WorldWideScience

Sample records for strong positive determinant

  1. Position automatic determination technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-10-01

    This book tells of method of position determination and characteristic, control method of position determination and point of design, point of sensor choice for position detector, position determination of digital control system, application of clutch break in high frequency position determination, automation technique of position determination, position determination by electromagnetic clutch and break, air cylinder, cam and solenoid, stop position control of automatic guide vehicle, stacker crane and automatic transfer control.

  2. <strong>On Determinism in Modal Transition Systemsstrong>

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benes, Nikola; Kretinsky, Jan; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand

    2009-01-01

    Modal transition systems (MTS) is a formalism which extends the classical notion of labelled transition systems by introducing transitions of two types: must transitions that have to be present in any implementation of the MTS and may transitions that are allowed but not required. The MTS framewo....... In the present article, we provide a comprehensive account of the MTS framework in the deterministic setting. We study a number of problems previously considered on MTS and point out to what extend we can expect better results under the restriction of determinism....

  3. Efficient GPS Position Determination Algorithms

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nguyen, Thao Q

    2007-01-01

    ... differential GPS algorithm for a network of users. The stand-alone user GPS algorithm is a direct, closed-form, and efficient new position determination algorithm that exploits the closed-form solution of the GPS trilateration equations and works...

  4. Navicular bone position determined by positional MRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Philip; Johannsen, Finn E; Hangaard, Stine

    2016-01-01

    -scanner). Scanning was performed in supine and standing position, respectively. Two radiologists evaluated the images in a blinded manner. Reliability and agreement were assessed by calculation of intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and 95 % limits of agreement as a percentage of the mean (LOA%). RESULTS...

  5. Precision Constellation Position Determination Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — For a distributed aperture sensor, especially at infrared and optical wavelengths, the relative position of the aperture components must be known and controlled...

  6. Defensive marketing: how a strong incumbent can protect its position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, John H

    2005-11-01

    There has been a lot of research on marketing as an offensive tactic-how it can help companies successfully launch new products, enter new markets, or gain share with existing products in their current markets. But for nearly every new product launch, market entrant, or industry upstart grabbing market share, there is an incumbent that must defend its position. And there has been little research on how these defenders can use marketing to preemptively respond to new or anticipated threats. John H. Roberts outlines four basic types of defensive marketing strategies: positive, inertial, parity, and retarding. With the first two, you establish and communicate your points of superiority relative to the new entrant; with the second two, you establish and communicate strategic points of comparability with your rival. Before choosing a strategy, you need to assess the weapons you have available to protect your market position-your brand identity, the products and services that support that identity, and your means of communicating it. Then assess your customers' value to you and their vulnerability to being poached by rivals. The author explains how Australian telecommunications company Telstra, facing deregulation, used a combination of the four strategies (plus the author's customer response model) to fend off market newcomer Optus. Telstra was prepared, for instance, to reach deep into its pockets and engage in a price war. But the customer response model indicated that a parity strategy-in which Telstra would offer lower rates on some routes and at certain times of day, even though its prices, on average, were higher than its rival's-was more likely to prevent consumers from switching. Ultimately, Telstra was able to retain several points of market share it otherwise would have lost. The strategies described here, though specific to Telstra's situation, offer lessons for any company facing new and potentially damaging competition.

  7. Positive semidefinite matrix completion, universal rigidity and the Strong Arnold Property

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Laurent (Monique); A. Varvitsiotis (Antonios)

    2014-01-01

    htmlabstractThis paper addresses the following three topics: positive semidefinite (psd) matrix completions, universal rigidity of frameworks, and the Strong Arnold Property (SAP). We show some strong connections among these topics, using semidefinite programming as unifying theme. Our main

  8. Position and orientation determination system and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harpring, Lawrence J.; Farfan, Eduardo B.; Gordon, John R.; Jannik, Gerald T.; Foley, Trevor Q.

    2017-06-14

    A position determination system and method is provided that may be used for obtaining position and orientation information of a detector in a contaminated room. The system includes a detector, a sensor operably coupled to the detector, and a motor coupled to the sensor to move the sensor around the detector. A CPU controls the operation of the motor to move the sensor around the detector and determines distance and angle data from the sensor to an object. The method includes moving a sensor around the detector and measuring distance and angle data from the sensor to an object at incremental positions around the detector.

  9. UAV ONBOARD GPS IN POSITIONING DETERMINATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. N. Tahar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The establishment of ground control points is a critical issue in mapping field, especially for large scale mapping. The fast and rapid technique for ground control point’s establishment is very important for small budget projects. UAV onboard GPS has the ability to determine the point positioning. The objective of this research is to assess the accuracy of unmanned aerial vehicle onboard global positioning system in positioning determination. Therefore, this research used UAV onboard GPS as an alternative to determine the point positioning at the selected area. UAV is one of the powerful tools for data acquisition and it is used in many applications all over the world. This research concentrates on the error contributed from the UAV onboard GPS during observation. There are several points that have been used to study the pattern of positioning error. All errors were analyzed in world geodetic system 84- coordinate system, which is the basic coordinate system used by the global positioning system. Based on this research, the result of UAV onboard GPS positioning could be used in ground control point establishment with the specific error. In conclusion, accurate GCP establishment could be achieved using UAV onboard GPS by applying a specific correction based on this research.

  10. Determination of strong ion gap in healthy dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fettig, Pamela K; Bailey, Dennis B; Gannon, Kristi M

    2012-08-01

    To determine and compare reference intervals of the strong ion gap (SIG) in a group of healthy dogs determined with 2 different equations. Prospective observational study. Tertiary referral and teaching hospital. Fifty-four healthy dogs. None. Serum biochemistry and blood gas analyses were performed for each dog. From these values, SIG was calculated using 2 different equations: SIG(1) = SID(a) {[Na (+)] + [K(+)] - [Cl(-)]+ [2 × Ca(2+)] + [2 × Mg(2+)] - [L-lactate]}- SID(e) {TCO(2) + A(-)} and SIG(2) = [albumin] × 4.9-anion gap. Reference intervals were established for each SIG equation using the mean ± 1.96 × standard deviation (SD). For SIG(1), the median was 7.13 mEq/L (range, 1.05-11.30 mEq/L) and the derived reference interval was 1.85-10.61 mEq/L. Median SIG(2) was -0.22 mEq/L (range, -5.34-6.61 mEq/L) and the mean SIG(2) was -0.09 mEq/L (95% confidence interval for the mean, -0.82-0.65 mEq/L). The derived reference interval was -5.36-5.18 mEq/L. The results of the SIG calculations were significantly different (P SIG yielded significantly different results and cannot be used interchangeably. The authors believe SIG(2) to be a more accurate reflection of acid-base status in healthy dogs, and recommend that this calculation be used for future studies. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2012.

  11. Model Based Vision for Aircraft Position Determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridhar, Banavar; Chatterji, Gano B.; Soni, Tarun; Showman, Robert D. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    This paper investigates the use of imaging sensors to estimate the position of an aircraft with respect to the runway during landing. Passive vision techniques to estimate aircraft position during landing rely on the known runway model, images acquired by onboard imaging sensor, orientation information provided by the inertial navigation system and the position estimate provided by devices such as the global positioning system. Point features in the runway model are compared with the onboard sensor images of the features and the difference between the two is used to correct the aircraft position and orientation. In this paper the sensitivity of point features is examined as a means of determining the accuracy of such position estimation techniques. Expressions are derived for the sensitivity of image point to errors in the position and orientation of the sensor. Using these, the sensitivity of the image to aircraft position and orientation errors along a typical landing glide path is studied. A least squares technique based on this sensitivity analysis is described for the correction of position and orientation estimates. The final version of the paper will include results from the application of this analysis to real image sequences collected in flight.

  12. Positive semidefinite matrix completion, universal rigidity and the Strong Arnold Property

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laurent, Monique; Varvitsiotis, A.

    This paper addresses the following three topics: positive semidefinite (psd) matrix completions, universal rigidity of frameworks, and the Strong Arnold Property (SAP). We show some strong connections among these topics, using semidefinite programming as unifying theme. Our main contribution is a

  13. DETERMINATION OF THE LOADS POSITION ON TRUCKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César A. Chagoyén-Méndez

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we presented the main problems that entail an inadequate distribution of loads on trucks and we described in detail a methodology for determining the proper position, which concludes with the completion of the installation diagrams. The methodology was obtained from the solution of the particular case of a tank of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG of 14'000 liter on a DAF CF 75.310 truck. Another result of this work is a software which allows to determine the exact position it should be the gravity center of the load relative to the front axle and the reactions on each axis, with the possibility of evaluating different variants.

  14. Navicular bone position determined by positional MRI: a reproducibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, Philip; Nybing, Janus D. [Copenhagen University Hospital Frederiksberg and Bispebjerg, Department of Radiology, Frederiksberg (Denmark); Johannsen, Finn E.; Stallknecht, Sandra E. [Copenhagen University Hospital Bispebjerg, Institute of Sports Medicine Copenhagen, Copenhagen, NV (Denmark); Hangaard, Stine; Hansen, Bjarke B. [Copenhagen University Hospital Frederiksberg, Parker Institute, Department of Rheumatology, Frederiksberg (Denmark); Boesen, Mikael [Copenhagen University Hospital Frederiksberg and Bispebjerg, Department of Radiology, Frederiksberg (Denmark); Copenhagen University Hospital Frederiksberg, Parker Institute, Department of Rheumatology, Frederiksberg (Denmark)

    2016-02-15

    To examine intraobserver, interobserver and between-day reproducibility of positional MRI for evaluation of navicular bone height (NVH) and medial navicular position (MNP). Positional MRI (pMRI) of the foot was performed on ten healthy participants (0.25 T G-scanner). Scanning was performed in supine and standing position, respectively. Two radiologists evaluated the images in a blinded manner. Reliability and agreement were assessed by calculation of intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and 95 % limits of agreement as a percentage of the mean (LOA%). Intraobserver and interobserver reliability was ''substantial'' in both supine and standing position (ICC 0.86-0.98) and showed good agreement (LOA% 4.9-14.7 %). Between-day reliability of navicular height and medial navicular position in standing position remained substantial (ICC 0.85-0.92) with adequate agreement (LOA% 8.3-19.8 %). In supine position between-day reliability was ''moderate'' for NVH (ICC 0.72) and ''slight'' for MNP (ICC 0.39). Agreement remained adequate between-days for MNP in supine position (LOA% 17.7 %), but it was less than adequate for NVH in supine position (LOA% 24.2 %). Navicular height and medial navicular position can be measured by pMRI in a very reproducible manner within and between observers. Increased measurement variation is observed between-days in supine position, which may be due to small positional differences or other unknown biomechanical factors. (orig.)

  15. Navicular bone position determined by positional MRI: a reproducibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, Philip; Nybing, Janus D.; Johannsen, Finn E.; Stallknecht, Sandra E.; Hangaard, Stine; Hansen, Bjarke B.; Boesen, Mikael

    2016-01-01

    To examine intraobserver, interobserver and between-day reproducibility of positional MRI for evaluation of navicular bone height (NVH) and medial navicular position (MNP). Positional MRI (pMRI) of the foot was performed on ten healthy participants (0.25 T G-scanner). Scanning was performed in supine and standing position, respectively. Two radiologists evaluated the images in a blinded manner. Reliability and agreement were assessed by calculation of intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and 95 % limits of agreement as a percentage of the mean (LOA%). Intraobserver and interobserver reliability was ''substantial'' in both supine and standing position (ICC 0.86-0.98) and showed good agreement (LOA% 4.9-14.7 %). Between-day reliability of navicular height and medial navicular position in standing position remained substantial (ICC 0.85-0.92) with adequate agreement (LOA% 8.3-19.8 %). In supine position between-day reliability was ''moderate'' for NVH (ICC 0.72) and ''slight'' for MNP (ICC 0.39). Agreement remained adequate between-days for MNP in supine position (LOA% 17.7 %), but it was less than adequate for NVH in supine position (LOA% 24.2 %). Navicular height and medial navicular position can be measured by pMRI in a very reproducible manner within and between observers. Increased measurement variation is observed between-days in supine position, which may be due to small positional differences or other unknown biomechanical factors. (orig.)

  16. Reliably determining data leakage in the presence of strong attackers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bortolameotti, R.; Peter, A.; Everts, M.H.; Jonker, W.; Hartel, P.

    2016-01-01

    We address the problem of determining what data has been leaked from a system after its recovery from a successful attack. This is a forensic process which is relevant to give a better understanding of the impact of a data breach, but more importantly it is becoming mandatory according to the recent

  17. Visual evoked potentials show strong positive association with intracranial pressure in patients with cryptococcal meningitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Adriano da Cunha Silva Vieira

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective : To verify the relationship between intracranial pressure and flash visual evoked potentials (F-VEP in patients with cryptococcal meningitis. Method The sample included adults diagnosed with cryptococcal meningitis admitted at a reference hospital for infectious diseases. The patients were subjected to F-VEP tests shortly before lumbar puncture. The Pearson’s linear correlation coefficient was calculated and the linear regression analysis was performed. Results : Eighteen individuals were subjected to a total of 69 lumbar punctures preceded by F-VEP tests. At the first lumbar puncture performed in each patient, N2 latency exhibited a strong positive correlation with intracranial pressure (r = 0.83; CI = 0.60 - 0.94; p < 0.0001. The direction of this relationship was maintained in subsequent punctures. Conclusion : The intracranial pressure measured by spinal tap manometry showed strong positive association with the N2 latency F-VEP in patients with cryptococcal meningitis.

  18. Start Position Strongly Influences Fixation Patterns during Face Processing: Difficulties with Eye Movements as a Measure of Information Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arizpe, Joseph; Kravitz, Dwight J.; Yovel, Galit; Baker, Chris I.

    2012-01-01

    Fixation patterns are thought to reflect cognitive processing and, thus, index the most informative stimulus features for task performance. During face recognition, initial fixations to the center of the nose have been taken to indicate this location is optimal for information extraction. However, the use of fixations as a marker for information use rests on the assumption that fixation patterns are predominantly determined by stimulus and task, despite the fact that fixations are also influenced by visuo-motor factors. Here, we tested the effect of starting position on fixation patterns during a face recognition task with upright and inverted faces. While we observed differences in fixations between upright and inverted faces, likely reflecting differences in cognitive processing, there was also a strong effect of start position. Over the first five saccades, fixation patterns across start positions were only coarsely similar, with most fixations around the eyes. Importantly, however, the precise fixation pattern was highly dependent on start position with a strong tendency toward facial features furthest from the start position. For example, the often-reported tendency toward the left over right eye was reversed for the left starting position. Further, delayed initial saccades for central versus peripheral start positions suggest greater information processing prior to the initial saccade, highlighting the experimental bias introduced by the commonly used center start position. Finally, the precise effect of face inversion on fixation patterns was also dependent on start position. These results demonstrate the importance of a non-stimulus, non-task factor in determining fixation patterns. The patterns observed likely reflect a complex combination of visuo-motor effects and simple sampling strategies as well as cognitive factors. These different factors are very difficult to tease apart and therefore great caution must be applied when interpreting absolute

  19. Determination of the Industrial Robot Positioning Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tlach Vladimír

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Position performance is one of most important parameters in terms industrial robotics and CNC machine tools. These performance criteria are changed during machine operation and therefore it is necessary to measure device parameters in regular intervals. This measurement should be as fast and easy as possible. In the case of CNC machine tools, the Renishaw Ballbar device is commonly used for such purposes. This device fits both requirements regardless it does not offer same amount of useful information for CNC machine tools and industrial robots that require special approach to measurement and data analysis which is main topic of presented article.

  20. Damping at positive frequencies in the limit J⊥-->0 in the strongly correlated Hubbard model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, Minette M.

    1992-08-01

    I show damping in the two-dimensional strongly correlated Hubbard model within the retraceable-path approximation, using an expansion around dominant poles for the self-energy. The damping half-width ~J2/3z occurs only at positive frequencies ω>5/2Jz, the excitation energy of a pure ``string'' state of length one, where Jz is the Ising part of the superexchange interaction, and occurs even in the absence of spin-flip terms ~J⊥ in contrast to other theoretical treatments. The dispersion relation for both damped and undamped peaks near the upper band edge is found and is shown to have lost the simple J2/3z dependence characteristic of the peaks near the lower band edge. The position of the first three peaks near the upper band edge agrees well with numerical simulations on the t-J model. The weight of the undamped peaks near the upper band edge is ~J4/3z, contrasting with Jz for the weight near the lower band edge.

  1. Genetic signature of strong recent positive selection at interleukin-32 gene in goat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhtar Rasool Asif

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective Identification of the candidate genes that play key roles in phenotypic variations can provide new information about evolution and positive selection. Interleukin (IL-32 is involved in many biological processes, however, its role for the immune response against various diseases in mammals is poorly understood. Therefore, the current investigation was performed for the better understanding of the molecular evolution and the positive selection of single nucleotide polymorphisms in IL-32 gene. Methods By using fixation index (FST based method, IL-32 (9375 gene was found to be outlier and under significant positive selection with the provisional combined allocation of mean heterozygosity and FST. Using nucleotide sequences of 11 mammalian species from National Center for Biotechnology Information database, the evolutionary selection of IL-32 gene was determined using Maximum likelihood model method, through four models (M1a, M2a, M7, and M8 in Codeml program of phylogenetic analysis by maximum liklihood. Results IL-32 is detected under positive selection using the FST simulations method. The phylogenetic tree revealed that goat IL-32 was in close resemblance with sheep IL-32. The coding nucleotide sequences were compared among 11 species and it was found that the goat IL-32 gene shared identity with sheep (96.54%, bison (91.97%, camel (58.39%, cat (56.59%, buffalo (56.50%, human (56.13%, dog (50.97%, horse (54.04%, and rabbit (53.41% respectively. Conclusion This study provides evidence for IL-32 gene as under significant positive selection in goat.

  2. Genetic signature of strong recent positive selection at interleukin-32 gene in goat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asif, Akhtar Rasool; Qadri, Sumayyah; Ijaz, Nabeel; Javed, Ruheena; Ansari, Abdur Rahman; Awais, Muhammd; Younus, Muhammad; Riaz, Hasan; Du, Xiaoyong

    2017-07-01

    Identification of the candidate genes that play key roles in phenotypic variations can provide new information about evolution and positive selection. Interleukin (IL)-32 is involved in many biological processes, however, its role for the immune response against various diseases in mammals is poorly understood. Therefore, the current investigation was performed for the better understanding of the molecular evolution and the positive selection of single nucleotide polymorphisms in IL-32 gene. By using fixation index ( F ST ) based method, IL-32 (9375) gene was found to be outlier and under significant positive selection with the provisional combined allocation of mean heterozygosity and F ST . Using nucleotide sequences of 11 mammalian species from National Center for Biotechnology Information database, the evolutionary selection of IL-32 gene was determined using Maximum likelihood model method, through four models (M1a, M2a, M7, and M8) in Codeml program of phylogenetic analysis by maximum liklihood. IL-32 is detected under positive selection using the F ST simulations method. The phylogenetic tree revealed that goat IL-32 was in close resemblance with sheep IL-32. The coding nucleotide sequences were compared among 11 species and it was found that the goat IL-32 gene shared identity with sheep (96.54%), bison (91.97%), camel (58.39%), cat (56.59%), buffalo (56.50%), human (56.13%), dog (50.97%), horse (54.04%), and rabbit (53.41%) respectively. This study provides evidence for IL-32 gene as under significant positive selection in goat.

  3. Error Analysis of Determining Airplane Location by Global Positioning System

    OpenAIRE

    Hajiyev, Chingiz; Burat, Alper

    1999-01-01

    This paper studies the error analysis of determining airplane location by global positioning system (GPS) using statistical testing method. The Newton Rhapson method positions the airplane at the intersection point of four spheres. Absolute errors, relative errors and standard deviation have been calculated The results show that the positioning error of the airplane varies with the coordinates of GPS satellite and the airplane.

  4. Determination of positions of optical elements of the human eye

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galetskii, S O; Cherezova, T Yu

    2009-01-01

    An original method for noninvasive determining the positions of elements of intraocular optics is proposed. The analytic dependence of the measurement error on the optical-scheme parameters and the restriction in distance from the element being measured are determined within the framework of the method proposed. It is shown that the method can be efficiently used for determining the position of elements in the classical Gullstrand eye model and personalised eye models. The positions of six optical surfaces of the Gullstrand eye model and four optical surfaces of the personalised eye model can be determined with an error of less than 0.25 mm. (human eye optics)

  5. Determination of the neutron flux in the reactor zones with the strong neutron absorption and leakage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ljubenov, V.; Milosevic, M.

    2004-01-01

    The procedures for the numerical and experimental determination of the neutron flux in the zones with the strong neutron absorption and leakage are described in this paper. Numerical procedure is based on the SCALE-4.4a code system application with the use of Dancoff factor determined by the VEGA2DAN code. Experimental methodology consists of the irradiated foils activity measurement, and foil averaged neutron absorption cross-section determination via mentioned SCALE- 4.4a calculation procedure. The proposed procedures have been applied for the determination of the neutron flux in the internal neutron converter used with the RB reactor core configuration number 114. (author) [sr

  6. Precision determination of the strong interaction shift and width in pionic hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anagnostopoulos, D.F.; Covita, D.D.S.; Santos, J.M.F. dos; Veloso, J.F.C.A.; Fuhrmann, H.; Gruber, A.; Hirtl, A.; Ishiwatari, T.; Marton, J.; Schmid, P.; Zmeskal, J.; Gotta, D.; Hennebach, M.; Nekipelov, M.; Indelicato, P.; Jensen, T.; Bigot, E.O. Le; Trassinelli, M.; Simons, L.M.

    2005-01-01

    The new pionic hydrogen experiment at PSI aims at an improvement in the determination of the strong interaction ground state shift and width of the pionic hydrogen atom. High precision x-ray crystal spectroscopy is used to extract isospin separated scattering lengths with accuracies on the percent level. Compared to previous efforts, the energy resolution and statistics could be improved considerably and the background is much reduced. The response function of the Johann-type crystal spectrometer has been determined with a novel method with unprecedented accuracy. The inherent difficulties of the exotic atom's method result, from the fact that the formation of a sufficient amount of pionic hydrogen atoms requires a hydrogen target pressure of several bar at least. For the extraction of a strong interaction shift, an extrapolation method to vacuum conditions proved to be successful. This contribution mostly discusses the strategy to extract a result for the strong interaction width from the data.(author)

  7. Population genomics of the honey bee reveals strong signatures of positive selection on worker traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harpur, Brock A; Kent, Clement F; Molodtsova, Daria; Lebon, Jonathan M D; Alqarni, Abdulaziz S; Owayss, Ayman A; Zayed, Amro

    2014-02-18

    Most theories used to explain the evolution of eusociality rest upon two key assumptions: mutations affecting the phenotype of sterile workers evolve by positive selection if the resulting traits benefit fertile kin, and that worker traits provide the primary mechanism allowing social insects to adapt to their environment. Despite the common view that positive selection drives phenotypic evolution of workers, we know very little about the prevalence of positive selection acting on the genomes of eusocial insects. We mapped the footprints of positive selection in Apis mellifera through analysis of 40 individual genomes, allowing us to identify thousands of genes and regulatory sequences with signatures of adaptive evolution over multiple timescales. We found Apoidea- and Apis-specific genes to be enriched for signatures of positive selection, indicating that novel genes play a disproportionately large role in adaptive evolution of eusocial insects. Worker-biased proteins have higher signatures of adaptive evolution relative to queen-biased proteins, supporting the view that worker traits are key to adaptation. We also found genes regulating worker division of labor to be enriched for signs of positive selection. Finally, genes associated with worker behavior based on analysis of brain gene expression were highly enriched for adaptive protein and cis-regulatory evolution. Our study highlights the significant contribution of worker phenotypes to adaptive evolution in social insects, and provides a wealth of knowledge on the loci that influence fitness in honey bees.

  8. Method of determining the position of an irradiated electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuda, Wataru.

    1967-01-01

    The present invention relates to the method of determining the position of a radiated electron beam, in particular, the method of detecting the position of a p-n junction by a novel method when irradiating the electron beam on to the semi-conductor wafer, controlling the position of the electron beam from said junction. When the electron beam is irradiated on to the semi-conductor wafer which possesses the p-n junction, the position of the p-n junction may be ascertained to determine the position of the irradiated electron beam by detecting the electromotive force resulting from said p-n junction with a metal disposed in the proximity of but without mechanical contact with said semi-conductor wafer. Furthermore, as far as a semi-conductor wafer having at least one p-n junction is concerned, the present invention allows said p-n junction to be used to determine the position of an irradiated electron beam. Thus, according to the present invention, the electromotive force of the electron beam resulting from the p-n junction may easily be detected by electrostatic coupling, enabling the position of the irradiated electron beam to be accurately determined. (Masui, R.)

  9. Lexical generality as a determinant of extension position in Northern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lexical generality as a determinant of extension position in Northern Sotho. ... Further research is required to throw more light onto the question of whether or not extensionordering is determined by the morphology proper as proposed by Hyman (2002) or by morphologyexternalfactors as proposed by Bybee (1985).

  10. Good Health, Strong Families, and Positive Early Learning Experiences: Promoting Better Public Policies for America's Infants and Toddlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lally, J. Ronald; Lurie-Hurvitz, Erica; Cohen, Julie

    2006-01-01

    The ZERO TO THREE Policy Center has three areas of focus: good health, strong families, and positive early learning experiences. Effective policies must promote healthy functioning in all domains, including cognitive, physical, and social and emotional development. Comprehensive services are essential to meeting the needs of very young children…

  11. Investigation of a strong positive ionospheric storm during geomagnetic disturbances occurred in the Brazilian sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Abreu, A. J.; Sahai, Y.; Fagundes, P. R.; de Jesus, R.; Bittencourt, J. A.; Pillat, V. G.

    2012-12-01

    In this paper, we have investigated the responses of the ionospheric F region at equatorial and low latitude regions in the Brazilian sector during the super geomagnetic storm on 15-16 May 2005. The geomagnetic storm reached a minimum Dst of -263 nT at 0900 UT on 15 May. In this paper, we present vertical total electron content (vTEC) and phase fluctuations (in TECU/min) from Global Positioning System (GPS) observations obtained at Belém (BELE), Brasília (BRAZ), Presidente Prudente (UEPP), and Porto Alegre (POAL), Brazil, during the period 14-17 May 2005. Also, we present ionospheric parameters h'F, hpF2, and foF2, using the Canadian Advanced Digital Ionosonde (CADI) obtained at Palmas (PAL) and São José dos Campos (SJC), Brazil, for the same period. The super geomagnetic storm has fast decrease in the Dst index soon after SSC at 0239 UT on 15 May. It is a good possibility of prompt penetration of electric field of magnetospheric origin resulting in uplifting of the F region. The vTEC observations show a trough at BELE and a crest above UEPP, soon after SSC, indicating strengthening of nighttime equatorial anomaly. During the daytime on 15 and 16 May, in the recovery phase, the variations in foF2 at SJC and the vTEC observations, particularly at BRAZ, UEPP, and POAL, show large positive ionospheric storm. There is ESF on the all nights at PAL, in the post-midnight (UT) sector, and phase fluctuations only on the night of 14-15 May at BRAZ, after the SSC. No phase fluctuations are observed at the equatorial station BELE and low latitude stations (BRAZ, UEPP, and POAL) at all other times. This indicates that the plasma bubbles are generated and confined on this magnetically disturbed night only up to the low magnetic latitude and drifted possibly to west.

  12. Determining position inside building via laser rangefinder and handheld computer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Jr James L. [Albuquerque, NM; Finley, Patrick [Albuquerque, NM; Melton, Brad [Albuquerque, NM

    2010-01-12

    An apparatus, computer software, and a method of determining position inside a building comprising selecting on a PDA at least two walls of a room in a digitized map of a building or a portion of a building, pointing and firing a laser rangefinder at corresponding physical walls, transmitting collected range information to the PDA, and computing on the PDA a position of the laser rangefinder within the room.

  13. On Strong Positive Frequency Dependencies of Quality Factors in Local-Earthquake Seismic Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morozov, Igor B.; Jhajhria, Atul; Deng, Wubing

    2018-03-01

    Many observations of seismic waves from local earthquakes are interpreted in terms of the frequency-dependent quality factor Q( f ) = Q0 f^{η } , where η is often close to or exceeds one. However, such steep positive frequency dependencies of Q require careful analysis with regard to their physical consistency. In particular, the case of η = 1 corresponds to frequency-independent (elastic) amplitude decays with time and consequently requires no Q-type attenuation mechanisms. For η > 1, several problems with physical meanings of such Q-factors occur. First, contrary to the key premise of seismic attenuation, high-frequency parts of the wavefield are enhanced with increasing propagation times relative to the low-frequency ones. Second, such attenuation cannot be implemented by mechanical models of wave-propagating media. Third, with η > 1, the velocity dispersion associated with such Q(f) occurs over unrealistically short frequency range and has an unexpected oscillatory shape. Cases η = 1 and η > 1 are usually attributed to scattering; however, this scattering must exhibit fortuitous tuning into the observation frequency band, which appears unlikely. The reason for the above problems is that the inferred Q values are affected by the conventional single-station measurement procedure. Both parameters Q 0 and are apparent, i.e., dependent on the selected parameterization and inversion method, and they should not be directly attributed to the subsurface. For η ≈ 1, parameter Q 0 actually describes the frequency-independent amplitude decay in access of some assumed geometric spreading t -α , where α is usually taken equal one. The case η > 1 is not allowed physically and could serve as an indicator of problematic interpretations. Although the case 0 < η < 1 is possible, its parameters Q 0 and may also be biased by the measurement procedure. To avoid such difficulties of Q-based approaches, we recommend measuring and interpreting the amplitude-decay rates

  14. Spin excitations in systems with hopping electron transport and strong position disorder in a large magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shumilin, A. V.

    2016-10-01

    We discuss the spin excitations in systems with hopping electron conduction and strong position disorder. We focus on the problem in a strong magnetic field when the spin Hamiltonian can be reduced to the effective single-particle Hamiltonian and treated with conventional numerical technics. It is shown that in a 3D system with Heisenberg exchange interaction the spin excitations have a delocalized part of the spectrum even in the limit of strong disorder, thus leading to the possibility of the coherent spin transport. The spin transport provided by the delocalized excitations can be described by a diffusion coefficient. Non-homogenous magnetic fields lead to the Anderson localization of spin excitations while anisotropy of the exchange interaction results in the Lifshitz localization of excitations. We discuss the possible effect of the additional exchange-driven spin diffusion on the organic spin-valve devices.

  15. Determining the localization of premolar zenith positions according ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Determining the localization of premolar zenith positions according to the gingival line. ... Conclusions: The present study results showed that GZs of FPM and SPM teeth for both left and right sight was coronally located according to ZL. Key words: Gingival aesthetics, gingival localization, maxillary premolars ...

  16. Cotton fiber quality determined by fruit position, temperature and management

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, X.; Evers, J.B.; Zhang, L.; Mao, L.; Pan, X.; Li, Z.

    2013-01-01

    CottonXL is a tool to explore cotton fiber quality in relation to fruit position, to improve cotton quality by optimizing cotton plant structure, as well as to help farmers understand how the structure of the cotton plant determines crop growth and quality.

  17. Mirror position determination for the alignment of Cherenkov Telescopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adam, J. [TU Dortmund, Experimental Physics 5 Otto-Hahn-Str. 4, 44221 Dortmund (Germany); Ahnen, M.L. [ETH Zurich, Institute for Particle Physics Otto-Stern-Weg 5, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Baack, D. [TU Dortmund, Experimental Physics 5 Otto-Hahn-Str. 4, 44221 Dortmund (Germany); Balbo, M. [University of Geneva, ISDC Data Center for Astrophysics Chemin Ecogia 16, 1290 Versoix (Switzerland); Bergmann, M. [Universität Würzburg, Institute for Theoretical Physics and Astrophysics Emil-Fischer-Str. 31, 97074 Würzburg (Germany); Biland, A. [ETH Zurich, Institute for Particle Physics Otto-Stern-Weg 5, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Blank, M. [Universität Würzburg, Institute for Theoretical Physics and Astrophysics Emil-Fischer-Str. 31, 97074 Würzburg (Germany); Bretz, T. [ETH Zurich, Institute for Particle Physics Otto-Stern-Weg 5, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland); RWTH Aachen (Germany); Bruegge, K.A.; Buss, J. [TU Dortmund, Experimental Physics 5 Otto-Hahn-Str. 4, 44221 Dortmund (Germany); Dmytriiev, A. [University of Geneva, ISDC Data Center for Astrophysics Chemin Ecogia 16, 1290 Versoix (Switzerland); Domke, M. [TU Dortmund, Experimental Physics 5 Otto-Hahn-Str. 4, 44221 Dortmund (Germany); Dorner, D. [Universität Würzburg, Institute for Theoretical Physics and Astrophysics Emil-Fischer-Str. 31, 97074 Würzburg (Germany); FAU Erlangen (Germany); Einecke, S. [TU Dortmund, Experimental Physics 5 Otto-Hahn-Str. 4, 44221 Dortmund (Germany); Hempfling, C. [Universität Würzburg, Institute for Theoretical Physics and Astrophysics Emil-Fischer-Str. 31, 97074 Würzburg (Germany); and others

    2017-07-11

    Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes (IACTs) need imaging optics with large apertures to map the faint Cherenkov light emitted in extensive air showers onto their image sensors. Segmented reflectors fulfill these needs using mass produced and light weight mirror facets. However, as the overall image is the sum of the individual mirror facet images, alignment is important. Here we present a method to determine the mirror facet positions on a segmented reflector in a very direct way. Our method reconstructs the mirror facet positions from photographs and a laser distance meter measurement which goes from the center of the image sensor plane to the center of each mirror facet. We use our method to both align the mirror facet positions and to feed the measured positions into our IACT simulation. We demonstrate our implementation on the 4 m First Geiger-mode Avalanche Cherenkov Telescope (FACT).

  18. Computational and Statistical Aspects of Determining Ship’s Position

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drapella Antoni

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In its mathematical essence, the task of determining ship’s position coordinates, is to minimize appropriately defined goal function. This paper proposes to use the method of conjugate gradient for this purpose. The reason is that calculations may be performed in some seconds time because Microsoft and Apache implemented the conjugate gradient method as a tool called the Solver and embedded this tool in their widely offered and popular spreadsheets, namely Excel and the Open Office Calc, respectively. Further in this paper it is shown how to precisely assess errors of ship’s position coordinates with the Monte Carlo method that employs the Solver.

  19. Determination of beam intensity and position in a particle accelerator

    CERN Document Server

    Kasprowicz, G

    2011-01-01

    A subject of the thesis is conception, design, implementation, tests and deployment of new position measurement system of particle bunch in the CERN PS circular accelerator. The system is based on novel algorithms of particle position determination. The Proton Synchrotron accelerator (PS), installed at CERN, although commissioned in 1959, still plays a central role in the production of beams for the Antiproton Decelerator, Super Proton Synchrotron, various experimental areas and for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The PS produces beams of different types of particles, mainly protons, but also various species of ions. Almost all these particle beams pass through the PS. The quality of the beams delivered to the LHC has a direct impact on the effective luminosity, and therefore the performance of the instrumentation of the PS is of great importance. The old trajectory and orbit measurement system of the PS is dated back to 1988 and no longer fulfilled present day requirements. It used 40 beam position monitors...

  20. POSITION DETERMINATION OF CLOSELY SPACED BUNCHES USING CAVITY BPMs

    CERN Document Server

    Joshi, N; Cullinan, F; Lyapin, A

    2011-01-01

    Radio Frequency (RF) Cavity Beam Position Monitor (BPM) systems form a major part of precision position measurement diagnostics for linear accelerators with low emittance beams. Using cavity BPMs, a position resolution of less than 100 nm has been demonstrated in single bunch mode operation. In the case of closely spaced bunches, where the decay time of the cavity is comparable to the time separation between bunches, the BPM signal from a bunch is polluted by the signal induced by the previous bunches in the same bunch-train. This paper discusses our ongoing work to develop the methods to extract the position of closely spaced bunches using cavity BPMs. A signal subtraction code is being developed to remove the signal pollution from previous bunches and to determine the individual bunch position. Another code has been developed to simulate the BPM data for the cross check. Performance of the code is studied on the experimental and simulated data. Application of the analysis techniques to the linear colliders,...

  1. Precision determination of the strong coupling constant within a global PDF analysis arXiv

    CERN Document Server

    Ball, Richard D.; Del Debbio, Luigi; Forte, Stefano; Kassabov, Zahari; Rojo, Juan; Slade, Emma; Ubiali, Maria

    We present a determination of the strong coupling constant $\\alpha_s(m_Z)$ based on the NNPDF3.1 determination of parton distributions, which for the first time includes constraints from jet production, top-quark pair differential distributions, and the $Z$ $p_T$ distributions using exact NNLO theory. Our result is based on a novel extension of the NNPDF methodology - the correlated replica method - which allows for a simultaneous determination of $\\alpha_s$ and the PDFs with all correlations between them fully taken into account. We study in detail all relevant sources of experimental, methodological and theoretical uncertainty. At NNLO we find $\\alpha_s(m_Z) = 0.1185 \\pm 0.0005^\\text{(exp)}\\pm 0.0001^\\text{(meth)}$, showing that methodological uncertainties are negligible. We conservatively estimate the theoretical uncertainty due to missing higher order QCD corrections (N$^3$LO and beyond) from half the shift between the NLO and NNLO $\\alpha_s$ values, finding $\\Delta\\alpha^{\\rm th}_s =0.0011$.

  2. Atmospheric pressure loading effects on Global Positioning System coordinate determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandam, Tonie M.; Blewitt, Geoffrey; Heflin, Michael B.

    1994-01-01

    Earth deformation signals caused by atmospheric pressure loading are detected in vertical position estimates at Global Positioning System (GPS) stations. Surface displacements due to changes in atmospheric pressure account for up to 24% of the total variance in the GPS height estimates. The detected loading signals are larger at higher latitudes where pressure variations are greatest; the largest effect is observed at Fairbanks, Alaska (latitude 65 deg), with a signal root mean square (RMS) of 5 mm. Out of 19 continuously operating GPS sites (with a mean of 281 daily solutions per site), 18 show a positive correlation between the GPS vertical estimates and the modeled loading displacements. Accounting for loading reduces the variance of the vertical station positions on 12 of the 19 sites investigated. Removing the modeled pressure loading from GPS determinations of baseline length for baselines longer than 6000 km reduces the variance on 73 of the 117 baselines investigated. The slight increase in variance for some of the sites and baselines is consistent with expected statistical fluctuations. The results from most stations are consistent with approximately 65% of the modeled pressure load being found in the GPS vertical position measurements. Removing an annual signal from both the measured heights and the modeled load time series leaves this value unchanged. The source of the remaining discrepancy between the modeled and observed loading signal may be the result of (1) anisotropic effects in the Earth's loading response, (2) errors in GPS estimates of tropospheric delay, (3) errors in the surface pressure data, or (4) annual signals in the time series of loading and station heights. In addition, we find that using site dependent coefficients, determined by fitting local pressure to the modeled radial displacements, reduces the variance of the measured station heights as well as or better than using the global convolution sum.

  3. Astronavigation a method for determining exact position by the stars

    CERN Document Server

    Zischka, K A

    2018-01-01

    This book acts as a manual for the ancient methods of navigating by the stars, which continue to provide the sailor or pilot with a timeless means of determining location. Despite the prevalence of GPS, a comprehensive set of formulae that can be evaluated on any inexpensive scientific calculator in the event of a catastrophic software or systems failure is a vital failsafe. It also serves as a living link to centuries of explorers from centuries past. Beginning with the basics of positional astronomy, this guide moves on to the more complex math necessary to understand the ephemerides, tables showing the future positions of the stars and planets. These astronomical almanacs were the satellite navigation of their day. The objective of this book is twofold: to provide the reader with a concise, comprehensible manual on positional astronomy as it applies to astro-navigation and to furnish the concise algorithms for finding the position of the Sun and various navigational stars at any given instant. In a worl...

  4. Determination of Beam Intensity and Position in a Particle Accelerator

    CERN Document Server

    Kasprowicz, Grzegorz; Raich, Uli

    2011-10-04

    A subject of the thesis is conception, design, implementation, tests and deployment of new position measurement system of particle bunch in the CERN PS circular accelerator. The system is based on novel algorithms of particle position determination. The Proton Synchrotron accelerator (PS), installed at CERN†, although commissioned in 1959, still plays a central role in the production of beams for the Antiproton Decelerator, Super Proton Synchrotron, various experimental areas and for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC)‡. The PS produces beams of different types of particles, mainly protons, but also various species of ions. Almost all these particle beams pass through the PS. The quality of the beams delivered to the LHC has a direct impact on the effective luminosity, and therefore the performance of the instrumentation of the PS is of great importance. The old trajectory and orbit measurement system of the PS is dated back to 1988 and no longer fulfilled present day requirements. It used 40 beam posi...

  5. Thermodynamics of nucleotide binding to actomyosin V and VI: a positive heat capacity change accompanies strong ADP binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robblee, James P; Cao, Wenxiang; Henn, Arnon; Hannemann, Diane E; De La Cruz, Enrique M

    2005-08-02

    We have measured the energetics of ATP and ADP binding to single-headed actomyosin V and VI from the temperature dependence of the rate and equilibrium binding constants. Nucleotide binding to actomyosin V and VI can be modeled as two-step binding mechanisms involving the formation of collision complexes followed by isomerization to states with high nucleotide affinity. Formation of the actomyosin VI-ATP collision complex is much weaker and slower than for actomyosin V. A three-step binding mechanism where actomyosin VI isomerizes between two conformations, one competent to bind ATP and one not, followed by rapid ATP binding best accounts for the data. ADP binds to actomyosin V more tightly than actomyosin VI. At 25 degrees C, the strong ADP-binding equilibria are comparable for actomyosin V and VI, and the different overall ADP affinities arise from differences in the ADP collision complex affinity. The actomyosin-ADP isomerization leading to strong ADP binding is entropy driven at >15 degrees C and occurs with a large, positive change in heat capacity (DeltaC(P) degrees ) for both actomyosin V and VI. Sucrose slows ADP binding and dissociation from actomyosin V and VI but not the overall equilibrium constants for strong ADP binding, indicating that solvent viscosity dampens ADP-dependent kinetic transitions, presumably a tail swing that occurs with ADP binding and release. We favor a mechanism where strong ADP binding increases the dynamics and flexibility of the actomyosin complex. The heat capacity (DeltaC(P) degrees ) and entropy (DeltaS degrees ) changes are greater for actomyosin VI than actomyosin V, suggesting different extents of ADP-induced structural rearrangement.

