treatment - diet rich of calcium and vitamin D, healthy lifestyle, proper exercise plan, and pharmacological therapy. Combination of non-pharmacological and pharmacological treatment options have to be considered for prevention of osteoporosis and minimization of the risk of fractures. Given the heterogeneity of osteoporosis syndrome and lack of significant number of comparative studies, the choice of a pharmacological agents should be individualized.

  16. Management options of varicoceles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Chan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Varicocele is one of the most common causes of male infertility. Treatment options for varicoceles includes open varicocelectomy performed at various anatomical levels. Laparoscopic varicocelectomy has been established to be a safe and effective treatment for varicoceles. Robotic surgery has been introduced recently as an alternative surgical option for varicocelectomy. Microsurgical varicocelectomy has gained increasing popularity among experts in male reproductive medicine as the treatment of choice for varicocele because of its superior surgical outcomes. There is a growing volume of literature in the recent years on minimal invasive varicocele treatment with percutaneous retrograde and anterograde venous embolization/sclerotherapy. In this review, we will discuss the advantages and limitations associated with each treatment modality for varicoceles. Employment of these advanced techniques of varicocelectomy can provide a safe and effective approach aiming to eliminate varicocele, preserve testicular function and, in a substantial number of men, increase semen quality and the likelihood of pregnancy.

  17. Traditional preventive treatment options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Longbottom, C; Ekstrand, K; Zero, D

    2009-01-01

    conventional operative care, and since controlling the caries process prior to first restoration is the key to breaking the repair cycle and improving care for patients, future research should address the shortcomings in the current level of supporting evidence for the various traditional preventive treatment......Preventive treatment options can be divided into primary, secondary and tertiary prevention techniques, which can involve patient- or professionally applied methods. These include: oral hygiene (instruction), pit and fissure sealants ('temporary' or 'permanent'), fluoride applications (patient...

  18. Optioner eller betingede aktier?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bechmann, Ken L.; Thorsell, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Incitamentsaflønning – og herunder især aktieaflønning – fortsætter med at tiltrække sig stor opmærksomhed fra en lang række sider. Et spørgsmål, der ofte diskuteres, er selskabernes anvendelse af aktieaflønning, dvs. aflønning med optioner, betingede aktier o. lign. Diskussionerne har blandt andet...

  19. The safeguards options study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakkila, E.A.; Mullen, M.F.; Olinger, C.T.; Stanbro, W.D.; Olsen, A.P.; Roche, C.T.; Rudolph, R.R.; Bieber, A.M.; Lemley, J.; Filby, E.

    1995-04-01

    The Safeguards Options Study was initiated to aid the International Safeguards Division (ISD) of the DOE Office of Arms Control and Nonproliferation in developing its programs in enhanced international safeguards. The goal was to provide a technical basis for the ISD program in this area. The Safeguards Options Study has been a cooperative effort among ten organizations. These are Argonne National Laboratory, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Mound Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Pacific Northwest Laboratories, Sandia National Laboratories, and Special Technologies Laboratory. Much of the Motivation for the Safeguards Options Study is the recognition after the Iraq experience that there are deficiencies in the present approach to international safeguards. While under International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards at their declared facilities, Iraq was able to develop a significant weapons program without being noticed. This is because negotiated safeguards only applied at declared sites. Even so, their nuclear weapons program clearly conflicted with Iraq's obligations under the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty (NPT) as a nonnuclear weapon state

  20. Shungnak Energy Configuration Options.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosewater, David Martin [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Eddy, John P. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-10-01

    Power systems in rural Alaska villages face a unique combination of challenges that can increase the cost of energy and lowers energy supply reliability. In the case of the remote village of Shungnak, diesel and heating fuel is either shipped in by barge or flown in by aircraft. This report presents a technical analysis of several energy infrastructure upgrade and modification options to reduce the amount of fuel consumed by the community of Shungnak. Reducing fuel usage saves money and makes the village more resilient to disruptions in fuel supply. The analysis considers demand side options, such as energy efficiency, alongside the installation of wind and solar power generation options. Some novel approaches are also considered including battery energy storage and the use of electrical home heating stoves powered by renewable generation that would otherwise be spilled and wasted. This report concludes with specific recommendations for Shungnak based on economic factors, and fuel price sensitivity. General conclusions are also included to support future work analyzing similar energy challenges in remote arctic regions.

  1. The safeguards options study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hakkila, E.A.; Mullen, M.F.; Olinger, C.T.; Stanbro, W.D. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Olsen, A.P.; Roche, C.T.; Rudolph, R.R. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Bieber, A.M.; Lemley, J. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Filby, E. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)] [and others

    1995-04-01

    The Safeguards Options Study was initiated to aid the International Safeguards Division (ISD) of the DOE Office of Arms Control and Nonproliferation in developing its programs in enhanced international safeguards. The goal was to provide a technical basis for the ISD program in this area. The Safeguards Options Study has been a cooperative effort among ten organizations. These are Argonne National Laboratory, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Mound Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Pacific Northwest Laboratories, Sandia National Laboratories, and Special Technologies Laboratory. Much of the Motivation for the Safeguards Options Study is the recognition after the Iraq experience that there are deficiencies in the present approach to international safeguards. While under International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards at their declared facilities, Iraq was able to develop a significant weapons program without being noticed. This is because negotiated safeguards only applied at declared sites. Even so, their nuclear weapons program clearly conflicted with Iraq`s obligations under the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty (NPT) as a nonnuclear weapon state.

  2. Strong Electroweak Symmetry Breaking

    CERN Document Server

    Grinstein, Benjamin

    2011-01-01

    Models of spontaneous breaking of electroweak symmetry by a strong interaction do not have fine tuning/hierarchy problem. They are conceptually elegant and use the only mechanism of spontaneous breaking of a gauge symmetry that is known to occur in nature. The simplest model, minimal technicolor with extended technicolor interactions, is appealing because one can calculate by scaling up from QCD. But it is ruled out on many counts: inappropriately low quark and lepton masses (or excessive FCNC), bad electroweak data fits, light scalar and vector states, etc. However, nature may not choose the minimal model and then we are stuck: except possibly through lattice simulations, we are unable to compute and test the models. In the LHC era it therefore makes sense to abandon specific models (of strong EW breaking) and concentrate on generic features that may indicate discovery. The Technicolor Straw Man is not a model but a parametrized search strategy inspired by a remarkable generic feature of walking technicolor,...

  3. Plasmons in strong superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldo, M.; Ducoin, C.

    2011-01-01

    We present a study of the possible plasmon excitations that can occur in systems where strong superconductivity is present. In these systems the plasmon energy is comparable to or smaller than the pairing gap. As a prototype of these systems we consider the proton component of Neutron Star matter just below the crust when electron screening is not taken into account. For the realistic case we consider in detail the different aspects of the elementary excitations when the proton, electron components are considered within the Random-Phase Approximation generalized to the superfluid case, while the influence of the neutron component is considered only at qualitative level. Electron screening plays a major role in modifying the proton spectrum and spectral function. At the same time the electron plasmon is strongly modified and damped by the indirect coupling with the superfluid proton component, even at moderately low values of the gap. The excitation spectrum shows the interplay of the different components and their relevance for each excitation modes. The results are relevant for neutrino physics and thermodynamical processes in neutron stars. If electron screening is neglected, the spectral properties of the proton component show some resemblance with the physical situation in high-T c superconductors, and we briefly discuss similarities and differences in this connection. In a general prospect, the results of the study emphasize the role of Coulomb interaction in strong superconductors.

  4. Options for Heart Valve Replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are the most commonly replaced valves. Pulmonary and tricuspid valve replacements are fairly uncommon in adults. Replacing a ... Problems and Causes • Risks, Signs and Symptoms • Accurate Diagnosis • Treatment Options ... Repair Valve Replacement - Ross Procedure - Newer Surgery Options - ...

  5. Novel preventive treatment options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Longbottom, C; Ekstrand, K; Zero, D

    2009-01-01

    to that point. These include: approximal sealants; fluoride applications, including slow-release devices; measures to help remineralize demineralized tissue, including 3 different methods of delivering amorphous calcium phosphate; measures to help modify the biofilm to reduce the cariogenic challenge, including...... of these techniques show considerable promise and dentists should be aware of these developments and follow their progress, the evidence for each of these novel preventive treatment options is currently insufficient to make widespread recommendations. Changes in dental practice should be explored to see how oral...

  6. Assessing waste management options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cloess, K.D.

    1981-01-01

    A final decision on waste management options at the back end of the fuel cycle will be taken by the West German government in the mid-1980s. To assist decision making, the Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Centre has undertaken a comparative study of the alternative waste management routes: disposal and reprocessing. The criteria for comparison are technical feasibility, radiological impacts, raw material requirements and proliferation hazards. The study and criteria are discussed in relation to the storage and processing of irradiated fuel elements, their conditioning prior to disposal, and their eventual disposal. (author)

  7. [Interventional neuroradiology: current options].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szikora, István; Marosfői, Miklós; Berentei, Zsolt; Gubucz, István

    2015-04-26

    Modern interventional neuroradiology has a leading role in the treatment of ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke, and it provides more and more important treatment options for degenerative diseases of the vertebral column and the management of correlated pain. During the last decades interventional neuroradiology has played a primary role in the treatment of intracranial berry aneurysms due to the continuous technical improvements. Ongoing studies proved superiority of mechanical stent-thrombectomy in acute proximal occlusion of cerebral arteries. Less invasive neurointerventional methods, such as vertebroplasty, are widely used in osteoporotic and neoplastic pathologic fractures of the vertebral bodies. These treatments should be performed in a specialized center by well trained physicians.

  8. Installment options close to expiry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Alobaidi

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We use an asymptotic expansion to study the behavior of installment options close to expiry. Installment options are contracts where the price is paid over the life of the option rather than as a lump sum at the time of purchase, and where the contract can be allowed to lapse at any time. Series solutions are obtained for the location of the free boundary and the price of the option.

  9. Strong-coupling approximations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbott, R.B.

    1984-03-01

    Standard path-integral techniques such as instanton calculations give good answers for weak-coupling problems, but become unreliable for strong-coupling. Here we consider a method of replacing the original potential by a suitably chosen harmonic oscillator potential. Physically this is motivated by the fact that potential barriers below the level of the ground-state energy of a quantum-mechanical system have little effect. Numerically, results are good, both for quantum-mechanical problems and for massive phi 4 field theory in 1 + 1 dimensions. 9 references, 6 figures

  10. Strong interaction and QFD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebata, T.

    1981-01-01

    With an assumed weak multiplet structure for bosonic hadrons, which is consistent with the ΔI = 1/2 rule, it is shown that the strong interaction effective hamiltonian is compatible with the weak SU(2) x U(1) gauge transformation. Especially the rho-meson transforms as a triplet under SU(2)sub(w), and this is the origin of the rho-photon analogy. It is also shown that the existence of the non-vanishing Cabibbo angle is a necessary condition for the absence of the exotic hadrons. (orig.)

  11. Stock option repricing in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sauer, M.; Sautner, Z.

    2008-01-01

    This paper investigates the link between option repricing, firm performance and corporate governance in Europe. Our sample consists of 77 European firms that repriced their stock option between 1987 and 2003. We document that option repricing is mainly a phenomenon for young and fast growing firms

  12. Strong Coupling Holography

    CERN Document Server

    Dvali, Gia

    2009-01-01

    We show that whenever a 4-dimensional theory with N particle species emerges as a consistent low energy description of a 3-brane embedded in an asymptotically-flat (4+d)-dimensional space, the holographic scale of high-dimensional gravity sets the strong coupling scale of the 4D theory. This connection persists in the limit in which gravity can be consistently decoupled. We demonstrate this effect for orbifold planes, as well as for the solitonic branes and string theoretic D-branes. In all cases the emergence of a 4D strong coupling scale from bulk holography is a persistent phenomenon. The effect turns out to be insensitive even to such extreme deformations of the brane action that seemingly shield 4D theory from the bulk gravity effects. A well understood example of such deformation is given by large 4D Einstein term in the 3-brane action, which is known to suppress the strength of 5D gravity at short distances and change the 5D Newton's law into the four-dimensional one. Nevertheless, we observe that the ...

  13. Retrieval options study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-03-01

    This Retrieval Options Study is part of the systems analysis activities of the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation to develop the scientific and technological bases for radioactive waste repositories in various geologic media. The study considers two waste forms, high level waste and spent fuel, and defines various classes of waste retrieval and recovery. A methodology and data base are developed which allow the relative evaluation of retrieval and recovery costs and the following technical criteria: safety; technical feasibility; ease of retrieval; probable intact retrieval time; safeguards; monitoring; criticality; and licensability. A total of 505 repository options are defined and the cost and technical criteria evaluated utilizing a combination of facts and engineering judgments. The repositories evaluated are selected combinations of the following parameters: Geologic Media (salt, granite, basalt, shale); Retrieval Time after Emplacement (5 and 25 years); Emplacement Design (nominal hole, large hole, carbon steel canister, corrosion resistant canister, backfill in hole, nominal sleeves, thick wall sleeves); Emplacement Configuration (single vertical, multiple vertical, single horizontal, multiple horizontal, vaults; Thermal Considerations; (normal design, reduced density, once-through ventilation, recirculated ventilation); Room Backfill; (none, run-of-mine, early, 5 year delay, 25 year delay, decommissioned); and Rate of Retrieval; (same as emplacement, variably slower depending on repository/canister condition).

  14. Retrieval options study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-03-01

    This Retrieval Options Study is part of the systems analysis activities of the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation to develop the scientific and technological bases for radioactive waste repositories in various geologic media. The study considers two waste forms, high level waste and spent fuel, and defines various classes of waste retrieval and recovery. A methodology and data base are developed which allow the relative evaluation of retrieval and recovery costs and the following technical criteria: safety; technical feasibility; ease of retrieval; probable intact retrieval time; safeguards; monitoring; criticality; and licensability. A total of 505 repository options are defined and the cost and technical criteria evaluated utilizing a combination of facts and engineering judgments. The repositories evaluated are selected combinations of the following parameters: Geologic Media (salt, granite, basalt, shale); Retrieval Time after Emplacement (5 and 25 years); Emplacement Design (nominal hole, large hole, carbon steel canister, corrosion resistant canister, backfill in hole, nominal sleeves, thick wall sleeves); Emplacement Configuration (single vertical, multiple vertical, single horizontal, multiple horizontal, vaults; Thermal Considerations; (normal design, reduced density, once-through ventilation, recirculated ventilation); Room Backfill; (none, run-of-mine, early, 5 year delay, 25 year delay, decommissioned); and Rate of Retrieval;

  15. PREFACE: Strongly correlated electron systems Strongly correlated electron systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Siddharth S.; Littlewood, P. B.

    2012-07-01

    make use of 'small' electrons packed to the highest possible density. These are by definition 'strongly correlated'. For example: good photovoltaics must be efficient optical absorbers, which means that photons will generate tightly bound electron-hole pairs (excitons) that must then be ionised at a heterointerface and transported to contacts; efficient solid state refrigeration depends on substantial entropy changes in a unit cell, with large local electrical or magnetic moments; efficient lighting is in a real sense the inverse of photovoltaics; the limit of an efficient battery is a supercapacitor employing mixed valent ions; fuel cells and solar to fuel conversion require us to understand electrochemistry on the scale of a single atom; and we already know that the only prospect for effective high temperature superconductivity involves strongly correlated materials. Even novel IT technologies are now seen to have value not just for novel function but also for efficiency. While strongly correlated electron systems continue to excite researchers and the public alike due to the fundamental science issues involved, it seems increasingly likely that support for the science will be leveraged by its impact on energy and sustainability. Strongly correlated electron systems contents Strongly correlated electron systemsSiddharth S Saxena and P B Littlewood Magnetism, f-electron localization and superconductivity in 122-type heavy-fermion metalsF Steglich, J Arndt, O Stockert, S Friedemann, M Brando, C Klingner, C Krellner, C Geibel, S Wirth, S Kirchner and Q Si High energy pseudogap and its evolution with doping in Fe-based superconductors as revealed by optical spectroscopyN L Wang, W Z Hu, Z G Chen, R H Yuan, G Li, G F Chen and T Xiang Structural investigations on YbRh2Si2: from the atomic to the macroscopic length scaleS Wirth, S Ernst, R Cardoso-Gil, H Borrmann, S Seiro, C Krellner, C Geibel, S Kirchner, U Burkhardt, Y Grin and F Steglich Confinement of chiral magnetic

  16. LIGO: The strong belief

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2016-01-01

    Twenty years of designing, building and testing a number of innovative technologies, with the strong belief that the endeavour would lead to a historic breakthrough. The Bulletin publishes an abstract of the Courier’s interview with Barry Barish, one of the founding fathers of LIGO.   The plots show the signals of gravitational waves detected by the twin LIGO observatories at Livingston, Louisiana, and Hanford, Washington. (Image: Caltech/MIT/LIGO Lab) On 11 February, the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) and Virgo collaborations published a historic paper in which they showed a gravitational signal emitted by the merger of two black holes. These results come after 20 years of hard work by a large collaboration of scientists operating the two LIGO observatories in the US. Barry Barish, Linde Professor of Physics, Emeritus at the California Institute of Technology and former Director of the Global Design Effort for the Internat...

  17. Employee commute options guidance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-12-01

    The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA) require severe and extreme ozone nonattainment areas and serious carbon monoxide nonattainment areas to establish programs aimed at reducing commute trips to the worksites of large employers. The concerns that lead to the inclusion of the Employee Commute Options (ECO) provision in the Act are that more people are driving than ever before and they are driving longer distances. The purpose of the guidance is to inform the affected State and local jurisdictions of the Clean Air Act requirement, to provide guidance on preparing an approvable State Implementation Plan (SIP) revision, and to discuss various approaches which may help areas achieve Clean Air Act targets through implementation strategies that are the least burdensome and costly to both affected employers and employees

  18. Achalasia: current treatment options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Familiari, Pietro; Greco, Santi; Volkanovska, Ance; Gigante, Giovanni; Cali, Anna; Boškoski, Ivo; Costamagna, Guido

    2015-01-01

    Achalasia is a rare esophageal motility disorder, characterized by impaired swallow-induced, lower esophageal sphincter (LES) relaxation and defective esophageal peristalsis. Unfortunately, there are no etiological therapies for achalasia. Patients present with dysphagia, chest pain and regurgitation of undigested food, often leading to weight loss. The currently available treatments have the common aim of relieving symptoms by decreasing the pressure of the LES. This can be achieved with some medications, by inhibiting the cholinergic innervation (botulinum toxin), by stretching (endoscopic dilation) or cutting (surgery) the LES. Recently, other therapeutic options, including per-oral endoscopic myotomy have been developed and are gaining international consensus. The authors report on the benefits and weaknesses of the different therapies and provide an updated approach to the management of achalasia.

  19. Optional Defaultable Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed N. Abdelghani

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with defaultable markets, one of the main research areas of mathematical finance. It proposes a new approach to the theory of such markets using techniques from the calculus of optional stochastic processes on unusual probability spaces, which was not presented before. The paper is a foundation paper and contains a number of fundamental results on modeling of defaultable markets, pricing and hedging of defaultable claims and results on the probability of default under such conditions. Moreover, several important examples are presented: a new pricing formula for a defaultable bond and a new pricing formula for credit default swap. Furthermore, some results on the absence of arbitrage for markets on unusual probability spaces and markets with default are also provided.

  20. John Strong (1941 - 2006)

    CERN Multimedia

    Wickens, F

    Our friend and colleague John Strong was cruelly taken from us by a brain tumour on Monday 31st July, a few days before his 65th birthday John started his career working with a group from Westfield College, under the leadership of Ted Bellamy. He obtained his PhD and spent the early part of his career on experiments at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL), but after the early 1970s his research was focussed on experiments in CERN. Over the years he made a number of notable contributions to experiments in CERN: The Omega spectrometer adopted a system John had originally developed for experiments at RAL using vidicon cameras to record the sparks in the spark chambers; He contributed to the success of NA1 and NA7, where he became heavily involved in the electronic trigger systems; He was responsible for the second level trigger system for the ALEPH detector and spent five years leading a team that designed and built the system, which ran for twelve years with only minor interventions. Following ALEPH he tur...

  1. Stirring Strongly Coupled Plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Fadafan, Kazem Bitaghsir; Rajagopal, Krishna; Wiedemann, Urs Achim

    2009-01-01

    We determine the energy it takes to move a test quark along a circle of radius L with angular frequency w through the strongly coupled plasma of N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills (SYM) theory. We find that for most values of L and w the energy deposited by stirring the plasma in this way is governed either by the drag force acting on a test quark moving through the plasma in a straight line with speed v=Lw or by the energy radiated by a quark in circular motion in the absence of any plasma, whichever is larger. There is a continuous crossover from the drag-dominated regime to the radiation-dominated regime. In the crossover regime we find evidence for significant destructive interference between energy loss due to drag and that due to radiation as if in vacuum. The rotating quark thus serves as a model system in which the relative strength of, and interplay between, two different mechanisms of parton energy loss is accessible via a controlled classical gravity calculation. We close by speculating on the implicati...

  2. Strong-interaction nonuniversality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkas, R.R.; Foot, R.; He, X.; Joshi, G.C.

    1989-01-01

    The universal QCD color theory is extended to an SU(3) 1 direct product SU(3) 2 direct product SU(3) 3 gauge theory, where quarks of the ith generation transform as triplets under SU(3)/sub i/ and singlets under the other two factors. The usual color group is then identified with the diagonal subgroup, which remains exact after symmetry breaking. The gauge bosons associated with the 16 broken generators then form two massive octets under ordinary color. The interactions between quarks and these heavy gluonlike particles are explicitly nonuniversal and thus an exploration of their physical implications allows us to shed light on the fundamental issue of strong-interaction universality. Nonuniversality and weak flavor mixing are shown to generate heavy-gluon-induced flavor-changing neutral currents. The phenomenology of these processes is studied, as they provide the major experimental constraint on the extended theory. Three symmetry-breaking scenarios are presented. The first has color breaking occurring at the weak scale, while the second and third divorce the two scales. The third model has the interesting feature of radiatively induced off-diagonal Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix elements

  3. Levelized cost-risk reduction prioritization of waste disposal options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkinson, V.K.; Young, J.M.

    1992-01-01

    The prioritization of solid waste disposal options in terms of reduced risk to workers, the public, and the environment has recently generated considerable governmental and public interest. In this paper we address the development of a methodology to establish priorities for waste disposal options, such as incineration, landfills, long-term storage, waste minimization, etc. The study is one result of an overall project to develop methodologies for Probabilistic Risk Assessments (PRAs) of non-reactor nuclear facilities for the US Department of Energy. Option preferences are based on a levelized cost-risk reduction analysis. Option rankings are developed as functions of disposal option cost and timing, relative long- and short-term risks, and possible accident scenarios. We examine the annual costs and risks for each option over a large number of years. Risk, in this paper, is defined in terms of annual fatalities (both prompt and long-term) and environmental restoration costs that might result from either an accidental release or long-term exposure to both plant workers and the public near the site or facility. We use event timing to weigh both costs and risks; near-term costs and risks are discounted less than future expenditures and fatalities. This technique levels the timing of cash flows and benefits by converting future costs and benefits to present value costs and benefits. We give an example Levelized Cost-Benefit Analysis of incinerator location options to demonstrate the methodology and required data

  4. Ethics: No Longer Optional.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eveslage, Thomas; D'Angelo, Paul

    1994-01-01

    Suggests that publications advisors have sound, practical reasons for addressing ethical decision making. Presents a brief review of the Supreme Court's message in "Hazelwood." Surveys staffs and advisors of award-winning high school newspapers concerning ethical issues facing the student press. Finds that advisors believe ethics to be…

  5. Process to identify and evaluate restoration options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strand, J.; Senner, S.; Weiner, A.; Rabinowitch, S.; Brodersen, M.; Rice, K.; Klinge, K.; MacMullin, S.; Yender, R.; Thompson, R.

    1993-01-01

    The restoration planning process has yielded a number of possible alternatives for restoring resources and services injured by the Exxon Valdez oil spill. They were developed by resource managers, scientists, and the public, taking into consideration the results of damage assessment and restoration studies and information from the scientific literature. The alternatives thus far identified include no action natural recovery, management of human uses, manipulation of resources, habitat protection and acquisition, acquisition of equivalent resources, and combinations of the above. Each alternative consists of a different mix of resource- or service-specific restoration options. To decide whether it was appropriate to spend restoration funds on a particular resource or service, first criteria had to be developed that evaluated available evidence for consequential injury and the adequacy and rate of natural recovery. Then, recognizing the range of effective restoration options, a second set of criteria was applied to determine which restoration options were the most beneficial. These criteria included technical feasibility, potential to improve the rate or degree of recovery, the relationship of expected costs to benefits, cost effectiveness, and the potential to restore the ecosystem as a whole. The restoration options considered to be most beneficial will be grouped together in several or more of the above alternatives and presented in a draft restoration plan. They will be further evaluated in a companion draft environmental impact statement

  6. 42 CFR 435.229 - Optional targeted low-income children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Optional targeted low-income children. 435.229... Coverage of Families and Children § 435.229 Optional targeted low-income children. The agency may provide Medicaid to— (a) All individuals under age 19 who are optional targeted low-income children as defined in...

  7. Energy options. Preparing for an uncertain future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrews, H.R.; Harvey, M.

    1988-02-01

    We must begin now to plan to replace fossil fuels as a major energy source. Few energy sources are capable of supplying the vast amount of energy required. The only options that can play a major role are coal, hydro-electricity, and nuclear. The soft energy options are not reliable: we cannot control the blowing of the wind or the shining of the sun; biomass is susceptible to disease. If we were to become too dependent on these we would be surrendering our energy system to the vagaries of nature. A strong electrical system is a cornerstone of energy security. Surplus capacity is often criticized, but a shortfall in supply will cause industrial chaos. Nuclear power is based on a sustainable resource supply, uses a proven technology, is economically competitive, and causes minimal harm to human populations and the environment

  8. Option-implied term structures

    OpenAIRE

    Vogt, Erik

    2014-01-01

    The illiquidity of long-maturity options has made it difficult to study the term structures of option spanning portfolios. This paper proposes a new estimation and inference framework for these option-implied term structures that addresses long-maturity illiquidity. By building a sieve estimator around the risk-neutral valuation equation, the framework theoretically justifies (fat-tailed) extrapolations beyond truncated strikes and between observed maturities while remaining nonparametric. Ne...

  9. Portfolio insurance using traded options

    OpenAIRE

    Machado-Santos, Carlos

    2001-01-01

    Literature concerning the institutional use of options indicates that the main purpose of option trading is to provide investors with the opportunity to create return distributions previously unavailable, considering that options provide the means to manipulate portfolio returns. In such a context, this study intends to analyse the returns of insured portfolios generated by hedging strategies on underlying stock portfolios. Because dynamic hedging is too expensive, we have hedged the stock po...

  10. Controversial reversal of nuclear option

    OpenAIRE

    Mesarović Miodrag

    2002-01-01

    Nuclear option is in a unique position to restore its original role of the main source of energy with an increased attention paid to the security of electricity supply as well as regulatory changes affecting fossil fuels, particularly with due introduction of climate change prevention measures. Recent developments indicate the advantages of nuclear option over other possible options in terms of sustainable development. However, a large number of controversial issues on nuclear energy make its...

  11. AFCI Options Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Wigeland; T. Taiwo; M. Todosow; W. Halsey; J. Gehin

    2009-09-01

    This report describes the background and framework for both organizing the discussion and providing information on the potential for nuclear energy R&D to develop alternative nuclear fuel cycles that would address the issues with the current implementations of nuclear power, including nuclear waste disposal, proliferation risk, safety, security, economics, and sustainability. The disposition of used fuel is the cause of many of the concerns, and the possible approaches to used fuel management identify a number of basic technology areas that need to be considered. The basic science in each of the technology areas is discussed, emphasizing what science is currently available, where scientific knowledge may be insufficient, and especially to identify specific areas where transformational discoveries may allow achievement of performance goals not currently attainable. These discussions lead to the wide range of technical options that have been the basis for past and current research and development on advanced nuclear fuel cycles in the United States. The results of this work are then briefly reviewed to show the extent to which such approaches are capable of addressing the issues with nuclear power, the potential for moving further, and the inherent limitations.

  12. Option price and market instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baaquie, Belal E.; Yu, Miao

    2017-04-01

    An option pricing formula, for which the price of an option depends on both the value of the underlying security as well as the velocity of the security, has been proposed in Baaquie and Yang (2014). The FX (foreign exchange) options price was empirically studied in Baaquie et al., (2014), and it was found that the model in general provides an excellent fit for all strike prices with a fixed model parameters-unlike the Black-Scholes option price Hull and White (1987) that requires the empirically determined implied volatility surface to fit the option data. The option price proposed in Baaquie and Cao Yang (2014) did not fit the data during the crisis of 2007-2008. We make a hypothesis that the failure of the option price to fit data is an indication of the market's large deviation from its near equilibrium behavior due to the market's instability. Furthermore, our indicator of market's instability is shown to be more accurate than the option's observed volatility. The market prices of the FX option for various currencies are studied in the light of our hypothesis.

  13. Perpetual Cancellable American Call Option

    OpenAIRE

    Emmerling, Thomas J.

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the valuation of a generalized American-style option known as a Game-style call option in an infinite time horizon setting. The specifications of this contract allow the writer to terminate the call option at any point in time for a fixed penalty amount paid directly to the holder. Valuation of a perpetual Game-style put option was addressed by Kyprianou (2004) in a Black-Scholes setting on a non-dividend paying asset. Here, we undertake a similar analysis for the perpetua...

  14. 20 CFR 416.2035 - Optional supplementation: Additional State options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Optional supplementation: Additional State options. 416.2035 Section 416.2035 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL... political subdivision may impose, as a condition of eligibility, a residency requirement which excludes from...

  15. Internet privacy options for adequate realisation

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    A thorough multidisciplinary analysis of various perspectives on internet privacy was published as the first volume of a study, revealing the results of the achatech project "Internet Privacy - A Culture of Privacy and Trust on the Internet." The second publication from this project presents integrated, interdisciplinary options for improving privacy on the Internet utilising a normative, value-oriented approach. The ways in which privacy promotes and preconditions fundamental societal values and how privacy violations endanger the flourishing of said values are exemplified. The conditions which must be fulfilled in order to achieve a culture of privacy and trust on the internet are illuminated. This volume presents options for policy-makers, educators, businesses and technology experts how to facilitate solutions for more privacy on the Internet and identifies further research requirements in this area.

  16. Reducing vibration damage claims: Field application of strong public relations and one method of using commonly available seismograph and video taping equipment to document blast vibration regression at the nearest structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritzen, M.R.; Fritzen, T.A.

    1994-01-01

    Anytime that blasting operations will be conducted near existing inhabited structures, vibration damage claims are a major concern of the blasting contractor. It has been the authors' experience that even when vibration and airblast levels generated from a blast are well below accepted damage thresholds, damage claims can still arise. The single greatest source of damage claims is the element of surprise associated with not knowing that blasting operations are being conducted nearby. The second greatest source of damage claims arise form the inability to produce accurate and detailed records of all blasting activity which provides evidence that vibration and air blast levels from each blast had been taken by seismic recording equipment. Using a two part plan consisting of extensive public relations followed by a detailed and accurate monitoring and recording of blasting operations has resulted in no substantiated claims of damage since its' incorporation. The authors experience shows that by using this two part process when conducting blasting operations near inhabited structures, unsubstantiated blast vibration damage claims may be significantly reduced

  17. Reducing vibration damage claims: Field application of strong public relations and one method of using commonly available seismograph and video taping equipment to document blast vibration regression at the nearest structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fritzen, M.R.; Fritzen, T.A. [Blasting Technology, Inc., Maui, HI (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Anytime that blasting operations will be conducted near existing inhabited structures, vibration damage claims are a major concern of the blasting contractor. It has been the authors` experience that even when vibration and airblast levels generated from a blast are well below accepted damage thresholds, damage claims can still arise. The single greatest source of damage claims is the element of surprise associated with not knowing that blasting operations are being conducted nearby. The second greatest source of damage claims arise form the inability to produce accurate and detailed records of all blasting activity which provides evidence that vibration and air blast levels from each blast had been taken by seismic recording equipment. Using a two part plan consisting of extensive public relations followed by a detailed and accurate monitoring and recording of blasting operations has resulted in no substantiated claims of damage since its` incorporation. The authors experience shows that by using this two part process when conducting blasting operations near inhabited structures, unsubstantiated blast vibration damage claims may be significantly reduced.

