WorldWideScience

Sample records for strong protective effect

  1. Synthesis of PLGA nanoparticles of tea polyphenols and their strong in vivo protective effect against chemically induced DNA damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srivastava AK

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Amit Kumar Srivastava,1 Priyanka Bhatnagar,2 Madhulika Singh,1 Sanjay Mishra,1 Pradeep Kumar,2 Yogeshwer Shukla,1 Kailash Chand Gupta1,2 1Proteomics Laboratory, Indian Institute of Toxicology Research (CSIR, Lucknow, India; 2Nucleic Acid Research Laboratory, Institute of Genomics and Integrative Biology (CSIR, Delhi University Campus, India Abstract: In spite of proficient results of several phytochemicals in preclinical settings, the conversion rate from bench to bedside is not very encouraging. Many reasons are attributed to this limited success, including inefficient systemic delivery and bioavailability under in vivo conditions. To achieve improved efficacy, polyphenolic constituents of black (theaflavin [TF] and green (epigallocatechin-3-gallate [EGCG] tea in poly(lactide-co-glycolide nanoparticles (PLGA-NPs were entrapped with entrapment efficacy of ~18% and 26%, respectively. Further, their preventive potential against 7,12-dimethylbenzanthracene (DMBA-induced DNA damage in mouse skin using DNA alkaline unwinding assay was evaluated. Pretreatment (topically of mouse skin with either TF or EGCG (100 µg/mouse doses exhibits protection of 45.34% and 28.32%, respectively, against DMBA-induced DNA damage. However, pretreatment with TF-loaded PLGA-NPs protects against DNA damage 64.41% by 1/20th dose of bulk, 71.79% by 1/10th dose of bulk, and 72.46% by 1/5th dose of bulk. Similarly, 51.28% (1/20th of bulk, 57.63% (1/10th of bulk, and 63.14% (1/5th of bulk prevention was noted using EGCG-loaded PLGA-NP doses. These results showed that tea polyphenol-loaded PLGA-NPs have ~30-fold dose-advantage than bulk TF or EGCG doses. Additionally, TF- or EGCG-loaded PLGA-NPs showed significant potential for induction of DNA repair genes (XRCC1, XRCC3, and ERCC3 and suppression of DNA damage responsive genes (p53, p21, MDM2, GADD45α, and COX-2 as compared with respective bulk TF or EGCG doses. Taken together, TF- or EGCG-loaded PLGA-NPs showed a superior

  2. Symmetry-protected collisions between strongly interacting photons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Jeff D; Nicholson, Travis L; Liang, Qi-Yu; Cantu, Sergio H; Venkatramani, Aditya V; Choi, Soonwon; Fedorov, Ilya A; Viscor, Daniel; Pohl, Thomas; Lukin, Mikhail D; Vuletić, Vladan

    2017-02-09

    Realizing robust quantum phenomena in strongly interacting systems is one of the central challenges in modern physical science. Approaches ranging from topological protection to quantum error correction are currently being explored across many different experimental platforms, including electrons in condensed-matter systems, trapped atoms and photons. Although photon-photon interactions are typically negligible in conventional optical media, strong interactions between individual photons have recently been engineered in several systems. Here, using coherent coupling between light and Rydberg excitations in an ultracold atomic gas, we demonstrate a controlled and coherent exchange collision between two photons that is accompanied by a π/2 phase shift. The effect is robust in that the value of the phase shift is determined by the interaction symmetry rather than the precise experimental parameters, and in that it occurs under conditions where photon absorption is minimal. The measured phase shift of 0.48(3)π is in excellent agreement with a theoretical model. These observations open a route to realizing robust single-photon switches and all-optical quantum logic gates, and to exploring novel quantum many-body phenomena with strongly interacting photons.

  3. Wormhole effect in a strong topological insulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, G.; Guo, H.-M.; Franz, M.

    2010-07-01

    An infinitely thin solenoid carrying magnetic flux Φ (a “Dirac string”) inserted into an ordinary band insulator has no significant effect on the spectrum of electrons. In a strong topological insulator, remarkably, such a solenoid carries protected gapless one-dimensional fermionic modes when Φ=hc/2e . These modes are spin-filtered and represent a distinct bulk manifestation of the topologically nontrivial insulator. We establish this “wormhole” effect by both general qualitative considerations and by numerical calculations within a minimal lattice model. We also discuss the possibility of experimental observation of a closely related effect in artificially engineered nanostructures.

  4. The Synergistic Effect of Combined Immunization with a DNA Vaccine and Chimeric Yellow Fever/Dengue Virus Leads to Strong Protection against Dengue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azevedo, Adriana S.; Gonçalves, Antônio J. S.; Archer, Marcia; Freire, Marcos S.; Galler, Ricardo; Alves, Ada M. B.

    2013-01-01

    The dengue envelope glycoprotein (E) is the major component of virion surface and its ectodomain is composed of domains I, II and III. This protein is the main target for the development of a dengue vaccine with induction of neutralizing antibodies. In the present work, we tested two different vaccination strategies, with combined immunizations in a prime/booster regimen or simultaneous inoculation with a DNA vaccine (pE1D2) and a chimeric yellow fever/dengue 2 virus (YF17D-D2). The pE1D2 DNA vaccine encodes the ectodomain of the envelope DENV2 protein fused to t-PA signal peptide, while the YF17D-D2 was constructed by replacing the prM and E genes from the 17D yellow fever vaccine virus by those from DENV2. Balb/c mice were inoculated with these two vaccines by different prime/booster or simultaneous immunization protocols and most of them induced a synergistic effect on the elicited immune response, mainly in neutralizing antibody production. Furthermore, combined immunization remarkably increased protection against a lethal dose of DENV2, when compared to each vaccine administered alone. Results also revealed that immunization with the DNA vaccine, regardless of the combination with the chimeric virus, induced a robust cell immune response, with production of IFN-γ by CD8+ T lymphocytes. PMID:23472186

  5. The synergistic effect of combined immunization with a DNA vaccine and chimeric yellow fever/dengue virus leads to strong protection against dengue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azevedo, Adriana S; Gonçalves, Antônio J S; Archer, Marcia; Freire, Marcos S; Galler, Ricardo; Alves, Ada M B

    2013-01-01

    The dengue envelope glycoprotein (E) is the major component of virion surface and its ectodomain is composed of domains I, II and III. This protein is the main target for the development of a dengue vaccine with induction of neutralizing antibodies. In the present work, we tested two different vaccination strategies, with combined immunizations in a prime/booster regimen or simultaneous inoculation with a DNA vaccine (pE1D2) and a chimeric yellow fever/dengue 2 virus (YF17D-D2). The pE1D2 DNA vaccine encodes the ectodomain of the envelope DENV2 protein fused to t-PA signal peptide, while the YF17D-D2 was constructed by replacing the prM and E genes from the 17D yellow fever vaccine virus by those from DENV2. Balb/c mice were inoculated with these two vaccines by different prime/booster or simultaneous immunization protocols and most of them induced a synergistic effect on the elicited immune response, mainly in neutralizing antibody production. Furthermore, combined immunization remarkably increased protection against a lethal dose of DENV2, when compared to each vaccine administered alone. Results also revealed that immunization with the DNA vaccine, regardless of the combination with the chimeric virus, induced a robust cell immune response, with production of IFN-γ by CD8+ T lymphocytes.

  6. The synergistic effect of combined immunization with a DNA vaccine and chimeric yellow fever/dengue virus leads to strong protection against dengue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana S Azevedo

    Full Text Available The dengue envelope glycoprotein (E is the major component of virion surface and its ectodomain is composed of domains I, II and III. This protein is the main target for the development of a dengue vaccine with induction of neutralizing antibodies. In the present work, we tested two different vaccination strategies, with combined immunizations in a prime/booster regimen or simultaneous inoculation with a DNA vaccine (pE1D2 and a chimeric yellow fever/dengue 2 virus (YF17D-D2. The pE1D2 DNA vaccine encodes the ectodomain of the envelope DENV2 protein fused to t-PA signal peptide, while the YF17D-D2 was constructed by replacing the prM and E genes from the 17D yellow fever vaccine virus by those from DENV2. Balb/c mice were inoculated with these two vaccines by different prime/booster or simultaneous immunization protocols and most of them induced a synergistic effect on the elicited immune response, mainly in neutralizing antibody production. Furthermore, combined immunization remarkably increased protection against a lethal dose of DENV2, when compared to each vaccine administered alone. Results also revealed that immunization with the DNA vaccine, regardless of the combination with the chimeric virus, induced a robust cell immune response, with production of IFN-γ by CD8+ T lymphocytes.

  7. Finding quantum effects in strong classical potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegelich, B. Manuel; Labun, Lance; Labun, Ou Z.

    2017-06-01

    The long-standing challenge to describing charged particle dynamics in strong classical electromagnetic fields is how to incorporate classical radiation, classical radiation reaction and quantized photon emission into a consistent unified framework. The current, semiclassical methods to describe the dynamics of quantum particles in strong classical fields also provide the theoretical framework for fundamental questions in gravity and hadron-hadron collisions, including Hawking radiation, cosmological particle production and thermalization of particles created in heavy-ion collisions. However, as we show, these methods break down for highly relativistic particles propagating in strong fields. They must therefore be improved and adapted for the description of laser-plasma experiments that typically involve the acceleration of electrons. Theory developed from quantum electrodynamics, together with dedicated experimental efforts, offer the best controllable context to establish a robust, experimentally validated foundation for the fundamental theory of quantum effects in strong classical potentials.

  8. Defensive marketing: how a strong incumbent can protect its position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, John H

    2005-11-01

    There has been a lot of research on marketing as an offensive tactic-how it can help companies successfully launch new products, enter new markets, or gain share with existing products in their current markets. But for nearly every new product launch, market entrant, or industry upstart grabbing market share, there is an incumbent that must defend its position. And there has been little research on how these defenders can use marketing to preemptively respond to new or anticipated threats. John H. Roberts outlines four basic types of defensive marketing strategies: positive, inertial, parity, and retarding. With the first two, you establish and communicate your points of superiority relative to the new entrant; with the second two, you establish and communicate strategic points of comparability with your rival. Before choosing a strategy, you need to assess the weapons you have available to protect your market position-your brand identity, the products and services that support that identity, and your means of communicating it. Then assess your customers' value to you and their vulnerability to being poached by rivals. The author explains how Australian telecommunications company Telstra, facing deregulation, used a combination of the four strategies (plus the author's customer response model) to fend off market newcomer Optus. Telstra was prepared, for instance, to reach deep into its pockets and engage in a price war. But the customer response model indicated that a parity strategy-in which Telstra would offer lower rates on some routes and at certain times of day, even though its prices, on average, were higher than its rival's-was more likely to prevent consumers from switching. Ultimately, Telstra was able to retain several points of market share it otherwise would have lost. The strategies described here, though specific to Telstra's situation, offer lessons for any company facing new and potentially damaging competition.

  9. Strong curvature effects in Neumann wave problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willatzen, Morten; Pors, A.; Gravesen, Jens

    2012-01-01

    Waveguide phenomena play a major role in basic sciences and engineering. The Helmholtz equation is the governing equation for the electric field in electromagnetic wave propagation and the acoustic pressure in the study of pressure dynamics. The Schro¨dinger equation simplifies to the Helmholtz...... equation for a quantum-mechanical particle confined by infinite barriers relevant in semiconductor physics. With this in mind and the interest to tailor waveguides towards a desired spectrum and modal pattern structure in classical structures and nanostructures, it becomes increasingly important...... to understand the influence of curvature effects in waveguides. In this work, we demonstrate analytically strong curvature effects for the eigenvalue spectrum of the Helmholtz equation with Neumann boundary conditions in cases where the waveguide cross section is a circular sector. It is found that the linear...

  10. Strong curvature effects in Neumann wave problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willatzen, M.; Pors, A.; Gravesen, J.

    2012-01-01

    Waveguide phenomena play a major role in basic sciences and engineering. The Helmholtz equation is the governing equation for the electric field in electromagnetic wave propagation and the acoustic pressure in the study of pressure dynamics. The Schrödinger equation simplifies to the Helmholtz equation for a quantum-mechanical particle confined by infinite barriers relevant in semiconductor physics. With this in mind and the interest to tailor waveguides towards a desired spectrum and modal pattern structure in classical structures and nanostructures, it becomes increasingly important to understand the influence of curvature effects in waveguides. In this work, we demonstrate analytically strong curvature effects for the eigenvalue spectrum of the Helmholtz equation with Neumann boundary conditions in cases where the waveguide cross section is a circular sector. It is found that the linear-in-curvature contribution originates from parity symmetry breaking of eigenstates in circular-sector tori and hence vanishes in a torus with a complete circular cross section. The same strong curvature effect is not present in waveguides subject to Dirichlet boundary conditions where curvature contributions contribute to second-order in the curvature only. We demonstrate this finding by considering wave propagation in a circular-sector torus corresponding to Neumann and Dirichlet boundary conditions, respectively. Results for relative eigenfrequency shifts and modes are determined and compared with three-dimensional finite element method results. Good agreement is found between the present analytical method using a combination of differential geometry with perturbation theory and finite element results for a large range of curvature ratios.

  11. Lunar electrostatic effects and protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Yongwei; Yuan, Qingyun; Xiong, Jiuliang

    2013-01-01

    The space environment and features on the moon surface are factors in strong electrostatic electrification. Static electricity will be produced in upon friction between lunar soil and detectors or astronauts on the lunar surface. Lunar electrostatic environment effects from lunar exploration equipment are very harmful. Lunar dust with electrostatic charge may enter the equipment or even cover the instruments. It can affect the normal performance of moon detectors. Owing to the huge environmental differences between the moon and the earth, the electrostatic protection technology on the earth can not be applied. In this paper, we review the electrostatic characteristics of lunar dust, its effects on aerospace equipment and moon static elimination technologies. It was concluded that the effect of charged lunar dust on detectors and astronauts should be completely researched as soon as possible.

  12. Strong crystal size effect on deformation twinning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Qian; Shan, Zhi-Wei; Li, Ju

    2010-01-01

    find that the stress required for deformation twinning increases drastically with decreasing sample size of a titanium alloy single crystal7, 8, until the sample size is reduced to one micrometre, below which the deformation twinning is entirely replaced by less correlated, ordinary dislocation...... plasticity. Accompanying the transition in deformation mechanism, the maximum flow stress of the submicrometre-sized pillars was observed to saturate at a value close to titanium’s ideal strength9, 10. We develop a ‘stimulated slip’ model to explain the strong size dependence of deformation twinning....... The sample size in transition is relatively large and easily accessible in experiments, making our understanding of size dependence11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17 relevant for applications....

  13. Strong coupling effects in hybrid plexitonic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnikau, Dzmitry; Esteban, Ruben; Govyadinov, Alexander A.; Savateeva, Diana; Simon, Thomas; Sánchez-Iglesias, Ana; Grzelczak, Marek; Schmidt, Mikolaj K.; Urban, Alexander S.; Liz-Marzán, Luis M.; Feldmann, Jochen; Aizpurua, Javier; Rakovich, Yury P.

    2017-08-01

    We investigated the interactions between localized plasmons in gold nanorods and excitons in J-aggregates and were able to track an anticrossing behavior of the hybridized modes both in the extinction and in the photoluminescence spectra of this hybrid system. We identified the nonlinear optical behavior of this system by transient absorption spectroscopy. Finally using magnetic circular dichroism spectroscopy we showed that nonmagnetic organic molecules exhibit magnetooptical response due to binding to a plasmonic nanoparticles. In our experiments we also studied the effect of detuning as well as the effect of off- and on resonance excitation on the hybrid states

  14. Disorder effects in strongly correlated uranium compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suellow, S.; Maple, M.B.; Tomuta, D.; Nieuwenhuys, G.J.; Menovsky, A.A.; Mydosh, J.A.; Chau, R.

    2001-01-01

    Moderate levels of crystallographic disorder can dramatically affect the ground-state properties of heavy fermion compounds. In particular, the role of disorder close to a quantum critical point has been investigated in detail. However, crystallographic disorder is equally effective in altering the properties of magnetically ordered heavy fermion compounds like URh 2 Ge 2 , where disorder-induced spin-glass behavior has been observed. In this system, moreover, the magnetic ground state can be tuned from a spin-glass to a long-range ordered antiferromagnetic one by means of an annealing treatment. The transformation of the magnetic state is accompanied by a transition in the transport properties from 'quasi-insulating' (dρ/dT 2 Ge 2 will be discussed. Of particular interest is the resistivity of as-grown URh 2 Ge 2 , which resembles the Non-Fermi-liquid system UCu 4 Pd, suggesting that a common mechanism - the crystallographic disorder - controls the transport properties of these materials

  15. OBSERVATION OF STRONG - STRONG AND OTHER BEAM - BEAM EFFECTS IN RHIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    FISCHER, W.; BLASKIEWICZ, M.; BRENNAN, J.M.; CAMERON, P.; CONNOLLY, R.; MONTAG, C.; PEGGS, S.; PILAT, F.; PTITSYN, V.; TEPIKIAN, S.; TRBOJEVIC, D.; VAN ZEIJTS, J.

    2003-01-01

    RHIC is currently the only hadron collider in which strong-strong beam-beam effects can be seen. For the first time, coherent beam-beam modes were observed in a bunched beam hadron collider. Other beam-beam effects in RHIC were observed in operation and in dedicated experiments with gold ions, deuterons and protons. Observations include measurements of beam-beam induced tune shifts, lifetime and emittance growth measurements with and without beam-beam interaction, and background rates as a function of tunes. During ramps unequal radio frequencies in the two rings cause the crossing points to move longitudinally. Thus bunches experience beam-beam interactions only in intervals and the tunes are modulated. In this article we summarize the most important beam-beam observations made so far

  16. Closing your eyes to follow your heart: Avoiding information to protect a strong intuitive preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolley, Kaitlin; Risen, Jane L

    2018-02-01

    Rationally, people should want to receive information that is costless and relevant for a decision. But people sometimes choose to remain ignorant. The current paper identifies intuitive-deliberative conflict as a driver of information avoidance. Moreover, we examine whether people avoid information not only to protect their feelings or experiences, but also to protect the decision itself. We predict that people avoid information that could encourage a more thoughtful, deliberative decision to make it easier to enact their intuitive preference. In Studies 1 and 2, people avoid learning the calories in a tempting dessert and compensation for a boring task to protect their preferences to eat the dessert and work on a more enjoyable task. The same people who want to avoid the information, however, use it when it is provided. In Studies 3-5, people decide whether to learn how much money they could earn by accepting an intuitively unappealing bet (that a sympathetic student performs poorly or that a hurricane hits a third-world country). Although intuitively unappealing, the bets are financially rational because they only have financial upside. If people avoid information in part to protect their intuitive preference, then avoidance should be greater when an intuitive preference is especially strong and when information could influence the decision. As predicted, avoidance is driven by the strength of the intuitive preference (Study 3) and, ironically, information avoidance is greater before a decision is made, when the information is decision relevant, than after, when the information is irrelevant for the decision (Studies 4 and 5). (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Intranasal immunization with influenza VLPs incorporating membrane-anchored flagellin induces strong heterosubtypic protection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bao-Zhong Wang

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrated previously that the incorporation of a membrane-anchored form of flagellin into influenza virus-like particles (VLPs improved the immunogenicity of VLPs significantly, inducing partially protective heterosubtypic immunity by intramuscular immunization. Because the efficacy of mucosal vaccination is highly dependent on an adjuvant, and is particularly effective for preventing mucosal infections such as influenza, we determined whether the membrane-anchored flagellin is an efficient adjuvant for VLP vaccines by a mucosal immunization route. We compared the adjuvant effect of membrane-anchored and soluble flagellins for immunization with influenza A/PR8 (H1N1 VLPs by the intranasal route in a mouse model. The results demonstrate that membrane-anchored flagellin is an effective adjuvant for intranasal (IN immunization, inducing enhanced systemic and mucosal antibody responses. High cellular responses were also observed as shown by cytokine production in splenocyte cultures when stimulated with viral antigens. All mice immunized with flagellin-containing VLPs survived challenge with a high lethal dose of homologous virus as well as a high dose heterosubtypic virus challenge (40 LD(50 of A/Philippines/82, H3N2. In contrast, no protection was observed with a standard HA/M1 VLP group upon heterosubtypic challenge. Soluble flagellin exhibited a moderate adjuvant effect when co-administered with VLPs by the mucosal route, as indicated by enhanced systemic and mucosal responses and partial heterosubtypic protection. The membrane-anchored form of flagellin incorporated together with antigen into influenza VLPs is effective as an adjuvant by the mucosal route and unlike standard VLPs, immunization with such chimeric VLPs elicits protective immunity to challenge with a distantly related influenza A virus.

  18. Effective Protection or Effective Combat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemberg-Pedersen, Martin

    2016-01-01

    and multilocal character of European border control. This is then elaborated via a critical gaze at several attempts to defi ne how European states have attempted to externalize migration control to other countries in terms of supranational policy drives, ripple and mimicry effects. This then facilitates a more...... nuanced understanding of externalization. Since border control reterritorializes geographic spaces according to the mobility of the people through them, it follows that the EU’s border control, and with it also aspects of the union’s asylum policy, have both biopolitical and geopolitical implications...

  19. Strong expectations cancel locality effects: evidence from Hindi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samar Husain

    Full Text Available Expectation-driven facilitation (Hale, 2001; Levy, 2008 and locality-driven retrieval difficulty (Gibson, 1998, 2000; Lewis & Vasishth, 2005 are widely recognized to be two critical factors in incremental sentence processing; there is accumulating evidence that both can influence processing difficulty. However, it is unclear whether and how expectations and memory interact. We first confirm a key prediction of the expectation account: a Hindi self-paced reading study shows that when an expectation for an upcoming part of speech is dashed, building a rarer structure consumes more processing time than building a less rare structure. This is a strong validation of the expectation-based account. In a second study, we show that when expectation is strong, i.e., when a particular verb is predicted, strong facilitation effects are seen when the appearance of the verb is delayed; however, when expectation is weak, i.e., when only the part of speech "verb" is predicted but a particular verb is not predicted, the facilitation disappears and a tendency towards a locality effect is seen. The interaction seen between expectation strength and distance shows that strong expectations cancel locality effects, and that weak expectations allow locality effects to emerge.

  20. Strong Gravity Effects of Rotating Black Holes: Quasiperiodic Oscillations

    OpenAIRE

    Aliev, Alikram N.; Esmer, Göksel Daylan; Talazan, Pamir

    2012-01-01

    We explore strong gravity effects of the geodesic motion in the spacetime of rotating black holes in general relativity and braneworld gravity. We focus on the description of the motion in terms of three fundamental frequencies: The orbital frequency, the radial and vertical epicyclic frequencies. For a Kerr black hole, we perform a detailed numerical analysis of these frequencies at the innermost stable circular orbits and beyond them as well as at the characteristic stable orbits, at which ...

  1. New results on strong-interaction effects in antiprotonic hydrogen

    CERN Document Server

    Gotta, D; Augsburger, M A; Borchert, G L; Castelli, C M; Chatellard, D; El-Khoury, P; Egger, J P; Gorke, H; Hauser, P R; Indelicato, P J; Kirch, K; Lenz, S; Nelms, N; Rashid, K; Schult, O W B; Siems, T; Simons, L M

    1999-01-01

    Lyman and Balmer transitions of antiprotonic hydrogen and deuterium have been measured at the low-energy antiproton ring LEAR at CERN in order to determine the strong interaction effects. The X-rays were detected using charge-coupled devices (CCDs) and a reflection type crystal spectrometer. The results of the measurements support the meson-exchange models describing the medium and long range part of the nucleon-antinucleon interaction. (33 refs).

  2. New results on strong-interaction effects in antiprotonic hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anagnostopoulos, D. F.; Augsburger, M.; Borchert, G.; Castelli, C.; Chatellard, D.; El-Khoury, P.; Egger, J.-P.; Gorke, H.; Gotta, D.; Hauser, P.; Indelicato, P.; Kirch, K.; Lenz, S.; Nelms, N.; Rashid, K.; Schult, O. W. B.; Siems, Th.; Simons, L. M.

    1999-01-01

    Lyman and Balmer transitions of antiprotonic hydrogen and deuterium have been measured at the Low-Energy Antiproton Ring LEAR at CERN in order to determine the strong interaction effects. The X-rays were detected using Charge-Coupled Devices (CCDs) and a reflection type crystal spectrometer. The results of the measurements support the meson-exchange models describing the medium and long range part of the nucleon-antinucleon interaction

  3. An antibody blocking activin type II receptors induces strong skeletal muscle hypertrophy and protects from atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lach-Trifilieff, Estelle; Minetti, Giulia C; Sheppard, KellyAnn; Ibebunjo, Chikwendu; Feige, Jerome N; Hartmann, Steffen; Brachat, Sophie; Rivet, Helene; Koelbing, Claudia; Morvan, Frederic; Hatakeyama, Shinji; Glass, David J

    2014-02-01

    The myostatin/activin type II receptor (ActRII) pathway has been identified to be critical in regulating skeletal muscle size. Several other ligands, including GDF11 and the activins, signal through this pathway, suggesting that the ActRII receptors are major regulatory nodes in the regulation of muscle mass. We have developed a novel, human anti-ActRII antibody (bimagrumab, or BYM338) to prevent binding of ligands to the receptors and thus inhibit downstream signaling. BYM338 enhances differentiation of primary human skeletal myoblasts and counteracts the inhibition of differentiation induced by myostatin or activin A. BYM338 prevents myostatin- or activin A-induced atrophy through inhibition of Smad2/3 phosphorylation, thus sparing the myosin heavy chain from degradation. BYM338 dramatically increases skeletal muscle mass in mice, beyond sole inhibition of myostatin, detected by comparing the antibody with a myostatin inhibitor. A mouse version of the antibody induces enhanced muscle hypertrophy in myostatin mutant mice, further confirming a beneficial effect on muscle growth beyond myostatin inhibition alone through blockade of ActRII ligands. BYM338 protects muscles from glucocorticoid-induced atrophy and weakness via prevention of muscle and tetanic force losses. These data highlight the compelling therapeutic potential of BYM338 for the treatment of skeletal muscle atrophy and weakness in multiple settings.

  4. Empty creditors and strong shareholders: The real effects of credit risk trading. Second draft

    OpenAIRE

    Colonnello, Stefano; Efing, Matthias; Zucchi, Francesca

    2016-01-01

    Credit derivatives give creditors the possibility to transfer debt cash flow rights to other market participants while retaining control rights. We use the market for credit default swaps (CDSs) as a laboratory to show that the real effects of such debt unbundling crucially hinge on shareholder bargaining power. We find that creditors buy more CDS protection when facing strong shareholders to secure themselves a valuable outside option in distressed renegotiations. After the start of CDS trad...

  5. Superconducting proximity effect in the strong-coupling limit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilvert, W.

    1975-01-01

    A generalization of the theory of the superconducting proximity effect is presented which takes into account strong-coupling in the superconductors. The results are found to agree with a model of weak-coupled superconductors with differing Debye frequencies which are in proximity. It is found that logarithmic averaging of phonon frequencies is an improvement on the original McMillan theory (1968). Comparison of the theory with data on thin films and on eutectic alloys is found to give good agreement. 19 references

  6. Strong dynamical effects during stick-slip adhesive peeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalbe, Marie-Julie; Santucci, Stéphane; Cortet, Pierre-Philippe; Vanel, Loïc

    2014-01-07

    We consider the classical problem of the stick-slip dynamics observed when peeling a roller adhesive tape at a constant velocity. From fast imaging recordings, we extract the dependence of the stick and slip phase durations on the imposed peeling velocity and peeled ribbon length. Predictions of Maugis and Barquins [in Adhesion 12, edited by K. W. Allen, Elsevier ASP, London, 1988, pp. 205-222] based on a quasistatic assumption succeed to describe quantitatively our measurements of the stick phase duration. Such a model however fails to predict the full stick-slip cycle duration, revealing strong dynamical effects during the slip phase.

  7. Integrating sustainable hunting in biodiversity protection in Central Africa: hot spots, weak spots, and strong spots.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John E Fa

    Full Text Available Wild animals are a primary source of protein (bushmeat for people living in or near tropical forests. Ideally, the effect of bushmeat harvests should be monitored closely by making regular estimates of offtake rate and size of stock available for exploitation. However, in practice, this is possible in very few situations because it requires both of these aspects to be readily measurable, and even in the best case, entails very considerable time and effort. As alternative, in this study, we use high-resolution, environmental favorability models for terrestrial mammals (N = 165 in Central Africa to map areas of high species richness (hot spots and hunting susceptibility. Favorability models distinguish localities with environmental conditions that favor the species' existence from those with detrimental characteristics for its presence. We develop an index for assessing Potential Hunting Sustainability (PHS of each species based on their ecological characteristics (population density, habitat breadth, rarity and vulnerability, weighted according to restrictive and permissive assumptions of how species' characteristics are combined. Species are classified into five main hunting sustainability classes using fuzzy logic. Using the accumulated favorability values of all species, and their PHS values, we finally identify weak spots, defined as high diversity regions of especial hunting vulnerability for wildlife, as well as strong spots, defined as high diversity areas of high hunting sustainability potential. Our study uses relatively simple models that employ easily obtainable data of a species' ecological characteristics to assess the impacts of hunting in tropical regions. It provides information for management by charting the geography of where species are more or less likely to be at risk of extinction from hunting.

  8. Launch pad lightning protection effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahmann, James R.

    1991-01-01

    Using the striking distance theory that lightning leaders will strike the nearest grounded point on their last jump to earth corresponding to the striking distance, the probability of striking a point on a structure in the presence of other points can be estimated. The lightning strokes are divided into deciles having an average peak current and striking distance. The striking distances are used as radii from the points to generate windows of approach through which the leader must pass to reach a designated point. The projections of the windows on a horizontal plane as they are rotated through all possible angles of approach define an area that can be multiplied by the decile stroke density to arrive at the probability of strokes with the window average striking distance. The sum of all decile probabilities gives the cumulative probability for all strokes. The techniques can be applied to NASA-Kennedy launch pad structures to estimate the lightning protection effectiveness for the crane, gaseous oxygen vent arm, and other points. Streamers from sharp points on the structure provide protection for surfaces having large radii of curvature. The effects of nearby structures can also be estimated.

  9. Effectiveness of Advanced Stay Strong, Stay Healthy in Community Settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily M. Crowe MS

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this research was to investigate the effectiveness of the 10-week, University of Missouri (MU Extension strength training program Advanced Stay Strong, Stay Healthy (ASSSH. It was hypothesized that the program can improve strength, balance, agility, and flexibility—all physical measures of falling among seniors. Matched pair t tests were used to compare differences in five physical measures of health, body composition, and percent body fat (%BF. Two-way ANOVA was conducted to examine the age effects on changes in physical health from the start and finish of the exercise program. Following programming, participants significantly improved strength, flexibility, and balance, and significantly reduced %BF ( p < .05. Our data indicate that ASSSH can improve the physical health of senior citizens and can successfully be translated into community practice by MU Extension professionals.

  10. Genome-wide association study identifies new HLA class II haplotypes strongly protective against narcolepsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hor, Hyun; Kutalik, Zoltán; Dauvilliers, Yves

    2010-01-01

    Narcolepsy is a rare sleep disorder with the strongest human leukocyte antigen (HLA) association ever reported. Since the associated HLA-DRB1*1501-DQB1*0602 haplotype is common in the general population (15-25%), it has been suggested that it is almost necessary but not sufficient for developing......*0602. We found association with a protective variant near HLA-DQA2 (rs2858884; P ... ratio = 0.02; P HLA haplotype suggests a virtually causal involvement of the HLA region in narcolepsy susceptibility....

  11. Effect of random charge fluctuation on strongly coupled dusty Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issaad, M.; Rouiguia, L.; Djebli, M.

    2008-09-01

    Modeling the interaction between particles is an open issue in dusty plasma. We dealt with strongly coupled dust particles in two dimensional confined system. For small number of clusters, we investigate the effect of random charge fluctuation on background configuration. The study is conducted for a short rang as well as a long rang potential interaction. Numerical simulation is performed using Monte-Carlo simulation in the presence of parabolic confinement and at low temperature. We have studied the background configurations for a dust particles with constant charge and in the presence of random charge fluctuation due to the discrete nature of charge carriers. The latter is studied for a positively charged dust when the dominant charging process is due to photo-emission from the dust surface. It is found, for small classical cluster consisting of small number of particles, short rang potential gives the same result as long rang one. It is also found that the random charge fluctuation affect the background configurations.

  12. Certain relativistic effects due to strong electromagnetic fields in plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsintsadze, N.L.

    1974-01-01

    It is shown that the propagation of a strong electromagnetic wave in an electron plasma can lead to a generation of a constant electron current along the direction of propagation and to a large increase in the average electron density. (Auth.)

  13. Effective Field Theories and Strong Interactions. Final Technical Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleming, Sean

    2011-01-01

    The framework of Effective Field Theories (EFTs) allows us to describe strong interactions in terms of degrees of freedom relevant to the energy regimes of interest, in the most general way consistent with the symmetries of QCD. Observables are expanded systematically in powers of M lo /M hi , where M lo (M hi ) denotes a low-(high-)energy scale. This organizational principle is referred to as 'power counting'. Terms of increasing powers in the expansion parameter are referred to as leading order (LO), next-to-leading order (NLO), etc. Details of the QCD dynamics not included explicitly are encoded in interaction parameters, or 'low-energy constants' (LECs), which can in principle be calculated from an explicit solution of QCD - for example via lattice simulations- but can also be determined directly from experimental data. QCD has an intrinsic scale M QCD ≅ 1 GeV, at which the QCD coupling constant α s (M QCD ) becomes large and the dynamics becomes non-perturbative. As a consequence M QCD sets the scale for the masses of most hadrons, such as the nucleon mass m N ≅ 940 MeV. EFTs can roughly be divided into two categories: those that can be matched onto QCD in perturbation theory, which we call high-energy EFTs, and those that cannot be matched perturbatively, which we call low-energy EFTs. In high-energy EFTs, M QCD typically sets the low-energy scale, and all the dynamics associated with this scale reside in matrix elements of EFT operators. These non-perturbative matrix elements are the LECs and are also referred to as long-distance contributions. Each matrix element is multiplied by a short-distance coefficient, which contains the dynamics from the high scale M hi . Since M hi >> M QCD , α s (M hi ) hi ∼ M Q , the heavy-quark mass, and in addition to M QCD there are low scales associated with the typical relative momentum ∼ M Q v and energy ∼ M Q v 2 of the heavy quarks. Depending on the sizes of M Q and the heavy-quark velocity v these scales can

  14. How strong and generalisable is the Generation Y effect?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mueller, Simone; Remaud, Hervé; Chabin, Yann

    2011-01-01

    alcoholic beverage consumption. A number of noticeable differences appeared between countries: wine involvement and consumption increases with age in traditional European wine markets, while they decrease in North America; environmental concerns and purchase channel usage hardly differ between generations......Purpose – This study aims to investigate how strongly Generation Y consumers differ in their values, attitudes and wine and alcoholic beverage consumption behaviour from older generations. The comparison spans seven culturally different markets. Design/methodology/approach – Large representative...

  15. Spin effects in strong-field laser-electron interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahrens, S; Bauke, H; Müller, T-O; Villalba-Chávez, S; Müller, C

    2013-01-01

    The electron spin degree of freedom can play a significant role in relativistic scattering processes involving intense laser fields. In this contribution we discuss the influence of the electron spin on (i) Kapitza-Dirac scattering in an x-ray laser field of high intensity, (ii) photo-induced electron-positron pair production in a strong laser wave and (iii) multiphoton electron-positron pair production on an atomic nucleus. We show that in all cases under consideration the electron spin can have a characteristic impact on the process properties and their total probabilities. To this end, spin-resolved calculations based on the Dirac equation in the presence of an intense laser field are performed. The predictions from Dirac theory are also compared with the corresponding results from the Klein-Gordon equation.

  16. Aquatic effect assessment for plant protection products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brock, T.C.M.; Arts, G.H.P.; Hulscher, ten T.E.M.; Jong, de F.M.W.; Luttik, R.; Roex, E.; Smit, C.E.; Vliet, van P.J.M.

    2011-01-01

    In this report new proposals for the aquatic effects assessment of plant protection products (pesticides) in the Netherlands are described for edge-of-field surface waters (drainage ditches) falling under the domain of the Plant Protection Product Regulation (pre-registration) and for water bodies

  17. Radiation effects on relativistic electrons in strong external fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iqbal, Khalid

    2013-01-01

    The effects of radiation of high energy electron beams are a major issue in almost all types of charged particle accelerators. The objective of this thesis is both the analytical and numerical study of radiation effects. Due to its many applications the study of the self force has become a very active and productive field of research. The main part of this thesis is devoted to the study of radiation effects in laser-based plasma accelerators. Analytical models predict the existence of radiation effects. The investigation of radiation reaction show that in laser-based plasma accelerators, the self force effects lower the energy gain and emittance for moderate energies electron beams and increase the relative energy spread. However, for relatively high energy electron beams, the self radiation and retardation (radiation effects of one electron on the other electron of the system) effects increase the transverse emittance of the beam. The energy gain decreases to even lower value and relative energy spread increases to even higher value due to high radiation losses. The second part of this thesis investigates with radiation reaction in focused laser beams. Radiation effects are very weak even for high energy electrons. The radiation-free acceleration and the simple practical setup make direct acceleration in a focused laser beam very attractive. The results presented in this thesis can be helpful for the optimization of future electron acceleration experiments, in particular in the case of laser-plasma accelerators.

  18. Effective magnetic moment of neutrinos in strong magnetic fields

    CERN Document Server

    Pérez, A; Masood, S S; Gaitan, R; Rodríguez, S

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we compute the effective magnetic moment of neutrinos propagating in dense high magnetized medium. Taking typical values of magnetic field and densities of astrophysical objects (such as the cores of supernovae and neutron stars) we obtain an effective type of dipole magnetic moment in agreement with astrophysical and cosmological bounds. (Author)

  19. The Connect Effect Building Strong Personal, Professional, and Virtual Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Dulworth, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Entrepreneur and executive development expert Mike Dulworth's THE CONNECT EFFECT provides readers with a simple framework and practical tools for developing that crucial competitive advantage: a high-quality personal, professional/organizational and virtual network.

  20. Effective bounds on strong unicity in L1-approximation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kohlenbach, Ulrich; Oliva, Paulo B.

    In this paper we present another case study in the general project of Proof Mining which means the logical analysis of prima facie non-effective proofs with the aim of extracting new computationally relevant data. We use techniques based on monotone functional interpretation (developed in [17]) t...

  1. Strong delayed interactive effects of metal exposure and warming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Debecker, Sara; Dinh, Khuong Van; Stoks, Robby

    2017-01-01

    As contaminants are often more toxic at higher temperatures, predicting their impact under global warming remains a key challenge for ecological risk assessment. Ignoring delayed effects, synergistic interactions between contaminants and warming, and differences in sensitivity across species......’ ranges could lead to an important underestimation of the risks. We addressed all three mechanisms by studying effects of larval exposure to zinc and warming before, during, and after metamorphosis in Ischnura elegans damselflies from high- and lowlatitude populations. By integrating these mechanisms...... was especially remarkable in high-latitude animals, as they appeared almost insensitive to zinc during the larval stage. Second, the well-known synergism between metals and warming was manifested not only during the larval stage but also after metamorphosis, yet notably only in low-latitude damselflies...

  2. Effective dose: a radiation protection quantity

    CERN Document Server

    Menzel, H G

    2012-01-01

    Modern radiation protection is based on the principles of justification, limitation, and optimisation. Assessment of radiation risks for individuals or groups of individuals is, however, not a primary objective of radiological protection. The implementation of the principles of limitation and optimisation requires an appropriate quantification of radiation exposure. The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has introduced effective dose as the principal radiological protection quantity to be used for setting and controlling dose limits for stochastic effects in the regulatory context, and for the practical implementation of the optimisation principle. Effective dose is the tissue weighted sum of radiation weighted organ and tissue doses of a reference person from exposure to external irradiations and internal emitters. The specific normalised values of tissue weighting factors are defined by ICRP for individual tissues, and used as an approximate age- and sex-averaged representation of th...

  3. Effect of strong fragrance on olfactory detection threshold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasunla, Ayotunde James; Douglas, David Dayo; Adeosun, Aderemi Adeleke; Steinbach, Silke; Nwaorgu, Onyekwere George Benjamin

    2014-09-01

    To assess the olfactory threshold of healthy volunteers at the University College Hospital, Ibadan and to investigate the effect of perfume on their olfactory detection thresholds. A quasi-experimental study on olfactory detection thresholds of healthy volunteers from September 2013 to November 2013. Tertiary health institution. A structured questionniare was administered to the participants in order to obtain information on sociodemographics, occupation, ability to perceive smell, use of perfume, effects of perfume on appetite and self-confidence, history of allergy, and previous nasal surgery. Participants subjectively rated their olfactory performance. Subsequently, they had olfactory detection threshold testing done at baseline and after exposure to perfume with varied concentrations of n-butanol in a forced triple response and staircase fashion. Healthy volunteers, 37 males and 63 females, were evaluated. Their ages ranged from 19 to 59 years with a mean of 31 years ± 8. Subjectively, 94% of the participants had excellent olfactory function. In the pre-exposure forced triple response, 88% were able to detect the odor at ≤.25 mmol/l concentration while in the post-exposure forced triple response, only 66% were able to detect the odor at ≤.25 mmol/l concentration. There is also a statistical significant difference in the olfactory detection threshold score between the pre-exposure and post-exposure period in the participants (P fragrances affects the olfactory detection threshold. Therefore patients and clinicians should be aware of this and its effects on the outcome of test of olfaction. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2014.

  4. Stirling engines using working fluids with strong real gas effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Invernizzi, Costante M.

    2010-01-01

    Real gas effects typical of the critical region of working fluids are a powerful tool to increase the energy performances of Stirling cycles, mainly at low top temperatures. To carry out the compression near the critical region the working fluids must have a critical temperature near environmental conditions and the use of organic working substances (pure or in suitable mixtures) as a matter of fact begins compulsory. The moderate thermal stability of the organic working fluids limits the maximum temperatures to 300-400 deg. C and as a consequence, the achievable cycles efficiencies result rather low. Carbon dioxide, with a critical temperature of 31 deg. C, is, among the traditionally inorganic gases, an exception and is considered here in comparison with organic substances. But the good thermodynamics of the cycles allows, in the considered cases, conversion efficiencies of about 20%, with good specific powers. The good energy performance of real gas Stirling cycles is obtained at the cost of high maximum cycle pressure, in the range of at least 100-300 bar. These high pressures nevertheless have large positive effects on the heat power transferred per unit of pumping mechanical power, and the low top temperatures have a positive influence on the material problems for the hottest engine parts.

  5. Strong surface effect on direct bulk flexoelectric response in solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yurkov, A. S.; Tagantsev, A. K.

    2016-01-01

    In the framework of a continuum theory, it is shown that the direct bulk flexoelectric response of a finite sample essentially depends on the surface polarization energy, even in the thermodynamic limit where the body size tends to infinity. It is found that a modification of the surface energy can lead to a change in the polarization response by a factor of two. The origin of the effect is an electric field produced by surface dipoles induced by the strain gradient. The unexpected sensitivity of the polarization response to the surface energy in the thermodynamic limit is conditioned by the fact that the moments of the surface dipoles may scale as the body size

  6. Long-term effects of the strong African American families program on youths' alcohol use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, Gene H; Chen, Yi-Fu; Kogan, Steven M; Murry, Velma McBride; Brown, Anita C

    2010-04-01

    This report extends earlier accounts by addressing the effects of the Strong African American Families (SAAF) program across 65 months. Two hypotheses were tested: (a) Rural African American youths randomly assigned to participate in SAAF would demonstrate lower rates of alcohol use than would control youths more than 5 years later, and (b) SAAF's effects on deterring the onset of alcohol use in early adolescence would carry forward to mediate the program's long-term effects. African American youths in rural Georgia (mean age at pretest = 10.8 years) were assigned randomly to the SAAF group (n = 369) or to a control group (n = 298). Past-month alcohol use was assessed at pretest and at 9, 18, 29, 53, and 65 months after pretest. SAAF participants increased their alcohol use at a slower rate than did adolescents in the control condition across the follow-up assessments. At the 65-month assessment, SAAF participants reported having drunk alcohol half as often as did youths in the control group. Consistent with the second hypothesis, SAAF's effects on deterring initiation carried forward to account for its effects on alcohol use across time. Training in protective parenting processes and self-regulatory skills during preadolescence may contribute to a self-sustaining trajectory of disinterest in and avoidance of alcohol use during adolescence when peers begin to model and sanction it. (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved

  7. Effective modern methods of protecting metal road structures from corrosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panteleeva, Margarita

    2017-10-01

    In the article the ways of protection of barrier road constructions from various external influences which cause development of irreversible corrosion processes are considered. The author studied modern methods of action on metal for corrosion protection and chose the most effective of them: a method of directly affecting the metal structures themselves. This method was studied in more detail in the framework of the experiment. As a result, the article describes the experiment of using a three-layer polymer coating, which includes a thermally activated primer, an elastomeric thermoplastic layer with a spatial structure, and a strong outer polyolefin layer. As a result of the experiment, the ratios of the ingredients for obtaining samples of the treated metal having the best parameters of corrosion resistance, elasticity, and strength were revealed. The author constructed a regression equation describing the main properties of the protective polymer coating using the simplex-lattice planning method in the composition-property diagrams.

  8. Vaccination with the Mycoplasma suis recombinant adhesion protein MSG1 elicits a strong immune response but fails to induce protection in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoelzle, Katharina; Doser, Susanne; Ritzmann, Mathias; Heinritzi, Karl; Palzer, Andreas; Elicker, Sabine; Kramer, Manuela; Felder, Kathrin M; Hoelzle, Ludwig E

    2009-08-27

    Mycoplasma suis is the unculturable pathogen of porcine infectious anemia. The study was aimed to determine the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of MSG1, an immunodominant adhesin of M. suis as the first vaccine candidate against M. suis. The results demonstrated that recombinant MSG1 and Escherichia coli transformants expressing MSG1 (E. coli_MSG1) induced a strong humoral and cellular immunity against M. suis. The induced antibodies were found to be functionally active as confirmed by an in vitro adhesion inhibition assay. Both, IgG1 and IgG2 antibodies were induced, but E. coli_MSG1 immune response was characterized by a significantly higher IgG1 antibody production. Both vaccine candidates failed to protect against M. suis challenge. However, E. coli_MSG1 vaccination has a considerable effect on the severity of the disease as shown by higher post-challenge hemoglobin and hematocrit values in comparison to control groups. This indicated that a high IgG1 antibody titer is negatively connected with severity of M. suis-induced anemia. Furthermore, the induction of monospecific anti-MSG1 antibodies by both vaccine candidates clearly allows for the differentiation between infected and vaccinated animals (DIVA principle). Overall, the importance of MSG1 as potential vaccine candidate remains to be established. Future studies will evaluate the conditions (i.e. adjuvant, vaccination scheme, and application route) to optimize the effects of E. coli_MSG1 vaccines.

  9. Study of the Effective Parameters on the Making Use of Protective Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y Tabaraie

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available

    <strong>Background and objectivesstrong>

    Noise threats health of many groups of industrial workers and causes hearing loss. Use of personal protective device is the best control method to protect against hazardous conditions. Hence, this investigation was carried out to determine situation of using of protective devices and effective parameters on it, in Qom province workers community in 2006.

     

    <strong>Methods>

    This research is descriptive-sectional study. Sample volume was designed 378 persons working in factories in Qom. First of all, list of Qom factories with noise pollution problems, were collected and 30 important factories among them were selected randomly. In the second stage, 378 persons were selected randomly from workers. The interest information was obtained by questionnaire and collected data were analyzed by SPSS software.

     

    <strong>Results>

    The obtained results showed that, 83.6% of workers have been using ear protective devices. 296 of them, which were using ear protective devices, had an occupational hygienist in their workplaces. This research also showed that, 109 workers that used ear protective devices, had moderate knowledge level. Moreover, 82.5% of trained workers have used ear protective devices. The statistical analysis of the results showed that there were no significant relationship between use of ear protective devices and existence of occupational hygienist in workplace, knowledge and age of workers, worker’s antecedent, physical health of workers and kind of ear protective devices (p> 0.05. 

     

    <strong>Conclusion strong>

    These results showed that among all considered parameters; only four parameters were effective in using ear protective devices; education of workers before employment, head workman and employer’s knowledge level, factories facilitation and kind of ear protective devices.

     

  10. Pulmonary antioxidants exert differential protective effects against ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    fractions than on the PM2⋅5–0⋅1 fractions, supporting the previous findings that respirable PM and urban samples contain fewer free radical sources than inhalable PM and industrial samples. [Greenwell L L, Moreno T and Richards R J 2003 Pulmonary antioxidants exert differential protective effects against urban and ...

  11. Protective Effect of (-)-Epigallocatechin Gallate against Photo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Protective Effect of (-)-Epigallocatechin Gallate against Photo-Damage Induced by Ultraviolet A in Human Skin Fibroblasts. ... Protein concentration of the samples was determined using a PA102 Bradford protein assay kit. Malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and superoxide anion radicals were ...

  12. A critical HA1 neutralizing domain of H5N1 influenza in an optimal conformation induces strong cross-protection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lanying Du

    Full Text Available The highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI H5N1 viruses, especially the laboratory-generated H5N1 mutants, have demonstrated the potential to cross the species barrier and infect mammals and humans. Consequently, the design of an effective and safe anti-H5N1 vaccine is essential. We previously demonstrated that the full-length hemagglutinin 1 (HA1 could induce significant neutralizing antibody response and protection. Here, we intended to identify the critical neutralizing domain (CND in an optimal conformation that can elicit strong cross-neutralizing antibodies and protection against divergent H5N1 strains. We thus constructed six recombinant proteins covering different regions of HA1 of A/Anhui/1/2005(H5N1, each of which was fused with foldon (Fd and Fc of human IgG. We found that the critical fragment fused with Fd/Fc (HA-13-263-Fdc, H5 numbering that could elicit the strongest neutralizing antibody response is located in the N-terminal region of HA1 (residues 13-263, which covers the receptor-binding domain (RBD, residues 112-263. We then constructed three additional recombinants fused with Fd plus His tag (HA-13-263-Fd-His, Fc only (HA-13-263-Fc, and His tag only (HA-13-263-His, respectively. We found that the HA-13-263-Fdc, which formed an oligomeric conformation, induced the strongest neutralizing antibody response and cross-protection against challenges of two tested H5N1 virus strains covering clade 1: A/VietNam/1194/2004 (VN/1194 or clade 2.3.4: A/Shenzhen/406H/06 (SZ/406H, while HA-13-263-Fc dimer and HA-13-263-Fd-His trimer elicited higher neutralizing antibody response and protection than HA-13-263-His monomer. These results suggest that the oligomeric form of the CND containing the RBD can be further developed as an effective and safe vaccine for cross-protection against divergent strains of H5N1 viruses.

  13. Biological effects of electromagnetic fields and recently updated safety guidelines for strong static magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi-Sekino, Sachiko; Sekino, Masaki; Ueno, Shoogo

    2011-01-01

    Humans are exposed daily to artificial and naturally occurring magnetic fields that originate from many different sources. We review recent studies that examine the biological effects of and medical applications involving electromagnetic fields, review the properties of static and pulsed electromagnetic fields that affect biological systems, describe the use of a pulsed electromagnetic field in combination with an anticancer agent as an example of a medical application that incorporates an electromagnetic field, and discuss the recently updated safety guidelines for static electromagnetic fields. The most notable modifications to the 2009 International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection guidelines are the increased exposure limits, especially for those who work with or near electromagnetic fields (occupational exposure limits). The recommended increases in exposure were determined using recent scientific evidence obtained from animal and human studies. Several studies since the 1994 publication of the guidelines have examined the effects on humans after exposure to high static electromagnetic fields (up to 9.4 tesla), but additional research is needed to ascertain further the safety of strong electromagnetic fields. (author)

  14. Biological effects of electromagnetic fields and recently updated safety guidelines for strong static magnetic fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi-Sekino, Sachiko; Sekino, Masaki; Ueno, Shoogo

    2011-01-01

    Humans are exposed daily to artificial and naturally occurring magnetic fields that originate from many different sources. We review recent studies that examine the biological effects of and medical applications involving electromagnetic fields, review the properties of static and pulsed electromagnetic fields that affect biological systems, describe the use of a pulsed electromagnetic field in combination with an anticancer agent as an example of a medical application that incorporates an electromagnetic field, and discuss the recently updated safety guidelines for static electromagnetic fields. The most notable modifications to the 2009 International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection guidelines are the increased exposure limits, especially for those who work with or near electromagnetic fields (occupational exposure limits). The recommended increases in exposure were determined using recent scientific evidence obtained from animal and human studies. Several studies since the 1994 publication of the guidelines have examined the effects on humans after exposure to high static electromagnetic fields (up to 9.4 tesla), but additional research is needed to ascertain further the safety of strong electromagnetic fields.

  15. Radio protective effects of selenium on rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakir, A.; Alya, G

    2005-11-01

    Potential radio-protective effects of different selenium supplement concentrations of 4, 8, 15 and 30 ppm were evaluated in rats. Four groups of rats were administered different concentrations of selenium in drinking water for 30 days before irradiation starting from the ablactation which considered as day 0. The results showed that the sodium selenite of 4 ppm and 8 ppm enhance the 30-day survival of irradiated rats at 7 Gy ( sup 6 sup 0 Co source, whole body irradiation dose rate of 1 Gy x min sup - sup 1) compared to the control group. The mean cumulated probability of survival of rats was 69%+-6 (mean+-S.E.) and 77%+-6 in 4 and 8 ppm groups, respectively, versus 42%+-9 for control group (P<0.001). It was also indicated that sodium selenite with concentrations of 15 and 30 ppm had no significant reduction in mortality. The mean cumulated probability of survival of rats was 50%+-12 (P=0.39) and 49%+-14 (P=0.04), respectively. The toxic effects of selenium were observed at 15 ppm and 30 ppm, survivals after 30 days of selenium intake were 76% and 46%, respectively. It was concluded that 4 and 8 ppm sodium selenite have a radio-protective effect. 15 and 30 ppm sodium selenite had no radio-protective effects in rats, this may be due to a synergism of toxicity and radiation effects. (author)

  16. Composite symmetry-protected topological order and effective models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nietner, A.; Krumnow, C.; Bergholtz, E. J.; Eisert, J.

    2017-12-01

    Strongly correlated quantum many-body systems at low dimension exhibit a wealth of phenomena, ranging from features of geometric frustration to signatures of symmetry-protected topological order. In suitable descriptions of such systems, it can be helpful to resort to effective models, which focus on the essential degrees of freedom of the given model. In this work, we analyze how to determine the validity of an effective model by demanding it to be in the same phase as the original model. We focus our study on one-dimensional spin-1 /2 systems and explain how nontrivial symmetry-protected topologically ordered (SPT) phases of an effective spin-1 model can arise depending on the couplings in the original Hamiltonian. In this analysis, tensor network methods feature in two ways: on the one hand, we make use of recent techniques for the classification of SPT phases using matrix product states in order to identify the phases in the effective model with those in the underlying physical system, employing Künneth's theorem for cohomology. As an intuitive paradigmatic model we exemplify the developed methodology by investigating the bilayered Δ chain. For strong ferromagnetic interlayer couplings, we find the system to transit into exactly the same phase as an effective spin-1 model. However, for weak but finite coupling strength, we identify a symmetry broken phase differing from this effective spin-1 description. On the other hand, we underpin our argument with a numerical analysis making use of matrix product states.

  17. Radio protective effects of some medicinal plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barupal, G.K.

    2012-01-01

    Many plants are known to have beneficial therapeutic effects as noted in the traditional Indian system of medicine, Ayurveda and used since time immemorial for curing diseases. Even today, nearly 70% of the world's population is dependent on plants for handling their health related problems and plants have been utilized successfully for the treatment of free radical-mediated diseases in human such as Rheumatoid arthritis, Atherosclerosis, Cancer, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, aging and several other conditions including inflammatory diseases. Plant extracts eliciting radio protective efficacy contain a plethora of compounds including antioxidants, immunostimulants, cell proliferation stimulators, anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial agent, some of which may act in isolation as well as in combination with other constituents from the same plants. Glycyrrhiza glabra, Allium sepa, Allium sativum, Aloe arborescens, Amaranthus paniculatus, Curcuma longa, Moringa olefera and Syzygium cumini are some important radio protective plants. Alium sativum has been reported to possess antioxidant antimicrobial, antitumor, antimutagenic and anti-inflammatory properties. Aloe arborescens acts as a cell proliferate, healer and allergy reducer. Amaranthus paniculatus is used for purifying blood and treating scrofulous sores. Curcuma longa is widely used in antitumor and antibacterial activities. Leaf extract of Moringa oleifera is significantly used in nervous debility and healing of wound. Chlorella is well known nutrient dense superfood that contains 60% protein, 18 amino acids (including all the essential amino acids), more than 20 vitamins and minerals. Chlorell has been used to treat cancer and also protect the body from the effects of cancer radiation treatment due to its chlorophyll in abundance level. However they have little attention for their radio protective as well as antioxidant. There is an urgent need to develop newer, more efficient and reliable bioassays

  18. Protective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wessam M. Abdel-Wahab

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Many active ingredients extracted from herbal and medicinal plants are extensively studied for their beneficial effects. Antioxidant activity and free radical scavenging properties of thymoquinone (TQ have been reported. The present study evaluated the possible protective effects of TQ against the toxicity and oxidative stress of sodium fluoride (NaF in the liver of rats. Rats were divided into four groups, the first group served as the control group and was administered distilled water whereas the NaF group received NaF orally at a dose of 10 mg/kg for 4 weeks, TQ group was administered TQ orally at a dose of 10 mg/kg for 5 weeks, and the NaF-TQ group was first given TQ for 1 week and was secondly administered 10 mg/kg/day NaF in association with 10 mg/kg TQ for 4 weeks. Rats intoxicated with NaF showed a significant increase in lipid peroxidation whereas the level of reduced glutathione (GSH and the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, glutathione S-transferase (GST and glutathione peroxidase (GPx were reduced in hepatic tissues. The proper functioning of the liver was also disrupted as indicated by alterations in the measured liver function indices and biochemical parameters. TQ supplementation counteracted the NaF-induced hepatotoxicity probably due to its strong antioxidant activity. In conclusion, the results obtained clearly indicated the role of oxidative stress in the induction of NaF toxicity and suggested hepatoprotective effects of TQ against the toxicity of fluoride compounds.

  19. Protective effect of rhamnopyranosyl vanilloyl isolated from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    15. Zhang W, Huang L, Chen YX, Sun SJ, Jiang BP, Xu L. Protective effect of compound Long Chuicao decoction on CCl4-induced acute liver injury in mice. Tradit Chin. Drug Res Clin Pharmacol 2015; 26(3): 280-284. 16. Lu B, Xu Y, Xu L, Cong X, Yin L, Li H, Peng J. Mechanism investigation of dioscin against CCl4- ...

  20. Effect of strong electrolytes on edible oils part III: viscosity of canola ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of strong electrolytes on the viscosity of canola oil in 1,4 dioxane was undertaken. The viscosity of oil in 1,4 dioxane was found to increase with the concentration of oil and decrease with rise in temperature. Strong electrolytes reduce the rate of flow of oil in 1,4 dioxane. It was noted that amongst these electrolytes, ...

  1. Anomalous Josephson effect in semiconductor nanowire with strong spin-orbit interaction and Zeeman effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Tomohiro; Eto, Mikio; Nazarov, Yuli

    2014-03-01

    We theoretically investigate the Josephson junction using quasi-one dimensional semiconductor nanowires with strong spin-orbit (SO) interaction, e.g., InSb. First, we examine a simple model using a single scatterer to describe the elastic scattering due to impurities and SO interaction in the normal region.[1] The Zeeman effect is taken into account by the spin-dependent phase shift of electron and hole through the system. The interplay between SO interaction and Zeeman effect results in a finite supercurrent even when the phase difference between two superconductors is zero. Moreover, the critical current depends on its current direction if more than one conduction channel is present in the nanowire. Next, we perform a numerical simulation by the tight-binding model for the nanowire to confirm our simple model. Then, we show that a spin-dependent Fermi velocity due to the SO interaction causes the anomalous Josephson effect.

