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Sample records for strong positive relationships

  1. Strong motion duration and earthquake magnitude relationships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salmon, M.W.; Short, S.A.; Kennedy, R.P.

    1992-06-01

    Earthquake duration is the total time of ground shaking from the arrival of seismic waves until the return to ambient conditions. Much of this time is at relatively low shaking levels which have little effect on seismic structural response and on earthquake damage potential. As a result, a parameter termed ''strong motion duration'' has been defined by a number of investigators to be used for the purpose of evaluating seismic response and assessing the potential for structural damage due to earthquakes. This report presents methods for determining strong motion duration and a time history envelope function appropriate for various evaluation purposes, for earthquake magnitude and distance, and for site soil properties. There are numerous definitions of strong motion duration. For most of these definitions, empirical studies have been completed which relate duration to earthquake magnitude and distance and to site soil properties. Each of these definitions recognizes that only the portion of an earthquake record which has sufficiently high acceleration amplitude, energy content, or some other parameters significantly affects seismic response. Studies have been performed which indicate that the portion of an earthquake record in which the power (average rate of energy input) is maximum correlates most closely with potential damage to stiff nuclear power plant structures. Hence, this report will concentrate on energy based strong motion duration definitions

  2. Strong motion duration and earthquake magnitude relationships

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salmon, M.W.; Short, S.A. [EQE International, Inc., San Francisco, CA (United States); Kennedy, R.P. [RPK Structural Mechanics Consulting, Yorba Linda, CA (United States)

    1992-06-01

    Earthquake duration is the total time of ground shaking from the arrival of seismic waves until the return to ambient conditions. Much of this time is at relatively low shaking levels which have little effect on seismic structural response and on earthquake damage potential. As a result, a parameter termed ``strong motion duration`` has been defined by a number of investigators to be used for the purpose of evaluating seismic response and assessing the potential for structural damage due to earthquakes. This report presents methods for determining strong motion duration and a time history envelope function appropriate for various evaluation purposes, for earthquake magnitude and distance, and for site soil properties. There are numerous definitions of strong motion duration. For most of these definitions, empirical studies have been completed which relate duration to earthquake magnitude and distance and to site soil properties. Each of these definitions recognizes that only the portion of an earthquake record which has sufficiently high acceleration amplitude, energy content, or some other parameters significantly affects seismic response. Studies have been performed which indicate that the portion of an earthquake record in which the power (average rate of energy input) is maximum correlates most closely with potential damage to stiff nuclear power plant structures. Hence, this report will concentrate on energy based strong motion duration definitions.

  3. Statistical relationship of strong earthquakes with planetary geomagnetic field activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogrebnikov, M. M.; Komarovski, N. I.; Kopytenko, Y. A.; Pushel, A. P.

    1984-12-01

    Earlier studies reported a significant decrease in the geomagnetic field before strong earthquakes. Possible relationships between earthquakes with magnitude greater than 7 (Soviet scale) and planetary terrestrial magnetic field activity as characterized by the K sub p index were investigated. A total of 100 cases of strong earthquakes on magnetically quiet days in 1965 to 1975 were studied. The K sub p indexes were studied for two days before and two days after the earthquakes. The dispersion curve shows a significant decrease one day before each event. The relationship of the planetary K sub p index with seismic activity indicates that the period of preparation for an earthquake and at the moment of the shock are reflected in the terrestrial magnetic field.

  4. Visual evoked potentials show strong positive association with intracranial pressure in patients with cryptococcal meningitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Adriano da Cunha Silva Vieira

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective : To verify the relationship between intracranial pressure and flash visual evoked potentials (F-VEP in patients with cryptococcal meningitis. Method The sample included adults diagnosed with cryptococcal meningitis admitted at a reference hospital for infectious diseases. The patients were subjected to F-VEP tests shortly before lumbar puncture. The Pearson’s linear correlation coefficient was calculated and the linear regression analysis was performed. Results : Eighteen individuals were subjected to a total of 69 lumbar punctures preceded by F-VEP tests. At the first lumbar puncture performed in each patient, N2 latency exhibited a strong positive correlation with intracranial pressure (r = 0.83; CI = 0.60 - 0.94; p < 0.0001. The direction of this relationship was maintained in subsequent punctures. Conclusion : The intracranial pressure measured by spinal tap manometry showed strong positive association with the N2 latency F-VEP in patients with cryptococcal meningitis.

  5. Phylogenomics provides strong evidence for relationships of butterflies and moths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawahara, Akito Y; Breinholt, Jesse W

    2014-08-07

    Butterflies and moths constitute some of the most popular and charismatic insects. Lepidoptera include approximately 160 000 described species, many of which are important model organisms. Previous studies on the evolution of Lepidoptera did not confidently place butterflies, and many relationships among superfamilies in the megadiverse clade Ditrysia remain largely uncertain. We generated a molecular dataset with 46 taxa, combining 33 new transcriptomes with 13 available genomes, transcriptomes and expressed sequence tags (ESTs). Using HaMStR with a Lepidoptera-specific core-orthologue set of single copy loci, we identified 2696 genes for inclusion into the phylogenomic analysis. Nucleotides and amino acids of the all-gene, all-taxon dataset yielded nearly identical, well-supported trees. Monophyly of butterflies (Papilionoidea) was strongly supported, and the group included skippers (Hesperiidae) and the enigmatic butterfly-moths (Hedylidae). Butterflies were placed sister to the remaining obtectomeran Lepidoptera, and the latter was grouped with greater than or equal to 87% bootstrap support. Establishing confident relationships among the four most diverse macroheteroceran superfamilies was previously challenging, but we recovered 100% bootstrap support for the following relationships: ((Geometroidea, Noctuoidea), (Bombycoidea, Lasiocampoidea)). We present the first robust, transcriptome-based tree of Lepidoptera that strongly contradicts historical placement of butterflies, and provide an evolutionary framework for genomic, developmental and ecological studies on this diverse insect order. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  6. Analysis of strong ground motions to evaluate regional attenuation relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Montaldo

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Italian attenuation relationships at regional scale have been refined using a data set of 322 horizontal components of strong ground motions recorded mainly during the 1997-1998 Umbria-Marche, Central Italy, earthquake sequence. The data set includes records generated by events with local magnitude (M L ranging between 4.5 and 5.9, recorded at rock or soil sites and epicentral distance smaller than 100 km. Through a multiple step regression analysis, we calculated empirical equations for the peak ground acceleration and velocity, the Arias Intensity and for the horizontal components of the 5% damped velocity pseudo response spectra, corresponding to 14 frequencies ranging from 0.25 to 25 Hz. We compared our results with well known predictive equations, widely used on the national territory for Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis. The results obtained in this study show smaller values for all the analyzed ground motion indicators compared to other predictive equations.

  7. Defensive marketing: how a strong incumbent can protect its position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, John H

    2005-11-01

    There has been a lot of research on marketing as an offensive tactic-how it can help companies successfully launch new products, enter new markets, or gain share with existing products in their current markets. But for nearly every new product launch, market entrant, or industry upstart grabbing market share, there is an incumbent that must defend its position. And there has been little research on how these defenders can use marketing to preemptively respond to new or anticipated threats. John H. Roberts outlines four basic types of defensive marketing strategies: positive, inertial, parity, and retarding. With the first two, you establish and communicate your points of superiority relative to the new entrant; with the second two, you establish and communicate strategic points of comparability with your rival. Before choosing a strategy, you need to assess the weapons you have available to protect your market position-your brand identity, the products and services that support that identity, and your means of communicating it. Then assess your customers' value to you and their vulnerability to being poached by rivals. The author explains how Australian telecommunications company Telstra, facing deregulation, used a combination of the four strategies (plus the author's customer response model) to fend off market newcomer Optus. Telstra was prepared, for instance, to reach deep into its pockets and engage in a price war. But the customer response model indicated that a parity strategy-in which Telstra would offer lower rates on some routes and at certain times of day, even though its prices, on average, were higher than its rival's-was more likely to prevent consumers from switching. Ultimately, Telstra was able to retain several points of market share it otherwise would have lost. The strategies described here, though specific to Telstra's situation, offer lessons for any company facing new and potentially damaging competition.

  8. Buyer-Supplier Relationships and Power Position: Interchaining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hebatollah Morsy

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available According to several studies, power and interdependence play a considerable role in understanding the buyer–supplier relationships, yet, empirical research is still limited. Also, the nature of the buyer-supplier relationship and managing them might vary based on the power position of buyers and suppliers. Few studies focused on the reason behind this interrelation and strong influence of power on the buyer-supplier relationships. Thus, the purpose of this study is to gain better understanding and try to identify how power position and buyer-supplier relationships are interrelated, and whether there are common determinants and/or characteristics behind this strong bond between the two concepts. Both transaction cost analysis theory and social exchange theory were integrated in building the argument. Regarding the methodology, qualitative exploratory research design was employed by using multiple-case study as the main research method, where three multinational Egyptian organizations were selected. Moreover, data was collected using individual in-depth interviews, and analyzed through coding and cross case analysis techniques. The results showed that there are common factors that influence both buyer-supplier relationship characteristics and power position attributes. And according, the findings helped in pointing out a new lens of discussing and investigating the bond between buyer-supplier relationships ad power in research.

  9. Positive family relationships: Longitudinal network of relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Kathleen S J; Gottfried, Allen W; Oliver, Pamella H; Gottfried, Adele Eskeles; Delany, Danielle E; Ibrahim, Sirena M

    2016-10-01

    The construct of positive family relationships (PFR), defined as family members getting along well and supporting each other, was investigated in a long-term prospective study. A newly constructed scale of positive family relationships developed using the nominal response model of item-response theory, was subject to a longitudinal network of relations analysis. The conceptualization for this research was founded on a positive psychology framework. Data derived from the Fullerton Longitudinal Study and spanned 20 years from middle childhood (age 9 years) to early adulthood (age 29 years). Evidence indicated both stability and change in PFR across time. Moderate to high stability of individual differences among families across 9 annual assessments was found from ages 9-17 years. Concomitantly across these years, there was a progressive decline in PFR. PFR proved to be independent of socioeconomic status. Specific conceptually based directional hypotheses were tested using structural equation modeling. Multiple sources of information included intra- and cross-informant, as well as objective and ecologically valid data. The network of relations involved concurrent and predictive criterion-related variables. PFR had a pervasive relation to a variety of psychological domains across time. As predicted, PFR related (a) positively to family cohesion and inversely to family conflict, (b) positively to parental social support, (c) positively to children's self-concept, (d) positively to children's academic performance and educational attainment, and (e) inversely to children's behavior problems. The theoretical importance of the findings and the applicability of the PFR Scale for both researchers and practitioners in the field of family psychology are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Positive semidefinite matrix completion, universal rigidity and the Strong Arnold Property

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Laurent (Monique); A. Varvitsiotis (Antonios)

    2014-01-01

    htmlabstractThis paper addresses the following three topics: positive semidefinite (psd) matrix completions, universal rigidity of frameworks, and the Strong Arnold Property (SAP). We show some strong connections among these topics, using semidefinite programming as unifying theme. Our main

  11. Relationship of condylar position to disc position and morphology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Incesu, L.; Taskaya-Yilmaz, N. E-mail: nergizy@omu.edu.tr; Oeguetcen-Toller, M.; Uzun, E

    2004-09-01

    Introduction/objective: The purpose of this study was to assess whether condylar position, as depicted by magnetic resonance imaging, was an indicator of disc morphology and position. Methods and material: One hundred and twenty two TMJs of 61 patients with temporomandibular joint disorder were examined. Condylar position, disc deformity and degree of anterior disc displacement were evaluated by using magnetic resonance imaging. Results and discussion: Posterior condyle position was found to be the main feature of temporomandibular joints with slight and moderate anterior disc displacement. No statistical significance was found between the condylar position, and reducing and nonreducing disc positions. On the other hand, superior disc position was found to be statistically significant for centric condylar position. Conclusion: It was concluded that posterior condyle position could indicate anterior disc displacement whereas there was no relation between the position of condyle and the disc deformity.

  12. Positive illusions about a partner's personality and relationship quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barelds, Dick P. H.; Dijkstra, Pieternel

    Previous studies have shown individuals to hold positive biases about their relationships. The present study examined positive illusions about a partner's specific personality characteristics in relation to relationship quality and personality. Both partners of 120 heterosexual couples participated

  13. Positive semidefinite matrix completion, universal rigidity and the Strong Arnold Property

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laurent, Monique; Varvitsiotis, A.

    This paper addresses the following three topics: positive semidefinite (psd) matrix completions, universal rigidity of frameworks, and the Strong Arnold Property (SAP). We show some strong connections among these topics, using semidefinite programming as unifying theme. Our main contribution is a

  14. Inflation and Growth: Positive or Negative Relationship?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berument, Hakan; Inamlik, Ali; Olgun, Hasan

    This study has been motivated by two developments. Firstly, by the vast literature on the relationship between inflation and growth which is abundantly endowed with diverse theoretical explanations and contradictory evidence and by the unique experience of the Turkish economy with inflation and growth. A preliminary examination of the Turkish data pointed to a negative relation between inflation and growth. Moreover, there is a unanimous agreement among the students of the Turkish economy that many factors have contributed to inflation in this country. In view of these facts this paper employs a VAR model which will enable us to identify the sources of the shocks and control for external factors. In addition VAR models have a high predictive power and enable the researcher to observe the impulse response functions. The study employs Generalised Impulse Response analysis. In the empirical experiments oil prices, money supply, government spending and taxes have been taken as the most likely determinants of inflation. The study shows that there is a negative relationship between inflation and output growth in Turkey and that the underlying explanatory factor is the real exchange rate. This result is robust.

  15. Enhancing Homeland Security Efforts by Building Strong Relationships between the Muslim Community and Local Law Enforcement

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jensen, Dennis L

    2006-01-01

    ... to follow up on the incident and to prevent future attacks. It is undeniable that building a strong relationship between the local police and the Muslim community is essential in defending America against acts of terrorism...

  16. Empathy in intimate relationships : The role of positive illusions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Pieternel; Barelds, Dick P.H.; Groothof, Hinke A.K.; Van Bruggen, Marnix

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have shown empathy to be an important aspect of a high quality intimate relationship. Likewise, positive illusions about a partner's characteristics have been shown to contribute to relationship quality. The present study connects these issues by examining the degree to which

  17. Positive illusions about a partner's physical attractiveness and relationship quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barelds, Dick P. H.; Dijkstra, Pieternel

    The present research examined the existence of positive illusions about a partner's physical attractiveness and its relations to relationship quality. Positive illusions were assumed to exist when individuals rated their partner as more attractive than their partner rated him or herself. In two

  18. Relationship Between Personality Types on the Strong-Campbell and Myers-Briggs Instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, Michael; Weissman, Shel

    1987-01-01

    Examined relationship between Holland's personality types as measured by the Strong-Campbell Interest Inventory and Jung's personality types as measured by the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator. College students' (N=394) responses to the two instruments revealed significant associations between certain types based on interests and preferences.…

  19. Couple relationship distress and observed expression of intimacy during reminiscence about positive relationship events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osgarby, Susan M; Halford, W Kim

    2013-12-01

    Satisfied couples report that positive, intimate communication is central to their relationship. We developed the positive reminiscence task, in which couples discuss positive relationship moments to assess communication of positive intimacy. The behavior and heart rate of 28 satisfied and 25 distressed couples were assessed during positive reminiscence and problem solving. As predicted, satisfied couples demonstrated higher rates of positive affect and dyadic intimacy than distressed couples during positive reminiscence, and these positive behaviors occurred at much lower rates during problem solving than positive reminiscence. However, the differences between distressed and satisfied couples were more marked on most assessed behaviors during problem solving rather than positive reminiscence. Two notable exceptions were that dyadic intimacy and sadness differed more between distressed and satisfied couples during positive reminiscence than problem solving. The positive reminiscence task assesses intimate behaviors in a manner likely to be useful in research and practice. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. The Relationship Between Depression And Positive Signs In Chronic Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahaoddini S S

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The results of studies about relationship between depression and positive signs in schizophrenia are controversial and clarifying the nature of this association may be difficult. The aim of present study is to investigate relationship between depressive symptoms and positive signs, in acute phase of patients with chronic schizophrenia, who have been admitted in Roozbeh Hospital. Materials and Methods: Assessments were performed using the Beck depression Inventory for depression (subjectively and positive and negative syndrome scale (PANSS for psychotic symptoms. Results: The results demonstrated a significant correlation between depressive symptoms and positive signs in these patients. Also, a significant correlation existed between depression and these items: delusions, hallucinatory behavior, excitement, hostility. Conclusion: depressive symptoms and positive signs in schizophrenia may have a common underlying pathophysiological origin.

  1. Can positive thinking help? Positive automatic thoughts as moderators of the stress-meaning relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyraz, Güler; Lightsey, Owen Richard

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to test whether positive automatic cognitions moderated the relationship between event stressfulness and meaning in life. Measures of these constructs were administered to 232 students and community-dwelling adults. Supporting hypotheses and the literature, positive automatic cognitions moderated the relationship between event stressfulness and meaning in life. For persons with high levels of positive thinking, greater event stressfulness was associated with higher meaning in life. For persons with low levels of positive thinking, greater event stressfulness was associated with lower meaning in life. These results were obtained when controlling for positive affect, as well as the positive affect × event stressfulness interaction. The positive cognitions × event stressfulness interaction accounted for 2.9% of variance, and the overall model accounted for 47% of the variance in meaning in life. © 2012 American Orthopsychiatric Association.

  2. Relations among Positive Parenting, parent-child Relationship, and Empathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Liyun; Zhang, Xingli; Shi, Jiannong

    This study demonstrated relations among 2 features of positive parenting——supportive responsiveness to distress and warmth ,parent-child relationship and empathy.171 children aged 8-10 years (mean age = 9.31 years, 89 girls) participated in the study.In school,participants completed Empathic......,Prosocial Response to Another’s Distress Scale,Parental Acceptance-Rejection Questionnaire, Coping with Children’s Negative Emotions Questionaire,Network of Relationships Inventory. Results showed that: (1)Parents' supportive responsiveness to distress, but not warmth, predicted children's empathy.(2)Near parent......-child relationship mediates the relationship between positive parenting(Parents' supportive responsiveness to distress or warmth) and empathy. In conclusion,parents' supportive responsiveness to distress, but not warmth, predicted children's empathy. Warmth had indirect effects on children’s empathy through near...

  3. Damping at positive frequencies in the limit J⊥-->0 in the strongly correlated Hubbard model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, Minette M.

    1992-08-01

    I show damping in the two-dimensional strongly correlated Hubbard model within the retraceable-path approximation, using an expansion around dominant poles for the self-energy. The damping half-width ~J2/3z occurs only at positive frequencies ω>5/2Jz, the excitation energy of a pure ``string'' state of length one, where Jz is the Ising part of the superexchange interaction, and occurs even in the absence of spin-flip terms ~J⊥ in contrast to other theoretical treatments. The dispersion relation for both damped and undamped peaks near the upper band edge is found and is shown to have lost the simple J2/3z dependence characteristic of the peaks near the lower band edge. The position of the first three peaks near the upper band edge agrees well with numerical simulations on the t-J model. The weight of the undamped peaks near the upper band edge is ~J4/3z, contrasting with Jz for the weight near the lower band edge.

  4. Positive Parenting: Building Healthy Relationships with Your Kids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Issues Subscribe September 2017 Print this issue Positive Parenting Building Healthy Relationships With Your Kids En español ... to your kids cuts across all areas of parenting,” says Arizona State University’s Dr. Keith Crnic, a ...

  5. Relationship between positive mental health and appreciation in Korean individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Young-Jin

    2017-06-01

    Appreciation is a key component of subjective well-being and may contribute to positive mental health. Few studies have examined relationships between specific aspects of appreciation and the 3 dimensions of positive mental health, and thus, the aim of this study was to identify associations between aspects of appreciation and positive mental health. Appreciation and positive mental health were measured in 266 Korean university students (50% females) using the Appreciation Inventory and the Mental Health Continuum-Short Form. The results obtained showed that Have Focus significantly predicted Emotional Well-being; Have Focus and Loss/Adversity significantly predicted Social Well-being and Have Focus, Expression and Nature/Daily Life significantly predicted Psychological Well-being. The implications of results that might enable positive mental health to be enhanced are discussed. © 2015 International Union of Psychological Science.

  6. Predicting Positive and Negative Relationships in Large Social Networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guan-Nan Wang

    Full Text Available In a social network, users hold and express positive and negative attitudes (e.g. support/opposition towards other users. Those attitudes exhibit some kind of binary relationships among the users, which play an important role in social network analysis. However, some of those binary relationships are likely to be latent as the scale of social network increases. The essence of predicting latent binary relationships have recently began to draw researchers' attention. In this paper, we propose a machine learning algorithm for predicting positive and negative relationships in social networks inspired by structural balance theory and social status theory. More specifically, we show that when two users in the network have fewer common neighbors, the prediction accuracy of the relationship between them deteriorates. Accordingly, in the training phase, we propose a segment-based training framework to divide the training data into two subsets according to the number of common neighbors between users, and build a prediction model for each subset based on support vector machine (SVM. Moreover, to deal with large-scale social network data, we employ a sampling strategy that selects small amount of training data while maintaining high accuracy of prediction. We compare our algorithm with traditional algorithms and adaptive boosting of them. Experimental results of typical data sets show that our algorithm can deal with large social networks and consistently outperforms other methods.

  7. Intelligence and Creativity: Relationships and their Implications for Positive Psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Nakano, Tatiana de Cassia; Wechsler, Solange Muglia; Campos, Carolina Rosa; Milian, Queila Guise

    2015-01-01

    There is little consensus on the relationship between intelligence and creativity. This study aimed to investigate the associations between these constructs considering the importance that creativity has for positive psychology. Two studies were conducted using two test batteries: the first with 876 children and adolescents (55% female) using the Battery for Assessment of High Abilities/Giftedness and the second with 285 adolescents (54% female) with the Battery for Assessing Intelligence and...

  8. Relationships Among Positive Emotions, Coping, Resilience and Mental Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gloria, Christian T; Steinhardt, Mary A

    2016-04-01

    The broaden-and-build theory of positive emotions suggests that positive emotions can widen the range of potential coping strategies that come to mind and subsequently enhance one's resilience against stress. Studies have shown that high stress, especially chronic levels of stress, strongly contributes to the development of anxiety and depressive symptoms. However, researchers have also found that individuals who possess high levels of resilience are protected from stress and thus report lower levels of anxiety and depressive symptoms. Using a sample of 200 postdoctoral research fellows, the present study examined if (a) positive emotions were associated with greater resilience, (b) coping strategies mediated the link between positive emotions and resilience and (c) resilience moderated the influence of stress on trait anxiety and depressive symptoms. Results support the broaden-and-build theory in that positive emotions may enhance resilience directly as well as indirectly through the mediating role of coping strategies-particularly via adaptive coping. Resilience also moderated the association of stress with trait anxiety and depressive symptoms. Although stress is unavoidable and its influences on anxiety and depressive symptoms are undeniable, the likelihood of postdocs developing anxiety or depressive symptoms may be reduced by implementing programmes designed to increase positive emotions, adaptive coping strategies and resilience. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Factors influencing the potential for strong brand relationships with consumer product brands: An overview and research agenda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech-Larsen, Tino; Bergkvist, Lars; Francis, Julie

    Based on the premise that consumer product brands are different with respect to their potential to form strong long-term relationships with consumers, this paper aims to identify factors that influence brands' potential for strong long-term relationships and to suggest how these can be empirically...

  10. Strategies/Behaviors That Successful Superintendents Use to Build Strong Relationships and Trust during Their Entry Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, C. K.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to identify strategies/behaviors that successful superintendents used to build strong relationships and trust with their school boards within their entry period. The following research questions guided the study: (1) What strategies/behaviors are successful superintendents using to build strong relationships and trust…

  11. The relationship between the position of mesiodens and complications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Yun Hwa; Nah, Kyung Soo; Cho, Bong Hae [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, College of Dentistry, Pusan National University, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-06-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between the position of mesiodens and its complications. The subjects for this study consisted of 172 patients with mesiodens. Panoramic radiographs and cross-sectional tomography were taken of all of the subjects. Their clinical records and radiographs were analyzed in order to study the direction and vertical and sagittal position of mesiodens, as well as complications caused by mesiodens. The number of mesiodens was one in 112 cases (65.1%) and two in 60 cases (34.9%). Complications were found in 121 mesiodentes (52.2%), with being median diastema the most frequent. The incidence of complications was high in erupted mesiodens (75.0%), in horizontal mesiodens (89.8%) and in mesiodens located within the arch (75.7%), but was low in mesiodens impacted above apex (29.8%), in normal position (34.4%) and in palatally positioned mesiodens (46.5%). It was suggested that the frequency of complications was different according to the vertical position, the direction of the crown and the sagittal position.

  12. The StrongWomen Change Clubs: Engaging Residents to Catalyze Positive Change in Food and Physical Activity Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca A. Seguin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The epidemic of obesity is a multifaceted public health issue. Positive policy and environmental changes are needed to support healthier eating and increased physical activity. Methods. StrongWomen Change Clubs (SWCCs were developed through an academic-community research partnership between researchers at Cornell University and Tufts University and community partners (cooperative extension educators in rural towns in seven U.S. states. Extension educators served as the local leader and each recruited 10–15 residents to undertake a project to improve some aspect of the nutrition or physical activity environment. Most residents had limited (or no experience in civic engagement. At 6 and 12 months after implementation, the research team conducted key informant interviews with SWCC leaders to capture their perceptions of program process, benchmark achievement, and self-efficacy. Results. At 12 months, each SWCC had accomplished one benchmark; the majority had completed three or more benchmarks. They described common processes for achieving benchmarks such as building relationships and leveraging stakeholder partnerships. Barriers to benchmark achievement included busy schedules and resistance to and slow pace of change. Conclusion. Findings suggest that community change initiatives that involve stakeholders, build upon existing activities and organizational resources, and establish feasible timelines and goals can successfully catalyze environmental change.

  13. Children's Representations of Attachment and Positive Teacher–Child Relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Veríssimo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to explore whether children's representations of attachment contribute to the co-construction of positive teacher–child relationships. An assessment of verbal intelligence was included as a predictor on the assumption that teachers might perceive themselves as having better relationships with more verbally competent children. Participants were 52 children from two pre-schools, in the district of Lisbon. The Attachment Story Completion Task (ASCT was used to assess children's attachment security. The PCV-P (a scale developed in portuguese language was used to describe teacher–child relationships through teachers' ratings of child secure base behavior and emotion regulation and the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence (WPPSI-R was used to access verbal skills. Bivariate correlations showed that the teachers' rating of child secure base behavior was significantly associated with both child attachment security and verbal IQ. In a multiple regression analysis, the overall model R2 was significant, as was the interaction term showing a moderating effect of attachment security on the relation between verbal IQ and teachers' ratings of secure base. The results suggest that co-construction of a close attachment-relevant relationship with teachers in early childhood is, in part, a function of the security in the context of parent-child attachment, but also of child verbal development.

  14. Strong generalized synchronization with a particular relationship R between the coupled systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grácio, Clara; Fernandes, Sara; Mário Lopes, Luís

    2018-03-01

    The question of the chaotic synchronization of two coupled dynamical systems is an issue that interests researchers in many fields, from biology to psychology, through economics, chemistry, physics, and many others. The different forms of couplings and the different types of synchronization, give rise to many problems, most of them little studied. In this paper we deal with general couplings of two dynamical systems and we study strong generalized synchronization with a particular relationship R between them. Our results include the definition of a window in the domain of the coupling strength, where there is an exponentially stable solution, and the explicit determination of this window. In the case of unidirectional or symmetric couplings, this window is presented in terms of the maximum Lyapunov exponent of the systems. Examples of applications to chaotic systems of dimension one and two are presented.

  15. Relationship Power and Sexual Violence Among HIV-Positive Women in Rural Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conroy, Amy A; Tsai, Alexander C; Clark, Gina M; Boum, Yap; Hatcher, Abigail M; Kawuma, Annet; Hunt, Peter W; Martin, Jeffrey N; Bangsberg, David R; Weiser, Sheri D

    2016-09-01

    Gender-based power imbalances place women at significant risk for sexual violence, however, little research has examined this association among women living with HIV/AIDS. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of relationship power and sexual violence among HIV-positive women on anti-retroviral therapy in rural Uganda. Relationship power was measured using the Sexual Relationship Power Scale (SRPS), a validated measure consisting of two subscales: relationship control (RC) and decision-making dominance. We used multivariable logistic regression to test for associations between the SRPS and two dependent variables: recent forced sex and transactional sex. Higher relationship power (full SRPS) was associated with reduced odds of forced sex (AOR = 0.24; 95 % CI 0.07-0.80; p = 0.020). The association between higher relationship power and transactional sex was strong and in the expected direction, but not statistically significant (AOR = 0.47; 95 % CI 0.18-1.22; p = 0.119). Higher RC was associated with reduced odds of both forced sex (AOR = 0.18; 95 % CI 0.06-0.59; p Violence prevention interventions with HIV-positive women should consider approaches that increase women's power in their relationships.

  16. Population genomics of the honey bee reveals strong signatures of positive selection on worker traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harpur, Brock A; Kent, Clement F; Molodtsova, Daria; Lebon, Jonathan M D; Alqarni, Abdulaziz S; Owayss, Ayman A; Zayed, Amro

    2014-02-18

    Most theories used to explain the evolution of eusociality rest upon two key assumptions: mutations affecting the phenotype of sterile workers evolve by positive selection if the resulting traits benefit fertile kin, and that worker traits provide the primary mechanism allowing social insects to adapt to their environment. Despite the common view that positive selection drives phenotypic evolution of workers, we know very little about the prevalence of positive selection acting on the genomes of eusocial insects. We mapped the footprints of positive selection in Apis mellifera through analysis of 40 individual genomes, allowing us to identify thousands of genes and regulatory sequences with signatures of adaptive evolution over multiple timescales. We found Apoidea- and Apis-specific genes to be enriched for signatures of positive selection, indicating that novel genes play a disproportionately large role in adaptive evolution of eusocial insects. Worker-biased proteins have higher signatures of adaptive evolution relative to queen-biased proteins, supporting the view that worker traits are key to adaptation. We also found genes regulating worker division of labor to be enriched for signs of positive selection. Finally, genes associated with worker behavior based on analysis of brain gene expression were highly enriched for adaptive protein and cis-regulatory evolution. Our study highlights the significant contribution of worker phenotypes to adaptive evolution in social insects, and provides a wealth of knowledge on the loci that influence fitness in honey bees.

  17. Genetic signature of strong recent positive selection at interleukin-32 gene in goat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhtar Rasool Asif

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective Identification of the candidate genes that play key roles in phenotypic variations can provide new information about evolution and positive selection. Interleukin (IL-32 is involved in many biological processes, however, its role for the immune response against various diseases in mammals is poorly understood. Therefore, the current investigation was performed for the better understanding of the molecular evolution and the positive selection of single nucleotide polymorphisms in IL-32 gene. Methods By using fixation index (FST based method, IL-32 (9375 gene was found to be outlier and under significant positive selection with the provisional combined allocation of mean heterozygosity and FST. Using nucleotide sequences of 11 mammalian species from National Center for Biotechnology Information database, the evolutionary selection of IL-32 gene was determined using Maximum likelihood model method, through four models (M1a, M2a, M7, and M8 in Codeml program of phylogenetic analysis by maximum liklihood. Results IL-32 is detected under positive selection using the FST simulations method. The phylogenetic tree revealed that goat IL-32 was in close resemblance with sheep IL-32. The coding nucleotide sequences were compared among 11 species and it was found that the goat IL-32 gene shared identity with sheep (96.54%, bison (91.97%, camel (58.39%, cat (56.59%, buffalo (56.50%, human (56.13%, dog (50.97%, horse (54.04%, and rabbit (53.41% respectively. Conclusion This study provides evidence for IL-32 gene as under significant positive selection in goat.

  18. Genetic signature of strong recent positive selection at interleukin-32 gene in goat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asif, Akhtar Rasool; Qadri, Sumayyah; Ijaz, Nabeel; Javed, Ruheena; Ansari, Abdur Rahman; Awais, Muhammd; Younus, Muhammad; Riaz, Hasan; Du, Xiaoyong

    2017-07-01

    Identification of the candidate genes that play key roles in phenotypic variations can provide new information about evolution and positive selection. Interleukin (IL)-32 is involved in many biological processes, however, its role for the immune response against various diseases in mammals is poorly understood. Therefore, the current investigation was performed for the better understanding of the molecular evolution and the positive selection of single nucleotide polymorphisms in IL-32 gene. By using fixation index ( F ST ) based method, IL-32 (9375) gene was found to be outlier and under significant positive selection with the provisional combined allocation of mean heterozygosity and F ST . Using nucleotide sequences of 11 mammalian species from National Center for Biotechnology Information database, the evolutionary selection of IL-32 gene was determined using Maximum likelihood model method, through four models (M1a, M2a, M7, and M8) in Codeml program of phylogenetic analysis by maximum liklihood. IL-32 is detected under positive selection using the F ST simulations method. The phylogenetic tree revealed that goat IL-32 was in close resemblance with sheep IL-32. The coding nucleotide sequences were compared among 11 species and it was found that the goat IL-32 gene shared identity with sheep (96.54%), bison (91.97%), camel (58.39%), cat (56.59%), buffalo (56.50%), human (56.13%), dog (50.97%), horse (54.04%), and rabbit (53.41%) respectively. This study provides evidence for IL-32 gene as under significant positive selection in goat.

  19. Autonomy, Positive Relationships, and IL-6: Evidence for Gender-Specific Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenlohr-Moul, Tory A.; Segerstrom, Suzanne C.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives A body of evidence indicates that women value relationship-centered aspects of well-being more than men do, while men value autonomy-centered aspects of well-being more than women do. The current study examined whether gender moderates relations between autonomy and positive relationships and interleukin-6 (IL-6), a cytokine associated with inflammatory processes. Aspects of well-being consistent with gender-linked values were expected to be most health-protective such that positive relationships would predict lower IL-6 only or more strongly in women, and autonomy would predict lower IL-6 only or more strongly in men. Methods In the first study, a sample of 119 older adults (55% female) living in Kentucky were visited in their homes for interviews and blood draws. In the second study, a sample of 1,028 adults (45% female) living across the United States (U.S.) underwent a telephone interview followed by a visit to a research center for blood draws. Results In the Kentucky sample, autonomy was quadratically related to IL-6 such that average autonomy predicted higher IL-6; this effect was stronger in men, providing support for our hypothesis only at above average levels of IL-6. In the U.S. national sample, more positive relationships were associated with lower IL-6 in women only. When the national sample was restricted to match the Kentucky sample, higher autonomy was associated with lower IL-6 in men only. Conclusions Results provide preliminary evidence for gender-specific effects of positive relationships and autonomy on IL-6. Further work is needed to establish the generalizability of these effects to different ages, cultures, and health statuses. PMID:22908985

  20. Good Health, Strong Families, and Positive Early Learning Experiences: Promoting Better Public Policies for America's Infants and Toddlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lally, J. Ronald; Lurie-Hurvitz, Erica; Cohen, Julie

    2006-01-01

    The ZERO TO THREE Policy Center has three areas of focus: good health, strong families, and positive early learning experiences. Effective policies must promote healthy functioning in all domains, including cognitive, physical, and social and emotional development. Comprehensive services are essential to meeting the needs of very young children…

  1. Positive biodiversity-productivity relationship predominant in global forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Jingjing; Crowther, Thomas W; Picard, Nicolas; Wiser, Susan; Zhou, Mo; Alberti, Giorgio; Schulze, Ernst-Detlef; McGuire, A David; Bozzato, Fabio; Pretzsch, Hans; de-Miguel, Sergio; Paquette, Alain; Hérault, Bruno; Scherer-Lorenzen, Michael; Barrett, Christopher B; Glick, Henry B; Hengeveld, Geerten M; Nabuurs, Gert-Jan; Pfautsch, Sebastian; Viana, Helder; Vibrans, Alexander C; Ammer, Christian; Schall, Peter; Verbyla, David; Tchebakova, Nadja; Fischer, Markus; Watson, James V; Chen, Han Y H; Lei, Xiangdong; Schelhaas, Mart-Jan; Lu, Huicui; Gianelle, Damiano; Parfenova, Elena I; Salas, Christian; Lee, Eungul; Lee, Boknam; Kim, Hyun Seok; Bruelheide, Helge; Coomes, David A; Piotto, Daniel; Sunderland, Terry; Schmid, Bernhard; Gourlet-Fleury, Sylvie; Sonké, Bonaventure; Tavani, Rebecca; Zhu, Jun; Brandl, Susanne; Vayreda, Jordi; Kitahara, Fumiaki; Searle, Eric B; Neldner, Victor J; Ngugi, Michael R; Baraloto, Christopher; Frizzera, Lorenzo; Bałazy, Radomir; Oleksyn, Jacek; Zawiła-Niedźwiecki, Tomasz; Bouriaud, Olivier; Bussotti, Filippo; Finér, Leena; Jaroszewicz, Bogdan; Jucker, Tommaso; Valladares, Fernando; Jagodzinski, Andrzej M; Peri, Pablo L; Gonmadje, Christelle; Marthy, William; O'Brien, Timothy; Martin, Emanuel H; Marshall, Andrew R; Rovero, Francesco; Bitariho, Robert; Niklaus, Pascal A; Alvarez-Loayza, Patricia; Chamuya, Nurdin; Valencia, Renato; Mortier, Frédéric; Wortel, Verginia; Engone-Obiang, Nestor L; Ferreira, Leandro V; Odeke, David E; Vasquez, Rodolfo M; Lewis, Simon L; Reich, Peter B

    2016-10-14

    The biodiversity-productivity relationship (BPR) is foundational to our understanding of the global extinction crisis and its impacts on ecosystem functioning. Understanding BPR is critical for the accurate valuation and effective conservation of biodiversity. Using ground-sourced data from 777,126 permanent plots, spanning 44 countries and most terrestrial biomes, we reveal a globally consistent positive concave-down BPR, showing that continued biodiversity loss would result in an accelerating decline in forest productivity worldwide. The value of biodiversity in maintaining commercial forest productivity alone-US$166 billion to 490 billion per year according to our estimation-is more than twice what it would cost to implement effective global conservation. This highlights the need for a worldwide reassessment of biodiversity values, forest management strategies, and conservation priorities. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  2. Investigation of a strong positive ionospheric storm during geomagnetic disturbances occurred in the Brazilian sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Abreu, A. J.; Sahai, Y.; Fagundes, P. R.; de Jesus, R.; Bittencourt, J. A.; Pillat, V. G.

    2012-12-01

    In this paper, we have investigated the responses of the ionospheric F region at equatorial and low latitude regions in the Brazilian sector during the super geomagnetic storm on 15-16 May 2005. The geomagnetic storm reached a minimum Dst of -263 nT at 0900 UT on 15 May. In this paper, we present vertical total electron content (vTEC) and phase fluctuations (in TECU/min) from Global Positioning System (GPS) observations obtained at Belém (BELE), Brasília (BRAZ), Presidente Prudente (UEPP), and Porto Alegre (POAL), Brazil, during the period 14-17 May 2005. Also, we present ionospheric parameters h'F, hpF2, and foF2, using the Canadian Advanced Digital Ionosonde (CADI) obtained at Palmas (PAL) and São José dos Campos (SJC), Brazil, for the same period. The super geomagnetic storm has fast decrease in the Dst index soon after SSC at 0239 UT on 15 May. It is a good possibility of prompt penetration of electric field of magnetospheric origin resulting in uplifting of the F region. The vTEC observations show a trough at BELE and a crest above UEPP, soon after SSC, indicating strengthening of nighttime equatorial anomaly. During the daytime on 15 and 16 May, in the recovery phase, the variations in foF2 at SJC and the vTEC observations, particularly at BRAZ, UEPP, and POAL, show large positive ionospheric storm. There is ESF on the all nights at PAL, in the post-midnight (UT) sector, and phase fluctuations only on the night of 14-15 May at BRAZ, after the SSC. No phase fluctuations are observed at the equatorial station BELE and low latitude stations (BRAZ, UEPP, and POAL) at all other times. This indicates that the plasma bubbles are generated and confined on this magnetically disturbed night only up to the low magnetic latitude and drifted possibly to west.

  3. Relationships Between Positive and Negative Affect and the Five Factors of Personality in a Brazilian Sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Zanon

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Strong associations of Neuroticism and Extraversion with positive affects (PA and negative affects (NA have been reported in the international literature. This study aimed to evaluate the occurrence of such relationships in a Brazilian sample, and also to investigate the role of Conscientiousness, Agreeableness and Openness in the prediction of PA and NA through the use of a hybrid structural model. Participants were 319 university students, between 17 and 37 years of age (mean = 21.5, SD = 4.9. Approximately 64% of the students were female and 36% male. Results showed that Neuroticism was the most important predictor of PA and NA, followed by Conscientiousness, but not Extraversion. Surprisingly, Agreeableness was shown to be a weak prediction for NA, but had no relationship with PA. As expected, Openness showed no relationship with PA or NA. These results are partially in agreement with the international literature but some important differences were detected.

  4. On Strong Positive Frequency Dependencies of Quality Factors in Local-Earthquake Seismic Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morozov, Igor B.; Jhajhria, Atul; Deng, Wubing

    2018-03-01

    Many observations of seismic waves from local earthquakes are interpreted in terms of the frequency-dependent quality factor Q( f ) = Q0 f^{η } , where η is often close to or exceeds one. However, such steep positive frequency dependencies of Q require careful analysis with regard to their physical consistency. In particular, the case of η = 1 corresponds to frequency-independent (elastic) amplitude decays with time and consequently requires no Q-type attenuation mechanisms. For η > 1, several problems with physical meanings of such Q-factors occur. First, contrary to the key premise of seismic attenuation, high-frequency parts of the wavefield are enhanced with increasing propagation times relative to the low-frequency ones. Second, such attenuation cannot be implemented by mechanical models of wave-propagating media. Third, with η > 1, the velocity dispersion associated with such Q(f) occurs over unrealistically short frequency range and has an unexpected oscillatory shape. Cases η = 1 and η > 1 are usually attributed to scattering; however, this scattering must exhibit fortuitous tuning into the observation frequency band, which appears unlikely. The reason for the above problems is that the inferred Q values are affected by the conventional single-station measurement procedure. Both parameters Q 0 and are apparent, i.e., dependent on the selected parameterization and inversion method, and they should not be directly attributed to the subsurface. For η ≈ 1, parameter Q 0 actually describes the frequency-independent amplitude decay in access of some assumed geometric spreading t -α , where α is usually taken equal one. The case η > 1 is not allowed physically and could serve as an indicator of problematic interpretations. Although the case 0 < η < 1 is possible, its parameters Q 0 and may also be biased by the measurement procedure. To avoid such difficulties of Q-based approaches, we recommend measuring and interpreting the amplitude-decay rates

  5. Start Position Strongly Influences Fixation Patterns during Face Processing: Difficulties with Eye Movements as a Measure of Information Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arizpe, Joseph; Kravitz, Dwight J.; Yovel, Galit; Baker, Chris I.

    2012-01-01

    Fixation patterns are thought to reflect cognitive processing and, thus, index the most informative stimulus features for task performance. During face recognition, initial fixations to the center of the nose have been taken to indicate this location is optimal for information extraction. However, the use of fixations as a marker for information use rests on the assumption that fixation patterns are predominantly determined by stimulus and task, despite the fact that fixations are also influenced by visuo-motor factors. Here, we tested the effect of starting position on fixation patterns during a face recognition task with upright and inverted faces. While we observed differences in fixations between upright and inverted faces, likely reflecting differences in cognitive processing, there was also a strong effect of start position. Over the first five saccades, fixation patterns across start positions were only coarsely similar, with most fixations around the eyes. Importantly, however, the precise fixation pattern was highly dependent on start position with a strong tendency toward facial features furthest from the start position. For example, the often-reported tendency toward the left over right eye was reversed for the left starting position. Further, delayed initial saccades for central versus peripheral start positions suggest greater information processing prior to the initial saccade, highlighting the experimental bias introduced by the commonly used center start position. Finally, the precise effect of face inversion on fixation patterns was also dependent on start position. These results demonstrate the importance of a non-stimulus, non-task factor in determining fixation patterns. The patterns observed likely reflect a complex combination of visuo-motor effects and simple sampling strategies as well as cognitive factors. These different factors are very difficult to tease apart and therefore great caution must be applied when interpreting absolute

  6. A model for the training effects in swimming demonstrates a strong relationship between parasympathetic activity, performance and index of fatigue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Chalencon

    Full Text Available Competitive swimming as a physical activity results in changes to the activity level of the autonomic nervous system (ANS. However, the precise relationship between ANS activity, fatigue and sports performance remains contentious. To address this problem and build a model to support a consistent relationship, data were gathered from national and regional swimmers during two 30 consecutive-week training periods. Nocturnal ANS activity was measured weekly and quantified through wavelet transform analysis of the recorded heart rate variability. Performance was then measured through a subsequent morning 400 meters freestyle time-trial. A model was proposed where indices of fatigue were computed using Banister's two antagonistic component model of fatigue and adaptation applied to both the ANS activity and the performance. This demonstrated that a logarithmic relationship existed between performance and ANS activity for each subject. There was a high degree of model fit between the measured and calculated performance (R(2=0.84±0.14,p<0.01 and the measured and calculated High Frequency (HF power of the ANS activity (R(2=0.79±0.07, p<0.01. During the taper periods, improvements in measured performance and measured HF were strongly related. In the model, variations in performance were related to significant reductions in the level of 'Negative Influences' rather than increases in 'Positive Influences'. Furthermore, the delay needed to return to the initial performance level was highly correlated to the delay required to return to the initial HF power level (p<0.01. The delay required to reach peak performance was highly correlated to the delay required to reach the maximal level of HF power (p=0.02. Building the ANS/performance identity of a subject, including the time to peak HF, may help predict the maximal performance that could be obtained at a given time.

  7. Spin excitations in systems with hopping electron transport and strong position disorder in a large magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shumilin, A. V.

    2016-10-01

    We discuss the spin excitations in systems with hopping electron conduction and strong position disorder. We focus on the problem in a strong magnetic field when the spin Hamiltonian can be reduced to the effective single-particle Hamiltonian and treated with conventional numerical technics. It is shown that in a 3D system with Heisenberg exchange interaction the spin excitations have a delocalized part of the spectrum even in the limit of strong disorder, thus leading to the possibility of the coherent spin transport. The spin transport provided by the delocalized excitations can be described by a diffusion coefficient. Non-homogenous magnetic fields lead to the Anderson localization of spin excitations while anisotropy of the exchange interaction results in the Lifshitz localization of excitations. We discuss the possible effect of the additional exchange-driven spin diffusion on the organic spin-valve devices.

  8. Evaluation of the Start Strong initiative: preventing teen dating violence and promoting healthy relationships among middle school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Shari; Williams, Jason; Cutbush, Stacey; Gibbs, Deborah; Clinton-Sherrod, Monique; Jones, Sarah

    2015-02-01

    This study reports on an independent evaluation of Start Strong: Building Healthy Teen Relationships, a multicomponent initiative targeting 11- to 14-year-olds. "Start Strong" was designed to focus on the developmental needs of middle school students and to enhance skills and attitudes consistent with promotion of healthy relationships and reduction of teen dating violence (TDV). The quasi-experimental evaluation design included data collection from four Start Strong schools and four comparison schools. Student surveys were collected at four waves of data at the beginning and the end of grades 7 and 8. Multilevel models used repeated observations nested within students who were, in turn, nested within schools to determine whether participation in Start Strong enhanced healthy skills and relationships and decreased TDV-related attitudes and behaviors. Short-term effects from waves 1 to 2 were statistically significant for increased parent-child communication and boy/girlfriend relationship satisfaction and support and decreased gender stereotypes and attitudes supporting TDV. Findings for acceptance of TDV and gender stereotypes persisted longitudinally. Results are promising and illustrate that a multicomponent, community-based initiative reduced risk factors predictive of TDV. Start Strong is innovative in its focus on early adolescence, which is a critical period in the transition to dating. The results inform future intervention efforts and underscore the need for further study of middle school students. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The relationship between Counseling Psychology and Positive Psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Vossler, Andreas; Steffen , Edith; Joseph, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this chapter is to explore the relation between the professional specialty of counseling psychology and positive psychology. Following a brief historical overview of counseling psychology, we explore its theoretical convergence with positive psychology and examine how the ideas from positive psychology have been received by counseling psychologists. We argue that although counseling psychology has its roots in ideas that are consistent with positive psychology, the profession has d...

  10. Exercise Is Positively Related to Adolescents' Relationships and Academics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Tiffany; Diego, Miguel; Sanders, Christopher E.

    2001-01-01

    High school seniors were surveyed on their exercise habits; relationships with parents and peers; depressive tendencies; sports involvement; drug use; and academic performance. Students with high levels of exercise had better family relationships; were less depressed; were more involved in sports; used drugs less; and had better grades than…

  11. Strong subjective recovery as a protective factor against the effects of positive symptoms on quality of life outcomes in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukla, Marina; Lysaker, Paul H; Roe, David

    2014-08-01

    Interest in recovery from schizophrenia has been growing steadily, with much of the focus on remission from psychotic symptoms and a return to functioning. Less is known about the experience of subjective recovery and its relationships with other important outcomes, such as quality of life and the formation and sustenance of social connections. This study sought to address this gap in knowledge by examining the links between self perceived recovery, symptoms, and the social components of quality of life. Sixty eight veterans with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders who were participating in a study of cognitive remediation and work were concurrently administered the Recovery Assessment Scale, Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, and the Heinrichs-Carpenter Quality of Life Scale (QLS). Linear regression analyses demonstrated that subjective recovery moderated the relationship between positive symptoms and both QLS intrapsychic foundations scores and QLS instrumental role functioning after controlling for negative symptoms. Further examination of this interaction revealed that for individuals with substantial positive symptoms, higher levels of subjective recovery were associated with better instrumental role functioning and intrapsychic foundational abilities. Greater self perceived recovery is linked with stronger quality of life, both in regards to the cognitive and affective bases for socialization and active community involvement, even in the presence of substantial psychotic symptoms. Clinical implications of these findings are discussed. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. The Effects of Building Strong Families: A Healthy Marriage and Relationship Skills Education Program for Unmarried Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Robert G.; McConnell, Sheena; Moore, Quinn; Clarkwest, Andrew; Hsueh, JoAnn

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the impacts of Building Strong Families, a healthy marriage and relationship skills education program serving unmarried parents who were expecting or had recently had a baby. Based on a random assignment research design, the analysis uses survey data from more than 4,700 couples across eight research sites to estimate program…

  13. Accentuating the Positive, Eliminating the Negative? Relationship Maintenance as a Predictor of Two-Dimensional Relationship Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinen, Kaisa; Tolvanen, Asko; Ronka, Anna

    2012-01-01

    In this study, relationship maintenance and its connections with positive and negative relationship quality were examined among Finnish parents (N = 177 women and 153 men; i.e., partners from 150 couples and 27 women and 3 men whose partner did not participate in the study). Relationship maintenance was measured using Stafford, Dainton, and Haas's…

  14. Thermodynamics of nucleotide binding to actomyosin V and VI: a positive heat capacity change accompanies strong ADP binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robblee, James P; Cao, Wenxiang; Henn, Arnon; Hannemann, Diane E; De La Cruz, Enrique M

    2005-08-02

    We have measured the energetics of ATP and ADP binding to single-headed actomyosin V and VI from the temperature dependence of the rate and equilibrium binding constants. Nucleotide binding to actomyosin V and VI can be modeled as two-step binding mechanisms involving the formation of collision complexes followed by isomerization to states with high nucleotide affinity. Formation of the actomyosin VI-ATP collision complex is much weaker and slower than for actomyosin V. A three-step binding mechanism where actomyosin VI isomerizes between two conformations, one competent to bind ATP and one not, followed by rapid ATP binding best accounts for the data. ADP binds to actomyosin V more tightly than actomyosin VI. At 25 degrees C, the strong ADP-binding equilibria are comparable for actomyosin V and VI, and the different overall ADP affinities arise from differences in the ADP collision complex affinity. The actomyosin-ADP isomerization leading to strong ADP binding is entropy driven at >15 degrees C and occurs with a large, positive change in heat capacity (DeltaC(P) degrees ) for both actomyosin V and VI. Sucrose slows ADP binding and dissociation from actomyosin V and VI but not the overall equilibrium constants for strong ADP binding, indicating that solvent viscosity dampens ADP-dependent kinetic transitions, presumably a tail swing that occurs with ADP binding and release. We favor a mechanism where strong ADP binding increases the dynamics and flexibility of the actomyosin complex. The heat capacity (DeltaC(P) degrees ) and entropy (DeltaS degrees ) changes are greater for actomyosin VI than actomyosin V, suggesting different extents of ADP-induced structural rearrangement.

  15. Strong but diverging clonality - climate relationships of different plant clades explain weak overall pattern across China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Duo; Liu, Guofang; Song, Yao-Bin; Cornwell, William K.; Dong, Ming; Cornelissen, Johannes H. C.

    2016-06-01

    The clonal strategy should be relatively important in stressful environments (i.e. of low resource availability or harsh climate), e.g. in cold habitats. However, our understanding of the distribution pattern of clonality along environmental gradients is still far from universal. The weakness and inconsistency of overall clonality-climate relationships across taxa, as reported in previous studies, may be due to different phylogenetic lineages having fundamental differences in functional traits other than clonality determining their climate response. Thus, in this study we compared the clonality-climate relationships along a latitudinal gradient within and between different lineages at several taxonomic levels, including four major angiosperm lineages (Magnoliidae, Monocotyledoneae, Superrosidae and Superasteridae), orders and families. To this aim we used a species clonality dataset for 4015 vascular plant species in 545 terrestrial communities across China. Our results revealed clear predictive patterns of clonality proportion in relation to environmental gradients for the predominant representatives of each of the taxonomic levels above, but the relationships differed in shape and strength between the 4 major angiosperm lineages, between the 12 orders and between the 12 families. These different relationships canceled out one another when all lineages at a certain taxonomic level were pooled. Our findings highlight the importance of explicitly accounting for the functional or taxonomic scale for studying variation in plant ecological strategy across environmental gradients.

  16. Positive biodiversity-productivity relationship predominant in global forests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liang, Jingjing; Crowther, Thomas W.; Picard, Nicolas; Wiser, Susan; Zhou, Mo; Alberti, Giorgio; Schulze, Ernst-Detlef; McGuire, A. David; Bozzato, Fabio; Pretzsch, Hans; de-Miguel, Sergio; Paquette, Alain; Hérault, Bruno; Scherer-Lorenzen, Michael; Barrett, Christopher B.; Glick, Henry B.; Hengeveld, Geerten M.; Nabuurs, Gert-Jan; Pfautsch, Sebastian; Viana, Helder; Vibrans, Alexander C.; Ammer, Christian; Schall, Peter; Verbyla, David; Tchebakova, Nadja; Fischer, Markus; Watson, James V.; Chen, Han Y. H.; Lei, Xiangdong; Schelhaas, Mart-Jan; Lu, Huicui; Gianelle, Damiano; Parfenova, Elena I.; Salas, Christian; Lee, Eungul; Lee, Boknam; Kim, Hyun Seok; Bruelheide, Helge; Coomes, David A.; Piotto, Daniel; Sunderland, Terry; Schmid, Bernhard; Gourlet-Fleury, Sylvie; Sonké, Bonaventure; Tavani, Rebecca; Zhu, Jun; Brandl, Susanne; Vayreda, Jordi; Kitahara, Fumiaki; Searle, Eric B.; Neldner, Victor J.; Ngugi, Michael R.; Baraloto, Christopher; Frizzera, Lorenzo; Bałazy, Radomir; Oleksyn, Jacek; Zawiła-Niedźwiecki, Tomasz; Bouriaud, Olivier; Bussotti, Filippo; Finér, Leena; Jaroszewicz, Bogdan; Jucker, Tommaso; Valladares, Fernando; Jagodzinski, Andrzej M.; Peri, Pablo L.; Gonmadje, Christelle; Marthy, William; O’Brien, Timothy; Martin, Emanuel H.; Marshall, Andrew R.; Rovero, Francesco; Bitariho, Robert; Niklaus, Pascal A.; Alvarez-Loayza, Patricia; Chamuya, Nurdin; Valencia, Renato; Mortier, Frédéric; Wortel, Verginia; Engone-Obiang, Nestor L.; Ferreira, Leandro V.; Odeke, David E.; Vasquez, Rodolfo M.; Lewis, Simon L.; Reich, Peter B.

    2016-01-01

    The biodiversity-productivity relationship (BPR) is foundational to our understanding of the global extinction crisis and its impacts on ecosystem functioning. Understanding BPR is critical for the accurate valuation and effective conservation of biodiversity. Using ground-sourced data from 777,126

  17. Relationship between speed and lateral position on curves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    Excessive speed is often cited as a primary driver factor in crashes, particularly rural two-lane crashes. It has also been suggested that speed plays a significant role in crashes on curves. : However, the relationship between speed and crashes on c...

  18. Positive Interactions and Avoidant and Anxious Representations in Relationships with Parents, Friends, and Romantic Partners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furman, Wyndol; Stephenson, J. Claire; Rhoades, Galena K.

    2013-01-01

    We examined associations between positive interactions and avoidant and anxious representations in relationships with parents, friends, and romantic partners. Two hundred adolescents completed questionnaires, observations, and attachment interviews. From a between-person perspective, those adolescents with more positive interactions overall had less avoidant representations. Within persons, more positive interactions were relative to one’s own average level in relationships, the less avoidant representations were for that type of relationship. Adolescents were less anxious about a particular type of relationship if they have positive interactions in their other types of relationships. Finally, representations were primarily predicted by interactions in the same type of relationship; interactions in other relationships contributed little. The findings underscore the importance of examining representations of particular types of relationships. PMID:26346530

  19. Familial Longevity Is Associated With Higher TSH Secretion and Strong TSH-fT3 Relationship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansen, Steffy W; Roelfsema, Ferdinand; van der Spoel, Evie

    2015-01-01

    CONTEXT: Longevity is associated with changes in circulating levels of thyroid hormone (TH) and/or TSH in animals and humans, but underlying mechanisms remain elusive. OBJECTIVE: We explored in 38 offspring of nonagenarian participants from the Leiden Longevity Study, who are enriched for longevity...... properties of TSH. The temporal relationship between TSH and free T3 at zero delay was higher in offspring (0.48 ± 0.2) compared with partners (0.26 ± 0.4) (P = .05), but the feedback and forward interplay between TSH and TH did not differ. CONCLUSIONS: Familial longevity is associated with increased basal...

  20. Lipid-rich carcinoma of the breast that is strongly positive for estrogen receptor: a case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oba T

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Takaaki Oba,1 Mayu Ono,1 Asumi Iesato,1 Toru Hanamura,1 Takayuki Watanabe,1 Tokiko Ito,1 Toshiharu Kanai,1 Kazuma Maeno,1 Ken-ichi Ito,1 Ayako Tateishi,2 Akihiko Yoshizawa,2 Fumiyoshi Takayama31Division of Breast, Endocrine and Respiratory Surgery, Department of Surgery, Shinshu University School of Medicine, Matsumoto, Nagano, 2Department of Laboratory Medicine, Shinshu University Hospital, 3Imaging Center, Ichinose Neurosurgical Hospital, Matsumoto, JapanAbstract: Lipid-rich carcinoma (LRC of the breast is a rare breast cancer variant that accounts for <1% of all breast malignancies. It has been reported that LRCs are negative for estrogen receptor. Here, we report a case of LRC of the breast that was strongly positive for estrogen receptor and treated with endocrine adjuvant therapy. A 52-year-old postmenopausal female noticed a lump in her right breast by self-examination and presented to our hospital. Physical examination revealed an elastic 30 mm ×20 mm hard mass in the upper medial part of her right breast. The findings obtained using ultrasonography, mammography, and contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging suggested breast cancer. Core needle biopsy resulted in the diagnosis of invasive carcinoma. The patient underwent mastectomy and sentinel lymph node biopsy. Histopathologically, the tumor cells were abundant in foamy cytoplasm. Because the presence of marked cytoplasmic lipid droplets was confirmed by Sudan IV staining and electron microscopic examination of the tumor and the lipid droplets were negative for periodic acid–Schiff staining, the tumor was diagnosed as an LRC. Immunohistochemically, estrogen and progesterone receptors of the tumor were strongly positive, human epidermal growth factor receptor type 2 was negative, and the ratio of Ki-67-positive cells was ~30%. After surgery, the patient underwent combination chemotherapy with anthracycline, cyclophosphamide, and 5-fluorouracil, followed by docetaxel. Thereafter

  1. Perceived stress management skill mediates the relationship between optimism and positive mood following radical prostatectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penedo, Frank J; Dahn, Jason R; Gonzalez, Jeffrey S; Molton, Ivan; Carver, Charles S; Antoni, Michael H; Roos, Bernard A; Schneiderman, Neil

    2003-03-01

    This study evaluated relations among optimism, perceived stress management skills (PSMS),and positive mood in 46 men who had surgical treatment for localized prostate cancer. The authors found that optimism, PSMS, and positive mood scores were positively correlated. Positive mood was unrelated to demographic and disease-related control variables. In a hierarchical regression model controlling for PSMS, the relationship between optimism and positive mood became nonsignificant, whereas PSMS remained a correlate of positive mood. Results suggest that the relationship between optimism and positive mood may be mediated by belief in being able to use stress management techniques effectively.

  2. Strong relationship between DMS and the solar radiation dose over the global surface ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallina, Sergio M; Simó, Rafel

    2007-01-26

    Marine biogenic dimethylsulfide (DMS) is the main natural source of tropospheric sulfur, which may play a key role in cloud formation and albedo over the remote ocean. Through a global data analysis, we found that DMS concentrations are highly positively correlated with the solar radiation dose in the upper mixed layer of the open ocean, irrespective of latitude, plankton biomass, or temperature. This is a necessary condition for the feasibility of a negative feedback in which light-attenuating DMS emissions are in turn driven by the light dose received by the pelagic ecosystem.