  18. Analysis of Options Contract, Option Pricing in Agricultural Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Tamidy

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Risk is an essential component in the production and sale of agricultural products. Due to the nature of agricultural products, the people who act in this area including farmers and businesspersons encounter unpredictable fluctuations of prices. On the other hand, the firms that process agricultural products also face fluctuation of price of agricultural inputs. Given that the Canola is considered as one of the inputs of product processing factories, control of unpredictable fluctuations of the price of this product would increase the possibility of correct decision making for farmers and managers of food processing industries. The best available tool for control and management of the price risk is the use of future markets and options. It is evident that the pricing is the main pillar in every trade. Therefore, offering a fair price for the options will be very important. In fact, options trading in the options market create cost insurance stopped. In this way, which can reduce the risks of deflation created in the future, if the person entitled to the benefits of the price increase occurs in the future. Unlike the futures, market where the seller had to deliver the product on time, in the options market, there is no such compulsion. In addition, this is one of the strengths of this option contract, because if there is not enough product for delivery to the futures market as result of chilling, in due course, the farmers suffer, but in the options market there will be a loss. In this study, the setup options of rape, as a product, as well as inputs has been paid for industry. Materials and Methods: In this section. The selection criteria of the disposal of asset base for valuation of European put options and call option is been introduced. That for obtain this purpose, some characteristics of the goods must considered: 1-Unpredictable fluctuations price of underlying asset 2 -large underlying asset cash market 3- The possibility

  19. 77 FR 25319 - Commodity Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-27

    .... Swaps Large Trader Reporting; Position Limits vi. SD/MSP Conditions vii. Enforcement Provisions viii... Traders, ECPs, and ESPs 2. SDs, MSPs, SEFs, and SDRs 3. Entities Eligible To Engage in Options on Physical... exchange-traded options on futures, and allowing part 32 to serve as the sole relevant regulation for all...

  20. Bounds for Asian basket options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deelstra, Griselda; Diallo, Ibrahima; Vanmaele, Michèle

    2008-09-01

    In this paper we propose pricing bounds for European-style discrete arithmetic Asian basket options in a Black and Scholes framework. We start from methods used for basket options and Asian options. First, we use the general approach for deriving upper and lower bounds for stop-loss premia of sums of non-independent random variables as in Kaas et al. [Upper and lower bounds for sums of random variables, Insurance Math. Econom. 27 (2000) 151-168] or Dhaene et al. [The concept of comonotonicity in actuarial science and finance: theory, Insurance Math. Econom. 31(1) (2002) 3-33]. We generalize the methods in Deelstra et al. [Pricing of arithmetic basket options by conditioning, Insurance Math. Econom. 34 (2004) 55-57] and Vanmaele et al. [Bounds for the price of discrete sampled arithmetic Asian options, J. Comput. Appl. Math. 185(1) (2006) 51-90]. Afterwards we show how to derive an analytical closed-form expression for a lower bound in the non-comonotonic case. Finally, we derive upper bounds for Asian basket options by applying techniques as in Thompson [Fast narrow bounds on the value of Asian options, Working Paper, University of Cambridge, 1999] and Lord [Partially exact and bounded approximations for arithmetic Asian options, J. Comput. Finance 10 (2) (2006) 1-52]. Numerical results are included and on the basis of our numerical tests, we explain which method we recommend depending on moneyness and time-to-maturity.

  1. Acquiring Technical Data With Renewable Real Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-30

    cybersecurity for manufacturing and procurement and use of digital technical data. [michael.mcgrath@anser.org] Chris Prather—holds a BA in sociology from the...and to determine the optimal timing to exercise the option to rent or buy the technical data based on the expected cost avoidance to the...cycle. This requirement was strongly re-emphasized in the DoD’s Better Buying Power 2.0 (BBP 2.0) initiative as a means to ensure that the DoD is

  2. Aluminum industry options paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-10-01

    In 1990, Canada's producers of aluminum (third largest in the world) emitted 10 million tonnes of carbon dioxide and equivalent, corresponding to 6.4 tonnes of greenhouse gas intensity per tonne of aluminum. In 2000, the projection is that on a business-as-usual (BAU) basis Canadian producers now producing 60 per cent more aluminum than in 1990, will emit 10.7 million tonnes of carbon dioxide and equivalent, corresponding to a GHG intensity of 4.2 tonnes per tonne of aluminum. This improvement is due to production being based largely on hydro-electricity, and partly because in general, Canadian plants are modern, with technology that is relatively GHG-friendly. The Aluminum Association of Canada estimates that based on anticipated production, and under a BAU scenario, GHG emissions from aluminum production will rise by 18 per cent by 2010 and by 30 per cent by 2020. GHG emissions could be reduced below the BAU forecast first, by new control and monitoring systems at some operations at a cost of $4.5 to 7.5 million per smelter. These systems could reduce carbon dioxide equivalent emissions by 0.8 million tonnes per year. A second alternative would require installation of breaker feeders which would further reduce perfluorocarbon (PFC) emissions by 0.9 million tonnes of carbon dioxide equivalent. Cost of the breakers feeders would be in the order of $200 million per smelter. The third option calls for the the shutting down of some of the smelters with older technology by 2015. In this scenario GHG emissions would be reduced by 2010 by 0.8 million tonnes per year of carbon dioxide equivalent. However, the cost in this case would be about $1.36 billion. The industry would support measures that would encourage the first two sets of actions, which would produce GHG emissions from aluminum production in Canada of about 10.2 million tonnes per year of carbon dioxide equivalent, or about two per cent above 1990 levels with double the aluminum production of 1990. Credit for

  3. Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycle Options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roald Wigeland; Temitope Taiwo; Michael Todosow; William Halsey; Jess Gehin

    2010-06-01

    A systematic evaluation has been conducted of the potential for advanced nuclear fuel cycle strategies and options to address the issues ascribed to the use of nuclear power. Issues included nuclear waste management, proliferation risk, safety, security, economics and affordability, and sustainability. The two basic strategies, once-through and recycle, and the range of possibilities within each strategy, are considered for all aspects of the fuel cycle including options for nuclear material irradiation, separations if needed, and disposal. Options range from incremental changes to today’s implementation to revolutionary concepts that would require the development of advanced nuclear technologies.

  4. Exotic Options: a Chooser Option and its Pricing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raimonda Martinkutė-Kaulienė

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Financial instruments traded in the markets and investors’ situation in such markets are getting more and more complex. This leads to more complex derivative structures used for hedging that are harder to analyze and which risk is harder managed. Because of the complexity of these instruments, the basic characteristics of many exotic options may sometimes be not clearly understood. Most scientific studies have been focused on developing models for pricing various types of exotic options, but it is important to study their unique characteristics and to understand them correctly in order to use them in proper market situations. The paper examines main aspects of options, emphasizing the variety of exotic options and their place in financial markets and risk management process. As the exact valuation of exotic options is quite difficult, the article deals with the theoretical and practical aspects of pricing of chooser options that suggest a broad range of usage and application in different market conditions. The calculations made in the article showed that the price of the chooser is closely correlated with the choice time and low correlated with its strike price. So the first mentioned factor should be taken into consideration when making appropriate hedging and investing decisions.

  5. Strongly interacting photons and atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alge, W.

    1999-05-01

    This thesis contains the main results of the research topics I have pursued during the my PhD studies at the University of Innsbruck and partly in collaboration with the Institut d' Optique in Orsay, France. It is divided into three parts. The first and largest part discusses the possibility of using strong standing waves as a tool to cool and trap neutral atoms in optical cavities. This is very important in the field of nonlinear optics where several successful experiments with cold atoms in cavities have been performed recently. A discussion of the optical parametric oscillator in a regime where the nonlinearity dominates the evolution is the topic of the second part. We investigated mainly the statistical properties of the cavity output of the three interactive cavity modes. Very recently a system has been proposed which promises fantastic properties. It should exhibit a giant Kerr nonlinearity with negligible absorption thus leading to a photonic turnstile device based on cold atoms in cavity. We have shown that this model suffers from overly simplistic assumptions and developed several more comprehensive approaches to study the behavior of this system. Apart from the division into three parts of different contents the thesis is divided into publications, supplements and invisible stuff. The intention of the supplements is to reach researchers which work in related areas and provide them with more detailed information about the concepts and the numerical tools we used. It is written especially for diploma and PhD students to give them a chance to use the third part of our work which is actually the largest one. They consist of a large number of computer programs we wrote to investigate the behavior of the systems in parameter regions where no hope exists to solve the equations analytically. (author)

  6. Treatment Option Overview (Adrenocortical Carcinoma)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and urine are used to detect (find) and diagnose adrenocortical carcinoma. Certain factors affect the prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. Adrenocortical carcinoma is a rare disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the ...

  7. Essential Tremor (ET): Surgical Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... option for severe depression, epilepsy, Tourette’s syndrome, stroke, addiction, and dementia. Top Focused Ultrasound Thalamotomy The FDA ... ultrasound but in a very different way. This technology uses multiple beams of sound focused in on ...

  8. Rhinophyma Treated with Options Today

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Physicians Patient Education Materials Professional Materials Professional Membership Membership Form [PDF] Classification of Rosacea Grading of Rosacea Management Options for Rosacea Rosacea Treatment Algorithms Physician Materials Request Form Clinical Scorecard Join ...

  9. Antihistamines: Understanding Your OTC Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... CorrectlyPain Relievers: Understanding Your OTC OptionsAntacids and Acid Reducers: OTC Relief for Heartburn and Acid RefluxOTC Cough ... Loss and Diet Plans Nutrients and Nutritional Info Sugar and Sugar Substitutes Exercise and Fitness Exercise Basics ...

  10. Treatment Options for Childhood Craniopharyngioma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... back) no matter how it was treated the first time. Treatment options for recurrent childhood craniopharyngioma depend on the type of treatment that was given when the tumor was first diagnosed and the needs of the child. Treatment ...

  11. 76 FR 40686 - Public Input for the Launch of the Strong Cities, Strong Communities Visioning Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-11

    ... Energy, U.S. Department of Education, U.S. Department of Justice, U.S. Department of Transportation, U.S..., infrastructure, and economic and social resources (e.g., industry clusters, workforce development), and economic...., significant population loss, long-term economic decline, high levels of poverty and unemployment, low property...

  12. Overview of PWR chemistry options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordmann, F.; Stutzmann, A.; Bretelle, J.L. [Electricite de France, Central Labs. (France)

    2002-07-01

    EDF Central Laboratories, in charge of engineering in chemistry, of defining the chemistry specifications and studying the operation feedback and improvement for 58 PWR units, have the opportunity to evaluate many options of operation developed and applied all around the world. Thanks to these international relationships and to the benefit of a large feedback from many units, some general evaluation of the various options is discussed in this paper. (authors)

  13. Perpetual American options within CTRWs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero, Miquel

    2008-06-01

    Continuous-time random walks are a well suited tool for the description of market behaviour at the smallest scale: the tick-to-tick evolution. We will apply this kind of market model to the valuation of perpetual American options: derivatives with no maturity that can be exercised at any time. Our approach leads to option prices that fulfill financial formulas when canonical assumptions on the dynamics governing the process are made, but it is still suitable for more exotic market conditions.

  14. Perpetual American options within CTRW's

    OpenAIRE

    Montero, Miquel

    2007-01-01

    Continuous-time random walks are a well suited tool for the description of market behaviour at the smallest scale: the tick-to-tick evolution. We will apply this kind of market model to the valuation of perpetual American options: derivatives with no maturity that can be exercised at any time. Our approach leads to option prices that fulfil financial formulas when canonical assumptions on the dynamics governing the process are made, but it is still suitable for more exotic market conditions.

  15. Emerging Options for Emergency Contraception

    OpenAIRE

    Atsuko Koyama; Laura Hagopian; Judith Linden

    2013-01-01

    Emergency post-coital contraception (EC) is an effective method of preventing pregnancy when used appropriately. EC has been available since the 1970s, and its availability and use have become widespread. Options for EC are broad and include the copper intrauterine device (IUD) and emergency contraceptive pills such as levonorgestrel, ulipristal acetate, combined oral contraceptive pills (Yuzpe method), and less commonly, mifepristone. Some options are available over-the-counter, while others...

  16. Option Derivatives in Electricity Hedging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Pavlátka

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the high volatility of electricity prices, there is still little demand for electricity power options, and the liquidity on the power exchanges of these power derivatives is quite low. One of the reasons is the uncertainty about how to evaluate these electricity options and about finding the right fair value of this product. Hedging of electricity is associated mainly with products such as futures and forwards. However, due to new trends in electricity trading and hedging, it is also useful to think more about options and the principles for working with them in hedging various portfolio positions and counterparties. We can quite often encounter a situation when we need to have a perfect hedge for our customer’s (end user consuming electricity portfolio, or we have to evaluate the volumetric risk (inability of a customer to predict consumption, which is very similar to selling options. Now comes the moment to compare the effects of using options or futures to hedge these open positions. From a practical viewpoint, the Black-Scholes prices appear to be the best available and the simplest method for evaluating option premiums, but there are some limitations that we have to consider.

  17. Advanced Demonstration and Test Reactor Options Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petti, David Andrew [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Hill, R. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Gehin, J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Gougar, Hans David [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Strydom, Gerhard [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Heidet, F. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Kinsey, J. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Grandy, Christopher [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Qualls, A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Brown, Nicholas [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Powers, J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hoffman, E. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Croson, D. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Global efforts to address climate change will require large-scale decarbonization of energy production in the United States and elsewhere. Nuclear power already provides 20% of electricity production in the United States (U.S.) and is increasing in countries undergoing rapid growth around the world. Because reliable, grid-stabilizing, low emission electricity generation, energy security, and energy resource diversity will be increasingly valued, nuclear power’s share of electricity production has a potential to grow. In addition, there are non electricity applications (e.g., process heat, desalination, hydrogen production) that could be better served by advanced nuclear systems. Thus, the timely development, demonstration, and commercialization of advanced nuclear reactors could diversify the nuclear technologies available and offer attractive technology options to expand the impact of nuclear energy for electricity generation and non-electricity missions. The purpose of this planning study is to provide transparent and defensible technology options for a test and/or demonstration reactor(s) to be built to support public policy, innovation and long term commercialization within the context of the Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) broader commitment to pursuing an “all of the above” clean energy strategy and associated time lines. This planning study includes identification of the key features and timing needed for advanced test or demonstration reactors to support research, development, and technology demonstration leading to the commercialization of power plants built upon these advanced reactor platforms. This planning study is consistent with the Congressional language contained within the fiscal year 2015 appropriation that directed the DOE to conduct a planning study to evaluate “advanced reactor technology options, capabilities, and requirements within the context of national needs and public policy to support innovation in nuclear energy

  18. Distance Travelled: Outcomes and Evidence in Flexible Learning Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Joseph; McGinty, Sue; te Riele, Kitty; Wilson, Kimberley

    2017-01-01

    Flexible learning options (FLOs) provide individualised learning pathways for disengaged young people with strong emphasis on inclusivity and wellbeing support. Amidst a rapid expansion of Australia's flexible learning sector, service providers are under increasing pressure to substantiate participant outcomes. This paper stems from a national…

  19. Quantum electrodynamics of strong fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greiner, W.

    1983-01-01

    Quantum Electrodynamics of Strong Fields provides a broad survey of the theoretical and experimental work accomplished, presenting papers by a group of international researchers who have made significant contributions to this developing area. Exploring the quantum theory of strong fields, the volume focuses on the phase transition to a charged vacuum in strong electric fields. The contributors also discuss such related topics as QED at short distances, precision tests of QED, nonperturbative QCD and confinement, pion condensation, and strong gravitational fields In addition, the volume features a historical paper on the roots of quantum field theory in the history of quantum physics by noted researcher Friedrich Hund

  20. Strong and Weak Students' Preferences for Error Feedback Options and Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandl, Klaus K.

    1995-01-01

    This study investigated whether level of achievement and difficulty of task influenced preferences for feedback when doing computerized grammar exercises among high- and low-achievement college students in a third-semester German course. It found that achievement and difficulty of task had no significant impact. (63 references) (MDM)

  1. Efficient option valuation of single and double barrier options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabaivanov, Stanimir; Milev, Mariyan; Koleva-Petkova, Dessislava; Vladev, Veselin

    2017-12-01

    In this paper we present an implementation of pricing algorithm for single and double barrier options using Mellin transformation with Maximum Entropy Inversion and its suitability for real-world applications. A detailed analysis of the applied algorithm is accompanied by implementation in C++ that is then compared to existing solutions in terms of efficiency and computational power. We then compare the applied method with existing closed-form solutions and well known methods of pricing barrier options that are based on finite differences.

  2. Multi-criteria Evaluation of Nuclear Option

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feretic, D.; Tomsic, Z.; Jaksic, D.

    2002-01-01

    When evaluating power system expansion scenarios there is a need to take into consideration a range of measurable and non-measurable impacts. Measurable impacts are fixed and variable production costs and, recently, external costs. Non-measurable impacts include public attitude to certain energy technology and investor's risk in achieving the expected profit (regulatory and political risk). Public attitude has a large and sometimes essential impact on decision-making. It is mostly associated with the expected environmental impact of a potential power plant and can be divided in rational and non-rational part. Rational part, which is in proportion with scientifically approved environmental impact of energy options (inversely proportional to external costs) is relatively small, while the other, non-rational category which is not proportional with the actual environmental impact (especially in the case of nuclear power), is much larger. Investor's risk in achieving the expected profit is mostly associated with possible changes of domestic or foreign regulations or policy that can influence power plant operation and long-term fuel availability and price. Two factors that affect decision-making should be distinguished. The first is the total impact of certain non-measurable factor and the other is the impact of certain technology on that non-measurable factor like public impact, for example. The objective of multi-criteria evaluation, after weighting and quantification of all impacts is to determine the most acceptable power system expansion option. In the article a simplified quantification will be made of measurable (investment costs, annual maintenance costs, fuel price, indirect costs of power plants) and non-measurable (public attitude, investor's risk) elements that affect future investment decision. For that purpose possible relative values of non-measurable impacts of different options will be determined (their weights and impact on relative increase of annual

  3. Feedback options in nonlinear numerical finance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hugger, Jens; Mashayekhi, Sima

    2012-01-01

    Feedback options are options where information about the trading of the underlying asset is fed back into the pricing model. This results in nonlinear pricing models. A survey of the literature about feedback options in finance is presented. The pricing model for the full feedback option on an in......Feedback options are options where information about the trading of the underlying asset is fed back into the pricing model. This results in nonlinear pricing models. A survey of the literature about feedback options in finance is presented. The pricing model for the full feedback option...

  4. Strong WW Interaction at LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelaez, Jose R

    1998-12-14

    We present a brief pedagogical introduction to the Effective Electroweak Chiral Lagrangians, which provide a model independent description of the WW interactions in the strong regime. When it is complemented with some unitarization or a dispersive approach, this formalism allows the study of the general strong scenario expected at the LHC, including resonances.

  5. Strong-back safety latch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeSantis, G.N.

    1995-01-01

    The calculation decides the integrity of the safety latch that will hold the strong-back to the pump during lifting. The safety latch will be welded to the strong-back and will latch to a 1.5-in. dia cantilever rod welded to the pump baseplate. The static and dynamic analysis shows that the safety latch will hold the strong-back to the pump if the friction clamps fail and the pump become free from the strong-back. Thus, the safety latch will meet the requirements of the Lifting and Rigging Manual for under the hook lifting for static loading; it can withstand shock loads from the strong-back falling 0.25 inch

  6. Strong-back safety latch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeSantis, G.N.

    1995-03-06

    The calculation decides the integrity of the safety latch that will hold the strong-back to the pump during lifting. The safety latch will be welded to the strong-back and will latch to a 1.5-in. dia cantilever rod welded to the pump baseplate. The static and dynamic analysis shows that the safety latch will hold the strong-back to the pump if the friction clamps fail and the pump become free from the strong-back. Thus, the safety latch will meet the requirements of the Lifting and Rigging Manual for under the hook lifting for static loading; it can withstand shock loads from the strong-back falling 0.25 inch.

  7. Urban Options Solar Greenhouse Demonstration Project. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cipparone, L.

    1980-10-15

    The following are included: the design process, construction, thermal performance, horticulture, educational activities, and future plans. Included in appendices are: greenhouse blueprints, insulating curtain details, workshop schedules, sample data forms, summary of performance calculations on the Urban Options Solar Greenhouse, data on vegetable production, publications, news articles on th Solar Greenhouse Project, and the financial statement. (MHR)

  8. Awareness about feeding options for infants born to HIV positive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    0917804072, E-mail: tefera_belachew@yahoo.com; 2Department of Health Systems Management, Faculty of. Public Health, Jimma University. Original article. Awareness about feeding options for infants born to HIV positive mothers and mother to child transmission of HIV in. Gurage zone, south Ethiopia. Tefera Belachew1 ...

  9. Corporate Governance and the Design of Stock Option Programs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sautner, Z.; Weber, M.

    2008-01-01

    Investors and academics increasingly criticize that various design features of executive stock option (ESO) plans reflect self-dealing by managers and the inability of corporate governance mechanisms in monitoring executives (managerial power hypothesis). We use a unique and not publicly available

  10. Climate Change and Water Adaptation Options | CRDI - Centre de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The project team will: -construct a flexible, searchable database of adaptation options that will facilitate the addition of case studies; -test the tool's functionality and usefulness with practitioner, academic, and broader audiences; -launch and promote the tool through social media, practitioner and scholarly publications, and ...

  11. Options in Education. Program #65. Back to Basics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George Washington Univ., Washington, DC. Inst. for Educational Leadership.

    In this transcript of "Options in Education," a weekly feature on National Public Radio, a group of experts--George Weber, Reed Whittemore, Goodman Ace, Herbert O. Reid, Albert Shanker, Harold Hodgkinson, Zachary Clements, Joseph Cronin, John Pittenger, and Richard King--interpret the back-to-basics movement. (IRT)

  12. Valuing real estate externality-based option in development of transit system projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    Capital-intensive transit projects rely on strong public support and availability of funds. While the general : public has become a strong advocate for transit systems, budget shortfalls and financial constraints are still : resulting in delays in pr...

  13. Therapeutic options for severe asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew, Jilcy; Chandy, Dipak

    2012-01-01

    As the overall prevalence of asthma has escalated in the past decades, so has the population of patients with severe asthma. This condition is often difficult to manage due to the relative limitation of effective therapeutic options for the physician and the social and economic burden of the disease on the patient. Management should include an evaluation and elimination of modifiable risk factors such as smoking, allergen exposure, obesity and non-adherence, as well as therapy for co-morbidities like gastro-esophageal reflux disease and obstructive sleep apnea. Current treatment options include conventional agents such as inhalational corticosteroids, long acting β2 agonists, leukotriene antagonists, and oral corticosteroids. Less conventional treatment options include immunotherapy with methotrexate, cyclosporine and tacrolimus, biological drugs like monoclonal antibodies, tumor necrosis factor-α blockers and oligonucleotides, phosphodiesterase inhibitors, antimicrobials and bronchial thermoplasty. PMID:23056066

  14. Accounting treatment of currency options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prošić Danica

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Currency options are often used to mitigate currency risk resulting from corporate activities. Their implementation can be complex, and there could be problems if the essential elements and principles are not fully understood. Although they are not the simplest financial products, currency options are interesting and useful to those who are trying to make a step forward in the area of currency risk management. This paper aims to present the general principles and specifics of accounting records and valuation of currency options used for hedging against risk. It is a complex process which, in addition to numerous conditions, also involves the implementation of accounting rules that deviate from the generally accepted accounting principles.

  15. Adapting to climate change : the public policy response - public infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-01

    This paper assesses the threats and needs that multidimensional climate change imposes for : public infrastructure, reviews the existing adaptive capacity that could be applied to respond : to these threats and needs, and presents options for enhanci...

  16. Technetium removal: preliminary flowsheet options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eager, K.M.

    1995-01-01

    This document presents the results of a preliminary investigation into options for preliminary flowsheets for 99Tc removal from Hanford Site tank waste. A model is created to show the path of 99Tc through pretreatment to disposal. The Tank Waste Remediation (TWRS) flowsheet (Orme 1995) is used as a baseline. Ranges of important inputs to the model are developed, such as 99Tc inventory in the tanks and important splits through the TWRS flowsheet. Several technetium removal options are discussed along with sensitivities of the removal schemes to important model parameters

  17. Design Evolution Study - Aging Options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDaniel, P.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify options and issues for aging commercial spent nuclear fuel received for disposal at the Yucca Mountain Mined Geologic Repository. Some early shipments of commercial spent nuclear fuel to the repository may be received with high-heat-output (younger) fuel assemblies that will need to be managed to meet thermal goals for emplacement. The capability to age as much as 40,000 metric tons of heavy metal of commercial spent nuclear he1 would provide more flexibility in the design to manage this younger fuel and to decouple waste receipt and waste emplacement. The following potential aging location options are evaluated: (1) Surface aging at four locations near the North Portal; (2) Subsurface aging in the permanent emplacement drifts; and (3) Subsurface aging in a new subsurface area. The following aging container options are evaluated: (1) Complete Waste Package; (2) Stainless Steel inner liner of the waste package; (3) Dual Purpose Canisters; (4) Multi-Purpose Canisters; and (5) New disposable canister for uncanistered commercial spent nuclear fuel. Each option is compared to a ''Base Case,'' which is the expected normal waste packaging process without aging. A Value Engineering approach is used to score each option against nine technical criteria and rank the options. Open issues with each of the options and suggested future actions are also presented. Costs for aging containers and aging locations are evaluated separately. Capital costs are developed for direct costs and distributable field costs. To the extent practical, unit costs are presented. Indirect costs, operating costs, and total system life cycle costs will be evaluated outside of this study. Three recommendations for aging commercial spent nuclear fuel--subsurface, surface, and combined surface and subsurface are presented for further review in the overall design re-evaluation effort. Options that were evaluated but not recommended are: subsurface aging in a new

  18. TMI abnormal wastes disposal options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayers, A.L. Jr.

    1984-03-01

    A substantial quantity of high beta-gamma/high-TRU contaminated wastes are expected from cleanup activities of Unit 2 of the Three Mile Island Nuclear Power Station. Those wastes are not disposable because of present regulatory constraints. Therefore, they must be stored temporarily. This paper discusses three options for storage of those wastes at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory: (1) storage in temporary storage casks; (2) underground storage in vaults; and (3) storage in silos at a hot shop. Each option is analyzed and evaluated. Also included is a discussion of future disposal strategies, which might be pursued when a suitable federal or commercial repository is built

  19. Options for operational risk assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dover, S.A.

    1985-01-01

    Risk assessment is a set of analytical tools that can be used to clarify possible outcomes of decisions where two different courses of action are indicated or different values are in conflict. These conflicts often arise in the management of any production or support facility. This paper outlines the options for performing risk assessments of any scope and the parameters that determine their effectiveness. It highlights the relative costs of each option, useful information developed, and limitations of the information. The paper concludes with the types of decisions that are routinely made in an operating facility and could benefit from the information generated in a risk assessment.

  20. Design Evolution Study - Aging Options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. McDaniel

    2002-04-05

    The purpose of this study is to identify options and issues for aging commercial spent nuclear fuel received for disposal at the Yucca Mountain Mined Geologic Repository. Some early shipments of commercial spent nuclear fuel to the repository may be received with high-heat-output (younger) fuel assemblies that will need to be managed to meet thermal goals for emplacement. The capability to age as much as 40,000 metric tons of heavy metal of commercial spent nuclear he1 would provide more flexibility in the design to manage this younger fuel and to decouple waste receipt and waste emplacement. The following potential aging location options are evaluated: (1) Surface aging at four locations near the North Portal; (2) Subsurface aging in the permanent emplacement drifts; and (3) Subsurface aging in a new subsurface area. The following aging container options are evaluated: (1) Complete Waste Package; (2) Stainless Steel inner liner of the waste package; (3) Dual Purpose Canisters; (4) Multi-Purpose Canisters; and (5) New disposable canister for uncanistered commercial spent nuclear fuel. Each option is compared to a ''Base Case,'' which is the expected normal waste packaging process without aging. A Value Engineering approach is used to score each option against nine technical criteria and rank the options. Open issues with each of the options and suggested future actions are also presented. Costs for aging containers and aging locations are evaluated separately. Capital costs are developed for direct costs and distributable field costs. To the extent practical, unit costs are presented. Indirect costs, operating costs, and total system life cycle costs will be evaluated outside of this study. Three recommendations for aging commercial spent nuclear fuel--subsurface, surface, and combined surface and subsurface are presented for further review in the overall design re-evaluation effort. Options that were evaluated but not recommended are

  1. Titanium: light, strong, and white

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodruff, Laurel; Bedinger, George

    2013-01-01

    Titanium (Ti) is a strong silver-gray metal that is highly resistant to corrosion and is chemically inert. It is as strong as steel but 45 percent lighter, and it is twice as strong as aluminum but only 60 percent heavier. Titanium dioxide (TiO2) has a very high refractive index, which means that it has high light-scattering ability. As a result, TiO2 imparts whiteness, opacity, and brightness to many products. ...Because of the unique physical properties of titanium metal and the whiteness provided by TiO2, titanium is now used widely in modern industrial societies.

  2. Teenage Pregnancy: Consider the Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Lifestyle Tween and teen health Teenage pregnancy can have a profound impact on a teen's life. Help your child understand the options, health risks and challenges ahead. By Mayo Clinic Staff Pregnancy can be one of the most difficult experiences a teenager faces. Understand how to ...

  3. Exploring Higher Education Financing Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkrumah-Young, Kofi K.; Powell, Philip

    2011-01-01

    Higher education can be financed privately, financed by governments, or shared. Given that the benefits of education accrue to the individual and the state, many governments opt for shared financing. This article examines the underpinnings of different options for financing higher education and develops a model to compare conditions to choices and…

  4. New options for purchasing electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-10-01

    This guide is intended for small to medium commercial customers in Alberta and explains new options for purchasing electricity. Small to medium customers include corner stores, community centres, schools, small office buildings, and light industrial businesses. In the 1990s, private power producers in Alberta built 3,000 megawatts of new generation, adding 30 per cent more supply to the power grid in the province. Prices in the deregulated electricity market have fluctuated with natural gas prices, changing weather and changing power demands. The competitive electricity market was opened on January 1, 2001 in Alberta, offering consumers purchasing choices such as green power, multi-year contracts, or electricity rates under the Regulated Rate Option (RRO). The RRO was a transition mechanism that will end by December 31, 2003 at which time, small to medium commercial customers will have the option to shop around for competitive electricity contracts that provide a fixed price of power over time, or they can opt to stay with their current supplier and receive a regulated flow-through of market prices. Under the flow-through option, risk of future deferral charges is reduced, but electricity prices will probably change between billing periods. 1 fig

  5. Methodology for ranking restoration options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Per Hedemann

    1999-01-01

    techniques -assessment of the radiological impact -development and application of a selection methodology for restoration options -formulation ofgeneric conclusions and development of a manual The project is intended to apply to situations in which sites with nuclear installations have been contaminated...

  6. Moderator Configuration Options for ESS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zanini, L.; Batkov, K.; Klinkby, Esben Bryndt

    2016-01-01

    conventional, principles were also considered,such as the importance of moderator positioning, of the premoderator, and beam extraction considerations. Different design and configuration options are evaluated and compared with the reference volume moderator configuration described in the ESS Technical Design...

  7. Document Delivery: Evaluating the Options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Suzanne M.

    1997-01-01

    Discusses options available to libraries for document delivery. Topics include users' needs; cost; copyright compliance; traditional interlibrary loan; types of suppliers; selection criteria, including customer service; new developments in interlibrary loan, including outsourcing arrangements; and the need to evaluate suppliers. (LRW)

  8. Illiquidity Premia in the Equity Options Market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Peter; Goyenko, Ruslan; Jacobs, Kris

    2018-01-01

    Standard option valuation models leave no room for option illiquidity premia. Yet we find the risk-adjusted return spread for illiquid over liquid equity options is 3.4% per day for at-the-money calls and 2.5% for at-the-money puts. These premia are computed using option illiquidity measures cons...

  9. Feedback options in nonlinear numerical finance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hugger, Jens; Mashayekhi, Sima

    2012-01-01

    Feedback options are options where information about the trading of the underlying asset is fed back into the pricing model. This results in nonlinear pricing models. A survey of the literature about feedback options in finance is presented. The pricing model for the full feedback option...