  2. Strong Effect of Azodye Layer Thickness on RM-Stabilized Photoalignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-21

    Strong Effect of Azodye Layer Thickness on RM-Stabilized Photoalignment Colin McGinty*, Valerie Finnemeyer**, Robert Reich**, Harry Clark...vertical alignment on these substrates. For the thinner BY layers, we do not see this strong evidence of out of plane reorientation. The out of...In this report we show the surprising effect that thin azodye layers demonstrate improved stability over those that are thicker. Figure 6

  3. Protecting America's economy, environment, health, and security against invasive species requires a strong federal program in systematic biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilda Diaz-Soltero; Amy Y. Rossman

    2011-01-01

    Systematics is the science that identifies and groups organisms by understanding their origins, relationships, and distributions. It is fundamental to understanding life on earth, our crops, wildlife, and diseases, and it provides the scientific foundation to recognize and manage invasive species. Protecting America's economy, environment, health, and security...

  4. Protective Effects of Ginseng on Neurological Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Yi eOng

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Ginseng (Order: Apiales, Family: Araliaceae, Genus: Panax has been used as a traditional herbal medicine for over 2000 years, and is recorded to have antianxiety, antidepressant and cognition enhancing properties. The protective effect of ginseng on neurological disorders is discussed in this review. Ginseng species and ginsenosides, and their intestinal metabolism and bioavailability are briefly introduced. This is followed by molecular mechanisms of effects of ginseng on the brain, including glutamatergic transmission, monoamine transmission, estrogen signaling, nitric oxide production, the Keap1/Nrf2 adaptive cellular stress pathway, neuronal survival, apoptosis, neural stem cells and neuroregeneration, microglia, astrocytes, oligodendrocytes and cerebral microvessels. The molecular mechanisms of the neuroprotective effects of ginseng in Alzheimer’s disease including Aβ formation, tau hyperphosphorylation and oxidative stress, major depression, stroke, Parkinson’s disease and multiple sclerosis / experimental allergic encephalitis are then presented. It is hoped that this discussion will stimulate more studies on the use of ginseng in these disorders.

  5. Ecotourism Environmental Protection Measures and Their Effects on Protected Areas in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling-en Wang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Ecological and environmental protection is the core content of ecotourism development. A quantitative evaluation of the effects of ecotourism environmental protection (hereinafter referred to as EEP measures on protected areas is conducive to a deeper understanding of the key issues related to ecotourism development in China, thus providing the theoretical basis for formulating the relevant national policies of sustainable ecotourism development in China. This paper first discusses the evaluation index system and then establishes an index evaluation model of EEP measures and their effects on protected areas. Using surveys of more than 1110 protected areas in 27 provinces (autonomous regions or municipalities, we evaluated the EEP measures and their effects from a quantitative and spatial perspective. The completeness of EEP measures for Chinese protected areas was moderately effective, and the implementation status of the protection measures varied with the protection region. The effectiveness of EEP measures in different provinces and regions showed significant differences. The effectiveness decreased from east to west. The evaluation index values of the environmental protection measures displayed a high correlation with the effects of environmental protection on protected areas. The ecological protection measures should be further improved and strengthened according to their regional differences during ecotourism development.

  6. Measuring the effectiveness of protected area networks in reducing deforestation

    OpenAIRE

    Andam, Kwaw S.; Ferraro, Paul J.; Pfaff, Alexander; Sanchez-Azofeifa, G. Arturo; Robalino, Juan A.

    2008-01-01

    Global efforts to reduce tropical deforestation rely heavily on the establishment of protected areas. Measuring the effectiveness of these areas is difficult because the amount of deforestation that would have occurred in the absence of legal protection cannot be directly observed. Conventional methods of evaluating the effectiveness of protected areas can be biased because protection is not randomly assigned and because protection can induce deforestation spillovers (displacement) to neighbo...

  7. Nontrivial effects of high-frequency excitation for strongly damped mechanical systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fidlin, Alexander; Thomsen, Jon Juel

    Some nontrivial effects are investigated, which can occur if strongly damped mechanical systems are subjected to strong high-frequency (HF) excitation. The main result is a theoretical prediction, supported by numerical simulation, that for such systems the (quasi-)equilibrium states can change...... that can be substantial (depending on the strength of the HF excitation) for finite values of the damping. The analysis is focused on the differences between the classic results for weakly damped systems, and new effects for which the strong damping terms are responsible. The analysis is based...... on a slightly modified averaging technique, and includes an elementary example of an elliptically excited pendulum for illustration, alongside with a generalization to a broader class of strongly damped dynamical systems with HF excitation. As an application example, the nontrivial behavior of a classical...

  8. Nontrivial effects of high-frequency excitation for strongly damped mechanical systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fidlin, Alexander; Thomsen, Jon Juel

    2008-01-01

    Some non-trivial effects are investigated, which can occur if strongly damped mechanical systems are subjected to strong high-frequency (HF) excitation. The main result is a theoretical prediction, supported by numerical simulation, that for such systems the (quasi-)equilibrium states can change...... that can be substantial depending on the strength of the HF excitation) for finite values of the damping. The analysis is focused on the differences between the classic results for weakly damped systems, and new effects for which the strong damping terms are responsible. The analysis is based on a slightly...... modified averaging technique, and includes an elementary example of an elliptically excited pendulum for illustration, alongside with a generalization to a broader class of strongly damped dynamical systems with HF excitation. As an application example, the nontrivial behavior of a classical optimally...

  9. <strong>Effectiveness of Orthoses and Foot Training in patients with Patellofemoral Pain and hyperpronationstrong>

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølgaard, Carsten; Kaalund, Søren; Christensen, Marianne

    of treatment with functional foot orthoses, exercises, or orthoses with exercises. The intrinsic pedal muscles play an important role in support of the medial longitudinal arch. (2) There are however very little information of the effect from specific foot exercise as an imperative part of exercise program...... adolescent females (3). Soft foot orhtoses in addition to an exercise program resulted in significantly greater improvements in pain than treatment with flat insoles and exercises over eight weeks. A study from 2004 by Wiener-Ogilvie & Jones (4) found however no difference in outcome between 8 weeks...... to PFPS patients. The purpose of this prospective single blinded randomised study was to determine the effectiveness of a standardized foot training program combined with foot orthoses in patients with patellofemoral pain. This treatment was additional to a regular conservative patellofemoral regime...

  10. Protective effects of ischemic postconditioning on intestinal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DING Jun-tao

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】Objective: To explore the protective effects of two types of ischemic postconditioning (IP on intestinal mucosa barrier in rabbits with crush injury of the hind limb. Methods: This study was conducted between August and December 2008 in the Department of Trauma Surgery, Daping Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing, China. The model of crush injury to the hind limb of rabbits was firstly developed by a 25 kg object with the right hind limbs fixed by wooden splints, and then two types of IP were established, including occluding/opening the common iliac artery and vein alternatively (traditional IP, IP A and binding/loosening the proximum of the injured hind limb alternatively (modified IP, IP B. Thirty-six male New Zealand white rabbits were randomly divided into three groups: IP A group, IP B group and control group, with 12 rabbits in each group. The serum levels of diamine oxidase (DAO and intestinal fatty acid-binding protein (I-FABP were detected at 2, 6, 12 and 24 hours after injury. Pathological changes of ileum were examined at 24 hours after injury. Results: The serum levels of I-FABP at 2, 6, 12 and 24 hours after injury in both IP A and IP B groups had a significant decrease, compared with control group. DAO levels also showed the same change trend at 2 and 6 hours after injury, but showed no significant difference between two IP groups. No difference in pathological changes of ileum was found among the three groups. Conclusions: IP can protect intestinal mucosa barrier function on the model of hind limb crush injury in rabbits. Meanwhile the modified IP B shows the same protection as the traditional IP A, and is worth applying in clinic. Key words: Ischemic postconditioning; Crush syndrome; Intestinal mucosa

  11. Computing effective properties of nonlinear structures exposed to strong high-frequency loading at multiple frequencies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jon Juel

    2006-01-01

    Effects of strong high-frequency excitation at multiple frequencies (multi-HFE) are analyzed for a class of generally nonlinear systems. The effects are illustrated for a simple pendulum system with a vibrating support, and for a parametrically excited flexible beam. For the latter, theoretical...

  12. Corrosion and protection in reinforced concrete : Pulse cathodic protection: an improved cost-effective alternative

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koleva, D.A.

    2007-01-01

    Corrosion and protection in reinforced concrete. Pulse cathodic protection: an improved cost-effective alternative. The aim of the research project was to study the possibilities for establishing a new or improved electrochemical method for corrosion prevention/protection for reinforced concrete.

  13. Accounting for biological effectiveness in radiological protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dennis, J.A.

    1989-01-01

    Relative biological effectiveness (RBE) presents a practical problem to radiological protection when attempts are made to ensure that the assessed risks from different types of radiation and different modes of exposure to radiation are commensurate with one another. Unfortunately, the theoretical understanding of RBE is still in the stage of competing explanations and hypotheses. Furthermore, the division of the concept of dose equivalent into a set of concepts for risk assessment and another set for measurement and control has introduced conflicting requirements of a practical nature that are difficult to resolve. Many of those working in radiobiology and radiation protection have perceived the need to increase the quality factors for photon and neutron radiations. It may be more reasonable to change the quality factors for neutrons than for other radiations. The advantages and disadvantages of different methods for accommodating such changes within the dose-equivalent concepts are to be examined. The method of accommodating such a change that has the least practical disadvantages is to increase the quality factors for all secondary particles produced in tissue by neutron radiations by a constant factor. The only disadvantage would be the perception that the quality factors for these secondary particles were not treated in a consistent fashion for all types of ionising radiation. (author)

  14. Protective effect of rasagiline in aminoglycoside ototoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polony, G; Humli, V; Andó, R; Aller, M; Horváth, T; Harnos, A; Tamás, L; Vizi, E S; Zelles, T

    2014-04-18

    Sensorineural hearing losses (SNHLs; e.g., ototoxicant- and noise-induced hearing loss or presbycusis) are among the most frequent sensory deficits, but they lack effective drug therapies. The majority of recent therapeutic approaches focused on the trials of antioxidants and reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavengers in SNHLs. The rationale for these studies was the prominent role of disturbed redox homeostasis and the consequent ROS elevation. Although the antioxidant therapies in several animal studies seemed to be promising, clinical trials have failed to fulfill expectations. We investigated the potential of rasagiline, an FDA-approved monomanine oxidase type B inhibitor (MAO-B) inhibitor type anti-parkinsonian drug, as an otoprotectant. We showed a dose-dependent alleviation of the kanamycin-induced threshold shifts measured by auditory brainstem response (ABR) in an ototoxicant aminoglycoside antibiotic-based hearing loss model in mice. This effect proved to be statistically significant at a 6-mg/kg (s.c.) dose. The most prominent effect appeared at 16kHz, which is the hearing sensitivity optimum for mice. The neuroprotective, antiapoptotic and antioxidant effects of rasagiline in animal models, all targeting a specific mechanism of aminoglycoside injury, may explain this otoprotection. The dopaminergic neurotransmission enhancer effect of rasagiline might also contribute to the protection. Dopamine (DA), released from lateral olivocochlear (LOC) fibers, was shown to exert a protective action against excitotoxicity, a pathological factor in the aminoglycoside-induced SNHL. We have shown that rasagiline enhanced the electric stimulation-evoked release of DA from an acute mouse cochlea preparation in a dose-dependent manner. Using inhibitors of voltage-gated Na(+)-, Ca(2+) channels and DA transporters, we revealed that rasagiline potentiated the action potential-evoked release of DA by inhibiting the reuptake. The complex, multifactorial pathomechanism of SNHLs

  15. SUNYAEV-ZEL'DOVICH EFFECT OBSERVATIONS OF STRONG LENSING GALAXY CLUSTERS: PROBING THE OVERCONCENTRATION PROBLEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gralla, Megan B.; Gladders, Michael D.; Marrone, Daniel P.; Bayliss, Matthew; Carlstrom, John E.; Greer, Christopher; Hennessy, Ryan; Koester, Benjamin; Leitch, Erik; Sharon, Keren; Barrientos, L. Felipe; Bonamente, Massimiliano; Bulbul, Esra; Hasler, Nicole; Culverhouse, Thomas; Hawkins, David; Lamb, James; Gilbank, David G.; Joy, Marshall; Miller, Amber

    2011-01-01

    We have measured the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect for a sample of 10 strong lensing selected galaxy clusters using the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich Array (SZA). The SZA is sensitive to structures on spatial scales of a few arcminutes, while the strong lensing mass modeling constrains the mass at small scales (typically <30''). Combining the two provides information about the projected concentrations of the strong lensing clusters. The Einstein radii we measure are twice as large as expected given the masses inferred from SZ scaling relations. A Monte Carlo simulation indicates that a sample randomly drawn from the expected distribution would have a larger median Einstein radius than the observed clusters about 3% of the time. The implied overconcentration has been noted in previous studies and persists for this sample, even when we take into account that we are selecting large Einstein radius systems, suggesting that the theoretical models still do not fully describe the observed properties of strong lensing clusters.

  16. Preparation of strongly fluorescent silica nanoparticles of polyelectrolyte-protected cadmium telluride quantum dots and their application to cell toxicity and imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Jianhua; Xie Lian; Zhang Bin; Qiu Ting; Qi Bin; Xie Hongping

    2012-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The staining effect of the control group (a), QDs-SiO 2 (b) and QDs-PDADMAC-SiO 2 (c). Highlights: ► The fluorescence intensity of QDs-PDADMAC-SiO 2 is stronger than that of QDs-SiO 2 . ► The fluorescence stability of QDs-PDADMAC-SiO 2 is better than that of QDs-SiO 2 . ► The cytotoxicity of QDs-PDADMAC-SiO 2 was lower than that of QDs-SiO 2 ► The staining effect of QDs-PDADMAC-SiO 2 was much better than that of QDs-SiO 2 . - Abstract: Based on the polyelectrolyte-protected CdTe quantum dots (QDs), which were prepared by self-assembling of QDs and poly-diallyldimethylammonium chloride (PDADMAC) in the help of electrostatic attraction, the strong fluorescence silica nanoparticles (QDs-PDADMAC-SiO 2 ) have been prepared via a water-in-oil reverse microemulsion method. Transmission electron microscopy and Zeta potential analysis were used to characterize the as-prepared nanoparticles. All of the particles were almost spherical and there is a uniform distribution of the particle size with the average diameter about 25 nm. There is a large Zeta potential of −35.07 mV which is necessary for good monodispersity of nanoparticles solution. As compared with the QDs coated by SiO 2 (QDs-SiO 2 ), the QDs-PDADMAC-SiO 2 nanoparticles have much stronger fluorescence, and their fluorescence stability could be obviously improved. Moreover, QDs-PDADMAC-SiO 2 exhibits good biological compatibility which promotes their application in cellular imaging.

  17. Research on effectiveness assessment programs for physical protection system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Janghoon; Yoo, Hosik; Ham, Taekyu [Korea Institute of Nuclear Non-proliferation and Control, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    PPS (Physical Protection System) is an integrated set of procedures, installation and human resources to protect valuable assets from physical attack of potential adversaries. Since nuclear facilities or radioactive materials can be attractive targets for terrorists, PPS should be installed and maintained throughout the entire lifecycle of nuclear energy systems. One of key ingredients for effective protection is a reliable assessment procedure of the PPS capability. Due to complexity of possible threat categories and pathways, several pathway analysis programs have been developed to ease analysis or visualization. ASSESS using ASD approach runs fast and adopts a relatively simple modeling process for facility elements. But uncertainty due to assumptions used in modeling might complicate the interpretation of results. On the other hand, 2D pathway program such as TESS can utilize more self-consistent detection probability and delay time since actual pathway on 2D map is available. Also, this pathway visualization helps users understand analysis result more intuitively. But, in general, 2D pathway programs require strong computational power and careful optimization. Another possible difference between two approaches is response force deployment and RFT.

  18. Research on effectiveness assessment programs for physical protection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Janghoon; Yoo, Hosik; Ham, Taekyu

    2015-01-01

    PPS (Physical Protection System) is an integrated set of procedures, installation and human resources to protect valuable assets from physical attack of potential adversaries. Since nuclear facilities or radioactive materials can be attractive targets for terrorists, PPS should be installed and maintained throughout the entire lifecycle of nuclear energy systems. One of key ingredients for effective protection is a reliable assessment procedure of the PPS capability. Due to complexity of possible threat categories and pathways, several pathway analysis programs have been developed to ease analysis or visualization. ASSESS using ASD approach runs fast and adopts a relatively simple modeling process for facility elements. But uncertainty due to assumptions used in modeling might complicate the interpretation of results. On the other hand, 2D pathway program such as TESS can utilize more self-consistent detection probability and delay time since actual pathway on 2D map is available. Also, this pathway visualization helps users understand analysis result more intuitively. But, in general, 2D pathway programs require strong computational power and careful optimization. Another possible difference between two approaches is response force deployment and RFT

  19. Using strong nonlinearity and high-frequency vibrations to control effective properties of discrete elastic waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lazarov, Boyan Stefanov; Thomsen, Jon Juel; Snaeland, Sveinn Orri

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this article is to investigate how highfrequency (HF) excitation, combined with strong nonlinear elastic material behavior, influences the effective material or structural properties for low-frequency excitation and wave propagation. The HF effects are demonstrated on discrete linear...... spring-mass chains with non-linear inclusions. The presented analytical and numerical results suggest that the effective material properties can easily be altered by establishing finite amplitude HF standing waves in the non-linear regions of the chain....

  20. Effective hadronic lagrangian in the strong coupling expansion of lattice QCD with Susskind fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azakov, S.I.; Aliev, E.S.

    1987-12-01

    The effective hadronic action in lattice QCD with U(N) and SU(N) gauge groups and with Susskind fermions is constructed in the framework of the strong coupling approximation. For arbitrary finite (odd) N (in particular N=3) we find an effective potential, vacuum expectation value of the (χ-barχ) and an effective action for the physical meson field π(x). (author). 19 refs

  1. Harmful Effects of Formaldehyde and Possible Protective Effect of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-05-22

    May 22, 2017 ... paraformaldehyde at a temperature of 35–40°C in specifically prepared glass assembly. Each group (n = 7) were placed in glass cages (50 cm × 20 cm ..... 7. Zararsiz I, Kus I, Akpolat N, Songur A, Ogeturk M,. Sarsilmaz M. Protective effects of omega-3 essential fatty acids against formaldehyde-induced ...

  2. Planning, Instruction, and Assessment: Effective Teaching Practices. James H. Stronge Research-to-Practice Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Leslie W.; Hindman, Jennifer; Stronge, James H.

    2010-01-01

    This entry in the James H. Stronge Research-to-Practice Series focuses on specific strategies teachers can use to improve the quality of their instruction. Studies have shown teacher quality to be the top indicator of student achievement, with the effects of good teachers apparent even as students move on to successive grades. In this book, Grant,…

  3. Engineering the Dynamics of Effective Spin-Chain Models for Strongly Interacting Atomic Gases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Volosniev, A. G.; Petrosyan, D.; Valiente, M.

    2015-01-01

    We consider a one-dimensional gas of cold atoms with strong contact interactions and construct an effective spin-chain Hamiltonian for a two-component system. The resulting Heisenberg spin model can be engineered by manipulating the shape of the external confining potential of the atomic gas. We...

  4. Effects of interaction imbalance in a strongly repulsive one-dimensional Bose gas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barfknecht, Rafael Emilio; Zinner, Nikolaj Thomas; Foerster, Angela

    2018-01-01

    We calculate the spatial distributions and the dynamics of a few-body two-component strongly interacting Bose gas confined to an effectively one-dimensional trapping potential. We describe the densities for each component in the trap for different interaction and population imbalances. We calculate...

  5. Parity violation effects in the hydrogen atom in the field of a strong electromagnetic wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labzovsky, L.N.; Mitrushchenkov, A.O.

    1989-01-01

    The parity violation effects in the hydrogen atom in a strong electromagnetic laser field are considered. It is shown that there is the possibility of hyperrate measurements of different constants of the weak interaction in the hydrogen magnetic resonance experiments. (orig.)

  6. Effects of interaction imbalance in a strongly repulsive one-dimensional Bose gas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barfknecht, Rafael Emilio; Zinner, Nikolaj Thomas; Foerster, Angela

    2018-01-01

    We calculate the spatial distributions and the dynamics of a few-body two-component strongly interacting Bose gas confined to an effectively one-dimensional trapping potential. We describe the densities for each component in the trap for different interaction and population imbalances. We calcula...

  7. Non-Oberbeck-Boussinesq effects in strongly turbulent Rayleigh-Bénard convection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ahlers, Günter; Brown, Eric; Fontenele Araujo Junior, F.; Funfschilling, Denis; Grossmann, Siegfried; Lohse, Detlef

    2006-01-01

    Non-Oberbeck–Boussinesq (NOB) effects on the Nusselt number $Nu$ and Reynolds number $\\hbox{\\it Re}$ in strongly turbulent Rayleigh–Bénard (RB) convection in liquids were investigated both experimentally and theoretically. In the experiments the heat current, the temperature difference, and the

  8. Heavy quark mass effects and improved tests of the flavor independence of strong interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burrows, P.N. [Univ. of Oxford (United Kingdom); SLD Collaboration

    1998-08-01

    A review is given of latest results on tests of the flavor independence of strong interactions. Heavy quark mass effects are evident in the data and are now taken into account at next-to-leading order in QCD perturbation theory. The strong-coupling ratios {alpha}{sub s}{sup b}/{alpha}{sub s}{sup uds} and {alpha}{sub s}{sup c}/{alpha}{sub s}{sup uds} are found to be consistent with unity. Determinations of the b-quark mass m{sub b} (M{sub Z}) are discussed.

  9. Strong interaction effects in high-Z K sup minus atoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batty, C.J.; Eckhause, M.; Gall, K.P.; Guss, P.P.; Hertzog, D.W.; Kane, J.R.; Kunselman, A.R.; Miller, J.P.; O' Brien, F.; Phillips, W.C.; Powers, R.J.; Roberts, B.L.; Sutton, R.B.; Vulcan, W.F.; Welsh, R.E.; Whyley, R.J.; Winter, R.G. (Rutherford-Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot OX11 0QX, United Kingdom (GB) College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, Virginia 23185 Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts 02215 University of Wyoming, Laramie, Wyoming 82071 California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125 Carnegie-Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213)

    1989-11-01

    A systematic experimental study of strong interaction shifts, widths, and yields from high-{ital Z} kaonic atoms is reported. Strong interaction effects for the {ital K}{sup {minus}}(8{r arrow}7) transition were measured in U, Pb, and W, and the {ital K}{sup {minus}}(7{r arrow}6) transition in W was also observed. This is the first observation of two measurably broadened and shifted kaonic transitions in a single target and thus permitted the width of the upper state to be determined directly, rather than being inferred from yield data. The results are compared with optical-model calculations.

  10. Neutron effects in humans: protection considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fry, R.J.M.

    1985-01-01

    Committee I of the International Commission on Radiological Protection has recommended that the Quality Factor for neutrons should be changed from 10 to 20. This article is an interesting recount of the tale of Q from the viewpoint of an observer which illustrates many of the problems that the selection of protection standards pose. 32 refs., 5 tabs

  11. Neutron effects in humans: protection considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fry, R.J.M.

    1985-01-01

    Committee I of the International Commission on Radiological Protection has recommended that the Quality Factor for neutrons should be changed from 10 to 20. This article is an interesting recount of the tale of Q from the viewpoint of an observer which illustrates many of the problems that the selection of protection standards pose. 32 refs., 5 tabs.

  12. Unique natural exopolysaccharides for biomimetic protective effect against urban pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borel, Magali; Lamarque, Elisabeth; Loing, Estelle

    Through natural selection, living organisms have evolved well-adapted survival strategies over time. The shallow salt waters of Moorea lagoon are the site of accumulation of microbial mats called "Kopara," in the native Polynesian language. This unique ecosystem is rich in film-forming exopolysaccharides (EPSs) secreted by microorganisms within the biofilm, as a mean to protect themselves from environmental stress (strong ultraviolet [UV], pH, salinity … ). Using blue biotechnology, a manufacturing process was developed to obtain an EPS with skin benefits. The active ingredient (EPS-229) protects against urban pollution, including free radicals, heavy metals, hydrocarbons, and PM 2.5 (particulate matter with a size lower than 2.5 μm). The anti-lipid peroxidation action of EPS-229 was studied in an in vitro UVB-irradiated keratinocyte culture model, using lipophilic fluorescent probe. The chelating properties of EPS-229 were evaluated in tubo in the presence of cadmium and lead. The protective effect of EPS-229 on pollution-exposed skin explants was investigated through quantification of released malondialdehyde (MDA) and histological observation of skin morphology using optical microscopy. Clinical evaluation of the protective and cleansing efficacy of a water solution containing EPS-229 (0.02% and 0.01% w/v, respectively) was performed, against placebo, on a panel of 18 volunteers. For these studies, the forearms of volunteers were treated with EPS-229 before (anti-adhesion affect) or after (cleansing effect) application of PM 2.5 (iron particles of 1 μm). The presence of skin-adherent particles was observed and quantified by image analysis, using specific digital masks. In vitro , EPS-229 significantly protected keratinocyte cell membranes from lipid peroxidation. A decrease of 28% was achieved when a concentration of 0.001% w/v EPS-229 was applied to the cell culture. In tubo , EPS-229 also presented strong chelating properties. Maximal adsorption was

  13. Auger effect in the presence of strong x-ray pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jicai; Sun Yuping; Wang Chuankui; Aagren, Hans; Gel'mukhanov, Faris

    2010-01-01

    We study the role of propagation of strong x-ray free-electron laser pulses on the Auger effect. When the system is exposed to a strong x-ray pulse the stimulated emission starts to compete with the Auger decay. As an illustration we present numerical results for Ar gas with the frequency of the incident x-ray pulse tuned in the 2p 3/2 -4s resonance. It is shown that the pulse propagation is accompanied by two channels of amplified spontaneous emission, 4s-2p 3/2 and 3s-2p 3/2 , which reshape the pulse when the system is inverted. The population inversion is quenched for longer propagation distances where lasing without inversion enhances the Stokes component. The results of simulations show that the propagation of the strong x-ray pulses affect intensively the Auger branching ratio.

  14. Evaluating the effectiveness of protected areas for maintaining biodiversity, securing habitats, and reducing threats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geldmann, Jonas

    Protected areas are amongst the most important conservation responses to halt the loss of biodiversity and cover more than 12.7% of the terrestrial surface of earth. Likewise, protected areas are an important political instrument and a key component of the Convention for Biological Diversity (CBD...... of this thesis has been to evaluate the performance and effectiveness of protected area in securing biodiversity, by evaluating their ability to either improve conservation responses, the state of biodiversity, or alternatively to reduce the human pressures responsible for the loss of biodiversity. The scope...... areas do have an effect and that many protected areas have seen an improvement in management over time. A second and perhaps equally important conclusion is that strong empirically based evidence on the effectiveness of protected areas is impeded by the lack of good data to measure change compared...

  15. Strong coupling electrostatics for randomly charged surfaces: antifragility and effective interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghodrat, Malihe; Naji, Ali; Komaie-Moghaddam, Haniyeh; Podgornik, Rudolf

    2015-05-07

    We study the effective interaction mediated by strongly coupled Coulomb fluids between dielectric surfaces carrying quenched, random monopolar charges with equal mean and variance, both when the Coulomb fluid consists only of mobile multivalent counterions and when it consists of an asymmetric ionic mixture containing multivalent and monovalent (salt) ions in equilibrium with an aqueous bulk reservoir. We analyze the consequences that follow from the interplay between surface charge disorder, dielectric and salt image effects, and the strong electrostatic coupling that results from multivalent counterions on the distribution of these ions and the effective interaction pressure they mediate between the surfaces. In a dielectrically homogeneous system, we show that the multivalent counterions are attracted towards the surfaces with a singular, disorder-induced potential that diverges logarithmically on approach to the surfaces, creating a singular but integrable counterion density profile that exhibits an algebraic divergence at the surfaces with an exponent that depends on the surface charge (disorder) variance. This effect drives the system towards a state of lower thermal 'disorder', one that can be described by a renormalized temperature, exhibiting thus a remarkable antifragility. In the presence of an interfacial dielectric discontinuity, the singular behavior of counterion density at the surfaces is removed but multivalent counterions are still accumulated much more strongly close to randomly charged surfaces as compared with uniformly charged ones. The interaction pressure acting on the surfaces displays in general a highly non-monotonic behavior as a function of the inter-surface separation with a prominent regime of attraction at small to intermediate separations. This attraction is caused directly by the combined effects from charge disorder and strong coupling electrostatics of multivalent counterions, which dominate the surface-surface repulsion due to

  16. Measuring the effectiveness of protected area networks in reducing deforestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andam, Kwaw S; Ferraro, Paul J; Pfaff, Alexander; Sanchez-Azofeifa, G Arturo; Robalino, Juan A

    2008-10-21

    Global efforts to reduce tropical deforestation rely heavily on the establishment of protected areas. Measuring the effectiveness of these areas is difficult because the amount of deforestation that would have occurred in the absence of legal protection cannot be directly observed. Conventional methods of evaluating the effectiveness of protected areas can be biased because protection is not randomly assigned and because protection can induce deforestation spillovers (displacement) to neighboring forests. We demonstrate that estimates of effectiveness can be substantially improved by controlling for biases along dimensions that are observable, measuring spatial spillovers, and testing the sensitivity of estimates to potential hidden biases. We apply matching methods to evaluate the impact on deforestation of Costa Rica's renowned protected-area system between 1960 and 1997. We find that protection reduced deforestation: approximately 10% of the protected forests would have been deforested had they not been protected. Conventional approaches to evaluating conservation impact, which fail to control for observable covariates correlated with both protection and deforestation, substantially overestimate avoided deforestation (by over 65%, based on our estimates). We also find that deforestation spillovers from protected to unprotected forests are negligible. Our conclusions are robust to potential hidden bias, as well as to changes in modeling assumptions. Our results show that, with appropriate empirical methods, conservation scientists and policy makers can better understand the relationships between human and natural systems and can use this to guide their attempts to protect critical ecosystem services.

  17. [Effects of strong reductive approach on remediation of degraded facility vegetable soil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Tong-Bin; Meng, Tian-Zhu; Zhang, Jin-Bo; Cai, Zu-Cong

    2013-09-01

    High application rate of chemical fertilizers and unreasonable rotation in facility vegetable cultivation can easily induce the occurrence of soil acidification, salinization, and serious soil-borne diseases, while to quickly and effectively remediate the degraded facility vegetable soil can considerably increase vegetable yield and farmers' income. In this paper, a degraded facility vegetable soil was amended with 0, 3.75, 7.50, and 11.3 t C x hm(-2) of air-dried alfalfa and flooded for 31 days to establish a strong reductive environment, with the variations of soil physical and chemical properties and the cucumber yield studied. Under the reductive condition, soil Eh dropped quickly below 0 mV, accumulated soil NO3(-) was effectively eliminated, soil pH was significantly raised, and soil EC was lowered, being more evident in higher alfalfa input treatments. After treated with the strong reductive approach, the cucumber yield in the facility vegetable field reached 53.3-57.9 t x hm(-2), being significantly higher than that in un-treated facility vegetable field in last growth season (10.8 t x hm(-2)). It was suggested that strong reductive approach could effectively remediate the degraded facility vegetable soil in a short term.

  18. Strong Stability Preserving Explicit Runge--Kutta Methods of Maximal Effective Order

    KAUST Repository

    Hadjimichael, Yiannis

    2013-07-23

    We apply the concept of effective order to strong stability preserving (SSP) explicit Runge--Kutta methods. Relative to classical Runge--Kutta methods, methods with an effective order of accuracy are designed to satisfy a relaxed set of order conditions but yield higher order accuracy when composed with special starting and stopping methods. We show that this allows the construction of four-stage SSP methods with effective order four (such methods cannot have classical order four). However, we also prove that effective order five methods---like classical order five methods---require the use of nonpositive weights and so cannot be SSP. By numerical optimization, we construct explicit SSP Runge--Kutta methods up to effective order four and establish the optimality of many of them. Numerical experiments demonstrate the validity of these methods in practice.

  19. Using strong nonlinearity and high-frequency vibrations to control effective mechanical stiffness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jon Juel

    2008-01-01

    High-frequency excitation (HFE) can be used to change the effective stiffness of an elastic structure, and related quanti-ties such as resonance frequencies, wave speed, buckling loads, and equilibrium states. There are basically two ways to do this: By using parametrical HFE (with or without non...... the method of direct separation of motions with results of a modified multiple scales ap-proach, valid also for strong nonlinearity, the stiffening ef-fect is predicted for a generic 1-dof system, and results are tested against numerical simulation and ((it is planned)) laboratory experiments....

  20. Three-loop Standard Model effective potential at leading order in strong and top Yukawa couplings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Stephen P. [Santa Barbara, KITP

    2014-01-08

    I find the three-loop contribution to the effective potential for the Standard Model Higgs field, in the approximation that the strong and top Yukawa couplings are large compared to all other couplings, using dimensional regularization with modified minimal subtraction. Checks follow from gauge invariance and renormalization group invariance. I also briefly comment on the special problems posed by Goldstone boson contributions to the effective potential, and on the numerical impact of the result on the relations between the Higgs vacuum expectation value, mass, and self-interaction coupling.

  1. Attosecond counter-rotating-wave effect in xenon driven by strong fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, M.; Pabst, Stefan; Kwon, Ojoon; Kim, Dong Eon

    2017-05-01

    We investigate the subfemtosecond dynamics of a highly excited xenon atom coherently driven by a strong control field at which the Rabi frequency of the system is comparable to the frequency of a driving laser. The widely used rotating-wave approximation breaks down at such fields, resulting in features such as the counter-rotating-wave (CRW) effect. We present a time-resolved observation of the CRW effect in the highly excited 4 d-1n p xenon using attosecond transient absorption spectroscopy. Time-dependent many-body theory confirms the observation and explains the various features of the absorption spectrum seen in experiment.

  2. Interaction effects in a microscopic quantum wire model with strong spin-orbit interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, G. W.; Ganahl, M.; Schuricht, D.; Evertz, H. G.; Andergassen, S.

    2017-06-01

    We investigate the effect of strong interactions on the spectral properties of quantum wires with strong Rashba spin-orbit (SO) interaction in a magnetic field, using a combination of matrix product state and bosonization techniques. Quantum wires with strong Rashba SO interaction and magnetic field exhibit a partial gap in one-half of the conducting modes. Such systems have attracted wide-spread experimental and theoretical attention due to their unusual physical properties, among which are spin-dependent transport, or a topological superconducting phase when under the proximity effect of an s-wave superconductor. As a microscopic model for the quantum wire we study an extended Hubbard model with SO interaction and Zeeman field. We obtain spin resolved spectral densities from the real-time evolution of excitations, and calculate the phase diagram. We find that interactions increase the pseudo gap at k = 0 and thus also enhance the Majorana-supporting phase and stabilize the helical spin order. Furthermore, we calculate the optical conductivity and compare it with the low energy spiral Luttinger liquid result, obtained from field theoretical calculations. With interactions, the optical conductivity is dominated by an excotic excitation of a bound soliton-antisoliton pair known as a breather state. We visualize the oscillating motion of the breather state, which could provide the route to their experimental detection in e.g. cold atom experiments.

  3. Charging-delay effect on longitudinal dust acoustic shock wave in strongly coupled dusty plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, Samiran; Gupta, M.R.

    2005-01-01

    Taking into account the charging-delay effect, the nonlinear propagation characteristics of longitudinal dust acoustic wave in strongly coupled collisional dusty plasma described by generalized hydrodynamic model have been investigated. In the 'hydrodynamic limit', a Korteweg-de Vries Burger (KdVB) equation with a damping term arising due to dust-neutral collision is derived in which the Burger term is proportional to the dissipation due to dust viscosity through dust-dust correlation and charging-delay-induced anomalous dissipation. On the other hand, in the 'kinetic limit', a KdVB equation with a damping term and a nonlocal nonlinear forcing term arising due to memory-dependent strong correlation effect of dust fluid is derived in which the Burger term depends only on the charging-delay-induced dissipation. Numerical solution of integrodifferential equations reveals that (i) dissipation due to dust viscosity and principally due to charging delay causes excitation of the longitudinal dust acoustic shock wave in strongly coupled dusty plasma and (ii) dust-neutral collision does not appear to play any direct role in shock formation. The condition for the generation of shock is also discussed briefly

  4. Challenges in inflationary magnetogenesis: Constraints from strong coupling, backreaction, and the Schwinger effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Ramkishor; Jagannathan, Sandhya; Seshadri, T. R.; Subramanian, Kandaswamy

    2017-10-01

    Models of inflationary magnetogenesis with a coupling to the electromagnetic action of the form f2Fμ νFμ ν , are known to suffer from several problems. These include the strong coupling problem, the backreaction problem and also strong constraints due to the Schwinger effect. We propose a model which resolves all these issues. In our model, the coupling function, f , grows during inflation and transits to a decaying phase post-inflation. This evolutionary behavior is chosen so as to avoid the problem of strong coupling. By assuming a suitable power-law form of the coupling function, we can also neglect backreaction effects during inflation. To avoid backreaction post-inflation, we find that the reheating temperature is restricted to be below ≈1.7 ×104 GeV . The magnetic energy spectrum is predicted to be nonhelical and generically blue. The estimated present day magnetic field strength and the corresponding coherence length taking reheating at the QCD epoch (150 MeV) are 1.4 ×10-12 G and 6.1 ×10-4 Mpc , respectively. This is obtained after taking account of nonlinear processing over and above the flux-freezing evolution after reheating. If we consider also the possibility of a nonhelical inverse transfer, as indicated in direct numerical simulations, the coherence length and the magnetic field strength are even larger. In all cases mentioned above, the magnetic fields generated in our models satisfy the γ -ray bound below a certain reheating temperature.

  5. Extended Parrondo's game and Brownian ratchets: Strong and weak Parrondo effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Degang; Szeto, Kwok Yip

    2014-02-01

    Inspired by the flashing ratchet, Parrondo's game presents an apparently paradoxical situation. Parrondo's game consists of two individual games, game A and game B. Game A is a slightly losing coin-tossing game. Game B has two coins, with an integer parameter M. If the current cumulative capital (in discrete unit) is a multiple of M, an unfavorable coin pb is used, otherwise a favorable pg coin is used. Paradoxically, a combination of game A and game B could lead to a winning game, which is the Parrondo effect. We extend the original Parrondo's game to include the possibility of M being either M1 or M2. Also, we distinguish between strong Parrondo effect, i.e., two losing games combine to form a winning game, and weak Parrondo effect, i.e., two games combine to form a better-performing game. We find that when M2 is not a multiple of M1, the combination of B (M1) and B (M2) has strong and weak Parrondo effect for some subsets in the parameter space (pb,pg), while there is neither strong nor weak effect when M2 is a multiple of M1. Furthermore, when M2 is not a multiple of M1, a stochastic mixture of game A may cancel the strong and weak Parrondo effect. Following a discretization scheme in the literature of Parrondo's game, we establish a link between our extended Parrondo's game with the analysis of discrete Brownian ratchet. We find a relation between the Parrondo effect of our extended model to the macroscopic bias in a discrete ratchet. The slope of a ratchet potential can be mapped to the fair game condition in the extended model, so that under some conditions, the macroscopic bias in a discrete ratchet can provide a good predictor for the game performance of the extended model. On the other hand, our extended model suggests a design of a ratchet in which the potential is a mixture of two periodic potentials.

  6. Strong coupling effects between a meta-atom and MIM nanocavity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    San Chen

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we investigate the strong coupling effects between a meta-atom and a metal-insulator-metal (MIM nanocavity. By changing the meta-atom sizes, we achieve the meta-atomic electric dipole, quadrupole or multipole interaction with the plasmonic nanocavity, in which characteristic anticrossing behaviors demonstrate the occurrence of the strong coupling. The various interactions present obviously different splitting values and behaviors of dependence on the meta-atomic position. The largest Rabi-type splittings, about 360.0 meV and 306.1 meV, have been obtained for electric dipole and quadrupole interaction, respectively. We attribute the large splitting to the highly-confined cavity mode and the large transition dipole of the meta-atom. Also the Rabi-type oscillation in time domain is given.

  7. Realization of effective super Tonks-Girardeau gases via strongly attractive one-dimensional Fermi gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Shu; Yin Xiangguo; Guan Liming; Guan Xiwen; Batchelor, M. T.

    2010-01-01

    A significant feature of the one-dimensional super Tonks-Girardeau gas is its metastable gas-like state with a stronger Fermi-like pressure than for free fermions which prevents a collapse of atoms. This naturally suggests a way to search for such strongly correlated behavior in systems of interacting fermions in one dimension. We thus show that the strongly attractive Fermi gas without polarization can be effectively described by a super Tonks-Girardeau gas composed of bosonic Fermi pairs with attractive pair-pair interaction. A natural description of such super Tonks-Girardeau gases is provided by Haldane generalized exclusion statistics. In particular, they are equivalent to ideal particles obeying more exclusive statistics than Fermi-Dirac statistics.

  8. Effects of Strong Correlations on the Disorder-Induced Zero Bias Anomaly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, William; Song, Yun; Bulut, Sinan; Wortis, Rachel

    2009-03-01

    In conventional metals and semiconductors, density of states anomalies result from the interplay between disorder and interactions. Motivated by a number of experiments that find zero bias anomalies (ZBA) in transition metal oxides, we have performed calculations to determine the effect of strong correlations on the ZBA in disordered interacting systems. We use a self-consistent mean-field theory that incorporates strong correlations and treats spatial fluctuations of the disorder potential exactly. We discuss both the Anderson-Hubbard model and the extended Anderson-Hubbard model. We find that, even for a zero-range interaction, nonlocal self-energy corrections lead to the formation of an Altshuler-Aronov-like ZBA. In the extended Anderson-Hubbard model, Efros-Shklovskii-like physics dominates at large disorder.

  9. Long-term clinical protection from falciparum malaria is strongly associated with IgG3 antibodies to merozoite surface protein 3.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Roussilhon

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Surrogate markers of protective immunity to malaria in humans are needed to rationalize malaria vaccine discovery and development. In an effort to identify such markers, and thereby provide a clue to the complex equation malaria vaccine development is facing, we investigated the relationship between protection acquired through exposure in the field with naturally occurring immune responses (i.e., induced by the parasite to molecules that are considered as valuable vaccine candidates. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We analyzed, under comparative conditions, the antibody responses of each of six isotypes to five leading malaria vaccine candidates in relation to protection acquired by exposure to natural challenges in 217 of the 247 inhabitants of the African village of Dielmo, Senegal (96 children and 121 older adolescents and adults. The status of susceptibility or resistance to malaria was determined by active case detection performed daily by medical doctors over 6 y from a unique follow-up study of this village. Of the 30 immune responses measured, only one, antibodies of the IgG3 isotype directed to merozoite surface protein 3 (MSP3, was strongly associated with clinical protection against malaria in all age groups, i.e., independently of age. This immunological parameter had a higher statistical significance than the sickle cell trait, the strongest factor of protection known against Plasmodium falciparum. A single determination of antibody was significantly associated with the clinical outcome over six consecutive years in children submitted to massive natural parasite challenges by mosquitoes (over three parasite inoculations per week. Finally, the target epitopes of these antibodies were found to be fully conserved. CONCLUSIONS: Since anti-MSP3 IgG3 antibodies can naturally develop along with protection against P. falciparum infection in young children, our results provide the encouraging indication that these antibodies should be

  10. Effective action for superfluid Fermi systems in the strong-coupling limit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupuis, N.

    2005-01-01

    We derive the low-energy effective action for three-dimensional superfluid Fermi systems in the strong-coupling limit, where superfluidity originates from Bose-Einstein condensation of composite bosons. Taking into account density and pairing fluctuations on the same footing, we show that the effective action involves only the fermion density ρ r and its conjugate variable, the phase θ r of the pairing order parameter Δ r . We recover the standard action of a Bose superfluid of density ρ r /2, where the bosons have a mass m B =2m and interact via a repulsive contact potential with amplitude g B =4πa B /m B ,a B =2a (a the s-wave scattering length associated to the fermion-fermion interaction in vacuum). For lattice models, the derivation of the effective action is based on the mapping of the attractive Hubbard model onto the Heisenberg model in a uniform magnetic field, and a coherent state path integral representation of the partition function. The effective description of the Fermi superfluid in the strong-coupling limit is a Bose-Hubbard model with an intersite hopping amplitude t B =J/2 and an on-site repulsive interaction U B =2Jz, where J=4t 2 /U (t and -U are the intersite hopping amplitude and the on-site attraction in the (fermionic) Hubbard model, z the number of nearest-neighbor sites)

  11. Effective action for superfluid Fermi systems in the strong-coupling limit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupuis, N.

    2005-07-01

    We derive the low-energy effective action for three-dimensional superfluid Fermi systems in the strong-coupling limit, where superfluidity originates from Bose-Einstein condensation of composite bosons. Taking into account density and pairing fluctuations on the same footing, we show that the effective action involves only the fermion density ρr and its conjugate variable, the phase θr of the pairing order parameter Δr . We recover the standard action of a Bose superfluid of density ρr/2 , where the bosons have a mass mB=2m and interact via a repulsive contact potential with amplitude gB=4πaB/mB,aB=2a ( a the s -wave scattering length associated to the fermion-fermion interaction in vacuum). For lattice models, the derivation of the effective action is based on the mapping of the attractive Hubbard model onto the Heisenberg model in a uniform magnetic field, and a coherent state path integral representation of the partition function. The effective description of the Fermi superfluid in the strong-coupling limit is a Bose-Hubbard model with an intersite hopping amplitude tB=J/2 and an on-site repulsive interaction UB=2Jz , where J=4t2/U ( t and -U are the intersite hopping amplitude and the on-site attraction in the (fermionic) Hubbard model, z the number of nearest-neighbor sites).

  12. Protective effect of edaravone against tobramycin-induced ototoxicity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asplund, Monika Stenkvist; Lidian, Adnan; Linder, Birgitta; Takumida, Masaya; Anniko, Matti

    2009-01-01

    Conclusion. It is suggested that simultaneous treatment with the radical scavenger edaravone has an effective protective effect against tobramycin ototoxicity in rat. Even if the edaravone treatment is postponed for 7 days, it can still prevent hearing loss, but a 14 day delay cannot protect from

  13. Drug susceptibility testing in microaerophilic parasites: Cysteine strongly affects the effectivities of metronidazole and auranofin, a novel and promising antimicrobial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Leitsch

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The microaerophilic parasites Entamoeba histolytica, Trichomonas vaginalis, and Giardia lamblia annually cause hundreds of millions of human infections which are treated with antiparasitic drugs. Metronidazole is the most often prescribed drug but also other drugs are in use, and novel drugs with improved characteristics are constantly being developed. One of these novel drugs is auranofin, originally an antirheumatic which has been relabelled for the treatment of parasitic infections. Drug effectivity is arguably the most important criterion for its applicability and is commonly assessed in susceptibility assays using in vitro cultures of a given pathogen. However, drug susceptibility assays can be strongly affected by certain compounds in the growth media. In the case of microaerophilic parasites, cysteine which is added in large amounts as an antioxidant is an obvious candidate because it is highly reactive and known to modulate the toxicity of metronidazole in several microaerophilic parasites.In this study, it was attempted to reduce cysteine concentrations as far as possible without affecting parasite viability by performing drug susceptibility assays under strictly anaerobic conditions in an anaerobic cabinet. Indeed, T. vaginalis and E. histolytica could be grown without any cysteine added and the cysteine concentration necessary to maintain G. lamblia could be reduced to 20%. Susceptibilities to metronidazole were found to be clearly reduced in the presence of cysteine. With auranofin the protective effect of cysteine was extreme, providing protection to concentrations up to 100-fold higher as observed in the absence of cysteine. With three other drugs tested, albendazole, furazolidone and nitazoxanide, all in use against G. lamblia, the effect of cysteine was less pronounced. Oxygen was found to have a less marked impact on metronidazole and auranofin than cysteine but bovine bile which is standardly used in growth media for G

  14. Effects of strong radiation reaction and quantum-electrodynamics on relativistic transparency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peng; Thomas, A. G. R.; Ridgers, C. P.

    2013-10-01

    Relativistic transparency is the process that optically switches the overdense plasma from opaque to transparent and enables light propagation through the otherwise opaque plasma, when light of sufficient intensity drives the electrons in the plasma to near light speeds. We study the relativistic transparency in radiation dominant and strong quantum electrodynamic (QED) regime, for the interaction of high-intensity laser pulses with a thin foil solid target. We analytically study the simplified motion of an electron in a circularly polarized plane wave to understand the physics of the transmissivity and absorption in the presence of classical and quantum-corrected, semiclassical radiation-reaction forces and the trapping of particles in nodes of laser standing wave through radiative cooling. These arguments are supported by both one dimensional and two dimensional particle-in-cell calculations including strong field QED effects. Measurement of the transmission of these pulses would be experimentally feasible and a robust test of the strong field QED particle-in-cell framework.

  15. Drag Effect of Kompsat-1 During Strong Solar and Geomagnetic Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Park

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we analyze the orbital variation of the KOrea Multi-Purpose SATellite-1(KOMPSAT-1 in a strong space environment due to satellite drag by solar and geomagnetic activities. The satellite drag usually occurs slowly, but becomes serious satellite drag when the space environment suddenly changes via strong solar activity like a big flare eruption or coronal mass ejections(CMEs. Especially, KOMPSAT-1 as a low earth orbit satellite has a distinct increase of the drag acceleration by the variations of atmospheric friction. We consider factors of solar activity to have serious effects on the satellite drag from two points of view. One is an effect of high energy radiation when the flare occurs in the Sun. This radiation heats and expands the upper atmosphere of the Earth as the number of neutral particles is suddenly increased. The other is an effect of Joule and precipitating particle heating caused by current of plasma and precipitation of particles during geomagnetic storms by CMEs. It also affects the density of neutral particles by heating the upper atmosphere. We investigate the satellite drag acceleration associated with the two factors for five events selected based on solar and geomagnetic data from 2001 to 2002. The major results can be summarized as follows. First, the drag acceleration started to increase with solar EUV radiation with the best cross-correlation (r = 0.92 for 1 day delayed F10.7. Second, the drag acceleration and Dst index have similar patterns when the geomagnetic storm is dominant and the drag acceleration abruptly increases during the strong geomagnetic storm. Third, the background variation of the drag accelerations is governed by the solar radiation, while their short term (less than a day variations is governed by geomagnetic storms.

  16. Poly-ϵ-caprolactone/chitosan nanoparticles provide strong adjuvant effect for hepatitis B antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesus, Sandra; Soares, Edna; Borchard, Gerrit; Borges, Olga

    2017-10-01

    This work aims to investigate the adjuvant effect of poly-ϵ-caprolactone/chitosan nanoparticles (NPs) for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and the plasmid DNA encoding HBsAg (pRC/CMV-HBs). Both antigens were adsorbed onto preformed NPs. Vaccination studies were performed in C57BL/6 mice. Transfection efficiency was investigated in A549 cell line. HBsAg-adsorbed NPs generated strong anti-HBsAg IgG titers, mainly of IgG1 isotype, and induced antigen-specific IFN-γ and IL-17 secretion by spleen cells. The addition of pRC/CMV-HBs to the HBsAg-adsorbed NPs inhibited IL-17 secretion but had minor effect on IFN-γ levels. Lastly, pRC/CMV-HBs-loaded NPs generated a weak serum antibody response. Poly-ϵ-caprolactone/chitosan NPs provide a strong humoral adjuvant effect for HBsAg and induce a Th1/Th17-mediated cellular immune responses worth explore for hepatitis B virus vaccination.

  17. Dispersion of Co/CNTs via strong electrostatic adsorption method: Thermal treatment effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akbarzadeh, Omid, E-mail: omid.akbarzadeh63@gmail.com; Abdullah, Bawadi, E-mail: bawadi-abdullah@petronas.com.my; Subbarao, Duvvuri, E-mail: duvvuri-subbarao@petronas.com.my [Department of Chemical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Bandar Seri Iskandar, 31750 Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia); Zabidi, Noor Asmawati Mohd, E-mail: noorasmawati-mzabidi@petronas.com.my [Department of Fundamental and Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Bandar Seri Iskandar, 31750 Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia)

    2015-07-22

    The effect of different thermal treatment temperature on the structure of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and Co particle dispersion on CNTs support is studied using Strong electrostatic adsorption (SEA) method. The samples tested by N{sub 2}-adsorption, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). N{sub 2}-adsorption results showed BET surface area increased using thermal treatment and TEM images showed that increasing the thermal treatment temperature lead to flaky CNTs and defects introduced on the outer surface and Co particle dispersion increased.

  18. Gain length fitting formula for free-electron lasers with strong space-charge effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Marcus

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available We present a power-fit formula, obtained from a variational analysis using three-dimensional free-electron laser theory, for the gain length of a high-gain free-electron laser’s fundamental mode in the presence of diffraction, uncorrelated energy spread, and longitudinal space-charge effects. The approach is inspired by the work of Xie [Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res., Sect. A 445, 59 (2000NIMAER0168-900210.1016/S0168-9002(0000114-5], and provides a useful shortcut for calculating the gain length of the fundamental Gaussian mode of a free-electron laser having strong space-charge effects in the 3D regime. The results derived from analytic theory are in good agreement with detailed numerical particle simulations that also include higher-order space-charge effects, supporting the assumptions made in the theoretical treatment and the variational solutions obtained in the single-mode limit.

  19. Can selection explain the protective effects of farming on asthma?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wijnand Eduard

    2015-09-01

    No healthy worker selection into farming was observed and changes in asthma prevalence due to early retirement were small. Selection effects are therefore unlikely to explain the protective effects of farming on asthma.

  20. Indirect effects by meningococcal vaccines: herd protection versus herd immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bröker, Michael

    2011-08-01

    The term "herd immunity" for the indirect effect of meningococcal conjugate vaccines is inaccurate. A more appropriate term is "herd protection," because this term correctly describes the public effects imparted by vaccination campaigns against the meningococcus.

  1. A systematic review of drug treatment of vulvodynia: evidence of a strong placebo effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varella Pereira, Glaucia Miranda; Marcolino, Milena Soriano; Nogueira Reis, Zilma Silveira; de Castro Monteiro, Marilene Vale

    2018-03-23

    Vulvodynia is the most common type of chronic pelvic pain and dyspareunia in premenopausal women. The effect of drugs for the treatment of vulvodynia remains poorly discussed. To conduct a systematic review of randomised controlled studies which assess medications used to treat vulvar pain in vulvodynia. Web of Science, Cochrane Library, EBSCO Academic, LILACS and MEDLINE were searched from 1985 to September 2016. Randomised controlled trials comparing any kind of medication for vulvodynia treatment with placebo or with another medication in adult patients were included. The two investigators independently conducted data extraction. The synthesis was provided by the pain reduction index. Study quality assessment was performed using the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Intervention and analysis of publication bias was conducted. Five studies were included in qualitative synthesis with a number of the participants varied from 30 to 133 among the eligible studies resulting 297. The pain reduction rates of patients with vulvodynia assessed by Q-tipped Cotton Test and visual analogue scale varied between studies. Placebo was shown to be as effective as any medication. There is a need for further studies evaluating topical monotherapy for the treatment of vulvodynia, since they are the main drugs used in clinical practice. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  2. Protective effect of building against nuclear fallout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueck, K.; Lovranich, E.; Steger, F.

    1995-02-01

    In order to adopt appropriate countermeasures to protect the public in case of a wide-spread contamination after a severe reactor accident, a profound knowledge of the dose to be expected and of the dose reduction to be expected if a specific countermeasure is adopted is required. Since external radiation contributes a major fraction of up to 80 % to the total dose, the interest is focused on the reduction of external dose by staying indoors. For this purpose measurements of the dose reduction by external radiation were performed in 40 residential rooms in Vienna which were chosen according to their fraction of the Viennese building structure. They were performed by measurement of the reduction of the gamma-flux in the interior of buildings compared to the gamma-flux outside. Measurements were carried out by a HPGe-detector which was positioned 1 m above ground. The observed dose reduction factors amounted to 0.013 on the average (protection factor 78.7 ± 49.7), with the protection factors of the investigated building types ranging from 6.5 (single house in garden) to 122.9 (edicifices of the turn of the century). The observed protection factors do not include the dose reduction by dense arrangement of buildings in urban areas which has to be considered separately. The dose reduction due to different radionuclide mixtures after severe reactor accidents was also investigated. Factors similar to that observed for Cs-137 were found. The maximum deviations amounted only 12 % and therefore may be neglected in the consideration of protective measures. Additional measurements were performed with the same detector shielded by lead on all sides to determine the contribution of the interior contamination. A contribution of between < 10 % to 50 % to the external dose in the interior of buildings was observed. Measures to reduce the inner contamination in rooms (closing of windows and doors, cleaning upon entering the building interior) in case of an event are therefore

  3. STRONG FIELD EFFECTS ON EMISSION LINE PROFILES: KERR BLACK HOLES AND WARPED ACCRETION DISKS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yan; Li Xiangdong

    2012-01-01

    If an accretion disk around a black hole is illuminated by hard X-rays from non-thermal coronae, fluorescent iron lines will be emitted from the inner region of the accretion disk. The emission line profiles will show a variety of strong field effects, which may be used as a probe of the spin parameter of the black hole and the structure of the accretion disk. In this paper, we generalize the previous relativistic line profile models by including both the black hole spinning effects and the non-axisymmetries of warped accretion disks. Our results show different features from the conventional calculations for either a flat disk around a Kerr black hole or a warped disk around a Schwarzschild black hole by presenting, at the same time, multiple peaks, rather long red tails, and time variations of line profiles with the precession of the disk. We show disk images as seen by a distant observer, which are distorted by the strong gravity. Although we are primarily concerned with the iron K-shell lines in this paper, the calculation is general and is valid for any emission lines produced from a warped accretion disk around a black hole.

  4. Non trivial effect of strong high-frequency excitation on a nonlinear controlled system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fidlin, A.; Thomsen, Jon Juel

    2004-01-01

    due to control is usually high compared to uncontrolled systems. A standard optimal controller for a standard nonlinear system (a movable cart used to balance a pendulum vertically) is shown to exhibit pronounced bias error in presence of HF-excitation. The bias increases with increased excitation......Nontrivial effects of high-frequency excitation on mechanical uncontrolled systems have been investigated intensively in the last decade. Some of these effects are usually used in controlled systems in form of dither to smoothen out undesired friction and hysteresis. However the level of damping...... intensity, but it also increases with the increased control power. Analytic prediction for the bias shows, the interaction between fast excitation and strong damping terms in the control system to be the cause of the permanent control error. A "slow observer" ignoring fast motions is shown...

  5. Trapped in the extinction vortex? Strong genetic effects in a declining vertebrate population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larsson Mikael

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inbreeding and loss of genetic diversity are expected to increase the extinction risk of small populations, but detailed tests in natural populations are scarce. We combine long-term population and fitness data with those from two types of molecular markers to examine the role of genetic effects in a declining metapopulation of southern dunlins Calidris alpina schinzii, an endangered shorebird. Results The decline is associated with increased pairings between related individuals, including close inbreeding (as revealed by both field observations of parentage and molecular markers. Furthermore, reduced genetic diversity seems to affect individual fitness at several life stages. Higher genetic similarity between mates correlates negatively with the pair's hatching success. Moreover, offspring produced by related parents are more homozygous and suffer from increased mortality during embryonic development and possibly also after hatching. Conclusions Our results demonstrate strong genetic effects in a rapidly declining population, emphasizing the importance of genetic factors for the persistence of small populations.