  3. Positive relationship between citrus leaf miner and alternaria brown spot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Alves de Azevedo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Alternaria brown spot, or ABS (Alternaria alternata, is the most prevalent fungal disease of tangerines in the world. Field observations have revealed ABS lesions on leaves wounded by the citrus leaf miner (CLM. Thus, the objective of this study was to assess the relationship between CLM and ABS. Leaves from young Murcott tangor plants and detached leaves from 16 different varieties of tangerines with and without lesions caused by CLM were inoculated with A. alternata. The symptoms of the plants were subsequently quantified by counting the number of lesions, and the lesion area was estimated using a diagrammatic scale. The presence of CLM damage aggravates the severity of Alternaria alternata fungus infections in susceptible tangerine varieties.

  4. The relationship between benign paroxysmal positional vertigo and thyroid autoimmunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sari, Kamran; Yildirim, Tekin; Borekci, Hasan; Akin, Ibrahim; Aydin, Reha; Ozkiris, Mahmut

    2015-08-01

    Although there have been few studies concerning BPPV and thyroid autoimmunity and a positive relation was found between them, this study didn't find any relation between BPPV and thyroid autoimmunity. IT is thought that further large-scale studies must be done to clarify the relation. Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) consists of ∼ 20% of vestibular disorders. Self-limited rotatory nystagmus with positional vertigo are the main findings of BPPV. Although canalolithiasis theory was confirmed by demonstrating freely floating debris in the endolymph of the posterior semicircular channel in following studies, currently, the etiology hasn't been explained totally. This study investigated the relation of BPPV and thyroid autoimmunity evaluated via measurement of serum thyroid autoantibodies. Fifty patients (37 female, 13 male) with BPPV (BPPV group), 52 patients (40 female, 12 male) with non-BPPV vertigo (non-BPPV group) and 60 otherwise normal control (38 female, 22 male) samples were enrolled in the study. All samples of BPPV, non-BPPV groups and controls had undergone a cochleovestibular test following thorough ENT examination. After blood samples were drawn from each subject, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), anti-thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPO-Ab) and anti-thyroglobulin antibody (TG-Ab) levels were measured accordingly. In the study, eight patients of the BPPV group (16%) had a high thyroid antibody level. In the non-BPPV group, six patients (11.5%) had elevated thyroid antibodies. In the control group, 15 patients (25%) had elevated thyroid antibodies. TSH values of all subjects were detected to be within normal range. No statistical difference was found between the groups with respect to TG-Ab and TPO-Ab values (p-values = 0.729 and 0.812, respectively).

  5. Cognitive Engagement Mediates the Relationship between Positive Life Events and Positive Emotionality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Strobel

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Need for Cognition (NFC is conceptualized as an individuals’ tendency to engage in and enjoy effortful cognitive activity and, thus, captures one’s cognitive engagement. It plays a well-established role in information processing in experimental or academic contexts. However, so far comparably little is known about its consequences for other than purely cognitive or academic outcomes. Indeed, NFC is positively associated with personality traits pertaining to Positive Emotionality (PE and negatively to traits related to Negative Emotionality (NE. Moreover, evidence suggests NFC to be related to an active, problem-focused coping style. We therefore hypothesized NFC to mediate between life events and individual differences in PE and NE. In a sample of N = 202 volunteers from the general population, we observed that the number of past positive and negative life events had direct effects on PE, and NE, respectively, and that for positive life events, a mediating effect on PE via NFC was observed, with a higher number of past positive life events being related to higher NFC that in turn was related to increased PE. Thus, the present results lend support to the notion of NFC as an important factor supporting personal well-being by way of its mediating role between the number of past positive life events and positive affect.

  6. Earthquake clustering in modern seismicity and its relationship with strong historical earthquakes around Beijing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian; Main, Ian G.; Musson, Roger M. W.

    2017-11-01

    Beijing, China's capital city, is located in a typical intraplate seismic belt, with relatively high-quality instrumental catalogue data available since 1970. The Chinese historical earthquake catalogue contains six strong historical earthquakes of Ms ≥ 6 around Beijing, the earliest in 294 AD. This poses a significant potential hazard to one of the most densely populated and economically active parts of China. In some intraplate areas, persistent clusters of events associated with historical events can occur over centuries, for example, the ongoing sequence in the New Madrid zone of the eastern US. Here we will examine the evidence for such persistent clusters around Beijing. We introduce a metric known as the `seismic density index' that quantifies the degree of clustering of seismic energy release. For a given map location, this multi-dimensional index depends on the number of events, their magnitudes, and the distances to the locations of the surrounding population of earthquakes. We apply the index to modern instrumental catalogue data between 1970 and 2014, and identify six clear candidate zones. We then compare these locations to earthquake epicentre and seismic intensity data for the six largest historical earthquakes. Each candidate zone contains one of the six historical events, and the location of peak intensity is within 5 km or so of the reported epicentre in five of these cases. In one case—the great Ms 8 earthquake of 1679—the peak is closer to the area of strongest shaking (Intensity XI or more) than the reported epicentre. The present-day event rates are similar to those predicted by the modified Omori law but there is no evidence of ongoing decay in event rates. Accordingly, the index is more likely to be picking out the location of persistent weaknesses in the lithosphere. Our results imply zones of high seismic density index could be used in principle to indicate the location of unrecorded historical of palaeoseismic events, in China and

  7. The relationship between the incisor position and lingual surface morphology in normal occlusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Yuh; Ezura, Akira; Nomintsetseg, Batbayar

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the relationship between the morphological characteristics of maxillary incisors and the anterior occlusion. The study materials comprised dental casts and lateral cephalograms of 26 modern Mongolian females with Angle Class I normal occlusion (mean age, 21 years 5 months). Computed tomography (CT) images of the dental casts were taken with an X-ray micro-CT system (SMX-100CT, Shimadzu, Kyoto Japan). The thickness of the marginal ridges and incisal edges, and the overjet and overbite, was measured on the three-dimensional images of the dental casts. On the lateral cephalogram, maxillary incisor to sella-nasion plane angle (U1 to SN angle), maxillary incisor to nasion-point A plane distance (U1 to NA distance), mandibular incisor to nasion-point B plane distance (L1 to NB distance), incisor mandibular plane angle, and interincisal angle were measured by tracing the left incisors of the maxilla and mandible. Spearman's single rank correlation coefficients were used to investigate any correlation between measurement items for each maxillary incisor. The thickness of the marginal ridges and incisal edges was positively correlated with the overbite. The thickness of the incisal edges was positively correlated with the irregularity index of the maxilla. There were significant negative correlations between overbite and U1 to SN angle, U1 to NA distance, and L1 to NB distance. Significant positive correlations were noted between the overbite and the overjet. In conclusion, there was no strong relationship between the morphological characteristics of maxillary incisors and the anterior occlusion.

  8. Exploring the role nurses play at different stages of the birthing process. Developing strong and long-term relationships with women by examining relationship-building stages prior to delivery, during delivery, and after delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltier, J W; Schibrowski, J A; Westfall, J

    2000-01-01

    The health care community is becoming increasingly aware of the need to develop strong and long-term relationships with the women who make up the majority of the health care market. The perceived quality of obstetric care positively impacts future revenue streams by creating "family" loyalty for an umbrella of other health services offered by the provider organization. This article examines the differential impact that various service performance dimensions have on women's perceptions of quality for different stages of the birthing process, and how relationship-marketing principles can be utilized to develop loyal partnerships. The three distinct relationship-building stages are examined--birthing experiences prior to delivery, during delivery, and after delivery--along with their implications for perceptions of quality analyzed.

  9. [Relationship between the prone position and achieving head control at 3 months].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Machado, J L; Rodríguez-Fuentes, G

    2013-10-01

    Owing to the significant increase of mild motor delays and the strong intolerance of infants to be placed on prone position observed in the Physiotherapy Unit of the Maternal and Children's University Hospital of the Canaries (HUMIC), a study was conducted to determine whether positioning infants in the prone position while awake affected the achievement and quality of head control at three months. A prospective comparative practice-based study of a representative sample of 67 healthy infants born in the HUMIC, and divided into an experimental group (n = 35) and control group (n = 32). The Alberta Infant Motor Scale (AIMS) and a parent questionnaire were used as measurement tools. The intervention consisted of regular home visits to the experimental group (from the first to the third month). The two groups were evaluated in their homes at the end of 3 months. The differences in mean raw score of the AIMS at 3 months were, 16.26 in the experimental group and 10.38 in control group (P<.001). The percentile mean was 94 in the experimental group, and less than 50 (42) in the control group. All of the experimental group babies achieved the head control, with only 8 in the control group (25%). The significant findings suggest a direct relationship between the time spent in the prone position when the baby is awake and the achievement of head control at three months. Copyright © 2012 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  10. Strong positive effects of termites on savanna bird abundance and diversity are amplified by large herbivore exclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moe, Stein R; Eldegard, Katrine; Rannestad, Ole Tobias; Okullo, Paul; Lindtjørn, Ommund; Støen, Ole Gunnar; Dale, Svein

    2017-12-01

    Vast areas of the African savanna landscapes are characterized by tree-covered Macrotermes termite mounds embedded within a relatively open savanna matrix. In concert with termites, large herbivores are important determinants of savanna woody vegetation cover. The relative cover of woody species has considerable effects on savanna function. Despite the potentially important ecological relationships between termite mounds, woody plants, large herbivores, and birds, these associations have previously received surprisingly little attention. We experimentally studied the effects of termites and large herbivores on the avian community in Lake Mburo National Park, Uganda, where woody vegetation is essentially limited to termite mounds. Our experiment comprised of four treatments in nine replicates; unfenced termite mounds, fenced mounds (excluding large mammals), unfenced adjacent savanna, and fenced savanna. We recorded species identity, abundance, and behavior of all birds observed on these plots over a two-month period, from late dry until wet season. Birds used termite mounds almost exclusively, with only 3.5% of observations occurring in the treeless intermound savanna matrix. Mean abundance and species richness of birds doubled on fenced (large herbivores excluded) compared to unfenced mounds. Feeding behavior increased when large mammals were excluded from mounds, both in absolute number of observed individuals, and relative to other behaviors. This study documents the fundamental positive impact of Macrotermes termites on bird abundance and diversity in an African savanna. Birds play crucial functional roles in savanna ecosystems, for example, by dispersing fruits or regulating herbivorous insect populations. Thus, the role of birds in savanna dynamics depends on the distribution and abundance of termite mounds.

  11. The relationship between 19th century BMIs and family size: Economies of scale and positive externalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, Scott Alan

    2015-04-01

    The use of body mass index values (BMI) to measure living standards is now a well-accepted method in economics. Nevertheless, a neglected area in historical studies is the relationship between 19th century BMI and family size, and this relationship is documented here to be positive. Material inequality and BMI are the subject of considerable debate, and there was a positive relationship between BMI and wealth and an inverse relationship with inequality. After controlling for family size and wealth, BMI values were related with occupations, and farmers and laborers had greater BMI values than workers in other occupations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  12. Positive and Negative Relationship between Anxiety and Depression of Patients in Pain: A Bifactor Model Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    li, Wen; Shang, Wen; Yan, Ming; Miao, Danmin; Zhang, Huiming

    2012-01-01

    Background The relationship between anxiety and depression in pain patients has not been clarified comprehensively. Previous research has identified a common factor in anxiety and depression, which may explain why depression and anxiety are strongly correlated. However, the specific clinical features of anxiety and depression seem to pull in opposite directions. Objective The purpose of this study is to develop a statistical model of depression and anxiety, based on data from pain patients using Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). This model should account for the positive correlation between depression and anxiety in terms of a general factor and also demonstrate a latent negative correlation between the specific factors underlying depression and anxiety. Methods The anxiety and depression symptoms of pain patients were evaluated using the HADS and the severity of their pain was assessed with the visual analogue scale (VAS). We developed a hierarchical model of the data using an IRT method called bifactor analysis. In addition, we tested this hierarchical model with model fit comparisons with unidimensional, bidimensional, and tridimensional models. The correlations among anxiety, depression, and pain severity were compared, based on both the bidimensional model and our hierarchical model. Results The bidimensional model analysis found that there was a large positive correlation between anxiety and depression (r = 0.638), and both scores were significantly positively correlated with pain severity. After extracting general factor of distress using bifactor analysis, the specific factors underlying anxiety and depression were weakly but significantly negatively correlated (r = −0.245) and only the general factor was significantly correlated with pain severity. Compared with the three first-order models, the bifactor hierarchical model had the best model fit. Conclusion Our results support the hypothesis that apart from distress, anxiety and

  13. The Relationship Between Trust-in-God, Positive and Negative Affect, and Hope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadardi, Javad S; Azadi, Zeinab

    2017-06-01

    We aimed to test the relationships between Trust-in-God, positive and negative affect, and feelings of hope. A sample of university students (N = 282, 50 % female) completed the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule, the Adult Dispositional Hope Scale, and a Persian measure of Trust-in-God for Muslims. The results of a series of hierarchical regression analyses indicated that Trust-in-God was positively associated with participants' scores for hope and positive affect but was negatively associated with their scores for negative affect. The results support the relationship between Trust-in-God and indices of mental health.

  14. The Relationship between Teacher Stress and Burnout in Hong Kong: Positive Humour and Gender as Moderators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Sammy K.

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we report on the relationship between positive humour and burnout among 379 secondary school teachers in Hong Kong, and explore whether the relationship varies according to gender. The moderating effects of both affiliative and self-enhancing humour on each burnout component were then examined. High affiliative and self-enhancing…

  15. Children's Attachment Relationships with Day Care Caregivers: Associations with Positive Caregiving and the Child's Temperament

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Schipper, J. Clasien; Tavecchio, Louis W. C.; Van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.

    2008-01-01

    In this study, children's attachment relationships with their professional caregivers in center day care were observed for 48 children. We explored whether more positive caregiving was associated with a more secure attachment relationship and whether this association was stronger for more temperamentally irritable children compared to less…

  16. Positive and Negative Emotions and Coping as Mediators of Mother-Child Attachment and Peer Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Michelle M.; Kerns, Kathryn A.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined whether emotions and coping explain (mediate) the association between mother-child attachment and peer relationships. Attachment, positive and negative emotion experience, coping, and peer relationships were examined in 106 fourth-grade through sixth-grade girls attending a 6-day residential camp. Attachment, experience of…

  17. 77 FR 45282 - NRC Position on the Relationship Between General Design Criteria and Technical Specification...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-31

    ... Position on the Relationship Between General Design Criteria and Technical Specification Operability AGENCY... relationship between the general design criteria (GDC) for nuclear power plants and technical specification... Communications Branch, Division of Policy and Rulemaking, Office Nuclear Reactor Regulation, Mail Stop: OWFN-12-D...

  18. Strong Relationship between Irreversibility Field and Crystallinity Discovered in Undoped and Carbon Substituted MgB2 Bulks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Akiyasu; Shimoyama, Jun-ichi; Ueda, Shinya; Iwayama, Isao; Katsura, Yukari; Horii, Shigeru; Kishio, Kohji

    2006-01-01

    The relationship between irreversibility field, H irr , and crystallinity of MgB 2 bulks including SiC or B 4 C doped samples was studied. Among the XRD peaks of MgB 2 , the FWHM of (110) reflection corresponding to the in-plane disorder was strongly dependent on the samples and H irr was found to be systematically increased with an increase of the FWHM of MgB 2 (110) peak. Enhanced intra-band scattering and strengthened grain boundary flux pinning are suggested to contribute to the excellent H irr characteristics. On the other hand, weak correlation between H irr and FWHM of (002) peak was confirmed. These mean that introduction of disorders into the ab-plane, i.e., distortion in honeycomb boron sheet, is essentially effective to enhance H irr

  19. Authoritarian parenting attitudes and social origin: The multigenerational relationship of socioeconomic position to childrearing values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedson, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Support for authoritarian approaches to parenting, including corporal punishment, is known to be elevated among individuals with low current levels of socioeconomic attainment. The objectives of this study are: (1) to determine whether authoritarian parenting dispositions are related to disadvantages in one's social background, in addition to one's present socioeconomic standing; and (2) to distinguish, in this regard, between support for spanking and other authoritarian parenting dispositions. Ordered logit models, applied to General Social Survey data concerning a nationally representative sample of US adults, are used to examine relationships of authoritarian parenting dispositions to the socioeconomic positions that respondents currently occupy and in which they were raised. It is found that support for spanking (N=10,725) and valuing of obedience (N=10,043) are inversely related to the socioeconomic status (SES) of one's family of origin, and that these associations are robust to controls for one's current SES. A disadvantaged family background is found to increase support for spanking most among those with high current SES. Strong associations (robust to controls for SES indicators) are additionally found between African-American racial identity and support for authoritarian parenting. Prior research indicates that authoritarian parenting practices such as spanking may be harmful to children. Thus, if the parenting attitudes analyzed here translate into parenting practices, then this study's findings may point to a mechanism for the intergenerational transmission of disadvantages. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Perceived relationship with God fosters positive body image in college women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homan, Kristin J; Cavanaugh, Brianna N

    2013-12-01

    Positive body image is defined as healthy body-related attitudes that go beyond the absence of distressful symptoms. A warm and secure relationship with an important other person has been linked with attitudes of acceptance and appreciation toward one's body as well as adaptive eating patterns. This study tested whether a warm and secure relationship with God was similarly related to positive body image. Undergraduate women completed self-report measures of religiosity, life satisfaction, body appreciation, body acceptance by others, functional orientation, and intuitive eating. Multiple regression analyses showed that relationship with God contributed variance to most of the well-being variables.

  1. Perceived Positive Aspects of Intimate Relationships among Abused Women in Methadone Maintenance Treatment Programs (MMTP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiff, Miriam; Gilbert, Louisa; El-Bassel, Nabila

    2006-01-01

    This study examines the positive aspects of intimate relationships perceived by drug-involved women victims of intimate partner violence (IPV). The article examines the association of psychological distress, childhood abuse, and severity of IPV with the different positive aspects the women indicated. Most analyses were conducted on a subsample of…

  2. Positive Illusions in Adolescents: The Relationship between Academic Self-Enhancement and Depressive Symptomatology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, Rick N.; Heath, Nancy L.; Toste, Jessica R.

    2011-01-01

    Positive illusions are systematically inflated self-perceptions of competence, and are frequently seen in areas of great difficulty. Although these illusions have been extensively documented in children and adults, their role in typical adolescent emotion regulation is unclear. This study investigated the relationship between positive illusions,…

  3. Australian Adolescents' Extracurricular Activity Participation and Positive Development: Is the Relationship Mediated by Peer Attributes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blomfield, Corey; Barber, Bonnie

    2010-01-01

    Adolescent participation in extracurricular activities is associated with numerous positive outcomes, yet the mechanisms underlying this relationship are largely unknown. This study had two goals: to investigate the association between participation in extracurricular activities and indicators of positive and negative development for Australian…

  4. Distress Severity Following a Romantic Breakup is Associated with Positive Relationship Memories among Emerging Adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    del Palacio Gonzalez, Adriana; Clark, David; O'Sullivan, Lucia

    2017-01-01

    Romantic relationship loss is associated with significant psychological distress for emerging adults. Intrusive memories of stressful events are typically associated with symptom severity; however, whether spontaneous positive memories of a relationship breakup may also be related to psychological...... symptoms has received little attention. We examined links between breakup-specific distress, depressive symptoms, and relationship memories of different valence. Ninety-one emerging adults (Mage = 20.13) who had experienced a recent romantic breakup recorded the frequency of positive and negative...... spontaneous relationship memories in a four-day online memory diary. Control memories were also recorded. Positive memories were specifically related to breakup distress, whereas negative memories were related to both breakup distress and depression. No such associations were found for the control memories...

  5. Positivity and job burnout in emergency personnel: examining linear and curvilinear relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basińska Beata Aleksandra

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine whether the relationship between the ratio of job-related positive to negative emotions (positivity ratio and job burnout is best described as linear or curvilinear. Participants were 89 police officers (12% women and 86 firefighters. The positivity ratio was evaluated using the Job-related Affective Wellbeing Scale (Van Katwyk, Fox, Spector, & Kelloway, 2000. Exhaustion and disengagement, two components of job burnout, were measured using the Oldenburg Burnout Inventory (Demerouti, Mostert, & Bakker, 2010. The results of regression analysis revealed that curvilinear relationships between the positivity ratio and two components of job burnout appeared to better fit the data than linear relationships. The relationship between the positivity ratio and exhaustion was curvilinear with a curve point at around 2.1. A similar curvilinear relationship, but with a lower curve point, i.e., around 1.8, was observed for disengagement. It seems that beyond certain values there may be hidden costs of maintaining positive emotions at work. Also, the unequal curve points for subscales suggest that different dimensions of work-related functioning are variously prone to such costs.

  6. What's the confusion about fusion?--differentiating positive and negative closeness in lesbian relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackbar, Salma; Senn, Charlene Y

    2010-10-01

    This study differentiated between closeness and fusion in lesbian relationships, and examined whether age, adult attachment style, social support, outness, and relationship satisfaction were associated with these variables. Participants consisted of 77 women in long-term, lesbian relationships. Overall, women who reported showing greater closeness toward their partners were more satisfied in their relationships. Age and attachment style were better predictors of closeness and fusion than were social support and outness. The theoretical implications of these findings are discussed. Findings highlight the need for therapists to distinguish between positive and negative types of closeness in lesbian relationships, and avoid pathologizing high levels of closeness in lesbian relationships simply because they may deviate from a heterosexual norm. © 2010 American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy.

  7. Characterization of nonlymphoid cells in rat spleen, with special reference to strongly Ia-positive branched cells in T-cell areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dijkstra, C.D.

    1982-01-01

    By use of a monoclonal antibody against Ia antigen in an immunoperoxidase method, strongly Ia-positive branched cells are found in the T-cell areas of the splenic white pulp of the rat. In order to further characterize these cells, enzyme histochemical characteristics, phagocytic capacity, and irradiation sensitivity have been studied. Evidence is presented that these strongly Ia-positive branched cells represent interdigitating cells. The influence of whole-body irradiation on interdigitating cells is discussed. Comparison with data from the literature on the in vitro dendritic cell isolated from spleen cell suspensions reveals many similarities between the described interdigitating cell in vivo and the dendritic cell in vitro

  8. Strong positive effects of termites on savanna bird abundance and diversity are amplified by large herbivore exclusion

    OpenAIRE

    Moe, Stein R.; Eldegard, Katrine; Rannestad, Ole Tobias; Okullo, Paul; Lindtjørn, Ommund; Støen, Ole Gunnar; Dale, Svein

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Vast areas of the African savanna landscapes are characterized by tree‐covered Macrotermes termite mounds embedded within a relatively open savanna matrix. In concert with termites, large herbivores are important determinants of savanna woody vegetation cover. The relative cover of woody species has considerable effects on savanna function. Despite the potentially important ecological relationships between termite mounds, woody plants, large herbivores, and birds, these associations ...

  9. Using nurse managers' perceptions to guide new graduates toward positive nurse relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Linda Weaver; Sublett, Cynthia; Leahy, Cathy; Bradley, Jennifer M

    One of the greatest challenges new graduates confront when transitioning to practice is establishing positive relationships with experienced nurses. Nursing faculty must prepare graduates for this challenge. However, nursing faculty are often removed from everyday practice and must rely on the perceptions of those entrenched in practice in order to ground teaching endeavors in authenticity. Nurse managers are well positioned to provide knowledgeable insights to nursing faculty regarding nurse relationships. The purpose of this qualitative, descriptive study was to explore nurse managers' perceptions regarding new graduates' relationships with more experienced nurses. Researcher-participant audiotaped interviews were conducted with 13 nurse managers. A content analysis revealed that all participants believed nurse relationships were significant, that factors such as perceived inequities and stressful occurrences triggered poor relationships, that new graduates were often targeted for negative relationships, and that reasons for targeting of new graduates included prolonged dependence on experienced nurses and either over or under confidence of the new graduate. Providing a supportive, protective environment and hiring practices that promote team unity were posed as strategies that could help to prevent targeting of new graduates. Findings provide real-life, practice based information that can underpin nurse educators' teaching regarding nurse relationships and relationship building. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Energized by love: thinking about romantic relationships increases positive affect and blood glucose levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, Sarah C E; Campbell, Lorne; Loving, Timothy J

    2014-10-01

    We assessed the impact of thinking of a current romantic partner on acute blood glucose responses and positive affect over a short period of time. Participants in romantic relationships were randomly assigned to reflect on their partner, an opposite-sex friend, or their morning routine. Blood glucose levels were assessed prior to reflection, as well as at 10 and 25 min postreflection. Results revealed that individuals in the routine and friend conditions exhibited a decline in glucose over time, whereas individuals in the partner condition did not exhibit this decline (rather, a slight increase) in glucose over time. Reported positive affect following reflection was positively associated with increases in glucose, but only for individuals who reflected on their partner, suggesting this physiological response reflects eustress. These findings add to the literature on eustress in relationships and have implications for relationship processes. Copyright © 2014 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  11. The positives of negative emotions: willingness to express negative emotions promotes relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Steven M; Huang, Julie Y; Clark, Margaret S; Helgeson, Vicki S

    2008-03-01

    Four studies support the hypothesis that expressing negative emotion is associated with positive relationship outcomes, including elicitation of support, building of new close relationships, and heightening of intimacy in the closest of those relationships. In Study 1, participants read vignettes in which another person was experiencing a negative emotion. Participants reported they would provide more help when the person chose to express the negative emotion. In Study 2, participants watched a confederate preparing for a speech. Participants provided more help to her when she expressed nervousness. In Study 3, self-reports of willingness to express negative emotions predicted having more friends, controlling for demographic variables and extraversion. In Study 4, self-reports of willingness to express negative emotion measured prior to arrival at college predicted formation of more relationships, greater intimacy in the closest of those relationships, and greater received support from roommates across participants' first semester of college.

  12. Personality correlates of positive identity and relationship involvement in gay men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, J P; Kurdek, L A

    1987-01-01

    Six personality variables (social anxiety, trait anxiety, locus of control, sensitization, depression, and self concept) were correlated with variables relevant to a positive gay identity (degree of communication about sexual preference and degree of comfort being gay) and to relationship involvement (being in a gay relationship, number of months in a gay relationship, and living with a partner) in a volunteer, nonclinical sample of 51 gay males. Men who informed others of their sexual preference were low on trait anxiety, sensitization, and depression and high on self concept. Men comfortable with their gay identity were low on social anxiety, sensitization, and depression and high on self concept. Men involved in long-term relationships were low in trait anxiety, had an internal locus of control, and were low in depression. Men living with a partner had a higher self concept than men not living with a partner. Results are discussed in terms of previous studies of gay male relationships.

  13. Positive academic emotions moderate the relationship between self-regulation and academic achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villavicencio, Felicidad T; Bernardo, Allan B I

    2013-06-01

    Research has shown how academic emotions are related to achievement and to cognitive/motivational variables that promote achievement. Mediated models have been proposed to account for the relationships among academic emotions, cognitive/motivational variables, and achievement, and research has supported such mediated models, particularly with negative emotions. The study tested the hypotheses: (1) self-regulation and the positive academic emotions of enjoyment and pride are positive predictors of achievement; and (2) enjoyment and pride both moderate the relationship between self-regulation and achievement. Participants were 1,345 students enrolled in various trigonometry classes in one university. Participants answered the Academic Emotions Questionnaire-Math (Pekrun, Goetz, & Frenzel, 2005) and a self-regulation scale (Pintrich, Smith, Garcia, & McKeachie, 1991) halfway through their trigonometry class. The students' final grades in the course were regressed to self-regulation, positive emotions, and the interaction terms to test the moderation effects. Enjoyment and pride were both positive predictors of grades; more importantly, both moderated the relationship between self-regulation and grades. For students who report higher levels of both positive emotions, self-regulation was positively associated with grades. However, for those who report lower levels of pride, self-regulation was not related to grades; and, for those who reported lower levels of enjoyment, self-regulation was negatively related to grades. The results are discussed in terms of how positive emotions indicate positive appraisals of task/outcome value, and thus enhance the positive links between cognitive/motivational variables and learning. ©2012 The British Psychological Society.

  14. Evaluation of DNA typing as a positive identification method for soft and hard tissues immersed in strong acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robino, C; Pazzi, M; Di Vella, G; Martinelli, D; Mazzola, L; Ricci, U; Testi, R; Vincenti, M

    2015-11-01

    Identification of human remains can be hindered by several factors (e.g., traumatic mutilation, carbonization or decomposition). Moreover, in some criminal cases, offenders may purposely adopt various expedients to thwart the victim's identification, including the dissolution of body tissues by the use of corrosive reagents, as repeatedly reported in the past for Mafia-related murders. By means of an animal model, namely porcine samples, we evaluated standard DNA typing as a method for identifying soft (muscle) and hard (bone and teeth) tissues immersed in strong acids (hydrochloric, nitric and sulfuric acid) or in mixtures of acids (aqua regia). Samples were tested at different time intervals, ranging between 2 and 6h (soft tissues) and 2-28 days (hard tissues). It was shown that, in every type of acid, complete degradation of the DNA extracted from soft tissues preceded tissue dissolution and could be observed within 4h of immersion. Conversely, high molecular weight DNA amenable to STR analysis could be isolated from hard tissues as long as cortical bone fragments were still present (28 days for sulfuric acid, 7 days for nitric acid, 2 days for hydrochloric acid and aqua regia), or the integrity of the dental pulp chamber was preserved (7 days, in sulfuric acid only). The results indicate that DNA profiling of acid-treated body parts (in particular, cortical bone) is still feasible at advanced stages of corrosion, even when the morphological methods used in forensic anthropology and odontology can no longer be applied for identification purposes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The Relationships between Positive Thinking Skills, Academic Locus of Control and Grit in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çelik, Ismail; Sariçam, Hakan

    2018-01-01

    The main purpose of this study is to examine the possible relationships between academic locus of control, positive thinking skills and grit in high school students. The participants of the research are composed of 288 adolescents continuing their high school education from 4 different schools in Agri, Turkey, which were selected with convenient…

  16. Effects of Parent-Child Relationship on the Primary School Children's Non-Violence Position Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valeeva, Roza A.; Kalimullin, Aydar M.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the research was to identify and test experimentally the impact of parent-child relationship on the formation of the primary school children non-violence position. During the research the effectiveness of the correctional and development program "Together with my mom" was verified to promote parent-child interaction, as well…

  17. Testing Theoretical Relationships: Factors Influencing Positive Health Practices (PHP) in Filipino College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayres, Cynthia; Mahat, Ganga; Atkins, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To examine variables influencing the positive health practices (PHP) of Filipino college students to gain a better understanding of health practices in this ethnic/racial group. Cross-sectional study tested theoretical relationships postulated among (a) PHP, (b) social support (SS), (c) optimism, and (d) acculturation. Participants: A…

  18. Marital History and the Prior Relationship as Predictors of Positive and Negative Outcomes among Wife Caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Betty J.

    1993-01-01

    Investigated interpersonal vulnerability variables (marital history and quality of relationship prior to onset of Alzheimer's disease), caregiver resources, and appraisals of stressors as predictors of positive and negative outcomes among 72 wife caregivers. All variables were significant predictors of depression and quality of life even after…

  19. Analyzing the Relationship between Positive Psychological Capital and Organizational Commitment of the Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalcin, Sinan

    2016-01-01

    In this study it was aimed to determine the relationship between teachers' positive psychological capital levels and organisational commitment. The study was conducted as a correlational survey which is one of the quantitative methods. The sample group consists of 244 teachers selected by using random sampling method among 1270 teachers working in…

  20. The Relationship between Principal Leadership Skills and School-Wide Positive Behavior Support: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Mary Miller; Lewis, Timothy J.; Hagar, John

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated key principal leadership skills associated with socially proactive school environments and examined the relationship between School-Wide Positive Behavior Support (SWPBS) implementation and increased evidence of those skills. Findings indicated the following: (a) certified staff members and principals from all schools rated…

  1. Investigating the Relationship among Internet Addiction, Positive and Negative Affects, and Life Satisfaction in Turkish Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telef, Bülent Baki

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the relationships between Internet addiction and the areas of life satisfaction and positive or negative affects in Turkish adolescents. The research sample comprised 358 students studying in the sixth, seventh and eighth grades at four different middle schools in Canakkale city centre during the 2012-2013 academic year, of…

  2. Positive teacher–student relationships go beyond the classroom, problematic ones stay inside

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. A. Claessens, Luce; van Tartwijk, Jan; C. van der Want, Anna; Pennings, Heleen; Verloop, Nico; J. den Brok, Perry; Wubbels, Theo

    2017-01-01

    The authors voice teachers' perceptions of their interpersonal experiences with students in both positive and problematic relationships. Interview data from 28 teachers were examined by coding utterances on teacher and student interactions. Results indicate that teachers defined the quality of the

  3. Positive Peer Relationships and Risk of Victimization in Chinese and South Korean Children's Peer Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou-ezzeddine, Tania; Schwartz, David; Chang, Lei; Lee-Shin, Yoolim; Farver, JoAnn; Xu, Yiyuan

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the moderating role of positive peer relationships in the relation between behavioral or academic risk factors and victimization in Asian children's peer groups. We recruited 296 children (161 boys, 135 girls) from Tianjin, China (mean age of 11.5 years) and 122 children (66 boys, 56 girls) from Seoul, South Korea (approximate…

  4. Physical activity and motor competence present a positive reciprocal longitudinal relationship across childhood and early adolescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lima, Rodrigo A.; Pfeiffer, Karin; Larsen, Lisbeth R.

    2017-01-01

    Background: The current study evaluated the reciprocal longitudinal relationship between physical activity (PA) and motor competence (MC) and the potential mediation of cardiorespiratory endurance across 7 years. Methods: This was a 7-year longitudinal study, the Copenhagen School Child Intervent...... adolescence and VOadolescents should also address the development of MC skills because of the clear positive feedback loop between PA and MC....

  5. Vegetation heterogeneity and landscape position exert strong controls on soil CO2 efflux in a moist, Appalachian watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkins, J. W.; Epstein, H. E.; Welsch, D. L.

    2014-12-01

    In topographically complex watersheds, landscape position and vegetation heterogeneity can alter the soil water regime through both lateral and vertical redistribution, respectively. These alterations of soil moisture may have significant impacts on the spatial heterogeneity of biogeochemical cycles throughout the watershed. To evaluate how landscape position and vegetation heterogeneity affect soil CO2 efflux (FSOIL) we conducted observations across the Weimer Run watershed (373 ha), located near Davis, West Virginia, for three growing seasons with varying precipitation (2010 - 1042 mm; 2011 - 1739 mm; 2012 - 1244 mm; precipitation data from BDKW2 station, MesoWest, University of Utah). An apparent soil temperature threshold of 11 °C at 12 cm depth on FSOIL was observed in our data - where FSOIL rates greatly increase in variance above this threshold. For analysis, FSOIL values above this threshold were isolated and examined. Differences in FSOIL among years were apparent by elevation (F4,633 = 3.17; p = 0.013) and by vegetation cover (F4, 633 = 2.96; p = 0.019). For the Weimer Run watershed, vegetation exerts the major control on soil CO2 efflux (FSOIL), with the plots beneath shrubs at all elevations for all years showing the greatest mean rates of FSOIL (6.07 μmol CO2 m-2 s-1) compared to plots beneath closed-forest canopy (4.69 μmol CO2 m-2 s-1) and plots located in open, forest gaps (4.09 μmol CO2 m-2 s-1) plots. During periods of high soil moisture, we find that CO2 efflux rates are constrained and that maximum efflux rates in this system occur during periods of average to below average soil water availability. These findings offer valuable insight into the processes occurring within these topographically complex, temperate and humid systems, and the interactions of abiotic and biotic factors mediating biogeochemical cycles. With possible changing rainfall patterns as predicted by climate models, it is important to understand the couplings between water

  6. Researcher–researched relationship in qualitative research: Shifts in positions and researcher vulnerability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Råheim, Målfrid; Magnussen, Liv Heide; Sekse, Ragnhild Johanne Tveit; Lunde, Åshild; Jacobsen, Torild; Blystad, Astrid

    2016-01-01

    Background The researcher role is highly debated in qualitative research. This article concerns the researcher-researched relationship. Methods A group of health science researchers anchored in various qualitative research traditions gathered in reflective group discussions over a period of two years. Results Efforts to establish an anti-authoritarian relationship between researcher and researched, negotiation of who actually “rules” the research agenda, and experiences of shifts in “inferior” and “superior” knowledge positions emerged as central and intertwined themes throughout the discussions. The dual role as both insider and outsider, characteristic of qualitative approaches, seemed to lead to power relations and researcher vulnerability which manifested in tangible ways. Conclusion Shifting positions and vulnerability surfaced in various ways in the projects. They nonetheless indicated a number of similar experiences which can shed light on the researcher-researched relationship. These issues could benefit from further discussion in the qualitative health research literature. PMID:27307132

  7. Researcher-researched relationship in qualitative research: Shifts in positions and researcher vulnerability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Råheim, Målfrid; Magnussen, Liv Heide; Sekse, Ragnhild Johanne Tveit; Lunde, Åshild; Jacobsen, Torild; Blystad, Astrid

    2016-01-01

    The researcher role is highly debated in qualitative research. This article concerns the researcher-researched relationship. A group of health science researchers anchored in various qualitative research traditions gathered in reflective group discussions over a period of two years. Efforts to establish an anti-authoritarian relationship between researcher and researched, negotiation of who actually "rules" the research agenda, and experiences of shifts in "inferior" and "superior" knowledge positions emerged as central and intertwined themes throughout the discussions. The dual role as both insider and outsider, characteristic of qualitative approaches, seemed to lead to power relations and researcher vulnerability which manifested in tangible ways. Shifting positions and vulnerability surfaced in various ways in the projects. They nonetheless indicated a number of similar experiences which can shed light on the researcher-researched relationship. These issues could benefit from further discussion in the qualitative health research literature.

  8. Relationship between Cnm-positive Streptococcus mutans and cerebral microbleeds in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyatani, F; Kuriyama, N; Watanabe, I; Nomura, R; Nakano, K; Matsui, D; Ozaki, E; Koyama, T; Nishigaki, M; Yamamoto, T; Mizuno, T; Tamura, A; Akazawa, K; Takada, A; Takeda, K; Yamada, K; Nakagawa, M; Ihara, M; Kanamura, N; Friedland, R P; Watanabe, Y

    2015-10-01

    Cerebral hemorrhage has been shown to occur in animals experimentally infected with Streptococcus mutans carrying the collagen-binding Cnm gene. However, the relationship between cerebral microbleeds and oral hygiene, with a focus on Cnm gene-positive S. mutans infection, remains unclear. One hundred and thirty-nine subjects participated. The presence or absence of Cnm-positive S. mutans and its collagen-binding activity were investigated using saliva samples, and relationship with cerebral microbleeds detected on MRI investigated, including clinical information and oral parameters. Fifty-one subjects were identified as Cnm-positive S. mutans carriers (36.7%), with cerebral microbleeds being detected in 43 (30.9%). A significantly larger number of subjects carried Cnm-positive S. mutans in the cerebral microbleeds (+) group. S. mutans with Cnm collagen-binding ability was detected in 39 (28.1%) of all subjects, and the adjusted odds ratio for cerebral microbleeds in the Cnm-positive group was 14.4. Regarding the presence of cerebral microbleeds, no significant differences were noted in the number of remaining teeth, dental caries, or in classic arteriosclerosis risk factors. The occurrence of cerebral microbleeds was higher in subjects carrying Cnm-positive S. mutans, indicating that the presence of Cnm-positive S. mutans increases cerebral microbleeds, and is an independent risk for the development of cerebrovascular disorders. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Relationships matter: contraceptive choices among HIV-positive women in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyanja, Tabitha Alexandria Njeri; Tulinius, Charlotte

    2017-07-01

    Efforts to eliminate mother-to-child transmission of HIV in Tanzania are guided by a four-prong strategy advocated by the World Health Organization (WHO). Prong 2, prevention of unintended pregnancies among women living with HIV, has, however, received the least attention and contraceptive use to prevent unintended pregnancies remains low. This study explored the perceived barriers to the use of modern methods of contraception, and factors influencing contraceptive choice among HIV-positive women in urban Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania. A qualitative multi-site study was conducted, utilising in-depth interviews and focus group discussions with 37 sexually active HIV-positive women aged between 20 and 44 years, attending three health facilities within Dar-es-Salaam. The theoretical framework was a patient centred model. Four barriers were identified: the influence of the women's spousal relationships; personal beliefs and the relationship of these in understanding her disease; the influence of the social demands on the woman and her relationships; and the importance of a woman's relationship with her healthcare provider/healthcare system. Being the bearers of bad news (HIV-positive status) the pregnant women experienced conflicts, violence, abandonment and rejection. The loss in negotiating power for the women was in relation to their intimate partners, but also in the patient-healthcare provider relationship. The role of the male partner as a barrier to contraceptive use cannot be understated. Therefore, the results suggest that healthcare providers should ensure patient-focused education and provide support that encompasses the importance of their relationships. Additional research is required to elucidate the functional association between contraceptive choices and personal and social relationships.

  10. [Cephalometric analysis of the relationship between occlusal plane and sagittal position of the mandible].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Rui; Wang, Sheng; Pei, Jiao; Zhao, Meiying

    2012-12-01

    To investigate the relationship between occlusal plane and sagittal position of the mandible by examining dental and skeletal morphologies of average angle patients for better understanding of etiologies and definitive clinical guidelines of mandibular malpositions. The lateral cephalograms of 114 female average angle patients with neutral maxillary positions were selected and divided into three groups according to sagittal mandibular positions (ANB angle). Twenty-five skeletal and dental measurements were compared. The correlations between skeletal and dental measurements were analyzed by rectilinear correlation. Cant of posterior occlusal plane (OP-P) and height of the upper second molar were significantly related to sagittal position of the mandible (P occlusal plane and sagittal position of the mandible in average angle patients, consistent with the dental morphologies of different skeletal configurations. In treating malocclusions of sagittal discrepancy of mandible, the height of posterior teeth and cant of OP-P might be a primary concern.

  11. Positive relationship detected between soil bioaccessible organic pollutants and antibiotic resistance genes at dairy farms in Nanjing, Eastern China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Mingming; Ye, Mao; Wu, Jun; Feng, Yanfang; Wan, Jinzhong; Tian, Da; Shen, Fangyuan; Liu, Kuan; Hu, Feng; Li, Huixin; Jiang, Xin; Yang, Linzhang; Kengara, Fredrick Orori

    2015-01-01

    Co-contaminated soils by organic pollutants (OPs), antibiotics and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) have been becoming an emerging problem. However, it is unclear if an interaction exists between mixed pollutants and ARG abundance. Therefore, the potential relationship between OP contents and ARG and class 1 integron-integrase gene (intI1) abundance was investigated from seven dairy farms in Nanjing, Eastern China. Phenanthrene, pentachlorophenol, sulfadiazine, roxithromycin, associated ARG genes, and intI1 had the highest detection frequencies. Correlation analysis suggested a stronger positive relationship between the ARG abundance and the bioaccessible OP content than the total OP content. Additionally, the significant correlation between the bioaccessible mixed pollutant contents and ARG/intI1 abundance suggested a direct/indirect impact of the bioaccessible mixed pollutants on soil ARG dissemination. This study provided a preliminary understanding of the interaction between mixed pollutants and ARGs in co-contaminated soils. - Highlights: • Coexistence of OPs, antibiotics, and ARGs in dairy farm soils was ubiquitous. • Bioaccessible pollutants exhibited positive correlation with ARG abundance. • ARGs significantly correlated with intI1. • Bioaccessible pollutants demonstrated strong correlation with intI1. • The intI1 gene might serve as a potential proxy for mixed pollution. - Coexistence of mixed OPs and ARGs in dairy farm soils was ubiquitous; a positive correlation can be found between the bioaccessible OP fractions and ARG/intI1 abundance.

  12. The Assessment of Positivity and Negativity in Social Networks: The Reliability and Validity of the Social Relationships Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campo, Rebecca A.; Uchino, Bert N.; Holt-Lunstad, Julianne; Vaughn, Allison; Reblin, Maija; Smith, Timothy W.

    2009-01-01

    The Social Relationships Index (SRI) was designed to examine positivity and negativity in social relationships. Unique features of this scale include its brevity and the ability to examine relationship positivity and negativity at the level of the specific individual and social network. The SRI's psychometric properties were examined in three…

  13. Modeling the Structure of the Relationship Between Emotion Regulation Difficulties, Positive and Negative affect Sleep Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Amiri

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract   Background & aim: Poor quality sleep is very common in modern societies and has a significant negative impact on psychological and physiological Dimensions. The purpose of the present study was to investigate correlational relationships and draw up a positive and negative affect mediation model between the difficulty in regulation of emotion and quality of sleep.   Methods: In this descriptive-correlational study, the participants of the study were selected through multi-stage cluster sampling. Then, the difficulty questionnaire was distributed in emotion regulation, affective and negative and sleep quality among the participants . Collected data was analyzed for descriptive, correlation, structural equation modeling to investigate the research objectives.   Results: The results showed that there was a significant positive correlation between the difficulty components of emotion regulation and negative emotion with poor sleep quality and positive correlation between positive affection and high sleep quality (p <0.01. Also, the pattern of structural equation modeling indicates the role of mediating positive and negative affects in the relationship between the difficulty in regulation of emotion and sleep quality . Conclusions: The results supported the hypothesis that the difficulty in regulation of emotion interferes with the quality of sleep, and positive affection can have a moderating role in this regard.    

  14. The Moderating Influence of Situational Motivation on the Relationship Between Preferred Exercise and Positive Affect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Guérin

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Despite convincing evidence supporting the association between exercise and positive affect, this complex relationship requires further theoretical and person-centered explanation. The nature of one’s motivation for exercise, as postulated by Self-Determination Theory (SDT, may supply a missing and understudied link. The primary aim of this experimental study was to examine the moderating influence of situational motivation from SDT on the relationship between an acute bout of preferred exercise, namely running (vs. control, and changes in positive affect. Forty-one active women attended two sessions to engage in (a a 30-min moderate-intensity self-paced treadmill run and (b a 30-min quiet activity (i.e., newspaper reading. Participants with high introjection versus those with low introjection reported a greater increase in positive affect from pre- to postrunning and a greater decrease in positive affect from pre- to postcontrol. A “relief from guilt” effect was postulated to explain these results. Motivational variables accounted for 7% of variance in postrun positive affect. Consistent with SDT, running because one values this behavior and its benefits (i.e., identified regulation was significantly associated with postrun positive affect.

  15. Starting off on the right foot: strong right-footers respond faster with the right foot to positive words and with the left foot to negative words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Vega, Irmgard; Graebe, Julia; Härtner, Leonie; Dudschig, Carolin; Kaup, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have provided evidence for an association between valence and left/right modulated by handedness, which is predicted by the body-specificity hypothesis (Casasanto, 2009) and also reflected in response times. We investigated whether such a response facilitation can also be observed with foot responses. Right-footed participants classified positive and negative words according to their valence by pressing a key with their left or right foot. A significant interaction between valence and foot only emerged in the by-items analysis. However, when dividing participants into two groups depending on the strength of their footedness, an interaction between valence and left/right was observed for strong right-footers, who responded faster with the right foot to positive words, and with the left foot to negative words. No interaction emerged for weak right-footers. The results strongly support the assumption that fluency lies at the core of the association between valence and left/right.

  16. Relationship of maxillary 3-dimensional posterior occlusal plane to mandibular spatial position and morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coro, Jorge C; Velasquez, Roberto L; Coro, Ivette M; Wheeler, Timothy T; McGorray, Susan P; Sato, Sadao

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship of the 3-dimensional (3D) posterior occlusal plane (POP) and the mandibular 3D spatial position. The relationship of the POP to mandibular morphology was also investigated. Retrospective data from a convenience sample of pretreatment diagnostic cone-beam computed tomography scans were rendered using InVivo software (Anatomage, San Jose, Calif). The sample consisted of 111 subjects (51 male, 60 female) and included growing and nongrowing subjects of different races and ethnicities. The 3D maxillary POP was defined by selecting the cusp tips of the second premolars and the second molars on the rendered images of the subjects. The angles made by this plane, in reference to the Frankfort horizontal plane, were measured against variables that described the mandibular position in the coronal, sagittal, and axial views. The POP was also compared with bilateral variables that described mandibular morphology. There were significant differences of the POP among the different skeletal malocclusions (P <0.0001). The POP showed significant correlations with mandibular position in the sagittal (P <0.0001), coronal (P <0.05), and axial (P <0.05) planes. The POP also showed a significant correlation with mandibular morphology (P <0.0001). These findings suggest that there is a distinct and significant relationship between the 3D POP and the mandibular spatial position and its morphology. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The relationship of positive and negative expressiveness to the processing of emotion information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knyazev, Gennady G; Barchard, Kimberly A; Razumnikova, Olga M; Mitrofanova, Larisa G

    2012-06-01

    The tendency to express emotions non-verbally is positively related to perception of emotions in oneself. This study examined its relationship to perception of emotions in others. In 40 healthy adults, EEG theta synchronization was used to indicate emotion processing following presentation of happy, angry, and neutral faces. Both positive and negative expressiveness were associated with higher emotional sensitivity, as shown by cortical responses to facial expressions during the early, unconscious processing stage. At the late, conscious processing stage, positive expressiveness was associated with higher sensitivity to happy faces but lower sensitivity to angry faces. Thus, positive expressiveness predisposes people to allocate fewer attentional resources for conscious perception of angry faces. In contrast, negative expressiveness was consistently associated with higher sensitivity. The effects of positive expressiveness occurred in cortical areas that deal with emotions, but the effects of negative expressiveness occurred in areas engaged in self-referential processes in the context of social relationships. © 2012 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology © 2012 The Scandinavian Psychological Associations.

  18. The Relationship Between Brain-Behavioral Systems and Negative and Positive Affect in Patients With Migraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovharifard

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Migraine is a chronic headache disorder that affects approximately 12% of the general population. Migraine is known as recurrent headache, pulsating, moderate with severe power, which lasts for 4 to 72 hours, aggravated by daily physical activity along with nausea, vomiting, photophobia or photophobia. Objectives The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between brain-behavioral systems and negative and positive affects in patients with migraine. Patients and Methods The research population included patients, who had referred to neurology clinics. One hundred and twenty cases were selected by accessible sampling based on the neurologist’s diagnosis of migraine headaches. They completed the Gray-Wilson (1989 Personality Questionnaire as well as Watson, Clark and Telligent (1988 positive and negative affect scale. The data were analyzed using the SPSS 19 software, correlation and stepwise regression. Results The results showed that positive affect had a significant positive correlation with active avoidance parameters and negative significant correlation with passive avoidance and extinction parameters. The findings also indicated that negative affect had a positive and significant relationship with passive avoidance and extinction. Conclusions It can be concluded that brain-behavioral systems may be the foundation of behavioral and emotional tendencies in patients with migraine headaches.

  19. Relationship of self-esteem and happiness from the positive psychology among intercultural nursing students

    OpenAIRE

    Marco Alberto Núñez Ramírez; Gloria Esthela González Quirarte; Rosario del Carmén Realpozo Reyes

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: There are contradictions on the relationship between self-esteem and happiness: it exists for some researches, for others it does not, and even some argue that self-esteem affects happiness. These variables are elementary for the practice of Nursing; however, their study is small within intercultural environments. The objective of this research is to know the association between self-esteem and happiness among Intercultural Nursing students from the positive psychology.Method: A...

  20. The Effectiveness Of The Intelligence E-CRM Application In Enhancing Positive Customer Relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bashar Ahmed

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available AbstractE-CRM electronic customer relationship management is a derivation from CRM techniques which influenced direct marketing technology and call Centre to promote massively created products and services to small sub-segments of market. When CRM techniques are incorporated in e-commerce environment it becomes E-CRM which involves building a strong and sustainable customer relationship by using Internet. It is a strategy which is purely based on Internet and software development it requires to create essential integrated software suite to deal with all kinds of customer related issues like customer services sales and marketing field support. The essential parts of E-CRM are to focus on building new customer base segmentation of high valued customers enhancing the profitability of existing customer and maximize the value and life of profitable customers.

  1. The mediating role of cultural coping behaviours on the relationships between academic stress and positive psychosocial well-being outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Ben C H; Soucie, Kendall M; Huang, Siqi; Laith, Refa

    2017-03-10

    While culture's effect on the coping process has long been acknowledged in the stress-coping literature conceptually, empirical evidence and attempts to discern the specific relationship between culture and coping remain very scarce. Against this backdrop, the present study applied the Cultural Transactional Theory (Chun, Moos, & Cronkite, 2006) to examine the mediating role of cultural coping behaviours (Collective, Engagement and Avoidance Coping) on the relationship between academic stress (AS) and two positive psychosocial well-being outcome measures: Collective Self-esteem (CSE) and Subjective Well-being (SWB). Responses from a sample of undergraduate students in Canada (N = 328) were analysed to test a theory-driven, hypothesised model of coping using structural equation modelling (SEM). As hypothesised, the SEM results showed that: (a) the proposed cultural coping model fit the data well; (b) Engagement Coping and Collective Coping partially mediated the association between AS and the outcomes and (c) the path relationships among the constructs were in the hypothesised directions. A set of preliminary exploratory analyses indicated that Collective Coping was most strongly endorsed by the African/Black and the Middle Eastern cultural groups as compared to other ethnic groups. Implications of the study's findings for future research and practice concerning culture, stress, and coping are discussed. © 2017 International Union of Psychological Science.

  2. The Relationships between Language Learning Strategies and Positive Emotions among Malaysian ESL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mohammadipour

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Emotions are an indispensable part of second language learning. The aim of this study is to determine the relationship between the use of language learning strategies and positive emotions. The present study adopted a sequential mixed methods design. The participants were 300 Malaysian ESL undergraduates selected through stratified random sampling from 5 public universities in Malaysia. The quantitative data were collected through two sets of questionnaires: (a Oxford's (1990 Strategy Inventory for Language Learning (SILL, and (b Fredrickson's (2009 modified Differential Emotional Scale (mDES. The qualitative data were gathered through semi-structured interviews. With regard to the quantitative data analysis, a series of t-tests and correlational analyses were used. The data from the interviews were analysed qualitatively. A positive significant correlation was found between positive emotions and overall language learning strategy use. Also, the qualitative results of the study indicated that the learners who experienced more positive emotions tended to use a greater variety of language learning strategies. The findings of the study emphasise the importance of students’ positive emotions in their use of language learning strategies. It might be suggested that teachers by designing the classroom settings and instructions which promote positive emotions can inspire learners to use language learning strategies more frequently and with a greater variety which in sequence relate to learners’ language learning proficiency.

  3. Positive and negative behaviours in workplace relationships: a scoping review protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almost, Joan; Wolff, Angela; Mildon, Barbara; Price, Sheri; Godfrey, Christina; Robinson, Sandra; Ross-White, Amanda; Mercado-Mallari, Sheile

    2015-02-04

    Engaging in teamwork requires a clear understanding of positive and negative behaviours that act as facilitators and barriers to collegial workplace relationships. Identifying and correcting underlying barriers, while promoting facilitators, is fundamental to improving care delivery and, ultimately, clinical outcomes. Despite a considerable amount of literature in this area, there is a lack of clarity of the different behaviours as several parallel literatures address similar questions about antecedents, processes and outcomes. The purpose of this study is to synthesise the current state of literature reporting on behaviours in workplace relationships. Using a scoping review methodology, the following research question will be addressed: "What is known about positive and negative behaviours in workplace relationships?" We will employ the methodological frameworks used by Arksey and O'Malley and Levac et al. The search strategy will include numerous electronic databases, grey literature sources and hand-searching of reference lists from 1990 to present with a limit to English language. Search strategies will be developed using controlled vocabulary and keyword terms related to various components of workplace relationships. Two reviewers will independently screen titles and abstracts for inclusion, followed by screening of the full text of potential articles to determine final inclusion. A descriptive numerical analysis will describe characteristics of included studies. A thematic analysis will provide an overview of the literature, including definitions, conceptual frameworks, antecedents, outcomes and interventions. In reviewing a wide range of positive and negative behaviours, then integrating into a manageable, meaningful whole, this study is a critical step in helping policymakers, leaders and healthcare professionals effectively use what is known thus far. Knowledge translation activities will occur throughout the study with dissemination of findings to local

  4. Relationship between foramen magnum position and locomotion in extant and extinct hominoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neaux, Dimitri; Bienvenu, Thibaut; Guy, Franck; Daver, Guillaume; Sansalone, Gabriele; Ledogar, Justin A; Rae, Todd C; Wroe, Stephen; Brunet, Michel

    2017-12-01

    From the Miocene Sahelanthropus tchadensis to Pleistocene Homo sapiens, hominins are characterized by a derived anterior position of the foramen magnum relative to basicranial structures. It has been previously suggested that the anterior position of the foramen magnum in hominins is related to bipedal locomotor behavior. Yet, the functional relationship between foramen magnum position and bipedal locomotion remains unclear. Recent studies, using ratios based on cranial linear measurements, have found a link between the anterior position of the foramen magnum and bipedalism in several mammalian clades: marsupials, rodents, and primates. In the present study, we compute these ratios in a sample including a more comprehensive dataset of extant hominoids and fossil hominins. First, we verify if the values of ratios can distinguish extant humans from apes. Then, we test whether extinct hominins can be distinguished from non-bipedal extant hominoids. Finally, we assess if the studied ratios are effective predictors of bipedal behavior by testing if they mainly relate to variation in foramen magnum position rather than changes in other cranial structures. Our results confirm that the ratios discriminate between extant bipeds and non-bipeds. However, the only ratio clearly discriminating between fossil hominins and other extant apes is that which only includes basicranial structures. We show that a large proportion of the interspecific variation in the other ratios relates to changes in facial, rather than basicranial, structures. In this context, we advocate the use of measurements based only on basicranial structures when assessing the relationship between foramen magnum position and bipedalism in future studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. [Brazilian teenagers and beer advertising: relationship between exposure, positive response, and alcohol consumption].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vendrame, Alan; Pinsky, Ilana; Faria, Roberta; Silva, Rebeca

    2009-02-01

    Brazilian teenagers report problematic patterns of alcohol consumption. Alcohol advertising strategies are one of the main factors influencing adolescents' alcohol consumption. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between positive responses to TV beer commercials, exposure, and alcohol consumption. Thirty-two recent TV commercials were shown to 133 high school students from public schools in São Bernardo do Campo, São Paulo State, Brazil. The subjects recorded how well they liked the ads and how often they had already watched each commercial. The teenagers also reported their alcohol consumption rates. The ten commercials analyzed in this article were the five most popular and the five least popular. The analysis showed that subjects had already seen the five most popular ads, but not the five least popular. In addition, the five most popular ads received higher scores from teenagers that reported having consumed beer during the previous month. The study found a positive relationship between enjoying beer advertising and exposure to beer ads, as well as between alcohol consumption and positive responses to alcohol commercials.

  6. EARLY POSTPARTUM PARENTAL PREOCCUPATION AND POSITIVE PARENTING THOUGHTS: RELATIONSHIP WITH PARENT-INFANT INTERACTION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Pilyoung; Mayes, Linda; Feldman, Ruth; Leckman, James F; Swain, James E

    2013-01-01

    Parenting behaviors and parent-infant emotional bonding during the early postpartum months play a critical role in infant development. However, the nature and progression of parental thoughts and their relationship with interactive behaviors have received less research. The current study investigated the trajectory of parental thoughts and behaviors among primiparous mothers ( n = 18) and fathers ( n = 15) and multiparous mothers ( n = 13) and fathers ( n = 13), which were measured at the first and third postpartum month. At the third postpartum month, the relationship between parental thoughts and parental interactive behaviors also was tested. Mothers and fathers showed high levels of preoccupations and caregiving thoughts during the first postpartum month that significantly declined by the third postpartum month. In contrast, positive thoughts about parenting and the infant increased over the same time interval. Mothers presented higher levels of preoccupations and positive thoughts than did fathers, and first-time parents reported more intense preoccupations than did experienced parents. Although maternal sensitivity was inversely related to maternal anxious thoughts, paternal sensitivity was predicted by higher levels of anxious as well as caregiving and positive thoughts.

  7. The relationship between skin manifestations and CD4 counts among hiv positive patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rad, F.; Ghaderi, E.; Moradi, G.; Mafakheri, L.

    2008-01-01

    Skin manifestations are common clinical features among HIV positive patients. The aim of this study was to document skin manifestations and their relationships with CD4 cell counts among HIV positive patients in Sanandaj. This was a descriptive study. The patients were examined for skin disorders by a dermatologist and CD4 counts were obtained from the patient's medical records. Independent samples T test were used for data analysis. In this study 66 (94.3%) patients had at least one skin problem. Fungal infections were the most common cause. The eight most common types of mucocutaneous problems were gingivitis, pallor, itching, photosensitivity, seborrheic dermatitis, candidiasis, folliculitis and tinea versicolor. The most common manifestation was gingivitis. Mean CD4 cell counts were lower in individuals with viral and bacterial skin diseases (P <0.05). The results of this study indicated that skin problems were common among HIV positive patients. Patients with advanced stages of skin disorders had relatively lower CD4 counts. Therefore examination of skin is recommended for all HIV positive patients for early detection of skin disorders, as early diagnosis and management of dermatologic problems will improve the quality of life in HIV positive patients. (author)

  8. Structure-activity relationship studies of the aromatic positions in cyclopentapeptide CXCR4 antagonists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mungalpara, Jignesh; Zachariassen, Zack G; Thiele, Stefanie

    2013-01-01

    The cyclopentapeptide CXCR4 antagonist FC131 (cyclo(-Arg(1)-Arg(2)-2-Nal(3)-Gly(4)-D-Tyr(5)-), 2; 2-Nal = 3-(2-naphthyl)alanine) represents an excellent starting point for development of novel drug-like ligands with therapeutic potential in HIV, cancer, stem-cell mobilization, inflammation......, and autoimmune diseases. While the structure-activity relationships for Arg(1), Arg(2), and Gly(4) are well established, less is understood about the roles of the aromatic residues 2-Nal(3) and D-Tyr(5). Here we report further structure-activity relationship studies of these two positions, which showed that (i...... potent than 2, which means that the D-Tyr(5) side chain is dispensable. These findings were rationalized based on molecular docking, and the collective structure-activity data for the cyclopentapeptides suggest that appropriately designed Arg(2)-2-Nal(3) dipeptidomimetics have potential as CXCR4...