  6. Astrometric positioning and orbit determination of geostationary satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montojo, F. J.; López Moratalla, T.; Abad, C.

    2011-03-01

    In the project titled “Astrometric Positioning of Geostationary Satellite” (PASAGE), carried out by the Real Instituto y Observatorio de la Armada (ROA), optical observation techniques were developed to allow satellites to be located in the geostationary ring with angular accuracies of up to a few tenths of an arcsec. These techniques do not necessarily require the use of large telescopes or especially dark areas, and furthermore, because optical observation is a passive method, they could be directly applicable to the detection and monitoring of passive objects such as space debris in the geostationary ring.By using single-station angular observations, geostationary satellite orbits with positional uncertainties below 350 m (2 sigma) were reconstructed using the Orbit Determination Tool Kit software, by Analytical Graphics, Inc. This software is used in collaboration with the Spanish Instituto Nacional de Técnica Aeroespacial.Orbit determination can be improved by taking into consideration the data from other stations, such as angular observations alone or together with ranging measurements to the satellite. Tests were carried out combining angular observations with the ranging measurements obtained from the Two-Way Satellite Time and Frequency Transfer technique that is used by ROA’s Time Section to carry out time transfer with other laboratories. Results show a reduction of the 2 sigma uncertainty to less than 100 m.

  7. Using vibrational Cooper minima to determine strong-field molecular-dissociation pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severt, T.; Zohrabi, M.; Armstrong, G. S. J.; McKenna, J.; Gaire, B.; Kling, Nora G.; Ablikim, U.; Carnes, K. D.; Esry, B. D.; Ben-Itzhak, I.

    2015-05-01

    We explore the possibility of using vibrational ``Cooper minima'' (VCM) locations as a method to determine dissociation pathways of molecules in a strong laser field. As a test case, we study the laser-induced dissociation of an O2+ion beam by several wavelengths (λ = 800 , 400, and 266 nm) using a coincidence three-dimensional momentum imaging technique. Vibrational structure is observed in the kinetic energy release spectra, revealing a suppression of the dissociation of certain vibrational levels, which is a manifestation of the VCM effect. Previously, it has been shown in H2+that first-order time-dependent perturbation theory can be used to predict the locations of the VCM. We explore if the VCM locations predicted by perturbation theory can help uniquely identify dissociation pathways in O2+and consider its utility for other systems. Supported by the Chemical Sciences, Geosciences, and Biosciences Division, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Office of Science, U.S. Department of Energy. TS was partially supported by NSF-REU under Grant No. PHY-0851599.

  8. Beam position determination for the Test Storage Ring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baumann, Peter

    1987-01-01

    The Test Storage Ring (TSR) for heavy ions, currently under design and construction at the Max Planck Institute for Nuclear Physics in Heidelberg, requires an extensive beam diagnostics system in order to enable it to operate without friction. This thesis concerns the beam position determination sub-system of this diagnostics system which is intended to determine the beam center of gravity of a bunched beam inside the cross section of the beam tube in a non-destructive manner. An electrostatic pickup is used to sense the location of the beam; the mode of operation of this device will be explained in detail. The signals go to a preamplifier from where they are then sent via a multiplex system to the measuring unit. This point also represents the interface to the computer system that controls the TSR. The prototype developed here was tested with the aid of a particle beam, as well as with other measurement methods. Resolutions of better than 1 mm about the center have been measured. In order to achieve or even improve such resolutions later in actual operation, it is possible to determine the properties of the preamplifiers with the aid of calibration signals and to take these into account in the course of the signal evaluation in the computer. The differences between the individual electrodes of a given pickup must also be compensated. These procedures and their associated electronic circuits are also described in this paper.

  9. Determining Position Inside Non-industrial Buildings Using Ultrasound Transducers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escudero, Francesc; Margalef, Jordi; Luengo, Sonia; Alsina, Maria; Ribes, Josep M.; Pérez, Juan

    2007-01-01

    The position determination inside a building where no GPS signal is being received can be ascertained using laser transmitters in industrial situations where there are no people or using triangulation of the signal strength, normally electro-magnetic signals, if the required accuracy is more than a metre. Our solution is aimed at situations where people are present and where the required accuracy is less than 30 cm, such as in shopping precincts or supermarkets. To achieve this, a network of ultrasonic transmitters is fitted into the ceiling which receives a synchronised time signal. Each transmitter has a unique identifier code and emits its code with a delay with respect to the common time signal which is proportional to its code number with an ASK modulation over the ultrasonic band centred on 40 KHz. The receivers circulating beneath the transmitters receive the codes of those within their detection range, translate the time delays into distances and then obtain their position by triangulation since the receivers know the position of every transmitter. Since the receivers are not synchronised with the common time signal or the actual speed of the sound, whose value varies appreciably with temperature, relative humidity and atmospheric pressure, a consecutive approximation algorithm has been introduced. This is based on the fact that the Z coordinator of the receiver is known and constant and thus it is possible, with only three different identifiers received, to deduce the phase of the common time signal and estimate the speed of the sound with a fourth identifier. PMID:28903247

  10. Lipid-rich carcinoma of the breast that is strongly positive for estrogen receptor: a case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oba T

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Takaaki Oba,1 Mayu Ono,1 Asumi Iesato,1 Toru Hanamura,1 Takayuki Watanabe,1 Tokiko Ito,1 Toshiharu Kanai,1 Kazuma Maeno,1 Ken-ichi Ito,1 Ayako Tateishi,2 Akihiko Yoshizawa,2 Fumiyoshi Takayama31Division of Breast, Endocrine and Respiratory Surgery, Department of Surgery, Shinshu University School of Medicine, Matsumoto, Nagano, 2Department of Laboratory Medicine, Shinshu University Hospital, 3Imaging Center, Ichinose Neurosurgical Hospital, Matsumoto, JapanAbstract: Lipid-rich carcinoma (LRC of the breast is a rare breast cancer variant that accounts for <1% of all breast malignancies. It has been reported that LRCs are negative for estrogen receptor. Here, we report a case of LRC of the breast that was strongly positive for estrogen receptor and treated with endocrine adjuvant therapy. A 52-year-old postmenopausal female noticed a lump in her right breast by self-examination and presented to our hospital. Physical examination revealed an elastic 30 mm ×20 mm hard mass in the upper medial part of her right breast. The findings obtained using ultrasonography, mammography, and contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging suggested breast cancer. Core needle biopsy resulted in the diagnosis of invasive carcinoma. The patient underwent mastectomy and sentinel lymph node biopsy. Histopathologically, the tumor cells were abundant in foamy cytoplasm. Because the presence of marked cytoplasmic lipid droplets was confirmed by Sudan IV staining and electron microscopic examination of the tumor and the lipid droplets were negative for periodic acid–Schiff staining, the tumor was diagnosed as an LRC. Immunohistochemically, estrogen and progesterone receptors of the tumor were strongly positive, human epidermal growth factor receptor type 2 was negative, and the ratio of Ki-67-positive cells was ~30%. After surgery, the patient underwent combination chemotherapy with anthracycline, cyclophosphamide, and 5-fluorouracil, followed by docetaxel. Thereafter

  11. Determination of tropane alkaloids by heart cutting reversed phase - Strong cation exchange two dimensional liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Zhen; Zhang, Yanhai; Gamache, Paul; Guo, Zhimou; Steiner, Frank; Du, Nana; Liu, Xiaoda; Jin, Yan; Liu, Xingguo; Liu, Lvye

    2018-01-01

    Current Chinese Pharmacopoeia (ChP) standards apply liquid extraction combined with one dimensional liquid chromatography (1DLC) method for determining alkaloids in herbal medicines. The complex pretreatments lead to a low analytical efficiency and possible component loss. In this study, a heart cutting reversed phase - strong cation exchange two dimensional liquid chromatography (RP - SCX 2DLC) approach was optimized for simultaneously quantifying tropane alkaloids (anisodine, scopolamine and hyoscyamine) in herbal medicines and herbal medicine tablets without further treatment of the filtered extract. The chromatographic conditions were systematically optimized in terms of column type, mobile phase composition and flow rate. To improve peak capacity and obtain symmetric peak shape of alkaloids, a polar group embedded C18 column combined with chaotropic salts was used in the first dimension. To remove the disturbance of non-alkaloids, achieve unique selectivity and acquire symmetric peak shape of alkaloids, an SCX column combined with phosphate buffer was used in the second dimension. Method validation was performed in terms of linearity, precision (0.54-0.82%), recovery (94.1-105.2%), limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) of the three analytes varied between 0.067-0.115mgL -1 and 0.195-0.268mgL -1 , respectively. The method demonstrated superiority over 1DLC method in respect of resolution (less alkaloid co-eluted), sample preparation (no pretreatment procedure) and transfer rate (minimum component loss). The optimized RP - SCX 2DLC approach was subsequently applied to quantify target alkaloids in five herbal medicines and herbal medicine tablets from three different manufactures. The results demonstrated that the developed heart cutting RP - SCX 2DLC approach represented a new, strategically significant methodology for the quality evaluation of tropane alkaloid in related herbal medicines that involve complex chemical matrix. Copyright

  12. Determination of position of tumour within patients body- aligning radiation image on detector array from two different positions to allow precise calculation of target position

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dancer, P.

    1993-01-01

    The process for determining the exact position of a target includes use of a radiation source emitting radiation past the target to a receiver. The receiver includes a head comprising an array of active sensing elements whose positions are known. The radiation source is moved to two different positions, and the corresponding target position on the detector determined. From the two positions, the exact position of the target within the body may be computed

  13. The StrongWomen Change Clubs: Engaging Residents to Catalyze Positive Change in Food and Physical Activity Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca A. Seguin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The epidemic of obesity is a multifaceted public health issue. Positive policy and environmental changes are needed to support healthier eating and increased physical activity. Methods. StrongWomen Change Clubs (SWCCs were developed through an academic-community research partnership between researchers at Cornell University and Tufts University and community partners (cooperative extension educators in rural towns in seven U.S. states. Extension educators served as the local leader and each recruited 10–15 residents to undertake a project to improve some aspect of the nutrition or physical activity environment. Most residents had limited (or no experience in civic engagement. At 6 and 12 months after implementation, the research team conducted key informant interviews with SWCC leaders to capture their perceptions of program process, benchmark achievement, and self-efficacy. Results. At 12 months, each SWCC had accomplished one benchmark; the majority had completed three or more benchmarks. They described common processes for achieving benchmarks such as building relationships and leveraging stakeholder partnerships. Barriers to benchmark achievement included busy schedules and resistance to and slow pace of change. Conclusion. Findings suggest that community change initiatives that involve stakeholders, build upon existing activities and organizational resources, and establish feasible timelines and goals can successfully catalyze environmental change.

  14. Determination of the Relative Positions of Three Planes: Action Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuba Ada

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to explore how a more effective lesson plan and teaching environment can be achieved so as to improve elementary mathematics teacher candidates’ achievement in analytical examination of planes in space. In order to improve achievement in expressing the relative positions of three planes not only algebraically but also visually the study used an action research approach as planned by the researchers. In Implementation 1, the teacher candidates were given the equations of three planes and they were asked to determine the relative positions of the planes so that their prior knowledge could be identified. In this stage, the candidate teachers tried to determine the relative positions of the planes in one direction by examining the plane equations in pairs. In Implementation 2, the candidate teachers were asked to find the solution set of the linear equation system consisting of three equations with three unknowns and to come up with geometric interpretation of this solution. In this stage, some of the candidate teachers were able to solve the equation, but they couldn’t interpret it geometrically. In Implementation 3, Maple, a computer algebra system, was used so that the candidate teachers could visualize and observe the relative positions of the three planes by using the plane equations. In this stage, the candidate teachers associated the set of solutions of the plane equations with the three-dimensional images obtained with Maple. The results of the implementation showed that the proposed plan improved the mathematics teacher candidates’ visualization of the relative positions of the three planes.Keywords: planes in space, analytic geometry, Maple, action researchÜç Düzlemin Birbirine Göre Konumunun Belirlenmesi: Eylem AraştırmasıÖzBu çalışmanın amacı, ilköğretim Matematik öğretmen adaylarının uzayda düzlemlerin analitik incelenmesi konusundaki başarısını arttırmak için daha etkili

  15. Determination of nuclear friction in strongly damped reactions from prescission neutron multiplicities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilczynski, J. [Soltan Inst. for Nuclear Studies, Otwock-Swierk (Poland); Siwek-Wilczynska, K. [Warsaw Univ., Inst. of Experimental Physics, Warsaw (Poland); Wilschut, H.W. [Kernfysisch Verneller Instituut, Groningen (Netherlands)

    1996-12-31

    The neutron multiplicities in non-fusion reactions have been calculated in the frame of classical equation of motion with friction (Lagrange-Rayleigh equations) The calculated data were compared with the reported neutron multiplicities data. The results shown an evidence of the onset of a strong two-body dissipation at unexpected low temperatures, already at about 2 MeV. 3 refs, 1 fig.

  16. Plexcitons: The Role of Oscillator Strengths and Spectral Widths in Determining Strong Coupling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, Reshmi [School; Thomas, Anoop [School; Pullanchery, Saranya [School; Joseph, Linta [School; Somasundaran, Sanoop Mambully [School; Swathi, Rotti Srinivasamurthy [School; Gray, Stephen K. [Center; Thomas, K. George [School

    2018-01-05

    Strong coupling interactions between plasmon and exciton-based excitations have been proposed to be useful in the design of optoelectronic systems. However, the role of various optical parameters dictating the plasmon-exciton (plexciton) interactions is less understood. Herein, we propose an inequality for achieving strong coupling between plasmons and excitons through appropriate variation of their oscillator strengths and spectral widths. These aspects are found to be consistent with experiments on two sets of free-standing plexcitonic systems obtained by (i) linking fluorescein isothiocyanate on Ag nanoparticles of varying sizes through silane coupling and (ii) electrostatic binding of cyanine dyes on polystyrenesulfonate-coated Au nanorods of varying aspect ratios. Being covalently linked on Ag nanoparticles, fluorescein isothiocyanate remains in monomeric state, and its high oscillator strength and narrow spectral width enable us to approach the strong coupling limit. In contrast, in the presence of polystyrenesulfonate, monomeric forms of cyanine dyes exist in equilibrium with their aggregates: Coupling is not observed for monomers and H-aggregates whose optical parameters are unfavorable. The large aggregation number, narrow spectral width, and extremely high oscillator strength of J-aggregates of cyanines permit effective delocalization of excitons along the linear assembly of chromophores, which in turn leads to efficient coupling with the plasmons. Further, the results obtained from experiments and theoretical models are jointly employed to describe the plexcitonic states, estimate the coupling strengths, and rationalize the dispersion curves. The experimental results and the theoretical analysis presented here portray a way forward to the rational design of plexcitonic systems attaining the strong coupling limits.

  17. Video-Aided GPS/INS Positioning and Attitude Determination

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brown, Alison; Silva, Randy

    2006-01-01

    .... When the GPS satellite signals are denied, either through intentional jamming or by natural conditions such as urban or terrain masking, the positioning and attitude performance will rapidly degrade...

  18. Improving vertex position determination by using a kinematic fit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forden, G.E.; Saxon, D.H.

    1985-05-01

    A method is developed for improving decay vertex reconstruction by using kinematic fits. This is applied to generated charm meson decays. An improvement of 16% in the vertex position measurement along the flight path is achieved. (author)

  19. A study to determine influential factors on product positioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser Azad

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Product positioning plays an important role on business development especially in food industry. In this paper, we perform an exploration study to find important factors influencing product positioning in Iranian food industry. The study designs a questionnaire in Likert scale and distributes it among 260 randomly selected people from food industry. Cronbach alpha has been calculated as 0.86 in preliminary stage and final 0.697 in final stage, which are statistically acceptable. The study uses factor analysis to find important factors and detects six important factors including marketing organization, market analysis, past perception strategy, product presentation, brand loyalty and dynamic organizational structure.

  20. The determination of the rotation period and magnetic field geometry of the strongly magnetic roAp star HD 154708

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hubrig, S.; Mathys, G.; Kurtz, D.W.; Schöller, M.; Elkin, V.G.; Henrichs, H.F.

    2009-01-01

    We obtained 13 spectropolarimetric observations of the strongly magnetic rapidly oscillating Ap star HD 154708 over 3 months with the multimode instrument FORS 1, installed at the 8-m Kueyen telescope of the Very Large Telescope. These observations have been used for the determination of the

  1. Determinations of the QCD strong coupling αsub(s) and the scale Λsub(QCD)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duke, D.W.; Roberts, R.G.

    1984-08-01

    The authors review determinations, via experiment of the strong coupling of QCD, αsub(s). In almost every case, the results are used of perturbative QCD to make the necessary extraction from data. These include scaling violations of deep inelastic scattering, e + e - annihilation experiments (including quarkonium decays) and lepton pair production. Finally estimates for Λ from lattice calculations are listed. (author)

  2. Multi-platform Integrated Positioning and Attitude Determination using GNSS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buist, P.J.

    2013-01-01

    There is trend in spacecraft engineering toward distributed systems where a number of smaller spacecraft work as a larger satellite. However, in order to make the small satellites work together as a single large platform, the precise relative positions (baseline) and orientations (attitude) of the

  3. Determination of UAV position using high accuracy navigation platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ireneusz Kubicki

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The choice of navigation system for mini UAV is very important because of its application and exploitation, particularly when the installed on it a synthetic aperture radar requires highly precise information about an object’s position. The presented exemplary solution of such a system draws attention to the possible problems associated with the use of appropriate technology, sensors, and devices or with a complete navigation system. The position and spatial orientation errors of the measurement platform influence on the obtained SAR imaging. Both, turbulences and maneuvers performed during flight cause the changes in the position of the airborne object resulting in deterioration or lack of images from SAR. Consequently, it is necessary to perform operations for reducing or eliminating the impact of the sensors’ errors on the UAV position accuracy. You need to look for compromise solutions between newer better technologies and in the field of software. Keywords: navigation systems, unmanned aerial vehicles, sensors integration

  4. Determining the localization of premolar zenith positions according ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-09-03

    Sep 3, 2014 ... Department of Prosthodontics, Ondokuz Mayis University, Faculty of Dentistry, Atakum, Samsun,. 1Department of Prosthodontics ... Alginate impressions of the study group were made using irreversible hydrocolloid ... cast model using digital Vernier caliper, and the readings were noted as mm. Positive ...

  5. Strong positive effects of termites on savanna bird abundance and diversity are amplified by large herbivore exclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moe, Stein R; Eldegard, Katrine; Rannestad, Ole Tobias; Okullo, Paul; Lindtjørn, Ommund; Støen, Ole Gunnar; Dale, Svein

    2017-12-01

    Vast areas of the African savanna landscapes are characterized by tree-covered Macrotermes termite mounds embedded within a relatively open savanna matrix. In concert with termites, large herbivores are important determinants of savanna woody vegetation cover. The relative cover of woody species has considerable effects on savanna function. Despite the potentially important ecological relationships between termite mounds, woody plants, large herbivores, and birds, these associations have previously received surprisingly little attention. We experimentally studied the effects of termites and large herbivores on the avian community in Lake Mburo National Park, Uganda, where woody vegetation is essentially limited to termite mounds. Our experiment comprised of four treatments in nine replicates; unfenced termite mounds, fenced mounds (excluding large mammals), unfenced adjacent savanna, and fenced savanna. We recorded species identity, abundance, and behavior of all birds observed on these plots over a two-month period, from late dry until wet season. Birds used termite mounds almost exclusively, with only 3.5% of observations occurring in the treeless intermound savanna matrix. Mean abundance and species richness of birds doubled on fenced (large herbivores excluded) compared to unfenced mounds. Feeding behavior increased when large mammals were excluded from mounds, both in absolute number of observed individuals, and relative to other behaviors. This study documents the fundamental positive impact of Macrotermes termites on bird abundance and diversity in an African savanna. Birds play crucial functional roles in savanna ecosystems, for example, by dispersing fruits or regulating herbivorous insect populations. Thus, the role of birds in savanna dynamics depends on the distribution and abundance of termite mounds.

  6. Determination of nuclear friction in strongly damped reactions from prescission neutron multiplicities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilczyński, J.; Siwek-Wilczyńska, K.; Wilschut, H. W.

    1996-07-01

    Nonfusion, fissionlike reactions in collisions of four heavy systems (well below the fusion extra-push energy threshold), for which Hinde and co-workers had measured the prescission neutron multiplicities, have been analyzed in terms of the deterministic dynamic model of Feldmeier coupled to a time-dependent statistical cascade calculation. In order to reproduce the measured prescission multiplicities and the observed (nearly symmetric) mass divisions, the energy dissipation must be dramatically changed with regard to the standard one-body dissipation: In the entrance channel, in the process of forming a composite system, the energy dissipation has to be reduced to at least half of the one-body dissipation strength (kinsmononucleus shape to scission) it must be increased by a factor ranging for the studied reactions from kouts=4 to kouts=12. These results are compared with the temperature dependence of the friction coefficient, recently deduced by Hofman, Back, and Paul from data on the prescission giant dipole resonance emission in fusion-fission reactions. The combined picture of the temperature dependence of the friction coefficient, for both fusion-fission and nonfusion reactions, may indicate the onset of strong two-body dissipation already at a nuclear temperature of about 2 MeV.

  7. Time-Synchronized Beacons for Relative UAV Position Determination

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Research is required to determine the optimal pulse length, pulse frequency, pulse power, and optical communications encoding technique to meet FAA and STMD...

  8. Diabetes mellitus unawareness is a strong determinant of mortality in patients manifesting myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, Valéria N; Godoi, Filipe Canela de Souza; Martins, Nestor S; Quinaglia e Silva, Jose C; Nadruz, Wilson; Coelho, Otavio R; Sposito, Andrei C

    2013-11-01

    Often, as diabetes mellitus type 2 (T2DM) evolves insidiously, prevention is commenced late and diagnosis is made when vascular damage has been set. Hence, our hypothesis is that T2DM awareness may influence the outcome of atherothrombotic events. A consecutive cohort of patients manifesting ST-elevation myocardial infarction (MI) was classified according to the presence and awareness of the diagnosis of T2DM: known diabetes (kT2DM, n = 72), unknown diabetes (uT2DM, n = 80) and no diabetes (ND, n = 333). Medical history, laboratory data, and angiographic findings including myocardial blush grade (MBG) were prospectively obtained. The primary endpoint was in-hospital death and secondary endpoint was major adverse cardiac events (MACE) defined as sudden cardiac death, fatal MI and nonfatal MI that occurred from 30 days of study entry onwards. With the exception of glycated hemoglobin (p = 0.001) and triglycerides (p = 0.04), no differences were found between groups for all other biochemical, clinical or angiographic admission characteristics. Myocardial tissue reperfusion defined as MBG 3 was observed in 62% in the ND group, 50% in the kT2DM group and 23% in the uT2DM group (p = 0.01). All-cause in-hospital mortality was higher in uT2DM (16.7%) than in kT2DM (8.4%) and both groups had a higher mortality rate as compared with the ND group (3.8%, p = 0.01). During follow-up (653 ± 26 days), the incidence of MACE was higher in uT2DM than in kT2DM and in both compared to the ND group (p = 0.002). Unawareness of T2DM diagnosis is strongly associated with a poor short- and long-term outcome after MI.

  9. Determination of the Bjorken Sum and Strong Coupling from Polarized Structure Functions

    CERN Document Server

    Altarelli, Guido; Forte, Stefano; Ridolfi, G; Altarelli, Guido; Ball, Richard D.; Forte, Stefano; Ridolfi, Giovanni

    1997-01-01

    We present a NLO perturbative analysis of all available data on the polarized structure function g_1(x,Q^2) with the aim of making a quantitative test of the validity of the Bjorken sum rule, of measuring \\alpha_s, and of deriving helicity fractions. We take particular care over the small x extrapolation, since it is now known that Regge behaviour is unreliable at perturbative scales. For fixed \\alpha_s we find that if all the most recent data are included g_A=1.18\\pm0.09, confirming the Bjorken sum rule at the 8% level. We further show that the value of \\alpha_s is now reasonably well constrained by scaling violations in the structure function data, despite the fact that it cannot yet be reliably fixed by the value of the Bjorken sum: our final result is \\alpha_s(m_Z) = 0.120+0.010-0.008. We also confirm earlier indications of a sizeable positive gluon polarization in the nucleon.

  10. Precipitation variability as a strong determinant on tree cover across global tropics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, X.; Medvigy, D.; Guan, K.; Trugman, A. T.; Good, S. P.; Rodriguez-Iturbe, I.

    2017-12-01

    Tropical and subtropical ecosystems support a significant carbon sink and storage and provide various ecosystem services. One challenge for these ecosystems is the changing precipitation variability (PV), which is likely to become more extreme under on-going climate change. However, there is a lack of consensus in the determining role of PV on tropical tree cover, which is a widely-used indicator for ecosystem state and functions in the tropics, as well as the underlying mechanism. Here, we ask whether changes in PV by themselves are likely to lead to changes in tropical tree cover. Using a combination of climate, soil and remotely-sensed tree cover data, we comprehensively assess the effects of PV on tree cover spatial variations at intra-seasonal, seasonal and inter-annual scales. We find that PV contributes 33% -56% to the total explained spatial variation (65% -79%) in tree cover. The contribution of PV depends on mean annual precipitation (MAP) and is highest under intermediate MAP (500 - 1500 mm). In general, tree cover increases with rainy day frequency and wet season length but shows mixed responses to inter-annual precipitation variability. We further use a biophysical model to show that the PV-tree cover relation can be explained by tree-grass water competition. Our results suggest that tropical tree cover can decrease by 3-5% overall and by up to 20% in Amazonia under projected changes in PV at the end of this century.

  11. Intellectual Properties Rights-A strong determinant of economic growth in agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manju Chaudhary

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available

    In the past few decades the subject of intellectual property rights (IPRs has occupied center stage in debates about globalization, economic development and poverty elimination. This study concerns the strengthening of IPRs in the plant breeding industry and its effect on agriculture in India. In India, most of the population relies on agriculture for its livelihood. India is self-sufficient in wheat and paddy, but deficient in other agricultural products. Patents are good indicators of research and development output. Patent analysis makes it possible to map out the trend of technological change and life cycle of a technology – growth, development, maturity and decline. Patent information and patent statistical analysis have been used for examining present, technological status and to forecast future trends. One can determine the directions of corporate R&D and market interests by analyzing patent data. The present study is an attempt to analyze patents granted in India in the field of agriculture and importance of biotechnology-based innovations in agriculture

  12. Determination of global positioning system (GPS) receiver clock errors: impact on positioning accuracy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeh, Ta-Kang; Hwang, Cheinway; Xu, Guochang; Wang, Chuan-Sheng; Lee, Chien-Chih

    2009-01-01

    Enhancing the positioning precision is the primary pursuit of global positioning system (GPS) users. To achieve this goal, most studies have focused on the relationship between GPS receiver clock errors and GPS positioning precision. This study utilizes undifferentiated phase data to calculate GPS clock errors and to compare with the frequency of cesium clock directly, to verify estimated clock errors by the method used in this paper. The frequency stability calculated from this paper (the indirect method) and measured from the National Standard Time and Frequency Laboratory (NSTFL) of Taiwan (the direct method) match to 1.5 × 10 −12 (the value from this study was smaller than that from NSTFL), suggesting that the proposed technique has reached a certain level of quality. The built-in quartz clocks in the GPS receivers yield relative frequency offsets that are 3–4 orders higher than those of rubidium clocks. The frequency stability of the quartz clocks is on average two orders worse than that of the rubidium clock. Using the rubidium clock instead of the quartz clock, the horizontal and vertical positioning accuracies were improved by 26–78% (0.6–3.6 mm) and 20–34% (1.3–3.0 mm), respectively, for a short baseline. These improvements are 7–25% (0.3–1.7 mm) and 11% (1.7 mm) for a long baseline. Our experiments show that the frequency stability of the clock, rather than relative frequency offset, is the governing factor of positioning accuracy

  13. Determining the position of runways from UAV video

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Richard; Fischer, Amber

    2009-05-01

    Most UAVs use a GPS-based auto-landing system. However, GPS systems can fail, either through natural interference or deliberate jamming. To safely operate in the national airspace, UAVs must include a backup auto-landing system. At 21st Century Systems, Inc., we are developing a vision-based landing system capable of replacing GPS when GPS fails. Existing structure-from-motion techniques operate on two frames of video. These techniques find a collection of salient features in each frame. They correctly match the features between the two frames and then use epipolar geometry to calculate distances to each feature. Unfortunately, these techniques are too computationally complex to meet our realtime requirements. Instead, we have developed two closed-formed solutions that provide real-time calculations of the runway's relative position from a single frame of video. Our first approach calculates the distance and orientation based on rectangular features whose size and position are known. Precision runways have many standardized rectangular markings, providing the opportunity to create multiple rectangular templates. In our approach, we use advanced image processing to identify the feature points of these templates, and then calculate the distance to each template, combining the results across multiple templates to reduce the effects of noise. The second approach incorporates additional pose information directly from the UAV's internal compass and IMU. This both reduces the effect of noise from our image processing, and allows us to calculate the UAV's pose relative to the runway from an arbitrary set of features. We are no longer limited to rectangle shaped templates.

  14. Characterization of nonlymphoid cells in rat spleen, with special reference to strongly Ia-positive branched cells in T-cell areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dijkstra, C.D.

    1982-01-01

    By use of a monoclonal antibody against Ia antigen in an immunoperoxidase method, strongly Ia-positive branched cells are found in the T-cell areas of the splenic white pulp of the rat. In order to further characterize these cells, enzyme histochemical characteristics, phagocytic capacity, and irradiation sensitivity have been studied. Evidence is presented that these strongly Ia-positive branched cells represent interdigitating cells. The influence of whole-body irradiation on interdigitating cells is discussed. Comparison with data from the literature on the in vitro dendritic cell isolated from spleen cell suspensions reveals many similarities between the described interdigitating cell in vivo and the dendritic cell in vitro

  15. Determination of Beam Intensity and Position in a Particle Accelerator

    CERN Document Server

    Kasprowicz, Grzegorz

    2010-01-01

    The Proton Synchrotron accelerator (PS), installed at CERN, although commissioned in 1959, still plays a central role in the production of beams for the Antiproton Decelerator, Super Proton Synchrotron, various experimental areas and for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The PS produces beams of different types of particles, mainly protons, but also various species of ions. Almost all these particle beams pass through the PS. The quality of the beams delivered to the LHC has a direct impact on the effective luminosity, and therefore the performance of the instrumentation of the PS is of great importance. The old trajec- tory and orbit measurement system of the PS dated back to 1988 and no longer fulfilled present day requirements. It used 40 beam position monitors (BPMs) and an analogue signal processing chain to acquire the trajectory of one single particle bunch out of many, over two consecutive turns at a maximum rate of once every 5ms. The BPMs were in good condition, however the electronics was aging and ...

  16. Description of spinal findings and determining the MR positive spondylitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penkov, M.

    2015-01-01

    Full text: Spondyloarthritis (SpA) is an umbrella term applied to a family of rheumatic diseases that have both features in common with, as well as being distinct from, other inflammatory arthritides, particularly rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Recently, the ASAS working group established classification criteria to distinguish 2 broad categories of SpA: peripheral SpA and axSpA (Rudwaleit, 2011; Rudwaleit, 2010; Rudwaleit, 2009c). This division is based on the body part predominantly involved in the inflammatory process and those areas of the body that may respond similarly well to medication. Therefore, peripheral SpA includes diseases affecting mainly peripheral joints, such as reactive arthritis and psoriatic arthritis (PsA), whereas axSpA comprises those diseases with mainly axial involvement (sacroiliac joints and spine), including ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and nonradiographic axSpA (nr-axSpA). Patients with AS have definitive evidence of structural changes in the sacroiliac joint (sacroiliitis) on x-ray, fulfilling the Modified New York classification criteria (mNY-positive) (van der linden, 1984), whereas in those with nr-axSpA structural changes on conventional radiographs do not meet the mNy criteria (mNY-negative) (Rudwaleit, 2005; Dougados, 1991). Axial SpA is a chronic inflammatory disease that impacts a substantial proportion of the population. Limited evidence exists regarding the exact prevalence of axSpA. In the US, however, recent data suggest that the prevalence is similar to that of RA (axSpA: 0.7% to 1.4%; RA: 0.5% to 1.0%) (Reveille; 2012; Myasoedova, 2010; Helmick, 2008). In patients with axSpA, the disease typically originates in the sacroiliac joints, then progresses to the spine. In the sacroiliac joints and the spine, active inflammation results in erosions, sclerosis, and fatty lesions. However, the most characteristic feature is new bone formation leading to ankylosis of the sacroiliac joints and syndesmophytes attached to the vertebral

  17. Strong subjective recovery as a protective factor against the effects of positive symptoms on quality of life outcomes in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukla, Marina; Lysaker, Paul H; Roe, David

    2014-08-01

    Interest in recovery from schizophrenia has been growing steadily, with much of the focus on remission from psychotic symptoms and a return to functioning. Less is known about the experience of subjective recovery and its relationships with other important outcomes, such as quality of life and the formation and sustenance of social connections. This study sought to address this gap in knowledge by examining the links between self perceived recovery, symptoms, and the social components of quality of life. Sixty eight veterans with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders who were participating in a study of cognitive remediation and work were concurrently administered the Recovery Assessment Scale, Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, and the Heinrichs-Carpenter Quality of Life Scale (QLS). Linear regression analyses demonstrated that subjective recovery moderated the relationship between positive symptoms and both QLS intrapsychic foundations scores and QLS instrumental role functioning after controlling for negative symptoms. Further examination of this interaction revealed that for individuals with substantial positive symptoms, higher levels of subjective recovery were associated with better instrumental role functioning and intrapsychic foundational abilities. Greater self perceived recovery is linked with stronger quality of life, both in regards to the cognitive and affective bases for socialization and active community involvement, even in the presence of substantial psychotic symptoms. Clinical implications of these findings are discussed. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. The influence of fragmentation models on the determination of the strong coupling constant in e+e- annihilation into hadrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behrend, H.J.; Chen, C.; Fenner, H.; Schachter, M.J.; Schroeder, V.; Sindt, H.; D'Agostini, G.; Apel, W.D.; Banerjee, S.; Bodenkamp, J.; Chrobaczek, D.; Engler, J.; Fluegge, G.; Fries, D.C.; Fues, W.; Gamerdinger, K.; Hopp, G.; Kuester, H.; Mueller, H.; Randoll, H.; Schmidt, G.; Schneider, H.; Boer, W. de; Buschhorn, G.; Grindhammer, G.; Grosse-Wiesmann, P.; Gunderson, B.; Kiesling, C.; Kotthaus, R.; Kruse, U.; Lierl, H.; Lueers, D.; Oberlack, H.; Schacht, P.; Colas, P.; Cordier, A.; Davier, M.; Fournier, D.; Grivaz, J.F.; Haissinski, J.; Journe, V.; Klarsfeld, A.; Laplanche, F.; Le Diberder, F.; Mallik, U.; Veillet, J.J.; Field, J.H.; George, R.; Goldberg, M.; Grossetete, B.; Hamon, O.; Kapusta, F.; Kovacs, F.; London, G.; Poggioli, L.; Rivoal, M.; Aleksan, R.; Bouchez, J.; Carnesecchi, G.; Cozzika, G.; Ducros, Y.; Gaidot, A.; Jadach, S.; Lavagne, Y.; Pamela, J.; Pansart, J.P.; Pierre, F.

    1983-01-01

    Hadronic events obtained with the CELLO detector at PETRA were compared with first-order QCD predictions using two different models for the fragmentation of quarks and gluons, the Hoyer model and the Lund model. Both models are in reasonable agreement with the data, although they do not completely reproduce the details of many distributions. Several methods have been applied to determine the strong coupling constant αsub(s). Although within one model the value of αsub(s) varies by 20% among the different methods, the values determined using the Lund model are 30% or more larger (depending on the method used) than the values determined with the Hoyer model. Our results using the Hoyer model are in agreement with previous results based on this approach. (orig.)

  19. Strong positive effects of termites on savanna bird abundance and diversity are amplified by large herbivore exclusion

    OpenAIRE

    Moe, Stein R.; Eldegard, Katrine; Rannestad, Ole Tobias; Okullo, Paul; Lindtjørn, Ommund; Støen, Ole Gunnar; Dale, Svein

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Vast areas of the African savanna landscapes are characterized by tree‐covered Macrotermes termite mounds embedded within a relatively open savanna matrix. In concert with termites, large herbivores are important determinants of savanna woody vegetation cover. The relative cover of woody species has considerable effects on savanna function. Despite the potentially important ecological relationships between termite mounds, woody plants, large herbivores, and birds, these associations ...

  20. 10 CFR 26.103 - Determining a confirmed positive test result for alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Determining a confirmed positive test result for alcohol... Specimens for Testing § 26.103 Determining a confirmed positive test result for alcohol. (a) A confirmed positive test result for alcohol must be declared under any of the following conditions: (1) When the...

  1. Evaluation of DNA typing as a positive identification method for soft and hard tissues immersed in strong acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robino, C; Pazzi, M; Di Vella, G; Martinelli, D; Mazzola, L; Ricci, U; Testi, R; Vincenti, M

    2015-11-01

    Identification of human remains can be hindered by several factors (e.g., traumatic mutilation, carbonization or decomposition). Moreover, in some criminal cases, offenders may purposely adopt various expedients to thwart the victim's identification, including the dissolution of body tissues by the use of corrosive reagents, as repeatedly reported in the past for Mafia-related murders. By means of an animal model, namely porcine samples, we evaluated standard DNA typing as a method for identifying soft (muscle) and hard (bone and teeth) tissues immersed in strong acids (hydrochloric, nitric and sulfuric acid) or in mixtures of acids (aqua regia). Samples were tested at different time intervals, ranging between 2 and 6h (soft tissues) and 2-28 days (hard tissues). It was shown that, in every type of acid, complete degradation of the DNA extracted from soft tissues preceded tissue dissolution and could be observed within 4h of immersion. Conversely, high molecular weight DNA amenable to STR analysis could be isolated from hard tissues as long as cortical bone fragments were still present (28 days for sulfuric acid, 7 days for nitric acid, 2 days for hydrochloric acid and aqua regia), or the integrity of the dental pulp chamber was preserved (7 days, in sulfuric acid only). The results indicate that DNA profiling of acid-treated body parts (in particular, cortical bone) is still feasible at advanced stages of corrosion, even when the morphological methods used in forensic anthropology and odontology can no longer be applied for identification purposes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Vegetation heterogeneity and landscape position exert strong controls on soil CO2 efflux in a moist, Appalachian watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkins, J. W.; Epstein, H. E.; Welsch, D. L.

    2014-12-01

    In topographically complex watersheds, landscape position and vegetation heterogeneity can alter the soil water regime through both lateral and vertical redistribution, respectively. These alterations of soil moisture may have significant impacts on the spatial heterogeneity of biogeochemical cycles throughout the watershed. To evaluate how landscape position and vegetation heterogeneity affect soil CO2 efflux (FSOIL) we conducted observations across the Weimer Run watershed (373 ha), located near Davis, West Virginia, for three growing seasons with varying precipitation (2010 - 1042 mm; 2011 - 1739 mm; 2012 - 1244 mm; precipitation data from BDKW2 station, MesoWest, University of Utah). An apparent soil temperature threshold of 11 °C at 12 cm depth on FSOIL was observed in our data - where FSOIL rates greatly increase in variance above this threshold. For analysis, FSOIL values above this threshold were isolated and examined. Differences in FSOIL among years were apparent by elevation (F4,633 = 3.17; p = 0.013) and by vegetation cover (F4, 633 = 2.96; p = 0.019). For the Weimer Run watershed, vegetation exerts the major control on soil CO2 efflux (FSOIL), with the plots beneath shrubs at all elevations for all years showing the greatest mean rates of FSOIL (6.07 μmol CO2 m-2 s-1) compared to plots beneath closed-forest canopy (4.69 μmol CO2 m-2 s-1) and plots located in open, forest gaps (4.09 μmol CO2 m-2 s-1) plots. During periods of high soil moisture, we find that CO2 efflux rates are constrained and that maximum efflux rates in this system occur during periods of average to below average soil water availability. These findings offer valuable insight into the processes occurring within these topographically complex, temperate and humid systems, and the interactions of abiotic and biotic factors mediating biogeochemical cycles. With possible changing rainfall patterns as predicted by climate models, it is important to understand the couplings between water

  3. Starting off on the right foot: strong right-footers respond faster with the right foot to positive words and with the left foot to negative words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Vega, Irmgard; Graebe, Julia; Härtner, Leonie; Dudschig, Carolin; Kaup, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have provided evidence for an association between valence and left/right modulated by handedness, which is predicted by the body-specificity hypothesis (Casasanto, 2009) and also reflected in response times. We investigated whether such a response facilitation can also be observed with foot responses. Right-footed participants classified positive and negative words according to their valence by pressing a key with their left or right foot. A significant interaction between valence and foot only emerged in the by-items analysis. However, when dividing participants into two groups depending on the strength of their footedness, an interaction between valence and left/right was observed for strong right-footers, who responded faster with the right foot to positive words, and with the left foot to negative words. No interaction emerged for weak right-footers. The results strongly support the assumption that fluency lies at the core of the association between valence and left/right.

  4. THE ISSUE OF DETERMINING THE GEOMETRIC POSITION DEVIATION OF THE THREADED HOLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavol Martikáň

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The present article analyzes the specific measurement strategies (techniques of contact measurement that are used to determine the position deviation of the threaded holes using 3D coordinate measuring system. Furthermore, there are analyzed direct and indirect (location gages measurement techniques to determine position of the threaded holes and results of the measurements.

  5. Genetic and other factors determining mannose-binding lectin levels in American Indians: the Strong Heart Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Best, Lyle G; Ferrell, Robert E; Decroo, Susan

    2009-01-01

    were selected for analysis of circulating MBL levels by double sandwich ELISA method. Mean MBL levels were compared between genotypic groups and multivariate regression was used to determine other independent factors influencing MBL2 expression. RESULTS: Our results confirm the effects of variant...... structural (B, C, and D) and promoter (H and Y) alleles that have been seen in other populations. In addition, MBL levels were found to be positively associated with male gender and hemoglobin A1c levels, but inversely related to triglyceride levels. Correlation was not found between MBL and other markers...