  6. Strong matrix effect in low-energy He+ ion scattering from carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikhailov, S.N.; Van den Oetelaar, L.C.A.; Brongersma, H.H.

    1994-01-01

    In low-energy ion scattering the contribution of neutralization processes to the scattered ion yield is very important in quantification. Neutralization of low-energy (1-3.5 keV) He + ions by carbon is found to be much stronger for graphitic than for carbidic carbon. The ion fraction for graphitic carbon for 2.5 keV 3 He + scattering over 136 is about 60 times lower than that for carbidic carbon. For the 4 He + isotope the effect is even larger. Such a strong matrix effect for one element has not been measured before in low-energy (1-3.5 keV) inert-gas ion scattering. The neutralization behaviour is discussed in terms of a special quasi-resonant neutralization process for graphite. ((orig.))

  7. Strongly correlated Fermi-systems: Non-Fermi liquid behavior, quasiparticle effective mass and their interplay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaginyan, V.R. [Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, RAS, Gatchina 188300 (Russian Federation); Racah Institute of Physics, Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel)], E-mail: vrshag@thd.pnpi.spb.ru; Amusia, M.Ya. [Racah Institute of Physics, Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel); Popov, K.G. [Komi Science Center, Ural Division, RAS, Syktyvkar 167982 (Russian Federation)

    2009-06-15

    Basing on the density functional theory of fermion condensation, we analyze the non-Fermi liquid behavior of strongly correlated Fermi-systems such as heavy-fermion metals. When deriving equations for the effective mass of quasiparticles, we consider solids with a lattice and homogeneous systems. We show that the low-temperature thermodynamic and transport properties are formed by quasiparticles, while the dependence of the effective mass on temperature, number density, magnetic fields, etc., gives rise to the non-Fermi liquid behavior. Our theoretical study of the heat capacity, magnetization, energy scales, the longitudinal magnetoresistance and magnetic entropy are in good agreement with the remarkable recent facts collected on the heavy-fermion metal YbRh{sub 2}Si{sub 2}.

  8. Strongly correlated Fermi-systems: Non-Fermi liquid behavior, quasiparticle effective mass and their interplay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaginyan, V.R.; Amusia, M.Ya.; Popov, K.G.

    2009-01-01

    Basing on the density functional theory of fermion condensation, we analyze the non-Fermi liquid behavior of strongly correlated Fermi-systems such as heavy-fermion metals. When deriving equations for the effective mass of quasiparticles, we consider solids with a lattice and homogeneous systems. We show that the low-temperature thermodynamic and transport properties are formed by quasiparticles, while the dependence of the effective mass on temperature, number density, magnetic fields, etc., gives rise to the non-Fermi liquid behavior. Our theoretical study of the heat capacity, magnetization, energy scales, the longitudinal magnetoresistance and magnetic entropy are in good agreement with the remarkable recent facts collected on the heavy-fermion metal YbRh 2 Si 2 .

  9. Bactericidal Effect of Strong Acid Electrolyzed Water against Flow Enterococcus faecalis Biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xiaogang; Tian, Yu; Zhao, Chunmiao; Qu, Tiejun; Ma, Chi; Liu, Xiaohua; Yu, Qing

    2016-07-01

    This study evaluated the bactericidal effect of strong acid electrolyzed water (SAEW) against flow Enterococcus faecalis biofilm and its potential application as a root canal irrigant. Flow E. faecalis biofilms were generated under a constant shear flow in a microfluidic system. For comparison, static E. faecalis biofilms were generated under a static condition on coverslip surfaces. Both the flow and static E. faecalis biofilms were treated with SAEW. Sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl, 5.25%) and normal saline (0.9%) were included as the controls. Bacterial reductions were evaluated using confocal laser scanning microscopy and the cell count method. Morphological changes of bacterial cells were observed using scanning electron microscopy. The confocal laser scanning microscopic and cell count results showed that SAEW had a bactericidal effect similar to that of 5.25% NaOCl against both the flow and static E. faecalis biofilms. The scanning electron microscopic results showed that smooth, consecutive, and bright bacteria surfaces became rough, shrunken, and even lysed after treated with SAEW, similar to those in the NaOCl group. SAEW had an effective bactericidal effect against both the flow and static E. faecalis biofilms, and it might be qualified as a root canal irrigant for effective root canal disinfection. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. In vitro Protective Effect of Ganoderol A Isolated from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the ultraviolet A (UVA) protection and anti-inflammatory activity of ganoderol A extracted from Ganodermalucidum. Methods: The cytotoxicity and in vitro protective effect of ganoderol A against UVA damage were evaluated by MTT assay. Apoptosis and cell-cycle arrest of NIH/3T3 fibroblast cells were ...

  11. Fitness is strongly influenced by rare mutations of large effect in a microbial mutation accumulation experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilbron, Karl; Toll-Riera, Macarena; Kojadinovic, Mila; MacLean, R Craig

    2014-07-01

    Our understanding of the evolutionary consequences of mutation relies heavily on estimates of the rate and fitness effect of spontaneous mutations generated by mutation accumulation (MA) experiments. We performed a classic MA experiment in which frequent sampling of MA lines was combined with whole genome resequencing to develop a high-resolution picture of the effect of spontaneous mutations in a hypermutator (ΔmutS) strain of the bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa. After ∼644 generations of mutation accumulation, MA lines had accumulated an average of 118 mutations, and we found that average fitness across all lines decayed linearly over time. Detailed analyses of the dynamics of fitness change in individual lines revealed that a large fraction of the total decay in fitness (42.3%) was attributable to the fixation of rare, highly deleterious mutations (comprising only 0.5% of fixed mutations). Furthermore, we found that at least 0.64% of mutations were beneficial and probably fixed due to positive selection. The majority of mutations that fixed (82.4%) were base substitutions and we failed to find any signatures of selection on nonsynonymous or intergenic mutations. Short indels made up a much smaller fraction of the mutations that were fixed (17.4%), but we found evidence of strong selection against indels that caused frameshift mutations in coding regions. These results help to quantify the amount of natural selection present in microbial MA experiments and demonstrate that changes in fitness are strongly influenced by rare mutations of large effect. Copyright © 2014 by the Genetics Society of America.

  12. Strong isotope effects on melting dynamics and ice crystallisation processes in cryo vitrification solutions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg Kirichek

    Full Text Available The nucleation and growth of crystalline ice during cooling, and further crystallization processes during re-warming are considered to be key processes determining the success of low temperature storage of biological objects, as used in medical, agricultural and nature conservation applications. To avoid these problems a method, termed vitrification, is being developed to inhibit ice formation by use of high concentration of cryoprotectants and ultra-rapid cooling, but this is only successful across a limited number of biological objects and in small volume applications. This study explores physical processes of ice crystal formation in a model cryoprotective solution used previously in trials on vitrification of complex biological systems, to improve our understanding of the process and identify limiting biophysical factors. Here we present results of neutron scattering experiments which show that even if ice crystal formation has been suppressed during quench cooling, the water molecules, mobilised during warming, can crystallise as detectable ice. The crystallisation happens right after melting of the glass phase formed during quench cooling, whilst the sample is still transiting deep cryogenic temperatures. We also observe strong water isotope effects on ice crystallisation processes in the cryoprotectant mixture. In the neutron scattering experiment with a fully protiated water component, we observe ready crystallisation occurring just after the glass melting transition. On the contrary with a fully deuteriated water component, the process of crystallisation is either completely or substantially supressed. This behaviour might be explained by nuclear quantum effects in water. The strong isotope effect, observed here, may play an important role in development of new cryopreservation strategies.

  13. Effect of Floodplain Inundation on River Pollution in Taiwan's Strong Monsoonal Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hester, E. T.; Lin, A. Y. C.

    2017-12-01

    River-floodplain interaction provides important benefits such as flood mitigation, provision of ecological habitat, and improved water quality. Human actions have historically reduced such interaction and associated benefits by diking, floodplain fill, and river regulation. In response, floodplain restoration has become popular in North America and Europe, but is less practiced in Asia. In Taiwan, unusually strong monsoons and steep terrain alter floodplain dynamics relative to elsewhere around the world, and provide a unique environment for floodplain management. We used numerical models of flow, transport, and reaction in river channels and floodplains to quantify the effect of river-floodplain interaction on water quality in Taiwan's strong monsoon and high topographic relief. We conducted sensitivity analyses of parameters such as river slope, monsoon severity, reservoir operation mode, degree of floodplain reconnection, contaminant reaction rate, and contaminant reaction type on floodplain connectivity and contaminant mitigation. We found significant differences in floodplain hydraulics and residence times in Taiwan's steep monsoonal environment relative to the shallower non-monsoonal environment typical of the eastern USA, with significant implications for water quality. For example, greater flashiness of floodplain inundation in Taiwan provides greater challenges for reconnecting sufficient floodplain volume to handle monsoonal runoff. Yet longer periods when floodplains are reliably dry means that such lands may have greater value for seasonal use such as parks or agriculture. The potential for floodplain restoration in Taiwan is thus significant, but qualitatively different than in the eastern USA.

  14. Mental health care and average happiness: strong effect in developed nations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touburg, Giorgio; Veenhoven, Ruut

    2015-07-01

    Mental disorder is a main cause of unhappiness in modern society and investment in mental health care is therefore likely to add to average happiness. This prediction was checked in a comparison of 143 nations around 2005. Absolute investment in mental health care was measured using the per capita number of psychiatrists and psychologists working in mental health care. Relative investment was measured using the share of mental health care in the total health budget. Average happiness in nations was measured with responses to survey questions about life-satisfaction. Average happiness appeared to be higher in countries that invest more in mental health care, both absolutely and relative to investment in somatic medicine. A data split by level of development shows that this difference exists only among developed nations. Among these nations the link between mental health care and happiness is quite strong, both in an absolute sense and compared to other known societal determinants of happiness. The correlation between happiness and share of mental health care in the total health budget is twice as strong as the correlation between happiness and size of the health budget. A causal effect is likely, but cannot be proved in this cross-sectional analysis.

  15. Biodiversity effects in the wild are common and as strong as key drivers of productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, J. Emmett; Godwin, Casey M.; Cardinale, Bradley J.

    2017-09-01

    More than 500 controlled experiments have collectively suggested that biodiversity loss reduces ecosystem productivity and stability. Yet the importance of biodiversity in sustaining the world’s ecosystems remains controversial, largely because of the lack of validation in nature, where strong abiotic forcing and complex interactions are assumed to swamp biodiversity effects. Here we test this assumption by analysing 133 estimates reported in 67 field studies that statistically separated the effects of biodiversity on biomass production from those of abiotic forcing. Contrary to the prevailing opinion of the previous two decades that biodiversity would have rare or weak effects in nature, we show that biomass production increases with species richness in a wide range of wild taxa and ecosystems. In fact, after controlling for environmental covariates, increases in biomass with biodiversity are stronger in nature than has previously been documented in experiments and comparable to or stronger than the effects of other well-known drivers of productivity, including climate and nutrient availability. These results are consistent with the collective experimental evidence that species richness increases community biomass production, and suggest that the role of biodiversity in maintaining productive ecosystems should figure prominently in global change science and policy.

  16. Biodiversity effects in the wild are common and as strong as key drivers of productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, J Emmett; Godwin, Casey M; Cardinale, Bradley J

    2017-09-14

    More than 500 controlled experiments have collectively suggested that biodiversity loss reduces ecosystem productivity and stability. Yet the importance of biodiversity in sustaining the world's ecosystems remains controversial, largely because of the lack of validation in nature, where strong abiotic forcing and complex interactions are assumed to swamp biodiversity effects. Here we test this assumption by analysing 133 estimates reported in 67 field studies that statistically separated the effects of biodiversity on biomass production from those of abiotic forcing. Contrary to the prevailing opinion of the previous two decades that biodiversity would have rare or weak effects in nature, we show that biomass production increases with species richness in a wide range of wild taxa and ecosystems. In fact, after controlling for environmental covariates, increases in biomass with biodiversity are stronger in nature than has previously been documented in experiments and comparable to or stronger than the effects of other well-known drivers of productivity, including climate and nutrient availability. These results are consistent with the collective experimental evidence that species richness increases community biomass production, and suggest that the role of biodiversity in maintaining productive ecosystems should figure prominently in global change science and policy.

  17. The strong specific effect of coions on micellar growth from molecular-thermodynamic theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koroleva, S V; Victorov, A I

    2014-09-07

    Viscoelastic solutions of ionic surfactants with an added salt exhibit a surprisingly strong dependence of their behavior on the nature of the added coion. We apply a recently proposed molecular-thermodynamic model to elucidate the effect of a coion's specificity on the aggregation of cationic and anionic surfactants. We show that micellar growth and branching are opposed by penetration of coions inside a micelle's corona leading to an increase of the aggregate's preferential curvature. These effects result from hydration/dehydration and dispersion attraction of coions and are only important at high salinity where electrostatic repulsion of coions from the micelle is screened and where branching of micelles and viscosity maxima are observed. At low and medium salinity, the coion plays a minor role; its effect on critical micelle concentration and sphere-to-rod transitions is insignificant. Our molecular-thermodynamic approach describes the specific effects of both counterions and coions and their different roles at different salinity levels based on a unified physical picture.

  18. Incorporating conservation zone effectiveness for protecting biodiversity in marine planning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azusa Makino

    Full Text Available Establishing different types of conservation zones is becoming commonplace. However, spatial prioritization methods that can accommodate multiple zones are poorly understood in theory and application. It is typically assumed that management regulations across zones have differential levels of effectiveness ("zone effectiveness" for biodiversity protection, but the influence of zone effectiveness on achieving conservation targets has not yet been explored. Here, we consider the zone effectiveness of three zones: permanent closure, partial protection, and open, for planning for the protection of five different marine habitats in the Vatu-i-Ra Seascape, Fiji. We explore the impact of differential zone effectiveness on the location and costs of conservation priorities. We assume that permanent closure zones are fully effective at protecting all habitats, open zones do not contribute towards the conservation targets and partial protection zones lie between these two extremes. We use four different estimates for zone effectiveness and three different estimates for zone cost of the partial protection zone. To enhance the practical utility of the approach, we also explore how much of each traditional fishing ground can remain open for fishing while still achieving conservation targets. Our results show that all of the high priority areas for permanent closure zones would not be a high priority when the zone effectiveness of the partial protection zone is equal to that of permanent closure zones. When differential zone effectiveness and costs are considered, the resulting marine protected area network consequently increases in size, with more area allocated to permanent closure zones to meet conservation targets. By distributing the loss of fishing opportunity equitably among local communities, we find that 84-88% of each traditional fishing ground can be left open while still meeting conservation targets. Finally, we summarize the steps for developing

  19. Incorporating conservation zone effectiveness for protecting biodiversity in marine planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makino, Azusa; Klein, Carissa J; Beger, Maria; Jupiter, Stacy D; Possingham, Hugh P

    2013-01-01

    Establishing different types of conservation zones is becoming commonplace. However, spatial prioritization methods that can accommodate multiple zones are poorly understood in theory and application. It is typically assumed that management regulations across zones have differential levels of effectiveness ("zone effectiveness") for biodiversity protection, but the influence of zone effectiveness on achieving conservation targets has not yet been explored. Here, we consider the zone effectiveness of three zones: permanent closure, partial protection, and open, for planning for the protection of five different marine habitats in the Vatu-i-Ra Seascape, Fiji. We explore the impact of differential zone effectiveness on the location and costs of conservation priorities. We assume that permanent closure zones are fully effective at protecting all habitats, open zones do not contribute towards the conservation targets and partial protection zones lie between these two extremes. We use four different estimates for zone effectiveness and three different estimates for zone cost of the partial protection zone. To enhance the practical utility of the approach, we also explore how much of each traditional fishing ground can remain open for fishing while still achieving conservation targets. Our results show that all of the high priority areas for permanent closure zones would not be a high priority when the zone effectiveness of the partial protection zone is equal to that of permanent closure zones. When differential zone effectiveness and costs are considered, the resulting marine protected area network consequently increases in size, with more area allocated to permanent closure zones to meet conservation targets. By distributing the loss of fishing opportunity equitably among local communities, we find that 84-88% of each traditional fishing ground can be left open while still meeting conservation targets. Finally, we summarize the steps for developing marine zoning that

  20. Room temperature strong coupling effects from single ZnO nanowire microcavity

    KAUST Repository

    Das, Ayan

    2012-05-01

    Strong coupling effects in a dielectric microcavity with a single ZnO nanowire embedded in it have been investigated at room temperature. A large Rabi splitting of ?100 meV is obtained from the polariton dispersion and a non-linearity in the polariton emission characteristics is observed at room temperature with a low threshold of 1.63 ?J/cm2, which corresponds to a polariton density an order of magnitude smaller than that for the Mott transition. The momentum distribution of the lower polaritons shows evidence of dynamic condensation and the absence of a relaxation bottleneck. The polariton relaxation dynamics were investigated by timeresolved measurements, which showed a progressive decrease in the polariton relaxation time with increase in polariton density. © 2012 Optical Society of America.

  1. Global dynamics and bifurcation analysis of a host-parasitoid model with strong Allee effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Abdul Qadeer; Ma, Jiying; Xiao, Dongmei

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, we study the global dynamics and bifurcations of a two-dimensional discrete time host-parasitoid model with strong Allee effect. The existence of fixed points and their stability are analysed in all allowed parametric region. The bifurcation analysis shows that the model can undergo fold bifurcation and Neimark-Sacker bifurcation. As the parameters vary in a small neighbourhood of the Neimark-Sacker bifurcation condition, the unique positive fixed point changes its stability and an invariant closed circle bifurcates from the positive fixed point. From the viewpoint of biology, the invariant closed curve corresponds to the periodic or quasi-periodic oscillations between host and parasitoid populations. Furthermore, it is proved that all solutions of this model are bounded, and there exist some values of the parameters such that the model has a global attractor. These theoretical results reveal the complex dynamics of the present model.

  2. Strong-field effects in Rabi oscillations between a single state and a superposition of states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhdanovich, S.; Milner, V.; Hepburn, J. W.

    2011-01-01

    Rabi oscillations of quantum population are known to occur in two-level systems driven by spectrally narrow laser fields. In this work we study Rabi oscillations induced by shaped broadband femtosecond laser pulses. Due to the broad spectral width of the driving field, the oscillations are initiated between a ground state and a coherent superposition of excited states, or a ''wave packet,'' rather than a single excited state. Our experiments reveal an intricate dependence of the wave-packet phase on the intensity of the laser field. We confirm numerically that the effect is associated with the strong-field nature of the interaction and provide a qualitative picture by invoking a simple theoretical model.

  3. The effect of moisture content within multilayer protective clothing on protection from radiation and steam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yun; Li, Jun; Song, Guowen

    2018-06-01

    The moisture from skin sweat and atmospheric water affects the thermal protective performance provided by multilayer protective clothing. Four levels of moisture content were selected to evaluate the impact of moisture on thermal protection under dry (thermal radiation) and wet (thermal radiation and low-pressure steam) heat exposure. Also, the role of moisture and its relationship with exposure time were analyzed based on skin heat flux and Henriques integral value. The addition of moisture to a fabric system was found to result in differences in second-degree and third-degree skin burn times. When moisture is added to a fabric system, it both acts as a thermal conductor to present a negative effect and provides a positive effect owing to thermal storage of water and evaporative heat loss. The positive or negative effects of moisture are mainly dependent on the thermal exposure time, the moisture content and the presence of hot steam.

  4. Incorporating Conservation Zone Effectiveness for Protecting Biodiversity in Marine Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makino, Azusa; Klein, Carissa J.; Beger, Maria; Jupiter, Stacy D.; Possingham, Hugh P.

    2013-01-01

    Establishing different types of conservation zones is becoming commonplace. However, spatial prioritization methods that can accommodate multiple zones are poorly understood in theory and application. It is typically assumed that management regulations across zones have differential levels of effectiveness (“zone effectiveness”) for biodiversity protection, but the influence of zone effectiveness on achieving conservation targets has not yet been explored. Here, we consider the zone effectiveness of three zones: permanent closure, partial protection, and open, for planning for the protection of five different marine habitats in the Vatu-i-Ra Seascape, Fiji. We explore the impact of differential zone effectiveness on the location and costs of conservation priorities. We assume that permanent closure zones are fully effective at protecting all habitats, open zones do not contribute towards the conservation targets and partial protection zones lie between these two extremes. We use four different estimates for zone effectiveness and three different estimates for zone cost of the partial protection zone. To enhance the practical utility of the approach, we also explore how much of each traditional fishing ground can remain open for fishing while still achieving conservation targets. Our results show that all of the high priority areas for permanent closure zones would not be a high priority when the zone effectiveness of the partial protection zone is equal to that of permanent closure zones. When differential zone effectiveness and costs are considered, the resulting marine protected area network consequently increases in size, with more area allocated to permanent closure zones to meet conservation targets. By distributing the loss of fishing opportunity equitably among local communities, we find that 84–88% of each traditional fishing ground can be left open while still meeting conservation targets. Finally, we summarize the steps for developing marine zoning

  5. Protective Effect of Antioxidants against Rifampicin Induced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigerian Journal of Health and Biomedical Sciences ... Thus, this study intends to investigate the modulatory effects of Vitamins C and E on the haematopoietic suppression caused by Rifampicin. A total of 40 Wister ... It can be concluded that Vitamin E and C modulate the toxic effect of Rifampicin on the hematopoietic cell.

  6. Protective effect of onion extract against experimental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The wrong use of drugs results in disturbances in the immunity that affect human health. These drugs have side effects that may lead to death because of lake of immunity. Human beings need to use natural products to strength the immune system and avoid such side effects. Of these products is the onion that ...

  7. Cardio Protective Effect of Solanum nigrum Linn. in Isoproterenol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cardio Protective Effect of Solanum nigrum Linn. in Isoproterenol Induced Myocardial Infarction in Rat. Sameer Amjad Shaik, Shivaprasad Huded, Asra Fathima, K.H. Preran, Syeda Juveriya Fathima, Farhath Khanum ...

  8. Protective and therapeutic effects of cannabis plant extract on liver ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Protective and therapeutic effects of cannabis plant extract on liver cancer induced by dimethylnitrosamine in mice. NAEM Hussein, MAEF El-Toukhy, AH Kazem, MES Ali, MAER Ahmad, HMR Ghazy, AMG El-Din ...

  9. Protective effect of Moringa peregrina leaves extract on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Protective effect of Moringa peregrina leaves extract on acetaminophen - induced liver toxicity in albino rats. Samy Abdelfatah Abdel Azim, Mohamed Taha Abdelrahem, Mostafa Mohamed Said, Alshaimaa Khattab ...

  10. Protective effect of Euphorbia neriifolia saponin fraction on CCl 4 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Saponin pretreatment improves bromsulphalein clearance and also increases the cellular viability. These effects substantiate protection of cellular phospholipid from peroxidative damage induced by highly reactive toxic intermediate radicals formed during biotransformation of CCl4. Key words: Euphorbia neriifolia, ...

  11. Channel-closing effects in strong-field ionization by a bicircular field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milošević, D. B.; Becker, W.

    2018-03-01

    Channel-closing effects, such as threshold anomalies and resonantlike intensity-dependent enhancements in strong-field ionization by a bicircular laser field are analyzed. A bicircular field consists of two coplanar corotating or counter-rotating circularly polarized fields having different frequencies. For the total detachment rate of a negative ion by a bicircular field we observe threshold anomalies and explain them using the Wigner threshold law and energy and angular momentum conservation. For the corotating bicircular case, these effects are negligible, while for the counter-rotating case they are pronounced and their position depends on the magnetic quantum number of the initial state. For high-order above-threshold ionization of rare-gas atoms by a counter-rotating bicircular laser field we observe very pronounced intensity-dependent enhancements. We find all four types of threshold anomalies known from collision theory. Contrary to the case of linear polarization, channel-closing effects for a bicircular field are visible also in the cutoff region of the electron energy spectrum, which is explained using quantum-orbit theory.

  12. Strong quantum-confined stark effect in germanium quantum-well structures on silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuo, Y.; Lee, Y. K.; Gei, Y.; Ren, S; Roth, J. E.; Miller, D. A.; Harris, J. S.

    2006-01-01

    Silicon is the dominant semiconductor for electronics, but there is now a growing need to integrate such component with optoelectronics for telecommunications and computer interconnections. Silicon-based optical modulators have recently been successfully demonstrated but because the light modulation mechanisms in silicon are relatively weak, long (for example, several millimeters) devices or sophisticated high-quality-factor resonators have been necessary. Thin quantum-well structures made from III-V semiconductors such as GaAs, InP and their alloys exhibit the much stronger Quantum-Confined Stark Effect (QCSE) mechanism, which allows modulator structures with only micrometers of optical path length. Such III-V materials are unfortunately difficult to integrate with silicon electronic devices. Germanium is routinely integrated with silicon in electronics, but previous silicon-germanium structures have also not shown strong modulation effects. Here we report the discovery of the QCSE, at room temperature, in thin germanium quantum-well structures grown on silicon. The QCSE here has strengths comparable to that in III-V materials. Its clarity and strength are particularly surprising because germanium is an indirect gap semiconductor, such semiconductors often display much weak optical effects than direct gap materials (such as the III-V materials typically used for optoelectronics). This discovery is very promising for small, high-speed, low-power optical output devices fully compatible with silicon electronics manufacture. (author)

  13. Strong mechanically induced effects in DC current-biased suspended Josephson junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, Thomas; Deng, Hai-Yao; Isacsson, Andreas; Mariani, Eros

    2018-01-01

    Superconductivity is a result of quantum coherence at macroscopic scales. Two superconductors separated by a metallic or insulating weak link exhibit the AC Josephson effect: the conversion of a DC voltage bias into an AC supercurrent. This current may be used to activate mechanical oscillations in a suspended weak link. As the DC-voltage bias condition is remarkably difficult to achieve in experiments, here we analyze theoretically how the Josephson effect can be exploited to activate and detect mechanical oscillations in the experimentally relevant condition with purely DC current bias. We unveil how changing the strength of the electromechanical coupling results in two qualitatively different regimes showing dramatic effects of the oscillations on the DC-voltage characteristic of the device. These include the appearance of Shapiro-type plateaus for weak coupling and a sudden mechanically induced retrapping for strong coupling. Our predictions, measurable in state-of-the-art experimental setups, allow the determination of the frequency and quality factor of the resonator using DC only techniques.

  14. Dose dependent sun protective effect of topical melatonin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheuer, Cecilie; Pommergaard, Hans-Christian; Rosenberg, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) by sunlight results in an increasing number of skin conditions. Earlier studies have suggested a protective effect of topical treatment with the pineal hormone melatonin. However, this protective effect has never been evaluated in natural sunlight, and the ......BACKGROUND: Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) by sunlight results in an increasing number of skin conditions. Earlier studies have suggested a protective effect of topical treatment with the pineal hormone melatonin. However, this protective effect has never been evaluated in natural sunlight......, and the optimal dosing has not been clarified. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the sun protective effect of topical treatment with three different doses of melatonin (0.5%, 2.5%, 12.5%) against erythema induced by natural sunlight. METHOD: The study was a randomized, placebo-controlled, double......-blind study in healthy volunteers. Twenty-three healthy volunteers, 8 male and 15 female, were enrolled. The protective effect of three different doses of melatonin cream (0.5%, 2.5%, 12.5%) against erythema induced by natural sunlight was tested. All participants had their backs exposed to sun from 1:22 PM...

  15. Protective effect of selenium on radiation-induced HPRT mutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Feiyue; Yang Suxia; Cao Zhenshan; Li Yu; Liu Guolian

    2000-01-01

    Mutation of HPRT in human embryo lung cells induced by γ-ray was analyzed by way of CB. Efficiency of HPRT mutation was gradually increased with increasing of γ-ray doses after-irradiation. The relationship between mutation efficiency and radiation dose showed linear relative. The efficiency of HPRT mutation in cells exposed to γ-ray and selenium was lower than that in cells exposed to γ-ray only. This indicated that selenium possessed protective effect on HPRT mutation induced by γ-ray. This protective effect of selenium was more efficient when the cells were exposed to lower dose of γ-ray than to higher dose. The character of protective effect of selenium is very significant in medical protection on people exposed to low dose of radiation

  16. Effect of horizontal strong static magnetic field on swimming behaviour of Paramecium caudatum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Yoshihisa; Tomishige, Masahiko; Itoh, Yasuhiro; Fujiwara, Masao; Shibata, Naho; Kosaka, Toshikazu; Hosoya, Hiroshi; Tanimoto, Yoshifumi

    2006-05-01

    Effect of horizontal strong static magnetic field on swimming behaviour of Paramecium caudatum was studied by using a superconducting magnet. Around a centre of a round vessel, random swimming at 0 T and aligned swimming parallel to the magnetic field (MF) of 8 T were observed. Near a wall of the vessel, however, swimming round and round along the wall at 0 T and aligned swimming of turning at right angles upon collision with the wall, which was remarkable around 1-4 T, were detected. It was experimentally revealed that the former MF-induced parallel swimming at the vessel centre was caused physicochemically by the parallel magnetic orientation of the cell itself. From magnetic field dependence of the extent of the orientation, the magnetic susceptibility anisotropy (χ ∥-χ ⊥) was first obtained to be 3.4× 10-23 emu cell-1 at 298 K for Paramecium caudatum. The orientation of the cell was considered to result from the magnetic orientation of the cell membrane. On the other hand, although mechanisms of the latter swimming near the vessel wall regardless of the absence and presence of the magnetic field are unclear at present, these experimental results indicate that whether the cell exists near the wall alters the magnetic field effect on the swimming in the horizontal magnetic field.

  17. Pulmonary antioxidants exert differential protective effects against ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    When repeated in the presence of a low molecular weight fraction of fresh pulmonary lavage fluid, as well as in artificial lung lining fluid (200 M urate, glutathione and ascorbate), the DNA damage was significantly reduced in all cases ( < 0.05). The antioxidants exerted a greater effect on the industrial samples than on ...

  18. Protective Effects of Tetrahydrocurcumin and Curcumin against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the cytoprotective effect of tetrahydrocurcumin, (THC) and curcumin (CUR) on cytotoxicity induced by doxorubicin and cadmium in Chang liver cells. Methods: Cytotoxicity was determined by sulforhodamine B assay. The expression of nuclear factorerythroid- 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) Nrf2 regulated ...

  19. Protective Effects of Tetrahydrocurcumin and Curcumin against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the cytoprotective effect of tetrahydrocurcumin, (THC) and curcumin (CUR) on cytotoxicity induced by doxorubicin and cadmium in Chang liver cells. Methods: Cytotoxicity was determined by sulforhodamine B assay. The expression of nuclear factor- erythroid-2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) Nrf2 regulated ...

  20. Pinoresinol diglucoside exhibits protective effect on dexamethasone ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the effect of pinoresinol diglucoside (PDG) on dexamethasone-induced osteoporosis in rats. Methods: Sixty Wistar rats were randomly and equally divided into normal, control, alendronate and PDG (10, 20 or 40 mg/kg) groups. Bone tissue parameters, including length, transverse diameter, weight, ...

  1. Pinoresinol diglucoside exhibits protective effect on dexamethasone ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the effect of pinoresinol diglucoside (PDG) on dexamethasone-induced osteoporosis in rats. Methods: Sixty Wistar rats were randomly and equally divided into normal, control, alendronate and. PDG (10, 20 or 40 mg/kg) groups. Bone tissue parameters, including length, transverse diameter, weight ...

  2. Detailed site effect estimation in the presence of strong velocity reversals within a small-aperture strong-motion array in Iceland

    KAUST Repository

    Rahpeyma, Sahar

    2016-08-11

    The rock site characterization for earthquake engineering applications in Iceland is common due to the easily exposed older bedrock and more recent volcanic lava rock. The corresponding site amplification is generally assumed to be low but has not been comprehensively quantified, especially for volcanic rock. The earthquake strong-motion of the Mw6.3 Ölfus earthquake on 29 May 2008 and 1705 of its aftershocks recorded on the first small-aperture strong-motion array (ICEARRAY I) in Iceland showed consistent and significant variations in ground motion amplitudes over short distances (<2 km) in an urban area located mostly on lava rock. This study analyses the aftershock recordings to quantify the local site effects using the Horizontal to Vertical Spectral Ratio (HVSR) and Standard Spectral Ratio (SSR) methods. Additionally, microseismic data has been collected at array stations and analyzed using the HVSR method. The results between the methods are consistent and show that while the amplification levels remain relatively low, the predominant frequency varies systematically between stations and is found to correlate with the geological units. In particular, for stations on lava rock the underlying geologic structure is characterized by repeated lava-soil stratigraphy characterized by reversals in the shear wave velocity with depth. As a result, standard modeling of HVSR using vertically incident body waves does not apply. Instead, modeling the soil structure as a two-degree-of-freedom dynamic system is found to capture the observed predominant frequencies of site amplification. The results have important implications for earthquake resistant design of structures on rock sites characterized by velocity reversals. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd

  3. Effective potential in the strong-coupling lattice QCD with next-to-next-to-learning order effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakano, Takashi Z.; Miura, Kohtaroh; Ohnishi, Akira

    2010-01-01

    We derive an analytic expression of the effective potential at finite temperature (T) and chemical potential (μ) in the strong-coupling lattice QCD for color SU(3) including next-to-next-to-leading order (NNLO) effects in the strong coupling expansion. NNLO effective action terms are systematically evaluated in the leading order of the large dimensional (1/d) expansion, and are found to come from some types of connected two-plaquette configurations. We apply the extended Hubbard-Stratonovich transformation and a gluonic-dressed fermion technique to the effective action, and obtain the effective potential as a function of T, μ, and two order parameters: chiral condensate and vector potential field. The next-to-leading order (NLO) and NNLO effects result in modifications of the wave function renormalization factor, quark mass, and chemical potential. We find that T c,μ =0 and μ c,T =0 are similar to the NLO results, whereas the position of the critical point is sensitive to NNLO corrections. (author)

  4. Protective Effect against Oxidative Stress in Medicinal Plant Extracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jeong Hee; Lee, Eun Ju; Shin, Dong O; Hong, Sung Eun; Kim, Jin Kyu

    2000-01-01

    Protective effect of medicinal plant extracts against oxidative stress were screened in this study. Methanol extracts from 48 medicinal plants, which were reported to have antioxidative or anti-inflammatory effect were prepared and screened for their protective activity against chemically-induced and radiation-induced oxidative stress by using MTT assay. Thirty three samples showed protective activity against chemically-induced oxidative stress in various extent. Among those samples, extract of Glycyrrhiza uralensis revealed the strongest activity (25.9% at 100 μg/ml) with relatively lower cytotoxicity. Seven other samples showed higher than 20% protection at 100 μg/ml. These samples were tested for protection activity against radiation-induced oxidative stress. Methanol extract of Alpina officinarum showed the highest activity (17.8% at 20 μg/ml). Five fractions were prepared from the each 10 methanol extracts which showed high protective activity against oxidative stress. Among those fraction samples butanol fractions of Areca catechu var. dulcissima and Spirodela polyrrhiza showed the highest protective activities (78.8% and 77.2%, respectively, at 20 μg/ml)

  5. Disorder effects on helical edge transport in graphene under a strong tilted magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chunli; Cazalilla, Miguel A.

    2015-10-01

    In a recent experiment, Young et al. [Nature (London) 505, 528 (2014), 10.1038/nature12800] observed a metal to insulator transition as well as transport through helical edge states in monolayer graphene under a strong, tilted magnetic field. Under such conditions, the bulk is a magnetic insulator which can exhibit metallic conduction through helical edges. It was found that the two-terminal conductance of the helical channels deviates from the expected quantized value (=e2/h per edge, at zero temperature). Motivated by this observation, we study the effect of disorder on the conduction through the edge channels. We show that, unlike for helical edges of topological insulators in semiconducting quantum wells, a disorder Rashba spin-orbit coupling does not lead to backscattering, at least to leading order. Instead, we find that the lack of perfect antialignment of the electron spins in the helical channels to be the most likely cause for backscattering arising from scalar (i.e., spin-independent) impurities. The intrinsic spin-orbit coupling and other time-reversal symmetry-breaking and/or sublattice parity-breaking potentials also lead to (subleading) corrections to the channel conductance.

  6. Effect of dipole polarizability on positron binding by strongly polar molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gribakin, G F; Swann, A R

    2015-01-01

    A model for positron binding to polar molecules is considered by combining the dipole potential outside the molecule with a strongly repulsive core of a given radius. Using existing experimental data on binding energies leads to unphysically small core radii for all of the molecules studied. This suggests that electron–positron correlations neglected in the simple model play a large role in determining the binding energy. We account for these by including the polarization potential via perturbation theory and non-perturbatively. The perturbative model makes reliable predictions of binding energies for a range of polar organic molecules and hydrogen cyanide. The model also agrees with the linear dependence of the binding energies on the polarizability inferred from the experimental data (Danielson et al 2009 J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 42 235203). The effective core radii, however, remain unphysically small for most molecules. Treating molecular polarization non-perturbatively leads to physically meaningful core radii for all of the molecules studied and enables even more accurate predictions of binding energies to be made for nearly all of the molecules considered. (paper)

  7. Strong gravity effects of rotating black holes: quasi-periodic oscillations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aliev, Alikram N; Esmer, Göksel Daylan; Talazan, Pamir

    2013-01-01

    We explore strong gravity effects of the geodesic motion in the spacetime of rotating black holes in general relativity and braneworld gravity. We focus on the description of the motion in terms of three fundamental frequencies: the orbital frequency, the radial and vertical epicyclic frequencies. For a Kerr black hole, we perform a detailed numerical analysis of these frequencies at the innermost stable circular orbits and beyond them as well as at the characteristic stable orbits, at which the radial epicyclic frequency attains its highest value. We find that the values of the epicyclic frequencies for a class of stable orbits exhibit good qualitative agreement with the observed frequencies of the twin peaks quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) in some black hole binaries. We also find that at the characteristic stable circular orbits, where the radial (or the vertical) epicyclic frequency has maxima, the vertical and radial epicyclic frequencies exhibit an approximate 2:1 ratio even in the case of near-extreme rotation of the black hole. Next, we perform a similar analysis of the fundamental frequencies for a rotating braneworld black hole and argue that the existence of such a black hole with a negative tidal charge, whose angular momentum exceeds the Kerr bound in general relativity, does not confront with the observations of high-frequency QPOs. (paper)

  8. Peak ground motions, effective duration of strong motions and frequency content of Iranian earthquakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tehranizadeh, M.; Hamedi, F.

    2002-01-01

    The characteristics of earthquake ground motion have great influences on the response of structures to the earthquakes. Peak ground motions, duration of strong motions and frequency content are important characteristics of earthquakes, which are studied in this paper. The relation between peak ground acceleration, velocity and displacement have been taken into account and the effects of magnitude, epicentral distance and recorded duration of earthquakes on peak ground acceleration have been presented as graphs. The frequency content of ground motion can be examined by power spectral density of accel ero grams. In this study the power spectral density of the records have been determined and normalized power spectral densities are compared. There are different formulas for the smoothed power spectral density function such as Kanai-Tajimi's model. In this study, comparing with Kanai-Tajim's formula, the extreme value model is suggested for the spectral density function. This model is evaluated for accel ero grams on different soil conditions and the smoothed mean power spectral density function are determined for each soil groups. The central frequency and predominant period of earthquakes are also estimated

  9. Protective Effect of Chitin Urocanate Nanofibers against Ultraviolet Radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Ikuko; Yoneda, Toshikazu; Omura, Yoshihiko; Osaki, Tomohiro; Ifuku, Shinsuke; Saimoto, Hiroyuki; Azuma, Kazuo; Imagawa, Tomohiro; Tsuka, Takeshi; Murahata, Yusuke; Ito, Norihiko; Okamoto, Yoshiharu; Minami, Saburo

    2015-12-19

    Urocanic acid is a major ultraviolet (UV)-absorbing chromophore. Chitins are highly crystalline structures that are found predominantly in crustacean shells. Alpha-chitin consists of microfibers that contain nanofibrils embedded in a protein matrix. Acid hydrolysis is a common method used to prepare chitin nanofibrils (NFs). We typically obtain NFs by hydrolyzing chitin with acetic acid. However, in the present study, we used urocanic acid to prepare urocanic acid chitin NFs (UNFs) and examined its protective effect against UVB radiation. Hos: HR-1 mice coated with UNFs were UVB irradiated (302 nm, 150 mJ/cm²), and these mice showed markedly lower UVB radiation-induced cutaneous erythema than the control. Additionally, sunburn cells were rarely detected in the epidermis of UNFs-coated mice after UVB irradiation. Although the difference was not as significant as UNFs, the number of sunburn cells in mice treated with acetic acid chitin nanofibrils (ANFs) tended to be lower than in control mice. These results demonstrate that ANFs have a protective effect against UVB and suggest that the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects of NFs influence the protective effect of ANFs against UVB radiation. The combination of NFs with other substances that possess UV-protective effects, such as urocanic acid, may provide an enhanced protective effect against UVB radiation.

  10. Strong mutagenic effects of diesel engine emissions using vegetable oil as fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bünger, Jürgen; Krahl, Jürgen; Munack, Axel; Ruschel, Yvonne; Schröder, Olaf; Emmert, Birgit; Westphal, Götz; Müller, Michael; Hallier, Ernst; Brüning, Thomas

    2007-08-01

    Diesel engine emissions (DEE) are classified as probably carcinogenic to humans. In recent years every effort was made to reduce DEE and their content of carcinogenic and mutagenic polycyclic aromatic compounds. Since 1995 we observed an appreciable reduction of mutagenicity of DEE driven by reformulated or newly designed fuels in several studies. Recently, the use of rapeseed oil as fuel for diesel engines is rapidly growing among German transportation businesses and agriculture due to economic reasons. We compared the mutagenic effects of DEE from two different batches of rapeseed oil (RSO) with rapeseed methyl ester (RME, biodiesel), natural gas derived synthetic fuel (gas-to-liquid, GTL), and a reference diesel fuel (DF). The test engine was a heavy-duty truck diesel running the European Stationary Cycle. Particulate matter from the exhaust was sampled onto PTFE-coated glass fibre filters and extracted with dichloromethane in a soxhlet apparatus. The gas phase constituents were sampled as condensates. The mutagenicity of the particle extracts and the condensates was tested using the Salmonella typhimurium/mammalian microsome assay with tester strains TA98 and TA100. Compared to DF the two RSO qualities significantly increased the mutagenic effects of the particle extracts by factors of 9.7 up to 59 in tester strain TA98 and of 5.4 up to 22.3 in tester strain TA100, respectively. The condensates of the RSO fuels caused an up to factor 13.5 stronger mutagenicity than the reference fuel. RME extracts had a moderate but significant higher mutagenic response in assays of TA98 with metabolic activation and TA100 without metabolic activation. GTL samples did not differ significantly from DF. In conclusion, the strong increase of mutagenicity using RSO as diesel fuel compared to the reference DF and other fuels causes deep concern on future usage of this biologic resource as a replacement of established diesel fuels.

  11. Autler-Townes effect in a strongly driven electromagnetically induced transparency resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Lijun; Zhang Lianshui; Li Xiaoli; Han Li; Fu Guangsheng; Manson, Neil B.; Suter, Dieter; Wei Changjiang

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we study the nonlinear behavior of an electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) resonance subject to a coherent driving field. The EIT is associated with a Λ three-level system where two hyperfine levels within an electronic ground state are coupled to a common excited state level by a coupling field and a probe field. In addition there is an radio-frequency (rf) field driving a hyperfine transition within the ground state. The paper contrasts two different situations. In one case the rf-driven transition shares a common level with the probed transition and in the second case it shares a common level with the coupled transition. In both cases the EIT resonance is split into a doublet and the characteristics of the EIT doublet are determined by the strength and frequency of the rf-driving field. The doublet splitting originates from the rf-field induced dynamic Stark effect and has close analogy with the Autler-Townes effect observed in three-level pump-probe spectroscopy study. The situation changes when the rf field is strong and the two cases are very different. One is analogous to two Λ three-level systems with EIT resonance associated with each. The other corresponds to a doubly driven three-level system with rf-field-induced electromagnetically induced absorption resonance. The two situations are modeled using numerical solutions of the relevant equation of motion of density matrix. In addition a physical account of their behaviors is given in terms of a dressed state picture

  12. Research on radiation effect and radiation protection at JAEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Kimiaki

    2007-01-01

    Researches on radiation effect and radiation protection at JAEA have been carried out in different sections. In recent years, the organizations were rearranged to attain better research circumstances, and new research programs started. At present, radiation effect studies focus on radiation effect mechanisms at atomic, molecular and cellular levels including simulation studies, and protection studies focus on dosimetry for conditions difficult to cover with currently used methods and data as well as the related basic studies. The outlines of the whole studies and also some descriptions on selected subjects will be given in this paper. (author)

  13. Protective effect of catalpol on isoproterenol-induced myocardial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hope&shola

    2012-05-10

    May 10, 2012 ... The neuroprotective effects of catalpol had been well demonstrated in many studies. Nevertheless, little work was done to investigate the cardioprotective effects of catalpol. This study was designed to explore whether catalpol protected myocardium against isoproterenol (ISO)-induced myocardial injury.

  14. Protective effects of aqueous extract of cinnamon on diabetes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Diabetes mellitus is a chronic metabolic disorder with multi-systemic adverse effects on the body. Cinnamon is atraditional folk herbsused for treatment of diseases and was popularas an embalming agent. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of crude aqueous extract of Cinnamon for its protective ...

  15. Protective Effect Of Garcinia kola (Kolaviron) Extract On ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to investigate the cardiovascular effect of administration of antimalarial drugs amodiaquine and artesunate and the efficacy of Garcinia kola extract (kolaviron) in protecting against such possible effect. Thirty (30) adult male albino rats divided into six (6) groups were used in this study. Groups D, E ...

  16. The protective effect of plasma antioxidants during ozone ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ozone (O3) therapy forms part of a group of complementary and alternative medical therapies and is gaining more and more interest worldwide. There is, however, some concern regarding O3-toxicity and uncertainty about the effectiveness of O3-therapy. In this study we investigated the possible protective effects of the ...

  17. Biochemical assessment of lead overload and the protective effect of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Therefore the biochemical assessment of the effect of lead overload and the possible protective effect of zinc were carried out in guinea pigs. Graded doses of lead (0ppm, 300ppm, 600ppm and 1200ppm) were administered alone or in combination with 800ppm zinc to guinea pigs for a period of 20 weeks. Blood samples ...

  18. Protective effect of Carica papaya fruit extract against gamma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Radiation side effects have been reported to induce oxidative stress by free radical generation. The protective effect of Carica papaya (CP) fruit extract, vitamins C and E against gamma radiation-induced oxidative damage on postnatal developing rat cerebellum was studied. Forty-two female Wistar rats were mated and ...

  19. Effects of the Coulomb potential in interference patterns of strong-field holography with photoelectrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shvetsov-Shilovski, N. I.; Lein, M.

    2018-01-01

    Using the semiclassical two-step model for strong-field ionization we investigate the interference structures emerging in strong-field photoelectron holography, taking into account the Coulomb potential of the atomic core. For every kind of the interference pattern predicted by the three-step model, we calculate the corresponding structure in the presence of the Coulomb field, showing that the Coulomb potential modifies the interference patterns significantly.

  20. Modeling consequences of prolonged strong unpredictable stress in zebrafish: Complex effects on behavior and physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Cai; Liu, Bai-Ping; Zhang, Yong-Ping; Peng, Zhilan; Wang, JiaJia; Collier, Adam D; Echevarria, David J; Savelieva, Katerina V; Lawrence, Robert F; Rex, Christopher S; Meshalkina, Darya A; Kalueff, Allan V

    2018-02-02

    Chronic stress is the major pathogenetic factor of human anxiety and depression. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) have become a novel popular model species for neuroscience research and CNS drug discovery. The utility of zebrafish for mimicking human affective disorders is also rapidly growing. Here, we present a new zebrafish model of clinically relevant, prolonged unpredictable strong chronic stress (PUCS). The 5-week PUCS induced overt anxiety-like and motor retardation-like behaviors in adult zebrafish, also elevating whole-body cortisol and proinflammatory cytokines - interleukins IL-1β and IL-6. PUCS also elevated whole-body levels of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 and increased the density of dendritic spines in zebrafish telencephalic neurons. Chronic treatment of fish with an antidepressant fluoxetine (0.1mg/L for 8days) normalized their behavioral and endocrine phenotypes, as well as corrected stress-elevated IL-1β and IL-6 levels, similar to clinical and rodent data. The CNS expression of the bdnf gene, the two genes of its receptors (trkB, p75), and the gfap gene of glia biomarker, the glial fibrillary acidic protein, was unaltered in all three groups. However, PUCS elevated whole-body BDNF levels and the telencephalic dendritic spine density (which were corrected by fluoxetine), thereby somewhat differing from the effects of chronic stress in rodents. Together, these findings support zebrafish as a useful in-vivo model of chronic stress, also calling for further cross-species studies of both shared/overlapping and distinct neurobiological responses to chronic stress. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of strong bite force on the facial vertical dimension of pembarong performers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Christina

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: A pembarong performer is a reog dancer who bites on a piece of wood inserted into his/her mouth in order to support a 60 kg Barongan or Dadak Merak mask. The teeth supporting this large and heavy mask are directly affected, as the strong bite force exerted during a dance could affect their vertical and sagital facial dimensions. Purpose: This study aimed to examine the influence of the bite force of pembarong performers due to their vertical and sagital facial dimensions. Methods: The study reported here involved fifteen pembarong performers and thirteen individuals with normal occlusion (with specific criteria. The bite force of these subjects was measured with a dental prescale sensor during its centric occlusion. A cephalometric variation measurement was subsequently performed on all subjects with its effects on their vertical and sagital facial dimensions being measured. Results: The bite force value of the pembarong performers was 394.3816 ± 7.68787 Newtons, while the normal occlusion was 371.7784 ± 4.77791 Newtons. There was no correlation between the bite force and the facial sagital dimension of these subjects. However, a significant correlation did exist between bite force and lower facial height/total facial height (LFH/TFH ratio (p = 0.013. Conversely, no significant correlation between bite force and posterior facial height/total facial height (PFH/TFH ratio (p = 0.785 was detected. There was an inverse correlation between bite force and LFH/TFH ratio (r = -.464. Conclusion: Bite force is directly related to the decrease in LFH/TFH ratio. Occlusal pressure exerted by the posterior teeth on the alveolar bone may increase bone density at the endosteal surface of cortical bone.

  2. Strong and nonlinear effects of fragmentation on ecosystem service provision at multiple scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Matthew G. E.; Bennett, Elena M.; Gonzalez, Andrew

    2015-09-01

    Human actions, such as converting natural land cover to agricultural or urban land, result in the loss and fragmentation of natural habitat, with important consequences for the provision of ecosystem services. Such habitat loss is especially important for services that are supplied by fragments of natural land cover and that depend on flows of organisms, matter, or people across the landscape to produce benefits, such as pollination, pest regulation, recreation and cultural services. However, our quantitative knowledge about precisely how different patterns of landscape fragmentation might affect the provision of these types of services is limited. We used a simple, spatially explicit model to evaluate the potential impact of natural land cover loss and fragmentation on the provision of hypothetical ecosystem services. Based on current literature, we assumed that fragments of natural land cover provide ecosystem services to the area surrounding them in a distance-dependent manner such that ecosystem service flow depended on proximity to fragments. We modeled seven different patterns of natural land cover loss across landscapes that varied in the overall level of landscape fragmentation. Our model predicts that natural land cover loss will have strong and unimodal effects on ecosystem service provision, with clear thresholds indicating rapid loss of service provision beyond critical levels of natural land cover loss. It also predicts the presence of a tradeoff between maximizing ecosystem service provision and conserving natural land cover, and a mismatch between ecosystem service provision at landscape versus finer spatial scales. Importantly, the pattern of landscape fragmentation mitigated or intensified these tradeoffs and mismatches. Our model suggests that managing patterns of natural land cover loss and fragmentation could help influence the provision of multiple ecosystem services and manage tradeoffs and synergies between services across different human

  3. Management effectiveness evaluation in protected areas of southern Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Rodríguez, Fausto; Rosado, Daniel

    2017-04-01

    Protected areas are home to biodiversity, habitats and ecosystem as well as a critical component of human well-being and a generator of leisure-related revenues. However, management is sometimes unsatisfactory and requires new ways of evaluation. Management effectiveness of 36 protected areas in southern Ecuador have been assessed. The protected areas belong to three categories: Heritage of Natural Areas of the Ecuadorian State (PANE), created and funded by the State, Areas of Forest and Protective Vegetation (ABVP), created but no funded by the State, and private reserves, declared and funded by private entities. Management effectiveness was evaluated by answers of managers of the protected areas to questionnaires adapted to the socio-economic and environmental characteristics of the region. Questions were classified into six elements of evaluation: context, planning, inputs, processes, outputs and outcomes as recommended by IUCN. Results were classified into four levels: unsatisfactory, slightly satisfactory, satisfactory and very satisfactory. The PANE areas and private reserves showed higher management effectiveness levels (satisfactory and very satisfactory) than ABVP areas, where slightly satisfactory and unsatisfactory levels prevailed. Resources availability was found as the main reason behind this difference. The extension, age and province of location were found irrelevant. Outputs, inputs and processes require main efforts to improve management effectiveness. Improving planning and input in the PANE areas and inputs and outcomes on ABVP areas is necessary to obtain a similar result in all areas. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Marijuana protective behavioral strategies as a moderator of the effects of risk/protective factors on marijuana-related outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, Adrian J; Anthenien, Amber M; Prince, Mark A; Pearson, Matthew R

    2017-06-01

    Given that both marijuana use and cannabis use disorder peak among college students, it is imperative to determine the factors that may reduce risk of problematic marijuana use and/or the development of cannabis use disorder. From a harm reduction perspective, the present study examined whether the use of marijuana protective behavioral strategies (PBS) buffers or amplifies the effects of several distinct risk and protective factors that have been shown to relate to marijuana-related outcomes (i.e., use frequency and consequences). Specifically, we examined marijuana-PBS use as a moderator of the effects of impulsivity-like traits, marijuana use motives, gender, and marijuana use frequency on marijuana-related outcomes in a large sample of college students (n=2093 past month marijuana users across 11 universities). In all models PBS use was robustly related with use frequency and consequences (i.e., strongly negatively associated with marijuana outcomes). Among interactions, we found: 1) unique significant interactions between specific impulsivity-like traits (i.e., premeditation, perseverance, and sensation seeking) and marijuana-PBS use in predicting marijuana consequences, 2) unique significant interactions between each marijuana use motive and marijuana-PBS use in predicting marijuana use frequency and 3) marijuana-PBS use buffered the risk associated with male gender in predicting both marijuana outcomes. Our results suggest that marijuana-PBS use can buffer risk factors and enhance protective factors among marijuana using college students. Future research is needed to understand context-specific factors and individual-level factors that may make marijuana-PBS use more effective. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Exercise protects the cardiovascular system: effects beyond traditional risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyner, Michael J; Green, Daniel J

    2009-12-01

    In humans, exercise training and moderate to high levels of physical activity are protective against cardiovascular disease. In fact they are 40% more protective than predicted based on the changes in traditional risk factors (blood lipids, hypertension, diabetes etc.) that they cause. In this review, we highlight the positive effects of exercise on endothelial function and the autonomic nervous system. We also ask if these effects alone, or in combination, might explain the protective effects of exercise against cardiovascular disease that appear to be independent of traditional risk factor modification. Our goal is to use selected data from our own work and that of others to stimulate debate on the nature and cause of the 'risk factor gap' associated with exercise and physical activity.

  6. In the Name of Effective Consumer Protection and Public Policy!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Marie Jull

    2016-01-01

    I. The CJEU has established that under certain circumstances national courts have an obligation, ex officio, to apply specific consumer protection provisions. This article presents a model derived from the argumentation for this obligation in CJEU case law. The model consists of four steps...... that include the specific ideas behind consumer protection provisions as well as the interaction between the principle of effectiveness and principle of equivalence. It is found that the principle of effectiveness is stretched very long and is often not set aside by the “rule of reason”. It is also found...

  7. Incentivizing More Effective Marine Protected Areas with the Global Ocean Refuge System (GLORES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah O. Hameed

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Healthy oceans are essential to human survival and prosperity, yet oceans are severely impacted worldwide by anthropogenic threats including overfishing, climate change, industrialization, pollution, and habitat destruction. Marine protected areas (MPAs have been implemented around the world and are effective conservation tools that can mitigate some of these threats and build resilience when designed and managed well. However, despite a rich scientific literature on MPA effectiveness, science is not the main driver behind the design and implementation of many MPAs, leading to variable MPA effectiveness and bias in global MPA representativity. As a result, the marine conservation community focuses on promoting the creation of more MPAs as well as more effective ones, however no structure to improve or accelerate effective MPA implementation currently exists. To safeguard marine ecosystems on a global scale and better monitor progress toward ecosystem protection, robust science-based criteria are needed for evaluating MPAs and synthesizing the extensive and interdisciplinary science on MPA effectiveness. This paper presents a strategic initiative led by Marine Conservation Institute called the Global Ocean Refuge System (GLORES. GLORES aims to set standards to improve the quality of MPAs and catalyze strong protection for at least 30% of the ocean by 2030. Such substantial increase in marine protection is needed to maintain the resilience of marine ecosystems and restore their benefits to people. GLORES provides a comprehensive strategy that employs the rich body of MPA science to scale up existing marine conservation efforts.

  8. Observation of strong magnetic effects in visible-infrared sum frequency generation from magnetic structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kirilyuk, A.; Knippels, G.M.H.; van der Meer, A. F. G.; Renard, S.; Rasing, T.; Heskamp, I. R.; Lodder, J. C.

    2000-01-01

    We have observed very strong magnetization-induced changes of the infrared-visible sum-frequency generation (SFG) intensity from thin magnetic films using a free electron laser as a tunable infrared source. With the help of a magnetic grating a clear resonance is observed due to the excitation of

  9. Flavor changing strong interaction effects on top quark physics at the CERN LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, P.M.; Santos, R.; Oliveira, O.

    2006-01-01

    We perform a model independent analysis of the flavor changing strong interaction vertices relevant to the LHC. In particular, the contribution of dimension six operators to single top production in various production processes is discussed, together with possible hints for identifying signals and setting bounds on physics beyond the standard model

  10. Protective Effect of Vitamin E on Nicotine Induced Reproductive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The current study assessed the protective role of vitamin E in alleviating the detrimental effect of nicotine on reproductive functions in male rats. Twenty four male albino rats were divided into four groups of six rats. Control group was treated orally with 1.1 ml/kg body weight normal saline, nicotine treated group received 1.0 ...

  11. Protective and therapeutic effects of cannabis plant extract on liver ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Neveen Abd El Moneim Hussein

    2014-05-23

    May 23, 2014 ... shown to be effective in the treatment of nausea and vomiting associated with cancer chemotherapy, anorexia and cachexia seen in HIV/AIDS patients, as well as neuropathic pain, and spasticity in multiple sclerosis.13,14. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the possible protective and ...

  12. Protective Effect of Purple Sweet Potato (Ipomoea batatas Linn ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the protective effects of purple sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas Linn, Convolvulaceae) extract (IBE) in stimulated BV-2 microglial cells and its anti-oxidant properties. Methods: Cell viability assessment was performed by 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5- diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay.

  13. The protective effect of plasma antioxidants during ozone ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-07-18

    Jul 18, 2008 ... the gas left the cell and entered the syringe containing the blood. The blood was then briefly mixed with the gas.To determine the protective effect of plasma antioxidants, the plasma was removed by centrifugation. Briefly, the blood was centrifuged for 15 min at. 180 x g. The plasma was then carefully ...

  14. Protective effect of (-)-epigallocatechin gallate on ultraviolet b ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: UV-B irradiation induced severe macroscopic skin damage including chapping, cracking and abnormal desquamation in the treated hairless mice. EGCg showed dose-dependent protective effects against UV-B induced damage on the skin. Treatments with 10.0 and 50.0 mg/mL EGCg alleviated UVB- induced skin ...