  9. Growing more positive with age: The relationship between reproduction and survival in aging flies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Heuvel, Joost; Zandveld, Jelle; Brakefield, Paul M; Kirkwood, Thomas B L; Shanley, Daryl P; Zwaan, Bas J

    2017-04-01

    Populations of laboratory animals that are selected for increased lifespan often show negative correlated responses in early fecundity. However, late fecundity and/or total lifetime fecundity can be higher in the populations selected for increased lifespan. This has been interpreted by some as being at odds with the disposable soma theory, which predicts decreased lifespan to increase total reproductive output. Alternatively, the Y-model explores the effects of variation in resource allocation and acquisition on life histories. In this model, a negative relationship between lifespan and reproduction can be viewed as variation in allocation, whereas a positive relationship is the result of variation in acquisition. However, a frequently neglected complication of the Y-model is that older individuals often show a decline in resource acquisition. Therefore, differential allocation to maintenance and survival might affect this decline in late-life acquisition which will affect resource availability across the whole lifespan. In this paper we show that a model which incorporates the ideas of the Y-model, the disposable soma theory, and an age-related decrease in resource acquisition, i.e. feeding senescence, can explain how the relationship between fecundity and lifespan changes with age. Furthermore, by modeling environments with contrasting extrinsic mortality rates, we explored how the outcome of the model depended on the relative importance of early and late-life reproduction. In high mortality environments a relatively higher early fecundity, lower late fecundity, and lower lifespans were more optimal, whereas the opposite was true for low mortality environments. We applied predictions from the model to a cohort of individually-housed female Drosophila melanogaster flies for which we measured age specific fecundity and lifespan. Early fecundity was negatively associated with lifespan, while late fecundity related positively with lifespan in the same cohort. This

  10. Relationship between room temperature phosphorescence and deuteration position in a purely aromatic compound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, S.; Totani, K.; Watanabe, T.; Kaji, H.; Vacha, M.

    2014-01-01

    The development of organometallic and purely organic compounds showing room temperature phosphorescence (RTP) has several promising applications. We report a relationship between the phosphorescence characteristics and deuteration position in a purely organic aromatic compound. Hydrogen-deuterium exchange at the carbons where the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital is located is the most effective method to enhance the RTP lifetime and quantum yield. The increase in RTP lifetime comes from a decrease in the Franck-Condon factor while the enhancement of RTP yield is caused by an increase in intersystem crossing from the lowest singlet excited state to the lowest triplet excited state.

  11. Defeat and entrapment in schizophrenia: the relationship with suicidal ideation and positive psychotic symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Peter James; Gooding, Patricia A; Wood, Alex M; Johnson, Judith; Pratt, Daniel; Tarrier, Nicholas

    2010-07-30

    The current study tests whether perceptions of defeat and entrapment are the psychological mechanisms underlying the link between positive psychotic symptoms and suicidal ideation in schizophrenia. A sample of 78 patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders completed self-report measures and a clinical interview. Of this sample, 21.8% reported a single past suicide attempt and 50% reported multiple past attempts. It was found that perceptions of defeat and entrapment, conceptualised as a single variable, accounted for a large proportion (31%) of the variance in suicidal ideation and behaviour. Defeat and entrapment also mediated the relationship between positive symptom severity and suicidal ideation. This result held whilst controlling for levels of hopelessness and depression. Secondary analyses suggested that suspiciousness in particular was linked to suicidal ideation. The results support a socio-cognitive model (The Schematic Appraisals Model of Suicide: SAMS) of suicide in psychosis. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The relationship between personalities and self-report positive driving behavior in a Chinese sample.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biying Shen

    Full Text Available Driving behaviors play an important role in accident involvement. Concretely speaking, aberrant driving behaviors would cause more accidents, and oppositely positive driving behaviors would promote to build safety traffic environment. The main goals of this study were to explore the positive driving behavior and its relationship with personality in a Chinese sample. A total of 421 licensed drivers (286 male and 135 female from Beijing, China completed the Positive Driver Behavior Scale (PDBS, the Driver Behavior Questionnaire (DBQ, the Dula Dangerous Driving Index (DDDI and the Big Five Inventory (BFI on a voluntary and anonymous basis. The results showed that the Chinese version of the PDBS has both reliability and validity and that the PDBS was significantly correlated with the BFI. Specifically, the PDBS was negatively correlated with neuroticism (r = -0.38 and positively correlated with extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness and openness to experience (the correlation coefficient ranged from 0.36 to 0.55. In contrast with previous research, age was negatively correlated with the PDBS (r = -0.38 in our sample, which may have resulted from less driving experience or a lack of available cognitive resources.

  13. Relationship of self-esteem and happiness from the positive psychology among intercultural nursing students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Alberto Núñez Ramírez

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There are contradictions on the relationship between self-esteem and happiness: it exists for some researches, for others it does not, and even some argue that self-esteem affects happiness. These variables are elementary for the practice of Nursing; however, their study is small within intercultural environments. The objective of this research is to know the association between self-esteem and happiness among Intercultural Nursing students from the positive psychology.Method: A quantitative, descriptive, transversal and correlational, research with a non-experimental design was realized, with a sample of 55 students of Intercultural Nursing. Two questionnaires were applied: the scale of Rosenberg self-esteem and happiness of Lima scale.Results: High levels of self-esteem and happiness were obtained. Through correlation of Pearson and hierarchical regression we found that self-esteem is associated in negative and positive way with certain factors of happiness; the same thing happened in the level of influence.Conclusion: In positive psychology is possible to associate variables such as self-esteem and happiness as strengths. Much more in the case of Intercultural Nursing students which have the aim to contribute to the indigenous communities development, that require nurses with favorable levels of self-esteem and the perception of subjective well-being to counteract an historical legacy of backwardness. From positive psychology is possible that this educational model will contribute to the mutual enrichment and empowerment within the work of the Intercultural Nursing.

  14. Positive Institutions and their relationship with transformational leadership, empathy and team performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Solares Menegazzo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The current study tests the relationship between transformational leadership, empathy and excellent team performance, based on the HEalthy & Resilient Organizations (HERO Model (Salanova, Llorens, Cifre & Martínez, 2012 in positive institutions, the third pillar of positive psychology (Seligman & Csikszentmihalyi, 2000. The study of empathy and its role in companies is important because it is not yet widely known the benefits that can provide to any institution. The study attempt to show a full mediating role of empathy in this relationship. The sample consist on  69 work teams, from 7 Small -and Medium- sized Enterprises (SMEs including 4 educational institutions and 3 institutions of medical services from Spain. The Interclass Correlation Coefficients (ICC1 and ICC2 and the Average Deviation Index (ADM(J supports data aggregation at the team level. The results using SEM, through work teams, supported the hypothesis, that is, the empathy plays a full mediating role between transformational leadership and excellent team performance. Finally, theoretical and practical implications of the results are discussed.

  15. Parent-child relationships and offspring's positive mental wellbeing from adolescence to early older age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stafford, Mai; Kuh, Diana L; Gale, Catharine R; Mishra, Gita; Richards, Marcus

    2016-05-03

    We examined parent-child relationship quality and positive mental well-being using Medical Research Council National Survey of Health and Development data. Well-being was measured at ages 13-15 (teacher-rated happiness), 36 (life satisfaction), 43 (satisfaction with home and family life) and 60-64 years (Diener Satisfaction With Life scale and Warwick Edinburgh Mental Well-being scale). The Parental Bonding Instrument captured perceived care and control from the father and mother to age 16, recalled by study members at age 43. Greater well-being was seen for offspring with higher combined parental care and lower combined parental psychological control ( p  < 0.05 at all ages). Controlling for maternal care and paternal and maternal behavioural and psychological control, childhood social class, parental separation, mother's neuroticism and study member's personality, higher well-being was consistently related to paternal care. This suggests that both mother-child and father-child relationships may have short and long-term consequences for positive mental well-being.

  16. Negative Thinking versus Positive Thinking in a Singaporean Student Sample: Relationships with Psychological Well-Being and Psychological Maladjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Shyh Shin

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the relationships of positive thinking versus negative thinking with psychological well-being and psychological maladjustment. Three hundred and ninety-eight undergraduate students from Singapore participated in this study. First, positive thinking were positively correlated with indicators psychological well-being--life…

  17. The Relationships Between Positive-Negative Affectivity and Individual-Organizational Level Aggressiveness: The Role of Physical Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmut ÖZDEVECİOĞLU

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of the present study is to find out the relationships between, positive and negative affectivity, physical activity, personal level aggressiveness - organization level aggressiveness and mediation effect of physical activity. The universe of the research is employees of Kayseri Organized Industrial Zone businesses in which physical activity is done. The size of the research is 273. According to the results, there is a significant and negative oriented relationship between positive affectivity and individual level aggressiveness. There is a significant and positive oriented relationship between negative affectivity and individual level aggressiveness. There is a significant and positive oriented relationship between positive affectivity and physical activity. There is a significant and negative oriented relationship between negative affectivity and physical activity. There is a significant and negative oriented relationship between physical activity and individual level aggressiveness. There is a significant and positive oriented relationship between individual level aggressiveness and organization level aggressiveness. Separately physical activity has a significant mediation role between positive-negative affectivity and individual level aggressiveness.

  18. The relationship between spirituality, purpose in life, and well-being in HIV-positive persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litwinczuk, Kathleen M; Groh, Carla J

    2007-01-01

    Research has shown that spirituality has a positive effect on mental and physical health; however, few studies have explored the influence of spirituality on purpose in life and well-being in persons living with HIV. This descriptive cross-sectional study was designed to examine the relationship between spirituality, purpose in life, and well-being in a sample of 46 HIV-positive men and women. Spirituality was measured using the Spiritual Involvement and Beliefs Scale-Revised (SIBS-R), purpose in life was measured using the Purpose in Life (PIL) test, and well-being was measured using the General Well-Being (GWB) Schedule. Demographic data on gender, age, length of time living with diagnosis of HIV/AIDS, employment status, and religious affiliation were also collected. Spirituality was reported to be significantly correlated with purpose in life (r = .295, p = .049) but not with well-being (r = .261, p = .084). Additionally, the SIBS-R, PIL, and GWB had alpha coefficients greater than .83, suggesting they are reliable and valid measures for this population of HIV-positive persons. The result that spirituality and purpose in life were significantly correlated offers the potential for designing nursing interventions and care delivery approaches that support psychological adaptation to HIV. Further studies with larger and more diverse samples are needed to better understand the role of well-being in healing.

  19. A randomized controlled trial of strong minds: A school-based mental health program combining acceptance and commitment therapy and positive psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burckhardt, Rowan; Manicavasagar, Vijaya; Batterham, Philip J; Hadzi-Pavlovic, Dusan

    2016-08-01

    To date, most early intervention programs have been based on emotion regulation strategies that address dysfunctional cognitive appraisals, problem-solving skills, and rumination. Another emotion regulation strategy, 'acceptance' training, has largely been overlooked. To examine the efficacy of this strategy, a school-based mental health program combining positive psychology with acceptance and commitment therapy (Strong Minds) was evaluated in a randomized controlled trial with a sample of 267 Year 10 and 11 high-school students in Sydney, Australia. Mixed models for repeated measures examined whether the program led to reductions in symptoms amongst students who commenced the program with high depression, anxiety, and stress scores, and increased wellbeing scores amongst all students. Results demonstrated that compared to controls, participants in the Strong Minds condition with elevated symptom scores (n=63) reported significant reductions in depression (p=.047), stress (p=.01), and composite depression/anxiety symptoms (p=.02) with medium to strong effect sizes (Cohen's d=0.53, 0.74, and 0.57, respectively). Increased wellbeing (p=.03) in the total sample and decreased anxiety scores (p=.048) for students with elevated symptoms were significant for Year 10 students with medium effect sizes (Cohen's d=0.43 and 0.54, respectively). This study tentatively suggests that including the emotion regulation strategy of acceptance in early intervention programs may be effective in reducing symptoms and improving wellbeing in high school students. Further research to investigate the generalizability of these findings is warranted. Copyright © 2016 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Measuring thought content valence after a breakup: Development of the Positive and Negative Ex-Relationship Thoughts (PANERT) scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, Rachel E; Vogel, David L

    2015-07-01

    The end of a romantic relationship is a common and serious presenting concern among clients at university counseling centers. Researchers have highlighted the need to understand the nature of thoughts about an ex-relationship, because they may lead to unique clinical interventions. One aspect of thought that may be clinically relevant is content valence, or the positive or negative emotions associated with the content of the thought. Unfortunately, content valence has not been addressed in the romantic relationship dissolution literature. To address this omission, we developed the 12-item Positive and Negative Ex-Relationship Thoughts (PANERT) scale across 4 samples. In Sample 1 (n = 475), exploratory factor analyses demonstrated a multidimensional scale with 2 factors: positive content valence and negative content valence. Sample 2 (n = 509) and Sample 3 (n = 291) confirmed the factor structure in college and community samples. Internal consistencies ranged from .88-.94 for positive content valence and from .87-.94 for negative content valence. In Sample 4 (n = 133), construct validity was supported, with the PANERT factors uniquely predicting breakup distress, relationship preoccupation, depression, loss of self-concept, rediscovery of self-concept, negative emotional adjustment, and positive emotional adjustment. Further, the direction of these relationships suggest that positive thought content valence may be consistently maladaptive to recovery from an ex-relationship, and negative thought content valence may have maladaptive and adaptive features. Implications for future research and practice are discussed. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. HOW STRONG IS THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN RAINFALL VARIABILITY AND CAATINGA PRODUCTIVITY? A CASE STUDY UNDER A CHANGING CLIMATE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salimon, Cleber; Anderson, Liana

    2017-05-22

    Despite the knowledge of the influence of rainfall on vegetation dynamics in semiarid tropical Brazil, few studies address and explore quantitatively the various aspects of this relationship. Moreover, Northeast Brazil is expected to have its rainfall reduced by as much as 60% until the end of the 21st Century, under scenario AII of the IPCC Report 2010. We sampled and analyzed satellite-derived monthly rainfall and a vegetation index data for 40 sites with natural vegetation cover in Paraíba State, Brazil from 2001 to 2012. In addition, the anomalies for both variables were calculated. Rainfall variation explained as much as 50% of plant productivity, using the vegetation index as a proxy, and rainfall anomaly explained 80% of the vegetation productivity anomaly. In an extreme dry year (2012), with 65% less rainfall than average for the period 2001-2012, the vegetation index decreased by 25%. If such decrease persists in a long term trend in rainfall reduction, this could lead to a disruption in this ecosystem functioning and the dominant vegetation could become even more xeric or desert-like, bringing serious environmental, social and economical impacts.

  2. Strongly positive anti-CCP antibodies in patients with sacroiliitis or reactive arthritis post-E. coli infection: A mini case-series based review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh Sangha, Miljyot; Wright, Matthew Liam; Ciurtin, Coziana

    2018-01-01

    We report here on four cases of patients with strongly positive anti-citrullinated cyclic peptides (anti-CCP) antibodies and clinical features of seronegative spondyloarthritis (SpA) and reactive arthritis. The four patients had various clinical presentations: one had an initial diagnosis of seropositive rheumatoid arthritis (RA) with involvement of the sacroiliac joints (similar to previous reports of the association of two diseases); one had a clinical picture of reactive arthritis following an episode of an Escherichia coli positive urinary tract infection; and two had asymmetrical sacroiliitis (SII), but no evidence of peripheral joint involvement (never reported before). In all cases, high titers of anti-CCP antibodies were found. We present a comparison of the clinical manifestations, radiographic features and treatment regimens of these cases. Our report supports previous literature data of possible overlap existing between RA and SpA, but also presents for the first time the association of high titers of anti-CCP antibodies with SII and reactive arthritis in patients with no peripheral small joint involvement. © 2017 Asia Pacific League of Associations for Rheumatology and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  3. Circle Solutions, a philosophy and pedagogy for learning positive relationships: What promotes and inhibits sustainable outcomes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florence McCarthy

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Educators are increasingly aware that the efficacy of social and emotional learning (SEL is dependent on implementation factors, not just program content. These include the philosophy underpinning an intervention, the beliefs as well as the skills of facilitators, and the classroom/whole school context in which the intervention takes place. This article outlines the philosophy and pedagogy of Circle Solutions and presents findings from research where 18 undergraduate students supported and developed ‘Circle Time’ in 8 Greater Western Sydney primary schools for a university module on community service. The study indicates that when there is full teacher participation within the principles of the Circle philosophy, together with activeschool support that promotes relational values, the learning outcomes for positive relationship building are more sustainable.

  4. Positive relationship between odor identification and affective responses of negatively valenced odors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinec Nováková, Lenka; Plotěná, Dagmar; Roberts, S. Craig; Havlíček, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Hedonic ratings of odors and olfactory preferences are influenced by a number of modulating factors, such as prior experience and knowledge about an odor’s identity. The present study addresses the relationship between knowledge about an odor’s identity due to prior experience, assessed by means of a test of cued odor identification, and odor pleasantness ratings in children who exhibit ongoing olfactory learning. Ninety-one children aged 8–11 years rated the pleasantness of odors in the Sniffin’ Sticks test and, subsequently, took the odor identification test. A positive association between odor identification and pleasantness was found for two unpleasant food odors (garlic and fish): higher pleasantness ratings were exhibited by those participants who correctly identified these odors compared to those who failed to correctly identify them. However, we did not find a similar effect for any of the more pleasant odors. The results of this study suggest that pleasantness ratings of some odors may be modulated by the knowledge of their identity due to prior experience and that this relationship might be more evident in unpleasant odors. PMID:26029143

  5. Testing theoretical relationships: factors influencing positive health practices (PHP) in Filipino college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayres, Cynthia; Mahat, Ganga; Atkins, Robert

    2013-01-01

    To examine variables influencing the positive health practices (PHP) of Filipino college students to gain a better understanding of health practices in this ethnic/racial group. Cross-sectional study tested theoretical relationships postulated among (a) PHP, (b) social support (SS), (c) optimism, and (d) acculturation. A sample of Filipino college students (N = 226) aged 18 to 21 was obtained in June 2009. Participants completed 4 instruments. Statistical analyses were performed using SPSS 16.0. Positive correlations were found between PHP and SS (r = .39, p = .01) and optimism and PHP (r = .36, p = .01). No correlation was found between PHP and acculturation. Optimism and SS predicted performance of PHP (R (2) = .18, F[2, 221] = 24.927, p < .001). A difference was found in acculturation levels between participants who grew up in the United States (t[223] = 4.5, p < .001) and those who did not. Findings help health practitioners and educators to better understand the underlying factors that influence PHP in this population.

  6. Beginning and experienced secondary school teachers' self- and student schema in positive and problematic teacher-student relationships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claessens, Luce|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/357401530; van Tartwijk, Jan|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/112629385; Pennings, Heleen|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/323242588; van der Want, Anna; Verloop, Nico; den Brok, Perry; Wubbels, Theo|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/070651361

    2016-01-01

    The quality of teacher-student relationships is important for teachers' well-being in schools. In this interview study we investigated which cognitions comprise secondary school teachers' self- and student schema in positive and problematic teacher-student relationships. Frequency analyses of these

  7. Positive Outcome Expectancy Mediates the Relationship Between Peer Influence and Internet Gaming Addiction Among Adolescents in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jo Yung Wei; Ko, Huei-Chen; Wong, Tsui-Yin; Wu, Li-An; Oei, Tian Po

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined the role of positive outcome expectancy in the relationship between peer/parental influence and Internet gaming addiction (IGA) among adolescents in Taiwan. Two thousand, one hundred and four junior high students completed the Chen Internet Addiction Scale for IGA, Parental Influence for IGA, peer influence for IGA, and Positive Outcome Expectancy of Internet Gaming Questionnaire. Results showed that the three types of peer influences (positive attitudes toward Internet gaming, frequency of Internet game use, and invitation to play) and positive outcome expectancy were significantly and positively correlated with IGA. Moreover, peer influence was also positively correlated with positive outcome expectancy. On the other hand, positive outcome expectancy and parental influences had a low correlation. Structural equation modeling analysis revealed that positive outcome expectancy did not mediate the relationship between either type of parental influences and IGA, and only the parent's invitation to play Internet games directly predicted IGA severity. However, peers' positive attitude or the frequency of peers' Internet game use positively predicted IGA and was fully mediated through positive outcome expectancy of Internet gaming. In addition, the frequency of peers' invitation to play Internet games directly and indirectly predicted IGA severity through a partial mediation of positive outcome expectancy of Internet gaming. The overall fit of the model was adequate and was able to explain 25.0 percent of the variance. The findings provide evidence in illuminating the role of peer influences and positive outcome expectancy of Internet gaming in the process of why adolescents may develop IGA.

  8. Personality and emotional processing: A relationship between extraversion and the late positive potential in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speed, Brittany C; Nelson, Brady D; Perlman, Greg; Klein, Daniel N; Kotov, Roman; Hajcak, Greg

    2015-08-01

    Neuroticism and extraversion are multifaceted affective-laden personality traits that have been associated with major depressive disorder (MDD). Research and theory have argued that extraversion, and particularly its facet positive emotionality, is specific to MDD, while neuroticism is common across internalizing disorders. Converging evidence has suggested that MDD is associated with reduced engagement with emotional stimuli, but it remains unclear whether either extraversion, neuroticism, or both modulate reactivity to emotional cues. The late positive potential (LPP) is an event-related brain potential that is uniquely suited to assess engagement with emotional stimuli because it reflects sustained attention toward emotional content. The current study examined the LPP in relation to personality traits that may confer risk for depression by examining the relationship between the LPP and both neuroticism and extraversion in never-depressed adolescent girls. Specifically, 550 girls aged 13.5-15.5 with no lifetime history of depression completed an emotional picture-viewing task, and the LPP was measured in response to neutral, pleasant, and unpleasant pictures. Personality traits were gathered via self- and informant report. Results indicated that high extraversion was associated with a potentiated LPP to emotional pictures-and this effect was accounted for by positive emotionality in particular. In contrast, there was no association between the LPP and neuroticism or its facets. The present study is one of the first to demonstrate that extraversion is associated with variation in neural indices of emotional picture processing, similar to what has been observed among individuals with depression and at high risk for depression. © 2015 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  9. Interaction of bistable glass-coated microwires in different positional relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodionova, V.; Kudinov, N.; Zhukov, A.; Perov, N.

    2012-05-01

    The amorphous ferromagnetic glass-coated microwires with positive magnetostriction constant of the metallic core possess the bistable magnetization reversal and the fast domain wall propagation along the microwire axis. These properties and also the magnetization processes in the systems of the microwires are of interest in the magnetic sensing technology, encoding systems and smart composite applications. In this work we present the results of the experimental investigation, simulations and theoretical estimations of the hysteresis process in the systems of the magnetically bistable microwires with different length and positional relationship between them. The location of the short microwires near the long microwire affects the switching fields (external coaxial magnetic field applied for starting of the domain wall propagation along the microwire axis) and the hysteresis process. The changes of these properties are not directly proportional to the value of the shorter microwire shift along the longer one. When the short microwire was placed in the middle of the long one and when the one end of the long microwire coincided with the end of the short one, the two-steps hysteresis loops were observed for both sample orientations: before and after sample rotation on 180°. When the short microwire was placed close to the end of the long microwire (but did not coincide with it) we observed at first the two-steps hysteresis loop and single step behavior for one branch of the hysteresis loop after sample rotation. Moreover, changing of the orientation of the samples results in the shift of the switching field of the shorter microwire when its end was located near the end or coincided with the end of the longer one. This uncommon hysteresis behavior was explained and illustrated using results of the simulations. The values of microwires interaction were also estimated.

  10. Interaction of bistable glass-coated microwires in different positional relationship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodionova, V.; Kudinov, N.; Zhukov, A.; Perov, N.

    2012-01-01

    The amorphous ferromagnetic glass-coated microwires with positive magnetostriction constant of the metallic core possess the bistable magnetization reversal and the fast domain wall propagation along the microwire axis. These properties and also the magnetization processes in the systems of the microwires are of interest in the magnetic sensing technology, encoding systems and smart composite applications. In this work we present the results of the experimental investigation, simulations and theoretical estimations of the hysteresis process in the systems of the magnetically bistable microwires with different length and positional relationship between them. The location of the short microwires near the long microwire affects the switching fields (external coaxial magnetic field applied for starting of the domain wall propagation along the microwire axis) and the hysteresis process. The changes of these properties are not directly proportional to the value of the shorter microwire shift along the longer one. When the short microwire was placed in the middle of the long one and when the one end of the long microwire coincided with the end of the short one, the two-steps hysteresis loops were observed for both sample orientations: before and after sample rotation on 180°. When the short microwire was placed close to the end of the long microwire (but did not coincide with it) we observed at first the two-steps hysteresis loop and single step behavior for one branch of the hysteresis loop after sample rotation. Moreover, changing of the orientation of the samples results in the shift of the switching field of the shorter microwire when its end was located near the end or coincided with the end of the longer one. This uncommon hysteresis behavior was explained and illustrated using results of the simulations. The values of microwires interaction were also estimated.

  11. Interaction of bistable glass-coated microwires in different positional relationship

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodionova, V., E-mail: rodionova@magn.ru [Magnetism Department, Faculty of Physics, M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Immanuel Kant Baltic Federal University, 236041 Kaliningrad (Russian Federation); Kudinov, N. [Magnetism Department, Faculty of Physics, M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Zhukov, A. [Departamento Fisica de Materiales, Facultad Quimicas, UPV/EHU, 20018 San Sebastian (Spain); IKERBASQUE, Basque Foundation for Science, 48011 Bilbao (Spain); Perov, N. [Magnetism Department, Faculty of Physics, M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2012-05-01

    The amorphous ferromagnetic glass-coated microwires with positive magnetostriction constant of the metallic core possess the bistable magnetization reversal and the fast domain wall propagation along the microwire axis. These properties and also the magnetization processes in the systems of the microwires are of interest in the magnetic sensing technology, encoding systems and smart composite applications. In this work we present the results of the experimental investigation, simulations and theoretical estimations of the hysteresis process in the systems of the magnetically bistable microwires with different length and positional relationship between them. The location of the short microwires near the long microwire affects the switching fields (external coaxial magnetic field applied for starting of the domain wall propagation along the microwire axis) and the hysteresis process. The changes of these properties are not directly proportional to the value of the shorter microwire shift along the longer one. When the short microwire was placed in the middle of the long one and when the one end of the long microwire coincided with the end of the short one, the two-steps hysteresis loops were observed for both sample orientations: before and after sample rotation on 180 Degree-Sign . When the short microwire was placed close to the end of the long microwire (but did not coincide with it) we observed at first the two-steps hysteresis loop and single step behavior for one branch of the hysteresis loop after sample rotation. Moreover, changing of the orientation of the samples results in the shift of the switching field of the shorter microwire when its end was located near the end or coincided with the end of the longer one. This uncommon hysteresis behavior was explained and illustrated using results of the simulations. The values of microwires interaction were also estimated.

  12. Sex and relationships for HIV positive women since HAART: a quantitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, S; Keegan, A; Petrak, J

    2005-08-01

    To investigate current levels of sexual activity, enjoyment, condom use, and other factors affecting sexual behaviour in a sample of women living with HIV. Participants were self selected. A cross sectional design using semi-structured questionnaires was employed. 82 HIV positive women completed questionnaires asking about demographics, relationships, sexual behaviour, and safer sex practices. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and Golombok-Rust Inventory of Sexual Satisfaction (GRISS) were administered. 28% of women had had no sexual partners since diagnosis. Mean time diagnosed was 69 months, range 4-191 months. Time since diagnosis was not associated with having had a sexual partner. 59% of women had a current sexual partner, half reporting intercourse in the past month. Infrequent sex (84%), avoidance (84%), non-communication (69%), and dysfunction (60%) were among the most prevalent sexual difficulties. Endorsement of HIV impaired sexual enjoyment was associated with reduced sexual frequency (p = 0.006) and sexual dysfunction (p = 0.042). Sexual dissatisfaction was associated with infrequency of sex (p = 0.037), avoidance (p = 0.02), and non-communication (p = 0.032). Clinically significant levels of anxiety and depression were reported in 60% and 38% of cases, respectively. Depression was associated with avoidance of sex and higher total GRISS scores (p = 0.006 and p = 0.042). 60% of respondents stated that they "always" used condoms; a trend was observed between reduced condom use and higher levels of depression and anxiety (p = 0.09 and p = 0.06, respectively). Sexual difficulties, including abstinence, were prevalent in this sample indicating the potential for interventions addressing the psychosexual needs of HIV positive women and their partners.

  13. Examining the relationship between local extinction risk and position in range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boakes, Elizabeth H; Isaac, Nicholas J B; Fuller, Richard A; Mace, Georgina M; McGowan, Philip J K

    2018-02-01

    Over half of globally threatened animal species have experienced rapid geographic range loss. Identifying the parts of species' distributions most vulnerable to local extinction would benefit conservation planning. However, previous studies give little consensus on whether ranges decline to the core or edge. We built on previous work by using empirical data to examine the position of recent local extinctions within species' geographic ranges, address range position as a continuum, and explore the influence of environmental factors. We aggregated point-locality data for 125 Galliform species from across the Palearctic and Indo-Malaya into equal-area half-degree grid cells and used a multispecies dynamic Bayesian occupancy model to estimate rates of local extinctions. Our model provides a novel approach to identify loss of populations from within species ranges. We investigated the relationship between extinction rates and distance from range edge by examining whether patterns were consistent across biogeographic realm and different categories of land use. In the Palearctic, local extinctions occurred closer to the range edge than range core in both unconverted and human-dominated landscapes. In Indo-Malaya, no pattern was found for unconverted landscapes, but in human-dominated landscapes extinctions tended to occur closer to the core than the edge. Our results suggest that local and regional factors override general spatial patterns of recent local extinction within species' ranges and highlight the difficulty of predicting the parts of a species' distribution most vulnerable to threat. © 2017 The Authors. Conservation Biology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Society for Conservation Biology.

  14. Do rewardless orchids show a positive relationship between phenotypic diversity and reproductive success?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smithson, Ann; Juillet, Nicolas; Macnair, Mark R; Gigord, Luc D B

    2007-02-01

    Among rewardless orchids, pollinator sampling behavior has been suggested to drive a positive relationship between population phenotypic variability and absolute reproductive success, and hence population fitness. We tested this hypothesis by constructing experimental arrays using the rewardless orchid Dactylorhiza sambucina, which is dimorphic for corolla color. We found no evidence that polymorphic arrays had higher mean reproductive success than monomorphic arrays for pollinia removal, pollen deposition, or fruit set. For pollinia removal, monomorphic yellow arrays had significantly greater reproductive success, and monomorphic red the least. A tendency for yellow arrays to have higher pollen deposition was also found. We argue that differential population fitness was most likely to reflect differential numbers of pollinators attracted to arrays, through preferential long-distance attraction to arrays with yellow inflorescences. Correlative studies of absolute reproductive success in 52 populations of D. sambucina supported our experimental results. To our knowledge this is the first study to suggest that attraction of a greater number of pollinators to rewardless orchids may be of greater functional importance to population fitness, and thus ecology and conservation, than are the behavioral sequences of individual pollinators.

  15. Family Adversity, Positive Peer Relationships, and Children's Externalizing Behavior: A Longitudinal Perspective on Risk and Resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criss, Michael M.; Pettit, Gregory S.; Bates, John E.; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Lapp, Amie L.

    2009-01-01

    Peer acceptance and friendships were examined as moderators in the link between family adversity and child externalizing behavioral problems. Data on family adversity (i.e., ecological disadvantage, violent marital conflict, and harsh discipline) and child temperament and social information processing were collected during home visits from 585 families with 5-year-old children. Children's peer acceptance, friendship, and friends' aggressiveness were assessed with sociometric methods in kindergarten and grade 1. Teachers provided ratings of children's externalizing behavior problems in grade 2. Peer acceptance served as a moderator for all three measures of family adversity, and friendship served as a moderator for harsh discipline. Examination of regression slopes indicated that family adversity was not significantly associated with child externalizing behavior at high levels of positive peer relationships. These moderating effects generally were not qualified by child gender, ethnicity, or friends' aggressiveness, nor were they accounted for by child temperament or social information-processing patterns. The need for process-oriented studies of risk and protective factors is stressed. PMID:12146744

  16. The Relationship between Coach Leadership, the Coach-Athlete Relationship, Team Success, and the Positive Developmental Experiences of Adolescent Soccer Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vella, Stewart A.; Oades, Lindsay G.; Crowe, Trevor P.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The goals of participation youth sports are primarily concerned with the facilitation of positive youth development as opposed to outright success. Consequently, there are strong theoretical and empirical links between sports coaching and athlete development. Transformational leadership behaviours, in particular, have been…

  17. Perceived positive teacher-student relationship as a protective factor for Chinese left-behind children's emotional and behavioural adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan; Li, Xiaowei; Chen, Li; Qu, Zhiyong

    2015-10-01

    Using cross-sectional data collected in rural communities of two provinces of China, this study examined the protective role of perceived positive teacher-student relationship for Chinese left-behind children. The participants included 1442 children with a mean age of 14.13 classified into two groups: a left-behind group (104 boys and 110 girls) and a comparison group (588 boys and 640 girls). Self-reported questionnaires concerning self-esteem, depression, problem behaviours and the teacher-student relationship were administered. Relative to the comparison group, after controlling for age, gender and family socioeconomic status, the left-behind group was disadvantaged in terms of self-esteem and depression but not in problem behaviours. As hypothesised, the results of regression analyses indicated that teacher-student relationship positively predicted self-esteem and negatively predicted depression and problem behaviours for both groups. Moreover, the association between teacher-student relationship and depression was stronger among the left-behind group, suggesting that left-behind children were more responsive to the positive effect of a desired teacher-student relationship. Taken together, the results of our study support the idea that perceived positive teacher-student relationship may serve as a protective factor for left-behind children. Practical implications and limitations of the present study are discussed. © 2014 International Union of Psychological Science.

  18. To be or not to be positive: Development of a tool to assess the relationship of negative, positive, and realistic thinking with psychological distress in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Émilie; Savard, Josée; Gagnon, Pierre; Savard, Marie-Hélène; Ivers, Hans; Foldes-Busque, Guillaume

    2016-12-01

    There is a widespread belief that positive thinking is a key strategy to cope with cancer. While dispositional optimism is associated with lower psychological distress, the literature supporting the efficacy of cognitive-behavioral therapy indirectly suggests that realistic thinking is also effective. This article describes the development of the Thoughts and Anticipations about Cancer questionnaire designed to directly compare the effect of realistic thinking versus positive thinking on adjustment to cancer. Preliminary data on its relationships with psychological distress gathered in 10 breast cancer patients are promising. The validity of the Thoughts and Anticipations about Cancer questionnaire will need to be confirmed in larger studies.

  19. Relationship between deprotection and film thickness loss during plasma etching of positive tone chemically amplified resists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahorowala, A.P.; Medeiros, D.R.

    2001-01-01

    Positive tone chemically amplified (CA) resists have demonstrated the sensitivity, contrast, and resolution necessary to print state-of-the-art subwavelength features using 248 nm and more recently 193 nm lithography. These materials are also being considered for printing sub-100 nm features with 157 nm and next-generation lithography technologies such as extreme ultraviolet and electron beam projection lithography. The basis for solubility differential and image formation in these resists is the acid catalyzed deprotection of labile protecting groups of an inherently base soluble polymer. The deprotection is effected by the photochemical generation of strong acid during the exposure process. Such acid-catalyzed deprotection reactions can also occur in unexposed resist areas when etched in a plasma. This can be due to UV exposure, high-energy ion bombardment, elevated substrate temperatures, or interaction of the resist surface with plasma species to form acidic moieties. Deprotection has been associated with resist mass loss and film shrinkage during plasma etching, leaving inadequate masking material for the entire etch step. In this article, we report the film thickness loss of several unexposed CA resists as a function of etch time in a variety of plasmas and correlate these data with film composition, monitored by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. These results are compared with theoretical predictions based on generally accepted deprotection mechanisms. Our findings indicate that the 'acidic' nature of certain plasmas such as Cl 2 /O 2 can result in deprotection in the resist film, even in the absence of a photoacid generator. Additionally, the data suggest that the nature of the resist polymer and, in turn, the identity of the deprotection products directly influence resist mass loss and etch rate linearity, both of which can be controlled by careful selection of resist materials

  20. Is the Relationship between Race and Continuous Positive Airway Pressure Adherence Mediated by Sleep Duration?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billings, Martha E.; Rosen, Carol L.; Wang, Rui; Auckley, Dennis; Benca, Ruth; Foldvary-Schaefer, Nancy; Iber, Conrad; Zee, Phyllis; Redline, Susan; Kapur, Vishesh K.

    2013-01-01

    ://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT00642486. NIH clinical trials registry number: NCT00642486. Citation: Billings ME; Rosen CL; Wang R; Auckley D; Benca R; Foldvary-Schaefer N; Iber C; Zee P; Redline S; Kapur VK. Is the relationship between race and continuous positive airway pressure adherence mediated by sleep duration? SLEEP 2013;36(2):221-227. PMID:23372269

  1. Relationship between job stress, occupational position and job satisfaction using a brief job stress questionnaire (BJSQ).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawada, Tomoyuki; Otsuka, Toshiaki

    2011-01-01

    Subjects with higher occupational position are speculated to have higher ability to handle with stress, and they were less affected by job stress. This study focused on the relationship between job satisfaction and three sub-scales of a brief job stress questionnaire (BJSQ) related to workload. This self-administered questionnaire was distributed to 371 employees of a company, and all the workers sent back their responses. Among the 57 items graded on a 4-point Likert-type scale to measure job stressors, psycho-physical complaints, and support for workers, the authors studied the influence of quantitative and qualitative job overload (six items), job control (three items), and support port (six items). The job satisfaction score estimated on a 4-point Likert-type scale was also used in relation to job stress determined using a 15-item scale from the BJSQ based on demand-control-support model. Occupational positions were classified into directors, managers, and general workers, and the content of job was classified into clerical workers, skilled technicians, and unskilled manual workers. All the scales on job stress presented acceptable alpha coefficients reflecting high internal consistency (job demand: 0.855, job control: 0.644, and support: 0.878, respectively). Principal axis factor analysis was conducted, and three factors were extracted; support, job demand and job control. There was a significant difference in the mean score among four groups divided by the job satisfaction level as evaluated by Dunnett's multiple comparison, and members who were dissatisfied with their job showed a high job demand, limited job control, and poor support. The mean score of support for managers were significantly higher (lower support) than that for general workers. The logistic regression analysis revealed that job control and support contributed significantly to job satisfaction. In addition, unskilled manual workers showed significantly higher job dissatisfaction compared

  2. Positive relationship between p42.3 gene and inflammation in chronic non-atrophic gastritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ping; Cui, Yun; Fu, Qing Yan; Lu, You Yong; Fang, Jing Yuan; Chen, Xiao Yu

    2015-10-01

    Gastric cancer (GC) is a typical type of inflammation-related tumor. The p42.3 gene is shown to be highly expressed in GC, but its association with gastritis remains unknown. We aimed to explore the relationship between gastric inflammation and p42.3 gene in vitro and in vivo. Normal gastric epithelial cells (GES-1) were treated with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α. Total cell mRNA and protein were extracted and collected, and polymerase chain reaction and Western blot were performed to determine the relative expression of p42.3 gene. In total, 291 biopsy samples from patients with chronic non-atrophic gastritis were collected and immunohistochemistry was used to measure the p42.3 protein expression. The association between p42.3 protein expression and the clinicopathological characteristics of these patients were analyzed. Both H. pylori and TNF-α significantly enhanced the p42.3 protein expression in GES-1 cells in a time and dose-dependent manner. In addition, p42.3 gene expression was positively associated with the severity of gastric mucosal inflammation and H. pylori infection (P = 0.000). Its expression was significantly more common in severe gastric inflammation and in H. pylori-infected cases. p42.3 gene expression is associated with gastric mucosal inflammation that can be upregulated by TNF-α and H. pylori infection. © 2015 Chinese Medical Association Shanghai Branch, Chinese Society of Gastroenterology, Renji Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  3. Relationship between respiratory impedance and positive end-expiratory pressure in mechanically ventilated neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dellacà, Raffaele L; Veneroni, C; Vendettuoli, V; Zannin, E; Matassa, P G; Pedotti, A; Colnaghi, M; Mosca, F

    2013-03-01

    To evaluate the feasibility of forced oscillation technique (FOT) measurements at the bedside and to describe the relationship between positive end-expiration pressure (PEEP) and lung mechanics in different groups of ventilated infants. Twenty-eight infants were studied: 5 controls, 16 newborns with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) and 7 chronically ventilated newborns that developed bronchopulmonary dysplasia. An incremental/decremental PEEP trial was performed by changing PEEP in 1-min steps of 1 cmH(2)O between 2 and 10 cmH(2)O. Forced oscillations at 5 Hz were superimposed on the ventilator waveform. Pressure and flow, measured at the inlet of the ETT, were used to compute resistance (Rrs) and reactance (Xrs). In controls Rrs and Xrs were on average 41 ± 21 and -22 ± 6 cmH(2)O s/l respectively and were almost unaffected by PEEP. RDS infants presented similar Rrs (48 ± 25 cmH(2)O s/l) and reduced Xrs (-71 ± 19 cmH(2)O s/l) at the beginning of the trial. Two behaviours were observed as PEEP was increased: in extremely low birth weight infants Xrs decreased with PEEP with marked hysteresis; in very low and low birth weight infants Xrs and Rrs were less PEEP dependent. Chronically ventilated infants had very high Rrs and very negative Xrs values at very low PEEPs (121 ± 41 and -95 ± 13 cmH(2)O s/l at PEEP = 2 cmH(2)O) that markedly changed as PEEP exceeded 3-4 cmH(2)O. Rrs and Xrs measurement in preterm newborns is feasible, and data are representative of the lung mechanics and very sensitive to its changes with PEEP, making FOT a promising technique for the non-invasive bedside titration of mechanical ventilation in preterm newborns.

  4. The Relationship between Sexual Trauma, Peritraumatic Dissociation, PTSD, and HIV-Related Health in HIV-Positive Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yiaslas, Themis A.; Kamen, Charles; Arteaga, Ana; Lee, Susanne; Briscoe-Smith, Allison; Koopman, Cheryl; Gore-Felton, Cheryl

    2014-01-01

    This study tested a novel extension of Schnurr and Green’s (2004) model of the relationships between trauma symptoms and health outcomes, with the specific application to HIV-positive men. A diverse sample of 167 HIV-positive men recruited from San Francisco Bay Area HIV Clinics completed demographic, medical, trauma history and symptom questionnaires. Mediation analyses were conducted using the method proposed by Baron and Kenny (1986). Regression analyses found sexual revictimization (SR) significantly mediated the relationship between child sexual abuse (CSA) and peritraumatic dissociation (PD) and PD mediated the relationship between SR and current posttraumatic stress (PTS) symptom severity. PTS symptoms partially mediated the relationship between SR and current HIV symptom severity. The findings indicate that among HIV-positive men, sexually revictimized men constitute a vulnerable group that is prone to peritraumatic dissociation, which places them at risk for posttraumatic stress disorder and worsened HIV-related health. Furthermore, traumatic stress symptoms were associated with worse HIV-related symptoms, suggesting that PTS symptoms mediate the link between trauma and health outcomes. This study highlights the need for future research to identify the bio-behavioral mediators of the PTSD-health relationship in HIV-positive individuals. PMID:24354509

  5. Positive Psychology Interventions Addressing Pleasure, Engagement, Meaning, Positive Relationships, and Accomplishment Increase Well-Being and Ameliorate Depressive Symptoms: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Online Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gander, Fabian; Proyer, René T; Ruch, Willibald

    2016-01-01

    Seligman (2002) suggested three paths to well-being, the pursuit of pleasure, the pursuit of meaning, and the pursuit of engagement, later adding two more, positive relationships and accomplishment, in his 2011 version. The contribution of these new components to well-being has yet to be addressed. In an online positive psychology intervention study, we randomly assigned 1624 adults aged 18-78 (M = 46.13; 79.2% women) to seven conditions. Participants wrote down three things they related to either one of the five components of Seligman's Well-Being theory (Conditions 1-5), all of the five components (Condition 6) or early childhood memories (placebo control condition). We assessed happiness (AHI) and depression (CES-D) before and after the intervention, and 1-, 3-, and 6 months afterwards. Additionally, we considered moderation effects of well-being levels at baseline. Results confirmed that all interventions were effective in increasing happiness and most ameliorated depressive symptoms. The interventions worked best for those in the middle-range of the well-being continuum. We conclude that interventions based on pleasure, engagement, meaning, positive relationships, and accomplishment are effective strategies for increasing well-being and ameliorating depressive symptoms and that positive psychology interventions are most effective for those people in the middle range of the well-being continuum.

  6. Positive Psychology Interventions Addressing Pleasure, Engagement, Meaning, Positive Relationships, and Accomplishment Increase Well-Being and Ameliorate Depressive Symptoms: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Online Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gander, Fabian; Proyer, René T.; Ruch, Willibald

    2016-01-01

    Seligman (2002) suggested three paths to well-being, the pursuit of pleasure, the pursuit of meaning, and the pursuit of engagement, later adding two more, positive relationships and accomplishment, in his 2011 version. The contribution of these new components to well-being has yet to be addressed. In an online positive psychology intervention study, we randomly assigned 1624 adults aged 18–78 (M = 46.13; 79.2% women) to seven conditions. Participants wrote down three things they related to either one of the five components of Seligman's Well-Being theory (Conditions 1–5), all of the five components (Condition 6) or early childhood memories (placebo control condition). We assessed happiness (AHI) and depression (CES-D) before and after the intervention, and 1-, 3-, and 6 months afterwards. Additionally, we considered moderation effects of well-being levels at baseline. Results confirmed that all interventions were effective in increasing happiness and most ameliorated depressive symptoms. The interventions worked best for those in the middle-range of the well-being continuum. We conclude that interventions based on pleasure, engagement, meaning, positive relationships, and accomplishment are effective strategies for increasing well-being and ameliorating depressive symptoms and that positive psychology interventions are most effective for those people in the middle range of the well-being continuum. PMID:27242600

  7. The Power of Positivity: Predictors of Relationship Satisfaction for Parents of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekas, Naomi V.; Timmons, Lisa; Pruitt, Megan; Ghilain, Christine; Alessandri, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The current study uses the actor-partner interdependence model to examine the predictors of relationship satisfaction for mothers and fathers of children with autism spectrum disorder. Sixty-seven couples completed measures of optimism, benefit finding, coping strategies, social support, and relationship satisfaction. Results indicated that…

  8. Differentiating Three Conceptualisations of the Relationship between Positive Development and Psychopathology during the Transition to Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Meredith; Sanson, Ann; Hawkins, Mary T.; Toumbourou, John W.; Letcher, Primrose; Frydenberg, Erica

    2011-01-01

    The transition to adulthood is characterised by both great potential for positive change and a relatively high incidence of problem outcomes. A multidimensional model of positive development during the transition to adulthood (at 19-20 years) has recently been proposed. However, an unresolved question regarding the nature of positive development…

  9. Structure–Activity Relationship of Oligomeric Flavan-3-ols: Importance of the Upper-Unit B-ring Hydroxyl Groups in the Dimeric Structure for Strong Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshitomo Hamada

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Proanthocyanidins, which are composed of oligomeric flavan-3-ol units, are contained in various foodstuffs (e.g., fruits, vegetables, and drinks and are strongly biologically active compounds. We investigated which element of the proanthocyanidin structure is primarily responsible for this functionality. In this study, we elucidate the importance of the upper-unit of 4–8 condensed dimeric flavan-3-ols for antimicrobial activity against Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae and cervical epithelioid carcinoma cell line HeLa S3 proliferation inhibitory activity. To clarify the important constituent unit of proanthocyanidin, we synthesized four dimeric compounds, (−-epigallocatechin-[4,8]-(+-catechin, (−-epigallocatechin-[4,8]-(−-epigallocatechin, (−-epigallocatechin-[4,8]-(−-epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate, and (+-catechin-[4,8]-(−-epigallocatechin and performed structure–activity relationship (SAR studies. In addition to antimicrobial activity against S. cerevisiae and proliferation inhibitory activity on HeLa S3 cells, the correlation of 2,2-diphenyl-l-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity with the number of phenolic hydroxyl groups was low. On the basis of the results of our SAR studies, we concluded that B-ring hydroxyl groups of the upper-unit of the dimer are crucially important for strong and effective activity.

  10. Relationships between meaning in life, social and achievement events, and positive and negative affect in daily life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machell, Kyla A; Kashdan, Todd B; Short, Jerome L; Nezlek, John B

    2015-06-01

    Research on meaning in life has generally focused on global meaning judgments. This study examined how people's daily experiences, represented by events that occur in daily life, influence their perceived sense of meaning on a daily basis. One hundred sixty-two college students completed daily reports for 2 weeks. We examined the relationships among daily social and achievement events, daily positive and negative affect, and daily meaning in life. In addition, we tested the possible moderating influence of depressive symptoms on these relationships. Positive daily social and achievement events were related to greater daily meaning, above and beyond the contributions of daily positive and negative affect. Negative social and achievement events were related to less daily meaning, and negative achievement events covaried with daily meaning above and beyond positive and negative affect. Depression moderated the relationships between positive events and meaning, such that people who reported more depressive symptoms had greater increases in daily meaning in response to positive social and achievement events than individuals who reported fewer symptoms. These findings suggest the important role that daily events may play in fluctuations in people's affective experiences and sense of meaning in life. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. [Relationship between serum level of uric acid and benign paroxysmal positional vertigo].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Junliang; Chen, Yili; Chen, Yudan; Niu, Shiqin; Li, Shujuan; Dong, Qian; Hu, Wenli

    2015-02-03

    To confirm the possible relationships between serum level of uric acid (UA) and benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV). A total of 87 patients with BPPV and 36 age- and gender-matched control subjects were recruited from our hospital between July 1, 2013 and July 1, 2014. All patients underwent a complete audio-vestibular test battery, such as Dix-Hallpike maneuver for posterior semicircular canal and supine roll test for horizontal semicircular canal. All risk factors such as the histories of heart and cerebral vascular diseases, and routine hematological and biochemical analyses were analyzed between two groups. No significant inter-group differences existed in age, gender, histories of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, coronary heart disease, smoking or drinking (P > 0.05). No significant differences existed between systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, ejection fraction, whole blood count, lipid profile, homocysteine, prealbumin and blood urea nitrogen in patients with BPPV compared with controls (P >0. 05). However, the values of UA (267 ± 86 vs 325 ± 75) µmol/L, hemoglobin ale (5.6 ± 1. 4 vs 6.5 ± 1. 0)%, albumin (36 ± 4 vs 40 ± 4) g/L and creatinine (72 ± 20 vs 81 ± 22) µmol/L were much lower in patients with BPPV versus controls (P < 0. 05). According to multiple Logistic regression model, the lower levels of hemoglobin ale and albumin were independently associated with BPPV (P <0. 05) with the odds ratio of 1. 473 (95% CI 1. 066 - 2. 037) and 1. 162 (95% CI 1. 025 - 1. 318), respectively. However, the level of UA was not independently correlated with the occurrence of BPPV [OR = 1. 005 (95% CI 1. 000 - 1. 011), P =0. 063]. The lower levels of hemoglobin alc and albumin are independently associated with BPPV. Although the value of UA is lower in patients with BPPV versus controls, it is not an independent risk factor for BPPV. Due to limited patient data, further studies are needed to clarify the association in a

  12. Men without a sense of smell exhibit a strongly reduced number of sexual relationships, women exhibit reduced partnership security - a reanalysis of previously published data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croy, Ilona; Bojanowski, Viola; Hummel, Thomas

    2013-02-01

    Olfactory function influences social behavior. For instance, olfaction seems to play a key role in mate choice and helps detecting emotions in other people. In a previous study, we showed that people who were born without a sense of smell exhibit enhanced social insecurity. Based on the comments to this article we decided to have a closer look to whether the absence of the sense of smell affects men and women differently. Under this focus questionnaire data of 32 patients, diagnosed with isolated congenital anosmia (10 men, 22 women) and 36 age-matched healthy controls (15 men, 21 women) was reanalyzed. In result, men and women without a sense of smell reported enhanced social insecurity, but with different consequences: Men who were born without a sense of smell exhibit a strongly reduced number of sexual relationships and women are affected such that they feel less secure about their partner. This emphasizes the importance of the sense of smell for intimate relationships. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Leading from the Centre: A Comprehensive Examination of the Relationship between Central Playing Positions and Leadership in Sport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haslam, S. Alexander; Mallett, Cliff J.; Steffens, Niklas K.; Peters, Kim; Boen, Filip

    2016-01-01

    Research aims The present article provides a comprehensive examination of the relationship between playing position and leadership in sport. More particularly, it explores links between leadership and a player’s interactional centrality—defined as the degree to which their playing position provides opportunities for interaction with other team members. This article examines this relationship across different leadership roles, team sex, and performance levels. Results Study 1 (N = 4443) shows that athlete leaders (and the task and motivational leader in particular) are more likely than other team members to occupy interactionally central positions in a team. Players with high interactional centrality were also perceived to be better leaders than those with low interactional centrality. Study 2 (N = 308) established this link for leadership in general, while Study 3 (N = 267) and Study 4 (N = 776) revealed that the same was true for task, motivational, and external leadership. This relationship is attenuated in sports where an interactionally central position confers limited interactional advantages. In other words, the observed patterns were strongest in sports that are played on a large field with relatively fixed positions (e.g., soccer), while being weaker in sports that are played on a smaller field where players switch positions dynamically (e.g., basketball, ice hockey). Beyond this, the pattern is broadly consistent across different sports, different sexes, and different levels of skill. Conclusions The observed patterns are consistent with the idea that positions that are interactionally central afford players greater opportunities to do leadership—either through communication or through action. Significantly too, they also provide a basis for them to be seen to do leadership by others on their team. Thus while it is often stated that “leadership is an action, not a position,” it is nevertheless the case that, when it comes to performing that

  14. Leading from the Centre: A Comprehensive Examination of the Relationship between Central Playing Positions and Leadership in Sport.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrien Fransen

    Full Text Available The present article provides a comprehensive examination of the relationship between playing position and leadership in sport. More particularly, it explores links between leadership and a player's interactional centrality-defined as the degree to which their playing position provides opportunities for interaction with other team members. This article examines this relationship across different leadership roles, team sex, and performance levels.Study 1 (N = 4443 shows that athlete leaders (and the task and motivational leader in particular are more likely than other team members to occupy interactionally central positions in a team. Players with high interactional centrality were also perceived to be better leaders than those with low interactional centrality. Study 2 (N = 308 established this link for leadership in general, while Study 3 (N = 267 and Study 4 (N = 776 revealed that the same was true for task, motivational, and external leadership. This relationship is attenuated in sports where an interactionally central position confers limited interactional advantages. In other words, the observed patterns were strongest in sports that are played on a large field with relatively fixed positions (e.g., soccer, while being weaker in sports that are played on a smaller field where players switch positions dynamically (e.g., basketball, ice hockey. Beyond this, the pattern is broadly consistent across different sports, different sexes, and different levels of skill.The observed patterns are consistent with the idea that positions that are interactionally central afford players greater opportunities to do leadership-either through communication or through action. Significantly too, they also provide a basis for them to be seen to do leadership by others on their team. Thus while it is often stated that "leadership is an action, not a position," it is nevertheless the case that, when it comes to performing that action, some positions are more

  15. The Mediation Effect of School Satisfaction in the Relationship between Teacher Support, Positive Affect and Life Satisfaction in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telef, Bülent Baki; Arslan, Gökmen; Mert, Abdullah; Kalafat, Sezai

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the relationships among teacher support, positive emotions, school satisfaction and life satisfaction in adolescences. The study had the participation of 344 adolescents from different socio-economic levels studying in the sixth, seventh and eighth grades of three public middle schools in the province of…

  16. Positive and Negative Affectivity as Mediator and Moderator of the Relationship between Optimism and Life Satisfaction in Turkish University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapikiran, Necla Acun

    2012-01-01

    The main purpose of this study is to examine the mediator and moderator role of positive and negative affectivity variables on the relationship between optimism and life satisfaction in university students. 397 university students, ranging in age from 18 to 27 (M = 20.98), attending different departments of the Faculty of Education, at Pamukkale…

  17. The Relationship between Positive Development and Psychopathology during the Transition to Adulthood: A Person-Centred Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Meredith; Sanson, Ann; Hawkins, Mary T.; Olsson, Craig; Frydenberg, Erica; Toumbourou, John W.; Letcher, Primrose

    2012-01-01

    The transition to adulthood is characterised by potential for both positive development and problem outcomes such as psychopathology, yet little is known about relationships between the two. Given the diversity of pathways observed during this transition period, there is likely to be significant heterogeneity in young people's experiences of these…

  18. Exploring Relationships among Strengths Use, Spirituality, Religion and Positive Mental Health of College-Attending Emerging Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankin, Wendy M.

    2015-01-01

    This exploratory study examined the relationships among strengths use, spirituality, religion, and positive mental health of 109 traditional undergraduate, college-attending emerging adults in a public university in the southern region of the United States, often referred to as the Bible-Belt. Constructs of the study were guided by a student…

  19. Quantitative relationship between the maximum streamer length and discharge voltage of a pulsed positive streamer discharge in water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Xiaoqiong; Li, Qian; Li, Jingsen; Ren, Chunsheng

    2017-08-01

    A linear relationship has been realized between the maximum streamer length and discharge voltage of a pulsed positive streamer discharge by measuring the streamer length in water with conductivity of 100 μS cm-1 using high-speed photography. Based on Ohm’s law, a quantitative equation has been derived for the dependence of the maximum streamer length on the discharge voltage of a pulsed positive streamer discharge in water. According to the equation, our results suggest that the streamers spontaneously stop propagating through water due to the voltage at the streamer head dropping below the ignition voltage of a pulsed positive streamer discharge.

  20. The Association Between Positive Relationships with Adults and Suicide-Attempt Resilience in American Indian Youth in New Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    FitzGerald, Courtney A; Fullerton, Lynne; Green, Dan; Hall, Meryn; Peñaloza, Linda J

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the 2013 New Mexico Youth Risk and Resiliency Survey (NM-YRRS) to determine whether cultural connectedness and positive relationships with adults protected against suicide attempts among American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) youth and whether these relationships differed by gender. The sample included 2,794 AI/AN students in grades 9 to 12 who answered the question about past-year suicide attempts. Protective factor variables tested included relationships with adults at home, school, and the community. The language spoken at home was used as a proxy measure for cultural connectedness. Positive relationships with adults were negatively associated with the prevalence of past-year suicide attempts in bivariate analysis. However, language spoken at home was not associated with the prevalence of suicide attempts. Multivariate analysis showed that among girls, relationships with adults at home, at school, and in the community were independently associated with lower suicide-attempt prevalence. Among boys, only relationships with adults at home showed such an association. These results have important implications for the direction of future research about protective factors associated with AI/AN youth suicide risk as well as in the design of suicide intervention and prevention programs.

  1. Paradoxical Relationship between the Amount of Negative eWOM Messages and Positive Consumer Attitude

    OpenAIRE

    Mai Kikumori; Akinori Ono

    2013-01-01

    Most research has shown that positive electric word-of-mouth (e-WOM) has positive effects, while negative e-WOM has negative effects on consumer attitude towards a product. However, negative e-WOM may have positive impacts rather than negative impacts. Using ANOVA in three experiments, this study found that negative e-WOM can have a positive impact on consumer attitude under some conditions, including when the e-WOM is in regard to hedonic products, when expert consumers read attribute-centri...

  2. The Relationship between Positive Well-Being and Academic Assessment: Results from a Prospective Study on Dental Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Teodora Preoteasa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Presumably, the academic stress that builds throughout the academic year has a negative effect on dental students’ psychological well-being and may have a relationship with academic performance. This research aimed to analyse the variation of positive well-being in second-year dental students, across the academic semester, in relation to consecutive examinations as part of academic assessment system (1 and to observe the relationship between academic performance during semester evaluation period and dental students’ positive well-being (2. Methods. A prospective study was conducted on second-year dental students, data on positive well-being being collected with WHO-Five Well-Being Index (WHO-5, at the beginning of the semester and after three consecutive mandatory examinations. Results. One hundred and forty-six dental students were included (77% response rate. Repeated ANOVA showed a significant progressive decline of positive well-being over the semester, which was clinically significant for an important part of them. Students who performed better in the semester evaluation period registered higher well-being levels at the beginning of the semester but a more pronounced decline of it until the semester evaluation period. Conclusion. Based on this research, a relationship between positive well-being, academic assessments, and academic performance is suggested, when evaluating them in a prospective frame.