  10. Stock Options Economic Determinants of Brazilian Listed Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaac Gezer Silva de Oliveira

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available It aim to identify the economic determinants that influence the use of stock options plans in Brazilian public companies listed on the Brazilian Securities, Commodities, and Futures Exchange (BM&FBovespa. Theoretically, the study relies on agency theory and corporate governance and executive compensation body of knowledge. Four research hypotheses were drawn concerning financial performance and corporate value; indebtedness; ownership concentration; and size. The sample was comprised of 100 companies with greater liquidity shares and volume for six years (from 2010 to2015.Data were examined from the logistic regression panel. The results lead to the rejection of the first and the fourth hypo the sesindicating, in the case of H1, that the higher financial performance the lower is probability of use stock options and, in the case of H4, that the higher size is related the lower is probability of use of stock options in their incentive plans for executives. The third hypothesis (H3 was not rejected, indicating that the ownership concentration relates negatively with the use of stock options. Regarding the second hypothesis (H2, the results did not present statistical significance indicating the absence of a relationship between indebtedness and the use of stock options. As a summary of the results it was found that the use of stock options tend to be used by lower companies, with lower ownership concentration and lower financial performance.

  11. Illiquidity Premia in the Equity Options Market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Peter; Goyenko, Ruslan; Jacobs, Kris

    Illiquidity is well-known to be a significant determinant of stock and bond returns. We report on illiquidity premia in the equity options market. An increase in option illiquidity decreases the current option price and implies higher expected option returns. This effect is statistically...... and economically signifi…cant. It is robust across different empirical approaches and when including various control variables. The illiquidity of the underlying stock affects the option return negatively, consistent with a hedging argument: When stock market illiquidity increases, the cost of replicating...... the option goes up, which increases the option price and reduces its expected return....

  12. Current and future treatment options in osteoporosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Brewer, Linda

    2012-02-01

    PURPOSE: The incidence of osteoporosis-related fractures will increase substantially over the coming decades as the population ages globally. This has important economic and public health implications, contributing substantially to morbidity and excess mortality in this population. METHODS: When prescribing for older patients the effectiveness profile of drugs needs to be balanced against their tolerability in individual patients. RESULTS: Currently we have good anti-fracture data to support the use of many available anti-resorptive and anabolic drugs including bisphosphonates, strontium ranelate and recombinant human parathyroid hormone. We also have evidence to demonstrate the importance of calcium and vitamin D repletion in these patients. However, in recent years our understanding of normal bone physiology and the mechanisms underlying the development of osteoporosis has significantly advanced and this has led to the development of new therapies. Novel agents, particularly denosumab, but also inhibitors of cathepsin K and anabolic agents that act on Wnt signalling, will increase the therapeutic options for clinicians in the coming years. CONCLUSION: This review discusses the evidence supporting the use of currently available treatment options for osteoporosis and potential future advances in drug therapy. Particular consideration should be given when prescribing for certain older patients who have issues with compliance or tolerance and also in those with co-morbidities or levels of frailty that may restrict the choice of therapy. Understanding the evidence for the benefit and possible harm of osteoporosis treatments is critical to appropriate management of this patient population.

  13. Greenhouse gas mitigation options for Washington State

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, N.

    1996-04-01

    President Clinton, in 1993, established a goal for the United States to return emissions of greenhouse gases to 1990 levels by the year 2000. One effort established to help meet this goal was a three part Environmental Protection Agency state grant program. Washington State completed part one of this program with the release of the 1990 greenhouse gas emissions inventory and 2010 projected inventory. This document completes part two by detailing alternative greenhouse gas mitigation options. In part three of the program EPA, working in partnership with the States, may help fund innovative greenhouse gas reduction strategies. The greenhouse gas control options analyzed in this report have a wide range of greenhouse gas reductions, costs, and implementation requirements. In order to select and implement a prudent mix of control strategies, policy makers need to have some notion of the potential change in climate, the consequences of that change and the uncertainties contained therein. By understanding the risks of climate change, policy makers can better balance the use of scarce public resources for concerns that are immediate and present against those that affect future generations. Therefore, prior to analyzing alternative greenhouse gas control measures, this report briefly describes the phenomenon and uncertainties of global climate change, and then projects the likely consequences for Washington state.

  14. Erectile dysfunction management options in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afolayan, Anthony Jide; Yakubu, Musa Toyin

    2009-04-01

    In Nigeria, the prevalence of erectile dysfunction (ED) among patients attending primary care clinics, age-standardized to the U.S. population in 2000 is 57.4%. This is considered high enough to warrant the attention of scientist for critical studies and analysis. The high ED prevalence is associated with etiologies such as psychosexual factors, chronic medical conditions, and some lifestyles. ED constitutes a major public health problem, influencing the patient's well-being and quality of life. It also leads to broken homes and marriages, psychological, social, and physical morbidity. To give an account of various ED management options in Nigeria. Review of peer-reviewed literature, questionnaire, and ethnobotanical survey to some indigenous herb sellers and herbalists. Cross cultural perspectives of ED management in Nigeria. The review suggests that traditional (phytotherapy, zootherapy, and occultism) and nontraditional, orthodox practice (drug therapy, psychological, and behavioral counseling) are applicable to ED management in Nigeria. This review should help in creating awareness into various options available for managing ED in the country, but does not recommend self medication of any form, be it the use of orthodox or herbal remedy.

  15. The Pricing of Foreign Currency Futures Options

    OpenAIRE

    Chang Mo Ahn

    1996-01-01

    We derive semi-closed form solutions for the forward and futures exchange rates, European foreign currency options, currency forward options, and currency futures options when the domestic and foreign interest rate movements follow mean reverting diffusion processes. These solutions are consistent with the Black-Scholes option formula so that they can be easily applied. The impact of interest rate uncertainty on theoretical prices of currency futures options is too significant to be neglected.

  16. Equity Portfolio Management Using Option Price Information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Peter; Pan, Xuhui (Nick)

    We survey the recent academic literature that uses option-implied information to construct equity portfolios. Studies show that equity managers can earn a positive alpha by using information in individual equity options, by using stocks' exposure to information in market index options, and by using...... stocks' exposure to crude oil option information. Option-implied information can also help construct better mean-variance portfolios and better estimates of market beta....

  17. Publicity and public relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fosha, Charles E.

    1990-01-01

    This paper addresses approaches to using publicity and public relations to meet the goals of the NASA Space Grant College. Methods universities and colleges can use to publicize space activities are presented.

  18. Pawnee Nation Energy Option Analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matlock, M.; Kersey, K.; Riding In, C.

    2009-07-31

    In 2003, the Pawnee Nation leadership identified the need for the tribe to comprehensively address its energy issues. During a strategic energy planning workshop a general framework was laid out and the Pawnee Nation Energy Task Force was created to work toward further development of the tribe’s energy vision. The overarching goals of the “first steps” project were to identify the most appropriate focus for its strategic energy initiatives going forward, and to provide information necessary to take the next steps in pursuit of the “best fit” energy options. Based on the request of Pawnee Nation’s Energy Task Force the research team, consisting Tribal personnel and Summit Blue Consulting, focused on a review of renewable energy resource development potential, funding sources and utility organizational along with energy savings options. Elements of the energy demand forecasting and characterization and demand side options review remained in the scope of work, but were only addressed at a high level. Description of Activities Performed Renewable Energy Resource Development Potential The research team reviewed existing data pertaining to the availability of biomass (focusing on woody biomass, agricultural biomass/bio-energy crops, and methane capture), solar, wind and hydropower resources on the Pawnee-owned lands. Using these data, combined with assumptions about costs and revenue streams, the research team performed preliminary feasibility assessments for each resource category. The research team also reviewed available funding resources and made recommendations to Pawnee Nation highlighting those resources with the greatest potential for financially-viable development, both in the near-term and over a longer time horizon. Energy Efficiency Options While this was not a major focus of the project, the research team highlighted common strategies for reducing energy use in buildings. The team also discussed the benefits of adopting a building energy code and

  19. Comparing Future Options for Human Space Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwood, Brent

    2010-01-01

    The paper analyzes the "value proposition" for government-funded human space flight, a vexing question that persistently dogs efforts to justify its $10(exp 10)/year expense in the U.S. The original Mercury/Gemini/Apollo value proposition is not valid today. Neither was it the value proposition actually promoted by von Braun, which the post-Apollo 80% of human space flight history has persistently attempted to fulfill. Divergent potential objectives for human space flight are captured in four strategic options - Explore Mars; accelerate Space Passenger Travel; enable Space Power for Earth; and Settle the Moon - which are then analyzed for their Purpose, societal Myth, Legacy benefits, core Needs, and result as measured by the number and type of humans they would fly in space. This simple framework is proposed as a way to support productive dialogue with public and other stakeholders, to determine a sustainable value proposition for human space flight.

  20. 76 FR 8794 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Chicago Board Options Exchange, Incorporated; Notice of Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-15

    ... and traders, particularly retail public customers, who have on several occasions requested the Exchange not to remove Weekly option classes or add Weekly option classes. CBOE understands that a retail... strategies that the investor put into play were disrupted and eliminated when the class was removed. CBOE...

  1. 78 FR 59994 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The Options Clearing Corporation; Order Approving Proposed Rule...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; The Options Clearing Corporation; Order Approving Proposed Rule... Regarding Public Directors and the Process for Designating Membership/Risk Committee Members September 24, 2013. I. Introduction On August 2, 2013, The Options Clearing Corporation (``OCC'') filed with the...

  2. 78 FR 51786 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The Options Clearing Corporation; Notice of Filing of Proposed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-21

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; The Options Clearing Corporation; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule... Regarding Public Directors and the Process for Designating Membership/ Risk Committee Members August 15... thereunder,\\2\\ notice is hereby given that on August 2, 2013, The Options Clearing Corporation (``OCC...

  3. The SNAP Strong Lens Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marshall, P.

    2005-01-03

    Basic considerations of lens detection and identification indicate that a wide field survey of the types planned for weak lensing and Type Ia SNe with SNAP are close to optimal for the optical detection of strong lenses. Such a ''piggy-back'' survey might be expected even pessimistically to provide a catalogue of a few thousand new strong lenses, with the numbers dominated by systems of faint blue galaxies lensed by foreground ellipticals. After sketching out our strategy for detecting and measuring these galaxy lenses using the SNAP images, we discuss some of the scientific applications of such a large sample of gravitational lenses: in particular we comment on the partition of information between lens structure, the source population properties and cosmology. Understanding this partitioning is key to assessing strong lens cosmography's value as a cosmological probe.

  4. Strong coupling phase in QED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, Ken-ichi

    1988-01-01

    Existence of a strong coupling phase in QED has been suggested in solutions of the Schwinger-Dyson equation and in Monte Carlo simulation of lattice QED. In this article we recapitulate the previous arguments, and formulate the problem in the modern framework of the renormalization theory, Wilsonian renormalization. This scheme of renormalization gives the best understanding of the basic structure of a field theory especially when it has a multi-phase structure. We resolve some misleading arguments in the previous literature. Then we set up a strategy to attack the strong phase, if any. We describe a trial; a coupled Schwinger-Dyson equation. Possible picture of the strong coupling phase QED is presented. (author)

  5. 45 CFR 260.52 - What are the basic provisions of the Family Violence Option (FVO)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Provisions Apply to Victims of Domestic Violence? § 260.52 What are the basic provisions of the Family... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What are the basic provisions of the Family Violence Option (FVO)? 260.52 Section 260.52 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE...

  6. Emerging Options for Emergency Contraception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Atsuko; Hagopian, Laura; Linden, Judith

    2013-01-01

    Emergency post-coital contraception (EC) is an effective method of preventing pregnancy when used appropriately. EC has been available since the 1970s, and its availability and use have become widespread. Options for EC are broad and include the copper intrauterine device (IUD) and emergency contraceptive pills such as levonorgestrel, ulipristal acetate, combined oral contraceptive pills (Yuzpe method), and less commonly, mifepristone. Some options are available over-the-counter, while others require provider prescription or placement. There are no absolute contraindications to the use of emergency contraceptive pills, with the exception of ulipristal acetate and mifepristone. This article reviews the mechanisms of action, efficacy, safety, side effects, clinical considerations, and patient preferences with respect to EC usage. The decision of which regimen to use is influenced by local availability, cost, and patient preference. PMID:24453516

  7. Emerging Options for Emergency Contraception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsuko Koyama

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Emergency post-coital contraception (EC is an effective method of preventing pregnancy when used appropriately. EC has been available since the 1970s, and its availability and use have become widespread. Options for EC are broad and include the copper intrauterine device (IUD and emergency contraceptive pills such as levonorgestrel, ulipristal acetate, combined oral contraceptive pills (Yuzpe method, and less commonly, mifepristone. Some options are available over-the-counter, while others require provider prescription or placement. There are no absolute contraindications to the use of emergency contraceptive pills, with the exception of ulipristal acetate and mifepristone. This article reviews the mechanisms of action, efficacy, safety, side effects, clinical considerations, and patient preferences with respect to EC usage. The decision of which regimen to use is influenced by local availability, cost, and patient preference.

  8. Treatment options for hyperemesis gravidarum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramowitz, Amy; Miller, Emily S; Wisner, Katherine L

    2017-06-01

    Hyperemesis gravidarum (HG) is a severe and prolonged form of nausea and/or vomiting during pregnancy. HG affects 0.3-2% of pregnancies and is defined by dehydration, ketonuria, and more than 5% body weight loss. Initial pharmacologic treatment for HG includes a combination of doxylamine and pyridoxine. Additional interventions include ondansetron or dopamine antagonists such as metoclopramide or promethazine. The options are limited for women who are not adequately treated with these medications. We suggest that mirtazapine is a useful drug in this context and its efficacy has been described in case studies. Mirtazapine acts on noradrenergic, serotonergic, histaminergic, and muscarinic receptors to produce antidepressant, anxiolytic, antiemetic, sedative, and appetite-stimulating effects. Mirtazapine is not associated with an independent increased risk of birth defects. Further investigation of mirtazapine as a treatment for HG holds promise to expand treatment options for women suffering from HG.

  9. Depleted uranium disposal options evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hertzler, T.J.; Nishimoto, D.D.; Otis, M.D. [Science Applications International Corp., Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Waste Management Technology Div.

    1994-05-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management, has chartered a study to evaluate alternative management strategies for depleted uranium (DU) currently stored throughout the DOE complex. Historically, DU has been maintained as a strategic resource because of uses for DU metal and potential uses for further enrichment or for uranium oxide as breeder reactor blanket fuel. This study has focused on evaluating the disposal options for DU if it were considered a waste. This report is in no way declaring these DU reserves a ``waste,`` but is intended to provide baseline data for comparison with other management options for use of DU. To PICS considered in this report include: Retrievable disposal; permanent disposal; health hazards; radiation toxicity and chemical toxicity.

  10. Depleted uranium disposal options evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hertzler, T.J.; Nishimoto, D.D.; Otis, M.D.

    1994-05-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management, has chartered a study to evaluate alternative management strategies for depleted uranium (DU) currently stored throughout the DOE complex. Historically, DU has been maintained as a strategic resource because of uses for DU metal and potential uses for further enrichment or for uranium oxide as breeder reactor blanket fuel. This study has focused on evaluating the disposal options for DU if it were considered a waste. This report is in no way declaring these DU reserves a ''waste,'' but is intended to provide baseline data for comparison with other management options for use of DU. To PICS considered in this report include: Retrievable disposal; permanent disposal; health hazards; radiation toxicity and chemical toxicity

  11. Advanced Demonstration and Test Reactor Options Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petti, David Andrew; Hill, R.; Gehin, J.; Gougar, Hans David; Strydom, Gerhard; Heidet, F.; Kinsey, J.; Grandy, Christopher; Qualls, A.; Brown, Nicholas; Powers, J.; Hoffman, E.; Croson, D.

    2017-01-01

    Global efforts to address climate change will require large-scale decarbonization of energy production in the United States and elsewhere. Nuclear power already provides 20% of electricity production in the United States (U.S.) and is increasing in countries undergoing rapid growth around the world. Because reliable, grid-stabilizing, low emission electricity generation, energy security, and energy resource diversity will be increasingly valued, nuclear power's share of electricity production has a potential to grow. In addition, there are non electricity applications (e.g., process heat, desalination, hydrogen production) that could be better served by advanced nuclear systems. Thus, the timely development, demonstration, and commercialization of advanced nuclear reactors could diversify the nuclear technologies available and offer attractive technology options to expand the impact of nuclear energy for electricity generation and non-electricity missions. The purpose of this planning study is to provide transparent and defensible technology options for a test and/or demonstration reactor(s) to be built to support public policy, innovation and long term commercialization within the context of the Department of Energy's (DOE's) broader commitment to pursuing an 'all of the above' clean energy strategy and associated time lines. This planning study includes identification of the key features and timing needed for advanced test or demonstration reactors to support research, development, and technology demonstration leading to the commercialization of power plants built upon these advanced reactor platforms. This planning study is consistent with the Congressional language contained within the fiscal year 2015 appropriation that directed the DOE to conduct a planning study to evaluate 'advanced reactor technology options, capabilities, and requirements within the context of national needs and public policy to support innovation in nuclear

  12. Stock and option portfolio using fuzzy logic approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumarti, Novriana; Wahyudi, Nanang

    2014-03-01

    Fuzzy Logic in decision-making process has been widely implemented in various problems in industries. It is the theory of imprecision and uncertainty that was not based on probability theory. Fuzzy Logic adds values of degree between absolute true and absolute false. It starts with and builds on a set of human language rules supplied by the user. The fuzzy systems convert these rules to their mathematical equivalents. This could simplify the job of the system designer and the computer, and results in much more accurate representations of the way systems behave in the real world. In this paper we examine the decision making process of stock and option trading by the usage of MACD (Moving Average Convergence Divergence) technical analysis and Option Pricing with Fuzzy Logic approach. MACD technical analysis is for the prediction of the trends of underlying stock prices, such as bearish (going downward), bullish (going upward), and sideways. By using Fuzzy C-Means technique and Mamdani Fuzzy Inference System, we define the decision output where the value of MACD is high then decision is "Strong Sell", and the value of MACD is Low then the decision is "Strong Buy". We also implement the fuzzification of the Black-Scholes option-pricing formula. The stock and options methods are implemented on a portfolio of one stock and its options. Even though the values of input data, such as interest rates, stock price and its volatility, cannot be obtain accurately, these fuzzy methods can give a belief degree of the calculated the Black-Scholes formula so we can make the decision on option trading. The results show the good capability of the methods in the prediction of stock price trends. The performance of the simulated portfolio for a particular period of time also shows good return.

  13. Options for Steam Generator Decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krause, Gregor; Amcoff, Bjoern; Robinson, Joe

    2016-01-01

    Selecting the best option for decommissioning steam generators is a key consideration in preparing for decommissioning PWR nuclear power plants. Steam Generators represent a discrete waste stream of large, complex items that can lend themselves to a variety of options for handling, treatment, recycling and disposal. Studsvik has significant experience in processing full size Steam Generators at its metal recycling facility in Sweden, and this paper will introduce the Studsvik steam generator treatment concept and the results achieved to date across a number of projects. The paper will outline the important parameters needed at an early stage to assess options and to help consider the balance between off-site and on-site treatment solutions, and the role of prior decontamination techniques. The paper also outlines the use of feasibility studies and demonstration projects that have been used to help customers prepare for decommissioning. The paper discusses physical, radiological and operational history data, Pro and Contra factors for on- and off-site treatment, the role of chemical decontamination prior to treatment, planning for off-site shipments as well as Studsvik experience This paper has an original focus upon the coming challenges of steam generator decommissioning and potential external treatment capacity constraints in the medium term. It also focuses on the potential during operations or initial shut-down to develop robust plans for steam generator management. (authors)

  14. Machinery Options for Green Ship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salma Sherbaz

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Shipping is critical to global economy being means of transportation for 90 % of world trade goods. Shipping continues to remain the most environmental friendly transportation option compared to other available means due to lowest gCO2/ton.km emissions. It can however not be overlooked that shipping is responsible for 3 % of global CO2 emissions, 14-15 % of global NOX emissions and 16 % of global SOX emissions. International Maritime Organization (IMO is committed to reducing shipping emissions through policy and regulatory measures. Marine Pollution (MARPOL regulations have been increasingly demanding to tackle aggravating environmental concerns. IMO has been introducing measures for better energy-effectiveness (i.e. SEEMP in addition to better environmental performance (i.e. EEDI. Green ship concepts require exploring and implementing technologies and practices on ships to reduce emissions and increase energy-efficiency. Ship machinery is an important area with large potential to reduce emissions and increase cost-and-energy-effectiveness. This paper provides a comprehensive review of the machinery options for green ship. The author will discuss basic concepts, principles and potential of machinery options for green ship in detail.

  15. 77 FR 22022 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; C2 Options Exchange, Incorporated; Order Approving a Proposed Rule...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-12

    ...- option orders through COB and the Complex Order RFR Auction (``COA''). Stock-option orders will not be... Interval, and public customer RFR responses, with multiple orders ranked by time priority; (ii) against non... received during, the COA Response Time Interval and public customer RFR responses, with multiple orders...

  16. Effective Social Media Engagement Options for Minnesota’s Diversifying Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-02-02

    Minnesota Department of Transportation (MnDOT) and Minnesota Local Road Research Board (LRRB) supported the University of Minnesota to investigate social media options for effective public engagement. A three-part approach assessed 1) the state of so...

  17. Strong Decomposition of Random Variables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann-Jørgensen, Jørgen; Kagan, Abram M.; Pitt, Loren D.

    2007-01-01

    A random variable X is stongly decomposable if X=Y+Z where Y=Φ(X) and Z=X-Φ(X) are independent non-degenerated random variables (called the components). It is shown that at least one of the components is singular, and we derive a necessary and sufficient condition for strong decomposability...

  18. Strong interaction at finite temperature

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. We review two methods discussed in the literature to determine the effective parameters of strongly interacting particles as they move through a heat bath. The first one is the general method of chiral perturbation theory, which may be readily applied to this problem. The other is the method of thermal QCD sum rules ...

  19. Strong-strong beam-beam simulation on parallel computer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiang, Ji

    2004-08-02

    The beam-beam interaction puts a strong limit on the luminosity of the high energy storage ring colliders. At the interaction points, the electromagnetic fields generated by one beam focus or defocus the opposite beam. This can cause beam blowup and a reduction of luminosity. An accurate simulation of the beam-beam interaction is needed to help optimize the luminosity in high energy colliders.

  20. Strong-strong beam-beam simulation on parallel computer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiang, Ji

    2004-01-01

    The beam-beam interaction puts a strong limit on the luminosity of the high energy storage ring colliders. At the interaction points, the electromagnetic fields generated by one beam focus or defocus the opposite beam. This can cause beam blowup and a reduction of luminosity. An accurate simulation of the beam-beam interaction is needed to help optimize the luminosity in high energy colliders

  1. Taxing Stock Options: Efficiency, Fairness and Revenue Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack M. Mintz

    2015-10-01

    means also allowing the same deduction to an employer allowed for other forms of compensation. Changing only the personal side merely replaces one type of distortion with another, and discourage employers from granting options, by making it a more expensive form of compensation compared to any other. The NDP predicts that its proposal to impose full personal taxation on stock options will raise annually $500 million leading to a tax revenue collection of $ 2 billion in the next four years. The Liberals also predict that their similar proposal will actually raise more: approximately $560 million annually. But neither proposal acknowledges the necessary symmetrical adjustment for corporations — the tax deductibility of stock-option benefits. If we estimate the federal and provincial revenue effect from the full taxation of stock options using data from recent years reflecting the options granted by the largest 100 public corporations in Canada, projected forward to 2015, we find that the tax revenue gain is actually $1.168 billion. But the tax revenue loss, by allowing corporate tax deductions for stock-option benefits, is $1.318 billion. After one more adjustment for the gain from the personal tax on corporate tax saving on the dividend received by the investor, the net effect for federal and provincial governments is a slight net loss of $12 million. The NDP and the Liberals are onto a good idea in proposing a more efficient way to tax stock options. Regardless of who wins the election, it is the right approach. But it cannot be done fairly, or successfully, without also including a deduction for the employer. And once that is accounted for, as sensible as their proposals may be, neither party should expect any extra spending money to come from implementing this change.

  2. Offering Patients Therapy Options in Unplanned Start (OPTiONS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Machowska, Anna; Alscher, Mark Dominik; Vanga, Satyanarayana Reddy

    2017-01-01

    Background: Patients with unplanned dialysis start (UPS) have worse clinical outcomes than non-UPS patients, and receive peritoneal dialysis (PD) less frequently. In the OPTiONS study of UPS patients, an educational programme (UPS-EP) aiming at improving care of UPS patients by facilitating care...... and outcomes within 12 months of follow up were analysed. Results: Among 270 UPS patients who had an unplanned start to dialysis, 214 were able to receive and 203 complete UPS-EP while 56 patients - who were older (p = 0.01) and had higher Charlson comorbidity index (CCI; p

  3. Public awareness and the professional society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldman, M.J.

    1977-01-01

    As the American Nuclear Society (ANS) supports scientific and engineering disciplines with a responsibility to communicate with the public they serve, it has been and will continue to be involved in public awareness and public acceptance. Their efforts address two distinct audiences. This was not immediately apparent but time and experience have clarified the two publics concerned. The first of these is the significant audience, an unpolarized, undecided, confused and overwhelmed group which, in the USA, represents 80-90% of the population. This group has been bombarded by technological developments that have evolved at a rate exceeding the educational process and leaving the majority without the tools for understnading. Only the technologists can fill this void. The second public is a very polarized, anti-technology group, that has adopted an anti-nuclear character as one of its costumes. It is a vocal group of limited size, adamantly devoted to its cause. It has attracted the attention of the media and so appears larger than it is. Being strongly polarized, this group cannot be converted but it can be neutralised. It does not seek facts but wants to cultivate a public reaction; here the equally polarized pro-nuclear group must expend its effort. The ANS programmes are responding to these two publics. For the larger public, ANS tries to satisfy their need for information with publications that build on their inherent knowledge and provide information, perspective and assurance in understandable terms and examples. ANS has also organized its members to interface with the public. This interface is very important and the public welcomes it although the professionals have not yet recognized that it is essential. The major single measureable experience of ANS was in California where with Proposition 15 a legal attempt was made to limit nuclear power development. Similar efforts continue elsewhere in the USA but their effects have not been measured. The California

  4. Systematic Assessment of Reusable First-Stage Return Options

    OpenAIRE

    Sippel, Martin; Stappert, Sven; Bussler, Leonid; Dumont, Etienne

    2017-01-01

    Interest in the reusability of rocket-powered first stages for orbital launch vehicles has strongly increased since the successful demonstration of a Falcon 9 booster re-flight in March 2017. The technology chosen by SpaceX is one feasible option, however, not necessarily the optimum one for each application and operational scenario. The paper compares the characteristic flight conditions of winged gliding stages with those of rocket-decelerated vertical landing vehicles. The focus is on t...

  5. Strongly correlated systems experimental techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Mancini, Ferdinando

    2015-01-01

    The continuous evolution and development of experimental techniques is at the basis of any fundamental achievement in modern physics. Strongly correlated systems (SCS), more than any other, need to be investigated through the greatest variety of experimental techniques in order to unveil and crosscheck the numerous and puzzling anomalous behaviors characterizing them. The study of SCS fostered the improvement of many old experimental techniques, but also the advent of many new ones just invented in order to analyze the complex behaviors of these systems. Many novel materials, with functional properties emerging from macroscopic quantum behaviors at the frontier of modern research in physics, chemistry and materials science, belong to this class of systems. The volume presents a representative collection of the modern experimental techniques specifically tailored for the analysis of strongly correlated systems. Any technique is presented in great detail by its own inventor or by one of the world-wide recognize...

  6. Strongly Correlated Systems Theoretical Methods

    CERN Document Server

    Avella, Adolfo

    2012-01-01

    The volume presents, for the very first time, an exhaustive collection of those modern theoretical methods specifically tailored for the analysis of Strongly Correlated Systems. Many novel materials, with functional properties emerging from macroscopic quantum behaviors at the frontier of modern research in physics, chemistry and materials science, belong to this class of systems. Any technique is presented in great detail by its own inventor or by one of the world-wide recognized main contributors. The exposition has a clear pedagogical cut and fully reports on the most relevant case study where the specific technique showed to be very successful in describing and enlightening the puzzling physics of a particular strongly correlated system. The book is intended for advanced graduate students and post-docs in the field as textbook and/or main reference, but also for other researchers in the field who appreciates consulting a single, but comprehensive, source or wishes to get acquainted, in a as painless as po...

  7. Strongly correlated systems numerical methods

    CERN Document Server

    Mancini, Ferdinando

    2013-01-01

    This volume presents, for the very first time, an exhaustive collection of those modern numerical methods specifically tailored for the analysis of Strongly Correlated Systems. Many novel materials, with functional properties emerging from macroscopic quantum behaviors at the frontier of modern research in physics, chemistry and material science, belong to this class of systems. Any technique is presented in great detail by its own inventor or by one of the world-wide recognized main contributors. The exposition has a clear pedagogical cut and fully reports on the most relevant case study where the specific technique showed to be very successful in describing and enlightening the puzzling physics of a particular strongly correlated system. The book is intended for advanced graduate students and post-docs in the field as textbook and/or main reference, but also for other researchers in the field who appreciate consulting a single, but comprehensive, source or wishes to get acquainted, in a as painless as possi...

  8. Strongly nonlinear oscillators analytical solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Cveticanin, Livija

    2014-01-01

    This book provides the presentation of the motion of pure nonlinear oscillatory systems and various solution procedures which give the approximate solutions of the strong nonlinear oscillator equations. The book presents the original author’s method for the analytical solution procedure of the pure nonlinear oscillator system. After an introduction, the physical explanation of the pure nonlinearity and of the pure nonlinear oscillator is given. The analytical solution for free and forced vibrations of the one-degree-of-freedom strong nonlinear system with constant and time variable parameter is considered. Special attention is given to the one and two mass oscillatory systems with two-degrees-of-freedom. The criteria for the deterministic chaos in ideal and non-ideal pure nonlinear oscillators are derived analytically. The method for suppressing chaos is developed. Important problems are discussed in didactic exercises. The book is self-consistent and suitable as a textbook for students and also for profess...

  9. Flavour Democracy in Strong Unification

    CERN Document Server

    Abel, S A; Abel, Steven; King, Steven

    1998-01-01

    We show that the fermion mass spectrum may naturally be understood in terms of flavour democratic fixed points in supersymmetric theories which have a large domain of attraction in the presence of "strong unification". Our approach provides an alternative to the approximate Yukawa texture zeroes of the Froggatt-Nielsen mechanism. We discuss a particular model based on a broken gauged $SU(3)_L\\times SU(3)_R$ family symmetry which illustrates our approach.

  10. Pawnee Nation Energy Option Analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matlock, M.; Kersey, K.; Riding In, C.

    2009-07-21

    Pawnee Nation of Oklahoma Energy Option Analyses In 2003, the Pawnee Nation leadership identified the need for the tribe to comprehensively address its energy issues. During a strategic energy planning workshop a general framework was laid out and the Pawnee Nation Energy Task Force was created to work toward further development of the tribe’s energy vision. The overarching goals of the “first steps” project were to identify the most appropriate focus for its strategic energy initiatives going forward, and to provide information necessary to take the next steps in pursuit of the “best fit” energy options. Description of Activities Performed The research team reviewed existing data pertaining to the availability of biomass (focusing on woody biomass, agricultural biomass/bio-energy crops, and methane capture), solar, wind and hydropower resources on the Pawnee-owned lands. Using these data, combined with assumptions about costs and revenue streams, the research team performed preliminary feasibility assessments for each resource category. The research team also reviewed available funding resources and made recommendations to Pawnee Nation highlighting those resources with the greatest potential for financially-viable development, both in the near-term and over a longer time horizon. Findings and Recommendations Due to a lack of financial incentives for renewable energy, particularly at the state level, combined mediocre renewable energy resources, renewable energy development opportunities are limited for Pawnee Nation. However, near-term potential exists for development of solar hot water at the gym, and an exterior wood-fired boiler system at the tribe’s main administrative building. Pawnee Nation should also explore options for developing LFGTE resources in collaboration with the City of Pawnee. Significant potential may also exist for development of bio-energy resources within the next decade. Pawnee Nation representatives should closely monitor

  11. Quantitative option analysis for implementation and management of landfills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerestecioğlu, Merih

    2016-09-01

    The selection of the most feasible strategy for implementation of landfills is a challenging step. Potential implementation options of landfills cover a wide range, from conventional construction contracts to the concessions. Montenegro, seeking to improve the efficiency of the public services while maintaining affordability, was considering privatisation as a way to reduce public spending on service provision. In this study, to determine the most feasible model for construction and operation of a regional landfill, a quantitative risk analysis was implemented with four steps: (i) development of a global risk matrix; (ii) assignment of qualitative probabilities of occurrences and magnitude of impacts; (iii) determination of the risks to be mitigated, monitored, controlled or ignored; (iv) reduction of the main risk elements; and (v) incorporation of quantitative estimates of probability of occurrence and expected impact for each risk element in the reduced risk matrix. The evaluated scenarios were: (i) construction and operation of the regional landfill by the public sector; (ii) construction and operation of the landfill by private sector and transfer of the ownership to the public sector after a pre-defined period; and (iii) operation of the landfill by the private sector, without ownership. The quantitative risk assessment concluded that introduction of a public private partnership is not the most feasible option, unlike the common belief in several public institutions in developing countries. A management contract for the first years of operation was advised to be implemented, after which, a long term operating contract may follow. © The Author(s) 2016.