  15. Protective effect of tomato ( Lycopersion esculentum ) against lead ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Please note: AJOL received the following updates from the IJOTAFS editor: In Volume 1 Number 4 of the International Journal of Tropical Agriculture and Food Systems, 2007. A. O. Odetola was erroneously rendered A. O. Otedola in the articles Protective effects of tomato (Lycopersion esculentum) against lead poisoning.

  16. testiculo-protective effect of moringaoleifera seed extract on copper ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to observe the testiculo-protective effect of aqueous extract of Moringaoleifera seed also known as Moringa seed on copper sulphate induced injury in Wistar rats. Twenty adult male Wistar rats (200-300g) were randomly selected into four groups (5 rats per group). Group A served as control group ...

  17. Protective Effects of Aqueous Extract of Sempervivum tectorum L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Protective Effects of Aqueous Extract of Sempervivum tectorum L ( Crassulaceae ) on Aluminium-Induced Oxidative Stress in Rat Blood. ... Results: Aluminium (Al) exposure increased, compared to control group, the level of blood Al (293.64 %, p 0.05), glutathione ...

  18. Protective Effect of Modified Human Acidic Fibroblast Growth Factor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate whether modified acidic fibroblast growth factor (MaFGF) can protect NRK52E cell against apoptotic death induced by actinomycin D (Act D) and the effect of MaFGF on PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. Methods: NRK52E cell apoptotic death was measured by several methods including cell morphologic ...

  19. Protective effect of alcohol extract of Yulangsan leaf on chemically ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: YLSL has protective effect against chemically-induced liver injury in mice. The mechanism may be related to attenuation of ... inflammatory, sedative memory-enhancing, immunity-boosting and anti-stress agent. The ... GSY-ⅱ was from Beijing Medical Equipment factory (Beijing, China); while color pathological.

  20. Protective effect of Withaferin-A on micronucleus frequency and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Protective effect of Withaferin-A on micronucleus frequency and detoxication agents during experimental oral carcinogenesis. ... maintained the status of buccal mucosa detoxication agents during DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis. Key words: Withaferin-A, DMBA, Oral cancer, Micronucleus, Detoxication ...

  1. Protection of Membrane Walls of Boilers Against Earthquake Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poppelka Peter

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article we present a brief overview of the results of our design, construction, calculation and assembly work in the construction of two boilers for Chile, with the main intention of protecting their membrane walls against seismic effects

  2. Protective effect of plant polysaccharides against radiation injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Bingji; Huang Shafei; Cheng Lurong

    1989-01-01

    A series of polysaccharides have been isolated from Chinese traditional medicinal herbs and tested in mice subjected to ionizing radiation for their protective action. The polysaccharides from different origins showed various degrees of radioprotection. Those isolated from Hericium erinaceus and Armillaria mellea showed a higher radioprotective effect than some other polysaccharides. They could increase the survival rate of irradiated mice to 60%. But the polysaccheride separated from Apocynum venetum has negligible effect. In general, most of these polysaccharides are effective only on administration before irradiation. No apparent protection was observed when given post irradiation. The polysaccharide isolated from Armillaria venetum could raise the survival rate of mice irradiated by lethal dose of γ-rays to 58%. It is effective even when administered after irradiation. Some work has been carried out to clarify the mechanism of radioprotective action of polysaccharides. Protection of hemapoietic organs, regulation of immunological system, induction of release of some endogeneous bioactive substances in the organism and reduction of oxygen tension in some vital tissues may be correlated with the protection of organism against radiation injury

  3. The reno-protective effects of dietary caloric restriction against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies have shown that dietary caloric restriction (CR) without malnutrition can increase longevity. This study aims to evaluate the protective effects of CR on oxidative stress, lipid peroxidation and inflammatory cytokines in the kidney of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Forty 12-week old male Wistar rats, weighing ...

  4. Potential protective effect of some plant extracts against carbon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Potential protective effect of some plant extracts against carbon tetrachloride – induced hepatotoxicity. ... Unsaturated sterols and/or triterpenes, tannins, flavonoids and carbohydrates and/or glycosides were the major active constituents of the tested plants. Keywords: hepatoprotective, medicinal plants, Plantago major, ...

  5. Assessing the effectiveness of protected area management in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Despite expected benefits such as conservation, recreation or sustainable development, most protected areas (PAs) have serious problems in implementing basic management functions such as planning, organizing, coordination or control. In order to maximize management effectiveness, the World Wide Fund for Nature ...

  6. Swazi men's perception of the protective effect of male circumcision ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    about the protective effect of circumcision against STIs including HIV, and its implication to the mass MC strategy. .... In addition, permission to conduct the study was also granted by the FLAS Research and Evaluation Unit. ..... Willingness to be circumcised for preventing HIV among Chinese men who have sex with men.

  7. Protective Effect of Oral Ascorbic Acid (Vitamin C) on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rev Olaleye

    Protective Effect of Oral Ascorbic Acid (Vitamin C) on. Acetaminophen-Induced Renal Injury in Rats a,*Adeneye A. A. and bOlagunju, J. O. Departments of aPharmacology, bMedical Biochemistry,. Lagos State University College of Medicine, Ikeja, Lagos State, Nigeria. ABSTRACT: The incidence of acetaminophen-induced ...

  8. The protective effects of good parenting on adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVore, Elise R; Ginsburg, Kenneth R

    2005-08-01

    To explore recent developments in the literature regarding parenting practices and adolescent development, with a focus on parenting style, parental monitoring, communication, and supervision. There have been significant recent advances in the study of the relationship between parenting and adolescent development. Several recent intervention studies with a parenting component demonstrated immediate and long-term protective effects on adolescent risk behavior. Parent-child connectedness and authoritative parenting style are protective for teens. Parental monitoring has a protective effect on many adolescent risk behaviors in both middle-class populations and poor urban environments and has been shown both to moderate the effect of peer influence and to persist into late adolescence. Whereas unsupervised time, exposure to sexual possibility situations, and out-of-home care increase sexual behavior, improved parent-child communication reduces sexual risk behaviors. Recent scholarship demonstrates the significant, enduring, and protective influence of positive parenting practices on adolescent development. In particular, parental monitoring, open parent-child communication, supervision, and high quality of the parent-child relationship deter involvement in high-risk behavior. Authoritative parenting generally leads to the best outcomes for teens. Clinicians should find opportunities to discuss evidence-based parenting practices with families. Future research should focus on the development and long-term evaluation of effective parenting interventions.

  9. Protective effect of oral ascorbic acid (vitamin c) against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The incidence of acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity is reported to be on the increase, with limited therapeutic or chemoprophylactic options. In the present in vivo study, single daily oral doses (100 – 500 mg/kg) of ascorbic acid (ASC) were investigated for their protective effects against acetaminophen (APAP)-induced ...

  10. Assessing the effectiveness of protected area management in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-11-28

    Nov 28, 2011 ... environment scores were remarkably below the average, showing that the importance and priority of conservation among ... Key words: Rapid assessment and prioritization of protected area management (RAPPAM), management effectiveness ..... Biodiversity Conservation Project at national park level by ...

  11. Effects of rumen-protected tryptophan on performance, nutrient ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-06-27

    Jun 27, 2011 ... Thirty-six Liaoning cashmere goat wethers (28.72 ± 0.59 kg) were used to determine the effects of rumen-protected tryptophan (RPT) on performance, nutrient utilization and plasma tryptophan (Trp) during the cashmere fast-growing period. The goats were randomly assigned to the following treatments: ...

  12. Protective effect of (-)-epigallocatechin gallate on ultraviolet b ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    along with inhibiting the production of melanin pigment. Conclusion: Topical application of green tea EGCg shows dose-dependent protective effect against. UV-B-induced damage on hairless mouse skin. Thus, the plant compound can potentially be used as an alternative agent for photoprotection against UV-B exposure.

  13. Protective effects of ethyl acetate extraction from Gastrodia elata ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Damage of the blood brain barrier (BBB) during the process of cerebral ischemic injury is a key factor which influences the therapeutic efficacy to the cerebral ischemic injury. The present study was designed to verify the mechanisms underlying the protective effects of the ethyl acetate (EtOAc) extraction from ...

  14. Possible nitric oxide modulation in the protective effect of trazodone ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: Results of present study suggest that NO modulation is involved in the protective effect of trazodone against sleep deprivation-induced anxiety like behavior and oxidative damage in mice. Keywords: Anxiety, locomotor activity, oxidative stress, sleep deprivation, trazodone, L-arginine, L-NAME, methylene blue.

  15. Potential protective effects of rosemary extract, against aspartame ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study seeks to evaluate the possible protective effects of aqueous rosemary extract against aspartame overdose-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Three groups of rats were treated orally one time /2 days for twelve weeks: first group was regarded as control, the second group was given aspartame at a dose level of ...

  16. Erratum for “Protective effect of quercetin on bupivacaineinduced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    v16i8.11. The correct name of the First Author is Zhao as provided above and not Chao earlier published. Citation: Jin Z, Wu H, Tang C, Ke J, Wang Y. Protective effect of quercetin on bupivacaineinduced neurotoxicity via T-type calcium channel ...

  17. Assessment of the Protective Effect of Male Circumcision from HIV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A cross-sectional study based on the secondary data of 18 Demographic Health Surveys carried out in Sub-Saharan Africa was conducted to assess the protective effect of male circumcision from HIV infection and STDs. Information on 70,554 males aged 15-59 years was extracted. The association between circumcision ...

  18. Protective effect of vanillic acid on ovariectomy-induced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The need for an anti-osteoporotic agent is in high demand since osteoporosis contributes to high rates of disability or impairment (high osteoporotic fracture), morbidity and mortality. Hence, the present study is designed to evaluate the protective effects of vanillic acid (VA) against bilateral ovariectomy-induced ...

  19. Protective effect of some chelating agents and antioxidants on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Heavy metals that normally cause problems are mercury (HgCl2) and lead acetate (LA). Chelating and inhibitor agents are the target to treat and overcome metal toxicity. The current study has been carried out to evaluate the protective effects of N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) and meso 2,3 dimercaptosuccinic acid ...

  20. Protective Effect of Modified Human Acidic Fibroblast Growth Factor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    Purpose: To investigate whether modified acidic fibroblast growth factor (MaFGF) can protect NRK52E cell against apoptotic death induced by actinomycin D (Act D) and the effect of MaFGF on PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. Methods: NRK52E cell apoptotic death was measured by several methods including cell morphologic.

  1. Safety and protective effect of Lactobacillus acidophilus and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The protective effect of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus casei, isolated from fresh cow milk, was studied in vivo. Toxicological data of rat serum revealed that the Lactobacillus isolates had liver improvement functions. Serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activities of the rats dosed with Lactobacillus isolates ...

  2. Intestinal alkaline phosphatase: novel functions and protective effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lallès, Jean-Paul

    2014-02-01

    Important protective roles of intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP)--including regulation of intestinal surface pH, absorption of lipids, detoxification of free nucleotides and bacterial lipopolysaccharide, attenuation of intestinal inflammation, and possible modulation of the gut microbiota--have been reviewed recently. IAP is modulated by numerous nutritional factors. The present review highlights new findings on the properties of IAP and extends the list of its protective functions. Critical assessment of data suggests that some IAP properties are a direct result of dephosphorylation of proinflammatory moieties, while others (e.g., gut barrier protection and microbiota shaping) may be secondary to IAP-mediated downregulation of inflammation. IAP and tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase isoforms characterize the small intestine and the colon, respectively. Gastrointestinal administration of exogenous IAP ameliorates gut inflammation and favors gut tissue regeneration, whereas enteral and systemic IAP administration attenuates systemic inflammation only. Finally, the IAP gene family has a strong evolutionary link to food-driven changes in gastrointestinal tract anatomy and microbiota composition. Therefore, stimulation of IAP activity by dietary intervention is a goal for preserving gut homeostasis and health by minimizing low-grade inflammation. © 2013 International Life Sciences Institute.

  3. Interference effects at photoionization of Rydberg atoms by a strong electromagnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Movsesyan, A.M.; Fedorov, M.V.

    1989-01-01

    The photoionization of Rydberg atoms in a strong electromagnetic field is considered. Degeneration of the levels with respect to the orbital moment, their Stark splitting and the possibility of resonant interaction with levels of lower energy are taken into account. The complex quasi-energies of the system, photoelectron spectrum in the limit of an infinite duration of interaction and the time dependence of the total ionization probability are found. It is shown that a narrowing of the quasi-energy levels occurs in a strong field. Against a background of the quasi- continuum the quasi-energy spectrum consists of more or less narrow levels. In this case the photoelectron spectrum acquires a multi-peak form. With increasing field strength the height of the peaks increases, whereas their width decreases. The ionization rate decreases with increasing field strength. The presence of a quasi-continuum is the cause of the partially non-exponential nature of the atomic disintegration

  4. Carrier envelope phase effects in molecular dissociation by few-cycle strong laser fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dimitriou, K I [Hellenic Army Academy, Department of Natural Science and Applications, Vari (Greece); Constantoudis, V [Institute of Microelectronics, NCSR ' Demokritos' , Athens (Greece); Mercouris, Th [Theoretical and Physical Chemistry Institute, National Hellenic Research Foundation, Athens (Greece); Nicolaides, C A, E-mail: dimi@eie.g [Physics Department, National Technical University, Athens (Greece)

    2009-11-01

    Multiphoton molecular dissociation produced by few-cycle strong laser fields of mid-infrared wave lengths is studied theoretically. The dependence of the carrier envelope phase (CEP) on the photodissociation dynamics is investigated using both quantum and classical nonperturbative approaches. Our results show that dissociation is affected by the changes of the CEP. A detailed analysis shows that this dependence is sensitive to the duration and to the shape of the pulse.

  5. Effects of strong cathodic polarization of the Ni-YSZ interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Karin Vels; Chen, Ming; Jacobsen, Torben

    2016-01-01

    Long-term strong cathodic polarization experiments of down to -2.4 V vs. E°(O2) of the Ni-YSZ interface were performed at 900°C in 97% H2/3% H2O on model electrodes. The Ni-YSZ interface underwent extensive changes and a large affected volume with a complex microstructure and phase distribution r...

  6. Review of the effects of protection in marine protected areas: current knowledge and gaps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ojeda–Martínez, C.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of marine protected areas (MPAs and the conservation of marine environments must be based on reliable information on the quality of the marine environment that can be obtained in a reasonable timeframe. We reviewed studies that evaluated all aspects related to the effectiveness of MPAs in order to describe how the studies were conducted and to detect fields in which research is lacking. Existing parameters used to evaluate the effectiveness of MPAs are summarised. Two-hundred and twenty-two publications were reviewed. We identified the most commonly used study subjects and methodological approaches. Most of the studies concentrated on biological parameters. Peer reviewed studies were based on control vs. impact design. BACI and mBACI designs were used in very few studies. Through this review, we have identified gaps in the objectives assigned to MPAs and the way in which they have been evaluated. We suggest some guidelines aimedat improving the assessment of the effects of protection in MPAs.

  7. Protective effect of silymarin against chemical-induced cardiotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bibi Marjan Razavi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Cardiac disorders remain one of the most important causes of death in the world. Oxidative stress has been suggested as one of the molecular mechanisms involved in drug-induced cardiac toxicity. Recently, several natural products have been utilized in different studies with the aim to protect the progression of oxidative stress-induced cardiac disorders. There is a large body of evidence that administration of antioxidants may be useful in ameliorating cardiac toxicity. Silymarin, a polyphenolic flavonoid has been shown to have utility in several cardiovascular disorders. In this review, various studies in scientific databases regarding the preventive effects of silymarin against cardiotoxicity induced by chemicals were introduced. Although there are many studies representing the valuable effects of silymarin in different diseases, the number of researches relating to the possible cardiac protective effects of silymarin against drugs induced toxicity is rather limited. Results of these studies show that silymarin has a broad spectrum of cardiac protective activity against toxicity induced by some chemicals including metals, environmental pollutants, oxidative agents and anticancer drugs. Further studies are needed to establish the utility of silymarin in protection against cardiac toxicity.

  8. Differential protective effects of motorcycle helmets against head injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singleton, Michael D

    2017-05-19

    Although numerous observational studies have demonstrated a protective effect of motorcycle helmets against head injury, the degree of protection against specific head injury types remains unclear. Experimental biomechanics studies involving cadavers, animals, and computer models have established that head injuries have varying etiologies. This retrospective cross-sectional study compared helmet protection against skull fracture, cerebral contusion, intracranial hemorrhage, and cerebral concussion in a consecutive series of motorcycle operators involved in recent traffic crashes in Kentucky. Police collision reports linked to hospital inpatient and emergency department (ED) claims were analyzed for the period 2008 to 2012. Motorcycle operators with known helmet use who were not killed at the crash scene were included in the study. Helmet use was ascertained from the police report. Skull fracture, cerebral contusion, intracranial hemorrhage, and cerebral concussion were identified from International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) codes on the claims records. The relative risks of each type of head injury for helmeted versus unprotected operators were estimated using generalized estimating equations. Helmets offer substantial protection against skull fracture (relative risk [RR] = 0.31, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.23, 0.34), cerebral contusion (RR = 0.29, 95% CI, 0.16, 0.53), and intracranial hemorrhage (RR = 0.47, 95% CI, 0.35, 0.63). The findings pertaining to uncomplicated concussion (RR = 0.80, 95% CI, 0.64, 1.01) were inconclusive. A modest protective effect (20% risk reduction) was suggested by the relative risk estimate, but the 95% confidence interval included the null value. Motorcycle helmets were associated with a 69% reduction in skull fractures, 71% reduction in cerebral contusion, and 53% reduction in intracranial hemorrhage. This study finds that current motorcycle helmets do not protect equally against

  9. UV light induced DNA damages and the radiation protection effects of Lingzi mushroom extract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vo Thi Thuong Lan; Dinh Ba Tuan; Ta Bich Thuan; Tran Bang Diep; Tran Minh Quynh

    2016-01-01

    UV light has strongly influenced on the growth of E. coli as well as caused DNA damages. Configurations of both genomic DNA and pUC 19 plasmids extracted from E. coli were significantly changed by the exposure to UV light of 254 nm and DLT, an extract of Ganoderma lucidum Lingzi mushroom. The results also revealed the radio-protective effects of DLT to UV radiation. By adding 2% DLT to its culturing suspension, the growth of E. coli was significantly decreased, whereas a low DLT amount of about 0.5% slightly improved its growth, indicated that the DLT extract can be used as a promising protective substance against UV radiation. At the molecular level, the radio-protective effects of DLT were observed for both UV treated DNA and protein. Thus, DLT can protect DNA in vivo, but not in vitro. This effect was also observed for Taq polymerase, suggested that the radioprotection effect of DLT may due to it accelerated the degradation of radicals or species that produced in the suspensions during UV exposure. (author)

  10. Effect of a strong, DC-induced magnetic field on circadian singing activity of the house cricket (orthoptera:gryllidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaw, K.C.; Bitzer, R.J.; Galliart, L. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)] [and others

    1995-05-01

    We investigated the effect of a strong, DC-induced electromagnetic field (EMF) on the circadian singing activity of the house cricket, Acheta domesticus (L.). Groups of 10 crickets were exposed to strong, DC-induced EMFs under two light regimes, 12:12 (L:D) h and 0:24 (L:D) h. Exposure to the strong EMF resulted in an increase in mean time per hour during which one or more crickets were singing and in number of crickets singing per hour. Correcting for phase shift during O:24 (L:D) h, the daily pattern of singing was apparently unaffected by any treatment. The greatest percentage of singing and number of crickets singing per hour occurred during actual or expected scotophase. This is the first report of an increase in insect activity during exposure to a strong DC-induced EMF.

  11. The effect of crop protection strategy on pest and beneficials incidence in protected crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourenço, I; Rodrigues, S; Figueiredo, E; Godinho, M C; Marques, C; Amaro, F; Mexia, A

    2002-01-01

    This study took place in the Oeste region from 1996-1999 and it intended to analyse if the crop protection strategy followed by the farmer influenced the arthropod incidence and the natural control in protected vegetable crops under Mediterranean conditions. The observations were made fortnightly (Autumn/Winter) or weekly (Spring/Summer) in 30-60 plants/parcel (1 plant/35 m2) in order to evaluate incidences. Samples of pests and natural enemies were collected for systematic identification in two greenhouses for each protection strategy (traditional chemical control (TCC), integrated pest management (IPM) and pest control allowed in organic farming (OF)) in lettuce, tomato, green beans and cucumber. Data on incidence of mites, aphids, caterpillars, leafminers, whiteflies, thrips and respective natural enemies were registered as well as phytosanitary treatments performed (farmers' information and/or in loco traces). The leafminers were the pest whose incidence more often presented significant statistical differences between the studied protection strategies. In relation to this pest, the main results obtained were: a higher feeding punctures incidence in TCC than in IPM; higher incidence of adults, mines and feeding punctures in TCC than in OF; and a higher mines' incidence in IPM than in OF. Both in TCC and IPM high percentages of plants with mines were found although without an adult proportional presence. In the first case this was due to the repeatedly phytosanitary treatments applied; in the second case it was due to the natural control, since in IPM and OF greenhouses the collected larvae were mostly parasitized or dead. In spite of the fact these two strategies have as final result a similar mines and adults incidence, their production and environmental costs are quite different. Significant differences at the beneficials' population level between TCC greenhouses and IPM or OF greenhouses were found. As the farmers did no biological treatments these

  12. Protective effect of monochromatic red light of LED against the oxidative effects of microwave radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsibulyin, O.S.; Yakimenko, Yi.L.; Sidorik, Je.P.

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative mechanisms of hazard effects of radiofrequency radiation (RFR) were elucidated recently, and this opens new approaches for the protection of living organisms against harmful effects of RFR. We demonstrate the significant protective effect and the antioxidant potential of monochromatic red light of light-emitting diodes (LED, λ = 630- 650 nm) in microwave GSM 900 MHz exposed embryos of Japanese quails

  13. A Model for Protective Behavior against the Harmful Effects of Radiation based on Medical Institution Classifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Eun Ok; Kwon, Deok Mun [Daegu Health College, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Dong, Kyung Rae [Gwangju Health College University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Han, Seung Moo [Kyung Hee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-12-15

    This study surveyed a total of 1,322 radiation technologist in health care institutions throughout Korea. This is a comparative study conducted on the levels of protective behavior against the harmful effects of radiation in heath care institutions which indicated that university hospitals and general hospitals showed higher level of protective behavior than for medical practitioners. This study found university hospitals have the following 7 characteristics to manage protective behavior against the harmful effects of radiation, protective environment, self-efficacy by distinction of task , self-efficacy, expectation of the protective behavior, the number of patients, level of the education related to the protection of the harmful effects of radiation and protective attitude. While general hospitals have the following 3 characteristics protective environment, expectation of the protective behavior and protective attitude. Hospitals have the following 4 characteristics protective environment, expectation of the protective behavior, protective attitude and self-efficacy and medical clinics have characteristics protective environment.

  14. A Model for Protective Behavior against the Harmful Effects of Radiation based on Medical Institution Classifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Eun Ok; Kwon, Deok Mun; Dong, Kyung Rae; Han, Seung Moo

    2010-01-01

    This study surveyed a total of 1,322 radiation technologist in health care institutions throughout Korea. This is a comparative study conducted on the levels of protective behavior against the harmful effects of radiation in heath care institutions which indicated that university hospitals and general hospitals showed higher level of protective behavior than for medical practitioners. This study found university hospitals have the following 7 characteristics to manage protective behavior against the harmful effects of radiation, protective environment, self-efficacy by distinction of task , self-efficacy, expectation of the protective behavior, the number of patients, level of the education related to the protection of the harmful effects of radiation and protective attitude. While general hospitals have the following 3 characteristics protective environment, expectation of the protective behavior and protective attitude. Hospitals have the following 4 characteristics protective environment, expectation of the protective behavior, protective attitude and self-efficacy and medical clinics have characteristics protective environment

  15. Energy evaluation of protection effectiveness of anti-vibration gloves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermann, Tomasz; Dobry, Marian Witalis

    2017-09-01

    This article describes an energy method of assessing protection effectiveness of anti-vibration gloves on the human dynamic structure. The study uses dynamic models of the human and the glove specified in Standard No. ISO 10068:2012. The physical models of human-tool systems were developed by combining human physical models with a power tool model. The combined human-tool models were then transformed into mathematical models from which energy models were finally derived. Comparative energy analysis was conducted in the domain of rms powers. The energy models of the human-tool systems were solved using numerical simulation implemented in the MATLAB/Simulink environment. The simulation procedure demonstrated the effectiveness of the anti-vibration glove as a method of protecting human operators of hand-held power tools against vibration. The desirable effect is achieved by lowering the flow of energy in the human-tool system when the anti-vibration glove is employed.

  16. [BCG vaccine against tuberculosis: its protective effect and vaccination policies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Susan M; Dantas, Odimariles Maria Souza; Ximenes, Ricardo; Barreto, Mauricio L

    2007-09-01

    The BCG vaccine has been in use since 1921, but still arouses controversy and uncertainties. The objective was to analyze the protective effect of the BCG vaccine in its first and second doses and the accompanying vaccination policies. A systematic review of the literature in both English and Spanish was carried out, covering the period 1948 to 2006, using the PubMed database. The main search terms used included BCG vaccine, BCG efficacy, BCG and tuberculosis. The studies were grouped by design, with the main results from the clinic tests, case-control studies and meta-analyses presented separately. The protective effect of the first dose of the BCG vaccine against tuberculosis in its miliary and meningeal forms is high. However, the results vary in relation to the pulmonary form of the disease, with some indicating zero effect and others levels of nearly 80%. Research is being carried out to develop new vaccines that could substitute the BCG or be used as a booster. There are evidences that the protective effect of the BCG vaccine does not increase with a second dose. In spite of its limitations and the expectation that a new tuberculosis vaccine will be developed in the future, the BCG vaccine remains an important tool in controlling the harmful effects of tuberculosis, particularly in countries with medium or high incidence levels of the disease.

  17. The effect of regional variation of seismic wave attenuation on the strong ground motion from earthquakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, D.H.; Bernreuter, D.L.

    1981-10-01

    Attenuation is caused by geometric spreading and absorption. Geometric spreading is almost independent of crustal geology and physiographic region, but absorption depends strongly on crustal geology and the state of the earth's upper mantle. Except for very high frequency waves, absorption does not affect ground motion at distances less than about 25 to 50 km. Thus, in the near-field zone, the attenuation in the eastern United States is similar to that in the western United States. Beyond the near field, differences in ground motion can best be accounted for by differences in attenuation caused by differences in absorption. The stress drop of eastern earthquakes may be higher than for western earthquakes of the same seismic moment, which would affect the high-frequency spectral content. But we believe this factor is of much less significance than differences in absorption in explaining the differences in ground motion between the East and the West. The characteristics of strong ground motion in the conterminous United States are discussed in light of these considerations, and estimates are made of the epicentral ground motions in the central and eastern United States. (author)

  18. The strong effect of gaps on the required shaping of the ITER first wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stangeby, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Divertor tokamaks such as ITER also need limiters, namely for startup, rampdown, as well as protection of the main wall from normal and off-normal loads during the diverted phase. In future fusion devices the volume within the magnetic coils will be at a premium and it will be important to make the limiters as thin as possible. A continuous, or almost continuous, wall-limiter can be made thinner than a set of well spaced discrete limiters. The need to be able to remove and replace the components of a wall-limiter requires that its individual panels in fact be discrete but the gaps between the panels should be made as small as possible relative to the panel width to maximize the wall coverage and to minimize the extent of exposed panel edges. The modularity of a wall-limiter leads inevitably to misalignments. The gaps and misalignments reduce the power-handling capability of a modular wall-limiter relative to an ideal wall-limiter, i.e. one without any gaps or misalignments. It is shown that even small gaps and radial misalignments between the individual panels of a modular wall-limiter can require so much shaping, i.e. chamfering, of the panels in order to protect the panel edges that the peak deposited power flux density on the panel face considerably exceeds that for an ideal wall-limiter, typically by an order of magnitude. Nevertheless, compared with a set of discrete limiters which are separated by gaps larger than the limiter toroidal size, a modular, small-gap wall-limiter can still be thinner and can have lower peak deposited power flux densities (MW m -2 ), for a given total power load (MW).

  19. Variation in the Protective Effect of Higher Education Against Depression*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauldry, Shawn

    2016-01-01

    Numerous studies document that higher education is associated with a reduced likelihood of depression. The protective effects of higher education, however, are known to vary across population subgroups. This study tests competing theories for who is likely to obtain a greater protective benefit from a college degree against depression through an analysis of data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health and recently developed methods for analyzing heterogeneous treatment effects involving the use of propensity scores. The analysis examines how the effects of two “treatments” (at least some college education and attaining at least a four-year college degree) on latent depressive symptomology vary by background disadvantage, as indicated by having a low propensity for completing some college or attaining a four-year college degree. Results indicate that people from disadvantaged backgrounds realize a greater protective effect of higher education, either completing some college or attaining a four-year degree, against depressive symptomology than people from advantaged backgrounds. This pattern is more pronounced for people who attain at least a four-year degree than for people who complete at least some college education. PMID:27840772

  20. arXiv Strong reduction of the effective radiation length in an oriented PWO scintillator crystal

    CERN Document Server

    Bandiera, L.; Romagnoni, M.; Argiolas, N.; Bagli, E.; Ballerini, G.; Berra, A.; Brizzolani, C.; Camattari, R.; De Salvador, D.; Haurylavets, V.; Mascagna, V.; Mazzolari, A.; Prest, M.; Soldani, M.; Sytov, A.; Vallazza, E.

    We measured a considerable increase of the emitted radiation by 120 GeV/c electrons in an axially oriented lead tungstate scintillator crystal, if compared to the case in which the sample was not aligned with the beam direction. This enhancement resulted from the interaction of particles with the strong crystalline field. The data collected at the external lines of CERN SPS were critically compared to Monte Carlo simulations based on the Baier Katkov quasiclassical method, highlighting a reduction of the scintillator radiation length by a factor of five in case of beam alignment with the [001] crystal axes. As a consequence, oriented scintillator crystals may be profitably exploited to reduce the amount of material in electromagnetic calorimeters/detectors for fixed-target experiments in high-energy physics, as well as for satellite-borne gamma-telescopes in astrophysics.

  1. Effects of weak and strong localization in tunnel characteristics of contacts on HTSC base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Revenko, Yu.V.; Svistunov, V.M.; Grigut', O.V.; Belogolovskij, M.A.; Khachaturov, A.I.

    1992-01-01

    It is found that a phenomena governed by the electronic processes in the disordered surface normal layer of material are observed in the tunnel contatcs bases on metal oxide superconductors of 1-2-3 group. Measured characteristics σ(U)=dI/dU ore determined both by contact's barrier properties and conductivity in the disordered region of metal oxides in the vicinity of a barrier. As regards high-temperature contacts σ(U) value at high temperatures us determined by the Schottky barrier and at low temperatures - by activation processes of charge transfer over strongly localized states in near-the-barrier region of the contact. Crossing over towards logarithmic dependence in the tunnel conductuvity σ(U) of low-Ohmic transitions are attributed to the occurrence of 2D state density conditions in the tunnel surface layers of metal oxides

  2. Caulis Lonicerae Japonicae extract shows protective effect on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Caulis Lonicerae Japonicae extract shows protective effect on osteoporosis in rats. ... Result: The results show that a high-dose of CLJE (600 mg/kg) significantly inhibited bone mineral density (BMD) reduction of L4 vertebrae (0.24 ± 0.02, p < 0.05) and femur (0.24 ± 0.03, p < 0.05) caused by OVX, and prevented the ...

  3. Strong control and squeezing effects of radiation states in a slab waveguide sandwiched between two omnidirectional mirrors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Driel, H.M.; Hoekstra, Hugo; Stoffer, Remco; Yudistira, D.

    The effect of sandwiching a slab waveguide in air between two omnidirectional mirrors on the local density of modes is investigated theoretically. Design aspects of such a structure are considered, and it is shown that the local density of modes other than the slab-guided mode can be strongly

  4. Protective Effects of Cilastatin against Vancomycin-Induced Nephrotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanca Humanes

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Vancomycin is a very effective antibiotic for treatment of severe infections. However, its use in clinical practice is limited by nephrotoxicity. Cilastatin is a dehydropeptidase I inhibitor that acts on the brush border membrane of the proximal tubule to prevent accumulation of imipenem and toxicity. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential protective effect of cilastatin on vancomycin-induced apoptosis and toxicity in cultured renal proximal tubular epithelial cells (RPTECs. Porcine RPTECs were cultured in the presence of vancomycin with and without cilastatin. Vancomycin induced dose-dependent apoptosis in cultured RPTECs, with DNA fragmentation, cell detachment, and a significant decrease in mitochondrial activity. Cilastatin prevented apoptotic events and diminished the antiproliferative effect and severe morphological changes induced by vancomycin. Cilastatin also improved the long-term recovery and survival of RPTECs exposed to vancomycin and partially attenuated vancomycin uptake by RPTECs. On the other hand, cilastatin had no effects on vancomycin-induced necrosis or the bactericidal effect of the antibiotic. This study indicates that cilastatin protects against vancomycin-induced proximal tubule apoptosis and increases cell viability, without compromising the antimicrobial effect of vancomycin. The beneficial effect could be attributed, at least in part, to decreased accumulation of vancomycin in RPTECs.

  5. Early protective effects of Iloprost after experimental spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attar, A; Tuna, H; Sargon, M F; Yüceer, N; Türker, R K; Egemen, N

    1998-06-01

    This investigation was undertaken to study the early protective effects of Iloprost, a stable analogue of prostacyclin, after spinal cord injury in rabbit. Sixteen adult male rabbits (New Zealand Albino) were injured by application of epidural aneurysm clip. Eight rabbits received an intravenous (i.v.) infusion of 30 micrograms kg-1 Iloprost, and eight rabbits received an infusion of saline (SF). Treatment with Iloprost started immediately after spinal cord injury and continued for one hour. Evoked potentials were recorded for each rabbit at one, 15, and 60 minutes after the spinal cord injury. Twenty-four hours later, all the rabbits were deeply anesthetized and spinal cords were removed for histopathological examinations. There was no meaningful statistical difference between cortical somatosensorial evoked potentials (CSEP) of the saline and Iloprost group. However, light and electron microscopic studies showed that the Iloprost treated group had moderate protection of myelin and axons; and limited edema. These results suggest that intravenous Iloprost treatment after spinal cord injury has a highly protective effect without any side effects.

  6. Survey of strong motion earthquake effects on thermal power plants in California with emphasis on piping systems. Volume 2, Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevenson, J.D. [Stevenson and Associates, Cleveland, OH (United States)

    1995-11-01

    Volume 2 of the ``Survey of Strong Motion Earthquake Effects on Thermal Power Plants in California with Emphasis on Piping Systems`` contains Appendices which detail the detail design and seismic response of several power plants subjected to strong motion earthquakes. The particular plants considered include the Ormond Beach, Long Beach and Seal Beach, Burbank, El Centro, Glendale, Humboldt Bay, Kem Valley, Pasadena and Valley power plants. Included is a typical power plant piping specification and photographs of typical power plant piping specification and photographs of typical piping and support installations for the plants surveyed. Detailed piping support spacing data are also included.

  7. Protective effects of Mengshan green tea and hawk tea against UV-ray irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Xiaoming; Ren Zhenglong; Zhang Huaiyu; Tang Zongxiang; Luo Peigao

    2005-01-01

    A group of cultured normal human skin-derived fibroblasts was used as the cell model to investigate protective and repair effects of aqueous extracts of Mengshan green tea and Hawk tea against 320-400 nm UV-ray irradiation, with the methods of MTT colorimetry and LDH release. It was found that the aqueous extracts had strong protective effect on fibroblasts against the UV-rays with dose dependence. There were no significant differences between the two kinds of tea aqueous extracts in a higher concentration of 5 mg/mL, whereas at lower concentrations of 2.5 and 1.25 mg/mL the, green tea aqueous extract was less effective than the hawk-tea aqueous extract in protecting fibroblasts from the UV-ray damage. Meanwhile, it was discovered that the green tea and hawk-tea aqueous extract could repair damages induced by the UV irradiation with dose dependence. But there were no statistically significant differences between the two kinds of aqueous extract. The effects may be related to antioxidant effect of tea polyphenol. (authors)

  8. Photogeneration of neutrino and axions under stimulating effect of strong magnetic field

    CERN Document Server

    Skobelev, V V

    2001-01-01

    The processes of the neutrino and axions photoproduction on the gamma(Ze) -> gamma(nu nu-bar), gamma alpha nuclei, as well as the photon inelastic scattering on the gamma gamma -> gamma(nu nu-bar), gamma alpha photon are considered within the frames of the developed two-dimensional co-variant theory for calculating the matrix of the Feynman diagrams in the strong magnetic field. The contribution of the neutrino radiative photoproduction on the nuclei to the luminosity of the magnetic neutron stars on the early stages of their evolution may compete with the URCA-processes, because the matrix elements in the four-pole diagram depend linearly on the induction of B magnetic field by the B values approx 10 sup 3 -10 sup 4 B sub 0 (B sub 0 = m sub e sup 2 /|e| = 4.41 x 10 sup 1 sup 3 Gs). The evaluation of the axion mass upper boundary, compatible with other independent results, is obtained from the condition of the neutrino luminosity prevailing over the axion one at supposed temperature and magnetic field inducti...

  9. Does cannabidiol protect against adverse psychological effects of THC?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond J.M. eNiesink

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The recreational use of cannabis can have persistent adverse effects on mental health. Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC is the main psychoactive constituent of cannabis, and most, if not all, of the effects associated with the use of cannabis are caused by THC. Recent studies have suggested a possible protective effect of another cannabinoid, cannabidiol (CBD. A literature search was performed in the bibliographic databases PubMed, PsycINFO and Web of Science using the keyword ‘cannabidiol.’ After removing duplicate entries, 1295 unique titles remained. Based on the titles and abstracts, an initial selection was made. The reference lists of the publications identified in this manner were examined for additional references. Cannabis is not a safe drug. Depending on how often someone uses, the age of onset, the potency of the cannabis that is used and someone's individual sensitivity, the recreational use of cannabis may cause permanent psychological disorders. Most recreational users will never be faced with such persistent mental illness, but in some individuals cannabis use leads to undesirable effects: cognitive impairment, anxiety, paranoia and increased risks of developing chronic psychosis or drug addiction. Studies examining the protective effects of CBD have shown that CBD can counteract the negative effects of THC. However, the question remains of how the laboratory results translate to the types of cannabis that are encountered by real-world recreational users.

  10. Transgenerational effects of mild heat in Arabidopsis thaliana show strong genotype specificity that is explained by climate at origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groot, Maartje P; Kubisch, Alexander; Ouborg, N Joop; Pagel, Jörn; Schmid, Karl J; Vergeer, Philippine; Lampei, Christian

    2017-08-01

    Transgenerational environmental effects can trigger strong phenotypic variation. However, it is unclear how cues from different preceding generations interact. Also, little is known about the genetic variation for these life history traits. Here, we present the effects of grandparental and parental mild heat, and their combination, on four traits of the third-generation phenotype of 14 Arabidopsis thaliana genotypes. We tested for correlations of these effects with climate and constructed a conceptual model to identify the environmental conditions that favour the parental effect on flowering time. We observed strong evidence for genotype-specific transgenerational effects. On average, A. thaliana accustomed to mild heat produced more seeds after two generations. Parental effects overruled grandparental effects in all traits except reproductive biomass. Flowering was generally accelerated by all transgenerational effects. Notably, the parental effect triggered earliest flowering in genotypes adapted to dry summers. Accordingly, this parental effect was favoured in the model when early summer heat terminated the growing season and environments were correlated across generations. Our results suggest that A. thaliana can partly accustom to mild heat over two generations and genotype-specific parental effects show non-random evolutionary divergence across populations that may support climate change adaptation in the Mediterranean. © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  11. Novel influenza virus vectors expressing Brucella L7/L12 or Omp16 proteins in cattle induced a strong T-cell immune response, as well as high protectiveness against B. abortus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabynov, Kaissar; Kydyrbayev, Zhailaubay; Ryskeldinova, Sholpan; Yespembetov, Bolat; Zinina, Nadezhda; Assanzhanova, Nurika; Kozhamkulov, Yerken; Inkarbekov, Dulat; Gotskina, Tatyana; Sansyzbay, Abylai

    2014-04-11

    This paper presents the results of a study of the immunogenicity and protectiveness of new candidate vector vaccine against Brucella abortus - a bivalent vaccine formulation consisting of a mixture of recombinant influenza A subtype H5N1 or H1N1 (viral constructs vaccine formulation) viruses expressing Brucella ribosomal protein L7/L12 and Omp16, in cattle. To increase the effectiveness of the candidate vaccine, adjuvants such as Montanide Gel01 or chitosan were included in its composition. Immunization of cattle (heifers aged 1-1.5 years, 5 animals per group) with the viral constructs vaccine formulation only, or its combination with adjuvants Montanide Gel01 or chitosan, was conducted via the conjunctival method using cross prime (influenza virus subtype H5N1) and booster (influenza virus subtype H1N1) vaccination schedules at an interval of 28 days. Vaccine candidates were evaluated in comparison with the positive (B. abortus S19) and negative (PBS) controls. The viral constructs vaccine formulations, particularly in combination with Montanide Gel01 adjuvant promoted formation of IgG antibodies (with a predominance of antibodies of isotype IgG2a) against Brucella L7/L12 and Omp16 proteins in ELISA. Moreover, these vaccines in cattle induced a strong antigen-specific T-cell immune response, as indicated by a high number of CD4(+) and CD8(+) cells, as well as the concentration of IFN-γ, and most importantly provided a high level of protectiveness comparable to the commercial B. abortus S19 vaccine and superior to the B. abortus S19 vaccine in combination with Montanide Gel01 adjuvant. Based on these findings, we recommended the bivalent vaccine formulation containing the adjuvant Montanide Gel01 for practical use in cattle. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. The usage of phase change materials in fire fighter protective clothing: its effect on thermal protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Mengmeng

    2017-12-01

    The thermal protective performance of the fire fighter protective clothing is of vital importance for fire fighters. In the study fabrics treated by phase change materials (PCMs) were applied in the multi-layered fabrics of the fire fighter protective clothing ensemble. The PCM fabrics were placed at the different layers of the clothing and their thermal protective performance were measured by a TPP tester. Results show that with the application of the PCM fabrics the thermal protection of the multi-layered fabrics was greatly increased. The time to reach a second degree burn was largely reduced. The location of the PCM fabrics at the different layers did not affect much on the thermal protective performance. The higher amount of the PCM adds on, the higher thermal protection was brought. The fabrics with PCMs of a higher melting temperature could contribute to higher thermal protection.

  13. The effect of whole body irradiation on the action of strong analgesics of mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cvetkovicj, M.; Milovanovicj, A.; Tanasijevicj, D.

    1987-01-01

    The effect of whole body irradiation of male mice with single doses of 3 and 7 Gy ( 60 Co source) on analgesic action of three morphine-like drugs was studied. Over the first 6 days after irradiation, the analgesic effect of alfentanil and fentanyl was significantly less pronounced in irradiated animals than in control ones. During the subsequent period of 24 days till the end of experiment, the analgesic effect in irradiated animals gradually increased reaching and exceeding the control values. On the contrary, the analgesic effect of butorphanole was less pronounced in irradiated animals than in control ones, although the difference was not significantly. The difference between butorphanole and other two drugs are probably due to chemical structure and the metabolic fate in the body. (author) 8 refs.; 2 figs

  14. Strong-field ionization of xenon dimers: The effect of two-equivalent-center interference and of driving ionic transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, C.; Feng, T.; Raabe, N.; Rottke, H.

    2018-02-01

    Strong-field ionization (SFI) of the homonuclear noble gas dimer Xe2 is investigated and compared with SFI of the Xe atom and of the ArXe heteronuclear dimer by using ultrashort Ti:sapphire laser pulses and photoelectron momentum spectroscopy. The large separation of the two nuclei of the dimer allows the study of two-equivalent-center interference effects on the photoelectron momentum distribution. Comparing the experimental results with a new model calculation, which is based on the strong-field approximation, actually reveals the influence of interference. Moreover, the comparison indicates that the presence of closely spaced gerade and ungerade electronic state pairs of the Xe2 + ion at the Xe2 ionization threshold, which are strongly dipole coupled, affects the photoelectron momentum distribution.

  15. Impact of the strong electromagnetic field on the QCD effective potential for homogeneous Abelian gluon field configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galilo, Bogdan V.; Nedelko, Sergei N.

    2011-01-01

    The one-loop quark contribution to the QCD effective potential for the homogeneous Abelian gluon field in the presence of an external strong electromagnetic field is evaluated. The structure of extrema of the potential as a function of the angles between chromoelectric, chromomagnetic, and electromagnetic fields is analyzed. In this setup, the electromagnetic field is considered as an external one while the gluon field represents domain structured nonperturbative gluon configurations related to the QCD vacuum in the confinement phase. Two particularly interesting gluon configurations, (anti-)self-dual and crossed orthogonal chromomagnetic and chromoelectric fields, are discussed specifically. Within this simplified framework it is shown that the strong electromagnetic fields can play a catalyzing role for a deconfinement transition. At the qualitative level, the present consideration can be seen as a highly simplified study of an impact of the electromagnetic fields generated in relativistic heavy ion collisions on the strongly interacting hadronic matter.

  16. Perspective has a strong effect on the calculation of historical contributions to global warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skeie, Ragnhild B.; Fuglestvedt, Jan; Berntsen, Terje; Peters, Glen P.; Andrew, Robbie; Allen, Myles; Kallbekken, Steffen

    2017-02-01

    The politically contentious issue of calculating countries’ contributions to climate change is strongly dependent on methodological choices. Different principles can be applied for distributing efforts for reducing human-induced global warming. According to the ‘Brazilian Proposal’, industrialized countries would reduce emissions proportional to their historical contributions to warming. This proposal was based on the assumption that the political process would lead to a global top-down agreement. The Paris Agreement changed the role of historical responsibilities. Whereas the agreement refers to equity principles, differentiation of mitigation efforts is delegated to each country, as countries will submit new national contributions every five years without any international negotiation. It is likely that considerations of historical contributions and distributive fairness will continue to play a key role, but increasingly so in a national setting. Contributions to warming can be used as a background for negotiations to inform and justify positions, and may also be useful for countries’ own assessment of what constitutes reasonable and fair contributions to limiting warming. Despite the fact that the decision from COP21 explicitly rules out compensation in the context of loss and damage, it is likely that considerations of historical responsibility will also play a role in future discussions. However, methodological choices have substantial impacts on calculated contributions to warming, including rank-ordering of contributions, and thus support the view that there is no single correct answer to the question of how much each country has contributed. There are fundamental value-related and ethical questions that cannot be answered through a single set of calculated contributions. Thus, analyses of historical contributions should not present just one set of results, but rather present a spectrum of results showing how the calculated contributions vary with a

  17. Strong synergistic effects in PLA/PCL blends: Impact of PLA matrix viscosity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostafinska, Aleksandra; Fortelný, Ivan; Hodan, Jiří; Krejčíková, Sabina; Nevoralová, Martina; Kredatusová, Jana; Kruliš, Zdeněk; Kotek, Jiří; Šlouf, Miroslav

    2017-05-01

    Blends of two biodegradable polymers, poly(lactic acid) (PLA) and poly(ϵ-caprolactone) (PCL), with strong synergistic improvement in mechanical performance were prepared by melt-mixing using the optimized composition (80/20) and the optimized preparation procedure (a melt-mixing followed by a compression molding) according to our previous study. Three different PLA polymers were employed, whose viscosity decreased in the following order: PLC ≈ PLA1 > PLA2 > PLA3. The blends with the highest viscosity matrix (PLA1/PCL) exhibited the smallest PCL particles (d∼0.6μm), an elastic-plastic stable fracture (as determined from instrumented impact testing) and the strongest synergistic improvement in toughness (>16× with respect to pure PLA, exceeding even the toughness of pure PCL). According to the available literature, this was the highest toughness improvement in non-compatiblized PLA/PCL blends ever achieved. The decrease in the matrix viscosity resulted in an increase in the average PCL particle size and a dramatic decrease in the overall toughness: the completely stable fracture (for PLA1/PCL) changed to the stable fracture followed by unstable crack propagation (for PLA2/PCL) and finally to the completely brittle fracture (for PLA3/PCL). The stiffness of all blends remained at well acceptable level, slightly above the theoretical predictions based on the equivalent box model. Despite several previous studies, the results confirmed that PLA and PCL could behave as compatible polymers, but the final PLA/PCL toughness is extremely sensitive to the PCL particle size distribution, which is influenced by both processing conditions and PLA viscosity. PLA/PCL blends with high stiffness (due to PLA) and toughness (due to PCL) are very promising materials for medical applications, namely for the bone tissue engineering. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of a parental program for preventing underage drinking - The NGO program strong and clear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eriksson Charli

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The present study is an evaluation of a 3-year parental program aiming to prevent underage drinking. The intervention was implemented by a non-governmental organization and targeted parents with children aged 13-16 years old and included recurrent activities during the entire period of secondary school. The program consisted of four different types of group and self-administered activities: parent meetings, family dialogues, friend meetings, and family meetings. Methods A quasi-experimental design was used following parents and children with questionnaires during the three years of secondary school. The analytic sample consisted of 509 dyads of parents and children. Measures of parental attitudes and behaviour concerning underage drinking and adolescents' lifetime alcohol consumption and drunkenness were used. Three socio-demographic factors were included: parental education, school, and gender of the child. A Latent Growth Modelling (LGM approach was used to examine changes in parental behaviour regarding youth drinking and in young people's drinking behaviour. To test for the pre-post test differences in parental attitudes repeated measures ANOVA were used. Results The results showed that parents in the program maintained their restrictive attitude toward underage drinking to a higher degree than non-participating parents. Adolescents of participants were on average one year older than adolescents with non-participating parents when they made their alcohol debut. They were also less likely to have ever been drunk in school year 9. Conclusion The results of the study suggested that Strong and Clear contributed to maintaining parents' restrictive attitude toward underage drinking during secondary school, postponing alcohol debut among the adolescents, and significantly reducing their drunkenness.

  19. Breast Milk Hormones and Their Protective Effect on Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fissore MariaF

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Data accumulated over recent years have significantly advanced our understanding of growth factors, cytokines, and hormones in breast milk. Here we deal with leptin, adiponectin, IGF-I, ghrelin, and the more recently discovered hormones, obestatin, and resistin, which are present in breast milk and involved in food intake regulation and energy balance. Little is known about these compounds in infant milk formulas. Nutrition in infancy has been implicated in the long-term tendency to obesity, and a longer duration of breastfeeding appears to protect against its development. Diet-related differences in serum leptin and ghrelin values in infancy might explain anthropometric differences and differences in dietary habits between breast-fed and formula-fed infants also later in life. However, there are still gaps in our understanding of how hormones present in breast milk affect children. Here we examine the data related to hormones contained in mother's milk and their potential protective effect on subsequent obesity.

  20. Psidium guajava Linn confers gastro protective effects on rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingston Raja, N R; Sundar, K

    2012-02-01

    The best alternatives to synthetic medicines, available, for the treatment of gastric ulcer disorders, are the natural products found in plants. They are known to exhibit a variety of activities. The present study is aimed at the screening of Psidium (P.) guajava Linn for its gastro protective effect. The methanol extracts of the leaves of P. guajava were tested in three different ulcer models viz. aspirin (ASP), pyloric ligation (PL) and ethanol (EtoH) induced ulcer models in rats. The treatment of P. guajava at varying doses (100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg) significantly (p guajava may be responsible for the anti-ulcer property exhibited. The results further suggest that P. guajava possess gastro protective as well as ulcer healing properties which might also be due to its anti-secretory properties.

  1. Effectiveness of Human Research Protection Program Performance Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsan, Min-Fu; Nguyen, Yen

    2017-10-01

    We analyzed human research protection program performance metric data of all Department of Veterans Affairs research facilities obtained from 2010 to 2016. Among a total of 25 performance metrics, 21 (84%) showed improvement, four (16%) remained unchanged, and none deteriorated during the study period. The overall improvement from these 21 performance metrics was 81.1% ± 18.7% (mean ± SD), with a range of 30% to 100%. The four performance metrics that did not show improvement all had initial noncompliance/incidence rates of performance metrics that showed improvement ranged from 0.05% to 60%. However, of the 21 performance metrics that showed improvement, 10 had initial noncompliance/incidence rates of performance measurement is an effective tool in improving the performance of human research protection programs.

  2. Breast Milk Hormones and Their Protective Effect on Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Savino

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Data accumulated over recent years have significantly advanced our understanding of growth factors, cytokines, and hormones in breast milk. Here we deal with leptin, adiponectin, IGF-I, ghrelin, and the more recently discovered hormones, obestatin, and resistin, which are present in breast milk and involved in food intake regulation and energy balance. Little is known about these compounds in infant milk formulas. Nutrition in infancy has been implicated in the long-term tendency to obesity, and a longer duration of breastfeeding appears to protect against its development. Diet-related differences in serum leptin and ghrelin values in infancy might explain anthropometric differences and differences in dietary habits between breast-fed and formula-fed infants also later in life. However, there are still gaps in our understanding of how hormones present in breast milk affect children. Here we examine the data related to hormones contained in mother's milk and their potential protective effect on subsequent obesity.

  3. How strong is the edge effect in the adsorption of anticancer drugs on a graphene cluster?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rungnim, Chompoonut; Chanajaree, Rungroj; Rungrotmongkol, Thanyada; Hannongbua, Supot; Kungwan, Nawee; Wolschann, Peter; Karpfen, Alfred; Parasuk, Vudhichai

    2016-04-01

    The adsorption of nucleobase-analog anticancer drugs (fluorouracil, thioguanine, and mercaptopurine) on a graphene flake (C54H18) was investigated by shifting the site at which adsorption occurs from one end of the sheet to the other end. The counterpoise-corrected M06-2X/cc-pVDZ binding energies revealed that the binding stability decreases in the sequence thioguanine > mercaptopurine > fluorouracil. We found that adsorption near the middle of the sheet is more favorable than adsorption near the edge due to the edge effect. This edge effect is stronger for the adsorption of thioguanine or mercaptopurine than for fluorouracil adsorption. However, the edge effect reduces the binding energy of the drug to the flake by only a small amount, <5 kcal/mol, depending on the adsorption site and the alignment of the drug at this site.

  4. Protected area effectiveness against land development in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Rodríguez, David; Martínez-Vega, Javier

    2018-06-01

    Land use-land cover (LULC) changes towards artificial covers are one of the main global threats to biodiversity conservation. In this comprehensive study, we tested a number of methodological and research hypotheses, and a new covariate control technique in order to address common protected area (PA) assessment issues and accurately assess whether different PA networks have had an effect at preventing development of artificial LULCs in Spain, a highly biodiverse country that has experienced massive socioeconomic transformations in the past two decades. We used digital census data for four PA networks designated between 1990 and 2000: Nature Reserves (NRs), Nature Parks (NPs), Sites of Community Importance (SCIs) and Special Protection Areas (SPAs). We analysed the effect of explanatory variables on the ecological effectiveness of protected polygons (PPs): Legislation stringency, cummulative legal designations, management, size, age and bio-physical characteristics. A multiple Before-After-Control-Impact (BACI) semi-experimental research design was used whereby artificial land cover increase (ALCI) and proportional artificial land cover increase (PALCI) results were compared inside and outside PAs, using 1 km and 5 km buffer areas surrounding PAs as controls. LULC data were retrieved from Corine Land Cover (CLC) 1990 and 2006 data. Results from three spatial-statistical models using progressively restrictive criteria to select control areas increasingly more accurate and similar to the assessed PPs were compared. PAs were a generally effective territorial policy to prevent land development in Spain. NRs were the most effective PA category, with no new artificial land covers in the assessed period, although exact causality could not be attributed due to legal overlaps. SPAs were the least effective category, with worse ALCI data than their control areas. Legal protection was effective against land development, which was influenced by most bio-physical variables

  5. Strong excitonic effects in CuAlO2 delafossite transparent conductive oxides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laskowski, Robert; Christensen, Niels Egede; Blaha, Peter

    2009-01-01

    The imaginary part of the dielectric function of CuAlO2 has been calculated including the electron-hole correlation effects within Bethe-Salpeter formalism (BSE). In the initial step of the BSE solver the band structure was calculated within density-functional theory plus an orbital field (LDA/GG...

  6. Rapid Transition of the Hole Rashba Effect from Strong Field Dependence to Saturation in Semiconductor Nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jun-Wei; Li, Shu-Shen; Zunger, Alex

    2017-09-22

    The electric field manipulation of the Rashba spin-orbit coupling effects provides a route to electrically control spins, constituting the foundation of the field of semiconductor spintronics. In general, the strength of the Rashba effects depends linearly on the applied electric field and is significant only for heavy-atom materials with large intrinsic spin-orbit interaction under high electric fields. Here, we illustrate in 1D semiconductor nanowires an anomalous field dependence of the hole (but not electron) Rashba effect (HRE). (i) At low fields, the strength of the HRE exhibits a steep increase with the field so that even low fields can be used for device switching. (ii) At higher fields, the HRE undergoes a rapid transition to saturation with a giant strength even for light-atom materials such as Si (exceeding 100 meV Å). (iii) The nanowire-size dependence of the saturation HRE is rather weak for light-atom Si, so size fluctuations would have a limited effect; this is a key requirement for scalability of Rashba-field-based spintronic devices. These three features offer Si nanowires as a promising platform for the realization of scalable complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor compatible spintronic devices.

  7. Effect of strong electrolytes on edible oils part 1: viscosity of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The energy of activation (ΔEv), latent heat of vapourization (ΔLv) and molar volume of oil (Vm) were also calculated. Effect of electrolytes show that, the concentration of electrolytes increases the value of (ΔEv) and (ΔLv) whereas the value of molar volume (Vm) decrease with the concentration of oil and electrolytes. In brief ...

  8. Effect of strong electrolytes on edible oils part II: vViscosity of maize ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The electrolytes behave as structure breaker. The effect of temperature was also determined in terms of fluidity parameters, energy of activation, latent heat of vaporization, molar volume of oil and free energy change of activation for viscous flow. Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management Vol. 10 (3) 2006: ...

  9. Faraday effect in rare-earth ferrite garnets located in strong magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valiev, U.V.; Zvezdin, A.K.; Krinchik, G.S.; Levitin, R.Z.; Mukimov, K.M.; Popov, A.I.

    1983-01-01

    The Faraday effect is investigated experimentally in single crystal specimens of rare earth iron garnets (REIG) R 3 Fe 5 O 12 (R=Y, Gd, Tb, Dy, Er, Tm, Yb, Eu, Sm and Ho) and also in mixed iron garnets Rsub(x)Ysub(3-x)Fesub(5)Osub(12) (R=Tb, Dy). The m.easurements are carried out in pulsed magnetic fields of intensity up to 200 kOe, in a temperature range from 4.2 to 300 K and at a wavelength of the light lambda=1.15 μm. The field dependence of the Faraday effect observed in the REIG cannot be explained if only the usually considered ''paramagnetic'' contribution to the Faraday effect is taken into account. A theory is developed which, besides the paramagnetic mechanism, takes into account a diamagnetic mechanism and also the mixing of the wave functions of the ground and excited multiplets. The contributions of each of these three mechanisms to the angle of rotation of the plane of polarization by the rare earth sublattice of the iron garnet are estimated theoretically. It is concluded that the mixing mechanism contributes significantly to the field and temperature dependences of the Faraday effect in REIG

  10. Effect of inter-fibre bonding on the fracture of fibrous networks with strong interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goutianos, Stergios; Mao, Rui; Peijs, Ton

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The mechanical response of cellulose nanopaper composites is investigated using a three-dimensional (3D) finite element fibrous network model with focus on the effect of inter-fibre bonds. It is found that the Young’s modulus and strength, for fixed fibre properties, are mainly controlle...