  6. Measurement of Inclusive Jet Production in Deep-Inelastic Scattering at High Q$^{2}$ and Determination of the Strong Coupling

    CERN Document Server

    Aktas, A.; Andreev, V.; Anthonis, T.; Antunovic, B.; Aplin, S.; Asmone, A.; Astvatsatourov, A.; Backovic, S.; Baghdasaryan, A.; Baranov, P.; Barrelet, E.; Bartel, W.; Baudrand, S.; Beckingham, M.; Begzsuren, K.; Behnke, O.; Behrendt, O.; Belousov, A.; Berger, N.; Bizot, J.C.; Boenig, M.-O.; Boudry, V.; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I.; Bracinik, J.; Brandt, G.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Bruncko, D.; Busser, F.W.; Bunyatyan, A.; Buschhorn, G.; Bystritskaya, L.; Campbell, A.J.; Cantun Avila, K.B.; Cassol-Brunner, F.; Cerny, K.; Cerny, V.; Chekelian, V.; Cholewa, A.; Contreras, J.G.; Coughlan, J.A.; Cozzika, G.; Cvach, J.; Dainton, J.B.; Daum, K.; Deak, M.; de Boer, Y.; Delcourt, B.; Del Degan, M.; Delvax, J.; De Roeck, A.; De Wolf, E.A.; Diaconu, C.; Dodonov, V.; Dubak, A.; Eckerlin, Guenter; Efremenko, V.; Egli, S.; Eichler, R.; Eisele, F.; Eliseev, A.; Elsen, E.; Essenov, S.; Falkiewicz, A.; Faulkner, P.J.W.; Favart, L.; Fedotov, A.; Felst, R.; Feltesse, J.; Ferencei, J.; Finke, L.; Fleischer, M.; Fomenko, A.; Franke, G.; Frisson, T.; Gabathuler, E.; Gayler, J.; Ghazaryan, Samvel; Ginzburgskaya, S.; Glazov, A.; Glushkov, I.; Goerlich, L.; Goettlich, M.; Gogitidze, N.; Gorbounov, S.; Gouzevitch, M.; Grab, C.; Greenshaw, T.; Grell, B.R.; Grindhammer, G.; Habib, S.; Haidt, D.; Hansson, M.; Heinzelmann, G.; Helebrant, C.; Henderson, R.C.W.; Henschel, H.; Herrera, G.; Hildebrandt, M.; Hiller, K.H.; Hoffmann, D.; Horisberger, R.; Hovhannisyan, A.; Hreus, T.; Jacquet, M.; Janssen, M.E.; Janssen, X.; Jemanov, V.; Jonsson, L.; Johnson, D.P.; Jung, Andreas Werner; Jung, H.; Kapichine, M.; Katzy, J.; Kenyon, I.R.; Kiesling, Christian M.; Klein, M.; Kleinwort, C.; Klimkovich, T.; Kluge, T.; Knutsson, A.; Korbel, V.; Kostka, P.; Kraemer, M.; Krastev, K.; Kretzschmar, J.; Kropivnitskaya, A.; Kruger, K.; Landon, M.P.J.; Lange, W.; Lastovicka-Medin, G.; Laycock, P.; Lebedev, A.; Leibenguth, G.; Lendermann, V.; Levonian, S.; Li, G.; Lindfeld, L.; Lipka, K.; Liptaj, A.; List, B.; List, J.; Loktionova, N.; Lopez-Fernandez, R.; Lubimov, V.; Lucaci-Timoce, A.-I.; Lytkin, L.; Makankine, A.; Malinovski, E.; Marage, P.; Marti, Ll.; Martisikova, M.; Martyn, H.-U.; Maxfield, S.J.; Mehta, A.; Meier, K.; Meyer, A.B.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, J.; Michels, V.; Mikocki, S.; Milcewicz-Mika, I.; Mohamed, A.; Moreau, F.; Morozov, A.; Morris, J.V.; Mozer, Matthias Ulrich; Muller, K.; Murin, P.; Nankov, K.; Naroska, B.; Naumann, Th.; Newman, Paul R.; Niebuhr, C.; Nikiforov, A.; Nowak, G.; Nowak, K.; Nozicka, M.; Oganezov, R.; Olivier, B.; Olsson, J.E.; Osman, S.; Ozerov, D.; Palichik, V.; Panagoulias, I.; Pandurovic, M.; Papadopoulou, Th.; Pascaud, C.; Patel, G.D.; Peng, H.; Perez, E.; Perez-Astudillo, D.; Perieanu, A.; Petrukhin, A.; Picuric, I.; Piec, S.; Pitzl, D.; Placakyte, R.; Polifka, R.; Povh, B.; Preda, T.; Prideaux, P.; Radescu, V.; Rahmat, A.J.; Raicevic, N.; Ravdandorj, T.; Reimer, P.; Risler, C.; Rizvi, E.; Robmann, P.; Roland, B.; Roosen, R.; Rostovtsev, A.; Rurikova, Z.; Rusakov, S.; Salvaire, F.; Sankey, D.P.C.; Sauter, M.; Sauvan, E.; Schmidt, S.; Schmitt, S.; Schmitz, C.; Schoeffel, L.; Schoning, A.; Schultz-Coulon, H.-C.; Sefkow, F.; Shaw-West, R.N.; Sheviakov, I.; Shtarkov, L.N.; Sloan, T.; Smiljanic, Ivan; Smirnov, P.; Soloviev, Y.; South, D.; Spaskov, V.; Specka, Arnd E.; Staykova, Z.; Steder, M.; Stella, B.; Stiewe, J.; Straumann, U.; Sunar, D.; Sykora, T.; Tchoulakov, V.; Thompson, G.; Thompson, P.D.; Toll, T.; Tomasz, F.; Tran, T.H.; Traynor, D.; Trinh, T.N.; Truol, P.; Tsakov, I.; Tseepeldorj, B.; Tsipolitis, G.; Tsurin, I.; Turnau, J.; Tzamariudaki, E.; Urban, K.; Utkin, D.; Valkarova, A.; Vallee, C.; Van Mechelen, P.; Vargas Trevino, A.; Vazdik, Y.; Vinokurova, S.; Volchinski, V.; Weber, G.; Weber, R.; Wegener, D.; Werner, C.; Wessels, M.; Wissing, Ch.; Wolf, R.; Wunsch, E.; Xella, S.; Yan, W.; Yeganov, V.; Zacek, J.; Zalesak, J.; Zhang, Z.; Zhelezov, A.; Zhokin, A.; Zhu, Y.C.; Zimmermann, T.; Zohrabyan, H.; Zomer, F.

    2007-01-01

    Inclusive jet production is studied in neutral current deep-inelastic positron-proton scattering at large four momentum transfer squared Q^2>150 GeV^2 with the H1 detector at HERA. Single and double differential inclusive jet cross sections are measured as a function of Q^2 and of the transverse energy E_T of the jets in the Breit frame. The measurements are found to be well described by calculations at next-to-leading order in perturbative QCD. The running of the strong coupling is demonstrated and the value of alpha_s(M_Z) is determined. The ratio of the inclusive jet cross section to the inclusive neutral current cross section is also measured and used to extract a precise value for alpha_s(M_Z)=0.1193+/-0.0014(exp.)^{+0.0047}_{-0.0030}(th.)+/-0.0016(pdf).

  7. Impact of beauty and charm H1-ZEUS combined measurements on PDFs and determination of the strong coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vafaee, A.; Khorramian, A.

    2017-11-01

    In this QCD analysis, we investigate the impact of recent measurements of heavy-flavor charm and beauty cross sections data sets on the simultaneous determination of Parton Distribution Functions (PDFs) and the strong coupling, αs(M2Z). We perform three different fits based on Variable-Flavour Number Scheme (VFNS) at the Leading Order (LO) and Next-to-Leading Order (NLO) and choose the full HERA run I and II combined data as a new measurement of inclusive Deep Inelastic Scattering (DIS) cross sections for our base data set. We show that including charm and beauty cross sections data reduces the uncertainty of gluon distribution and improves the fit quality up to 4.1% from leading order to next-to-leading order and up to 1.7% for only NLO without and with beauty and charm data contributions.

  8. Determination of the strong coupling constant $\\alpha_s$ in multijet production with the ATLAS detector at the LHC.

    CERN Document Server

    Llorente Merino, Javier; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    A measurement of transverse energy--energy correlations and its asymmetry in $pp$ collisions recorded by the ATLAS detector at the LHC at $\\sqrt{s} = 8$ TeV is presented. The results are intepreted as a precision test of Quantum Chromodynamics, used to determine the strong coupling constant $\\alpha_s(m_Z)$ and to test asymptotic freedom up to scales close to 1 TeV. A global fit to the transverse energy--energy correlation distributions yields $\\alpha_{\\mathrm{s}}(m_Z) = 0.1162 \\pm 0.0011 \\mbox{ (exp.)}^{+0.0084}_{-0.0070} \\mbox{ (theo.)}$, while a global fit to the asymmetry distributions yields a value of $\\alpha_{\\mathrm{s}}(m_Z) = 0.1196 \\pm 0.0013 \\mbox{ (exp.)}^{+0.0075}_{-0.0045} \\mbox{ (theo.)}$.

  9. Determination of the strong coupling constant from the inclusive jet cross section in pp- collisions at sqrt s=1.96 TeV

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abazov, V.M.; et al., [Unknown; Ancu, L.S.; de Jong, S.J.; Filthaut, F.; Galea, C.F.; Hegeman, J.G.; Houben, P.; Meijer, M.M.; Svoisky, P.; van den Berg, P.J.; van Leeuwen, W.M.

    2009-01-01

    We determine the strong coupling constant alpha(s) and its energy dependence from the p(T) dependence of the inclusive jet cross section in pp collisions at s=1.96 TeV. The strong coupling constant is determined over the transverse momentum range 50 < p(T)< 145 GeV. Using perturbative QCD

  10. Satellite Positioning and Orbit Determination System SPODS:Theory and Test

    OpenAIRE

    WEI Ziqing; RUAN Rengui; JIA Xiaolin; WU Xianbing; SONG Xiaoyong; MAO Yue; FENG Laiping; ZHU Yongxing

    2016-01-01

    The Satellite Positioning and Orbit Determination System(SPODS)is a software package for GNSS positioning/orbit determination,developed by the Xi'an Research Institute of Surveying and Mapping.So far it has been able to treat GPS data and has the capability of high precision GPS positioning and orbit determination.The underlying theory and the performance test are briefly addressed.The test utilizes the GPS data collected from some 127IGS stations during days 4~10of 2009.The results show that...

  11. Self-Determination as a Psychological and Positive Youth Development Construct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eadaoin K. P. Hui

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a review of self-determination as a positive youth development construct. The definition and conceptualization of the concept are examined from the perspective of self-determination theory and the functional theory of self-determination. Theories of self-determination from the perspective of motivation and skills enhancement are examined. Factors contributing to self-determination, such as autonomy-supportive teaching and parenting style, culture, efficacy of intervention programmes, and the educational benefits of self-determination for students, are discussed. Strategies to promote self-determination in an educational context and implications for further research and practice are discussed.

  12. System and method for clock synchronization and position determination using entangled photon pairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Yanhua (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A system and method for clock synchronization and position determination using entangled photon pairs is provided. The present invention relies on the measurement of the second order correlation function of entangled states. Photons from an entangled photon source travel one-way to the clocks to be synchronized. By analyzing photon registration time histories generated at each clock location, the entangled states allow for high accuracy clock synchronization as well as high accuracy position determination.

  13. Application of the Same Beam Interferometry Measurement in Relative Position Determination on Lunar Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HUANG Anyi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Based on the principle and observation model of the same beam interferometry measurement, observation equations of differential time delay and time delay rate for targets on lunar surface are proposed. Restriction of appointed height and digital lunar height model is introduced and a Kalman filter with restriction to determine the relative position is put forward. By data simulation, the arithmetic is then validated and evaluated, which could fleetly and accurately determine the relative position between rover and lander. Low precision of the lander's position is required in the calculation.

  14. 5 CFR 213.3301 - Positions of a confidential or policy-determining nature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Positions of a confidential or policy-determining nature. 213.3301 Section 213.3301 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL... or policy-determining nature. (a) Upon specific authorization by OPM, agencies may make appointments...

  15. Real-Time and Post-Processed Orbit Determination and Positioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Sever, Yoaz E. (Inventor); Bertiger, William I. (Inventor); Dorsey, Angela R. (Inventor); Harvey, Nathaniel E. (Inventor); Lu, Wenwen (Inventor); Miller, Kevin J. (Inventor); Miller, Mark A. (Inventor); Romans, Larry J. (Inventor); Sibthorpe, Anthony J. (Inventor); Weiss, Jan P. (Inventor); hide

    2016-01-01

    Novel methods and systems for the accurate and efficient processing of real-time and latent global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) data are described. Such methods and systems can perform orbit determination of GNSS satellites, orbit determination of satellites carrying GNSS receivers, positioning of GNSS receivers, and environmental monitoring with GNSS data.

  16. Position and mass determination of multiple particles using cantilever based mass sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dohn, Søren; Schmid, Silvan; Amiot, Fabien

    2010-01-01

    Resonant microcantilevers are highly sensitive to added masses and have the potential to be used as mass-spectrometers. However, making the detection of individual added masses quantitative requires the position determination for each added mass. We derive expressions relating the position and mass...... of several added particles to the resonant frequencies of a cantilever, and an identification procedure valid for particles with different masses is proposed. The identification procedure is tested by calculating positions and mass of multiple microparticles with similar mass positioned on individual...

  17. Determination of the plasma position for its real-time control in the COMPASS tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janky, F., E-mail: jankyf@ipp.cas.cz [Institute of Plasma Physics, AS CR, v.v.i., Association EURATOM/IPP.CR, Za Slovankou 3, 182 00 Prague (Czech Republic); Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, V Holesovickach 2, CZ-18000 Prague (Czech Republic); Havlicek, J. [Institute of Plasma Physics, AS CR, v.v.i., Association EURATOM/IPP.CR, Za Slovankou 3, 182 00 Prague (Czech Republic); Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, V Holesovickach 2, CZ-18000 Prague (Czech Republic); Valcarcel, D. [Associacao EURATOM/IST, Instituto de Plasmas e Fusao Nuclear - Laboratorio Associado, Instituto Superior Tecnico, P1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Hron, M.; Horacek, J. [Institute of Plasma Physics, AS CR, v.v.i., Association EURATOM/IPP.CR, Za Slovankou 3, 182 00 Prague (Czech Republic); Kudlacek, O. [Czech Technical University, Faculty of Nuclear Sciences and Physical Engineering, Technicka 2, 166 27 Prague (Czech Republic); Panek, R. [Institute of Plasma Physics, AS CR, v.v.i., Association EURATOM/IPP.CR, Za Slovankou 3, 182 00 Prague (Czech Republic); Carvalho, B.B. [Associacao EURATOM/IST, Instituto de Plasmas e Fusao Nuclear - Laboratorio Associado, Instituto Superior Tecnico, P1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2011-10-15

    An efficient horizontal and vertical stabilization of the plasma column position are essential for a reliable tokamak operation. Plasma position is generally determined by plasma current, plasma pressure and external vertical and horizontal magnetic fields. Such fields are generated by poloidal field coils and proper algorithm for the current control have to by applied, namely, in case of fast feedback loops. This paper presents a real-time plasma position reconstruction algorithms developed for the COMPASS tokamak. Further, its implementation in the MARTe (Multithreaded Application Real-Time executor) is described and the first results from test of the algorithm for real-time control of horizontal plasma positions are presented.

  18. Determination of curve 1/M profile as a function of control rod bank position

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, Valmir; Martinez, Aquilino Senra; Silva, Fernando Carvalho da

    2002-01-01

    Determination of the subcritical multiplication curve profile (1/M) as a function of control rod bank position is of paramount importance to the development of a system which allows to foresee and also anticipate determination of criticality of a PWR reactor core. This work aims at determining this profile. For that, the 3D- two group-diffusion equations for a subcritical PWR reactor core with external neutron source is solved for different control rod bank positions. Results obtained are compared with the results from the corresponding eigenvalue problem, in order to verify how the external neutron source interferes with the reactor criticality search. (author)

  19. A randomized controlled trial of strong minds: A school-based mental health program combining acceptance and commitment therapy and positive psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burckhardt, Rowan; Manicavasagar, Vijaya; Batterham, Philip J; Hadzi-Pavlovic, Dusan

    2016-08-01

    To date, most early intervention programs have been based on emotion regulation strategies that address dysfunctional cognitive appraisals, problem-solving skills, and rumination. Another emotion regulation strategy, 'acceptance' training, has largely been overlooked. To examine the efficacy of this strategy, a school-based mental health program combining positive psychology with acceptance and commitment therapy (Strong Minds) was evaluated in a randomized controlled trial with a sample of 267 Year 10 and 11 high-school students in Sydney, Australia. Mixed models for repeated measures examined whether the program led to reductions in symptoms amongst students who commenced the program with high depression, anxiety, and stress scores, and increased wellbeing scores amongst all students. Results demonstrated that compared to controls, participants in the Strong Minds condition with elevated symptom scores (n=63) reported significant reductions in depression (p=.047), stress (p=.01), and composite depression/anxiety symptoms (p=.02) with medium to strong effect sizes (Cohen's d=0.53, 0.74, and 0.57, respectively). Increased wellbeing (p=.03) in the total sample and decreased anxiety scores (p=.048) for students with elevated symptoms were significant for Year 10 students with medium effect sizes (Cohen's d=0.43 and 0.54, respectively). This study tentatively suggests that including the emotion regulation strategy of acceptance in early intervention programs may be effective in reducing symptoms and improving wellbeing in high school students. Further research to investigate the generalizability of these findings is warranted. Copyright © 2016 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Bystander Position Taking in School Bullying: The Role of Positive Identity, Self-Efficacy, and Self-Determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra K. M. Tsang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available School bullying has become an explicit, burgeoning problem challenging the healthy development of children and adolescents in Hong Kong. Many bullying prevention and intervention programs focus on victims and bullies, with bystanders treated as either nonexistent or irrelevant. This paper asserts that bystanders actually play pivotal roles in deciding whether the bullying process and dynamics are benign or adversarial. Bystanders' own abilities and characteristics often influence how they respond to victims and bullies. “P.A.T.H.S. to Adulthood: A Jockey Club Youth Enhancement Scheme” (P.A.T.H.S. = Positive Adolescent Training through Holistic Social Programmes is an evidence-based positive youth development program which shows that primary intervention programs have constructive impacts on junior secondary school students' beliefs and behavior. This paper asserts that intrapsychic qualities, namely identity, self-efficacy, and self-determination, greatly influence how bystanders react in school bullying situations. The paper also explains how classroom-based educational programs based on the P.A.T.H.S. model have been designed to help junior secondary school students strengthen these characteristics, so that they can be constructive bystanders when they encounter school bullying.

  1. [Determination of femoral head position with transinguinal ultrasound in DDH treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberhardt, O; Zieger, M; Wirth, T; Fernandez, F F

    2009-01-01

    Determination of the femoral head position after closed or open reduction and application of a spica cast is possible by X-ray, MRI, CT or transinguinal ultrasound. In this study we compared the efficacy of transinguinal ultrasound and radiography. Further options with transinguinal ultrasound such as the determination of soft tissue and intraoperative possibilities are also described. In a first cohort of 25 patients with 33 affected hips ultrasound and radiography were compared. In a second cohort of 8 patients with 11 affected hips ultrasound and arthrography were compared. 32 radiographs proved to be not useful for the precise determination of the femoral head position. In all ultrasound images the criteria described by van Douveren et al. could be identified. All ultrasound images in the study were useful and gave reliable information with regard to the femoral head position. Consequently, standard radiographic documentation is no longer used as a standard in our clinic. MRI and CT are reserved for special cases. We recommend transinguinal ultrasound as a standard diagnostic method for determination of the femoral head position in hip spica casts. With a portable ultasound system, determination of the hip position using transinguinal ultrasound is immediately possible in the operating theatre. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart, New York.

  2. Strongly positive anti-CCP antibodies in patients with sacroiliitis or reactive arthritis post-E. coli infection: A mini case-series based review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh Sangha, Miljyot; Wright, Matthew Liam; Ciurtin, Coziana

    2018-01-01

    We report here on four cases of patients with strongly positive anti-citrullinated cyclic peptides (anti-CCP) antibodies and clinical features of seronegative spondyloarthritis (SpA) and reactive arthritis. The four patients had various clinical presentations: one had an initial diagnosis of seropositive rheumatoid arthritis (RA) with involvement of the sacroiliac joints (similar to previous reports of the association of two diseases); one had a clinical picture of reactive arthritis following an episode of an Escherichia coli positive urinary tract infection; and two had asymmetrical sacroiliitis (SII), but no evidence of peripheral joint involvement (never reported before). In all cases, high titers of anti-CCP antibodies were found. We present a comparison of the clinical manifestations, radiographic features and treatment regimens of these cases. Our report supports previous literature data of possible overlap existing between RA and SpA, but also presents for the first time the association of high titers of anti-CCP antibodies with SII and reactive arthritis in patients with no peripheral small joint involvement. © 2017 Asia Pacific League of Associations for Rheumatology and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  3. Determination and optimization of a strong promoter element from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens by using a promoter probe vector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Yuling; Wang, Bin; Ye, Yanrui; Pan, Li

    2018-01-01

    To construct a promoter probe vector, pBE-bgaB, to screen strong promoters from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens. 266 colonies containing active promoter elements from the genomic DNA of B. amyloliquefaciens were identified. Among these, promoter P41 exhibited the strongest β-Gal activity in Escherichia coli and B. amyloliquefaciens. Sequence analysis showed that promoter P41 contained P ykuN , a ykuN gene encoding flavodoxin. Optimization of the ribosome-binding site from P41 to P 382 improved β-Gal activity by ~ 200%. A new strong promoter for protein expression and genetic engineering of Bacillus species.

  4. Method and apparatus for shape and end position determination using an optical fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Jason P. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A method of determining the shape of an unbound optical fiber includes collecting strain data along a length of the fiber, calculating curvature and bending direction data of the fiber using the strain data, curve-fitting the curvature and bending direction data to derive curvature and bending direction functions, calculating a torsion function using the bending direction function, and determining the 3D shape from the curvature, bending direction, and torsion functions. An apparatus for determining the 3D shape of the fiber includes a fiber optic cable unbound with respect to a protective sleeve, strain sensors positioned along the cable, and a controller in communication with the sensors. The controller has an algorithm for determining a 3D shape and end position of the fiber by calculating a set of curvature and bending direction data, deriving curvature, bending, and torsion functions, and solving Frenet-Serret equations using these functions.

  5. Prevalence and Determinants of Chronic periodontitis in HIV positive patients in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kehinde Adesola Umeizudike

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the prevalence and determinants of chronic periodontitis in HIV positive patients. Methods: A total of 120 HIV positive patients attending the dedicated HIV outpatient clinic of the Lagos University Teaching Hospital, Nigeria were recruited for the study. Their periodontal status was assessed using the community periodontal index of treatment needs. Their CD4+ cell count was determined using the flow-cytometer method. The risk factors for periodontitis including age, gender, education, smoking, CD4+ cell counts, bleeding on probing (BOP were determined. Results: Prevalence of periodontitis was high (63.3% in the HIV positive patients. In a bivariate analysis, significant associations were observed between severity of periodontitis and age ≥35 years (P=0.021, male gender (P=0.005, smoking (P=0.040 and ≥3 community periodontal index of treatment needs sextants exhibiting BOP (P=0.004. In a binary logistic regression, independent predictors of periodontitis were ≥3 sextants exhibiting BOP (odds ratio 1.738, 95% CI 1.339 to 2.256, P=0.000 and age ≥35 years (odds ratio 1.057, 95% CI 1.005 to 1.111, P=0.030. The CD4+ cell counts were not associated with periodontitis in the HIV positive patients (P=0.988. Conclusions: A high prevalence of periodontitis was found among the HIV positive Nigerian patients in this study. Older age ≥35 years and BOP were the determinants of periodontitis. There is therefore a need for close periodontal monitoring of HIV positive Nigerian patients with emphasis on preventive, professional oral prophylaxis.

  6. Application of the Undifferenced GNSS Precise Positioning in Determining Coordinates in National Reference Frames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzan, Grzegorz; Stępniak, Katarzyna

    2017-09-01

    In high-accuracy positioning using GNSS, the most common solution is still relative positioning using double-difference observations of dual-frequency measurements. An increasingly popular alternative to relative positioning are undifferenced approaches, which are designed to make full use of modern satellite systems and signals. Positions referenced to global International Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF2008) obtained from Precise Point Positioning (PPP) or Undifferenced (UD) network solutions have to be transformed to national (regional) reference frame, which introduces additional bases related to the transformation process. In this paper, satellite observations from two test networks using different observation time series were processed. The first test concerns the positioning accuracy from processing one year of dual-frequency GPS observations from 14 EUREF Permanent Network (EPN) stations using NAPEOS 3.3.1 software. The results were transformed into a national reference frame (PL-ETRF2000) and compared to positions from an EPN cumulative solution, which was adopted as the true coordinates. Daily observations were processed using PPP and UD multi-station solutions to determine the final accuracy resulting from satellite positioning, the transformation to national coordinate systems and Eurasian intraplate plate velocities. The second numerical test involved similar processing strategies of post-processing carried out using different observation time series (30 min., 1 hour, 2 hours, daily) and different classes of GNSS receivers. The centimeter accuracy of results presented in the national coordinate system satisfies the requirements of many surveying and engineering applications.

  7. Determinants and outcomes of disclosing HIV-sero positive status to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Determinants and outcomes of disclosing HIV-sero positive status to sexual partners among women in Mettu and Gore towns, Illubabor zone southwest Ethiopia. Kebede Deribe Kassaye, Wassie Lingerh, Yismaw Dejene. Abstract. No Abstract. Ethiopian Journal of Health Development Vol. 19 (2) 2005: 126-131. Full Text:.

  8. Improved Nearest Neighbor Methods for Gamma Photon Interaction Position Determination in Monolithic Scintillator PET Detectors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dam, Herman T.; Seifert, Stefan; Vinke, Ruud; Dendooven, Peter; Lohner, Herbert; Beekman, Freek J.; Schaart, Dennis R.

    2011-01-01

    Monolithic scintillator detectors have been shown to provide good performance and to have various practical advantages for use in PET systems. Excellent results for the gamma photon interaction position determination in these detectors have been obtained by means of the k-nearest neighbor (k-NN)

  9. Determinants of rural practice: positive interaction between rural background and rural undergraduate training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondalsamy-Chennakesavan, Srinivas; Eley, Diann S; Ranmuthugala, Geetha; Chater, Alan B; Toombs, Maree R; Darshan, Deepak; Nicholson, Geoffrey C

    2015-01-19

    To determine the role of rural background and years of rural clinical school training on subsequent rural clinical practice. Retrospective cohort study of University of Queensland (UQ) medical graduates who graduated during the period 2002-2011 (contacted via internet, telephone and mail, using information obtained from UQ, the Australian Health Practitioner Regulation Agency, and telephone directory and internet searches) who completed an online or hard copy questionnaire during the period December 2012 to October 2013. Current clinical practice in a rural location. Of 1572 graduates to whom the questionnaire was sent, 754 (48.0%) completed the questionnaire. Of the respondents, 236 (31.3%) had a rural background and 276 (36.6%) had attended the University of Queensland Rural Clinical School (UQRCS). Clinical practice location was rural for 18.8% (90/478) of UQ metropolitan clinical school attendees and 41.7% (115/276) of UQRCS attendees (P < 0.001). In the multivariate model with main effects, independent predictors of rural practice were (OR [95% CI]): UQRCS attendance for 1 year (1.84 [1.21-2.82]) or 2 years (2.71 [1.65-4.45]), rural background (2.30 [1.57-3.36]), partner with rural background (3.08 [1.96-4.84]), being single (1.98 [1.28-3.06]) and having a bonded scholarship (2.34 [1.37-3.98]). In the model with interaction between UQRCS attendance and rural background, independent predictors of rural practice were rural background and UQRCS attendance for 1 year (4.44 [2.38-8.29]) or 2 years (7.09 [3.57-14.10]), partner with rural background (3.14 [1.99-4.96]), being single (2.02 [1.30-3.12]) and bonded scholarship (2.27 [1.32-3.90]). The effects of rural background and UQRCS attendance were duration dependent. This study strengthens evidence that, after adjusting for multiple confounders, a number of exposures are independent predictors of rural medical practice. The strong positive interaction between rural background and rural clinical school exposure, and

  10. Photogrammetric determination of discrepancies between actual and planned position of dental implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forlani, G.; Rivara, F.

    2014-05-01

    The paper describes the design and testing of a photogrammetric measurement protocol set up to determine the discrepancies between the planned and actual position of computer-guided template-based dental implants. Two moulds with the implants positioned in pre- and post- intervention are produced and separately imaged with a highly redundant block of convergent images; the model with the implants is positioned on a steel frame with control points and with suitable targets attached. The theoretical accuracy of the system is better than 20 micrometers and 0.3-0.4° respectively for positions of implants and directions of implant axes. In order to compare positions and angles between the planned and actual position of an implant, coordinates and axes directions are brought to a common reference system with a Helmert transformation. A procedure for comparison of positions and directions to identify out-of-tolerance discrepancies is presented; a numerical simulation study shows the effectiveness of the procedure in identifying the implants with significant discrepancies between pre- and post- intervention.

  11. Visual and linguistic determinants of the eyes' initial fixation position in reading development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducrot, Stéphanie; Pynte, Joël; Ghio, Alain; Lété, Bernard

    2013-03-01

    Two eye-movement experiments with one hundred and seven first- through fifth-grade children were conducted to examine the effects of visuomotor and linguistic factors on the recognition of words and pseudowords presented in central vision (using a variable-viewing-position technique) and in parafoveal vision (shifted to the left or right of a central fixation point). For all groups of children, we found a strong effect of stimulus location, in both central and parafoveal vision. This effect corresponds to the children's apparent tendency, for peripherally located targets, to reach a position located halfway between the middle and the left edge of the stimulus (preferred viewing location, PVL), whether saccading to the right or left. For centrally presented targets, refixation probability and lexical-decision time were the lowest near the word's center, suggesting an optimal viewing position (OVP). The viewing-position effects found here were modulated (1) by print exposure, both in central and parafoveal vision; and (2) by the intrinsic qualities of the stimulus (lexicality and word frequency) for targets in central vision but not for parafoveally presented targets. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Determinants of the burden and positivity of family caregivers of terminally ill cancer patients in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chang-Hae; Shin, Dong Wook; Choi, Jin Young; Kang, Jina; Baek, Young Ji; Mo, Ha Na; Lee, Mee-Sook; Park, Seon-Ju; Park, Sang Min; Park, Sohee

    2012-03-01

    Caregivers may experience positive or negative feelings about their role. The study investigated the determinants of the burden and positivity of family caregivers of Korean terminal cancer patients. A multicenter cross-sectional survey was conducted with 139 family caregivers. Determinants of caregiver's burden and positivity were assessed by the Caregiver Reaction Assessment Scale and by three questions based on a previous study, respectively. Two separate hierarchical multiple regression models were used. Each domain of the caregiver's burden and positivity was explained by different factors, with the total explained variance ranging between 14.4-33.6% and 2.6-18.3%, respectively. Caregivers who were unmarried, less educated, and/or had low incomes were more likely to be negatively affected, while those who shared caregiving responsibilities were less prone to negative consequences. Caregivers who were male, religious practitioners, and who perceived a higher burden of schedule disruptions were more likely to have a positive perception of their role, while those who perceived a lack of family support were less likely. Our results highlight the importance of sharing the caregiving burden with the other family members. Organizing a family meeting can provide an opportunity for other family members to acknowledge the feelings and reactions of the primary caregivers, and can prompt the sharing of caregiving responsibilities. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Phylogenetic position of Taylorella equigenitalis determined by analysis of amplified 16S ribosomal DNA sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleumink-Pluym, N M; van Dijk, L; van Vliet, A H; van der Giessen, J W; van der Zeijst, B A

    1993-07-01

    The 16S ribosomal DNA sequence of Taylorella equigenitalis (formerly Haemophilus equigenitalis), the causative organism of contagious equine metritis, was determined. A phylogenetic analysis of this sequence revealed a phylogenetic position of T. equigenitalis in the beta subclass of the class Proteobacteria apart from the position of Haemophilus influenzae, which belongs to the gamma subclass of Proteobacteria. A close phylogenetic relationship among T. equigenitalis, Alcaligenes xylosoxidans, and Bordetella bronchiseptica was detected; Spirillum volutans and Chromobacterium fluviatile (Iodobacter fluviatile) were in the same group but slightly removed. This relationship is surprising in view of the considerable differences in the G + C contents of the genomes of these bacteria.

  14. Methods for enhancing carrier phase GNSS positioning and attitude determination performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Guijin

    This thesis explores the methods for enhancing the performance of using low cost, single frequency Carrier phase Differential Global Navigation Satellite System (CDGNSS) in real-time, safety or liability critical applications. This is done by improving the integer ambiguity resolution performance and carrier phase error modeling. CDGNSS is considered for a broad range of real-time applications which require both a high precision relative positioning and attitude determination system. This is because of the drift-free nature of the GNSS measurement errors and the precise nature of the carrier phase measurement. The key to making full use of the precise nature of the carrier phase measurement is to fix the integer ambiguity quickly and reliably. This poses the biggest challenge for a low cost single frequency system. For the attitude determination problem, the precisely known baseline lengths can be used to improve the integer ambiguity resolution performance. Traditionally, the relative positioning problem was solved independently of the attitude determination problem and, thus could not leverage the precisely known baseline lengths of the attitude determination system. However, by integrating the two systems together, the precisely known baseline lengths can be used to improve the relative positioning system as well. The first part of the thesis develops an integration framework to improve the integer ambiguity resolution performance for the relative positioning system and the attitude determination system simultaneously. The second part of the thesis provides a GNSS antenna Phase Center Variation (PCV) error model development to improve the accuracy of the integrated system. It also examines the feasibility analysis of using the developed error model for a real-time dynamic application. The challenging of using this in the real time lies in the fact that PCV error magnitude is small (less than 2cm) and the developed error model is a function of unknown parameter

  15. Determination of the proton structure and the strong coupling from inclusive jet cross sections at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Sieber, Georg; Rabbertz, Klaus

    This thesis presents the sensitivity study of PDFs and $\\alpha_\\mathrm{S}$ to the inclusive jet cross section at a center-of-mass energy of $\\sqrt{s}$ = 7 TeV. The data corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 5 fb$^{-1}$ collected with the CMS detector in 2011. Next-to-leading order calculations have been compared to the measurement and found agreement within uncertainties. The PDF sensitivity has been studied using the HERAFitter framework. It was found that the inclusive jet cross section constrains the quark and gluon PDFs in the high-$x$ region and reduces the PDF uncertainties. Furthermore the strong coupling has been extracted using fixed global PDF sets.

  16. Mass and position determination in MEMS mass sensors: a theoretical and an experimental investigation

    KAUST Repository

    Bouchaala, Adam M.

    2016-08-31

    We present a method to determine accurately the position and mass of an entity attached to the surface of an electrostatically actuated clamped-clamped microbeam implemented as a mass sensor. In the theoretical investigation, the microbeam is modeled as a nonlinear Euler-Bernoulli beam and a perturbation technique is used to develop a closed-form expression for the frequency shift due to an added mass at a specific location on the microbeam surface. The experimental investigation was conducted on a microbeam made of Polyimide with a special lower electrode to excite both of the first and second modes of vibration. Using an ink-jet printer, we deposited droplets of polymers with a defined mass and position on the surface of the microbeam and we measured the shifts in its resonance frequencies. The theoretical predictions of the mass and position of the deposited droplets match well with the experimental measurements.

  17. Mass and Position Determination in MEMS Resonant Mass Sensors: Theoretical and Experimental Investigation

    KAUST Repository

    Bouchaala, Adam M.

    2016-12-05

    We present a method to determine accurately the position and mass of an entity attached to the surface of an electrostatically actuated clamped-clamped microbeam implemented as a mass sensor. In the theoretical investigation, the microbeam is modeled as a nonlinear Euler-Bernoulli beam and a perturbation technique is used to develop a closed-form expression for the frequency shift due to an added mass at a specific location on the microbeam surface. The experimental investigation was conducted on a microbeam made of Polyimide with a special lower electrode to excite both of the first and second modes of vibration. Using an ink-jet printer, we deposited droplets of polymers with a defined mass and position on the surface of the microbeam and we measured the shifts in its resonance frequencies. The theoretical predictions of the mass and position of the deposited droplets match well with the experimental measurements.

  18. An Increase in Estimation Accuracy Position Determination of Inertial Measurement Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beran Ladislav

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with an increase in measurement accuracy of the Inertial Measurement Units (IMU. In the Inertial Navigation Systems (INS a fusion of gyroscopes, accelerometers and in some cases magnetometers are typically used. The typical problem of cheap IMU is non-stationary offset and high level of noise. The next problem of IMU is a problem with a bumpy floor. For this case it is necessary to a have high quality chassis to eliminate additional noise. Also, it is possible to eliminate this noise by using some algorithm, but results are still poor. These properties lead to the inaccurate position estimation in the integration process. Even a small offset error leads to a big mistake in position determination and grows quickly with a time. This research is focused on the elimination of these poor properties and increase of accuracy of position estimation using Kalman Filtration.

  19. On the determination of heliographic positions and rotation velocities of sunspots. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balthasar, H.

    1983-01-01

    Using sunspot positions of small sunspots observed at Debrecen and Locarno as well as positions of recurrent sunspots taken from the Greenwich Photoheliographic Results (1940-1976) the influence of the Wilson depression on the rotation velocities was investigated. It was found that the Wilson depression can be determined by minimizing errors of the rotation velocities or minimizing the differences of rotation velocities determined from disk passages and central meridian passages. The Wilson depressions found were between 765 km and 2500 km for the first sample while they were between 0 km and several 1000 km for the second sample. The averaged Wilson depression for the second sample is between 500 km and 965 km depending on the reduction method. A dependence of the Wilson depression on the age of the spots investigated seems not to exist. (orig.)

  20. Algorithm of fatigue crack detection and determination of its tip position in optical images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panin, S. V.; Chemezov, V. O.; Lyubutin, P. S.; Titkov, V. V.

    2017-05-01

    An algorithm of fatigue crack detection in optical images taken in fatigue tests of materials is proposed and tested. The algorithm is designed for automation of measurements of the crack propagation parameter and tracing the crack tip position in the course of cyclic loading for the purpose of shifting the optical system with respect to the examined sample surface to the "region of interest." It is found that the coordinates of the image fragment containing the crack can be determined with a mean error of 1.93% of the total size of the raster. Testing of the algorithm on model images shows that the mean error of determining the crack tip position is smaller than 56 pixels.

  1. Method for determining the spatial position of the shoulder with ultrasound-based motion analyzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illyés, Arpád; Kiss, Rita M

    2006-02-01

    Several methods have been developed recently for the analysis of the spatial motion of the scapula and the arm, whereby the spatial position of shoulder bones is determined in static conditions by interrupting motion. The authors have developed a 3D motion analysis method recording scapular motion in progress with appropriate accuracy in the course of arm movements of various degrees. The objective of this study is to explore the applicability of the method developed, as well as to compare it with and verify it by other methods developed earlier. The position and displacements of shoulder bones were determined on 30 shoulders of 15 healthy people. The newly developed measurement method is based on the mechanical basic principle stating that the position and motion of a rigid body -- in this case, the bones (segments) forming the shoulder joint -- can be calculated at any moment from the spatial coordinates of three points of a segment and any changes thereof in the course of motion. Ultrasound-based triplets providing the three points (fundamental points) by a segment as required for measurement were fixed on the sternum (modeling the trunk), the clavicle, the acromion (modeling the scapula), the upper arm, and the lower arm. The position of the sixteen anatomical points involved in the study were determined by an ultrasound-based pointer in the local coordinate system specified by the fundamental points before starting measurements. The ZEBRIS ultrasound-based motion analysis system was used for measuring the spatial coordinates of triplets in the course of continuous motion. The spatial coordinates of the designated anatomical points can be calculated by the method of triangulation. The method was calibrated by a ZEBRIS mapping (3DCAD) software commercially available, and the measurement error rate of the method was determined by statistical calculations. On the basis of calibration and error calculations it could be established that the accuracy and the

  2. Satellite Positioning and Orbit Determination System SPODS:Theory and Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WEI Ziqing

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The Satellite Positioning and Orbit Determination System(SPODSis a software package for GNSS positioning/orbit determination,developed by the Xi'an Research Institute of Surveying and Mapping.So far it has been able to treat GPS data and has the capability of high precision GPS positioning and orbit determination.The underlying theory and the performance test are briefly addressed.The test utilizes the GPS data collected from some 127IGS stations during days 4~10of 2009.The results show that the rms 1D difference is 1.1cm between SPODS orbits and final IGS combined orbits,and that the repeatability of daily solutions of station coordinates is 1.5mm for horizontal components,and 4.5mm for height component,and that the consistency of ERP solutions with final IGS values is 0.025mas,0.093mas and 0.013ms/d respectively for pole coordinates and changes in length of day.

  3. On the model dependence of the determination of the strong coupling constant in second order QCD from e+e--annihilation into hadrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Achterberg, O.; D'Agostini, G.; Apel, W.D.; Engler, J.; Fluegge, G.; Forstbauer, B.; Fries, D.C.; Fues, W.; Gamerdinger, K.; Henkes, T.; Hopp, G.; Krueger, M.; Kuester, H.; Mueller, H.; Randoll, H.; Schmidt, G.; Schneider, H.; Boer, W. de; Buschhorn, G.; Grindhammer, G.; Grosse-Wiesmann, P.; Gunderson, B.; Kiesling, C.; Kotthaus, R.; Kruse, U.; Lierl, H.; Lueers, D.; Oberlack, H.; Schacht, P.; Bonneaud, G.; Colas, P.; Cordier, A.; Davier, M.; Fournier, D.; Grivaz, J.F.; Haissinski, J.; Journe, V.; Laplanche, F.; Le Diberder, F.; Mallik, U.; Ros, E.; Veillet, J.J.; Behrend, H.J.; Fenner, H.; Schachter, M.J.; Schroeder, V.; Sindt, H.