  12. Equity Portfolio Management Using Option Price Information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Peter; Pan, Xuhui (Nick)

    We survey the recent academic literature that uses option-implied information to construct equity portfolios. Studies show that equity managers can earn a positive alpha by using information in individual equity options, by using stocks' exposure to information in market index options, and by usi...... stocks' exposure to crude oil option information. Option-implied information can also help construct better mean-variance portfolios and better estimates of market beta.......We survey the recent academic literature that uses option-implied information to construct equity portfolios. Studies show that equity managers can earn a positive alpha by using information in individual equity options, by using stocks' exposure to information in market index options, and by using...

  13. RELAP4 stagnation properties option

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeYoung, T.L.

    1979-01-01

    The stagnation properties option in RELAP4/MOD6 was completely reviewed, from theoretical foundation to code application. The result of this investigation was the identification of a fundamental mismatch between the essentially homogeneous, equilibrium-based, RELAP4 code and the nonhomogeneous and/or nonequilibrium critical flow models imposed on the code. By continuously monitoring fluid Mach numbers and adjusting flow areas such that sonic velocity was never exceeded, the mismatch could be accommodated. This approach was implemented, found to work correctly, and will be incorporated into the MOD7 version of the code

  14. Fuel options for oil sands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wise, T.

    2005-01-01

    This presentation examined fuel options in relation to oil sands production. Options include steam and hydrogen (H 2 ) for upgrading; natural gas by pipeline; bitumen; petroleum coke; and coal. Various cost drivers were also considered for each of the fuel options. It was noted that natural gas has high energy value but the capital cost is low, and that coke's energy value is very low but the capital cost is high. A chart forecasting energy prices was presented. The disposition of Western Canada's northern gas situation was presented. Issues concerning rail transportation for coal were considered. Environmental concerns were also examined. A chart of typical gas requirements for 75,000 B/D oil sands projects was presented. Issues concerning steam generation with gas and mining cogeneration with gas fuel and steam turbines were discussed, as well as cogeneration and H 2 with gas fuels and steam turbines. Various technology and fuel utility options were examined, along with details of equipment and processes. Boiler technologies were reviewed by type as well as fuel and steam quality and pressure. Charts of cogeneration with gas turbine and circulation fluid bed boilers were presented. Gasification processes were reviewed and a supply cost basis was examined. Cost drivers were ranked according to energy, operating considerations and capital investment. Results indicated that fuel costs were significant for gas and coal. Capital costs and capital recovery charge was most significant with coal and gasification technology. Without capital recovery, cash costs favour the use of bitumen and coke. Gasification would need lower capital and lower capital recovery to compete with direct burning. It was concluded that direct burning of bitumen can compete with natural gas. With price volatility anticipated, dual fuel capability for bitumen and gas has merit. Petroleum coke can be produced or retrieved from stockpiles. Utility supply costs of direct burning of coke is

  15. Model Calibration in Option Pricing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre Loerx

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available We consider calibration problems for models of pricing derivatives which occur in mathematical finance. We discuss various approaches such as using stochastic differential equations or partial differential equations for the modeling process. We discuss the development in the past literature and give an outlook into modern approaches of modelling. Furthermore, we address important numerical issues in the valuation of options and likewise the calibration of these models. This leads to interesting problems in optimization, where, e.g., the use of adjoint equations or the choice of the parametrization for the model parameters play an important role.

  16. <strong>Size and local democracystrong>

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouritzen, Poul Erik; Rose, Lawrence

    2009-01-01

    The issue of the appropriate scale for local government has regularly appeared on the agenda of public sector reformers. In the empirical work devoted to this issue, the principal focus has been on the implications of size for efficiency in local service provision. Relatively less emphasis has been...... and investigated for each indicator in a successive, cumulative fashion employing a "funnel of causality" logic. The overall conclusion from these analyses is that the size of the local political system has a significant negative effect on the character of local democracy in about half of the models estimated...

  17. Valuing American Options on Commodity Futures Contracts

    OpenAIRE

    Plato, Gerald

    1985-01-01

    The author modified a numerical procedure developed by Cox, Ross, and Rubinstein for valuing options on stocks to value options on commodity futures contracts The numerical procedure, unlike Black's widely used analytical approach, can include the value of early exercise in the option-premium estimates Analysis with the numerical procedure shows that the variability in the underlying futures price is crucial in determining the value of an option

  18. Options contracts in the nuclear fuel industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuller, D.M.

    1995-01-01

    This article discusses options trading in the nuclear fuels industry. Although there now exists no formal options market in the nuclear industry, flexibilities, or embedded options, are actually quite common in the long-term supply contracts. The value of these flexibilities can be estimated by applying the methods used to evaluate options. The method used is the Black-Scholes Model, and it is applied to a number of examples

  19. Analytic American Option Pricing and Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Sbuelz, A.

    2003-01-01

    I use a convenient value breakdown in order to obtain analytic solutions for finitematurity American option prices.Such a barrier-option-based breakdown yields an analytic lower bound for the American option price, which is as price-tight as the Barone-Adesi and Whaley (1987) analytic value proxy for short and medium maturities and exhibits good convergence to the Merton (1973) perpetual option price for large maturities.

  20. Real Options and Human Capital Investment

    OpenAIRE

    Bas Jacobs

    2007-01-01

    This paper extends the standard human capital model with real options. Real options influence investment behavior when risky investments in human capital are irreversible and individuals can affect the timing of the investment. Option values make individuals more reluctant to invest in human capital and, as a result, required returns on the investment increase. Real options may help to explain a larger human capital premium for higher education, smaller responsiveness of higher education inve...

  1. Analytic American Option Pricing and Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sbuelz, A.

    2003-01-01

    I use a convenient value breakdown in order to obtain analytic solutions for finitematurity American option prices.Such a barrier-option-based breakdown yields an analytic lower bound for the American option price, which is as price-tight as the Barone-Adesi and Whaley (1987) analytic value proxy

  2. Bone grafting options in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betz, Randal R; Lavelle, William F; Samdani, Amer F

    2010-08-01

    Retrospective review of the literature. To review the current literature as well as recent trends in bone grafting techniques available for children. The currently accepted gold standard in bone grafting for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) is autogenous iliac crest. Due to questions concerning complications such as donor site pain, other options have been explored, including various allograft sources, demineralized bone matrix, and bone morphogenetic protein. A review of the current medical literature was completed and additional case examples are presented. A review of the literature reveals that up to 31% of patients have persistent pain at 2 years post surgery when autogenous iliac crest bone graft is harvested. Allograft supplementation of local autograft has been demonstrated in the literature to be as effective as autogenous iliac crest bone grafting in contributing to a successful posterior spinal fusion in patients with AIS. Modern demineralized bone matrix formulations have been found in both animal models as well as in a recent retrospective clinical review to contribute to a successful posterior spinal fusion in AIS. Bone morphogenetic protein has been shown to contribute to a successful posterior spinal fusion in complex pediatric spinal deformity patients. At 2 years follow-up, patients who underwent a posterior instrumented spinal fusion that was not augmented with any bone graft appear to have successful spinal fusions. Although autogenous iliac bone graft remains the benchmark to which bone grafting materials are compared, other options including the placement of no bone graft at all provides similar fusion rates in patients with AIS.

  3. Treatment options for hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandhu, Dalbir S; Tharayil, Vivek S; Lai, Jin-Ping; Roberts, Lewis R

    2008-02-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is frequently diagnosed at advanced stages and has a high mortality rate. With improved survival of patients with cirrhotic liver disease and increased prevalence of chronic hepatitis C viral infections, a rise in the number of HCC cases is being reported worldwide. Early diagnosis and treatment can significantly improve the prognosis of patients with HCC. Although surgical resection is an important potentially curative therapy for liver tumors, in appropriately selected patients, liver transplantation has been shown to achieve excellent survival rates for a solid tumor. Locally ablative and locoregional therapies in the form of percutaneous ethanol injection, radiofrequency ablation, transcatheter arterial chemoembolization and transcatheter arterial radioembolization (TheraSphere) are viable options in patients with unresectable HCC. Unfortunately, the role of systemic therapy has been very limited in the treatment of these patients. Novel treatment options based on an improved understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of HCC are being explored. These targeted molecular therapies are aimed at growth factors and their receptors, intracellular signal transduction and cell cycle control. A substantial improvement in outcomes of intermediate and advanced stage HCC is expected with the advent of these targeted therapies, used in combination with surgical or locoregional therapies. Recent positive results from a large Phase III study of the receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor, sorafenib, hold great promise in the treatment of HCC.

  4. Atoms in strong laser fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    L'Huillier, A.

    2002-01-01

    When a high-power laser focuses into a gas of atoms, the electromagnetic field becomes of the same magnitude as the Coulomb field which binds a 1s electron in a hydrogen atom. 3 highly non-linear phenomena can happen: 1) ATI (above threshold ionization): electrons initially in the ground state absorb a large number of photons, many more than the minimum number required for ionization; 2) multiple ionization: many electrons can be emitted one at a time, in a sequential process, or simultaneously in a mechanism called direct or non-sequential; and 3) high order harmonic generation (HHG): efficient photon emission in the extreme ultraviolet range, in the form of high-order harmonics of the fundamental laser field can occur. The theoretical problem consists in solving the time dependent Schroedinger equation (TDSE) that describes the interaction of a many-electron atom with a laser field. A number of methods have been proposed to solve this problem in the case of a hydrogen atom or a single-active electron atom in a strong laser field. A large effort is presently being devoted to go beyond the single-active approximation. The understanding of the physics of the interaction between atoms and strong laser fields has been provided by a very simple model called ''simple man's theory''. A unified view of HHG, ATI, and non-sequential ionization, originating from the simple man's model and the strong field approximation, expressed in terms of electrons trajectories or quantum paths is slowly emerging. (A.C.)

  5. The public information imperative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Copeland, S.

    2001-01-01

    Public approval hinges not only on delivering the information the public wants but on providing tangible evidence that we are listening to public concerns. We must respond. Public acceptance depends on making real change which speaks to people's concerns. The message that the public wants to hear is that government are listening and acting on what they hear. In Canada, the nuclear regulator is increasingly active in the public arena. We held cross-country consultations as we prepared Canada's strong new Act and regulations. We have developed information vehicles such as the Radiation Index and our web site. We continue to extensively involve the public in our licensing process. All licensing hearings are open to the public. Nothing is harder to capture than public trust. This conference marks a substantial investment in learning and in our common future. We can work to build our credibility as regulators who acts on public concerns. (N.C.)

  6. Strongly Interacting Light Dark Matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Bruggisser, Francesco Riva, Alfredo Urbano

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In the presence of approximate global symmetries that forbid relevant interactions, strongly coupled light Dark Matter (DM can appear weakly coupled at small energy and generate a sizable relic abundance. Fundamental principles like unitarity restrict these symmetries to a small class, where the leading interactions are captured by effective operators up to dimension-8. Chiral symmetry, spontaneously broken global symmetries and non-linearly realized supersymmetry are examples of this. Their DM candidates (composite fermions, pseudo Nambu-Goldstone Bosons and Goldstini are interesting targets for LHC missing-energy searches.

  7. Strongly interacting light dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruggisser, Sebastian; Riva, Francesco; Urbano, Alfredo

    2016-07-01

    In the presence of approximate global symmetries that forbid relevant interactions, strongly coupled light Dark Matter (DM) can appear weakly coupled at small-energy and generate a sizable relic abundance. Fundamental principles like unitarity restrict these symmetries to a small class, where the leading interactions are captured by effective operators up to dimension-8. Chiral symmetry, spontaneously broken global symmetries and non-linearly realized supersymmetry are examples of this. Their DM candidates (composite fermions, pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone Bosons and Goldstini) are interesting targets for LHC missing-energy searches.

  8. Rydberg atoms in strong fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleppner, D.; Tsimmerman, M.

    1985-01-01

    Experimental and theoretical achievements in studying Rydberg atoms in external fields are considered. Only static (or quasistatic) fields and ''one-electron'' atoms, i.e. atoms that are well described by one-electron states, are discussed. Mainly behaviour of alkali metal atoms in electric field is considered. The state of theoretical investigations for hydrogen atom in magnetic field is described, but experimental data for atoms of alkali metals are presented as an illustration. Results of the latest experimental and theoretical investigations into the structure of Rydberg atoms in strong fields are presented

  9. Scalar strong interaction hadron theory

    CERN Document Server

    Hoh, Fang Chao

    2015-01-01

    The scalar strong interaction hadron theory, SSI, is a first principles' and nonlocal theory at quantum mechanical level that provides an alternative to low energy QCD and Higgs related part of the standard model. The quark-quark interaction is scalar rather than color-vectorial. A set of equations of motion for mesons and another set for baryons have been constructed. This book provides an account of the present state of a theory supposedly still at its early stage of development. This work will facilitate researchers interested in entering into this field and serve as a basis for possible future development of this theory.

  10. Strong Plate, Weak Slab Dichotomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, R. I.; Stegman, D. R.; Tackley, P.

    2015-12-01

    Models of mantle convection on Earth produce styles of convection that are not observed on Earth.Moreover non-Earth-like modes, such as two-sided downwellings, are the de facto mode of convection in such models.To recreate Earth style subduction, i.e. one-sided asymmetric recycling of the lithosphere, proper treatment of the plates and plate interface are required. Previous work has identified several model features that promote subduction. A free surface or pseudo-free surface and a layer of material with a relatively low strength material (weak crust) allow downgoing plates to bend and slide past overriding without creating undue stress at the plate interface. (Crameri, et al. 2012, GRL)A low viscosity mantle wedge, possibly a result of slab dehydration, decouples the plates in the system. (Gerya et al. 2007, Geo)Plates must be composed of material which, in the case of the overriding plate, are is strong enough to resist bending stresses imposed by the subducting plate and yet, as in the case of the subducting plate, be weak enough to bend and subduct when pulled by the already subducted slab. (Petersen et al. 2015, PEPI) Though strong surface plates are required for subduction such plates may present a problem when they encounter the lower mantle.As the subducting slab approaches the higher viscosity, lower mantle stresses are imposed on the tip.Strong slabs transmit this stress to the surface.There the stress field at the plate interface is modified and potentially modifies the style of convection. In addition to modifying the stress at the plate interface, the strength of the slab affects the morphology of the slab at the base of the upper mantle. (Stegman, et al 2010, Tectonophysics)Slabs that maintain a sufficient portion of their strength after being bent require high stresses to unbend or otherwise change their shape.On the other hand slabs that are weakened though the bending process are more amenable to changes in morphology. We present the results of

  11. Public-Private Partnerships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehmann, Martin; Jeppesen, S.

    2006-01-01

    Public-private partnerships in the environmental field have emerged as one option in the pursuit of sustainable development. So-called ‘Green Networks’, ‘Cleaner Production Centres’, ‘Waste Minimisation Clubs’ are among others highlighted as alternatives to governmental regulation. While being...... promoted as an option for governments in the South to make up for lack of sufficient environmental legislation and enforcement, the majority of these examples, however, stem from countries in the North. Uncritical transfer of such concepts to contexts in the South along with substantial, external donor...

  12. EDITORIAL: Strongly correlated electron systems Strongly correlated electron systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronning, Filip; Batista, Cristian

    2011-03-01

    Strongly correlated electrons is an exciting and diverse field in condensed matter physics. This special issue aims to capture some of that excitement and recent developments in the field. Given that this issue was inspired by the 2010 International Conference on Strongly Correlated Electron Systems (SCES 2010), we briefly give some history in order to place this issue in context. The 2010 International Conference on Strongly Correlated Electron Systems was held in Santa Fe, New Mexico, a reunion of sorts from the 1989 International Conference on the Physics of Highly Correlated Electron Systems that also convened in Santa Fe. SCES 2010—co-chaired by John Sarrao and Joe Thompson—followed the tradition of earlier conferences, in this century, hosted by Buzios (2008), Houston (2007), Vienna (2005), Karlsruhe (2004), Krakow (2002) and Ann Arbor (2001). Every three years since 1997, SCES has joined the International Conference on Magnetism (ICM), held in Recife (2000), Rome (2003), Kyoto (2006) and Karlsruhe (2009). Like its predecessors, SCES 2010 topics included strongly correlated f- and d-electron systems, heavy-fermion behaviors, quantum-phase transitions, non-Fermi liquid phenomena, unconventional superconductivity, and emergent states that arise from electronic correlations. Recent developments from studies of quantum magnetism and cold atoms complemented the traditional subjects and were included in SCES 2010. 2010 celebrated the 400th anniversary of Santa Fe as well as the birth of astronomy. So what's the connection to SCES? The Dutch invention of the first practical telescope and its use by Galileo in 1610 and subsequent years overturned dogma that the sun revolved about the earth. This revolutionary, and at the time heretical, conclusion required innovative combinations of new instrumentation, observation and mathematics. These same combinations are just as important 400 years later and are the foundation of scientific discoveries that were discussed

  13. Study of Agricultural Product Options Pricing

    Science.gov (United States)

    HONG, Qiu

    2017-09-01

    China is a large agricultural country, and the healthy development of agriculture is related to the stability of the whole society. The agricultural production and management of agricultural products are confronted with many risks, especially the market risks. Option contract is the object of option market transaction, so it is very important to study the option contract of agricultural products. Option trading separates the risk and profit, so that the trader can avoid the risk while retaining the opportunity to obtain income. The option has the characteristics of low transaction cost, simple and efficient, so it is suitable for small and medium investors.

  14. Observing Optional Number in DDC Edition 23

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rotmianto Mohamad

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Dewey Decimal Classification is a most popular classification system in the world because of its completeness and most up-to-date. There are many optional number in this classification system, although it rarely to be discussed even it is important to known well about that optional number, especially for a librarian as classifier. This paper is a literature study about Dewey Decimal Classification Edition 23, to describe about optional numbers, particularly the number in relationship with Indonesia’s subject and discipline. This paper is to avoid misunderstanding in interpreted about optional number among librarians, especially for who that does not understand well about optional numbers.

  15. The new <Strong Italian Earthquakes>>

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Valensise

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available We describe a new catalogue of strong ltalian earthquakes that the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica in collaboration with SGA, has recently made available to the international scientific community and to the general public. The new catalogue differs from previous efforts in that for each event the usual seismic parameters are complemented by a list of intensity rated localities, a complete list of relevant references, a series of synoptic comments describing different aspects of the earthquake phenomenology. and in most cases even the text of the original written sources. The printed part of the catalogue has been published as a special monograph which contains also a computer version of the full database in the form of a CD-ROM. The software package includes a computer program for retrieving, selecting and displaying the catalogue data.

  16. ATR Spent Fuel Options Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connolly, Michael James; Bean, Thomas E.; Brower, Jeffrey O.; Luke, Dale E.; Patterson, M. W.; Robb, Alan K.; Sindelar, Robert; Smith, Rebecca E.; Tonc, Vincent F.; Tripp, Julia L.; Winston, Philip L.

    2017-01-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) is a materials and fuels test nuclear reactor that performs irradiation services for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Nuclear Energy (NE), Naval Reactors, the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), and other research programs. ATR achieved initial criticality in 1967 and is expected to operate in support of needed missions until the year 2050 or beyond. It is anticipated that ATR will generate approximately 105 spent nuclear fuel (SNF) elements per year through the year 2050. Idaho National Laboratory (INL) currently stores 2,008 ATR SNF elements in dry storage, 976 in wet storage, and expects to have 1,000 elements in wet storage before January 2017. A capability gap exists at INL for long-term (greater than the year 2050) management, in compliance with the Idaho Settlement Agreement (ISA), of ATR SNF until a monitored retrievable geological repository is open. INL has significant wet and dry storage capabilities that are owned by the DOE Office of Environmental Management (EM) and operated and managed by Fluor Idaho, which include the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center's (INTEC's) CPP-666, CPP-749, and CPP-603. In addition, INL has other capabilities owned by DOE-NE and operated and managed by Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC (BEA), which are located at the Materials and Fuel Complex (MFC). Additional storage capabilities are located on the INL Site at the Naval Reactors Facility (NRF). Current INL SNF management planning, as defined in the Fluor Idaho contract, shows INTEC dry fuel storage, which is currently used for ATR SNF, will be nearly full after transfer of an additional 1,000 ATR SNF from wet storage. DOE-NE tasked BEA with identifying and analyzing options that have the potential to fulfill this capability gap. BEA assembled a team comprised of SNF management experts from Fluor Idaho, Savannah River Site (SRS), INL/BEA, and the MITRE Corp with an objective of developing and

  17. ATR Spent Fuel Options Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Connolly, Michael James [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Bean, Thomas E. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Brower, Jeffrey O. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Luke, Dale E. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Patterson, M. W. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Robb, Alan K. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Sindelar, Robert [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Smith, Rebecca E. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Tonc, Vincent F. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Tripp, Julia L. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Winston, Philip L. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2017-01-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) is a materials and fuels test nuclear reactor that performs irradiation services for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Nuclear Energy (NE), Naval Reactors, the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), and other research programs. ATR achieved initial criticality in 1967 and is expected to operate in support of needed missions until the year 2050 or beyond. It is anticipated that ATR will generate approximately 105 spent nuclear fuel (SNF) elements per year through the year 2050. Idaho National Laboratory (INL) currently stores 2,008 ATR SNF elements in dry storage, 976 in wet storage, and expects to have 1,000 elements in wet storage before January 2017. A capability gap exists at INL for long-term (greater than the year 2050) management, in compliance with the Idaho Settlement Agreement (ISA), of ATR SNF until a monitored retrievable geological repository is open. INL has significant wet and dry storage capabilities that are owned by the DOE Office of Environmental Management (EM) and operated and managed by Fluor Idaho, which include the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center’s (INTEC’s) CPP-666, CPP-749, and CPP-603. In addition, INL has other capabilities owned by DOE-NE and operated and managed by Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC (BEA), which are located at the Materials and Fuel Complex (MFC). Additional storage capabilities are located on the INL Site at the Naval Reactors Facility (NRF). Current INL SNF management planning, as defined in the Fluor Idaho contract, shows INTEC dry fuel storage, which is currently used for ATR SNF, will be nearly full after transfer of an additional 1,000 ATR SNF from wet storage. DOE-NE tasked BEA with identifying and analyzing options that have the potential to fulfill this capability gap. BEA assembled a team comprised of SNF management experts from Fluor Idaho, Savannah River Site (SRS), INL/BEA, and the MITRE Corp with an objective of developing and analyzing

  18. Physics of Strongly Coupled Plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraeft, Wolf-Dietrich [Universitat Rostock (Germany)

    2007-07-15

    Strongly coupled plasmas (or non-ideal plasmas) are multi-component charged many-particle systems, in which the mean value of the potential energy of the system is of the same order as or even higher than the mean value of the kinetic energy. The constituents are electrons, ions, atoms and molecules. Dusty (or complex) plasmas contain still mesoscopic (multiply charged) particles. In such systems, the effects of strong coupling (non-ideality) lead to considerable deviations of physical properties from the corresponding properties of ideal plasmas, i.e., of plasmas in which the mean kinetic energy is essentially larger than the mean potential energy. For instance, bound state energies become density dependent and vanish at higher densities (Mott effect) due to the interaction of the pair with the surrounding particles. Non-ideal plasmas are of interest both for general scientific reasons (including, for example, astrophysical questions), and for technical applications such as inertially confined fusion. In spite of great efforts both experimentally and theoretically, satisfactory information on the physical properties of strongly coupled plasmas is not at hand for any temperature and density. For example, the theoretical description of non-ideal plasmas is possible only at low densities/high temperatures and at extremely high densities (high degeneracy). For intermediate degeneracy, however, numerical experiments have to fill the gap. Experiments are difficult in the region of 'warm dense matter'. The monograph tries to present the state of the art concerning both theoretical and experimental attempts. It mainly includes results of the work performed in famous Russian laboratories in recent decades. After outlining basic concepts (chapter 1), the generation of plasmas is considered (chapter 2, chapter 3). Questions of partial (chapter 4) and full ionization (chapter 5) are discussed including Mott transition and Wigner crystallization. Electrical and

  19. Strongly coupled dust coulomb clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juan Wentau; Lai Yingju; Chen Mingheng; I Lin

    1999-01-01

    The structures and motions of quasi-2-dimensional strongly coupled dust Coulomb clusters with particle number N from few to hundreds in a cylindrical rf plasma trap are studied and compared with the results from the molecular dynamic simulation using more ideal models. Shell structures with periodic packing in different shells and intershell rotational motion dominated excitations are observed at small N. As N increases, the boundary has less effect, the system recovers to the triangular lattice with isotropic vortex type cooperative excitations similar to an infinite N system except the outer shell region. The above generic behaviors are mainly determined by the system symmetry and agree with the simulation results. The detailed interaction form causes minor effect such as the fine structure of packing

  20. Probability densities in strong turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakhot, Victor

    2006-03-01

    In this work we, using Mellin’s transform combined with the Gaussian large-scale boundary condition, calculate probability densities (PDFs) of velocity increments P(δu,r), velocity derivatives P(u,r) and the PDF of the fluctuating dissipation scales Q(η,Re), where Re is the large-scale Reynolds number. The resulting expressions strongly deviate from the Log-normal PDF P(δu,r) often quoted in the literature. It is shown that the probability density of the small-scale velocity fluctuations includes information about the large (integral) scale dynamics which is responsible for the deviation of P(δu,r) from P(δu,r). An expression for the function D(h) of the multifractal theory, free from spurious logarithms recently discussed in [U. Frisch, M. Martins Afonso, A. Mazzino, V. Yakhot, J. Fluid Mech. 542 (2005) 97] is also obtained.

  1. Regional transport sector mitigation options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Peter [EECG Consultants, Gaborone (Botswana)

    1998-10-01

    The rationale for conducting climate change mitigation studies in the transport sector is on the premise that: The transport sector is the second largest consumer of fossil fuels in the region; The regional transport sector is an area with high opportunity for infrastructural development under UNFCCC financial mechanism; The regional transport sector is crucial in the SADC region for trade and coupled with the Trade Protocol will play a major role in development hence the need to make it efficient in terms of energy demand and provision of services; The sector offers many mitigation options but with a challenge to evaluate their energy saving and GHG saving potential and yet there is need to quantify possible emission reduction for possible future emission trading. This is also a sector with potential to qualify for financing through Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) recently stipulated in the Kyoto Protocol. (au)

  2. Are biofuels a feasible option?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldemberg, Jose; Guardabassi, Patricia

    2009-01-01

    Recently a number of objections have been raised against the use of ethanol produced from agricultural products such as maize, sugarcane, wheat or sugar beets as a replacement for gasoline, despite some of their advantages such as being cleaner and to some extent renewable. We address these objections in this paper. Topics discussed include the 'corn connection' (which was theorized to be a cause of deforestation in the Amazonia), the rise of food prices due to ethanol production and the real possibilities of ethanol in reducing greenhouse gas emissions. It has been shown that such concerns are grossly exaggerated and that ethanol from sugarcane, as produced in Brazil, is the preferred option for the production of fuel not only in terms of cost but also as a favourable energy balance. Finally, the possibility of expanding ethanol production to other sugar-producing countries is also discussed

  3. Operational options for green ships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherbaz, Salma; Duan, Wenyang

    2012-09-01

    Environmental issues and rising fuel prices necessitate better energy-efficiency in all sectors. The shipping industry is one of the major stakeholders, responsible for 3% of global CO2 emissions, 14%-15% of global NO X emissions, and 16% of global SO X emissions. In addition, continuously rising fuel prices are also an incentive to focus on new ways for better energy-effectiveness. The green ship concept requires exploring and implementing technology on ships to increase energy-efficiency and reduce emissions. Ship operation is an important topic with large potential to increase cost-and-energy-effectiveness. This paper provided a comprehensive review of basic concepts, principles, and potential of operational options for green ships. The key challenges pertaining to ship crew i.e. academic qualifications prior to induction, in-service training and motivation were discussed. The author also deliberated on remedies to these challenges.

  4. Therapeutic options for lip augmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segall, Lorne; Ellis, David A F

    2007-11-01

    Aesthetic ideals vary with emerging fashion trends and within different cultures. However, over the past few decades, fuller lips have been considered a desirable trait. Many younger patients are presenting for lip augmentation to achieve the sought-after look commonly seen in many fashion magazines. In addition, as individuals age, they lose lip volume, with a thinning of the red lip, some effacement of the vermillion border, and elongation and flattening of the white portion of the lip. Rejuvenation of the lips plays a key role in restoring a more youthful appearance. As a result, lip augmentation appeals to a wide spectrum of patients who present with various different aesthetic goals and expectations. Numerous therapeutic options exist for aesthetic lip augmentation, ranging from temporary and permanent injectable fillers to implants and other surgical techniques.

  5. Fusion as an energy option

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steiner, D.

    1976-01-01

    The environmental issues, alternative fusion fuels, the economic potential, and the time scale of fusion power are assessed. It is common for the advocate of a long-term energy source to claim his source (fission, fusion, solar, etc.) as the ultimate solution to man's energy needs. The author does not believe that such a stance will lead to a rational energy policy. Dr. Steiner encourages a long-term energy policy that has as its goal the development of fission breeders, fusion, and solar energy--not be totally reliant on a single source. He does advocate vigorous funding for fusion, not because it is a guarantee for ''clean, limitless, and cheap power,'' but because it may provide an important energy option for the next century

  6. Regional transport sector mitigation options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Peter

    1998-01-01

    The rationale for conducting climate change mitigation studies in the transport sector is on the premise that: The transport sector is the second largest consumer of fossil fuels in the region; The regional transport sector is an area with high opportunity for infrastructural development under UNFCCC financial mechanism; The regional transport sector is crucial in the SADC region for trade and coupled with the Trade Protocol will play a major role in development hence the need to make it efficient in terms of energy demand and provision of services; The sector offers many mitigation options but with a challenge to evaluate their energy saving and GHG saving potential and yet there is need to quantify possible emission reduction for possible future emission trading. This is also a sector with potential to qualify for financing through Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) recently stipulated in the Kyoto Protocol. (au)

  7. Tank waste technical options report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boomer, K.D.; Baker, S.K.; Boldt, A.L.; Galbraith, J.D.; Garfield, J.S.; Golberg, C.E.; Higley, B.A.; Johnson, L.J.; Kupfer, M.J.; Marusich, R.M.; Parazin, R.J.; Praga, A.N.; Reddick, G.W.; Reddick, J.A.; Slaathaug, E.J.; Swanson, L.M.; Waldo, T.L.; Worcester, C.E.