  11. The protective effect of ischemic preconditioning on rat testis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciralik Harun

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been demonstrated that brief episodes of sublethal ischemia-reperfusion, so-called ischemic preconditioning, provide powerful tissue protection in different tissues such as heart, brain, skeletal muscle, lung, liver, intestine, kidney, retina, and endothelial cells. Although a recent study has claimed that there are no protective effects of ischemic preconditioning in rat testis, the protective effects of ischemic preconditioning on testicular tissue have not been investigated adequately. The present study was thus planned to investigate whether ischemic preconditioning has a protective effect on testicular tissue. Methods Rats were divided into seven groups that each contained seven rats. In group 1 (control group, only unilateral testicular ischemia was performed by creating a testicular torsion by a 720 degree clockwise rotation for 180 min. In group 2, group 3, group 4, group 5, group 6, and group 7, unilateral testicular ischemia was performed for 180 min following different periods of ischemic preconditioning. The ischemic preconditioning periods were as follows: 10 minutes of ischemia with 10 minutes of reperfusion in group 2; 20 minutes of ischemia with 10 minutes of reperfusion in group 3; 30 minutes of ischemia with 10 minutes of reperfusion in group 4; multiple preconditioning periods were used (3 × 10 min early phase transient ischemia with 10 min reperfusion in all episodes in group 5; multiple preconditioning periods were used (5, 10, and 15 min early phase transient ischemia with 10 min reperfusion in all episodes in group 6; and, multiple preconditioning periods were used (10, 20, and 30 min early phase transient ischemia with 10 min reperfusion in all episodes in group 7. After the ischemic protocols were carried out, animals were sacrificed by cervical dislocation and testicular tissue samples were taken for biochemical measurements (protein, malondialdehyde, nitric oxide and histological examination

  12. Protective effects of polysaccharides from Psidium guajava leaves against oxidative stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seo-Young; Kim, Eun-A; Kim, Young-Sun; Yu, Seok-Kyu; Choi, Changyong; Lee, Jung-Suk; Kim, Yong-Tae; Nah, Jae-Woon; Jeon, You-Jin

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze antioxidant properties of a polysaccharide isolated from Psidium guajava leaves (PS-PGL) in vitro including its radical scavenging activities and protective effects against damage to cells as well as in vivo in zebrafish. The water extract of P. guajava leaves (WE-PGL) and PS-PGL showed strong radical scavenging effects in terms of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), hydroxyl, and alkyl radical. Compared to WE-PGL, PS-PGL enhanced all scavenging activities and in particular strongly scavenged the hydroxyl radical (50% inhibitory concentration [IC50], 0.02mg/mL). In addition, PS-PGL exerted a protective effect against hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress and against toxicity to Vero cells. Furthermore, in vivo experiments using zebrafish embryos indicated that treatment with hydrogen peroxide decreased the survival rate and heart-beating rate of zebrafish embryos, whereas these problems were reduced by PS-PGL treatment. Moreover, PS-PGL inhibited hydrogen peroxide-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, lipid peroxidation, and cell death. Taken together, these results suggest that PS-PGL may be useful as a beneficial antioxidant material in the food and cosmetic industries. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Fourier heat conduction as a strong kinetic effect in one-dimensional hard-core gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hanqing; Wang, Wen-ge

    2018-01-01

    For a one-dimensional (1D) momentum conserving system, intensive studies have shown that generally its heat current autocorrelation function (HCAF) tends to decay in a power-law manner and results in the breakdown of the Fourier heat conduction law in the thermodynamic limit. This has been recognized to be a dominant hydrodynamic effect. Here we show that, instead, the kinetic effect can be dominant in some cases and leads to the Fourier law for finite-size systems. Usually the HCAF undergoes a fast decaying kinetic stage followed by a long slowly decaying hydrodynamic tail. In a finite range of the system size, we find that whether the system follows the Fourier law depends on whether the kinetic stage dominates. Our Rapid Communication is illustrated by the 1D hard-core gas models with which the HCAF is derived analytically and verified numerically by molecular dynamics simulations.

  14. Biological Maturity Status Strongly Intensifies the Relative Age Effect in Alpine Ski Racing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Müller

    Full Text Available The relative age effect (RAE is a well-documented phenomenon in youth sports. This effect exists when the relative age quarter distribution of selected athletes shows a biased distribution with an over-representation of relatively older athletes. In alpine ski racing, it exists in all age categories (national youth levels up to World Cup. Studies so far could demonstrate that selected ski racers are relatively older, taller and heavier. It could be hypothesized that relatively younger athletes nearly only have a chance for selection if they are early maturing. However, surprisingly this influence of the biological maturity status on the RAE could not be proven, yet. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of the biological maturity status on the RAE in dependence of the level of competition. The study investigated 372 elite youth ski racers: 234 provincial ski racers (P-SR; high level of competition and 137 national ski racers (N-SR; very high level of competition. Anthropometric characteristics were measured to calculate the age at peak height velocity (APHV as an indicator of the biological maturity status. A significant RAE was present among both P-SR and N-SR, with a larger effect size among the latter group. The N-SR significantly differed in APHV from the P-SR. The distribution of normal, early and late maturing athletes significantly differed from the expected normal distribution among the N-SR, not among the P-SR. Hardly any late maturing N-SR were present; 41.7% of the male and 34% of the female N-SR of the last relative age quarter were early maturing. These findings clearly demonstrate the significant influence of the biological maturity status on the selection process of youth alpine ski racing in dependence of the level of competition. Relatively younger athletes seem to have a chance of selection only if they are early maturing.

  15. Biological Maturity Status Strongly Intensifies the Relative Age Effect in Alpine Ski Racing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Lisa; Müller, Erich; Hildebrandt, Carolin; Raschner, Christian

    2016-01-01

    The relative age effect (RAE) is a well-documented phenomenon in youth sports. This effect exists when the relative age quarter distribution of selected athletes shows a biased distribution with an over-representation of relatively older athletes. In alpine ski racing, it exists in all age categories (national youth levels up to World Cup). Studies so far could demonstrate that selected ski racers are relatively older, taller and heavier. It could be hypothesized that relatively younger athletes nearly only have a chance for selection if they are early maturing. However, surprisingly this influence of the biological maturity status on the RAE could not be proven, yet. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of the biological maturity status on the RAE in dependence of the level of competition. The study investigated 372 elite youth ski racers: 234 provincial ski racers (P-SR; high level of competition) and 137 national ski racers (N-SR; very high level of competition). Anthropometric characteristics were measured to calculate the age at peak height velocity (APHV) as an indicator of the biological maturity status. A significant RAE was present among both P-SR and N-SR, with a larger effect size among the latter group. The N-SR significantly differed in APHV from the P-SR. The distribution of normal, early and late maturing athletes significantly differed from the expected normal distribution among the N-SR, not among the P-SR. Hardly any late maturing N-SR were present; 41.7% of the male and 34% of the female N-SR of the last relative age quarter were early maturing. These findings clearly demonstrate the significant influence of the biological maturity status on the selection process of youth alpine ski racing in dependence of the level of competition. Relatively younger athletes seem to have a chance of selection only if they are early maturing.

  16. Protective gloves on manual sugar cane cutting are really effective?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahão, R F; Gonzaga, M C; Braunbeck, O A

    2012-01-01

    Problems related to the use of personal protective equipment (PPE), specially the use of protective gloves for the manual sugar cane cutting, motivated this research, made possible by a tripartite negotiation involving the Ministry of Labor, the Union of Rural Workers and the Employer's Association of sugarcane agribusiness. The main objective was to evaluate, from an ergonomics perspective, the impact of use of the gloves during the manual cane sugar cutting, raising questions on safety, effectiveness and comfort. The research was carried in a sugarcane industry of São Paulo for two seasons involving 47 workers who made a qualitative analysis of acceptance of four models of protective gloves. The methodology included the use of semi-structured interviews, questionnaires and field observations and the experimental determination of the coefficient of static friction developed between the gloves and the surfaces of the machete handle. The main results indicate the general inadequacy of the gloves currently used forcing the employees to improvise. Workers found the glove of leather and nylon scraping the best reported for comfort in use. The overall results highlight the problem of detachment of test standards for the manufacture of PPE, ignoring users and the activity to be performed.

  17. Protective effect of sulforaphane against dopaminergic cell death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Ji Man; Lee, Yong Jin; Lee, So Yeon; Kim, Eun Mee; Moon, Younghye; Kim, Ha Won; Hwang, Onyou

    2007-04-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder with a selective loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. Evidence suggests oxidation of dopamine (DA) to DA quinone and consequent oxidative stress as a major factor contributing to this vulnerability. We have previously observed that exposure to or induction of NAD(P)H:quinone reductase (QR1), the enzyme that catalyzes the reduction of quinone, effectively protects DA cells. Sulforaphane (SF) is a drug identified as a potent inducer of QR1 in various non-neuronal cells. In the present study, we show that SF protects against compounds known to induce DA quinone production (6-hydroxydopamine and tetrahydrobiopterin) in DAergic cell lines CATH.a and SK-N-BE(2)C as well as in mesencephalic DAergic neurons. SF leads to attenuation of the increase in protein-bound quinone in tetrahydrobiopterin-treated cells, but this does not occur in cells that have been depleted of DA, suggesting involvement of DA quinone. SF pretreatment prevents membrane damage, DNA fragmentation, and accumulation of reactive oxygen species. SF causes increases in mRNA levels and enzymatic activity of QR1 in a dose-dependent manner. Taken together, these results indicate that SF causes induction of QR1 gene expression, removal of intracellular DA quinone, and protection against toxicity in DAergic cells. Thus, this major isothiocyanate found in cruciferous vegetables may serve as a potential candidate for development of treatment and/or prevention of PD.

  18. Effects of protective knee bracing on speed and agility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, D L; Hamson, K R; Bay, R C; Bryce, C D

    2000-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of prophylactic knee braces on athlete speed and agility, as well as brace tendency to migrate. Thirty college football players in full gear ran a 40-yard dash and a four-cone agility drill wearing braces on both knees or no brace (control). Braces included the DonJoy Legend, Breg Tradition, OMNI-AKS 101W, McDavid Knee Guard, and models 1 and 2 of the Air Armor Knee and Thigh Protection System. Brace migration and subjective measures were recorded after each trial. In the 40-yard dash, times using Air Armor 1 and OMNI did not differ significantly from control. Times with other braces were significantly slower. In the four-cone drill, only the Breg times were significantly slower than control. The Air Armor 1 and McDavid braces showed significantly less superior/inferior migration in the 40-yard dash than other braces. In the four-cone drill, the Air Armor 1 and 2 showed significantly less superior/inferior migration than other braces. These findings indicate that selected knee braces do not significantly reduce speed or agility. Braces showed a variable tendency to migrate, which could affect their protective function and athlete performance. This information will help athletes and coaches decide about knee-brace use during sports; studies are needed regarding whether braces protect against knee injury. This study does not constitute an endorsement of knee-brace use or efficacy.

  19. Rethinking the effectiveness of public protected areas in southwestern china.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jianchu; Melick, David R

    2007-04-01

    It is internationally recognized that conservation policies should respect indigenous cultures and consider the livelihoods of people affected by conservation restrictions. Countering this are concerns that human occupation and use of natural reserves is incompatible with conservation aims. But in China today the continued use and management of natural areas by local communities is likely to deliver better conservation outcomes than the current drive to establish public protected areas. The effectiveness of many protected areas in China is compromised by institutional conflicts, lack of ongoing financial and technical support, confusion between the objectives of generating revenue and conservation, dubious scientific definitions, lack of community trust in policies, and obscure user rights and land tenures. Southwestern China-one of the most biologically and ethnologically diverse areas on Earth-is a good illustration of a place where culture and biological diversity are closely linked. The indigenous people in this area have shown that local livelihood practices can be advantageous for the long-term maintenance of conservation goals. Rather than creating new protected areas, we argue that China is better advised to support ongoing sustainable use of natural areas by the people who have lived and nurtured these environments for generations.

  20. The protective effects of trace elements against side effects induced by ionizing radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosseinimehr, Seyed Jaial [Dept. of Radiopharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    Trace elements play crucial role in the maintenance of genome stability in the cells. Many endogenous defense enzymes are containing trace elements such as superoxide dismutase and metalloproteins. These enzymes are contributing in the detoxification of reactive oxidative species (ROS) induced by ionizing radiation in the cells. Zinc, copper, manganese, and selenium are main trace elements that have protective roles against radiation-induced DNA damages. Trace elements in the free salt forms have protective effect against cell toxicity induced by oxidative stress, metal-complex are more active in the attenuation of ROS particularly through superoxide dismutase mimetic activity. Manganese-complexes in protection of normal cell against radiation without any protective effect on cancer cells are more interesting compounds in this topic. The aim of this paper to review the role of trace elements in protection cells against genotoxicity and side effects induced by ionizing radiation.

  1. <strong>Dimensional asymptotics of effective actions on S^n, and proof of Bär-Schopka's conjecturestrong>

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Niels Martin

    We study the dimensional asymptotics of the effective actions, or functional determinants, for the Dirac operator D and Laplacians \\Delta +\\beta R on round S^n. For Laplacians the behavior depends on ``the coupling strength'' \\beta, and one cannot in general expect a finite limit of \\zeta'(0), an...... spheres to unit volume, since \\lim_{k\\to\\infty}\\det(\\Delta, S_\\mathrm{rescaled}^{2k+1})=\\frac{1}{2\\pi e}....

  2. A multi-subunit Chlamydia vaccine inducing neutralizing antibodies and strong IFN-γ(+) CMI responses protects against a genital infection in minipigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøje, Sarah; Olsen, Anja Weinreich; Erneholm, Karin

    2016-01-01

    Chlamydia is the most widespread sexually transmitted bacterial disease and a prophylactic vaccine is highly needed. Ideally, this vaccine is required to induce a combined response of Th1 cell-mediated immune (CMI) response in concert with neutralizing antibodies. Using a novel Göttingen minipig...... animal model, we evaluated the immunogenicity and efficacy of a multi-subunit vaccine formulated in the strong Th1-inducing adjuvant CAF01. We evaluated a mixture of two fusion proteins (Hirep1 and CTH93) designed to promote either neutralizing antibodies or cell-mediated immunity, respectively. Hirep1...

  3. Effects of strong network modifiers on Fe3+/Fe2+ in silicate melts: an experimental study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borisov, Alexander; Behrens, Harald; Holtz, Francois

    2017-05-01

    The effect of CaO, Na2O, and K2O on ferric/ferrous ratio in model multicomponent silicate melts was investigated in the temperature range 1450-1550 °C at 1-atm total pressure in air. It is demonstrated that the addition of these network modifier cations results in an increase of Fe3+/Fe2+ ratio. The influence of network modifier cations on the ferric/ferrous ratio increases in the order Ca SiO2-TiO2-Al2O3-FeO-Fe2O3-MgO-CaO-Na2O-K2O-P2O5 melts at air conditions.

  4. In-medium covariant propagator of baryons under a strong magnetic field: Effect of the intrinsic magnetic moments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguirre, R.M.; Paoli, A.L. de [Universidad Nacional de La Plata, and IFLP, Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, La Plata (Argentina)

    2016-11-15

    We obtain the covariant propagator at finite temperature for interacting baryons immersed in a strong magnetic field. The effect of the intrinsic magnetic moments on the Green function are fully taken into account. We make an expansion in terms of eigenfunctions of a Dirac field, which leads us to a compact form of its propagator. We present some simple applications of these propagators, where the statistical averages of nuclear currents and energy density are evaluated. (orig.)

  5. Absence of strong strain effects in behavioral analyses of Shank3-deficient mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elodie Drapeau

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Haploinsufficiency of SHANK3, caused by chromosomal abnormalities or mutations that disrupt one copy of the gene, leads to a neurodevelopmental syndrome called Phelan-McDermid syndrome, symptoms of which can include absent or delayed speech, intellectual disability, neurological changes and autism spectrum disorders. The SHANK3 protein forms a key structural part of the post-synaptic density. We previously generated and characterized mice with a targeted disruption of Shank3 in which exons coding for the ankyrin-repeat domain were deleted and expression of full-length Shank3 was disrupted. We documented specific deficits in synaptic function and plasticity, along with reduced reciprocal social interactions, in Shank3 heterozygous mice. Changes in phenotype owing to a mutation at a single locus are quite frequently modulated by other loci, most dramatically when the entire genetic background is changed. In mice, each strain of laboratory mouse represents a distinct genetic background and alterations in phenotype owing to gene knockout or transgenesis are frequently different across strains, which can lead to the identification of important modifier loci. We have investigated the effect of genetic background on phenotypes of Shank3 heterozygous, knockout and wild-type mice, using C57BL/6, 129SVE and FVB/Ntac strain backgrounds. We focused on observable behaviors with the goal of carrying out subsequent analyses to identify modifier loci. Surprisingly, there were very modest strain effects over a large battery of analyses. These results indicate that behavioral phenotypes associated with Shank3 haploinsufficiency are largely strain-independent.

  6. Protective effects of metformin on neointima formation in insulin resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu V Pankratova

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Реферат по материалам статьи Lu J, Ji J, Meng H, Wang D, Jiang B, Liu L, Randell E, Adeli K, Meng QH. The protective effect and underlying mechanism of metformin on neointima formation in fructose-induced insulin resistant rats. Cardiovasc Diabetol. 2013 Apr 5;12:58. doi: 10.1186/1475-2840-12-58.

  7. Protective Effect of Ozone against Hemiscorpius lepturus Envenomation in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naserzadeh, Parvaneh; Shahi, Farshad; Shahbazzadeh, Delavar; Ghanei, Mostafa; Ashtari, Khadijeh; Panahi, Yoones; Hosseini, Mir-Jamal; Izadi, Morteza

    2017-08-01

    Scorpion (Hemiscorpius lepturus) stings are a public health concern in Iran, particularly in south and southwestern regions of Iran. The gold standard for the treatment of a scorpion sting is anti-venom therapy. However, immunotherapy can have serious side effects, such as anaphylactic shock (which can sometimes even lead to death). The aim of the current study was to demonstrate the protective effect of ozone against toxicity induced by Hemiscorpius lepturus (H. lepturus) venom in mice. Eight hours after the injection of ozone to the experimental design groups, the male mice were decapitated and mitochondria were isolated from five different tissues (liver, kidney, heart, brain, and spinal cord) using differential ultracentrifugation. Then, assessment of mitochondrial parameters including mitochondrial reactive oxidative species (ROS) production, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), ATP level, and the release of cytochrome c from the mitochondria was performed. Our results showed that H. lepturus venom-induced oxidative stress is related to ROS production and MMP collapse, which is correlated with cytochrome c release and ATP depletion, indicating the predisposition to the cell death signaling. In general, ozone therapy in moderate dose can be considered as clinically effective for the treatment of H. lepturus sting as a protective and antioxidant agent. Copyright © 2017 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  8. Effectiveness of Personal Protective Equipment and Isolation Precautions in Protecting Healthcare Workers from Acquiring Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nyquist, Robert A

    2005-01-01

    ...) who provided direct patient care. This paper focuses on assessing the risk factors related to HCWs acquiring SARS and the effectiveness of infection control measures in protecting HCWs from disease transmission while caring for SARS infected patients...

  9. Effects of strong electron correlations in Ti8C12 Met-Car

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varganov, Sergey A.; Gordon, Mark S.

    2006-01-01

    The results of multireference configuration interaction (MRCI) with single and double excitations and single reference coupled cluster (CCSD(T)) calculations on Ti 8 C 12 metallocarbohedryne (Met-Car) are reported. The distortions of the T d structure to D 2d and C 3v structures due to the Jahn-Teller effect are studied. It is shown that the Ti 8 C 12 wave function has significant multireference character. The choice of the active space for multireference self-consistent field (MCSCF) calculations is discussed. The failure of multireference perturbation theory with a small active space is attributed to multiple intruder states. A new, novel type of MCSCF calculation, ORMAS (occupation restricted multiple active spaces) with a large active space are carried out for several electronic states of Ti 8 C 12 . The Jahn-Teller distorted D 2d 1 A 1 (nearly T d ) structure is predicted to be the Ti 8 C 12 ground state. Predictions of the Ti 8 C 12 ionization potential with different ab initio methods are presented

  10. Noise-induced effects on multicellular biopacemaker spontaneous activity: Differences between weak and strong pacemaker cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghighi, Alireza; Comtois, Philippe

    2017-09-01

    Self-organization of spontaneous activity of a network of active elements is important to the general theory of reaction-diffusion systems as well as for pacemaking activity to initiate beating of the heart. Monolayer cultures of neonatal rat ventricular myocytes, consisting of resting and pacemaker cells, exhibit spontaneous activation of their electrical activity. Similarly, one proposed approach to the development of biopacemakers as an alternative to electronic pacemakers for cardiac therapy is based on heterogeneous cardiac cells with resting and spontaneously beating phenotypes. However, the combined effect of pacemaker characteristics, density, and spatial distribution of the pacemaker cells on spontaneous activity is unknown. Using a simple stochastic pattern formation algorithm, we previously showed a clear nonlinear dependency of spontaneous activity (occurrence and amplitude of spontaneous period) on the spatial patterns of pacemaker cells. In this study, we show that this behavior is dependent on the pacemaker cell characteristics, with weaker pacemaker cells requiring higher density and larger clusters to sustain multicellular activity. These multicellular structures also demonstrated an increased sensitivity to voltage noise that favored spontaneous activity at lower density while increasing temporal variation in the period of activity. This information will help researchers overcome the current limitations of biopacemakers.

  11. <strong>EFFECTS OF HYALURONAN ON THREE-DIMENSIONAL MICROARCHITECTURE OF SUBCHONDRAL BONE TISSUES IN GUINEA PIG PRIMARY OSTEOARTHROSISstrong>

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Ming

    ; and the control groups received vehicle. After sacrifice, the left tibiae were harvested and micro-CT scanned, followed by mechanical testing and collagen and mineral determination. Results: The HA-treated groups had almost normal cartilage, whereas the control groups had typical osteoarthrosis (OA......-term study, these latter changes were more pronounced, with an additionally significant decrease in connectivity and bone surface density. HA groups had greater bone mineral concentration and mineral density, lower collagen to mineral ratio, and preserved the mechanical properties of cancellous bone...... level, and effectively changes the subchondral bone tissue microarchitecture, collagen and mineral content and density without altering the mechanical properties of cancellous bone. The most striking features are the microarchitectural changes in the subchondral cancellous bone that lead to lower bone...

  12. A Solar Eruption from a Weak Magnetic Field Region with Relatively Strong Geo-Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, R.

    2017-12-01

    A moderate flare eruption giving rise to a series of geo-effectiveness on 2015 November 4 caught our attentions, which originated from a relatively weak magnetic field region. The associated characteristics near the Earth are presented, which indicates that the southward magnetic field in the sheath and the ICME induced a geomagnetic storm sequence with a Dst global minimum of 90 nT. The ICME is indicated to have a small inclination angle by using a Grad-Shafranov technique, and corresponds to the flux rope (FR) structure horizontally lying on the solar surface. A small-scale magnetic cancelling feature was detected which is beneath the FR and is co-aligned with the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) EUV brightening prior to the eruption. Various magnetic features for space-weather forecasting are computed by using a data product from the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) onboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) called Space-weather HMI Active Region Patches (SHARPs), which help us identify the changes of the photospheric magnetic fields during the magnetic cancellation process and prove that the magnetic reconnection associated with the flux cancellation is driven by the magnetic shearing motion on the photosphere. An analysis on the distributions at different heights of decay index is carried out. Combining with a filament height estimation method, the configurations of the FR is identified and a decay index critical value n = 1 is considered to be more appropriate for such a weak magnetic field region. Through a comprehensive analysis to the trigger mechanisms and conditions of the eruption, a clearer scenario of a CME from a relatively weak region is presented.

  13. [Effectiveness of eyeglasses for protection against ultraviolet rays].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Y; Kojima, M; Sasaki, K

    1999-05-01

    The relationship between eyeglass size and protection of the eye surface from the effects of solar ultraviolet (UV) rays was investigated. Solar UV rays irradiating the eye surface were measured on a mannequin which modeled the standard facial bone structure of a Japanese female. UV sensor chips (photo-sensitivity: 260-400 nm) were attached to the ocular surface of the lid fissure. UV measurement was done from 12:00 to 15:00 on a sunny day in March. UV intensity was measured under the following conditions: 1) with or without eyeglasses, 2) wearing sunglasses with side protectors, and 3) wearing a cap with a 7 cm brim. Eyeglasses of four frame sizes (width: 48-57 mm) were put on the mannequin. All lenses were made of plastic and coated so as to be impervious to rays shorter than 400 nm. The refractive power was 0 diopters. At the same time, UV irradiation intensity from all directions (excluding from the earth direction) was measured using a polyhedron type UV sensor with 25 sensor chips. Except for eyeglasses with the smallest frame size, eyeglasses effectively reduced UV exposure to sunlight from the upper front direction. However, protection against rays from the upper temporal direction was extremely poor. Sunlight from the upper back was reflected by the posterior surface of the eyeglasses and reached the eye surface. The efficacy of eyeglasses against UV depends on their size. The shape of the eyeglasses and reflection from the posterior lens surface are also of great importance. Small eyeglasses do not offer ideal UV protection for the Japanese face shape.

  14. Maturity Status Strongly Influences the Relative Age Effect in International Elite Under-9 Soccer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Müller, Josef Gehmaier, Christoph Gonaus, Christian Raschner, Erich Müller

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to assess the role of the relative age effect (RAE and to investigate the influence of the biological maturity status on the RAE in international under-9 soccer. The birth dates of 222 male participants of the U9 Eurochampionship Soccer Tournament in Vienna in 2016 were analyzed and divided into four relative age quarters (Q1-Q4 and the biological maturity status was assessed with the age at peak height velocity (APHV method. Based on the mean±standard deviation of the APHV, the athletes were divided into three groups of maturity: early, normal and late maturing. Chi-Square-tests were used to assess the difference between the observed and the expected even relative age quarter distribution and to evaluate the difference between the observed distribution of early, normal and late maturing athletes and the expected normal distribution. A univariate analysis of variance was performed to assess differences in the APHV between the relative age quarters. A RAE was present (χ2 = 23.87; p < 0.001; ω = 0.33. A significant difference was found in APHV between the four relative age quarters (F = 9.906; p < 0.001; relatively older athletes were significantly less mature. A significant difference was found between the distribution of early, normal and late maturing athletes and the expected normal distribution for athletes of Q1 (high percentage of late maturing athletes: 27%; χ2 = 17.69; p < 0.001; ω = 0.46 and of Q4 (high percentage of early maturing soccer players: 31%; χ2 = 12.08; p = 0.002; ω = 0.58. These findings demonstrated that the selection process in international soccer, with athletes younger than 9 years, seems to be associated with the biological maturity status and the relative age. Relatively younger soccer players seem to have a better chance for selection for international tournaments, if they enter puberty at an earlier age, whereas relatively older athletes seem to have an increased likelihood for

  15. Effectiveness of China's National Forest Protection Program and nature reserves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Guopeng; Young, Stephen S; Wang, Lin; Wang, Wei; Long, Yongcheng; Wu, Ruidong; Li, Junsheng; Zhu, Jianguo; Yu, Douglas W

    2015-10-01

    There is profound interest in knowing the degree to which China's institutions are capable of protecting its natural forests and biodiversity in the face of economic and political change. China's 2 most important forest-protection policies are its National Forest Protection Program (NFPP) and its national-level nature reserves (NNRs). The NFPP was implemented in 2000 in response to deforestation-caused flooding. We undertook the first national, quantitative assessment of the NFPP and NNRs to examine whether the NFPP achieved its deforestation-reduction target and whether the NNRs deter deforestation altogether. We used MODIS data to estimate forest cover and loss across mainland China (2000-2010). We also assembled the first-ever polygon dataset for China's forested NNRs (n = 237, 74,030 km(2) in 2000) and used both conventional and covariate-matching approaches to compare deforestation rates inside and outside NNRs (2000-2010). In 2000, 1.765 million km(2) or 18.7% of mainland China was forested (12.3% with canopy cover of ≥70%)) or woodland (6.4% with canopy cover forest and woodland had been lost, an annual deforestation rate of 2.7%. Forest-only loss was 127,473 km(2) (1.05% annually). In the NFPP provinces, the forest-only loss rate was 0.62%, which was 3.3 times lower than in the non-NFPP provinces. Moreover, the Landsat data suggest that these loss rates are overestimates due to large MODIS pixel size. Thus, China appears to have achieved, and even exceeded, its target of reducing deforestation to 1.1% annually in the NFPP provinces. About two-thirds of China's NNRs were effective in protecting forest cover (prevented loss 4073 km(2) unmatched approach; 3148 km(2) matched approach), and within-NNR deforestation rates were higher in provinces with higher overall deforestation. Our results indicate that China's existing institutions can protect domestic forest cover. © 2015 The Authors. Conservation Biology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc., on behalf of

  16. Self-assembly of a novel beta-In2S3 nanostructure exhibiting strong quantum confinement effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wu; Ma, Dekun; Huang, Zhen; Tang, Qun; Xie, Qin; Qian, Yitai

    2005-05-01

    The 3D beta-In2S3 flowerlike architecture assembled from nanoflakes was prepared via a novel complex-precursor assisted (CPA) solvothermal route. The as-prepared beta-In2S3 powder was characterized by X-ray diffraction pattern (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS), transition electron microscopy (TEM), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), ultraviolet-visible light (UV-vis) spectra, and photoluminescence spectrum. The novel 3D beta-In2S3 nanostructure exhibit a strong quantum confinement effect. FT-IR spectra were used to investigate the coordinative chemical effect in the complex. A possible mechanism was discussed.

  17. Protective effect of dietary nitrate on experimental gastritis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larauche, Muriel; Anton, Pauline M; Garcia-Villar, Rafaël; Theodorou, Vassilia; Frexinos, Jacques; Buéno, Lionel; Fioramonti, Jean

    2003-06-01

    Nitrates have long been considered as harmful dietary components and judged responsible for deleterious effects on human health, leading to stringent regulations concerning their levels in food and water. However, recent studies demonstrate that dietary nitrate may have a major role in human health as a non-immune mechanism for host defence, through its metabolism to NO in the stomach. NO is a versatile molecule and although evidence exists showing that administration of low doses of exogenous NO protects against gastrointestinal inflammation, higher NO doses have been shown to exacerbate injury. So, the effect of an ingestion of nitrates in doses corresponding to a normal diet in human consumers on an experimental gastritis induced by iodoacetamide in rats was investigated. During gastritis one of the following compounds was given orally: water; KNO3; the NO donor sodium nitroprusside; the NO scavenger haemoglobin given with either water or KNO3. N(G)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME), a non-specific NO synthase inhibitor, was administered with either water, iodoacetamide alone, or combined with KNO3. After killing, the stomach was resected and microscopic damage scores, myeloperoxidase and NO synthase activities were determined. Iodoacetamide-induced gastritis was significantly reduced by KNO3 administration, an effect which was reproduced by sodium nitroprusside and reversed by haemoglobin. l-NAME induced gastric mucosal damage in itself, and KNO3 did not prevent the gastritis induced by iodoacetamide associated with l-NAME. In conclusion, dietary nitrate exerts a protective effect against an experimental gastritis in rats by releasing NO in the stomach but such an effect requires the production of endogenous NO.

  18. Protective effect of cannabidiol against cadmium hepatotoxicity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouad, Amr A; Al-Mulhim, Abdulruhman S; Gomaa, Wafaey

    2013-10-01

    The protective effect of cannabidiol, the non-psychoactive component of Cannabis sativa, against liver toxicity induced by a single dose of cadmium chloride (6.5 mgkg(-1) i.p.) was investigated in rats. Cannabidiol treatment (5 mgkg(-1)/day, i.p.) was applied for five days starting three days before cadmium administration. Cannabidiol significantly reduced serum alanine aminotransferase, and suppressed hepatic lipid peroxidation, prevented the depletion of reduced glutathione and nitric oxide, and catalase activity, and attenuated the elevation of cadmium level in the liver tissue resulted from cadmium administration. Histopathological examination showed that cadmium-induced liver tissue injury was ameliorated by cannabidiol treatment. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that cannabidiol significantly decreased the cadmium-induced expression of tumor necrosis factor-α, cyclooxygenase-2, nuclear factor-κB, caspase-3, and caspase-9, and increased the expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase in liver tissue. It was concluded that cannabidiol may represent a potential option to protect the liver tissue from the detrimental effects of cadmium toxicity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  19. Protective effect of chitosan treatment against acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eda Ozcelik

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Acetaminophen (APAP is the most commonly reported toxic ingestion in the world. Severe liver injury resulting from overdose or chronic use of APAP remains a significant clinical problem. In recent years, the mechanisms underlying liver injury caused by APAP have become much better understood. We have studied the protective effect of chitosan supplementation against APAP-induced hepatotoxicity with respect to changes in the levels of total and lipid-bound sialic acid in the serum and in the liver tissue and changes in the activity of diagnostic marker enzymes, lipid peroxidation, and ceruloplasmin oxidase enzyme in normal and experimental groups of rats. During the experimental period, chitosan (200 mg/kg body weight per day was administered to APAP + chitosan-treated rats by oral gavage. Results showed that treatment with APAP induced a significant increase in the serum alanine aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase activities, in total and lipid-bound sialic acids levels, and in the liver lipid peroxide content. The administration of chitosan significantly prevented APAP-induced alterations in the levels of diagnostic marker enzymes, total sialic acid, lipid-bound sialic acid, and malondialdehyde in the experimental groups of rats. Furthermore, chitosan administration increased the activity of ceruloplasmin oxidase. In conclusion, our results suggest that chitosan has a protective effect on APAP-induced hepatic injury in rats. The study sheds light on the therapeutic potential of chitosan in an APAP-induced hepatotoxicity model.

  20. Hall effect in a strong magnetic field: Direct comparisons of compressible magnetohydrodynamics and the reduced Hall magnetohydrodynamic equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, L. N.; Dmitruk, P.; Gomez, D. O.

    2010-01-01

    In this work we numerically test a model of Hall magnetohydrodynamics in the presence of a strong mean magnetic field: the reduced Hall magnetohydrodynamic model (RHMHD) derived by [Gomez et al., Phys. Plasmas 15, 102303 (2008)] with the addition of weak compressible effects. The main advantage of this model lies in the reduction of computational cost. Nevertheless, up until now the degree of agreement with the original Hall MHD system and the range of validity in a regime of turbulence were not established. In this work direct numerical simulations of three-dimensional Hall MHD turbulence in the presence of a strong mean magnetic field are compared with simulations of the weak compressible RHMHD model. The results show that the degree of agreement is very high (when the different assumptions of RHMHD, such as spectral anisotropy, are satisfied). Nevertheless, when the initial conditions are isotropic but the mean magnetic field is maintained strong, the results differ at the beginning but asymptotically reach a good agreement at relatively short times. We also found evidence that the compressibility still plays a role in the dynamics of these systems, and the weak compressible RHMHD model is able to capture these effects. In conclusion the weak compressible RHMHD model is a valid approximation of the Hall MHD turbulence in the relevant physical context.

  1. Bioavailability, metabolism and potential health protective effects of dietary flavonoids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bredsdorff, Lea

    Dietary flavonoids constitute an important group of potential health protective compounds from fruits, vegetables, and plant-based products such as tea and wine. The beneficial effects of a diet high in flavonoids on the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) have been shown in several...... epidemiological studies but the evidence is inconclusive. One major obstacle for epidemiological studies investigating associations between flavonoid intake and risk of CHD is the estimation of flavonoid intake. There is a vast variety of flavonoids in commonly eaten food products but only limited knowledge...... of their content. In addition, variation in individual metabolic genotype and microflora may greatly affect the actual flavonoid exposure. The preventive effects of flavonoids on CHD are mainly ascribed to their anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities. Several mechanisms of anti-inflammatory and antioxidant...

  2. Protective Effect of Dietary Xylitol on Influenza A Virus Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Sun Young; Kim, Hyoung Jin; Kim, Hong-Jin

    2014-01-01

    Xylitol has been used as a substitute for sugar to prevent cavity-causing bacteria, and most studies have focused on its benefits in dental care. Meanwhile, the constituents of red ginseng (RG) are known to be effective in ameliorating the symptoms of influenza virus infection when they are administered orally for 14 days. In this study, we investigated the effect of dietary xylitol on influenza A virus infection (H1N1). We designed regimens containing various fractions of RG (RGs: whole extract, water soluble fraction, saponin and polysaccharide) and xylitol, and combination of xylitol with the RG fractions. Mice received the various combinations orally for 5 days prior to lethal influenza A virus infection. Almost all the mice died post challenge when xylitol or RGs were administered separately. Survival was markedly enhanced when xylitol was administered along with RGs, pointing to a synergistic effect. The effect of xylitol plus RG fractions increased with increasing dose of xylitol. Moreover, dietary xylitol along with the RG water soluble fraction significantly reduced lung virus titers after infection. Therefore, we suggest that dietary xylitol is effective in ameliorating influenza-induced symptoms when it is administered with RG fractions, and this protective effect of xylitol should be considered in relation to other diseases. PMID:24392148

  3. Protective effect of dietary xylitol on influenza A virus infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Young Yin

    Full Text Available Xylitol has been used as a substitute for sugar to prevent cavity-causing bacteria, and most studies have focused on its benefits in dental care. Meanwhile, the constituents of red ginseng (RG are known to be effective in ameliorating the symptoms of influenza virus infection when they are administered orally for 14 days. In this study, we investigated the effect of dietary xylitol on influenza A virus infection (H1N1. We designed regimens containing various fractions of RG (RGs: whole extract, water soluble fraction, saponin and polysaccharide and xylitol, and combination of xylitol with the RG fractions. Mice received the various combinations orally for 5 days prior to lethal influenza A virus infection. Almost all the mice died post challenge when xylitol or RGs were administered separately. Survival was markedly enhanced when xylitol was administered along with RGs, pointing to a synergistic effect. The effect of xylitol plus RG fractions increased with increasing dose of xylitol. Moreover, dietary xylitol along with the RG water soluble fraction significantly reduced lung virus titers after infection. Therefore, we suggest that dietary xylitol is effective in ameliorating influenza-induced symptoms when it is administered with RG fractions, and this protective effect of xylitol should be considered in relation to other diseases.

  4. Vaccination of feedlot cattle with extracts and membrane fractions from two Mycoplasma bovis isolates results in strong humoral immune responses but does not protect against an experimental challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulongo, Musa; Prysliak, Tracy; Perez-Casal, Jose

    2013-02-27

    Mycoplasma bovis is one of the most significant contributors to the bovine respiratory syndrome (BRD) that causes major losses in feedlot and dairy farms. Current experimental vaccines against M. bovis are ineffective and in some cases seem to enhance disease. Experimental infection with M. bovis induces a predominantly Th2 response and high levels of IgG1, which is an inferior opsonin and hence lacks protective capacity. In an attempt to induce a balanced (Th1/Th2) immune response, we have used CpG ODN 2007 as an adjuvant in a trial involving vaccination of cattle with M. bovis total extracts and/or membrane fractions and subsequent intranasal inoculation with an infective dose of M. bovis prepared from two different clinical isolates. Significant IgG1 serum responses were observed against both, extracts and fractions while IgG2 responses were significant against the extracts only. Proliferation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) after incubation with M. bovis cells was only observed in post-challenge samples of cattle vaccinated with both extracts and fractions but not in samples of cattle immunized with the membrane fractions alone. All groups showed transient weight losses and increased temperatures however, there were no significant differences in clinical parameters and survival rates between the groups. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Immunological and protective effects of diepitopic subunit dental caries vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Daniel J; King, William F; Rivero, Joy; Taubman, Martin A

    2005-05-01

    As a prelude to development of broader-spectrum vaccines for dental caries, we explored the immune potential of constructs combining epitopes from mutans streptococcal glucosyltransferases (GTF) and glucan binding protein B (GbpB). Two diepitopic peptide constructs were synthesized in a multiple antigenic peptide (MAP) format. Both constructs contained SYI, a 20-mer GbpB peptide that included a sequence having major histocompatibility complex class II binding characteristics. One diepitopic construct (SYI-CAT) also contained a 22-mer sequence from the catalytic domain of GTF. Another diepitopic construct (SYI-GLU) contained a 22-mer sequence from the glucan binding domain of GTF. To assess the ability of each construct to induce antibody reactive with GbpB and GTF native proteins, rats were injected subcutaneously with SYI-CAT, SYI-GLU, or the constituent monoepitopic constructs. Only the SYI-CAT construct induced significant levels of serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgA antibody to both pathogenesis-associated proteins. Also, immunization with SYI-CAT significantly (P dental caries after immunization with SYI-CAT, SYI, or CAT MAP constructs, followed by infection with Streptococcus mutans strain SJr. Dental caries were lower in each peptide-immunized group than in the sham-injected group. The level of protection after SYI-CAT immunization was similar to that after immunization with constituent MAP constructs. In another experiment, rats were infected with Streptococcus sobrinus strain 6715 under an identical protocol. Significant protection was observed on buccal surfaces in both SYI-CAT and CAT construct-immunized, but not in the SYI construct-immunized, groups. Thus, addition of the GbpB-derived SYI peptide to the GTF-derived CAT peptide construct not only enhanced the immunological response to CAT and GTF epitopes, but also extended the protective effect of the construct to include both S. mutans and S. sobrinus.

  6. Effect of Non Submerged Vanes on Separation Zone at Strongly-curved Channel Bends, a Laboratory Scale Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Akbar Akhtari

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Bends along open channels always pose difficulties for water transfer systems. One undesirable effect of bends in such channels, i.e. separation of water from inner banks, was studied. For the purposes of this study, the literature on the subject was first reviewed, and a strongly-curved open channel was designed and constructed on the laboratory scale. Several tests were performed to evaluate the accuracy of the lab model, data homogeneity, and systematic errors. The model was then calibrated and the influence of curvature on flow pattern past the curve was investigated. Also, for the first time, the influence of separation walls on flow pattern was investigated. Experimental results on three strongly-curved open channels with a curvature radius to channel width ratio of 1.5 and curvature angles of 30°, 60°, and 90° showed that, in all the cases studied, the effect of flow separation could be observed immediately after the curve. In addition, the greatest effect of flow separation was seen at a distance equal to channel width from the bend end. In the presence of middle walls and flow separation, the effect of water separation reduced at the bend, especially for a curvature of 90°.

  7. The bovine viral diarrhea virus E2 protein formulated with a novel adjuvant induces strong, balanced immune responses and provides protection from viral challenge in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snider, Marlene; Garg, Ravendra; Brownlie, Robert; van den Hurk, Jan V; van Drunen Littel-van den Hurk, Sylvia

    2014-11-28

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is still one of the most serious pathogens in cattle, meriting the development of improved vaccines. Recently, we developed a new adjuvant consisting of poly[di(sodium carboxylatoethylphenoxy)]-phosphazene (PCEP), either CpG ODN or poly(I:C), and an immune defense regulator (IDR) peptide. As this adjuvant has been shown to mediate the induction of robust, balanced immune responses, it was evaluated in an E2 subunit vaccine against BVDV in lambs and calves. The BVDV type 2 E2 protein was produced at high levels in a mammalian expression system and purified. When formulated with either CpG ODN or poly(I:C), together with IDR and PCEP, the E2 protein elicited high antibody titers and production of IFN-γ secreting cells in lambs. As the immune responses were stronger when poly(I:C) was used, the E2 protein with poly(I:C), IDR and PCEP was subsequently tested in cattle. Robust virus neutralizing antibodies as well as cell-mediated immune responses, including CD8(+) cytotoxic T cell (CTL) responses, were induced. The fact that CTL responses were demonstrated in calves vaccinated with an E2 protein subunit vaccine indicates that this adjuvant formulation promotes cross-presentation. Furthermore, upon challenge with a high dose of virulent BVDV-2, the vaccinated calves showed almost no temperature response, weight loss, leukopenia or virus replication, in contrast to the control animals, which had severe clinical disease. These data suggest that this E2 subunit formulation induces significant protection from BVDV-2 challenge, and thus is a promising BVDV vaccine candidate; in addition, the adjuvant platform has applications in bovine vaccines in general. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The effect of protected areas on forest disturbance in the Carpathian Mountains 1985-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butsic, Van; Munteanu, Catalina; Griffiths, Patrick; Knorn, Jan; Radeloff, Volker C; Lieskovský, Juraj; Mueller, Daniel; Kuemmerle, Tobias

    2017-06-01

    Protected areas are a cornerstone for forest protection, but they are not always effective during times of socioeconomic and institutional crises. The Carpathian Mountains in Eastern Europe are an ecologically outstanding region, with widespread seminatural and old-growth forest. Since 1990, Carpathian countries (Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, and Ukraine) have experienced economic hardship and institutional changes, including the breakdown of socialism, European Union accession, and a rapid expansion of protected areas. The question is how protected-area effectiveness has varied during these times across the Carpathians given these changes. We analyzed a satellite-based data set of forest disturbance (i.e., forest loss due to harvesting or natural disturbances) from 1985 to 2010 and used matching statistics and a fixed-effects estimator to quantify the effect of protection on forest disturbance. Protected areas in the Czech Republic, Slovakia, and the Ukraine had significantly less deforestation inside protected areas than outside in some periods; the likelihood of disturbance was reduced by 1-5%. The effectiveness of protection increased over time in these countries, whereas the opposite was true in Romania. Older protected areas were most effective in Romania and Hungary, but newer protected areas were more effective in Czech Republic, and Poland. Strict protection (International Union for Conservation of Nature [IUCN] protection category Ia-II) was not more effective than landscape-level protection (IUCN III-VI). We suggest that the strength of institutions, the differences in forest privatization, forest management, prior distribution of protected areas, and when countries joined the European Union may provide explanations for the strikingly heterogeneous effectiveness patterns among countries. Our results highlight how different the effects of protected areas can be at broad scales, indicating that the effectiveness of protected areas is

  9. Melatonin Protective Effects against Liver Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Khonakdar-Tarsi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Hepatic ischemia-reperfusion (I/R is a common phenomenon during liver surgery, transplantation, infection and trauma which results in damage and necrosis of the hepatic tissue through different pathways. Mechanisms involved in I/R damage are very intricate and cover several aspects. Several factors are involved in I/R-induced damages; briefly, decrease in sinusoidal perfusion and ATP generation because of low or no O2 supply, increase in production of reactive oxygen species (ROS and inflammatory factors and destruction of parenchymal cells resulted by these molecules are of the main causes of liver tissue injury during reperfusion. Melatonin’s antioxidant effect, and regulatory roles in the expression of different genes in the I/R insulted liver have been investigated by several studies. Melatonin and its metabolites are of the powerful direct scavengers of free radicals and ROS, so it can directly protect liver cell impairment from oxidative stress following I/R. In addition, this bioactive molecule up-regulates anti-oxidant enzyme genes like superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px and catalase (CAT. Tumor necrosis factors (TNF-α and interleukin-1 (IL-1, as potent pro-inflammatory factors, are generated in huge amounts during reperfusion. Melatonin is able to alleviate TNF-α generation and has hepatoprotective effect during I/R. It reduces the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines via reducing the binding of NF-κB to DNA. Imbalance between vasodilators (nitric oxide, NO and vasoconstrictors (endothelin, ET during I/R was shown to be the primary cause of liver microcirculation disturbance. Melatonin helps maintaining the stability of liver circulation and reduces hepatic injury during I/R through preventing alteration of the normal balance between ET and NO. The aim of this review was to explore the mechanisms of liver I/R injuries and the protective effects of melatonin against them.

  10. Protective Effects of Hydrogen Gas on Experimental Acute Pancreatitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao-Xin Zhou

    Full Text Available Acute pancreatitis (AP is an inflammatory disease mediated by damage to acinar cells and pancreatic inflammation. In patients with AP, subsequent systemic inflammatory responses and multiple organs dysfunction commonly occur. Interactions between cytokines and oxidative stress greatly contribute to the amplification of uncontrolled inflammatory responses. Molecular hydrogen (H2 is a potent free radical scavenger that not only ameliorates oxidative stress but also lowers cytokine levels. The aim of the present study was to investigate the protective effects of H2 gas on AP both in vitro and in vivo. For the in vitro assessment, AR42J cells were treated with cerulein and then incubated in H2-rich or normal medium for 24 h, and for the in vivo experiment, AP was induced through a retrograde infusion of 5% sodium taurocholate into the pancreatobiliary duct (0.1 mL/100 g body weight. Wistar rats were treated with inhaled air or 2% H2 gas and sacrificed 12 h following the induction of pancreatitis. Specimens were collected and processed to measure the amylase and lipase activity levels; the myeloperoxidase activity and production levels; the cytokine mRNA expression levels; the 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine, malondialdehyde, and glutathione levels; and the cell survival rate. Histological examinations and immunohistochemical analyses were then conducted. The results revealed significant reductions in inflammation and oxidative stress both in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, the beneficial effects of H2 gas were associated with reductions in AR42J cell and pancreatic tissue damage. In conclusion, our results suggest that H2 gas is capable of ameliorating damage to the pancreas and AR42J cells and that H2 exerts protective effects both in vitro and in vivo on subjects with AP. Thus, the results obtained indicate that this gas may represent a novel therapy agent in the management of AP.

  11. Protective Effects of Guava Pulp on Cholestatic Liver Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Jian; Yue, Chunyan; Qiu, Kai; Chen, Jie; Aller, Maria-Angeles; Ko, Kwang Suk

    2013-01-01

    Background. Cholestatic liver injury is a leading cause of chronic liver diseases involved with oxidative stress changes and inflammation; thus, antioxidant and anti-inflammation compound-rich guava may play a pivotal role in protecting against the cholestatic liver damages. Our aims for this study are to determine whether guava pulp (GP) has protective effects on cholestatic liver injury-induced mouse model and on interleukin-6 (IL-6) mediated proliferation of QBC939 cholangiocarcinoma cell line. Methods. Mice were induced to cholestatic liver damage by left and median bile duct ligation (LMBDL) surgery and then treated with GP. Plasma and liver samples were collected for biochemical and pathological assays. 5-Bromo-2′-deoxyuridine (BrdU) assay and Western blots were used to detect proliferation and gene expression in QBC939 cells, respectively. Results. Compared with LMBDL only group, in GP-treated mice, the levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and bilirubin decreased, biliary epithelial cell proliferation and liver fibrogenesis were suppressed, Src/MEK/ERK1/2/c-Myc pathway and expressions of transforming growth factor β1(TGF-β1), tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases TIMP), and procollagen 1α1(COL1α1) were downregulated significantly. Moreover, the GP extract reduced IL-6-enhanced QBC939 cell proliferation, p-ERK, and c-Myc expression as well. Conclusions. GP may provide a new perspective for the treatment of cholestatic liver injury. PMID:27335829

  12. Protective Effect of Anthocyanins Extract from Blueberry on TNBS-Induced IBD Model of Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin-Hua Wu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to evaluate the protective effect of anthocyanins extract of blueberry on trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS-induced inflammatory bowel disease (IBD model of mice. The study employed female C57BL/6 mice (n = 50, and colitis was induced by intracolonic injection of 0.5 mg of TNBS dissolved in 50% ethanol–phosphate buffered solution. The mice were divided into five groups (n = 10: vehicle, TNBS control and anthocyanins groups that received different doses of anthocyanins extract (10, 20 and 40 mg kg-1 daily for 6 days. Both increase in body weight and diarrhea symptoms were monitored each day. After 6 days, the animals were killed, and the following parameters were assessed: colon length, morphological score, histological score and biochemical assay (NO, myeloperoxidase (MPO, interleukin (IL-12, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α and interferon (IFN-γ. The results showed that the anthocyanins extract of blueberry rendered strong protection against TNBS-induced colonic damage at a dosage of 40 mg kg-1. When compared with the control, anthocyanins extract significantly prevented loss of body weight and ameliorated the scores of diarrhea, morphology and histology. Treatment with anthocyanins extract restored IL-10 excretion, as well as caused reduction in the levels of NO, MPO, IL-12, TNF-α and IFN-γ. Our research revealed the protective effect of anthocyanins extract from blueberry on TNBS-induced experimental colitis in mice, as well as examined whether high levels of dietary blueberries would lower the risk or have protective effects on human IBD, which may require further investigation.

  13. Returns to Scale and Damages to Scale with Strong Complementary Slackness Conditions in DEA Assessment: Japanese Corporate Effort on Environment Protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sueyoshi, Toshiyuki; Goto, Mika

    2012-01-01

    This study proposes a use of Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) for environmental assessment. All organizations in private and public sectors produce not only desirable (good) but also undesirable (bad) outputs as a result of their economic activities. The proposed use of DEA determines the level of unified (operational and environmental) efficiency of all the organizations. A contribution of this study is that it explores how to measure not only RTS (Returns to Scale) on desirable outputs but also a new concept regarding “DTS: Damages to Scale” (corresponding to RTS for undesirable outputs). This study discusses how to measure RTS under natural disposability and DTS under managerial disposability by DEA. The measurement of RTS and DTS is formulated by incorporating “Strong Complementary Slackness Conditions (SCSCs)”. As a result, this study can handle an occurrence of multiple reference sets and multiple projections in the RTS/DTS measurement. The incorporation of SCSCs makes it possible both to restrict DEA multipliers in a specific range without any prior information and to identify all possible efficient organizations as a reference set. Using the unique capabilities of SCSCs, this study discusses the use of DEA environmental assessment by exploring how to classify the type of RTS/DTS with SCSCs. Such analytical capabilities are essential, but not previously explored in DEA environmental assessment for energy industries. As an illustrative example, this study applies the proposed approach for the performance evaluation of Japanese manufacturing industries. This study finds that these firms need to introduce technology innovation to reduce an amount of greenhouse gases and wastes. The empirical result confirms the importance of measuring RTS/DTS in DEA environmental assessment.

  14. DNA-protein immunization using Leishmania peroxidoxin-1 induces a strong CD4+ T cell response and partially protects mice from cutaneous leishmaniasis: role of fusion murine granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor DNA adjuvant.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abebe Genetu Bayih

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available To date, no universally effective and safe vaccine has been developed for general human use. Leishmania donovani Peroxidoxin-1 (LdPxn-1 is a member of the antioxidant family of proteins and is predominantly expressed in the amastigote stage of the parasite. The aim of this study was to evaluate the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of LdPxn-1 in BALB/c mice in heterologous DNA-Protein immunization regimen in the presence of fusion murine granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (mGMCSF DNA adjuvant.A fusion DNA of LdPxn1 and mGMCSF was cloned into a modified pcDNA vector. To confirm the expression in mammalian system, Chinese hamster ovary cells were transfected with the plasmid vector containing LdPxn1 gene. BALB/c mice were immunized twice with pcDNA-mGMCSF-LdPxn-1 or pcDNA-LdPxn1 DNA and boosted once with recombinant LdPxn-1 protein. Three weeks after the last immunization, mice were infected with Leishmania major promastigotes. The result showed that immunization with pcDNA-mGMCSF-LdPxn1 elicited a mixed Th-1/Th-2 immune response with significantly higher production of IFN-γ than controls. Intracellular cytokine staining of antigen-stimulated spleen cells showed that immunization with this antigen elicited significantly higher proportion of CD4+ T cells that express IFN-γ, TNF-α, or IL-2. The antigen also induced significantly higher proportion of multipotent CD4+ cells that simultaneously express the three Th-1 cytokines. Moreover, a significant reduction in the footpad swelling was seen in mice immunized with pcDNA-mGMCSF-LdPxn1 antigen. Expression study in CHO cells demonstrated that pcDNA-mGMCSF-LdPxn-1 was expressed in mammalian system.The result demonstrates that immunization of BALB/c mice with a plasmid expressing LdPxn1 in the presence of mGMCSF adjuvant elicits a strong specific immune response with high level induction of multipotent CD4+ cells that mediate protection of the mice from Leishmania major infection. To

  15. Protective effect of melatonin on thrombocytopoiesis in irratiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Aiguo; Hu Qun; Yang Mo; Li Zhiguang; Huang Weizhe; Pang Yaxuan; Li Guixia; Wu Baixiang; Huo Taihui

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To study the protective effect of melatonin on thrombocytopoiesis (T) and its mechanism in total-bodily irradiated mice. Methods: Altogether 18 female BALB/c mice were randomly divided into three experimental groups (6 each): Group 1(normal control, N) received neither irradiation nor melatonin; Group 2 (model control, C); received total body-irradiation for 4 Gy gamma-rays and Group 3 (melatonin, M), received melatonin after irradiation at the dosage of 10 mg·kg -1 ·d -1 via i. p. injection in consecutive 21 days. In Group C normal saline instead of melatonin was administered in the same way as above. Peripheral blood platelets and white blood cells (WBC) were analyzed for the three groups on day 0, day 7, day 14, and day 21. All the mice were sacrificed to collect bone marrow cells for the assays of colony-forming unit-megakaryocyte (CFU-MK) and of colony-forming unit-fibroblast (CFU-F). The effects of melatonin of different concentrations (0-500 nmol/L) on CFU-MK formation were observed in vitro. Results: The results showed that melatonin enhanced the recovery of T. Moreover, melatonin also promoted the increase of CFU-F (28 ± 10.4 vs 14.6 ± 2.8) and CFU-MK (19.63 ± 3.28 vs 11 ± 2.24) in vivo. The amount of CFU-MK in vitro was dependent on the concentration of melatonin. Compared with the control group, the size of CFU-MK in Group M was much larger and MK cells were more mature, especially when the melatonin concentration was 200 nmol/L. Conclusion: Melatonin provides protective effect on T in irradiated mice. It enhances T in vivo and promotes the growth of bone marrow stromal cells as well as megakaryocytes in vitro. Therefore, we speculate that the T-protective activity of melatonin may be mediated via promoting growth of the progenitors of platelet, megakaryocytes, and bone marrow stromal cells. (authors)

  16. Finite-size effect of η-deformed AdS5×S5 at strong coupling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changrim Ahn

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available We compute Lüscher corrections for a giant magnon in the η-deformed (AdS5×S5η using the su(2|2q-invariant S-matrix at strong coupling and compare with the finite-size effect of the corresponding string state, derived previously. We find that these two results match and confirm that the su(2|2q-invariant S-matrix is describing world-sheet excitations of the η-deformed background.

  17. Finite-size effect of η-deformed AdS5 × S5 at strong coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Changrim

    2017-04-01

    We compute Lüscher corrections for a giant magnon in the η-deformed (AdS5×S5)η using the su(2 | 2) q-invariant S-matrix at strong coupling and compare with the finite-size effect of the corresponding string state, derived previously. We find that these two results match and confirm that the su(2 | 2) q-invariant S-matrix is describing world-sheet excitations of the η-deformed background.

  18. Pathological effects of cigarettes on the reproductive system and the protective effects of alpha-lipoic acid in female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asci, Halil; Erol, Onur; Ellidag, Hamit Yasar; Tola, Esra Nur; Savran, Mehtap; Ozmen, Ozlem

    2018-01-01

    Cigarette smoking (CS) has some detrimental effects that occur via oxidative stress (OS). The aim of this work was to demonstrate the pathological and immunohistochemical effects of CS and the protective effects of a strong antioxidant alpha lipoic acid (ALA) on CS-induced genital system changes in a rat model. Twenty-eight female rats were randomly allocated to three groups as control, CS-exposed, and CS-exposed and ALA-treated. Reproductive tract organs were collected for biochemical and pathological examinations. In the CS group, OS markers increased in the tissues of both the ovary and fallopian tubes. Decreased follicle numbers in the ovary, marked cilial loss in the fallopian tubes, and pathologic changes in the uterus were observed in the CS group. Positive calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), caspase 3α, hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) immunoreactions were observed in uterine tissues and HIF-1α immunoreactions in tubal and uterine epithelial cells of the CS group. ALA reversed all these findings effectively. CS has negative effects on the female reproductive system via HIF-1α in tuba uterina and HIF-1α, HIF-2α, TNF-α, caspase 3, and CGRP in the uterus, and ALA could protect against the negative effects of CS on the female reproductive system.