    1983-12-01

    Hadronic events obtained with the CELLO detector at PETRA are compared with second order QCD predictions using different models for the fragmentation of quarks and gluons into hadrons. We find that the model dependence in the determination of the strong coupling constant persists when going from first to second order QCD calculations. (orig.)

  4. Bloodstain Pattern Analysis: implementation of a fluid dynamic model for position determination of victims

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laan, Nick; de Bruin, Karla G.; Slenter, Denise; Wilhelm, Julie; Jermy, Mark; Bonn, Daniel

    2015-06-01

    Bloodstain Pattern Analysis is a forensic discipline in which, among others, the position of victims can be determined at crime scenes on which blood has been shed. To determine where the blood source was investigators use a straight-line approximation for the trajectory, ignoring effects of gravity and drag and thus overestimating the height of the source. We determined how accurately the location of the origin can be estimated when including gravity and drag into the trajectory reconstruction. We created eight bloodstain patterns at one meter distance from the wall. The origin’s location was determined for each pattern with: the straight-line approximation, our method including gravity, and our method including both gravity and drag. The latter two methods require the volume and impact velocity of each bloodstain, which we are able to determine with a 3D scanner and advanced fluid dynamics, respectively. We conclude that by including gravity and drag in the trajectory calculation, the origin’s location can be determined roughly four times more accurately than with the straight-line approximation. Our study enables investigators to determine if the victim was sitting or standing, or it might be possible to connect wounds on the body to specific patterns, which is important for crime scene reconstruction.

  5. Positional therapy in sleep apnoea - one fits all? What determines success in positional therapy in sleep apnoea syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natascha Troester

    Full Text Available Positional therapy is a simple means of therapy in sleep apnoea syndrome, but due to controversial or lacking evidence, it is not widely accepted as appropriate treatment. In this study, we analysed data to positional therapy with regard to successful reduction of AHI and predictors of success.All consecutive patients undergoing polysomnography between 2007 and 2011 were analysed. We used a strict definition of positional sleep apnoea syndrome (supine-exclusive sleep apnoea syndrome and of therapy used. Patients underwent polysomnography initially and during follow-up.1275 patients were evaluated, 112 of which had supine-exclusive sleep apnoea syndrome (AHI 5-66/h, median 13/h, 105 received positional therapy. With this treatment alone 75% (70/105 reached an AHI <5/h, in the follow-up 1 year later 37% (37/105 of these still had AHI<5/h, 46% (43/105 yielded an AHI between 5 and 10/h. Nine patient switched to APAP due to deterioration, 3 wanted to try APAP due to comfort reasons. At the last follow-up, 32% patients (34/105 were still on positional therapy with AHI <5/h. BMI was a predictor for successful reduction of AHI, but success was independent of sex, the presence of obstructive versus central sleep apnoea, severity of sleep apnoea syndrome or co-morbidities.Positional therapy may be a promising therapy option for patients with positional sleep apnoea. With appropriate adherence it yields a reasonable success rate in the clinical routine.

  6. Positive organizational behavior and safety in the offshore oil industry: Exploring the determinants of positive safety climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hystad, Sigurd W; Bartone, Paul T; Eid, Jarle

    2014-01-01

    Much research has now documented the substantial influence of safety climate on a range of important outcomes in safety critical organizations, but there has been scant attention to the question of what factors might be responsible for positive or negative safety climate. The present paper draws from positive organizational behavior theory to test workplace and individual factors that may affect safety climate. Specifically, we explore the potential influence of authentic leadership style and psychological capital on safety climate and risk outcomes. Across two samples of offshore oil-workers and seafarers working on oil platform supply ships, structural equation modeling yielded results that support a model in which authentic leadership exerts a direct effect on safety climate, as well as an indirect effect via psychological capital. This study shows the importance of leadership qualities as well as psychological factors in shaping a positive work safety climate and lowering the risk of accidents.

  7. Bentonite swelling pressure in strong NaCl solutions. Correlation of model calculations to experimentally determined data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karnland, O. [Clay Technology, Lund (Sweden)

    1998-01-01

    A number of quite different quantitative models concerning swelling pressure in bentonite clay have been proposed. This report discusses a number of models which possibly can be used also for saline conditions. A discrepancy between calculated and measured values was noticed for all models at brine conditions. In general the models predicted a too low swelling pressure compared to what was experimentally found. An osmotic component in the clay/water system is proposed in order to improve the previous conservative use of the thermodynamic model. Calculations of this osmotic component is proposed to be made by use of the clay cation exchange capacity and Donnan equilibrium. Calculations made by this approach showed considerably better correlation to literature laboratory data, compared to calculations made by the previous conservative use of the thermodynamic model. A few verifying laboratory tests were made and are briefly described in the report. The improved model predicts a substantial bentonite swelling pressure also in a saturated sodium chloride solution if the density of the system is sufficiently high. This means in practice that the buffer in a KBS-3 repository will give rise to an acceptable swelling pressure, but that the positive effects of mixing bentonite into a backfill material will be lost if the system is exposed to brines. (orig.). 14 refs.

  8. Bentonite swelling pressure in strong NaCl solutions. Correlation between model calculations and experimentally determined data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karnland, O. [Clay Technology, Lund (Sweden)

    1997-12-01

    A number of quite different quantitative models concerning swelling pressure in bentonite clay have been proposed by different researchers over the years. The present report examines some of the models which possibly may be used also for saline conditions. A discrepancy between calculated and measured values was noticed for all models at brine conditions. In general the models predicted a too low swelling pressure compared to what was experimentally found. An osmotic component in the clay/water system is proposed in order to improve the previous conservative use of the thermodynamic model. Calculations of this osmotic component is proposed to be made by use of the clay cation exchange capacity and Donnan equilibrium. Calculations made by this approach showed considerably better correlation to literature laboratory data, compared to calculations made by the previous conservative use of the thermodynamic model. A few verifying laboratory tests were made and are briefly described in the report. The improved thermodynamic model predicts substantial bentonite swelling pressures also in saturated sodium chloride solution if the density of the system is high enough. In practice, the model predicts a substantial swelling pressure for the buffer in a KBS-3 repository if the system is exposed to brines, but the positive effects of mixing bentonite into a backfill material will be lost, since the available compaction technique does not give a sufficiently high bentonite density 37 refs, 15 figs

  9. Anthropometry at birth as a strong determinant factor of young women bone status: influence of high-level physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bréban, Sophie; Chappard, Christine; Jaffré, Christelle; Briot, Karine; Benhamou, Claude-Laurent

    2011-03-01

    To analyze the influence of anthropometry at birth on bone status and physical activity aptitudes of adult women. Our population was composed of 70 women (17-29 years): 40 athletes and 30 controls. Athletes participated in various long-lasting and high-level weight-bearing sports (10.2 ± 2.2h ours/week). Birth weight and height were collected. Bone Mineral Density (BMD) was measured by DXA, at whole body, lumbar spine, non dominant femur (total hip (TH), femoral neck (FN)) and tibia. The Hip Structural Analysis software was applied to assess cross-sectional area (CSA), cross-sectional moment of inertia (CSMI), section modulus (Z) and cortical thickness of three regions of the proximal femur: intertrochanter, narrow neck and femoral shaft. BMD and HSA measurements at all sites were significantly higher in athletes versus controls, as well as birth height (P = 0.009) and weight (P = 0.02). For the whole population, we found significant positive correlations between birth weight and BMDs (0.30 anthropometry, which can be used to predict fracture risk in later life. Predisposition to practice a weight-bearing sport could be related to the greater birth anthropometry described in athletes. The benefits of birth anthropometry on adult bone status appear to be maintained by sports. Copyright © 2010 Société française de rhumatologie. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Bentonite swelling pressure in strong NaCl solutions. Correlation between model calculations and experimentally determined data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karnland, O.

    1997-12-01

    A number of quite different quantitative models concerning swelling pressure in bentonite clay have been proposed by different researchers over the years. The present report examines some of the models which possibly may be used also for saline conditions. A discrepancy between calculated and measured values was noticed for all models at brine conditions. In general the models predicted a too low swelling pressure compared to what was experimentally found. An osmotic component in the clay/water system is proposed in order to improve the previous conservative use of the thermodynamic model. Calculations of this osmotic component is proposed to be made by use of the clay cation exchange capacity and Donnan equilibrium. Calculations made by this approach showed considerably better correlation to literature laboratory data, compared to calculations made by the previous conservative use of the thermodynamic model. A few verifying laboratory tests were made and are briefly described in the report. The improved thermodynamic model predicts substantial bentonite swelling pressures also in saturated sodium chloride solution if the density of the system is high enough. In practice, the model predicts a substantial swelling pressure for the buffer in a KBS-3 repository if the system is exposed to brines, but the positive effects of mixing bentonite into a backfill material will be lost, since the available compaction technique does not give a sufficiently high bentonite density

  11. Bentonite swelling pressure in strong NaCl solutions. Correlation of model calculations to experimentally determined data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karnland, O.

    1998-01-01

    A number of quite different quantitative models concerning swelling pressure in bentonite clay have been proposed. This report discusses a number of models which possibly can be used also for saline conditions. A discrepancy between calculated and measured values was noticed for all models at brine conditions. In general the models predicted a too low swelling pressure compared to what was experimentally found. An osmotic component in the clay/water system is proposed in order to improve the previous conservative use of the thermodynamic model. Calculations of this osmotic component is proposed to be made by use of the clay cation exchange capacity and Donnan equilibrium. Calculations made by this approach showed considerably better correlation to literature laboratory data, compared to calculations made by the previous conservative use of the thermodynamic model. A few verifying laboratory tests were made and are briefly described in the report. The improved model predicts a substantial bentonite swelling pressure also in a saturated sodium chloride solution if the density of the system is sufficiently high. This means in practice that the buffer in a KBS-3 repository will give rise to an acceptable swelling pressure, but that the positive effects of mixing bentonite into a backfill material will be lost if the system is exposed to brines. (orig.)

  12. Determination of ventilatory liver movement via radiographic evaluation of diaphragm position

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balter, James M.; Dawson, Laura A.; Kazanjian, Sahira; McGinn, Cornelius; Brock, Kristy K.; Lawrence, Theodore; Haken, Randall ten

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the accuracy of estimation of liver movement inferred by observing diaphragm excursion on radiographic images. Methods and Materials: Eight patients with focal liver cancer had platinum embolization microcoils implanted in their livers during catheterization of the hepatic artery for delivery of regional chemotherapy. These patients underwent fluoroscopy, during which normal breathing movement was recorded on videotape. Movies of breathing movement were digitized, and the relative projected positions of the diaphragm and coils were recorded. For 6 patients, daily radiographs were also acquired during treatment. Retrospective measurements of coil position were taken after the diaphragm was aligned with the superior portion of the liver on digitally reconstructed radiographs. Results: Coil movement of 4.9 to 30.4 mm was observed during normal breathing. Diaphragm position tracked inferior-superior coil displacement accurately (population σ 1.04 mm) throughout the breathing cycle. The range of coil movement was predicted by the range of diaphragm movement with an accuracy of 2.09 mm (σ). The maximum error observed measuring coil movement using diaphragm position was 3.8 mm for a coil 9.8 cm inferior to the diaphragm. However, the distance of the coil from the top of the diaphragm did not correlate significantly with the error in predicting liver excursion. Analysis of daily radiographs showed that the error in predicting coil position using the diaphragm as an alignment landmark was 1.8 mm (σ) in the inferior-superior direction and 2.2 mm in the left-right direction, similar in magnitude to the inherent uncertainty in alignment. Conclusions: This study demonstrated that the range of ventilatory movement of different locations within the liver is predicted by diaphragm position to an accuracy that matches or exceeds existing systems for ventilatory tracking. This suggests that the diaphragm is an acceptable anatomic landmark for radiographic

  13. Determinants of subjective health status of HIV positive mothers in NAUTH Nnewi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwabueze, S A; Adogu, P O U; Adinma, E D; Ifeadike, C O; Nnebue, C C; Ilika, A L; Ikechebelu, J I

    2012-01-01

    Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) caused by human immune deficiency virus (HIV), once dominated by infected males has become feminized especially in sub-Saharan Africa where the majority of adults living with the condition are females. Positive life styles, belonging to social support groups and stigma-free HIV services by providers may have good impact on the quality of life of HIV-positive mothers. This study was aimed at assessing the determinants of subjective health status of HIV-positive mothers accessing prevention-of-mother-to-child-transmission (PMTCT) of HIV services in Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital (NAUTH) Nnewi. This is a descriptive study in which 288 consenting HIV positive mothers were selected using the systematic sampling technique. Data on demographics, life style, social support, contraceptive use and subjective feeling about current health status were collected from the subjects using a pre-tested, structured, interviewer-administered questionnaire. The mean age of the respondents was 30.46 +/- 4.86 years. Majority (89.2%) of them were married while 55.2% were traders. A significantly higher proportion of the mothers on highly active anti retroviral therapy (HAART) (70.8%) than non users (29.2%) described their current health status as 'excellent' (p<0.001). Also a significantly higher proportion of condom users (99%) than pill users (1%) described their health status as 'excellent' (p<0.02). The same significantly higher proportions of 'excellent' response were given by subjects who engage in social support activities (p<0.001), who practice good feeding (p<0.01) andpersonal hygiene (p<0.01). Access to family planning services and HAART, participation in support group activities and positive lifestyle practices tend to improve subjective health status and should be comprehensively encouraged among the HIV positive mothers.

  14. A balance of positive and negative regulators determines the pace of the segmentation clock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiedermann, Guy; Bone, Robert Alexander; Silva, Joana Clara; Bjorklund, Mia

    2015-01-01

    Somitogenesis is regulated by a molecular oscillator that drives dynamic gene expression within the pre-somitic mesoderm. Previous mathematical models of the somitogenesis clock that invoke the mechanism of delayed negative feedback predict that its oscillation period depends on the sum of delays inherent to negative-feedback loops and inhibitor half-lives. We develop a mathematical model that explores the possibility that positive feedback also plays a role in determining the period of clock oscillations. The model predicts that increasing the half-life of the positive regulator, Notch intracellular domain (NICD), can lead to elevated NICD levels and an increase in the oscillation period. To test this hypothesis, we investigate a phenotype induced by various small molecule inhibitors in which the clock is slowed. We observe elevated levels and a prolonged half-life of NICD. Reducing NICD production rescues these effects. These data provide the first indication that tight control of the turnover of positive as well as negative regulators of the clock determines its periodicity. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.05842.001 PMID:26357015

  15. Researches on the Orbit Determination and Positioning of the Chinese Lunar Exploration Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, P. J.

    2015-07-01

    This dissertation studies the precise orbit determination (POD) and positioning of the Chinese lunar exploration spacecraft, emphasizing the variety of VLBI (very long baseline interferometry) technologies applied for the deep-space exploration, and their contributions to the methods and accuracies of the precise orbit determination and positioning. In summary, the main contents are as following: In this work, using the real-time data measured by the CE-2 (Chang'E-2) detector, the accuracy of orbit determination is analyzed for the domestic lunar probe under the present condition, and the role played by the VLBI tracking data is particularly reassessed through the precision orbit determination experiments for CE-2. The experiments of the short-arc orbit determination for the lunar probe show that the combination of the ranging and VLBI data with the arc of 15 minutes is able to improve the accuracy by 1-1.5 order of magnitude, compared to the cases for only using the ranging data with the arc of 3 hours. The orbital accuracy is assessed through the orbital overlapping analysis, and the results show that the VLBI data is able to contribute to the CE-2's long-arc POD especially in the along-track and orbital normal directions. For the CE-2's 100 km× 100 km lunar orbit, the position errors are better than 30 meters, and for the CE-2's 15 km× 100 km orbit, the position errors are better than 45 meters. The observational data with the delta differential one-way ranging (Δ DOR) from the CE-2's X-band monitoring and control system experimental are analyzed. It is concluded that the accuracy of Δ DOR delay is dramatically improved with the noise level better than 0.1 ns, and the systematic errors are well calibrated. Although it is unable to support the development of an independent lunar gravity model, the tracking data of CE-2 provided the evaluations of different lunar gravity models through POD, and the accuracies are examined in terms of orbit-to-orbit solution

  16. Determination of the energetics of the UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase reaction by positional isotope exchange inhibition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hester, L.S.; Raushel, F.M.

    1987-01-01

    A method has been developed for obtaining qualitative information about enzyme-catalyzed reactions by measuring the inhibitory effects of added substrates on positional isotope exchange rates. It has been demonstrated for ordered kinetic mechanisms that an increase in the concentration of the second substrate to add to the enzyme will result in a linear increase in the ratio of the chemical and positional isotope exchange rates. The slopes and intercepts from these plots can be used to determine the partitioning ratios of binary and ternary enzyme complexes. The method has been applied to the reaction catalyzed by UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase. A positional isotope exchange reaction was measured within oxygen-18-labeled UTP as a function of variable glucose 1-phosphate concentration in the forward reaction. In the reverse reaction, a positional isotope exchange reaction was measured within oxygen-18-labeled UDP-glucose as a function of increasing pyrophosphate concentration. The results have been interpreted to indicate that the interconversion of the ternary central complexes is fast relative to product dissociation in either direction. In the forward direction, the release of UDP-glucose is slower than the release of pyrophosphate. The release of glucose 1-phosphate is slower than the release of UTP in the reverse reaction

  17. Effect of Receiver Choosing on Point Positions Determination in Network RTK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulbul, Sercan; Inal, Cevat

    2016-04-01

    Nowadays, the developments in GNSS technique allow to determinate point positioning in real time. Initially, point positioning was determined by RTK (Real Time Kinematic) based on a reference station. But, to avoid systematic errors in this method, distance between the reference points and rover receiver must be shorter than10 km. To overcome this restriction in RTK method, the idea of setting more than one reference point had been suggested and, CORS (Continuously Operations Reference Systems) was put into practice. Today, countries like ABD, Germany, Japan etc. have set CORS network. CORS-TR network which has 146 reference points has also been established in 2009 in Turkey. In CORS-TR network, active CORS approach was adopted. In Turkey, CORS-TR reference stations covering whole country are interconnected and, the positions of these stations and atmospheric corrections are continuously calculated. In this study, in a selected point, RTK measurements based on CORS-TR, were made with different receivers (JAVAD TRIUMPH-1, TOPCON Hiper V, MAGELLAN PRoMark 500, PENTAX SMT888-3G, SATLAB SL-600) and with different correction techniques (VRS, FKP, MAC). In the measurements, epoch interval was taken as 5 seconds and measurement time as 1 hour. According to each receiver and each correction technique, means and differences between maximum and minimum values of measured coordinates, root mean squares in the directions of coordinate axis and 2D and 3D positioning precisions were calculated, the results were evaluated by statistical methods and the obtained graphics were interpreted. After evaluation of the measurements and calculations, for each receiver and each correction technique; the coordinate differences between maximum and minimum values were measured to be less than 8 cm, root mean squares in coordinate axis directions less than ±1.5 cm, 2D point positioning precisions less than ±1.5 cm and 3D point positioning precisions less than ±1.5 cm. In the measurement

  18. Determination of the position of the station Borowiec Nr 7811 by satellite laser observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobaczewska, W.; Drozyner, A.; Rutkowska, M.; Schillak, S.; Zielinski, J. B.

    Laser observations during 1977-1979 of the GEOS-1 and GEOS-3 satellites, used to determine the geocentric position of the Astronomical Latitude Observatory in Borowiec (station No. 7811) are examined. The data are processed by means of the ORBITA program and the GRIPE program elaborated at the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory. The coordinates of the station are calculated by a dynamical orbital method. Results of the ORBITA and GRIPE solutions are presented in tables. A comparison of these two solutions with the Wettzel-Borowiec translocation solution is considered.

  19. Limitations on the strain tensor determination by neutron diffraction using a position-sensitive detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorentzen, T.; Christoffersen, J.

    1990-01-01

    Diffraction techniques such as neutron diffraction allow strain components to be measured in arbitrarily chosen directions in structural components, and hence complete strain tensors can in principle be calculated from any six measured normal strain components. However, in a newly developed technique, whereby a position-sensitive detector is used for simultaneous measurements of chosen strain components at several points along a line through the specimen, there appear to be some limitations on the choice of strain components for strain tensor determination. This note verifies the nature of these limitations. (author)

  20. Determination of the strong coupling constant from the inclusive jet cross section in ppbar collisions at sqrt(s)=1.96 TeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abazov, V.M.; /Dubna, JINR; Abbott, B.; /Oklahoma U.; Abolins, M.; /Michigan State U.; Acharya, B.S.; /Tata Inst.; Adams, M.; /Illinois U., Chicago; Adams, T.; /Florida State U.; Aguilo, E.; /Alberta U. /Simon Fraser U. /York U., Canada /McGill U.; Ahsan, M.; /Kansas State U.; Alexeev, G.D.; /Dubna, JINR; Alkhazov, G.; /St. Petersburg, INP; Alton, A.; /Michigan U. /Northeastern U.

    2009-11-01

    We determine the strong coupling constant {alpha}{sub s} and its energy dependence from the p{sub T} dependence of the inclusive jet cross section in p{bar p} collisions at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV. The strong coupling constant is determined over the transverse momentum range 50 < p{sub T} < 145 GeV. Using perturbative QCD calculations to order {Omicron}({alpha}{sub s}{sup 3}) combined with {Omicron}({alpha}{sub s}{sup 4}) contributions from threshold corrections, we obtain {alpha}{sub s}(M{sub Z}) = 0.1173{sub -0.0049}{sup +0.0041}. This is the most precise result obtained at a hadron-hadron collider.

  1. Direct Position Determination of Unknown Signals in the Presence of Multipath Propagation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Jianping; Wang, Ding; Yu, Wanting; Yu, Hongyi

    2018-03-17

    A novel geolocation architecture, termed "Multiple Transponders and Multiple Receivers for Multiple Emitters Positioning System (MTRE)" is proposed in this paper. Existing Direct Position Determination (DPD) methods take advantage of a rather simple channel assumption (line of sight channels with complex path attenuations) and a simplified MUltiple SIgnal Classification (MUSIC) algorithm cost function to avoid the high dimension searching. We point out that the simplified assumption and cost function reduce the positioning accuracy because of the singularity of the array manifold in a multi-path environment. We present a DPD model for unknown signals in the presence of Multi-path Propagation (MP-DPD) in this paper. MP-DPD adds non-negative real path attenuation constraints to avoid the mistake caused by the singularity of the array manifold. The Multi-path Propagation MUSIC (MP-MUSIC) method and the Active Set Algorithm (ASA) are designed to reduce the dimension of searching. A Multi-path Propagation Maximum Likelihood (MP-ML) method is proposed in addition to overcome the limitation of MP-MUSIC in the sense of a time-sensitive application. An iterative algorithm and an approach of initial value setting are given to make the MP-ML time consumption acceptable. Numerical results validate the performances improvement of MP-MUSIC and MP-ML. A closed form of the Cramér-Rao Lower Bound (CRLB) is derived as a benchmark to evaluate the performances of MP-MUSIC and MP-ML.

  2. A PRECISE POSITION AND ATTITUDE DETERMINATION SYSTEM FOR LIGHTWEIGHT UNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Eling

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In many unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV applications a direct georeferencing is required. The reason can be that the UAV flies autonomous and must be navigated precisely, or that the UAV performs a remote sensing operation, where the position of the camera has to be known at the moment of the recording. In our application, a project called Mapping on Demand, we are motivated by both of these reasons. The goal of this project is to develop a lightweight autonomously flying UAV that is able to identify and measure inaccessible three-dimensional objects by use of visual information. Due to payload and space limitations, precise position and attitude determination of micro- and mini-sized UAVs is very challenging. The limitations do not only affect the onboard computing capacity, but they are also noticeable when choosing the georeferencing sensors. In this article, we will present a new developed onboard direct georeferencing system which is real-time capable, applicable for lightweight UAVs and provides very precise results (position accuracy σ σ < 0.5 deg. In this system GPS, inertial sensors, magnetic field sensors, a barometer as well as stereo video cameras are used as georeferencing sensors. We will describe the hardware development and will go into details of the implemented software. In this context especially the RTK-GPS software and the concept of the attitude determination by use of inertial sensors, magnetic field sensors as well as an onboard GPS baseline will be highlighted. Finally, results of first field tests as well as an outlook on further developments will conclude this contribution.

  3. Absence of Granzyme B Positive Tumour-Infiltrating Lymphocytes in Primary Melanoma Excisional Biopsies is Strongly Associated with the Presence of Sentinel Lymph Node Metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. S. van Houdt

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sentinel Lymph Node (SLN status is strongly related to clinical outcome in melanoma patients. In this study we investigated the possible association between the presence of activated and/or suppressive Tumour Infiltrating Lymphocytes (TILs and SLN status in clinically stage I/II melanoma patients.

  4. Determination of the keyhole position in a lateral suboccipital retrosigmoid approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teranishi, Yu; Kohno, Michihiro; Sora, Shigeo; Sato, Hiroaki

    2014-01-01

    Appropriate placement of the keyhole at the transverse and sigmoid sinus (T/S) junction is important for performance of safe and accurate lateral suboccipital craniotomy with minimum bone loss. Here, we report a method for predicting the position of the T/S junction and investigate the relationship between the T/S junction and asterion. The subjects were 88 patients treated surgically via a lateral suboccipital approach. These cases included 78 acoustic neuromas, 4 meningiomas, 1 trigeminal schwannoma, 1 epidermoid cyst, 2 trigeminal neuralgias, and 1 hemifacial spasm. To expose the T/S junction, we usually place the keyhole lateral to asterion by a half diameter of the burr hole. The distance of the T/S junction from asterion was investigated using three-dimensional computed tomography (3DCT) images. We investigated the differences between the actual and predicted positions of the T/S junction based on skull landmarks, and we compared our method with other literature methods. The mean distances were 5.7 mm caudal and 6.6 mm lateral. The difference between the actual and predicted positions was significantly smaller in our approach compared to other methods. Placing the keyhole lateral to a provisional burr hole just caudal to asterion and lateral by half the diameter of the burr hole was useful for exposure of the T/S junction. The best approach is to use preoperative 3DCT, but this may be limited by equipment problems, emergency cases, or allergy to contrast medium. Determination of the appropriate keyhole position with reference to skull landmarks is a universally useful method.

  5. Integrated GNSS attitude determination and positioning for direct geo-referencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadarajah, Nandakumaran; Paffenholz, Jens-André; Teunissen, Peter J G

    2014-07-17

    Direct geo-referencing is an efficient methodology for the fast acquisition of 3D spatial data. It requires the fusion of spatial data acquisition sensors with navigation sensors, such as Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) receivers. In this contribution, we consider an integrated GNSS navigation system to provide estimates of the position and attitude (orientation) of a 3D laser scanner. The proposed multi-sensor system (MSS) consists of multiple GNSS antennas rigidly mounted on the frame of a rotating laser scanner and a reference GNSS station with known coordinates. Precise GNSS navigation requires the resolution of the carrier phase ambiguities. The proposed method uses the multivariate constrained integer least-squares (MC-LAMBDA) method for the estimation of rotating frame ambiguities and attitude angles. MC-LAMBDA makes use of the known antenna geometry to strengthen the underlying attitude model and, hence, to enhance the reliability of rotating frame ambiguity resolution and attitude determination. The reliable estimation of rotating frame ambiguities is consequently utilized to enhance the relative positioning of the rotating frame with respect to the reference station. This integrated (array-aided) method improves ambiguity resolution, as well as positioning accuracy between the rotating frame and the reference station. Numerical analyses of GNSS data from a real-data campaign confirm the improved performance of the proposed method over the existing method. In particular, the integrated method yields reliable ambiguity resolution and reduces position standard deviation by a factor of about 0:8, matching the theoretical gain of √ 3/4 for two antennas on the rotating frame and a single antenna at the reference station.

  6. Determining inter-system bias of GNSS signals with narrowly spaced frequencies for GNSS positioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yumiao; Liu, Zhizhao; Ge, Maorong; Neitzel, Frank

    2017-12-01

    Relative positioning using multi-GNSS (global navigation satellite systems) can improve accuracy, reliability, and availability compared to the use of a single constellation system. Intra-system double-difference (DD) ambiguities (ISDDAs) refer to the DD ambiguities between satellites of a single constellation system and can be fixed to an integer to derive the precise fixed solution. Inter-system ambiguities, which denote the DD ambiguities between different constellation systems, can also be fixed to integers on overlapping frequencies, once the inter-system bias (ISB) is removed. Compared with fixing ISDDAs, fixing both integer intra- and inter-system DD ambiguities (IIDDAs) means an increase of positioning precision through an integration of multiple GNSS constellations. Previously, researchers have studied IIDDA fixing with systems of the same frequencies, but not with systems of different frequencies. Integer IIDDAs can be determined from single-difference (SD) ambiguities, even if the frequencies of multi-GNSS signals used in the positioning are different. In this study, we investigated IIDDA fixing for multi-GNSS signals of narrowly spaced frequencies. First, the inter-system DD models of multi-GNSS signals of different frequencies are introduced, and the strategy for compensating for ISB is presented. The ISB is decomposed into three parts: 1) a float approximate ISB number that can be considered equal to the ISB of code pseudorange observations and thus can be estimated through single point positioning (SPP); 2) a number that is a multiple of the GNSS signal wavelength; and 3) a fractional ISB part, with a magnitude smaller than a single wavelength. Then, the relationship between intra- and inter-system DD ambiguity RATIO values and ISB was investigated by integrating GPS L1 and GLONASS L1 signals. In our numerical analyses with short baselines, the ISB parameter and IIDDA were successfully fixed, even if the number of observed satellites in each system

  7. Study of the spatial resolution of methods for photon interaction position determination in a monolithic scintillator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miani, A. [LMU Munich (Germany); Universita degli Studi di Milano (Italy); Liprandi, S.; Marinsek, T.; Lang, C.; Lutter, R.; Dedes, G.; Parodi, K.; Thirolf, P.G. [LMU Munich (Germany); Aldawood, S. [LMU Munich (Germany); King Saud University, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); Maier, L.; Gernhaeuser, R. [TU Munich (Germany); Kolff, H. van der [LMU Munich (Germany); Delft University of Technology (Netherlands); Schaart, D.R. [Delft University of Technology (Netherlands)

    2016-07-01

    At LMU Munich, a Compton camera prototype is being developed as a promising tool for ion-beam range verification for hadron therapy by detecting prompt γ rays induced by nuclear reactions between the particle beam and organic tissues. The camera is composed of a scatterer, consisting of six layers of double-sided Si-strip detectors, and an absorber, a monolithic LaBr{sub 3}:Ce crystal (50 x 50 x 30 mm{sup 3}) read out by a 256-segments multianode PMT. Key ingredient of the photon source reconstruction process is the determination of the γ ray interaction position in the monolithic scintillator. It has been determined by applying the k-Nearest Neighbor (k-NN) algorithm (van Dam et al., IEEE TNS 58 (2011)), which requires a large reference library of 2D scintillation light amplitude distributions, determined by scanning the scintillator with a 1 mm collimated {sup 137}Cs source and a fine step size (0.5 mm). The characterization of the spatial resolution of the k-NN method is presented.

  8. Position of Social Determinants of Health in Urban Man-Made Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shojaei, Parisa; Karimlou, Masoud; Mohammadi, Farahnaz; Afzali, Hosein Malek; Forouzan, Ameneh Setareh

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objective: A social determinants approach proposes that enhancing living conditions in areas such as income, housing, transportation, employment, education, social support, and health services is central to improving the health of urban populations. Urban development projects can be costly but have health impacts. The benefit derived from the creation of man-made lakes in developing countries is usually associated with great risks; however, the evidence for physical and non-physical health benefits of urban man-made lake is unclear. The aim of this paper is to formulate a conceptual framework of associations between urban man-made lakes and social determinants of health. Method: This study was a qualitative study carried out using one focus group discussion and 16 individual interviews. Data were analyzed based on deductive-inductive content analysis approach. Results: Participants’ points of view were analyzed within 261 codes. Data analysis matrix was the conceptual framework of social determinants of health commission and its sub-groups, thus, two structural and mediating determinants categories as well as their sub-sets were created accordingly. In addition, some extra sub-sets including environment, air quality, weather changes, noise pollution, pathogenesis, quality of life, shortage of available resources, region popularity, ethnicity, tourism, social and physical development of children, unintentional injuries, aesthetic, and spirituality were extracted beyond the matrix factors, which were placed in each of above categories based on their thematic content. Conclusion: This paper has illustrated that the quality and type of man-made lake provided within communities can have a significant and sustained impact on community’s health and wellbeing. Therefore, in order to strengthen positive effects and reduce negative effects of any developmental projects within community, their impacts on public health should be taken into consideration

  9. Position of social determinants of health in urban man-made lakes plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shojaei, Parisa; Karimloo, Masoud; Mohammadi, Farahnaz; Malek Afzali, Hossein; Forouzan, Ameneh Setareh

    2013-09-04

    A social determinants approach proposes that enhancing living conditions in areas such as income, housing, transportation, employment, education, social support, and health services is central to improving the health of urban populations. Urban development projects can be costly but have health impacts. The benefit derived from the creation of man-made lakes in developing countries is usually associated with great risks; however, the evidence for physical and non-physical health benefits of urban man-made lake is unclear. The aim of this paper is to formulate a conceptual framework of associations between urban man-made lakes and social determinants of health. This study was a qualitative study carried out using one focus group discussion and 16 individual interviews. Data were analyzed based on deductive-inductive content analysis approach. Participants' points of view were analyzed within 261 codes. Data analysis matrix was the conceptual framework of social determinants of health commission and its sub-groups, thus, two structural and mediating determinants categories as well as their sub-sets were created accordingly. In addition, some extra sub-sets including environment, air quality, weather changes, noise pollution, pathogenesis, quality of life, shortage of available resources, region popularity, ethnicity, tourism, social and physical development of children, unintentional injuries, aesthetic, and spirituality were extracted beyond the matrix factors, which were placed in each of above categories based on their thematic content. This paper has illustrated that the quality and type of man-made lake provided within communities can have a significant and sustained impact on community's health and wellbeing. Therefore, in order to strengthen positive effects and reduce negative effects of any developmental projects within community, their impacts on public health should be taken into consideration.

  10. Precise determination of the Bragg peak position of proton beams in liquid water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marouane, Abdelhak; Ouaskit, Said; Inchaouh, Jamal

    2011-01-01

    The influence of water molecules on the surrounding biological molecules during irradiation with protons is currently a major subject in radiation science. Proton collisions with the water molecules are estimated around the Bragg peak region, taking into account ionization, excitation, charge-changing processes, and energetic secondary electron behavior. The Bragg peak profile and position was determined by adopting a new approach involving discretization, incrementation, and dividing the target into layers, the thickness of each layer being selected randomly from a distribution weighted by the values of the total interaction cross section, from excitation up to ionization of the target and the incident projectile charge exchange. The calculation was carried out by a Monte-Carlo simulation in the energy range 20 ≤ E ≤ 10 8 eV, including the relativistic corrections.

  11. Disentangling evolutionary signals: conservation, specificity determining positions and coevolution. Implication for catalytic residue prediction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teppa, Elin; Wilkins, Angela D.; Nielsen, Morten

    2012-01-01

    within a multiple sequence alignment to investigate their predictive potential and degree of overlap. Results: Our results demonstrate that the different methods included in the benchmark in general can be divided into three groups with a limited mutual overlap. One group containing real-value...... Evolutionary Trace (rvET) methods and conservation, another containing mutual information (MI) methods, and the last containing methods designed explicitly for the identification of specificity determining positions (SDPs): integer-value Evolutionary Trace (ivET), SDPfox, and XDET. In terms of prediction of CR......, we find using a proximity score integrating structural information (as the sum of the scores of residues located within a given distance of the residue in question) that only the methods from the first two groups displayed a reliable performance. Next, we investigated to what degree proximity scores...

  12. Determination of the optimal tolerance for MLC positioning in sliding window and VMAT techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez, V., E-mail: vhernandezmasgrau@gmail.com; Abella, R. [Department of Medical Physics, Hospital Sant Joan de Reus, IISPV, Tarragona 43204 (Spain); Calvo, J. F. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hospital Quirón, Barcelona 08023 (Spain); Jurado-Bruggemann, D. [Department of Medical Physics, Institut Català d’Oncologia, Girona 17007 (Spain); Sancho, I. [Department of Medical Physics, Institut Català d’Oncologia, L’Hospitalet de Llobregat 08908 (Spain); Carrasco, P. [Department of Medical Physics, Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau, Barcelona 08041 (Spain)

    2015-04-15

    Purpose: Several authors have recommended a 2 mm tolerance for multileaf collimator (MLC) positioning in sliding window treatments. In volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) treatments, however, the optimal tolerance for MLC positioning remains unknown. In this paper, the authors present the results of a multicenter study to determine the optimal tolerance for both techniques. Methods: The procedure used is based on dynalog file analysis. The study was carried out using seven Varian linear accelerators from five different centers. Dynalogs were collected from over 100 000 clinical treatments and in-house software was used to compute the number of tolerance faults as a function of the user-defined tolerance. Thus, the optimal value for this tolerance, defined as the lowest achievable value, was investigated. Results: Dynalog files accurately predict the number of tolerance faults as a function of the tolerance value, especially for low fault incidences. All MLCs behaved similarly and the Millennium120 and the HD120 models yielded comparable results. In sliding window techniques, the number of beams with an incidence of hold-offs >1% rapidly decreases for a tolerance of 1.5 mm. In VMAT techniques, the number of tolerance faults sharply drops for tolerances around 2 mm. For a tolerance of 2.5 mm, less than 0.1% of the VMAT arcs presented tolerance faults. Conclusions: Dynalog analysis provides a feasible method for investigating the optimal tolerance for MLC positioning in dynamic fields. In sliding window treatments, the tolerance of 2 mm was found to be adequate, although it can be reduced to 1.5 mm. In VMAT treatments, the typically used 5 mm tolerance is excessively high. Instead, a tolerance of 2.5 mm is recommended.

  13. Direct Position Determination of Unknown Signals in the Presence of Multipath Propagation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianping Du

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A novel geolocation architecture, termed “Multiple Transponders and Multiple Receivers for Multiple Emitters Positioning System (MTRE” is proposed in this paper. Existing Direct Position Determination (DPD methods take advantage of a rather simple channel assumption (line of sight channels with complex path attenuations and a simplified MUltiple SIgnal Classification (MUSIC algorithm cost function to avoid the high dimension searching. We point out that the simplified assumption and cost function reduce the positioning accuracy because of the singularity of the array manifold in a multi-path environment. We present a DPD model for unknown signals in the presence of Multi-path Propagation (MP-DPD in this paper. MP-DPD adds non-negative real path attenuation constraints to avoid the mistake caused by the singularity of the array manifold. The Multi-path Propagation MUSIC (MP-MUSIC method and the Active Set Algorithm (ASA are designed to reduce the dimension of searching. A Multi-path Propagation Maximum Likelihood (MP-ML method is proposed in addition to overcome the limitation of MP-MUSIC in the sense of a time-sensitive application. An iterative algorithm and an approach of initial value setting are given to make the MP-ML time consumption acceptable. Numerical results validate the performances improvement of MP-MUSIC and MP-ML. A closed form of the Cramér–Rao Lower Bound (CRLB is derived as a benchmark to evaluate the performances of MP-MUSIC and MP-ML.

  14. Determination of the optimal tolerance for MLC positioning in sliding window and VMAT techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, V; Abella, R; Calvo, J F; Jurado-Bruggemann, D; Sancho, I; Carrasco, P

    2015-04-01

    Several authors have recommended a 2 mm tolerance for multileaf collimator (MLC) positioning in sliding window treatments. In volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) treatments, however, the optimal tolerance for MLC positioning remains unknown. In this paper, the authors present the results of a multicenter study to determine the optimal tolerance for both techniques. The procedure used is based on dynalog file analysis. The study was carried out using seven Varian linear accelerators from five different centers. Dynalogs were collected from over 100,000 clinical treatments and in-house software was used to compute the number of tolerance faults as a function of the user-defined tolerance. Thus, the optimal value for this tolerance, defined as the lowest achievable value, was investigated. Dynalog files accurately predict the number of tolerance faults as a function of the tolerance value, especially for low fault incidences. All MLCs behaved similarly and the Millennium120 and the HD120 models yielded comparable results. In sliding window techniques, the number of beams with an incidence of hold-offs >1% rapidly decreases for a tolerance of 1.5 mm. In VMAT techniques, the number of tolerance faults sharply drops for tolerances around 2 mm. For a tolerance of 2.5 mm, less than 0.1% of the VMAT arcs presented tolerance faults. Dynalog analysis provides a feasible method for investigating the optimal tolerance for MLC positioning in dynamic fields. In sliding window treatments, the tolerance of 2 mm was found to be adequate, although it can be reduced to 1.5 mm. In VMAT treatments, the typically used 5 mm tolerance is excessively high. Instead, a tolerance of 2.5 mm is recommended.