    1993-01-01

    This document, Tank Waste Technical Options Report, assesses technologies that can be applied to treat and dispose of all Hanford Site tank waste including the cesium and strontium capsules. This effort continues the single-shell tank systems engineering work that began at the urging of a National Academy of Science subpanel. The study develops data on specific technologies that are combined to form alternativesfor waste treatment and disposal. These alternatives are defined and evaluated in the Tank Waste Decision Analysis Report. Both studies are an integral part of the Tank Waste Remediation System goal of defininga new technical strategy in 1993. The engineering work represented in this document will also serve as data for the environmental impact statement support document

  8. Strategic Options Development and Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackermann, Fran; Eden, Colin

    Strategic Options Development and Analysis (SODA) enables a group or individual to construct a graphical representation of a problematic situation, and thus explore options and their ramifications with respect to a complex system of goals or objectives. In addition the method aims to help groups arrive at a negotiated agreement about how to act to resolve the situation. It is based upon the use of causal mapping - a formally constructed means-ends network - as representation form. Because the picture has been constructed using the natural language of the problem owners it becomes a model of the situation that is ‘owned' by those who define the problem. The use of formalities for the construction of the model makes it amenable to a range of analyses as well as encouraging reflection and a deeper understanding. These analyses can be used in a ‘rough and ready' manner by visual inspection or through the use of specialist causal mapping software (Decision Explorer). Each of the analyses helps a group or individual discover important features of the problem situation, and these features facilitate agreeing agood solution. The SODA process is aimed at helping a group learn about the situation they face before they reach agreements. Most significantly the exploration through the causal map leads to a higher probability of more creative solutions and promotes solutions that are more likely to be implemented because the problem construction process is wider and more likely to include richer social dimensions about the blockages to action and organizational change. The basic theories that inform SODA derive from cognitive psychology and social negotiation, where the model acts as a continuously changing representation of the problematic situation - changing as the views of a person or group shift through learning and exploration. This chapter, jointly written by two leading practitioner academics and the original developers of SODA, Colin Eden and Fran Ackermann

  9. SAPHO: Treatment options including bisphosphonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwaenepoel, Tom; Vlam, Kurt de

    2016-10-01

    Both the diagnosis and treatment of the syndrome of synovitis, acne, pustulosis, hyperostosis, osteitis (SAPHO) remain difficult. We describe a case series of 21 patients with SAPHO and their response to several pharmacological treatments. Clinical and biochemical data, along with medical imaging, were collected from the medical records of 21 patients, diagnosed as SAPHO during follow-up between 2005 and 2013. Symptoms and inflammatory markers were recorded twice, once at first patient presentation, and once at the end of follow-up. Synovitis, acne, pustulosis, hyperostosis, and osteitis were labeled as defining features. All treatment options were categorized according to their respective responses (full remission, partial remission, and no disease control). There was a female predominance and a median age of 32 years (range: 12-54 years). Median follow-up duration was 45 months (range: 0-188 months). Total prevalence of defining features in this cohort increased for each defining feature during follow-up, except for acne. All patients reached full or partial remission at the end of follow-up. A total of 14 patients were treated with bisphosphonates. Of which 8 of them went into full or partial remission. In our case series, none of the patients had the full presentation of SAPHO at the first consultation. Some presented with symptoms suggestive for psoriatic arthritis. This explains why diagnosis of SAPHO can be challenging. Full remission was induced in the majority of individuals. Bisphosphonates seem to be a noteworthy treatment option. We suggest a prospective placebo-controlled clinical trial with bisphosphonates to confirm this observation. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Disc degeneration: current surgical options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Schizas

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Chronic low back pain attributed to lumbar disc degeneration poses a serious challenge to physicians. Surgery may be indicated in selected cases following failure of appropriate conservative treatment. For decades, the only surgical option has been spinal fusion, but its results have been inconsistent. Some prospective trials show superiority over usual conservative measures while others fail to demonstrate its advantages. In an effort to improve results of fusion and to decrease the incidence of adjacent segment degeneration, total disc replacement techniques have been introduced and studied extensively. Short-term results have shown superiority over some fusion techniques. Mid-term results however tend to show that this approach yields results equivalent to those of spinal fusion. Nucleus replacement has gained some popularity initially, but evidence on its efficacy is scarce. Dynamic stabilisation, a technique involving less rigid implants than in spinal fusion and performed without the need for bone grafting, represents another surgical option. Evidence again is lacking on its superiority over other surgical strategies and conservative measures. Insertion of interspinous devices posteriorly, aiming at redistributing loads and relieving pain, has been used as an adjunct to disc removal surgery for disc herniation. To date however, there is no clear evidence on their efficacy. Minimally invasive intradiscal thermocoagulation techniques have also been tried, but evidence of their effectiveness is questioned. Surgery using novel biological solutions may be the future of discogenic pain treatment. Collaboration between clinicians and basic scientists in this multidisciplinary field will undoubtedly shape the future of treating symptomatic disc degeneration.

  11. The option to expand a project: its assessment with the binomial options pricing model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador Cruz Rambaud

    Full Text Available Traditional methods of investment appraisal, like the Net Present Value, are not able to include the value of the operational flexibility of the project. In this paper, real options, and more specifically the option to expand, are assumed to be included in the project information in addition to the expected cash flows. Thus, to calculate the total value of the project, we are going to apply the methodology of the Net Present Value to the different scenarios derived from the existence of the real option to expand. Taking into account the analogy between real and financial options, the value of including an option to expand is explored by using the binomial options pricing model. In this way, estimating the value of the option to expand is a tool which facilitates the control of the uncertainty element implicit in the project. Keywords: Real options, Option to expand, Binomial options pricing model, Investment project appraisal

  12. Setting Up a Public Use Local Area Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flower, Eric; Thulstrup, Lisa

    1988-01-01

    Describes a public use microcomputer cluster at the University of Maine, Orono. Various network topologies, hardware and software options, installation problems, system management, and performance are discussed. (MES)

  13. Implied Adjusted Volatility by Leland Option Pricing Models: Evidence from Australian Index Options

    OpenAIRE

    Mimi Hafizah Abdullah; Hanani Farhah Harun; Nik Ruzni Nik Idris

    2014-01-01

    With the implied volatility as an important factor in financial decision-making, in particular in option pricing valuation, and also the given fact that the pricing biases of Leland option pricing models and the implied volatility structure for the options are related, this study considers examining the implied adjusted volatility smile patterns and term structures in the S&P/ASX 200 index options using the different Leland option pricing models. The examination of the im...

  14. Dynamique jointe stock/option et application aux stratégies de trading sur options

    OpenAIRE

    El Aoud , Sofiene

    2015-01-01

    This thesis explores theoretically and empirically the implications of the stock/option joint dynamics on applications related to option trading. In the first part of the thesis, we look into the relations between stock options and index options under the risk-neutral measure. The Capital Asset Pricing Model offers an adequate mathematical framework for this study as it provides a modeling approach for the joint dynamics between the stock and the index. As we compute option prices according t...

  15. Moving Canadian gas - options or confusion?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riha, R.

    1997-01-01

    The question of whether and how much gas carrying capacity is required beyond Chicago was examined. Assuming that the answer is 'yes', how much of the gas should be moved beyond Chicago, and which of the many pipeline options currently available should be chosen, was discussed. PanEnergy, one of the United States' five-largest transporters of natural gas and producers of natural gas liquids, with a base of 37,000 miles of natural gas pipelines, decided to get involved with Spectrum which takes gas away from Chicago, and Excelsior which gets gas into New York City. The Spectrum pipeline is designed to phase-in transport of up to 500,000 Dth/d from the Chicago area to the east coast and other markets served by the PanEnergy pipelines, such as southern Ontario, Kansas City and Memphis. The Excelsior pipeline project has been proposed to get gas into New York City. It is a long term solution designed to meet several years of strong historical and forecasted market growth. At the same time, it is not a new pipeline; it is backed by existing assets and will provide service as early as 1998. 15 figs

  16. Nuclear Fuel Cycle Evaluation and Real Options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Havlíček

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The first part of this paper describes the nuclear fuel cycle. It is divided into three parts. The first part, called Front-End, covers all activities connected with fuel procurement and fabrication. The middle part of the cycle includes fuel reload design activities and the operation of the fuel in the reactor. Back-End comprises all activities ensuring safe separation of spent fuel and radioactive waste from the environment. The individual stages of the fuel cycle are strongly interrelated. Overall economic optimization is very difficult. Generally, NPV is used for an economic evaluation in the nuclear fuel cycle. However the high volatility of uranium prices in the Front-End, and the large uncertainty of both economic and technical parameters in the Back-End, make the use of NPV difficult. The real option method is able to evaluate the value added by flexibility of decision making by a company under conditions of uncertainty. The possibility of applying this method to the nuclear fuel cycle evaluation is studied. 

  17. American option pricing with stochastic volatility processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping LI

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to solve the problem of option pricing more perfectly, the option pricing problem with Heston stochastic volatility model is considered. The optimal implementation boundary of American option and the conditions for its early execution are analyzed and discussed. In view of the fact that there is no analytical American option pricing formula, through the space discretization parameters, the stochastic partial differential equation satisfied by American options with Heston stochastic volatility is transformed into the corresponding differential equations, and then using high order compact finite difference method, numerical solutions are obtained for the option price. The numerical experiments are carried out to verify the theoretical results and simulation. The two kinds of optimal exercise boundaries under the conditions of the constant volatility and the stochastic volatility are compared, and the results show that the optimal exercise boundary also has stochastic volatility. Under the setting of parameters, the behavior and the nature of volatility are analyzed, the volatility curve is simulated, the calculation results of high order compact difference method are compared, and the numerical option solution is obtained, so that the method is verified. The research result provides reference for solving the problems of option pricing under stochastic volatility such as multiple underlying asset option pricing and barrier option pricing.

  18. Challenged by migration: Europe's options

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Constant, Amelie F.; Zimmermann, Klaus F.

    2017-01-01

    This paper examines the migration and labour mobility in the European Union and elaborates on their importance for the existence of the EU. Against all measures of success, the current public debate seems to suggest that the political consensus that migration is beneficial is broken. This comes with

  19. The School Maintenance Rental Option

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffer, Michael

    2012-01-01

    It will probably be years before all the social and structural ramifications of the economic downturn are fully realized. However, one interesting consequence already is materializing. According to Amy Hoak, a reporter for "MarketWatch", a "Wall Street Journal" publication, for the first time in decades, more people say they would rather rent a…

  20. Strong Ideal Convergence in Probabilistic Metric Spaces

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the present paper we introduce the concepts of strongly ideal convergent sequence and strong ideal Cauchy sequence in a probabilistic metric (PM) space endowed with the strong topology, and establish some basic facts. Next, we define the strong ideal limit points and the strong ideal cluster points of a sequence in this ...

  1. Strong ideal convergence in probabilistic metric spaces

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the present paper we introduce the concepts of strongly ideal convergent sequence and strong ideal Cauchy sequence in a probabilistic metric (PM) space endowed with the strong topology, and establish some basic facts. Next, we define the strong ideal limit points and the strong ideal cluster points of a sequence in this ...

  2. Remnants of strong tidal interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mcglynn, T.A.

    1990-01-01

    This paper examines the properties of stellar systems that have recently undergone a strong tidal shock, i.e., a shock which removes a significant fraction of the particles in the system, and where the shocked system has a much smaller mass than the producer of the tidal field. N-body calculations of King models shocked in a variety of ways are performed, and the consequences of the shocks are investigated. The results confirm the prediction of Jaffe for shocked systems. Several models are also run where the tidal forces on the system are constant, simulating a circular orbit around a primary, and the development of tidal radii under these static conditions appears to be a mild process which does not dramatically affect material that is not stripped. The tidal radii are about twice as large as classical formulas would predict. Remnant density profiles are compared with a sample of elliptical galaxies, and the implications of the results for the development of stellar populations and galaxies are considered. 38 refs

  3. John Strong - 1941-2006

    CERN Document Server

    2006-01-01

    Our friend and colleague John Strong was cruelly taken from us by a brain tumour on 31 July, a few days before his 65th birthday. John started his career and obtained his PhD in a group from Westfield College, initially working on experiments at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL). From the early 1970s onwards, however, his research was focused on experiments in CERN, with several particularly notable contributions. The Omega spectrometer adopted a system John had originally developed for experiments at RAL using vidicon cameras (a type of television camera) to record the sparks in the spark chambers. This highly automated system allowed Omega to be used in a similar way to bubble chambers. He contributed to the success of NA1 and NA7, where he became heavily involved in the electronic trigger systems. In these experiments the Westfield group joined forces with Italian colleagues to measure the form factors of the pion and the kaon, and the lifetime of some of the newly discovered charm particles. Such h...

  4. Strong seismic ground motion propagation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seale, S.; Archuleta, R.; Pecker, A.; Bouchon, M.; Mohammadioun, G.; Murphy, A.; Mohammadioun, B.

    1988-10-01

    At the McGee Creek, California, site, 3-component strong-motion accelerometers are located at depths of 166 m, 35 m and 0 m. The surface material is glacial moraine, to a depth of 30.5 m, overlying homfels. Accelerations were recorded from two California earthquakes: Round Valley, M L 5.8, November 23, 1984, 18:08 UTC and Chalfant Valley, M L 6.4, July 21, 1986, 14:42 UTC. By separating out the SH components of acceleration, we were able to determine the orientations of the downhole instruments. By separating out the SV component of acceleration, we were able to determine the approximate angle of incidence of the signal at 166 m. A constant phase velocity Haskell-Thomson model was applied to generate synthetic SH seismograms at the surface using the accelerations recorded at 166 m. In the frequency band 0.0 - 10.0 Hz, we compared the filtered synthetic records to the filtered surface data. The onset of the SH pulse is clearly seen, as are the reflections from the interface at 30.5 m. The synthetic record closely matches the data in amplitude and phase. The fit between the synthetic accelerogram and the data shows that the seismic amplification at the surface is a result of the contrast of the impedances (shear stiffnesses) of the near surface materials

  5. Global population trends and policy options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezeh, Alex C; Bongaarts, John; Mberu, Blessing

    2012-07-14

    Rapid population growth is a threat to wellbeing in the poorest countries, whereas very low fertility increasingly threatens the future welfare of many developed countries. The mapping of global trends in population growth from 2005-10 shows four distinct patterns. Most of the poorest countries, especially in sub-Saharan Africa, are characterised by rapid growth of more than 2% per year. Moderate annual growth of 1-2% is concentrated in large countries, such as India and Indonesia, and across north Africa and western Latin America. Whereas most advanced-economy countries and large middle-income countries, such as China and Brazil, are characterised by low or no growth (0-1% per year), most of eastern Europe, Japan, and a few western European countries are characterised by population decline. Countries with rapid growth face adverse social, economic, and environmental pressures, whereas those with low or negative growth face rapid population ageing, unsustainable burdens on public pensions and health-care systems, and slow economic growth. Countries with rapid growth should consider the implementation of voluntary family planning programmes as their main policy option to reduce the high unmet need for contraception, unwanted pregnancies, and probirth reproductive norms. In countries with low or negative growth, policies to address ageing and very low fertility are still evolving. Further research into the potential effect of demographic policies on other social systems, social groups, and fertility decisions and trends is therefore recommended. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. 41 CFR 102-194.25 - What is an automated Standard or Optional format?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... prescribed form containing the same data elements and used for the electronic transaction of information in... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is an automated Standard or Optional format? 102-194.25 Section 102-194.25 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal...

  7. 78 FR 28262 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Chicago Board Options Exchange, Incorporated; Notice of Filing of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-14

    ..., that is published, or used in any electronic or other public media, including any Web site, newspaper... or published article and press release concerning a Trading Permit Holder's products or services... interview, or other public speaking activity, or the writing of a print media article, concerning options...

  8. 77 FR 22027 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Chicago Board Options Exchange, Incorporated; Order Approving a...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-12

    ... orders will execute against other stock- option orders through COB and the Complex Order RFR Auction... resting in COB before, or received during, the COA Response Time Interval, and public customer RFR... in COB that are received during the COA Response Time Interval, and non-public customer RFR Responses...

  9. Review of available options for low level radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-07-01

    The scope of this report includes: descriptions of the options available; identification of important elements in the selection process; discussion and assessment of the relevance of the various elements for the different options; cost data indicating the relative financial importance of different parts of the systems and the general cost level of a disposal facility. An overview of the types of wastes included in low level waste categories and an approach to the LLW management system is presented. A generic description of the disposal options available and the main activities involved in implementing the different options are described. Detailed descriptions and cost information on low level waste disposal facility concepts in a number of Member States are given. Conclusions from the report are summarized. In addition, this report provides a commentary on various aspects of land disposal, based on experience gained by IAEA Member States. The document is intended to complement other related IAEA publications on LLW management and disposal. It also demonstrates that alternatives solutions for the final disposal of LLW are available and can be safely operated but the choice of an appropriate solution must be a matter for national strategy taking into account local conditions. 18 refs, 16 figs, 1 tab

  10. Proactive Public Disclosure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boll, Karen; Tell, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses proactive public disclosure of taxpayer information and how this may form a new strategy for securing tax compliance by tax administrators. It reports a case study from the Danish Customs and Tax Administration in which consumers of services–over a short period of time...... proactive public disclosure is compatible with the Duty of Confidentiality, but incompatible with Good Public Governance. Furthermore, the analyses show that there are a number of strong organizational rationales for using proactive public disclosure, despite its apparent incompatibility with Good Public...

  11. Exploring the biophysical option space for feeding the world without deforestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erb, Karl-Heinz; Lauk, Christian; Kastner, Thomas; Mayer, Andreas; Theurl, Michaela C; Haberl, Helmut

    2016-04-19

    Safeguarding the world's remaining forests is a high-priority goal. We assess the biophysical option space for feeding the world in 2050 in a hypothetical zero-deforestation world. We systematically combine realistic assumptions on future yields, agricultural areas, livestock feed and human diets. For each scenario, we determine whether the supply of crop products meets the demand and whether the grazing intensity stays within plausible limits. We find that many options exist to meet the global food supply in 2050 without deforestation, even at low crop-yield levels. Within the option space, individual scenarios differ greatly in terms of biomass harvest, cropland demand and grazing intensity, depending primarily on the quantitative and qualitative aspects of human diets. Grazing constraints strongly limit the option space. Without the option to encroach into natural or semi-natural land, trade volumes will rise in scenarios with globally converging diets, thereby decreasing the food self-sufficiency of many developing regions.

  12. Topics in strong Langmuir turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skoric, M.M.

    1981-01-01

    This thesis discusses certain aspects of the turbulence of a fully ionised non-isothermal plasma dominated by the Langmuir mode. Some of the basic properties of strongly turbulent plasmas are reviewed. In particular, interest is focused on the state of Langmuir turbulence, that is the turbulence of a simple externally unmagnetized plasma. The problem of the existence and dynamics of Langmuir collapse is discussed, often met as a non-linear stage of the modulational instability in the framework of the Zakharov equations (i.e. simple time-averaged dynamical equations). Possible macroscopic consequences of such dynamical turbulent models are investigated. In order to study highly non-linear collapse dynamics in its advanced stage, a set of generalized Zakharov equations are derived. Going beyond the original approximation, the author includes the effects of higher electron non-linearities and a breakdown of slow-timescale quasi-neutrality. He investigates how these corrections may influence the collapse stabilisation. Recently, it has been realised that the modulational instability in a Langmuir plasma will be accompanied by the collisionless-generation of a slow-timescale magnetic field. Accordingly, a novel physical situation has emerged which is investigated in detail. The stability of monochromatic Langmuir waves in a self-magnetized Langmuir plasma, is discussed, and the existence of a novel magneto-modulational instability shown. The wave collapse dynamics is investigated and a physical interpretation of the basic results is given. A problem of the transient analysis of an interaction of time-dependent electromagnetic pulses with linear cold plasma media is investigated. (Auth.)

  13. Promoting Strong Written Communication Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, M.

    2015-12-01

    The reason that an improvement in the quality of technical writing is still needed in the classroom is due to the fact that universities are facing challenging problems not only on the technological front but also on the socio-economic front. The universities are actively responding to the changes that are taking place in the global consumer marketplace. Obviously, there are numerous benefits of promoting strong written communication skills. They can be summarized into the following six categories. First, and perhaps the most important: The University achieves learner satisfaction. The learner has documented verbally, that the necessary knowledge has been successfully acquired. This results in learner loyalty that in turn will attract more qualified learners.Second, quality communication lowers the cost per pupil, consequently resulting in increased productivity backed by a stronger economic structure and forecast. Third, quality communications help to improve the cash flow and cash reserves of the university. Fourth, having high quality communication enables the university to justify the need for high costs of tuition and fees. Fifth, better quality in written communication skills result in attracting top-quality learners. This will lead to happier and satisfied learners, not to mention greater prosperity for the university as a whole. Sixth, quality written communication skills result in reduced complaints, thus meaning fewer hours spent on answering or correcting the situation. The University faculty and staff are thus able to devote more time on scholarly activities, meaningful research and productive community service. References Boyer, Ernest L. (1990). Scholarship reconsidered: Priorities of the Professorate.Princeton, NJ: Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching. Hawkins, P., & Winter, J. (1997). Mastering change: Learning the lessons of the enterprise.London: Department for Education and Employment. Buzzel, Robert D., and Bradley T. Gale. (1987

  14. Nuclear risk assessment and public acceptance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savellano, R.A.

    1983-01-01

    The report describes the methodology and the results of a study of public attitudes towards five energy sources: nuclear power, hydro power, solar energy, oil and geothermal energy. The analysis is based on a survey carried out in the Metro Manila area in the Philippines. The samples consist of Barangay Leaders (192 respondents), Science teachers (170 respondents), and university students (174 respondents). The survey utilized a questionnaire which is based on a psychometric model and allows for internal cross-checking of independent attitude measures. The analysis shows that for all subgroups nuclear power is the least preferred option. Those opposing nuclear power also have negative attitudes towards oil and are less favourable towards the other energy systems also. It was found that the subjects strongly related nuclear power to environmental risks (which they did not for solar, hydro, geothermal) and were not convinced about its economic benefits. They rated the technological benefits of all the five energy systems equally high and believed in sociopolitical implications of all energy systems except solar energy. Women are strongly less favourable towards nuclear power and oil than men. They are also more afraid of its risks and less convinced about its benefits. The influence of other variables like age, education and information source is rather low. The report also compares public attitudes towards nuclear power and geothermal energy in the vicinity of a geothermal site in Dumaguete City in Negros Oriental

  15. Environmental and waste disposal options in nuclear engineering curricula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elleman, T.S.; Gilligan, J.G.

    1991-01-01

    The strong national emphasis on waste and environmental issues has prompted increasing interest among nuclear engineering students in study options that will prepare them for careers in these areas. Student interest appears to focus principally on health physics, radioactive waste disposal, and environmental interactions with radionuclides. One motivation for this interest appears to be the growing national programs in environmental restoration and waste remediation that have produced fellowship support for nuclear engineering students as well as employment opportunities. Also, the recent National Academy of sciences study on nuclear engineering education specifically emphasized the importance of expanding nuclear engineering curricula and research programs to include a greater emphasis on radioactive waste and environmental issues. The North Carolina State University (NCSU) Department of Nuclear Engineering is attempting to respond to these needs through the development of course options that will allow students to acquire background in environmental subjects as a complement to the traditional nuclear engineering education

  16. Current treatment options for meningioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apra, Caroline; Peyre, Matthieu; Kalamarides, Michel

    2018-03-01

    With an annual incidence of 5/100,000, meningioma is the most frequent primary tumor of the central nervous system. Risk factors are radiotherapy and hormone intake. Most meningiomas are grade I benign tumors, but up to 15% are atypical and 2% anaplastic according to the WHO 2016 histological criteria. Areas covered: This review details the current standard therapy based on international guidelines and recent literature, and describes new approaches developed to treat refractory cases. First-line treatments are observation and surgery, but adjuvant radiotherapy/radiosurgery is discussed for atypical and indicated for anaplastic meningiomas. The most problematic cases include skull base meningiomas that enclose vasculo-nervous structures and surgery- and radiation-refractory tumors that present with significant morbidity and mortality. The treatment of recurrent tumors is based on radiotherapy and repeated surgery. Systematic therapies are not effective in general but several clinical trials are ongoing. Expert commentary: Molecular characterization of the tumors, based on genetic mutations such as NF2, SMO, TERT, TRAF7, and on the methylation profile are developing, completing the histological classification and giving new insights into prognosis and treatment options.

  17. Methodology for ranking restoration options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedemann Jensen, Per

    1999-04-01

    The work described in this report has been performed as a part of the RESTRAT Project FI4P-CT95-0021a (PL 950128) co-funded by the Nuclear Fission Safety Programme of the European Commission. The RESTRAT project has the overall objective of developing generic methodologies for ranking restoration techniques as a function of contamination and site characteristics. The project includes analyses of existing remediation methodologies and contaminated sites, and is structured in the following steps: characterisation of relevant contaminated sites; identification and characterisation of relevant restoration techniques; assessment of the radiological impact; development and application of a selection methodology for restoration options; formulation of generic conclusions and development of a manual. The project is intended to apply to situations in which sites with nuclear installations have been contaminated with radioactive materials as a result of the operation of these installations. The areas considered for remedial measures include contaminated land areas, rivers and sediments in rivers, lakes, and sea areas. Five contaminated European sites have been studied. Various remedial measures have been envisaged with respect to the optimisation of the protection of the populations being exposed to the radionuclides at the sites. Cost-benefit analysis and multi-attribute utility analysis have been applied for optimisation. Health, economic and social attributes have been included and weighting factors for the different attributes have been determined by the use of scaling constants. (au)

  18. Real Options, Taxes and Financial Leverage

    OpenAIRE

    Stewart C. Myers; James A. Read, Jr.

    2012-01-01

    We show how the value of a real option depends on corporate income taxes and the option's "debt capacity," defined as the amount of debt supported or displaced by the option. The value of the underlying asset must be an adjusted present value (APV). The risk-free rate of interest must be after-tax. Debt capacity depends on the APV and target debt ratio for the underlying asset, on the option delta and on the amount of risk-free borrowing or lending that would be needed for replication. The ta...

  19. Treatment Options for Myelodysplastic/Myeloproliferative Neoplasms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... symptoms of chronic myelomonocytic leukemia include fever, weight loss, and feeling very tired. Certain factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. Chronic myelomonocytic leukemia ...

  20. Treatment Option Overview (Myelodysplastic/Myeloproliferative Neoplasms)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... symptoms of chronic myelomonocytic leukemia include fever, weight loss, and feeling very tired. Certain factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. Chronic myelomonocytic leukemia ...

  1. Numerical Algorithm for Delta of Asian Option

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boxiang Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the numerical solution of the Greeks of Asian options. In particular, we derive a close form solution of Δ of Asian geometric option and use this analytical form as a control to numerically calculate Δ of Asian arithmetic option, which is known to have no explicit close form solution. We implement our proposed numerical method and compare the standard error with other classical variance reduction methods. Our method provides an efficient solution to the hedging strategy with Asian options.

  2. Disaggregated Futures and Options Commitments of Traders

    Data.gov (United States)

    Commodity Futures Trading Commission — The Disaggregated Futures and Options Commitments of Traders dataset provides a breakdown of each week's open interest for agriculture, energy, metals, lumber, and...

  3. The radiative forcing potential of different climate geoengineering options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenton, T. M.; Vaughan, N. E.

    2009-08-01

    Climate geoengineering proposals seek to rectify the Earth's current and potential future radiative imbalance, either by reducing the absorption of incoming solar (shortwave) radiation, or by removing CO2 from the atmosphere and transferring it to long-lived reservoirs, thus increasing outgoing longwave radiation. A fundamental criterion for evaluating geoengineering options is their climate cooling effectiveness, which we quantify here in terms of radiative forcing potential. We use a simple analytical approach, based on energy balance considerations and pulse response functions for the decay of CO2 perturbations. This aids transparency compared to calculations with complex numerical models, but is not intended to be definitive. It allows us to compare the relative effectiveness of a range of proposals. We consider geoengineering options as additional to large reductions in CO2 emissions. By 2050, some land carbon cycle geoengineering options could be of comparable magnitude to mitigation "wedges", but only stratospheric aerosol injections, albedo enhancement of marine stratocumulus clouds, or sunshades in space have the potential to cool the climate back toward its pre-industrial state. Strong mitigation, combined with global-scale air capture and storage, afforestation, and bio-char production, i.e. enhanced CO2 sinks, might be able to bring CO2 back to its pre-industrial level by 2100, thus removing the need for other geoengineering. Alternatively, strong mitigation stabilising CO2 at 500 ppm, combined with geoengineered increases in the albedo of marine stratiform clouds, grasslands, croplands and human settlements might achieve a patchy cancellation of radiative forcing. Ocean fertilisation options are only worthwhile if sustained on a millennial timescale and phosphorus addition may have greater long-term potential than iron or nitrogen fertilisation. Enhancing ocean upwelling or downwelling have trivial effects on any meaningful timescale. Our approach

  4. THE GREEKS & BLACK AND SCHOLE MODEL" TO EVALUATE OPTIONS PRICING & SENSITIVITY IN INDIAN OPTIONS MARKET

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. M. Tulasinadh*, Dr.R. Mahesh

    2017-01-01

    Derivatives’ trading is a core part of the Indian Stock Market in the Current Scenario. Trading volumes in stock options have grown up tremendously during recent years. This also leads to be high volatility in the options prices Options Pricing is crucial factor for hedging and Speculative activities. Pricing plays a vital role for option writers. In this paper we have tried to find out the price of an option in the future and its sensitivity through the Greek & Black and Scholes Option prici...

  5. Horizontal mergers and weak and strong competition commissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ristić Bojan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we analyse the horizontal merger of companies in an already concentrated industry. The participants in mergers are obliged to submit notification to the Competition Commission but they also have the option of rejecting the merger. At the time of the notification submission the participants do not know whether the Commission is strong or weak, and they can complain to the Court if the Commission prohibits the merger. We model the strategic interaction between Participants and Commission in a dynamic game of incomplete information and determine weak perfect Bayesian equilibria. The main finding of our paper is that Participants will base their decision to submit notification on their belief in a weak Commission decision and will almost completely ignore the possibility of a strong Commission decision. We also provide a detailed examination of one case from Serbian regulatory practice, which coincides with the results of our game theoretical model.

  6. Publisiteitsbevele as vonnisopsie vir regspersone - publicity orders ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This contribution addresses the issue of adverse publicity orders as a possible supplementary sentencing option for corporate offenders. In South Africa fines are the primary sentencing option available to courts when imposing sentences on juristic persons. Fines, however, do not adequately serve the purposes of ...

  7. Applying Marketing in the Public School Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettinga, Deidre M.; Angelov, Azure D. S.; Bateman, David F.

    2015-01-01

    Traditional public schools no longer have a guaranteed market share of students, or tax dollars, based on geographic location. Families with little to no options in the past about where their child would attend school, now have many. In response to the expanding options available to them--in the form of charter schools and vouchers--families today…

  8. Expanding policy options for educating teenagers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, David

    2009-01-01

    David Stern argues that some basic features of the American high school must be modified if it is to serve all students successfully. He notes, for example, that only three-quarters of U.S. high school students graduate four years after beginning ninth grade and that the National Assessment of Educational Progress found no improvement in reading or mathematics for seventeen-year-olds between 1971 and 2004. The nation's system for educating teenagers, says Stern, seems to be stuck, despite the constant efforts of teachers and repeated waves of reform. Citing two widely accepted public purposes of educating teenagers-preparation for civic participation and for economic self-sufficiency-Stern proposes four new strategies to achieve those goals. He draws on empirical evidence suggesting that these are promising directions for research and policy, but acknowledges that existing studies provide only limited guidance. First, he says, schools should continue the current trend toward integrating educational options to provide young people with skills and experiences that pave the way to both college and careers. Second, states and districts should tie education funding not simply to the number of students attending school, but also to what young people learn, whether they graduate, and whether they find jobs or enroll in postsecondary education. Such a move, he argues, would encourage teaching and learning formats that use students' time more effectively. Third, more adults in addition to classroom teachers should be involved in educating teenagers. Other adults acting as academic advisers, learning coaches, student advocates, internship supervisors, mentors, and college counselors could help guide the education of teenagers inside and outside of school and provide some relief for the chronic shortage of teachers. Fourth, schools should expand the options for educating teenagers outside of geographically fixed schools. Combining improved Internet-based curriculum with

  9. Real Options in Capital Budgeting. Pricing the Option to Delay and the Option to Abandon a Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta Vintila

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Traditional discounted cash-flows method for assessing projects assumes that investment decision is an irreversible one, which is not correct. Managers can and must reconsider their initial decision as the new information arises during the project life. This is managerial flexibility and it creates strategic value for a project, only if management takes advantage of the opportunities associated with an analyzed project. Real options represent a new approach in capital budgeting, using the theory of pricing financial options for investments in real assets. In this paper, we emphasize the characteristics and valuation methodologies of real options. The objective in the last section is pricing the option to delay and the option to abandon a project in construction materials field.

  10. OPTION OF USERS IN SURGICAL CONTRACEPTION FAMILY HEALTH UNIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vagner Ferreira do Nascimento

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The study is a descriptive and quantitative approach, which aimed to meet customers the option of surgical contraception by a Family Health Unit in the municipality of Barra do Herons - Mato Grosso. Data were collected on 22 forms of reference that would be forwarded to the sector and family planning counseling. Data were collected and grouped by age, marital status, gender, children and quantitative choice of surgical method of contraception. The period of data collection occurred from March to December 2011. The age group with the highest participation was from 18 to 25 years. Predominantly single, female, with two sons and opting for sterilization. The variety of options to be used as contraceptive methods should be widely publicized and encouraged by health professionals, leaving the surgical methods of reversible or irreversible disruption as a last choice.