  3. The affective tie that binds: Examining the contribution of positive emotions and anxiety to relationship formation in social anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Charles T; Pearlstein, Sarah L; Stein, Murray B

    2017-06-01

    Individuals with social anxiety disorder (SAD) have difficulty forming social relationships. The prevailing clinical perspective is that negative emotions such as anxiety inhibit one's capacity to develop satisfying social connections. However, empirical findings from social psychology and affective neuroscience suggest that positive emotional experiences are fundamental to establishing new social bonds. To reconcile these perspectives, we collected repeated measurements of anxiety, positive emotions (pleasantness), and connectedness over the course of a controlled relationship formation encounter in 56 participants diagnosed with SAD (64% female; M age =23.3, SD=4.7). Participants experienced both increases in positive emotions and decreases in anxiety throughout the interaction. Change in positive emotions was the most robust predictor of subsequent increases in connectedness, as well as a greater desire to engage one's partner in future social activities, above and beyond reductions in anxiety (medium to large sized effects). Those findings suggest that anxiety-based models alone may not fully explain difficulties in relationship formation in SAD, and underscore the potential value of considering positive emotional experiences in conceptual and treatment models of SAD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Authors’ Financial Relationships With the Food and Beverage Industry and Their Published Positions on the Fat Substitute Olestra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Jane; Gussow, Joan Dye; Hastings, Diane; Eccher, Amy

    2003-01-01

    Objectives. This study examined the association between authors’ published positions on the safety and efficacy in assisting with weight loss of the Procter & Gamble (P&G) fat substitute olestra and their financial relationships with the food and beverage industry. Methods. Journal articles about olestra, and their authors, were classified as supportive, critical, or neutral with respect to its use. Authors not known to have industry affiliations were surveyed about their financial relationships. Results. Supportive authors were significantly more likely than critical or neutral authors to have financial relationships with P&G (80% vs 11% and 21%, respectively; P < .0001). All authors disclosing an affiliation with P&G were supportive. Conclusions. Because authors’ published opinions were associated with their financial relationships, obtaining noncommercial funding may be more essential to maintaining objectivity than disclosing personal financial interests. PMID:12660215

  5. Longitudinal Perspectives of Child Positive Impact on Families: Relationship to Disability and Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blacher, Jan; Begum, Gazi F.; Marcoulides, George A.; Baker, Bruce L.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined mothers' perceptions of the positive impact of having a child with an intellectual disability. Trajectories of positive impact from 7 time points were developed using latent growth modeling and 2 predictors: culture (Anglo, Latino) and child disability status (intellectual disability, typical development). Data were from 219…

  6. Positive Psychology Course and Its Relationship to Well-Being, Depression, and Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodmon, Leilani B.; Middleditch, Ashlea M.; Childs, Bethany; Pietrasiuk, Stacey E.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of a positive psychology course on student well-being, depressive symptoms, and stress in a repeated measure, nonequivalent control design. As hypothesized, the positive psychology students reported higher overall happiness, life satisfaction, routes to happiness, and lower depressive…

  7. Positive linear dose-response relationships, but no J-shaped relationship, between drinking habits and estimated glomerular filtration rate in middle-aged Japanese men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirai, Yoshiro; Kuriki, Kiyonori; Endoh, Kaori; Miyauchi, Rie; Kasezawa, Nobuhiko; Tohyama, Kazushige; Goda, Toshinao

    2016-03-01

    The relationship between drinking frequency and amount of alcohol consumption (i.e., drinking habits) and the risk of chronic kidney disease (CKD) remains unclear. We aimed to clarify either a linear or J-shaped dose-response relationship between drinking habits and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) as a biomarker for identifying individuals at high risk of CKD. In a large-scale cross-sectional study, 403 men and 121 women with an eGFR of 30-60 mL/min per 1.73 m(2) were defined as cases, and 1209 men and 363 women with ≥60 mL/min/1.73 m(2) were randomly extracted as controls (one case subject was matched with three control subjects, matched according to age and season of data collection). We calculated multivariate-adjusted CKD risk and the corresponding mean eGFR according to drinking habits. In men, negative and positive linear relationships with drinking habits were found for CKD risk and mean eGFR (p alcohol consumption, respectively). In women, no association was found. Regarding each drinking habit, we found a positive linear dose-response relationship to eGFR in middle-aged men with an eGFR ≥30 mL/min/1.73 m(2). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Absence of Granzyme B Positive Tumour-Infiltrating Lymphocytes in Primary Melanoma Excisional Biopsies is Strongly Associated with the Presence of Sentinel Lymph Node Metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. S. van Houdt

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sentinel Lymph Node (SLN status is strongly related to clinical outcome in melanoma patients. In this study we investigated the possible association between the presence of activated and/or suppressive Tumour Infiltrating Lymphocytes (TILs and SLN status in clinically stage I/II melanoma patients.

  9. Recall or evaluation of chess positions revisited: the relationship between memory and evaluation in chess skill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultetus, R S; Charness, N

    1999-01-01

    We extend work by Holding and Reynolds (1982) on recall and problem solving with quasirandom chess positions. We tested 17 chess players on both quasirandom and structured chess positions. Consistent with the earlier study, initial recall of quasirandom chess positions is unrelated to chess skill level, and quality of the move selected in subsequent problem solving is related to skill level. However, recall following problem solving is related to chess skill level. These results support the view that pattern recognition processes underlie superior performance by skilled chess players, contrary to the conclusions of Holding and Reynolds (1982). Mechanisms such as long-term working memory retrieval structures (Ericsson & Kintsch, 1995) or templates (Gobet & Simon, 1996a) could explain the effective encoding of quasirandom positions during problem solving.

  10. Effects of Positioning Aids on Understanding the Relationship Between a Mobile Map and the Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juho Kässi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Positioning technologies such as GPS enable mobile map applications to display a symbol representing an estimation of a user’s location on a mobile map, therefore acting as a positioning aid. Previous research on the cognitive processes involved in map reading suggests that map readers need at least two map–environment points (objects that are visualized on the map and perceived in the environment for determining their location on a map. Hence, the positioning aid alone does not provide enough information for self-location. Using a field experiment, we assessed the effect of representing the user’s location on a map on the cognitive processes involved in self-location. The results show that positioning aids guide the search for map–environment points and narrow the area on the map that must be scanned for self-location.

  11. Positive Academic Emotions Moderate the Relationship between Self-Regulation and Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villavicencio, Felicidad T.; Bernardo, Allan B. I.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Research has shown how academic emotions are related to achievement and to cognitive/motivational variables that promote achievement. Mediated models have been proposed to account for the relationships among academic emotions, cognitive/motivational variables, and achievement, and research has supported such mediated models,…

  12. The relationship between TORCH complex false positivity and obstetric outcome in patients with antiphospholipid syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Carolis, S; Santucci, S; Botta, A; Salvi, S; Degennaro, V A; Garufi, C; Garofalo, S; Ferrazzani, S; Scambia, G

    2012-06-01

    The presence of TORCH IgM positivity is not a specific indicator of primary infection; the assessment of IgG avidity index has been shown to be useful in identifying or excluding primary infection in pregnant women with no pre-gestational TORCH serology. TORCH is an acronym for Toxoplasmosis, Others (HBV, syphilis, Varicella-Zoster virus, Epstein Barr virus, Coxsackie virus and Parvovirus), Rubella, Cytomegalovirus (CMV) and Herpes Simplex. Data from 54 pregnancies in women with antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) were assessed in comparison with data from 222 healthy pregnant women as controls. Each woman in both groups was systematically screened for TORCH IgG and IgM during pre-conceptional evaluation and/or at the beginning of pregnancy. The assessment of IgG avidity was also evaluated in order to identify primary infection or false positivity. A significant increase of CMV IgM false positivity in APS in comparison with controls was detected. A worse pregnancy outcome was observed among APS patients having CMV IgM false positivity in comparison with APS patients without false positivity; in particular a statistically significant lower neonatal birth weight and a lower neonatal birth weight percentile were observed. Our data suggest that the presence of CMV IgM false positivity could represent a novel prognostic factor for poor pregnancy outcome in APS patients.

  13. A comprehensive study on the relationship between meaning and spirituality at work with job happiness, positive affect and job satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Golparvar

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Positive affectivity and affective management are among important issues for the most desirable effectiveness of employees in the workplace. Accordingly, in this research, the role of meaning and spirituality at workplace is considered for job happiness, positive affect and job satisfaction. To this end, within a correlation study, with the selection of two hundred and four employees of two custom organizations in Esfahan and Tehran, in Iran, who answer meaning and spirituality at work, job happiness, positive affect and job satisfaction questionnaires, the research hypotheses have been tested through Pearson's correlation and structural equation modeling. The results show that there were significant relationships between meaning and spirituality at work, job happiness, positive affect and job satisfaction. Results of structure equation modeling reveal that during two chain models, at first meaning and spirituality at work are linked to job happiness and positive effect. Then job happiness and positive effect cause reinforcement of job satisfaction. The results of this study showed that meaning and spirituality at work cause positive affective spillover from job happiness and positive affect to job satisfaction.

  14. The analysis of spatial relationship between the rotator cuff and the subacromial space in different arm positions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou Yuefen; Wang Dehang; Wang Xiaoning; Li Shener

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To explore the distance between the acromion and the humerus head at different arm abduction to observe whether it changes or not, to determine at which position the distance is smallest, and to evaluate the relationship between the subacromial space and the rotator cuff. Methods: Fifteen normal volunteers were examined with MRI in six arm positions, and the coronal thin images were obtained with a spin echo sequence. Using a special positioning device, the arm was placed at 0 degree, 30 degree, 60 degree, 90 degree, 120 degree and 150 degree arm abduction, respectively. Of them, 0 degree-90 degree positions were not rotated, while 120 degree and 150 degree positions were slight internal rotated. The minimal distance of acromion-humerus (A-H) and clavicle-humerus (C-H), and the spatial relationship between the rotator cuff and the subacromial space were measured and observed. Results: The values of A-H and C-H at 60 degree - 150 degree arm abduction were obviously smaller than those at 0 degree-30 degree arm abduction (P 0.05). The rotator cuff (mainly supraspinatus tendon) just went through between the acromion and the humerus at 60 degree - 120 degree arm positions but not at 0 degree, 30 degree and 150 degree arm positions. So at 60 degree - 120 degree arm positions, rotator cuff between the humerus and the acromion was often impinged. Conclusion: The closest contact between the supraspinatus tendon and subacromial space occurs at 60 degree - 120 degree abduction. The findings testify that the patients with impingement syndrome have shoulder pain at 60 degree - 120 degree abduction in clinic from etiology and pathology. In the future, MRI-based analyses should allow investigating the morphological basis of the impingement syndrome, choosing the appropriate therapy, and minimizing failure rates of surgery

  15. Relationship between clinical features and therapeutic approach for benign paroxysmal positional vertigo outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuka, K; Ogawa, Y; Inagaki, T; Shimizu, S; Konomi, U; Kondo, T; Suzuki, M

    2013-10-01

    To examine the clinical features, age and gender distribution of patients, treatment methods, and outcomes of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo. This paper reports a review of 357 patients treated for this condition at a single institution over a duration of 5 years. Patients with posterior canal benign paroxysmal positional vertigo were divided into two groups: one group underwent the Epley manoeuvre and the other received medication. The lateral canal canalolithiasis patients were also divided into two groups: one underwent the Lempert manoeuvre and the other received medication. Lastly, the lateral canal cupulolithiasis patients were treated with medication and non-specific physical techniques. For patients with posterior canal benign paroxysmal positional vertigo, resolution time was significantly shorter in the Epley manoeuvre group than in the medication group. For the lateral canal canalolithiasis patients, resolution time was significantly shorter in the Lempert manoeuvre group than in the medication group. Resolution time was significantly longer in the lateral canal cupulolithiasis patients than in the other patients. The average age of patients increased with the number of recurrences, as did predominance in females. Average age and rate of sensorineural hearing loss were significantly higher in patients with intractable benign paroxysmal positional vertigo compared with those in the curable benign paroxysmal positional vertigo group.

  16. Connecting rules from paired miRNA and mRNA expression data sets of HCV patients to detect both inverse and positive regulatory relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Renhua; Liu, Qian; Liu, Tao; Li, Jinyan

    2015-01-01

    Intensive research based on the inverse expression relationship has been undertaken to discover the miRNA-mRNA regulatory modules involved in the infection of Hepatitis C virus (HCV), the leading cause of chronic liver diseases. However, biological studies in other fields have found that inverse expression relationship is not the only regulatory relationship between miRNAs and their targets, and some miRNAs can positively regulate a mRNA by binding at the 5' UTR of the mRNA. This work focuses on the detection of both inverse and positive regulatory relationships from a paired miRNA and mRNA expression data set of HCV patients through a 'change-to-change' method which can derive connected discriminatory rules. Our study uncovered many novel miRNA-mRNA regulatory modules. In particular, it was revealed that GFRA2 is positively regulated by miR-557, miR-765 and miR-17-3p that probably bind at different locations of the 5' UTR of this mRNA. The expression relationship between GFRA2 and any of these three miRNAs has not been studied before, although separate research for this gene and these miRNAs have all drawn conclusions linked to hepatocellular carcinoma. This suggests that the binding of mRNA GFRA2 with miR-557, miR-765, or miR-17-3p, or their combinations, is worthy of further investigation by experimentation. We also report another mRNA QKI which has a strong inverse expression relationship with miR-129 and miR-493-3p which may bind at the 3' UTR of QKI with a perfect sequence match. Furthermore, the interaction between hsa-miR-129-5p (previous ID: hsa-miR-129) and QKI is supported with CLIP-Seq data from starBase. Our method can be easily extended for the expression data analysis of other diseases. Our rule discovery method is useful for integrating binding information and expression profile for identifying HCV miRNA-mRNA regulatory modules and can be applied to the study of the expression profiles of other complex human diseases.

  17. EARLY POSTPARTUM PARENTAL PREOCCUPATION AND POSITIVE PARENTING THOUGHTS: RELATIONSHIP WITH PARENT–INFANT INTERACTION

    OpenAIRE

    KIM, PILYOUNG; MAYES, LINDA; FELDMAN, RUTH; LECKMAN, JAMES F.; SWAIN, JAMES E.

    2012-01-01

    Parenting behaviors and parent–infant emotional bonding during the early postpartum months play a critical role in infant development. However, the nature and progression of parental thoughts and their relationship with interactive behaviors have received less research. The current study investigated the trajectory of parental thoughts and behaviors among primiparous mothers (n = 18) and fathers (n = 15) and multiparous mothers (n = 13) and fathers (n = 13), which were measured at the first a...

  18. The Implicit Positive and Negative Affect Test : Validity and relationship with cardiovascular stress-responses.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van, der Ploeg M.M.; Brosschot, J.F.; Thayer, J.F.; Verkuil, B.

    2016-01-01

    Self-report, i.e., explicit, measures of affect cannot fully explain the cardiovascular (CV) responses to stressors. Measuring affect beyond self-report, i.e., using implicit measures, could add to our understanding of stress-related CV activity. The Implicit Positive and Negative Affect Test

  19. The Relationship between Identity-Related Constructs and Positive Mental Health in Black College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushonga, Dawnsha R.

    2017-01-01

    This cross-sectional, exploratory study examined positive mental health (PMH) in 156 Black college students, ages 18-25, attending Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs) and Predominantly White Institutions (PWIs). In addition, identity-related constructs such as spirituality, self-esteem, social support, life satisfaction, racial…

  20. Relationship between regional lung compliance and ventilation homogeneity in the supine and prone position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, R; Huang, Y; Chen, Q; Hui, X; Li, Y; Yu, Q; Zhao, H; Yang, Y; Qiu, H

    2012-10-01

    The prone position (PP) improves ventilation homogeneity in acute respiratory distress syndrome. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the alleviation of ventilation inhomogeneity in PP was due to changes in regional lung compliance. Ten lung-lavaged piglets were mechanically ventilated in supine position (SP) and in PP. In each position, positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) was reduced from 20 to 6 cmH(2)O in steps of 2 cmH(2)O every 10 min after full lung recruitment. Respiratory mechanics, blood gas, haemodynamic data and whole-lung computed tomography scans were recorded at each PEEP. The compliances of normally aerated (C(normal)) and newly recruited (C(recruited)) lung regions were calculated. Open lung PEEP (OL-PEEP) was defined as the lowest PEEP to maintain full lung recruitment. At OL-PEEP, PP significantly increased normally aerated lung regions, decreased poorly aerated and hyperinflated lung regions and decreased tidal recruitment and hyperinflation. C(normal) was significantly reduced in PP compared with SP (12.8 ± 4.2 ml/cmH(2)O vs. 20.1 ± 6.2 ml/cmH(2)O, P cmH(2)O vs. 9.4 ± 2.4 ml/cmH(2)O, P < 0.001). C(normal) was correlated with hyperinflated lung regions at end-expiration (rho = 0.67) and end-inspiration (rho = 0.56) at OL-PEEP. C(recruited) was correlated with normally (r(2) = 0.36) and poorly aerated lung regions (rho = -0.58) at OL-PEEP. This surfactant-depleted model shows that the improvement of ventilation homogeneity in PP is related to an increase in C(recruited) and a decrease in C(normal). © 2012 The Authors. Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica © 2012 The Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica Foundation.

  1. The relationship between intercourse preference positions and personality traits among gay men in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Lijun; Hart, Trevor A; Zheng, Yong

    2012-06-01

    Distinctions are commonly made regarding preferences for insertive or receptive anal intercourse within the gay male community. Three sexual self-labels are typically specified: "top," meaning a man who prefers the insertive position, "bottom," meaning a man who prefers the receptive position, and "versatile," meaning a man willing to perform either position. The aim of this study was to examine personality differences among these three groups in gay men in China. We sampled 220 Internet-obtained Chinese gay men on instrumentality, expressiveness, gender-related interests, self-ascribed masculinity- femininity (Self-MF), and Big Five personality traits. Significant differences were found among sexual self-label groups in sexual behavior and in gendered traits and interests. Tops scored higher than the bottoms on instrumentality, gender-related interests, and self-ascribed masculinity-femininity (Self-MF) and bottoms scored higher than tops on expressiveness. Versatiles' scores in gender-related traits were intermediate between that of tops and bottoms. There were no significant differences in Big Five traits among the three groups. Sexual self-labels appear not only to distinguish sexual behavior patterns but may also suggest gender role differences among Chinese gay men.

  2. Relationship between the positions of impacted third molars and the presence of dentigerous cysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda da Rosa, Francinne; Oliveira, Marcia Gaiger; Palmeira da Silva, Viviane; Rados, Pantelis Varvaki; Sant'Ana Filho, Manoel

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the association between the histopathological diagnoses of dentigerous cysts and pericoronal follicles and the positions of impacted third molars. The sample comprised 151 cases, diagnosed as dentigerous cysts and pericoronal follicles. Most patients were female (70.9%), white (90.1%), and age 20 years or older (63.6%). Ninety-eight cases (64.9%) were diagnosed as pericoronal follicles and 53 (35.1%) as dentigerous cysts. Teeth that developed dentigerous cysts were predominantly located in the mandible (84.9%), in a mesioangular position (49.1%), and in the 20- to 29-year age group (66.0%). The mandible seems to be the most frequent location of impacted teeth, probably because mandibular tooth eruption is more difficult, as well as dentigerous cysts, probably because the long duration of impaction increases the exposure to inflammatory stimuli and, thus, the potential for formation of dentigerous cysts. The findings also suggest that the incidence of dentigerous cysts tends to increase with age, especially for mandibular teeth in mesioangular positions.

  3. Cancer patients' experience of positive and negative changes due to the illness : relationships with psychological well-being, coping, and goal reengagement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schroevers, Maya J.; Kraaij, Vivian; Garnefski, Nadia

    Objective: Most studies in cancer patients on psychological changes focused on positive changes (so-called 'posttraumatic growth'), with surprisingly little attention on the possibility that patients may experience both positive and negative changes. This study investigated the relationship between

  4. Relationship between lower limb position and pelvic floor muscle surface electromyography activity in menopausal women: a prospective observational study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halski, Tomasz; Ptaszkowski, Kuba; Słupska, Lucyna; Dymarek, Robert; Paprocka-Borowicz, Małgorzata

    2017-01-01

    Objectives In physiotherapeutic practice, special attention is being given to the reciprocal anatomical, physiological, and biomechanical relationship of the pelvis and the structures connected to it. However, the scientific literature shows mainly the theoretical information about their mutual connections. The lack of information about these relations from a practical aspect coupled with the paucity of scientific papers on the impact of posture changes on the pelvic floor led the authors to conduct this study. The primary aim of this study was to compare the resting and functional bioelectrical activities of pelvic floor muscles (PFMs) depending on three different positions of the lower limbs (positions A, B, and C) in the supine position. Materials and methods This was a prospective observational study evaluating resting and functional activities of the PFM depending on the position of the lower limbs. The study was carried out at the Department and Clinic of Urology, University Hospital in Wroclaw, Poland and the target group were women in the menopausal period. Bioelectrical activity of PFM was recorded using a surface electromyographic instrument in the supine position. Results of the values obtained in A, B, and C positions were compared using a one-way analysis of variance. Results In position A, the average resting surface electromyography (sEMG) activity of PFM was 6.9±2.6 µV; in position B, the result was 6.9±2.5 µV and in position C, the resting sEMG activity was 5.7±1.8 µV (P=0.0102). The results of the functional bioelectrical activity of PFM were as follows: position A – 20.3±11.8 µV, position B – 19.9±10.6 µV, and position C – 25.3±10.9 µV (P=0.0104). Conclusion The results showed that in the supine position, the PFM achieved the lowest resting activity and the highest functional activity. Therefore, the supine position can be recommended for the diagnosis and therapy of weakened PFM. PMID:28115836

  5. Relationship between lower limb position and pelvic floor muscle surface electromyography activity in menopausal women: a prospective observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halski T

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Tomasz Halski,1 Kuba Ptaszkowski,2 Lucyna Słupska,1 Robert Dymarek,3 Małgorzata Paprocka-Borowicz2 1Department of Physiotherapy, Opole Medical School, Opole, 2Department of Clinical Biomechanics and Physiotherapy in Motor System Disorders, 3Department of Nervous System Diseases, Faculty of Health Science, Wroclaw Medical University, Wroclaw, Poland Objectives: In physiotherapeutic practice, special attention is being given to the reciprocal anatomical, physiological, and biomechanical relationship of the pelvis and the structures connected to it. However, the scientific literature shows mainly the theoretical information about their mutual connections. The lack of information about these relations from a practical aspect coupled with the paucity of scientific papers on the impact of posture changes on the pelvic floor led the authors to conduct this study. The primary aim of this study was to compare the resting and functional bioelectrical activities of pelvic floor muscles (PFMs depending on three different positions of the lower limbs (positions A, B, and C in the supine position.Materials and methods: This was a prospective observational study evaluating resting and functional activities of the PFM depending on the position of the lower limbs. The study was carried out at the Department and Clinic of Urology, University Hospital in Wroclaw, Poland and the target group were women in the menopausal period. Bioelectrical activity of PFM was recorded using a surface electromyographic instrument in the supine position. Results of the values obtained in A, B, and C positions were compared using a one-way analysis of variance.Results: In position A, the average resting surface electromyography (sEMG activity of PFM was 6.9±2.6 µV; in position B, the result was 6.9±2.5 µV and in position C, the resting sEMG activity was 5.7±1.8 µV (P=0.0102. The results of the functional bioelectrical activity of PFM were as follows: position A – 20.3

  6. Assessment of Isometric Trunk Strength - The Relevance of Body Position and Relationship between Planes of Movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocjan, Andrej; Sarabon, Nejc

    2014-05-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the differences in maximal isometric trunk extension and flexion strength during standing, sitting and kneeling. Additionally, we were interested in correlations between the maximal strength in sagittal, frontal and transverse plane, measured in the sitting position. Sixty healthy subjects (24 male, 36 female; age 41.3 ± 15.1 yrs; body height 1.70 ± 0.09 m; body mass 72.7 ± 13.3 kg) performed maximal voluntary isometric contractions of the trunk flexor and extensor muscles in standing, sitting and kneeling position. The subjects also performed lateral flexions and rotations in the sitting position. Each task was repeated three times and average of maximal forces was used for data analysis. RANOVA with post-hoc testing was applied to the flexion and extension data. The level of statistical significance was set to p trunk extension was recorded in sitting posture (910.5 ± 271.5 N), followed by kneeling (834.3 ± 242.9 N) and standing (504.0 ± 165.4 N), compared with flexion, where we observed the opposite trend (508.5 ± 213.0 N, 450.9 ± 165.7 N and 443.4 ± 153.1 N, respectively). Post-hoc tests showed significant differences in all extension positions (p Trunk sagittal-transverse strength showed the strongest correlation, followed by frontal-transverse and sagittal-frontal plane correlation pairs (R(2) = 0.830, 0.712 and 0.657). The baseline trunk isometric strength data provided by this study should help further strength diagnostics, more precisely, the prevention of low back disorders. Key pointsMaximal voluntary isometric force of the trunk extensors increased with the angle at the hips (highest in sitting, medium in kneeling and lowest in upright standing).The opposite trend was true for isometric MVC force of trunk flexors (both genders together and men only).In the sitting position, the strongest correlation between MVC forces was found between sagittal (average flexion/extension) and transverse plane (average left

  7. Age-Related Decline of Wrist Position Sense and its Relationship to Specific Physical Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Van de Winckel

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Perception of limb and body positions is known as proprioception. Sensory feedback, especially from proprioceptive receptors, is essential for motor control. Aging is associated with a decline in position sense at proximal joints, but there is inconclusive evidence of distal joints being equally affected by aging. In addition, there is initial evidence that physical activity attenuates age-related decline in proprioception. Our objectives were, first, to establish wrist proprioceptive acuity in a large group of seniors and compare their perception to young adults, and second, to determine if specific types of training or regular physical activity are associated with preserved wrist proprioception. We recruited community-dwelling seniors (n = 107, mean age, 70 ± 5 years, range, 65–84 years without cognitive decline (Mini Mental State Examination-brief version ≥13/16 and young adult students (n = 51, mean age, 20 ± 1 years, range, 19–26 years. Participants performed contralateral and ipsilateral wrist position sense matching tasks with a bimanual wrist manipulandum to a 15° flexion reference position. Systematic error or proprioceptive bias was computed as the mean difference between matched and reference position. The respective standard deviation over five trials constituted a measure of random error or proprioceptive precision. Current levels of physical activity and previous sport, musical, or dance training were obtained through a questionnaire. We employed longitudinal mixed effects linear models to calculate the effects of trial number, sex, type of matching task and age on wrist proprioceptive bias and precision. The main results were that relative proprioceptive bias was greater in older when compared to young adults (mean difference: 36% ipsilateral, 88% contralateral, p < 0.01. Proprioceptive precision for contralateral but not for ipsilateral matching was smaller in older than in young adults (mean difference: 38

  8. Public green spaces and positive mental health - investigating the relationship between access, quantity and types of parks and mental wellbeing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Lisa; Hooper, Paula; Foster, Sarah; Bull, Fiona

    2017-11-01

    Associations between parks and mental health have typically been investigated in relation to the presence or absence of mental illness. This study uses a validated measure of positive mental health and data from RESIDential Environments (RESIDE) Project to investigate the association between the presence, amount and attributes of public green space in new greenfield neighbourhood developments and the mental health of local residents (n = 492). Both the overall number and total area of public green spaces were significantly associated with greater mental wellbeing, and findings support a dose-response relationship. Positive mental health was not only associated with parks with a nature focus, but also with green spaces characterised by recreational and sporting activity. The study demonstrates that adequate provision of public green space in local neighbourhoods and within walking distance is important for positive mental health. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Position of the Mental Foramen in Panoramic Radiography and Its Relationship to Age in a Selected Iranian Population

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    Dehghani

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background The position of the mental foramen is critical for surgery and local anesthesia. Objectives This study was conducted to assess the position of the mental foramen and its relationship to age in a selected Iranian population. Materials and Methods This was a cross-sectional descriptive study. Three hundred panoramic radiographs were assessed. Three variables were assessed for each radiograph: anterior-posterior position, superior-inferior position, and radiographic appearance. The position and appearance of the mental foramen were recorded according to gender and age. The results were analyzed using Chi-square and Fisher’s exact tests. Results Considering the anterior-posterior position, the mental foramina were located in the following positions: between premolars (41.5%, at the apex of the second premolars (31.7%, in the posterior area of the second premolars (19.2%, in the anterior area of the first premolars (4.3%, and at the apex of the first premolars (3.3%.The superior-inferior position of the mental foramina were below, above, and at the level of the apices of the premolars in 78.8%, 2.5%, and 18.7% of cases, respectively. The appearance of the mental foramen was continuous in relation to the mandibular canal in 55.9% of cases, while it was separated, diffuse, and unidentified in 29.5%, 9.7%, and 5% of cases, respectively. Age was found to affect the position and appearance of mental foramen. Conclusions The mental foramina were most commonly located between the first and second premolars and below the apex. A continuous appearance was the most common appearance for the mental foramen, which was similar in males and females.

  10. The Relationship between Oral Hygiene Index and Gastric Helicobacter Pylori Positivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tolga Önder

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Helicobacter pylori (HP is a bacterial patho­gen that leads to gastroduodenal inflammation, gastric and duodenal ulcer and atrophic gastritis. Colonization of bacteria can be shown by using rapid-urease test during endoscopy. There are conflicting data about the route of transmission and reservoir. It’s thought to be transmitted primarily by oral route. Many studies showed results sup­porting that the presence of bacteria in dental plaques has effects on gastric colonization and eradication. There are data about the potential inhibitory effect of oral flora on HP. We aimed to analyze the association of simplified oral hygiene index -a possible representation of a healthy oral flora- with HP positivity. Methods: Patients undergoing upper gastrointestinal system endoscopy for symptoms of dyspepsia were as­sessed by a dentist for the simplified oral hygiene index (OHI. Patients were classified as good, poor and bad groups based on oral hygiene index scale. Pre-pyloric biopsy materials were assessed using rapid-urease test. Oral hygiene indexes were analyzed retrospectively, groups were compared for HP positivity. Results: 66 patients (30 females, 45.5% were included. Mean age of patients was 34.17±14.7 years. 11 (16.7%, 29 (43.9% and 26 (39.4% patients were classified as in good, poor and bad hygiene index groups, respectively. In patients with good OHI gastric HP positivity was less frequent. Conclusion: Decreased frequency in gastric HP may be observed with maintaining an ideal oral hygiene.

  11. Euthanasia, physician-assisted suicide, and Christianity's positive relationship to the world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delkeskamp-Hayes, Corinna

    2003-01-01

    This essay addresses the problem of communication between Christianity and the secular world in an area where the latter tends to oppose the moral norms endorsed by the former. How, in the interest of missionary outreach (and with which understandings of what such outreach involves) can the language barriers be bridged? Whereas the Roman Catholic natural law tradition posits a neutral common ground of (traditional or hermeneutical) rationality between Christianity and the world, an Ebeling- and Barth-modified Lutheranism engages in an argument ad hominem by seizing upon an admitted deficiency within that world, and by recommending Christianity for mending that deficiency. Both positions differ from the Evangelical claim that since that which the world politically values is derived from Christianity, it must remain subject to Christianity's moral legislation. An entirely different approach to the communication- and outreach-problem is taken by Orthodox Christianity: The gulf which separates it from the world is acknowledged, and the possibility of trans-gulf-traffic is referred to God's grace. It is only this latter model, however, which preserves Christianity's theological terms (such as "Scripture", "law", and "holiness") from common-ground-securing, deficiency-mending, or authority-imposing secularizing, and thus from compromising that very theological context into which communicative outreach endeavors were to invite.

  12. Genomic selection strategies in breeding programs: Strong positive interaction between application of genotypic information and intensive use of young bulls on genetic gain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buch, Line Hjortø; Sørensen, Morten Kargo; Berg, Peer

    2012-01-01

    ) a positive interaction exists between the use of genotypic information and a short generation interval on ΔGAG and (iii) the inclusion of an indicator trait in the selection index will only result in a negligible increase in ΔGAG if genotypic information about the breeding goal trait is known. We examined......We tested the following hypotheses: (i) breeding schemes with genomic selection are superior to breeding schemes without genomic selection regarding annual genetic gain of the aggregate genotype (ΔGAG), annual genetic gain of the functional traits and rate of inbreeding per generation (ΔF), (ii...... four breeding schemes with or without genomic selection and with or without intensive use of young bulls using pseudo-genomic stochastic simulations. The breeding goal consisted of a milk production trait and a functional trait. The two breeding schemes with genomic selection resulted in higher ΔGAG...

  13. Is there a positive relationship between naturalness and genetic diversity in forest tree communities?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wehenkel, C.; Corral-Rivas, J. J.; Castellanos-Bocaz, H. A.; Pinedo-Alvarez, A.

    2009-07-01

    Abstract The concepts of genetic diversity and naturalness are well known as measures of conservation values and as descriptors of state or condition. A lack of research evaluating the relationship between genetic diversity and naturalness in biological communities, along with the possible implications in terms of evolutionary aspects and conservation management, make this subject particularly important as regards forest tree communities.We therefore examined the following hypothesis: the genetic diversity of a central-European tree stand averaged over species increases with the naturalness of the stand, as defined by the Potential Natural Vegetation (PNV). The results obtained show that the hypothesis is unsustainable because differences between the averaged genetic diversities of the unnatural and semi-natural stand classes (69 cases) were mostly non-significant. Moreover in three cases, the average genetic diversity of unnatural stand classes was significantly higher than the average genetic diversity of the semi-natural stand classes. A significantly lower average genetic diversity of unnatural stand class was not detected in the statistical analysis. Thus, the naturalness of a tree species community, as inferred from PNV, does not serve as a straightforward indicator of ecological stability when the genetic diversity and the adaptability of tree species are unknown. (Author) 30 refs.

  14. Body image and health behaviors: is there a relationship between lifestyles and positive body image?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanon, A; Tomassoni, R; Gargano, M; Granai, M G

    2016-01-01

    The study illustrates a research on the relationship between body image and lifestyles in a sample of 262 young amateur athletes that have a regular attendance of a gym in Cassino (Central Italy). The following questionnaires were used: Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ34), International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), Short form 12 items (SF12). The participants were 257 (response rate 98.1%) mainly of young age (18-24 years, 63.8%), single (72%), with a senior high school diploma (57.2%), students (63%). For almost all the BSQ-34 questionnaire items differences for gender were found, with Females more worried than males. 187 (72.8%) reported some vigorous activity during a week, 207 (80.5%) some moderate activity, and 229 (89.1%) walking. The participants had a median PCS score of 54.2 (range: 24.5-64.8) and a median MCS score of 43.8 (range: 9.3 - 58.7). The mean score of the Mediterranean diet was 4.8 (median = 5; Range = 1-8), and only 72 individuals (11.7%) had optimal score (over or equal to 6).

  15. The effects of positive cognitions on the relationship between alienation and resourcefulness in nursing students in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekhet, Abir K; ElGuenidi, Mervat; Zauszniewski, Jaclene A

    2011-01-01

    Alienation is a subjective state, a feeling of being a stranger, as if one were not one's normal self. It is also a sense of homelessness; a feeling of uneasiness or discomfort, which signifies the person's exclusion from social or cultural participation. Alienation can adversely affect healthy functioning of nursing students. Nursing students are the adolescents of today and the nurses of tomorrow who will deal with human behavior, and their psychological well-being will be important in managing their clients' conditions. Healthy nursing students are likely to become healthy nurses who can then model and promote healthy lifestyles for their patients. This study looked at whether the effects of alienation on adolescents' resourcefulness are influenced by positive cognitions. Zauszniewski's theory of resourcefulness, which is based on the conceptualization of two forms of resourcefulness: personal (self-help) and social (help-seeking) resourcefulness, served as the theoretical framework for the study. A descriptive, correlational, cross-sectional design was used to examine hypothesized relationships among the study variables in a convenience sample of 170 first-year nursing students aged 17 to 20 years. Results showed that positive cognitions had a moderating and a partial mediating effect on the relationship between alienation and resourcefulness. It is imperative for nurse educators to generate interventions to enhance positive cognitions among nursing students.

  16. Relationship of negative and positive core beliefs about the self with dysfunctional attitudes in three aspects of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otani K

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Koichi Otani, Akihito Suzuki, Yoshihiko Matsumoto, Toshinori Shirata Department of Psychiatry, Yamagata University School of Medicine, Yamagata, Japan Objective: Cognitive theory assumes a pivotal role of negative core beliefs about the self in dysfunctional attitudes predisposing to depression. Meanwhile, the role of positive core beliefs about the self in cognitive vulnerability to depression is unknown. Therefore, we examined the relationship of negative and positive core beliefs about the self with dysfunctional attitudes in three aspects of life.Methods: The subjects were 311 Japanese volunteers. Core beliefs of negative-self and positive-self were evaluated by the corresponding subscales of the Brief Core Schema Scales. Dysfunctional attitudes in the areas of achievement, dependency and self-control were measured by the corresponding subscales of the 24-item Dysfunctional Attitude Scale.Results: The negative-self subscale was correlated with the achievement, dependency and self-control subscales. The positive-self subscale was correlated with the achievement and self-control subscales.Conclusion: The present study suggests that negative core beliefs about the self underlie all types of dysfunctional attitudes, while positive core beliefs about the self have some connections with dysfunctional attitudes related to achievement and self-control. Keywords: negative-self, achievement, dependency, self-control, depression

  17. The Relationships of Self-Esteem, Future Time Perspective, Positive Affect, Social Support, and Career Decision: A Longitudinal Multilevel Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    In-Jo Park

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed, first, to determine whether the intra-individual variability in positive affect was related to the intra-individual variability in career decision-making self-efficacy, and career choice anxiety. The second objective was to examine whether social support moderates the relationship between affect and these outcome variables. The third objective was to find out how career decision-making self-efficacy and career choice anxiety change according to self-esteem and future time perspective. We conducted a study using the daily diary method in which participants were asked to rate their affect or attitudes for 21 consecutive days. In total, 128 university students participated in this study. The main results were as follows. First, positive affect was associated positively with career decision-making self-efficacy and negatively with career choice anxiety. Second, social support had a synergy effect with positive affect to influence career choice anxiety. Third, self-esteem was related positively to career decision-making self-efficacy and negatively to career choice anxiety. We discuss theoretical and practical implications.

  18. Positive relationship detected between soil bioaccessible organic pollutants and antibiotic resistance genes at dairy farms in Nanjing, Eastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Mingming; Ye, Mao; Wu, Jun; Feng, Yanfang; Wan, Jinzhong; Tian, Da; Shen, Fangyuan; Liu, Kuan; Hu, Feng; Li, Huixin; Jiang, Xin; Yang, Linzhang; Kengara, Fredrick Orori

    2015-11-01

    Co-contaminated soils by organic pollutants (OPs), antibiotics and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) have been becoming an emerging problem. However, it is unclear if an interaction exists between mixed pollutants and ARG abundance. Therefore, the potential relationship between OP contents and ARG and class 1 integron-integrase gene (intI1) abundance was investigated from seven dairy farms in Nanjing, Eastern China. Phenanthrene, pentachlorophenol, sulfadiazine, roxithromycin, associated ARG genes, and intI1 had the highest detection frequencies. Correlation analysis suggested a stronger positive relationship between the ARG abundance and the bioaccessible OP content than the total OP content. Additionally, the significant correlation between the bioaccessible mixed pollutant contents and ARG/intI1 abundance suggested a direct/indirect impact of the bioaccessible mixed pollutants on soil ARG dissemination. This study provided a preliminary understanding of the interaction between mixed pollutants and ARGs in co-contaminated soils. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The relationship of positive work environments and workplace injury: evidence from the National Nursing Assistant Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaughey, Deirdre; McGhan, Gwen; Walsh, Erin M; Rathert, Cheryl; Belue, Rhonda

    2014-01-01

    With estimates of a 51% growth in the number of nursing assistants needed by 2016, there is a critical need to examine workplace factors that negatively contribute to the recruitment and retention of nursing assistants. Studies have shown that high demands, physical stress, and chronic workforce shortages contribute to a working environment that fosters one of the highest workforce injury rates in the United States. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between nursing assistant injury rates and key outcomes, such as job satisfaction and turnover intent, while exploring workplace environment factors, such as injury prevention training, supervisor support, and employee engagement, that can decrease the rates of workplace injury. Data from the 2004 National Nursing Assistant Survey were used to examine the negative effects of workplace injury on nursing assistants and the workplace environment factors that are related to the rate of worker injury. Nursing assistants who experience job-related injuries have lower levels of job satisfaction, increased turnover intentions, and are less likely to recommend their facility as a place to work or seek care services. It was also found that nursing assistant injury rates are related to employee ratings of injury prevention training, supervisor support, and employee engagement. NAs with multiple injuries (>2) were 1.3-1.6 times more likely to report being injured at work than NAs who had not been injured when supervisor support, employee engagement, and training ratings were low. Evidence that health care organizations can use to better understand how workplace injuries occur and insight into ways to reduce the current staggering rate of on-the-job injuries occurring in health care workplaces were offered in this study. The findings also offer empirical support for an extension of the National Institute for Occupational Health and Safety/National Occupational Research Agenda Work Organization Framework for

  20. [Investigation of the relationship between chronic diseases and residual symptoms of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Fengjie; Fu, Min; Zhang, Nan; Xu, Ye; Ge, Ying

    2015-09-01

    To investigate the prognosis-related influence factors of the residual symptoms after the canalith repositioning procedure (CRP) for the benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) in the second affiliated hospital of dalian medical university. Among patients who were diagnosed with BPPV and treated by CRP, the one that still show residual symptoms were enrolled in our study, then make a follow-up irregularly about the tendency of their residual symptoms' self-healing,and respectively record in their gender, age and chronic diseases and so on. Single-factor analysis and multi-factors analysis was utilized to investigate the residual symptoms' related influencing factors. In this study, 149 cases of patients were in record, for the residual symptoms, 71 patients can go to self-healing, 78 patients can not; age is 23-88, 30 cases in the young group, 46 cases in the middle aged group, 47 cases in the young elderly group, 26 cases in the elderly group; patients suffering from high blood pressure are 76 cases, 76 cases had diabetes, 47 cases had hyperlipidemia, 110 cases had heart disease, 43 cases had ischemic encephalopathy. The residual symptoms in the elderly females patients and patients suffering from the hypertension, diabetes, heart disease patients and ischemic encephalopathy are not easy to heal by itself, in which, the older and the fact suffering from the hypertension and diabetes are the risk factors influencing the prognosis of the residual symptoms.

  1. Narrating spiritual well-being in relationship to positive psychology and religion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. van Rooyen

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Constructed as new and located in the discourse of positive psychology, “spiritual well-being” is a signifier with a (hisstory in which one possible reading is highlighted in this postmodern (deconstructive narrative. The construction of “spiritual + well-being” could be narrated as a secularisation of the religious by positivist psy-complex knowledges, where spiritual well-being is reconstructed as a measurable outcome. Or it could be nar-rated as a “spiritualisation” of the psy-complex by religious knowledges, with measurable well-being becoming dependent on the pursuit of the postmodern, multiple-storied spiritual/ religious features. As the psy-complex has followed medicine from a focus on pathology to a focus on holistic wellness, it has found itself in the religious realm which it has simultaneously centred and marginalised. Additionally, as the psy-complex has moved from measuring illness to measuring wellness, it could be described as having constructed new categories of non-well-being or ill-being.

  2. Knowing You, Knowing Me (KYKM): an interactive game to address positive mother-daughter communication and relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsikitis, Mary; Jones, Christian; Muscat, Melody; Crawford, Kate

    2014-01-01

    This technical report describes an interactive game environment designed to bring mothers and their adolescent daughters together to discuss three issues that have previously been shown in the literature to be of concern to families, as young girls transition from middle childhood to the adolescent years. The game is called Knowing you, Knowing me or KYKM, and is used to help mothers and daughters discuss the following three topics: positive communication skills, relationship building, and managing risky behaviors in the social environment. As the game remains untested, its limitations and future implications of its utility are discussed.

  3. Knowing You, Knowing Me (KYKM: An interactive game to address positive mother-daughter communication and relationships.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary eKatsikitis

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This technical report describes an interactive game environment designed to bring mothers and their adolescent daughters together to discuss three issues that have previously been shown in the literature to be of concern to families, as young girls transition from middle childhood to the adolescent years. The game is called Knowing you, Knowing me or KYKM, and is used to help mothers and daughters discuss the following three topics: positive communication skills, relationship building, and managing risky behaviours in the social environment. As the game remains untested, its limitations and future implications of its utility are discussed.

  4. Is the relationship between race and continuous positive airway pressure adherence mediated by sleep duration?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billings, Martha E; Rosen, Carol L; Wang, Rui; Auckley, Dennis; Benca, Ruth; Foldvary-Schaefer, Nancy; Iber, Conrad; Zee, Phyllis; Redline, Susan; Kapur, Vishesh K

    2013-02-01

    Black race has been associated with decreased continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) adherence. Short sleep duration, long sleep latency, and insomnia complaints may affect CPAP adherence as they affect sleep and opportunity to use CPAP. We assessed whether self-reported sleep measures were associated with CPAP adherence and if racial variations in these sleep characteristics may explain racial differences in CPAP adherence. Analysis of data from a randomized controlled trial (HomePAP), which investigated home versus laboratory-based diagnosis and treatment of obstructive sleep apnea. Seven American Academy of Sleep Medicine-accredited sleep centers in five cities in the United States. Enrolled subjects (n = 191) with apnea-hypopnea index ≥ 15 and sleepiness (Epworth Sleepiness Scale > 12). N/A. Multivariable regression was used to assess if subjective sleep measures and symptoms predicted 3-mo CPAP use. Mediation analysis was used to assess if sleep measures mediated the association of race with CPAP adherence. Black participants reported shorter sleep duration and longer sleep latency at baseline than white and Hispanic participants. Shorter sleep duration and longer sleep latency predicted worse CPAP adherence. Sleep duration mediated the association of black race with lower CPAP adherence. However, insomnia symptoms were not associated with race or CPAP adherence. Among subjects with similar severity of obstructive sleep apnea and sleepiness, baseline self-reported sleep duration and latency, but not perceived insomnia, predicted CPAP adherence over 3 mo. Sleep duration explains some of the observed differences in CPAP use by race. Sleep duration and latency should be considered when evaluating poor CPAP adherence. PORTABLE MONITORING FOR DIAGNOSIS AND MANAGEMENT OF SLEEP APNEA (HOMEPAP) URL: http://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT00642486. NIH clinical trials registry number: NCT00642486.

  5. Facets of Spirituality Diminish the Positive Relationship between Insecure Attachment and Mood Pathology in Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiebler-Ragger, Michaela; Falthansl-Scheinecker, Johanna; Birnhuber, Gerhard; Fink, Andreas; Unterrainer, Human Friedrich

    2016-01-01

    Traditionally, in attachment theory, secure attachment has been linked to parameters of mental health, while insecure attachment has been associated with parameters of psychopathology. Furthermore, spirituality and attachment to God have been discussed as corresponding to, or compensating for, primary attachment experiences. Accordingly, they may contribute to mental health or to mental illness. In this cross-sectional observational study, we investigate attachment styles (Avoidant and Anxious Attachment; ECR-RD), spirituality (Religious and Existential Well-Being; MI-RSWB), and mood pathology (Anxiety, Depression, Somatization; BSI-18) in 481 (76% female) young adults (age range: 18-30 years) who had a Roman Catholic upbringing. In accordance with previous research, we found insecure attachment to be associated with low levels of spirituality. Furthermore, insecure attachment and low levels of spirituality were associated with higher levels of mood pathology. In hierarchical regression analyses, only Anxious Attachment positively predicted all three dimensions of mood pathology while Existential Well-Being-but not Religious Well-Being-was an additional negative predictor for Depression. Our results underline that spirituality can correspond to the attachment style, or may also compensate for insecure attachment. Higher Existential Well-Being-comprised of facets such as hope for a better future, forgiveness and the experience of sense and meaning-seems to have an especially corrective effect on mood pathology, independent of attachment styles. Our findings emphasize the vital role of existential well-being in young adults' affective functioning, which might be considered in prevention and treatment. Further research in clinical surroundings is recommended.

  6. Relationship between ocular dominance and brow position in patients with blepharoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorne, Andrew W; Chundury, Rao V; Perry, Julian D; Rootman, Daniel B

    2017-10-20

    This study aims to determine if ocular dominance plays a role in predicting compensatory eyebrow elevation in cases of ptosis. This retrospective observational cohort study screened all individuals presenting to two tertiary oculoplastics practices with complaints of ptosis for entry. Primary position photographs were obtained. Ocular dominance was assessed via a modified Porta test. Ptosis was defined in bilateral cases as marginal reflex distance of MRD1 MRD1 of >1 mm lower on one side. Asymmetry in brow height was defined as a difference of >1 mm. Chi square and t-tests were performed. Sixty-eight patients from the both tertiary practices met inclusion criteria (37 male, 31 female). Concordance between the higher brow and the dominant side was 50.0% (n = 22, p > 0.05). Mean brow height on the dominant side (15.5 mm) was not statistically different than brow height on the non-dominant side (15.3 mm, p > 0.05). The concordance between the higher brow and the lower MRD1 eyelid was not significant (45.5%, n = 20, p > 0.05). The difference in mean brow height between the lower and higher MRD1 eyes was not significantly different (-0.11 mm; p > 0.05). This also held true when restricted to unilateral cases (0.28; p > 0.05). Although asymmetric brow elevation can be noted in patients with ptosis, ocular dominance does not appear to be concordant with this asymmetry. Additionally, brow height does not appear to be concordant with MRD1 in cases of ptosis.

  7. Facets of Spirituality Diminish the Positive Relationship between Insecure Attachment and Mood Pathology in Young Adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela Hiebler-Ragger

    Full Text Available Traditionally, in attachment theory, secure attachment has been linked to parameters of mental health, while insecure attachment has been associated with parameters of psychopathology. Furthermore, spirituality and attachment to God have been discussed as corresponding to, or compensating for, primary attachment experiences. Accordingly, they may contribute to mental health or to mental illness. In this cross-sectional observational study, we investigate attachment styles (Avoidant and Anxious Attachment; ECR-RD, spirituality (Religious and Existential Well-Being; MI-RSWB, and mood pathology (Anxiety, Depression, Somatization; BSI-18 in 481 (76% female young adults (age range: 18-30 years who had a Roman Catholic upbringing. In accordance with previous research, we found insecure attachment to be associated with low levels of spirituality. Furthermore, insecure attachment and low levels of spirituality were associated with higher levels of mood pathology. In hierarchical regression analyses, only Anxious Attachment positively predicted all three dimensions of mood pathology while Existential Well-Being-but not Religious Well-Being-was an additional negative predictor for Depression. Our results underline that spirituality can correspond to the attachment style, or may also compensate for insecure attachment. Higher Existential Well-Being-comprised of facets such as hope for a better future, forgiveness and the experience of sense and meaning-seems to have an especially corrective effect on mood pathology, independent of attachment styles. Our findings emphasize the vital role of existential well-being in young adults' affective functioning, which might be considered in prevention and treatment. Further research in clinical surroundings is recommended.

  8. A longitudinal study of persistent smoking among HIV-positive gay and bisexual men in primary relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamarel, Kristi E; Neilands, Torsten B; Conroy, Amy A; Dilworth, Samantha E; Lisha, Nadra; Taylor, Jonelle M; Darbes, Lynae A; Johnson, Mallory O

    2017-03-01

    We examined the stability of smoking behaviors, and factors associated with persistent smoking in a longitudinal study of HIV-positive gay and bisexual men in primary relationships. A sample of 377 HIV-positive men on antiretroviral therapy and their same-sex partners completed five assessments over two years. Participants completed semi-structured interviews which assessed smoking status, sociodemographic factors, relationship dynamics, and HIV-related disease characteristics. Latent transition analysis estimated the amount of transition in smoking over time. Latent class analysis examined factors associated with smoking status across the study period. At baseline, 28.1% (n=106) of participants reported current smoking. Over 90% of the HIV-positive men remained in the same smoking category over time (68.4% persistent non-smokers; 24.1% persistent smokers). Men whose partners smoked and men with lower income had higher odds of being persistent smokers, whereas older men and men who identified as Latino race/ethnicity had lower odds of being persistent smokers compared to non-smokers. Despite efforts to reduce smoking among people living with HIV (PLWH), a substantial subset of men continued to smoke during their two years in the study. Findings suggest that primary partners who also smoke and low income were the strongest predictors of sustained smoking behaviors among HIV-positive men. Additional research is needed to better understand how to increase motivation and support for smoking cessation among PLWH and their primary partners, while attending to how socioeconomic status may inhibit access to and the sustained impact of existing smoking cessation programs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Sexual risk behaviors by relationship type and trauma history among HIV-positive men who have sex with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamen, Charles; Etter, Darryl; Flores, Sergio; Sharp, Susan; Lee, Susanne; Gore-Felton, Cheryl

    2013-02-01

    The association of trauma exposure and coping style to sexual risk behavior has yet to be fully examined in the context of primary and casual sexual partnerships. The current study assessed a high risk sexual behavior-unprotected anal intercourse (UAI)-in a high risk population of HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM) with a history of trauma. Using audio computer-assisted self-interview technology, 132 HIV-positive MSM completed measures of trauma exposure, trauma symptoms, coping strategies, and sexual risk behavior. Hierarchical logistic regression analyses indicated that completing more years of education and having experienced sexual abuse were positively associated with UAI with casual partners. Additionally, use of active coping was negatively associated with UAI with casual partners and the final model significantly predicted variance in UAI with casual partners. However, no variables were significantly associated with UAI with primary partners, suggesting that sexual risk behavior with primary partners may be associated with factors not commonly assessed in risk prediction or prevention research. We discuss the results in the context of developing new or modifying existing interventions to address rates of sexual risk in the relationships of HIV-positive MSM.

  10. Evaluation of the relationship between smear positivity and high-resolution CT findings in children with pulmonary tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolursaz, Mohammad Reza; Mehrian, Payam; Aghahosseini, Farahnaz; Lotfian, Ferial; Khalilzadeh, Soheila; Baghaie, Nooshin; Hassanzad, Maryam; Velayati, Ali Akbar

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to find a relationship between the radiological manifestations of childhood tuberculosis on a high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) and the results of sputum smear. This study aims to propose an alternative indicator of infectivity in terms of prevention of disease transmission through selective isolation policy in children whose clinical condition is highly suggestive of tuberculosis. This retrospective comparative study was performed on 95 children under 15 years of age diagnosed with tuberculosis based on both WHO criteria and positive sputum culture for mycobacterium Tuberculosis. The children were admitted for TB screening in the pediatric department of national research institute of tuberculosis and lung disease (NRITLD) between 2008–2012. Direct smear collected from sputum or gastric lavage, as well as HRCT were performed in all children prior to administration of medical therapy. Children were divided into 2 groups based on positive and negative smear results. HRCT abnormalities, as well as their anatomical distribution were compared between these 2 groups using multivariate analytic model. The most prevalent abnormalities in the positive smear group were consolidation, tree-in-bud pattern, upper lobe nodular infiltration and cavitation. The negative smear group featured lymphadenopathy, consolidation, collapse and nodular infiltration in the upper lobe. Cavity, tree- in-bud pattern and upper lobe nodular infiltration were highly associated with smear positivity in children. Conversely, lymphadenopathy and collapse had significant association with a negative smear. This study revealed that cavity, tree-in-bud and upper lobe nodular infiltration has significant association with smear positivity in childhood tuberculosis. On the other hand, lymphadenopathy and collapse were closely associated with smear negativity in this age group. It was also demonstrated that children with a positive smear most likely presented with

  11. Relationship between Joint Position Sense, Force Sense, and Muscle Strength and the Impact of Gymnastic Training on Proprioception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartłomiej Niespodziński

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were (1 to assess the relationship between joint position (JPS and force sense (FS and muscle strength (MS and (2 to evaluate the impact of long-term gymnastic training on particular proprioception aspects and their correlations. 17 elite adult gymnasts and 24 untrained, matched controls performed an active reproduction (AR and passive reproduction (PR task and a force reproduction (FR task at the elbow joint. Intergroup differences and the relationship between JPS, FS, and MS were evaluated. While there was no difference in AR or PR between groups, absolute error in the control group was higher during the PR task (7.15 ± 2.72° than during the AR task (3.1 ± 1.93°. Mean relative error in the control group was 61% higher in the elbow extensors than in the elbow flexors during 50% FR, while the gymnast group had similar results in both reciprocal muscles. There was no linear correlation between JPS and FS in either group; however, FR was negatively correlated with antagonist MS. In conclusion, this study found no evidence for a relationship between the accuracy of FS and JPS at the elbow joint. Long-term gymnastic training improves the JPS and FS of the elbow extensors.

  12. The Long-Term Benefits of Positive Self-Presentation via Profile Pictures, Number of Friends and the Initiation of Relationships on Facebook for Adolescents' Self-Esteem and the Initiation of Offline Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzler, Anna; Scheithauer, Herbert

    2017-01-01

    Social networking sites are a substantial part of adolescents' daily lives. By using a longitudinal approach the current study examined the impact of (a) positive self-presentation, (b) number of friends, and (c) the initiation of online relationships on Facebook on adolescents' self-esteem and their initiation of offline relationships, as well as the mediating role of positive feedback. Questionnaire data were obtained from 217 adolescents (68% girls, mean age 16.7 years) in two waves. Adolescents' positive self-presentation and number of friends were found to be related to a higher frequency of receiving positive feedback, which in turn was negatively associated with self-esteem. However, the number of Facebook friends had a positive impact on self-esteem, and the initiation of online relationships positively influenced the initiation of offline relationships over time, demonstrating that Facebook may be a training ground for increasing adolescents' social skills. Implications and suggestions for future research are provided.

  13. The Long-Term Benefits of Positive Self-Presentation via Profile Pictures, Number of Friends and the Initiation of Relationships on Facebook for Adolescents’ Self-Esteem and the Initiation of Offline Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzler, Anna; Scheithauer, Herbert

    2017-01-01

    Social networking sites are a substantial part of adolescents’ daily lives. By using a longitudinal approach the current study examined the impact of (a) positive self-presentation, (b) number of friends, and (c) the initiation of online relationships on Facebook on adolescents’ self-esteem and their initiation of offline relationships, as well as the mediating role of positive feedback. Questionnaire data were obtained from 217 adolescents (68% girls, mean age 16.7 years) in two waves. Adolescents’ positive self-presentation and number of friends were found to be related to a higher frequency of receiving positive feedback, which in turn was negatively associated with self-esteem. However, the number of Facebook friends had a positive impact on self-esteem, and the initiation of online relationships positively influenced the initiation of offline relationships over time, demonstrating that Facebook may be a training ground for increasing adolescents’ social skills. Implications and suggestions for future research are provided. PMID:29187827

  14. Evaluation of relationship between disc position and morphology of Articular eminance of TMJ in MRI images of patients with TMD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daryosh Goodarzipour

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Because of high prevalence of TMJ dysfunctions , increased promotion of diagnostic and treatment methods is necessary. In many cases, in addition to disc position, morphology of other joint components such as articular eminence can be changed and therefore the probable correlation between disc position and morphology of hard tissue components can be used for prediction of internal derangements. The aim of this study was to evaluate the correlation between the position of disc and morphology of articular eminence of TMD`s patients using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. Materials and Methods: In this cross sectional study by evaluation of digital MRI files, ultimately 78 joint images were identified which had sufficient quality and resolution for review. Then the MRI images, were observed and evaluated by 3 oral and maxillofacial radiologists to determine the disc position (normal, anterior displacement with and without reduction, and posterior displacement and morphology of articular eminence (Box, Sigmoid, Flattened. Ultimately the results that were reported at least by 2 observers were included as the final results and were recorded in the check list. Data were analyzed using Chi-Square test and Fisher test. Results: In this study, no case of posterior disc displacement was found and therefore was excluded from the study. Articular eminence morphology (Flattened versus Sigmoid showed statistically significant correlation with anterior disc displacement with and without reduction (P-values for anterior displacement with and without reduction were 0.03 and 0.002, respectively. No significant difference was found between the sigmoid and box types in relationship with disc displacement (P-values for anterior displacement with and without reduction were 0.72 and 0.70. In this study, no significant difference between the anterior disc displacement with reduction and anterior disc displacement without reduction in relationship

  15. The Relationships Between the Center of Mass Position and the Trunk, Hip, and Knee Kinematics in the Sagittal Plane: A Pilot Study on Field-Based Video Analysis for Female Soccer Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasaki Shogo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Athletes with non-contact anterior cruciate ligament tears have common features in the sagittal plane; namely, the body’s center of mass (COM is located posterior to the base of support, the trunk and knee joints are extended, and the hip angle is flexed. However, the relationships among these variables have not been assessed in field-based movements. This study sought to determine relationships between distances from the COM to the base of support and the trunk, hip, and knee positions in women while playing soccer. Sixty events (29 single-leg landing and 31 single-leg stopping events were analyzed using two-dimensional video analysis. The relationships among the measurement variables were determined using the Pearson’s product-moment correlation coefficient, and stepwise multiple linear regression models were used to explore the relationships between the COM position and the kinematic variables. The distance from the COM to the base of support displayed a moderate negative relationship with the trunk angle (r = - 0.623, p < .0001, r2 = 0.388 and a strong positive relationship with the limb angle (r = 0.869, p < .0001, r2 = 0.755. The limb, knee, and trunk angles were selected in the best regression model (adjusted r2 = 0.953, p < .0001, f2 = 20.277. These findings suggest that an increased trunk angle and a decreased limb angle at initial contact are associated with a safer COM position. Neuromuscular training may be useful for controlling the trunk and lower limb positions during dynamic activities.