  15. Determination of atomic positions from time resolved high resolution transmission electron microscopy images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussaini, Zahra; Lin, Pin Ann; Natarajan, Bharath; Zhu, Wenhui; Sharma, Renu

    2018-03-01

    For many reaction processes, such as catalysis, phase transformations, nanomaterial synthesis etc., nanoscale observations at high spatial (sub-nanometer) and temporal (millisecond) resolution are required to characterize and comprehend the underlying factors that favor one reaction over another. The combination of such spatial and temporal resolution (up to 600 µs), while rich in information, produces a large number of snapshots, each of which must be analyzed to obtain the structural (and thereby chemical) information. Here we present a methodology for automated quantitative measurement of real-time atomic position fluctuations in a nanoparticle. We leverage a combination of several image processing algorithms to precisely identify the positions of the atomic columns in each image. A geometric model is then used to measure the time-evolution of distances and angles between neighboring atomic columns to identify different phases and quantify local structural fluctuations. We apply this technique to determine the atomic-level fluctuations in the relative fractions of metal and metal-carbide phases in a cobalt catalyst nanoparticle during single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) growth. These measurements provided a means to obtain the number of carbon atoms incorporated into and released from the catalyst particle, thereby helping resolve carbon reaction pathways during SWCNT growth. Further we demonstrate the use of this technique to measure the reaction kinetics of iron oxide reduction. Apart from reducing the data analysis time, the statistical approach allows us to measure atomic distances with sub-pixel resolution. We show that this method can be applied universally to measure atomic positions with a precision of 0.01 nm from any set of atomic-resolution video images. With the advent of high time-resolution direct detection cameras, we anticipate such methods will be essential in addressing the metrology problem of quantifying large datasets of time

  16. Evaluation of chosen determinants of the positive practice environments (PPE at Polish nursing wards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Kilańska

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: At many Polish hospitals, insufficient attention is given to positive work environment. In many cases nurses, similarly to the representatives of other professional groups, are not provided with facilities or tools to perform their professional tasks in safe conditions. The aspects of recruitment and retention of employees are often ignored. The aim of this study has been to assess the chosen determinants of work environment of nurses in Poland using the concept of the Positive Practice Environments (PPE. Material and Methods: The survey was carried out from 2008 to 2011 among 1049 nursing students of 3 randomly selected public medical universities that provided nursing education at the graduate level of the Master of Science. All the people qualified for the study group were practising nurses or midwives. The Polish Nursing Association coordinated the project, obtained the tool, translated it and adjusted it to the Polish conditions. The areas covered in the survey were: a place of employment, selected physical and social elements influencing the work conditions, and biographical information. Results: Access to as many as 8 factors identified as attributes of friendly environments was found unsatisfactory by over 50% of the nurses. For the purpose of objective assessment, the results were compared with the results obtained in the group of nurses in England. Conclusions: The majority of the surveyed nurses were not satisfied with their work environments. Polish nurse managers should ensure that aspects of recognized attributes of friendly, positive practice environments for nurses are established to support nurses’ satisfaction as a pre-condition for patients’ safety. Med Pr 2016;67(1:11–19

  17. Determining of the phase centre of the real position of GPS receiver antenna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Pisoňová

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available By continued improvement of measurement methods producers of GPS (Global Positioning System apparatus will be maybe once upon a time effective to minimize a difference of the phase centre from the geometrical one, because it is probably impossible to make the GPS receiver antenna with zero eccentricity of the phase centre. In the last analysis, we do not prevent from a manufacturing error by any way in eliminate of the possible measurement errors.In the paper there is presented the measurement testing practice with aim of the phase centre real position determining of several in a market available GPS receivers in the paper. Investigation up to what standard the GPS receiver antenna phase centre variation achieves to float in an inaccuracy into GPS measurements. Testing was realized on the temporary testing baseline closely village Badín at Banská Bystrica in the Central Slovak Region. GPS receivers Locus Survey System (Ashtech, ProMark2 (Ashtech were tested.

  18. What determines positive, neutral, and negative impacts of Solidago canadensis invasion on native plant species richness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Li-Jia; Yu, Hong-Wei; He, Wei-Ming

    2015-11-17

    Whether plant invasions pose a great threat to native plant diversity is still hotly debated due to conflicting findings. More importantly, we know little about the mechanisms of invasion impacts on native plant richness. We examined how Solidago canadensis invasion influenced native plants using data from 291 pairs of invaded and uninvaded plots covering an entire invaded range, and quantified the relative contributions of climate, recipient communities, and S. canadensis to invasion impacts. There were three types of invasion consequences for native plant species richness (i.e., positive, neutral, and negative impacts). Overall, the relative contributions of recipient communities, S. canadensis and climate to invasion impacts were 71.39%, 21.46% and 7.15%, respectively; furthermore, the roles of recipient communities, S. canadensis and climate were largely ascribed to plant diversity, density and cover, and precipitation. In terms of direct effects, invasion impacts were negatively linked to temperature and native plant communities, and positively to precipitation and soil microbes. Soil microbes were crucial in the network of indirect effects on invasion impacts. These findings suggest that the characteristics of recipient communities are the most important determinants of invasion impacts and that invasion impacts may be a continuum across an entire invaded range.

  19. Determinants of Mortality among HIV Positives after Initiating Antiretroviral Therapy in Western Ethiopia: A Hospital-Based Retrospective Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Hambisa, Mitiku Teshome; Ali, Ahmed; Dessie, Yadeta

    2013-01-01

    Studies revealed that there are various determinants of mortality among HIV positives after ART initiation. These determinants are so variable with context and dynamic across time with the advancement of cares and treatments. In this study we tried to identify determinants of mortality among HIV positives after initiating ART. A retrospective cohort study was conducted among 416 ART attendees enrolled between July 2005 to January 2012 in Nekemte Referral Hospital, Western Ethiopia. Actuarial ...

  20. $K^{0} \\leftrightharpoons \\overline{K}^0$ transitions monitored by strong interactions a new determination of the $K_{L} - K_{S}$ mass difference

    CERN Document Server

    Angelopoulos, Angelos; Backenstoss, Gerhard; Bargassa, P; Behnke, O; Benelli, A; Bertin, V; Blanc, F; Bloch, P; Carlson, P J; Carroll, M; Cawley, E; Chertok, M B; Danielsson, M; Dejardin, M; Derré, J; Ealet, A; Eleftheriadis, C; Fetscher, W; Fidecaro, Maria; Filipcic, A; Francis, D; Fry, J; Gabathuler, Erwin; Gamet, R; Gerber, H J; Go, A; Haselden, A; Haymen, P J; Henry-Coüannier, F; Hollander, R W; Jon-And, K; Kettle, P R; Kokkas, P; Kreuger, R; Le Gac, R; Leimgruber, F; Mandic, I; Manthos, N; Marel, Gérard; Mikuz, M; Miller, J; Montanet, François; Müller, A; Nakada, Tatsuya; Pagels, B; Papadopoulos, I M; Pavlopoulos, P; Polivka, G; Rickenbach, R; Roberts, B L; Ruf, T; Sakelliou, L; Schäfer, M; Schaller, L A; Schietinger, T; Schopper, A; Tauscher, Ludwig; Thibault, C; Touchard, F; Touramanis, C; van Eijk, C W E; Vlachos, S; Weber, P; Wigger, O; Wolter, M; Zavrtanik, D; Zimmerman, D

    2001-01-01

    The CPLEAR set-up (modified) has been used to determine the K/sub L/- K/sub S/ mass difference by a method where neutral-kaon strangeness oscillations are monitored through kaon strong interactions, rather than semileptonic decays, thus requiring no assumptions on CPT invariance for the decay amplitudes. The result, Delta m= (0.5343+or-0.0063/sub stat/+or-0.0025/sub syst/)*10/sup 10/ h(cross) /s, provides a valuable input for CPT tests. (22 refs).

  1. Determination of the Interaction Position of Gamma Photons in Monolithic Scintillators Using Neural Network Fitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conde, P.; Iborra, A.; González, A. J.; Hernández, L.; Bellido, P.; Moliner, L.; Rigla, J. P.; Rodríguez-Álvarez, M. J.; Sánchez, F.; Seimetz, M.; Soriano, A.; Vidal, L. F.; Benlloch, J. M.

    2016-02-01

    In Positron Emission Tomography (PET) detectors based on monolithic scintillators, the photon interaction position needs to be estimated from the light distribution (LD) on the photodetector pixels. Due to the finite size of the scintillator volume, the symmetry of the LD is truncated everywhere except for the crystal center. This effect produces a poor estimation of the interaction positions towards the edges, an especially critical situation when linear algorithms, such as Center of Gravity (CoG), are used. When all the crystal faces are painted black, except the one in contact with the photodetector, the LD can be assumed to behave as the inverse square law, providing a simple theoretical model. Using this LD model, the interaction coordinates can be determined by means of fitting each event to a theoretical distribution. In that sense, the use of neural networks (NNs) has been shown to be an effective alternative to more traditional fitting techniques as nonlinear least squares (LS). The multilayer perceptron is one type of NN which can model non-linear functions well and can be trained to accurately generalize when presented with new data. In this work we have shown the capability of NNs to approximate the LD and provide the interaction coordinates of γ-photons with two different photodetector setups. One experimental setup was based on analog Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPMs) and a charge division diode network, whereas the second setup was based on digital SiPMs (dSiPMs). In both experiments NNs minimized border effects. Average spatial resolutions of 1.9 ±0.2 mm and 1.7 ±0.2 mm for the entire crystal surface were obtained for the analog and dSiPMs approaches, respectively.

  2. Construction and testing of a computer-based intraoral laser scanner for determining tooth positions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commer, P; Bourauel, C; Maier, K; Jäger, A

    2000-11-01

    An optical set-up for intraoral data acquisition based on the principle of laser triangulation was developed. The system consists of a pig-tailed laser with line generating optics, a stepping motor driven positioning stage, a commercial CCD (charge coupled device) camera system with frame grabber interface, a control personal computer and a mirror system compensating for the fact that there is no possibility of watching an object directly in the mouth under a certain angle except from a facial position during intraoral scanning. Due to the size of the prototype measurements were still restricted to plaster casts. In order to evaluate its accuracy, the measurements were compared with those taken with a commercial laser scanner and a coordinate measurement table. The accuracy of the prototype scanner was determined to be DeltaXYZ=0.04 mm using gauge blocks of given dimensions and proved to range between the commercial laser scanner and the coordinate measurement table (i.e., it was slightly better than that of the commercial scanner). Applications in orthodontics were demonstrated by scanning plaster casts and measuring distances on reconstructed surfaces. The measured distances showed a maximum deviation of about +/-0.2 mm compared with the data of the coordinate measurement table, which served as a reference. In addition, reconstruction of three-dimensional tooth movements was performed on the scan data. The translational and rotational parameters gained from the superimposition of scanned point clouds and describing tooth movement were also in good accordance with the reference. The achieved accuracy proved to be sufficient for further development which should include a reduction in size and the use of more precise device components.

  3. Position of probe determines prognostic information of brain tissue PO2 in severe traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponce, Lucido L; Pillai, Shibu; Cruz, Jovany; Li, Xiaoqi; Julia, H; Gopinath, Shankar; Robertson, Claudia S

    2012-06-01

    Monitoring brain tissue PO2 (PbtO2) is part of multimodality monitoring of patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI). However, PbtO2 measurement is a sampling of only a small area of tissue surrounding the sensor tip. To examine the effect of catheter location on the relationship between PbtO2 and neurological outcome. A total of 405 patients who had PbtO2 monitoring as part of standard management of severe traumatic brain injury were studied. The relationships between probe location and resulting PbtO2 and outcome were examined. When the probe was located in normal brain, PbtO2 averaged 30.8 ± 18.2 compared with 25.6 ± 14.8 mm Hg when placed in abnormal brain (P < .001). Factors related to neurological outcome in the best-fit logistic regression model were age, PbtO2 probe position, postresuscitation motor Glasgow Coma Scale score, and PbtO2 trend pattern. Although average PbtO2 was significantly related to outcome in univariate analyses, it was not significant in the final logistic model. However, the interaction between PbtO2 and probe position was statistically significant. When the PbtO2 probe was placed in abnormal brain, the average PbtO2 was higher in those with a favorable outcome, 28.8 ± 12.0 mm Hg, compared with those with an unfavorable outcome, 19.5 ± 13.7 mm Hg (P = .01). PbtO2 and outcome were not related when the probe was placed in normal-appearing brain. These results suggest that the location of the PbtO2 probe determines the PbtO2 values and the relationship of PbtO2 to neurological outcome.

  4. Genetic determinants of antimicrobial resistance in Gram positive bacteria from organic foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Fuentes, Miguel Angel; Abriouel, Hikmate; Ortega Morente, Elena; Pérez Pulido, Rubén; Gálvez, Antonio

    2014-02-17

    Bacterial biocide resistance is becoming a matter of concern. In the present study, a collection of biocide-resistant, Gram-positive bacteria from organic foods (including 11 isolates from genus Bacillus, 25 from Enterococcus and 10 from Staphylococcus) were analyzed for genes associated to biocide resistance efflux pumps and antibiotic resistance. The only qac-genes detected were qacA/B (one Bacillus cereus isolate) and smr (one B. cereus and two Staphylococcus saprophyticus isolates). Efflux pump genes efrA and efrB genes were detected in Staphylococcus (60% of isolates), Bacillus (54.54%) and Enterococcus (24%); sugE was detected in Enterococcus (20%) and in one Bacillus licheniformis; mepA was detected in Staphylococcus (60%) and in one Enterococcus isolate (which also carried mdeA), and norE gene was detected only in one Enterococcus faecium and one S. saprophyticus isolate. An amplicon for acrB efflux pump was detected in all but one isolate. When minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined, it was found that the addition of reserpine reduced the MICs by eight fold for most of the biocides and isolates, corroborating the role of efflux pumps in biocide resistance. Erythromycin resistance gene ermB was detected in 90% of Bacillus isolates, and in one Staphylococcus, while ereA was detected only in one Bacillus and one Staphyloccus, and ereB only in one Staphylococcus. The ATP-dependent msrA gene (which confers resistance to macrolides, lincosamides and type B streptogramins) was detected in 60% of Bacillus isolates and in all staphylococci, which in addition carried msrB. The lincosamide and streptogramin A resistance gene lsa was detected in Staphylococcus (40%), Bacillus (27.27%) and Enterococcus (8%) isolates. The aminoglycoside resistance determinant aph (3_)-IIIa was detected in Staphylococcus (40%) and Bacillus (one isolate), aph(2_)-1d in Bacillus (27.27%) and Enterococcus (8%), aph(2_)-Ib in Bacillus (one isolate), and the bifunctional aac

  5. Determination of the strong coupling constant α{sub s} (m{sub Z}) from measurements of the total cross section for top-antitop-quark production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klijnsma, Thomas; Dissertori, Guenther [ETH Zurich, Institute for Particle Physics, Zurich (Switzerland); Bethke, Siegfried [Max-Planck-Institute of Physics, Munich (Germany); Salam, Gavin P. [CERN, Theoretical Physics Department, Geneva (Switzerland); CNRS, UMR 7589, LPTHE, Paris (France)

    2017-11-15

    We present a determination of the strong coupling constant α{sub s} (m{sub Z}) using inclusive top-quark pair production cross section measurements performed at the LHC and at the Tevatron. Following a procedure first applied by the CMS Collaboration, we extract individual values of α{sub s} (m{sub Z}) from measurements by different experiments at several centre-of-mass energies, using QCD predictions complete in NNLO perturbation theory, supplemented with NNLL approximations to all orders, and suitable sets of parton distribution functions. The determinations are then combined using a likelihood-based approach, where special emphasis is put on a consistent treatment of theoretical uncertainties and of correlations between various sources of systematic uncertainties. Our final combined result is α{sub s} (m{sub Z}) = 0.1177{sup +0.0034}{sub -0.0036}. (orig.)

  6. Novel probe for determining the size and position of a relativistic electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orzechowski, T.J.; Koehler, H.; Edwards, W.; Nelson, M.; Marshall, B.

    1984-01-01

    In order to determine the size and position of a relativistic electron beam inside the wiggler magnetic field of a Free Electron Laser (FEL), we have developed a new probe which intercepts the electron beam on a high Z target and monitors the resulting bremsstrahlung radiation. The probe is designed to move along the entire three meters of the wiggler. This FEL is designed to operate in the microwave region (2 to 8 mm) and the interaction region is an oversized waveguide with a cross section 3 cm x 9.8 cm. The axial probe moves inside this waveguide. The probe stops the electron beam on a Tantalum target and the resulting x-rays are scattered in the forward direction. A scintillator behind the beam stop reacts to the x-rays and emits visible light in the region where the x-rays strike. An array of fiber optics behind the scintillator transmits the visible light to a Reticon camera system which images the visible pattern from the scintillator. Processing the optical image is done by digitizing and storing the image and/or recording the image on video tape. Resolution and performance of this probe will be discussed

  7. Genomic selection strategies in breeding programs: Strong positive interaction between application of genotypic information and intensive use of young bulls on genetic gain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buch, Line Hjortø; Sørensen, Morten Kargo; Berg, Peer

    2012-01-01

    ) a positive interaction exists between the use of genotypic information and a short generation interval on ΔGAG and (iii) the inclusion of an indicator trait in the selection index will only result in a negligible increase in ΔGAG if genotypic information about the breeding goal trait is known. We examined......We tested the following hypotheses: (i) breeding schemes with genomic selection are superior to breeding schemes without genomic selection regarding annual genetic gain of the aggregate genotype (ΔGAG), annual genetic gain of the functional traits and rate of inbreeding per generation (ΔF), (ii...... four breeding schemes with or without genomic selection and with or without intensive use of young bulls using pseudo-genomic stochastic simulations. The breeding goal consisted of a milk production trait and a functional trait. The two breeding schemes with genomic selection resulted in higher ΔGAG...

  8. Mass and position determination of attached particles on cantilever based mass sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dohn, Søren; Svendsen, Winnie Edith; Boisen, Anja

    2007-01-01

    An analytical expression relating mass and position of a particle attached on a cantilever to the resulting change in cantilever resonant frequency is derived. Theoretically, the position and mass of the attached particle can be deduced by combining measured resonant frequencies of several bending...... modes. This finding is verified experimentally using a microscale cantilever with and without an attached gold bead. The resonant frequencies of several bending modes are measured as a function of the bead position. The bead mass and position calculated from the measured resonant frequencies are in good...... agreement with the expected mass and the position measured....

  9. The role of nutrition and genetics as key determinants of the positive height trend.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasgruber, P; Cacek, J; Kalina, T; Sebera, M

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the most important variables determining current differences in physical stature in Europe and some of its overseas offshoots such as Australia, New Zealand and USA. We collected data on the height of young men from 45 countries and compared them with long-term averages of food consumption from the FAOSTAT database, various development indicators compiled by the World Bank and the CIA World Factbook, and frequencies of several genetic markers. Our analysis demonstrates that the most important factor explaining current differences in stature among nations of European origin is the level of nutrition, especially the ratio between the intake of high-quality proteins from milk products, pork meat and fish, and low-quality proteins from wheat. Possible genetic factors such as the distribution of Y haplogroup I-M170, combined frequencies of Y haplogroups I-M170 and R1b-U106, or the phenotypic distribution of lactose tolerance emerge as comparably important, but the available data are more limited. Moderately significant positive correlations were also found with GDP per capita, health expenditure and partly with the level of urbanization that influences male stature in Western Europe. In contrast, male height correlated inversely with children's mortality and social inequality (Gini index). These results could inspire social and nutritional guidelines that would lead to the optimization of physical growth in children and maximization of the genetic potential, both at the individual and national level. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Accurate determination of screw position in treating fifth metatarsal base fractures to shorten radiation exposure time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xu; Zhang, Chao; Wang, Chen; Huang, Jia Zhang; Ma, Xin

    2016-11-01

    Anatomical markers can help to guide lag screw placement during surgery for internal fixation of fifth metatarsal base fractures. This study aimed to identify the optimal anatomical markers and thus reduce radiation exposure. A total of 50 patients in Huashan Hospital, Shanghai, China, who underwent oblique foot radiography in the lateral position were randomly selected. The angles between the fifth metatarsal axis and cuboid articular surface were measured to determine the optimal lag screw placement relative to anatomical markers. The line connecting the styloid process of the fifth metatarsal base with the second metatarsophalangeal (MTP) joint intersected with the fifth metatarsal base fracture line at an angle of 86.85° ± 5.44°. The line connecting the fifth metatarsal base styloid with the third and fourth MTP joints intersected with the fracture line at angles of 93.28° ± 5.24° and 100.95° ± 5.00°, respectively. The proximal articular surface of the fifth metatarsal base intersected with the line connecting the styloid process of the fifth metatarsal base with the second, third and fourth MTP joints at angles of 24.02° ± 4.77°, 30.79° ± 4.53° and 38.08° ± 4.54°, respectively. The fifth metatarsal base styloid and third MTP joint can be used as anatomical markers for lag screw placement in fractures involving the fifth tarsometatarsal joint. The connection line, which is normally perpendicular to the fracture line, provides sufficient mechanical stability to facilitate accurate screw placement. The use of these anatomical markers could help to reduce unnecessary radiation exposure for patients and medical staff. Copyright: © Singapore Medical Association

  11. Human tissue valves in aortic position: determinants of reoperation and valve regurgitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.P. Willems (Tineke); E.W. Steyerberg (Ewout); V.E. Kleyburg-Linkers; E. Bos (Egbert); L.A. van Herwerden (Lex); J.R.T.C. Roelandt (Jos); J.J.M. Takkenberg (Hanneke)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: Human tissue valves for aortic valve replacement have a limited durability that is influenced by interrelated determinants. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to analyze the relation between these determinants of durability and valve

  12. The determination of contribution of emotional intelligence and parenting styles components to predicts positive psychological components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    hosein Ebrahimi moghadam

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Since the essential of positive psychological components, as compliment of deficiency oriented approaches, has begun in recent days,we decided to take into account this new branch of psychology which scientifically considers studying forces of human, as well as because of the importance of this branch of psychology, we also tried to search the contribution of emotional intelligence and parenting styles components to predict positive psychological components. Materials and Methods:In this cross sectional study 200 psychological students of Azad university (Rudehen branch selected using cluster sampling method. Then they were estimated by Bradbery and Grivers emotional intelligence questionnaire , Bamrind parenting styles and Rajayi et al positive psychological components questionnaire. Research data was analyzed using descriptive statistics (mean and standard deviation, inferential statistics (multiple regression and Pierson correlation coefficient and SPSS software. Results:Among the components of emotional intelligence, the component of emotional self consciousness (β=0.464 had the greatest predictable , and reaction leadership showed no predictability in this research between parenting styles , authority parenting styles had positive significance relationship with positive psychological components. And no significant relationship was found between despot parenting styles and positive psychological components. Conclusion: Regarding the results of this research and importance of positive psychological components, it is suggested to treat the emotional intelligence from childhood and to learn it to parents and remind them the parenting way to decrease the satisfaction of individuals which leads to promotion of society mental health.

  13. Comfort as a determiner of treatment position in radiotherapy of the male pelvis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, J.; Davison, A.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: A comfortable treatment position in radiotherapy may promote patient stability and contribute to the best possible patient experience. Patients receiving radical radiotherapy for prostate cancer lie supine or prone, but little evaluation has been made of the comfort of these positions. The purpose of this research was to evaluate the comfort of the prone and supine positions and to assess any influence of feelings of anxiety. Methods: Self-reported comfort and anxiety levels were measured using visual analogue scales in the first and last weeks of treatment for patients receiving radical prostatic radiotherapy. The subjects were from two hospitals, 23 routinely treated lying prone and 21 routinely treated lying supine. Six subjects from each group were interviewed in the first week of treatment. Results: Comfort levels were high and no significant difference was found between treatment positions or between the first and last weeks of treatment. Anxiety levels were low with no significant variation according to position or week of treatment. Little correlation was seen between reported anxiety and comfort levels. Interview data supported the quantitative findings. Supine subjects indicated the need for lateral elbow support to improve feelings of stability. Conclusions: For radiotherapy of male patients without pain or other complicating factors, selection between the prone and supine positions may be made without considering comfort. Supine patients should be provided with lateral elbow support. Further research is indicated into the comfort of these positions for females and the phenomenon of low reported anxiety in male cancer patients

  14. A new system to quantify uncertainties in LEO satellite position determination due to space weather events

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to develop a new system for quantitative assessment of uncertainties in LEO satellite position caused by storm time changes in space environmental...

  15. Determining Sincerity of Effort Based on Grip Strength Test in Three Wrist Positions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petcharatana Bhuanantanondh

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Several grip strength tests are commonly used for detecting sincerity of effort. However, there is still no widely accepted standardized sincerity of effort test. Therefore, this study aimed to examine whether grip strength test in three wrist positions could distinguish between maximal and submaximal efforts. Methods: Twenty healthy individuals (10 men and 10 women with a mean age of 26.7 ± 3.92 years participated in this study. All participants completed two test conditions (maximal and submaximal efforts in three wrist positions (neutral, flexion, and extension using both hands. Each participant exerted 100% effort in the maximal effort condition and 50% effort in the submaximal effort condition. The participants performed three repetitions of the grip strength test for each session. Results: The results showed that there is a significant main effect of the type of effort (p < 0.001, wrist position (p < 0.001, and hand (p = 0.028. There were also significant types of effort and wrist position interactions (p < 0.001 and effort and hand interactions (p < 0.028. The results also showed that grip strength was highest at the wrist in neutral position in both the maximal and the submaximal effort condition. Grip strength values of the three wrist positions in the maximal effort condition were noticeably greater than those in the submaximal effort condition. Conclusion: The findings of this study suggest that grip strength test in three wrist positions can differentiate a maximal effort from a submaximal effort. Thus, this test could potentially be used to detect sincerity of effort in clinical setting. Keywords: grip strength, maximal effort, sincerity of effort, submaximal effort, wrist position

  16. The determination of contribution of emotional intelligence and parenting styles components to predicts positive psychological components

    OpenAIRE

    hosein Ebrahimi moghadam; mahin Fekraty

    2015-01-01

    Background: Since the essential of positive psychological components, as compliment of deficiency oriented approaches, has begun in recent days,we decided to take into account this new branch of psychology which scientifically considers studying forces of human, as well as because of the importance of this branch of psychology, we also tried to search the contribution of emotional intelligence and parenting styles components to predict positive psychological components. Materials and Methods:...

  17. Characteristics of eye-position gain field populations determine geometry of visual space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidney R Lehky

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We have previously demonstrated differences in eye-position spatial maps for anterior inferotemporal cortex (AIT in the ventral stream and lateral intraparietal cortex (LIP in the dorsal stream, based on population decoding of gaze angle modulations of neural visual responses (i.e., eye-position gain fields. Here we explore the basis of such spatial encoding differences through modeling of gain field characteristics. We created a population of model neurons, each having a different eye-position gain field. This population was used to reconstruct eye-position visual space using multidimensional scaling. As gain field shapes have never been well established experimentally, we examined different functions, including planar, sigmoidal, elliptical, hyperbolic, and mixtures of those functions. All functions successfully recovered positions, indicating weak constraints on allowable gain field shapes. We then used a genetic algorithm to modify the characteristics of model gain field populations until the recovered spatial maps closely matched those derived from monkey neurophysiological data in AIT and LIP. The primary differences found between model AIT and LIP gain fields were that AIT gain fields were more foveally dominated. That is, gain fields in AIT operated on smaller spatial scales and smaller dispersions than in LIP. Thus we show that the geometry of eye-position visual space depends on the population characteristics of gain fields, and that differences in gain field characteristics for different cortical areas may underlie differences in the representation of space.

  18. Commercial radioimmunoassay for beta subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin: falsely positive determinations due to elevated serum luteinizing hormone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, J.E. Jr.; Platoff, G.E.; Kubrock, C.A.; Stuzman, R.E.

    1982-01-01

    Among 17 men who had received seemingly curative treatment for unilateral non-seminomatous germ cell tumors for the testis and who had consistently normal serum human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) levels at a reference laboratory, 7 (41%) had at least one falsely positive commercial serum HCG determination. To investigate the cause of these falsely positive determinations the authors measured the cross reactivity of luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) standards in the commercial HCG assay, and studied the relationships between commercial HCG levels and serum LH levels, serum FSH levels and gonadal status in men with and without normal gonadal function. The falsely positive HCG determinations appeared to be due to elevated serum LH levels and cross reactivity of LH in the commercial HCG assay because: 1) there was substantial cross reactivity of the LH standards in the commercial assay, 2) the serum LH was elevated in four of six men with solitary testes, 3) there was a striking correlation between elevated serum LH levels and falsely elevated commercial HCG levels in ten men with solitary or absent testes, and 4) there were no falsely positive HCG determinations in 13 normal men but there were falsely positive HCG determinations in seven of ten anorchid men

  19. The role of positive selection in determining the molecular cause of species differences in disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foord Steven M

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Related species, such as humans and chimpanzees, often experience the same disease with varying degrees of pathology, as seen in the cases of Alzheimer's disease, or differing symptomatology as in AIDS. Furthermore, certain diseases such as schizophrenia, epithelial cancers and autoimmune disorders are far more frequent in humans than in other species for reasons not associated with lifestyle. Genes that have undergone positive selection during species evolution are indicative of functional adaptations that drive species differences. Thus we investigate whether biomedical disease differences between species can be attributed to positively selected genes. Results We identified genes that putatively underwent positive selection during the evolution of humans and four mammals which are often used to model human diseases (mouse, rat, chimpanzee and dog. We show that genes predicted to have been subject to positive selection pressure during human evolution are implicated in diseases such as epithelial cancers, schizophrenia, autoimmune diseases and Alzheimer's disease, all of which differ in prevalence and symptomatology between humans and their mammalian relatives. In agreement with previous studies, the chimpanzee lineage was found to have more genes under positive selection than any of the other lineages. In addition, we found new evidence to support the hypothesis that genes that have undergone positive selection tend to interact with each other. This is the first such evidence to be detected widely among mammalian genes and may be important in identifying molecular pathways causative of species differences. Conclusion Our dataset of genes predicted to have been subject to positive selection in five species serves as an informative resource that can be consulted prior to selecting appropriate animal models during drug target validation. We conclude that studying the evolution of functional and biomedical disease differences

  20. Determining the Separation and Position Angles of Orbiting Binary Stars: Comparison of Three Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Ryan; Boule, Cory; Andrews, Katelyn; Penfield, Andrew; Ross, Ian; Lucas, Gaylon; Braught, Trisha; Harfenist, Steven; Goodale, Keith

    2015-07-01

    To initiate a long term binary star research program, undergraduate students compared the accuracy and ease of measuring the separations and position angles of three long period binary pairs using three different measurement techniques. It was found that digital image capture using BackyardEOS software and subsequent analysis in Adobe Photoshop was the most accurate and easiest to use of our three methods. The systems WDS J17419+7209 (STF 2241AB), WDS 19418+5032 (STFA 46AB), and WDS 16362+5255 (STF 2087AB) were found to have separations and position angles of: 30", 16°; 39.7", 133°; and 3.1", 104°, respectively. This method produced separation values within 1.3" and position angle values within 1.3° of the most recently observed values found in the Washington Double Star Catalog.

  1. Palatal rugae: a potential reference to determine key anterior maxilla dimensions and tooth positions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panjwani, Bella; Cable, Cheryl; Flores-Mir, Carlos; Bhargava, Kashyap

    2013-01-01

    Palatal rugae have been suggested as a stable landmark and potential biometric guide for positioning anterior maxillary teeth. This study aimed to evaluate the use of palatal rugae as a biomarker by establishing mathematical correlations with anterior maxillary dental arch geometry and tooth positions. One hundred dental casts were obtained from fully dentate individuals with normal occlusal relationships. Thirteen reference points were analyzed. Significant correlations were found between measurements in the anterior dental segment and palatal rugae measurements. Those correlation coefficients were, however, low. Although some correlation values obtained were statistically significant, they are not likely to have significant clinical predictive value.

  2. Determining the angle and depth of puncture for fluoroscopy-guided percutaneous renal access in the prone position

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, Gyanendra; Sharma, Anshu

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Optimal renal access is necessary for ensuring a successful and complication-free percutaneous nephrolithotomy. We describe a technique to determine the angle and depth of puncture for fluoroscopy-guided percutaneous renal access in the prone position. Materials and Methods: Forty-two consecutive patients undergoing percutaneous nephrolithotomy from January 2014 had a fluoroscopy-guided access in the prone position. Using the bull′s eye technique, the site of skin puncture ...

  3. The Ultrasonographic Determination of the Position of the Mental Foramen and its Relation to the Mandibular Premolar Teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laher, Abdullah Ebrahim; Motara, Feroza; Moolla, Muhammed

    2016-06-01

    The position of the mental foramen has been well researched in cadaver specimens, radiographically as well as intraoperatively. To our knowledge, this landmark study is the first to make use of ultrasonography in a study population to determine the position of the mental foramen in relation to the mandibular premolar teeth. Ultrasonography has great potential to further revolutionize the practice of medicine and dento-maxillofacial surgery. To make use of ultrasound to determine the position of the mental foramen and its relation to the mandibular premolar teeth. One hundred Black and Caucasian subjects were enrolled. A high frequency (8MHz) transducer (PLF.805ST) of a diagnostic ultrasound system (model SSA-510A) was applied above the inferior border of the mandible, just lateral to the mentum. With the marker of the transducer pointing cranially, the position of the mental foramen in relation to the closest mandibular premolar tooth was determined. The position was compared across race, sex and age groups. All mental foramina (100%) were visualised. Overall the most frequent position of the mental foramen was in line with the long axis of the second premolar on the right (44%) and between the first and second premolars on the left (44%). There were no statistical differences (p >0.05) between race groups, sex and age groups with regard to the position of the mental foramen in relation to the mandibular premolars. However, in Blacks, the most frequent position of the mental foramen was in line with the long axis of the second premolar and in Caucasians the most common position was between the first and second premolars. The most frequent position of the mental foramen in females was in line with the long axis of the second premolar on the right and between the first and second premolars on the left. In males, the most frequent position of the mental foramen was in line with the long axis of the second premolar bilaterally. The most common position of the mental

  4. Looking for adolescents' well-being: self-efficacy beliefs as determinants of positive thinking and happiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caprara, Gian Vittorio; Steca, Patrizia; Gerbino, Maria; Pacielloi, Marinella; Vecchio, Giovanni Maria

    2006-01-01

    The present study is part of a longitudinal project aimed at identifying the personal characteristics and the developmental pathways conducive to successful adaptation from childhood to adulthood. The study examined the concurrent and longitudinal impact of self-efficacy beliefs on subjective well-being in adolescence, namely positive thinking and happiness. Positive thinking has been operationalized as the latent dimension underlying life satisfaction, self-esteem and optimism. Happiness has been operationalized as the difference between positive and negative affects, as they are experienced in a variety of daily situations. In a group of 664 Italian adolescents, a structural model positing adolescents' emotional and interpersonal self-efficacy beliefs as proximal and distal determinants of positive thinking and happiness has been tested. Findings attest to the impact of affective and interpersonal-social self-efficacy beliefs on positive thinking and happiness both concurrently and longitudinally. Adolescents' self-efficacy beliefs to manage positive and negative emotions and interpersonal relationships contribute to promote positive expectations about the future, to mantain a high self-concept, to perceive a sense of satisfaction for the life and to experience more positive emotions.

  5. Determination of functional residual capacity with 133-xenon radiospirometry. Comparison with body plethysmography and helium spirometry. Effect of body position

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kauppinen-Walin, K.; Sovijaervi, A.R.A.; Muittari, A.; Uusitalo, A.

    1980-01-01

    The accuracy of 133-xenon radiospirometry for determination of FRC in healthy subjects was studied. Forty volunteers, both smokers and non-smokers, were examined. The FRC of each subject was concurrently determined with radiospirometric, He-dilution in closed circuit, and body plethysmographic methods. The mean FRC measured by radiospirometry (FRCsub(RS)) was 0.72 1 larger than that measured by helium spirometry (FRCsub(He)) in sitting position (P<0.01). In supine position the FRCsub(RS) was 0.65 1 larger than the FRCsub(He) (P<0.01). The body plethysmography (sitting position) gave FRC (TGV) 0.35 1 larger than the FRCsub(He) sitting (P<0.01). The FRCsub(He) and the FRCsub(RS) in the sitting position were 0.48 and 0.55 1 larger than in the supine position (P<0.01), respectively. Trapped air correlated significantly (P<0.01) with the difference FRCsub(RS) - FRCsub(He), when sitting. The results indicated that the FRC determined radiospirometrically is significantly larger than the FRC determined with He-spirometry. The difference is systematic, suggesting that it is caused by 133-xenon dissolved in blood and accumulated in tissues of the thoracic cage and by dissimilar representation of trapped air in FRCsub(RS) and FRCsub(He). After correction for systematic error, the FRC obtained as a by-product of radiospirometry may be used. (author)

  6. Precise orbit determination and point positioning using GPS, Glonass, Galileo and BeiDou

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tegedor J.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available State of the art Precise Point Positioning (PPP is currently based on dual-frequency processing of GPS and Glonass navigation systems. The International GNSS Service (IGS is routinely providing the most accurate orbit and clock products for these constellations, allowing point positioning at centimeter-level accuracy. At the same time, the GNSS landscape is evolving rapidly, with the deployment of new constellations, such as Galileo and BeiDou. The BeiDou constellation currently consists of 14 operational satellites, and the 4 Galileo In-Orbit Validation (IOV satellites are transmitting initial Galileo signals. This paper focuses on the integration of Galileo and BeiDou in PPP, together with GPS and Glonass. Satellite orbits and clocks for all constellations are generated using a network adjustment with observation data collected by the IGS Multi-GNSS Experiment (MGEX, as well as from Fugro proprietary reference station network. The orbit processing strategy is described, and orbit accuracy for Galileo and BeiDou is assessed via orbit overlaps, for different arc lengths. Kinematic post-processed multi-GNSS positioning results are presented. The benefits of multiconstellation PPP are discussed in terms of enhanced availability and positioning accuracy.

  7. Muscle force is determined also by muscle relative position: isolated effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, Huub; Baan, Guus C.; Huijing, P.A.J.B.M.

    2004-01-01

    Effects on force of changes of the position of extensor digitorum longus muscle (EDL) relative to surrounding tissues were investigated in rat. Connective tissue at the muscle bellies of tibialis anterior (TA), extensor hallucis longus (EHL) and EDL was left intact, to allow myofascial force

  8. Radiographic Determination of Position and Symmetry of Mental Foramen in Central Indian Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shweta Gangotri

    2011-01-01

    The results obtained showed that the common position of mental foramen is below 2nd premolar and between 1st and 2nd premolar. This study concluded that there exists no difference in the appearance of the mental foramen in Angle′s class of occlussion and they are not always symmetrical in same individual.

  9. Financial Position and House Price Determination : An Empirical Study of Income and Wealth Effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steegmans, J.W.A.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/377458708; Hassink, W.H.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/090437411

    This paper examines the effect of the relative financial position of buyers and sellers on house prices, distinguishing between income and wealth effects. Using administrative data from the Netherlands (2006–2010) that combine transaction data, house characteristics, and household characteristics of

  10. Scaling Marker Position Determines the Accuracy of Digital Templating for Total Hip Arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramme, Austin J; Fisher, Nina D; Egol, Jonathan; Chang, Gregory; Vigdorchik, Jonathan M

    2018-02-01

    Digital templating systems foster patient-specific measurements for preoperative planning. We aim (1) to verify the accuracy of a templating system, (2) to describe the effects of scaling marker position on the accuracy of digital templating of the hip, and (3) to provide a practical guide for scaling marker position using patient body mass index (BMI). A scaling sphere was placed in five positions along the anterior-posterior axis of an acetabular implant and pelvis phantom, and x-rays were obtained. Each radiograph was templated for the acetabular component and recorded. A retrospective review identified CT scans of preoperative hip arthroplasty cases. The center of the greater trochanter was calculated from these CT scans as the percent distance from the anterior thigh and recorded with the patient's BMI. By centering the scaling sphere on the acetabular component, an accurate cup size was achieved. A difference of 3.5 cm in sphere placement resulted in a full cup size magnification error. Positioning the scaling sphere at the level of the pubic symphysis resulted in a difference of four cup sizes. This patient population had an average BMI of 28.72 kg/m 2 (standard deviation 6.26 kg/m 2 ) and an average position of the center of the greater trochanter of 51% (standard deviation of 6%) from the anterior surface of thigh. Digital templating relies on scaling marker position to accurately estimate implant size. Based on the findings in this study, scaling markers for hip imaging should be placed laterally, mid-thigh in the anterior-posterior direction for patients with a BMI between 25 and 40 kg/m 2 . If abnormal hip anatomy or extremes of BMI are discovered, then scaling sphere positioning should be optimized on a case-by-case basis. Digital templating systems for total hip arthroplasty must use precisely placed scaling markers at the level of the hip joint to allow for accurate implant size estimation.

  11. Measurement of inclusive jet production in deep-inelastic scattering at high Q{sup 2} and determination of the strong coupling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aktas, A. [DESY, Hamburg (Germany); Alexa, C. [National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering (NIPNE), Bucharest (Romania); Andreev, V. [Lebedev Physical Institute, Moscow (RU)] (and others)

    2007-05-15

    Inclusive jet production is studied in neutral current deep-inelastic positron-proton scattering at large four momentum transfer squared Q{sup 2} > 150 GeV{sup 2} with the H1 detector at HERA. Single and double differential inclusive jet cross sections are measured as a function of Q{sup 2} and of the transverse energy E{sub T} of the jets in the Breit frame. The measurements are found to be well described by calculations at next-to-leading order in perturbative QCD. The running of the strong coupling is demonstrated and the value of {alpha}{sub s}(M{sub Z}) is determined. The ratio of the inclusive jet cross section to the inclusive neutral current cross section is also measured and used to extract a precise value for {alpha}{sub s}(M{sub Z})=0.1193{+-}0.0014(exp.){sup +0.0047}{sub -0.0030}(th.){+-}0.0016(pdf). (orig.)