  11. CANDU design options with detritiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wren, D.J.; Hart, R.S.

    1997-01-01

    CANDU reactors include a number of auxiliary systems to manage the inventory, purification, clean-up and isotopic purity of the heavy water used in the moderator and heat transport system. These systems are designed and installed to treat the moderator and heat transport water in separate parallel systems. One of the reasons for this parallel approach to heavy water management is the tritium inventory in the heavy water. Different levels of tritium accumulate in the moderator and heat transport system during reactor operation, with the moderator water having a much higher tritium concentration. Strict separation of the high- tritium-concentration moderator water from the low-tritium-concentration heat transport system water is an integral component of the CANDU design and operating strategy to limit potential releases of tritium to the containment building atmosphere. AECL is developing a new cost-effective technology for the detritiation of heavy water based on the Combined Electrolysis and Catalytic Exchange (CECE) process. This detritiation technology has the potential to be integrated into the heavy water management systems of a CANDU reactor. On-line detritiation could be used to limit the concentration of tritium in the moderator and also to detritiate any water collected within the containment building from other sources. The availability of economic detritiation technology would provide a flexibility to redesign some of the auxiliary heavy water management systems. In particular, there is potential to eliminate some of the duplication in the current management systems and also reduce costs by reclassifying some reactor systems that would have lower maximum tritium concentrations. This paper discusses some of the advantages of detritiation and some of the conceptual design options that detritiation would provide. The goal would be to lower the overall reactor cost with detritiation, but it is premature to assess whether this goal can be achieved. (author)

  12. New Cancer Pain Treatment Options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candido, Kenneth D; Kusper, Teresa M; Knezevic, Nebojsa Nick

    2017-02-01

    Cancer pain is often incapacitating and discouraging to patients; is demoralizing to family members and care takers; and is taxing and difficult to subdue for the pain specialists. The consequences of implementing suboptimal treatment are far-reaching; therefore, effective treatment methods are in a great demand. The face of cancer pain management has changed in considerable ways, and interventional procedures have become an integral part of providing multimodal analgesia in cancer pain treatment. The goals of this review are to draw attention to the critical role that regional anesthetic nerve blocks and interventional pain management techniques play in treating malignancy-related pain and emphasize the benefits provided by the aforementioned treatment strategies. A large proportion of cancer patients continues to struggle with an inadequately treated pain despite a strict adherence to the WHO analgesic step ladder. The previous pain treatment algorithm has been modified to include peripheral neural blockade, neuro-destructive techniques, neuromodulatory device use, and intrathecal drug delivery systems. The accumulated evidence highlights the opioid-sparing qualities and other benefits afforded by these modalities: decreasing medication-induced side effects, reducing economic burden of poor analgesia, and overall improvement in quality of life of the patients afflicted with a painful neoplastic disease. The rising prevalence of cancer-related pain syndromes is paralleled by an unmatched growth of innovative treatment strategies. Modified WHO analgesic ladder represents one of the greatest paradigm shifts within the domain of oncologic pain treatment. The cancer patient population requires a prompt and liberal, albeit judicious, delivery of unorthodox pain treatment options freed from the rigid bonds of conventional guidelines and standard practices.

  13. Economics of Alaska North Slope gas utilization options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, C.P.; Doughty, T.C.; Hackworth, J.H.; North, W.B.; Robertson, E.P.

    1996-08-01

    The recoverable natural gas available for sale in the developed and known undeveloped fields on the Alaskan North Slope (ANS) total about 26 trillion cubic feet (TCF), including 22 TCF in the Prudhoe Bay Unit (PBU) and 3 TCF in the undeveloped Point Thomson Unit (PTU). No significant commercial use has been made of this large natural gas resource because there are no facilities in place to transport this gas to current markets. To date the economics have not been favorable to support development of a gas transportation system. However, with the declining trend in ANS oil production, interest in development of this huge gas resource is rising, making it important for the U.S. Department of Energy, industry, and the State of Alaska to evaluate and assess the options for development of this vast gas resource. The purpose of this study was to assess whether gas-to-liquids (GTL) conversion technology would be an economic alternative for the development and sale of the large, remote, and currently unmarketable ANS natural gas resource, and to compare the long term economic impact of a GTL conversion option to that of the more frequently discussed natural gas pipeline/liquefied natural gas (LNG) option. The major components of the study are: an assessment of the ANS oil and gas resources; an analysis of conversion and transportation options; a review of natural gas, LNG, and selected oil product markets; and an economic analysis of the LNG and GTL gas sales options based on publicly available input needed for assumptions of the economic variables. Uncertainties in assumptions are evaluated by determining the sensitivity of project economics to changes in baseline economic variables.

  14. Economics of Alaska North Slope gas utilization options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, C.P.; Doughty, T.C.; Hackworth, J.H.; North, W.B.; Robertson, E.P.

    1996-08-01

    The recoverable natural gas available for sale in the developed and known undeveloped fields on the Alaskan North Slope (ANS) total about 26 trillion cubic feet (TCF), including 22 TCF in the Prudhoe Bay Unit (PBU) and 3 TCF in the undeveloped Point Thomson Unit (PTU). No significant commercial use has been made of this large natural gas resource because there are no facilities in place to transport this gas to current markets. To date the economics have not been favorable to support development of a gas transportation system. However, with the declining trend in ANS oil production, interest in development of this huge gas resource is rising, making it important for the U.S. Department of Energy, industry, and the State of Alaska to evaluate and assess the options for development of this vast gas resource. The purpose of this study was to assess whether gas-to-liquids (GTL) conversion technology would be an economic alternative for the development and sale of the large, remote, and currently unmarketable ANS natural gas resource, and to compare the long term economic impact of a GTL conversion option to that of the more frequently discussed natural gas pipeline/liquefied natural gas (LNG) option. The major components of the study are: an assessment of the ANS oil and gas resources; an analysis of conversion and transportation options; a review of natural gas, LNG, and selected oil product markets; and an economic analysis of the LNG and GTL gas sales options based on publicly available input needed for assumptions of the economic variables. Uncertainties in assumptions are evaluated by determining the sensitivity of project economics to changes in baseline economic variables

  15. Therapeutic options or antiretroviral anarchy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascolini, M

    1999-01-01

    The number of drug combinations being used to treat HIV infections may produce a public health nightmare by creating multidrug resistance. The issue of whether to use aggressive multidrug combinations early in the infectious cycle or whether to delay treatment as long as possible remains controversial and unresolved. The use of viral markers to track disease progression is discussed. Tables illustrate the relationships between CD4+ counts and opportunistic infections, disease progression, and long-term viral load reduction. The effectiveness of different drugs combinations is discussed. Results of various clinical trials are presented.

  16. Illiquidity Premia in the Equity Options Market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Peter; Goyenko, Ruslan; Jacobs, Kris

    Illiquidity is well-known to be a significant determinant of stock and bond returns. We are the first to estimate illiquidity premia in equity option markets using effective spreads for a large cross-section of firms. The risk-adjusted return spread for illiquid over liquid options is 23 bps per ...

  17. Forecasting with Option-Implied Information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Peter; Jacobs, Kris; Chang, Bo Young

    2013-01-01

    This chapter surveys the methods available for extracting information from option prices that can be used in forecasting. We consider option-implied volatilities, skewness, kurtosis, and densities. More generally, we discuss how any forecasting object that is a twice differentiable function of th...

  18. Treatment Option Overview (Male Breast Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and improve quality of life . Strontium-89 (a radionuclide ) to relieve pain from cancer that has spread to bones throughout the body. Other treatment options Other treatment options for metastatic breast cancer include: Drug therapy with bisphosphonates or denosumab to reduce bone disease ...

  19. Conservation and Development Options existing on Uluguru ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effective management of projects on Uluguru Mountains requires that both development and conservation options are weighed and that opportunities and challenges are considered. This study identified various conservation and development options existing on Uluguru Mountains and assessed the perceptions of the local ...

  20. Index options : Pricing, implied densities and returns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boes, M.J.

    2006-01-01

    Chapter 2 gives an overview of the literature that is directly related to the topics studied in this thesis. In Chapter 3 the impact of overnight periods on option prices is examined by estimating an option pricing model that takes overnight closures of exchanges explicitly into account. Chapter 4

  1. Electric retail market options: The customer perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadley, S.W.; Hillsman, E.L.

    1995-07-01

    This report describes various options that are now available for retail electric customers, or that may become available during the next few years as the electric utility industry restructures. These options include different ways of meeting demand for energy services, different providers of service or points of contact with providers, and different pricing structures for purchased services. Purpose of this document is to examine these options from the customer`s perspective: how might being a retail electric customer in 5--10 years differ from now? Seizing opportunities to reduce cost of electric service is likely to entail working with different service providers; thus, transaction costs are involved. Some of the options considered are speculative. Some transitional options include relocation, customer-built/operated transmission lines, municipalization, self-generation, and long-term contracts with suppliers. All these may change or diminish in a restructured industry. Brokers seem likely to become more common unless restructuring takes the form of mandatory poolcos (wholesale). Some options appear robust, ie, they are likely to become more common regardless of how restructuring is accomplished: increased competition among energy carriers (gas vs electric), real-time pricing, etc. This report identified some of the qualitative differences among the various options. For customers using large amounts of electricity, different alternatives are likely to affect greatly service price, transaction costs, tailoring service to customer preferences, and risks for customer. For retail customers using small amounts of electricity, there may be little difference among the options except service price.

  2. TIAA-CREF Retirement Options and Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastable, C. W.; Brady, Gerald P.

    1979-01-01

    The various retirement income options available to TIAA-CREF participants and federal taxes on each option are explained. The importance of early planning for retirement income is stressed and it is suggested that assessment of future financial needs will indicate the most appropriate settlement mode for retirement. (SF)

  3. 23 CFR 500.104 - State option.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false State option. 500.104 Section 500.104 Highways FEDERAL... AND MONITORING SYSTEMS Management Systems § 500.104 State option. Except as specified in § 500.105 (a) and (b), a State may elect at any time not to implement any one or more of the management systems...

  4. 77 FR 52703 - Notice of Submission for OMB Review; Federal Student Aid; Electronic Debit Payment Option for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-30

    ... option is provided under the Deficit Reduction Act of 1984, Public Law 98-368, and 31 CFR part 202... of Education is especially interested in public comment addressing the following issues: (1) Is this... technology. Please note that written comments received in response to this notice will be considered public...

  5. 77 FR 52319 - Notice of Submission for OMB Review; Federal Student Aid; Electronic Debit Payment Option for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-29

    ... option is provided under the Deficit Reduction Act of 1984, Public Law 98-368, and 31 CFR part 202... of Education is especially interested in public comment addressing the following issues: (1) Is this... technology. Please note that written comments received in response to this notice will be considered public...

  6. More Options for the NLC Bunch Compressors (LCC-0035)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emma, P.

    2004-01-01

    The present bunch compressor design for the NLC allows control of the final bunch length by way of changes to the horizontal betatron phase advance of the 180 o -turnaround arc. This adjustability requirement significantly constrains the design and cost optimization of the system and excludes the possibility of using permanent magnet quadrupoles in the arc. To relieve this constraint, and to avoid the very strong arc focusing required at the upper limits of the bunch length range, we explore an option of bunch length control using the first compressor stage, with the arc optics fixed

  7. Proceedings of the Management options information seminar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This seminar was held in order to provide an opportunity to participants to broaden their knowledge concerning the numerous management options that are available when dealing with emissions generated by the electric power sector. It also represented an opportunity to gather information with regard to a host of different options to support the Electricity Project Team. The presentations centred on topics such as assessment, design and development of management options for the emissions of the electric power industry in Alberta. The legal, economic, social and environmental aspects were considered by the speakers for the options, and the perspectives included experience gained from hands on projects and initiatives. The reasons underlying the selection of options were revealed and lessons learned examined. Of the 14 presentations and the closing remarks speech, two presentations were included in this database. refs., tabs., figs

  8. Cross-sectoral assessment of mitigation options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halsnæs, K.

    1997-01-01

    options and polity areas where there may be synergistic effects between climate change mitigation and national development objectives, The country study for Tanzania has identified forestry and land use activities and the agricultural sectors as some of the main drivers in the future growth of greenhouse...... gas emissions, Forestry, land use and agriculture are at the same time key economic and social development areas, This means that options leading to improved performance of these activities can reduce future greenhouse gas emissions and imply increasing welfare, A potential for win-win options has...... similarly been assessed in the country study for Zimbabwe, The options include in particular efficiency improvements in industrial plants and in the energy sector, A new methodological issue in the country study for Zimbabwe is the comparable assessment of greenhouse gas reductions options for multiple...

  9. Essay on Option Pricing, Hedging and Calibration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    da Silva Ribeiro, André Manuel

    Quantitative finance is concerned about applying mathematics to financial markets.This thesis is a collection of essays that study different problems in this field: How efficient are option price approximations to calibrate a stochastic volatilitymodel? (Chapter 2) How different is the discretely...... of dynamics? (Chapter 5) How can we formulate a simple free-arbitrage model to price correlationswaps? (Chapter 6) A summary of the work presented in this thesis: Approximation Behooves Calibration In this paper we show that calibration based on an expansion approximation for option prices in the Heston...... stochastic volatility model gives stable, accurate, and fast results for S&P500-index option data over the period 2005 to 2009. Discretely Sampled Variance Options: A Stochastic Approximation Approach In this paper, we expand Drimus and Farkas (2012) framework to price variance options on discretely sampled...

  10. Margin Requirements and Equity Option Returns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hitzemann, Steffen; Hofmann, Michael; Uhrig-Homburg, Marliese

    In equity option markets, traders face margin requirements both for the options themselves and for hedging-related positions in the underlying stock market. We show that these requirements carry a significant margin premium in the cross-section of equity option returns. The sign of the margin...... premium depends on demand pressure: If end-users are on the long side of the market, option returns decrease with margins, while they increase otherwise. Our results are statistically and economically significant and robust to different margin specifications and various control variables. We explain our...... findings by a model of funding-constrained derivatives dealers that require compensation for satisfying end-users’ option demand....

  11. Margin Requirements and Equity Option Returns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hitzemann, Steffen; Hofmann, Michael; Uhrig-Homburg, Marliese

    In equity option markets, traders face margin requirements both for the options themselves and for hedging-related positions in the underlying stock market. We show that these requirements carry a significant "margin premium" in the cross-section of equity option returns. The sign of the margin...... premium depends on demand pressure: If end-users are on the long side of the market, option returns decrease with margins, while they increase otherwise. Our results are statistically and economically significant and robust to different margin specifications and various control variables. We explain our...... findings by a model of funding-constrained derivatives dealers that require compensation for satisfying end-users’ option demand....

  12. Observing Optional Number in DDC Edition 23

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Rotmianto

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Dewey Decimal Classification is a most popular classification system in the world because of its completeness and most up-to-date. There are many optional number in this classification system, although it rarely to be discussed even it is important to known well about that optional number, especially  for  a  librarian  as  classifier.  This  paper  is  a  literature  study  about  Dewey  Decimal Classification  Edition  23,  to  describe  about  optional  numbers,  particularly  the  number  in relationship with Indonesia’s subject and discipline. This paper is to avoid misunderstanding in interpreted about optional number among librarians, especially for who that does not understand well about optional numbers.

  13. Research Options for Controlling Zoonotic Disease in India, 2010–2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekar, Nitin; Shah, Naman K.; Abbas, Syed Shahid; Kakkar, Manish

    2011-01-01

    Background Zoonotic infections pose a significant public health challenge for low- and middle-income countries and have traditionally been a neglected area of research. The Roadmap to Combat Zoonoses in India (RCZI) initiative conducted an exercise to systematically identify and prioritize research options needed to control zoonoses in India. Methods and Findings Priority setting methods developed by the Child Health and Nutrition Research Initiative were adapted for the diversity of sectors, disciplines, diseases and populations relevant for zoonoses in India. A multidisciplinary group of experts identified priority zoonotic diseases and knowledge gaps and proposed research options to address key knowledge gaps within the next five years. Each option was scored using predefined criteria by another group of experts. The scores were weighted using relative ranks among the criteria based upon the feedback of a larger reference group. We categorized each research option by type of research, disease targeted, factorials, and level of collaboration required. We analysed the research options by tabulating them along these categories. Seventeen experts generated four universal research themes and 103 specific research options, the majority of which required a high to medium level of collaboration across sectors. Research options designated as pertaining to ‘social, political and economic’ factorials predominated and scored higher than options focussing on ecological, genetic and biological, or environmental factors. Research options related to ‘health policy and systems’ scored highest while those related to ‘research for development of new interventions’ scored the lowest. Conclusions We methodically identified research themes and specific research options incorporating perspectives of a diverse group of stakeholders. These outputs reflect the diverse nature of challenges posed by zoonoses and should be acceptable across diseases, disciplines, and sectors

  14. THERAPEUTIC OPTIONS FOR BREAST CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Georgescu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer remains a major public health problem, being the second cause of cancer death in women. There is a marked tendency to restrict the extension of surgical gesture, which directly leads to two different attitudes: radical surgery and conservative surgery, to which, at least in our country, there are still some delays. Prospective and retrospective studies have shown that, in 20 years, conservative and radical therapy had about the same rate of survival and disease-free interval, at least for stage I and II breast cancer, the only real counterargument against conservative surgery being that, in principle, the higher rate of recurrence local constraint can be solved by postoperative radiotherapy. Finally, the survival rate is the main parameter of evaluation, assessing the effectiveness of the treatment in breast cancer, and in all its other forms.

  15. Careers in Infectious Diseases: Public Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Arjun

    2017-09-15

    Public health offers infectious disease physicians a variety of rewarding career options. Our training and skills make us well suited to a variety of roles in public health. This article summarizes some of the options for careers in public health and describes why ID physicians are so well suited to them. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2017. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  16. ACCOUNTING FOR OPTIONS AND ANALYSIS OF USE OF OPTION COMBINATION STRATEGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Derun

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with problems of accounting for options in Ukraine, namely: value expression of initial cost of options, their revaluation, accounting of premiums, financial assets and financial liabilities and variation margin. The paper offers ways of solution of these problems which based on harmonization with IAS 32, IAS 39, IFRS 7 and IFRS 9. The study considers option combination strategies (straddle, strangle, strap, strip and approaches of identification of possible financial results for investors which use these strategies. Examples of possible financial results are provided for buyers and sellers of options which use option combination strategies.

  17. Nuclear power options for Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irwin, Tony

    2015-01-01

    over-capacity and low wholesale prices in the NEM, no new generating plant can be built without some form of additional payment. The ACT has adopted a policy of paying a feed-in- tariff for 20 years for new low emissions generation and this, or the UK system of Contracts-for-Difference may be the models for deployment. Initial capital cost is also a consideration. The lower initial capital cost of a SMR, and the possibility of incremental build on a site, will assist in obtaining finance. Possible SMR options for Australia are NuScale (USA); Westinghouse (USA); mPower (USA); Holtec (USA); SMART (South Korea); CAREM (Argentina) and ACP-100 (China). A nuclear power plant consisting of PWR type SMRs would make a valuable long-term contribution to low emissions electricity generation in Australia.

  18. Public Values

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck Jørgensen, Torben; Rutgers, Mark R.

    2015-01-01

    administration is approached in terms of processes guided or restricted by public values and as public value creating: public management and public policy-making are both concerned with establishing, following and realizing public values. To study public values a broad perspective is needed. The article suggest...

  19. Assessing the Option to Abandon an Investment Project by the Binomial Options Pricing Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador Cruz Rambaud

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Usually, traditional methods for investment project appraisal such as the net present value (hereinafter NPV do not incorporate in their values the operational flexibility offered by including a real option included in the project. In this paper, real options, and more specifically the option to abandon, are analysed as a complement to cash flow sequence which quantifies the project. In this way, by considering the existing analogy with financial options, a mathematical expression is derived by using the binomial options pricing model. This methodology provides the value of the option to abandon the project within one, two, and in general n periods. Therefore, this paper aims to be a useful tool in determining the value of the option to abandon according to its residual value, thus making easier the control of the uncertainty element within the project.

  20. Rare disasters, credit, and option market puzzles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Peter; Du, Du; Elkamhi, Redouane

    2017-01-01

    calibrated to the real economy can simultaneously explain several key empirical regularities in equity, credit, and options markets. Our model captures the empirical level and volatility of credit spreads, generates a flexible credit risk term structure, and provides a good fit to a century of observed...... spreads. The model also matches high-yield and collaterized debt obligation tranche spreads, equity market moments, and index option skewness. Finally, our model implies a time-varying relationship between bond and option prices that depends on the state of the economy and that explains the conflicting...

  1. Considering environmental health risks of energy options. Hydraulic fracturing and nuclear power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacDonell, Margaret; Raymond, Michelle; Burganowski, Rachael; Vetrone, Andrea; Alonzo, Sydney [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL (United States). Environmental Science Div.

    2014-07-01

    Growing public concerns about climate change and environmental health impacts related to energy production have led to increased consideration of alternate sources. Nuclear power and unconventional oil and shale gas development are among the options least favored by the public, with pollutant releases resulting from routine operations as well as accidents being among the key concerns. Advances in ICT approaches and the increasingly widespread accessibility of information resources and tools have facilitated community-based initiatives and broader data sharing that can directly contribute to more informed evaluations of energy options, toward more sustainable programs from the local to the global scale.

  2. Review of pharmacotherapy options for the management of obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragg, Rebecca; Crannage, Erica

    2016-02-01

    To highlight the prevalence and impact of obesity in the United States and provide nurse practitioners (NPs) with an overview of pharmacotherapy options for treatment of overweight and obese individuals. A comprehensive review of the literature was conducted using multiple databases, including PubMed, MEDLINE, and Ovid. Keywords used to obtain relevant articles included obesity and drug, or orlistat, topiramate/phentermine, lorcaserin, bupropion/naltrexone, and liraglutide. Obesity is a prevalent disease with more than two thirds of Americans being considered overweight and one third being obese. Obesity places patients at an increased risk for many comorbidities that impact patient health as well as public health. There are currently five approved medications for the chronic management of obesity, two of which were approved in 2014. These pharmacological therapies are options to aid weight loss in patients that are obese or those who are overweight with additional risk factors. NPs can assist patients struggling with their weight. With new pharmacotherapy options, there is an opportunity to add to diet and exercise in order to achieve increased weight loss. A decrease in obesity would potentially alleviate the burden on the healthcare system, both socially and economically, and improve patient quality of life. ©2015 American Association of Nurse Practitioners.

  3. Options for Second-Line Treatment in Metastatic Colorectal Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, James J; Sun, Weijing

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) remains a major public health problem in the United States and worldwide. The majority of patients who have CRC eventually present with metastatic disease. The overall therapeutic goals for most patients with metastatic CRC (mCRC) are to control the disease, prolong life span, and maximize quality of life. Therefore, the ratio of efficacy to toxicity is one of the most important factors in choosing among treatment options and sequencing regimens. In addition, the choice of first-line systemic therapy will affect the options for second-line treatment. Several newer cytotoxic agents for the treatment of mCRC have been approved during the past 2 decades by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), including irinotecan, oxaliplatin, and capecitabine. The combination of a fluoropyrimidine (5-fluorouracil or capecitabine) with either oxaliplatin or irinotecan has been widely accepted as standard cytotoxic chemotherapy for either the first- or second-line treatment of mCRC. The FDA has approved several pathway-targeting agents for the treatment of mCRC; these include agents that target the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor pathway (bevacizumab, ziv-aflibercept, and ramucirumab) and those that target the epidermal growth factor receptor pathway (cetuximab and panitumumab). Here, we review the current clinical options for the second-line treatment of mCRC and the rationales for their use.

  4. Atoms and clusters in strong laser fields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marchenko, T.

    2008-01-01

    This thesis describes experimental and theoretical studies on the interaction of strong infrared laser fields with atoms and atomic clusters. Part I provides an overview of the main strong-field phenomena in atoms, molecules and clusters and describes the state-of-the-art in strong-field science.

  5. Strong Bisimilarity of Simple Process Algebras

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Srba, Jirí

    2003-01-01

    We study bisimilarity and regularity problems of simple process algebras. In particular, we show PSPACE-hardness of the following problems: (i) strong bisimilarity of Basic Parallel Processes (BPP), (ii) strong bisimilarity of Basic Process Algebra (BPA), (iii) strong regularity of BPP, and (iv) ...

  6. 78 FR 15710 - Strong Sensitizer Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-12

    ... definition of ``strong sensitizer'' found at 16 CFR 1500.3(c)(5). The Commission is proposing to revise the supplemental definition of ``strong sensitizer'' due to advancements in the science of sensitization that have... document is intended to clarify the ``strong sensitizer'' definition, assist manufacturers in understanding...

  7. Kazakhstan big oil transportation options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakipov, K.E.; Mazhkenov, S.A.; Kunaev, M.S.

    1999-01-01

    One the most important priority identified with the framework of the long-term Republican development aim implementation defined in the Programme of Long-Term Development of Republic of Kazakhstan by 2030 is exploration of huge hydrocarbon reserves. Strategic direction of Kazakhstan petroleum industry development is a comprehensive approach towards the improvement all elements of the complex processing chain, from exploration to production and from transportation to oil and processed product marketing. Republican Association of Young Engineers and Specialists, Engineering Academy of the Republic of Kazakhstan (RAMIS EA RK) considers the most perspective and realistic route. The pipeline will pass from Western region of Kazakhstan to Kumkol further via the existing Omsk-Chardzhou pipeline, Turkmenistan, Western Afghanistan, Pakistan to sea terminal; on the Pakistan coast of the Arabian Sea. Omsk-Chardzhou pipeline was built 12 years ago and is currently no operating. Its length is 2.000 km with 1.800 km crossing Kazakhstan's territory. Even now this pipeline is enable of transporting up to 20 million tonnes of oil per year with the optional increase up to 30 million. Construction of similar pipeline could have cost $2 billion. Connecting Atyrau-Kumkol and Omsk-Chardzhou pipelines could enable Russia and Kazakhstan to penetrate, via Central Asia, Indian and South Asian countries to the Arabian Sea. According to the World Bank Data this region will be rapidly developing within next 15-20 years. During 1995-2010 the estimated demand for the hydrocarbon should double, from 18.0 to 31.69 million tonnes per annual. This means an annual average growth rate of 3.8 %, the highest demand growth rate in the world on petroleum. Transportation of one barrel of West-Siberian oil via Omsk-Pavlodar-Shymkent-Chardzhou route towards the Indian Ocean will bring additional two dollars revenue as compared with the existing route transportation. For the pre-Caspian oil revenue will reach

  8. Weight Loss Surgery: An Option for Teens?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Issues Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Weight Loss Surgery: An Option for Teens? Page Content Article ... operation should not be made hastily. Candidates for Weight Loss Surgery Weight loss surgery is advisable only for ...

  9. Treatment Option Overview (Primary CNS Lymphoma)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in the brain or the eye. Treatment Option Overview Key Points There are different types of treatment ... of radiation therapy: External radiation therapy uses a machine ... thinking, learning, problem solving, speech, reading, writing, and memory. Clinical ...

  10. Treatment Options for Primary CNS Lymphoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in the brain or the eye. Treatment Option Overview Key Points There are different types of treatment ... of radiation therapy: External radiation therapy uses a machine ... thinking, learning, problem solving, speech, reading, writing, and memory. Clinical ...

  11. Treatment Options by Stage (Adrenocortical Carcinoma)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and urine are used to detect (find) and diagnose adrenocortical carcinoma. Certain factors affect the prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. Adrenocortical carcinoma is a rare disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the ...

  12. TECHNOLOGICAL OPTIONS FOR ACID RAIN CONTROL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Discussed are acid rain control options available to the electric utility industry. They include coal switching, flue gas desulfurization, and such emerging lower cost technologies as Limestone Injection Multistage Burners (LIMB) and Advanced Silicate (ADVACATE), both developed ...

  13. Compound Option Pricing under Fuzzy Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiandong Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Considering the uncertainty of a financial market includes two aspects: risk and vagueness; in this paper, fuzzy sets theory is applied to model the imprecise input parameters (interest rate and volatility. We present the fuzzy price of compound option by fuzzing the interest and volatility in Geske’s compound option pricing formula. For each α, the α-level set of fuzzy prices is obtained according to the fuzzy arithmetics and the definition of fuzzy-valued function. We apply a defuzzification method based on crisp possibilistic mean values of the fuzzy interest rate and fuzzy volatility to obtain the crisp possibilistic mean value of compound option price. Finally, we present a numerical analysis to illustrate the compound option pricing under fuzzy environment.

  14. How do people perceive and generate options?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raab, Markus; de Oliveira, Rita F; Heinen, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    This chapter examines the question of how people perceive and generate options. Although most current theoretical approaches explain option perception and option generation as requiring extensive and costly cognitive processes, we will argue that people perceive their possibilities for action and generate options without such elaborate means. Borrowing from the contributions of direct perception and bounded rationality, we present and analyze data from three sports tasks: the basketball jump shot, ball allocation in handball, and trampoline somersaulting. Data from kinematics, eye-tracking, and choice behavior experiments are presented and reanalyzed to draw the parallels and distinctions between the two approaches. In conclusion, integrating research on perception, action, and cognition provides a promising description of the bidirectional link between mind and motion.

  15. The Natural Resources Management Option in Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Glenn

    1975-01-01

    The article is devoted to a discussion of the Natural Resources Management Advisory Committee, the development of teaching materials and the workshops planned for instructors of the Natural Resources Management Option. (Author)

  16. Options theory and strategic investment decisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mann, D.; Goobie, G.; MacMillan, L.

    1992-01-01

    The possible use of options pricing theory for evaluating long-term capital investments is discussed. Using the Black and Scholes option pricing model, five variables were evaluated for a hypothetical oil sands project. These variables are: stock price as determined by the earning power of the company; exercise price which equals the investment cost of the project; price standard deviation which is assumed to be 50%; the length of time for which the company will maintain its option to invest in the project, and finally the risk free rate which is approximately equal to the yield in long term government securities. A sensitivity analysis on these variables can provide management with information on how best to influence the option value. A more in-depth analysis could provide valuable information about strategic choice for large projects. 5 refs., 3 figs

  17. Synthesis of Adaptation Options for Coastal Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adaptation can help reduce the long-term costs associated with climate change. This document provides an introduction to climate change impacts and adaptation options for estuaries, beaches and coastal areas.

  18. Cough Medicine: Understanding Your OTC Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... CorrectlyPain Relievers: Understanding Your OTC OptionsAntacids and Acid Reducers: OTC Relief for Heartburn and Acid RefluxOTC Cough ... Loss and Diet Plans Nutrients and Nutritional Info Sugar and Sugar Substitutes Exercise and Fitness Exercise Basics ...

  19. Brazil: Energy Options and Current Outlook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldemberg, J.

    1978-01-01

    Brazil's energy options and current outlook are examined, and a summary of known reserves of fossil and renewable energy resources is given. Suggestions for an energy program designed to preserve Brazilian culture are included. (MDR)

  20. Managing financial risk with options on futures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, M T; Marshall, B S

    1995-05-01

    With the rise of managed care and capitation, more providers will be sharing in the financial risk of providing care. To help protect their organizations from the risk of unexpectedly high utilization under such a fixed-payment system, healthcare financial managers soon will be able to use options on futures contracts. These contracts provide wide profit potential but limited loss potential. Before investing in options on futures, however, healthcare financial managers should consider issues such as basis risk and trading costs.

  1. THE REAL OPTIONS OF CAPITAL BUDGET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Lopo Martins

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The traditional techniques of capital budget, as the deducted cash flow and the net value present, do not incorporate existing flexibilities in an investment project, they tend to distort the value of certain investments, mainly those that are considered in scenes of uncertainty and risk. Therefore, this study intends to demonstrate that the Real Options Theory (TOR is a useful methodology to evaluate and to indicate the best option for project of expansion investment. To reach the considered objective the procedure method was used a case study, having as unit of case the Resort Praia Hotel do Litoral Norte of Salvador. This study was developed of the following form: first it identified the traditional net value present and later it was incorporated the volatileness of each analyzed uncertainty. Second, as the real options are analogous to the financial options, it was necessary to identify elements that composed the terminologies of the financial options with intention to get the value of the real option. For this model of options pricing of Black & Scholes jointly with a computational simulator was used (SLS to get the expanded net value present. As a result of this study it was possible to evidence that using the traditional tool of capital budget Net Value Present (VPL is negative, therefore the project of expansion of the Hotel would be rejected. While for the application of methodology TOR the project presents positive Expanded Present Value which would represent an excellent chance of investment. Key-word: Capital budget, Real options, Analysis of investments.

  2. Competitiveness and strategic flexibility through real options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUCIU Titus

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses the issue of competitiveness in the industry sector, offering an interesting theoretical framework about competitiveness and an application based on real options analysis. It addresses the theme of real options decision-making in multinational industrial companies and models an investment decision. The best strategy leads to investments in a new project even if the business environment is dynamic. The results help managers in the decision-making process, with a view to obtaining performance.