  19. Protective effect of Laminaria japonica with probiotics on murine colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Seok-Jae; Bu, Youngmin; Bae, Jinhyun; Bang, Yu-mi; Kim, Jinsung; Lee, Hyejung; Beom-Joon, Lee; Hyun, Yoo Hye; Park, Jae-Woo

    2014-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronically relapsing inflammatory disorder of the gastrointestinal tract. Most IBD treatments are unsatisfactory; therefore, various dietary supplements have emerged as promising interventions. Laminaria japonica (LJ) is an edible seaweed used to regulate digestive symptoms. Probiotics have been reported to improve digestive problems and their simultaneous administration with seaweeds has been shown to produce synergistic therapeutic effects. Here, we investigated the effect of LJ combination with probiotics on dextran sodium sulfate-induced colitis model in mice. Aqueous LJ extracts (LJE) at doses from 100 to 300 mg/kg and probiotics at a dose of 300 mg/kg were orally administered for 7 days. Body weight, colon length, histological score, macroscopic damage, and the levels of cytokines IFN- γ , IL-1 β , IL-6, IL-10, IL-12 (P40), IL-12 (P70), IL-17, and TNF- α were assessed. LJE alone caused a significant improvement of colitis signs such as colon length, histological score, and IL-1 β and IL-6 production. LJE and probiotics demonstrated a synergistic effect by the histological score and levels of IL-1 β , IL-6, and IL-12 (P40) but not IFN- γ , IL-10, and IL-12 (P70). In conclusion, LJE was effective in inducing protection against colitis in mice and acted synergistically with probiotics.

  20. Protective Effect of Laminaria japonica with Probiotics on Murine Colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seok-Jae Ko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD is a chronically relapsing inflammatory disorder of the gastrointestinal tract. Most IBD treatments are unsatisfactory; therefore, various dietary supplements have emerged as promising interventions. Laminaria japonica (LJ is an edible seaweed used to regulate digestive symptoms. Probiotics have been reported to improve digestive problems and their simultaneous administration with seaweeds has been shown to produce synergistic therapeutic effects. Here, we investigated the effect of LJ combination with probiotics on dextran sodium sulfate-induced colitis model in mice. Aqueous LJ extracts (LJE at doses from 100 to 300 mg/kg and probiotics at a dose of 300 mg/kg were orally administered for 7 days. Body weight, colon length, histological score, macroscopic damage, and the levels of cytokines IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12 (P40, IL-12 (P70, IL-17, and TNF-α were assessed. LJE alone caused a significant improvement of colitis signs such as colon length, histological score, and IL-1β and IL-6 production. LJE and probiotics demonstrated a synergistic effect by the histological score and levels of IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-12 (P40 but not IFN-γ, IL-10, and IL-12 (P70. In conclusion, LJE was effective in inducing protection against colitis in mice and acted synergistically with probiotics.

  1. Investigating the Protective Effects of Vitamin D on Diabete

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    makan Cheraghpour

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin D directly (due to receptor activation by vitamin D or indirectly (through regulation of calcium homeostasis effects on the pathogenic mechanisms associated with both types of diabetes, such as pancreatic beta-cell dysfunction, impaired insulin action and systemic inflammation. It has been shown that using Vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy and infancy has relation with a reduced risk of type 1 diabetes. In non-obese diabetic mice studies, pharmacological doses of vitamin D can delay the onset of diabetes. Any direct link between vitamin D and risk of type 2 diabetes has not been established yet, however many questions such as the concentration of vitamin D for optimal glucose homeostasis and how long pursuit to understand the effect of vitamin D on insulin secretion and sensitivity is essential have not been fully answered. The use of 1, 25 (OH 2D3 for preventing or treating diabetes through its hypercalcemic effects and bone turnover is limited. On the other hand however, the protective effects only observed in response to doses higher than the physiological levels. In any case, a better understanding of the role of vitamin D can lead to the development of preventive strategies for both types of diabetes..

  2. Bioavailability, metabolism and potential health protective effects of dietary flavonoids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bredsdorff, Lea

    Dietary flavonoids constitute an important group of potential health protective compounds from fruits, vegetables, and plant-based products such as tea and wine. The beneficial effects of a diet high in flavonoids on the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) have been shown in several......, NMR spectroscopy and differential pH spectrophotometry. Quantification was performed on six of the eight conjugates based on calibration curves with the identical conjugates. There was no difference in the profile of the excreted conjugates according to treatment. The results demonstrated the more...... change in dose. The urinary excretion of ten dietary flavonoids was analysed after enzymatic hydrolysis by LC-MS and associated to the risk of ACS in a nested case-control study with 393 case-noncase pairs. The 393 case-noncase pairs were identified in the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health cohort comprising...

  3. Protective effect of a polyvalent influenza DNA vaccine in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsson, Ingrid; Borggren, Marie; Rosenstierne, Maiken Worsøe

    2018-01-01

    Background Influenza A virus in swine herds represents a major problem for the swine industry and poses a constant threat for the emergence of novel pandemic viruses and the development of more effective influenza vaccines for pigs is desired. By optimizing the vector backbone and using a needle......-free delivery method, we have recently demonstrated a polyvalent influenza DNA vaccine that induces a broad immune response, including both humoral and cellular immunity. Objectives To investigate the protection of our polyvalent influenza DNA vaccine approach in a pig challenge study. Methods By intradermal...... needle-free delivery to the skin, we immunized pigs with two different doses (500 μg and 800 μg) of an influenza DNA vaccine based on six genes of pandemic origin, including internally expressed matrix and nucleoprotein and externally expressed hemagglutinin and neuraminidase as previously demonstrated...

  4. Bioavailability, metabolism and potential health protective effects of dietary flavonoids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bredsdorff, Lea

    Dietary flavonoids constitute an important group of potential health protective compounds from fruits, vegetables, and plant-based products such as tea and wine. The beneficial effects of a diet high in flavonoids on the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) have been shown in several...... change in dose. The urinary excretion of ten dietary flavonoids was analysed after enzymatic hydrolysis by LC-MS and associated to the risk of ACS in a nested case-control study with 393 case-noncase pairs. The 393 case-noncase pairs were identified in the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health cohort comprising...... that the study was too limited in size to account for the variation associated with quantifying flavonoids in spot-urine samples. However, the non-monotonic, but statistically significant, association between higher kaempferol excretion and lower risk of ACS indicate that the lack of associations were not due...

  5. Sodium fluorocitrate having protective effect on palmitate-induced beta cell death improves hyperglycemia in diabetic db/db mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Ik-Rak; Choi, Sung-E; Hong, Seung A; Hwang, Yoonjung; Kang, Yup

    2017-10-10

    Beta cell loss and insulin resistance play roles in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. Elevated levels of free fatty acids in plasma might contribute to the loss of beta cells. The objective of this study was to find a chemical that could protect against palmitate-induced beta cell death and investigate whether such chemical could improve hyperglycemia in mouse model of type 2 diabetes. Sodium fluorocitrate (SFC), an aconitase inhibitor, was found to be strongly and specifically protective against palmitate-induced INS-1 beta cell death. However, the protective effect of SFC on palmitate-induced cell death was not likely to be due to its inhibitory activity for aconitase since inhibition or knockdown of aconitase failed to protect against palmitate-induced cell death. Since SFC inhibited the uptake of palmitate into INS-1 cells, reduced metabolism of fatty acids was thought to be involved in SFC's protective effect. Ten weeks of treatment with SFC in db/db diabetic mice reduced glucose level but remarkably increased insulin level in the plasma. SFC improved impairment of glucose-stimulated insulin release and also reduced the loss of beta cells in db/db mice. Conclusively, SFC possessed protective effect against palmitate-induced lipotoxicity and improved hyperglycemia in mouse model of type 2 diabetes.

  6. ENDOTHELIAL PROTECTIVE EFFECTS OF KLYMADINON IN EXPERIMENTAL OVARIECTOMY

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    A. M. Anishchenko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A Endothelial protective and antithrombogenic effects of Cimicifuga racemosa standardized extract (Klimadynon, Bionorica, Germany in comparison with ethinylestradiol in experimental ovariectomy were investigated. Extract of Cimicifuga racemosa (klimadynon contents phytoestrogens, that was the basis for studying of its effects in hypoestrogenic conditions for the purpose of prophylaxis and treatment of cardiovascular complications in climacteric syndrome as an alternatively of hormonal replacement therapy.The course administration of klimadynon (100 mg/kg p.o. daily during 14 days decelerated the formation of intravascular thrombosis which was initiated by application of 10% FeCb solution on carotid artery. The ethinylestradiol in this conditions intensified prothrombogenic effect of application of 10% FeCh: blood flow in carotid artery stoped to 5 minutes of experiment and mass of the thrombus was on 28% more, than in control rats. For studying of possible mechanisms antithrombogenic action of klimadynon antiplatelet and vasodilator activity of endothelium were studied in rats after bilateral ovariectomy in comparison with effects of ethinylestradiol (25 µg/kg p.o. daily during 14 days. Treatment with klimadynon as well as ethinylestradiol increased the antiplatelet activity of endothelium, restoring its activity to level in sham-operated animals. The endothelium-dependent and endothelium-independence vasodilation by using of acetylcholine (5 µg/kg and of sodium nitroprusside (30 µg/kg. respectively, were investigated. Coefficient of endothelium dysfunctions (CED was estimated as ratio: area over curve of arterial pressure after sodium nitroprusside intravenous injection to value of this index after injection of acetylcholine. In rats after bilateral ovariectomy CED was increased by 66% in comparison with CED value in sharm-operated rats. The klimadynon and ethinylestradiol treatment decreased CED on 42% and 28% correspondingly in comparison

  7. Cardiovascular Protective Effects and Clinical Applications of Resveratrol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Sanghyun; Namkoong, Kyung; Shin, Minji; Park, Jueun; Yang, Eunyeong; Ihm, Jinsoo; Thu, Vu Thi; Kim, Hyoung Kyu; Han, Jin

    2017-04-01

    Resveratrol is a naturally occurring phenol that is generated by plant species following injury or attack by bacterial and fungal pathogens. This compound was first described as the French Paradox in 1992. Later in 2003, resveratrol was reported to activate sirtuins in yeast cells. Recent experimental studies have found that resveratrol offers a variety of benefits that include both anticarcinogenic and anti-inflammatory effects in addition to the ability to reverse obesity, attenuate hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia, protect heart and endothelial function, and increase the life span. Multiple molecular targets are associated with the cardioprotective capabilities of resveratrol, and therefore, resveratrol has potential for a wide range of new therapeutic strategies for atherosclerosis, ischemia/reperfusion, metabolic syndrome, cardiac failure, and inflammatory alterations during aging. Expectations for application in human patients, however, suffer from a lack of sufficient clinical evidence in support of these beneficial effects. This article reviews recently reported basic research results that describe the beneficial effects of resveratrol in an attempt to condense the evidence observed in clinical trials and provide support for the future development of novel clinical therapeutics in patients with cardiovascular diseases.

  8. Renal protective effect of polysulfide in cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity

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    Xu Cao

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Cisplatin is a major chemotherapeutic drug for solid tumors whereas it may lead to severe nephrotoxicity. Despite decades of efforts, effective therapies remain largely lacking for this disease. In the current research, we investigated the therapeutic effect of hydrogen polysulfide, a novel hydrogen sulfide (H2S derived signaling molecule, in cisplatin nephrotoxicity and the mechanisms involved. Our results showed that polysulfide donor Na2S4 ameliorated cisplatin-caused renal toxicity in vitro and in vivo through suppressing intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS generation and downstream mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs activation. Additionally, polysulfide may inhibit ROS production by simultaneously lessening the activation of NADPH oxidase and inducing nucleus translocation of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2 in RPT cells. Interestingly, polysulfide possesses anti-cancer activity and is able to add on more anti-cancer effect to cisplatin in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC cell lines. Moreover, we observed that the number of sulfur atoms in polysulfide well reflected the efficacy of these molecules not only in cell protection but also cancer inhibition which may serve as a guide for further development of polysulfide donors for pharmaceutical usage. Taken together, our study suggests that polysulfide may be a novel and promising therapeutic agent to prevent cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity.

  9. Strong diffusion effect of charm quarks on J/ψ production in Pb-Pb collisions at the LHC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jiaxing; Chen, Baoyi

    2018-01-01

    We study the J / ψ production based on coalescence model at √{sNN } = 2.76 and 5.02 TeV Pb-Pb collisions. With the colliding energy increasing from 2.76 TeV to 5.02 TeV, the number of charm pairs is enhanced by more than 50%. However, the ratio of J / ψ inclusive nuclear modification factors RAA5.02 TeV / RAA2.76 TeV is only about 1.1 ∼ 1.2. We find that the regeneration of J / ψ is proportional to the densities of charm and anti-charm quarks, instead of their total numbers. The charm quark density is diluted by the strong expansion of quark gluon plasma, which suppresses the combination probability of heavy quarks and J / ψ regeneration. This effect is more important in higher colliding energies where QGP expansion is strong. We also propose the ratio NJ/ψ /(Nc) 2 as a measurement of c and c bar coalescence probability, which is only affected by the heavy quark diffusions in QGP, and does not depend on the inputs such as cold nuclear matter effects and cross sections of charm quark production. Further more, we give the predictions at the energy of Future Circular Collider (√{sNN } = 39 TeV).

  10. Strong subjective recovery as a protective factor against the effects of positive symptoms on quality of life outcomes in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukla, Marina; Lysaker, Paul H; Roe, David

    2014-08-01

    Interest in recovery from schizophrenia has been growing steadily, with much of the focus on remission from psychotic symptoms and a return to functioning. Less is known about the experience of subjective recovery and its relationships with other important outcomes, such as quality of life and the formation and sustenance of social connections. This study sought to address this gap in knowledge by examining the links between self perceived recovery, symptoms, and the social components of quality of life. Sixty eight veterans with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders who were participating in a study of cognitive remediation and work were concurrently administered the Recovery Assessment Scale, Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, and the Heinrichs-Carpenter Quality of Life Scale (QLS). Linear regression analyses demonstrated that subjective recovery moderated the relationship between positive symptoms and both QLS intrapsychic foundations scores and QLS instrumental role functioning after controlling for negative symptoms. Further examination of this interaction revealed that for individuals with substantial positive symptoms, higher levels of subjective recovery were associated with better instrumental role functioning and intrapsychic foundational abilities. Greater self perceived recovery is linked with stronger quality of life, both in regards to the cognitive and affective bases for socialization and active community involvement, even in the presence of substantial psychotic symptoms. Clinical implications of these findings are discussed. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Effects of seasonality and a daily photo-protection upon some facial signs of Chinese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flament, F; Qiu, H

    2017-06-01

    These were two-fold: (i) to record through standardized pictures, the possible changes in 31 facial signs induced, in a 6-month period, by the periodical shift from winter to summer in a group of 43 Chinese women and (ii) to appraise the preventive effects of a strong photo-protective product, daily applied to the faces of an additional group (N = 40) of women of same age-range and presenting same severities of facial signs in winter. Facial signs (structural and pigmentation-related) were scored in blind by a panel of 12 experts from photographs taken under standard conditions. Scorings were performed under specific scales as established by a previously published referential Skin Aging Atlas, Volume 2, Asian Type. A significant seasonal impact was found for more than 60% of facial signs, that is presenting a higher severity in summer in the unprotected group. Some changes are of a low or subtle extent, whereas some others show significant amplitudes. The latter comprise eight signs, among the 31, that became, far above scoring threshold, indeed affected during this 6-month period. The observed changes in six of these eight signs, in majority related to pigmentation, appeared efficiently alleviated in the photo-protected group. The shift from winter to summer exposure is confirmed in altering some facial pigmented signs among Chinese women. Such changes appear much alleviated by a daily strong photo-protective regimen. © 2016 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  12. Strong and Nonspecific Synergistic Antibacterial Efficiency of Antibiotics Combined with Silver Nanoparticles at Very Low Concentrations Showing No Cytotoxic Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panáček, Aleš; Smékalová, Monika; Kilianová, Martina; Prucek, Robert; Bogdanová, Kateřina; Večeřová, Renata; Kolář, Milan; Havrdová, Markéta; Płaza, Grażyna Anna; Chojniak, Joanna; Zbořil, Radek; Kvítek, Libor

    2015-12-28

    The resistance of bacteria towards traditional antibiotics currently constitutes one of the most important health care issues with serious negative impacts in practice. Overcoming this issue can be achieved by using antibacterial agents with multimode antibacterial action. Silver nano-particles (AgNPs) are one of the well-known antibacterial substances showing such multimode antibacterial action. Therefore, AgNPs are suitable candidates for use in combinations with traditional antibiotics in order to improve their antibacterial action. In this work, a systematic study quantifying the synergistic effects of antibiotics with different modes of action and different chemical structures in combination with AgNPs against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus was performed. Employing the microdilution method as more suitable and reliable than the disc diffusion method, strong synergistic effects were shown for all tested antibiotics combined with AgNPs at very low concentrations of both antibiotics and AgNPs. No trends were observed for synergistic effects of antibiotics with different modes of action and different chemical structures in combination with AgNPs, indicating non-specific synergistic effects. Moreover, a very low amount of silver is needed for effective antibacterial action of the antibiotics, which represents an important finding for potential medical applications due to the negligible cytotoxic effect of AgNPs towards human cells at these concentration levels.

  13. Strong and Nonspecific Synergistic Antibacterial Efficiency of Antibiotics Combined with Silver Nanoparticles at Very Low Concentrations Showing No Cytotoxic Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleš Panáček

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The resistance of bacteria towards traditional antibiotics currently constitutes one of the most important health care issues with serious negative impacts in practice. Overcoming this issue can be achieved by using antibacterial agents with multimode antibacterial action. Silver nano-particles (AgNPs are one of the well-known antibacterial substances showing such multimode antibacterial action. Therefore, AgNPs are suitable candidates for use in combinations with traditional antibiotics in order to improve their antibacterial action. In this work, a systematic study quantifying the synergistic effects of antibiotics with different modes of action and different chemical structures in combination with AgNPs against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus was performed. Employing the microdilution method as more suitable and reliable than the disc diffusion method, strong synergistic effects were shown for all tested antibiotics combined with AgNPs at very low concentrations of both antibiotics and AgNPs. No trends were observed for synergistic effects of antibiotics with different modes of action and different chemical structures in combination with AgNPs, indicating non-specific synergistic effects. Moreover, a very low amount of silver is needed for effective antibacterial action of the antibiotics, which represents an important finding for potential medical applications due to the negligible cytotoxic effect of AgNPs towards human cells at these concentration levels.

  14. Teaching effective problem solving skills to radiation protection students

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waller, Edward

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Problem solving skills are essential for all radiation protection personnel. Although some students have more natural problem solving skills than others, all students require practice to become comfortable using these skills. At the University of Ontario Institute of Technology (UOIT), a unique one-semester course was developed as part of the core curriculum to teach students problem solving skills and elements of modelling and simulation. The underlying emphasis of the course was to allow students to develop their own problem solving strategies, both individually and in groups. Direction was provided on how to examine problems from different perspectives, and how to determine the proper root problem statement. A five-point problem solving strategy was presented as: 1) Problem definition; 2) Solution generation; 3) Decision; 4) Implementation; 5) Evaluation. Within the strategy, problem solving techniques were integrated from diverse areas such as: De Bono 's six thinking hats, Kepner-Tregoe decision analysis, Covey's seven habits of highly effective people, Reason's swiss cheese theory of complex failure, and Howlett's common failure modes. As part of the evaluation step, students critically explore areas such as ethics and environmental responsibility. In addition to exploring problem solving methods, students learn the usefulness of simulation methods, and how to model and simulate complex phenomena of relevance to radiation protection. Computational aspects of problem solving are explored using the commercially available MATLAB computer code. A number of case studies are presented as both examples and problems to the students. Emphasis was placed on solutions to problems of interest to radiation protection, health physics and nuclear engineering. A group project, pertaining to an accident or event related to the nuclear industry is a course requirement. Students learn to utilize common time and project management tools such as flowcharting, Pareto

  15. Protective Effect of Tempol against Cisplatin-Induced Ototoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youn, Cha Kyung; Kim, Jun; Jo, Eu-Ri; Oh, Jeonghyun; Do, Nam Yong; Cho, Sung Il

    2016-11-18

    One of the major adverse effects of cisplatin chemotherapy is hearing loss. Cisplatin-induced ototoxicity hampers treatment because it often necessitates dose reduction, which decreases cisplatin efficacy. This study was performed to investigate the effect of Tempol on cisplatin-induced ototoxicity in an auditory cell line, House Ear Institute-Organ of Corti 1 (HEI-OC1). Cultured HEI-OC1 cells were exposed to 30 μM cisplatin for 24 h with or without a 2 h pre-treatment with Tempol. Cell viability was determined using 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and apoptotic cells were identified using terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling of nuclei (TUNEL) assay and flow cytometry. The effects of Tempol on cisplatin-induced cleaved poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase, cleaved caspase, and mitochondrial inducible nitric oxide synthase expression were evaluated using western blot analysis. Levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) were measured to assess the effects of Tempol on cisplatin-induced ROS accumulation. Mitochondria were evaluated by confocal microscopy, and the mitochondrial membrane potential was measured to investigate whether Tempol protected against cisplatin-induced mitochondrial dysfunction. Cisplatin treatment decreased cell viability, and increased apoptotic features and markers, ROS accumulation, and mitochondrial dysfunction. Tempol pre-treatment before cisplatin exposure significantly inhibited all these cisplatin-induced effects. These results demonstrate that Tempol inhibits cisplatin-induced cytotoxicity in HEI-OC1, and could play a preventive role against cisplatin-induced ototoxicity.

  16. Protective Effect of Tempol against Cisplatin-Induced Ototoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cha Kyung Youn

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available One of the major adverse effects of cisplatin chemotherapy is hearing loss. Cisplatin-induced ototoxicity hampers treatment because it often necessitates dose reduction, which decreases cisplatin efficacy. This study was performed to investigate the effect of Tempol on cisplatin-induced ototoxicity in an auditory cell line, House Ear Institute-Organ of Corti 1 (HEI-OC1. Cultured HEI-OC1 cells were exposed to 30 μM cisplatin for 24 h with or without a 2 h pre-treatment with Tempol. Cell viability was determined using 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT assay and apoptotic cells were identified using terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling of nuclei (TUNEL assay and flow cytometry. The effects of Tempol on cisplatin-induced cleaved poly(ADP-ribose polymerase, cleaved caspase, and mitochondrial inducible nitric oxide synthase expression were evaluated using western blot analysis. Levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS were measured to assess the effects of Tempol on cisplatin-induced ROS accumulation. Mitochondria were evaluated by confocal microscopy, and the mitochondrial membrane potential was measured to investigate whether Tempol protected against cisplatin-induced mitochondrial dysfunction. Cisplatin treatment decreased cell viability, and increased apoptotic features and markers, ROS accumulation, and mitochondrial dysfunction. Tempol pre-treatment before cisplatin exposure significantly inhibited all these cisplatin-induced effects. These results demonstrate that Tempol inhibits cisplatin-induced cytotoxicity in HEI-OC1, and could play a preventive role against cisplatin-induced ototoxicity.

  17. Novel siRNA delivery system using a ternary polymer complex with strong silencing effect and no cytotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodama, Yukinobu; Shiokawa, Yumi; Nakamura, Tadahiro; Kurosaki, Tomoaki; Aki, Keisei; Nakagawa, Hiroo; Muro, Takahiro; Kitahara, Takashi; Higuchi, Norihide; Sasaki, Hitoshi

    2014-01-01

    We developed a novel small interfering RNA (siRNA) delivery system using a ternary complex with polyethyleneimine (PEI) and γ-polyglutamic acid (γ-PGA), which showed silencing effect and no cytotoxicity. The binary complexes of siRNA with PEI were approximately 73-102 nm in particle size and 45-52 mV in ζ-potential. The silencing effect of siRNA/PEI complexes increased with an increase of PEI, and siRNA/PEI complexes with a charge ratio greater than 16 showed significant luciferase knockdown in a mouse colon carcinoma cell line regularly expressing luciferase (Colon26/Luc cells). However, strong cytotoxicity and blood agglutination were observed in the siRNA/Lipofectamine complex and siRNA/PEI16 complex. Recharging cationic complexes with an anionic compound was reported to be a promising method for overcoming these toxicities. We therefore prepared ternary complexes of siRNA with PEI (charge ratio 16) by the addition of γ-PGA to reduce cytotoxicity and deliver siRNA. As expected, the cytotoxicity of the ternary complexes decreased with an increase of γ-PGA content, which decreased the ζ-potential of the complexes. A strong silencing effect comparable to siRNA/Lipofectamine complex was discovered in ternary complexes including γ-PGA with an anionic surface charge. The high incorporation of ternary complexes into Colon26/Luc cells was confirmed with fluorescence microcopy. Having achieved knockdown of an exogenously transfected gene, the ability of the complex to mediate knockdown of an endogenous housekeeping gene, glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), was assessed in B16-F10 cells. The ternary complex (siRNA/PEI16/γ-PGA12 complex) exhibited a significant GAPDH knockdown effect. Thus, we developed a useful siRNA delivery system.

  18. Protective effects of exogenous β-hydroxybutyrate on paraquat toxicity in rat kidney

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Teng; Tian, Wulin; Liu, Fangning; Xie, Guanghong, E-mail: xiegh@jlu.edu.cn

    2014-05-16

    Highlights: • β-Hydroxybutyrate inhibits paraquat-induced toxicity in rat kidney. • β-Hydroxybutyrate inhibits lipid peroxidation and caspase-mediated apoptosis. • β-Hydroxybutyrate increases the activities of SOD and CAT. • The study describes a novel finding for the renoprotective ability of β-hydroxybutyrate. - Abstract: In this study, we demonstrated the protective effects of β-hydroxybutyrate (β-HB) against paraquat (PQ)-induced kidney injury and elucidated the underlying molecular mechanisms. By histological examination and renal dysfunction specific markers (serum BUN and creatinine) assay, β-HB could protect the PQ-induced kidney injury in rat. PQ-induced kidney injury is associated with oxidative stress, which was measured by increased lipid peroxidation (MDA) and decreased intracellular anti-oxidative abilities (SOD, CAT and GSH). β-HB pretreatment significantly attenuated that. Caspase-mediated apoptosis pathway contributed importantly to PQ toxicity, as revealed by the activation of caspase-9/-3, cleavage of PARP, and regulation of Bcl-2 and Bax, which were also effectively blocked by β-HB. Moreover, treatment of PQ strongly decreased the nuclear Nrf2 levels. However, pre-treatment with β-HB effectively suppressed this action of PQ. This may imply the important role of β-HB on Nrf2 pathway. Taken together, this study provides a novel finding that β-HB has a renoprotective ability against paraquat-induced kidney injury.

  19. Protective effects of exogenous β-hydroxybutyrate on paraquat toxicity in rat kidney

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Teng; Tian, Wulin; Liu, Fangning; Xie, Guanghong

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • β-Hydroxybutyrate inhibits paraquat-induced toxicity in rat kidney. • β-Hydroxybutyrate inhibits lipid peroxidation and caspase-mediated apoptosis. • β-Hydroxybutyrate increases the activities of SOD and CAT. • The study describes a novel finding for the renoprotective ability of β-hydroxybutyrate. - Abstract: In this study, we demonstrated the protective effects of β-hydroxybutyrate (β-HB) against paraquat (PQ)-induced kidney injury and elucidated the underlying molecular mechanisms. By histological examination and renal dysfunction specific markers (serum BUN and creatinine) assay, β-HB could protect the PQ-induced kidney injury in rat. PQ-induced kidney injury is associated with oxidative stress, which was measured by increased lipid peroxidation (MDA) and decreased intracellular anti-oxidative abilities (SOD, CAT and GSH). β-HB pretreatment significantly attenuated that. Caspase-mediated apoptosis pathway contributed importantly to PQ toxicity, as revealed by the activation of caspase-9/-3, cleavage of PARP, and regulation of Bcl-2 and Bax, which were also effectively blocked by β-HB. Moreover, treatment of PQ strongly decreased the nuclear Nrf2 levels. However, pre-treatment with β-HB effectively suppressed this action of PQ. This may imply the important role of β-HB on Nrf2 pathway. Taken together, this study provides a novel finding that β-HB has a renoprotective ability against paraquat-induced kidney injury

  20. Protecting effect on gamma-ray damage of DNA by tea catechin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshioka, H.; Akai, G.; Yoshinaga, K.; Hasegawa, K.; Yoshioka, H.

    1995-01-01

    The protecting effect of the tea catechin on the radiation induced scission of DNA in vitro. was examined. In addition, ESR spin-trapping method was used to make clear the mechanism of the protection. (author)

  1. Effects of cost metric on cost-effectiveness of protected-area network design in urban landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhalter, J C; Lockwood, J L; Maslo, B; Fenn, K H; Leu, K

    2016-04-01

    A common goal in conservation planning is to acquire areas that are critical to realizing biodiversity goals in the most cost-effective manner. The way monetary acquisition costs are represented in such planning is an understudied but vital component to realizing cost efficiencies. We sought to design a protected-area network within a forested urban region that would protect 17 birds of conservation concern. We compared the total costs and spatial structure of the optimal protected-area networks produced using three acquisition-cost surrogates (area, agricultural land value, and tax-assessed land value). Using the tax-assessed land values there was a 73% and 78% cost savings relative to networks derived using area or agricultural land value, respectively. This cost reduction was due to the considerable heterogeneity in acquisition costs revealed in tax-assessed land values, especially for small land parcels, and the corresponding ability of the optimization algorithm to identify lower-cost parcels for inclusion that had equal value to our target species. Tax-assessed land values also reflected the strong spatial differences in acquisition costs (US$0.33/m(2)-$55/m(2)) and thus allowed the algorithm to avoid inclusion of high-cost parcels when possible. Our results add to a nascent but growing literature that suggests conservation planners must consider the cost surrogate they use when designing protected-area networks. We suggest that choosing cost surrogates that capture spatial- and size-dependent heterogeneity in acquisition costs may be relevant to establishing protected areas in urbanizing ecosystems. © 2015 Society for Conservation Biology.

  2. Fit and Strong! Plus: design of a comparative effectiveness evaluation of a weight management program for older adults with osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith-Ray, Renae L; Fitzgibbon, Marian L; Tussing-Humphreys, Lisa; Schiffer, Linda; Shah, Amy; Huber, Gail M; Braunschweig, Carol; Campbell, Richard T; Hughes, Susan L

    2014-03-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common chronic condition and principal cause of disability among older adults. The current obesity epidemic has contributed to this high prevalence rate. Fortunately both OA symptoms and obesity can be ameliorated through lifestyle modifications. Physical activity (PA) combined with weight management improves physical function among obese persons with knee OA but evidence-based interventions that combine PA and weight management are limited for this population. This paper describes a comparative effectiveness trial testing an evidence-based PA program for adults with lower extremity (LE) OA, Fit and Strong!, against an enhanced version that also addresses weight management based on the evidence-based Obesity Reduction Black Intervention Trial (ORBIT). Adult participants (n=400) with LE OA, age 60+, overweight/obese, and not meeting PA requirements of ≥ 150 min per week, are randomized to one of the two programs. Both 8-week interventions meet 3 times per week and include 60 min of strength, flexibility, and aerobic exercise instruction followed by 30 min of education/group discussion. The Fit and Strong! education sessions focus on using PA to manage OA; whereas Fit and Strong! Plus addresses PA and weight loss management strategies. Maintenance of behavior change is reinforced in both groups during months 3-24 through telephone calls and mailed newsletters. Outcomes are assessed at baseline, and 2, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months. Primary outcomes are dietary change at 2 months followed by weight loss at 6 months that is maintained at 24 months. Secondary outcomes assess PA, physical performance, and anxiety/depression. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Larval connectivity in an effective network of marine protected areas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark R Christie

    Full Text Available Acceptance of marine protected areas (MPAs as fishery and conservation tools has been hampered by lack of direct evidence that MPAs successfully seed unprotected areas with larvae of targeted species. For the first time, we present direct evidence of large-scale population connectivity within an existing and effective network of MPAs. A new parentage analysis identified four parent-offspring pairs from a large, exploited population of the coral-reef fish Zebrasoma flavescens in Hawai'i, revealing larval dispersal distances ranging from 15 to 184 km. In two cases, successful dispersal was from an MPA to unprotected sites. Given high adult abundances, the documentation of any parent-offspring pairs demonstrates that ecologically-relevant larval connectivity between reefs is substantial. All offspring settled at sites to the north of where they were spawned. Satellite altimetry and oceanographic models from relevant time periods indicated a cyclonic eddy that created prevailing northward currents between sites where parents and offspring were found. These findings empirically demonstrate the effectiveness of MPAs as useful conservation and management tools and further highlight the importance of coupling oceanographic, genetic, and ecological data to predict, validate and quantify larval connectivity among marine populations.

  4. Cognitive reserve in multiple sclerosis: Protective effects of education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins Da Silva, Ana; Cavaco, Sara; Moreira, Inês; Bettencourt, Andreia; Santos, Ernestina; Pinto, Cláudia; Gonçalves, Alexandra; Coutinho, Ester; Samões, Raquel; Dias, Cláudia C; Teixeira-Pinto, Armando; Da Silva, Berta Martins; Montalban, Xavier

    2015-09-01

    Recent data suggest that cognitive reserve modulates the adverse effects of multiple sclerosis (MS) pathology on cognitive functioning; however, the protective effects of education in MS are still unclear. To explore education as an indicator of cognitive reserve, while controlling for demographic, clinical and genetic features. A total of 419 MS patients and 159 healthy comparison (HC) subjects underwent a comprehensive neuropsychological (NP) assessment, and answered the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Based on the HC data, MS patients' NP scores were adjusted for sex, age and education; and the estimated 5(th) percentile (or 95(th) percentile, when appropriate) was used to identify any deficits. Patients also performed the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE); and their human leucocyte antigen HLA-DRB1 and apolipoprotein E (ApoE) genotypes were investigated. Patients with higher education were less likely (p cognitive deficits than those with lower education, even when controlling for other covariates. Other significant predictors of cognitive deficit were: age, Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS), Multiple Sclerosis Severity Scale (MSSS), and a progressive course. No significant association was found with the HLA-DRB1*15:01 or ApoE ε4 alleles. These results provide support to the use of education as a proxy of cognitive reserve in MS and stress the need to take into account education when approaching cognition in MS. © The Author(s), 2015.

  5. Can selection explain the protective effects of farming on asthma?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wijnand Eduard

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available [i][/i]Introduction and objective. Reduced asthma and allergy risks in farmers have been ascribed to microbial exposures. However, selection may also play a role and this was assessed in two Scandinavian farming populations. Materials and methods. Asthma prevalence in 739 Danish farming students was compared to that of 1,105 siblings. 8,482 Norwegian farmers were also compared with 349 early retired farmers. Results. The prevalence of ever-asthma was 5.4% in farming students and 5.2% in siblings (OR 1.1; 95%CI 0.73–1.7. Current asthma in farmers was 3.0% compared to 6.3% in farmers who had retired early (OR 1.8, 95%CI 1.1–2.9. Adjustments for early retirement increased the asthma prevalence by 0.3–0.6%. Farmers who had changed production were more likely to have asthma (OR 9.8, 95% CI 6.0–16. Conclusions. No healthy worker selection into farming was observed and changes in asthma prevalence due to early retirement were small. Selection effects are therefore unlikely to explain the protective effects of farming on asthma.

  6. [Effects of post-anthesis irrigation frequency on the grain quality of strong gluten winter wheat cultivars].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Feng-juan; He, Ming-rong; Li, Fei; Xu, Liang-liang; Huang, Chuan-hua; Qu, Mu

    2008-12-01

    In order to investigate the effects of post-anthesis irrigation frequency on the grain quality of strong gluten winter wheat, two cultivars Jimai 20 and Gaocheng 8901 were subjected to a series of irrigation frequencies under rainfall proof conditions, with their grain yield and grain quality (farinograph parameters and loaf volume) and protein composition evaluated. The results indicated that with increasing irrigation frequency, the grain yield of the two cultivars, their wheat flour dough development time, dough stability time, and loaf volume were noted to be increased first but decreased then. The grain yield and quality of Gaocheng 8901 were the highest when irrigated once after anthesis, while those of Jimai 20 were the best when irrigated twice after anthesis, respectively. The contents of monomeric protein, soluble glutenin, insoluble glutenin, total glutenin, flour protein, and wet gluten in the grains displayed the similar trends. Stepwise regression analysis showed that under the test post-anthesis irrigation frequencies, the key factor affecting dough stability time was insoluble glutenin content, and loaf volume was significantly correlated with total glutenin content. It was suggested that to maintain the quality stability of high grade strong gluten winter wheat, irrigation management should take the improvement of grain protein composition, and glutenin in particular, as the target.

  7. Psychobehavioural Factors Are More Strongly Associated with Successful Weight Management Than Predetermined Satiety Effect or Other Characteristics of Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Karhunen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate factors associated with weight management, especially whether satiety value of food as a part of a weight-maintenance diet would affect self-regulation of food intake and weight management. Altogether 82 obese subjects completed the study consisting of weight-loss and weight-maintenance (WM periods. During the WM, subjects were randomized into higher- and lower-satiety food groups. No differences were observed in the changes in body weight, energy intake, or eating behaviour between the groups, even despite the different macronutrient compositions of the diets. However, when regarding all study subjects, success in WM was most strongly associated with a greater increase in the flexible control of eating and experience of greater easiness of WM and control of food intake and a greater decrease in uncontrollable eating and psychological distress. Psychobehavioural factors seem to be more strongly associated with successful weight management than the predetermined satiety effect or other characteristics of the diet.

  8. A device to measure the effects of strong magnetic fields on the image resolution of PET scanners

    CERN Document Server

    Burdette, D; Chesi, E; Clinthorne, N H; Cochran, E; Honscheid, K; Huh, S S; Kagan, H; Knopp, M; Lacasta, C; Mikuz, M; Schmalbrock, P; Studen, A; Weilhammer, P

    2009-01-01

    Very high resolution images can be achieved in small animal PET systems utilizing solid state silicon pad detectors. As these systems approach sub-millimeter resolutions, the range of the positron is becoming the dominant contribution to image blur. The size of the positron range effect depends on the initial positron energy and hence the radioactive tracer used. For higher energy positron emitters, such as and , which are gaining importance in small animal studies, the width of the annihilation point distribution dominates the spatial resolution. This positron range effect can be reduced by embedding the field of view of the PET scanner in a strong magnetic field. In order to confirm this effect experimentally, we developed a high resolution PET instrument based on silicon pad detectors that can operate in a 7 T magnetic field. In this paper, we describe the instrument and present initial results of a study of the effects of magnetic fields up to 7 T on PET image resolution for and point sources.

  9. In vitro Protective Effect of Ganoderol A Isolated from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    reaction (qPCR). Results: The results indicate that the maximal non-toxic concentration of ganoderol A in NIH/3T3 cells ... protect skin from UV-induced photoaging. ... skin protection. Ganodermalucidum is a medicinal mushroom known in China as "Lingzhi." Its fruiting bodies have been used in traditional medicine for more.

  10. Mapping one strong 'Ohana: using network analysis and GIS to enhance the effectiveness of a statewide coalition to prevent child abuse and neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardazone, Gina; U Sy, Angela; Chik, Ivan; Corlew, Laura Kate

    2014-06-01

    Network analysis and GIS enable the presentation of meaningful data about organizational relationships and community characteristics, respectively. Together, these tools can provide a concrete representation of the ecological context in which coalitions operate, and may help coalitions identify opportunities for growth and enhanced effectiveness. This study uses network analysis and GIS mapping as part of an evaluation of the One Strong 'Ohana (OSO) campaign. The OSO campaign was launched in 2012 via a partnership between the Hawai'i Children's Trust Fund (HCTF) and the Joyful Heart Foundation. The OSO campaign uses a collaborative approach aimed at increasing public awareness of child maltreatment and protective factors that can prevent maltreatment, as well as enhancing the effectiveness of the HCTF Coalition. This study focuses on three elements of the OSO campaign evaluation: (1) Network analysis exploring the relationships between 24 active Coalition member organizations, (2) GIS mapping of responses to a randomized statewide phone survey (n = 1,450) assessing awareness of factors contributing to child maltreatment, and (3) Combined GIS maps and network data, illustrating opportunities for geographically-targeted coalition building and public awareness activities.

  11. Colonization of a territory by a stochastic population under a strong Allee effect and a low immigration pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Be'er, Shay; Assaf, Michael; Meerson, Baruch

    2015-06-01

    We study the dynamics of colonization of a territory by a stochastic population at low immigration pressure. We assume a sufficiently strong Allee effect that introduces, in deterministic theory, a large critical population size for colonization. At low immigration rates, the average precolonization population size is small, thus invalidating the WKB approximation to the master equation. We circumvent this difficulty by deriving an exact zero-flux solution of the master equation and matching it with an approximate nonzero-flux solution of the pertinent Fokker-Planck equation in a small region around the critical population size. This procedure provides an accurate evaluation of the quasistationary probability distribution of population sizes in the precolonization state and of the mean time to colonization, for a wide range of immigration rates. At sufficiently high immigration rates our results agree with WKB results obtained previously. At low immigration rates the results can be very different.

  12. Colonization of a territory by a stochastic population under a strong Allee effect and a low immigration pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Be'er, Shay; Assaf, Michael; Meerson, Baruch

    2015-06-01

    We study the dynamics of colonization of a territory by a stochastic population at low immigration pressure. We assume a sufficiently strong Allee effect that introduces, in deterministic theory, a large critical population size for colonization. At low immigration rates, the average precolonization population size is small, thus invalidating the WKB approximation to the master equation. We circumvent this difficulty by deriving an exact zero-flux solution of the master equation and matching it with an approximate nonzero-flux solution of the pertinent Fokker-Planck equation in a small region around the critical population size. This procedure provides an accurate evaluation of the quasistationary probability distribution of population sizes in the precolonization state and of the mean time to colonization, for a wide range of immigration rates. At sufficiently high immigration rates our results agree with WKB results obtained previously. At low immigration rates the results can be very different.

  13. Strong spin-filtering and spin-valve effects in a molecular V–C60–V contact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Koleini

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Motivated by the recent achievements in the manipulation of C60 molecules in STM experiments, we study theoretically the structure and electronic properties of a C60 molecule in an STM tunneljunction with a magnetic tip and magnetic adatom on a Cu(111 surface using first-principles calculations. For the case of a vanadium tip/adatom, we demonstrate how spin coupling between the magnetic V atoms, mediated by the C60, can be observed in the electronic transport, which display a strong spin-filtering effect, allowing mainly majority-spin electrons to pass (>95%. Moreover, we find a significant change in the conductance between parallel and anti-parallel spin polarizations in the junction (86% which suggests that STM experiments should be able to characterize the magnetism and spin coupling for these systems.

  14. Noise-induced extinction for a ratio-dependent predator-prey model with strong Allee effect in prey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Partha Sarathi

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, we study a stochastically forced ratio-dependent predator-prey model with strong Allee effect in prey population. In the deterministic case, we show that the model exhibits the stable interior equilibrium point or limit cycle corresponding to the co-existence of both species. We investigate a probabilistic mechanism of the noise-induced extinction in a zone of stable interior equilibrium point. Computational methods based on the stochastic sensitivity function technique are applied for the analysis of the dispersion of random states near stable interior equilibrium point. This method allows to construct a confidence domain and estimate the threshold value of the noise intensity for a transition from the coexistence to the extinction.

  15. Field emission properties and strong localization effect in conduction mechanism of nanostructured perovskite LaNiO{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamble, Ramesh B., E-mail: rbk.physics@coep.ac.in [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012, Karnataka (India); Department of Physics, College of Engineering, Pune 411005, Maharashtra (India); Tanty, Narendra; Patra, Ananya; Prasad, V. [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012, Karnataka (India)

    2016-08-22

    We report the potential field emission of highly conducting metallic perovskite lanthanum nickelate (LaNiO{sub 3}) from the nanostructured pyramidal and whisker shaped tips as electron emitters. Nano particles of lanthanum nickelate (LNO) were prepared by sol-gel route. Structural and morphological studies have been carried out. Field emission of LNO exhibited high emission current density, J = 3.37 mA/cm{sup 2} at a low threshold electric field, E{sub th} = 16.91 V/μm, obeying Fowler–Nordheim tunneling. The DC electrical resistivity exhibited upturn at 11.6 K indicating localization of electron at low temperature. Magnetoresistance measurement at different temperatures confirmed strong localization in nanostructured LNO obeying Anderson localization effect at low temperature.

  16. Strong Photonic-Band-Gap Effect on the Spontaneous Emission in 3D Lead Halide Perovskite Photonic Crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xue; Li, Mingzhu; Wang, Kang; Li, Huizeng; Li, Yanan; Li, Chang; Yan, Yongli; Zhao, Yongsheng; Song, Yanlin

    2018-03-25

    Stimulated emission in perovskite-embedded polymer opal structures is investigated. A polymer opal structure is filled with a perovskite, and perovskite photonic crystals are prepared. The spontaneous emission of the perovskite embedded in the polymer opal structures exhibits clear signatures of amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) via gain modulation. The difference in refractive-index contrast between the perovskite and the polymer opal is large enough for retaining photonic-crystals properties. The photonic band gap has a strong effect on the fluorescence emission intensity and lifetime. The stimulated emission spectrum exhibits a narrow ASE rather than a wide fluorescence peak in the thin film. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Psychobehavioural Factors Are More Strongly Associated with Successful Weight Management Than Predetermined Satiety Effect or Other Characteristics of Diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karhunen, Leila; Lyly, Marika; Lapveteläinen, Anja

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate factors associated with weight management, especially whether satiety value of food as a part of a weight-maintenance diet would affect self-regulation of food intake and weight management. Altogether 82 obese subjects completed the study consisting of weight...... factors seem to be more strongly associated with successful weight management than the predetermined satiety effect or other characteristics of the diet.......-loss and weight-maintenance (WM) periods. During theWM, subjects were randomized into higher- and lower-satiety food groups. No differences were observed in the changes in body weight, energy intake, or eating behaviour between the groups, even despite the different macronutrient compositions of the diets...

  18. Strong spin-filtering and spin-valve effects in a molecular V-C-60-V contact

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koleini, Mohammad; Brandbyge, Mads

    2012-01-01

    Motivated by the recent achievements in the manipulation of C-60 molecules in STM experiments, we study theoretically the structure and electronic properties of a C-60 molecule in an STM tunneljunction with a magnetic tip and magnetic adatom on a Cu(111) surface using first-principles calculations....... For the case of a vanadium tip/adatom, we demonstrate how spin coupling between the magnetic V atoms, mediated by the C-60, can be observed in the electronic transport, which display a strong spin-filtering effect, allowing mainly majority-spin electrons to pass (>95%). Moreover, we find a significant change...... in the conductance between parallel and anti-parallel spin polarizations in the junction (86%) which suggests that STM experiments should be able to characterize the magnetism and spin coupling for these systems....

  19. Identification of the protective effects of traditional medicinal plants against SDS-induced Drosophila gut damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yang; Liu, Zonglin; Chen, Yuchen; Jin, Li Hua

    2016-10-01

    Traditional medicinal plants are widely used as immunomodulatory medicines that help improve health. A total of 50 different plants used for the treatment of toxicity were screened for their in vivo protective effects. Flies were fed a standard cornmeal-yeast medium (control group) or the standard medium containing medicinal plant extracts (experimental groups). Assessment of the survival rate was performed by feeding flies with toxic compounds. Gut epithelial cells were analyzed for cell proliferation and death by green fluorescent protein antibodies and 7-aminoactinomycin D staining under the microscope. The expression of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) was evaluated by the quantitative polymerase chain reaction and the results revealed that after feeding the flies with toxic compounds, aqueous extracts from Codonopsis pilosula (Franch.) Nannf ( C. pilosula ), Saussurea lappa (Decne.) C.B.Clarke ( S. lappa ), Imperata cylindrica Beauv.var. major (Nees) C.E. Hubb. ( I. cylindrical var. major ) and Melia toosendan Sied. Et Zucc. ( M.toosendan ) increased the fly survival rate, reduced epithelial cell death and improved gut morphology. In addition, C. pilosula extracts induced the antimicrobial peptide levels (Dpt and Mtk) following treatment with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). However, these extracts were not observed to increase SDS-induced cell proliferation in vivo . These results indicate that there are strong protective effects in extracts of C. pilosula , S. lappa , I. cylindrical var. major and M. toosendan on Drosophila intestinal cells among 50 medicinal plants.

  20. Compressibility effects on a shear flow in strongly coupled dusty plasma. I. A study using computational fluid dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Akanksha; Ganesh, Rajaraman

    2018-01-01

    We study compressibility effects on the two-dimensional strongly coupled dusty plasma by means of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) with the Kolmogorov flow as an initial shear flow profile. Nonlinear compressible vortex flow dynamics and other linear and nonlinear properties of such flow in the presence of variable density, pressure, and electrostatic potential are addressed using a generalised compressible hydrodynamic model. The stabilizing effect of compressibility on the unstable shear flows in the presence of strong correlation ( τm>0 ) is presented. Increasing the Mach number relatively reduces the growth-rate of perturbation. On the other hand, strong correlation makes the medium to be more unstable and increases the growth rate. Using an eigen value solver, various linear properties of compressible Kolmogorov flow have been investigated for a range of variable parameters, for example, Mach number, Reynolds number, and viscoelastic coefficient (τm). Compressible Kolmogorov flow becomes unstable above a critical value of the Reynolds number (Rc), and below Rc, the shear flow is found to be neutrally stable. In this study, it is found that the viscoelasticity reduces the value of Rc. For our choice of parameters, at τm=τmc , the compressible Kolmogorov flow becomes unconditionally unstable and no Rc exists for values of τm higher than τmc . To address the nonlinear properties, for example, mode-mode interaction due to the presence of nonlinearity in the fluid, vortex formation, etc., a massively parallelized Advanced Generalized SPECTral Code (AG-Spect) has been developed. AG-Spect, a newly developed code, is an efficient tool to solve any set of nonlinear fluid dynamic equations. A good agreement in linear growth rates obtained from the eigen value solver and time dependent simulation (AG-Spect) is found. In our CFD study, the suppression of instability, elongated vortex structures, pattern formation, nonlinear saturation, and visco

  1. The carrying capacity and the effects of protection level in three marine protected areas in the Balearic Islands (NW Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josep Coll

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The monitoring of fisheries target species in three marine protected areas (MPAs located in the NW Mediterranean provided important conclusions on management effects. The abundance, occurrence and biomass of large fish showed consistent and growing trends inside the MPAs. Fish diversity was also favoured by protection. Nevertheless, spatial variance of these indicators at a medium scale was often of the same order as that caused by time between different protection levels. The carrying capacity was determined for the first time in western Mediterranean MPAs in five out of six sites studied, and in all cases it was achieved within the first five years of protection. The observed values indicate that the system of the studied MPAs is representative of the general coastal environment of the Balearic Islands, but is far from the potential of other MPAs which are considered as hot spots in other localities. Likewise, this study shows that partially protected areas can also be fairly effective if their habitats fit with those required by target species and fishing modalities are suitably regulated or banned.

  2. Protective effect of green tea on dentin erosion and abrasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Thiemi Kato

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This in situ study evaluated the protective effect of green tea on dentin erosion (ERO and erosion-abrasion (ABR. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Ten volunteers wore intraoral palatal appliances with bovine dentin specimens subjected to ERO or ERO + toothbrushing abrasion performed immediately (ERO+I-ABR or 30 min after erosion (ERO+30-min-ABR. During 2 experimental 5-day crossover phases, the volunteers rinsed with green tea or water (control, 1 min between each erosive (5 min, cola drink and abrasive challenge (30 s, toothbrushing, 4x/day. Dentin wear was measured by profilometry. RESULTS: The green tea reduced the dentin wear significantly for all conditions compared to control. ERO+I-ABR led to significantly higher wear than ERO, but it was not significantly different from ERO+30-min-ABR. ERO+30-min-ABR provoked significant higher wear than ERO, only for the placebo treatment. CONCLUSIONS: From the results of the present study, it may be concluded that green tea reduces the dentin wear under erosive/abrasive conditions.

  3. Protective effect of carvacrol on acetic acid-induced colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Santana Souza, Marilia Trindade; Teixeira, Daiane Franco; de Oliveira, Janaíne Prata; Oliveira, Alan Santos; Quintans-Júnior, Lucindo José; Correa, Cristiane Bani; Camargo, Enilton Aparecido

    2017-12-01

    The pharmacological therapy for inflammatory bowel diseases continues to be problematic, and requires new alternative options. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that carvacrol (CAR), a phenolic monoterpene with anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities, can treat experimental colitis in mice. C57BL/6 mice (n=8/group) were subjected to intrarectal administration of acetic acid (5%) to induce colitis. Mice were pretreated with CAR (25, 50 or 100mg/kg, p.o.) every 12h for three days prior to the induction. Abdominal hyperalgesia, macroscopic and microscopic colon damage, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-1β levels, oxidative stress markers, and antioxidant enzyme activities were evaluated. Pretreatment with all doses of CAR significantly decreased abdominal hyperalgesia and colon MPO activity and TNF-α and IL-1β levels. A reduction in macroscopic and microscopic damage (p<0.05) was observed at doses of 50 and 100mg/kg CAR. Pretreatment with CAR significantly reduced lipid peroxidation (for all doses) and increased sulfhydryl groups (at 100mg/kg). This effect was accompanied by a significant increase in catalase, superoxide dismutase, and glutathione peroxidase activities. These findings indicate that CAR protected mice from acetic acid-induced colitis by reducing inflammatory, nociceptive, and oxidative damages. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. [Protective effect of tanshinol on the hepatopulmonary syndrome in rat].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Jian-Tao; Zhang, Hui-Ying; Lai, Li-Na; Li, Xu-Jiong; Tian, Xiao-Xia; Zhang, Li-Li; Lv, Min-Li; Zhao, Zhong-Fu; Han, De-Wu; Cheng, Ji

    2014-05-01

    To explore the mechanism of tanshinol on alleviate the inflammatory injury of lung tissue in rat hepatopulmonary syndrome (HPS). SD rats were randomly divided into normal control group (n = 8), hepatopulmonary syndrome (HPS) group (n = 11) and tanshinol intervention group (n = 9). HE staining was used to observe the histopathology changes of pulmonary and hepatic tissues, and to count the number of macrophages in lung tissues. The activity of alanine transferase (ALT) and concentrations of endotoxin, tumor necrosis factor-a (TNF-alpha) and homocystein (Hcy) in plasma were detected. The concentrations of TNF-alpha, nitric oxide (NO) and malondialdehyde (MDA) and the activity of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in the lung tissues were measured, respectively. Thickened alveolar septum and increased macrophages were observed in lungs in HPS rat. After administered with tanshinol, the pulmonary pathological changes were alleviated and the number of macrophages in lung tissue was decreased compared with HPS group. The activity of ALT and the concentrations of endotoxin, TNF-alpha and Hcy in plasma ,and TNF-alpha, iNOS, NO and MDA in lung tissue in HPS group were higher than those of normal control group; meanwhile, those tanshinol group were less those that of HPS group. Tanshinol may play an important role in delaying the development of HPS through protecting liver or directly antagonizing the effect of intestinal endotoxemia so as to alleviate the inflammatory reaction in lung tissue.

  5. Protective effects of polyenoylphosphatidylcholine in rats with severe acute pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiangyi; Wu, Zheng; Sha, Huanchen; Wang, Zheng; Ma, Zhenhua; Wu, Erxi; Ma, Qingyong

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effect of polyenoylphosphatidylcholine (PPC) in rats with severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) and its mechanism. Seventy-two clean, conventional Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 4 groups (SAP; sham operation [SO], SAP + PPC, and SO + PPC; n = 18 per group). The SAP model was induced by injecting 4% sodium taurocholate (1 mL/kg) into the biliopancreatic duct. Animals in the SO groups underwent laparotomy and biliopancreatic duct puncture without fluid injection. Polyenoylphosphatidylcholine (50 mg/kg) was injected through the penis dorsal vein. Pancreatic acinar cell membrane fluidity and pancreatic tissue calcium pump activity were measured through fluorescence polarization and quantization of phosphonium ions, whereas pancreatic tissue superoxide dismutase and malondialdehyde were detected through xanthine oxidase method and thiobarbituric acid colorimetric analysis method, respectively. The SAP + PPC group had significantly improved pathologic pancreas; increased in pancreatic acinar cell membrane fluidity, pancreatic tissue Ca-Mg-ATPase activity, and superoxide dismutase; as well as decreased in malondialdehyde, ascites volume, and serum amylase compared with the SAP group. Polyenoylphosphatidylcholine could reduce the damage to the pancreas through increasing pancreatic acinar cell membrane fluidity and pancreatic tissue calcium pump activity. Polyenoylphosphatidylcholine also scavenges oxygen free radicals and reduces lipid peroxide levels.

  6. Protective Effects of Flavonoid Pomiferin on Heart Ischemia-Reperfusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Nečas

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present 15-day study was to evaluate the cardioprotective potential of flavonoid pomiferin isolated from the infructences of Maclura pomifera, Moraceae, against ischemia-reperfusion induced injury in rat hearts as a model of antioxidant-based composite therapy. Studies were performed with isolated, modifi ed Langendorff-perfused rat hearts and ischemia of heart was initiated by stopping the coronary flow for 30 min, followed by 60 min of reperfusion (14 ml min-1. Wistar rats were divided into three groups. The treated group received pomiferin (5 mg/kg/day in 0.5% Avicel; the placebo group received only 0.5% Avicel; the intact group was left without any applications. Biochemical indicators of oxidative damage, lipid peroxidation product malondialdehyde, antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, total antioxidant activity in serum and myocardium has been evaluated. We also examined the effect of pomiferin on cardiac function (left ventricular end-diastolic pressure, left ventricular pressure, peak positive +dP/dt (rate of pressure development after ischemia and reperfusion. Our results demonstrate that pomiferin attenuates the myocardial dysfunction provoked by ischemiareperfusion. This was confirmed by the increase in both the antioxidant enzyme values and the total antioxidant activity. The cardio-protection provided by pomiferin treatment results from the suppression of oxidative stress and correlates with the improved ventricular function.

  7. Radiation protection standards: a summary of the biological effects of ionising radiation and principles of radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This leaflet in the NRPB At-a-Glance-Series briefly summarises the biological effects of radiation, harm and sensitivity to radiation, radiation protection principles, acceptability of risk and the control of doses to workers, the public and in medical procedures in the UK. (UK)

  8. Cost effectiveness of protection schemes for IP-over-WDM networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, N. S. C.; Medeiros, M. C. R.

    2007-03-01

    We analyze the cost of IP-over-WDM networks employing survivable traffic grooming protection. The network cost is evaluated in terms of total number of optical transceivers in the network, total amount of electronic switching, and maximum number of optical transceivers at a node. The network cost is compared with the cost of networks employing other protection strategies, namely, IP protection and WDM shared protection. The minimum cost problem is mathematically formulated for the three protection approaches. Our results show quantitatively that the evaluated survivable traffic grooming protection scheme is the most effective.