  12. Measurement of multijet production in ep collisions at high Q{sup 2} and determination of the strong coupling α{sub s}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreev, V.; Belousov, A.; Fomenko, A.; Gogitidze, N.; Lebedev, A.; Malinovski, E.; Rusakov, S.; Vazdik, Y. [Lebedev Physical Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); Baghdasaryan, A.; Zohrabyan, H. [Yerevan Physics Institute, Yerevan (Armenia); Begzsuren, K.; Ravdandorj, T.; Tseepeldorj, B. [Institute of Physics and Technology of the Mongolian Academy of Sciences, Ulaanbaatar (Mongolia); Belov, P.; Brinkmann, M.; Britzger, D.; Campbell, A.J.; Dodonov, V.; Eckerlin, G.; Elsen, E.; Fleischer, M.; Gayler, J.; Ghazaryan, S.; Glazov, A.; Gouzevitch, M.; Haidt, D.; Kleinwort, C.; Krueger, K.; Levonian, S.; Lipka, K.; List, B.; List, J.; Lobodzinski, B.; Meyer, A.B.; Meyer, J.; Niebuhr, C.; Olsson, J.E.; Ozerov, D.; Pahl, P.; Petrukhin, A.; Pirumov, H.; Pitzl, D.; Placakyte, R.; Radescu, V.; Schmitt, S.; Sefkow, F.; Shushkevich, S.; South, D.; Steder, M.; Wuensch, E. [DESY, Hamburg (Germany); Boudry, V.; Specka, A. [LLR, Ecole Polytechnique, CNRS/IN2P3, Palaiseau (France); Brandt, G. [Oxford University, Department of Physics, Oxford (United Kingdom); Brisson, V.; Jacquet, M.; Pascaud, C.; Zhang, Z.; Zomer, F. [LAL, Universite Paris-Sud, CNRS/IN2P3, Orsay (France); Buniatyan, A.; Newman, P.R.; Thompson, P.D. [University of Birmingham, School of Physics and Astronomy, Birmingham (United Kingdom); Bylinkin, A.; Bystritskaya, L.; Fedotov, A.; Rostovtsev, A. [Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Cantun Avila, K.B.; Contreras, J.G. [CINVESTAV, Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Merida, Yucatan (Mexico); Ceccopieri, F.; Favart, L.; Grebenyuk, A.; Hreus, T.; Janssen, X.; Roosen, R.; Mechelen, P. van [Inter-University Institute for High Energies ULB-VUB, Brussels and Universiteit Antwerpen, Antwerp (Belgium); Cerny, K.; Pokorny, B.; Polifka, R.; Salek, D.; Valkarova, A.; Zacek, J.; Zlebcik, R. [Charles University, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Pragua (Czech Republic); Chekelian, V.; Grindhammer, G.; Kiesling, C. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Munich (Germany); Dainton, J.B.; Gabathuler, E.; Greenshaw, T.; Klein, M.; Kostka, P.; Kretzschmar, J.; Laycock, P.; Maxfield, S.J.; Mehta, A.; Patel, G.D. [University of Liverpool, Department of Physics, Liverpool (United Kingdom); Daum, K.; Meyer, H. [Fachbereich C, Universitaet Wuppertal, Wuppertal (Germany); Diaconu, C.; Hoffmann, D.; Sauvan, E.; Vallee, C. [CPPM, Aix-Marseille University, CNRS/IN2P3, Marseille (France); Dobre, M.; Rotaru, M. [National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering (NIPNE), Bucharest (Romania); Dossanov, A. [Universitaet Hamburg, Institut fuer Experimentalphysik, Hamburg (Germany); Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Munich (Germany); Egli, S.; Horisberger, R. [Paul Scherrer Institut, Villigen (Switzerland); Feltesse, J.; Perez, E.; Schoeffel, L. [CEA, DSM/Irfu, CE-Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Ferencei, J. [Slovak Academy of Sciences, Institute of Experimental Physics, Kosice (Slovakia); Goerlich, L.; Mikocki, S.; Nowak, G.; Sopicki, P.; Turnau, J. [Institute for Nuclear Physics, Krakow (Poland); Grab, C. [Institut fuer Teilchenphysik, ETH, Zurich (Switzerland); Henderson, R.C.W. [University of Lancaster, Department of Physics, Lancaster (United Kingdom); Herbst, M.; Schultz-Coulon, H.C. [Universitaet Heidelberg, Kirchhoff-Institut fuer Physik, Heidelberg (Germany); Hladka, J.; Reimer, P. [Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Institute of Physics, Prague (Czech Republic); Huber, F.; Sauter, M.; Schoening, A. [Universitaet Heidelberg, Physikalisches Institut, Heidelberg (Germany); Jung, H. [Inter-University Institute for High Energies ULB-VUB, Brussels and Universiteit Antwerpen, Antwerp (Belgium); DESY, Hamburg (Germany); Kapichine, M.; Morozov, A.; Spaskov, V. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Kogler, R. [Universitaet Hamburg, Institut fuer Experimentalphysik, Hamburg (Germany); Landon, M.P.J.; Rizvi, E.; Traynor, D. [Queen Mary, University of London, School of Physics and Astronomy, London (United Kingdom); Lange, W.; Naumann, T. [DESY, Zeuthen (Germany); Martyn, H.U. [I. Physikalisches Institut der RWTH, Aachen (Germany); Mueller, K.; Robmann, P.; Straumann, U.; Truoel, P. [Physik-Institut der Universitaet Zuerich, Zurich (Switzerland); Picuric, I.; Raicevic, N. [University of Montenegro, Faculty of Science, Podgorica (Montenegro); Sankey, D.P.C. [STFC, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Didcot, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom); Soloviev, Y. [DESY, Hamburg (Germany); Lebedev Physical Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); Stella, B. [Universita di Roma Tre, Dipartimento di Fisica, Rome (Italy); INFN Roma 3 (Italy); Sykora, T. [Inter-University Institute for High Energies ULB-VUB, Brussels and Universiteit Antwerpen, Antwerp (Belgium); Charles University, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Pragua (Czech Republic); Tsakov, I. [Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy, Sofia (Bulgaria); Wegener, D. [Institut fuer Physik, TU Dortmund, Dortmund (Germany); Collaboration: H1 Collaboration

    2015-02-01

    Inclusive jet, dijet and trijet differential cross sections aremeasured in neutral current deep-inelastic scattering for exchanged boson virtualities 150 < Q{sup 2} < 15 000 GeV{sup 2} using the H1 detector at HERA. The data were taken in the years 2003 to 2007 and correspond to an integrated luminosity of 351 pb{sup -1}. Double differential jet cross sections are obtained using a regularised unfolding procedure. They are presented as a function of Q{sup 2} and the transverse momentum of the jet, P{sub T}{sup jet}, and as a function of Q{sup 2} and the proton's longitudinal momentum fraction, ξ, carried by the parton participating in the hard interaction. In addition normalised double differential jet cross sections aremeasured as the ratio of the jet cross sections to the inclusive neutral current cross sections in the respective Q{sup 2} bins of the jet measurements. Compared to earlier work, the measurements benefit from an improved reconstruction and calibration of the hadronic final state. The cross sections are compared to perturbative QCD calculations in next-to-leading order and are used to determine the running coupling and the value of the strong coupling constant as α{sub s}(MZ) = 0.1165 (8){sub exp} (38){sub pdf,theo}. (orig.)

  13. The Measuring Position Designed to Determine the Metrological Properties of air Gauges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Jakubowicz

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the measurement system designed in order to determine the metrological properties of air gauges. The said scientific study makes it possible to determine the static pk = f(s and flow qv = f(s characteristics. It consists of three modules: a mechanical module, a control and register data module and a special software module. Apart from the possibility of determining the static and flow characteristics, the presented study makes it possible to measure the temperature in the duct that supplies the compressed air to the transducer as well as in the measuring chamber. The above-mentioned measurement system makes it possible to determine the pressure applied on the surface measured by an air stream coming from the nozzle. Apart from a detailed description of a test station and the software, the article also contains sample results of tests performed on air gauges.

  14. Cross-reactive Carbohydrate Determinant Contributes to the False Positive IgE Antibody to Peanut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komei Ito

    2005-01-01

    Conclusions: Social education about the features of peanut allergy is needed in Japan. Anti-CCD IgE antibody was suggested to be one of the mechanisms contributing to the false positive detection of peanut IgE. Detection of anti-HRP or anti-bromelain IgE can be a useful tool to recognize the presence of anti-CCD antibodies.

  15. Determinants of Intimate Partner Violence Among HIV-Positive and HIV-Negative Women in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Hrishikesh; Patted, Shobhana; Gan, Anita; Islam, Farahnaz; Revankar, Amit

    2016-02-01

    To reduce the many adverse health outcomes associated with intimate partner violence (IPV), high-risk groups need to be specifically targeted in the fight against domestic violence in India. This study aims to examine the prevalence and correlates of IPV in HIV-positive and HIV-negative women from India. A convenience sample of HIV-positive and HIV-negative women responded to questionnaires to assess their experience and perception of violence. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to model the association between IPV and age, education, employment status, contraception use, age at first marriage, and HIV status. Although adjusting for age, education, employment status, contraception use, age at first marriage, and HIV status, women who are employed were 3.5 times more likely to suffer IPV (confidence interval [CI] = [1.5, 8.5]), women aged 18 or above at first marriage are 0.3 times less likely to face IPV (CI = [0.1, 0.6]), and women who use contraception are 7 times more likely to suffer IPV (CI = [1.4, 30.2]). Also, HIV-positive women are 3 times more likely to face sexual violence compared with HIV-negative women (CI = [1.1, 7.6]). © The Author(s) 2014.

  16. A Procedure to Determine the Optimal Sensor Positions for Locating AE Sources in Rock Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duca, S.; Occhiena, C.; Sambuelli, L.

    2015-03-01

    Within a research work aimed to better understand frost weathering mechanisms of rocks, laboratory tests have been designed to specifically assess a theoretical model of crack propagation due to ice segregation process in water-saturated and thermally microcracked cubic samples of Arolla gneiss. As the formation and growth of microcracks during freezing tests on rock material is accompanied by a sudden release of stored elastic energy, the propagation of elastic waves can be detected, at the laboratory scale, by acoustic emission (AE) sensors. The AE receiver array geometry is a sensitive factor influencing source location errors, for it can greatly amplify the effect of small measurement errors. Despite the large literature on the AE source location, little attention, to our knowledge, has been paid to the description of the experimental design phase. As a consequence, the criteria for sensor positioning are often not declared and not related to location accuracy. In the present paper, a tool for the identification of the optimal sensor position on a cubic shape rock specimen is presented. The optimal receiver configuration is chosen by studying the condition numbers of each of the kernel matrices, used for inverting the arrival time and finding the source location, and obtained for properly selected combinations between sensors and sources positions.

  17. Computer mouse position as a determinant of posture, muscular load and perceived exertion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlqvist, L K; Bernmark, E; Ekenvall, L; Hagberg, M; Isaksson, A; Rostö, T

    1998-02-01

    This study concerned the influence of 6 positions of the computer mouse on the work table on posture, muscular load, and perceived exertion during text editing. An optoelectronic 3-dimensional motion analysis system was used to register the postures of 10 men and 10 women using video display units. Muscular load was also registered (with electromyography), as was perceived exertion (with rating scales). A neutral posture with a relaxed and supported arm showed the least perceived exertion, and the electromyographic results showed low activity in both trapezius muscles in this position. Short operators (all women) showed a numerically higher activity in the 4 examined muscles than the tall operators (all men, except 1). This finding could be related to lower muscle force among women and to anthropometric differences, which also influence biomechanic load moments. Narrow-shouldered operators (8 women and 1 man) and short operators worked with larger outward rotation and abduction of the shoulder in a position of the mouse lateral to the keyboard than the broad-shouldered (7 men and 2 women) and tall operators did. Arm support markedly reduced muscle load in the neck-shoulder region among the operators. The operators using video display units in this study preferred to use the mouse on a table in a close to relaxed, neutral posture of the arm in combination with arm support. Short and narrow-shouldered operators worked in more strenuous postures of the arm when the mouse was located lateral to the keyboard.

  18. Determination of the mental foramen position in dental radiographs in 18-30 year olds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, Charlotte C; Meechan, John G; Whitworth, John M; Carr, Andrew; Corbett, Ian P

    2016-01-01

    To determine the radiographic position and reliability of assessing mental foramen (MF) position in relation to premolar crowns in an 18- to 30-year-old UK-based population. Following ethical approval and a power calculation, the position of the MF was recorded in relation to premolar crowns and apices in 100 dental panoramic tomographs. Positions were assessed by three senior clinicians independently, then by consensus. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics, χ(2) and Fleiss' and Cohen's kappa. Reliability data showed only fair to moderate agreement on independent scoring. Substantial to almost perfect agreement was achieved by consensus, demonstrating the most common position for the MF to be between the first and second premolar teeth when using both premolar crowns (51%) and apices (76%) as reference points. There was a significant difference in the position of the foramen between the left and right sides (p < 0.05), with only 62% of cases showing symmetry. The most common position for the MF is between the first and second premolar teeth; however, anatomical variation is seen. Use of pre-operative radiographs to relate the position of the MF to premolar crowns may not be reliable.

  19. Determination of the mental foramen position in dental radiographs in 18–30 year olds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meechan, John G; Whitworth, John M; Carr, Andrew; Corbett, Ian P

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the radiographic position and reliability of assessing mental foramen (MF) position in relation to premolar crowns in an 18- to 30-year-old UK-based population. Methods: Following ethical approval and a power calculation, the position of the MF was recorded in relation to premolar crowns and apices in 100 dental panoramic tomographs. Positions were assessed by three senior clinicians independently, then by consensus. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics, χ2 and Fleiss' and Cohen's kappa. Results: Reliability data showed only fair to moderate agreement on independent scoring. Substantial to almost perfect agreement was achieved by consensus, demonstrating the most common position for the MF to be between the first and second premolar teeth when using both premolar crowns (51%) and apices (76%) as reference points. There was a significant difference in the position of the foramen between the left and right sides (p < 0.05), with only 62% of cases showing symmetry. Conclusions: The most common position for the MF is between the first and second premolar teeth; however, anatomical variation is seen. Use of pre-operative radiographs to relate the position of the MF to premolar crowns may not be reliable. PMID:26371076

  20. Alcohol dehydrogenase-1B genotype (rs1229984) is a strong determinant of the relationship between body weight and alcohol intake in Japanese alcoholic men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Akira; Yokoyama, Tetsuji; Matsui, Toshifumi; Mizukami, Takeshi; Matsushita, Sachio; Higuchi, Susumu; Maruyama, Katsuya

    2013-07-01

    The calories in alcoholic beverages consumed by alcoholics are a major energy source and a strong modifier of their body weight. Genetic polymorphisms of alcohol dehydrogenase-1B (ADH1B) and aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 (ALDH2) affect susceptibility to alcoholism and may affect body weight via gene-associated differences in fuel utilization in alcoholics. We evaluated associations between ADH1B/ALDH2 genotypes and the body weight and body mass index (BMI) of 1,301 Japanese alcoholic men at the time of their first visit to an addiction center. Median (25th to 75th) caloric intake in the form of alcoholic beverages was 864 (588 to 1,176) kcal/d. Age-adjusted caloric intake did not differ according to ADH1B/ALDH2 genotypes. The body weight and BMI values showed that the ADH1B*2/*2 and *1/*2 carriers (n = 939) were significantly leaner than the ADH1B*1/*1 carriers (n = 362) irrespective of age, drinking, smoking, and dietary habits. The age-adjusted body weight values of the ADH1B*2/*2, ADH1B*1/*2, and ADH1B*1/*1 carriers were 58.4 ± 0.4, 58.7 ± 0.5, and 63.6 ± 0.5 kg, respectively (ADH1B*2 vs. ADH1B*1/*1 carriers, p body weight or BMI were observed. A multivariate analysis showed that BMI decreased by 0.35 per 10-year increase in age, by 1.73 in the presence of the ADH1B*2 allele, by 1.55 when the preferred beverage was whiskey, and by 0.19 per +10 cigarettes/d and that it increased by 0.10 per +22 g ethanol (EtOH)/d and by 0.41 per increase in category of frequency of milk intake (every day, occasionally, rarely, and never). The increase in BMI as alcohol consumption increased was significantly smaller in the ADH1B*2 group than in the ADH1B*1/*1 group (p = 0.002). ADH1B genotype was a strong determinant of body weight in the alcoholics. The more rapid EtOH elimination associated with the ADH1B*2 allele may result in less efficient utilization of EtOH as an energy source in alcoholics. Copyright © 2013 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  1. Determinants of Tuberculosis Infection among Adult HIV Positives Attending Clinical Care in Western Ethiopia: A Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melkamu, Hatoluf; Seyoum, Berhanu; Dessie, Yadeta

    2013-01-01

    There has been a drastic rise of tuberculosis (TB) infection across the world associated with the pandemic occurrence of HIV/AIDS. There are various determinants factors that increase the chance of TB infection among HIV positives (TB/HIV confection) that varies contextually. This study aimed to assess the determinants of TB/HIV coinfection among adult HIV positives attending clinical care at two public health facilities in Nekemte, western Ethiopia. Unmatched case-control study was conducted from December 26, 2011, to February 29, 2012. Cases were 123 TB infected HIV positives, and controls were 246 non-TB infected HIV positives. Being divorced/widowed AOR = 3.02, 95% CI (1.70, 7.88), not attending formal education AOR = 4.32, 95% CI (2.20, 14.15), being underweight (BMI < 18.5 kg/m(2)) AOR = 3.87, 95% CI (2.18, 6.87), having history of diabetic mellitus AOR = 3.63, 95% CI (1.33, 9.94), and being in advanced WHO HIV/AIDS clinical staging AOR = 2.29, 95% CI (1.32, 3.98), were determinant factors associated with TB/HIV co-infection. Having a separate kitchen AOR = 0.48, 95% CI (0.28, 0.81) showed protective role. For most of these determinants interventions can be made at individual and institutional levels, whereas, factors like education and nutrition need societal level integrations.

  2. Determinants of Tuberculosis Infection among Adult HIV Positives Attending Clinical Care in Western Ethiopia: A Case-Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatoluf Melkamu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available There has been a drastic rise of tuberculosis (TB infection across the world associated with the pandemic occurrence of HIV/AIDS. There are various determinants factors that increase the chance of TB infection among HIV positives (TB/HIV confection that varies contextually. This study aimed to assess the determinants of TB/HIV coinfection among adult HIV positives attending clinical care at two public health facilities in Nekemte, western Ethiopia. Unmatched case-control study was conducted from December 26, 2011, to February 29, 2012. Cases were 123 TB infected HIV positives, and controls were 246 non-TB infected HIV positives. Being divorced/widowed , 95% CI (1.70, 7.88, not attending formal education , 95% CI (2.20, 14.15, being underweight ( kg/m2 , 95% CI (2.18, 6.87, having history of diabetic mellitus , 95% CI (1.33, 9.94, and being in advanced WHO HIV/AIDS clinical staging , 95% CI (1.32, 3.98, were determinant factors associated with TB/HIV co-infection. Having a separate kitchen , 95% CI (0.28, 0.81 showed protective role. For most of these determinants interventions can be made at individual and institutional levels, whereas, factors like education and nutrition need societal level integrations.

  3. 41 CFR 102-5.85 - What information should our determination for field work include if positions are identified...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What information should our determination for field work include if positions are identified rather than named individuals? 102-5.85 Section 102-5.85 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT...

  4. Effect of ambient light and bit depth of digital radiograph on observer performance in determination of endodontic file positioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Min-Suk; Han, Dong-Hun; An, Byung-Mo; Huh, Kyung-Hoe; Yi, Won-Jin; Lee, Sam-Sun; Choi, Soon-Chul

    2008-02-01

    To examine the effects of the luminance and bit depth of digital image on observer performance for determination of endodontic file positioning. Using extracted premolar teeth, no. 08 K-file was placed into the canal and positioned so that the tip was either flush or 1 mm short of the radiologic root apex. The samples were imaged with both conventional and digital radiographs at 8 and 12 bits. Eleven observers read the images under dark and bright condition, and receiver operating characteristics analysis was performed. Additionally, the interpreting time was measured. The 12-bit images showed similar observer performance compared with conventional images, and better than the 8-bit images. The interpretation time for bright condition and 8-bit images was longer than for dark condition and 12-bit images. Twelve-bit digital images were preferred to 8-bit for accurate determination of endodontic file position.

  5. Evaluation of GPS position and attitude determination for automated rendezvous and docking missions. M.S. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diprinzio, Marc D.; Tolson, Robert H.

    1994-01-01

    The use of the Global Positioning System for position and attitude determination is evaluated for an automated rendezvous and docking mission. The typical mission scenario involves the chaser docking with the target for resupply or repair purposes, and is divided into three sections. During the homing phase, the chaser utilizes coarse acquisition pseudorange data to approach the target; guidance laws for this stage are investigated. In the second phase, differential carrier phase positioning is utilized. The chaser must maintain a quasiconstant distance from the target, in order to resolve the initial integer ambiguities. Once the ambiguities are determined, the terminal phase is entered, and the rendezvous is completed with continuous carrier phase tracking. Attitude knowledge is maintained in all phases through the use of the carrier phase observable. A Kalman filter is utilized to estimate all states from the noisy measurement data. The effects of selective availability and cycle slips are also investigated.

  6. Determining a Relationship between Higher Education Financial Position and Tuition Discount Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browning, Julianna

    2013-01-01

    Institutions have increased the practice of tuition discounting, that is, the strategic use of price discrimination. During the past 30 years, both the average percent discount given to students and the proportion of students receiving tuition breaks have increased. As this practice has increased, there are financial determinants and implications…

  7. Determination of polar cusp position by low-energy particle measurements made aboard AUREOLE satellite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gladyshev, V.A.; Jorjio, M.V.; Shuiskaya, F.K.; Crasnier, J.; Sauvaud, J.A.

    1974-01-01

    The Franco-Soviet experiment ARCAD, launched aboard the satellite AUREOLE December 27, 1971, has verified the existence of a particle penetration from the transition zone up to ionospheric altitudes across the polar cusp. The polar cusp is characterized by proton fluxes >10 7 particles/(cm 2 .s.sr.KeV) at 0.5KeV, with energy spectra similar to those in the transition zone. The position and form of the polar cusp are studied from measurements of protons in the range 0.4 to 30KeV during geomagnetically quiet periods (Kp [fr

  8. Determination of the plasma position for its real-time control in the COMPASS tokamak

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Janky, Filip; Havlíček, Josef; Valcárcel, D.; Hron, Martin; Horáček, Jan; Kudláček, O.; Pánek, Radomír; Carvalho, B.B.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 86, 6-8 (2011), s. 1120-1124 ISSN 0920-3796. [Symposium of Fusion Technology (SOFT-26). Porto, 27.09.2010-01.10.2010] R&D Projects: GA ČR GD202/08/H057 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : Real-time * Plasma position * Feedback Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 1.490, year: 2011 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0920379611001554

  9. Determining the Position of Head and Shoulders in Neurological Practice with the use of Cameras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Kutílek

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The posture of the head and shoulders can be influenced negatively by many diseases of the nervous system, visual and vestibular systems. We have designed a system and a set of procedures for evaluating the inclination (roll, flexion (pitch and rotation (yaw of the head and the inclination (roll and rotation (yaw of the shoulders. A new computational algorithm allows non-invasive and non-contact head and shoulder position measurement using two cameras mounted opposite each other, and the displacement of the optical axis of the cameras is also corrected.

  10. Determining Switched Reluctance Motor Current Waveforms Exploiting the Transformation from the Time to the Position Domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Bernat

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the issue of estimating current waveforms in a switched reluctance motor required to achieve a desired electromagnetic torque. The methodology employed exploits the recently-developed method based on the transformation from the time to the position domain. This transformation takes account of nonlinearities caused by a doubly-salient structure. Owing to this new modelling technique it is possible to solve optimization problems with reference torque, constrained voltage, and parameter sensitivity accounted for. The proposed methodology is verified against published solutions and illustrated through simulations and experiments.

  11. Home Environment as Strong Determinant in Academic Involvement of Female Students in Dhekia Gram Panchayat of Saltora C.D. Block, Bankura District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayanika Sarkar

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Education is a learnt behaviour, which shapes and moulds the nature of a human being by transforming him/her into a human resource and helps in social progress. Children start learning in the lap of their parents. They are bought up by accumulating the knowledge gained from the interaction with the family members. This interaction varies from one family to another. Even when they start going to an institution for the formal education, home environment leaves an influence on his/her attitude towards education. In addition to institutional influence, proper understanding of the impact of home environment is essential for taking due care in development of human resource. Backwardness of the female students in different hierarchies of the educational sector is a major concern in India as well as in West Bengal since a very long period. In spite of ample efforts to increase the rate of enrolment and to develop the quality of education in both national and state level, the progress in terms of actual involvement in educational activities is not up to the mark in many cases. In the light of this background, a grass-root level study has been conducted to understand the role of home environment on determining the academic involvement of the female students belonging to different hierarchies of tribe-caste continuum in a rural context of Bankura District, West Bengal. It aims to identify the major components of home environment, which determine the level of cohort specific academic involvement in the type of families from different social background. In order to retrieve various perspectives on their home environment, we surveyed female students reading in VIII —XII and belonging to the age group 13 to 18 years. From the micro level analysis, it has been found that caste and tribal identity based disparity as well as family type wise differences in level of academic involvement (LAI is profound in the study area. Home environment is having a significant

  12. Addressing Social Determinants to Improve Patient Care and Promote Health Equity: An American College of Physicians Position Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Hilary; Bornstein, Sue S; Kane, Gregory C

    2018-04-17

    Social determinants of health are nonmedical factors that can affect a person's overall health and health outcomes. Where a person is born and the social conditions they are born into can affect their risk factors for premature death and their life expectancy. In this position paper, the American College of Physicians acknowledges the role of social determinants in health, examines the complexities associated with them, and offers recommendations on better integration of social determinants into the health care system while highlighting the need to address systemic issues hindering health equity.

  13. Determination of a neutron source position in an unknown homogeneous medium; the 2D case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubinski, S.; Presler, O.; Alfassi, Z. B.

    2007-01-01

    The localisation of an unknown neutron source in various bulky homogeneous media was studied. For the planar case two 3 He detectors on the opposite faces of a box were used. It is shown that the location of a single small neutron emitting source in a large box can be found to a better than 7% by using two neutron detectors positioned on parallel faces of the box, coplanar with the source. The localisation requires measurement of the count rate of both the unknown source (ratio of the count rates of the two detectors is R(x)) and an extra source positioned on one of the faces of the box (ratio of the count rates of the two detectors R(0)). The location of the neutron source is found according to the equation x = -a/2 . (1 - ln[R (x) ]/ln[R (0) ]) The localisation is based on the finding that the ratio of the count rates of the two detectors is an exponential function of the distance of the source from one of the detectors. (authors)

  14. Regularized unfolding of jet cross sections in deep-inelastic ep scattering at HERA and determination of the strong coupling constant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Britzger, Daniel Andreas

    2013-10-15

    In this thesis double-differential cross sections for jet production in neutral current deep-inelastic e{sup {+-}}p scattering (DIS) are presented at the center-of-mass energy of {radical}(s)=319 GeV, and in the kinematic range of the squared four-momentum transfer 150< Q{sup 2}<15 000 GeV{sup 2} and the inelasticity 0.2determine the strong coupling constant {alpha}{sub s}(M{sub Z}) at the scale of the mass of the Z{sup 0} boson in the framework of perturbative quantum chromodynamics in next-to-leading order. Values are derived separately for the absolute

  15. Determinants of Mortality among HIV Positives after Initiating Antiretroviral Therapy in Western Ethiopia: A Hospital-Based Retrospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hambisa, Mitiku Teshome; Ali, Ahmed; Dessie, Yadeta

    2013-01-01

    Studies revealed that there are various determinants of mortality among HIV positives after ART initiation. These determinants are so variable with context and dynamic across time with the advancement of cares and treatments. In this study we tried to identify determinants of mortality among HIV positives after initiating ART. A retrospective cohort study was conducted among 416 ART attendees enrolled between July 2005 to January 2012 in Nekemte Referral Hospital, Western Ethiopia. Actuarial table was used to estimate survival of patients after ART initiation and log rank test was used to compare the survival curves. Cox proportional-hazard regression was applied to determine the independent determinants of time to death. The estimated mortality was 4%, 5%, 6%, 7%, and 7% at 6, 12, 24, 36 and 48 months respectively with mortality incidence density of 1.89 deaths per 100 person years (95% CI 1.74, 3.62). Forty years and above AHR = 3.055 (95% CI 1.292, 7.223), low baseline hemoglobin level (AHR = 0.523 (95% CI .335, 0.816)), and poor ART adherence (AHR 27.848 (95% CI 8.928, 86.8)) were found to be an independent determinants of mortality. These determinants of mortality have to be taken into account to enhance better clinical outcomes of ART attendees.

  16. Effect of Body Position on Energy Expenditure of Preterm Infants as Determined by Simultaneous Direct and Indirect Calorimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Edward F; Johnson, Karen J; Dove, Edwin L

    2017-04-01

    Background  Indirect calorimetry is the standard method for estimating energy expenditure in clinical research. Few studies have evaluated indirect calorimetry in infants by comparing it with simultaneous direct calorimetry. Our purpose was (1) to compare the energy expenditure of preterm infants determined by these two methods, direct calorimetry and indirect calorimetry; and (2) to examine the effect of body position, supine or prone, on energy expenditure. Study Design  We measured energy expenditure by simultaneous direct (heat loss by gradient-layer calorimeter corrected for heat storage) and indirect calorimetry (whole-body oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide production) in 15 growing preterm infants during two consecutive interfeeding intervals, once in the supine position and once in the prone position. Results  The mean energy expenditure for all measurements in both positions did not differ significantly by the method used: 2.82 (standard deviation [SD] 0.42) kcal/kg/h by direct calorimetry and 2.78 (SD 0.48) kcal/kg/h by indirect calorimetry. The energy expenditure was significantly lower, by 10%, in the prone than in the supine position, whether examined by direct calorimetry (2.67 vs. 2.97 kcal/kg/h, p  position than in the supine position. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  17. A study for determination of various positioning errors in digital panoramic radiography for evaluation of diagnostic image quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apurva Mohite Khator

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Faulty radiographs have poor diagnostic quality, and repetition of such poor-quality radiographs leads to increased patient exposure to radiation. Since digital panoramic radiography has replaced manual radiography, the only hindrance in producing good-quality radiographs is the positioning errors. Objectives: Our study aims to determine the various positioning errors and their relative frequency and to identify those errors directly responsible for diagnostically inadequate images. Materials and Methods: Five hundred panoramic radiographs taken serially (from the year 2007 were retrospectively assessed for the positioning errors by three oral and maxillofacial radiology specialists using a performa enlisting the errors. The three specialists had different duration of clinical experience and they evaluated the orthopantograms as diagnostically acceptable or unacceptable. They also observed the relative frequency of all the positioning errors. Statistical Analysis: The kappa value for intraobserver agreement was calculated, which suggested that the agreement among the observers was fair. Results: Of the 500 panoramic radiographs viewed by the three observers, 25 (5% had no errors, while 475 (95% showed one or more positioning errors. The most common error in our study was found to be head turned to one side (33.8% and the least common error was patient movement during exposure (1.8%. Conclusion: Positioning errors are very common in digital panoramic radiography, and they lead to production of poor-quality radiographs. The operator should take this fact into consideration and spend more time in patient positioning, thereby reducing the repetition of radiographs and unwanted patient exposure.

  18. On determining dead layer and detector thicknesses for a position-sensitive silicon detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manfredi, J.; Lee, Jenny; Lynch, W. G.; Niu, C. Y.; Tsang, M. B.; Anderson, C.; Barney, J.; Brown, K. W.; Chajecki, Z.; Chan, K. P.; Chen, G.; Estee, J.; Li, Z.; Pruitt, C.; Rogers, A. M.; Sanetullaev, A.; Setiawan, H.; Showalter, R.; Tsang, C. Y.; Winkelbauer, J. R.; Xiao, Z.; Xu, Z.

    2018-04-01

    In this work, two particular properties of the position-sensitive, thick silicon detectors (known as the "E" detectors) in the High Resolution Array (HiRA) are investigated: the thickness of the dead layer on the front of the detector, and the overall thickness of the detector itself. The dead layer thickness for each E detector in HiRA is extracted using a measurement of alpha particles emitted from a 212Pb pin source placed close to the detector surface. This procedure also allows for energy calibrations of the E detectors, which are otherwise inaccessible for alpha source calibration as each one is sandwiched between two other detectors. The E detector thickness is obtained from a combination of elastically scattered protons and an energy-loss calculation method. Results from these analyses agree with values provided by the manufacturer.

  19. Determinants of Positive Word of Mouth in the Tunisian Tourism Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moez LTIFI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Our study aims to support a critical view on a large literature on relational fidelity. It seeks to demonstrate that, to understand the loyalty in the context of an experiential consumption, the analytical framework must be changed. It is beyond the simplistic view considering consumption as an instantaneous act and positions themselves within a more holistic approach with consumption as an experience for the consumer. We try to investigate to what extent the novelty, control and commitment help explain the strength of the relationship that could bind a consumer to the provider. We discuss and test the validity of a complex network of relationships breaking with the theoretical approaches. Then, we test, through an empirical study, the validity of the relationships identified in the literature in the context of a consumption experience of hotel services in North West Tunisia.

  20. DETERMINATION OF THE UAV POSITION BY AUTOMATIC PROCESSING OF THERMAL IMAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Hartmann

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available If images acquired from Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs need to be accurately geo-referenced, the method of choice is classical aerotriangulation, since on-board sensors are usually not accurate enough for direct geo-referencing. For several different applications it has recently been proposed to mount thermal cameras on UAVs. Compared to optical images, thermal ones pose a number of challenges, in particular low resolution and weak local contrast. In this work we investigate the automatic orientation of thermal image blocks acquired from a UAV, using artificial ground control points. To that end we adapt the photogrammetric processing pipeline to thermal imagery. The pipeline achieves accuracies of about ±1 cm in planimetry and ±3 cm in height for the object points, respectively ±10 cm or better for the camera positions, compared to ±100 cm or worse for direct geo-referencing using on-board single-frequency GPS.

  1. Disarmament and control of nuclear weapons: Russian positions and their national and international determining factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Facon, Isabelle

    2009-01-01

    In a context where Russia seems to come back to some key principles which guided its international action since the end of Cold War, and relationships between Russia and the USA have been degraded since the US intervention in Iraq (2003), the author examines whether these new Russian postures also concern strategic disarmament, whether Russia is loosing its interest in traditional arrangements of strategic stability, and what are Moscow's priorities within the perspective of expiry of the START 1 Treaty. Thus, the author discusses the role of nuclear weapons in the Russian defence policy, outlines the paradoxes of Russian negotiation positions in the fields of disarmament and arms control, and highlights indirect approaches adopted by Russia on these issues

  2. Computational fluid dynamics vs. inverse dynamics methods to determine passive drag in two breaststroke glide positions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, L; Mantha, V R; Silva, A J; Fernandes, R J; Marinho, D A; Vilas-Boas, J P; Machado, L; Rouboa, A

    2015-07-16

    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) plays an important role to quantify, understand and "observe" the water movements around the human body and its effects on drag (D). We aimed to investigate the flow effects around the swimmer and to compare the drag and drag coefficient (CD) values obtained from experiments (using cable velocimetry in a swimming pool) with those of CFD simulations for the two ventral gliding positions assumed during the breaststroke underwater cycle (with shoulders flexed and upper limbs extended above the head-GP1; with shoulders in neutral position and upper limbs extended along the trunk-GP2). Six well-trained breaststroke male swimmers (with reasonable homogeneity of body characteristics) participated in the experimental tests; afterwards a 3D swimmer model was created to fit within the limits of the sample body size profile. The standard k-ε turbulent model was used to simulate the fluid flow around the swimmer model. Velocity ranged from 1.30 to 1.70 m/s for GP1 and 1.10 to 1.50 m/s for GP2. Values found for GP1 and GP2 were lower for CFD than experimental ones. Nevertheless, both CFD and experimental drag/drag coefficient values displayed a tendency to jointly increase/decrease with velocity, except for GP2 CD where CFD and experimental values display opposite tendencies. Results suggest that CFD values obtained by single model approaches should be considered with caution due to small body shape and dimension differences to real swimmers. For better accuracy of CFD studies, realistic individual 3D models of swimmers are required, and specific kinematics respected. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Aromatic residue position on the nonpolar face of class a amphipathic helical peptides determines biological activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Geeta; Epand, Raquel F; Epand, Richard M; Chaddha, Manjula; Kirksey, Matthew A; Garber, David W; Lund-Katz, Sissel; Phillips, Michael C; Hama, Susan; Navab, Mohamad; Fogelman, Alan M; Palgunachari, Mayakonda N; Segrest, Jere P; Anantharamaiah, G M

    2004-06-18

    The apolipoprotein A-I mimetic peptide 4F (Ac-DWFKAFYDKVAEKFKEAF-NH(2)), with four Phe residues on the nonpolar face of the amphipathic alpha-helix, is strongly anti-inflammatory, whereas two 3F analogs (3F(3) and 3F(14)) are not. To understand how changes in helix nonpolar face structure affect function, two additional 3F analogs, Ac-DKLKAFYDKVFEWAKEAF-NH(2) (3F-1) and Ac-DKWKAVYDKFAEAFKEFL-NH(2) (3F-2), were designed using the same amino acid composition as 3F(3) and 3F(14). The aromatic residues in 3F-1 and 3F-2 are near the polar-nonpolar interface and at the center of the nonpolar face of the helix, respectively. Like 4F, but in contrast to 3F(3) and 3F(14), these peptides effectively inhibited lytic peptide-induced hemolysis, oxidized phospholipid-induced monocyte chemotaxis, and scavenged lipid hydroperoxides from low density lipoprotein. High pressure liquid chromatography retention times and monolayer exclusion pressures indicated that there is no direct correlation of peptide function with lipid affinity. Fluorescence studies suggested that, although the peptides bind phospholipids similarly, the Trp residue in 4F, 3F-1, and 3F-2 is less motionally restricted than in 3F(3) and 3F(14). Based on these results and molecular modeling studies, we propose that the arrangement of aromatic residues in class A amphipathic helical molecules regulates entry of reactive oxygen species into peptide-phospholipid complexes, thereby reducing the extent of monocyte chemotaxis, an important step in atherosclerosis.

  4. Position for determining gas-phase volatile organic compound concentrations in transuranic waste containers. Revision 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connolly, M.J.; Liekhus, K.J.

    1998-06-01

    In the conditional no-migration determination (NMD) for the test phase of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) imposed certain conditions on the US Department of Energy (DOE) regarding gas phase volatile organic compound (VOC) concentrations in the void space of transuranic (TRU) waste containers. Specifically, the EPA required the DOE to ensure that each waste container has no layer of confinement that contains flammable mixtures of gases or mixtures of gases that could become flammable when mixed with air. The EPA also required that sampling of the headspace of waste containers outside inner layers of confinement be representative of the entire void space of the container. The EPA stated that all layers of confinement in a container would have to be sampled until DOE can demonstrate to the EPA that sampling of all layers is either unnecessary or can be safely reduced. A test program was conducted at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) to demonstrate that the gas phase VOC concentration in the void space of each layer of confinement in vented drums can be estimated from measured drum headspace using a theoretical transport model and that sampling of each layer of confinement is unnecessary. This report summarizes the studies performed in the INEEL test program and extends them for the purpose of developing a methodology for determining gas phase VOC concentrations in both vented and unvented TRU waste containers. The methodology specifies conditions under which waste drum headspace gases can be said to be representative of drum gases as a whole and describes a method for predicting drum concentrations in situations where the headspace concentration is not representative. The methodology addresses the approach for determining the drum VOC gas content for two purposes: operational period drum handling and operational period no-migration calculations

  5. Determination of normal anal position index using a modified technique in Turkish neonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazile Erturk

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: API values that differ from the previous studies were identified in the present study. We believe our modified method allows for more accurate measurements of the API in newborns. According to our method, the anus should be considered as anteriorly located if API is <1 in female and < 0.9 in male neonates. In addition, the present study is the first to measure API using digital calipers. Digital calipers were found to be convenient and are useful in determining the API with high accuracy (to within 0.01 cm.

  6. Prevalence and determinants of insufficient work ability in older HIV-positive and HIV-negative workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möller, Lisanne M; Brands, Ronald; Sluiter, Judith K; Schouten, Judith; Wit, Ferdinand W; Reiss, Peter; Prins, Maria; Stolte, Ineke G

    2016-05-01

    To explore whether the prevalence and determinants of insufficient work ability (WA) of older HIV-positive workers differ from a comparable group of HIV-negative workers. Cross-sectional data from 359 HIV-negative and 264 HIV-positive middle-aged individuals (45-65 years) participating in paid labor, collected within the AGEhIV Cohort Study between October 2010-September 2012, were selected. Data were collected by self-administered questionnaires and physical examination. Participants self-rated their current WA, ranging from 0 to 10. WA was dichotomized into insufficient (vs. HIV-negative 7%, P = 0.20). Twice as many HIV-positive as HIV-negative individuals were declared partly unfit for work (6 vs. 3%, P = 0.02). HIV status itself was not associated with WA in univariable and multivariable analyses. Multivariable analyses revealed that low educational level, working fewer hours, being partly unfit for work, experiencing a high need for recovery after work, staying home from work ≥2 times in the past 6 months, and reporting depressive symptoms were associated with insufficient WA, independent of HIV status. HIV-positive individuals aged 45-65 years participating in paid labor seem to function as well at work as HIV-negative individuals. HIV-positive participants were more often formally declared partly unfit for work, but percentages were low in both groups. Knowledge of determinants of insufficient WA may help employers and professionals to optimize WA.

  7. Sales promotion as a determining factor in the competitive position of the company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alavuk Đorđe

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Increased competition, globalization, numerous changes in the field of engineering and technology are just some of the changes that accompany modern business conditions. Modern consumers are increasingly demanding. Individuals vary greatly within groups and cultures to which they belong, but also among themselves based on the characteristics that distinguish them. People engaged in marketing have to constantly monitor and measure consumer attitudes so that their needs and desires are fully met. This paper summarizes the sales promotion activities carried out by retail chains. The aim of the activities of sales promotion is to create and maintain long-term relationships with customers and competitive advantage on the market. The research topic is the impact of sales promotion activities on the behavior and attitudes of consumers when choosing a product. The aim of the research is to examine the effects achieved by sales improvement to consumers through the implementation of the competitive positions of the companies. For the purpose of the research the method used was survey research.

  8. The primary enamel knot determines the position of the first buccal cusp in developing mice molars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Sung-Won; Lee, Hyun-A; Cai, Jinglei; Lee, Min-Jung; Kim, Jae-Young; Ohshima, Hayato; Jung, Han-Sung

    2007-06-01

    The enamel knot (EK), which is located in the center of bud and cap stage tooth germs, is a transitory cluster of non-dividing epithelial cells. The EK acts as a signaling center that provides positional information for tooth morphogenesis and regulates the growth of tooth cusps by inducing secondary EKs. The morphological, cellular, and molecular events leading to the relationship between the primary and secondary EKs have not been described clearly. This study investigated the relationship between the primary and secondary EKs in the maxillary and mandibular first molars of mice. The location of the primary EK and secondary EKs was investigated by chasing Fgf4 expression patterns in tooth germ at some intervals of in vitro culture, and the relationship between the primary EK and secondary EK was examined by tracing the primary EK cells in the E13.5 tooth germs which were frontally half sliced to expose the primary EK. After 48 hr, the primary EK cells in the sliced tooth germs were located on the buccal secondary EKs, which correspond to the future paracone in maxilla and protoconid in mandible. The Bmp4 expression in buccal part of the dental mesenchyme might be related with the lower growth in buccal epithelium than in lingual epithelium, and the Msx2 expressing area in epithelium was overlapped with the enamel cord (or septum) and cell dense area. The enamel cord might connect the primary EK with enamel navel to fix the location of the primary EK in the buccal side during the cap to bell stages. Overall, these results suggest that primary EK cells strictly contribute to form the paracone or protoconid, which are the main cusps of the tooth in the maxilla or mandible.