  16. The relationship of C-reactive protein levels and positive culture with quality of life in acute rhinosinusitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schalek P

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Petr Schalek, Zuzana Hornáčková, Aleš Hahn Ear, Nose and Throat department, 3rd Medical Faculty of Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic Background: Acute rhinosinusitis (ARS has been shown to significantly reduce patient quality of life (QoL. While the QoL in patients with chronic rhinosinusitis has been the subject of intensive research over the last decade, studies measuring the impact of ARS on patient QoL have remained relatively scarce. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between the QoL and parameters suggestive of acute bacterial rhinosinusitis (C-reactive protein [CRP] levels and positive culture and to see if measurement of the QoL could be used as an indicator for antibiotic treatment in ARS.Methods: Eighty patients with ARS were enrolled in the study. A novel QoL instrument for patients with ARS, called Measurement of Acute Rhinosinusitis (MARS questionnaire, was given to patients at the time of diagnosis. We assessed patient QoL, obtained endoscopically guided cultures from the middle meatus, and measured levels of CRP. The relationship between QoL MARS scores (QoL-Mscores and CRP was determined using a correlation coefficient. To compare QoL-Mscores, relative to culture-positive and culture-negative patients, the Student’s t-test was used.Results: No correlation between the QoL, assessed using the MARS questionnaire, and positive middle meatus culture was demonstrated (P=0.332. A weak correlation was found between QoL-Mscores and CRP values, with a correlation coefficient of 0.221 and P=0.0498.Conclusion: No correlation between the QoL in ARS patients and positive culture was found in this study. The clinical significance of the correlation between QoL-Mscores and CRP values in the antibiotic decision making process needs further research. Keywords: endoscopy, quality of life, questionnaires, anti-bacterial agents

  17. Gendered constructions of the impact of HIV and AIDS in the context of the HIV-positive seroconcordant heterosexual relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhagwanjee, Anil; Govender, Kaymarlin; Reardon, Candice; Johnstone, Leigh; George, Gavin; Gordon, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Introduction This article explores the complex, dynamic and contextual frameworks within which men working in a mining community and their live-in long-term partners or spouses (termed “couples” in this study) respond to the introduction of HIV into their heterosexual relationships; the way in which partners adopt gendered positions in enabling them to make sense of their illness; how they negotiate their respective masculine and feminine roles in response to the need for HIV-related lifestyle changes; as well as the gendered nature of partner support in relation to antiretroviral therapy (ARV) adherence. Methods We conducted an in-depth qualitative study with a sample of 12 HIV-positive seroconcordant heterosexual couples in a South African mining organization. Transcripts based on semi-structured couple's interviews were analyzed using an inductive emergent thematic analytical method. Results The findings present compelling evidence that the impact of HIV and AIDS is mitigated, in the main, by the nature of the dyadic relationship. Where power and agency were skewed in accordance with traditional gender scripts, the impact of HIV and AIDS was deleterious in terms of negotiating disclosure, meeting expectations of care and support, and promoting treatment adherence. As a corollary, the study also revealed that where the relational dynamic evidenced a more equitable distribution of power, the challenge of negotiating illness was embraced in a way that strengthened the couples’ affiliation in profound ways, manifested not simply in a reduction in risk behaviours, but in both partner's courage to re-visit sensitive issues related to managing their relationship in the context of a debilitating illness. Conclusions Gendered positioning (by self and others) was found to play a crucial role in the way couples experienced HIV and ARV treatment, and underscored the positive role of a couples-counselling approach in the negotiation of the illness experience. However

  18. Analyzing the Relationship of Strengths to Personality Preferences and Vocational Interests Utilizing Clifton StrengthsFinder, Myers-Briggs Type Indicator, and Strong Interest Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenck, Paulette M.

    2009-01-01

    Throughout the history of vocational psychology, career counselors have constantly searched for, devised, and implemented practices and techniques to best prepare clients for the world of work. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between strengths to personality preference and vocational interests utilizing the Myers-Briggs…

  19. Prospective clinical investigation of the relationship between idiopathic benign paroxysmal positional vertigo and bone turnover: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parham, Kourosh; Leonard, Gerald; Feinn, Richard S; Lafreniere, Denis; Kenny, Anne M

    2013-11-01

    Idiopathic benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) is a strong indicator of decreased bone density (osteopenia/osteoporosis) in postmenopausal women, and there is a correlation between BPPV and serum levels of biochemical markers of bone turnover. Prospective pilot clinical trial. Two groups of postmenopausal women were recruited. The BPPV group consisted of 16 women with a diagnosis of BPPV. The OSTEO group consisted of 13 women with history of osteopenia/osteoporosis. Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry scan results were compared, along with serum levels of ionized calcium (iCa), vitamin D, aminoterminal propeptide of protocollagen type I (P1NP), and aminoterminal telopeptides of collagen (sNTX). Prevalence of decreased bone mass density among BPPV subjects was 81%, and prevalence of BPPV among OSTEO subjects was 31%. BPPV subjects had higher P1NP levels. Multiple regression analysis showed that among BPPV subjects, there was positive correlation between P1NP and sNTX and a negative correlation between P1NP and vitamin D level. Age was positively correlated with serum levels of both biomarkers among the BPPV subjects. T score, serum iCa, and serum vitamin D levels did not appear to correlate with presence of BPPV. Idiopathic BPPV subjects have a high prevalence of osteopenia/osteoporosis. Levels of biochemical markers of bone turnover correlate with presence of BPPV. Our results, based on a sample of U.S. subjects, support an association between idiopathic BPPV and disorders of bone turnover. Copyright © 2013 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  20. Explaining the Positive Relationship Between Fourth-Grade Children's Body Mass Index and Energy Intake at School-Provided Meals (Breakfast and Lunch)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinn, Caroline H.; Baxter, Suzanne D.; Royer, Julie A.; Hitchcock, David B.

    2013-01-01

    Background: A 2010 publication showed a positive relationship between children's body mass index (BMI) and energy intake at school-provided meals (as assessed by direct meal observations). To help explain that relationship, we investigated 7 outcome variables concerning aspects of school-provided meals: energy content of items selected, number of…

  1. The Long-Term Benefits of Positive Self-Presentation via Profile Pictures, Number of Friends and the Initiation of Relationships on Facebook for Adolescents’ Self-Esteem and the Initiation of Offline Relationships

    OpenAIRE

    Metzler, Anna; Scheithauer, Herbert

    2017-01-01

    Social networking sites are a substantial part of adolescents’ daily lives. By using a longitudinal approach the current study examined the impact of (a) positive self-presentation, (b) number of friends, and (c) the initiation of online relationships on Facebook on adolescents’ self-esteem and their initiation of offline relationships, as well as the mediating role of positive feedback. Questionnaire data were obtained from 217 adolescents (68% girls, mean age 16.7 years) in two waves. Adole...

  2. Highly Educated Men Establish Strong Emotional Links with Their Dogs: A Study with Monash Dog Owner Relationship Scale (MDORS) in Committed Spanish Dog Owners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, Paula; Bowen, Jonathan; Bulbena, Antoni; Tobeña, Adolf; Fatjó, Jaume

    2016-01-01

    The characteristics of the human-animal bond may be influenced by both owner-related and dog-related factors. A study was designed to explore the existence of different dog ownership patterns and their related factors. We created an on line questionnaire that included demographic questions about the dog and the owner, a Spanish version of the Monash Dog Owner Relationship Scale (MDORS) and a validated measure of satisfaction with life (Cantril's ladder). We collected 1140 valid responses from adult dog owners, who were recruited using the client databases of Spanish veterinary practices. We explored the presence of groups within the population using Principal Components Analysis (PCA) of the MDORS variables combined with Hierarchical Cluster Analysis (HCA). Two groups were found; Group I having a higher level of emotional involvement with their dogs compared with Group II. Binary logistic regression was used to explore demographic factors that influenced group membership. Four variables were significantly associated with membership of Group I (pdog-ownership may be present within a population of owner-dog dyads, and that certain owner characteristics are associated with the type of owner-dog relationship. Future research could apply a similar approach to different types of sample population in order to identify specific patterns of dog-ownership.

  3. Highly Educated Men Establish Strong Emotional Links with Their Dogs: A Study with Monash Dog Owner Relationship Scale (MDORS) in Committed Spanish Dog Owners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulbena, Antoni; Tobeña, Adolf

    2016-01-01

    The characteristics of the human-animal bond may be influenced by both owner-related and dog-related factors. A study was designed to explore the existence of different dog ownership patterns and their related factors. We created an on line questionnaire that included demographic questions about the dog and the owner, a Spanish version of the Monash Dog Owner Relationship Scale (MDORS) and a validated measure of satisfaction with life (Cantril’s ladder). We collected 1140 valid responses from adult dog owners, who were recruited using the client databases of Spanish veterinary practices. We explored the presence of groups within the population using Principal Components Analysis (PCA) of the MDORS variables combined with Hierarchical Cluster Analysis (HCA). Two groups were found; Group I having a higher level of emotional involvement with their dogs compared with Group II. Binary logistic regression was used to explore demographic factors that influenced group membership. Four variables were significantly associated with membership of Group I (pdog-ownership may be present within a population of owner-dog dyads, and that certain owner characteristics are associated with the type of owner-dog relationship. Future research could apply a similar approach to different types of sample population in order to identify specific patterns of dog-ownership. PMID:28033397

  4. Insight into the strong aggregation-induced emission of low-conjugated racemic C6-unsubstituted tetrahydropyrimidines through crystal-structure-property relationship of polymorphs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Qiuhua; Zhang, Yilin; Nie, Han; Zhao, Zujin; Liu, Shuwen; Wong, Kam Sing; Tang, Ben Zhong

    2015-08-01

    Racemic C6-unsubstituted tetrahydropyrimidines (THPs) are a series of fluorophores with a strong aggregation-induced emission (AIE) effect. However, they do not possess the structural features of conventional AIE compounds. In order to understand their AIE mechanism, here, the influences of the molecular packing mode and the conformation on the optical properties of THPs were investigated using seven crystalline polymorphs of three THPs ( 1-3 ). The racemic THPs 1-3 have low-conjugated and highly flexible molecular structures, and hence show practically no emission in different organic solvents. However, the fluorescence quantum yields of their polymorphs are up to 93%, and the maximum excitation ( λ ex ) and emission ( λ em ) wavelengths of the polymorphs are long at 409 and 484 nm, respectively. Single-crystal structures and theoretical calculation of the HOMOs and LUMOs based on the molecular conformations of these polymorphs indicate that the polymorphs with the shortest λ ex and λ em values possess a RS -packing mode ( R - and S -enantiomers self-assemble as paired anti-parallel lines) and a more twisted conformation without through-space conjugation between the dicarboxylates, but the polymorphs with longer λ ex and λ em values adopt a RR / SS -packing mode ( R - and S -enantiomers self-assemble as unpaired zigzag lines) and a less twisted conformation with through-space conjugation between the dicarboxylates. The molecular conformations of 1-3 in all these polymorphs are stereo and more twisted than those in solution. Although 1-3 are poorly conjugated, the radiative rate constants ( k r ) of their polymorphs are as large as conventional fluorophores (0.41-1.03 × 10 8 s -1 ) because of improved electronic conjugation by both through-bond and through-space interactions. Based on the obtained results, it can be deduced that the strong AIE arises not only from the restriction of intramolecular motion but also from enhanced electronic coupling and

  5. Presence of environmental coagulase-positive staphylococci, their clonal relationship, resistance factors and ability to form biofilm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velázquez-Guadarrama, Norma; Olivares-Cervantes, Alma L; Salinas, Eva; Martínez, Leticia; Escorcia, Magdalena; Oropeza, Ricardo; Rosas, Irma

    Coagulase-positive staphylococci (CoPS) are opportunistic pathogens carrying various mechanisms of resistance that have a large number of virulence factors, and whose ability to induce illness is associated with the host. This study aimed to investigate the presence of environmental coagulase-positive staphylococci, their susceptibility profile, clonal relationship and ability to form biofilm. The 16S rRNA genes from CoPS isolates were analyzed, and their antibiotic susceptibility was evaluated using the agar dilution method in accordance with Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines. The clonal profile was obtained by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and biofilm formation was measured by a crystal violet retention assay. A total of 72 Staphylococcus spp. strains were isolated from air, metal surfaces, and nostrils from humans, dogs, cats, and birds. Three species were identified: Staphylococcus aureus (17%), Staphylococcus intermedius (63%), and Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (21%). Ninety three percent (93%) of the strains were resistant to at least one of 13 tested antibiotics. S. pseudintermedius strains were the only resistant ones to methicillin while most of these isolates were multidrug-resistant, had significantly higher ability to form biofilm and PFGE grouped into seven different patterns, without showing clonal dispersion among animals and environmental isolates. This study suggests that dogs, cat, and air are environmental sources potentially carrying multidrug-resistant S. pseudintermedius, which survives in different environments through biofilm formation and multidrug resistance, characteristics that can be transmitted horizontally to other bacteria and exacerbate the problem of antibiotic resistance in humans. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. Highly Educated Men Establish Strong Emotional Links with Their Dogs: A Study with Monash Dog Owner Relationship Scale (MDORS in Committed Spanish Dog Owners.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Calvo

    Full Text Available The characteristics of the human-animal bond may be influenced by both owner-related and dog-related factors. A study was designed to explore the existence of different dog ownership patterns and their related factors. We created an on line questionnaire that included demographic questions about the dog and the owner, a Spanish version of the Monash Dog Owner Relationship Scale (MDORS and a validated measure of satisfaction with life (Cantril's ladder. We collected 1140 valid responses from adult dog owners, who were recruited using the client databases of Spanish veterinary practices. We explored the presence of groups within the population using Principal Components Analysis (PCA of the MDORS variables combined with Hierarchical Cluster Analysis (HCA. Two groups were found; Group I having a higher level of emotional involvement with their dogs compared with Group II. Binary logistic regression was used to explore demographic factors that influenced group membership. Four variables were significantly associated with membership of Group I (p<0.0001; male gender of the owner (OR = 32.36, high school level of maximum educational attainment (OR = 0.052, university level of maximum educational attainment (OR = 8.652, and owner Cantril's score (OR = 0.807. The results obtained from this convenience sample demonstrate that different patterns of dog-ownership may be present within a population of owner-dog dyads, and that certain owner characteristics are associated with the type of owner-dog relationship. Future research could apply a similar approach to different types of sample population in order to identify specific patterns of dog-ownership.

  7. Alcohol dehydrogenase-1B genotype (rs1229984) is a strong determinant of the relationship between body weight and alcohol intake in Japanese alcoholic men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Akira; Yokoyama, Tetsuji; Matsui, Toshifumi; Mizukami, Takeshi; Matsushita, Sachio; Higuchi, Susumu; Maruyama, Katsuya

    2013-07-01

    The calories in alcoholic beverages consumed by alcoholics are a major energy source and a strong modifier of their body weight. Genetic polymorphisms of alcohol dehydrogenase-1B (ADH1B) and aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 (ALDH2) affect susceptibility to alcoholism and may affect body weight via gene-associated differences in fuel utilization in alcoholics. We evaluated associations between ADH1B/ALDH2 genotypes and the body weight and body mass index (BMI) of 1,301 Japanese alcoholic men at the time of their first visit to an addiction center. Median (25th to 75th) caloric intake in the form of alcoholic beverages was 864 (588 to 1,176) kcal/d. Age-adjusted caloric intake did not differ according to ADH1B/ALDH2 genotypes. The body weight and BMI values showed that the ADH1B*2/*2 and *1/*2 carriers (n = 939) were significantly leaner than the ADH1B*1/*1 carriers (n = 362) irrespective of age, drinking, smoking, and dietary habits. The age-adjusted body weight values of the ADH1B*2/*2, ADH1B*1/*2, and ADH1B*1/*1 carriers were 58.4 ± 0.4, 58.7 ± 0.5, and 63.6 ± 0.5 kg, respectively (ADH1B*2 vs. ADH1B*1/*1 carriers, p body weight or BMI were observed. A multivariate analysis showed that BMI decreased by 0.35 per 10-year increase in age, by 1.73 in the presence of the ADH1B*2 allele, by 1.55 when the preferred beverage was whiskey, and by 0.19 per +10 cigarettes/d and that it increased by 0.10 per +22 g ethanol (EtOH)/d and by 0.41 per increase in category of frequency of milk intake (every day, occasionally, rarely, and never). The increase in BMI as alcohol consumption increased was significantly smaller in the ADH1B*2 group than in the ADH1B*1/*1 group (p = 0.002). ADH1B genotype was a strong determinant of body weight in the alcoholics. The more rapid EtOH elimination associated with the ADH1B*2 allele may result in less efficient utilization of EtOH as an energy source in alcoholics. Copyright © 2013 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  8. From elemental tellurium to Ge2Sb2Te5 melts: High temperature dynamic and relaxation properties in relationship with the possible fragile to strong transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Ruiz, H.; Micoulaut, M.

    2018-01-01

    We investigate the dynamic properties of Ge-Sb-Te phase change melts using first principles molecular dynamics with a special emphasis on the effect of tellurium composition on melt dynamics. From structural models and trajectories established previously [H. Flores-Ruiz et al., Phys. Rev. B 92, 134205 (2015)], we calculate the diffusion coefficients for the different species, the activation energies for diffusion, the Van Hove correlation, and the intermediate scattering functions able to substantiate the dynamics and relaxation behavior of the liquids as a function of temperature and composition that is also compared to experiment whenever possible. We find that the diffusion is mostly Arrhenius-like and that the addition of Ge/Sb atoms leads to a global decrease of the jump probability and to an increase in activated dynamics for diffusion. Relaxation behavior is analyzed and used in order to evaluate the possibility of a fragile to strong transition that is evidenced from the calculated high fragility (M = 129) of Ge2Sb2Te5 at high temperatures.

  9. Metal-Poor, Strongly Star-Forming Galaxies in the DEEP2 Survey: The Relationship Between Stellar Mass, Temperature-Based Metallicity, and Star Formation Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ly, Chun; Rigby, Jane R.; Cooper, Michael; Yan, Renbin

    2015-01-01

    We report on the discovery of 28 redshift (z) approximately equal to 0.8 metal-poor galaxies in DEEP2. These galaxies were selected for their detection of the weak [O (sub III)] lambda 4363 emission line, which provides a "direct" measure of the gas-phase metallicity. A primary goal for identifying these rare galaxies is to examine whether the fundamental metallicity relation (FMR) between stellar mass, gas metallicity, and star formation rate (SFR) holds for low stellar mass and high SFR galaxies. The FMR suggests that higher SFR galaxies have lower metallicity (at fixed stellar mass). To test this trend, we combine spectroscopic measurements of metallicity and dust-corrected SFR with stellar mass estimates from modeling the optical photometry. We find that these galaxies are 1.05 plus or minus 0.61 dex above the redshift (z) approximately 1 stellar mass-SFR relation and 0.23 plus or minus 0.23 dex below the local mass-metallicity relation. Relative to the FMR, the latter offset is reduced to 0.01 dex, but significant dispersion remains dex with 0.16 dex due to measurement uncertainties). This dispersion suggests that gas accretion, star formation, and chemical enrichment have not reached equilibrium in these galaxies. This is evident by their short stellar mass doubling timescale of approximately equal to 100 (sup plus 310) (sub minus 75) million years which suggests stochastic star formation. Combining our sample with other redshift (z) of approximately 1 metal-poor galaxies, we find a weak positive SFR-metallicity dependence (at fixed stellar mass) that is significant at 94.4 percent confidence. We interpret this positive correlation as recent star formation that has enriched the gas but has not had time to drive the metal-enriched gas out with feedback mechanisms.

  10. Cancer patients' experience of positive and negative changes due to the illness: relationships with psychological well-being, coping, and goal reengagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroevers, Maya J; Kraaij, Vivian; Garnefski, Nadia

    2011-02-01

    Most studies in cancer patients on psychological changes focused on positive changes (so-called 'posttraumatic growth'), with surprisingly little attention on the possibility that patients may experience both positive and negative changes. This study investigated the relationship between positive and negative changes, and their association with positive and negative affect. We also examined the correlates of positive and negative changes, specifically the role of coping and goal reengagement. This cross-sectional study was conducted in 108 patients. We used Pearson correlations and Regression analyses to examine the research questions. Positive and negative changes were relatively unrelated to each other. More positive changes were related to more positive affect, whereas more negative changes were related to more negative affect and less positive affect. Approach coping by more positive reappraisal and goal reengagement was significantly associated with more positive changes. More use of avoidant coping by self-distraction was related to more negative changes. Patients experienced both positive and negative changes as a result of cancer. These changes were significantly related to patients' well-being, as well as to their coping and goal reengagement strategies. This knowledge may be incorporated in psychological interventions. Cancer patients can be assisted to learn to acknowledge both positive and negative changes in their life and to approach rather than avoid difficult situations. Patients may also be supported to engage in alternative meaningful goals in life. This is likely to help them find positive meaning. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Positive evolution features in soil restoration assessed by means of glomalin and its relationship to aggregate stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna Ramos, Lourdes; Miralles Mellado, Isabel; Gispert Negrell, María; Pardini, Giovanni; Solé Benet, Albert

    2014-05-01

    Restoration of limestone quarries in arid environments mainly consists of regenerating a highly degraded soil and/or creating a soil-like substrate with minimal physico-chemical and biological properties. In an experimental soil restoration in limestone quarries from Sierra de Gádor (Almería), SE Spain, with the aim to improve soil/substrate properties and to reduce evaporation and erosion, 18 plots 15 x 5 m were prepared to test organic amendments (sludge, compost, control) and different mulches (gravel, chopped forest residue, control). In order to evaluate the soil quality of the different treatments, their chemical, physical and biological properties were analyzed. Among the most efficient biological indicators are arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). AMF play an important role in aggregate stability due to the production of a glycoprotein called glomalin. Therefore, the aim of this study was to quantify, 5 years after the start the experiment, the content of total glomalin (TG) and to analyze its relationship with other soil parameters such as organic matter (OM) and aggregate stability soil (AE). Results indicated a remarkable effect of organic amendments on glomalin content, which was higher in the treatments with compost (6.96 mg g -1) than in sludge and control (0.54 and 0.40 mg g-1, respectively). Amendments also significantly influenced aggregate stability: the highest values were recorded in treatments with sludge and compost (23.14 and 25.09%, respectively) compared to control (13.37%). The gravel mulch had a negative influenced on AE: an average of 16% compared to 23.4% for chopped forest residues and 23.1% of control. Data showed a positive and significant correlation between values of TG and OM content (r = 0.95). We also found a positive and significant correlation between abundance of TG and AE when OM contents were lower than 4% (r = 0.93), however, there was no significant correlation to higher OM when it was higher than 4% (r = 0.34). This

  12. Relationship between socio-economic position and general, maxillofacial and dental trauma: A National Trauma Registry Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Liran; Lin, Shaul; Goldman, Sharon; Peleg, Kobi

    2010-08-01

    Trauma, a major public health problem, has been extensively studied. However, characteristics of maxillofacial and dental injuries and their association with socio-economic position (SEP) have not been thoroughly documented. This study retrospectively investigated the occurrence of maxillofacial, dental and general trauma in Israel, and examined the relationship between socio-economic status and trauma-related hospitalizations. Records were obtained for all trauma patients hospitalized and recorded in the National Israel Trauma Registry (ITR) between January 1, 2003 and December 31, 2005. Maxillofacial and dental injuries were separated and further analyzed by residence locality and SEP. The socio-economic index, developed by the Israel Central Bureau of Statistics, was used to determine the socio-economic status of 50 selected localities. During the study period, 77 072 trauma patients were hospitalized, of whom 3972 (5%) were diagnosed with maxillofacial or dental injuries. Among the selected localities, 42 303 hospitalizations were recorded, of which 1886 (4.5%) involved maxillofacial or dental injuries. For all traumas, lower injury rates were found among residents living in high socio-economic localities. The difference in hospitalization rates for maxillofacial and dental injuries was not significant. The cause of injury differed by age, SEP and category of injury. A fall (35%) or road crash (33%) caused most of the maxillofacial injuries, with 50% of dental injuries because of a road crash. Intentional injuries constituted 22% of the maxillofacial-related hospitalizations and were more prevalent among adults living in low SEP localities. These data should be used to promote injury prevention programs with emphasis directed at high risk populations.

  13. Body Talk: Siblings' Use of Positive and Negative Body Self-Disclosure and Associations with Sibling Relationship Quality and Body-Esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, Kelly Bassett; Campione-Barr, Nicole; Lindell, Anna K

    2015-08-01

    The sibling relationship has been deemed the quintessential "love-hate relationship." Sibling relationships have also been found to have both positive and negative impacts on the adjustment of youth. Unlike previous research, however, the present study examined the associations between siblings' positive and negative body-related disclosures with relationship quality and body-esteem. Additionally, ordinal position, individual sex, and sibling sex composition were tested as moderators. Participants included 101 predominantly White and middle class adolescent sibling dyads (54 % female adolescents, with relatively equal sibling gender compositions). Older siblings were, on average, 16.46 (SD = 1.35) years old with younger siblings an average of 13.67 (SD = 1.56) years. Adolescents completed questionnaires and data were analyzed using Actor-Partner Interdependence Modeling, which focused on disclosure to and from dyad members. In general, sibling body-related disclosure was positive for the quality of the sibling relationship, regardless of the valance of disclosure. Also, adolescents' body esteem was greater when adolescents reported disclosing (i.e., actor-effects) about positive or negative body issues to their siblings (particularly for females). Conversely, when adolescents received positive or negative body-related disclosures from their siblings (i.e., partner-effects), adolescents reported lower levels of body esteem (particularly for girls and younger siblings). Thus, the impact of body-related disclosure on adolescents' feelings of body esteem appear to be associated more with whether they are the discloser or the one being disclosed to, while the impact on the quality of the relationship has simply more to do with whether or not they are generally disclosing to one another.

  14. The Long-Term Benefits of Positive Self-Presentation via Profile Pictures, Number of Friends and the Initiation of Relationships on Facebook for Adolescents’ Self-Esteem and the Initiation of Offline Relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Metzler

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Social networking sites are a substantial part of adolescents’ daily lives. By using a longitudinal approach the current study examined the impact of (a positive self-presentation, (b number of friends, and (c the initiation of online relationships on Facebook on adolescents’ self-esteem and their initiation of offline relationships, as well as the mediating role of positive feedback. Questionnaire data were obtained from 217 adolescents (68% girls, mean age 16.7 years in two waves. Adolescents’ positive self-presentation and number of friends were found to be related to a higher frequency of receiving positive feedback, which in turn was negatively associated with self-esteem. However, the number of Facebook friends had a positive impact on self-esteem, and the initiation of online relationships positively influenced the initiation of offline relationships over time, demonstrating that Facebook may be a training ground for increasing adolescents’ social skills. Implications and suggestions for future research are provided.

  15. Connecting rules from paired miRNA and mRNA expression data sets of HCV patients to detect both inverse and positive regulatory relationships

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Renhua; Liu, Qian; Liu, Tao; Li, Jinyan

    2015-01-01

    Background Intensive research based on the inverse expression relationship has been undertaken to discover the miRNA-mRNA regulatory modules involved in the infection of Hepatitis C virus (HCV), the leading cause of chronic liver diseases. However, biological studies in other fields have found that inverse expression relationship is not the only regulatory relationship between miRNAs and their targets, and some miRNAs can positively regulate a mRNA by binding at the 5' UTR of the mRNA. Result...

  16. Conduct Disorder Symptoms and Illicit Drug Use in Juvenile Justice Involved Youth: The Reciprocal Relationship Between Positive Illicit Drug-Use Attitudes and Illicit Drug Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolp, Haley M; Hershberger, Alexandra R; Sanders, Jasmyn; Um, Miji; Aalsma, Matthew; Cyders, Melissa A

    2017-11-29

    Conduct disorder (CD) symptoms cooccur at high rates with illicit drug use in juvenile justice involved youth, which results in poorer outcomes; however, research has not identified where best to intervene in this relationship, limiting the identification of modifiable risk factors to reduce negative effects of CD symptoms. Two mediation models were examined to investigate the potential for CD symptoms to influence a reciprocal relationship between illicit drug use and positive drug attitudes, controlling for age, gender, and race. Data were examined for 245 juvenile justice involved youth (mean age = 15.46, SD = 1.30, range 12-18, 64.9% Black, 80.4% male) who completed court-ordered psychological assessments. Findings indicate: (1) Positive attitudes toward illicit drug use significantly mediated the relationship between CD symptoms and illicit drug use (β = 0.16, CI 0.09-0.27; test for indirect effect z = 4.17, p drug use significantly mediated the relationship between CD symptoms and positive attitudes toward illicit drug use (β = 0.20, CI 0.12-0.32; test for indirect effect z = 4.87, p drug use both indirectly, through more positive attitudes toward illicit drug use, and directly, which further strengthens positive attitudes toward illicit drug use.

  17. Parent-Child Positivity and Romantic Relationships in Emerging Adulthood: Congruence, Compensation, and the Role of Social Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kretschmer, Tina; Vollebergh, Wilma; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.

    2017-01-01

    Romantic relationship quality in adolescence and early adulthood has often been linked to earlier parent-child relationship quality but it is possible that these links are nonlinear. Moreover, the role of social skills as mediator of associations between parent-child and romantic relations has been discussed but not rigorously tested. Using data…

  18. Parent-child positivity and romantic relationships in emerging adulthood : Congruence, compensation, and the role of social skills

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kretschmer, Tina; Vollebergh, Wilma; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.

    Romantic relationship quality in adolescence and early adulthood has often been linked to earlier parent-child relationship quality but it is possible that these links are nonlinear. Moreover, the role of social skills as mediator of associations between parent-child and romantic relations has been

  19. Parent-child positivity and romantic relationships in emerging adulthood : Congruence, compensation, and the role of social skills

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kretschmer, Tina; Vollebergh, Wilma; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.

    2017-01-01

    Romantic relationship quality in adolescence and early adulthood has often been linked to earlier parent-child relationship quality but it is possible that these links are nonlinear. Moreover, the role of social skills as mediator of associations between parent-child and romantic relations has been

  20. Domestic work and psychological distress--what is the importance of relative socioeconomic position and gender inequality in the couple relationship?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harryson, Lisa; Strandh, Mattias; Hammarström, Anne

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether the relation between responsibility for domestic work and psychological distress was influenced by perception of gender inequality in the couple relationship and relative socioeconomic position. In the Northern Swedish Cohort, all pupils who studied in the last year of compulsory school in a northern Swedish town in 1981 have been followed regularly until 2007. In this study, participants living with children were selected (n = 371 women, 352 men). The importance of relative socioeconomic position and perception of gender inequality in the couple relationship in combination with domestic work for psychological distress was examined through logistic regression analysis. Two combinations of variables including socioeconomic position ('having less than half of the responsibility for domestic work and partner higher socioeconomic position' and 'having more than half the responsibility for domestic work and equal socioeconomic position') were related to psychological distress. There were also higher ORs for psychological distress for the combinations of having 'less than half of the responsibility for domestic work and gender-unequal couple relationship' and 'more than half the responsibility for domestic work and gender-unequal couple relationship'. Having a lower socioeconomic position than the partner was associated with higher ORs for psychological distress among men. This study showed that domestic work is a highly gendered activity as women tend to have a greater and men a smaller responsibility. Both these directions of inequality in domestic work, in combination with experiencing the couple relationship as gender-unequal, were associated with psychological distress There is a need for more research with a relational approach on inequalities in health in order to capture the power relations within couples in various settings.

  1. Domestic work and psychological distress--what is the importance of relative socioeconomic position and gender inequality in the couple relationship?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Harryson

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate whether the relation between responsibility for domestic work and psychological distress was influenced by perception of gender inequality in the couple relationship and relative socioeconomic position.In the Northern Swedish Cohort, all pupils who studied in the last year of compulsory school in a northern Swedish town in 1981 have been followed regularly until 2007. In this study, participants living with children were selected (n = 371 women, 352 men. The importance of relative socioeconomic position and perception of gender inequality in the couple relationship in combination with domestic work for psychological distress was examined through logistic regression analysis.Two combinations of variables including socioeconomic position ('having less than half of the responsibility for domestic work and partner higher socioeconomic position' and 'having more than half the responsibility for domestic work and equal socioeconomic position' were related to psychological distress. There were also higher ORs for psychological distress for the combinations of having 'less than half of the responsibility for domestic work and gender-unequal couple relationship' and 'more than half the responsibility for domestic work and gender-unequal couple relationship'. Having a lower socioeconomic position than the partner was associated with higher ORs for psychological distress among men.This study showed that domestic work is a highly gendered activity as women tend to have a greater and men a smaller responsibility. Both these directions of inequality in domestic work, in combination with experiencing the couple relationship as gender-unequal, were associated with psychological distress There is a need for more research with a relational approach on inequalities in health in order to capture the power relations within couples in various settings.

  2. Identifying Relationships between High-Risk Sexual Behaviors and Screening Positive for Chlamydia and Gonorrhea in School-Wide Screening Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salerno, Jennifer; Darling-Fisher, Cindy; Hawkins, Nicole M.; Fraker, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Background: This article describes a school-wide sexually transmitted infection (STI) screening to identify adolescent high-risk sexual behaviors, STI history/incidence, and presence of chlamydia and gonorrhea, and examines relationships between high-risk behaviors and screening positive for chlamydia and gonorrhea in an alternative high school…

  3. The Role of Positive Emotion towards Work as a Mediator in the Relationship between Organizational Responsiveness towards Teachers and Isolation in Professional Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostanci, Aynur B.

    2013-01-01

    This study was performed for the purpose of determining the mediator role of positive emotion towards work within the relationship between organizational responsiveness towards teachers in schools and social isolation in professional life, based on teacher opinions. The study was designed using a relational survey model. The study group was made…

  4. Examination of the Fidelity of School-Wide Positive Behavior Support Implementation and Its Relationship to Academic and Behavioral Outcomes in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaFrance, Jason A.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to examine the level of School-wide Positive Behavior Support (SWPBS) implementation in the State of Florida. The relationship between implementation fidelity of SWPBS to academic and behavioral outcomes for elementary and middle schools was then analyzed. The results of this study found that SWPBS is being…

  5. Students' Reflections on the Relationships between Safe Learning Environments, Learning Challenge and Positive Experiences of Learning in a Simulated GP Clinic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, J. E.; Williamson, M. I.; Egan, T. G.

    2016-01-01

    Learning environments are a significant determinant of student behaviour, achievement and satisfaction. In this article we use students' reflective essays to identify key features of the learning environment that contributed to positive and transformative learning experiences. We explore the relationships between these features, the students'…

  6. Differential relationships in the association of the Big Five personality traits with positive mental health and psychopathology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamers, S.M.A.; Westerhof, Gerben Johan; Kovács, Viktòria; Bohlmeijer, Ernst Thomas

    2012-01-01

    According to the two continua model of mental health, psychopathology and positive mental health (emotional, psychological, and social well-being) are related but distinct continua. This study investigates the two continua model by examining whether psychopathology and positive mental health show

  7. Promoting Positive Peer Relationships among Youths: A Study Examining the Effects of a Class-Wide Bullying Prevention Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earhart, James Allen, Jr.

    2011-01-01

    Bullying in schools has revealed deleterious psychosocial consequences for bullies, victims, and bystanders. Programs aimed at preventing bullying have largely revealed limited positive outcomes. Efforts that have been associated with positive results have drawn from the social-ecological model, focusing on the constellation of individual…

  8. Is there a relationship between positive affect and other dimensions of quality of life in colorectal cancer patients?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Cardoso Louro

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available It can be stated from the previous research that positive emotions should allow to better health outcomes in sick populations. The aim of the present work is to know the state-of-the-art of how positive affect (PA relates with quality of life in colorectal cancer (CRC patients, as well as to give some guidelines to develop more efficacious psychological interventions in CRC patients to enhance positive affect. This review describes a search of published literature from January 2001 to March of 2012 on the Medline, ISI Web of Knowledge, Psycho Inf and Cochrane databases using publications that contain positive emotions, positive affect, health outcomes, quality of life, CRC and cancer. These articles were classified into two groups: a "descriptive papers" b "interventional studies". Results from "descriptive papers" suggest that positive affect (PA was significantly associated with greater levels of general health, better social functioning, benefit finding, positive changes, low depression, less anxiety and greather psychological well-being. PA also increases when different activities are developed. The overall results from interventional studies suggest that the interventions described can be recommended for improving patient's levels of positive affect. The present review offers some suggestions which could be useful for CRC patients.

  9. Trait impulsivity and body mass index: A cross-sectional investigation in 3073 individuals reveals positive, but very small relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Meule

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Impulsivity has been suggested to be associated with obesity. However, findings are fairly inconsistent and it appears that only specific facets of impulsivity are related to overeating and body mass. In this study, relationships between scores on a short form of the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale and body mass index were examined in a heterogeneous sample ( N  = 3073. After controlling for age and sex, only scores on attentional and motor impulsivity, but not non-planning impulsivity, were predictive of higher body mass index. The magnitude of these relationships, however, was very small. Thus, future research needs to address possible mediators and moderators of the relationship between impulsivity and body mass in order to explain why only specific facets of impulsivity appear to play a role in obesity and under which circumstances heightened impulsivity levels are associated with higher body weight.

  10. Positive Psychology in Context: Effects of Expressing Gratitude in Ongoing Relationships Depend on Perceptions of Enactor Responsiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algoe, Sara B; Zhaoyang, Ruixue

    2016-01-01

    Recent correlational evidence implicates gratitude in personal and relational growth, for both members of ongoing relationships. From these observations, it would be tempting to prescribe interpersonal gratitude exercises to improve relationships. In this experiment, couples were randomly assigned to express gratitude over a month, or to a relationally-active control condition. Results showed modest effects of condition on personal and relational well-being. However, those whose partners were perceived as being particularly responsive when expressing gratitude at the initial lab session showed greater well-being across a range of outcomes, whereas this was not so for people in the control condition. Notably, evidence raises concerns about the effectiveness of artificial injections of gratitude when the partner is perceived to be low in responsiveness. Given the importance of close relationships, this work highlights the need for more theory-driven basic research tested in context before assuming what appears to work naturally will also work artificially.

  11. The Relationship between Teachers' Self-Efficacy with Behavior Management and School-Wide Positive Behavior Supports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micek, Kristin

    2014-01-01

    Classroom management is a common concern for educators. Teachers with high self-efficacy are strongly linked with having successful characteristics regarding their classroom management styles and strategies. With this in mind, the current study examined classroom teachers' perceived self-efficacy, specifically regarding their behavior…

  12. Relationship between ISO 230-2/-6 Test Results and Positioning Accuracy of Machine Tools Using LaserTRACER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hau-Wei Lee

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available To test the positioning accuracy and repeatability of the linear axes of machine tools, ISO (International Standards Organization 230-2 and ISO 230-6 are usually adopted. Auto-tracking laser interferometers (ATLI can perform the testing for the positioning accuracy and the repeatability including x-, y- and z-axes according to ISO 230-2 as well as xy, xz, yz, and xyz diagonal lines following ISO 230-6. LaserTRACER is a kind of ATLI. One of the steps of the ISO 230-2 and -6 tests using LaserTRACER is to determine the coordinate of the LaserTRACER with respect to the home point of the machine tool. Positioning accuracy of the machine tool causes the coordinate determined error, which might influence the test result. To check on this error, this study performs three experiments. The experiment results show that the positioning error appears on the testing results.

  13. Relationship between the serum TGA, TMA positiveness and development of hypothyroidism after 131I therapy in patients with Graves' disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Hui; Xu Xiaohong; Yu Hui

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To study the likelihood of development of hypothyroidism after 131 I therapy in patients with Graves' disease as related to the serum positiveness of TGA and TMA before treatment. Methods: Altogether, 176 patients with Graves' disease were treated with 131 I and followed for 3 years of these patients, serum TGA and TMA were positive in 70 and were negative in 106. Results: In the 70 patients with positive TGA and TMA, development of hypothyroidism after 131 I treatment occurred in 22 subjects three years later (31.4%). However, only 4 of the 106 patients with negative TGA and TMA developed hypothyroidism 3 years after 131 I therapy (3.8%). Difference in the incidence of hypothyroidism was significant (P 131 I be administered to patients with Graves' disease and positive serum TGA, TMA. (authors)

  14. Building Assets Reducing Risks: Academic Success for All Students through Positive Relationships and Use of Real-Time Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corsello, Maryann; Sharma, Anu; Jerabek, Angela

    2015-01-01

    Building Assets Reducing Risks (BARR) is a social emotional model that achieves academic outcomes through combining use of real-time student data with proven relationship-building strategies and intensive teacher collaboration to prevent course failure. BARR is a recipient of US Department of Education "Investing in Innovation (i3)"…

  15. Fostering Positive Classroom Environments: The Relationship between Teacher Qualifications, Facility Management, and Perceptions of Leadership on Student Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Bryan Allan

    2011-01-01

    This study attempted to determine the effectiveness of schools that have highly qualified teachers, along with a well managed facility, and the administration's perception of the leadership role as an instructional specialist on the outcomes that students displayed. Also, the relationship between two instruments used to determine the quality of…

  16. Positive and Negative Romantic Relationship Quality: Age, Familiarity, Attachment and Well-Being as Correlates of Couple Agreement and Projection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmer-Gembeck, Melanie J.; Ducat, Wendy

    2010-01-01

    Capturing the multiple aspects of the romantic peer context is a significant challenge for research. One often recommended option is to use reports of multiple relationship features from both members of the romantic dyad. Using a new measure, we extended an existing model of dyadic perception (Kenny & Acitelli, 2001) to investigate associations…

  17. Differentiation of 13 positive emotions by appraisals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Eddie M W

    2015-01-01

    This research examined how strongly appraisals can differentiate positive emotions and how they differentiate positive emotions. Thirteen positive emotions were examined, namely, amusement, awe, challenge, compassion, contentment, gratitude, hope, interest, joy, pride, relief, romantic love and serenity. Participants from Singapore and the USA recalled an experience of each emotion and thereafter rated their appraisals of the experience. In general, the appraisals accurately classified the positive emotions at rates above chance levels, and the appraisal-emotion relationships conformed to predictions. Also, the appraisals were largely judged by participants as relevant to their positive emotion experiences, and the appraisal-emotion relationships were largely consistent across the two countries.

  18. Positioning consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halkier, Bente; Keller, Margit

    2014-01-01

    This article analyses the ways in which media discourses become a part of contested consumption activities. We apply a positioning perspective with practice theory to focus on how practitioners relate to media discourse as a symbolic resource in their everyday practices. A typology of performance...... positionings emerges based on empirical examples of research in parent–children consumption. Positionings are flexible discursive fixations of the relationship between the performances of the practitioner, other practitioners, media discourse and consumption activities. The basic positioning types...

  19. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE USE OF KANGAROO POSITION ON PRETERM BABIES AND MOTHER-CHILD INTERACTION UPON DISCHARGE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Cynthia Ribeiro do Nascimento; Campos, Luís Gustavo; Lucena, Aline Moreira; Pereira, Janser Moura; Costa, Patrícia Rodrigues da; Lima, Flávia Aparecida Felipe de; Azevedo, Vivian Mara Gonçalves de Oliveira

    2017-01-01

    To analyze the influence of the Kangaroo Position duration in the initial interactions between mothers and preterm infants. This is an exploratory prospective observational study that analyzed the mother-infant interaction during breastfeeding, before hospital discharge. All eligible newborns, with a gestational age of 28-32 weeks and a birth weight of 1,000-1,800 g from June 11 to September 31, 2014 were included. The films of the interaction were evaluated by the "Mother-Baby Interaction Protocol 0-6 months" tool. The duration of the Kangaroo Position during all the hospitalization period was correlated with the interaction between mother and preterm infant. The longer the dyad spent time in the Kangaroo Position, the more the newborns made physical contact attempts with their mothers during breastfeeding (r=0.37; p=0.03); and the longer the time in the Kangaroo Position, the less the mothers talked to their children (r=-0.47; p=0.006). Longer periods in the Kangaroo Position stimulates the initial exchanges of contact between preterm infant with his mother, which suggests a higher alert status of the newborn and a better availability for interactions with the mother during breastfeeding.

  20. Proposing a Model for Analysing Relationship between Social Anxiety and Body Dysmorphic Disorder: Mediating Role of Fear of Positive and Negative Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasim Damercheli

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This research was aimed at determining the relationship between the social anxiety and the body dysmorphic disorder with mediation of fear of positive and negative evaluation. The research method was descriptive and had correlational pattern in which the structural equation modelling was utilized. The research community included the female bachelor and master students, being studied at Imam Khomeini International University, Qazvin, Iran, in 2015-2016 academic year. In this research, 1000 students, selected based on clustering random sampling, have answered the questionnaires and then 280 students were selected as the final samples based on the purposive sampling. The research tools composed of body dysmorphic metacognitive evaluation, social phobia inventory, Leary’s brief version of fear of negative evaluation, and fear of positive evaluation. The data of subjects were analyzed using path analysis, confirmatory factor analysis, measurement model test and structural model test. The results stated that the fear of positive and negative evaluation together mediates the relationship between the social anxiety and the body dysmorphic disorder. In addition, the direct effect of social anxiety on the fear of positive evaluation, on the fear of negative evaluation and on the body dysmorphic disorder was affirmed. Therefore, the interventions that target the fear of positive and negative evaluation as the central components of social anxiety can help the prevention of growth in body dysmorphic disorder

  1. Positive Relationship Between Individuality and Social Identity in Virtual Communities: Self-Categorization and Social Identification as Distinct Forms of Social Identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Tian-Chao; Li, Xuemei

    2016-11-01

    Previous studies have reported conflicting results regarding the relationship between individuality and social identity, indicating this area requires further examination. This study constructed a research model to help understand the positive role of individualized behavior and social identity in virtual communities. The results of an online survey conducted to assess our theoretical research model indicated that social identity can be expressed in two ways: self-categorization and social identification. Furthermore, we found individualized behavior was positively related to social identification, while self-categorization was directly derived from social identification.

  2. Homogamy in Masculinity-Femininity Is Positively Linked to Relationship Quality in Gay Male Couples from the Czech Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bártová, Klára; Štěrbová, Zuzana; Martinec Nováková, Lenka; Binter, Jakub; Varella, Marco Antonio Corrêa; Valentova, Jaroslava Varella

    2017-07-01

    The main aims of this research were to test the similarity of masculinity-femininity in long-term male same-sex couples from the Czech Republic and to examine whether this similarity predicts higher relationship quality. In Study 1, participants (N = 30) and their partners completed the Dyadic Adjustment Scale (DAS) and the Childhood Gender Nonconformity Scale (CGN). In Study 2, participants (N = 40) and their partners completed DAS and the Gender Diagnosticity Scale (GD). Results showed that the partners were no more alike than individuals paired at random in their CGN or GD, but greater similarity in CGN between partners increased Dyadic Cohesion (r = -.41 [-.71, -.02]) and Affectional Expression (r = -.38 [-.60, -.13]). Our results add to previous evidence showing that similarity in same-sex couples increased relationship quality. Although, on average, gay men were not coupled on the basis of homogamy in gender roles, their relationship quality is linked to the gender egalitarian model rather than to the gender stratified one. Thus, a widespread stereotype suggesting that same-sex partners are divided by different gender roles seems to be, at least in our sample from a Western society, rather incorrect.

  3. CBCT evaluation of the tridimensional relationship between impacted lower third molar and the inferior alveolar nerve position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgonovo, Andrea E; Rigaldo, Federico; Maiorana, Carlo; Grossi, Giovanni B; Augusti, Davide; Re, Dino

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate if the statistical significant relations between the measures taken exists or not and to show how the 3D reconstruction could be help the oral surgeon in all those instances in which it may have a direct impact on the planning of the surgical steps. Thanks to use of NobelClinician™ Software it was possible to analyze 200 mandibular tomography computerized, random selected, and create a 3D reconstruction of mandibular bone, point out dental structure of wisdom tooth and the way of IAN. Statistical analysis was performed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences. One way ANOVA test was used to measure the association between each independent variable and the outcome variable, followed by the post-hoc least significant difference (LSD) test for intergroup differences. Two independent variables were significant predictors for risk to have the distance 0 mm from IAN to apex: "Ramus relationship/space available" and "depth". The 3D reconstruction software provide surgeons with an additional planning tool, offering: immediate and neat visualization of the noble structures that have to be respected and their localization in the three spatial planes; the exact morphology of the relevant root apex; a 360° view of the relationship between the IAN and the third molar and the exact point in which the root is in relationship with the canal.

  4. Bad Versus Good, What Matters More on the Treatment Floor? Relationships of Positive and Negative Events With Nurses' Burnout and Engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Robert R; Sliter, Michael; Mohr, Cynthia D; Sears, Lindsay E; Deese, Marylin Nicole; Wright, Robert R; Cadiz, David; Jacobs, Laurie

    2015-12-01

    Many investigators have reported the stressful aspects of nursing; fewer have focused on nurses' positive work experiences. For this study, we developed a 2 × 2 typology of positive and negative events related to the tasks of nursing work and the social and organizational context of that work: successes, supports, constraints, and conflicts. We hypothesized that positive events would predict engagement, negative events would predict burnout, and negative events would be more strongly related to both burnout and engagement. In secondary analyses of data from 310 acute care nurses who completed survey measures of workplace events at one time point and burnout and engagement measures approximately eight months later, regression results indicated that both positive and negative work events contributed to engagement, whereas only negative events were related to burnout. The results of dominance analyses established that constraints and conflicts more strongly predicted burnout than did supports and successes. Additionally, consistent with a "bad is stronger than good" perspective, the strongest predictor of engagement was lower constraints, although successes, supports, and conflicts also predicted engagement. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Marriage, Family and Gender Inequality : An historical exploration of the relationship between family systems, the position of women and development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carmichael, S.G.

    2016-01-01

    This dissertation explores the historical underpinnings of current day gender inequalities at a global scale, with a focus on female agency (the degree of control people have over their own lives). To do so it brings together different explorations of the position of women both historically and

  6. Relationship between School-Wide Positive Behavior Interventions and Supports and Academic, Attendance, and Behavior Outcomes in High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Jennifer; Simonsen, Brandi; McCoach, D. Betsy; Sugai, George; Lombardi, Allison; Horner, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Attendance, behavior, and academic outcomes are important indicators of school effectiveness and long-term student outcomes. "Multi-tiered systems of support" (MTSS), such as "School-Wide Positive Behavior Interventions and Supports" (SWPBIS), have emerged as potentially effective frameworks for addressing student needs and…

  7. Structural Modeling on the Relationship between Positive Perception, Deliberative Belief, and Friendship Quality: A Study with Undergraduate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chun-Wen

    2018-01-01

    Some of the key issues in pedagogy are the way of students' peer learning, collaboration, and team work at school. Friendship quality is essential for academic achievement by peer learning and team work. In line with that, the aim of the present study is to examine the associations between variables that are positive perception, deliberative…

  8. Erythropoietin receptor expression and its relationship with trastuzumab response and resistance in HER2-positive breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chi; Duan, Xuening; Xu, Ling; Ye, Jingming; Zhao, Jianxin; Liu, Yinhua

    2012-12-01

    Resistance to trastuzumab is a major issue in the treatment of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive breast cancer. Several potential resistance mechanisms have been investigated, but the results are controversial and no conclusion has been reached. Erythropoietin receptor (EPOR) may function in cell growth, and expressed in various cancer cells. Because the downstream signaling pathways for EPOR and HER2 partially overlapped, we hypothesized that EPOR may play a role in the inhibition effect of trastuzumab and resistance to trastuzumab. Here, we detected the expression of EPOR mRNA and protein in HER2-positive breast cancer cell lines and tissues. EPOR expressed in SKBR3, MDA-MB-453, and UACC-812 cell lines, but not in BT474. Of the 55 HER2-positive cancer tissues, EPOR was positive in 42 samples and highly expressed (H-score ≥ 25) in 24 by immunohistochemistry. The difference between EPOR expression and Ki67 index was significant (P = 0.033), and EPOR expression also positively correlated with higher pathological stage (Spearman correlation coefficient = 0.359; P = 0.007). Exogenous EPO antagonized trastuzumab-induced inhibition of cell proliferation in HER2/EPOR dual-positive breast cancer cells. We then exposed SKBR3 cells to trastuzumab for 4 months to obtain trastuzumab-resistant SKBR3 cell line, which demonstrated higher phosphorylated EPOR level, higher EPO expression and more extracellular secretion than non-resistant parental SKBR3 cells. Downregulation EPOR expression using short hairpin RNA resensitized trastuzumab-resistant cells to this drug, and SKBR3 cells with EPOR downregulation demonstrated attenuated trastuzumab resistance after the same resistance induction. EPOR downregulation plus trastuzumab produced a synergetic action in the inhibition of cell proliferation and invasion in SKBR3 and MDA-MB-453 cell lines. Therefore, EPOR expression may be involved in tumor progression and proliferation in HER2-positive breast cancer

  9. Explaining the Positive Relationship between Fourth-Grade Children’s Body Mass Index and Energy Intake at School-Provided Meals (Breakfast and Lunch)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, Suzanne Domel; Royer, Julie A.; Hitchcock, David B.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND A positive relationship exists between children’s body mass index (BMI) and energy intake at school-provided meals. To help explain this relationship, we investigated 7 outcome variables concerning aspects of school-provided meals—energy content of items selected, number of meal components selected, number of meal components eaten, amounts eaten of standardized school-meal portions, energy intake from flavored milk, energy intake received in trades, and energy content given in trades. METHODS We observed children in grade 4 (N=465) eating school-provided breakfast and lunch on one to 4 days per child. We measured children’s weight and height. For daily values at school meals, a generalized linear model was fit with BMI (dependent variable) and the 7 outcome variables, sex, and age (independent variables). RESULTS BMI was positively related to amounts eaten of standardized school-meal portions (p meals explained the (previously found) positive relationship between BMI and energy intake at school-provided meals is helpful for school-based obesity interventions. PMID:23517000

  10. Testing the Bivalent Fear of Evaluation Model of Social Anxiety: The Relationship between Fear of Positive Evaluation, Social Anxiety, and Perfectionism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, Keong; Gibbs, Amy L; Francis, Andrew J P; Schuster, Sharynn E

    2016-01-01

    The Bivalent Fear of Evaluation (BFOE) model of social anxiety proposes that fear of negative evaluation (FNE) and fear of positive evaluation (FPE) play distinct roles in social anxiety. Research is however lacking in terms of how FPE is related to perfectionism and how these constructs interact to predict social anxiety. Participants were 382 individuals from the general community and included an oversampling of individuals with social anxiety. Measures of FPE, FNE, perfectionism, and social anxiety were administered. Results were mostly consistent with the predictions made by the BFOE model and showed that accounting for confounding variables, FPE correlated negatively with high standards but positively with maladaptive perfectionism. FNE was also positively correlated with maladaptive perfectionism, but there was no significant relationship between FNE and high standards. Also consistent with BFOE model, both FNE and FPE significantly moderated the relationship between maladaptive perfectionism and social anxiety with the relationship strengthened at high levels of FPE and FNE. These findings provide additional support for the BFOE model and implications are discussed.

  11. Giving Work a Rain Check: Relationship Between Soldiering and Positive Work Outcomes Within the Job Demands-Resources Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ümit Baran Metin

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Soldiering is defined as engaging behaviourally or cognitively into non-work-related activities during working hours with no intention of harming the employer, co-workers, and/or clients. The present study will investigate this phenomenon using the Job-Demands Resources Model. The proposed model will consider the influence of job demands and resources on soldiering, as well as the relationship of soldiering with employee wellbeing and performance. The data, collected via online questionnaires across seven European countries, will be analysed using structural equation modelling in order to explore the goodness-of-fit of the proposed model as well as its potential cross cultural variations.

  12. Relationship of Oct-4 to malignant stage: a meta-analysis based on 502 positive/high Oct-4 cases and 522 negative/low case-free controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Beilong; Lin, Yan; Lai, Yingrong; Zheng, Fangfang; Zheng, Xiaobin; Huang, Rijiao; Yang, Weilin; Chen, Zhenguang

    2016-01-12

    Octamer 4 (Oct-4), an important member of the POU domain transcription factor family, has been suggested to function as a master switch during differentiation of human somatic cells and more recently has come to be linked with neoplastic properties. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between Oct-4 and cancer stage using a meta-analysis approach. Relevant articles published as of May 2015 were retrieved from the following databases: PubMed, ISI Web of Knowledge, Embase, and Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI). The strengths of relationship for outcomes of interest were estimated based on odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). A total of 11 articles on Oct-4 and cancer staging that collectively included 502 positive/high Oct-4 cases and 522 negative/low case-free controls were chosen. Positive/high Oct-4 was significantly associated with cancer stage in several kinds of cancer. Specifically, positive/high Oct-4 was associated with cancer stage III/IV (fixed effects: OR = 1.53, 95% CI = 1.12-2.10), primary tumor (T3-4) (random effects: OR = 1.93, 95% CI = 0.99-3.77), and cancer grade of differentiation (intermediate-poor) (random effects: OR = 3.45, 95% CI = 1.5-7.61). These findings suggest that positive/high Oct-4 is more strongly linked to stage III/IV cancer and cancer grade of differentiation, and is correlated with malignant characteristics that lead to poor prognosis in different types of cancer, especially in Asian. Given variability related to ethnicity and differences in cancer types, additional studies are warranted to establish the generalizability of our findings.

  13. Marriage, Family and Gender Inequality : An historical exploration of the relationship between family systems, the position of women and development

    OpenAIRE

    Carmichael, S.G.

    2016-01-01

    This dissertation explores the historical underpinnings of current day gender inequalities at a global scale, with a focus on female agency (the degree of control people have over their own lives). To do so it brings together different explorations of the position of women both historically and today, which attempt to draw out ways in which differences in gender equality between countries are historically determined, and what the effects of such differences are for the transmission of human c...

  14. HIV Positive Diagnosis During Pregnancy Increases Risk of IPV Postpartum Among Women with No History of IPV in Their Relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groves, Allison K; Reyes, H Luz McNaughton; Moodley, Dhayendre; Maman, Suzanne

    2017-07-24

    There has been limited study of whether and for whom physical intimate partner violence (IPV) is a consequence of an HIV-positive diagnosis. Per the diathesis stress model, the consequences of HIV infection may be worse for women with a history of IPV. We hypothesize that the positive association between HIV diagnosis in pregnancy and postpartum IPV will be exacerbated for women with a history of IPV. Data come from a prospective cohort study with 1015 participants who completed a baseline antenatal and 9-month postpartum visit. Using logistic regression analyses, we found a statistically significant interaction between HIV diagnosis, history of IPV and postpartum IPV (AOR: 0.40, 95% CI 0.17-0.96). The findings were in the opposite direction as expected: HIV-diagnosis was not associated with IPV for women with a history of IPV (AOR: 2.17, 95% CI 1.06, 4.42). However, HIV-positive women without a history of IPV faced more than two times the risk of incident postpartum IPV than HIV-negative women (AOR: 2.17, 95% CI 1.06, 4.42). Interventions to reduce incident and ongoing IPV during the perinatal period are needed.

  15. [Relationships between Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) psychological type and marital satisfaction, divorce proneness, positive affect, and conflict regulation in clinic couples].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Seong Sook

    2010-06-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the relationships between the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) psychological type and marital satisfaction, divorce proneness, positive affect, and conflict regulation in couple visiting a clinic. Couples (n=62) who visited "M" couple clinic participated in the study. Data were collected from March to June 2009 using the Marital Satisfaction Scale, Marital Status Inventory, Positive Affect Inventory, and Conflict Regulation Inventory. The couples showed no significant differences in marital satisfaction, positive affect, and conflict regulation according to similarities between spouses in MBTI types. However, they showed significant differences in divorce proneness of husband according to a similarity in the Sensing/Intuition indicator. They also showed significant differences in divorce proneness, positive affect, and conflict regulation between the couples for ISTJ (Introversion, Sensing, Thinking, Judging) or ESTJ (Extraversion, Sensing, Thinking, Judging) types compared to other couples. When nurses counsel couples, they should understand that differences in psychological type between spouses affects their marital relationship. In addition, nurses should educate couples on the characteristics of each type according to the couple's types and help them to understand each other, especially for couples where one spouse is the ISTJ/ESTJ type. These interventions will improve marital satisfaction and prevent the divorce in these couples.

  16. Revisiting the Housing-Health Relationship for HIV-Positive Persons: Qualitative Evidence From the Lower Manya Krobo District, Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teye-Kau, Mabel; Tenkorang, Eric Y; Adjei, Paul B

    2018-03-01

    The relationship between housing and HIV infection is complex. On one hand, poor housing arrangements may affect the health of persons living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHAs). On the other hand, PLWHAs may be more likely to live in substandard homes because of their health. We used qualitative in-depth individual interviews of 38 PLWHAs attending voluntary counseling services at two government hospitals in the Lower Manya Krobo District (LMKD) in the Eastern region of Ghana to examine their housing and health outcomes. Results show that the majority of PLWHAs lived in homes that lacked basic amenities, were overcrowded, had structural deficiencies, and were noisy and dirty. They suffered from poor housing conditions mainly because of their HIV serostatus, as this affected their ability to finance adequate homes, while HIV-related stigmatization led to eviction from either family homes or rented facilities.

  17. Domestic Work and Psychological Distress−What Is the Importance of Relative Socioeconomic Position and Gender Inequality in the Couple Relationship?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harryson, Lisa; Strandh, Mattias; Hammarström, Anne

    2012-01-01

    Aims The aim of this study was to investigate whether the relation between responsibility for domestic work and psychological distress was influenced by perception of gender inequality in the couple relationship and relative socioeconomic position. Methods In the Northern Swedish Cohort, all pupils who studied in the last year of compulsory school in a northern Swedish town in 1981 have been followed regularly until 2007. In this study, participants living with children were selected (n = 371 women, 352 men). The importance of relative socioeconomic position and perception of gender inequality in the couple relationship in combination with domestic work for psychological distress was examined through logistic regression analysis. Results Two combinations of variables including socioeconomic position (‘having less than half of the responsibility for domestic work and partner higher socioeconomic position’ and ‘having more than half the responsibility for domestic work and equal socioeconomic position’) were related to psychological distress. There were also higher ORs for psychological distress for the combinations of having ‘less than half of the responsibility for domestic work and gender-unequal couple relationship’ and ‘more than half the responsibility for domestic work and gender-unequal couple relationship’. Having a lower socioeconomic position than the partner was associated with higher ORs for psychological distress among men. Conclusions This study showed that domestic work is a highly gendered activity as women tend to have a greater and men a smaller responsibility. Both these directions of inequality in domestic work, in combination with experiencing the couple relationship as gender-unequal, were associated with psychological distress There is a need for more research with a relational approach on inequalities in health in order to capture the power relations within couples in various settings. PMID:22719895

  18. Structure-activity relationship of daptomycin analogues with substitution at (2S, 3R) 3-methyl glutamic acid position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Du'an; Lam, Hiu Yung; Han, Wenbo; Cotroneo, Nicole; Pandya, Bhaumik A; Li, Xuechen

    2017-02-01

    Daptomycin is a highly effective lipopeptide antibiotic against Gram-positive pathogens. The presence of (2S, 3R) 3-methyl glutamic acid (mGlu) in daptomycin has been found to be important to the antibacterial activity. However the role of (2S, 3R) mGlu is yet to be revealed. Herein, we reported the syntheses of three daptomycin analogues with (2S, 3R) mGlu substituted by (2S, 3R) methyl glutamine (mGln), dimethyl glutamic acid and (2S, 3R) ethyl glutamic acid (eGlu), respectively, and their antibacterial activities. The detailed synthesis of dimethyl glutamic acid was also reported. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. More than Resisting Temptation: Beneficial Habits Mediate the Relationship between Self-Control and Positive Life Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galla, Brian M.; Duckworth, Angela L.