  9. Protective Effect of Adonitol on Lactic Acid Bacteria Subjected to Freeze-Drying

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Valdéz, Graciela F.; de Giori, Graciela S.; de Ruiz Holgado, Aída A. P.; Oliver, Guillermo

    1983-01-01

    The protective effects of glycerol, adonitol, and four other related polyhydric alcohols on lactic acid bacteria subjected to freeze-drying were examined. The presence of adonitol in the suspending medium markedly protected the viabilities of the 12 stains tested. Dulcitol, mannitol, m-inositol, and sorbitol were found to provide little or no protection. PMID:6824318

  10. Protective effect of Dracontium dubium against Bothrops asper venom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caro, Daneiva; Ocampo, Yanet; Castro, Jenny; Barrios, Lia; Salas, Rubén; Franco, Luis A

    2017-05-01

    In Colombia, Bothrops asper is responsible for 70-90% of ophidians accidents reported annually. Envenoming occurs mainly in rural areas where both antivenom and health centers are scarce. Thus, patients are frequently treated by local healers that employ medicinal herbs; including several species belonging to Dracontium genus. In this work, we evaluated the neutralizing activity of Dracontium dubium Kunth against the lethal, inflammatory, coagulant and hemolytic effects produced by B. asper venom. Mice treated with D. dubium extract (500 and 1000μg/g, ip), survived to the administration of lethal doses of venom, with remarkable recovery of macroscopic and histology damage. Furthermore, D. dubium exerted a significant inhibition of inflammatory damage promoted by paw injection of B. asper venom. Such activity might be related to the inhibition of macrophage activation and NO production, as demonstrated using LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. Moreover, the extract of D. dubium remarkably diminished the indirect hemolytic effect of snake venom. On the other hand, no substantial differences were observed in clotting time of plasma incubated with venom when compared to extract treated plasma. Noteworthy, D. dubium extract did not alter the electrophoretic pattern of venom before the assays. Phytochemistry screening revealed the presence of phenolic compounds, flavonoids, tannins and steroids/triterpenoids, which might explain the bioactivity of the extract. Our results, provides strong evidence that support the employment of D. dubium in folk medicine. Further studies are needed to isolate and identify the metabolites responsible for the activity, in order to provide a useful and accessible treatment for snakebite envenoming in low-income rural areas. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  11. Determining localized anode condition to maintain effective corrosion protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Thermal sprayed zinc anodes used for impressed current cathodic protection of reinforced concrete deteriorate over time. : Two different technologies, ultrasound and electrical circuit resistance combined with water permeability, were : investigated ...

  12. Protective effect of 4-coumaric acid from UVB ray damage in the rabbit eye

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lodovici, Maura; Caldini, Silvia; Morbidelli, Lucia; Akpan, Victor; Ziche, Marina; Dolara, Piero

    2009-01-01

    UV-induced oxidation damage seems to play a major role in a number of specific pathological conditions of intraocular tissues, such as cataract formation and retinal degeneration. Therefore, antioxidant and/or scavenger compounds might protect the eyes from UV-induced cellular damage. We previously reported that 4-coumaric acid (4-CA) is able to protect rabbit corneal-derived cells (SIRC) from UVB-induced oxidation damage. In this study we evaluated the protective effect of 4-CA against UVB-induced cell damage in rabbit cornea in vivo. Twelve male New Zealand albino rabbits were used; four rabbits were used as a control and received vehicle in one eye and 4-CA acid in the contralateral eye; eight rabbits were exposed to UVB rays (79.2 mJ/cm 2 ) and three days before to UV exposure each animal received 1 drop/day of vehicle in one eye and 1 drop/day of vehicle containing 4-CA (164 ng) in the contralateral eye. Corneal and sclera tissues were removed and 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodGuo) levels were measured. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and xanthine oxidase (XO) activities were determined in aqueous humour. UVB-induced vessel hyper-reactivity was strongly reduced at 4 and 24 h after UVB exposure after local treatment with 4-CA, 8-oxodGuo levels, a marker of oxidative DNA damage, were significantly increased (P < 0.05) in sclera and cornea by UVB irradiation, but when 4-CA was administered to the conjunctiva in a buffered solution once a day for 3 d before and 6 d after UVB exposure, levels of 8-oxodGuo were similar to controls and significantly reduced (P < 0.05) compared to UVB-treated corneas. XO activity in the aqueous humour was significantly increased. The administration of 4-CA for 3 d before and 6 d after UVB irradiation induced a small but significant (P < 0.05) reduction of XO compared with control eyes. Our results indicate that the administration of 4-CA protects eye tissues, thus reducing the harmful effect of UVB radiation at low

  13. Corrected color glasses for effective protection of eyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciosek, Jerzy

    2001-08-01

    The subject of modern and save sunglasses is entertaining to many people especially due to anti-UV eye protection. Many people use glasses with anti-UV or blue-block coatings to driving or sun-tanning. There were analyzed transmittance and reflectance of different sunglasses made with thin-layer coatings. Sunglasses with absorption-interference protection are specially interesting due to technical simplicity of production.

  14. ASSESSMENT TO EFFECTIVENESS OF THE NEW EARLY STREAMER EMISSION LIGHTNING PROTECTION SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    A. Chen, Yen-Hong; Lin, Kai-Jan; M. Li, Yu-Chu

    2017-01-01

    A novel early streamer emission (ESE) lightning air terminal system is designed and fabricated. By comparing the intercepted artificial lightning striking numbers of the new ESE lightning protection device and the conventional lightning rod (CLR) lightning protection device in laboratory, the effectiveness of intercepting the artificial lightning strokes by the new ESE lightning protection device is superior to that by the conventional lightning rod lightning protection device. A modified Tes...

  15. Strong Quantum Confinement Effects and Chiral Excitons in Bio-Inspired ZnO–Amino Acid Cocrystals

    KAUST Repository

    Muhammed, Madathumpady Abubaker Habeeb

    2018-02-20

    Elucidating the underlying principles behind band gap engineering is paramount for the successful implementation of semiconductors in photonic and optoelectronic devices. Recently it has been shown that the band gap of a wide and direct band gap semiconductor, such as ZnO, can be modified upon cocrystallization with amino acids, with the role of the biomolecules remaining unclear. Here, by probing and modeling the light-emitting properties of ZnO-amino acid cocrystals, we identify the amino acids\\' role on this band gap modulation and demonstrate their effective chirality transfer to the interband excitations in ZnO. Our 3D quantum model suggests that the strong band edge emission blue-shift in the cocrystals can be explained by a quasi-periodic distribution of amino acid potential barriers within the ZnO crystal lattice. Overall, our findings indicate that biomolecule cocrystallization can be used as a truly bio-inspired means to induce chiral quantum confinement effects in quasi-bulk semiconductors.

  16. Naegleria fowleri lysate induces strong cytopathic effects and pro-inflammatory cytokine release in rat microglial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yang-Jin; Park, Chang-Eun; Kim, Jong-Hyun; Sohn, Hae-Jin; Lee, Jinyoung; Jung, Suk-Yul; Shin, Ho-Joon

    2011-09-01

    Naegleria fowleri, a ubiquitous free-living ameba, causes fatal primary amebic meningoencephalitis in humans. N. fowleri trophozoites are known to induce cytopathic changes upon contact with microglial cells, including necrotic and apoptotic cell death and pro-inflammatory cytokine release. In this study, we treated rat microglial cells with amebic lysate to probe contact-independent mechanisms for cytotoxicity, determining through a combination of light microscopy and scanning and transmission electron microscopy whether N. fowleri lysate could effect on both necrosis and apoptosis on microglia in a time- as well as dose-dependent fashion. A (51)Cr release assay demonstrated pronounced lysate induction of cytotoxicity (71.5%) toward microglial cells by 24 hr after its addition to cultures. In an assay of pro-inflammatory cytokine release, microglial cells treated with N. fowleri lysate produced TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β, though generation of the former 2 cytokines was reduced with time, and that of the last increased throughout the experimental period. In summary, N. fowleri lysate exerted strong cytopathic effects on microglial cells, and elicited pro-inflammatory cytokine release as a primary immune response.

  17. Synergistic effect between strongly coupled CoAl layered double hydroxides and graphene for the electrocatalytic reduction of oxygen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yinling; Wang, Zhangcui; Wu, Xiaoqin; Liu, Xiaowang; Li, Maoguo

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • CoAl-LDHs were synthesized on the surface of graphene oxide in situ. • The oxygen reduction reaction activity of the catalyst was investigated. • The synergistic effect between CoAl-LDHs and rGO is discussed in detail. • The roles of Co 2+ in the LDHs were clarified. - Abstract: Precious metal-free electrocatalysts with high efficiency and durability for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) are strongly desired in the field of energy technology. Herein, the CoAl layered double hydroxides (CoAl-LDHs)/reduced graphene oxide (rGO) composites were successfully prepared by growing CoAl-LDHs on the surface of GO in situ via coprecipitation and subsequently hydrothermal treatment. The structure, composition, morphology and ORR catalytic activity of the CoAl-LDHs/rGO composites were investigated as a function of mass ratios of CoAl-LDHs and GO. The results show that there is an optimum mass ratio of CoAl-LDHs and GO (w CoAl-LDHs :w GO = 1:5) for the ORR catalytic activity, where the electron transfer number for ORR at the CoAl-LDHs/rGO composites reaches to 3.5, closing to the full four-electron process. The synergistic effect between CoAl-LDHs and rGO is discussed in detail and the discussion is instructive for the construction of the better transition metal oxides/carbon composite-based ORR catalysts.

  18. Silymarin protects liver against toxic effects of anti-tuberculosis drugs in experimental animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izzettin Fikret V

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The first line anti-tuberculosis drugs isoniazid (INH, rifampicin (RIF and pyrazinamide (PZA continues to be the effective drugs in the treatment of tuberculosis, however, the use of these drugs is associated with toxic reactions in tissues, particularly in the liver, leading to hepatitis. Silymarin, a standard plant extract with strong antioxidant activity obtained from S. marianum, is known to be an effective agent for liver protection and liver regeneration. The aim of this study was to investigate the protective actions of silymarin against hepatotoxicity caused by different combinations of anti-tuberculosis drugs. Methods Male Wistar albino rats weighing 250–300 g were used to form 6 study groups, each group consisting of 10 rats. Animals were treated with intra-peritoneal injection of isoniazid (50 mg/kg and rifampicin (100 mg/kg; and intra-gastric administration of pyrazinamid (350 mg/kg and silymarin (200 mg/kg. Hepatotoxicity was induced by a combination of drugs with INH+RIF and INH+RIF+PZA. Hepatoprotective effect of silymarin was investigated by co-administration of silymarin together with the drugs. Serum biochemical tests for liver functions and histopathological examination of livers were carried out to demonstrate the protection of liver against anti-tuberculosis drugs by silymarin. Results Treatment of rats with INH+RIF or INH+RIF+PZA induced hepatotoxicity as evidenced by biochemical measurements: serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST and alkaline phosphatase (ALP activities and the levels of total bilirubin were elevated, and the levels of albumin and total protein were decreased in drugs-treated animals. Histopathological changes were also observed in livers of animals that received drugs. Simultaneous administration of silymarin significantly decreased the biochemical and histological changes induced by the drugs. Conclusion The active components of silymarin had

  19. Protective Effect of Egyptian Propolis against Rabbit Pasteurellosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somia A. Nassar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to study the protective effect of ethanolic extract of propolis given subcutaneously (S/C either alone or in combination with inactivated formalized Pasteurella multocida (P. multocida vaccine in rabbits challenged with virulent P. multocida strain. Twenty-eight New-Zealand rabbits, 6–8 weeks old and not vaccinated against pasteurellosis, were randomly divided into four equal groups. Group (1 was kept as nonvaccinated control. Group (2 was injected S/C with propolis. Group (3 was vaccinated (S/C with P. multocida vaccine only. Group (4 was injected with vaccine mixed with propolis as adjuvant. Groups (2, 3, and 4 received the same doses of propolis and vaccine after 4 weeks as a booster dose. The experiment continued for six weeks during which clinical signs, body weight, and mortality rate were recorded. Blood samples were collected every 2 weeks of treatment for evaluating the erythrogram and biochemical parameters. At the end of six weeks, all groups were subjected to challenge with a virulent strain of P. multocida. Two weeks later, tissue specimens were collected from different organs for histopathological investigation. Results showed that before challenge all rabbits of different groups were apparently healthy and had good appetite. After challenge, control group (1 showed acute form of the disease, 100% mortality rate, and severe histopathological changes. Rabbits of groups (2 and 3 showed less severe clinical signs, mortality rate, and histopathological changes than control. Rabbits of group (4 were apparently healthy with normal histological picture. In conclusion, an ethanolic extract of propolis injected alone or combined with formalized inactivated P. multocida vaccine improved general health conditions, liver and kidney functions in addition to reduction of the severity of adverse clinical signs, mortality rates, and histopathological changes associated with challenge of rabbits with P. multocida

  20. Effects of strong interactions between Ti and ceria on the structures of Ti/CeO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Xiao-Dan; Zhu, Kong-Jie; Teng, Bo-Tao; Yu, Cao-Ming; Zhang, Yun-Lei; Liu, Ya; Fan, Maohong; Wen, Xiao-Dong

    2016-11-30

    The effects of strong interactions between Ti and ceria on the structures of Ti/CeO 2 (111) are systematically investigated by density functional theory calculation. To our best knowledge, the adsorption energy of a Ti atom at the hollow site of CeO 2 is the highest value (-7.99 eV) reported in the literature compared with those of Au (-0.88--1.26 eV), Ag (-1.42 eV), Cu (-2.69 eV), Pd (-1.75 eV), Pt (-2.62 eV) and Sn (-3.68 eV). It is very interesting to find that Ti adatoms disperse at the hollow site of CeO 2 (111) to form surface TiO x species, instead of aggregating to form Ti metal clusters for the Ti-CeO 2 interactions that are much stronger than those of Ti-Ti ones. Ti adatoms are completely oxidized to Ti 4+ ions if they are monatomically dispersed on the next near hollow sites of CeO 2 (111) (xTi-NN-hollow); while Ti 3+ ions are observed when they locate at the near hollow sites (xTi-N-hollow). Due to the electronic repulsive effects among Ti 3+ ions, the adsorption energies of xTi-N-hollow are slightly weaker than those of xTi-NN-hollow. Simultaneously, the existence of unstable Ti 3+ ions on xTi-N-hollow also leads to the restructuring of xTi-N-hollow by surface O atoms of ceria transferring to the top of Ti 3+ ions, or oxidation by O 2 adsorption and dissociation. Both processes improve the stability of the xTi/CeO 2 system by Ti 3+ oxidation. Correspondingly, surface TiO 2 -like species form. This work sheds light into the structures of metal/CeO 2 catalysts with strong interactions between the metal and the ceria support.

  1. Fitness Effects of Chlorpyrifos in the Damselfly Enallagma cyathigerum Strongly Depend upon Temperature and Food Level and Can Bridge Metamorphosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizanne Janssens

    Full Text Available Interactions between pollutants and suboptimal environmental conditions can have severe consequences for the toxicity of pollutants, yet are still poorly understood. To identify patterns across environmental conditions and across fitness-related variables we exposed Enallagma cyathigerum damselfly larvae to the pesticide chlorpyrifos at two food levels or at two temperatures and quantified four fitness-related variables (larval survival, development time, mass at emergence and adult cold resistance. Food level and temperature did not affect survival in the absence of the pesticide, yet the pesticide reduced survival only at the high temperature. Animals reacted to the pesticide by accelerating their development but only at the high food level and at the low temperature; at the low food level, however, pesticide exposure resulted in a slower development. Chlorpyrifos exposure resulted in smaller adults except in animals reared at the high food level. Animals reared at the low food level and at the low temperature had a higher cold resistance which was not affected by the pesticide. In summary our study highlight that combined effects of exposure to chlorpyrifos and the two environmental conditions (i were mostly interactive and sometimes even reversed in comparison with the effect of the environmental condition in isolation, (ii strongly differed depending on the fitness-related variable under study, (iii were not always predictable based on the effect of the environmental condition in isolation, and (iv bridged metamorphosis depending on which environmental condition was combined with the pesticide thereby potentially carrying over from aquatic to terrestrial ecosystems. These findings are relevant when extrapolating results of laboratory tests done under ideal environmental conditions to natural communities.

  2. Protective effects of fluoroquinolones on UV-induced damage of cultured ocular cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishida, Takashi; Kuse, Yoshiki; Mochizuki, Kiyofumi; Shimazawa, Masamitsu; Yamamoto, Tetsuya; Hara, Hideaki

    2017-07-05

    Although the fluoroquinolones have strong antibacterial effects, some of them also have adverse ocular effects such as diplopia, uveitis, optic neuropathy, and retinal detachment. The purpose of this study was to determine whether low concentrations of fluoroquinolones can lessen the cytotoxic effects of ultraviolet (UV) light on different kinds of cultured ocular cells. We studied cultured human corneal endothelial cells (HCECs), a retinal ganglion cell line (RGC-5), a mouse-derived photoreceptor cell line (661W), a human adult retinal pigment epithelial cell line (ARPE-19), primary retinal cells, and primary human RPE cells. Levofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, and clinafloxacin were selected as the fluoroquinolones to test. The viabilities of the 661W, ARPE-19, and hRPE cells were assessed by Cell Counting Kit-8, and that of HCECs, 661W cells, and ARPE-19 cells by double fluorescent staining with Hoechst 33342 and propidium iodide (PI). Damage of retinal primary culture cells was assessed by immunostaining. Intracellular production of reactive oxygen species was measured in ARPE-19 cells by CM-H 2 DCFDA after UV light exposure. An activation of caspase by UV light in ARPE-19 cells was detected with a caspase-3/7 assay kit. UV exposure increased the number of dead cells, and the three fluoroquinolones tested suppressed this increase. Fluoroquinolones also protected the cells against the hydroxyperoxide (H 2 O 2 )-induced cell damage. Moreover, the fluoroquinolones decreased the production of reactive oxygen species and the activity of caspase-3/7, and low concentrations of fluoroquinolones reduced the oxidative stress in cultured ocular cell lines. We conclude that fluoroquinolones may have protective effects in these cells against UV exposure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Effects of Joint Interpretation of the Strong Interest Inventory and the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator in Career Choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Louise; Joyner, John W.; Seaman, Nancy

    1999-01-01

    Students completed either the Strong Interest Inventory (n=114) or Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (n=108), both (n=99), or none (n=106). Twelve weeks after interpretation, those who completed both showed more change, specificity, or certainty in their career goal. The Myers-Briggs proved as helpful as Strong in career decision making. (SK)

  4. A PHYSICAL MODEL OF THE EFFECT OF A SHALLOW WEAK LAYER ON STRONG GROUND MOTION FOR STRIKE-SLIP RUPTURES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JAMES N. BRUNE AND ABDOLRASOOL ANOOSHEHPOOR

    1998-02-23

    We report results of foam-rubber modeling of the effect of a shallow weak layer on ground motion from strike-slip ruptures. Computer modeling of strong ground motion from strike-slip earthquakes has involved somewhat arbitrary assumptions about the nature of slip along the shallow part of the fault (e.g., fixing the slip to be zero along the upper 2 kilometers of the fault plane) in order to match certain strong motion accelerograms. Most modeling studies of earthquake strong ground motion have used what is termed kinematic dislocation modeling. In kinematic modeling the time function for slip on the fault is prescribed, and the response of the layered medium is calculated. Unfortunately, there is no guarantee that the model and the prescribed slip are physically reasonable unless the true nature of the medium and its motions are known ahead of time. There is good reason to believe that in many cases faults are weak along the upper few kilometers of the fault zone and may not be able to maintain high levels of shear strain required for high dynamic energy release during earthquakes. Physical models of faulting, as distinct from numerical or mathematical models, are guaranteed to obey static and dynamic mechanical laws. Foam-rubber modeling studies have been reported in a number of publications. The object of this paper is to present results of physical modeling using a shallow weak layer, in order to verify the physical basis for assuming a long rise time and a reduced high frequency pulse for the slip on the shallow part of faults. It appears a 2-kilometer deep, weak zone along strike-slip faults could indeed reduce the high frequency energy radiated from shallow slip, and that this effect can best be represented by superimposing a small amplitude, short rise-time pulse at the onset of a much longer rise-time slip. A weak zone was modeled by inserting weak plastic layers of a few inches in thickness into the foam rubber model. For the 15 cm weak zone the average

  5. Radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koelzer, W.

    1975-01-01

    Physical and radiological terms, quantities, and units. Basic principles of radiation protection (ICRP, IAEA, EURATOM, FRG). Biological effects of ionizing radiation. Objectives of practical radiation protection. (HP) [de

  6. Characterization of weak, fair and strong neutron absorbing materials by means of neutron transmission: Beam hardening effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kharfi, F.; Bastuerk, M.; Boucenna, A.

    2006-01-01

    The characterization of neutron absorbing materials as well as quantification of neutron attenuation through matter is very essential in various fields, namely in shielding calculation. The objective of this work is to describe an experimental procedure to be used for the determination of neutron transmission through different materials. The proposed method is based on the relation between the gray value measured on neutron radiography image and the corresponding inducing neutron beam. For such a purpose, three kinds of materials (in shape of plate) were investigated using thermal neutrons: (1) boron-alloyed stainless steel as strong absorber; (2) copper and steel as fair absorbers and (3) aluminum as weak absorber. This work is not limited to the determination of neutron transmission through matters; it is also spread out to the measure of the surface density of the neutron absorbing elements (ρ s ) as a function of thickness of neutron absorbing material such as boron-alloyed stainless steel. The beam hardening effect depending on material thickness was also studied using the neutron transmission measurements. A theoretical approach was used to interpret the experimental results. The neutron transmission measurements were performed at the Neutron Radiography and Tomography facility of the Atomic Institute of the Austrian Universities in Vienna. Finally, a Maxwellian neutron distribution of incident neutron beam was used in the theoretical calculations of neutron energy shift in order to compare with experiments results. The obtained experimental results are in a good agreement with the developed theoretical approach

  7. Characterization of weak, fair and strong neutron absorbing materials by means of neutron transmission: Beam hardening effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharfi, F.; Bastuerk, M.; Boucenna, A.

    2006-09-01

    The characterization of neutron absorbing materials as well as quantification of neutron attenuation through matter is very essential in various fields, namely in shielding calculation. The objective of this work is to describe an experimental procedure to be used for the determination of neutron transmission through different materials. The proposed method is based on the relation between the gray value measured on neutron radiography image and the corresponding inducing neutron beam. For such a purpose, three kinds of materials (in shape of plate) were investigated using thermal neutrons: (1) boron-alloyed stainless steel as strong absorber; (2) copper and steel as fair absorbers and (3) aluminum as weak absorber. This work is not limited to the determination of neutron transmission through matters; it is also spread out to the measure of the surface density of the neutron absorbing elements (ρs) as a function of thickness of neutron absorbing material such as boron-alloyed stainless steel. The beam hardening effect depending on material thickness was also studied using the neutron transmission measurements. A theoretical approach was used to interpret the experimental results. The neutron transmission measurements were performed at the Neutron Radiography and Tomography facility of the Atomic Institute of the Austrian Universities in Vienna. Finally, a Maxwellian neutron distribution of incident neutron beam was used in the theoretical calculations of neutron energy shift in order to compare with experiments results. The obtained experimental results are in a good agreement with the developed theoretical approach.

  8. Effectiveness of protected areas for representing species and populations of terrestrial mammals in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Maya, José F; Víquez-R, Luis R; Belant, Jerrold L; Ceballos, Gerardo

    2015-01-01

    Costa Rica has one of the greatest percentages (26%) of protected land in the world. The National Protected Areas System (NPAS) of Costa Rica was established in 1976 and currently includes >190 protected areas within seven different protection categories. The effectiveness of the NPAS to represent species, populations, and areas with high species richness has not been properly evaluated. Such evaluations are fundamental to understand what is necessary to strengthen the NPAS and better protect biodiversity. We present a novel assessment of NPAS effectiveness in protecting mammal species. We compiled the geographical ranges of all terrestrial Costa Rican mammals then determined species lists for all protected areas and the estimated proportion of each species' geographic range protected. We also classified mammal species according to their conservation status using the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. We found almost complete representation of mammal species (98.5%) in protected areas, but low relative coverage (28.3% on average) of their geographic ranges in Costa Rica and 25% of the species were classified as underprotected according to a priori representation targets. Interestingly, many species-rich areas are not protected, and at least 43% of cells covering the entire country are not included in protected areas. Though protected areas in Costa Rica represent species richness well, strategic planning for future protected areas to improve species complementarity and range protection is necessary. Our results can help to define sites where new protected areas can have a greater impact on mammal conservation, both in terms of species richness and range protection.

  9. Effectiveness of Protected Areas for Representing Species and Populations of Terrestrial Mammals in Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Maya, José F.; Víquez-R, Luis R.; Belant, Jerrold L.; Ceballos, Gerardo

    2015-01-01

    Costa Rica has one of the greatest percentages (26%) of protected land in the world. The National Protected Areas System (NPAS) of Costa Rica was established in 1976 and currently includes >190 protected areas within seven different protection categories. The effectiveness of the NPAS to represent species, populations, and areas with high species richness has not been properly evaluated. Such evaluations are fundamental to understand what is necessary to strengthen the NPAS and better protect biodiversity. We present a novel assessment of NPAS effectiveness in protecting mammal species. We compiled the geographical ranges of all terrestrial Costa Rican mammals then determined species lists for all protected areas and the estimated proportion of each species’ geographic range protected. We also classified mammal species according to their conservation status using the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. We found almost complete representation of mammal species (98.5%) in protected areas, but low relative coverage (28.3% on average) of their geographic ranges in Costa Rica and 25% of the species were classified as underprotected according to a priori representation targets. Interestingly, many species-rich areas are not protected, and at least 43% of cells covering the entire country are not included in protected areas. Though protected areas in Costa Rica represent species richness well, strategic planning for future protected areas to improve species complementarity and range protection is necessary. Our results can help to define sites where new protected areas can have a greater impact on mammal conservation, both in terms of species richness and range protection. PMID:25970293

  10. TOXIC EFFECTS OF CHLOROPICRIN AND IMPACT OF SORBED WATER STEAM ON PROTECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Nikolić

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Chloropicrin is a chemical substance that has a very toxic effect. Exerts its effect on the respiratory system. Causes pulmonary edema and difficult breathing and suffocating effect. Respiratory protection may be carried into execution respiratory filters. On the protective power filter based on active coal affects adsorbed water vapor. This paper presents the results of the adsorption of water vapor on activated carbon from 5% to 25%. Was used for the experiment apparatus for dynamic adsorption, the results showed that the humidity of 5% coal provides most power protection, while humidity of 25% minimum protective power.

  11. Functional ingredients and cardiovascular protective effect of pumpkin seed oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Okbi, S. Y.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate the cardiovascular protective effect of Egyptian and European umpkin seed oil (PSO in hypercholesterolemic rats. Tocopherols, fatty acids (FAs and unsaponifiable matter (UNSAP were assessed in both oils. The results showed that α-tocopherol was 108 and 273, γ-tocopherol was 3.95 and 0 and d-tocopherol was 0 and 1.58 mg·100 g-1 oil of the Egyptian and European, respectively. GLC analysis of FAs revealed the presence of linoleic acid as the major fatty acid in both oils. Feeding a hypercholesterolemic diet produced a significant increase in plasma total cholesterol (T-Ch, triglycerides (TGs, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, T-Ch/HDL-Ch, TGs/HDL-Ch and malondialdehyde and a significant reduction in high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-Ch, vitamin E, and adiponectin. Rats fed on hypercholesterolemic diet with either oil showed a significant improvement in all biochemical parametersEl objetivo fue evaluar el efecto protector cardiovascular de aceites de semilla de calabaza (PSO de variedades egipcia y europea en ratas con hipercolesterolemia. Se evaluó tocoferoles, ácidos grasos (FAs y materia insaponificable (UNSAP en ambos aceites. Los resultados mostraron valores de α-tocoferol de 108 y 273, γ-tocoferol 3,95 y 0 y δ-tocoferol de 0 y 1,58 mg·100 g-1 en las variedades egipcia y europea, respectivamente. El análisis por GLC de los ácidos grasos (FAS mostró al linoleico como mayoritario en ambos aceites. La alimentación con una dieta hipercolesterolémica produjo en plasma un aumento significativo de colesterol total (T-Ch, triglicéridos (TG, colesterol en lipoproteínas de baja densidad, T-Ch/HDL-Ch, TGs/HDL- ch y malondialdehído y una reducción significativa en el colesterol de lipoproteínas de alta densidad (HDL-cH, vitamina E, y adiponectina. Las ratas alimentadas con una dieta hipercolesterolémica y con ambos aceites, mostraron mejoras significativas en todos los par

  12. Early stage beneficial effects of cathodic protection in concrete structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polder, R.B.; Peelen, W.H.A.; Neeft, E.A.C.; Stoop, B.T.J.

    2010-01-01

    Over the last 25 years, cathodic protection (CP) of reinforced concrete structures suffering from chloride induced reinforcement corrosion has shown to be successful and durable. CP current causes steel polarisation, electrochemical reactions and ion transport in the concrete. CP systems are

  13. Ship Inspection Strategies: Effects on Maritime Safety and Environmental Protection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Heij (Christiaan); G.E. Bijwaard (Govert); S. Knapp (Sabine)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractGlobal trade depends for a large part on maritime transport, and safe ships are needed not only to protect precious cargo but also to prevent environmental damage. Flag state and port state authorities spend much effort in ship safety inspections to ensure a minimum safety level and to

  14. Ship inspection strategies: effects on maritime safety and environmental protection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heij, C.; Bijwaard, G.E.; Knapp, S.

    2011-01-01

    Global trade largely depends on maritime transport, and appropriate ships are needed to protect cargo but to minimize environmental damage and to this end, flag and port state authorities expend considerable effort in ship safety inspections. This paper investigates the safety gains of current

  15. The effects of pastoralism and protection on lion behaviour ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... the prides regardless of land use. Adult lions altered not so much the type but the spatial location and timing of their behaviour on the pastoral ranches relative to the reserve.We discuss the implications of these findings for lion conservation on pastoral lands. Key words: behaviour, lions, pastoralism, protection, space use.

  16. Assessment of the protective effect of male circumcision from HIV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    East African Journal of Public Health ... A cross-sectional comparative study based on secondary data of 18 Demographic Health Surveys (DHS) carried out in Sub-Saharan Africa starting from 2003 was conducted to assess the protective ... Adjustment was made for sexual history and basic socio-demographic variables.

  17. Protective effects of flavonoids from corn silk on oxidative stress ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    After the last treatment, animals were submitted to treadmill for exhaustion and running time, malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) levels were measured. The results suggested that FCS could elevate the exercise tolerance of mice, and provide protection against oxidative ...

  18. Protective Effects of Dimedone Pyrone on Podocytes in Rats with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    improvements while nephrin and podocin protein expression levels were significantly higher in the nephridial tissue. Decrease in relative kidney ... therapeutic importance in the treatment of diabetic nephropathy. Keywords: Dimedone pyrone ..... Brown WV. Microvascular complications of diabetes mellitus: renal protection ...

  19. Lactational Vitamin E Protects Against the Histotoxic Effects of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Summary: The work investigated the protective role of lactational vitamin E administration on vanadium-induced histotoxicity. Three groups of Wistar rats, with each group comprising of two dams and their pups, were used in this study. Group I pups were administered intraperitoneal injection of sterile water at volumes ...

  20. Assessing the effectiveness of protected area management in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-11-28

    Nov 28, 2011 ... protected areas (PAs) have serious problems in implementing basic management functions such as ... was similar throughout Turkey. In general, policy environment scores were remarkably below the average, showing that the importance and priority of ... management include visitor impacts, inadequate.

  1. Protective effects of cistanches herba aqueous extract on cisplatin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Materials and Methods: We administered low- and high-concentration CH to cisplatin-induced POF mice for 2 weeks and determined body and ovarian weights, as well as serum follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and estradiol concentrations, to evaluate ovarian function. In addition, we evaluated the protective mechanisms ...

  2. Protective effect of catalpol on isoproterenol-induced myocardial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hope&shola

    2012-05-10

    May 10, 2012 ... This study was designed to explore whether catalpol protected myocardium against isoproterenol (ISO)-induced myocardial injury ... expressions of tumor necrosis factor-a (TNF-a) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) caused by ISO. In conclusion, .... muscle fibres without any necrosis (Figure 1A). The morphology of ...

  3. Effect of ectomycorrhizal fungi in the protection of Uapaca kirkiana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Investigations carried out on the use of ectomycorhhizal fungi in the management of Uapaca kirkiana root diseases caused by three pathogens (Rhizoctonia solani, Phytophthora parasitica and Pseudomonas solani) revealed that different mycorrhizal fungi vary in their ability to protect roots against these respective ...

  4. Linking management effectiveness indicators to observed effects of protected areas on fire occurrence in the Amazon rainforest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolte, Christoph; Agrawal, Arun

    2013-02-01

    Management-effectiveness scores are used widely by donors and implementers of conservation projects to prioritize, track, and evaluate investments in protected areas. However, there is little evidence that these scores actually reflect the capacity of protected areas to deliver conservation outcomes. We examined the relation between indicators of management effectiveness in protected areas and the effectiveness of protected areas in reducing fire occurrence in the Amazon rainforest. We used data collected with the Management Effectiveness Tracking Tool (METT) scorecard, adopted by some of the world's largest conservation organizations to track management characteristics believed to be crucial for protected-area effectiveness. We used the occurrence of forest fires from 2000 through 2010 as a measure of the effect of protected areas on undesired land-cover change in the Amazon basin. We used matching to compare the estimated effect of protected areas with low versus high METT scores on fire occurrence. We also estimated effects of individual protected areas on fire occurrence and explored the relation between these effects and METT scores. The relations between METT scores and effects of protected areas on fire occurrence were weak. Protected areas with higher METT scores in 2005 did not seem to have performed better than protected areas with lower METT scores at reducing fire occurrence over the last 10 years. Further research into the relations between management-effectiveness indicators and conservation outcomes in protected areas seems necessary, and our results show that the careful application of matching methods can be a suitable method for that purpose. ©2012 Society for Conservation Biology.

  5. Histological study of the possible protective effect of pomegranate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ibtihag F. El Ghazzawy

    2011-08-11

    Aug 11, 2011 ... cell-cell adhesion, and involve connexin 43 (Cx43) which is a major gap junction channel-forming protein. In addition, there is strong evidence for the relation between disturbed endoplas- mic reticulum function and its role in gap junctional forma- tion. One of the rough endoplasmic reticulum localized.

  6. The dual effect of vegetation green-up date and strong wind on the return period of spring dust storms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jieling; Li, Ning; Zhang, Zhengtao; Chen, Xi

    2017-08-15

    Vegetation phenology changes have been widely applied in the disaster risk assessments of the spring dust storms, and vegetation green-up date shifts have a strong influence on dust storms. However, the effect of earlier vegetation green-up dates due to climate warming on the evaluation of dust storms return periods remains an important, but poorly understood issue. In this study, we evaluate the spring dust storm return period (February to June) in Inner Mongolia, Northern China, using 165 observations of severe spring dust storm events from 16 weather stations, and regional vegetation green-up dates as an integrated factor from NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index), covering a period from 1982 to 2007, by building the bivariate Copula model. We found that the joint return period showed better fitting results than without considering the integrated factor when the actual dust storm return period is longer than 2years. Also, for extremely severe dust storm events, the gap between simulation result and actual return period can be narrowed up to 0.4888years by using integrated factor. Furthermore, the risk map based on the return period results shows that the Mandula, Zhurihe, Sunitezuoqi, Narenbaolige stations are identified as high risk areas. In this study area, land surface is extensively covered by grasses and shrubs, vegetation green-up date can play a significant role in restraining spring dust storm outbreaks. Therefore, we suggest that Copula method can become a useful tool for joint return period evaluation and risk analysis of severe dust storms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Strong enhancement of Penning ionization for asymmetric atom pairs in cold Rydberg gases: the Tom and Jerry effect

    KAUST Repository

    Efimov, D K

    2016-05-18

    We consider Penning ionization of Rydberg atom pairs as an Auger-type process induced by the dipole-dipole interaction and employ semiclassical formulae for dipole transitions to calculate the autoionization width as a function of the principal quantum numbers, n d, n i, of both atoms. While for symmetric atom pairs with the well-known increase of the autoionization width with increasing n 0 is obtained, the result for asymmetric pairs is counterintuitive - for a fixed n i of the ionizing atom of the pair, the autoionization width strongly increases with decreasing n d of the de-excited atom. For H Rydberg atoms this increase reaches two orders of magnitude at the maximum of the n d dependence, and the same type of counterintuitive behavior is exhibited also by Na, Rb and Cs atoms. This is a purely quantum-mechanical effect, which points towards existence of optimal (we call them \\'Tom\\' and \\'Jerry\\' for \\'big\\' and \\'small\\') pairs of Rydberg atoms with respect to autoionization efficiency. Building on the model of population redistribution in cold Rydberg gases proposed in [1], we demonstrate that population evolution following the initial laser excitation of Rydberg atoms in state n 0 would eventually lead to the formation of such Tom-Jerry pairs with which feature autoionization widths that are enhanced by several orders of magnitude compared to that of two atoms in the initial laser-excited state n 0. We also show that in the high-density regime of cold Rydberg gas experiments the ionization rate of Tom-Jerry pairs can be substantially larger than the blackbody radiation-induced photoionization rate. © 2016 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  8. Experimental investigation of effect of surface gravity waves and spray on heat and momentum flux at strong wind conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troitskaya, Yuliya; Sergeev, Daniil; Vdovin, Maxim; Kandaurov, Alexander; Ermakova, Olga; Kazakov, Vassily

    2015-04-01

    The most important characteristics that determine the interaction between atmosphere and ocean are fluxes of momentum, heat and moisture. For their parameterization the dimensionless exchange coefficients (the surface drag coefficient CD and the heat transfer coefficient or the Stanton number CT) are used. Numerous field and laboratory experiments show that CD increases with increasing wind speed at moderate and strong wind, and as it was shows recently CD decreases at hurricane wind speed. Waves are known to increase the sea surface resistance due to enhanced form drag, the sea spray is considered as a possible mechanism of the 'drag reduction' at hurricane conditions. The dependence of heat transfer coefficient CD on the wind speed is not so certain and the role of the mechanism associated with the wave disturbances in the mass transfer is not completely understood. Observations and laboratory data show that this dependence is weaker than for the CD, and there are differences in the character of the dependence in different data sets. The purpose of this paper is investigation of the effect of surface waves on the turbulent exchange of momentum and heat within the laboratory experiment, when wind and wave parameters are maintained and controlled. The effect of spray on turbulent exchange at strong winds is also estimated. A series of experiments to study the processes of turbulent exchange of momentum and heat in a stably stratified temperature turbulent boundary layer air flow over waved water surface were carried out at the Wind - wave stratified flume of IAP RAS, the peculiarity of this experiment was the option to change the surface wave parameters regardless of the speed of the wind flow in the channel. For this purpose a polyethylene net with the variable depth (0.25 mm thick and a cell of 1.6 mm × 1.6mm) has been stretched along the channel. The waves were absent when the net was located at the level of the undisturbed water surface, and had maximum

  9. Atomic level description of the protecting effect of osmolytes against thermal denaturation of proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieraccini, Stefano; Burgi, Luigi; Genoni, Alessandro; Benedusi, Anna; Sironi, Maurizio

    2007-04-01

    The protecting effect of the osmolyte molecule taurine against thermal denaturation of the protein Chimotripsin Inhibitor 2 was modelled using Molecular Dynamics simulations. The protein was simulated in denaturing conditions at different taurine concentrations. Analysis of the molecular details of its behaviour shows that the protective effect of the osmolyte is concentration dependent. Moreover, the influence of taurine on the solvent structure was studied. A concentration dependent ordering effect of taurine on water molecules emerges from solvent structure analysis and is well correlated to the protecting effect observed. Based on these observations an interpretation of the osmoprotective effect is proposed.

  10. Radio protective effects of the Ayurvedic medicinal plant Ocimum sanctum Linn. (Holy Basil: A memoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjeshwar Shrinath Baliga

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of compounds which can selectively protect normal tissues against radiation injury is of immense use because in addition to it protecting the normal tissue, will also permits use of higher doses of radiation to obtain better cancer control and possible cure. However, most of the radio protective compounds investigated possess inadequate clinical application principally due to their inherent systemic toxicity at their optimal protective concentrations. Plants commonly used as medicinal and dietary agents have recently been the focus of attention and studies have shown that Ocimum sanctum Linn. commonly known as the Holy Basil and its water soluble flavonoids, orientin and vicenin protects experimental animals against the radiation-induced sickness and mortality at nontoxic concentrations. Studies with tumor bearing mice have also shown that both Tulsi extract and its flavonoids selectively protect the normal tissues against the tumoricidal effects of radiation. Preclinical studies have also shown that the aqueous extract of the Tulsi leaves; its flavanoids orientin and vicenin, and eugenol, the principal nonpolar constituent present in Tulsi prevent radiation-induced clastogenesis. Mechanistic studies have indicated that free radical scavenging, antioxidant, metal chelating and anti-inflammatory effects may contribute toward the observed protection. In addition, clinical studies with a small number of patients have shown that Tulsi was effective as a radio protective agent. This review summarizes the results related to the radio protective properties of Tulsi and its phytochemicals and also emphasizes the aspects that warrant future research to establish its use as a radio protective agent.

  11. Hellcopter Aircrew Helmets and Head Injury: A Protective Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-06-01

    the crash sequence. In 1959, the APH -5 flight helmet was made widely available to U.S. Army aviators, and within 4 years a significant reduction in...from the SPH-4 (table 4). This is an important finding, since most civilian flight nurses and medics are not provided 8-10 flight helmets...protection from head injury than previously published research based on an older flight helmet (the APH -5). The 1961 report, Army Aviation Accident

  12. Effective legal protection in the licensing of technical installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Froehler, L.

    1987-01-01

    Undeterminate concepts of law shall match the dynamism of technical progress in licensing technical installations (e.g. section 7, para. 2 no. 3 Atomic Energy Act). The administration and the courts have the duty to equalize normative deficits of regulation. Decrees and administrative provisions have an important impact. Administrative courts shall exercise legal protection more efficiently what e.g. can be possible after a shortening of stages of appeal. (CW) [de

  13. ESSAY ON THE EFFECTIVENESS OF THE COLLECTIVE PROTECTION IN PORTUGAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Picoli Gagno

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This essay aims to examine certain aspects concerning collective judicial process by the light of some Portuguese cases, having as base the collective judicial protection understood as a fundamental right. With regard to the employed research method, the approach is the qualitative one, while the method is the deductive and the technique is the bibliographic e jurisprudential research. The theoretical framework is based on the doctrine and theory of some of the cited authors during the research. Among them are Robert Alexy, Mauro Cappelletti and Bryant Garth. In addition, this paper is divided into three sections: the first one is a brief study on access to justice clarified as a fundamental right of the citizen. In the second section a parallel is made with the first one, but the collective judicial protection is therefore seen as a fundamental right. In the third and last section we have the analysis of four cases of two superior courts of Portugal, being them the Supreme Court of Justice (STJ and the Supreme Administrative Court (STA, in order to understand the collective process in Portugal and to see which points that can offer a contribution for the brazilian collective procedural technic. As a result, it is found that collective judicial protection is inevitable and immanent for a substantial vision of the fundamental right of access to justice, understood like a orders of optimization, that may his realization in the biggest measure is possible

  14. Measuring impact of protected area management interventions: current and future use of the Global Database of Protected Area Management Effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coad, Lauren; Leverington, Fiona; Knights, Kathryn; Geldmann, Jonas; Eassom, April; Kapos, Valerie; Kingston, Naomi; de Lima, Marcelo; Zamora, Camilo; Cuardros, Ivon; Nolte, Christoph; Burgess, Neil D; Hockings, Marc

    2015-11-05

    Protected areas (PAs) are at the forefront of conservation efforts, and yet despite considerable progress towards the global target of having 17% of the world's land area within protected areas by 2020, biodiversity continues to decline. The discrepancy between increasing PA coverage and negative biodiversity trends has resulted in renewed efforts to enhance PA effectiveness. The global conservation community has conducted thousands of assessments of protected area management effectiveness (PAME), and interest in the use of these data to help measure the conservation impact of PA management interventions is high. Here, we summarize the status of PAME assessment, review the published evidence for a link between PAME assessment results and the conservation impacts of PAs, and discuss the limitations and future use of PAME data in measuring the impact of PA management interventions on conservation outcomes. We conclude that PAME data, while designed as a tool for local adaptive management, may also help to provide insights into the impact of PA management interventions from the local-to-global scale. However, the subjective and ordinal characteristics of the data present significant limitations for their application in rigorous scientific impact evaluations, a problem that should be recognized and mitigated where possible. © 2015 The Authors.

  15. Bone-Protective Effects of Dried Plum in Postmenopausal Women: Efficacy and Possible Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arjmandi, Bahram H; Johnson, Sarah A; Pourafshar, Shirin; Navaei, Negin; George, Kelli S; Hooshmand, Shirin; Chai, Sheau C; Akhavan, Neda S

    2017-05-14

    Osteoporosis is an age-related chronic disease characterized by a loss of bone mass and quality, and is associated with an increased risk of fragility fractures. Postmenopausal women are at the greatest risk of developing osteoporosis due to the cessation in ovarian hormone production, which causes accelerated bone loss. As the demographic shifts to a more aged population, a growing number of postmenopausal women will be afflicted with osteoporosis. Certain lifestyle factors, including nutrition and exercise, are known to reduce the risk of developing osteoporosis and therefore play an important role in bone health. In terms of nutrition, accumulating evidence suggests that dried plum ( Prunus domestica L.) is potentially an efficacious intervention for preventing and reversing bone mass and structural loss in an ovariectomized rat model of osteoporosis, as well as in osteopenic postmenopausal women. Here, we provide evidence supporting the efficacy of dried plum in preventing and reversing bone loss associated with ovarian hormone deficiency in rodent models and in humans. We end with the results of a recent follow-up study demonstrating that postmenopausal women who previously consumed 100 g dried plum per day during our one-year clinical trial conducted five years earlier retained bone mineral density to a greater extent than those receiving a comparative control. Additionally, we highlight the possible mechanisms of action by which bioactive compounds in dried plum exert bone-protective effects. Overall, the findings of our studies and others strongly suggest that dried plum in its whole form is a promising and efficacious functional food therapy for preventing bone loss in postmenopausal women, with the potential for long-lasting bone-protective effects.

  16. [The protective effect of propofol pretreatment on glutamate injury of neonatal rat brain slices].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiao-feng; Huang, Ding-ding; Wang, Di-fen; Fu, Jiang-quan

    2012-12-01

    To study the protective effect of propofol precondition against glutamate (Glu) neurotoxicity to neonatal rat cerebrocortical slices. Brain slices of Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were cultured in vitro and observed the morphologic changes. Brain slices were randomly divided into three groups: blank control group, Glu injury group (1 mmol/L Glu for 0.5 hour), propofol precondition group (20 mg/L propofol for 24 hours), each n=12. Changes in pathological and ultra-structure of cells were observed using microscope. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage rate was measured. Meanwhile, the expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) was detected by immunohistochemical technology, then the positive cell were counted. Cultured brain slices of cell were intact and survived well. Hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining, electron microscopy and LDH test results showed that cerebral film neuron severely damage, gliosis, edema, LDH leakage rate in Glu injury group were significantly more severe compared with blank control group [(68.5±2.0)% vs. (16.0±2.5)%, P<0.01]. Reduce the brain slice of the propofol pretreatment group of neuronal cell jury, cell shape recovery significantly reduced LDH leakage rate compared with the Glu injury group [(38.5±2.4)% vs. (68.5±2.0)%, P<0.05]. Immunohistochemical detection of GFAP expression of Glu injury group glial cell body swelling, producing increase in the number of GFAP positive reaction strong, the number of positive cells compared with blank control group was significantly increased (50±5 cells/HP vs. 10±3 cells/HP, P<0.01). The recovery of propofol pretreatment group glial cell morphology, cell processes slender GFAP positive reaction decreased the number of positive cells compared with the Glu injury group was significantly decreased (30±4 cells/HP vs. 50±5 cells/HP, P<0.05). Propofol pretreatment has protective effect against Glu injured rat cerebrocortical slices.

  17. Protection Myopia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Keld; Salter, Ammon; Li, Cher

    from having an orientation towards legal appropriability, we conjecture that protection myopia may lead some firms to allocate too much attention to legal appropriability, in particular when the behavioral and structural contingencies are unfavorable. Examining a panel of three successive waves......The strategies firms use to protect their intellectual property and knowledge can strongly influence their ability to capture the benefits of their innovative efforts. Using the attention-based theory, we explore positive and negative sides of legal appropriability. While asserting the benefits...... of a large-scale survey data of UK manufacturing firms, we find that an orientation towards legal appropriability is curvilinearly (taking an inverted U-shape) related to innovative performance. However, this effect is only present when the firms? product innovations are radical or when they are involved...

  18. Ethical considerations in protecting the environment from the effects of ionizing radiation. A report for discussion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-02-01

    In recent years awareness of the vulnerability of the environment has increased and the need to protect it against the effects of industrial pollutants has been recognized. This trend is reflected in new and developing international policies for environmental protection. In the context of protection of the environment against ionizing radiation, the existing international approach is based on providing for the protection of humans. The current recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) include the statement that t he standard of environmental control needed to protect man to the degree currently thought desirable will ensure that other species are not put at risk... . In the light of the new focus of concern for the environment, this statement is being critically reviewed in several international fora. The IAEA has, over many years, sponsored studies of the effects of ionizing radiation on species other than humans. Most recently it published a discussion report as IAEA-TECDOC-1091 (1999) in which the need for developing a system for protecting the environment against the effects of ionizing radiation was elaborated and in which various related technical and philosophical issues for resolution were discussed. The current report explores the ethical principles that could underlie a system of environmental protection. It is intended as one step in the development of a framework for the protection of the environment from the effects of ionizing radiation, and is being published in order to promote awareness of the current developments in this field as well as to encourage discussion amongst those involved

  19. Impact of vaccine herd-protection effects in cost-effectiveness analyses of childhood vaccinations. A quantitative comparative analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, Yvonne; Ioannidis, John P. A.; Contopoulos-Ioannidis, Despina

    2017-01-01

    Background Inclusion of vaccine herd-protection effects in cost-effectiveness analyses (CEAs) can impact the CEAs-conclusions. However, empirical epidemiologic data on the size of herd-protection effects from original studies are limited. Methods We performed a quantitative comparative analysis of the impact of herd-protection effects in CEAs for four childhood vaccinations (pneumococcal, meningococcal, rotavirus and influenza). We considered CEAs reporting incremental-cost-effectiveness-ratios (ICERs) (per quality-adjusted-life-years [QALY] gained; per life-years [LY] gained or per disability-adjusted-life-years [DALY] avoided), both with and without herd protection, while keeping all other model parameters stable. We calculated the size of the ICER-differences without vs with-herd-protection and estimated how often inclusion of herd-protection led to crossing of the cost-effectiveness threshold (of an assumed societal-willingness-to-pay) of $50,000 for more-developed countries or X3GDP/capita (WHO-threshold) for less-developed countries. Results We identified 35 CEA studies (20 pneumococcal, 4 meningococcal, 8 rotavirus and 3 influenza vaccines) with 99 ICER-analyses (55 per-QALY, 27 per-LY and 17 per-DALY). The median ICER-absolute differences per QALY, LY and DALY (without minus with herd-protection) were $15,620 (IQR: $877 to $48,376); $54,871 (IQR: $787 to $115,026) and $49 (IQR: $15 to $1,636) respectively. When the target-vaccination strategy was not cost-saving without herd-protection, inclusion of herd-protection always resulted in more favorable results. In CEAs that had ICERs above the cost-effectiveness threshold without herd-protection, inclusion of herd-protection led to crossing of that threshold in 45% of the cases. This impacted only CEAs for more developed countries, as all but one CEAs for less developed countries had ICERs below the WHO-cost-effectiveness threshold even without herd-protection. In several analyses, recommendation for the

  20. Impact of vaccine herd-protection effects in cost-effectiveness analyses of childhood vaccinations. A quantitative comparative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holubar, Marisa; Stavroulakis, Maria Christina; Maldonado, Yvonne; Ioannidis, John P A; Contopoulos-Ioannidis, Despina

    2017-01-01

    Inclusion of vaccine herd-protection effects in cost-effectiveness analyses (CEAs) can impact the CEAs-conclusions. However, empirical epidemiologic data on the size of herd-protection effects from original studies are limited. We performed a quantitative comparative analysis of the impact of herd-protection effects in CEAs for four childhood vaccinations (pneumococcal, meningococcal, rotavirus and influenza). We considered CEAs reporting incremental-cost-effectiveness-ratios (ICERs) (per quality-adjusted-life-years [QALY] gained; per life-years [LY] gained or per disability-adjusted-life-years [DALY] avoided), both with and without herd protection, while keeping all other model parameters stable. We calculated the size of the ICER-differences without vs with-herd-protection and estimated how often inclusion of herd-protection led to crossing of the cost-effectiveness threshold (of an assumed societal-willingness-to-pay) of $50,000 for more-developed countries or X3GDP/capita (WHO-threshold) for less-developed countries. We identified 35 CEA studies (20 pneumococcal, 4 meningococcal, 8 rotavirus and 3 influenza vaccines) with 99 ICER-analyses (55 per-QALY, 27 per-LY and 17 per-DALY). The median ICER-absolute differences per QALY, LY and DALY (without minus with herd-protection) were $15,620 (IQR: $877 to $48,376); $54,871 (IQR: $787 to $115,026) and $49 (IQR: $15 to $1,636) respectively. When the target-vaccination strategy was not cost-saving without herd-protection, inclusion of herd-protection always resulted in more favorable results. In CEAs that had ICERs above the cost-effectiveness threshold without herd-protection, inclusion of herd-protection led to crossing of that threshold in 45% of the cases. This impacted only CEAs for more developed countries, as all but one CEAs for less developed countries had ICERs below the WHO-cost-effectiveness threshold even without herd-protection. In several analyses, recommendation for the adoption of the target

  1. Fabrication of Ge Nanocrystals Doped Silica-on-Silicon Waveguides and Observation of Their Strong Quantum Confinement Effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ou, Haiyan; Rottwitt, Karsten

    2008-01-01

    Standard silica-on-silicon waveguides with a core doped by Ge nanocrystals were fabricated using PECVD and RIE. Transmission of the waveguide was measured, and strong absorption peaks at 1056.8 nm, 1406 nm and 1263.2 nm were observed.......Standard silica-on-silicon waveguides with a core doped by Ge nanocrystals were fabricated using PECVD and RIE. Transmission of the waveguide was measured, and strong absorption peaks at 1056.8 nm, 1406 nm and 1263.2 nm were observed....

  2. [Vaseline protection of the skin from the effects of the sealant Uniherm-6].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shulakov, N A; Novikov, V E; Loseva, V A; Makushkina, V K; Kozlov, N B; Iakushev, P F; Bondarev, D P

    1990-01-01

    The article presents a set of newly elaborated specific techniques of the indication of protective pastes and ointments penetrability into the sealants. The techniques are based on the sealant's colour reactions to iron chloride spirits solution. It was established that skin protecting silicone creams, EIR-1 and HIOT pastes were sealant resistant for 4-6 minutes only. Medicinal vaseline displayed its protection properties for 6 hours, thus demonstrating its greater effectiveness when used in industrial conditions.

  3. Effects of obesity and body fat distribution on lipids and lipoproteins in nondiabetic American Indians: The Strong Heart Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, D; Hannah, J; Gray, R S; Jablonski, K A; Henderson, J A; Robbins, D C; Lee, E T; Welty, T K; Howard, B V

    2000-09-01

    To examine the relationship between obesity and lipoprotein profiles and compare the effects of total obesity and central adiposity on lipids/lipoproteins in American Indians. Participants were 773 nondiabetic American Indian women and 739 men aged 45 to 74 years participating in the Strong Heart Study. Total obesity was estimated using body mass index (BMI). Central obesity was measured as waist circumference. Lipoprotein measures included triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, apolipoprotein AI (apoAI), and apolipoprotein B (apoB). Partial and canonical correlation analyses were used to examine the associations between obesity and lipids/ lipoproteins. Women were more obese than men in Arizona (median BMI 32.1 vs. 29.2 kg/m2) and South Dakota and North Dakota (28.3 vs. 28.0 kg/m2), but there was no sex difference in waist circumference. Men had higher apoB and lower apoAI levels than did women. In women, when adjusted for center, gender, and age, BMI was significantly related to HDL cholesterol (r = -0.24, p HDL cholesterol (r = -0.23, p correlated with triglycerides (r = 0.30, p correlated with HDL cholesterol (r = -0.35, p HDL cholesterol decreased with waist circumference (r = -0.36, p correlation analysis, waist circumference received a greater weight (0.86) than did BMI (0.17) in women. However, the canonical weights were similar for waist (0.46) and BMI (0.56) in men. Only HDL cholesterol (-1.02) carried greater weight in women, whereas in men, triglycerides (0.50), and HDL cholesterol (-0.64) carried a large amount of weight. All the correlation coefficients between BMI, waist circumference, and the first canonical variable of lipids/lipoproteins or between the individual lipid/lipoprotein variables and the first canonical variable of obesity were smaller in women than in men. Triglycerides and HDL cholesterol showed clinically meaningful changes with BMI and waist circumference in men. All

  4. The Effect of Operating Lamps on the Protected Area of a Unidirectional Down Flow (UDF) System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traversari, A A L; Bottenheft, C; Louman, R; van Heumen, S P M; Böggemann, J

    2017-04-01

    Operating lamps are often seen as the most disruptive factors within the protective area in the operating theater (OT). The effect of the operation lamps (with different shapes) should be demonstrated in an OT by trial, since research on the effects of the lamps is still limited. The main aim of this study was to determine the effects of a skirt, different lamps, and the position of the lamp on the protected area. The concentration of airborne particles was measured under different circumstances, in order to determine the size and quality of the protected area. This entrainment/segregation test is based on the deliberate and controlled emission of particles outside the zone that is protected. The degree of protection (DP) at the center of the protected area was higher for the case with the skirt. This skirt stimulates more down flow and prevents the early entry of particles into the protected area. It can also be concluded that Lamp Y, due to its open shape, has the most positive effect on the DP at the center. It has also been shown that the position of the lamp has an effect on the protected area.

  5. SOLVENT EFFECTS IN THE LIQUID-PHASE HYDRATION OF CYCLOHEXENE CATALYZED BY A MACROPOROUS STRONG ACID ION-EXCHANGE RESIN

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    PANNEMAN, HJ; BEENACKERS, AACM

    1992-01-01

    The liquid-phase hydration of cyclohexene, a pseudo first order reversible reaction catalyzed by a strong acid ion exchange resin, macroporous Amberlite XE 307, was investigated in solvent mixtures of water and sulfolane. A decrease by a factor of 3 and 6 is observed in the experimentally measured

  6. The Effects of Building Strong Families: A Healthy Marriage and Relationship Skills Education Program for Unmarried Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Robert G.; McConnell, Sheena; Moore, Quinn; Clarkwest, Andrew; Hsueh, JoAnn

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the impacts of Building Strong Families, a healthy marriage and relationship skills education program serving unmarried parents who were expecting or had recently had a baby. Based on a random assignment research design, the analysis uses survey data from more than 4,700 couples across eight research sites to estimate program…

  7. Plenary panel 1: The scientific bases of radiation protection. Non-targeted effects of ionising radiation - Implications for radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salomaa, S.

    2006-01-01

    The universality of the target theory of radiation-induced effects is challenged by observations on non-targeted effects such as bystander effects, genomic instability and adaptive response. Essential features of non-targeted effects are that they do not require direct nuclear exposure by radiation and they are particularly significant at low doses. This new evidence suggests a need for a new paradigm in radiation biology. The new paradigm should cover both the classical (targeted) and the non-targeted effects. New aspects include the role of cellular communication and tissue-level responses. A better understanding of non-targeted effects may have important consequences for health risk assessment and, consequently, on radiation protection. Non-targeted effects may contribute to the estimation of cancer risk from occupational, medical and environmental exposures. In particular, they may have implications for the applicability of the Linear-No-Threshold (L.N.T.) model in extrapolating radiation risk data into the low-dose region. This also means that the adequacy of the concept of dose to estimate risk is challenged by these findings. Moreover, these effects may provide new mechanistic explanations for the development of non-cancer diseases. Further research is required to determine if these effects, typically measured in cell cultures, are applicable in tissue level, whole animals, and ultimately in humans. (authors)

  8. Plenary panel 1: The scientific bases of radiation protection. Non-targeted effects of ionising radiation - Implications for radiation protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salomaa, S. [STUK - Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Helsinki (Finland)

    2006-07-01

    The universality of the target theory of radiation-induced effects is challenged by observations on non-targeted effects such as bystander effects, genomic instability and adaptive response. Essential features of non-targeted effects are that they do not require direct nuclear exposure by radiation and they are particularly significant at low doses. This new evidence suggests a need for a new paradigm in radiation biology. The new paradigm should cover both the classical (targeted) and the non-targeted effects. New aspects include the role of cellular communication and tissue-level responses. A better understanding of non-targeted effects may have important consequences for health risk assessment and, consequently, on radiation protection. Non-targeted effects may contribute to the estimation of cancer risk from occupational, medical and environmental exposures. In particular, they may have implications for the applicability of the Linear-No-Threshold (L.N.T.) model in extrapolating radiation risk data into the low-dose region. This also means that the adequacy of the concept of dose to estimate risk is challenged by these findings. Moreover, these effects may provide new mechanistic explanations for the development of non-cancer diseases. Further research is required to determine if these effects, typically measured in cell cultures, are applicable in tissue level, whole animals, and ultimately in humans. (authors)

  9. Protective effect of silk lutein on ultraviolet B-irradiated human keratinocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutatip Pongcharoen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Carotenoids are efficient antioxidants that are of great importance for human health. Lutein and zeaxanthin are carotinoids present in high concentrations in the human retina which are involved in the photoprotection of the human eye. Lutein may also protect the skin from ultraviolet (UV-induced damage. The present study investigated the protective effect of lutein extracted from yellow silk cocoons of Bombyx mori on human keratinocytes against UVB irradiation. A human keratinocyte cell line and primary human keratinocytes were used to investigate the UVB protection effects of silk lutein and plant lutein. Silk lutein showed no cytotoxicity to keratinocytes. Treatment with silk lutein prior to UVB irradiation enhanced cell viability and cell proliferation, and reduced cell apoptosis. The protective effects of silk lutein may be superior to those of plant lutein. Silk lutein may have a benefit for protection of keratinocytes against UVB-irradiation.