  9. Burden, Determinants, and Pharmacological Management of Hypertension in HIV-Positive Patients and Populations: A Systematic Narrative Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Kim Anh; Peer, Nasheeta; Mills, Edward J; Kengne, Andre Pascal

    2015-01-01

    Hypertension among HIV-positive populations has emerged as a new threat to the health and well being of people living with HIV, particularly among those receiving antiretroviral therapy. We reviewed the global evidence on the burden of disease (including prevalence and incidence), determinants of hypertension among HIV-positive populations, and the pharmacological management of hypertension in HIV-positive patients. We systematically searched PubMed-MEDLINE and EMBASE from January 2000 through February 2015 for relevant studies and traced their citations through the ISI Web of Science. We also searched the websites of the World Health Organisation, the International Society of Hypertension, and the International AIDS Society and constructed a narrative data synthesis. Hypertension is common in HIV-positive populations, with prevalence estimates ranging from 4.7 to 54.4% in high-income countries, and from 8.7 to 45.9% in low- and middle-income countries. The role of HIV-specific factors including disease severity, duration of disease, and treatments on the presence of hypertension in HIV-positive patients is reported, but patterns remain unclear. The clinical management of hypertension in HIV-positive patients is similar to those with hypertension in the general population; however, additional considerations should be given to potential drug interactions between antihypertensive agents and antiretroviral drugs to inform the clinician's selection of these therapies. Hypertension is common in HIV-positive populations and remains an important comorbidity affecting mortality outcomes. Further research examining the development of hypertension and its associated care in HIV-positive patients is required to optimize management of the dual conditions.

  10. Evaluation of Pound concept in determination of mediolateral mandibular posterior teeth position

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Naser Khaki

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The ideal teeth arrangement is an important step for success in complete denture fabrication. There are different methods for determining the posterior denture teeth location. The purpose of this study was the comparison of posterior mandibular teeth location in the study group with Pound or Misch theory. Material and methods: An alginate mandibular impression of 80 dentate patients was taken and poured with dental stone. Retromolar pad area, mesial of canine and the lingual cusps of each posterior tooth marked on the cast and then transferred to the graded paper. Distance of each lingual cusp from the internal line of Pound triangle was measured. Data were analyzed with SPSS version 16.0. Result: In the study group, the average distance of lingual mandibular cusp from the internal line of Pound triangle was 1.69 mm in first premolars, 0.94 mm in second premolars, 0.7 mm in first molars and 0.75 mm in second molars. Conclusion: In most cases, distance of lingual mandibular cusps was within 1 mm of Pound triangle. Results were more similar to the Pound rather than the Misch theory.

  11. Determinants of a positive response to carotid sinus massage and head-up tilt testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milton, James C; Lee, Thomas C; Jackson, Stephen H D

    2009-11-01

    Orthostatic hypotension (OH) and carotid sinus hypersensitivity (CSH) are common causes of syncope in older people. The aim of this study was to determine if patient's age, sex and presenting symptoms influence the result of carotid sinus massage and head-up tilt testing. Retrospective analysis of the database and reports was carried out between 1995 and 2006 at a tertiary referral centre. Patient's age, sex, presenting symptoms and test result were examined. Presenting symptoms were classified as syncope, falls or dizzy spells. Of the 1583 tests reported, OH was present in 402 patients (25.4%), of whom 175 (11.1%) were symptomatic. 188 of 1464 (12.8%) patients undergoing carotid sinus massage had evidence of CSH, of which 156 were symptomatic. Male patients were significantly more likely to have symptomatic CSH than female patients (odds ratio 2.28, 95% CI 1.54 to 3.04, p<0.01). There were non-significant trends to increased diagnosis of symptomatic OH with increasing age, male sex and referral with syncope. There were non-significant trends to increased diagnosis of symptomatic CSH with increasing age and referral with syncope. Male sex, increasing age and being referred with syncope were all associated with an increased likelihood of receiving a diagnosis of either OH or CSH. The overall prevalence of CSH was lower than in previous studies, which may reflect different patient populations.

  12. Quantitative Determination of Ivermectin in Raw Milk Using Positive ESI LC-MS/MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meenakshi Dahiya

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Ivermectin, a veterinary drug, is commonly used endectocide for animal husbandry. The drug is available in the form of subcutaneous or topical formulations. Its application may cause accumulation of its residues into the animal tissues, which ultimately find their way into the food products, such as milk and meat products. In order to determine the residues of ivermectin in milk, a comparatively simple, sensitive and rapid method was developed and validated using LC-MS/MS. The MRM transitions corresponding to m/z 892.71>569.6, 892.71>551.5 and 892.71>307.3 were used for the purpose of quantification and evaluation of other parameters of the method. The limit of detection of the method was found to be 0.1 μg/kg and the limit of quantitation was calculated as 0.2 μg/kg. The method was found to be linear in the range of 1.0 ng/mL to 100.0 ng/mL with correlation coefficient of 0.9992 for pure calibration curve and 0.9990 for the matrix- matched calibration curve. The recoveries of ivermectin from the spiked samples of raw milk were found between 85 to 105%.

  13. [Clinical research of using optimal compliance to determine positive end-expiratory pressure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lei; Feng, Quan-sheng; Lian, Fu; Shao, Xin-hua; Li, Zhi-bo; Wang, Zhi-yong; Li, Jun

    2012-07-01

    To observe the availability and security of optimal compliance strategy to titrate the optimal positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP), compared with quasi-static pressure-volume curve (P-V curve) traced by low-flow method. Fourteen patients received mechanical ventilation with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) admitted in intensive care unit (ICU) of Tianjin Third Central Hospital from November 2009 to December 2010 were divided into two groups(n = 7). The quasi-static P-V curve method and the optimal compliance titration were used to set the optimal PEEP respectively, repeated 3 times in a row. The optimal PEEP and the consistency of repeated experiments were compared between groups. The hemodynamic parameters, oxygenation index (OI), lung compliance (C), cytokines and pulmonary surfactant-associated protein D (SP-D) concentration in plasma before and 2, 4, and 6 hours after the experiment were observed in each group. (1) There were no significant differences in gender, age and severity of disease between two groups. (2)The optimal PEEP [cm H(2)O, 1 cm H(2)O=0.098 kPa] had no significant difference between quasi-static P-V curve method group and the optimal compliance titration group (11.53 ± 2.07 vs. 10.57 ± 0.87, P>0.05). The consistency of repeated experiments in quasi-static P-V curve method group was poor, the slope of the quasi-static P-V curve in repeated experiments showed downward tendency. The optimal PEEP was increasing in each measure. There was significant difference between the first and the third time (10.00 ± 1.58 vs. 12.80 ± 1.92, P vs. 93.71 ± 5.38, temperature: 38.05 ± 0.73 vs. 36.99 ± 1.02, IL-6: 144.84 ± 23.89 vs. 94.73 ± 5.91, TNF-α: 151.46 ± 46.00 vs. 89.86 ± 13.13, SP-D: 33.65 ± 8.66 vs. 16.63 ± 5.61, MAP: 85.47 ± 9.24 vs. 102.43 ± 8.38, CCI: 3.00 ± 0.48 vs. 3.81 ± 0.81, OI: 62.00 ± 21.45 vs. 103.40 ± 37.27, C: 32.10 ± 2.92 vs. 49.57 ± 7.18, all P safety and usability.

  14. Strong Cosmic Censorship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isenberg, James

    2017-01-01

    The Hawking-Penrose theorems tell us that solutions of Einstein's equations are generally singular, in the sense of the incompleteness of causal geodesics (the paths of physical observers). These singularities might be marked by the blowup of curvature and therefore crushing tidal forces, or by the breakdown of physical determinism. Penrose has conjectured (in his `Strong Cosmic Censorship Conjecture`) that it is generically unbounded curvature that causes singularities, rather than causal breakdown. The verification that ``AVTD behavior'' (marked by the domination of time derivatives over space derivatives) is generically present in a family of solutions has proven to be a useful tool for studying model versions of Strong Cosmic Censorship in that family. I discuss some of the history of Strong Cosmic Censorship, and then discuss what is known about AVTD behavior and Strong Cosmic Censorship in families of solutions defined by varying degrees of isometry, and discuss recent results which we believe will extend this knowledge and provide new support for Strong Cosmic Censorship. I also comment on some of the recent work on ``Weak Null Singularities'', and how this relates to Strong Cosmic Censorship.

  15. Function and position determine relative proportions of different fiber types in limb muscles of the lizard Tropidurus psammonastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Anieli G; Abdala, Virginia; Kohlsdorf, Tiana

    2015-02-01

    Skeletal muscles can be classified as flexors or extensors according to their function, and as dorsal or ventral according to their position. The latter classification evokes their embryological origin from muscle masses initially divided during limb development, and muscles sharing a given position do not necessarily perform the same function. Here, we compare the relative proportions of different fiber types among six limb muscles in the lizard Tropidurus psammonastes. Individual fibers were classified as slow oxidative (SO), fast glycolytic (FG) or fast oxidative-glycolytic (FOG) based on mitochondrial content; muscles were classified according to position and function. Mixed linear models considering one or both effects were compared using likelihood ratio tests. Variation in the proportion of FG and FOG fibers is mainly explained by function (flexor muscles have on average lower proportions of FG and higher proportions of FOG fibers), while variation in SO fibers is better explained by position (they are less abundant in ventral muscles than in those developed from a dorsal muscle mass). Our results clarify the roles of position and function in determining the relative proportions of the various muscle fibers and provide evidence that these factors may differentially affect distinct fiber types. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  16. Childhood and adult socio-economic position and social mobility as determinants of low back pain outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lallukka, T; Viikari-Juntura, E; Raitakari, O T; Kähönen, M; Lehtimäki, T; Viikari, J; Solovieva, S

    2014-01-01

    Low back pain (LBP) is a prevalent problem and tends to be socio-economically patterned. Relatively little is known about life-course socio-economic circumstances as determinants of different types of LBP. Our aim was to examine whether childhood and adult socio-economic position and social mobility are associated with radiating and non-specific LBP and sciatica. Data were derived from the Young Finns Study (n = 2231). Childhood socio-economic position was based on parental education, occupational class and family income at baseline in 1980. Data on own education and LBP outcomes were collected at the end of follow-up in 2007. Social mobility was based on parental and own education. Covariates were composed of age, parental body mass index and smoking. Both childhood and own socio-economic position remained associated with radiating LBP and sciatica after adjustments. However, the associations varied by socio-economic indicator and gender. Stable lower socio-economic position and downward mobility were associated with radiating LBP. Childhood socio-economic circumstances affect the risk of radiating LBP and sciatica in adulthood. To prevent low back disorders, early socio-economic circumstances need to be considered alongside own socio-economic position. © 2013 European Pain Federation - EFIC®

  17. Determination of the position of mental foramen and frequency of anterior loop in Saudi population. A retrospective CBCT study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mahalawy, H; Al-Aithan, H; Al-Kari, B; Al-Jandan, B; Shujaat, S

    2017-01-01

    To determine the position of mental foramen (MF) and frequency of anterior loop (AL) using dental cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). The study involved the evaluation of 302 CBCT scans (196 males, 106 females). The position of MF was determined with respect to adjacent teeth, nearest root apex of adjacent teeth and mandibular borders. MF position was also assessed based on gender and age. In addition, prevalence of anterior loop was evaluated by categorizing the inferior alveolar canal (IAC) patterns into linear, perpendicular and anterior looping. The study revealed that the most common position of MF was below the apex of 2nd premolar accounting for a total of 52.8% of scans whereas, only 29.6% observed MF between 1st and 2nd premolar ( p  > 0.05). 38.7% of MF were located at a distance of 1-3 mm from the nearest root apex (2nd premolar), followed by a distance of less than 1 mm in 17.05 of cases. 63.2% of foramen on left side of the mandible were observed below the apex of 2nd premolar in females ( p  = 0.023). Statistically significant findings were observed with regards to position of MF in different age groups ( p  < 0.05). The most common IAC pattern observed was linear in nature which accounted for 46.2% of cases followed by perpendicular pattern (38.6%). AL was found only in 15.2% of cases. Our sample population most commonly exhibited MF below the apex of 2nd premolar with linear IAC pattern. AL was regarded as the least common pattern in Saudi population.

  18. Determination of specificity and pattern of antinuclear antibodies (ana) in systemic rheumatic disease patients positive for ana testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nawaz, H.; Bashir, M.M.; Iqbal, W.

    2018-01-01

    To determine probability of finding antinuclear antibodies (ANA) and anti extractable nuclear antigens (ENA) positive samples and associating ANA patterns with anti-ENA reactivities among a consecutive cohort of samples of systemic rheumatic disease patients referred for ANA testing. Study Design:Prospective cohort study. Place and Duration of Study:Immunology Department, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Rawalpindi, Pakistan, from January to June 2016. Methodology:All the samples referred for ANA testing with clinical suspicion of systemic rheumatic disease were included. After screening, ANA positive samples were subjected to anti-ENA antibodies testing (including anti-SSA, anti-SSB, anti-Sm, anti-RNP, anti-SCL-70 and anti-Jo-1 antibodies) and ANA pattern and titer determination. Results:Of 4,347 samples received, 397 were positive for ANA (9%). Of 397, 96 (24%) samples positive on ENA screen were tested for anti-ENA reactivity. Anti-SSA antibodies were found in 59 samples. Commonest ANA patterns were coarse and fine speckled (43 and 22 samples of 81 tested), while majority of samples carried ANA in titers of 1:40 and 1:80 (22 and 18 samples of 81 tested). No specific ANA pattern was associated with any particular anti-ENA reactivity. Conclusion:Among samples/patients referred for investigations of autoimmune disorders, probability of finding positive ANA is approximately 9%. Of these 9%, about 24% also show reactivity against ENA. Commonest ANA pattern is coarse speckled and majority of such patients carry ANA in titers ranging from 1:40 to 1:80. Commonest ENA reactivity was against SSA. (author)

  19. Method to determine the position-dependant metal correction factor for dose-rate equivalent laser testing of semiconductor devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Kevin M.

    2013-07-09

    A method reconstructs the charge collection from regions beneath opaque metallization of a semiconductor device, as determined from focused laser charge collection response images, and thereby derives a dose-rate dependent correction factor for subsequent broad-area, dose-rate equivalent, laser measurements. The position- and dose-rate dependencies of the charge-collection magnitude of the device are determined empirically and can be combined with a digital reconstruction methodology to derive an accurate metal-correction factor that permits subsequent absolute dose-rate response measurements to be derived from laser measurements alone. Broad-area laser dose-rate testing can thereby be used to accurately determine the peak transient current, dose-rate response of semiconductor devices to penetrating electron, gamma- and x-ray irradiation.

  20. Intracochlear Position of Cochlear Implants Determined Using CT Scanning versus Fitting Levels: Higher Threshold Levels at Basal Turn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Beek, Feddo B; Briaire, Jeroen J; van der Marel, Kim S; Verbist, Berit M; Frijns, Johan H M

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the effects of the intracochlear position of cochlear implants on the clinical fitting levels were analyzed. A total of 130 adult subjects who used a CII/HiRes 90K cochlear implant with a HiFocus 1/1J electrode were included in the study. The insertion angle and the distance to the modiolus of each electrode contact were determined using high-resolution CT scanning. The threshold levels (T-levels) and maximum comfort levels (M-levels) at 1 year of follow-up were determined. The degree of speech perception of the subjects was evaluated during routine clinical follow-up. The depths of insertion of all the electrode contacts were determined. The distance to the modiolus was significantly smaller at the basal and apical cochlear parts compared with that at the middle of the cochlea (p implantation or the time since implantation. Additionally, the T-levels showed a significant correlation with the speech perception scores (p cochlear implants were affected by the intracochlear position of the electrode contacts, which were determined using postoperative CT scanning. Interestingly, these levels depended on the insertion depth, whereas the distance to the modiolus did not affect the stimulation levels. The T-levels increased toward the basal end of the cochlea. The level profiles were independent of the overall stimulation levels and were not affected by the biographical data of the patients, such as the duration of deafness, age at implantation or time since implantation. Further research is required to elucidate how fitting using level profiles with an increase toward the basal end of the cochlea benefits speech perception. Future investigations may elucidate an explanation for the effects of the intracochlear electrode position on the stimulation levels and might facilitate future improvements in electrode design. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Strong Impact of an Axial Ligand on the Absorption by Chlorophyll a and b Pigments Determined by Gas-Phase Ion Spectroscopy Experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaer, Christina; Stockett, Mark H.; Pedersen, Bjarke Møller

    2016-01-01

    The microenvironments in photosynthetic proteins affect the absorption by chlorophyll (Chl) pigments. It is, however, a challenge to disentangle the impact on the transition energies of different perturbations, for example, the global electrostatics of the protein (nonbonded environmental effects......), exciton coupling between Chl's, conformational variations, and binding of an axial ligand to the magnesium center. This is needed to distinguish between the two most commonly proposed mechanisms for energy transport in photosynthetic proteins, relying on either weakly or strongly coupled pigments. Here...

  2. Measurement of angular correlations of jets at {radical}(s)=1.96 TeV and determination of the strong coupling at high momentum transfers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abazov, V.M. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Abbott, B. [University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK 73019 (United States); Acharya, B.S. [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai (India); Adams, M. [University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60607 (United States); Adams, T. [Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32306 (United States); Alexeev, G.D. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Alkhazov, G. [Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Alton, A. [University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Alverson, G. [Northeastern University, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Askew, A. [Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32306 (United States); Atkins, S. [Louisiana Tech University, Ruston, LA 71272 (United States); Augsten, K. [Czech Technical University in Prague, Prague (Czech Republic); Avila, C. [Universidad de los Andes, Bogota (Colombia); Badaud, F. [LPC, Universite Blaise Pascal, CNRS/IN2P3, Clermont (France); Bagby, L.; Baldin, B. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, IL 60510 (United States); Bandurin, D.V. [Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32306 (United States); Banerjee, S. [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai (India); Barberis, E. [Northeastern University, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Baringer, P. [University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS 66045 (United States); and others

    2012-11-15

    We present a measurement of the average value of a new observable at hadron colliders that is sensitive to QCD dynamics and to the strong coupling constant, while being only weakly sensitive to parton distribution functions. The observable measures the angular correlations of jets and is defined as the number of neighboring jets above a given transverse momentum threshold which accompany a given jet within a given distance {Delta}R in the plane of rapidity and azimuthal angle. The ensemble average over all jets in an inclusive jet sample is measured and the results are presented as a function of transverse momentum of the inclusive jets, in different regions of {Delta}R and for different transverse momentum requirements for the neighboring jets. The measurement is based on a data set corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 0.7 fb{sup -1} collected with the D0 detector at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider in pp{sup Macron} collisions at {radical}(s)=1.96 TeV. The results are well described by a perturbative QCD calculation in next-to-leading order in the strong coupling constant, corrected for non-perturbative effects. From these results, we extract the strong coupling and test the QCD predictions for its running over a range of momentum transfers of 50-400 GeV.

  3. Determination of Lateral Diffusivity in Single Pixel X-ray Absorbers with Implications for Position Dependent Excess Broadening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saab, T.; Figueroa-Feliciano, E.; Iyomoto, N.; Bandler, S. R.; Chervenak, J.; Finkbeiner, F.; Kelley, R.; Kilbourne, C. A.; Porter, F. S.; Sadleir, J.

    2005-01-01

    An ideal microcalorimeter is characterized by a constant energy resolution across the sensor's dynamic range. Any dependence of pulse shape on the position within the absorber where an event occurs leads to a degradation in resolution that is linear with event s energy (excess broadening). In this paper we present a numerical simulation that was developed to model the variation in pulse shape with position based on the thermal conductivity within the absorber and between the absorber, sensor, and heat bath, for arbitrarily shaped absorbers and sensors. All the parameters required for the simulation can be measured from actual devices. We describe how the thermal conductivity of the absorber material is determined by comparing the results of this model with data taken from a position sensitive detector in which any position dependent effect is purposely emphasized by making a long, narrow absorber that is read out by sensors on both end. Finally, we present the implications for excess broadening given the measured parameters of our X-ray microcalorimeters.

  4. Determination of lateral diffusivity in single pixel X-ray absorbers with implications for position dependent excess broadening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saab, T. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)]. E-mail: tsaab@milkyway.gsfc.nasa.gov; Figueroa-Feliciano, E. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Iyomoto, N. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Herbert, B.D. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Bandler, S.R. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Chervenak, J. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Finkbeiner, F. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Kelley, R.L. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Kilbourne, C.A. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Porter, F.S. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Sadleir, J. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2006-04-15

    An ideal microcalorimeter is characterized by a constant energy resolution across the sensor's dynamic range. Any dependence of pulse shape on the position within the absorber where an event occurs leads to a degradation in resolution that is linear with event's energy (excess broadening). In this paper we present a numerical simulation that was developed to model the variation in pulse shape with position based on the thermal conductivity within the absorber and between the absorber, sensor, and heat bath, for arbitrarily shaped absorbers and sensors. All the parameters required for the simulation can be measured from actual devices. We describe how the thermal conductivity of the absorber material is determined by comparing the results of this model with data taken from a position sensitive detector in which any position dependent effect is purposely emphasized by constructing a long, narrow absorber that is readout by sensors on both ends. Finally, we present the implications for excess broadening given the measured parameters of our X-ray microcalorimeters.

  5. Determination of lateral diffusivity in single pixel X-ray absorbers with implications for position dependent excess broadening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saab, T.; Figueroa-Feliciano, E.; Iyomoto, N.; Herbert, B.D.; Bandler, S.R.; Chervenak, J.; Finkbeiner, F.; Kelley, R.L.; Kilbourne, C.A.; Porter, F.S.; Sadleir, J.

    2006-01-01

    An ideal microcalorimeter is characterized by a constant energy resolution across the sensor's dynamic range. Any dependence of pulse shape on the position within the absorber where an event occurs leads to a degradation in resolution that is linear with event's energy (excess broadening). In this paper we present a numerical simulation that was developed to model the variation in pulse shape with position based on the thermal conductivity within the absorber and between the absorber, sensor, and heat bath, for arbitrarily shaped absorbers and sensors. All the parameters required for the simulation can be measured from actual devices. We describe how the thermal conductivity of the absorber material is determined by comparing the results of this model with data taken from a position sensitive detector in which any position dependent effect is purposely emphasized by constructing a long, narrow absorber that is readout by sensors on both ends. Finally, we present the implications for excess broadening given the measured parameters of our X-ray microcalorimeters

  6. A direct method for determining complete positive and negative capillary pressure curves for reservoir rock using the centrifuge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spinler, E.A.; Baldwin, B.A. [Phillips Petroleum Co., Bartlesville, OK (United States)

    1997-08-01

    A method is being developed for direct experimental determination of capillary pressure curves from saturation distributions produced during centrifuging fluids in a rock plug. A free water level is positioned along the length of the plugs to enable simultaneous determination of both positive and negative capillary pressures. Octadecane as the oil phase is solidified by temperature reduction while centrifuging to prevent fluid redistribution upon removal from the centrifuge. The water saturation is then measured via magnetic resonance imaging. The saturation profile within the plug and the calculation of pressures for each point of the saturation profile allows for a complete capillary pressure curve to be determined from one experiment. Centrifuging under oil with a free water level into a 100 percent water saturated plug results in the development of a primary drainage capillary pressure curve. Centrifuging similarly at an initial water saturation in the plug results in the development of an imbibition capillary pressure curve. Examples of these measurements are presented for Berea sandstone and chalk rocks.

  7. Modified Occlusal Rim Design and Use of Phonetics to Determine Anterior Tooth Position and Vertical Dimension: A Clinical Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Mario F; DeRosa, Thomas A

    2016-06-01

    Prosthetic rehabilitation of edentulous patients can sometimes pose many clinical challenges for the clinician. The importance of correct vertical and horizontal positioning of the anterior teeth so that the completed denture is esthetically pleasing while being functionally correct has been well documented in the literature. Different techniques have been proposed whereby a conventional occlusal rim is used. The wax-rim thickness of this design can interfere with the neutral zone, making normal phonetics difficult. In this report, a completely edentulous patient received treatment using a modified occlusal rim so that phonetics could be used to determine the anterior tooth position and vertical dimension, following a strict adherence to a clinical protocol. The methodology involved the use of heat-processed resin record bases and a thin segment of baseplate wax that mimics anterior teeth. This approach resulted in a more natural feeling for the patient and provided the clinician the necessary information for the laboratory, which was easily communicated.

  8. Patella position is not a determinant for anterior knee pain 10 years after balanced gap total knee arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Houten, Albert H; Heesterbeek, Petra J C; Wymenga, Ate B

    2016-08-01

    Incidence of anterior knee pain after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is reported to be between 4 and 49 %. The incidence of AKP at long-term follow-up and possible determinants after cruciate cruciate-retaining TKA were investigated. A 10-year follow-up of a cohort of 55 patients (63 TKAs), who received the balanSys™ cruciate-retaining total knee system (Mathys Ltd, Bettlach, Switzerland) between 1999 and 2002, was performed. Patients had undergone the balanced gap technique, with either a fixed bearing or an AP-glide bearing. Standardised diagnostic questions regarding AKP were collected and categorised into two groups: those with and without AKP. The lateral patellar tilt, patellar displacement measurement and modified Insall-Salvati ratio were used for patella position evaluation on skyline radiographs. The Knee Society Score (KSS), the Knee Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) and Numerical Rating Scales (NRS) for pain and satisfaction were obtained at follow-up. Sixteen patients in the study population experienced AKP. Incidence of AKP (fixed bearing 13/44; AP-glide bearing baring 3/17) was not dependent on type of insert (n.s.). There were no statistical differences in patella position and tibiofemoral contact point between the AKP group and the no AKP group (n.s.). KSS, KOOS, NRS-pain and NRS-satisfaction were significantly lower for the patients with AKP (all p years after balanced gap TKA. Postoperative patella positioning was not found to be a determinant for anterior knee pain after TKA. However, patellar displacement does not seem completely favourable. Moreover, type of bearing was not found a determinant for AKP at long-term follow-up. Lower quality prospective cohort study (<80 % follow-up, patients enrolled at different time points in disease), Level II.

  9. Determining the prevalence of inv-positive and ail-positive Yersinia enterocolitica in pig tonsils using PCR and culture methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stachelska, Milena Alicja

    2017-01-01

    Yersiniosis is believed to be the third most common intestinal zoonosis in the European Union, after campylobacteriosis and salmonellosis. Yersinia enterocolitica is the most common species responsible for human infections. Pigs are regarded as the biggest reservoir of pathogenic Y. enterocolitica strains, which are mainly isolated from pig tonsils. The aim of this paper is to examine the prevalence of inv-positive and ail-positive Y. enterocolitica in pigs which were slaughtered in a Polish abattoir. Real-time PCR and culture methods were used to assess the prevalence of patho- genic Y. enterocolitica strains in pig tonsils. Real-time PCR was applied to detect inv-positive and ail-positive Y. enterocolitica. Y. enterocolitica was also isolated by applying direct plating, unselective (tryptic soy broth) and selective (irgasan-ticarcillin-potassium chlorate bouillon) enrichment. A total of 180 pigs were studied, of which 85% and 32% respectively were found to be infected with inv-positive and ail-positive Y. enterocolitica. The 92 inv-positive and ail-positive isolates, from 57 culture- positive tonsils, underwent bio- and serotyping. The most common was bioserotype 4/O:3, which was found in 53 (93%) out of 57 culture-positive tonsils. Strains of bioserotypes 2/O:5, 2/O:9 and 2/O:5.27 occurred in significantly lower numbers. The prevalence of inv-positive and ail-positive Y. enterocolitica was found to be high in the ton- sils of slaughtered pigs, using real-time PCR. The real-time PCR method for the detection and identification of pathogenic Y. enterocolitica is sensitive and specific, which has been verified by specificity and sensitivity tests using the pure cultures. Serotypes were distinguished from each other using PCR serotyping. The PCR method was essential in forming our conclusions.

  10. Determination of ramipril in human plasma and its fragmentation by UPLC-Q-TOF-MS with positive electrospray ionization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szpot Paweł

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This report presents the application of ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry with positive electrospray ionization, to determine ramipril in human plasma. First, the proteins in human plasma were precipitated using acetonitrile, then the supernatant was extracted by ethyl acetate at pH 3 and finally, the extract was analyzed using a UPLC-QTOF- MS system. The method was validated and the coefficient of determination (R2 was > 0.999, the lower limit of quantification (LLOQ was 0.5 ng mL-1. Precision, recovery and stability were determined for three different concentrations of ramipril. RSD for this method ranged from 3.3 to 8.6 %. The intra-day mean recovery was from 65.3 to 97.3 %. In addition, the fragmentation of ramipril was studied. Due to high resolution of the spectrometer, it was possible to measure fragment masses accurately and determine their molecular and chemical formulas with high accuracy.

  11. The ultrasonographic determination of the position of the mental foramen and its relation to hard tissue landmarks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laher, Abdullah Ebrahim; Mahomed, Zeyn

    2016-05-01

    The goal of this ultrasound based cross-sectional study was to make use of ultrasound to determine the position of the mental foramen in relation to hard tissue landmarks. One hundred Black and Caucasian subjects were included. An ultrasound transducer was used to locate the mental foramina. Distances to various landmarks were measured and compared. All mental foramina were visualised ultrasonographically. The mean distances to various landmarks from the mental foramen for the entire group on the right and left sides respectively were as follows: a) 22.8 mm (SD 2.04 mm) and 22.8 mm (SD 2.0 mm) to the cusp of the related tooth, b) 13.2 mm (SD 1.6 mm) and 13.2 mm (SD 1.6 mm) to the inferior border of the mandible. The mean position of the mental foramen was found to be 63.4% (SD 1.8%) of the distance from the cusp of the related tooth to the inferior border of the mandible on the right and 63.3% (SD 1.7%) on the left. There were statistically significant differences between race groups and genders, but not between age groups. These results suggest that ultrasound is a sensitive modality to locate the mental foramen. There are minor, statistically significant (but clinically insignificant) differences in the position of the mental foramen with regard to various hard tissue landmarks. Copyright © 2016 by Academy of Sciences and Arts of Bosnia and Herzegovina.

  12. The ultrasonographic determination of the position of the mental foramen and its relation to hard tissue landmarks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Ebrahim Laher

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The goal of this ultrasound based cross-sectional study was to make use of ultrasound to determine the position of the mental foramen in relation to hard tissue landmarks. Material and methods. One hundred Black and Caucasian subjects were included. An ultrasound transducer was used to locate the mental foramina. Distances to various landmarks were measured and compared. Results. All mental foramina were visualised ultrasonographically. The mean distances to various landmarks from the mental foramen for the entire group on the right and left sides respectively were as follows: a 22.8 mm (SD 2.04 mm and 22.8 mm (SD 2.0 mm to the cusp of the related tooth, b 13.2 mm (SD 1.6 mm and 13.2 mm (SD 1.6 mm to the inferior border of the mandible. The mean position of the mental foramen was found to be 63.4% (SD 1.8% of the distance from the cusp of the related tooth to the inferior border of the mandible on the right and 63.3% (SD 1.7% on the left. There were statistically significant differences between race groups and genders, but not between age groups. Conclusion. These results suggest that ultrasound is a sensitive modality to locate the mental foramen. There are minor, statistically significant (but clinically insignificant differences in the position of the mental foramen with regard to various hard tissue landmarks.

  13. Development of method for experimental determination of wheel–rail contact forces and contact point position by using instrumented wheelset

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bižić, Milan B; Petrović, Dragan Z; Tomić, Miloš C; Djinović, Zoran V

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents the development of a unique method for experimental determination of wheel–rail contact forces and contact point position by using the instrumented wheelset (IWS). Solutions of key problems in the development of IWS are proposed, such as the determination of optimal locations, layout, number and way of connecting strain gauges as well as the development of an inverse identification algorithm (IIA). The base for the solution of these problems is the wheel model and results of FEM calculations, while IIA is based on the method of blind source separation using independent component analysis. In the first phase, the developed method was tested on a wheel model and a high accuracy was obtained (deviations of parameters obtained with IIA and really applied parameters in the model are less than 2%). In the second phase, experimental tests on the real object or IWS were carried out. The signal-to-noise ratio was identified as the main influential parameter on the measurement accuracy. Тhе obtained results have shown that the developed method enables measurement of vertical and lateral wheel–rail contact forces Q and Y and their ratio Y / Q with estimated errors of less than 10%, while the estimated measurement error of contact point position is less than 15%. At flange contact and higher values of ratio Y / Q or Y force, the measurement errors are reduced, which is extremely important for the reliability and quality of experimental tests of safety against derailment of railway vehicles according to the standards UIC 518 and EN 14363. The obtained results have shown that the proposed method can be successfully applied in solving the problem of high accuracy measurement of wheel–rail contact forces and contact point position using IWS. (paper)

  14. SU-F-J-47: Inherent Uncertainty in the Positional Shifts Determined by a Volumetric Cone Beam Imaging System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giri, U; Ganesh, T; Saini, V; Munshi, A; Sarkar, B; Mohanti, B [Fortis Memorial Research Institute, Gurgaon, Haryana (India)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To quantify inherent uncertainty associated with a volumetric imaging system in its determination of positional shifts. Methods: The study was performed on an Elekta Axesse™ linac’s XVI cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) system. A CT image data set of a Penta- Guide phantom was used as reference image by placing isocenter at the center of the phantom.The phantom was placed arbitrarily on the couch close to isocenter and CBCT images were obtained. The CBCT dataset was matched with the reference image using XVI software and the shifts were determined in 6-dimensions. Without moving the phantom, this process was repeated 20 times consecutively within 30 minutes on a single day. Mean shifts and their standard deviations in all 6-dimensions were determined for all the 20 instances of imaging. For any given day, the first set of shifts obtained was kept as reference and the deviations of the subsequent 19 sets from the reference set were scored. Mean differences and their standard deviations were determined. In this way, data were obtained for 30 consecutive working days. Results: Tabulating the mean deviations and their standard deviations observed on each day for the 30 measurement days, systematic and random errors in the determination of shifts by XVI software were calculated. The systematic errors were found to be 0.03, 0.04 and 0.03 mm while random errors were 0.05, 0.06 and 0.06 mm in lateral, craniocaudal and anterio-posterior directions respectively. For rotational shifts, the systematic errors were 0.02°, 0.03° and 0.03° and random errors were 0.06°, 0.05° and 0.05° in pitch, roll and yaw directions respectively. Conclusion: The inherent uncertainties in every image guidance system should be assessed and baseline values established at the time of its commissioning. These shall be periodically tested as part of the QA protocol.

  15. SU-F-J-47: Inherent Uncertainty in the Positional Shifts Determined by a Volumetric Cone Beam Imaging System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giri, U; Ganesh, T; Saini, V; Munshi, A; Sarkar, B; Mohanti, B

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To quantify inherent uncertainty associated with a volumetric imaging system in its determination of positional shifts. Methods: The study was performed on an Elekta Axesse™ linac’s XVI cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) system. A CT image data set of a Penta- Guide phantom was used as reference image by placing isocenter at the center of the phantom.The phantom was placed arbitrarily on the couch close to isocenter and CBCT images were obtained. The CBCT dataset was matched with the reference image using XVI software and the shifts were determined in 6-dimensions. Without moving the phantom, this process was repeated 20 times consecutively within 30 minutes on a single day. Mean shifts and their standard deviations in all 6-dimensions were determined for all the 20 instances of imaging. For any given day, the first set of shifts obtained was kept as reference and the deviations of the subsequent 19 sets from the reference set were scored. Mean differences and their standard deviations were determined. In this way, data were obtained for 30 consecutive working days. Results: Tabulating the mean deviations and their standard deviations observed on each day for the 30 measurement days, systematic and random errors in the determination of shifts by XVI software were calculated. The systematic errors were found to be 0.03, 0.04 and 0.03 mm while random errors were 0.05, 0.06 and 0.06 mm in lateral, craniocaudal and anterio-posterior directions respectively. For rotational shifts, the systematic errors were 0.02°, 0.03° and 0.03° and random errors were 0.06°, 0.05° and 0.05° in pitch, roll and yaw directions respectively. Conclusion: The inherent uncertainties in every image guidance system should be assessed and baseline values established at the time of its commissioning. These shall be periodically tested as part of the QA protocol.

  16. Determination of the strong coupling constant from the measurement of inclusive multijet event cross sections in pp collisions at $\\sqrt{s} = 8~\\mathrm{TeV}$

    CERN Document Server

    CMS Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    A measurement of inclusive multijet event cross sections is presented from proton-proton collisions recorded at $\\sqrt{s} = 8\\,$TeV with the CMS detector and corresponding to an integrated luminosity of $19.7\\,\\mathrm{fb}^{-1}$. Jets are reconstructed with the anti-k$_t$ clustering algorithm for a jet size parameter $R=0.7$ in a phase space region ranging up to jet transverse momenta $p_\\mathrm{T}$ of $2.0\\,$TeV and an absolute rapidity of $|y|=2.5$. The inclusive 2-jet and 3-jet event cross sections are measured as a function of the average $p_\\mathrm{T}$ of the two leading jets. The data are well described by predictions at next-to-leading order in perturbative quantum chromodynamics and additionally are compared to several Monte Carlo event generators. The strong coupling constant at the scale of the Z boson mass is inferred from a fit of the ratio of the 3-jet over 2-jet event cross section giving $\\alpha_s(M_Z) = 0.1150\\,\\pm0.0010\\,\\textrm{(exp)}\\,\\pm0.0013\\,\\textrm{(PDF)}\\, \\pm0.0015\\,\\textrm{(NP)}\\,^{+...

  17. [Determining the car driver's position at the moment of the frontal crash with a moving KAMAZ truck].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusarov, A A; Fetisov, V A; Smirenin, S A

    2016-01-01

    This article is designed to report the results of the comprehensive forensic medical and autotechnical expertise for determining the positions of the driver and the first seat passenger of the GAS-3110 car at the moment of the frontal crash with a KAMAZ-5312 truck. The comparative analysis of the injuries in two subjects one of whom died as a result of the given accident made it possible to conclude that he had occupied the driver's seat in the car. The differential diagnosis was based on the peculiarities of the injuries to the upper extremities with the predominance of the most severe wounds at the right side of the body. Also taken into consideration were the specific conditions of the given frontal collision, design of the GAS-3110 passenger compartment, winter season, night time, and possible neglect of the passive safety means, etc.

  18. Are Change of Direction Speed and Reactive Agility Useful for Determining the Optimal Field Position for Young Soccer Players?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorilli, Giovanni; Iuliano, Enzo; Mitrotasios, Michalis; Pistone, Eugenio M.; Aquino, Giovanna; Calcagno, Giuseppe; di Cagno, Alessandra

    2017-01-01

    Change Of Direction Speed (CODS) and Reactive Agility (RA) are two determining factors in the ability of young soccer players. We aimed to verify if CODS and RA could be useful in order to establish the best young soccer player field position. Ninety-two elite soccer players (15.18 ± 1.21 years, weight 59.18 ± 9.93, height 1.72 ± 0.08, BMI 19.76 ± 2.22), belonging to two youth categories from the Italian First and Second Divisions, volunteered in this study. The participants included 32 defenders (15.06 ± 0.80 years), 37 midfielders (15.11 ± 0.84 years) and 23 forwards (15.48 ± 1.16 years), and they underwent two tests, each one performed in two different ways: the Y-Agility Test, carried out in a planned and reactive mode (Y-PLAN and Y-REAC), and the Illinois for Change of Direction Test (ICODT) performed with and without the ball. REAC-INDEX, which represents the index of reactivity, was calculated as Y-REAC minus Y-PLAN. The difference between the two scores of ICODT (ICODT with the ball minus ICODT without the ball) represents the TECHN-INDEX. Multivariate Analysis of Variances (MANOVA) was used to evaluate significant differences among all position groups, for all the test scores. MANOVA showed no significant differences in test scores or in TECHN-INDEX among the groups, except for the forwards, who were significantly more reactive than the defenders (p Agility is a key skill required for soccer success, and it is based on greater levels of motor control, when compared to pre-planned CODS. No significant differences amongst players in different field positions for CODS and Agility performances were found. This study does not recommend to use Agility and CODS as indicators to assign the players roles in youth soccer. PMID:28630578

  19. Development of core technology for KNGR system design; development of methodology to determine hydrogen ignitor position in KNGR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Goon Chul; Choi, Hee Dong; Whang, Yong Seok; Lee, Un Jang; Lee, Jung Jae; Kim, Do Yeun [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea)

    2002-04-01

    The scope of this project is to generate fundamental engineering data of hydrogen behavior required in establishing the design guidance and regulation requirement with respect to hydrogen control and severe accident management. This is ultimately to arrange engineering hydrogen control scheme to clear factors threatening integrity of the containment building by hazard of explosion due to burning of hydrogen generated during the severe accident in APR 1400. On the basis of this study, to ensure the safety of nuclear power plant against the severe accident by serving efficient methodology for the positioning of hydrogen igniter is the aim of the project. The project proceeded in 6 phases. Details are followings;1. Capability examination of hydrogen controller. 2. Three dimensional hydrogen mixing experiments and development of He detector. 3. Verification on the three dimensional hydrogen analysis model of the GOTHIC code 4. Development of three dimensional hydrogen mixing code HYCA3D 5. Examination of PAR models 6. Development of methodology to determine hydrogen igniter position. 29 refs., 76 figs., 10 tabs. (Author)

  20. Alcohol Dehydrogenase-1B (rs1229984 and Aldehyde Dehydrogenase-2 (rs671 Genotypes Are Strong Determinants of the Serum Triglyceride and Cholesterol Levels of Japanese Alcoholic Men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira Yokoyama

    Full Text Available Elevated serum triglyceride (TG and high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C levels are common in drinkers. The fast-metabolizing alcohol dehydrogenase-1B encoded by the ADH1B*2 allele (vs. ADH1B*1/*1 genotype and inactive aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 encoded by the ALDH2*2 allele (vs. ALDH2*1/*1 genotype modify ethanol metabolism and are prevalent (≈90% and ≈40%, respectively in East Asians. We attempted to evaluate the associations between the ADH1B and ALDH2 genotypes and lipid levels in alcoholics.The population consisted of 1806 Japanese alcoholic men (≥40 years who had undergone ADH1B and ALDH2 genotyping and whose serum TG, total cholesterol, and HDL-C levels in the fasting state had been measured within 3 days after admission.High serum levels of TG (≥150 mg/dl, HDL-C (>80 mg/dl, and low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C calculated by the Friedewald formula ≥140 mg/dl were observed in 24.3%, 16.8%, and 15.6%, respectively, of the subjects. Diabetes, cirrhosis, smoking, and body mass index (BMI affected the serum lipid levels. Multivariate analysis revealed that the presence of the ADH1B*2 allele and the active ALDH2*1/*1 genotype increased the odds ratio (OR; 95% confidence interval for a high TG level (2.22 [1.67-2.94] and 1.39 [0.99-1.96], respectively, and decreased the OR for a high HDL-C level (0.37 [0.28-0.49] and 0.51 [0.37-0.69], respectively. The presence of the ADH1B*2 allele decreased the OR for a high LDL-C level (0.60 [0.45-0.80]. The ADH1B*2 plus ALDH2*1/*1 combination yielded the highest ORs for high TG levels and lowest OR for a high HDL-C level. The genotype effects were more prominent in relation to the higher levels of TG (≥220 mg/dl and HDL-C (≥100 mg/dl.The fast-metabolizing ADH1B and active ALDH2, and especially a combination of the two were strongly associated with higher serum TG levels and lower serum HDL-C levels of alcoholics. The fast-metabolizing ADH1B was associated with lower serum LDL

  1. Other paradigms: growth rate constants and tumor burden determined using computed tomography data correlate strongly with the overall survival of patients with renal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Wilfred D; Huang, Hui; Menefee, Michael; Edgerly, Maureen; Kotz, Herb; Dwyer, Andrew; Yang, James; Bates, Susan E

    2009-01-01

    In solid tumors, where curative therapies still elude oncologists, novel paradigms are needed to assess the efficacy of new therapies and those already approved. We used radiologic measurements obtained in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma enrolled in a phase II study of the epothilone B analog, ixabepilone (Ixempra), to address this issue. Using a novel 2-phase mathematical equation, we used the radiologic measurements to estimate the concomitant rates of tumor regression and growth (regression and growth rate constants). Eighty-one patients were enrolled on the ixabepilone trial at the time of this analysis. Growth rate constants were determined using computed tomography measurements obtained exclusively while a patient was enrolled on study. The growth rate constants of renal cell carcinomas treated with ixabepilone were significantly reduced compared with those of tumors in patients who received placebo in a previous trial. Furthermore, a correlation with overall survival was found for both the growth rate constant and the initial tumor burden; and this correlation was even stronger when both the growth rate constant and the initial tumor burden were combined. The readily amenable mathematical model described herein has potential applications to many tumor types that can be assessed with imaging modalities. Because the growth rate constant seems to be a surrogate for survival, assessment could aid in the evaluation of relative efficacies of different therapies and perhaps in assessing the potential individual benefit of an experimental therapy.