  3. Franchise ownership redirection: real options perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Nugroho, Lukito Adi

    2016-01-01

    Background: For over 40 years, the franchise ownership redirection hypothesis has attracted the attention of many scholars. This study, differing from previous ones, proposes an alternative approach for this hypothesis using a real options framework with the extension of agency theory. Method: The real options model is built using the least square Monte Carlo method, where the franchisor's decision to franchise is perceived as a deferred investment while maintaining the right of future acquis...

  4. Eating Disorders - Causes, Treatment Options and Help

    OpenAIRE

    Rudolf, David

    2014-01-01

    Title of the bachelor's thesis: Eating Disorders - Causes, Treatment Options and Help Author: David Rudolf The bachelor's thesis focuses on eating disorders, especially on anorexia nervosa. It describes the causes leading to the disease, symptoms and features, risk factors as well as the dangers of diets and their consequences. It sums up standard treatments, contemporary options of specialized treatments, advisory, help and various forms of therapy. It mentions ways and possibilities of the ...

  5. Using Options on Greeks as Liquidity Protection

    OpenAIRE

    David Bakstein; Sam Howison

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we suggest derivative contracts related to the Greeks of options; we show how to value them and how they can be used to manage the risk of a portfolio of derivatives. We further describe certain types of these options, namely those related to the Delta and Gamma, which can be regarded as a form of insurance against liquidity holes and transaction costs for the writer of the contract representing the underlying.

  6. Option contracts in a vertical industry

    OpenAIRE

    Antelo, Manel; Bru, Lluís

    2016-01-01

    We examine, in a vertical industry, the strategic role of horizontal subcontracting through option contracts by a downstream dominant firm competing with a competitive fringe. Downstream production requires an input from an upstream component-producing industry composed of imperfectly competitive suppliers. We characterize how the dominant firm may outsource downstream production from fringe firms in order to gain bargaining clout in the upstream input market. It is shown that option contract...

  7. Protecting public interests in public-private-partnership arrangements for highway improvement projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-16

    Engaging private investors and entrepreneurs through public-private partnership (PPP) in : constructing and operating transportation facilities has emerged as one of the viable options to : meet the challenges of funding the development and maintenan...

  8. Strong Algerian Earthquake Strikes Near Capital City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayadi, A.; Maouche, S.; Harbi, A.; Meghraoui, M.; Beldjoudi, H.; Oussadou, F.; Mahsas, A.; Benouar, D.; Heddar, A.; Rouchiche, Y.; Kherroubi, A.; Frogneux, M.; Lammali, K.; Benhamouda, F.; Sebaï, A.; Bourouis, S.; Alasset, P. J.; Aoudia, A.; Cakir, Z.; Merahi, M.; Nouar, O.; Yelles, A.; Bellik, A.; Briole, P.; Charade, O.; Thouvenot, F.; Semane, F.; Ferkoul, A.; Deramchi, A.; Haned, S. A.

    On 21 May 2003, a damaging earthquake of Mw 6.8 struck the region of Boumerdes 40 km east of Algiers in northern Algeria (Figure 1). The mainshock, which lasted ~ 36-40 s, had devastating effects and claimed about 2300 victims, caused more than 11,450 injuries, and left about 200,000 people homeless. It destroyed and seriously damaged around 180,000 housing units and 6000 public buildings with losses estimated at $5 billion. The mainshock was widely felt within a radius of ~ 400 km in Algeria. To the north, the earthquake was felt in southeastern Spain, including the Balearic Islands, and also in Sardinia and in southern France. The mainshock location, which was calculated at 36.91°N, 3.58°E (15 km offshore of Zemmouri; Figure 1), and the local magnitude (Md 6.4) are from seismic records of local stations. International seismological centers obtained Mw 6.8 (NEIC) with a thrust focal mechanism solution and 1.83 × 1026 dyne.cm for the seismic moment. A sequence of aftershocks affected the epicentral area with two strong shocks reaching Mw 5.8 on 27 and 29 May 2003. Field investigations allowed us to assign a maximum intensity X (European Macroseismic Scale 98) and to report rockfalls, minor surface cracks, and liquefaction phenomena. The mainshock was not associated with inland surface faulting, but one of the most striking coseismic effects is the coastal uplift and the backwash along the littoral of the Mitidja basin.

  9. Technological options for the management of biosolids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hailong; Brown, Sally L; Magesan, Guna N; Slade, Alison H; Quintern, Michael; Clinton, Peter W; Payn, Tim W

    2008-06-01

    provide a complete management for biosolids. A number of advanced thermal conversion technologies (e.g., supercritical water oxidation process and pyrolysis) are under development for biosolids management with a goal to generate useful products, such as higher quality fuels and recovery of phosphorus. With an ever-increasing demand for renewable energy, growing bioenergy crops and forests using biosolids as a fertilizer and soil amendment can not only contribute to the low-carbon economy but also maximize the nutrient and carbon value of the biosolids. Land application of biosolids achieves a complete reuse of its nutrients and organic carbon at a relatively low cost. Therefore, land application should become a preferred management option where there is available land, the quality of biosolids meet regulatory requirements, and it is socially acceptable. Intensive energy cropping and forest production using biosolids can help us meet the ever-increasing demand for renewable energy, which can eliminate the contamination potential for food sources, a common social concern about land application of biosolids. In recent years, increasing numbers of national and local governments have adopted more stringent regulations toward biosolid management. Under such a political climate, biosolids producers will have to develop multireuse strategies for biosolids to avoid being caught because a single route management practice might be under pressure at a short notice. Conventional incineration systems for biosolids management generally consume more energy than they produce and, although by-products may be used in manufacturing, this process cannot be regarded as a beneficial use of biosolids. However, biosolids are likely to become a source of renewable energy and produce 'carbon credits' under the increasingly popular, low-carbon economy policy. To manage biosolids in a sustainable manner, there is a need for further research in the following areas: achieving a higher degree of public

  10. An update on adjunctive treatment options for bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Olivia M; Gliddon, Emma; Van Rheenen, Tamsyn E; Giorlando, Francesco; Davidson, Sandra K; Kaur, Manreena; Ngo, Trung T; Williams, Lana J

    2018-03-01

    Bipolar disorder is a complex illness often requiring combinations of therapies to successfully treat symptoms. In recent years, there have been significant advancements in a number of therapies for bipolar disorder. It is therefore timely to provide an overview of current adjunctive therapeutic options to help treating clinicians to inform their patients and work towards optimal outcomes. Publications were identified from PubMed searches on bipolar disorder and pharmacotherapy, nutraceuticals, hormone therapy, psychoeducation, interpersonal and social rhythm therapy, cognitive remediation, mindfulness, e-Health and brain stimulation techniques. Relevant articles in these areas were selected for further review. This paper provides a narrative review of adjunctive treatment options and is not a systematic review of the literature. A number of pharmacotherapeutic, psychological and neuromodulation treatment options are available. These have varying efficacy but all have shown benefit to people with bipolar disorder. Due to the complex nature of treating the disorder, combination treatments are often required. Adjunctive treatments to traditional pharmacological and psychological therapies are proving useful in closing the gap between initial symptom remission and full functional recovery. Given that response to monotherapy is often inadequate, combination regimens for bipolar disorder are typical. Correspondingly, psychiatric research is working towards a better understanding of the disorder's underlying biology. Therefore, treatment options are changing and adjunctive therapies are being increasingly recognized as providing significant tools to improve patient outcomes. Towards this end, this paper provides an overview of novel treatments that may improve clinical outcomes for people with bipolar disorder. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Cell phone recycling experiences in the United States and potential recycling options in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Geraldo T R; Chang, Shoou-Yuh

    2010-11-01

    This paper presents an overview of cell phone recycling programs currently available in the United States. At the same time, it also provides analyses of the current recycling situation and possible recycling alternatives for Brazil. Although there are several recycling options in the United States, collection rates are still only 10% of all potential devices because customers are not aware of these possibilities. The whole system is financially based on reselling refurbished cell phones and recycled materials to developing countries which represent an effective and strong market. Several recyclers offer funds to collection partners who are either charities or who work with charities while obtaining the materials that they need in order to run their operations. A mobile phone recycling system for Brazil considering the United States experience and the Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR) principle is suggested. A deposit/refund/advance-recycling fee is proposed which might be implemented as a voluntary industrial initiative managed by PRO Brazil, a producer responsibility organization. One widespread public-private agreement will integrate all mobile phone stakeholders, and environmental education actions and promotional events will promote citizen's participation. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. BUDGET AND PUBLIC DEBT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morar Ioan Dan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The issue of public budgeting is an important issue for public policy of the state, for the simple reason that no money from the state budget can not promote public policy. Budgetary policy is official government Doctrine vision mirror and also represents a starting point for other public policies, which in turn are financed by the public budget. Fiscal policy instruments at its disposal handles the public sector in its structure, and the private sector. Tools such as grant, budgetary allocation, tax, welfare under various forms, direct investments and not least the state aid is used by the state through their budgetary policies to directly and indirectly infuence sector, and the private. Fiscal policies can be grouped according to the structure of the public sector in these components, namely fiscal policy, budgeting and resource allocation policies for financing the budget deficit. An important issue is the financing of the budget deficit budgetary policies. There are two funding possibilities, namely, the higher taxes or more axles site and enter the second call to public loans. Both options involve extra effort from taxpayers in the current fiscal year when they pay higher taxes or a future period when public loans will be repaid. We know that by virtue of "fiscal pact" structural deficits of the member countries of the EU are limited by the European Commission, according to the macro structural stability and budget of each Member State. This problem tempers to some extent the governments of the Member States budgetary appetite, but does not solve the problem of chronic budget deficits. Another issue addressed in this paper is related to the public debt, the absolute amount of its relative level of public datoriri, about the size of GDP, public debt financing and its repayment sources. Sources of public debt issuance and monetary impact on the budget and monetary stability are variables that must underpin the justification of budgetary

  13. FUTURES OPTIONS: UNIVERSE OF POTENTIAL PROFIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teselios Delia

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A approaching options on futures contracts in the present paper is argued, on one hand, by the great number of their directions for use (in financial speculation, in managing and risk control, etc. and, on the other hand, by the fact that in Romania, nowadays, futures contracts and options represent the main categories of traded financial instruments. Because futures contract, as an underlying asset for options, it is often more liquid and involves more reduced transaction costs than cash product which corresponds to that futures contract, this paper presents a number of information regarding options on futures contracts, which offer a wide range of investment opportunities, being used to protect against adverse price moves in commodity, interest rate, foreign exchange and equity markets. There are presented two assessment models of these contracts, namely: an expansion of the Black_Scholes model published in 1976 by Fischer Black and the binomial model used especially for its flexibility. Likewise, there are presented a series of operations that can be performed using futures options and also arguments in favor of using these types of options.

  14. Energy options for residential buildings assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rezaie, Behnaz; Dincer, Ibrahim; Esmailzadeh, Ebrahim

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Studying various building energy options. ► Assessing these options from various points. ► Comparing these options for better environment and sustainability. ► Proposing renewable energy options as potential solutions. - Abstract: The building sector, as one of the major energy consumers, demands most of the energy research to assess different energy options from various aspects. In this paper, two similar residential buildings, with either low or high energy consumption patterns, are chosen as case studies. For these case studies, three different renewable energy technology and three different hybrid systems are designed for a specified size. Then, the environmental impact indices, renewable energy indices, and the renewable exergy indices have been estimated for every energy options. Results obtained show that the hybrid systems (without considering the economics factors) are superior and having top indices. The importance of the energy consumption patterns in buildings are proven by the indices. By cutting the energy consumption to about 40% the environment index would increase by more than twice (2.1). Utilization of the non-fossil fuels is one part of the solution to environmental problems while energy conservation being the other. It has been shown that the re-design of the energy consumption model is less complex but more achievable for buildings.

  15. Application of strong phosphoric acid to radiochemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terada, Kikuo

    1977-01-01

    Not only inorganic and organic compounds but also natural substrances, such as accumulations in soil, are completely decomposed and distilled by heating with strong phosphoric acid for 30 to 50 minutes. As applications of strong phosphoric acid to radiochemistry, determination of uranium and boron by use of solubilization effect of this substance, titration of uranyl ion by use of sulfuric iron (II) contained in this substance, application to tracer experiment, and determination of radioactive ruthenium in environmental samples are reviewed. Strong phosphoric acid is also applied to activation analysis, for example, determination of N in pyrographite with iodate potassium-strong phosphoric acid method, separation of Os and Ru with sulfuric cerium (IV) - strong phosphoric acid method or potassium dechromate-strong phosphoric acid method, analysis of Se, As and Sb rocks and accumulations with ammonium bromide, sodium chloride and sodium bromide-strong phosphoric acid method. (Kanao, N.)

  16. Complementary and Alternative Medicine Treatment Options for Otitis Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marom, Tal; Marchisio, Paola; Tamir, Sharon Ovnat; Torretta, Sara; Gavriel, Haim; Esposito, Susanna

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Otitis media (OM) has numerous presentations in children. Together with conventional medical therapies aimed to prevent and/or treat OM, a rising number of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) treatment options can be offered. Since OM is common in children, parents may ask healthcare professionals about possible CAM therapies. Many physicians feel that their knowledge is limited regarding these therapies, and that they desire some information. Therefore, we conducted a literature review of CAM therapies for OM, taking into account that many of these treatments, their validity and efficacy and have not been scientifically demonstrated. We performed a search in MEDLINE (accessed via PubMed) using the following terms: “CAM” in conjunction with “OM” and “children. Retrieved publications regarding treatment of OM in children which included these terms included randomized controlled trials, prospective/retrospective studies, and case studies. The following CAM options for OM treatment in children were considered: acupuncture, homeopathy, herbal medicine/phytotherapy, osteopathy, chiropractic, xylitol, ear candling, vitamin D supplement, and systemic and topical probiotics. We reviewed each treatment and described the level of scientific evidence of the relevant publications. The therapeutic approaches commonly associated with CAM are usually conservative, and do not include drugs or surgery. Currently, CAM is not considered by physicians a potential treatment of OM, as there is limited supporting evidence. Further studies are warranted in order to evaluate the potential value of CAM therapies for OM. PMID:26871802

  17. Is recycling the best policy option? Insights from life cycle analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaines, L.L.; Stodolsky, F.

    1996-03-01

    The public perceives that the more we recycle, the better off we are. However, both the concept of recycling and the benefits to be achieved from recycling are somewhat vague. To determine the best option for disposition of a material at the end of its first use, we need to first define the available options and then clarify the possible goals that can be achieved by them. The best option will depend on the material, goals to be achieved, and location-dependent factors, such as costs, resources, and regulations. This paper presents the results of a life-cycle energy analysis of kraft paper and newsprint by Argonne National Laboratory. They indicate that under some circumstances, the option of fiber-energy recovery will maximize the benefits that can. be realized from the U.S. used paper resource.

  18. The Potentials of a Strong Social Housing Sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rikke Skovgaard

    2017-01-01

    The paper investigates ethnic minority concentration within social housing and the potentials of a strong social housing sector through an analysis of the housing careers of Somalis and Turks in Copenhagen. In a Danish context, the two ethnic groups differ greatly with respect to migration history...... the social housing sector, which to the interviewees offered good housing options and possibilities for shaping their own housing careers. The majority of the Somalis perceived paying interest as being incompatible with Islam. Renting thus allowed them to adhere to their religious beliefs. The advantages...... of the social housing sector limited the pull of owner-occupied housing. The paper thus questions the use of the home-ownership gap as an indication of a lack of ethnic minority integration....

  19. Extracting Market Expectations from Option Prices: Case Studies in Japanese Option Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Nakamura, Hisashi; Shiratsuka, Shigenori

    1999-01-01

    This paper focuses on the recently developing financial derivatives markets, and examines the usefulness of option prices as an information variable for monetary policy implementation. A set of option prices provides us with information on the entire probability distribution of the future values of underlying assets. Such information enables us to examine the development of market expectations. The paper estimates a time series of implied probability distributions from daily option prices on ...

  20. Reconciling biofuels, sustainability and commodities demand. Pitfalls and policy options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uslu, A.; Bole, T.; Londo, M.; Pelkmans, L.; Berndes, G.; Prieler, S.; Fischer, G.; Cueste Cabal, H.

    2010-06-01

    Increasing fossil fuel prices, energy security considerations and environmental concerns, particularly concerning climate change, have motivated countries to explore alternative energy sources including biofuels. Global demand for biofuels has been rising rapidly due to biofuel support policies established in many countries. However, proposed strong links between biofuels demand and recent years' high food commodity prices, and notions that increasing biofuels production might bring about serious negative environmental impacts, in particularly associated with the land use change to biofuel crops, have shifted public enthusiasm about biofuels. In this context, the ELOBIO project aims at shedding further light to these aspects of biofuel expansion by collecting and reviewing the available data, and also developing strategies to decrease negative effects of biofuels while enabling their positive contribution to climate change, security of supply and rural development. ELOBIO considers aspects associated with both 1st and 2nd generation biofuels, hence analyses effects on both agricultural commodity markets and lignocellulosic markets. This project, funded by the Intelligent Energy Europe programme, consists of a review of current experiences with biofuels and other renewable energy policies and their impacts on other markets, iterative stakeholder-supported development of low-disturbing biofuels policies, model supported assessment of these policies' impacts on food, feed and lignocellulosic markets, and finally an assessment of the effects of selected optimal policies on biofuels costs and potentials. Results of the ELOBIO study show that rapid biofuel deployment without careful monitoring of consequences and implementation of mitigating measures risks leading to negative consequences. Implementing ambitious global biofuel targets for 2020, based on current 1st generation technologies, can push international agricultural commodity prices upwards and increase crop

  1. Modelling the affordability and distributional implications of future health care financing options in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Di; Ataguba, John E

    2012-03-01

    South Africa is considering introducing a universal health care system. A key concern for policy-makers and the general public is whether or not this reform is affordable. Modelling the resource and revenue generation requirements of alternative reform options is critical to inform decision-making. This paper considers three reform scenarios: universal coverage funded by increased allocations to health from general tax and additional dedicated taxes; an alternative reform option of extending private health insurance coverage to all formal sector workers and their dependents with the remainder using tax-funded services; and maintaining the status quo. Each scenario was modelled over a 15-year period using a spreadsheet model. Statistical analyses were also undertaken to evaluate the impact of options on the distribution of health care financing burden and benefits from using health services across socio-economic groups. Universal coverage would result in total health care spending levels equivalent to 8.6% of gross domestic product (GDP), which is comparable to current spending levels. It is lower than the status quo option (9.5% of GDP) and far lower than the option of expanding private insurance cover (over 13% of GDP). However, public funding of health services would have to increase substantially. Despite this, universal coverage would result in the most progressive financing system if the additional public funding requirements are generated through a surcharge on taxable income (but not if VAT is increased). The extended private insurance scheme option would be the least progressive and would impose a very high payment burden; total health care payments on average would be 10.7% of household consumption expenditure compared with the universal coverage (6.7%) and status quo (7.5%) options. The least pro-rich distribution of service benefits would be achieved under universal coverage. Universal coverage is affordable and would promote health system equity, but

  2. The radiative forcing potential of different climate geoengineering options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. M. Lenton

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Climate geoengineering proposals seek to rectify the Earth's current and potential future radiative imbalance, either by reducing the absorption of incoming solar (shortwave radiation, or by removing CO2 from the atmosphere and transferring it to long-lived reservoirs, thus increasing outgoing longwave radiation. A fundamental criterion for evaluating geoengineering options is their climate cooling effectiveness, which we quantify here in terms of radiative forcing potential. We use a simple analytical approach, based on energy balance considerations and pulse response functions for the decay of CO2 perturbations. This aids transparency compared to calculations with complex numerical models, but is not intended to be definitive. It allows us to compare the relative effectiveness of a range of proposals. We consider geoengineering options as additional to large reductions in CO2 emissions. By 2050, some land carbon cycle geoengineering options could be of comparable magnitude to mitigation "wedges", but only stratospheric aerosol injections, albedo enhancement of marine stratocumulus clouds, or sunshades in space have the potential to cool the climate back toward its pre-industrial state. Strong mitigation, combined with global-scale air capture and storage, afforestation, and bio-char production, i.e. enhanced CO2 sinks, might be able to bring CO2 back to its pre-industrial level by 2100, thus removing the need for other geoengineering. Alternatively, strong mitigation stabilising CO2 at 500 ppm, combined with geoengineered increases in the albedo of marine stratiform clouds, grasslands, croplands and human settlements might achieve a patchy cancellation of radiative forcing. Ocean fertilisation options are only worthwhile if sustained on a millennial timescale and phosphorus addition may have greater long-term potential than iron or nitrogen fertilisation. Enhancing ocean

  3. Strongly correlating liquids and their isomorphs

    OpenAIRE

    Pedersen, Ulf R.; Gnan, Nicoletta; Bailey, Nicholas P.; Schröder, Thomas B.; Dyre, Jeppe C.

    2010-01-01

    This paper summarizes the properties of strongly correlating liquids, i.e., liquids with strong correlations between virial and potential energy equilibrium fluctuations at constant volume. We proceed to focus on the experimental predictions for strongly correlating glass-forming liquids. These predictions include i) density scaling, ii) isochronal superposition, iii) that there is a single function from which all frequency-dependent viscoelastic response functions may be calculated, iv) that...

  4. Atom collisions in a strong electromagnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smirnov, V.S.; Chaplik, A.V.

    1976-01-01

    It is shown that the long-range part of interatomic interaction is considerably altered in a strong electromagnetic field. Instead of the van der Waals law the potential asymptote can best be described by a dipole-dipole R -3 law. Impact broadening and the line shift in a strong nonresonant field are calculated. The possibility of bound states of two atoms being formed in a strong light field is discussed

  5. Research into real-option evaluation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiba, Tsuyoshi; Wakamatsu, Hitoshi

    2002-03-01

    As an evaluational method for valuation of a corporation, an investment project, a research and development, or the evaluation technique of an enterprise strategy, a real option analysis attracts attention instead of conventional Discount Cash Flow method. The reason is that it can divert the technique for the option valuation in financial engineering to the decision-making process performed according to change in investment environment. Related references, the analysis tools, the application examples, etc. were investigated about the decision-making technique using real option analysis, and this investigation considered the application method to decision-making of the research and development at Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute. Consequently, since the feature is in real option analysis being the evaluation technique on condition of that business conditions and business itself also change, the real option analysis fits for evaluation of a research and development that business conditions were opaque and it turns out that the businesses are highly flexible. Moreover, it turns out that it fits also for evaluation of a capital concentration type investment issue like power plants. (author)

  6. Fundamentals of futures, options, basis and derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, D.

    1997-01-01

    Characteristic features of futures and options contracts, basis differentials and derivatives were defined and explained. A futures contract refers to an exchange-traded supply contract between a buyer and a seller where the buyer is obligated to take delivery and the seller is obligated to provide delivery of a fixed amount of a commodity at a predetermined price at a specified location. In contrast, an option contract gives the purchaser the right, but not the obligation, to buy or sell the underlying commodity at a certain price on or before an agreed date. Basis differential refers to the discount between two distinct delivery points to reflect the relative value of a commodity, such as natural gas, at those points. Advantages and disadvantages of futures and options contacts, the factors affecting options pricing, and basis differentials, and the methods of calculating basis differentials were described. The nature and intricacies of derivatives, their benefits, in particular their use as a tool for the effective management of the volatilities associated with the oil and gas industry were explained. Their shortcomings such as the high liquidity risk, were also described. Examples of derivative transactions were provided to illustrate the interrelationships of futures/options/derivatives, and their role in financial risk management

  7. Public acceptance and USCEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    Public opinion plays a critical role in ensuring the future of nuclear energy. After the events at Three Mile Island in 1979, and more recently the Chernobyl accident, worldwide antinuclear movements surged upward. As a result, the global nuclear industry was compelled to institute education programs aimed at allaying public apprehension surrounding nuclear power. The US Council for Energy Awareness strives to disseminate information on nuclear issues in an effort to educate the public and thus create a foundation of support for this important energy option. The US Council for Energy Awareness (USCEA) is the national communications and information organization for the US commercial nuclear power industry. The organization provides a national voice for an industry whose issues are not always well understood by the public or by policy makers. It performs many functions for member companies, and offers information to the public. Included in the primary functions USCEA conducts on behalf of the nuclear industry are advertising, public and media relations, technical programs, and conferences. Worldwide, its membership is approximately 400, and includes utilities, vendors, consultants, universities, and other organizations with an interest in nuclear power

  8. Design options to minimize tritium inventories at Savannah River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, J.E.; Wilson, J.; Heroux, K.J.; Poore, A.S.; Babineau, D.W.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • La-Ni-Al alloys are used as tritium storage materials and retain He-3. • La-Ni-Al He-3 effects decrease useable process tritium inventory. • Use of Pd or depleted uranium beds decreases process tritium inventories. • Reduced inventory tritium facilities will lower public risk. - Abstract: Large quantities of tritium are stored and processed at the Savannah River Site (SRS) Tritium Facilities. In many design basis accidents (DBAs), it is assumed the entire tritium inventory of the in-process vessels are released from the facility and the site for inclusion in public radiological dose calculations. Pending changes in public dose calculation methodologies are driving the need for smaller in-process tritium inventories to be released during DBAs. Reducing the in-process tritium inventory will reduce the unmitigated source term for public dose calculations and will also reduce the production demand for a lower inventory process. This paper discusses process design options to reduce in-process tritium inventories. A Baseline process is defined to illustrate the impact of removing or replacing La-Ni-Al alloy tritium storage beds with palladium (Pd) or depleted uranium (DU) storage beds on facility in-process tritium inventories. Elimination of La-Ni-Al alloy tritium storage beds can reduce in-process tritium inventories by over 1.5 kg, but alternate process technologies may needed to replace some functions of the removed beds.

  9. 78 FR 72729 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The Options Clearing Corporation; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-03

    ... authority with respect to options transactions but no responsibilities over the books and records of the..., transparent, and enforceable legal framework for each aspect of its activities in all relevant jurisdictions... Because the proposed change does not (i) significantly affect the protection of investors or the public...

  10. 75 FR 62345 - Minimum Balance Requirement and Automatic Replenishment Option for Deposit Account Holders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-08

    ... the option of automatic replenishment of their account via their bank account or credit card. DATES... needed to process paper applications, which now have to be transcribed into the Office's digital system... digital file[s] in exact first-publication form and content'' is required. 37 CFR 202.20(b)(2)(iii)(B...

  11. 76 FR 6838 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Chicago Board Options Exchange, Incorporated; Order Approving a...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-08

    ... Event Binary Options.'' Effectively, both contracts operate in the same manner as credit default swap... market system, and, in general, protect investors and the public interest. In the Commission's view... application of margin requirements for similar products. \\9\\ In approving this proposed rule change, the...

  12. CANDU Digital Control Computer upgrade options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Jong, M.S.; De Grosbois, J.; Qian, T.

    1997-01-01

    This paper reviews the evolution of Digital Control Computers (DCC) in CANDU power plants to the present day. Much of this evolution has been to meeting changing control or display requirements as well as the replacement of obsolete, or old and less reliable technology with better equipment that is now available. The current work at AECL and Canadian utilities to investigate DCC upgrade options, alternatives, and strategies are examined. The dependence of a particular upgrade strategy on the overall plant refurbishment plans are also discussed. Presently, the upgrade options range from replacement of individual obsolete system components, to replacement of the entire DCC hardware without changing the software, to complete replacement of the DCCs with a functionally equivalent system using new control computer equipment and software. Key issues, constraints and objectives associated with these DCC upgrade options are highlighted. (author)

  13. Best practicable environmental option - a new Jerusalem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tromans, Stephen

    1987-01-01

    Best Practicable Environmental Option - A New Jerusalem is the result of the deliberations of the first working group set up by the United Kingdom Environmental Law Association. It is intended as a guide and analysis for all those concerned with effective environmental management and administration. The first of the eight chapters covers the general position and some conclusions of the group. The second suggests the role that Her Majesty's Inspectorate of Pollution should take in the best practicable environmental option. Chapter 3 considers the waste management engineering on land in the United Kingdom. At the moment this is uncoordinated. Discharges into inland waters, the air and the sea are considered and suggestions made for improving the current practices. Chapter 7 looks at radioactive waste specifically. This is indexed separately. The final chapter considers land use planning and the best practicable environmental option. The planning system could provide a forum bringing together the various agencies dealing with the environment. (U.K.)

  14. ANALYSIS OF AN INTERDISCIPLINARY OPTIONAL COURSE: GEOINFORMTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CRISTIAN STĂNILĂ

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the first part, we presented the concept of curriculum and analysed aspects related to the introduction of school-based curriculum in secondary education in Romania. The objective of this study was to analyse the curriculum of a Geoinformatics optional course, the “annual plan”, the “learning unit plan”, the learning activities included in the Geoinformatics optional course, the students’ achievement in this course and their views on the subject matter. In order to identify the students’ opinions about the course, we used the questionnaire as the survey method. We concluded that this optional course met the students’ expectations and interests, being correlated to the prospects of evolution of the knowledge-based society.

  15. Option value of electricity demand response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sezgen, Osman; Goldman, C.A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley CA 94720 (United States); Krishnarao, P. [Citigroup Energy Inc., 1301 Fannin St, Houston, TX 77002 (United States)

    2007-02-15

    As electricity markets deregulate and energy tariffs increasingly expose customers to commodity price volatility, it is difficult for energy consumers to assess the economic value of investments in technologies that manage electricity demand in response to changing energy prices. The key uncertainties in evaluating the economics of demand-response technologies are the level and volatility of future wholesale energy prices. In this paper, we demonstrate that financial engineering methodologies originally developed for pricing equity and commodity derivatives (e.g., futures, swaps, options) can be used to estimate the value of demand-response technologies. We adapt models used to value energy options and assets to value three common demand-response strategies: load curtailment, load shifting or displacement, and short-term fuel substitution-specifically, distributed generation. These option models represent an improvement to traditional discounted cash flow methods for assessing the relative merits of demand-side technology investments in restructured electricity markets. (author)

  16. Safety options for the 1300 MWe program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cayol, A.; Dupuis, M.C.; Fourest, B.; Oury, J.M.

    1980-04-01

    Standardization of the nuclear plants built in France implies an examination of the main technical safety options to be taken for a given type of reactor. By this procedure the subjects for which detailed studies will be needed to confirm the decisions made for the project can be defined in advance. In this context the technical safety option analysis for the 1300 MWe plants was conducted from the end of 1975 to the middle of 1978 according to usual regulation examination practice. The main conclusions are presented on the following subjects: safety methods; technical options concerning the containment vessel, primary fluid activity, fuel elements, steam generators; general organization of the lay-out [fr

  17. Mine Drainage Generation and Control Options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xinchao; Rodak, Carolyn M; Zhang, Shicheng; Han, Yuexin; Wolfe, F Andrew

    2016-10-01

    This review provides a snapshot of papers published in 2015 relevant to the topic of mine drainage generation and control options. The review is broken into 3 sections: Generation, Prediction and Prevention, and Treatment Options. The first section, mine drainage generation, focuses on the characterization of mine drainage and the environmental impacts. As such, it is broken into three subsections focused on microbiological characterization, physiochemical characterization, and environmental impacts. The second section of the review is divided into two subsections focused on either the prediction or prevention of acid mine drainage. The final section focuses on treatment options for mine drainage and waste sludge. The third section contains subsections on passive treatment, biological treatment, physiochemical treatment, and a new subsection on beneficial uses for mine drainage and treatment wastes.

  18. Cross-sectoral assessment of mitigation options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halsnæs, K.

    1997-01-01

    options and polity areas where there may be synergistic effects between climate change mitigation and national development objectives, The country study for Tanzania has identified forestry and land use activities and the agricultural sectors as some of the main drivers in the future growth of greenhouse......The paper addresses the relationship between national economic and social development objectives and climate change mitigation, with national studies for Tanzania and Zimbabwe as the starting point. The main activities driving GHG emissions in these countries are evaluated in order to identify key...... gas emissions, Forestry, land use and agriculture are at the same time key economic and social development areas, This means that options leading to improved performance of these activities can reduce future greenhouse gas emissions and imply increasing welfare, A potential for win-win options has...

  19. The Fundamental Uncertainty of Business: Real Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyer, James S.

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss the manner in which uncertainty is currently evaluated in business, with an emphasis on economic measures. In recent years, the accepted approach for the valuation of capital investment decisions has become one based on the theory of real options. From the standpoint of this workshop, the interesting aspect of real options is its focus on the flexibility of management to respond to changes in the environment as a feature of an alternative that has unique value, known as "option value." While this may not be surprising to most participants in this workshop, it does represent a radical change in traditional thinking about risk in business, where efforts have primarily been focused on the elimination of risk when possible.