    2015-01-01

    Why does self-control predict such a wide array of positive life outcomes? Conventional wisdom holds that self-control is used to effortfully inhibit maladaptive impulses, yet this view conflicts with emerging evidence that self-control is associated with less inhibition in daily life. We propose that one of the reasons individuals with better self-control use less effortful inhibition, yet make better progress on their goals is that they rely on beneficial habits. Across six studies (total N = 2,274), we found support for this hypothesis. In Study 1, habits for eating healthy snacks, exercising, and getting consistent sleep mediated the effect of self-control on both increased automaticity and lower reported effortful inhibition in enacting those behaviors. In Studies 2 and 3, study habits mediated the effect of self-control on reduced motivational interference during a work-leisure conflict and on greater ability to study even under difficult circumstances. In Study 4, homework habits mediated the effect of self-control on classroom engagement and homework completion. Study 5 was a prospective longitudinal study of teenage youth who participated in a five-day meditation retreat. Better self-control before the retreat predicted stronger meditation habits three months after the retreat, and habits mediated the effect of self-control on successfully accomplishing meditation practice goals. Finally, in Study 6, study habits mediated the effect of self-control on homework completion and two objectively measured long-term academic outcomes: grade point average and first-year college persistence. Collectively, these results suggest that beneficial habits--perhaps more so than effortful inhibition--are an important factor linking self-control with positive life outcomes. PMID:25643222

  20. Postural control during sit-to-stand movement and its relationship with upright position in children with hemiplegic spastic cerebral palsy and in typically developing children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavão, Silvia L; Santos, Adriana N; Oliveira, Ana B; Rocha, Nelci A C F

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare postural control in typically developing (TD) children and children with cerebral palsy (CP) during the sit-to-stand (STS) movement and to assess the relationship between static (during static standing position) and dynamic postural control (during STS movement) in both groups. The center of pressure (CoP) behavior of 23 TD children and 6 children with spastic hemiplegic CP (Gross Motor Function Classification System [GMFCS] I and II) was assessed during STS movement performance and during static standing conditions with the use of a force plate. The data obtained from the force plate were used to calculate CoP variables: anteroposterior (AP) and mediolateral (ML) amplitudes of CoP displacement and the area and velocity of CoP oscillation. According to the Mann-Whitney test, children with CP exhibited higher CoP values in all of the analyzed variables during the beginning of STS movement. Pearson's correlation verified a positive correlation between the CoP variables during both static conditions and the performance of STS movement. Children with spastic hemiplegic CP present major postural oscillations during the beginning of STS movement compared with typical children. Moreover, the observed relationship between postural control in static and dynamic conditions reveals the importance of body control in the static position for the performance of functional activities that put the body in motion, such as STS movement.

  1. Postural control during sit-to-stand movement and its relationship with upright position in children with hemiplegic spastic cerebral palsy and in typically developing children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia L. Pavão

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to compare postural control in typically developing (TD children and children with cerebral palsy (CP during the sit-to-stand (STS movement and to assess the relationship between static (during static standing position and dynamic postural control (during STS movement in both groups. METHOD: The center of pressure (CoP behavior of 23 TD children and 6 children with spastic hemiplegic CP (Gross Motor Function Classification System [GMFCS] I and II was assessed during STS movement performance and during static standing conditions with the use of a force plate. The data obtained from the force plate were used to calculate CoP variables: anteroposterior (AP and mediolateral (ML amplitudes of CoP displacement and the area and velocity of CoP oscillation. RESULTS: According to the Mann-Whitney test, children with CP exhibited higher CoP values in all of the analyzed variables during the beginning of STS movement. Pearson's correlation verified a positive correlation between the CoP variables during both static conditions and the performance of STS movement. CONCLUSIONS: Children with spastic hemiplegic CP present major postural oscillations during the beginning of STS movement compared with typical children. Moreover, the observed relationship between postural control in static and dynamic conditions reveals the importance of body control in the static position for the performance of functional activities that put the body in motion, such as STS movement.

  2. Child Perfectionism and its Relationship with Personality, Excessive Parental Demands, Depressive Symptoms and Experience of Positive Emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oros, Laura B; Iuorno, Ornella; Serppe, Mónica

    2017-02-13

    While adaptive perfectionism ensures good overall performance, maladaptive perfectionism is associated with emotional disorders for which psychological treatment is sought. There are many factors that can explain the development of this disorder throughout childhood. The present study analyzed to what extent the child's personality traits and excessive parental demands can predict maladaptive perfectionism, and, in turn, also analyzed how this relates to positive emotions and depressive symptoms in a sample of 404 Argentinian children (M age = 10.30; SD = 1.03). Stepwise multiple regression analyses and Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests were performed. Results showed that excessive parental demands, together with high child neuroticism increased the likelihood of developing perfectionism (p < .001) throughout childhood. It was also noted that child perfectionism increased the symptoms of depression (p < .001), decreased feelings of gratitude (p = .018), increased the recognition of self-worth (p = .009) and activated certain aspects of sympathy towards others' pain (p = .043). These processes linked to perfectionism are discussed, clarifying their effects on children's mental health.

  3. The Relationship Between Implementation of School-Wide Positive Behavior Intervention and Supports and Performance on State Accountability Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana M. Marin

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This study examined data from 96 schools in a Southeastern U.S. state participating in training and/or coaching on School-Wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (SWPBIS provided by the State Personnel Development Grant (SPDG in their state. Schools studied either received training only (“non-intensive” sites or training and on-site coaching (“intensive” sites. Fidelity of implementation was self-evaluated by both types of schools using the Benchmarks of Quality (BOQ. Some schools were also externally evaluated using the School-Wide Evaluation Tool (SET, with those scoring 80% or higher determined “model sites.” Using an independent sample t-test, analyses revealed statistically significant differences between intensive and nonintensive schools’ Quality of Distribution Index (QDI scores and between model sites and nonmodel sites on QDI scores. Correlations were performed to determine whether the fidelity of implementation of SWPBIS as measured by the BOQ was related to any of the state’s accountability measures: performance classification, QDI, or growth.

  4. Magnetic resonance imaging-based measures of atlas position: Relationship to canine atlantooccipital overlapping, syringomyelia and clinical signs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerda-Gonzalez, S; Bibi, K F; Gifford, A T; Mudrak, E L; Scrivani, P V

    2016-03-01

    Canine atlantooccipital overlapping (AOO) is characterized by a decreased distance between the dorsal arch of the atlas and the supraoccipital bone. Current diagnostic criteria for this condition are subjective and clinician-dependent; objective criteria are needed to allow a reliable and reproducible diagnosis in clinical and research settings and assess clinical significance. We propose four standardized MRI-based measurements to objectively assess the proximity of the atlas to the foramen magnum. Inclusion criteria for dogs in this study were bodyweight 5 months, and availability of a complete MRI study performed with the craniocervical junction in extension. Exclusion criteria were space-occupying lesions and poor image quality (i.e. unclear bony margins). Measurements also included blinded determinations of skull type, presence of craniocervical junction anomalies and presence and severity of syringomyelia. Clinical status at the time of imaging was noted. Measurements were obtained in 271 dogs; these were reproducible and reliable. Findings varied by skull type: dolichocephalic dogs had smaller foramen magnum, whereas brachycephalic dogs had more cranially and dorsally positioned atlas bodies in comparison to the other skull types. Measurements also increased with increases in bodyweight. This study demonstrated a close association between AOO, syringomyelia and clinical signs. Toy and small breed dogs (including Cavalier King Charles spaniels) showed higher than previously reported prevalence of AOO; its occurrence was also associated with lower bodyweights within the study population of <15 kg toy/small breed dogs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Testing strong interaction theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, J.

    1979-01-01

    The author discusses possible tests of the current theories of the strong interaction, in particular, quantum chromodynamics. High energy e + e - interactions should provide an excellent means of studying the strong force. (W.D.L.)

  6. The kinematic relationship between sitting and standing posture and pelvic inclination and its significance to cup positioning in total hip arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Andrew; Munir, Selin; Shah, Siddarth; Walter, William Lindsay

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study is to describe the influence of sitting and standing posture on sagittal pelvic inclination in total hip replacement patients to assist with correct acetabular component positioning. Lateral radiographs of the pelvis and lumbar spine in sitting and standing positions were extracted. Pelvic tilt was measured using the vertical inclination of a line from the anterior superior iliac spine (ASIS) to pubic tubercle. Sacral inclination, Cobb angle of the lumbar spine and hip flexion were recorded. Sixty patients were identified with a mean age of 63. Men were more likely to flex the lumbar spine in sitting (p = 0.004); 80° of hip flexion is required for seated posture. Stiff hips required compensatory pelvic flexion and lumbar flexion in sitting. There is a linear relationship between hip flexion and pelvic tilt, hip flexion and lumbar lordosis. Pelvic orientation is determined by lumbar and hip stiffness. This impacts on acetabular version.

  7. Examining the relationships between posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms, positive smoking outcome expectancies, and cigarette smoking in people with substance use disorders: a multiple mediator model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hruska, Bryce; Bernier, Jennifer; Kenner, Frank; Kenne, Deric R; Boros, Alec P; Richardson, Christopher J; Delahanty, Douglas L

    2014-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is highly prevalent in people with substance use disorders (SUDs) and is associated with significant physical health problems. Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is also highly associated with both SUDs and cigarette smoking and may serve as a barrier to smoking cessation efforts. In addition, people with PTSD are more likely to hold positive smoking outcome expectancies (i.e., beliefs that smoking cigarettes results in positive outcomes); these beliefs may contribute to cigarette smoking in people with SUDs experiencing PTSD symptoms. The present study examined the relationship between PTSD symptoms and typical daily cigarette smoking/cigarette dependence symptoms in a sample of 227 trauma-exposed current smokers with SUDs (59.9% male, 89.4% Caucasian) seeking detoxification treatment services. Additionally, the indirect effects of multiple types of positive smoking outcome expectancies on these relationships were examined. Participants completed questionnaires assessing PTSD symptoms, positive smoking outcome expectancies, cigarette consumption, and cigarette dependence symptoms. Results indicated that PTSD symptoms were not directly related to cigarette consumption or cigarette dependence symptoms. However, negative affect reduction outcome expectancies were shown to have a significant indirect effect between PTSD symptoms and cigarette consumption, while negative affect reduction, boredom reduction, and taste-sensorimotor manipulation outcome expectancies were all found to have significant indirect effects between PTSD symptoms and cigarette dependence symptoms. The indirect effect involving negative affect reduction outcome expectancies was statistically larger than that of taste sensorimotor manipulation outcome expectancies, while negative affect reduction and boredom reduction outcome expectancies were comparable in magnitude. These results suggest that expectancies that smoking can manage negative affective experiences are related to

  8. Relationship between the Rorschach Perceptual Thinking Index (PTI) and the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) in psychotic patients: a validity study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biagiarelli, Mario; Roma, Paolo; Comparelli, Anna; Andraos, Maria Paola; Di Pomponio, Ileana; Corigliano, Valentina; Curto, Martina; Masters, Grace Allison; Ferracuti, Stefano

    2015-02-28

    The aim of this study is to demonstrate the validity of the Rorschach Perceptual Thinking Index (PTI) in the assessment of reality testing in patients with psychosis. We evaluated the relationship between the PTI criteria and the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) scores in 98 psychotic disorder affected patients. Thirty four were evaluated during the acute episode (AP) and 64 were chronically treated and stable (CP). The PANSS positive score resulted significantly higher in AP than in CP group, but no significant difference was found in the PTI score. The PTI positively correlated with the PANSS total score. The PTI1 and PTI2 criteria significantly correlated with the PANSS negative score, the PTI4 and PTI5 with the positive. The Rorschach variable X-% significantly correlated with the negative symptoms; the WSum6 with thought disorders; and the M- with delusions. PTI score, X-% and WSum6 predicted impaired judgment and insight. These results suggest that PTI is a valid instrument to assess impairment in reality testing, regardless of the patient׳s current psychiatric presentation. The presence of conceptual disorganization, delusions, lack of judgment and insight don׳t have effects on the PTI, supporting its strength as an assessment tool for psychotic disorders. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The Dynamic Relationship Between Cognitive Function and Positive Well-Being in Older People: A Prospective Study Using the English Longitudinal Study of Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    There is evidence that having a stronger sense of positive well-being may be a potential resource for healthier aging as represented by slower physical decline, reduced risk of frailty and longer survival. However, it is unclear whether positive well-being is protective of another crucial component of healthy aging, cognitive function, or whether it has a bidirectional relationship with cognitive function. We use multilevel models with within-person centering to estimate the within- and between-person association between cognitive function and positive well-being in 4 waves of data from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA), (N = 10985, aged 50–90 years at wave 1). Our findings show that, although most variation in cognitive function was explained by age, and most variation in well-being was explained by depression, small but significant associations between cognition and well-being remained after variation in age and depression were controlled. In models where cognition was the outcome, the association was mainly because of variation in mean levels of well-being between persons. In models where well-being was the outcome, the association was mainly because of within-person fluctuation in cognitive test performance. Exercise and depression were the most important moderating influences on the association between cognition and positive well-being. Depression had greater effect upon this association for those with higher well-being, but exercise protected cognitive performance against the adverse effects of lower well-being. PMID:24955999

  10. Positioning consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halkier, Bente; Keller, Margit

    2014-01-01

    This article analyses the ways in which media discourses become a part of contested consumption activities. We apply a positioning perspective with practice theory to focus on how practitioners relate to media discourse as a symbolic resource in their everyday practices. A typology of performance...... positionings emerges based on empirical examples of research in parent–children consumption. Positionings are flexible discursive fixations of the relationship between the performances of the practitioner, other practitioners, media discourse and consumption activities. The basic positioning types...... are the practice maintenance and the practice change position, with different sorts of adapting in between. Media discourse can become a resource for a resistant position against social control or for an appropriating position in favour of space for action. Regardless of the current relation to a particular media...

  11. Sharpening Our Focus on "Family Life Education": Evidence-Based Curricula for Strengthening Close Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, G. Kevin

    2012-01-01

    In the past 40 years, individuals' close relationships, marriages, and families have undergone dramatic changes. The development and maintenance of strong interpersonal relationships, particularly close romantic relationships, are known to associate strongly and positively with physiological and psychological measures of well-being across the…

  12. Trajectories of positive, negative and general psychopathology symptoms in first episode psychosis and their relationship with functioning over a 2-year follow-up period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdin, Edimansyah; Chong, Siow Ann; Vaingankar, Janhavi Ajit; Peh, Chao Xu; Poon, Lye Yin; Rao, Sujatha; Verma, Swapna; Subramaniam, Mythily

    2017-01-01

    Few studies have examined the trajectories of symptom severity in first episode psychosis (FEP) and their impact on functioning. This study aimed to identify discrete trajectories of positive, negative and general psychopathological symptoms and functioning, determine predictors of the identified symptom trajectories and subsequently investigate the relationship between symptom and functioning trajectories over the 2-year follow-up period. Data were extracted from the Singapore Early Psychosis Intervention Programme clinical database. Trajectories of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale and Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) scale over the two-year follow up were modelled using latent class growth curve modelling. Two distinct trajectories (early response and stable trajectory and delayed response trajectory) for positive symptoms, four distinct trajectories (early response and stable trajectory, early response and relapse trajectory, slower response and no response trajectory and delayed response trajectory) for negative and general psychopathology symptoms and three distinct trajectories for functioning (high functioning trajectory, moderately stable functioning trajectory and deterioration in functioning trajectory) were identified in our sample. Compared to individuals in the early response and stable trajectory, those in the delayed response trajectory for positive and negative symptoms, early response and relapse for negative and general psychopathology symptoms and slower response and no response trajectories for general psychopathology symptoms were significantly associated with higher odds of having deterioration in functioning over time. Poor symptom trajectories were also significantly predicted by younger age, male gender, unemployed and economically inactive status, lower education, longer duration of untreated psychosis and diagnosis of schizophrenia spectrum and delusional disorders. The results confirm that the symptoms trajectories among

  13. Trajectories of positive, negative and general psychopathology symptoms in first episode psychosis and their relationship with functioning over a 2-year follow-up period.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edimansyah Abdin

    Full Text Available Few studies have examined the trajectories of symptom severity in first episode psychosis (FEP and their impact on functioning. This study aimed to identify discrete trajectories of positive, negative and general psychopathological symptoms and functioning, determine predictors of the identified symptom trajectories and subsequently investigate the relationship between symptom and functioning trajectories over the 2-year follow-up period.Data were extracted from the Singapore Early Psychosis Intervention Programme clinical database. Trajectories of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale and Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF scale over the two-year follow up were modelled using latent class growth curve modelling.Two distinct trajectories (early response and stable trajectory and delayed response trajectory for positive symptoms, four distinct trajectories (early response and stable trajectory, early response and relapse trajectory, slower response and no response trajectory and delayed response trajectory for negative and general psychopathology symptoms and three distinct trajectories for functioning (high functioning trajectory, moderately stable functioning trajectory and deterioration in functioning trajectory were identified in our sample. Compared to individuals in the early response and stable trajectory, those in the delayed response trajectory for positive and negative symptoms, early response and relapse for negative and general psychopathology symptoms and slower response and no response trajectories for general psychopathology symptoms were significantly associated with higher odds of having deterioration in functioning over time. Poor symptom trajectories were also significantly predicted by younger age, male gender, unemployed and economically inactive status, lower education, longer duration of untreated psychosis and diagnosis of schizophrenia spectrum and delusional disorders.The results confirm that the symptoms

  14. Control of the positional relationship between a sample collection instrument and a surface to be analyzed during a sampling procedure using a laser sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Berkel, Gary J [Clinton, TN; Kertesz, Vilmos [Knoxville, TN

    2012-02-21

    A system and method utilizes distance-measuring equipment including a laser sensor for controlling the collection instrument-to-surface distance during a sample collection process for use, for example, with mass spectrometric detection. The laser sensor is arranged in a fixed positional relationship with the collection instrument, and a signal is generated by way of the laser sensor which corresponds to the actual distance between the laser sensor and the surface. The actual distance between the laser sensor and the surface is compared to a target distance between the laser sensor and the surface when the collection instrument is arranged at a desired distance from the surface for sample collecting purposes, and adjustments are made, if necessary, so that the actual distance approaches the target distance.

  15. [Relationship between HBeAg from HBsAg positive mothers and regulatory T cells in neonates and its influence on HBV intrauterine transmission].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, H Y; Yang, Z Q; Xu, X X; Wang, X F; Wang, B; Shi, X H; Fu, Z D; Wang, B; Wang, S P

    2017-10-10

    Objective: To explore the relationship between HBeAg in HBsAg positive mothers and CD(4)(+)CD(25)(+) Foxp3 (+)regulatory T cells (Treg) in newborns, as well as how they would influence the increasing risk on HBV intrauterine transmission. Methods: We collected information on general demographic characteristics and delivery on 270 HBsAg positive mothers and their newborns from the Third People's Hospital of Taiyuan. Fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction (FQ-PCR) and chemiluminescence immunoassay (CLIA) were used to detect HBV DNA and HBV serological markers in peripheral blood from both mothers and neonates. The expression of Treg and other immune cells in peripheral blood of neonates were detected with flow cytometry (FCM). Results: Maternal HBeAg positive rates were associated with an increased risk of intrauterine transmission ( OR =4.08, 95 %CI : 1.89-8.82). Rates of Treg in newborns born to HBsAg-positive mothers were higher than that of the negative group ( Z =2.29, P =0.022). Each pair of the subjects was assigned to five different groups according to the HBeAg titers of mothers. Frequencies of both Treg and HBeAg in newborns and HBV DNA in mothers between the above said 5 groups showed similar trends of changing patterns and the differences between groups were statistically significant(χ(2)=18.73, P HBV DNA, mother's HBeAg titers were positively related to the percentage of Treg in their newborns ( r(s) =0.19, P =0.039). In addition, the frequencies of Treg were negatively correlated with pDC and CD(4)(+) T cell in their newborns ( r(s) =-0.21, P =0.017; r(s) =-0.23, P =0.009). Conclusion: HBeAg from HBsAg positive mothers might have inhibited the function of neonatal DC cells and T cells to reduce the immune response to HBV by up-regulating the proportion of Treg and finally increased the risk of HBV intrauterine transmission.

  16. Automatic affective-motivational regulation processes underlying supportive dyadic coping: the role of increased implicit positive attitudes toward communal goals in response to a stressed relationship partner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koranyi, Nicolas; Hilpert, Peter; Job, Veronika; Bodenmann, Guy

    2017-09-01

    We examined the implicit affective mechanisms underlying provision of support in intimate dyads. Specifically, we hypothesized that in individuals with high relationship satisfaction, the perception that one's partner is stressed leads to increased implicit positive attitudes toward communal goals. In turn, this change in implicit attitudes facilitates supportive behavior. In two studies, we induced partner stress by instructing participants to either recall a situation where their partner was highly stressed (Study 1; N = 47 university students) or imagine a specific stressful event (excessive workload; Study 2; N = 85 university students). Subsequently, implicit attitudes toward communal goals were assessed with an Implicit Association Test. In both studies, we found that among participants with high relationship satisfaction partner stress increases preferences for communal goals. In addition, implicit preferences for communal goals predicted stronger inclinations to engage in supportive dyadic coping (Study 2). The current findings provide important insights into the implicit cognitive-affective mechanics of dyadic coping. Moreover, they can explain how people manage to avoid experiencing motivational conflicts between partner-oriented and self-oriented goals in situations characterized by high partner stress.

  17. Strongly Correlated Topological Insulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-03

    Strongly Correlated Topological Insulators In the past year, the grant was used for work in the field of topological phases, with emphasis on finding...surface of topological insulators. In the past 3 years, we have started a new direction, that of fractional topological insulators. These are materials...in which a topologically nontrivial quasi-flat band is fractionally filled and then subject to strong interactions. The views, opinions and/or

  18. Strong Cosmic Censorship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isenberg, James

    2017-01-01

    The Hawking-Penrose theorems tell us that solutions of Einstein's equations are generally singular, in the sense of the incompleteness of causal geodesics (the paths of physical observers). These singularities might be marked by the blowup of curvature and therefore crushing tidal forces, or by the breakdown of physical determinism. Penrose has conjectured (in his `Strong Cosmic Censorship Conjecture`) that it is generically unbounded curvature that causes singularities, rather than causal breakdown. The verification that ``AVTD behavior'' (marked by the domination of time derivatives over space derivatives) is generically present in a family of solutions has proven to be a useful tool for studying model versions of Strong Cosmic Censorship in that family. I discuss some of the history of Strong Cosmic Censorship, and then discuss what is known about AVTD behavior and Strong Cosmic Censorship in families of solutions defined by varying degrees of isometry, and discuss recent results which we believe will extend this knowledge and provide new support for Strong Cosmic Censorship. I also comment on some of the recent work on ``Weak Null Singularities'', and how this relates to Strong Cosmic Censorship.

  19. Myeloperoxidase-Related Chlorination Activity Is Positively Associated with Circulating Ceruloplasmin in Chronic Heart Failure Patients: Relationship with Neurohormonal, Inflammatory, and Nutritional Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aderville Cabassi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Rationale. Heart failure (HF is accompanied by the development of an imbalance between oxygen- and nitric oxide-derived free radical production leading to protein nitration. Both chlorinating and peroxidase cycle of Myeloperoxidase (MPO contribute to oxidative and nitrosative stress and are involved in tyrosine nitration of protein. Ceruloplasmin (Cp has antioxidant function through its ferroxidase I (FeOxI activity and has recently been proposed as a physiological defense mechanism against MPO inappropriate actions. Objective. We investigated the relationship between plasma MPO-related chlorinating activity, Cp and FeOxI, and nitrosative stress, inflammatory, neurohormonal, and nutritional biomarkers in HF patients. Methods and Results. In chronic HF patients (n=81, 76 ± 9 years, NYHA Class II (26; Class III (29; Class IV (26 and age-matched controls (n=17, 75 ± 11 years, CTR, plasma MPO chlorinating activity, Cp, FeOxI, nitrated protein, free Malondialdehyde, BNP, norepinephrine, hsCRP, albumin, and prealbumin were measured. Plasma MPO chlorinating activity, Cp, BNP, norepinephrine, and hsCRP were increased in HF versus CTR. FeOxI, albumin, and prealbumin were decreased in HF. MPO-related chlorinating activity was positively related to Cp (r= 0.363, P<0.001, nitrated protein, hsCRP, and BNP and inversely to albumin. Conclusions. Plasma MPO chlorinated activity is increased in elderly chronic HF patients and positively associated with Cp, inflammatory, neurohormonal, and nitrosative parameters suggesting a role in HF progression.

  20. Health enhancing coping as a mediator in relationships of positive emotionality and cognitive curiosity with quality of life among type 2 diabetes patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalka Dorota

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The number of people suffering from type 2 diabetes has been growing recently. This chronic disease is connected with lower perceived quality of life and experiencing a lot of stressful situations. Some of these situations can be anticipated. Thus, it is possible to prepare oneself for future difficult situations by using proactive coping strategies. The aim of this research was to verify the level of satisfaction with various areas of life, the frequency of use of proactive coping strategies in the case of type 2 diabetes patients and healthy individuals, as well as mediation role of these strategies in the relationship between positive emotionality, cognitive curiosity and perceived quality of life. One hundred and seventy four persons took part in the research: 85 persons with diabetes and 89 healthy individuals. We used instruments with recognized psychometric properties: The Proactive Coping Inventory, The World Health Organization Quality of Life Instrument-BREF, PANAS Questionnaire and State-Trait Personality Inventory. The analysis of the results showed, among other things, that people suffering from type 2 diabetes are the least satisfied with their health, and the most with their treatment and knowledge about the disease. Healthy individuals are the most satisfied with the physical domain and one’s present life, whereas the least satisfied with the environmental domain. Both groups differ in terms of using proactive coping strategies. People with diabetes most often adopt a preventive strategy, whereas healthy individuals a reflective one. Two strategies turned out to be able to mediate in the relationship of positive emotionality and life satisfaction in the diabetes group. It was a strictly proactive and preventive coping strategy. No mediation effect was found in the group of healthy people. The results show that in the face of anticipated difficulties, people with type 2 diabetes try to protect their current resources by

  1. The NF-κB-like factor DIF could explain some positive effects of a mild stress on longevity, behavioral aging, and resistance to strong stresses in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Bourg, Eric; Malod, Kévin; Massou, Isabelle

    2012-08-01

    A mild cold stress can have positive effects on longevity, aging and resistance to severe stresses in flies (heat, cold, fungal infection), but the causes of these effects remain elusive. In order to know whether these effects could be explained by the DIF transcription factor (a NF-κB-like factor in the Toll innate immunity pathway), the Dif ( 1 ) mutant and its control cn bw strain were subjected to a pretreatment by cold. The DIF factor seems to be involved in the response to fungal infection after a mild cold stress and in the resistance to heat. However, DIF seems to have no role in the increased longevity of non-infected flies and resistance to a severe cold shock, because the cold pretreatment slightly increased longevity in females, mainly in Dif ( 1 ) ones, and resistance to a long cold shock in both sexes of these strains.

  2. Self-in-love versus self-in-stigma: implications of relationship quality and love attitudes on self-stigma and mental health among HIV-positive men having sex with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xue; Mak, Winnie W S; Ho, Connie Y Y; Chidgey, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    The present study examines the mediating effect of love attitude on the associations between relationship quality with self-stigma and mental health among HIV-positive men having sex with men (MSM). Participants included 211 HIV-positive MSM (M age  = 41.77 years, SD = 11.10) and they were assessed on their relationship quality, love attitudes, HIV-positive self-stigma, and mental health. Structural equation modeling showed that the model fit the data well, χ 2 (50) = 152.80, p love attitude. The indirect effect of love attitude on mental health was significant through reduced self-stigma. The outcomes differed by the number of partners, partner's knowledge of HIV-positive status, relationship nature, and marital status. Implications for developing a positive self-in-love to diminish self-stigma were discussed.

  3. Teaching Positive Networking for Life-Long Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addams, Lon; Woodbury, Denise; Addams, Lindsey

    2010-01-01

    As college communication instructors, we could further assist students by teaching the value of positive networking. This article provides (1) a foundation for positive networking and (2) several successful ways in which students can begin building a strong long-lasting network of professional relationships during the semester…and for their entire…

  4. Strong Arcwise Connectedness

    OpenAIRE

    Espinoza, Benjamin; Gartside, Paul; Kovan-Bakan, Merve; Mamatelashvili, Ana

    2012-01-01

    A space is `n-strong arc connected' (n-sac) if for any n points in the space there is an arc in the space visiting them in order. A space is omega-strong arc connected (omega-sac) if it is n-sac for all n. We study these properties in finite graphs, regular continua, and rational continua. There are no 4-sac graphs, but there are 3-sac graphs and graphs which are 2-sac but not 3-sac. For every n there is an n-sac regular continuum, but no regular continuum is omega-sac. There is an omega-sac ...

  5. Abortion: Strong's counterexamples fail

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Nucci, Ezio

    2009-01-01

    This paper shows that the counterexamples proposed by Strong in 2008 in the Journal of Medical Ethics to Marquis's argument against abortion fail. Strong's basic idea is that there are cases--for example, terminally ill patients--where killing an adult human being is prima facie seriously morally......'s scenarios have some valuable future or admitted that killing them is not seriously morally wrong. Finally, if "valuable future" is interpreted as referring to objective standards, one ends up with implausible and unpalatable moral claims....

  6. Relationship between the position of the mental foramen and the anterior loop of the inferior alveolar nerve as determined by cone beam computed tomography combined with mimics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhuogeng; Chen, Donghui; Tang, Li; Wang, Fenfen

    2015-01-01

    The position of the mental foramen and the anterior loop length of the inferior alveolar nerve serve as important anatomical landmarks for surgical procedures in the anterior mandibular region. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between the anterior loop of the inferior alveolar nerve and the mental foramen by combining cone beam computed tomography and Mimics, a software used to construct 3-dimensional (3D) interactive models of anatomical structures. Cone beam computed tomography images from a total of 60 patients were obtained and studied using GALAXY viewer or were imported into Mimics. The anterior loop of the inferior alveolar nerve was reconstructed 3-dimensionally, and then relevant parameters were measured. The parameters were measured, and their values include mean (SD) anterior loop length, 1.16 (1.78) mm; anterior loop angle, 19.13 (26.89) degrees; inferior alveolar canal diameter, 3.01 (0.67) mm; height of the inferior alveolar canal, 10.32 (1.56) mm; 2-dimensional mental foramen diameter, 2.97 (0.61) mm; 3D mental foramen diameter, 2.95 (0.59) mm; 2-dimensional vertical height of the mental foramen, 14.67 (1.67) mm; and 3D vertical height of the mental foramen, 14.61 (1.69) mm. The mental foramen was located apically between the first and second premolars in 51.67% and below the second premolar in 40.83% of the cases. A relationship was observed between the location of the mental foramen and the presence of the anterior loop of the inferior alveolar nerve. We highlight the effectiveness of cone beam computed tomography and 3D reconstruction in the identification of important anatomical structures relevant for preoperative assessment for surgical procedures in the anterior region of the mandible.

  7. The electron trap parameter extraction-based investigation of the relationship between charge trapping and activation energy in IGZO TFTs under positive bias temperature stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, Jihyun; Choi, Sungju; Kang, Hara; Kim, Jae-Young; Ko, Daehyun; Ahn, Geumho; Jung, Haesun; Choi, Sung-Jin; Myong Kim, Dong; Kim, Dae Hwan

    2018-02-01

    Experimental extraction of the electron trap parameters which are associated with charge trapping into gate insulators under the positive bias temperature stress (PBTS) is proposed and demonstrated for the first time in amorphous indium-gallium-zinc-oxide thin-film transistors. This was done by combining the PBTS/recovery time-evolution of the experimentally decomposed threshold voltage shift (ΔVT) and the technology computer-aided design (TCAD)-based charge trapping simulation. The extracted parameters were the trap density (NOT) = 2.6 × 1018 cm-3, the trap energy level (ΔET) = 0.6 eV, and the capture cross section (σ0) = 3 × 10-19 cm2. Furthermore, based on the established TCAD framework, the relationship between the electron trap parameters and the activation energy (Ea) is comprehensively investigated. It is found that Ea increases with an increase in σ0, whereas Ea is independent of NOT. In addition, as ΔET increases, Ea decreases in the electron trapping-dominant regime (low ΔET) and increases again in the Poole-Frenkel (PF) emission/hopping-dominant regime (high ΔET). Moreover, our results suggest that the cross-over ΔET point originates from the complicated temperature-dependent competition between the capture rate and the emission rate. The PBTS bias dependence of the relationship between Ea and ΔET suggests that the electric field dependence of the PF emission-based electron hopping is stronger than that of the thermionic field emission-based electron trapping.

  8. A strong comeback

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marier, D.

    1992-01-01

    This article presents the results of a financial rankings survey which show a strong economic activity in the independent energy industry. The topics of the article include advisor turnover, overseas banks, and the increase in public offerings. The article identifies the top project finance investors for new projects and restructurings and rankings for lenders

  9. The enhanced Aussie Optimism Positive Thinking Skills Program: The relationship between internalizing symptoms and family functioning in children aged 9-11 years old.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Patricia; Rooney, Rosanna M; Kane, Robert T; Hassan, Sharinaz; Nesa, Monique

    2015-01-01

    The family context plays a critical role in the health of the child. This was the first study to examine the usefulness of the General Functioning subscale of the Family Assessment Device (FAD-GF) in assessing family functioning and its relationship to internalizing symptoms in school-aged children aged between 9 and 11 years of age. Eight hundred and forty-seven year 4 and 5 students from 13 schools (607 intervention students, and 240 control students) participated in the Aussie Optimism Positive Thinking Skills Program (AO-PTS) - a universal school-based program targeting internalizing symptoms. Students rated how 'healthy' they perceived their family to be at pre-test and at 6-months follow-up. Although some aspects of validity and reliability could be improved, results indicated that perceptions of family functioning at pre-test were predictive of internalizing symptoms at the 6-months follow-up. The FAD-GF therefore showed promise as a potential measure of family functioning for children as young as 9 years old. Regardless of children's pre-test levels of perceived family functioning, no intervention effects were found on the anxiety and depression scales; this finding suggests that child perceptions of family functioning may act as a general protective factor against internalizing symptomology.

  10. The Enhanced Aussie Optimism Positive Thinking Skills Program: Assessing the relationship between internalising symptoms and family functioning in children aged 9-11 years of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia eKennedy

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The family context plays a critical role in the health of the child. This was the first study to examine the usefulness of the General Functioning subscale of the Family Assessment Device (FAD-GF in assessing family functioning and its relationship to internalising symptoms in school-aged children aged between 9 and 11 years of age. Eight hundred and forty-seven Year 4 and 5 students from 13 schools (607 intervention students, and 240 control students participated in the Aussie Optimism Positive Thinking Skills Program (AO-PTS - a universal school-based program targeting internalising symptoms. Students rated how ‘healthy’ they perceived their family to be at pre-test and at 6-month follow-up. Although some aspects of validity and reliability could be improved, results indicated that perceptions of family functioning at pre-test were predictive of internalising symptoms at the 6-month follow-up. The FAD-GF therefore showed promise as a potential measure of family functioning for children as young as nine years old. Regardless of children’s pre-test levels of perceived family functioning, no intervention effects were found on the anxiety and depression scales; this finding suggests that child perceptions of family functioning may act as a general protective factor against internalising symptomology.

  11. Strong Electroweak Symmetry Breaking

    CERN Document Server

    Grinstein, Benjamin

    2011-01-01

    Models of spontaneous breaking of electroweak symmetry by a strong interaction do not have fine tuning/hierarchy problem. They are conceptually elegant and use the only mechanism of spontaneous breaking of a gauge symmetry that is known to occur in nature. The simplest model, minimal technicolor with extended technicolor interactions, is appealing because one can calculate by scaling up from QCD. But it is ruled out on many counts: inappropriately low quark and lepton masses (or excessive FCNC), bad electroweak data fits, light scalar and vector states, etc. However, nature may not choose the minimal model and then we are stuck: except possibly through lattice simulations, we are unable to compute and test the models. In the LHC era it therefore makes sense to abandon specific models (of strong EW breaking) and concentrate on generic features that may indicate discovery. The Technicolor Straw Man is not a model but a parametrized search strategy inspired by a remarkable generic feature of walking technicolor,...

  12. Plasmons in strong superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldo, M.; Ducoin, C.

    2011-01-01

    We present a study of the possible plasmon excitations that can occur in systems where strong superconductivity is present. In these systems the plasmon energy is comparable to or smaller than the pairing gap. As a prototype of these systems we consider the proton component of Neutron Star matter just below the crust when electron screening is not taken into account. For the realistic case we consider in detail the different aspects of the elementary excitations when the proton, electron components are considered within the Random-Phase Approximation generalized to the superfluid case, while the influence of the neutron component is considered only at qualitative level. Electron screening plays a major role in modifying the proton spectrum and spectral function. At the same time the electron plasmon is strongly modified and damped by the indirect coupling with the superfluid proton component, even at moderately low values of the gap. The excitation spectrum shows the interplay of the different components and their relevance for each excitation modes. The results are relevant for neutrino physics and thermodynamical processes in neutron stars. If electron screening is neglected, the spectral properties of the proton component show some resemblance with the physical situation in high-T c superconductors, and we briefly discuss similarities and differences in this connection. In a general prospect, the results of the study emphasize the role of Coulomb interaction in strong superconductors.

  13. Positional games

    CERN Document Server

    Hefetz, Dan; Stojaković, Miloš; Szabó, Tibor

    2014-01-01

    This text serves as a thorough introduction to the rapidly developing field of positional games. This area constitutes an important branch of combinatorics, whose aim it is to systematically develop an extensive mathematical basis for a variety of two-player perfect information games. These range from such popular games as Tic-Tac-Toe and Hex to purely abstract games played on graphs and hypergraphs. The subject of positional games is strongly related to several other branches of combinatorics such as Ramsey theory, extremal graph and set theory, and the probabilistic method. These notes cover a variety of topics in positional games, including both classical results and recent important developments. They are presented in an accessible way and are accompanied by exercises of varying difficulty, helping the reader to better understand the theory. The text will benefit both researchers and graduate students in combinatorics and adjacent fields.

  14. Perceptual Sensitivity and Response to Strong Stimuli Are Related.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolders, Anna C; Tops, Mattie; Band, Guido P H; Stallen, Pieter Jan M

    2017-01-01

    To shed new light on the long-standing debate about the (in)dependence of sensitivity to weak stimuli and overreactivity to strong stimuli, we examined the relation between these tendencies within the neurobehavioral framework of the Predictive and Reactive Control Systems (PARCS) theory (Tops et al., 2010, 2014). Whereas previous studies only considered overreactivity in terms of the individual tendency to experience unpleasant affect (punishment reactivity) resulting from strong sensory stimulation, we also took the individual tendency to experience pleasant affect (reward reactivity) resulting from strong sensory stimulation into account. According to PARCS theory, these temperamental tendencies overlap in terms of high reactivity toward stimulation, but oppose each other in terms of the response orientation (approach or avoid). PARCS theory predicts that both types of reactivity to strong stimuli relate to sensitivity to weak stimuli, but that these relationships are suppressed due to the opposing relationship between reward and punishment reactivity. We measured punishment and reward reactivity to strong stimuli and sensitivity to weak stimuli using scales from the Adult Temperament Questionnaire (Evans and Rothbart, 2007). Sensitivity was also measured more objectively using the masked auditory threshold. We found that sensitivity to weak stimuli (both self-reported and objectively assessed) was positively associated with self-reported punishment and reward reactivity to strong stimuli, but only when these reactivity measures were controlled for each other, implicating a mutual suppression effect. These results are in line with PARCS theory and suggest that sensitivity to weak stimuli and overreactivity are dependent, but this dependency is likely to be obscured if punishment and reward reactivity are not both taken into account.

  15. Perceptual Sensitivity and Response to Strong Stimuli Are Related

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna C. Bolders

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available To shed new light on the long-standing debate about the (independence of sensitivity to weak stimuli and overreactivity to strong stimuli, we examined the relation between these tendencies within the neurobehavioral framework of the Predictive and Reactive Control Systems (PARCS theory (Tops et al., 2010, 2014. Whereas previous studies only considered overreactivity in terms of the individual tendency to experience unpleasant affect (punishment reactivity resulting from strong sensory stimulation, we also took the individual tendency to experience pleasant affect (reward reactivity resulting from strong sensory stimulation into account. According to PARCS theory, these temperamental tendencies overlap in terms of high reactivity toward stimulation, but oppose each other in terms of the response orientation (approach or avoid. PARCS theory predicts that both types of reactivity to strong stimuli relate to sensitivity to weak stimuli, but that these relationships are suppressed due to the opposing relationship between reward and punishment reactivity. We measured punishment and reward reactivity to strong stimuli and sensitivity to weak stimuli using scales from the Adult Temperament Questionnaire (Evans and Rothbart, 2007. Sensitivity was also measured more objectively using the masked auditory threshold. We found that sensitivity to weak stimuli (both self-reported and objectively assessed was positively associated with self-reported punishment and reward reactivity to strong stimuli, but only when these reactivity measures were controlled for each other, implicating a mutual suppression effect. These results are in line with PARCS theory and suggest that sensitivity to weak stimuli and overreactivity are dependent, but this dependency is likely to be obscured if punishment and reward reactivity are not both taken into account.

  16. Strong-coupling approximations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbott, R.B.

    1984-03-01

    Standard path-integral techniques such as instanton calculations give good answers for weak-coupling problems, but become unreliable for strong-coupling. Here we consider a method of replacing the original potential by a suitably chosen harmonic oscillator potential. Physically this is motivated by the fact that potential barriers below the level of the ground-state energy of a quantum-mechanical system have little effect. Numerically, results are good, both for quantum-mechanical problems and for massive phi 4 field theory in 1 + 1 dimensions. 9 references, 6 figures

  17. Strong interaction and QFD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebata, T.

    1981-01-01

    With an assumed weak multiplet structure for bosonic hadrons, which is consistent with the ΔI = 1/2 rule, it is shown that the strong interaction effective hamiltonian is compatible with the weak SU(2) x U(1) gauge transformation. Especially the rho-meson transforms as a triplet under SU(2)sub(w), and this is the origin of the rho-photon analogy. It is also shown that the existence of the non-vanishing Cabibbo angle is a necessary condition for the absence of the exotic hadrons. (orig.)

  18. Strong Coupling Holography

    CERN Document Server

    Dvali, Gia

    2009-01-01

    We show that whenever a 4-dimensional theory with N particle species emerges as a consistent low energy description of a 3-brane embedded in an asymptotically-flat (4+d)-dimensional space, the holographic scale of high-dimensional gravity sets the strong coupling scale of the 4D theory. This connection persists in the limit in which gravity can be consistently decoupled. We demonstrate this effect for orbifold planes, as well as for the solitonic branes and string theoretic D-branes. In all cases the emergence of a 4D strong coupling scale from bulk holography is a persistent phenomenon. The effect turns out to be insensitive even to such extreme deformations of the brane action that seemingly shield 4D theory from the bulk gravity effects. A well understood example of such deformation is given by large 4D Einstein term in the 3-brane action, which is known to suppress the strength of 5D gravity at short distances and change the 5D Newton's law into the four-dimensional one. Nevertheless, we observe that the ...

  19. A narrative analysis positioning HIV relative to personal (sexual) relationship challenges in an agony aunt column in the Western Cape, South Africa - Aunty Mona's "love advice".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viljoen, Lario; Thorne, Marguerite; Thomas, Angelique; Bond, Virginia; Hoddinott, Graeme

    2016-01-01

    HIV prevalence and incidence in South Africa remain high, making HIV a part of everyday life. Community narratives on HIV treatment and prevention are important and influence official and unofficial health messaging and community perceptions and understandings of HIV. We explore how contributors and the columnist of an agony aunt column position HIV relative to choices made about love, partnership, and sex over three years. We analysed all columns of an agony aunt series (Antie Mona) published between December 2012 and November 2015. The column is published in a South African, Afrikaans-language newspaper "Son", prioritising sensationalist news items. Trends were identified through narrative analysis. Data were managed in ATLAS.ti and inductive, iterative coding conducted. It was found that letters to the agony aunt rarely refer to HIV directly (less than 7%). Euphemisms such as diseases of the flesh and the great flu were more commonly used instead of HIV or AIDS. Letters addressed HIV in three ways: direct references to experiences living with HIV; direct questions about HIV prevention; and scenarios where HIV could (from a public health perspective) have been the main concern, but everyday issues took precedence. The majority of letters fell into this latter category where the writers focused on the immediate concerns of good sexual relations, problems related to love and romantic relationships, good moral behaviour of others, and issues of oppressive life conditions rather than on HIV directly. The findings illustrate that informal, public contributions to health information, such as agony aunts, are important narratives that inform popular perspectives on HIV and health. A better appreciation of this context would allow health implementers to ensure that these role players receive updated health messaging to avoid the risk of HIV-related stigma where HIV is used as a moral rod to punish perceived moral transgressions.

  20. Attachment area of fibres from the horns of lateral meniscus: anatomic study with special reference to the positional relationship of anterior cruciate ligament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujishiro, Hitomi; Tsukada, Sachiyuki; Nakamura, Tomomasa; Nimura, Akimoto; Mochizuki, Tomoyuki; Akita, Keiichi

    2017-02-01

    Although studies support the clinical importance of the fibres from the horns of lateral meniscus (LM), few studies have investigated the detailed anatomy. This anatomic study was conducted to analyse the structural details of LM with special reference to (1) the attachment area of the fibres from the anterior and posterior horns and (2) the positional relationship between these fibres and the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). A total of 24 cadaveric knees were used in the macroscopic investigation, and six knees were used in the histological investigation. Micro-computed tomography analysis was also performed to assess the anatomy of the posteriormost fibre from the posterior horn of LM. Based on the macroscopic investigations, the outer fibres from the anterior horn of LM extended to ACL and seemed to intermingle with ACL fibres. However, the histological investigations showed a distinct border between the fibres and ACL. The inner fibres from the anterior horn of LM attached to the lateral intercondylar tubercle serving as a lateral margin of ACL attachment. Fibres from the posterior horn of LM were separated into anterolateral and posteromedial crura which attached to the posterior aspect of the lateral and medial intercondylar tubercles, respectively. These two crura formed the posterior margin of the ACL attachment, except for the central part of ACL. The outer fibres from the anterior horn of LM adjoined ACL. The inner fibres from the anterior horn of LM and two crura from the posterior horn of LM formed the border of the attachment area of ACL. The distinctive fibre anatomy from LM could provide a surgical landmark during arthroscopic surgery.

  1. Relationship between hunger, adherence to antiretroviral therapy and plasma HIV RNA suppression among HIV-positive illicit drug users in a Canadian setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anema, Aranka; Kerr, Thomas; Milloy, M-J; Feng, Cindy; Montaner, Julio S G; Wood, Evan

    2014-04-01

    Food insecurity may be a barrier to achieving optimal HIV treatment-related outcomes among illicit drug users. This study therefore, aimed to assess the impact of severe food insecurity, or hunger, on plasma HIV RNA suppression among illicit drug users receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART). A cross-sectional Multivariate logistic regression model was used to assess the potential relationship between hunger and plasma HIV RNA suppression. A sample of n = 406 adults was derived from a community-recruited open prospective cohort of HIV-positive illicit drug users, in Vancouver, British Columbia (BC), Canada. A total of 235 (63.7%) reported "being hungry and unable to afford enough food," and 241 (59.4%) had plasma HIV RNA hunger was associated with lower odds of plasma HIV RNA suppression (Odds Ratio = 0.59, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.39-0.90, p = 0.015). In multivariate analyses, this association was no longer significant after controlling for socio-demographic, behavioral, and clinical characteristics, including 95% adherence (Adjusted Odds Ratio [AOR] = 0.65, 95% CI: 0.37-1.10, p = 0.105). Multivariate models stratified by 95% adherence found that the direction and magnitude of this association was not significantly altered by the adherence level. Hunger was common among illicit drug users in this setting. Although, there was an association between hunger and lower likelihood of plasma HIV RNA suppression, this did not persist in adjusted analyses. Further research is warranted to understand the social-structural, policy, and physical factors shaping the HIV outcomes of illicit drug users.

  2. Single nucleotide polymorphisms of PAD1 and FDC1 show a positive relationship with ferulic acid decarboxylation ability among industrial yeasts used in alcoholic beverage production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukai, Nobuhiko; Masaki, Kazuo; Fujii, Tsutomu; Iefuji, Haruyuki

    2014-07-01

    Among industrial yeasts used for alcoholic beverage production, most wine and weizen beer yeasts decarboxylate ferulic acid to 4-vinylguaiacol, which has a smoke-like flavor, whereas sake, shochu, top-fermenting, and bottom-fermenting yeast strains lack this ability. However, the factors underlying this difference among industrial yeasts are not clear. We previously confirmed that both PAD1 (phenylacrylic acid decarboxylase gene, YDR538W) and FDC1 (ferulic acid decarboxylase gene, YDR539W) are essential for the decarboxylation of phenylacrylic acids in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In the present study, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of PAD1 and FDC1 in sake, shochu, wine, weizen, top-fermenting, bottom-fermenting, and laboratory yeast strains were examined to clarify the differences in ferulic acid decarboxylation ability between these types of yeast. For PAD1, a nonsense mutation was observed in the gene sequence of standard top-fermenting yeast. Gene sequence analysis of FDC1 revealed that sake, shochu, and standard top-fermenting yeasts contained a nonsense mutation, whereas a frameshift mutation was identified in the FDC1 gene of bottom-fermenting yeast. No nonsense or frameshift mutations were detected in laboratory, wine, or weizen beer yeast strains. When FDC1 was introduced into sake and shochu yeast strains, the transformants exhibited ferulic acid decarboxylation activity. Our findings indicate that a positive relationship exists between SNPs in PAD1 and FDC1 genes and the ferulic acid decarboxylation ability of industrial yeast strains. Copyright © 2013 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. LIGO: The strong belief

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2016-01-01

    Twenty years of designing, building and testing a number of innovative technologies, with the strong belief that the endeavour would lead to a historic breakthrough. The Bulletin publishes an abstract of the Courier’s interview with Barry Barish, one of the founding fathers of LIGO.   The plots show the signals of gravitational waves detected by the twin LIGO observatories at Livingston, Louisiana, and Hanford, Washington. (Image: Caltech/MIT/LIGO Lab) On 11 February, the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) and Virgo collaborations published a historic paper in which they showed a gravitational signal emitted by the merger of two black holes. These results come after 20 years of hard work by a large collaboration of scientists operating the two LIGO observatories in the US. Barry Barish, Linde Professor of Physics, Emeritus at the California Institute of Technology and former Director of the Global Design Effort for the Internat...

  4. Dissimilar Impact Welding of 6111-T4, 5052-H32 Aluminum Alloys to 22MnB5, DP980 Steels and the Structure-Property Relationship of a Strongly Bonded Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bert; Vivek, Anupam; Presley, Michael; Daehn, Glenn S.

    2018-03-01

    The ability to weld high-strength aluminum to high-strength steel is highly desired for vehicle lightweighting but difficult to attain by conventional means. In this work, vaporizing foil actuator welding was used to successfully weld four Al/Fe combinations consisting of high-strength alloys: AA5052-H32, AA6111-T4, DP980, and 22MnB5. Flyer velocities up to 727 m/s were reached using 10 kJ input energy. In lap-shear testing, samples primarily failed in base aluminum near the aluminum's native strength, showing that the welds were stronger than a base metal and that the base metal was not significantly weakened by the welding process. A particularly strong weld area was studied by transmission electron microscopy to shed light on the microstructural features of strong impact welds. It was found to be characterized by a continuously bonded, fully crystalline interface, extremely fine (nanoscale) grains, mesoscopic as well as microscopic wavy features, and lack of large continuous intermetallic compounds.

  5. Dissimilar Impact Welding of 6111-T4, 5052-H32 Aluminum Alloys to 22MnB5, DP980 Steels and the Structure-Property Relationship of a Strongly Bonded Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bert; Vivek, Anupam; Presley, Michael; Daehn, Glenn S.

    2018-01-01

    The ability to weld high-strength aluminum to high-strength steel is highly desired for vehicle lightweighting but difficult to attain by conventional means. In this work, vaporizing foil actuator welding was used to successfully weld four Al/Fe combinations consisting of high-strength alloys: AA5052-H32, AA6111-T4, DP980, and 22MnB5. Flyer velocities up to 727 m/s were reached using 10 kJ input energy. In lap-shear testing, samples primarily failed in base aluminum near the aluminum's native strength, showing that the welds were stronger than a base metal and that the base metal was not significantly weakened by the welding process. A particularly strong weld area was studied by transmission electron microscopy to shed light on the microstructural features of strong impact welds. It was found to be characterized by a continuously bonded, fully crystalline interface, extremely fine (nanoscale) grains, mesoscopic as well as microscopic wavy features, and lack of large continuous intermetallic compounds.

  6. John Strong (1941 - 2006)

    CERN Multimedia

    Wickens, F

    Our friend and colleague John Strong was cruelly taken from us by a brain tumour on Monday 31st July, a few days before his 65th birthday John started his career working with a group from Westfield College, under the leadership of Ted Bellamy. He obtained his PhD and spent the early part of his career on experiments at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL), but after the early 1970s his research was focussed on experiments in CERN. Over the years he made a number of notable contributions to experiments in CERN: The Omega spectrometer adopted a system John had originally developed for experiments at RAL using vidicon cameras to record the sparks in the spark chambers; He contributed to the success of NA1 and NA7, where he became heavily involved in the electronic trigger systems; He was responsible for the second level trigger system for the ALEPH detector and spent five years leading a team that designed and built the system, which ran for twelve years with only minor interventions. Following ALEPH he tur...

  7. Stirring Strongly Coupled Plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Fadafan, Kazem Bitaghsir; Rajagopal, Krishna; Wiedemann, Urs Achim

    2009-01-01

    We determine the energy it takes to move a test quark along a circle of radius L with angular frequency w through the strongly coupled plasma of N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills (SYM) theory. We find that for most values of L and w the energy deposited by stirring the plasma in this way is governed either by the drag force acting on a test quark moving through the plasma in a straight line with speed v=Lw or by the energy radiated by a quark in circular motion in the absence of any plasma, whichever is larger. There is a continuous crossover from the drag-dominated regime to the radiation-dominated regime. In the crossover regime we find evidence for significant destructive interference between energy loss due to drag and that due to radiation as if in vacuum. The rotating quark thus serves as a model system in which the relative strength of, and interplay between, two different mechanisms of parton energy loss is accessible via a controlled classical gravity calculation. We close by speculating on the implicati...

  8. Strong-interaction nonuniversality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkas, R.R.; Foot, R.; He, X.; Joshi, G.C.

    1989-01-01

    The universal QCD color theory is extended to an SU(3) 1 direct product SU(3) 2 direct product SU(3) 3 gauge theory, where quarks of the ith generation transform as triplets under SU(3)/sub i/ and singlets under the other two factors. The usual color group is then identified with the diagonal subgroup, which remains exact after symmetry breaking. The gauge bosons associated with the 16 broken generators then form two massive octets under ordinary color. The interactions between quarks and these heavy gluonlike particles are explicitly nonuniversal and thus an exploration of their physical implications allows us to shed light on the fundamental issue of strong-interaction universality. Nonuniversality and weak flavor mixing are shown to generate heavy-gluon-induced flavor-changing neutral currents. The phenomenology of these processes is studied, as they provide the major experimental constraint on the extended theory. Three symmetry-breaking scenarios are presented. The first has color breaking occurring at the weak scale, while the second and third divorce the two scales. The third model has the interesting feature of radiatively induced off-diagonal Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix elements

  9. [The relationship between the recurrence of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo and the level of bone mineral as well as estrogen in postmenopausal women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y M; Yang, Z D; Li, W X; Shi, C; Yu, Y F

    2017-12-07

    Objective: To investigate the relationship between the recurrence of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo(BPPV) and the levels of bone mineral density(BMD) and estrogen in postmenopausal women. Methods: A total of 38 postmenopausal women with recurrent BPPV were recruited as study group, in the First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University from December 2013 to June 2017. Meanwhile, 49 normal menopausal women were included as control. All patients were natural menopausal for over one year.The patients were diagnosed as BPPV based on results of Dix-Hallpike test and Roll-test, with at least two episodes of recurrent onset. In the subjects, BMD was measured by dual X-ray absorptiometry of lumbar vertebrae. Estrogen levels were obtained by testing serum estradiol (E2) levels in early morning fasting venous blood. In the present study, we compared the level of E2 and the value of BMD in two groups by SPSS 21.0. In the study group, patients with decreased BMD were divided into two groups: treatment and untreated group. The recurrence rate of BPPV was compared between the two groups within 12 months. Results: ①The averagel levels of E2 and BMD in the study group were (16.21±11.00)ng/L and -1.68±0.98) respectively, which were significantly lower than those in the control group ( t value was 7.03 and 8.05 respectively, both P <0.05). The averagel levels of E2 and BMD incontrol group were(28.52±6.34)ng/L and -0.18±0.77 respectively. ②The number of patients with decreased BMD in the study group (30 cases) was more than that in control group (6 cases), and the difference was statistically significant ( P <0.05). ③ The recurrence rate of BPPV in treatment group [17.6%(3/17)] was significantly lower than that of untreated group [61.5%(8/13)], and the difference was statistically significant ( P <0.05). Conclusion: Recurrent BPPV in postmenopausal women usually accompany with low levels of estrogen and BMD. Active treatment is helpful for their recurrence of BPPV.

  10. The analysis of the positional relationship of condyloid process with mandibular fossa and morphological classification of condylar head in T.M.J trouble patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Chang Sik; Park, Tae Wonen [Dept. of Radiology, Graduate School, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1981-11-15

    The aims of this study consist in clarifying the positional analytic method, in classifying morphological and positional range of condyloid process in the symptomatic patients as well as in comparing the remodelled morphological changes of condylar head due to TMJ disorders with those of asymptomatic subjects.

  11. Synthesis, in-vitro cytotoxicity of 1H-benzo[f]chromene derivatives and structure-activity relationships of the 1-aryl group and 9-position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Hany M; Fouda, Ahmed M; Khattab, Essam S A E H; Agrody, Ahmed M El-; Afifi, Tarek H

    2017-05-01

    A series of 1H-benzo[f]chromene-2-carbonitriles was synthesized and evaluated for their cytotoxic activities against MCF-7, HCT-116, and HepG-2 cancer cells. The SAR studies reported that the substitution in the phenyl ring at 1-position of 1H-benzo[f]chromene nucleus with the specific group, H atom, or methoxy group at 9-position increases the ability of the molecule against the different cell lines.

  12. An Analysis of the Relationship between Implementation of School-Wide Positive Behavior Interventions and Supports and High School Dropout Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Jennifer; Simonsen, Brandi; McCoach, D. Betsy; Sugai, George; Lombardi, Allison; Horner, Rob

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the direct and indirect effects of SWPBIS on high school dropout rates. We used structural equation modeling methods to analyze the web of relationships among important high school level outcomes and SWPBIS in a large sample of high schools from 37 states. Results suggest that SWPBIS has statistically…

  13. Sleep and Cognitive Decline: A Strong Bidirectional Relationship. It Is Time for Specific Recommendations on Routine Assessment and the Management of Sleep Disorders in Patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment and Dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarnieri, Biancamaria; Sorbi, Sandro

    2015-01-01

    Sleep disturbances and disruption of the neural regulation of the sleep-wake rhythm appear to be involved in the cellular and molecular mechanisms of cognitive decline. Although sleep problems are highly prevalent in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and many types of dementia, they have not been systematically investigated in the clinical setting and are often only investigated by sleep specialists upon individual request. This review discusses sleep disorders in the context of cognitive decline and provides an overview of the clinical diagnosis and management of these disorders in patients with dementia and MCI. Key Messages: Sleep disorders are largely underestimated and do not receive sufficient attention in the global management of dementia patients. Sleep disturbances have a significant impact on cognitive and physical functions in individuals with cognitive decline and may be associated with important psychological distress and depression. They are positively associated with the severity of behavioral problems and cognitive impairment. The recent recommendations by the Sleep Study Group of the Italian Dementia Research Association can be used as a guideline for the clinical assessment and management of sleep disorders in MCI and dementia patients. Sleep disorders should be carefully investigated using an in-depth sleep history, physical examination, questionnaires and clinical scales and should be validated with the support of a direct caregiver. The recommendations for older adults can be used as a framework to guide the diagnosis and treatment of sleep disorders in individuals with dementia and MCI. The management strategy should be based on the choice of different treatments for each sleep problem present in the same patient, while avoiding adverse interactions between treatments. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Relationship Between Patient Position and Pain Severity During Shock Wave Lithotripsy for Renal Stones With the MODULITH SLX-F2 Lithotripter: A Matched Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jung Hun; Lee, Sin Woo; Moon, Sung Ho; Sung, Hyun Hwan; Choo, Seol Ho; Han, Deok Hyun

    2013-08-01

    We evaluated the association between shock wave lithotripsy (SWL)-related pain and patient positioning during SWL. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 162 patients who underwent their first SWL session for single renal stones from May 2010 to August 2011. One hundred thirteen patients underwent SWL in the supine position and 49 did so in the lateral position. To evaluate an unbiased estimation of the positional effect on pain severity during SWL, both groups (supine vs. lateral) were matched according to sex, age, body mass index, stone location, and stone size. Thirty-four patients from each group were selected for analysis. Pain was evaluated with an average visual analogue scale (VAS-avg) and maximum visual analogue scale (VAS-max). Analgesic usage was also compared between the groups. All patients (n=34) in the supine group had radio-opaque stones compared with only 47.1% of the patients in the lateral group (n=16). The VAS-avg and VAS-max of the lateral group were significantly lower than those of the supine group (1.2±1.0 and 3.1±1.7 for VAS-avg and 2.5±1.8 and 4.7±1.9 for VAS-max, respectively, p<0.05). However, analgesic usage between groups did not differ significantly (17.6% in the supine group vs. 5.9% in the lateral group, p=0.259). In a subgroup analysis confined to patients with radio-opaque stones, the supine group still suffered more pain. Patients with renal stones suffered more SWL-related pain in the supine position than in the lateral position. During SWL, positioning of patients should be considered a predictive factor for SWL-related pain.