  10. Protection effect of GDNF and neurturin on photosensitized crayfish neurons and glial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzdensky, Anatoly; Komandirov, Maxim; Fedorenko, Grigory; Lobanov, Andrej

    2013-03-01

    Neurons and glial cells can protect each other from stress and following death by mutual exchange with neurotrophins. In order to examine involvement of different neurotrophic factors in neuroglial interactions in a photosensitized crayfish stretch receptor, a simple model object consisting of only two sensory neurons enveloped by glial cells, we studied the influence of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), neurturin, and ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) on its photodynamic injury. Photodynamic treatment, which causes strong oxidative stress, induced firing abolition and necrosis of neurons, necrosis, and apoptosis of glial cells. GDNF significantly reduced photoinduced neuronal necrosis and neurturin but not CNTF showed a similar tendency. Both of them significantly reduced necrosis and apoptosis of glial cells. At the ultrastructural level, neurons and glial cells treated with GDNF in the darkness contained large mitochondria with well-developed cristae, numerous ribosomes, polysomes, rough endoplasmic reticulum (ER), and dictyosomes. This indicated the high level of bioenergetic, biosynthetic, and transport processes. Photodynamic treatment caused swelling and vacuolization of mitochondria, dictyosomes, and ER. It also impaired formation of glial protrusions and double membrane vesicles that transfer glial material into the neuron. GDNF prevented photoinduced mitochondria swelling that disturbed the cellular bioenergetics and cytoplasm vacuolization associated with injury of intracellular organelles. It also preserved the structures involved in protein synthesis and transport: rough ER, dictyosomes, polysomes, microtubule bundles, submembrane cisterns, and double membrane vesicles. GDNF-mediated maintenance of metabolism and ultrastructure of photosensitized neurons and glial cells may be the basis of its neuro- and glia protective effects.

  11. Effect of neutralization on protectiveness of sulfide films on carbon steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tapping, R.L.; Lavoie, P.A.; Davidson, R.D.

    1983-01-01

    During shutdown of the Girdler sulfide (GS) process heavy water plants, the carbon steel and stainless steel surfaces are neutralized with ammonia and/or sodium carbonate. The effects of neutralization on the protective pyrite film and subsequent in-plant corrosion rates were investigated. It was concluded that these neutralization methods did not destroy the protectiveness of the pyrite films

  12. The Court of Justice and Effective Judicial Protection: What Has the Charter Changed?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prechal, A.

    2015-01-01

    Since the coming into force of the Charter as primary law of the EU, Article 47 CFR is ‘the reference standard’ when the Court deals with issues of ffective judicial protection. However, the general principle of effective judicial protection existed already for some 25 years, developed in the case

  13. Is prevention of acute pesticide poisoning effective and efficient, with Locally Adapted Personal Protective Equipment?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varma, Anshu; Neupane, Dinesh; Ellekilde Bonde, Jens Peter

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Farmers' risk of pesticide poisoning can be reduced with personal protective equipment but in low-income countries farmers' use of such equipment is limited. OBJECTIVE: To examine the effectiveness and efficiency of Locally Adapted Personal Protective Equipment to reduce organophospha...

  14. Study on protective effect of extract on hepatic ischemia-reperfusion ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of the study was to study the protective effect of Silybum marianum extract on hepatic ischemiareperfusion injury. Rats were randomly divided into five groups; namely Silybum marianum extract high-, medium-, and lowdose protection groups, model group and control group. Hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury ...

  15. Older Adults' Perceptions of Nutrition as Protective against Detrimental Effects of Environmental Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Kristina; Gaetke, Lisa; Stephenson, Tammy; Brewer, Dawn

    2017-01-01

    The aging process makes older adults vulnerable to the detrimental health effects of environmental contaminants. Our study assessed older adults' perceptions regarding diet as protective against environmental contaminants, levels of concern about exposure to environmental contaminants, and interest in learning about protective food-related…

  16. Effective IP protection method of mask data using OASIS format

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishizawa, Kuninori; Endo, Masakazu; Kato, Kokoro

    2005-06-01

    We have been developing intellectual properties (IP) protection software using OASIS format. In the Photomask Technology 2004 we presented that by taking advantage of repetition presentation of OASIS, it becomes possible to express arrayed patterns without any generation of new cells, which also brings less overhead and further compaction of the result file. As a result, we could rebuild the hierarchy without cell generation and reduce the output file size. In this paper, additionally we have applied a unique compression function CBLOCK defined in OASIS format. CBLOCK can compress any part of OASIS file. The experimental results show that there are no redundant cells generated and the file size has become approximately 20 times smaller than conventional methods.

  17. Strong coupling effects during X-pulse CPMG experiments recorded on heteronuclear ABX spin systems: artifacts and a simple solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vallurupalli, Pramodh; Scott, Lincoln; Williamson, James R.; Kay, Lewis E.

    2007-01-01

    Simulation and experiment have been used to establish that significant artifacts can be generated in X-pulse CPMG relaxation dispersion experiments recorded on heteronuclear ABX spin-systems, such as 13 C i - 13 C j - 1 H, where 13 C i and 13 C j are strongly coupled. A qualitative explanation of the origin of these artifacts is presented along with a simple method to significantly reduce them. An application to the measurement of 1 H CPMG relaxation dispersion profiles in an HIV-2 TAR RNA molecule where all ribose sugars are protonated at the 2' position, deuterated at all other sugar positions and 13 C labeled at all sugar carbons is presented to illustrate the problems that strong 13 C- 13 C coupling introduces and a simple solution is proposed

  18. Calculations of the one-body electronic structure of the strongly correlated systems including self-energy effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa-Quintana, J.; Sanchez-Lopez, M.M.; Lopez-Aguilar, F. [Grup d`Electromagnetisme, Edifici Cn, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona 08193, Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain)

    1996-10-01

    We give a method to obtain the quasiparticle band structure and renormalized density of states by diagonalizing the interacting system Green function. This method operates for any self-energy approximation appropriated to strongly correlated systems. Application to CeSi{sub 2} and YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7} is analyzed as a probe for this band calculation method. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  19. Effect of Strong Acid Functional Groups on Electrode Rise Potential in Capacitive Mixing by Double Layer Expansion

    KAUST Repository

    Hatzell, Marta C.

    2014-12-02

    © 2014 American Chemical Society. The amount of salinity-gradient energy that can be obtained through capacitive mixing based on double layer expansion depends on the extent the electric double layer (EDL) is altered in a low salt concentration (LC) electrolyte (e.g., river water). We show that the electrode-rise potential, which is a measure of the EDL perturbation process, was significantly (P = 10-5) correlated to the concentration of strong acid surface functional groups using five types of activated carbon. Electrodes with the lowest concentration of strong acids (0.05 mmol g-1) had a positive rise potential of 59 ± 4 mV in the LC solution, whereas the carbon with the highest concentration (0.36 mmol g-1) had a negative rise potential (-31 ± 5 mV). Chemical oxidation of a carbon (YP50) using nitric acid decreased the electrode rise potential from 46 ± 2 mV (unaltered) to -6 ± 0.5 mV (oxidized), producing a whole cell potential (53 ± 1.7 mV) that was 4.4 times larger than that obtained with identical electrode materials (from 12 ± 1 mV). Changes in the EDL were linked to the behavior of specific ions in a LC solution using molecular dynamics and metadynamics simulations. The EDL expanded in the LC solution when a carbon surface (pristine graphene) lacked strong acid functional groups, producing a positive-rise potential at the electrode. In contrast, the EDL was compressed for an oxidized surface (graphene oxide), producing a negative-rise electrode potential. These results established the linkage between rise potentials and specific surface functional groups (strong acids) and demonstrated on a molecular scale changes in the EDL using oxidized or pristine carbons.

  20. Strong anisotropic anomalous Hall effect and spin Hall effect in the chiral antiferromagnetic compounds Mn3X (X =Ge , Sn, Ga, Ir, Rh, and Pt)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yang; Sun, Yan; Yang, Hao; Železný, Jakub; Parkin, Stuart P. P.; Felser, Claudia; Yan, Binghai

    2017-02-01

    We have carried out a comprehensive study of the intrinsic anomalous Hall effect and spin Hall effect of several chiral antiferromagnetic compounds Mn3X (X = Ge, Sn, Ga, Ir, Rh and Pt) by ab initio band structure and Berry phase calculations. These studies reveal large and anisotropic values of both the intrinsic anomalous Hall effect and spin Hall effect. The Mn3X materials exhibit a noncollinear antiferromagnetic order which, to avoid geometrical frustration, forms planes of Mn moments that are arranged in a Kagome-type lattice. With respect to these Kagome planes, we find that both the anomalous Hall conductivity (AHC) and the spin Hall conductivity (SHC) are quite anisotropic for any of these materials. Based on our calculations, we propose how to maximize AHC and SHC for different materials. The band structures and corresponding electron filling, that we show are essential to determine the AHC and SHC, are compared for these different compounds. We point out that Mn3Ga shows a large SHC of about 600 (ℏ /e ) (Ωcm) -1 . Our work provides insights into the realization of strong anomalous Hall effects and spin Hall effects in chiral antiferromagnetic materials.

  1. Protective effects of ether, oxygen and their mixture for radiation in Drosophila melanogaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Megumi, Tsuneo; Tsujii, Yukio; Gamo, Sumiko

    1992-01-01

    Protective effects of ether mixed with air or oxygen against ionizing radiation damages were demonstrated in adult flies of Drosophila melanogaster. The protective effects against knock-down on the second day and lethality on the eighth day after irradiation were not affected by the radiation sensitivity and DNA repair capacity of the strains. Ether (4.2%) in oxygen was more effective than ether in air for both endpoints. The protective effects may be due to damages not involving cell division, since no mitotic cells are observed in adult flies except in gonadal glands. A change in the orderliness of the cell membrane by ether is suggested to be the cause of the protective effects. (author). 16 refs.; 3 tabs

  2. Effectiveness of Natura 2000 system for habitat types protection: A case study from the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilém Pechanec

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In conservation biology, there is a general consensus that protected areas (PAs are one of the most effective tools for biodiversity protection. Worldwide, the area of PAs is continually increasing. But is the effectiveness of biodiversity protection improving with it? Since many PAs only exist as “paper parks” (i.e. they exist on maps and in legislation but offer little actual protection, the answer is uncertain. Moreover, it has long been known that, not only an increase in the extent of PAs, but also the efficiency of their management is fundamentally important for effective nature conservation. Therefore, there is a wide-ranging discussion about the actual effectiveness of PAs and factors that influence it. In the course of the EU pre-accession phase, a comprehensive field mapping of natural habitats took place in the Czech Republic in years 2001−2004. The mapping results were used to designate Special Areas of Conservation (SACs as part of the Natura 2000 network. In this study, the aim was to evaluate the effectiveness of this newly created system of SACs for protection of biodiversity represented by the mapped natural habitats. The NCEI index (Nature Conservation Effectiveness Index was applied, calculated as the total area of a particular habitat type in all SACs in the Czech Republic divided by the total area of that same natural habitat in the entire Czech Republic. Habitat protection in the Czech Republic is focused primarily on the smallest types of rare habitats, many of which are classified as critically endangered. The Czech national system of SACs provides protection to a total of 4,491.68 km2 of natural habitats. Based on these results, it can be concluded that the overall effectiveness of the SAC system in the Czech Republic, which is specifically aimed at protecting natural habitats, is low (NCEI = 0.36. Nevertheless, the critically endangered habitats receive maximum protection (NCEI = 1.

  3. Protective effects of parmelia tinctorum preparations on acute radiation-injured mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong Ge; Li Songnian; Liu Peixun; Sheng Xiu

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the radiation protection effect of Parmelia tinctorum preparations in dosage, drug administration time, administration methods and different preparation methods on acute radiation-injured mice, and find out the best therapeutic project. Methods: Kunming mice were injected (ip) with 10 mg/kg, 20 mg/kg, 40 mg/kg, 80 mg/kg of Parmelia tinctorum preparations before irradiation respectively, then irradiated by 9 Gy 60 Co γ-ray. The 30-day survival rates and the protection factors were observed. By the same method, another group of mice were injected (ip) with Parmelia tinctorum preparations at 15 min, 30 min, 1 h, 2 h, 4 h before irradiation respectively, the 30-day survival rates and the protection factors were observed. The protective effect of Parmelia tinctorum preparations from intramuscular and oral routes were compared with the same method. The protective effect of Parmelia tinctorum water extract preparations and alcohol extract preparations were compared. Results: A certain dosage (20-80 mg/kg) of Parmelia tinctorum preparations could greatly improve the 30-day survival rates and the protection factors of radiation-injured mice. Parmelia tinctorum preparations had significant therapeutic effect on 60 Co γ-ray radiation-injured mice at 15 min-1 h before irradiation. Administration of Parmelia tinctorum preparations by intramuscular injection showed a little lower efficacy than by intraperitoneal injection, but administration the same dose orally had no significant radiation protective effect. Parmelia tinctorum preparations extracted by water injected (ip) before irradiation had the same radiation protective effect with those extracted by 50% alcohol. Conclusion: Parmelia tinctorum preparations have a certain protective effect on acute radiation-injured mice. The best therapeutic project is injected (ip) with 40 mg/kg of Parmelia tinctorum preparations at 30 min before irradiation. (authors)

  4. Characterization of culture supernatant proteins from Brucella abortus and its protection effects against murine brucellosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jin Ju; Lim, Jeong Ju; Kim, Dae Geun; Simborio, Hannah Leah; Kim, Dong Hyeok; Reyes, Alisha Wehdnesday Bernardo; Min, WonGi; Lee, Hu Jang; Kim, Dong Hee; Chang, Hong Hee; Kim, Suk

    2014-09-01

    In this study, we characterized the secreted proteins of Brucella abortus into the enriched media under the bacterial laboratory growth condition and investigated the pathogenic importance of culture supernatant (CS) proteins to B. abortus infection. CS proteins from stationary phase were concentrated and analyzed using 2D electrophoresis. In MALDI TOF/TOF analysis, more than 27 proteins including CuZn SOD, Dps, Tat, OMPs, Adh, LivF, Tuf, SucC, GroEL and DnaK were identified. Cytotoxic effects of CS proteins were found to increase in a dose-dependent manner in RAW 264.7 cells. Upon B. abortus challenge into phagocytes, however, CS proteins pre-treated cells exhibited lower bacterial uptake and intracellular replication compared to untreated cells. Immunization with CS proteins induced a strong humoral and cell mediated immune responses and exhibited significant higher degree of protection against virulence of B. abortus infection compared to mice immunized with Brucella broth protein (BBP). Taken together, these results indicate that B. abortus secreted a number of soluble immunogenic proteins under laboratory culture condition, which can promote antibody production resulted in enhancing host defense against to subsequently bacterial infection. Moreover, further analysis of CS proteins may help to understand the pathogenic mechanism of B. abortus infection and host-pathogen interaction. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Protective effect of lycopene for oxidative damage in human lens epithelial cells induced by UV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing-Wen Sun

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To investigate the protective effect and possible mechanisms of lycopene for oxidative damage induced by ultraviolet in cultured human lens epithelial cells(HLEC. METHODS:HLEC was subcultured and divided into negative control group, oxidative injury group, lycopene low dose group and lycopene high dose group. Cell viability was assayed by MTT colorimetric. Cell morphological changes were detected by electron microscope. Reactive oxygen species(ROSlevels were detected with DCFH-DA fluorescent probe. Content of superoxide dismutase(SOD, glutathione peroxidase(GSHand malondialdehyde(MDAin supernatants were detected by spectrophotometer. RESULTS:Lycopene could obviously inhibited UV-induced decline in cell activity, reduce UV-induced ROS generation within HLEC, cause SOD, GSH-Px levels increased and MDA levels decreased.CONCLUSION:Lycopene plays its strong antioxidant role in increasing the intracellular SOD and GSH-Px content levels and decreasing MDA levels, which provide reliable experimental basis for prevent and treatment of cataracts.

  6. Risperidone-Induced Renal Damage and Metabolic Side Effects: The Protective Effect of Resveratrol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedat Bilgiç

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim of the study was to investigate the possible protective qualities of resveratrol (RSV against the side effects of risperidone (RIS in an experimental model in rat kidneys with histologic and biochemical assessments. Materials and Methods. Experimental procedures were performed on 35 female Sprague Dawley rats. Rats were randomly divided into five groups: control, untreated rats (n=7 were in group 1; group 2 was given 2 mg/kg/day RIS (n=7; group 3 was treated with 2 mg/kg/day RIS and 20 mg/kg/day RSV (n=7; group 4 was treated with 2 mg/kg/day RIS and 40 mg/kg/day RSV (n=7; and group 5 was treated with 2 mg/kg/day RIS and 80 mg/kg/day RSV (n=7. All treatments were administered for two weeks by gavage. On treatment day 15, kidney tissues were removed for analysis. Results. The results showed that RSV treatment reduced weight gain induced by RIS. In addition, RSV increased the total antioxidant status (TAS and decreased serum creatinine (Cr, blood urea nitrogen (BUN, oxidative stress index (OSI, and total oxidant status (TOS levels significantly (p<0.05. Conclusion. This study revealed that treatment with RSV might protect kidney tissues against the side effects of RIS. RSV could be an effective course of therapy to enhance therapeutic efficacy.

  7. Effects of ionizing radiation on plants and animals at levels implied by current radiation protection standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The 1977 Recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection stated that the commission believes that if man is adequately protected from radiation, other organisms are also likely to be sufficiently protected. The present report examines this statement by considering the effects of ionizing radiation on animals and plants in both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. The conclusions are that chronic dose rates of IMGy.d -1 or less are unlikely to cause measurable deleterious effects in terrestrial populations, and that in the aquatic environment limiting chronic dose rates to 10MGy.d -1 to the maximally exposed individuals would provide adequate protection for the population. Thus specific radiation protection standards for non-human organisms are not needed. 193 refs, 2 figs, 7 tabs

  8. The protective effects of nebkhas on an oasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Xueyong; Li, Jifeng; Liu, Bo; Zhang, Chunlai; Cheng, Hong; Wu, Xiaoxu; Kang, Liqiang; Wang, Ruxing

    2016-03-01

    Oases are of great importance to the sustainable development of economies and societies in desert regions. Thus, it is important to understand how many oases have survived for hundreds and even thousands of years. Oases in Northwest China include nearly all of the types found across the world. Among these oases, the Minqin Oasis, surrounded by mobile sandy deserts, is a stereotypical natural oasis that has been developed for more than 2000 years, making it ideal for a case study. Our investigation indicates that the nebkhas belt at the fringe of the Minqin Oasis, which consists of three sub-belts semi-mobile, semi-fixed and fixed nebkhas from desert to the oasis, plays a key role in its stability. The fractional speed-up ratio (δs) of wind generally fell within the range of -0.15 to -0.55 below the height of 0.6 m. Above the height of 0.6 m, wind velocity in the semi-mobile nebkhas was 5-27% weaker with a maximum reduction of 65% in the other two sub-belts. When wind carrying sand and dust from the desert passes through each sub-belt, its velocity is weakened by vegetation and dunes, and almost all sand and dust is deposited in the nebkha belt incrementally by grain size, ranging from coarse to fine. As such, nebkhas serve as a protection belt and ensure the existence of oases.

  9. Natural antioxidants for protection and radiation effects treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kafafi, Y.A.

    2010-01-01

    Since many degenerative human diseases have been recognized as being a consequence of free radical damage, there have been many studies undertaken on how to delay or prevent the onset of these diseases. The most likely and practical way to fight against degenerative diseases is to improve body antioxidant status which could be achieved by higher consumption of vegetables and fruits. Foods from plant origin usually contain natural antioxidants that can scavenge free radicals. It is clear that vitamin C and antioxidant capacity are not directly related and thus that vitamin C is not the only antioxidant in juices with high content of vitamin C. Antioxidant capacity may also arise from phenolics / flavonoids found in plants. Three major antioxidant nutrients are vitamin C, vitamin E and beta carotene. Intake of these nutrients has an inverse relationship with degenerative disease risk. In an elderly study, it was found that high consumption of flavonoids correlated with low risk of coronary heart disease. Some evidence showed that flavonoids could protect membrane lipid from oxidation. A major source of flavonoids are vegetables and fruits. (author)

  10. Protective effects of aqueous extract of Citrullus lanatus fruit on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Arsenic trioxide (As2O3), a known male reproductive toxicant induces it effects majorly through oxidative stress. Citrullus lanatus fruit is widely consumed for its high medicinal values and antioxidant capacities. This study investigated the effects of aqueous extract of Citrullus lanatus fruit (AECL) on reproductive functions ...

  11. Protective effect of glucosamine cyclohexyl ester on osteoarthritis in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the therapeutic effect of glucosamine cyclohexyl ester on osteoarthritis (OA) in a rat model. Methods: Reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and western blot assays were used to analyze the effect of glucosamine cyclohexyl ester on changes in mRNA and protein ...

  12. Investigation of the protective effects of Vitamin C, iron and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of Vitamin C (Vit. C), iron, the iron chelating agent desferrioxamine (DF) and their most effective dose combinations on thermotolerance of Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans). Due to the fact that studies on aging and lifespan take long time, thermotolerance was used as a ...

  13. Protective effect of glucosamine cyclohexyl ester on osteoarthritis in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the therapeutic effect of glucosamine cyclohexyl ester on osteoarthritis (OA) in a rat model. Methods: Reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and western blot assays were used to analyze the effect of glucosamine cyclohexyl ester on changes in mRNA and.

  14. Vascular and Biochemical Effects of Moderate Alcohol Consumption: Mechanisms of Protection Against Cardiovascular Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sierksma, A.; Grobbee, D.E.; Hendriks, H.F.J.

    2004-01-01

    This chapter focuses on the vascular and biochemical effects of moderate alcohol consumption and the mechanisms of protection against cardiovascular disease. Cardiovascular disease (CVD), including coronary heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, and peripheral vascular disease, is the leading cause

  15. Energy Approach to Nuclei and Atoms in a Strong Laser Field: Stark Effect and Multi-photon Resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glushkov, A. V.; Khetselius, O. Yu.; Svinarenko, A. A.; Lovett, L.

    2010-01-01

    A consistent energy approach to nuclei and atoms in a strong electromagnetic (laser) field is presented. The photon emission and absorption lines are described by the moments of different orders, which are calculated with the use of the Gell-Mann and Low S-matrix adiabatic formalism. In relativistic version the Gell-Mann and Low formulae expresses an imaginary part of the energy shift ImE through the scattering matrix, including interaction of quantum system as with laser field as with a field of photon vacuum.

  16. Effect of Strongly Alkaline Electrolyzed Water on Silk Degumming and the Physical Properties of the Fibroin Fiber

    OpenAIRE

    Cao, Ting-Ting; Wang, Yuan-Jing; Zhang, Yu-Qing

    2013-01-01

    Strongly alkaline electrolyzed water (SAEW) was prepared by electrolysis of tap water in a laboratory-made water electrolyzer. The pH of stored SAEW was stable for more than one month. The hardness of the electrolyzed water was 30% lower and the Na(+) concentration was 18% higher than those of the tap water. Silkworm cocoon shells were boiled in pH 11.50 SAEW at a ratio of 1∶40∼80 (W/V) for 20 min and the sericin layers around the silk fibroin fibers were removed completely. The tensile prope...

  17. Vector chirality for effective total momentum Jeff in a nonfrustrated Mott insulator: Effects of strong spin-orbit coupling and broken inversion symmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arakawa, Naoya

    2016-11-01

    I propose the emergence of the spin-orbital-coupled vector chirality in a nonfrustrated Mott insulator with the strong spin-orbit coupling due to a b -plane's inversion-symmetry (IS) breaking. I derive the superexchange interactions for a t2 g-orbital Hubbard model on a square lattice with the strong spin-orbit coupling and the IS-breaking-induced hopping integrals, and explain the microscopic origins of the Dzyaloshinsky-Moriya (DM) -type and the Kitaev-type interactions. Then, by adopting the mean-field approximation to a minimal model including only the Heisenberg-type and the DM-type nearest-neighbor interactions, I show that the IS breaking causes the spin-orbital-coupled chirality as a result of stabilizing the screw state. I also highlight the limit of the hard-pseudospin approximation in discussing the stability of the screw states in the presence of both the DM-type and the Kitaev-type interactions, and discuss its meaning. I finally discuss the effects of tetragonal crystal field and Jeff=3/2 states, and the application to the iridates near the [001 ] surface of Sr2IrO4 and the interface between Sr2IrO4 and Sr3Ir2O7 .

  18. Post-training N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor blockade offers protection from retrograde interference but does not affect consolidation of weak or strong memory traces in the water maze.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, M; Langston, R F

    2006-01-01

    Memory consolidation is the process where labile memory traces become long-lasting, stable memories. Previous work has demonstrated that spatial memory consolidation, several days after training in a water maze had ceased, can be disrupted by a temporary intra hippocampal infusion of the alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid/kainate antagonist LY326325 (Riedel et al., 1999). Such reversible pharmacological techniques offer advantages over the permanent lesion studies that had first suggested a role for the hippocampus in memory consolidation. However, to date the role of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors in such systems level processes remains controversial with evidence for impairments and augmentation of performance. Here we investigate the role of post-training hippocampal N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor blockade in rats and mice on the consolidation of weak and strong memory traces using an Atlantis water maze protocol. A hidden Atlantis platform was employed and rats (experiments 1 and 2) and mice (experiment 3) were required to dwell within 20 cm of the trained location to activate and subsequently reveal the escape platform. In experiments 1 and 3 a strong memory trace was established by training rats or mice for several days in the water maze. In experiment 2 a significantly weaker trace was instituted by reducing the training period. N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor blockade was induced after the last training trial and continued for seven days. Reliable memory for the trained platform location in a retention test 15 days after the last training day demonstrated that N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor blockade did not affect memory consolidation in rats or mice. Our results also show that post-training N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor blockade can lead to better performance in further retention tests conducted after the consolidation and drug administration period. Those data suggest that specific post-training N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor blockade

  19. Effective evaluation of privacy protection techniques in visible and thermal imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawaz, Tahir; Berg, Amanda; Ferryman, James; Ahlberg, Jörgen; Felsberg, Michael

    2017-09-01

    Privacy protection may be defined as replacing the original content in an image region with a (less intrusive) content having modified target appearance information to make it less recognizable by applying a privacy protection technique. Indeed, the development of privacy protection techniques also needs to be complemented with an established objective evaluation method to facilitate their assessment and comparison. Generally, existing evaluation methods rely on the use of subjective judgments or assume a specific target type in image data and use target detection and recognition accuracies to assess privacy protection. An annotation-free evaluation method that is neither subjective nor assumes a specific target type is proposed. It assesses two key aspects of privacy protection: "protection" and "utility." Protection is quantified as an appearance similarity, and utility is measured as a structural similarity between original and privacy-protected image regions. We performed an extensive experimentation using six challenging datasets (having 12 video sequences), including a new dataset (having six sequences) that contains visible and thermal imagery. The new dataset is made available online for the community. We demonstrate effectiveness of the proposed method by evaluating six image-based privacy protection techniques and also show comparisons of the proposed method over existing methods.

  20. Multiple effects of self-protection on the spreading of epidemics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Zhigang; Zhang, Haifeng; Wang, Zhen

    2014-01-01

    Aside from the commonly considered strategies: vaccination or risk, in this work another basic policy self-protection strategy is incorporated into research of epidemics spreading. Then within the network-theoretical framework, we mainly explore the impact of self-protection strategy on the epidemic size and the eradication of infection. Interestingly, we find that the self-protection influence is multiple: given that the effectiveness of the self-protective strategy is negligible, nobody is willing to take up this act, both vaccination and risk traits dominate the whole system; On the contrary, when the effectiveness of self-protective policy is elevated, it becomes a popular strategy and the size of epidemic can be controlled at a relatively low level. However, one worse situation is present as well: when the effectiveness of self-protection is moderate, the infection probability and epidemic size can reach the maximal level. This is because that, under such a case, the emergence of the self-protective strategy neither inspires the enthusiasm of vaccination nor provides ideal effect

  1. Effect of molybdate on phosphating of Nd-Fe-B magnets for corrosion protection

    OpenAIRE

    SALIBA SILVA, A.M.; OLIVEIRA, M.C.L.; COSTA, I.

    2014-01-01

    Nd-Fe-B magnets are highly susceptible to corrosion and need protection against environment attack. The use of organic coatings is one of the main methods of corrosion protection of these materials. Data related to the effect of conversion coatings, such as phosphating, on corrosion performance of these magnets is still scarce. Studies about the effect of phosphating on the corrosion resistance of a commercial Nd-Fe-B sintered magnet indicated that it increases the corrosion resistance of the...

  2. Protective effect of bixin on carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Moreira, Priscila R; Maioli, Marcos A; Medeiros, Hyllana CD; Guelfi, Marieli; Pereira, Flávia TV; Mingatto, Fábio E

    2014-01-01

    Background: The liver is an important organ for its ability to transform xenobiotics, making the liver tissue a prime target for toxic substances. The carotenoid bixin present in annatto is an antioxidant that can protect cells and tissues against the deleterious effects of free radicals. In this study, we evaluated the protective effect of bixin on liver damage induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) in rats.Results: The animals were divided into four groups with six rats in each group. CCl4 ...

  3. The hepato-protective effects of Portulaca oleracea L. extract: review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farkhondeh, Tahereh; Samarghandian, Saeed; Azimi-Nezhad, Mohsen; Hozeifi, Soroush

    2018-03-30

    Portulaca oleracea L. (Purslane) has been used in traditional medicine against hepatic injury, alt-hough its actual efficacy has not been fully understood. In addition, few studies have indicated that Portulaca oleracea L. possess protective effects against hepatotoxic agents. However, due to lack of information in human, more studies are needed to confirm the efficacy of Portulaca oleracea L. as a hepato-protective agent. The present study aimed to critically review the recent literature data from 1990 to 2017 regarding the hepato-protective effects of Portulaca oleracea L. and its underlying mechanisms. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  4. Protective Effects of Imatinib on Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury in Rat Lung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Satona; Chen-Yoshikawa, Toyofumi F; Kajiwara, Moto; Menju, Toshi; Ohata, Keiji; Takahashi, Mamoru; Kondo, Takeshi; Hijiya, Kyoko; Motoyama, Hideki; Aoyama, Akihiro; Masuda, Satohiro; Date, Hiroshi

    2016-11-01

    Ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI) remains a significant complication after lung transplantation. Endothelial damage and inflammation contribute to its development. Imatinib has been reported to regulate vascular permeability by maintaining endothelial junctions and showing antiinflammatory effects through inhibition of the Abl kinases. We hypothesized that imatinib could have a protective effect against IRI. Male Lewis rats were heparinized and underwent left thoracotomy, and the left hilum was clamped for 90 minutes followed by reperfusion for 120 minutes. Imatinib mesylate (50 mg/kg) and a solvent were administered intraperitoneally 20 minutes before ischemia in the imatinib group and the vehicle group, respectively (n = 7 in each group). After reperfusion, lung function, lung wet to dry weight (W/D) ratio, and histologic findings were obtained. The expression of vascular endothelial cadherin (VEC), the phosphorylation level of CrkL (pCrkL) (an exclusive target of Abl kinases), and the cytokine level were evaluated using lung tissue lysate. The imatinib concentrations of plasma and lungs after reperfusion were measured in this hilar clamp model (n = 7). In the imatinib group, lung function was improved with a lower W/D ratio. Perivascular edema and neutrophil infiltration were ameliorated. The imatinib group demonstrated maintained expression of VEC, inhibition of pCrkL, and a significantly higher level of interleukin (IL)-10. The imatinib concentration in both lungs showed a strong correlation with plasma concentration. In a rat IRI model, imatinib attenuated lung injury by an antipermeability and antiinflammatory effect. The delivery and function of imatinib in the lung was also confirmed in this model. Copyright © 2016 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Seasonal climate manipulations have only minor effects on litter decomposition rates and N dynamics but strong effects on litter P dynamics of sub-arctic bog species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aerts, R; Callaghan, T V; Dorrepaal, E; van Logtestijn, R S P; Cornelissen, J H C

    2012-11-01

    Litter decomposition and nutrient mineralization in high-latitude peatlands are constrained by low temperatures. So far, little is known about the effects of seasonal components of climate change (higher spring and summer temperatures, more snow which leads to higher winter soil temperatures) on these processes. In a 4-year field experiment, we manipulated these seasonal components in a sub-arctic bog and studied the effects on the decomposition and N and P dynamics of leaf litter of Calamagrostis lapponica, Betula nana, and Rubus chamaemorus, incubated both in a common ambient environment and in the treatment plots. Mass loss in the controls increased in the order Calamagrostis Litter chemistry showed within each incubation environment only a few and species-specific responses. Compared to the interspecific differences, they resulted in only moderate climate treatment effects on mass loss and these differed among seasons and species. Neither N nor P mineralization in the litter were affected by the incubation environment. Remarkably, for all species, no net N mineralization had occurred in any of the treatments during 4 years. Species differed in P-release patterns, and summer warming strongly stimulated P release for all species. Thus, moderate changes in summer temperatures and/or winter snow addition have limited effects on litter decomposition rates and N dynamics, but summer warming does stimulate litter P release. As a result, N-limitation of plant growth in this sub-arctic bog may be sustained or even further promoted.

  6. Protective effects of calcium antagonists in different organs and tissues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zwieten, P. A.

    1993-01-01

    The therapeutic efficacy of calcium antagonists in ischemic disorders of various tissues is attributed to vasodilator and antivasoconstrictor activities. A direct, energy-conserving, antiischemic effect of certain calcium antagonists has been claimed repeatedly by basic scientists. The clinical

  7. Protective effect of Tetrapleura tetraptera (Schum. & Thonn.) fruit ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MWM) were used to evaluate the effect of the extract on cataleptic behaviour and memory function, respectively. Biochemical markers of oxidative and nitrosative stress were estimated in rats' brains after the completion of the MWM task.

  8. Oxidative Stress in Caenorhabditis elegans: Protective Effects of Spartin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Truong

    Full Text Available Troyer syndrome is caused by a mutation in the SPG20 gene, which results in complete loss of expression of the protein spartin. We generated a genetic model of Troyer syndrome in worms to explore the locomotor consequences of a null mutation of the Caenorhabditis elegans SPG20 orthologue, F57B10.9, also known as spg-20. Spg-20 mutants showed decreased length, crawling speed, and thrashing frequency, and had a shorter lifespan than wild-type animals. These results suggest an age-dependent decline in motor function in mutant animals. The drug paraquat was used to induce oxidative stress for 4 days in the animals. We measured survival rate and examined locomotion by measuring crawling speed and thrashing frequency. After 4 days of paraquat exposure, 77% of wild-type animals survived, but only 38% of spg-20 mutant animals survived. Conversely, animals overexpressing spg-20 had a survival rate of 95%. We also tested lifespan after a 1 hour exposure to sodium azide. After a 24 hour recovery period, 87% of wild type animals survived, 57% of spg-20 mutant animals survived, and 82% of animals overexpressing spg-20 survived. In the behavioral assays, spg-20 mutant animals showed a significant decrease in both crawling speed and thrashing frequency compared with wild-type animals. Importantly, the locomotor phenotype for both crawling and thrashing was rescued in animals overexpressing spg-20. The animals overexpressing spg-20 had crawling speeds and thrashing frequencies similar to those of wild-type animals. These data suggest that the protein F57B10.9/SPG-20 might have a protective role against oxidative stress.

  9. Renal protective effect of polysulfide in cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity

    OpenAIRE

    Xu Cao; Xiaowei Nie; Siping Xiong; Lei Cao; Zhiyuan Wu; Philip K. Moore; Jin-Song Bian

    2018-01-01

    Cisplatin is a major chemotherapeutic drug for solid tumors whereas it may lead to severe nephrotoxicity. Despite decades of efforts, effective therapies remain largely lacking for this disease. In the current research, we investigated the therapeutic effect of hydrogen polysulfide, a novel hydrogen sulfide (H2S) derived signaling molecule, in cisplatin nephrotoxicity and the mechanisms involved. Our results showed that polysulfide donor Na2S4 ameliorated cisplatin-caused renal toxicity in vi...

  10. Studies on the protection effects of functional foods for skin immune system from radiation damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yee, Sung Tae; Shin, Seong Hae; Kim, Do Sun; Heo, Ji Yun; Kang, Hye In [Sunchon National University, Sunchon (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-15

    We evaluated the protective effects of pilot products (HemoHIM and HemoTonic) on the UV-induced skin immune damages as the following. centre dot Protective effects of HemoHIM and HemoTonic against UV using contact hypersensitivity model - Protection against depression of contact hypersensitivity by administration and skin application of HemoHIM and HemoTonic - Induction of dendritic cell differentiation and maturation by HemoHIM and HemoTonic treatment - Improvement of antigen-presenting activity of dedritic cells by HemoHIM and HemoTonic treatment centre dot Protective effects of HemoHIM and HemoTonic on skin immune system against UV-irradiation - Protection of antigen-presenting activity of dendritic cells under UV-irradiation - In vivo protection of antigen-presenting activity of Langerhans cells in UV-irradiated mice centre dot Protective effects of HemoHIM on UV-induced apoptosis of dendritic cells - Inhibition of cell membrane change, mitochondrial potential change, SubG1 cell population, nuclear condensation, and DNA fragmentation in UV-irradiated dendritic cells centre dot Anti-allergic effects of HemoHIM and HemoTonic in human adipocyte HMC-1 cells - Inhibition of allergic histamine release from adipocytes - Inhibition of secretion of inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, IL-8, TNF-alpha, GM-CSF) - Inhibition of c-kit, tryptase, FcepsilonRI mRNA expression From these results, the developed functional food products (HemoHIM, HemoTonic) showed the protection and recovery of the immune functions in the UV-irradiated skin. It is suggested that these products may be used as a new functional food or cosmetic material for the protection of skin damage and the promotion of recovery

  11. Studies on the protection effects of functional foods for skin immune system from radiation damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yee, Sung Tae; Shin, Seong Hae; Kim, Do Sun; Heo, Ji Yun; Kang, Hye In

    2007-07-01

    We evaluated the protective effects of pilot products (HemoHIM and HemoTonic) on the UV-induced skin immune damages as the following. · Protective effects of HemoHIM and HemoTonic against UV using contact hypersensitivity model - Protection against depression of contact hypersensitivity by administration and skin application of HemoHIM and HemoTonic - Induction of dendritic cell differentiation and maturation by HemoHIM and HemoTonic treatment - Improvement of antigen-presenting activity of dedritic cells by HemoHIM and HemoTonic treatment · Protective effects of HemoHIM and HemoTonic on skin immune system against UV-irradiation - Protection of antigen-presenting activity of dendritic cells under UV-irradiation - In vivo protection of antigen-presenting activity of Langerhans cells in UV-irradiated mice · Protective effects of HemoHIM on UV-induced apoptosis of dendritic cells - Inhibition of cell membrane change, mitochondrial potential change, SubG1 cell population, nuclear condensation, and DNA fragmentation in UV-irradiated dendritic cells · Anti-allergic effects of HemoHIM and HemoTonic in human adipocyte HMC-1 cells - Inhibition of allergic histamine release from adipocytes - Inhibition of secretion of inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α, GM-CSF) - Inhibition of c-kit, tryptase, FcεRI mRNA expression From these results, the developed functional food products (HemoHIM, HemoTonic) showed the protection and recovery of the immune functions in the UV-irradiated skin. It is suggested that these products may be used as a new functional food or cosmetic material for the protection of skin damage and the promotion of recovery

  12. Strong Coupling Holography

    CERN Document Server

    Dvali, Gia

    2009-01-01

    We show that whenever a 4-dimensional theory with N particle species emerges as a consistent low energy description of a 3-brane embedded in an asymptotically-flat (4+d)-dimensional space, the holographic scale of high-dimensional gravity sets the strong coupling scale of the 4D theory. This connection persists in the limit in which gravity can be consistently decoupled. We demonstrate this effect for orbifold planes, as well as for the solitonic branes and string theoretic D-branes. In all cases the emergence of a 4D strong coupling scale from bulk holography is a persistent phenomenon. The effect turns out to be insensitive even to such extreme deformations of the brane action that seemingly shield 4D theory from the bulk gravity effects. A well understood example of such deformation is given by large 4D Einstein term in the 3-brane action, which is known to suppress the strength of 5D gravity at short distances and change the 5D Newton's law into the four-dimensional one. Nevertheless, we observe that the ...

  13. Effectiveness of Africa's tropical protected areas for maintaining forest cover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowker, J N; De Vos, A; Ament, J M; Cumming, G S

    2017-06-01

    The effectiveness of parks for forest conservation is widely debated in Africa, where increasing human pressure, insufficient funding, and lack of management capacity frequently place significant demands on forests. Tropical forests house a substantial portion of the world's remaining biodiversity and are heavily affected by anthropogenic activity. We analyzed park effectiveness at the individual (224 parks) and national (23 countries) level across Africa by comparing the extent of forest loss (as a proxy for deforestation) inside parks to matched unprotected control sites. Although significant geographical variation existed among parks, the majority of African parks had significantly less forest loss within their boundaries (e.g., Mahale Park had 34 times less forest loss within its boundary) than control sites. Accessibility was a significant driver of forest loss. Relatively inaccessible areas had a higher probability (odds ratio >1, p < 0.001) of forest loss but only in ineffective parks, and relatively accessible areas had a higher probability of forest loss but only in effective parks. Smaller parks less effectively prevented forest loss inside park boundaries than larger parks (T = -2.32, p < 0.05), and older parks less effectively prevented forest loss inside park boundaries than younger parks (F 2,154 = -4.11, p < 0.001). Our analyses, the first individual and national assessment of park effectiveness across Africa, demonstrated the complexity of factors (such as geographical variation, accessibility, and park size and age) influencing the ability of a park to curb forest loss within its boundaries. © 2016 Society for Conservation Biology.

  14. Studies on Radiation Protection Effect of the Beer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sohn, Jong Gi; Ha, Tae Young; Hwang, Chul; Hyan; Lee, Young Hwa [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Busan National University Hospital, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-09-15

    In this study, it was investigated whether commercially produced beer is able to prevent a lymphocyte from radiation induced apoptosis. Whole blood samples were acquired from 5 healthy volunteers (male, 26-38 years old) and the lymphocyte were isolated by density gradient centrifugation. Radiation induced apoptosis of the lymphocyte were investigated by 0.5 Gy, 1.0 Gy, 2.0 Gy, 3.0 Gy to 5.0 Gy irradiation. In some experiments, the donor drunk beer and then blood samples were collected. In other experiments, melatonin or glycine betain was added to lymphocyte culture medium. Treated or untreated lymphocytes were cultured for 60 hours and radiation induced apoptosis of the lymphocyte was analyzed by annexin-V staining through flow cytometery. Relative radiation induced apoptosis ratio of the untreated lymphocytes is 1.22{+-}1.1, 1.22{+-}1.1, 1.38{+-}1.0, 1.47{+-}1.1, 1.50{+-}1.2 by radiation dose of 0.5 Gy, 1.0 Gy, 2.0 Gy, 3.0 Gy and 5.0 Gy respectively. Relative radiation induced apoptosis ratio of lymphocytes is isolated from beer drunken donors is 0.971.0, 0.991.0, 1.11{+-}0.9, 1.29{+-}1.1, 1.15{+-}1.1 by radiation doses respectively which are reduced 21.5% compared with untreated lymphocyte. Relative radiation induced apoptosis ratio of the lymphocytes is isolated from non-alcohol beer drunken donors is 1.22{+-}1.1, 1.17{+-}1.1, 1.13{+-}1.3, 1.38{+-}1.2, 1.32{+-}1.1 by radiation dose of 0.5 Gy, 1.0 Gy, 2.0 Gy, 3.0 Gy and 5.0 Gy respectively which are reduced 10.8% compared with the untreated lymphocyte. As a result, it is suggested that beer may protect the lymphocyte from radiation damage and inhibit apoptosis.

  15. Studies on Radiation Protection Effect of the Beer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohn, Jong Gi; Ha, Tae Young; Hwang, Chul; Hyan; Lee, Young Hwa

    2007-01-01

    In this study, it was investigated whether commercially produced beer is able to prevent a lymphocyte from radiation induced apoptosis. Whole blood samples were acquired from 5 healthy volunteers (male, 26-38 years old) and the lymphocyte were isolated by density gradient centrifugation. Radiation induced apoptosis of the lymphocyte were investigated by 0.5 Gy, 1.0 Gy, 2.0 Gy, 3.0 Gy to 5.0 Gy irradiation. In some experiments, the donor drunk beer and then blood samples were collected. In other experiments, melatonin or glycine betain was added to lymphocyte culture medium. Treated or untreated lymphocytes were cultured for 60 hours and radiation induced apoptosis of the lymphocyte was analyzed by annexin-V staining through flow cytometery. Relative radiation induced apoptosis ratio of the untreated lymphocytes is 1.22±1.1, 1.22±1.1, 1.38±1.0, 1.47±1.1, 1.50±1.2 by radiation dose of 0.5 Gy, 1.0 Gy, 2.0 Gy, 3.0 Gy and 5.0 Gy respectively. Relative radiation induced apoptosis ratio of lymphocytes is isolated from beer drunken donors is 0.971.0, 0.991.0, 1.11±0.9, 1.29±1.1, 1.15±1.1 by radiation doses respectively which are reduced 21.5% compared with untreated lymphocyte. Relative radiation induced apoptosis ratio of the lymphocytes is isolated from non-alcohol beer drunken donors is 1.22±1.1, 1.17±1.1, 1.13±1.3, 1.38±1.2, 1.32±1.1 by radiation dose of 0.5 Gy, 1.0 Gy, 2.0 Gy, 3.0 Gy and 5.0 Gy respectively which are reduced 10.8% compared with the untreated lymphocyte. As a result, it is suggested that beer may protect the lymphocyte from radiation damage and inhibit apoptosis.

  16. Strong-coupling approximations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbott, R.B.

    1984-03-01

    Standard path-integral techniques such as instanton calculations give good answers for weak-coupling problems, but become unreliable for strong-coupling. Here we consider a method of replacing the original potential by a suitably chosen harmonic oscillator potential. Physically this is motivated by the fact that potential barriers below the level of the ground-state energy of a quantum-mechanical system have little effect. Numerically, results are good, both for quantum-mechanical problems and for massive phi 4 field theory in 1 + 1 dimensions. 9 references, 6 figures

  17. Strong interaction and QFD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebata, T.

    1981-01-01

    With an assumed weak multiplet structure for bosonic hadrons, which is consistent with the ΔI = 1/2 rule, it is shown that the strong interaction effective hamiltonian is compatible with the weak SU(2) x U(1) gauge transformation. Especially the rho-meson transforms as a triplet under SU(2)sub(w), and this is the origin of the rho-photon analogy. It is also shown that the existence of the non-vanishing Cabibbo angle is a necessary condition for the absence of the exotic hadrons. (orig.)

  18. Multiorbital effects in strong-field ionization and dissociation of aligned polar molecules CH3I and CH3Br

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Sizuo; Zhou, Shushan; Hu, Wenhui; Li, Xiaokai; Ma, Pan; Yu, Jiaqi; Zhu, Ruihan; Wang, Chuncheng; Liu, Fuchun; Yan, Bing; Liu, Aihua; Yang, Yujun; Guo, Fuming; Ding, Dajun

    2017-12-01

    Controlling the molecular axis offers additional ways to study molecular ionization and dissociation in strong laser fields. We measure the ionization and dissociation yields of aligned polar CH3X (X =I , Br) molecules in a linearly polarized femtosecond laser field. The current data show that maximum ionization occurs when the laser polarization is perpendicular to the molecular C -X axis, and dissociation prefers to occur at the laser polarization parallel to the C -X axis. The observed angular distributions suggest that the parent ions are generated by ionization from the HOMO. The angular distribution of fragment ions indicates that dissociation occurs mainly from an ionic excited state produced by ionization from the HOMO-1.

  19. Effect of the strong coupling on the exchange bias field in IrMn/Py/Ru/Co spin valves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarazona, H. S.; Alayo, W.; Landauro, C. V.; Quispe-Marcatoma, J.

    2018-01-01

    The IrMn/Py/Ru/Co (Py = Ni81Fe19) spin valves have been produced by sputtering deposition and analyzed by magnetization measurements and a theoretical modelling of their exchange interactions, based on the macro-spin model. The Ru thickness was grown between 6 and 22 Å, which is small enough to promote strong indirect coupling between Py and Co. Results of measurements showed a large and gradual change in the shape of hysteresis loops when the Ru thickness was varied. The theoretical analysis, using numerical calculations based on the gradient conjugate method, provides the exchange coupling constants (bilinear and biquadratic), the exchange anisotropy fields and the magnetic anisotropy fields (uniaxial and rotatable). The exchange bias fields of spin valves were compared to that of a IrMn/Py bilayer. We found that the difference between these fields oscillates with Ru thickness in the same manner as the bilinear coupling constants.

  20. Effects of a strong magnetic field on internal gravity waves: trapping, phase mixing, reflection and dynamical chaos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loi, Shyeh Tjing; Papaloizou, John C. B.

    2018-04-01

    The spectrum of oscillation modes of a star provides information not only about its material properties (e.g. mean density), but also its symmetries. Spherical symmetry can be broken by rotation and/or magnetic fields. It has been postulated that strong magnetic fields in the cores of some red giants are responsible for their anomalously weak dipole mode amplitudes (the "dipole dichotomy" problem), but a detailed understanding of how gravity waves interact with strong fields is thus far lacking. In this work, we attack the problem through a variety of analytical and numerical techniques, applied to a localised region centred on a null line of a confined axisymmetric magnetic field which is approximated as being cylindrically symmetric. We uncover a rich variety of phenomena that manifest when the field strength exceeds a critical value, beyond which the symmetry is drastically broken by the Lorentz force. When this threshold is reached, the spatial structure of the g-modes becomes heavily altered. The dynamics of wave packet propagation transitions from regular to chaotic, which is expected to fundamentally change the organisation of the mode spectrum. In addition, depending on their frequency and the orientation of field lines with respect to the stratification, waves impinging on different parts of the magnetised region are found to undergo either reflection or trapping. Trapping regions provide an avenue for energy loss through Alfvén wave phase mixing. Our results may find application in various astrophysical contexts, including the dipole dichotomy problem, the solar interior, and compact star oscillations.

  1. Protective effect of ethanol leaf extract of Carica papaya Linn ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the ameliorative effect of ethanolic extract of Carica papaya leaves in alloxan - induced diabetic rats. Methods: Rats were randomly divided into five groups of eight animals each. Group A (control) comprised normal healthy animals which were orally administered 1.0 ml of distilled water daily for 21 ...

  2. Protective effects of pineapple (Ananas comosus) on liver and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of pineapple (Ananas comosus) on liver and kidney detoxication was studied in Wistar rats. Rats were treated with paracetamol at the dose of 2 g/kg of body weight per day for 6 weeks and then by Ananas comosus' extract (0.06 - 0.12 ml/kg body weight). Administration of paracetamol induced hepatomegaly with a ...

  3. Protective effect of phenylalanine and glycine on chloramphenicol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of phenylalanine and glycine on chloramphenicol (CAP) induced bone marrow toxicity in albino rats infected with Klebsiella pneumoniae was investigated. The aim was investigate whether the treatment of the infected rats with either of these amino acids or their combination could reverse the major bone marrow ...

  4. Protective effects of Digera muricata (L.) Mart. against carbon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Co-treatment of DME (100 and 200 mg/kg bw) intragastrically once a week for 16 weeks suppressed the toxic effects of CCl4 and level of thyroid hormones, the activities of oxidative enzymes, glutathione (GSH) and TBARS concentration. Histopathological injuries induced with CCl4 were remarkably reduced with ...

  5. Protective effects of ethanolic extract of Mormodica charantia leaf on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Histologically, lead treated group showed increased fat vacuoles along with significant reduction in primordial blood cell inside bone marrow. Concurrent administration of both lead and the extract caused a restorative effect on the cytoarchictectural structure of the bone marrow. Conclusion: In conclusion, this study has ...

  6. Spatholobus suberectus stem extract improves the protective effect ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The present study evaluates the effect of Spatholobus suberectus stem extract (SS) in the management of pancreatitis alone and in combination with heparin. Material and methods: Pancreatitis was induced pancreatitis by cerulean (50μg/kg, i.p.) five times at an interval of 1 h without any pretreatment of drug.

  7. The potential protective effects of erythropoietin and estrogen on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Noha I. Hussien

    2015-12-30

    Dec 30, 2015 ... Abstract Background: Renal ischemia–reperfusion (RIR) is an important etiopathological mech- anism of acute renal failure (ARF). Erythropoietin (EPO) has been candidate as a nephroprotectant agent. However, its nephroprotective effect when it is accompanied with estrogen has not been stud-.

  8. Protective effect of Haloxylon salicornicum on hepatic and renal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    2016-03-02

    Mar 2, 2016 ... Aluminium is present in some manufactured medicines and foods. It is known that aluminium causes oxidative stress. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to determine the effectiveness of. Haloxylon salicornicum extract in modulating aluminium chloride (AlCl3) induced oxidative stress in rats.

  9. Protective effect of methanol-methylene chloride extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    Abstract. Purpose: Terminalia glaucescens (Combretaceae) is traditionally used in Cameroon in the treatment of diabetes. The anti-hyperglycemic effect of the ... Type 1 diabetes is an auto-immune disease characterized by a local inflammatory reaction in and around pancreatic islets that is followed by selective destruction ...

  10. Protective effect of quercetin on bupivacaine-induced neurotoxicity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    certain side effects, especially neurotoxicity. It has been shown that neurotoxicity caused by local anesthetics such as lidocaine and bupivacaine are related to changes in calcium homeostasis, resulting in intracellular calcium overload [1]. Calcium homeostasis is regulated by many different kinds of calcium channels such.

  11. Protective effect of quercetin on bupivacaine-induced neurotoxicity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... bupivacaine, possibly through inhibition of T-type calcium channel. This finding implies a novel mechanism for neuroprotective effect of quercetin, and its potential for treating toxicity arising from the use of local anesthetic agents. Keywords: Quercetin, Bupivacaine, Local anaesthetic, Neuroprotection, Neurotoxicity, T-type ...

  12. Cost-Effective Marine Protection--A Pragmatic Approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soile Oinonen

    Full Text Available This paper puts forward a framework for probabilistic and holistic cost-effectiveness analysis to provide support in selecting the least-cost set of measures to reach a multidimensional environmental objective. Following the principles of ecosystem-based management, the framework includes a flexible methodology for deriving and populating criteria for effectiveness and costs and analyzing complex ecological-economic trade-offs under uncertainty. The framework is applied in the development of the Finnish Programme of Measures (PoM for reaching the targets of the EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD. The numerical results demonstrate that substantial cost savings can be realized from careful consideration of the costs and multiple effects of management measures. If adopted, the proposed PoM would yield improvements in the state of the Baltic Sea, but the overall objective of the MSFD would not be reached by the target year of 2020; for various environmental and administrative reasons, it would take longer for most measures to take full effect.

  13. Protective effect of methanol-methylene chloride extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of the extract on body weight gain, food and water intake, plasma metabolites (glucose and lipids) and insulin levels was investigated. Results: Diabetic control mice and diabetic mice pre-treated with 100 mg kg-1 extract showed body weight loss, marked (P< 0.001) polyphagia and polydipsia, high plasma ...

  14. Protective effect of nitric oxide against arsenic-induced oxidative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of NO on alleviating arsenic-induced oxidative damage in tall fescue leaves were investigated. Arsenic (25 M) treatment induced significantly accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and led to serious lipid peroxidation in tall fescue leaves and the application of 100 M SNP before arsenic stress resulted ...

  15. In vitro protective effect of Pandanus ordoratissimus extract on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The alkaline comet assay was used to quantify DNA damage. Photo-dependent cytogenetic lesions were assessed by the micronucleus test (MNT). It was found that POE effectively reduced the extent of DNA breakages and cytogenetic lesions upon exposure to UVB (erythemal ultraviolet (EUV); 17.09 mJ/cm2).

  16. Protective effect of the leaves of Vitex negundo against ethanol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study investigated the effect of the various fractions of hydromethanolic extract of the leaves of Vitex negundo (Verbenaceae) against ethanol-induced cerebral oxidative stress in rats. Cerebral oxidative stress was induced by the administration of 20% ethanol (5 ml/100g bw) for a period of 28 days.

  17. Protective effect of Ailanthus excelsa Roxb in myocardial infarction ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Thia study evaluates the effects of Ailanthus excelsa Roxb methanolic extract (AER-ME) in rats induced with Myocardial Infarction (MI) followed by transplantation of MSCs. Material and Methods: Rats were induced with MI by ligation technique of left coronary artery. The sham-operated the control and AER-ME ...

  18. The potential protective effects of erythropoietin and estrogen on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Renal ischemia–reperfusion (RIR) is an important etiopathological mechanism of acute renal failure (ARF). Erythropoietin (EPO) has been candidate as a nephroprotectant agent. However, its nephroprotective effect when it is accompanied with estrogen has not been studied in female. Methods: Fifty-six female ...

  19. Protective effect of zinc against cadmium toxicity on pregnant rats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ZINO

    2013-04-17

    Apr 17, 2013 ... fetuses were used to isolate a total RNA for quantification of Msx1, Cx43, Bcl2 and Bax genes. The results show the toxic effect ... caspase-mitochondria pathways (Li et al., 2000), indicating that apoptosis could .... RNA isolation and real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Total RNA was ...

  20. Radiation Effects and Protection for Moon and Mars Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parnell, Thomas A.; Watts, John W., Jr.; Armstrong, Tony W.

    1998-01-01

    Manned and robotic missions to the Earth's moon and Mars are exposed to a continuous flux of Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCR) and occasional, but intense, fluxes of Solar Energetic Particles (SEP). These natural radiations impose hazards to manned exploration, but also present some constraints to the design of robotic missions. The hazards to interplanetary flight crews and their uncertainties have been studied recently by a National Research Council Committee (Space Studies Board 1996). Considering the present uncertainty estimates, thick spacecraft shielding would be needed for manned missions, some of which could be accomplished with onboard equipment and expendables. For manned and robotic missions, the effects of radiation on electronics, sensors, and controls require special consideration in spacecraft design. This paper describes the GCR and SEP particle fluxes, secondary particles behind shielding, uncertainties in radiobiological effects and their impact on manned spacecraft design, as well as the major effects on spacecraft equipment. The principal calculational tools and considerations to mitigate the radiation effects are discussed, and work in progress to reduce uncertainties is included.