  20. Option value of electricity demand response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sezgen, Osman; Goldman, C.A.; Krishnarao, P.

    2007-01-01

    As electricity markets deregulate and energy tariffs increasingly expose customers to commodity price volatility, it is difficult for energy consumers to assess the economic value of investments in technologies that manage electricity demand in response to changing energy prices. The key uncertainties in evaluating the economics of demand-response technologies are the level and volatility of future wholesale energy prices. In this paper, we demonstrate that financial engineering methodologies originally developed for pricing equity and commodity derivatives (e.g., futures, swaps, options) can be used to estimate the value of demand-response technologies. We adapt models used to value energy options and assets to value three common demand-response strategies: load curtailment, load shifting or displacement, and short-term fuel substitution-specifically, distributed generation. These option models represent an improvement to traditional discounted cash flow methods for assessing the relative merits of demand-side technology investments in restructured electricity markets. (author)

  1. Repowering options for steam power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen, H.; Gopalarathinam, R.

    1992-01-01

    Repowering an existing steam power plant with a gas turbine offers an attractive alternative to a new plant or life extension, especially for unit sizes smaller than 300 MWe. Gas turbine repowering improves thermal efficiency and substantially increases the plant output. Based on recent repowering studies and projects, this paper examines gas turbine repowering options for 100 MWe, 200 MWe and 300 MWe units originally designed for coal firing and currently firing either coal or natural gas. Also discussed is the option for a phased future conversion of the repowered unit to fire coal-derived gas, should there be a fluctuation in the price or availability of natural gas. A modular coal gasification plant designed to shorten the conversion time is presented. Repowering options, performance, costs, and availability impacts are discussed for selected cases

  2. Option Panels in Pure-Jump Settings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben Gustav; Fusari, Nicola; Todorov, Viktor

    and maturities available across observation times. We consider the asymptotic setting in which the cross-sectional dimension of the panel increases to infinity while its time span remains fixed. The information set is further augmented with high-frequency data on the underlying asset. Given a parametric......We develop parametric inference procedures for large panels of noisy option data in the setting where the underlying process is of pure-jump type, i.e., evolve only through a sequence of jumps. The panel consists of options written on the underlying asset with a (different) set of strikes...... specification for the risk-neutral asset return dynamics, the option prices are nonlinear functions of a time-invariant parameter vector and a time-varying latent state vector (or factors). Furthermore, no-arbitrage restrictions impose a direct link between some of the quantities that may be identified from...

  3. OIL AND GAS FUTURES AND OPTIONS MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ante Nosić

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy mineral resources markets are represented by complex supply and demand ratios which are depending on different factors such as technical (transport and geopolitical. The main specific of energy markets is represented by an uneven geographic distribution of hydrocarbon reserves and exploration on one hand and energy consumption on the other. World oil markets, although geographically localized, because of specific market trade, represent unique global market with decreasing price difference. Price differences are result of development of a transport possibilities of oil supply. Development of transport routes of natural gas and increasing number of liquefied natural gas terminals in the world give pressure to natural gas market and its integration into global gas market. Integration of regional gas markets into a common European gas market is main energy policy of EU concerning natural gas. On the other hand, there are still significant price differences on some markets (e.g. United States of America - South East Asia. Development of global energy markets is enabled by development of a futures and options contracts of an energy trade which have replaced bilateral contract deals between producers and consumers. Futures contracts are standardized contracts traded on exchanges. Buyer agrees to buy certain quantity of stock for an agreed upon price and with some future delivery date. Option is a contract which gives a buyer the option of the right to buy (or sell, depending on the option an asset at predetermined price and at a later date. Stocks price risk can be managed with the purchase and selling futures and options contracts. This paper deals with futures and options energy markets and their market strategies.

  4. Therapeutic options for recurrent malignant glioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niyazi, Maximilian; Siefert, Axel; Schwarz, Silke Birgit; Ganswindt, Ute; Kreth, Friedrich-Wilhelm; Tonn, Jörg-Christian; Belka, Claus

    2011-01-01

    Despite the given advances in neuro-oncology most patients with high grade malignant glioma ultimately fail locally or locoregionally. In parallel with improvements of initial treatment options, several salvage strategies have been elucidated and already entered clinical practice. Aim of this article is to review the current status of salvage strategies in recurrent high grade glioma. Using the following MESH headings and combinations of these terms the pubmed database was searched: "Glioma", "Recurrence", "Neoplasm Recurrence, Local", "Radiosurgery", "Brachytherapy", "Neurosurgical Procedures" and "Drug Therapy". For citation crosscheck the ISI web of science database was used employing the same search terms. In parallel, the abstracts of ASCO 2008-2009 were analyzed accordingly. Currently the following options for salvage entered clinical practice: re-resection, re-irradiation (stereotactic radiosurgery, (hypo-)fractionated (stereotactic) radiotherapy, interstitial brachytherapy) or single/poly-chemotherapy schedules including new dose-intensified or alternative treatment protocols employing targeted drugs. Re-operation is associated with high morbidity and mortality, however, is an option in a highly selected patient cohort. Since toxicity has been overestimated, re-irradiation is an increasingly used option with precise fractionated radiotherapy being the most optimal technique. On average, time to secondary progression is in the range of several months. Conventional chemotherapy regimens also improve time to secondary progression; however the efficacy is only modest and treatment-related toxicities like myelo-suppression occur very frequently. Molecular targeted agents/kinases are undergoing clinical testing; however no final recommendations can be made. Currently, several re-treatment options with only modest efficacy exist. The relative value of each approach compared to other options is unknown as well as it remains open which sequence of modalities should

  5. Strong ideal convergence in probabilistic metric spaces

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    sequence and strong ideal Cauchy sequence in a probabilistic metric (PM) space endowed with the strong topology, and ... also important applications in nonlinear analysis [2]. The theory was brought to ..... for each t > 0 since each set on the right-hand side of the relation (3.1) belongs to I. Thus, by Definition 2.11 and the ...

  6. Large N baryons, strong coupling theory, quarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakita, B.

    1984-01-01

    It is shown that in QCD the large N limit is the same as the static strong coupling limit. By using the static strong coupling techniques some of the results of large N baryons are derived. The results are consistent with the large N SU(6) static quark model. (author)

  7. Optimization of strong and weak coordinates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swart, M.; Bickelhaupt, F.M.

    2006-01-01

    We present a new scheme for the geometry optimization of equilibrium and transition state structures that can be used for both strong and weak coordinates. We use a screening function that depends on atom-pair distances to differentiate strong coordinates from weak coordinates. This differentiation

  8. Strong decays of nucleon and delta resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bijker, R.; Leviatan, A.

    1996-01-01

    We study the strong couplings of the nucleon and delta resonances in a collective model. In the ensuing algebraic treatment we derive closed expressions for decay widths which are used to analyze the experimental data for strong decays into the pion and eta channels. (Author)

  9. Theoretical studies of strongly correlated fermions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Logan, D. [Institut Max von Laue - Paul Langevin (ILL), 38 - Grenoble (France)

    1997-04-01

    Strongly correlated fermions are investigated. An understanding of strongly correlated fermions underpins a diverse range of phenomena such as metal-insulator transitions, high-temperature superconductivity, magnetic impurity problems and the properties of heavy-fermion systems, in all of which local moments play an important role. (author).

  10. A Study of Three-option and Four-option Multiple Choice Exams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Terence H.

    1988-01-01

    Describes a study used to determine differences in exam reliability, difficulty, and student evaluations. Indicates that when a fourth option was added to the three-option items, the exams became more difficult. Includes methods, results discussion, and tables on student characteristics, whole test analyses, and selected items. (RT)

  11. Use of an Inclusive Option and the Optimal Number of Options for Multiple-Choice Items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crehan, Kevin D.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Studies with 220 college students found that multiple-choice test items with 3 items are more difficult than those with 4 items, and items with the none-of-these option are more difficult than those without this option. Neither format manipulation affected item discrimination. Implications for test construction are discussed. (SLD)

  12. Nonsurgical Treatment Options for Basal Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary H. Lien

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Basal cell carcinoma (BCC remains the most common form of nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC in Caucasians, with perhaps as many as 2 million new cases expected to occur in the United States in 2010. Many treatment options, including surgical interventions and nonsurgical alternatives, have been utilized to treat BCC. In this paper, two non-surgical options, imiquimod therapy and photodynamic therapy (PDT, will be discussed. Both modalities have demonstrated acceptable disease control rates, cosmetically superior outcomes, and short-term cost-effectiveness. Further studies evaluating long-term cure rates and long-term cost effectiveness of imiquimod therapy and PDT are needed.

  13. How to choose the right capitalization option.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, J; Wise, J

    1996-12-01

    Physician group practices and networks must have ready access to capital to finance their working capital needs, capital equipment acquisitions, and real estate purchases, as well as to fund the acquisition of additional practices. At least three options for capitalization are available to group practices and networks: debt financing, equity financing, or a combination of the two. The best option for physician group practices and networks depends on the costs of capital and the impact the strategy will have on decision making and governance.

  14. Recent Advances in Real Options Signaling Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Rigopoulos

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Financial economics have benefited from game theory advances and its application to various domains where competition is present. Following relevant research this paper presents a literature review of recent works on the intersection of real options and game theory, especially on signaling games. A preliminary background is presented initially and next a review of the works is presented. The paper compiles existing works to a useful reference for researchers in the field. Keywords: Signaling games; Capital budgeting, Real options, Game theory, Discrete time games

  15. Technological options for acid rain control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Princiotta, F.T.; Sedman, C.B.

    1993-01-01

    The paper discusses technological options for acid rain control. Compliance with Title IV of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 will require careful scrutiny of a number of issues before selecting control options to reduce sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions. One key consideration is the effect of fuel switching or control technology upon the existing dust collector, with additional air toxics legislation looming ahead. A number of likely SO2 and NOx retrofit technologies and estimated costs are presented, along with results of retrofit case studies. New hybrid particulate controls are also being developed to meet future requirements

  16. Space Civil Engineering option - A progress report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criswell, Marvin E.; Sadeh, Willy Z.

    1992-01-01

    Space Civil Engineering is an emerging engineering discipline that focuses on extending and expanding Civil Engineering to the development, operation, and maintenance of infrastructures on celestial bodies. Space Civil Engineering is presently being developed as a new discipline within the Department of Civil Engineering at Colorado State University and with support of the NASA Space Grant College Program. Academic programs geared toward creating Space Civil Engineering Options at both undergraduate and graduate levels are being formulated. Basic ideas and concepts and the current status of the curriculum in the Space Civil Engineering Option primarily at the undergraduate level are presented.

  17. Restorative options for the periodontal patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreana, Sebastiano

    2010-01-01

    Periodontal and restorative dentistry are mutually important facets of clinical dentistry. Today's clinicians have many treatment options at their disposal, including biotolerant restorative materials and implants, to maintain periodontal health. It is crucial for the clinician to understand the biologic principles that form the foundation for restorative reconstruction of the periodontally involved tooth. This article discusses new techniques and trends in the critical management of the restorations, particularly at the gingival margins, and explores the role of implant dentistry as an option for the restorative plan of the periodontal patient.

  18. Neural Networks as Semiparametric Option Pricing Tool

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Baruník, Jozef; Baruníková, M.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 28 (2011), s. 66-83 ISSN 1212-074X R&D Projects: GA ČR GD402/09/H045; GA ČR GA402/09/0965 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GA402/09/0732 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : option valuation * neural network * S&P 500 index options Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2011/E/barunik-0367688.pdf

  19. Nonsurgical Treatment Options for Basal Cell Carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lien, M. H.; Sondak, V. K.; Sondak, V. K.

    2011-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) remains the most common form of non melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) in Caucasians, with perhaps as many as 2 million new cases expected to occur in the United States in 2010. Many treatment options, including surgical interventions and nonsurgical alternatives, have been utilized to treat BCC. In this paper, two non-surgical options, imiquimod therapy and photodynamic therapy (PDT), will be discussed. Both modalities have demonstrated acceptable disease control rates, cosmetically superior outcomes, and short-term cost-effectiveness. Further studies evaluating long-term cure rates and long-term cost effectiveness of imiquimod therapy and PDT are needed.

  20. Euro Membership as a Real Option Trigger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aabo, Tom; Pantzalis, Christos

    2007-01-01

    -adopters (UK, Sweden, and Denmark) to exercise various forms of real options such as to establish alliances / partnerships, to enter new markets / market segments, to switch suppliers, and to generally expand in the Euro-area. The study furthermore shows that small, profitable and financially constrained firms...... are particularly likely to exercise such real options triggered by the introduction of the Euro. The results go beyond the immediate trade effects, which empirical studies have shown to be weak and without trade diversion as to the three non-adopters, and provide important insights about the potential long...

  1. Berg River Textiles - Cleaner Production Option Report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wenzel, Henrik; Schneider, Zsig

    In October and November 2002 meetings were held between Berg River Textiles, Mr. Juan Laubscher, and external consultants from the South African – Danish Cleaner Textile Production Project, Mr. Zsig Schneider and Mr. Henrik Wenzel. This team of people collected information on recipes and flow sch...... projects including milestone plans for their implementation was made. A saving potential of around 3 mill. R was identified with a pay-back period of around 0.2 years as average of the identified options. The company implemented a large number of the options right away....

  2. Seismic switch for strong motion measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harben, P.E.; Rodgers, P.W.; Ewert, D.W.

    1995-05-30

    A seismic switching device is described that has an input signal from an existing microseismic station seismometer and a signal from a strong motion measuring instrument. The seismic switch monitors the signal level of the strong motion instrument and passes the seismometer signal to the station data telemetry and recording systems. When the strong motion instrument signal level exceeds a user set threshold level, the seismometer signal is switched out and the strong motion signal is passed to the telemetry system. The amount of time the strong motion signal is passed before switching back to the seismometer signal is user controlled between 1 and 15 seconds. If the threshold level is exceeded during a switch time period, the length of time is extended from that instant by one user set time period. 11 figs.

  3. Rrsm: The European Rapid Raw Strong-Motion Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cauzzi, C.; Clinton, J. F.; Sleeman, R.; Domingo Ballesta, J.; Kaestli, P.; Galanis, O.

    2014-12-01

    We introduce the European Rapid Raw Strong-Motion database (RRSM), a Europe-wide system that provides parameterised strong motion information, as well as access to waveform data, within minutes of the occurrence of strong earthquakes. The RRSM significantly differs from traditional earthquake strong motion dissemination in Europe, which has focused on providing reviewed, processed strong motion parameters, typically with significant delays. As the RRSM provides rapid open access to raw waveform data and metadata and does not rely on external manual waveform processing, RRSM information is tailored to seismologists and strong-motion data analysts, earthquake and geotechnical engineers, international earthquake response agencies and the educated general public. Access to the RRSM database is via a portal at http://www.orfeus-eu.org/rrsm/ that allows users to query earthquake information, peak ground motion parameters and amplitudes of spectral response; and to select and download earthquake waveforms. All information is available within minutes of any earthquake with magnitude ≥ 3.5 occurring in the Euro-Mediterranean region. Waveform processing and database population are performed using the waveform processing module scwfparam, which is integrated in SeisComP3 (SC3; http://www.seiscomp3.org/). Earthquake information is provided by the EMSC (http://www.emsc-csem.org/) and all the seismic waveform data is accessed at the European Integrated waveform Data Archive (EIDA) at ORFEUS (http://www.orfeus-eu.org/index.html), where all on-scale data is used in the fully automated processing. As the EIDA community is continually growing, the already significant number of strong motion stations is also increasing and the importance of this product is expected to also increase. Real-time RRSM processing started in June 2014, while past events have been processed in order to provide a complete database back to 2005.

  4. PENGUJIAN GARCH OPTION MODEL UNTUK BARRIER OPTION DI BURSA EFEK INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tendi Haruman

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to test the accuracy of GARCH Option Model forpricing stock option contracted on Astra International, BCA, Indofood and Telkom when barrierexisted at The Indonesia Stock Exchange. Utilizing intraday stock movement and stock optioncontract data, simulation was conducted using actual data. To test the accuracy of GARCH OptionModel, average percentage mean squared error was used to compare simulated premiumwith its payoff at its maturity date. The findings from this research were one month optionaverage percentage mean squared error of GARCH Option Model was three point fifty onepercent (3.51%, two month option was six point sixty one (6.61% and three month optionwas seven point seventy nine percent (7.79%.

  5. 43 CFR 4.113 - Optional small claims (expedited) and accelerated procedures. (See § 4.100(a)(2).)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Optional small claims (expedited) and accelerated procedures. (See § 4.100(a)(2).) 4.113 Section 4.113 Public Lands: Interior Office of the... accelerated procedures. (See § 4.100(a)(2).) (a) The procedures set forth in this rule are available solely at...

  6. 45 CFR 310.5 - What options are available for Computerized Tribal IV-D Systems and office automation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... IV-D Systems and office automation? 310.5 Section 310.5 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public... AUTOMATION Requirements for Computerized Tribal IV-D Systems and Office Automation § 310.5 What options are available for Computerized Tribal IV-D Systems and office automation? (a) Allowable computerized support...

  7. Gestational diabetes mellitus in Tanzania : public health perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mwanri, A.W.

    2015-01-01

    <strong>Gestational diabetes mellitus in Tanzania – public health perspectivesstrong>

    <strong>Abstract>

    <strong>Background: strong>Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is defined as carbohydrate intolerance resulting in hyperglycaemia of variable severity with onset or

  8. Gestational diabetes mellitus in Tanzania : public health perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mwanri, A.W.

    2015-01-01

    <strong>Gestational diabetes mellitus in Tanzania – public health perspectivesstrong> <strong>Abstract> <strong>Background: strong>Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is defined as carbohydrate intolerance resulting in hyperglycaemia of variable severity with onset or first

  9. Gains from the clonal and the clonal seed-orchard options compared for tree breeding programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matheson, A C; Lindgren, D

    1985-12-01

    Gains expected from clonal propagation of selections for plantation from a breeding population were compared with those expected from seed propagation via clonal seed-orchards of selections from the same breeding population. Assumptions were made about numbers of clones selected, size of the breeding population, relative sizes of additive and dominance genetic variance components and time required for various operations. Even when dominance variance is zero, considerable extra gain is obtained by the clonal option over the seed-orchard option; mostly due to the shorter time between selection in the breeding population and field planting. When dominance variance equals additive variance, the advantage of the clonal option due to time saved is approximately equal to the advantage due to genetics (i.e. use of more of the additive variance, use of non-additive variance and greater precision of selection). This means that there is a substantial gain to be made simply by getting superior genotypes into plantations more quickly via the clonal option. The gains obtainable through the use of clonal forestry may also be obtained through seed orchards, but some decades later. In no case was the seed-orchard option superior to the clonal option in terms of the gains obtained. No clonal propagation program can advance without a strong sexually-based breeding program to supply it with improved genotypes. The opportunity for improvement comes from genetic recombination.

  10. Management options in the food chain for accidental radionuclide deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rantavaara, A.

    2005-12-01

    placed the management options in the national and northern context through consistent consideration of the stages of implementation. The essential results of the national work for the FARMING project were published in scientific articles. They were dealing with the effect of northern conditions on practicability of management options and the work of stakeholders in the food supply chain, as well as preparedness for accidental contamination of foodstuffs among logistics enterprises, catering sector, and households. Through international networking the understanding of different production conditions and operational environments in other countries increased during evaluation of management options. The competence so far achieved by the Finnish stakeholder group for improvement of the content of intervention should be used also after the FARMING project. An active stakeholder group is capable of giving strong support to authorities responsible for the safety of food in a situation of real contamination of food production. (orig.)

  11. Strong and superstrong pulsed magnetic fields generation

    CERN Document Server

    Shneerson, German A; Krivosheev, Sergey I

    2014-01-01

    Strong pulsed magnetic fields are important for several fields in physics and engineering, such as power generation and accelerator facilities. Basic aspects of the generation of strong and superstrong pulsed magnetic fields technique are given, including the physics and hydrodynamics of the conductors interacting with the field as well as an account of the significant progress in generation of strong magnetic fields using the magnetic accumulation technique. Results of computer simulations as well as a survey of available field technology are completing the volume.

  12. Impurity screening in strongly coupled plasma systems

    CERN Document Server

    Kyrkos, S

    2003-01-01

    We present an overview of the problem of screening of an impurity in a strongly coupled one-component plasma within the framework of the linear response (LR) theory. We consider 3D, 2D and quasi-2D layered systems. For a strongly coupled plasma the LR can be determined by way of the known S(k) structure functions. In general, an oscillating screening potential with local overscreening and antiscreening regions emerges. In the case of the bilayer, this phenomenon becomes global, as overscreening develops in the layer of the impurity and antiscreening in the adjacent layer. We comment on the limitations of the LR theory in the strong coupling situation.

  13. The lambda sigma calculus and strong normalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schack-Nielsen, Anders; Schürmann, Carsten

    Explicit substitution calculi can be classified into several dis- tinct categories depending on whether they are confluent, meta-confluent, strong normalization preserving, strongly normalizing, simulating, fully compositional, and/or local. In this paper we present a variant of the λσ-calculus......, which satisfies all seven conditions. In particular, we show how to circumvent Mellies counter-example to strong normalization by a slight restriction of the congruence rules. The calculus is implemented as the core data structure of the Celf logical framework. All meta-theoretic aspects of this work...

  14. Disposal options for disused radioactive sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This report presents a review of relevant information on the various technical factors and issues, as well as approaches and relevant technologies, leading to the identification of potential disposal options for disused radioactive sources. The report attempts to provide a logical 'road map' for the disposal of disused radioactive sources, taking into consideration the high degree of variability in the radiological properties of such types of radioactive waste. The use of borehole or shaft type repositories is highlighted as a potential disposal option, particularly for those countries that have limited resources and are looking for a simple, safe and cost effective solution for the disposal of their radioactive source inventories. It offers information about usage and characteristics of radioactive sources, disposal considerations, identification and screening of disposal options as well as waste packaging and acceptance criteria for disposal. The information provided in the report could be adapted or adopted to identify and develop specific disposal options suitable for the type and inventory of radioactive sources kept in storage in a given Member State

  15. Conquering the Unknown: Exploring the Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Lynne M.

    2012-01-01

    There are many challenges that lie ahead for families of children with special needs. It is indeed a time for conquering the unknown and diligently exploring the options in an effort to locate, understand, and ultimately embrace the as yet undiscovered beauties of the new setting. This paper will consider some of the issues relevant for parents,…

  16. The Chinese brain drain and policy options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, P; Deng, Z

    1992-01-01

    The authors discuss the growing problem caused by the increasing reluctance of Chinese receiving higher education overseas to return to China following completion of their studies. They note that the Tiananmen incident of June 1989 exacerbated this problem. The policy options open to the Chinese government are reviewed.

  17. 78 FR 17868 - Noncompensatory Partnership Options; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-25

    ... 35. * * * (ii) * * * K L M Tax Book Tax Book Tax Book Initial capital account $10,000 $10,000 $10,000..., 2013 (78 FR 7997) relating to the tax treatment of noncompensatory options and convertible instruments... clarification. List of Subjects in 26 CFR Part 1 Income taxes, Reporting and recordkeeping requirements...

  18. Ghana and the nuclear power option

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fletcher, J.J.; Ennison, I.

    2000-01-01

    For every country, dependable and continuous supply of electricity is a prerequisite for ensuring sustainable development. In Ghana, Ghanaians have currently known the consequences of disrupted and inadequate supply of electricity. Globally too the call of ''Agenda 21'' of the Rio de Janeiro Conference (Earth Summit) to engage in the development and supply of electricity in a sustainable manner imposes on us certain limitations in our choice of energy option to utilise. Taking into account the high economic and population growths with the subsequent increase in demand for electricity in the 21st century, the fact that Ghana has no coal and imports oil which will be in dwindling supply in the 21st century and that the total hydro supply in Ghana will not be sufficient for our electricity demand in the next century, this paper proposes that Ghana starts now to plan for the introduction of the nuclear option so that in the long term we may have in place an environmentally friendly, dependable and reliable supply of energy. The paper also highlights the economic competitiveness of nuclear power over the other energy options in Ghana and addresses the apprehension and misunderstanding surrounding the nuclear power option. (author)

  19. Chapter 13, Policy options: North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jane Barr; James Dobrowolski; John Campbell; Philippe Le Prestre; Lori Lynch; Marc Sydnor; Robert Adler; Jose Etcheverry; Alexander Kenny; Catherine Hallmich; Jim Lazar; Russell M. Meyer; Robin Newmark; Janet Peace; Julie A. Suhr Pierce; Stephen. Yamasaki

    2012-01-01

    As previously indicated, GEO-5 shifts the GEO focus from identifying environmental problems to identifying solutions that governments can then prioritize. This chapter provides examples of a number of policy options and market mechanisms that have shown some success in improving environmental conditions in North America. They are organized by priority environmental...

  20. 78 FR 19100 - Noncompensatory Partnership Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 [TD 9612] RIN 1545-BA53 Noncompensatory Partnership Options Correction In rule document 2013-2259 appearing on pages 7997-8016 in the... $33,000 Cash $12,000 $12,000 Total $36,000 $45,000 Liabilities and Capital: K $13,000 $15,000 L $13...

  1. Ulster Carpets - Cleaner Production option report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wenzel, Henrik; Mercer, David

    A survey on options for saving water and energy was conducted at Ulster Carpets on 14th November 2002 by Henrik Wenzel from the Institute for Product Development in Denmark, and David Mercer from Enviros, South Africa. This report details observations made during this site visit and makes...

  2. A summary of WIMSD4 input option

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halsall, M.J.

    1980-07-01

    A description is given of all the available input data options in the ICL 4/70 and IBM 370 versions of WIMSD4, with little more than a reference where there is already adequate documentation but with rather more detail where no such documentation exists. (author)

  3. 24 CFR 221.770 - Assignment option.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... MODERATE INCOME MORTGAGE INSURANCE-SAVINGS CLAUSE Contract Rights and Obligations-Moderate Income Projects... mortgagee's approved underwriter on or before November 30, 1983) has the option to assign, transfer and... direct the mortgagee to assign, transfer and deliver the original credit instrument, and the mortgage...

  4. 34 CFR 300.110 - Program options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... agency, including art, music, industrial arts, consumer and homemaking education, and vocational... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Program options. 300.110 Section 300.110 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND...

  5. Treatment Options for Mallet Finger : A Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, Jeroen M.; Beets, Michiel R.; Zeebregts, Clark J.; Rood, Akkie; Welters, Carlo F. M.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Mallet finger is a common injury. The aim of this review is to give an overview of the different treatment options of mallet injuries and their indications, outcomes, and potential complications. Methods: A literature-based study was conducted using the PubMed database comprising world

  6. Acquisitions and Real Options : The Greenfield Alternative

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouthers, Keith D.; Dikova, Desislava

    P>Although acquisitions are a popular way to enter new markets, empirical evidence tends to indicate few benefits accrue to acquiring firms. This might be the case because firms use acquisitions when they should be employing an alternative mode of expansion. Applying real options theory to this

  7. Career Options Research and Development. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    YMCA of Metropolitan Chicago, IL. Career Options Research and Development (CORD).

    This final report of the Career Options Research and Development (CORD) Project reviews the original assumptions, objectives, problems, and opportunities related to training the poor for employment in the human services areas. Specific objectives of Project CORD were: (1) to test the validity and reliability of the social mobility theory, (2) to…

  8. Continuously monitored barrier options under Markov processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mijatović, A.; Pistorius, M.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we present an algorithm for pricing barrier options in one-dimensional Markov models. The approach rests on the construction of an approximating continuous-time Markov chain that closely follows the dynamics of the given Markov model. We illustrate the method by implementing it for a

  9. GARCH Option Valuation: Theory and Evidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Peter; Jacobs, Kris; Ornthanalai, Chayawat

    for empirical implementation are laid out and we also discuss the links between GARCH and stochastic volatility models. In the appendix we provide Matlab computer code for option pricing via Monte Carlo simulation for nonaffine models as well as Fourier inversion for affine models....

  10. Treatment options for patients with Gaucher disease

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rabah M. Shawky

    2016-02-28

    Feb 28, 2016 ... treatment – was approved for Gaucher disease. Future therapeutic modalities will include pharmacological chaperon and possibly gene therapy. The aim of this review is to high light the current and future treatment options for patients with. Gaucher disease and to compare their effects and side effects.

  11. Modelling remediation options for urban contamination situations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thiessen, K.M.; Andersson, Kasper Grann; Charnock, T.W.

    2009-01-01

    and remedial options enables the evaluation of a variety of situations or alternative recovery strategies in contexts of preparedness or decision-making. At present a number of models and modelling approaches are available for different purposes. This paper summarizes the available modelling approaches...

  12. Treatment options for carcinoma in situ testis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, M S; Gundgaard, M.G.; Daugaard, G

    2011-01-01

    countries only offer this to high-risk patients. The treatment options range from orchidectomy and chemotherapy to radiotherapy and in rare cases surveillance. Results of the different treatment strategies are presented in this review. The optimal radiation dose is still not clarified. Most patients have...

  13. The Risk Premia Embedded in Index Options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben Gustav; Fusari, Nicola; Todorov, Viktor

    We study the dynamic relation between market risks and risk premia using time series of index option surfaces. We find that priced left tail risk cannot be spanned by market volatility (and its components) and introduce a new tail factor. This tail factor has no incremental predictive power...

  14. Treatment options for intracranial arachnoid cysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Anders Vedel; Danielsen, Patricia L; Juhler, Marianne

    2012-01-01

    The best surgical treatment of cerebral arachnoid cysts is yet to be established. Treatment options are shunting, endoscopic fenestration or microsurgical fenestration through craniotomy.Data from 69 patients with cerebral arachnoid cysts treated in our institution between 1997 and 2007 were...

  15. Disclosed Values of Option-Based Compensation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bechmann, Ken L.; Hjortshøj, Toke Lilhauge

    New accounting standards require firms to expense the costs of option-based compensation (OBC), but the associated valuations offer many challenges for firms. Earlier research has documented that firms in the U.S. generally underreport the values of OBC by manipulating the inputs used for valuation...

  16. Standardization replication and the reference plant option

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oslick, H.

    1975-01-01

    The reference plant and duplicate plant options for standardized nuclear power plants are discussed. Aspects examined include financial implications of standardization, escalation of plant safety criteria, potential anti-competitive features, variations of site safety parameters, impact of the environmental review process, and filing fees. (U.S.)

  17. The energetic landscape and the nuclear option

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torre, A. de la; Lopez Jimenez, J.

    2008-01-01

    This paper is setting and collecting general information and data on the present world energy panorama and mainly with respect on the nuclear options. Its aimed at supplying annually those parameters, criteria and data to permit you to know the nuclear energy development as an important share of the world electricity generation mix and of the Spanish energy mix. (Author)

  18. Patients' knowledge of glaucomaand treatment options | Nwosu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To determine among glaucoma patients their knowledge of the disease; consequences; available treatment and their preferred treatment options. Interviewer- administered pre-tested questionnaire was administered to consecutive glaucoma patients at the Guinness EyeCenterOnitsha in June and July 2004. Fifty- two ...

  19. Forest Fires and Adaptation Options in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khabarov, N.; Krasovskii, A.; Obersteiner, M.; Swart, R.J.; Dosio, A.; San-Miguel-Ayanz, J.; Durrant, T.; Camia, A.; Migliavacca, M.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a quantitative assessment of adaptation options in the context of forest fires in Europe under projected climate change. A standalone fire model (SFM) based on a state-of-the-art large-scale forest fire modelling algorithm is used to explore fuel removal through prescribed

  20. Spent fuel storage options: a critical appraisal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, K.P.; Bale, M.G.

    1990-01-01

    The delayed decisions on nuclear fuel reprocessing strategies in the USA and other countries have forced the development of new long-term irradiated fuel storage techniques, to allow a larger volume of fuel to be held on the nuclear station site after removal from the reactor. The nuclear power industry has responded to the challenge by developing several viable options for long-term onsite storage, which can be employed individually or in tandem. They are: densification of storage in the existing spent fuel pool; building another fuel pool facility at the plant site; onsite cask park, and on site vault clusters. Desirable attributes of a storage option are: Safety: minimise the number of fuel handling steps; Economy: minimise total installed, and O and M cost; Security: protection from anti-nuclear protesters; Site adaptability: available site space, earthquake characteristics of the region and so on; Non-intrusiveness: minimise required modifications to existing plant systems; Modularisation: afford the option to adapt a modular approach for staged capital outlays; and Maturity: extent of industry experience with the technology. A critical appraisal is made of each of the four aforementioned storage options in the light of these criteria. (2 figures, 1 table, 4 references) (Author)