  15. An Exploratory Path Model of the Relationships between Positive and Negative Adaptation to Cancer on Quality of Life among non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Sophia K.; Zimmer, Catherine; Crandell, Jamie; Jenerette, Coretta M.; Bailey, Donald E.; Zimmerman, Sheryl; Mayer, Deborah K.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Adaptation is an ongoing, cognitive process with continuous appraisal of the cancer experience by the survivor. This exploratory study tested a path model examining the personal (demographic, disease, and psychosocial) characteristics associated with quality of life (QOL) and whether or not adaptation to living with cancer may mediate these effects. Methods This study employed path analysis to estimate adaptation to cancer. A cross sectional sample of NHL survivors (N=750) was used to test the model. Eligible participants were ≥18 years, at least two years post-diagnosis, and living with or without active disease. Results 68% of the variance was accounted for in QOL. The strongest effect (−0.596) was direct by negative adaptation, approximately three times that of positive adaptation (0.193). The strongest demographic total effects on QOL were age and social support; adaptation compared to those ≥65. Of the disease characteristics, comorbidity score had the strongest direct effect on QOL; each additional comorbidity was associated with a 0.309 standard deviation decline on QOL. There were no fully mediated effects through positive adaptation alone. Our exploratory findings support the coexistence of positive and negative adaptations perception as mediators of personal characteristics of the cancer experience. Negative adaptation can affect QOL in a positive way. Cancer survivorship is simultaneously shaped by both positive and negative adaptation with future research and implications for practice aimed at improving QOL. PMID:25751114

  16. The Relationship of Level of Positive Mental Health with Current Mental Disorders in Predicting Suicidal Behavior and Academic Impairment in College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyes, Corey L. M.; Eisenberg, Daniel; Perry, Geraldine S.; Dube, Shanta R.; Kroenke, Kurt; Dhingra, Satvinder S.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate whether level of positive mental health complements mental illness in predicting students at risk for suicidal behavior and impaired academic performance. Participants: A sample of 5,689 college students participated in the 2007 Healthy Minds Study and completed an Internet survey that included the Mental Health…

  17. Relationship between caga-positive Helicobacter pylori infection and risk of gastric cancer: a case control study in Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilmara Coelho Meine

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Gastric cancer is the second most common cause of cancer related death worldwide. Although Helicobacter pylori has been classified as a class I carcinogen, the presence of infection is not a factor that alone is able to lead to gastric cancer, and one of the possible explanations for this is the existence of different strains of H. pylori with different degrees of virulence. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the association between cagA-positive H. pylori and gastric cancer, using polymerase chain reaction (PCR for the detection of this bacterial strain. METHODS: Twenty-nine patients with gastric cancer were matched by sex and age (± 5 years with 58 patients without gastric cancer, submitted to upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. All patients were evaluated for the status of infection by H. pylori (through urease test, histological analysis and PCR for the genes ureA and 16SrRNA and by cagA-positive strain (through PCR for cagA gene. RESULTS: Evaluating the presence of infection by cagA-positive H. pylori, it was verified that the rate of infection was significantly higher in the group with gastric cancer when compared with the matched controls, occurring in 62.1% and 29.3%, respectively (OR = 3.95; CI 95% 1.543-10.096. CONCLUSIONS: There is an association between cagA-positive H. pylori strain and risk of gastric cancer.

  18. The Relationship between Implementation of School-Wide Positive Behavior Support (SWPBS) and Disciplinary Exclusion of Students from Various Ethnic Backgrounds with and without Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Claudia G.; Tobin, Tary J.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined disciplinary exclusion data from 77 schools implementing school-wide positive behavior support (SWPBS). The authors examined (a) patterns of exclusion in schools implementing SWPBS; (b) associations between decreased exclusions and SWPBS implementation at the whole school level, the classroom level, the nonclassroom level, and…

  19. Relationship between Leadership Styles of High School Teachers, Principals, and Assistant Principals and Their Attitudes toward School Wide Positive Behavior and Support Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampton-Holmes, Geneva Cosweler

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if seventh through twelfth grade educators' attitudes towards School-Wide Positive Behavior Support (SWPBS) are affected based on their gender, years of experience, school discipline policy, leadership style, and knowledge of SWPBS. Through an online survey, an analysis of the leadership style and…

  20. Phylogenetic relationships among extinct and extant turtles: the position of Pleurodira and the effects of the fossils on rooting crown-group turtles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sterli, J.

    2010-01-01

    The origin and evolution of the crown-group of turtles (Cryptodira + Pleurodira) is one of the most interesting topics in turtle evolution, second perhaps only to the phylogenetic position of turtles among amniotes. The present contribution focuses on the former problem, exploring the phylogenetic

  1. Changes in Sexual and Behavioral Relationships among Couples during Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Shoja

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available

    <strong>Background and Objectives: strong>Pregnancy is a distinct period in the life of all of women leading to hormonal and physical changes. The changes could affect theirsexuality and behavioral relationship during pregnancy. Lack of adequate information about relationships between couples may cause feelings of tension and discomfort during pregnancy. With regard to the importance of this matter and limited research in this area, the study aimed atexploring women’ sexual relationships during pregnancy.<strong>strong>

     

    <strong>Methods:> This qualitative-descriptive study wascarried out in Gorgan. Open ended interviews were conducted with 51 pregnant women who had referred to the clinic at a teaching hospital in Gorgan (Deziani. All interviews were tape recorded. The data were coded and categorized as is usual in qualitative methods.<strong>strong>

     

    <strong>Results:> In this research, 73% of the women reported low libido during pregnancy. All of the participants refused having intercourse during pregnancy for many reasons, such as concern about baby health, abortion, pain and discomfort due to a big abdomen. Most of the participants made some changes in their coitus position. The most common position for 45% of them during intercourse was "rear position”. All of the women stated that they hadexperienced asense ofbelonging and attachment to their spouses more than before. They had experienced the need to have more emotional care.<strong>strong>

     

    <strong>Conclusion:> According to this study the women face an increase in emotional needs and adecrease in sexual drive. Showing less sexual feelings may be due to personal and cultural beliefs. Appropriate education would probablybe helpful for the married couples.<strong>>

  2. Investigating the Relationship between Components of Pender’s Health Promotion Model and Self-care Behaviors among Patients with Smear-positive Pulmonary Tuberculosis

    OpenAIRE

    Masoud Zare; Zakieh Asadi; Mohammad Vahedian Shahroodi; Hamidreza Bahrami-Taghanaki

    2017-01-01

    Background: Tuberculosis is among the top ten causes of mortality across the world and is highly prevalent in Mashhad, Khorasan Razavi, Iran. The adoption of healthy behaviors by patients can prevent the transmission of this disease to other individuals. The Health Promotion Model is one of the models used in the field of behavior change in this regard. Aim: The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between the components of Pender’s Health Promotion Model and self-care...

  3. Relationship between open-circuit voltage in Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cell and peak position of (220/204) preferred orientation near its absorber surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chantana, J.; Minemoto, T.; Watanabe, T.; Teraji, S.; Kawamura, K.

    2013-01-01

    Cu(In,Ga)Se 2 (CIGS) absorbers with various Ga/III, Ga/(In+Ga), profiles are prepared by the so-called “multi-layer precursor method” using multi-layer co-evaporation of material sources. It is revealed that open-circuit voltage (V OC ) of CIGS solar cell is primarily dependent on averaged Ga/III near the surface of its absorber. This averaged Ga/III is well predicted by peak position of (220/204) preferred orientation of CIGS film near its surface investigated by glancing-incidence X-ray diffraction with 0.1° incident angle. Finally, the peak position of (220/204) preferred orientation is proposed as a measure of V OC before solar cell fabrication

  4. Nutrition label use mediates the positive relationship between nutrition knowledge and attitudes towards healthy eating with dietary quality among university students in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Rachel; Papadaki, Angeliki

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether nutrition knowledge and attitudes towards healthy eating are predictors of nutrition label use (NLU) and dietary quality in a diverse sample of university students in the UK. An online cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2013 among 500 students (mean age 24.9 years; 75% females) in 37 UK universities. Nutrition knowledge, attitudes, NLU and dietary quality were assessed using previously validated questionnaires. The majority of participants met dietary recommendations for fat, added sugar and fast food intake, and failed to meet recommendations for calcium, fibre, fruit and vegetable and dairy product intake, resulting in a median dietary quality score of 2.0 (score range = 0-8). Nutrition knowledge differed according to gender, age, body mass index (BMI), nationality and NLU. Attitudes towards healthy eating differed according to BMI and NLU and dietary quality differed according to gender. Nutrition knowledge and attitudes were significant predictors of NLU and dietary quality, with NLU mediating the latter relationship, whereas NLU, when controlled for knowledge and attitudes, negatively predicted dietary quality but did not have a significant independent relationship with diet. Future nutrition interventions to improve dietary quality in this sample of UK university students should focus on improving nutrition knowledge and attitudes towards healthy eating. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Social relationships in rehabilitation and their impact on positive outcomes among amputees with lower limb loss at Walter Reed National Military Medical Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seth Messinger

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To explore how the social context of the clinic influenced the way former patients with lower limb loss in the Military Advanced Training Center at Walter Reed National Military Medical Center evaluated their outcomes. Design: Cross-sectional phenomenological-based interviews and observations. Patients: Twenty individuals with lower limb amputation were recruited from a multidisciplinary military treatment programme for patients with lower-extremity traumatic limb-loss injured in Afghanistan or Iraq. Methods: Lightly structured interviews were conducted either in person or over the telephone with former patients and clinical care-providers. Where possible, observation was conducted in conjunction with the interviews. The research team used content analysis of the data, consistent with ethnographic methods. Results: Analysis of the therapeutic effect of social relationships developed in the clinical rehabilitation programme identified 3 areas of significance: enduring relationships with key care-providers, access to treatment team by patients, and peer support among patients. Conclusion: The social component of service delivery influences patients’ outcomes from clinical care. These results could be translated across healthcare settings to improve patient outcomes.

  6. Relationship between intratumoral expression of genes coding for xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes and benefit from adjuvant tamoxifen in estrogen receptor alpha-positive postmenopausal breast carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bièche, Ivan; Girault, Igor; Urbain, Estelle; Tozlu, Sengül; Lidereau, Rosette

    2004-01-01

    Little is known of the function and clinical significance of intratumoral dysregulation of xenobiotic-metabolizing enzyme expression in breast cancer. One molecular mechanism proposed to explain tamoxifen resistance is altered tamoxifen metabolism and bioavailability. To test this hypothesis, we used real-time quantitative RT-PCR to quantify the mRNA expression of a large panel of genes coding for the major xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes (12 phase I enzymes, 12 phase II enzymes and three members of the ABC transporter family) in a small series of normal breast (and liver) tissues, and in estrogen receptor alpha (ERα)-negative and ERα-positive breast tumors. Relevant genes were further investigated in a well-defined cohort of 97 ERα-positive postmenopausal breast cancer patients treated with primary surgery followed by adjuvant tamoxifen alone. Seven of the 27 genes showed very weak or undetectable expression in both normal and tumoral breast tissues. Among the 20 remaining genes, seven genes (CYP2A6, CYP2B6, FMO5, NAT1, SULT2B1, GSTM3 and ABCC11) showed significantly higher mRNA levels in ERα-positive breast tumors than in normal breast tissue, or showed higher mRNA levels in ERα-positive breast tumors than in ERα-negative breast tumors. In the 97 ERα-positive breast tumor series, most alterations of these seven genes corresponded to upregulations as compared with normal breast tissue, with an incidence ranging from 25% (CYP2A6) to 79% (NAT1). Downregulation was rare. CYP2A6, CYP2B6, FMO5 and NAT1 emerged as new putative ERα-responsive genes in human breast cancer. Relapse-free survival was longer among patients with FMO5-overexpressing tumors or NAT1-overexpressing tumors (P = 0.0066 and P = 0.000052, respectively), but only NAT1 status retained prognostic significance in Cox multivariate regression analysis (P = 0.0013). Taken together, these data point to a role of genes coding for xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes in breast tumorigenesis, NAT1 being an

  7. 2,4-Diamino-8-quinazoline carboxamides as novel, potent inhibitors of the NAD hydrolyzing enzyme CD38: Exploration of the 2-position structure-activity relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deaton, David N; Haffner, Curt D; Henke, Brad R; Jeune, Michael R; Shearer, Barry G; Stewart, Eugene L; Stuart, J Darren; Ulrich, John C

    2018-03-15

    Starting from 4-amino-8-quinoline carboxamide lead 1a and scaffold hopping to the chemically more tractable quinazoline, a systematic exploration of the 2-substituents of the quinazoline ring, utilizing structure activity relationships and conformational constraint, resulted in the identification of 39 novel CD38 inhibitors. Eight of these analogs were 10-100-fold more potent human CD38 inhibitors, including the single digit nanomolar inhibitor 1am. Several of these molecules also exhibited improved therapeutic indices relative to hERG activity. A representative analog 1r exhibited suitable pharmacokinetic parameters for in vivo animal studies, including moderate clearance and good oral bioavailability. These inhibitor compounds will aid in the exploration of the enzymatic functions of CD38, as well as furthering the study of the therapeutic implications of NAD enhancement in metabolic disease models. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Decadal variability of the position and strength of the South Atlantic Convergence Zone and its relationship to precipitation variability and extremes over Southeastern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilli, M. T.; Carvalho, L. V.; Lintner, B. R.

    2016-12-01

    The South Atlantic Convergence Zone (SACZ) is a diagonally oriented zone of low-level convergence, convective cloudiness, and rainfall originating over South America and extending to the southeast over the Atlantic Ocean. The objective of this study is to investigate the role of variability in the position and strength of the SACZ in causing precipitation variability and extremes over the southeastern Brazilian coast (SE). To that end, we perform Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF) analysis of total summer (DJF) precipitation from 1979 to 2013, using the National Center for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (CFSR), at 0.5° spatial resolution. The first mode (EOF-1) explains 22.7% of total variance and is characterized by a dipole-like structure, with opposite signs over central South America and over central South Atlantic along the northern margin of the SACZ. The time-coefficient or principal component of EOF-1 indicates a transition from a predominantly negative phase over 1999 to 2005 to a predominantly positive phase after 2006. The positive phase is associated with an increase in total precipitation over the continent and a reduction over the central South Atlantic, along the northern margin of the SACZ. These results provide evidence of the poleward shift of the SACZ and weakening of convergence along its northern margin over the past decade, consistent with the observed recent trends in extreme precipitation over SE. Compositing reanalysis fields with respect to the PC of EOF-1 suggests changes in moisture availability and circulation that could have affected precipitation regimes over SE. In particular, an increase in available precipitable water may have enhanced convective activity over the southern portion of SE Brazil, whereas the weakening of the northerly winds may be responsible for the weakening of convergence over the northern flank of the SACZ, inhibiting convection in this region.

  9. Advantage: industry and First Nations developing strong business relationships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Meara, D.

    2000-01-01

    The history of confrontations, recriminations, ultimatums, demands and endless negotiations between the oil and gas industry and First Nations communities is told. Important as the history of the conflict is, it is even more important that a mechanism has been found to resolve w these endless quarrels, giving rise to a new oil and gas economy in the 1990s and a new era of resource development in Western Canada. Land settlements, partnership and joint ventures between industry and First Nations communities, negotiating economic and social benefits into business contracts, believed to be an impossible task only a few short years ago , has gone full circle and has become a competitive edge, an admittedly costly and time consuming exercise, but absolutely necessary to be successful in First Nations relations. Conversely, one of the big problems facing First Nations Councils is educating their own members on the benefits of working with oil and gas companies. This is not an easy task since the benefits are sometimes not visible, and when deals hammered out in council with company executives are often filtered through contractors and sub-contractors and deals specifying employment do not materialize. Despite these problems, the experience of several of the companies active on First Nations lands is that it is possible to overcome a history of insensitivity and establish a business environment in which both sides have reason to consider themselves winners

  10. Quantum electrodynamics of strong fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greiner, W.

    1983-01-01

    Quantum Electrodynamics of Strong Fields provides a broad survey of the theoretical and experimental work accomplished, presenting papers by a group of international researchers who have made significant contributions to this developing area. Exploring the quantum theory of strong fields, the volume focuses on the phase transition to a charged vacuum in strong electric fields. The contributors also discuss such related topics as QED at short distances, precision tests of QED, nonperturbative QCD and confinement, pion condensation, and strong gravitational fields In addition, the volume features a historical paper on the roots of quantum field theory in the history of quantum physics by noted researcher Friedrich Hund

  11. The Relationship of Repeated Technical Assistance Support Visits to the Delivery of Positive Health, Dignity, and Prevention (PHDP) Messages by Healthcare Providers in Mozambique: A Longitudinal Multilevel Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutin, Sarah A; Amico, K Rivet; Hunguana, Elsa; Munguambe, António Orlando; Rose, Carol Dawson

    Positive health, dignity, and prevention (PHDP) is Mozambique's strategy to engage clinicians in the delivery of prevention messages to their HIV-positive clients. This national implementation strategy uses provider trainings on offering key messages and focuses on intervening on 9 evidence-based risk reduction areas. We investigated the impact of longitudinal technical assistance (TA) as an addition to this basic training. We followed 153 healthcare providers in 5 Mozambican provinces over 6 months to evaluate the impact of on-site, observation-based TA on PHDP implementation. Longitudinal multilevel models were estimated to model change in PHDP message delivery over time among individual providers. With each additional TA visit, providers delivered about 1 additional PHDP message ( P < .001); clinicians and nonclinicians started at about the same baseline level, but clinicians improved more quickly ( P = .004). Message delivery varied by practice sector; maternal and child health sectors outperformed other sectors. Longitudinal TA helped reach the programmatic goals of the PHDP program in Mozambique.

  12. Positive emotion, appraisal, and the role of appraisal overlap in positive emotion co-occurrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Eddie M W; Jia, Lile

    2017-02-01

    Appraisal research has traditionally focused on negative emotions but has not addressed issues concerning the relationships between several positive emotions and appraisals in daily life and the extent to which co-occurrence of positive emotions can be explained by overlap in appraisals. Driven by a priori hypotheses on appraisal-emotion relationships, this study investigated 12 positive emotions and 13 appraisal dimensions using Ecological Momentary Assessment. The results provide strong evidence that positive emotions and appraisals correlate significantly in daily life. Importantly, we found that the positive emotions' overlap on theoretically relevant, as compared to irrelevant, appraisals was stronger and more predictive of their co-occurrence. Furthermore, appraisal overlap on theoretically relevant appraisals predicted the co-occurrence of positive emotions even when the appraisal of pleasantness was excluded, indicating that positive emotions do not co-occur just by virtue of their shared valence. Our findings affirmed and refined the appraisal profiles of positive emotions and underscore the importance of appraisals in accounting for the commonality and differences among positive emotions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Relationship between neighbourhood socioeconomic position and neighbourhood public green space availability: An environmental inequality analysis in a large German city applying generalized linear models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schüle, Steffen Andreas; Gabriel, Katharina M A; Bolte, Gabriele

    2017-06-01

    The environmental justice framework states that besides environmental burdens also resources may be social unequally distributed both on the individual and on the neighbourhood level. This ecological study investigated whether neighbourhood socioeconomic position (SEP) was associated with neighbourhood public green space availability in a large German city with more than 1 million inhabitants. Two different measures were defined for green space availability. Firstly, percentage of green space within neighbourhoods was calculated with the additional consideration of various buffers around the boundaries. Secondly, percentage of green space was calculated based on various radii around the neighbourhood centroid. An index of neighbourhood SEP was calculated with principal component analysis. Log-gamma regression from the group of generalized linear models was applied in order to consider the non-normal distribution of the response variable. All models were adjusted for population density. Low neighbourhood SEP was associated with decreasing neighbourhood green space availability including 200m up to 1000m buffers around the neighbourhood boundaries. Low neighbourhood SEP was also associated with decreasing green space availability based on catchment areas measured from neighbourhood centroids with different radii (1000m up to 3000 m). With an increasing radius the strength of the associations decreased. Social unequally distributed green space may amplify environmental health inequalities in an urban context. Thus, the identification of vulnerable neighbourhoods and population groups plays an important role for epidemiological research and healthy city planning. As a methodical aspect, log-gamma regression offers an adequate parametric modelling strategy for positively distributed environmental variables. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  14. Investigating the form-function interface in African apes: Relationships between principal moments of area and positional behaviors in femoral and humeral diaphyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Kristian J

    2005-07-01

    Investigations of cross-sectional geometry in nonhuman primate limb bones typically attribute shape ratios to qualitative behavioral characterizations, e.g., leaper, slow climber, brachiator, or terrestrial vs. arboreal quadruped. Quantitative positional behavioral data, however, have yet to be used in a rigorous evaluation of such shape-behavior connections. African apes represent an ideal population for such an investigation because their relatedness minimizes phylogenetic inertia, they exhibit diverse behavioral repertoires, and their locomotor behaviors are known from multiple studies. Cross-sectional data from femoral and humeral diaphyses were collected for 222 wild-shot specimens, encompassing Pan paniscus and all commonly recognized African ape subspecies. Digital representations of diaphyseal cross sections were acquired via computed tomography at three locations per diaphysis. Locomotor behaviors were pooled broadly into arboreal and terrestrial categories, then partitioned into quadrupedal walking, quadrumanous climbing, scrambling, and suspensory categories. Sex-specific taxonomic differences in ratios of principal moments of area (PMA) were statistically significant more often in the femoral diaphysis than the humeral diaphysis. While it appears difficult to relate a measure of shape (e.g., PMA ratio) to individual locomotor modes, general locomotor differences (e.g., percentage arboreal vs. terrestrial locomotion) are discerned more easily. As percentage of arboreal locomotion for a group increases, average cross sections appear more circular. Associations between PMA ratio and specific locomotor behaviors are less straightforward. Individual behaviors that integrate eccentric limb positions (e.g., arboreal scrambling) may not engender more circular cross sections than behaviors that incorporate repetitive sagittal movements (e.g., quadrupedal walking) in a straightforward manner. (c) 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc

  15. Strong WW Interaction at LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelaez, Jose R

    1998-12-14

    We present a brief pedagogical introduction to the Effective Electroweak Chiral Lagrangians, which provide a model independent description of the WW interactions in the strong regime. When it is complemented with some unitarization or a dispersive approach, this formalism allows the study of the general strong scenario expected at the LHC, including resonances.

  16. Structure-Activity Relationships of New Natural Product-Based Diaryloxazoles with Selective Activity against Androgen Receptor-Positive Breast Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles, Andrew J; McCowen, Shelby; Cai, Shengxin; Glassman, Michaels; Ruiz, Francisco; Cichewicz, Robert H; McHardy, Stanton F; Mooberry, Susan L

    2017-11-22

    Targeted therapies for ER+/PR+ and HER2-amplified breast cancers have improved patient survival, but there are no therapies for triple negative breast cancers (TNBC) that lack expression of estrogen and progesterone receptors (ER/PR), or amplification or overexpression of HER2. Gene expression profiling of TNBC has identified molecular subtypes and representative cell lines. An extract of the Texas native plant Amyris texana was found to have selective activity against MDA-MB-453 cells, a model of the luminal androgen receptor (LAR) subtype of TNBC. Bioassay-guided fractionation identified two oxazole natural products with selective activity against this cell line. Conducted analog synthesis and structure-activity relationship studies provided analogs with more potent and selective activity against two LAR subtype cell line models, culminating in the discovery of compound 30 (CIDD-0067106). Lead compounds discovered have potent and selective antiproliferative activities, and mechanisms of action studies show they inhibit the activity of the mTORC1 pathway.

  17. Strong-back safety latch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeSantis, G.N.

    1995-01-01

    The calculation decides the integrity of the safety latch that will hold the strong-back to the pump during lifting. The safety latch will be welded to the strong-back and will latch to a 1.5-in. dia cantilever rod welded to the pump baseplate. The static and dynamic analysis shows that the safety latch will hold the strong-back to the pump if the friction clamps fail and the pump become free from the strong-back. Thus, the safety latch will meet the requirements of the Lifting and Rigging Manual for under the hook lifting for static loading; it can withstand shock loads from the strong-back falling 0.25 inch

  18. Strong-back safety latch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeSantis, G.N.

    1995-03-06

    The calculation decides the integrity of the safety latch that will hold the strong-back to the pump during lifting. The safety latch will be welded to the strong-back and will latch to a 1.5-in. dia cantilever rod welded to the pump baseplate. The static and dynamic analysis shows that the safety latch will hold the strong-back to the pump if the friction clamps fail and the pump become free from the strong-back. Thus, the safety latch will meet the requirements of the Lifting and Rigging Manual for under the hook lifting for static loading; it can withstand shock loads from the strong-back falling 0.25 inch.

  19. The death of recency: Relationship between end-state comfort and serial position effects in serial recall: Logan and Fischman (2011) revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Samuel W; Fischman, Mark G

    2015-12-01

    Two experiments examined the dynamic interaction between cognitive resources in short-term memory and bimanual object manipulation by extending recent research by Logan and Fischman (2011). In Experiment 1, 16 participants completed a bimanual end-state comfort task and a memory task requiring serial recall of 12 words or pictures. The end-state comfort task involved moving two glasses between two shelves. Participants viewed the items, performed the end-state comfort task, and then serially recalled the items. Recall was evaluated by the presence or absence of primacy and recency effects. The end-state comfort effect (ESCE) was assessed by the percentage of initial hand positions that allowed the hands to end comfortably. The main findings indicated that the ESCE was disrupted; the primacy effect remained intact; and the recency effect disappeared regardless of the type of memory item recalled. In Experiment 2, 16 participants viewed six items, performed an end-state comfort task, viewed another six items, and then serially recalled all 12 items. Results were essentially the same as in Experiment 1. Findings suggest that executing a bimanual end-state comfort task, regardless of when it is completed during a memory task, diminishes the recency effect irrespective of the type of memory item. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Hopelessness and positive and negative future thinking in parasuicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLeod, Andrew K; Tata, Philip; Tyrer, Peter; Schmidt, Ulrike; Davidson, Kate; Thompson, Simon

    2005-11-01

    Hopelessness about the future is a key element in suicidal behaviour. The aim of the present study was to examine possible components of hopelessness, in particular, to contrast positive and negative future thinking and to examine separately number, expectancy, and value of anticipated positive and negative future experiences. A correlational design. Repeat parasuicide patients (N = 441) were administered the Beck Hopelessness Scale, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and the future thinking task, a measure of future positive and negative thinking that assesses number, perceived likelihood, and perceived value of anticipated future positive and negative events. Consistent with predictions, hopelessness correlated more strongly with lack of positive thoughts about the future than it did with presence of negative thoughts. Both positive and negative future thinking showed a relationship to hopelessness over and above their relationships to depression (positive future thinking) and anxiety (negative future thinking). Number and likelihood of positive events and likelihood and value of negative events showed both simple and partial relationships to hopelessness. Number of negative events related to hopelessness but only after the other future thinking variables had been controlled for and value of positive events no longer related to hopelessness after controlling for the other variables. Hopelessness about the future in suicidal individuals is a multi-faceted construct but lack of positive future thinking is more important than presence of negative future thinking.

  1. Titanium: light, strong, and white

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodruff, Laurel; Bedinger, George

    2013-01-01

    Titanium (Ti) is a strong silver-gray metal that is highly resistant to corrosion and is chemically inert. It is as strong as steel but 45 percent lighter, and it is twice as strong as aluminum but only 60 percent heavier. Titanium dioxide (TiO2) has a very high refractive index, which means that it has high light-scattering ability. As a result, TiO2 imparts whiteness, opacity, and brightness to many products. ...Because of the unique physical properties of titanium metal and the whiteness provided by TiO2, titanium is now used widely in modern industrial societies.

  2. The strongly generalized double difference χ sequence spaces defined by a modulus - doi: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v35i4.16184

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subramanian Nagarajan

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we introduce the strongly generalized difference sequence spaces of modulus function and is a non-negative four dimensional matrix of complex numbers and (pi(mn is a sequence of positive real numbers. We also give natural relationship between strongly generalized difference summable sequences with respect of modulus. We examine some topological properties of the above spaces and investigate some inclusion relations between these spaces.  

  3. Positive states in relation to entrepreneurship orientation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meryll L. Shein

    2010-12-01

    Research purpose: The principal objective of the study was the construction of a normative scale to measure the positive states associated with appreciative ability and to relate it to a scale of entrepreneurial orientation. A secondary objective was to determine whether there was a statistically significant relationship between the measures of the constructs and the biographical variables of gender and culture. Motivation: As appreciative ability is a relatively new construct and no instrument exists for measuring the positive states emanating from this construct, it was decided to develop such an instrument and to relate it to entrepreneurship orientation. Research design, approach and method: The primary data were obtained by means of the newly designed instrument, the Positive States Questionnaire and the Entrepreneurship Orientation Questionnaire. A convenience sample of 210 second year commerce students was drawn. Main findings: From a principal factor analysis applied to the two instruments, two factors each were obtained. A significantly high correlation was found, indicating a strong relationship between entrepreneurship orientation and the positive states. No significant differences were found between gender or population in the entrepreneurship orientation and positive states measures. Practical/managerial implications: The study produced an instrument with highly acceptable metrical properties which may be used in future studies and for entrepreneurship development. Contribution/value-add: The results of the study suggest that positive states are invaluable attributes for the entrepreneur and should be explored in the assessment and development of entrepreneurs.

  4. Strong Localization in Disordered Media: Analysis of the Backscattering Cone

    KAUST Repository

    Delgado, Edgar

    2012-06-01

    A very interesting effect in light propagation through a disordered system is Anderson localization of light, this phenomenon emerges as the result of multiple scattering of waves by electric inhomogeneities like spatial variations of index of refraction; as the amount of scattering is increased, light propagation is converted from quasi-diffusive to exponentially localized, with photons confined in a limited spatial region characterized by a fundamental quantity known as localization length. Light localization is strongly related to another interference phenomenon emerged from the multiple scattering effect: the coherent backscattering effect. In multiple scattering of waves, in fact, coherence is preserved in the backscattering direction and produces a reinforcement of the field flux originating an observable peak in the backscattered intensity, known as backscattering cone. The study of this peak provide quantitative information about the transport properties of light in the material. In this thesis we report a complete FDTD ab-initio study of light localization and coherent backscattering. In particular, we consider a supercontinuum pulse impinging on a sample composed of randomly positioned scatterers. We study coherent backscattering by averaging over several realizations of the sample properties. We study then the coherent backscattering cone properties as the relative permittivity of the sample is changed, relating the latter with the light localization inside the sample. We demonstrate important relationships between the width of the backscattering cone and the localization length, which shows a linear proportionality in the strong localization regime.

  5. Intimate Relationships and Psychopathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whisman, Mark A.; Baucom, Donald H.

    2012-01-01

    Relationship functioning and individual mental health and well-being are strongly associated with one another. In this article, we first review the cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between relationship discord and various types of psychopathology, We then review findings suggesting that relationship discord is associated with poorer…

  6. Plasma position control method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirahama, Hidefumi; Sakurai, Yoshimi.

    1988-01-01

    Purpose: To suppress the non-linear relationship between the horizontal position of plasmas and the intensity of the vertical magnetic fields, thereby control the horizontal position of the plasmas stably and at a high speed in a closed loop in a tokamak type thermonuclear device. Method: In a control method for approaching the plasma position to a target position in the tokamak type thermonuclear device, a function circuit having two inputs and one output is disposed in a loop constituting the plasma position control system. The characteristics of the function circuit are so designed as to provide a proportional relationship between the first input and the output, while an inverse proportional relationship between the second input and the output. A detected value for the plasma current is used as a signal for the first input, while the detected value for the plasma position or a operation amount based on the difference with the detected value is used as a signal for the second input. By using the function circuit, it is possible to suppress the non-linear characteristics in the dynamic properties of the plasmas, by which the remarkable change of gains in the plasma position control circuit due to the fluctuations of the plasma current and the position can be prevented. (Ikeda, J.)

  7. The SNAP Strong Lens Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marshall, P.

    2005-01-03

    Basic considerations of lens detection and identification indicate that a wide field survey of the types planned for weak lensing and Type Ia SNe with SNAP are close to optimal for the optical detection of strong lenses. Such a ''piggy-back'' survey might be expected even pessimistically to provide a catalogue of a few thousand new strong lenses, with the numbers dominated by systems of faint blue galaxies lensed by foreground ellipticals. After sketching out our strategy for detecting and measuring these galaxy lenses using the SNAP images, we discuss some of the scientific applications of such a large sample of gravitational lenses: in particular we comment on the partition of information between lens structure, the source population properties and cosmology. Understanding this partitioning is key to assessing strong lens cosmography's value as a cosmological probe.

  8. Strong coupling phase in QED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, Ken-ichi

    1988-01-01

    Existence of a strong coupling phase in QED has been suggested in solutions of the Schwinger-Dyson equation and in Monte Carlo simulation of lattice QED. In this article we recapitulate the previous arguments, and formulate the problem in the modern framework of the renormalization theory, Wilsonian renormalization. This scheme of renormalization gives the best understanding of the basic structure of a field theory especially when it has a multi-phase structure. We resolve some misleading arguments in the previous literature. Then we set up a strategy to attack the strong phase, if any. We describe a trial; a coupled Schwinger-Dyson equation. Possible picture of the strong coupling phase QED is presented. (author)

  9. The impact of positive and negative emotions on loyalty intentions and their interactions with customer equity drivers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ou, Yi-Chun; Verhoef, Peter C.

    2017-01-01

    Customer equity drivers (CEDs) include value, brand, and relationship equity, which have a strong link with loyalty intentions. This study aims to examine the incremental effects of positive and negative emotions on loyalty intentions and to determine whether these emotions moderate the positive

  10. Position Information

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Position Information Data Asset provides the ability to search for active SSA position descriptions using various search criteria. An individual may search by PD...

  11. Positive Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    Positive psychology is a deliberate correction to the focus of psychology on problems. Positive psychology does not deny the difficulties that people may experience but does suggest that sole attention to disorder leads to an incomplete view of the human condition. Positive psychologists concern themselves with four major topics: (1) positive…

  12. Strong Decomposition of Random Variables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann-Jørgensen, Jørgen; Kagan, Abram M.; Pitt, Loren D.

    2007-01-01

    A random variable X is stongly decomposable if X=Y+Z where Y=Φ(X) and Z=X-Φ(X) are independent non-degenerated random variables (called the components). It is shown that at least one of the components is singular, and we derive a necessary and sufficient condition for strong decomposability...

  13. Strong interaction at finite temperature

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. We review two methods discussed in the literature to determine the effective parameters of strongly interacting particles as they move through a heat bath. The first one is the general method of chiral perturbation theory, which may be readily applied to this problem. The other is the method of thermal QCD sum rules ...

  14. Strong-strong beam-beam simulation on parallel computer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiang, Ji

    2004-08-02

    The beam-beam interaction puts a strong limit on the luminosity of the high energy storage ring colliders. At the interaction points, the electromagnetic fields generated by one beam focus or defocus the opposite beam. This can cause beam blowup and a reduction of luminosity. An accurate simulation of the beam-beam interaction is needed to help optimize the luminosity in high energy colliders.

  15. Strong-strong beam-beam simulation on parallel computer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiang, Ji

    2004-01-01

    The beam-beam interaction puts a strong limit on the luminosity of the high energy storage ring colliders. At the interaction points, the electromagnetic fields generated by one beam focus or defocus the opposite beam. This can cause beam blowup and a reduction of luminosity. An accurate simulation of the beam-beam interaction is needed to help optimize the luminosity in high energy colliders

  16. Ubiquitous positioning

    CERN Document Server

    Mannings, Robin

    2008-01-01

    This groundbreaking resource offers a practical, in-depth understanding of Ubiquitous Positioning - positioning systems that identify the location and position of people, vehicles and objects in time and space in the digitized networked economy. The future and growth of ubiquitous positioning will be fueled by the convergence of many other areas of technology, from mobile telematics, Internet technology, and location systems, to sensing systems, geographic information systems, and the semantic web. This first-of-its-kind volume explores ubiquitous positioning from a convergence perspective, of

  17. PREFACE: Strongly correlated electron systems Strongly correlated electron systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Siddharth S.; Littlewood, P. B.

    2012-07-01

    This special section is dedicated to the Strongly Correlated Electron Systems Conference (SCES) 2011, which was held from 29 August-3 September 2011, in Cambridge, UK. SCES'2011 is dedicated to 100 years of superconductivity and covers a range of topics in the area of strongly correlated systems. The correlated electronic and magnetic materials featured include f-electron based heavy fermion intermetallics and d-electron based transition metal compounds. The selected papers derived from invited presentations seek to deepen our understanding of the rich physical phenomena that arise from correlation effects. The focus is on quantum phase transitions, non-Fermi liquid phenomena, quantum magnetism, unconventional superconductivity and metal-insulator transitions. Both experimental and theoretical work is presented. Based on fundamental advances in the understanding of electronic materials, much of 20th century materials physics was driven by miniaturisation and integration in the electronics industry to the current generation of nanometre scale devices. The achievements of this industry have brought unprecedented advances to society and well-being, and no doubt there is much further to go—note that this progress is founded on investments and studies in the fundamentals of condensed matter physics from more than 50 years ago. Nevertheless, the defining challenges for the 21st century will lie in the discovery in science, and deployment through engineering, of technologies that can deliver the scale needed to have an impact on the sustainability agenda. Thus the big developments in nanotechnology may lie not in the pursuit of yet smaller transistors, but in the design of new structures that can revolutionise the performance of solar cells, batteries, fuel cells, light-weight structural materials, refrigeration, water purification, etc. The science presented in the papers of this special section also highlights the underlying interest in energy-dense materials, which

  18. Body position and oxygenation: An intriguing relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Patrícia; Monteiro, Marta; Palma, Paulo; Sousa-Pereira, Luís; Cabral, Sofia; Oliveira, Filomena; Dias, Vasco; Torres, Severo

    2014-06-01

    Dyspnea and hypoxemia are among the most common symptoms and signs that need to be assessed in clinical practice. This case illustrates how simple steps in history taking and physical examination can be crucial for diagnosis. We present a patient with intermittent hypoxemia, initially attributed to a pulmonary infection. However, the hypoxemia persisted even after successful treatment of the infection. Computed tomography angiography of the chest and ventilation/perfusion lung scan excluded pulmonary embolism. We then observed that the hypoxemia and dyspnea were triggered by orthostatism. An echocardiogram with a bubble test showed a patent foramen ovale, with a right-to-left shunt, without pulmonary hypertension. After percutaneous closure of the foramen ovale, the symptoms completely resolved. This is a case of platypnea-orthodeoxia syndrome, which is usually associated with patent foramen ovale or atrial septal defect and is typically observed in the elderly. The features and causes of this curious syndrome are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  19. Preventing Bullying: Helping Kids Form Positive Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevorkian, Meline

    2006-01-01

    Now more than ever, bullying has become common among students in American schools and playgrounds. According to the U.S. Justice Department, one in four children is bullied every day. As a result of these incidents, children may suffer from anxiety, depression, or low self-esteem. This book was written for today's parents and teachers who are…

  20. <strong>Neuroscientific Research on the Selfstrong>

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Runehov, Anne Leona Cesarine

    2008-01-01

    In order to obtain an interdisciplinary understanding of the world that also includes theology, I believe panentheism, as a potential explanatory model of a God relationship to the world, needs to be revisited. Naturalistic explanations leave out the possible existence of God and hence deprive...... millions of religious believers of a satisfactory explanation. The present paper deals with this neglect. It asks the question, if God exists, how then can we understand God's relationship to the world in a scientific age? From contemporary neuroscientific research on the self, the following explanatory...... transcendent is bigger than both the neural and subjective neural self. EU(UR ¿ (NR ¿ ES)); ES > NR and UR > (NR n ES) Where EU stands for one Emergent Universe comprising Ultimate Reality (UR; GOD), Natural Reality (NR; world) and all Emergent selves (ES). There is mutual causation between God and the world...

  1. Strong families and declining fertility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilevych, Yuliya

    2016-01-01

    This dissertation focuses on the role of family and social relationships in individuals’ reproductive careers during the fertility decline in Soviet Ukraine from around 1950 to 1975. These three decades after the Second World War signified the end of the First Demographic Transition in Ukraine

  2. Strong families and declining fertility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilevych, Yuliya

    2016-01-01

    This dissertation focuses on the role of family and social relationships in individuals’ reproductive careers during the fertility decline in Soviet Ukraine from around 1950 to 1975. These three decades after the Second World War signified the end of the First Demographic Transition in Ukraine

  3. Assesment of customer relationship development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagmar Lesáková

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this paper is customer relationship marketing and its new trends. The particular goal of the presented research study was to identify and analyse the indicators of customer relationship development in human resources recruitment / leasing companies. Nine indicators have been explored: mission statement concerning customer commitment, customer attraction, customer commitment, development of customer value, understanding customer needs, goals for customer satisfaction, after sales services, measurement of customer satisfaction, complaint management. The indicators were made sequentially operational in order to translate customer relationship development into specific activities designed to increase business performance. Based on a set of customer indicators four scientific hypotheses were tested. We proved that strong customer orientation has a positive impact on business performance. Out of nine indicators, seven of them have a strong impact on business outcomes. The research confirms that business performance increases with firm size and market density, and that introduction of quality management systems improves company performance. Finally, the appropriateness of the customer relationship indicators applied in human resources recruitment companies is discussed.

  4. Using Relationships as a Tool: Early Childhood Educators' Perspectives of the Child-Caregiver Relationship in a Childcare Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brebner, Chris; Hammond, Lauren; Schaumloffel, Nicole; Lind, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Children's early years are critical for development and many children access out-of-home care during this time. Services offering high-quality childcare afford an opportunity to impact positively on children's development, including acquisition of communication skills. A strong, responsive relationship between child and carer is important in…

  5. Strongly correlated systems experimental techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Mancini, Ferdinando

    2015-01-01

    The continuous evolution and development of experimental techniques is at the basis of any fundamental achievement in modern physics. Strongly correlated systems (SCS), more than any other, need to be investigated through the greatest variety of experimental techniques in order to unveil and crosscheck the numerous and puzzling anomalous behaviors characterizing them. The study of SCS fostered the improvement of many old experimental techniques, but also the advent of many new ones just invented in order to analyze the complex behaviors of these systems. Many novel materials, with functional properties emerging from macroscopic quantum behaviors at the frontier of modern research in physics, chemistry and materials science, belong to this class of systems. The volume presents a representative collection of the modern experimental techniques specifically tailored for the analysis of strongly correlated systems. Any technique is presented in great detail by its own inventor or by one of the world-wide recognize...

  6. Strongly Correlated Systems Theoretical Methods

    CERN Document Server

    Avella, Adolfo

    2012-01-01

    The volume presents, for the very first time, an exhaustive collection of those modern theoretical methods specifically tailored for the analysis of Strongly Correlated Systems. Many novel materials, with functional properties emerging from macroscopic quantum behaviors at the frontier of modern research in physics, chemistry and materials science, belong to this class of systems. Any technique is presented in great detail by its own inventor or by one of the world-wide recognized main contributors. The exposition has a clear pedagogical cut and fully reports on the most relevant case study where the specific technique showed to be very successful in describing and enlightening the puzzling physics of a particular strongly correlated system. The book is intended for advanced graduate students and post-docs in the field as textbook and/or main reference, but also for other researchers in the field who appreciates consulting a single, but comprehensive, source or wishes to get acquainted, in a as painless as po...

  7. Strongly correlated systems numerical methods

    CERN Document Server

    Mancini, Ferdinando

    2013-01-01

    This volume presents, for the very first time, an exhaustive collection of those modern numerical methods specifically tailored for the analysis of Strongly Correlated Systems. Many novel materials, with functional properties emerging from macroscopic quantum behaviors at the frontier of modern research in physics, chemistry and material science, belong to this class of systems. Any technique is presented in great detail by its own inventor or by one of the world-wide recognized main contributors. The exposition has a clear pedagogical cut and fully reports on the most relevant case study where the specific technique showed to be very successful in describing and enlightening the puzzling physics of a particular strongly correlated system. The book is intended for advanced graduate students and post-docs in the field as textbook and/or main reference, but also for other researchers in the field who appreciate consulting a single, but comprehensive, source or wishes to get acquainted, in a as painless as possi...

  8. Strongly nonlinear oscillators analytical solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Cveticanin, Livija

    2014-01-01

    This book provides the presentation of the motion of pure nonlinear oscillatory systems and various solution procedures which give the approximate solutions of the strong nonlinear oscillator equations. The book presents the original author’s method for the analytical solution procedure of the pure nonlinear oscillator system. After an introduction, the physical explanation of the pure nonlinearity and of the pure nonlinear oscillator is given. The analytical solution for free and forced vibrations of the one-degree-of-freedom strong nonlinear system with constant and time variable parameter is considered. Special attention is given to the one and two mass oscillatory systems with two-degrees-of-freedom. The criteria for the deterministic chaos in ideal and non-ideal pure nonlinear oscillators are derived analytically. The method for suppressing chaos is developed. Important problems are discussed in didactic exercises. The book is self-consistent and suitable as a textbook for students and also for profess...

  9. Flavour Democracy in Strong Unification

    CERN Document Server

    Abel, S A; Abel, Steven; King, Steven

    1998-01-01

    We show that the fermion mass spectrum may naturally be understood in terms of flavour democratic fixed points in supersymmetric theories which have a large domain of attraction in the presence of "strong unification". Our approach provides an alternative to the approximate Yukawa texture zeroes of the Froggatt-Nielsen mechanism. We discuss a particular model based on a broken gauged $SU(3)_L\\times SU(3)_R$ family symmetry which illustrates our approach.

  10. Climate changes, economy and growth: political relationships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alex, Bastien

    2017-03-01

    The author addresses the relationships which may exist between climate change and economic growth, by discussing and criticising some common ideas, and the role of the economic parameter in the position of states within negotiations. These common ideas are: the struggle against climate change impedes economic growth, and green economy provides new growth levers. The author also discusses the fact that some countries may feel they have to slow down their growth because emerging countries are facing a strong development and thus have a strong impact on climate changes. He also outlines that political forces which are presently in power, tend to have a critical approach and speech on mitigation measures

  11. Antioxidants and embryo phenotype: is there experimental evidence for strong integration of the antioxidant system?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Possenti, Cristina Daniela; Karadas, Filiz; Colombo, Graziano; Caprioli, Manuela; Rubolini, Diego; Milzani, Aldo; Donne, Isabella Dalle; Saino, Nicola; Parolini, Marco

    2017-02-15

    Organisms have evolved complex defense systems against oxidative stress. Bird eggs contain maternally derived antioxidants that protect embryos from oxidative damage. The antioxidant system components are thought to be integrated, but few studies have analyzed the covariation between antioxidant concentrations, embryo 'oxidative status' and morphology. In addition, no study has tested the effects of experimental change in yolk antioxidant concentration on other antioxidants, on their reciprocal relationships and on their relationships with embryo oxidative status or growth, which are expected if antioxidants defenses are integrated. In yellow-legged gull ( Larus michahellis ) embryos, we analyzed the covariation between several antioxidants, markers of 'oxidative status' [total antioxidant capacity (TAC), concentration of pro-oxidants (TOS), lipid peroxidation (LPO) and protein carbonylation (PC)] in the yolk, liver and brain, and morphology. Yolk and liver antioxidant concentrations were positively correlated reciprocally and with embryo size, and positively predicted TAC but not oxidative status. TOS and LPO were positively correlated in the liver, while TAC and LPO were negatively correlated in the brain. Weak relationships existed between antioxidants and TOS, PC and LPO. The effects of antioxidants on oxidative status and morphology were non-synergistic. An experimental physiological increase in yolk vitamin E had very weak effects on the relationships between other antioxidants or oxidative status and vitamin E concentration, the concentration of other antioxidants or oxidative status; the covariation between other antioxidants and oxidative status, and relationships between morphology or oxidative status and other antioxidants, challenging the common wisdom of strong functional relationships among antioxidants, at least for embryos in the wild. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  12. Positional Concerns and Institutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landes, Xavier

    2013-01-01

    their implications for economics, positional concerns imply important normative dimensions. There have been presumed to be a symptom of envy, reduce people’s happiness, and create problems of social interaction or economic inefficiencies. Individuals are, for instance, prone to pick states of the world that improve...... that invoking envy or subjective well-being is not fully satisfying for regulating positional concerns. More compelling reasons seem, in complement with efficiency, to be related to considerations for equality. In other words, if institutions could have strong reasons to pay attention to and regulate positional...... concerns, it would be in virtue of their impact on the social product and individuals’ conditions of living....

  13. Atoms in strong laser fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    L'Huillier, A.

    2002-01-01

    When a high-power laser focuses into a gas of atoms, the electromagnetic field becomes of the same magnitude as the Coulomb field which binds a 1s electron in a hydrogen atom. 3 highly non-linear phenomena can happen: 1) ATI (above threshold ionization): electrons initially in the ground state absorb a large number of photons, many more than the minimum number required for ionization; 2) multiple ionization: many electrons can be emitted one at a time, in a sequential process, or simultaneously in a mechanism called direct or non-sequential; and 3) high order harmonic generation (HHG): efficient photon emission in the extreme ultraviolet range, in the form of high-order harmonics of the fundamental laser field can occur. The theoretical problem consists in solving the time dependent Schroedinger equation (TDSE) that describes the interaction of a many-electron atom with a laser field. A number of methods have been proposed to solve this problem in the case of a hydrogen atom or a single-active electron atom in a strong laser field. A large effort is presently being devoted to go beyond the single-active approximation. The understanding of the physics of the interaction between atoms and strong laser fields has been provided by a very simple model called ''simple man's theory''. A unified view of HHG, ATI, and non-sequential ionization, originating from the simple man's model and the strong field approximation, expressed in terms of electrons trajectories or quantum paths is slowly emerging. (A.C.)

  14. Strongly Interacting Light Dark Matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Bruggisser, Francesco Riva, Alfredo Urbano

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In the presence of approximate global symmetries that forbid relevant interactions, strongly coupled light Dark Matter (DM can appear weakly coupled at small energy and generate a sizable relic abundance. Fundamental principles like unitarity restrict these symmetries to a small class, where the leading interactions are captured by effective operators up to dimension-8. Chiral symmetry, spontaneously broken global symmetries and non-linearly realized supersymmetry are examples of this. Their DM candidates (composite fermions, pseudo Nambu-Goldstone Bosons and Goldstini are interesting targets for LHC missing-energy searches.

  15. Strongly interacting light dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruggisser, Sebastian; Riva, Francesco; Urbano, Alfredo

    2016-07-01

    In the presence of approximate global symmetries that forbid relevant interactions, strongly coupled light Dark Matter (DM) can appear weakly coupled at small-energy and generate a sizable relic abundance. Fundamental principles like unitarity restrict these symmetries to a small class, where the leading interactions are captured by effective operators up to dimension-8. Chiral symmetry, spontaneously broken global symmetries and non-linearly realized supersymmetry are examples of this. Their DM candidates (composite fermions, pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone Bosons and Goldstini) are interesting targets for LHC missing-energy searches.

  16. Rydberg atoms in strong fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleppner, D.; Tsimmerman, M.

    1985-01-01

    Experimental and theoretical achievements in studying Rydberg atoms in external fields are considered. Only static (or quasistatic) fields and ''one-electron'' atoms, i.e. atoms that are well described by one-electron states, are discussed. Mainly behaviour of alkali metal atoms in electric field is considered. The state of theoretical investigations for hydrogen atom in magnetic field is described, but experimental data for atoms of alkali metals are presented as an illustration. Results of the latest experimental and theoretical investigations into the structure of Rydberg atoms in strong fields are presented

  17. Scalar strong interaction hadron theory

    CERN Document Server

    Hoh, Fang Chao

    2015-01-01

    The scalar strong interaction hadron theory, SSI, is a first principles' and nonlocal theory at quantum mechanical level that provides an alternative to low energy QCD and Higgs related part of the standard model. The quark-quark interaction is scalar rather than color-vectorial. A set of equations of motion for mesons and another set for baryons have been constructed. This book provides an account of the present state of a theory supposedly still at its early stage of development. This work will facilitate researchers interested in entering into this field and serve as a basis for possible future development of this theory.

  18. Strong Plate, Weak Slab Dichotomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, R. I.; Stegman, D. R.; Tackley, P.

    2015-12-01

    Models of mantle convection on Earth produce styles of convection that are not observed on Earth.Moreover non-Earth-like modes, such as two-sided downwellings, are the de facto mode of convection in such models.To recreate Earth style subduction, i.e. one-sided asymmetric recycling of the lithosphere, proper treatment of the plates and plate interface are required. Previous work has identified several model features that promote subduction. A free surface or pseudo-free surface and a layer of material with a relatively low strength material (weak crust) allow downgoing plates to bend and slide past overriding without creating undue stress at the plate interface. (Crameri, et al. 2012, GRL)A low viscosity mantle wedge, possibly a result of slab dehydration, decouples the plates in the system. (Gerya et al. 2007, Geo)Plates must be composed of material which, in the case of the overriding plate, are is strong enough to resist bending stresses imposed by the subducting plate and yet, as in the case of the subducting plate, be weak enough to bend and subduct when pulled by the already subducted slab. (Petersen et al. 2015, PEPI) Though strong surface plates are required for subduction such plates may present a problem when they encounter the lower mantle.As the subducting slab approaches the higher viscosity, lower mantle stresses are imposed on the tip.Strong slabs transmit this stress to the surface.There the stress field at the plate interface is modified and potentially modifies the style of convection. In addition to modifying the stress at the plate interface, the strength of the slab affects the morphology of the slab at the base of the upper mantle. (Stegman, et al 2010, Tectonophysics)Slabs that maintain a sufficient portion of their strength after being bent require high stresses to unbend or otherwise change their shape.On the other hand slabs that are weakened though the bending process are more amenable to changes in morphology. We present the results of

  19. EDITORIAL: Strongly correlated electron systems Strongly correlated electron systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronning, Filip; Batista, Cristian

    2011-03-01

    Strongly correlated electrons is an exciting and diverse field in condensed matter physics. This special issue aims to capture some of that excitement and recent developments in the field. Given that this issue was inspired by the 2010 International Conference on Strongly Correlated Electron Systems (SCES 2010), we briefly give some history in order to place this issue in context. The 2010 International Conference on Strongly Correlated Electron Systems was held in Santa Fe, New Mexico, a reunion of sorts from the 1989 International Conference on the Physics of Highly Correlated Electron Systems that also convened in Santa Fe. SCES 2010—co-chaired by John Sarrao and Joe Thompson—followed the tradition of earlier conferences, in this century, hosted by Buzios (2008), Houston (2007), Vienna (2005), Karlsruhe (2004), Krakow (2002) and Ann Arbor (2001). Every three years since 1997, SCES has joined the International Conference on Magnetism (ICM), held in Recife (2000), Rome (2003), Kyoto (2006) and Karlsruhe (2009). Like its predecessors, SCES 2010 topics included strongly correlated f- and d-electron systems, heavy-fermion behaviors, quantum-phase transitions, non-Fermi liquid phenomena, unconventional superconductivity, and emergent states that arise from electronic correlations. Recent developments from studies of quantum magnetism and cold atoms complemented the traditional subjects and were included in SCES 2010. 2010 celebrated the 400th anniversary of Santa Fe as well as the birth of astronomy. So what's the connection to SCES? The Dutch invention of the first practical telescope and its use by Galileo in 1610 and subsequent years overturned dogma that the sun revolved about the earth. This revolutionary, and at the time heretical, conclusion required innovative combinations of new instrumentation, observation and mathematics. These same combinations are just as important 400 years later and are the foundation of scientific discoveries that were discussed

  20. Nuclear Positioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundersen, Gregg G.; Worman, Howard J.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY The nucleus is the largest organelle and is commonly depicted in the center of the cell. Yet during cell division, migration and differentiation, it frequently moves to an asymmetric position aligned with cell function. We consider the toolbox of proteins that move and anchor the nucleus within the cell and how forces generated by the cytoskeleton are coupled to the nucleus to move it. The significance of proper nuclear positioning is underscored by numerous diseases resulting from genetic alterations in the toolbox proteins. Finally, we discuss how nuclear position may influence cellular organization and signaling pathways. PMID:23498944

  1. Physics of Strongly Coupled Plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraeft, Wolf-Dietrich [Universitat Rostock (Germany)

    2007-07-15

    Strongly coupled plasmas (or non-ideal plasmas) are multi-component charged many-particle systems, in which the mean value of the potential energy of the system is of the same order as or even higher than the mean value of the kinetic energy. The constituents are electrons, ions, atoms and molecules. Dusty (or complex) plasmas contain still mesoscopic (multiply charged) particles. In such systems, the effects of strong coupling (non-ideality) lead to considerable deviations of physical properties from the corresponding properties of ideal plasmas, i.e., of plasmas in which the mean kinetic energy is essentially larger than the mean potential energy. For instance, bound state energies become density dependent and vanish at higher densities (Mott effect) due to the interaction of the pair with the surrounding particles. Non-ideal plasmas are of interest both for general scientific reasons (including, for example, astrophysical questions), and for technical applications such as inertially confined fusion. In spite of great efforts both experimentally and theoretically, satisfactory information on the physical properties of strongly coupled plasmas is not at hand for any temperature and density. For example, the theoretical description of non-ideal plasmas is possible only at low densities/high temperatures and at extremely high densities (high degeneracy). For intermediate degeneracy, however, numerical experiments have to fill the gap. Experiments are difficult in the region of 'warm dense matter'. The monograph tries to present the state of the art concerning both theoretical and experimental attempts. It mainly includes results of the work performed in famous Russian laboratories in recent decades. After outlining basic concepts (chapter 1), the generation of plasmas is considered (chapter 2, chapter 3). Questions of partial (chapter 4) and full ionization (chapter 5) are discussed including Mott transition and Wigner crystallization. Electrical and

  2. Relationship between Emotional Intelligence and

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Rafieyan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Language learners’ awareness of target language pragmatic features is influenced by individual difference variables, the least explored one being emotional intelligence. To investigate the relationship between emotional intelligence and pragmatic awareness, the current study was conducted over 120 Iranian senior undergraduates of English as a Foreign Language at a university in Iran. Pragmatic awareness was measured through a 12-scenario contextualized pragmatic judgment task. Emotional intelligence was also measured through the EQ-i. The results of the Pearson correlation revealed a strong positive relationship between emotional intelligence and pragmatic awareness. The pedagogical implications of the findings suggested incorporation of emotion-driven authentic materials in English language classes to invoke emotional intelligence in language learners.

  3. Radiographic positioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisenberg, R.L.; Dennis, C.A.; May, C.

    1989-01-01

    This book concentrates on the routine radiographic examinations commonly performed. It details the wide variety of examinations possible and their place in initial learning and in the radiology department as references for those occasions when an unusual examination is requested. This book provides information ranging from basic terminology to skeletal positioning to special procedures. Positions are discussed and supplemented with a picture of a patient, the resulting radiograph, and a labeled diagram. Immobilization and proper shielding of the patient are also shown

  4. [Positive psychiatry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmerby, Nina; Austin, Stephen; Bech, Per

    2016-02-08

    Positive psychiatry (PP) is a field within psychiatry with a particular focus on promoting well-being in people who already have or are at high risk of developing mental or physical illness. PP should be considered a supplement to trad-tional psychiatry and a call for therapists in psychiatry to focus on the person as a whole rather than just as a patient. PP is in line with current national and international health policy focus on promoting positive mental health.

  5. Position encoder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goursky, Vsevolod

    1975-01-01

    A circuitry for deriving the quotient of signal delivered by position-sensitive detectors is described. Digital output is obtained in the form of 10- to 12-bit words. Impact position may be determined with 0.25% accuracy when the dynamic range of the energy signal is less 1:10, and 0.5% accuracy when the dynamic range is 1:20. The division requires an average time of 5μs for 10-bit words

  6. Position encoder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goursky, V.

    1975-05-01

    This paper describes circuitry for deriving the quotient of signals delivered by position-sensitive detectors. Digital output is obtained in the form of 10 to 12 bit words. Impact position may be determined with 0.25% accuracy when the dynamic range of the energy signal is less than 1:10, and 0.5% accuracy when the dynamic range is 1:20. The division requires an average time of 5μs for 10-bit words [fr

  7. Strongly coupled dust coulomb clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juan Wentau; Lai Yingju; Chen Mingheng; I Lin

    1999-01-01

    The structures and motions of quasi-2-dimensional strongly coupled dust Coulomb clusters with particle number N from few to hundreds in a cylindrical rf plasma trap are studied and compared with the results from the molecular dynamic simulation using more ideal models. Shell structures with periodic packing in different shells and intershell rotational motion dominated excitations are observed at small N. As N increases, the boundary has less effect, the system recovers to the triangular lattice with isotropic vortex type cooperative excitations similar to an infinite N system except the outer shell region. The above generic behaviors are mainly determined by the system symmetry and agree with the simulation results. The detailed interaction form causes minor effect such as the fine structure of packing

  8. Probability densities in strong turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakhot, Victor

    2006-03-01

    In this work we, using Mellin’s transform combined with the Gaussian large-scale boundary condition, calculate probability densities (PDFs) of velocity increments P(δu,r), velocity derivatives P(u,r) and the PDF of the fluctuating dissipation scales Q(η,Re), where Re is the large-scale Reynolds number. The resulting expressions strongly deviate from the Log-normal PDF P(δu,r) often quoted in the literature. It is shown that the probability density of the small-scale velocity fluctuations includes information about the large (integral) scale dynamics which is responsible for the deviation of P(δu,r) from P(δu,r). An expression for the function D(h) of the multifractal theory, free from spurious logarithms recently discussed in [U. Frisch, M. Martins Afonso, A. Mazzino, V. Yakhot, J. Fluid Mech. 542 (2005) 97] is also obtained.

  9. The application of positive psychology in the practice of education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pluskota, Anna

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to present the possibility of the application in the field of education this highly interesting and promising trend in the psychology which is the positive psychology. For this reason the origins as well as an outline of the interest scope of this relatively recent, dating back only over 10 years, trend are shown. A crucial question has become in this context the examination of the relationship between the positive psychology and the education, particularly regarding the potential linked to the prospect of the so called strong points". The founding fathers as well as the supporters of the positive psychology try to propagate it in the therapy and in the fields of organization and education. In the following text some selected concepts of the positive psychology and the corresponding examples of their practical use in the form of the so called positive prevention and intervention programs in the domain of education are described.

  10. The impact of positive and negative emotions on loyalty intentions and their interactions with customer equity drivers

    OpenAIRE

    Ou, Yi-Chun; Verhoef, Peter C.

    2017-01-01

    Customer equity drivers (CEDs) include value, brand, and relationship equity, which have a strong link with loyalty intentions. This study aims to examine the incremental effects of positive and negative emotions on loyalty intentions and to determine whether these emotions moderate the positive link between CEDs and loyalty intentions. We use customer data with 102 leading firms across eighteen services industries in the Netherlands. The results show that (1) positive and negative emotions h...

  11. Comparative Functional Alanine Positional Scanning of the α-Melanocyte Stimulating Hormone and NDP-Melanocyte Stimulating Hormone Demonstrates Differential Structure-Activity Relationships at the Mouse Melanocortin Receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todorovic, Aleksandar; Ericson, Mark D; Palusak, Ryan D; Sorensen, Nicholas B; Wood, Michael S; Xiang, Zhimin; Haskell-Luevano, Carrie

    2016-07-20

    The melanocortin system has been implicated in the regulation of various physiological functions including melanogenesis, steroidogenesis, energy homeostasis, and feeding behavior. Five melanocortin receptors have been identified to date and belong to the family of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR). Post-translational modification of the proopiomelanocortin (POMC) prohormone leads to the biosynthesis of the endogenous melanocortin agonists, including α-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH), β-MSH, γ-MSH, and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). All the melanocortin agonists derived from the POMC prohormone contain a His-Phe-Arg-Trp tetrapeptide sequence that has been implicated in eliciting the pharmacological responses at the melanocortin receptors. Herein, an alanine (Ala) positional scan is reported for the endogenous α-MSH ligand and the synthetic, more potent, NDP-MSH peptide (Ac-Ser(1)-Tyr(2)-Ser(3)-Nle(4)-Glu(5)-His(6)-DPhe(7)-Arg(8)-Trp(9)-Gly(10)-Lys(11)-Pro(12)-Val(13)-NH2) at the cloned mouse melanocortin receptors to test the assumption that the structure-activity relationships of one ligand would apply to the other. Several residues outside of the postulated pharmacophore altered potency at the melanocortin receptors, most notably the 1560-, 37-, and 15-fold potency loss when the Glu(5) position of α-MSH was substituted with Ala at the mMC1R, mMC3R, and mMC4R, respectively. Importantly, the altered potencies due to Ala substitutions in α-MSH did not necessarily correlate with equivalent Ala substitutions in NDP-MSH, indicating that structural modifications and corresponding biological activities in one of these melanocortin ligands may not be predictive for the other agonist.

  12. Strong Ideal Convergence in Probabilistic Metric Spaces

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the present paper we introduce the concepts of strongly ideal convergent sequence and strong ideal Cauchy sequence in a probabilistic metric (PM) space endowed with the strong topology, and establish some basic facts. Next, we define the strong ideal limit points and the strong ideal cluster points of a sequence in this ...

  13. Strong ideal convergence in probabilistic metric spaces

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the present paper we introduce the concepts of strongly ideal convergent sequence and strong ideal Cauchy sequence in a probabilistic metric (PM) space endowed with the strong topology, and establish some basic facts. Next, we define the strong ideal limit points and the strong ideal cluster points of a sequence in this ...

  14. Researcher positioning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørck, Line Lerche; Khawaja, Iram

    2009-01-01

    abstract  This article focuses on the complex and multi-layered process of researcher positioning, specifically in relation to the politically sensitive study of marginalised and ‘othered' groups such as Muslims living in Denmark. We discuss the impact of different ethnic, religious and racial...... backgrounds, of membership in a minoritised[i] or majoritised group, and the influence of different theoretical and methodological outlooks on our common goal of trying to transcend existing othering and objectifying representations of Muslims in Western societies. This process sometimes entails a direct...... political and personal involvement by the researcher, which challenges traditional perspectives on research and researcher positioning. A key point in this regard is the importance of constant awareness of and reflection on the multiple ways in which one's positioning as a researcher influences the research...

  15. Remnants of strong tidal interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mcglynn, T.A.

    1990-01-01

    This paper examines the properties of stellar systems that have recently undergone a strong tidal shock, i.e., a shock which removes a significant fraction of the particles in the system, and where the shocked system has a much smaller mass than the producer of the tidal field. N-body calculations of King models shocked in a variety of ways are performed, and the consequences of the shocks are investigated. The results confirm the prediction of Jaffe for shocked systems. Several models are also run where the tidal forces on the system are constant, simulating a circular orbit around a primary, and the development of tidal radii under these static conditions appears to be a mild process which does not dramatically affect material that is not stripped. The tidal radii are about twice as large as classical formulas would predict. Remnant density profiles are compared with a sample of elliptical galaxies, and the implications of the results for the development of stellar populations and galaxies are considered. 38 refs

  16. John Strong - 1941-2006

    CERN Document Server

    2006-01-01

    Our friend and colleague John Strong was cruelly taken from us by a brain tumour on 31 July, a few days before his 65th birthday. John started his career and obtained his PhD in a group from Westfield College, initially working on experiments at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL). From the early 1970s onwards, however, his research was focused on experiments in CERN, with several particularly notable contributions. The Omega spectrometer adopted a system John had originally developed for experiments at RAL using vidicon cameras (a type of television camera) to record the sparks in the spark chambers. This highly automated system allowed Omega to be used in a similar way to bubble chambers. He contributed to the success of NA1 and NA7, where he became heavily involved in the electronic trigger systems. In these experiments the Westfield group joined forces with Italian colleagues to measure the form factors of the pion and the kaon, and the lifetime of some of the newly discovered charm particles. Such h...

  17. Strong seismic ground motion propagation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seale, S.; Archuleta, R.; Pecker, A.; Bouchon, M.; Mohammadioun, G.; Murphy, A.; Mohammadioun, B.

    1988-10-01

    At the McGee Creek, California, site, 3-component strong-motion accelerometers are located at depths of 166 m, 35 m and 0 m. The surface material is glacial moraine, to a depth of 30.5 m, overlying homfels. Accelerations were recorded from two California earthquakes: Round Valley, M L 5.8, November 23, 1984, 18:08 UTC and Chalfant Valley, M L 6.4, July 21, 1986, 14:42 UTC. By separating out the SH components of acceleration, we were able to determine the orientations of the downhole instruments. By separating out the SV component of acceleration, we were able to determine the approximate angle of incidence of the signal at 166 m. A constant phase velocity Haskell-Thomson model was applied to generate synthetic SH seismograms at the surface using the accelerations recorded at 166 m. In the frequency band 0.0 - 10.0 Hz, we compared the filtered synthetic records to the filtered surface data. The onset of the SH pulse is clearly seen, as are the reflections from the interface at 30.5 m. The synthetic record closely matches the data in amplitude and phase. The fit between the synthetic accelerogram and the data shows that the seismic amplification at the surface is a result of the contrast of the impedances (shear stiffnesses) of the near surface materials

  18. Multiple strong postmating and intrinsic postzygotic reproductive barriers isolate florally diverse species of Jaltomata (Solanaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostyun, Jamie L; Moyle, Leonie C

    2017-06-01

    Divergence in phenotypic traits often contributes to premating isolation between lineages, but could also promote isolation at postmating stages. Phenotypic differences could directly result in mechanical isolation or hybrids with maladapted traits; alternatively, when alleles controlling these trait differences pleiotropically affect other components of development, differentiation could indirectly produce genetic incompatibilities in hybrids. Here, we determined the strength of nine postmating and intrinsic postzygotic reproductive barriers among 10 species of Jaltomata (Solanaceae), including species with highly divergent floral traits. To evaluate the relative importance of floral trait diversification for the strength of these postmating barriers, we assessed their relationship to floral divergence, genetic distance, geographical context, and ecological differences, using conventional tests and a new linear-mixed modeling approach. Despite close evolutionary relationships, all species pairs showed moderate to strong isolation. Nonetheless, floral trait divergence was not a consistent predictor of the strength of isolation; instead this was best explained by genetic distance, although we found evidence for mechanical isolation in one species, and a positive relationship between floral trait divergence and fruit set isolation across species pairs. Overall, our data indicate that intrinsic postzygotic isolation is more strongly associated with genome-wide genetic differentiation, rather than floral divergence. © 2017 The Author(s). Evolution © 2017 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  19. A Relationship Strategy Perspective on Relationship Portfolios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ritter, Thomas; Andersen, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    The paper develops a three-dimensional portfolio model for business relationships which distinguishes among six different categories. Based on assessments of customer profitability, customer commitment, and growth potential, the positioning of a given customer relationship in the portfolio allows...... managers to determine appropriate customer relationship strategies and appropriate performance indicators. Results from applying the portfolio model are reported and managerial implications and future research are discussed....

  20. Determinants of Sustainable Relationships in the Albanian Apple Production Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blendi Gërdoçi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the behaviour of Albanian apple growers and their relations with buyers based on a structured survey. We develop a model of relational governance that highlights the importance of sustainable (lasting relationships and draws upon different theoretical frameworks such as transaction cost economics and social network theory and focuses on determinants of relational exchange. The findings support the social network argument that the presence of verbal agreements between business partners strongly and positively affects exchange relationships. Asset specificity and competition among buyers also affects such relationships. The results and their implications at the management and policy-making level are discussed in detail

  1. Renormalization in theories with strong vector forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocic, A.

    1991-01-01

    There are not many field theories in four dimensions that have sensible ultraviolet and interesting (non-trivial) infrared behavior. At present, asymptotically free theories seem to have deserved their legitimacy and there is a strong prejudice that they might be the only ones to have such a distinction. This belief stems mostly from the fact that most of the knowledge of field theory in four dimensions comes from perturbation theory. However, nonperturbative studies of the lower dimensional theories reveal a host of interesting phenomena that are perturbative studies of the lower dimensional theories reveal a host of interesting phenomena that perturbatively inaccessible. The lack of asymptotic freedom implies that the coupling constant grows at short distances and perturbation theory breaks down. Thus, in such theories, ultraviolet behavior requires nonperturbative treatment. Recently, the interest in strongly coupled gauge theories has been revived. In particularly, four dimensional quantum electrodynamics has received considerable attention. This was motivated by the discovery of an ultraviolet stable fixed point at strong couplings. If this fixed point would turn out to be non-gaussian, then QED would be the first nontrivial nonasymptotically free theory in four dimensions. The importance of such a result would be twofold. First, the old question of the existence of QED could be settled. Of course, this would be the case provided that the low energy limit of the theory actually describes photons and electrons; apriori, there is no reason to assume this. Second, the discovery of a nontrivial nonasymptotically free theory would be of great paradigmatic value. The theories which quenched QED resembles the most are nonabelian gauge theories with many flavors with beta-function positive or vanishing at weak couplings. These theories are at present considered as viable candidates for technicolor unification schemes

  2. Researcher Positioning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khawaja, Iram; Mørck, Line Lerche

    2009-01-01

    involvement by the researcher, which challenges traditional perspectives onresearch and researcher positioning. A key point in this regard is the importance ofconstant awareness of and reflection on the multiple ways in which one's positioningas a researcher influences the research process. Studying the other...

  3. Strongly interacting photons and atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alge, W.

    1999-05-01

    This thesis contains the main results of the research topics I have pursued during the my PhD studies at the University of Innsbruck and partly in collaboration with the Institut d' Optique in Orsay, France. It is divided into three parts. The first and largest part discusses the possibility of using strong standing waves as a tool to cool and trap neutral atoms in optical cavities. This is very important in the field of nonlinear optics where several successful experiments with cold atoms in cavities have been performed recently. A discussion of the optical parametric oscillator in a regime where the nonlinearity dominates the evolution is the topic of the second part. We investigated mainly the statistical properties of the cavity output of the three interactive cavity modes. Very recently a system has been proposed which promises fantastic properties. It should exhibit a giant Kerr nonlinearity with negligible absorption thus leading to a photonic turnstile device based on cold atoms in cavity. We have shown that this model suffers from overly simplistic assumptions and developed several more comprehensive approaches to study the behavior of this system. Apart from the division into three parts of different contents the thesis is divided into publications, supplements and invisible stuff. The intention of the supplements is to reach researchers which work in related areas and provide them with more detailed information about the concepts and the numerical tools we used. It is written especially for diploma and PhD students to give them a chance to use the third part of our work which is actually the largest one. They consist of a large number of computer programs we wrote to investigate the behavior of the systems in parameter regions where no hope exists to solve the equations analytically. (author)

  4. Topics in strong Langmuir turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skoric, M.M.

    1981-01-01

    This thesis discusses certain aspects of the turbulence of a fully ionised non-isothermal plasma dominated by the Langmuir mode. Some of the basic properties of strongly turbulent plasmas are reviewed. In particular, interest is focused on the state of Langmuir turbulence, that is the turbulence of a simple externally unmagnetized plasma. The problem of the existence and dynamics of Langmuir collapse is discussed, often met as a non-linear stage of the modulational instability in the framework of the Zakharov equations (i.e. simple time-averaged dynamical equations). Possible macroscopic consequences of such dynamical turbulent models are investigated. In order to study highly non-linear collapse dynamics in its advanced stage, a set of generalized Zakharov equations are derived. Going beyond the original approximation, the author includes the effects of higher electron non-linearities and a breakdown of slow-timescale quasi-neutrality. He investigates how these corrections may influence the collapse stabilisation. Recently, it has been realised that the modulational instability in a Langmuir plasma will be accompanied by the collisionless-generation of a slow-timescale magnetic field. Accordingly, a novel physical situation has emerged which is investigated in detail. The stability of monochromatic Langmuir waves in a self-magnetized Langmuir plasma, is discussed, and the existence of a novel magneto-modulational instability shown. The wave collapse dynamics is investigated and a physical interpretation of the basic results is given. A problem of the transient analysis of an interaction of time-dependent electromagnetic pulses with linear cold plasma media is investigated. (Auth.)

  5. Promoting Strong Written Communication Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, M.

    2015-12-01

    The reason that an improvement in the quality of technical writing is still needed in the classroom is due to the fact that universities are facing challenging problems not only on the technological front but also on the socio-economic front. The universities are actively responding to the changes that are taking place in the global consumer marketplace. Obviously, there are numerous benefits of promoting strong written communication skills. They can be summarized into the following six categories. First, and perhaps the most important: The University achieves learner satisfaction. The learner has documented verbally, that the necessary knowledge has been successfully acquired. This results in learner loyalty that in turn will attract more qualified learners.Second, quality communication lowers the cost per pupil, consequently resulting in increased productivity backed by a stronger economic structure and forecast. Third, quality communications help to improve the cash flow and cash reserves of the university. Fourth, having high quality communication enables the university to justify the need for high costs of tuition and fees. Fifth, better quality in written communication skills result in attracting top-quality learners. This will lead to happier and satisfied learners, not to mention greater prosperity for the university as a whole. Sixth, quality written communication skills result in reduced complaints, thus meaning fewer hours spent on answering or correcting the situation. The University faculty and staff are thus able to devote more time on scholarly activities, meaningful research and productive community service. References Boyer, Ernest L. (1990). Scholarship reconsidered: Priorities of the Professorate.Princeton, NJ: Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching. Hawkins, P., & Winter, J. (1997). Mastering change: Learning the lessons of the enterprise.London: Department for Education and Employment. Buzzel, Robert D., and Bradley T. Gale. (1987

  6. Conceptualising primary labour relationship quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukas I. Ehlers

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: A typology of desirable social conditions in supervisory relationships suggested that such conditions may also be desirable in other forms of labour relationships. A literature review confirmed that trust, compliance, fairness and good faith can be confidently regarded as universally desirable social conditions in all forms of individual or collective labour relationships between employers and employees. Aim: The purpose of this study was to determine if primary labour relationship quality (PLQ can be confidently conceptualised as a social construct that strongly relates to the perceived levels of compliance, fairness and good faith in supervisory or primary labour relationships. Setting: A combination of random and convenience sampling approaches was implemented to collect PLQ related data from 454 voluntary respondents, who were subordinate employees in the Tshwane region. Methods: A quantitative research methodology was adopted. This included conceptual definition of the PLQ construct, objective measurement of PLQ levels of voluntary respondents in an adequately sized sample, factor analysis and testing for relationships and differences in means between variables. Results: Data analysis results confirmed that it can be confidently concluded that the conceptual definition of PLQ was valid, and that positive PLQ perceptions of subordinate employees were significantly related to at least two other forms of desirable organisational outcomes. Conclusion: PLQ perceptions can be confidently defined as a distinct subjective quality estimate that is assimilated from unique expectations and perceptions of the levels of compliance, fairness, good faith and trust that a supervisor displays in a labour relationship with an immediate subordinate.

  7. Relationships matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyanja, Tabitha Alexandria Njeri; Tulinius, Charlotte

    2017-01-01

    Efforts to eliminate mother-to-child transmission of HIV in Tanzania are guided by a four-prong strategy advocated by the World Health Organization (WHO). Prong 2, prevention of unintended pregnancies among women living with HIV, has, however, received the least attention and contraceptive use...... to prevent unintended pregnancies remains low. This study explored the perceived barriers to the use of modern methods of contraception, and factors influencing contraceptive choice among HIV-positive women in urban Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania. A qualitative multi-site study was conducted, utilising in......-depth interviews and focus group discussions with 37 sexually active HIV-positive women aged between 20 and 44 years, attending three health facilities within Dar-es-Salaam. The theoretical framework was a patient centred model. Four barriers were identified: the influence of the women’s spousal relationships...

  8. Beyond Positive Psychology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNulty, James K.; Fincham, Frank D.

    2014-01-01

    The field of positive psychology rests on the assumption that certain psychological traits and processes are inherently beneficial for well-being. We review evidence that challenges this assumption. First, we review data from 4 independent longitudinal studies of marriage revealing that 4 ostensibly positive processes—forgiveness, optimistic expectations, positive thoughts, and kindness—can either benefit or harm well-being depending on the context in which they operate. Although all 4 processes predicted better relationship well-being among spouses in healthy marriages, they predicted worse relationship well-being in more troubled marriages. Then, we review evidence from other research that reveals that whether ostensibly positive psychological traits and processes benefit or harm well-being depends on the context of various noninterpersonal domains as well. Finally, we conclude by arguing that any movement to promote well-being may be most successful to the extent that it (a) examines the conditions under which the same traits and processes may promote versus threaten well-being, (b) examines both healthy and unhealthy people, (c) examines well-being over substantial periods of time, and (d) avoids labeling psychological traits and processes as positive or negative. PMID:21787036

  9. Demand for Neste's City products grows strongly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    Finland's oil, chemicals, and gas company, Neste Corporation, is well on the road to better financial performance after a very difficult year in 1992. Among the factors contributing to this optimism are Neste's pioneering low environmental impact traffic fuels. Neste Corporation's net sales in 1993 rose 9.9 % on 1992 figures to USD 11,011 million. Investments totalled USD 681 million. Profitability also improved during 1993, and the operating margin rose by 57 %, despite the recession affecting the Finnish economy and the instability of the international market. The operational loss for the year before extraordinary items, reserves, and taxes was USD 265 million, one-third less than in 1992. Neste's strategy has been to achieve a strong position in the Baltic Rim region by becoming the quality and cost leader in oil refining, and by expanding Neste's position in its key markets. A total of 3.3 million tonnes of petroleum products were exported from Finland in 1993. Neste's most important export markets were Sweden, Germany, Poland, the Baltic countries, and the St. Petersburg region. Some 20 % of exports went to customers outside Europe. In addition to Finland, Neste has concertedly developed its service station network in Poland and the Baltic countries

  10. Relationships between body image, sexual satisfaction, and relationship quality in romantic couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Brink, Femke; Vollmann, Manja; Smeets, Monique A M; Hessen, David J; Woertman, Liesbeth

    2018-03-08

    Previous studies found important associations between body image, sexual satisfaction, and perceived romantic relationship quality, but mainly focused on one individual's perceptions rather than both partners. To take the interdependency of romantic partners into account, the present study examined these associations in romantic couples with a dyadic approach. In a cross-sectional design, 151 Dutch heterosexual couples completed an online survey measuring body image, sexual satisfaction, and perceived relationship quality. Hypotheses were tested using the actor-partner interdependence model (APIM) and an APIM extended with a mediator (APIMeM), with couple members' body image as predictors, couple members' sexual satisfaction as mediators, and couple members' relationship quality as outcomes. Results indicated that within individuals, a more positive body image was linked to higher perceived romantic relationship quality through greater sexual satisfaction. No gender differences were found, implying that body image and sexual satisfaction are equally strongly associated with perceived relationship quality in women and men. Results revealed no associations of an individual's body image and sexual satisfaction with the partner's perceived relationship quality. These findings implicate that interventions focusing on developing and maintaining a positive body image may be helpful in building on a more satisfying sex life and higher perceived relationship quality. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. A relação entre posicionamento do prematuro no Método Mãe-Canguru e desenvolvimento neuropsicomotor precoce Relationship between positioning of premature infants in Kangaroo Mother Care and early neuromotor development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Barradas

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar as posturas adotadas pelos prematuros em decúbito ventral (DV e lateral (DL no Método Mãe-Canguru, relacionando-as com o desenvolvimento neuromotor precoce da criança. MÉTODOS: Uma amostra de 80 bebês prematuros, nascidos no Instituto Materno-Infantil de Pernambuco e que permaneceram na Unidade Mãe-Canguru no período de julho a outubro de 2004, foi dividida em dois grupos. Um grupo de 40 bebês foi posicionado em DV, e o outro, também de 40 bebês, em DL. Ambas as amostras foram homogêneas entre si. Os bebês foram avaliados no dia da admissão na Unidade Mãe-Canguru e no dia da alta, através de uma avaliação biomecânica do posicionamento no canguru e do exame neurocomportamental de Dubowitz. A análise estatística dos resultados foi realizada pelo programa Epi-Info versão 6.04; o intervalo de confiança foi de 95%, sendo p significante quando apresentava valor inferior a 0,05. RESULTADOS: Os resultados da pesquisa demonstram que as amostram foram homogêneas entre si e que os bebês em DL assumiram uma postura de maior flexão, associada a um maior enrolamento do tronco. Além disso, esses bebês apresentaram evolução em 13 dos 16 itens avaliados no exame de Dubowitz, enquanto o grupo DV apresentou evolução em 5 dos 16 itens avaliados. CONCLUSÃO: Observou-se que a posição em DL trouxe maiores benefícios com relação ao desenvolvimento neuromotor precoce dos bebês que compuseram a amostra. Porém, a realização de novos estudos de acompanhamento a longo prazo é importante.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the relationship between prone and lateral positioning of preterm infants in Kangaroo Mother Care and early neuromotor development. METHODS: Eighty preterm infants born at Instituto Materno-Infantil de Pernambuco, Brazil, admitted to the Kangaroo Mother Care Unit between July and October 2004 were divided into two groups. Forty infants was placed in prone position (PP, while the remaining 40 children were

  12. Positioning apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Max A.; Alter, Paul

    1986-01-01

    An apparatus for precisely positioning materials test specimens within the optimum neutron flux path emerging from a neutron source located in a housing. The test specimens are retained in a holder mounted on the free end of a support pivotably mounted and suspended from a movable base plate. The support is gravity biased to urge the holder in a direction longitudinally of the flux path against the housing. Means are provided for moving the base plate in two directions to effect movement of the holder in two mutually perpendicular directions normal to the axis of the flux path.

  13. Findings of the Maintenance of Wakefulness Test and its relationship with response to modafinil therapy for residual excessive daytime sleepiness in obstructive sleep apnea patients adequately treated with nasal continuous positive airway pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Yuichi; Miki, Masuo; Tabata, Toshiyuki

    We aimed to examine the relationship between subjective and objective sleepiness in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) patients with residual sleepiness, and to determine whether baseline objective sleepiness severity predicts the response to modafinil therapy. Data were obtained from a randomized, placebo-controlled modafinil (200 mg/day) study in Japanese OSAS patients with residual sleepiness receiving nasal continuous positive pressure (n-CPAP) treatment. We analyzed 50 participants whose subjective (Epworth Sleepiness Scale [ESS] total score) and objective (Maintenance of Wakefulness Test [MWT] sleep latency) sleepiness were evaluated before and after treatment. Subjects were dichotomized into two subgroups according to the mean baseline MWT sleep latency. ESS total score and MWT sleep latency changes after treatment were compared between the placebo and modafinil groups in both subgroups. The mean baseline ESS total score and MWT sleep latency were 14.1 ± 2.8 and 14.2 ± 4.9 min, respectively; there was no significant correlation between these two variables. Patient characteristics were similar between the two subgroups (MWT sleep latency: modafinil group than in the placebo group (p = 0.005). In the ≥14-min subgroup, changes in these parameters did not differ between the treatment groups. In OSAS patients with residual sleepiness, the objective sleepiness level was not as high as expected, despite increased subjective sleepiness. Improvements in subjective and objective sleepiness seemed difficult to achieve with modafinil treatment among subjects with less objective sleepiness. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. COMPANIES WITH MARKET POSITIONING BRANDS

    OpenAIRE

    Ruxandra Radoviciu; Filimon Stremtan

    2009-01-01

    Positioning a company on the market by the usage of brands is defined as the act ofdesigning the supply and its image on the market, so as to occupy a distinct place in the minds of theirtarget audience. The role of positioning in developing marketing strategy to differentiate products andservices involves the selection of attributes that are considered important for consumers. In order togain a strong position on the market the companies must perform a market analysis, an internalanalysis an...

  15. Abusive Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Abusive Relationships KidsHealth / For Teens / Abusive Relationships Print en español Relaciones de maltrato Healthy Relationships = Respect & Trust Healthy relationships involve respect, trust, and ...

  16. PEER INTERACTIONS AND POSITIVE STUDENT-LECTURER ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PEER INTERACTIONS AND POSITIVE STUDENT-LECTURER RELATIONSHIP AS A TOOL FOR IMPROVING THE TEACHING AND LEARNING OF COLLEGE ALGEBRA: A CASE STUDY AT USIU. ... Key words: Mathematics, Peer interaction, Lecturer-Student relationship, challenges, teaching, learning and performance.

  17. Positioning Australia's Contemporary Health and Physical Education Curriculum to Address Poor Physical Activity Participation Rates by Adolescent Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usher, Wayne; Edwards, Allan; Cudmore, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Background: Given the wealth of research identifying how schools are in a strong position to promote physical activity (PA) among children, it would be reasonable to suggest that initial experiences of physical education and school sport are critical factors influencing whether a student will develop a healthy relationship to PA. However, research…

  18. FRANCHISOR-FRANCHISEE RELATIONSHIP QUALITY: TIME OF RELATIONSHIP AND PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Fernando Varotto

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Franchise literature disputes how the relationship between franchisors and franchisees develops over time. Traditional lifecycle theory views relationships following an ascendant curve, in which relationship quality and performance strengthen over time. Another perspective better reflects the peculiarities of the franchisor-franchisee relationship, indicating that relationship quality in franchise systems follows a U-shaped curve. There is also limited research on the moderating effect of time on the relationship between relational variables and outcomes. This study sheds light on the influence of relationship duration on relationship quality and financial performance in the franchisee-franchisor relationship. Using a self-report survey from a sample of 342 franchisees, mean and regression analyses are conducted to test relationships. Results confirm the time effect on franchisor-franchisee relationship quality and performance, but the hypothesized shape of relationship phases is only partially confirmed. Moreover, time has a positive moderating effect on the impact of relationship quality on financial performance.

  19. The Value of Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Charles W.

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the importance of positive interpersonal relationships in developing an effective leadership style. It provides recommendations for developing effective relations with subordinates, vendors and suppliers, and bosses. Advice for dealing with low self-esteem concludes the article. (GR)

  20. Atoms and clusters in strong laser fields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marchenko, T.

    2008-01-01

    This thesis describes experimental and theoretical studies on the interaction of strong infrared laser fields with atoms and atomic clusters. Part I provides an overview of the main strong-field phenomena in atoms, molecules and clusters and describes the state-of-the-art in strong-field science.

  1. Strong Bisimilarity of Simple Process Algebras

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Srba, Jirí

    2003-01-01

    We study bisimilarity and regularity problems of simple process algebras. In particular, we show PSPACE-hardness of the following problems: (i) strong bisimilarity of Basic Parallel Processes (BPP), (ii) strong bisimilarity of Basic Process Algebra (BPA), (iii) strong regularity of BPP, and (iv) ...

  2. 78 FR 15710 - Strong Sensitizer Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-12

    ... definition of ``strong sensitizer'' found at 16 CFR 1500.3(c)(5). The Commission is proposing to revise the supplemental definition of ``strong sensitizer'' due to advancements in the science of sensitization that have... document is intended to clarify the ``strong sensitizer'' definition, assist manufacturers in understanding...

  3. Romantic relationships and mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braithwaite, Scott; Holt-Lunstad, Julianne

    2017-02-01

    This paper reviews the research on relationships and mental health. Individuals who are more mentally healthy are more likely to select into relationships, but relationships are also demonstrably associated with mental health. The type of relationship matters - evidence suggests that more established, committed relationships, such as marriage, are associated with greater benefits than less committed unions such as cohabitation. The association between relationships and mental health is clearly bidirectional, however, stronger effects are observed when mental health is the outcome and relationships are the predictor, suggesting that the causal arrow flows more strongly from relationships to mental health than vice versa. Moreover, improving relationships improves mental health, but improving mental health does not reliably improve relationships. Our review of research corroborates the view that relationships are a keystone component of human functioning that have the potential to influence a broad array of mental health outcomes. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Dynamic inter-relationship between trade, economic growth and tourism in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Sarmidi, Tamat; Salleh, Norlida H

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to test a hypothesis that postulate a positive inter-relationship between international flows of tourist, trade and economic growth. Although tourism is one of the major components in the trade of services, and it has been certified by large number of literatures on the strong correlation between tourism industry and economic development, yet not much is known on the dynamic inter-relationship between these three variables. Closing-up this gaping hole, this study employs the c...

  5. Love attitudes and relationship experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammock, Georgina; Richardson, Deborah South

    2011-01-01

    The present study examined the association of love attitudes with the initiation, maintenance, and dissolution of relationships. Respondents completed the Love Attitudes Scale and a questionnaire designed to measure experiences at each stage of relationship development. Ludus was relevant to all stages of relationship development; ludic attitudes were associated with absence of concern for partner loyalty, short and uncommitted relationships, and positive feelings about relationship dissolution. Pragma was associated primarily with relationship initiation (i.e., selection of an appropriate partner). Agape and Mania were most apparent during maintenance, as evidenced by relationships with indicators of involvement and loyalty. Agape, Mania, and Eros related to negative emotions at the point of relationship dissolution.

  6. Role of Strong versus Weak Networks in Small Business Growth in an Emerging Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kamil Kozan

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The study tests whether strong rather than weak ties account for small business growth in Turkey. Data were collected by means of a questionnaire filled out by the owners of small firms operating in four cities. Growth is comprised of two main areas, production expansion and knowledge acquisition. Results show that strong ties are positively related to both types of growth. In contrast, loose ties have no effect on small business growth in either area. This finding is attributed to the influence of the collectivistic nature of the mainstream Turkish culture, where owners of small businesses are likely to rely on in-groups rather than out-groups for advice and for financial support. Implications of relative absence of weak ties for small business growth and innovation in emerging economies are discussed. The findings suggest that culture should be included as a contingency variable in future studies of network strength and growth relationship. The paper also discusses the possible moderating role of affective and cognition-based trust in the relation of strong and weak ties to small business growth.

  7. Promoting Positive Psychology Using Social Networking Sites: A Study of New College Entrants on Facebook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shu-Man; Lin, Yung-Hsiu; Lin, Chi-Wei; Chang, Her-Kun; Chong, Ping Pete

    2014-01-01

    This study explores the potential of promoting college students’ positive psychological development using popular online social networks. Online social networks have dramatically changed the ways college students manage their social relationships. Social network activities, such as checking Facebook posts dominates students’ Internet time and has the potential to assist students’ positive development. Positive psychology is a scientific study of how ordinary individuals can apply their strength effectively when facing objective difficulties and how this capability can be cultivated with certain approaches. A positive message delivery approach was designed for a group of new college entrants. A series of positive messages was edited by university counselors and delivered by students to their Facebook social groups. Responses from each posted positive messages were collected and analyzed by researchers. The responses indicated that: (1) relationships of individual engagement and social influence in this study can partially explain the observed student behavior; (2) using class-based social groups can promote a positive atmosphere to enhance strong-tie relationships in both the physical and virtual environments, and (3) promoting student’s positive attitudes can substantially impact adolescents’ future developments, and many positive attitudes can be cultivated by emotional events and social influence. PMID:24785540

  8. Promoting positive psychology using social networking sites: a study of new college entrants on Facebook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shu-Man; Lin, Yung-Hsiu; Lin, Chi-Wei; Chang, Her-Kun; Chong, Ping Pete

    2014-04-29

    This study explores the potential of promoting college students' positive psychological development using popular online social networks. Online social networks have dramatically changed the ways college students manage their social relationships. Social network activities, such as checking Facebook posts dominates students' Internet time and has the potential to assist students' positive development. Positive psychology is a scientific study of how ordinary individuals can apply their strength effectively when facing objective difficulties and how this capability can be cultivated with certain approaches. A positive message delivery approach was designed for a group of new college entrants. A series of positive messages was edited by university counselors and delivered by students to their Facebook social groups. Responses from each posted positive messages were collected and analyzed by researchers. The responses indicated that: (1) relationships of individual engagement and social influence in this study can partially explain the observed student behavior; (2) using class-based social groups can promote a positive atmosphere to enhance strong-tie relationships in both the physical and virtual environments, and (3) promoting student's positive attitudes can substantially impact adolescents' future developments, and many positive attitudes can be cultivated by emotional events and social influence.

  9. Promoting Positive Psychology Using Social Networking Sites: A Study of New College Entrants on Facebook

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Man Chang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the potential of promoting college students’ positive psychological development using popular online social networks. Online social networks have dramatically changed the ways college students manage their social relationships. Social network activities, such as checking Facebook posts dominates students’ Internet time and has the potential to assist students’ positive development. Positive psychology is a scientific study of how ordinary individuals can apply their strength effectively when facing objective difficulties and how this capability can be cultivated with certain approaches. A positive message delivery approach was designed for a group of new college entrants. A series of positive messages was edited by university counselors and delivered by students to their Facebook social groups. Responses from each posted positive messages were collected and analyzed by researchers. The responses indicated that: (1 relationships of individual engagement and social influence in this study can partially explain the observed student behavior; (2 using class-based social groups can promote a positive atmosphere to enhance strong-tie relationships in both the physical and virtual environments, and (3 promoting student’s positive attitudes can substantially impact adolescents’ future developments, and many positive attitudes can be cultivated by emotional events and social influence.

  10. Application of strong phosphoric acid to radiochemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terada, Kikuo

    1977-01-01

    Not only inorganic and organic compounds but also natural substrances, such as accumulations in soil, are completely decomposed and distilled by heating with strong phosphoric acid for 30 to 50 minutes. As applications of strong phosphoric acid to radiochemistry, determination of uranium and boron by use of solubilization effect of this substance, titration of uranyl ion by use of sulfuric iron (II) contained in this substance, application to tracer experiment, and determination of radioactive ruthenium in environmental samples are reviewed. Strong phosphoric acid is also applied to activation analysis, for example, determination of N in pyrographite with iodate potassium-strong phosphoric acid method, separation of Os and Ru with sulfuric cerium (IV) - strong phosphoric acid method or potassium dechromate-strong phosphoric acid method, analysis of Se, As and Sb rocks and accumulations with ammonium bromide, sodium chloride and sodium bromide-strong phosphoric acid method. (Kanao, N.)

  11. RELATIONSHIPS AND COMMUNICATION NETWORKS

    OpenAIRE

    Stefan VLADUTESCU

    2012-01-01

    The main feature of the present situation regarding communication is the impregnation of the social with technology. Computer-mediated communication systems has led to the crystallization of a strong specific interactions. This article describes how human relationships constitues the ontological pillar of society and social relations form the axis irradiance of sociology. Overall, as social agents in social space, people come in a variety of social relationships. Thus, a distinct note of the ...

  12. Secondary analyses of data from four studies with fourth-grade children show that sex, race, amounts eaten of standardized portions, and energy content given in trades explain the positive relationship between BMI and energy intake at school-provided meals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, Suzanne Domel; Paxton-Aiken, Amy E.; Tebbs, Joshua M.; Royer, Julie A.; Guinn, Caroline H.; Finney, Christopher J.

    2012-01-01

    Results from a 2012 article showed a positive relationship between children’s body mass index (BMI) and energy intake at school-provided meals. To help explain that positive relationship, secondary analyses investigated 1) whether the relationship differed by sex and race, and 2) the relationship between BMI and six aspects of school-provided meals—amounts eaten of standardized portions, energy content given in trades, energy intake received in trades, energy intake from flavored milk, energy intake from a la carte ice cream, and breakfast type. Data were from four studies conducted one per school year (1999–2000 to 2002–2003). Fourth-grade children (n=328; 50% female; 54% Black) from 13 schools total were observed eating school-provided breakfast and lunch on one to three days per child for 1,178 total meals (50% breakfast). Children were weighed and measured. Marginal regression models were fit using BMI as the dependent variable. For Purpose One, independent variables were energy intake at school-provided meals, sex, race, age, and study; additional models included interaction terms involving energy intake and sex/race. For Purpose Two, independent variables were the six aspects of school-provided meals, sex, race, age, and study. The relationship between BMI and energy intake at school-provided meals differed by sex (p<0.0001; stronger for females) and race (p=0.0063; stronger for Black children). BMI was positively related to amounts eaten of standardized portions (p<0.0001) and negatively related to energy content given in trades (p=0.0052). Explaining the positive relationship between BMI and energy intake at school-provided meals may contribute to school-based obesity prevention efforts. PMID:23084638

  13. Operator/contractor relationships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, J.R.; Kidwell, C.K.; Unger, V.E.; Fercho, E.; Helmer, C.M.

    1992-01-01

    In May 1988, Shell Western E and P Inc. (SWEPI) and partners Elf Aquitaine Petroleum and Conoco Inc. signed a letter of intent with Canadian Marine Drilling Ltd. (Canmar) for provision of exploratory drilling and marine services on leases in OCS Lease Sale 109 in the Chukchi Sea, Alaska. The 5450 blocks offered in the remote sale area west of Point Barrow ranged from 3 to 240 miles (5 to 380 km) offshore in water depths from 26 to 263 feet (8 to 80 m). The principal interest tracts were at least 75 miles (120 km) offshore and north of 70 degrees N latitude. The remoteness and total lack of any oilfield infrastructure required considerable planning and coordination between Operator and Contractor in order to carry out the three-year drilling program efficiently and safely in an environmentally harsh and, at the same time, sensitive area. SWEPI and Canmar developed a close working relationship from the start of the project through a number of participative approaches to the problems that had to be solved. This paper reports that these included strong reliance on operational planning meetings, post-season analyses, and an overall emphasis on the teamwork required of both parties to carry out the first-ever drilling program in the Chukchi Sea. This approach led to a very successful operation for both parties and emphasizes the positive benefits achievable when Operator and Contractor work as a team

  14. Ideals in intimate relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, G J; Simpson, J A; Thomas, G; Giles, L

    1999-01-01

    This research examined lay relationship and partner ideals in romantic relationships from both a social-cognitive and an evolutionary perspective. Studies 1 and 2 revealed that the qualities of an ideal partner were represented by 3 factors (partner warmth-trustworthiness, vitality-attractiveness, and status-resources), whereas the qualities of an ideal relationship were represented by 2 factors (relationship intimacy-loyalty and passion). A confirmatory factor analysis in Study 3 replicated these factor structures but found considerable overlap across the partner and relationship dimensions. Studies 4 and 5 produced convergent and discriminant validity evidence for all 5 factors. Study 6 indicated that the higher the consistency between the ideals and related assessments of the current partner and relationship, the more positively the current relationship was evaluated.

  15. What's love got to do with it: Relationship functioning and mental and physical quality of life among pregnant adolescent couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kershaw, Trace; Murphy, Alexandrea; Divney, Anna; Magriples, Urania; Niccolai, Linda; Gordon, Derrick

    2013-12-01

    The study objective was to describe relationship adjustment and its association with mental and physical quality of life for young couples expecting a baby. 296 young pregnant couples recruited from urban obstetric clinics reported on relationship strengths (e.g., equity, romantic love, and attractiveness), relationship risks (e.g., attachment, intimate partner violence), external family support, relationship adjustment, and mental and physical quality of life. Using the Actor Partner Interdependence Model we assessed both actor and partner effects of relationship variables on relationship adjustment and quality of life. Sixty-one percent of couples had at least one member with moderate or severe relationship distress. Lower attachment avoidance, lower attachment anxiety, higher relationship equity, lack of intimate partner violence, feelings of love, perceived partner attractiveness, and family support of the relationship related to better relationship adjustment. Associations were fairly consistent across gender. Better relationship adjustment related to more positive mental and physical quality of life for both young women and men. Our results highlight the potential importance of strong relationships on the well-being of expecting parents. Our results suggest that secure attachments, equitable relationships, feelings of love, and a lack of violence may be particularly important in having strong relationships and improved mental and physical health during pregnancy.

  16. Strong Purifying Selection at Synonymous Sites in D. melanogaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrie, David S.; Messer, Philipp W.; Hershberg, Ruth; Petrov, Dmitri A.

    2013-01-01

    Synonymous sites are generally assumed to be subject to weak selective constraint. For this reason, they are often neglected as a possible source of important functional variation. We use site frequency spectra from deep population sequencing data to show that, contrary to this expectation, 22% of four-fold synonymous (4D) sites in Drosophila melanogaster evolve under very strong selective constraint while few, if any, appear to be under weak constraint. Linking polymorphism with divergence data, we further find that the fraction of synonymous sites exposed to strong purifying selection is higher for those positions that show slower evolution on the Drosophila phylogeny. The function underlying the inferred strong constraint appears to be separate from splicing enhancers, nucleosome positioning, and the translational optimization generating canonical codon bias. The fraction of synonymous sites under strong constraint within a gene correlates well with gene expression, particularly in the mid-late embryo, pupae, and adult developmental stages. Genes enriched in strongly constrained synonymous sites tend to be particularly functionally important and are often involved in key developmental pathways. Given that the observed widespread constraint acting on synonymous sites is likely not limited to Drosophila, the role of synonymous sites in genetic disease and adaptation should be reevaluated. PMID:23737754

  17. Positive Predictive Value of True Bacteremia according to the Number of Positive Culture Sets in Adult Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitaura, Tsuyoshi; Chikumi, Hiroki; Fujiwara, Hiromitsu; Okada, Kensaku; Hayabuchi, Tatsuya; Nakamoto, Masaki; Takata, Miyako; Yamasaki, Akira; Igishi, Tadashi; Burioka, Naoto; Shimizu, Eiji

    2014-12-01

    Performing multiple blood culture sets simultaneously is a standard blood culture methodology, although it is often difficult to distinguish true bacteremia from contamination when only one of several blood culture sets is positive. This study clarified the relationship between the number of positive blood culture sets and clinical significance in patients with positive blood culture. Patients aged 18 years and over with at least 1 positive blood culture were enrolled. Positive blood culture episodes were categorized from clinical records as true bacteremia, contamination, or unknown clinical significance. The associations among episodes of true bacteremia, isolated bacteria, the number of positive blood culture sets from among the performed sets, and the clinical background of patients were analyzed. Among a total of 407 episodes, 262, 67 and 78 were true bacteremia, contamination and unknown clinical significance, respectively. The positive predictive values (PPVs) of 1 out of 1, 1 out of 2 and 2 out of 2 positive sets in cases of Staphylococcus aureus, were 81.3%, 50% and 100% respectively; those in cases of coagulase-negative Staphylococci were 20.5%, 10.8% and 63.5%, respectively. Almost all cases of Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella species and Candida species were true bacteremia. The probability of true bacteremia was strongly associated with recent surgery in multivariate analysis (P sets from among the performed sets varies by microorganism. Therefore, PPVs calculated using this method may help physicians distinguish true bacteremia from contamination.

  18. Personally committed to emotional labor: Surface acting, emotional exhaustion and performance among service employees with a strong need to belong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagil, Dana; Medler-Liraz, Hana

    2017-10-01

    Individual differences in emotional labor and subsequent vulnerability to burnout have been explored through the prism of Congruence Theory, which examines the congruence between personality traits and job requirements (Bono & Vey, 2007; Moskowitz & Coté, 1995). Drawing on theory and research dealing with the association between the need to belong and self-regulation (Baumeister, DeWall, Ciarocco & Twenge, 2005), this study examined the relationship between need to belong and service employees' surface acting and associated outcomes. In Study 1, participants (N = 54) were asked to write a response to an aggressive email from a hypothetical customer. The need to belong was positively related to display of positive emotions and negatively to display of negative emotions in the responses, but not related to felt anger, suggesting that it is associated with the inclination to engage in surface acting. In Study 2, a field study conducted with 170 service employee-customer dyads, surface acting mediated the positive relationship between fear of isolation and emotional exhaustion, and emotional exhaustion mediated the relationship between surface acting and customer satisfaction. These results suggested that service employees with a strong need to belong might have a heightened risk of burnout because of their inclination to engage in emotional labor. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Brand positioning through banking services' offer: Serbian perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novčić Branka

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject of this paper relates to the determination of interdependent relationship of the key elements necessary for the positioning of brands in the banking market in Serbia. The main goal of this paper is to analyze the way in which managers of banks in Serbia perceived brand positioning of banks in which they work, and the value of the customer service offer - corporate clients. Research focuses on identifying and comparing the dependent relationships between the key elements of offers' brand positioning: brand awareness, brand associations, perceived quality and brand loyalty. For the purpose of the research presented in this paper on-line surveying techniques was applied. 49 responses were collected form banking managers responsible for corporate clients. Results were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA.Acquired results indicate that there is a strong correlation between the observed elements: awareness of the brand-brand associations, brand association-perceived quality and perceived quality of brand-loyalty. Also, this paper provides an overview of the current position of the banking brands, as well as guidelines for improving the position of banking brands on the Serbian market.

  20. Pharmacist-industry relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saavedra, Keene; O'Connor, Bonnie; Fugh-Berman, Adriane

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to document, in their own words, beliefs and attitudes that American pharmacists have towards the pharmaceutical industry and pharmacists' interactions with industry. An ethnographic-style qualitative study was conducted utilizing open-ended interviews with four hospital pharmacists, two independent pharmacists, two retail pharmacists and one administrative pharmacist in the Washington, DC, metropolitan area to elicit descriptions of and attitudes towards pharmacists' relationships with industry. Analysis of the qualitative material followed established ethnographic conventions of narrative thematic analysis. All pharmacists reported interactions with pharmaceutical company representatives. Most had received free resources or services from industry, including educational courses. Respondents uniformly believed that industry promotional efforts are primarily directed towards physicians. Although respondents felt strongly that drug prices were excessive and that 'me-too' drugs were of limited use, they generally had a neutral-to-positive view of industry-funded adherence/compliance programmes, coupons, vouchers, and copay payment programmes. Interviewees viewed direct-to-consumer advertising negatively, but had a generally positive view of industry-funded drug information. Pharmacists may represent a hitherto under-identified cohort of health professionals who are targeted for industry influence; expanding roles for pharmacists may make them even more attractive targets for future industry attention. Pharmacy schools should ensure that students learn to rely on unbiased information sources and should teach students about conflicts of interest and the risks of interacting with industry. Further research should be conducted on the extent to which pharmacists' attitudes towards their duties and towards drug assessment and recommendation are influenced by the pharmaceutical industry. © 2017 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  1. Explicit strong stability preserving multistep Runge–Kutta methods

    KAUST Repository

    Bresten, Christopher

    2015-10-15

    High-order spatial discretizations of hyperbolic PDEs are often designed to have strong stability properties, such as monotonicity. We study explicit multistep Runge-Kutta strong stability preserving (SSP) time integration methods for use with such discretizations. We prove an upper bound on the SSP coefficient of explicit multistep Runge-Kutta methods of order two and above. Numerical optimization is used to find optimized explicit methods of up to five steps, eight stages, and tenth order. These methods are tested on the linear advection and nonlinear Buckley-Leverett equations, and the results for the observed total variation diminishing and/or positivity preserving time-step are presented.

  2. Strongly correlating liquids and their isomorphs

    OpenAIRE

    Pedersen, Ulf R.; Gnan, Nicoletta; Bailey, Nicholas P.; Schröder, Thomas B.; Dyre, Jeppe C.

    2010-01-01

    This paper summarizes the properties of strongly correlating liquids, i.e., liquids with strong correlations between virial and potential energy equilibrium fluctuations at constant volume. We proceed to focus on the experimental predictions for strongly correlating glass-forming liquids. These predictions include i) density scaling, ii) isochronal superposition, iii) that there is a single function from which all frequency-dependent viscoelastic response functions may be calculated, iv) that...

  3. Atom collisions in a strong electromagnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smirnov, V.S.; Chaplik, A.V.

    1976-01-01

    It is shown that the long-range part of interatomic interaction is considerably altered in a strong electromagnetic field. Instead of the van der Waals law the potential asymptote can best be described by a dipole-dipole R -3 law. Impact broadening and the line shift in a strong nonresonant field are calculated. The possibility of bound states of two atoms being formed in a strong light field is discussed

  4. The Manhattan effect: when relationship commitment fails to promote support for partners' interests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Chin Ming; Finkel, Eli J; Fitzsimons, Gráinne M; Kumashiro, Madoka; Hofmann, Wilhelm

    2014-04-01

    Research on close relationships has frequently contrasted one's own interests with the interests of the partner or the relationship and has tended to view the partner's and the relationship's interests as inherently aligned. The present article demonstrated that relationship commitment typically causes people to support their partner's personal interests but that this effect gets weaker to the extent that those interests misalign or even threaten the relationship. Studies 1a and 1b showed that (a) despite their strong correlation, partner-oriented and relationship-oriented concerns in goal-directed behaviors are separable and (b) relationship commitment strengthens only the link between relationship-oriented motivation and the goal pursuit (not the link between partner-oriented motivation and the goal pursuit). The remaining 7 studies zero in on circumstances in which the partner's and the relationship's interests are in conflict, demonstrating that (c) relationship commitment reliably increases the tendency to support the partner's personal interests when those interests do not pose a strong threat to the relationship but that (d) this effect becomes weaker-and even reverses direction-as the relationship threat posed by the partner's interests becomes stronger. The reduction or reversal of the positive link between relationship commitment and propartner behaviors in such situations is termed the Manhattan effect. These findings suggest that the partner-versus-relationship conflicts provide fertile ground for novel theorizing and empirical investigations and that relationship commitment appears to be less of a partner-promoting construct than relationship science has suggested; instead, its role appears to be focused on promoting the interests of the relationship. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Socioeconomic position and the risk of spontaneous abortion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norsker, Filippa Nyboe; Espenhain, Laura; rogvi, Sofie

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between different indicators of socioeconomic position and the risk of spontaneous abortion.......To investigate the relationship between different indicators of socioeconomic position and the risk of spontaneous abortion....

  6. Strong selection barriers explain microgeographic adaptation in wild salamander populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Jonathan L; Urban, Mark C

    2013-06-01

    Microgeographic adaptation occurs when populations evolve divergent fitness advantages across the spatial scales at which focal organisms regularly disperse. Although an increasing number of studies find evidence for microgeographic adaptation, the underlying causes often remain unknown. Adaptive divergence requires some combination of limited gene flow and strong divergent natural selection among populations. In this study, we estimated the relative influence of selection, gene flow, and the spatial arrangement of populations in shaping patterns of adaptive divergence in natural populations of the spotted salamander (Ambystoma maculatum). Within the study region, A. maculatum co-occur with the predatory marbled salamander (Ambystoma opacum) in some ponds, and past studies have established a link between predation risk and adaptive trait variation in A. maculatum. Using 14 microsatellite loci, we found a significant pattern of genetic divergence among A. maculatum populations corresponding to levels of A. opacum predation risk. Additionally, A. maculatum foraging rate was strongly associated with predation risk, genetic divergence, and the spatial relationship of ponds on the landscape. Our results indicate the sorting of adaptive genotypes by selection regime and strongly suggest that substantial selective barriers operate against gene flow. This outcome suggests that microgeographic adaptation in A. maculatum is possible because strong antagonistic selection quickly eliminates maladapted phenotypes despite ongoing and substantial immigration. Increasing evidence for microgeographic adaptation suggests a strong role for selective barriers in counteracting the homogenizing influence of gene flow. © 2013 The Author(s). Evolution © 2013 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  7. Protoperidinium minutum (Dinophyceae) from Portugal: cyst-theca relationship and phylogenetic position on the basis of single-cell SSU and LSU rDNA sequencing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ribeiro, Sofia; Lundholm, Nina; Amorim, Ana

    2010-01-01

    the Protoperidiniaceae. However, their biological counterparts are still virtually unknown. In this study, we examined the cyst-theca relationship of an Echinidinium-like cyst isolated from recent sediments of the Portuguese coast. The cysts (25-34 µm) had an intercalary theropylic archeopyle and numerous processes (4...

  8. Strong ideal convergence in probabilistic metric spaces

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    sequence and strong ideal Cauchy sequence in a probabilistic metric (PM) space endowed with the strong topology, and ... also important applications in nonlinear analysis [2]. The theory was brought to ..... for each t > 0 since each set on the right-hand side of the relation (3.1) belongs to I. Thus, by Definition 2.11 and the ...

  9. Large N baryons, strong coupling theory, quarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakita, B.

    1984-01-01

    It is shown that in QCD the large N limit is the same as the static strong coupling limit. By using the static strong coupling techniques some of the results of large N baryons are derived. The results are consistent with the large N SU(6) static quark model. (author)

  10. Optimization of strong and weak coordinates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swart, M.; Bickelhaupt, F.M.

    2006-01-01

    We present a new scheme for the geometry optimization of equilibrium and transition state structures that can be used for both strong and weak coordinates. We use a screening function that depends on atom-pair distances to differentiate strong coordinates from weak coordinates. This differentiation

  11. Strong decays of nucleon and delta resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bijker, R.; Leviatan, A.

    1996-01-01

    We study the strong couplings of the nucleon and delta resonances in a collective model. In the ensuing algebraic treatment we derive closed expressions for decay widths which are used to analyze the experimental data for strong decays into the pion and eta channels. (Author)

  12. Theoretical studies of strongly correlated fermions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Logan, D. [Institut Max von Laue - Paul Langevin (ILL), 38 - Grenoble (France)

    1997-04-01

    Strongly correlated fermions are investigated. An understanding of strongly correlated fermions underpins a diverse range of phenomena such as metal-insulator transitions, high-temperature superconductivity, magnetic impurity problems and the properties of heavy-fermion systems, in all of which local moments play an important role. (author).

  13. Seismic switch for strong motion measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harben, P.E.; Rodgers, P.W.; Ewert, D.W.

    1995-05-30

    A seismic switching device is described that has an input signal from an existing microseismic station seismometer and a signal from a strong motion measuring instrument. The seismic switch monitors the signal level of the strong motion instrument and passes the seismometer signal to the station data telemetry and recording systems. When the strong motion instrument signal level exceeds a user set threshold level, the seismometer signal is switched out and the strong motion signal is passed to the telemetry system. The amount of time the strong motion signal is passed before switching back to the seismometer signal is user controlled between 1 and 15 seconds. If the threshold level is exceeded during a switch time period, the length of time is extended from that instant by one user set time period. 11 figs.

  14. Near-field strong coupling of single quantum dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groß, Heiko; Hamm, Joachim M; Tufarelli, Tommaso; Hess, Ortwin; Hecht, Bert

    2018-03-01

    Strong coupling and the resultant mixing of light and matter states is an important asset for future quantum technologies. We demonstrate deterministic room temperature strong coupling of a mesoscopic colloidal quantum dot to a plasmonic nanoresonator at the apex of a scanning probe. Enormous Rabi splittings of up to 110 meV are accomplished by nanometer-precise positioning of the quantum dot with respect to the nanoresonator probe. We find that, in addition to a small mode volume of the nanoresonator, collective coherent coupling of quantum dot band-edge states and near-field proximity interaction are vital ingredients for the realization of near-field strong coupling of mesoscopic quantum dots. The broadband nature of the interaction paves the road toward ultrafast coherent manipulation of the coupled quantum dot-plasmon system under ambient conditions.

  15. Relationships between Italian Mediterranean Buffalo milk compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Zicarelli

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The percentages of dry matter (DM, protein, casein, fat, lactose, solidsnot- fat and ash of milk and the characteristics of the curd (31 components and/or characteristics were evaluated on 326 milk samples collected from 60 buffaloes every 50 days. The animals were half sib (same father or same mother ascertained by DNA test and were bred in two farms. Relationships between the values of components and/or characteristics were also calculated. Significant relationships were found among DM percentage of milk and its components, cheese yield, curd characteristics, ratio between the studied cheese yields and protein percentage. Protein, casein and fat showed positive relationships, whereas lactose presented negative relationships. The association among proteins and real cheese yield or the dry matter of the curd that derived from 1 litre of milk (CDM, was lower than that with calculated cheese yield. This difference strongly decreased if proteins percentage, corrected for urea value, was utilized in cheese yield calculation. No relationship was found between proteins and urea in milk, but a direct relation was present between proteins and proteins adjusted for urea. This relation affects a correct estimation of cheese yield, because the percentage of true proteins in milk, corrected per urea was 4.52 vs. 4.64.

  16. Unethical behavior in the name of the company: the moderating effect of organizational identification and positive reciprocity beliefs on unethical pro-organizational behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umphress, Elizabeth E; Bingham, John B; Mitchell, Marie S

    2010-07-01

    We examined the relationship between organizational identification and unethical pro-organizational behavior (UPB)-unethical behaviors conducted by employees to potentially benefit the organization. We predicted that organizational identification would be positively related to UPB and that positive reciprocity beliefs would moderate and strengthen this relationship. The results from 2 field studies support the interaction effect and show that individuals who strongly identify with their organization are more likely to engage in UPB when they hold strong positive reciprocity beliefs. Given the nature of reciprocity, our findings may suggest that highly identified employees who hold strong reciprocity beliefs may conduct UPB with an anticipation of a future reward from their organization. Theoretical and managerial implications of our results for understanding unethical behaviors are discussed.

  17. Benign positional vertigo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vertigo - positional; Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo; BPPV: dizziness- positional ... Benign positional vertigo is also called benign paroxysmal ... ear has fluid-filled tubes called semicircular canals. When you ...

  18. Task versus relationship conflict, team performance, and team member satisfaction: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Dreu, Carsten K W; Weingart, Laurie R

    2003-08-01

    This study provides a meta-analysis of research on the associations between relationship conflict, task conflict, team performance, and team member satisfaction. Consistent with past theorizing, results revealed strong and negative correlations between relationship conflict, team performance, and team member satisfaction. In contrast to what has been suggested in both academic research and introductory textbooks, however, results also revealed strong and negative (instead of the predicted positive) correlations between task conflict team performance, and team member satisfaction. As predicted, conflict had stronger negative relations with team performance in highly complex (decision making, project, mixed) than in less complex (production) tasks. Finally, task conflict was less negatively related to team performance when task conflict and relationship conflict were weakly, rather than strongly, correlated.

  19. Strong and superstrong pulsed magnetic fields generation

    CERN Document Server

    Shneerson, German A; Krivosheev, Sergey I

    2014-01-01

    Strong pulsed magnetic fields are important for several fields in physics and engineering, such as power generation and accelerator facilities. Basic aspects of the generation of strong and superstrong pulsed magnetic fields technique are given, including the physics and hydrodynamics of the conductors interacting with the field as well as an account of the significant progress in generation of strong magnetic fields using the magnetic accumulation technique. Results of computer simulations as well as a survey of available field technology are completing the volume.

  20. Impurity screening in strongly coupled plasma systems

    CERN Document Server

    Kyrkos, S

    2003-01-01

    We present an overview of the problem of screening of an impurity in a strongly coupled one-component plasma within the framework of the linear response (LR) theory. We consider 3D, 2D and quasi-2D layered systems. For a strongly coupled plasma the LR can be determined by way of the known S(k) structure functions. In general, an oscillating screening potential with local overscreening and antiscreening regions emerges. In the case of the bilayer, this phenomenon becomes global, as overscreening develops in the layer of the impurity and antiscreening in the adjacent layer. We comment on the limitations of the LR theory in the strong coupling situation.