  2. Determination of the strong coupling constant α{sub s}(m{sub Z}) in next-to-next-to-leading order QCD using H1 jet cross section measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreev, V.; Belousov, A.; Fomenko, A.; Gogitidze, N.; Lebedev, A.; Malinovski, E.; Soloviev, Y.; Vazdik, Y. [Lebedev Physical Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); Baghdasaryan, A.; Zohrabyan, H. [Yerevan Physics Institute, Yerevan (Armenia); Begzsuren, K.; Ravdandorj, T. [Institute of Physics and Technology of the Mongolian Academy of Sciences, Ulaanbaatar (Mongolia); Bertone, V. [Vrije University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Amsterdam (Netherlands); National Institute for Subatomic Physics (NIKHEF), Amsterdam (Netherlands); Bolz, A.; Britzger, D.; Huber, F.; Sauter, M.; Schoening, A. [Universitaet Heidelberg, Physikalisches Institut, Heidelberg (Germany); Boudry, V.; Specka, A. [LLR, Ecole Polytechnique, CNRS/IN2P3, Palaiseau (France); Brandt, G. [Universitaet Goettingen, II. Physikalisches Institut, Goettingen (Germany); Brisson, V.; Jacquet, M.; Pascaud, C.; Zhang, Z.; Zomer, F. [LAL, Universite Paris-Sud, CNRS/IN2P3, Orsay (France); Buniatyan, A.; Newman, P.R.; Thompson, P.D. [University of Birmingham, School of Physics and Astronomy, Birmingham (United Kingdom); Bylinkin, A. [Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, Dolgoprudny, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Bystritskaya, L.; Fedotov, A. [Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Campbell, A.J.; Dodonov, V.; Eckerlin, G.; Elsen, E.; Fleischer, M.; Gayler, J.; Ghazaryan, S.; Haidt, D.; Jung, H.; Katzy, J.; Kleinwort, C.; Kruecker, D.; Krueger, K.; Levonian, S.; Lipka, K.; List, B.; List, J.; Meyer, A.B.; Meyer, J.; Niebuhr, C.; Olsson, J.E.; Pirumov, H.; Pitzl, D.; Placakyte, R.; Schmitt, S.; Sefkow, F.; South, D.; Steder, M.; Wuensch, E.; Zlebcik, R. [DESY, Hamburg (Germany); Cantun Avila, K.B.; Contreras, J.G. [CINVESTAV, Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Merida, Yucatan (Mexico); Cerny, K.; Salek, D.; Valkarova, A.; Zacek, J. [Charles University, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Prague (Czech Republic); Chekelian, V.; Grindhammer, G.; Kiesling, C.; Lobodzinski, B. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Munich (Germany); Cvach, J.; Hladky, J.; Reimer, P. [Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Institute of Physics, Prague (Czech Republic); Currie, J. [Durham University, Institute for Particle Physics Phenomenology, Ogden Centre for Fundamental Physics, Durham (United Kingdom); Dainton, J.B.; Gabathuler, E.; Greenshaw, T.; Klein, M.; Kostka, P.; Kretzschmar, J.; Laycock, P.; Maxfield, S.J.; Mehta, A.; Patel, G.D. [University of Liverpool, Department of Physics, Liverpool (United Kingdom); Daum, K.; Meyer, H. [Fachbereich C, Universitaet Wuppertal, Wuppertal (Germany); Diaconu, C.; Hoffmann, D.; Vallee, C. [Aix Marseille Universite, CNRS/IN2P3, CPPM UMR 7346, Marseille (France); Dobre, M.; Rotaru, M. [Horia Hulubei National Institute for R and D in Physics and Nuclear Engineering (IFIN-HH), Bucharest (Romania); Egli, S.; Horisberger, R.; Ozerov, D. [Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen (Switzerland); Favart, L.; Grebenyuk, A.; Hreus, T.; Janssen, X.; Roosen, R.; Mechelen, P.Van [Brussels and Universiteit Antwerpen, Inter-University Institute for High Energies ULB-VUB, Antwerp (Belgium); Feltesse, J.; Schoeffel, L. [Irfu/SPP, CE Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Gehrmann, T.; Mueller, K.; Niehues, J.; Robmann, P.; Straumann, U.; Truoel, P. [Physik-Institut der Universitaet Zuerich, Zurich (Switzerland); Goerlich, L.; Mikocki, S.; Nowak, G.; Sopicki, P. [Polish Academy of Sciences, Institute of Nuclear Physics, Krakow (Poland); Gouzevitch, M.; Petrukhin, A. [IPNL, Universite Claude Bernard Lyon 1, CNRS/IN2P3, Villeurbanne (France); Grab, C.; Huss, A. [ETH Zuerich, Institut fuer Teilchenphysik, Zurich (Switzerland); Gwenlan, C.; Radescu, V. [Oxford University, Department of Physics, Oxford (United Kingdom); Henderson, R.C.W. [University of Lancaster, Department of Physics, Lancaster (United Kingdom); Jung, A.W. [Purdue University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, West Lafayette, IN (United States); Kapichine, M.; Morozov, A.; Spaskov, V. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Kogler, R. [Universitaet Hamburg, Institut fuer Experimentalphysik, Hamburg (Germany); Landon, M.P.J.; Rizvi, E.; Traynor, D. [Queen Mary University of London, School of Physics and Astronomy, London (United Kingdom); Lange, W.; Naumann, T. [DESY, Zeuthen (Germany); Martyn, H.U. [I. Physikalisches Institut der RWTH, Aachen (Germany); Perez, E. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Picuric, I.; Raicevic, N. [University of Montenegro, Faculty of Science, Podgorica (Montenegro); Polifka, R. [Charles University, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Prague (Czech Republic); University of Toronto, Department of Physics, Toronto, ON (Canada); Rabbertz, K. [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (KIT), Institut fuer Experimentelle Teilchenphysik (ETP), Karlsruhe (Germany); Rostovtsev, A. [Institute for Information Transmission Problems RAS, Moscow (Russian Federation); Sankey, D.P.C. [STFC, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Didcot, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom); Sauvan, E. [Aix Marseille Universite, CNRS/IN2P3, CPPM UMR 7346, Marseille (France); Universite de Savoie, CNRS/IN2P3, LAPP, Annecy-le-Vieux (France); Shushkevich, S. [Lomonosov Moscow State University, Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Stella, B. [Universita di Roma Tre, Dipartimento di Fisica, Rome (Italy); INFN Roma 3 (Italy); Sutton, M.R. [University of Sussex, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Brighton (United Kingdom); Sykora, T. [Brussels and Universiteit Antwerpen, Inter-University Institute for High Energies ULB-VUB, Antwerp (Belgium); Charles University, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Prague (Czech Republic); Tsakov, I. [Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy, Sofia (Bulgaria); Tseepeldorj, B. [Institute of Physics and Technology of the Mongolian Academy of Sciences, Ulaanbaatar (MN); Ulaanbaatar University, Ulaanbaatar (MN); Wegener, D. [TU Dortmund, Institut fuer Physik, Dortmund (DE); Collaboration: H1 Collaboration

    2017-11-15

    The strong coupling constant α{sub s} is determined from inclusive jet and dijet cross sections in neutral-current deep-inelastic ep scattering (DIS) measured at HERA by the H1 collaboration using next-to-next-to-leading order (NNLO) QCD predictions. The dependence of the NNLO predictions and of the resulting value of α{sub s}(m{sub Z}) at the Z-boson mass m{sub Z} are studied as a function of the choice of the renormalisation and factorisation scales. Using inclusive jet and dijet data together, the strong coupling constant is determined to be α{sub s}(m{sub Z}) = 0.1157(20){sub exp}(29){sub th}. Complementary, α{sub s}(m{sub Z}) is determined together with parton distribution functions of the proton (PDFs) from jet and inclusive DIS data measured by the H1 experiment. The value α{sub s}(m{sub Z}) = 0.1142(28){sub tot} obtained is consistent with the determination from jet data alone. The impact of the jet data on the PDFs is studied. The running of the strong coupling is tested at different values of the renormalisation scale and the results are found to be in agreement with expectations. (orig.)

  3. Accuracy of determination of position and width of molecular groups in biological and lipid membranes via neutron diffraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordeliy, V I; Chernov, N I

    1997-07-01

    Neutron diffraction combined with the deuterium-labelled molecular groups of biological and model membrane components allows one to detect with high accuracy the structure of these objects. Experiments of this kind are only possible at unique high-flux neutron sources, and the planning of neutron-diffraction experiments must take into account some special requirements primarily related to the duration of the experiment and the accuracy of estimation of membrane structure parameters as a result of finite time of the measurements. This paper deals with the question of statistical accuracy of the position x(0) and width v of the distribution of deuterium labels in membranes along the normal of their plane, which are determined in a neutron diffraction experiment. It is shown that the accuracy of x(0) and v estimation does not depend on membrane constitution. It is dependent only on the scattering amplitude of the deuterium label, the label position x(0) and the distribution width v. Analytic calculations show that the statistical errors Deltax(0) and Deltav are inversely proportional to the scattering amplitude of the label and, as usual, to the square root of measurement time. The question of Deltax0 and Deltav dependence on the number of structure factors used in the calculations of x(0) and v is also studied. It is shown that, the accuracy of x(0) estimation is approximately constant with down to four structure factors used, and, with the number of the factors below four, it deteriorates drastically. Analogous is the behaviour of Deltav(h(max)) relation with one exception: abrupt deterioration of the accuracy occurs beginning with five structure factors used. One does not have to measure the highest diffraction reflections which takes a much longer time compared with the first ones. It is an important result. All the problems mentioned above have also been considered for the case of two different deuterium labels in membranes.

  4. Differences in the mannose oligomer specificities of the closely related lectins from Galanthus nivalis and Zea mays strongly determine their eventual anti-HIV activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fouquaert Elke

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In a recent report, the carbohydrate-binding specificities of the plant lectins Galanthus nivalis (GNA and the closely related lectin from Zea mays (GNAmaize were determined by glycan array analysis and indicated that GNAmaize recognizes complex-type N-glycans whereas GNA has specificity towards high-mannose-type glycans. Both lectins are tetrameric proteins sharing 64% sequence similarity. Results GNAmaize appeared to be ~20- to 100-fold less inhibitory than GNA against HIV infection, syncytia formation between persistently HIV-1-infected HuT-78 cells and uninfected CD4+ T-lymphocyte SupT1 cells, HIV-1 capture by DC-SIGN and subsequent transmission of DC-SIGN-captured virions to uninfected CD4+ T-lymphocyte cells. In contrast to GNA, which preferentially selects for virus strains with deleted high-mannose-type glycans on gp120, prolonged exposure of HIV-1 to dose-escalating concentrations of GNAmaize selected for mutant virus strains in which one complex-type glycan of gp120 was deleted. Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR analysis revealed that GNA and GNAmaize interact with HIV IIIB gp120 with affinity constants (KD of 0.33 nM and 34 nM, respectively. Whereas immobilized GNA specifically binds mannose oligomers, GNAmaize selectively binds complex-type GlcNAcβ1,2Man oligomers. Also, epitope mapping experiments revealed that GNA and the mannose-specific mAb 2G12 can independently bind from GNAmaize to gp120, whereas GNAmaize cannot efficiently bind to gp120 that contained prebound PHA-E (GlcNAcβ1,2man specific or SNA (NeuAcα2,6X specific. Conclusion The markedly reduced anti-HIV activity of GNAmaize compared to GNA can be explained by the profound shift in glycan recognition and the disappearance of carbohydrate-binding sites in GNAmaize that have high affinity for mannose oligomers. These findings underscore the need for mannose oligomer recognition of therapeutics to be endowed with anti-HIV activity and that mannose, but

  5. Determination of new prediction formula for nasal continuous positive airway pressure in Turkish patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basoglu, Ozen K; Tasbakan, Mehmet Sezai

    2012-12-01

    Race/ethnicity may play an important role in determining body size, severity of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS), and effective continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) (Peff). Turkey is composed of different ethnic groups. Therefore, the aims of this study were to determine new prediction formula for CPAP (Ppred) in Turkish OSAS patients, validate performance of this formula, and compare with Caucasian and Asian formulas. Peff of 250 newly diagnosed moderate-to-severe OSAS patients were calculated by in-laboratory manual titration. Correlation and multiple linear regression analysis were used to model effects of ten anthropometric and polysomnographic variables such as neck circumference (NC) and oxygen desaturation index (ODI) on Peff. New formula was validated in different 130 OSAS patients and compared with previous formulas. The final prediction formula was [Formula: see text]. When Peff of control group was assessed, it was observed that mean Peff was 8.39 ± 2.00 cmH(2)O and Ppred was 8.23 ± 1.22 cmH(2)O. Ppred was within ±3 cmH(2)O of Peff in 96.2% patients. Besides, Peff was significantly correlated with new formula, and prediction formulas developed for Caucasian and Asian populations (r = 0.651, p < 0.001, r = 0.648, p < 0.001, and r = 0.622, p < 0.001, respectively). It is shown that level of CPAP can be successfully predicted from our prediction formula, using NC and ODI and validated in Turkish OSAS patients. New equation correlates with other formulas developed for Caucasian and Asian populations. Our simple formula including ODI, marker of intermittent hypoxia, may be used easily in different populations.

  6. SU-E-T-758: To Determine the Source Dwell Positions of HDR Brachytherapy Using 2D 729 Ion Chamber Array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Syam [Malabar Cancer Centre, Kannur, Kerala (India); Sitha [University of Calicut, Calicut, Kerala (India)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Determination of source dwell positions of HDR brachytherapy using 2D 729 ion chamber array Methods: Nucletron microselectron HDR and PTW 2D array were used for the study. Different dwell positions were assigned in the HDR machine. Rigid interstitial needles and vaginal applicator were positioned on the 2D array. The 2D array was exposed for this programmed dwell positions. The positional accuracy of the source was analyzed after the irradiation of the 2D array. This was repeated for different dwell positions. Different test plans were transferred from the Oncentra planning system and irradiated with the same applicator position on the 2D array. The results were analyzed using the in house developed excel program. Results: Assigned dwell positions versus corresponding detector response were analyzed. The results show very good agreement with the film measurements. No significant variation found between the planned and measured dwell positions. Average dose response with 2D array between the planned and nearby dwell positions was found to be 0.0804 Gy for vaginal cylinder applicator and 0.1234 Gy for interstitial rigid needles. Standard deviation between the doses for all the measured dwell positions for interstitial rigid needle for 1 cm spaced positions were found to be 0.33 and 0.37 for 2cm spaced dwell positions. For intracavitory vaginal applicator this was found to be 0.21 for 1 cm spaced dwell positions and 0.06 for 2cm spaced dwell positions. Intracavitory test plans reproduced on the 2D array with the same applicator positions shows the ideal dose distribution with the TPS planned. Conclusion: 2D array is a good tool for determining the dwell position of HDR brachytherapy. With the in-house developed program in excel it is easy and accurate. The traditional way with film analysis can be replaced by this method, as the films will be more costly.

  7. SU-E-T-758: To Determine the Source Dwell Positions of HDR Brachytherapy Using 2D 729 Ion Chamber Array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Syam; Sitha

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Determination of source dwell positions of HDR brachytherapy using 2D 729 ion chamber array Methods: Nucletron microselectron HDR and PTW 2D array were used for the study. Different dwell positions were assigned in the HDR machine. Rigid interstitial needles and vaginal applicator were positioned on the 2D array. The 2D array was exposed for this programmed dwell positions. The positional accuracy of the source was analyzed after the irradiation of the 2D array. This was repeated for different dwell positions. Different test plans were transferred from the Oncentra planning system and irradiated with the same applicator position on the 2D array. The results were analyzed using the in house developed excel program. Results: Assigned dwell positions versus corresponding detector response were analyzed. The results show very good agreement with the film measurements. No significant variation found between the planned and measured dwell positions. Average dose response with 2D array between the planned and nearby dwell positions was found to be 0.0804 Gy for vaginal cylinder applicator and 0.1234 Gy for interstitial rigid needles. Standard deviation between the doses for all the measured dwell positions for interstitial rigid needle for 1 cm spaced positions were found to be 0.33 and 0.37 for 2cm spaced dwell positions. For intracavitory vaginal applicator this was found to be 0.21 for 1 cm spaced dwell positions and 0.06 for 2cm spaced dwell positions. Intracavitory test plans reproduced on the 2D array with the same applicator positions shows the ideal dose distribution with the TPS planned. Conclusion: 2D array is a good tool for determining the dwell position of HDR brachytherapy. With the in-house developed program in excel it is easy and accurate. The traditional way with film analysis can be replaced by this method, as the films will be more costly

  8. Structural factors determining photophysical properties of directly linked zinc(II) porphyrin dimers: linking position, dihedral angle, and linkage length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Sung; Yoon, Min-Chul; Lim, Jong Min; Kim, Pyosang; Aratani, Naoki; Nakamura, Yasuyuki; Ikeda, Toshiaki; Osuka, Atsuhiro; Kim, Dongho

    2009-08-06

    We have investigated the relationship between the photophysical properties and structures of a series of directly linked zinc(II) porphyrin dimers (mmZ2, mbZ2, and bbZ2) using time-resolved spectroscopic measurements and theoretical calculations. Their unique characters such as CT nature and torsional motion are caused by interporphyrin interactions and steric effects, respectively, which can be fully understood in terms of three structural factors: linking position, dihedral angle, and linkage length. The orthogonal geometry and heterolinking of mmZ2 and mbZ2 induce the localized MOs and electron unbalance in the constituent porphyrin units, respectively, and consequently lead to distinct CT characters in spite of their different origin. On the other hand, a small interporphyrin steric hindrance in bbZ2 makes a torsional motion possible around the direct beta-beta' linkage in the excited state, which is correlated with the solvent dependence of the fast S(1) fluorescence decay component. On the basis of this work, we can gain further insight into the effect of individual structural factors on the photophysical properties, which provides a firm basis for further understanding of the photophysical properties mainly determined by the structural factors in multiporphyrin systems.

  9. Measurement of the positive muon lifetime and determination of the Fermi constant to part-per-million precision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webber, D M; Tishchenko, V; Peng, Q; Battu, S; Carey, R M; Chitwood, D B; Crnkovic, J; Debevec, P T; Dhamija, S; Earle, W; Gafarov, A; Giovanetti, K; Gorringe, T P; Gray, F E; Hartwig, Z; Hertzog, D W; Johnson, B; Kammel, P; Kiburg, B; Kizilgul, S; Kunkle, J; Lauss, B; Logashenko, I; Lynch, K R; McNabb, R; Miller, J P; Mulhauser, F; Onderwater, C J G; Phillips, J; Rath, S; Roberts, B L; Winter, P; Wolfe, B

    2011-01-28

    We report a measurement of the positive muon lifetime to a precision of 1.0 ppm; it is the most precise particle lifetime ever measured. The experiment used a time-structured, low-energy muon beam and a segmented plastic scintillator array to record more than 2×10(12) decays. Two different stopping target configurations were employed in independent data-taking periods. The combined results give τ(μ(+)) (MuLan)=2 196 980.3(2.2)  ps, more than 15 times as precise as any previous experiment. The muon lifetime gives the most precise value for the Fermi constant: G(F) (MuLan)=1.166 378 8(7)×10(-5)  GeV(-2) (0.6 ppm). It is also used to extract the μ(-)p singlet capture rate, which determines the proton's weak induced pseudoscalar coupling g(P).

  10. Determination of the positions and orientations of concentrated rod-like colloids from 3D microscopy data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besseling, T. H.; Hermes, M.; Kuijk, A.; de Nijs, B.; Deng, T.-S.; Dijkstra, M.; Imhof, A.; van Blaaderen, A.

    2015-05-01

    Confocal microscopy in combination with real-space particle tracking has proven to be a powerful tool in scientific fields such as soft matter physics, materials science and cell biology. However, 3D tracking of anisotropic particles in concentrated phases remains not as optimized compared to algorithms for spherical particles. To address this problem, we developed a new particle-fitting algorithm that can extract the positions and orientations of fluorescent rod-like particles from three dimensional confocal microscopy data stacks. The algorithm is tailored to work even when the fluorescent signals of the particles overlap considerably and a threshold method and subsequent clusters analysis alone do not suffice. We demonstrate that our algorithm correctly identifies all five coordinates of uniaxial particles in both a concentrated disordered phase and a liquid-crystalline smectic-B phase. Apart from confocal microscopy images, we also demonstrate that the algorithm can be used to identify nanorods in 3D electron tomography reconstructions. Lastly, we determined the accuracy of the algorithm using both simulated and experimental confocal microscopy data-stacks of diffusing silica rods in a dilute suspension. This novel particle-fitting algorithm allows for the study of structure and dynamics in both dilute and dense liquid-crystalline phases (such as nematic, smectic and crystalline phases) as well as the study of the glass transition of rod-like particles in three dimensions on the single particle level.

  11. An Evaluation of Two Internal Surrogates for Determining the Three-Dimensional Position of Peripheral Lung Tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spoelstra, Femke; Soernsen de Koste, John R. van; Vincent, Andrew; Cuijpers, Johan P.; Slotman, Ben J.; Senan, Suresh

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Both carina and diaphragm positions have been used as surrogates during respiratory-gated radiotherapy. We studied the correlation of both surrogates with three-dimensional (3D) tumor position. Methods and Materials: A total of 59 repeat artifact-free four-dimensional (4D) computed tomography (CT) scans, acquired during uncoached breathing, were identified in 23 patients with Stage I lung cancer. Repeat scans were co-registered to the initial 4D CT scan, and tumor, carina, and ipsilateral diaphragm were manually contoured in all phases of each 4D CT data set. Correlation between positions of carina and diaphragm with 3D tumor position was studied by use of log-likelihood ratio statistics. Models to predict 3D tumor position from internal surrogates at end inspiration (EI) and end expiration (EE) were developed, and model accuracy was tested by calculating SDs of differences between predicted and actual tumor positions. Results: Motion of both the carina and diaphragm significantly correlated with tumor motion, but log-likelihood ratios indicated that the carina was more predictive for tumor position. When craniocaudal tumor position was predicted by use of craniocaudal carina positions, the SDs of the differences between the predicted and observed positions were 2.2 mm and 2.4 mm at EI and EE, respectively. The corresponding SDs derived with the diaphragm positions were 3.7 mm and 3.9 mm at EI and EE, respectively. Prediction errors in the other directions were comparable. Prediction accuracy was similar at EI and EE. Conclusions: The carina is a better surrogate of 3D tumor position than diaphragm position. Because residual prediction errors were observed in this analysis, additional studies will be performed using audio-coached scans.

  12. GPS satellite clock determination in case of inter-frequency clock biases for triple-frequency precise point positioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jiang; Geng, Jianghui

    2017-12-01

    Significant time-varying inter-frequency clock biases (IFCBs) within GPS observations prevent the application of the legacy L1/L2 ionosphere-free clock products on L5 signals. Conventional approaches overcoming this problem are to estimate L1/L5 ionosphere-free clocks in addition to their L1/L2 counterparts or to compute IFCBs between the L1/L2 and L1/L5 clocks which are later modeled through a harmonic analysis. In contrast, we start from the undifferenced uncombined GNSS model and propose an alternative approach where a second satellite clock parameter dedicated to the L5 signals is estimated along with the legacy L1/L2 clock. In this manner, we do not need to rely on the correlated L1/L2 and L1/L5 ionosphere-free observables which complicates triple-frequency GPS stochastic models, or account for the unfavorable time-varying hardware biases in undifferenced GPS functional models since they can be absorbed by the L5 clocks. An extra advantage over the ionosphere-free model is that external ionosphere constraints can potentially be introduced to improve PPP. With 27 days of triple-frequency GPS data from globally distributed stations, we find that the RMS of the positioning differences between our GPS model and all conventional models is below 1 mm for all east, north and up components, demonstrating the effectiveness of our model in addressing triple-frequency observations and time-varying IFCBs. Moreover, we can combine the L1/L2 and L5 clocks derived from our model to calculate precisely the L1/L5 clocks which in practice only depart from their legacy counterparts by less than 0.006 ns in RMS. Our triple-frequency GPS model proves convenient and efficient in combating time-varying IFCBs and can be generalized to more than three frequency signals for satellite clock determination.

  13. [A comparative study between inflation and deflation pressure-volume curve in determining the optimal positive end-expiratory pressure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gang, Li; Sun, Xiao-yi; Xu, Jin-quan; Zhang, Xin-li; Kou, Lu-xin; Jiang, Zhi-hong; Zhang, Lei

    2012-02-01

    To determine the optimal positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) according to inflation and deflation pressure-volume curve (P-V curve) in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). ARDS models were reproduced in 20 dogs, and they were randomly divided into two groups. In both groups, Levenberg-Marquardt iterative algorithm was employed using software to explore parameters fitting with Boltzmann formula, by which the real inflection point of pressure (Pinf d) in deflation limb or lower inflection point pressure (PLip) in inflation limb on P-V curve were defined. For the control group (inflation curve) P-V curve of PLip + 2 cm H(2)O [1 cm H(2)O = 0.098 kPa] was applied as the best PEEP value. In the experimental group (deflation curve) the Pinf d was taken as the best PEEP value. The heart rate (HR), blood pressure (BP), fingertip pulse oxygen saturation [SpO(2)], static lung compliance (Cst), arterial partial pressure of oxygen [PaO(2)] and arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide [PaCO(2)] were monitored at 0, 2, 6, 12, 24 and 48 hours. Oxygenation index increased significantly both in control and experimental groups. In experimental group, oxygenation index (mm Hg, 1 mm Hg = 0.133 kPa) of 12, 24 and 48 hours was respectively significantly higher than that of the control group (12 hours: 177.63 ± 8.94 vs. 165.60 ± 8.90, 24 hours: 194.19 ± 10.67 vs. 168.70 ± 10.60, 48 hours: 203.15 ± 13.21 vs. 171.26 ± 9.21, all P deflation P-V curve was better than that of inflation curve.

  14. [Determine the patient's position towards psychiatric care: a simple tool to estimate the alliance and the motivation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Versaevel, C; Samama, D; Jeanson, R; Lajugie, C; Dufeutrel, L; Defromont, L; Lebouteiller, V; Danel, T; Duhamel, A; Genin, M; Salleron, J; Cottencin, O

    2013-09-01

    For the brief systemic therapy (BST), the evaluation of the patient's position towards the care is a prerequisite to psychotherapy. Three positions of the patient are described. The "tourist's" position: the patient claims to have no problem and doesn't suffer. Someone asks him to make an appointment, sometimes with threats. The "complaint's" position: the patient claims to suffer, but attributes the responsibility of this suffering to others. These two positions are not good for beginning a therapy. The "customer's" position differs from both previous positions. The "customer" considers that he has a psychological problem which depends on him and he is motivated in the resolution of it. In theory, the "customer" is more motivated and the therapeutic alliance is better. It is for this reason that the BST estimates the position of the patient at first, to bring the patient to the "customer's" position. The objective of this study is to assess an interview which identifies the patient's position towards the care, and to validate the theoretical elaborations of the brief systemic therapy. The study concerns the follow-up of outpatients who consult a psychiatrist for the first time. The evaluation of the patients checks their position towards care using the Tourist-Complaint-Customer (TCC) inventory, how they suffer, the therapeutic alliance (scale Haq-2) and the compliance during care. The evaluation by the psychiatrists checks the suffering perceived, the motivation perceived and the diagnoses according to the DSM. The typology of these patients is made up of one half "complaint", a quarter of "tourist" and a quarter of "customer". The "customer's" position is correlated with the therapeutic alliance and the motivation perceived by the psychiatrist. The motivation perceived by the psychiatrist is correlated with the therapeutic alliance. These results correspond to the theoretical elaborations of the BST. the TCC inventory provides information on the motivation and

  15. An Evaluation of Two Internal Surrogates for Determining the Three-Dimensional Position of Peripheral Lung Tumors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spoelstra, F.O.B.; Sornsen de Koste, van J.R.; Vincent, A.D.; Cuijpers, J.P.; Slotman, B.J.; Senan, S.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Both carina and diaphragm positions have been used as surrogates during respiratory-gated radiotherapy. We studied the correlation of both surrogates with three-dimensional (3D) tumor position. Methods and Materials: A total of 59 repeat artifact-free four-dimensional (4D) computed

  16. Testing strong interaction theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, J.

    1979-01-01

    The author discusses possible tests of the current theories of the strong interaction, in particular, quantum chromodynamics. High energy e + e - interactions should provide an excellent means of studying the strong force. (W.D.L.)

  17. Clinical condition and comorbidity as determinants for blood culture positivity in patients with skin and soft-tissue infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Daalen, F. V.; Kallen, M. C.; van den Bosch, C. M. A.; Hulscher, M. E. J. L.; Geerlings, S. E.; Prins, J. M.

    2017-01-01

    The utility of performing blood cultures in patients with a suspected skin infection is debated. We investigated the association between blood culture positivity rates and patients' clinical condition, including acute disease severity and comorbidity. We performed a retrospective study, including

  18. Heart position variability during voluntary moderate deep inspiration breath-hold radiotherapy for breast cancer determined by repeat CBCT scans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Haaren, Paul; Claassen-Janssen, Fiere; van de Sande, Ingrid; Boersma, Liesbeth; van der Sangen, Maurice; Hurkmans, Coen

    2017-08-01

    Voluntary moderate deep inspiration breath hold (vmDIBH) in left-sided breast cancer radiotherapy reduces cardiac dose. The aim of this study was to investigate heart position variability in vmDIBH using CBCT and to compare this variability with differences in heart position between vmDIBH and free breathing (FB). For 50 patients initial heart position with respect to the field edge (HP-FE) was measured on a vmDIBH planning CT scan. Breath-hold was monitored using an in-house developed vertical plastic stick. On pre-treatment CBCT scans, heart position variability with respect to the field edge (Δ HP-FE ) was measured, reflecting heart position variability when using an offline correction protocol. After registering the CBCT scan to the planning CT, heart position variability with respect to the chest wall (Δ HP-CW ) was measured, reflecting heart position variability when using an online correction protocol. As a control group, vmDIBH and FB computed tomography (CT) scans were acquired for 30 patients and registering both scans on the chest wall. For 34 out of 50 patients, the average HP-FE and HP-CW increased over the treatment course in comparison to the planning CT. Averaged over all patients and all treatment fractions, the Δ HP-FE and the Δ HP-CW was 0.8±4.2mm (range -9.4-+10.6mm) and 1.0±4.4mm (range -8.3-+10.4mm) respectively. The average gain in heart to chest wall distance was 11.8±4.6mm when using vmDIBH instead of FB. In conclusion, substantial variability in heart position using vmDIBH was observed during the treatment course. Copyright © 2017 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Left and right ventricular lead positions are imprecisely determined by fluoroscopy in cardiac resynchronization therapy: a comparison with cardiac computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, Anders; Kronborg, Mads Brix; Nørgaard, Bjarne Linde; Gerdes, Christian; Mortensen, Peter Thomas; Nielsen, Jens Cosedis

    2014-09-01

    Fluoroscopy is the routine method for localizing left ventricular (LV) and right ventricular (RV) lead positions in cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). However, the ability of fluoroscopy to determine lead positions in a standard ventricular segmentation is unknown. We aimed to evaluate the accuracy and reproducibility of fluoroscopy to determine LV and RV lead positions in CRT when compared with cardiac computed tomography (CT). Fifty-nine patients undergoing CRT were included. Bi-plane fluoroscopy and cardiac CT were evaluated in all patients. Pacing lead positions were assessed in a standard LV 16-segment model and in a simplistic RV 8-segment model. Four patients with LV lead displacement were excluded from the agreement analysis of LV lead position. Agreement of LV lead position between fluoroscopy and cardiac CT was observed in 19 (35%) patients with fluoroscopy demonstrating a 1-segment and ≥2-segment error in 30 (55%) and 6 (11%) patients, respectively. Agreement of RV lead position was found in 13 (22%) patients with fluoroscopy showing a 1-segment and ≥ 2-segment error in 28 (47%) and 18 (31%) patients, respectively. The interobserver agreement on LV and RV lead positions was poor for fluoroscopy (kappa 0.20 and 0.23, respectively) and excellent for cardiac CT (kappa 0.87 and 0.85, respectively). Fluoroscopy is inaccurate and modestly reproducible when assessing LV and RV lead positions in a standard ventricular segmentation when compared with cardiac CT. Cardiac CT should be applied to determine the exact pacing site in future research evaluating the optimal pacing lead position in CRT. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2014. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Determination of the turbulent viscosity inside a strongly heated rectangular jet: experimental and numerical studies; Determination de la viscosite turbulente dans un jet rectangulaire fortement chauffe: etudes experimentale et numerique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarh, B.; Gokalp, I.; Sanders, H. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 45 - Orleans-la-Source (France)

    1997-12-31

    In the framework of the studies carried out by the LCSR on variable density flows and diffusion turbulent flames, this paper deals with the study of the influence of density variation on the characteristics of a heated rectangular turbulent jet emerging in a stagnant surrounding atmosphere and more particularly on the determination of turbulent viscosity. The dynamical field is measured using laser-Doppler anemometry while the thermal field is measured using cold wire anemometry. A numerical predetermination of the characteristics of this jet, based on a k-{epsilon} modeling, is carried out. (J.S.) 6 refs.

  1. Stirring Strongly Coupled Plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Fadafan, Kazem Bitaghsir; Rajagopal, Krishna; Wiedemann, Urs Achim

    2009-01-01

    We determine the energy it takes to move a test quark along a circle of radius L with angular frequency w through the strongly coupled plasma of N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills (SYM) theory. We find that for most values of L and w the energy deposited by stirring the plasma in this way is governed either by the drag force acting on a test quark moving through the plasma in a straight line with speed v=Lw or by the energy radiated by a quark in circular motion in the absence of any plasma, whichever is larger. There is a continuous crossover from the drag-dominated regime to the radiation-dominated regime. In the crossover regime we find evidence for significant destructive interference between energy loss due to drag and that due to radiation as if in vacuum. The rotating quark thus serves as a model system in which the relative strength of, and interplay between, two different mechanisms of parton energy loss is accessible via a controlled classical gravity calculation. We close by speculating on the implicati...

  2. Determination of position and shape of flexible mri surface coils using the Microsoft Kinect for attenuation correction in PET/MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frohwein, Lynn; He, Mirco; Buther, Florian; Safers, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    Due to the varying position and shape of flexible MRI RF surface coils, the creation of attenuation maps for these coils is a challenging task. Nevertheless, coil material (metal, plastic, rubber) attenuates the PET signal to a considerable amount. Thus, including a coil μ-map into the human μ-map is essential. In this work, we present a method to determine the position and shape of flexible coils with the help of the Microsoft Kinect depth camera. Phantom PET/MRI (Siemens Biograph mMR) and CT scans (Siemens Biograph mCT) were performed with and without the flexible 32-channel coil equipped with 15 markers visible in CT and Kinect. Prior to the PET/MRI acquisition, Kinect data is acquired of the phantom with the coil on top. The manually extracted marker positions from CT and Kinect are used to non-rigidly transform the template CT according to the Kinect marker positions describing the shape of the coil during PET/MRI acquisition. An appropriate μ-map can then be calculated from the transformed CT dataset. Subsequently, the μ-map is placed in relation to the patient table according to the Kinect-derived marker positions. First results show that the coil shape can be determined with the help of the Kinect camera. The transformation of the template CT dataset according to Kinect marker positions during PET/MRI leads to appropriate results. Furthermore, the position of the coil can also be determined for an accurate placement of the μ-map in relation to the patient table. The determination of position and shape of flexible surface coils using the Kinect camera can be a way to include the CT-based coil μ-map in PET/MRI acquisitions without the need for additional MRI scans. Accuracy and practicability of the method have to be tested in further experiments.

  3. ENDOR determination of the proton positions around Gd3+ in La(C2H5SO4)3.9H2O

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beer, R. de; Biesboer, F.; Ormondt, D. van

    1976-01-01

    The water proton positions around Gd 3+ in La(C 2 H 5 SO 4 ) 3 .9H 2 O have been determined by means of ENDOR. The positions of the nearest neighbour water oxygens are discussed on the basis of a superposition model analysis of the ratios b 2 0 /A 2 0 2 >, b 6 6 /b 6 0 and mod(A 6 6 )modA 6 0 . (Auth.)

  4. False-Positive Rate Determination of Protein Target Discovery using a Covalent Modification- and Mass Spectrometry-Based Proteomics Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickland, Erin C.; Geer, M. Ariel; Hong, Jiyong; Fitzgerald, Michael C.

    2014-01-01

    Detection and quantitation of protein-ligand binding interactions is important in many areas of biological research. Stability of proteins from rates of oxidation (SPROX) is an energetics-based technique for identifying the proteins targets of ligands in complex biological mixtures. Knowing the false-positive rate of protein target discovery in proteome-wide SPROX experiments is important for the correct interpretation of results. Reported here are the results of a control SPROX experiment in which chemical denaturation data is obtained on the proteins in two samples that originated from the same yeast lysate, as would be done in a typical SPROX experiment except that one sample would be spiked with the test ligand. False-positive rates of 1.2-2.2 % and analysis of the isobaric mass tag (e.g., iTRAQ®) reporter ions used for peptide quantitation. Our results also suggest that technical replicates can be used to effectively eliminate such false positives that result from this random error, as is demonstrated in a SPROX experiment to identify yeast protein targets of the drug, manassantin A. The impact of ion purity in the tandem mass spectral analyses and of background oxidation on the false-positive rate of protein target discovery using SPROX is also discussed.

  5. Intracochlear Position of Cochlear Implants Determined Using CT Scanning versus Fitting Levels: Higher Threshold Levels at Basal Turn

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beek, F.B. van der; Briaire, J.J.; Marel, K.S. van der; Verbist, B.M.; Frijns, J.H.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: In this study, the effects of the intracochlear position of cochlear implants on the clinical fitting levels were analyzed. DESIGN: A total of 130 adult subjects who used a CII/HiRes 90K cochlear implant with a HiFocus 1/1J electrode were included in the study. The insertion angle and

  6. Position of tillers in a clone determines their ontogeny:example of the clonal grass Phalaris arundinacea

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Martínková, Jana; Klimešová, Jitka

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 52, 3-4 (2017), s. 317-325 ISSN 1211-9520 R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-36079G Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : bud bank * tiller position * mowing Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Ecology Impact factor: 1.017, year: 2016

  7. 5 CFR 550.153 - Bases for determining positions for which premium pay under § 550.151 is authorized.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION (GENERAL) Premium Pay Administratively... once a week. (3) There must be a definite basis for anticipating that the irregular or occasional... circumstances must be a definite, official, and special requirement of his position. (2) The employee must...

  8. Strong interaction at finite temperature

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. We review two methods discussed in the literature to determine the effective parameters of strongly interacting particles as they move through a heat bath. The first one is the general method of chiral perturbation theory, which may be readily applied to this problem. The other is the method of thermal QCD sum rules ...

  9. Disease characteristics as determinants of the labour market position of adolescents and young adults with chronic digestive disorders.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calsbeek, H.; Rijken, M.; Dekker, J.; Berge Henegouwen, G.P. van

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Job prospects can be problematic for young patients with chronic digestive disorders. OBJECTIVES: To compare the employment status and disease burden in young adult patients with several chronic digestive disorders with healthy controls, and to determine whether labour participation

  10. A Kalman filtering approach to code positioning for GNSS using Cayley-Menger determinants in distance geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabatabaee, Mohammad Hadi; Ravani, Bahram

    2018-01-01

    The common approach for code-based point positioning using GNSS involves linearizing the observation equations about an estimated position and solving the equations iteratively in a least squares fashion. The solution provides estimates for the receiver coordinates and clock error. In this paper, a method based on distance geometry and Kalman filtering is presented. Distance geometry is used to provide a closed form solution for the receiver clock bias which is then used to correct the pseudorange observations before proceeding to locate the receiver coordinates. This two step method guarantees a solution for when a minimum of four satellites are available and facilitates direct utilization of a simple Kalman filter without any need for linearization. Results indicate that the method presented can provide improved estimates under poor satellite coverage as compared to the conventional iterative methods while performing similar to the conventional methods when there is good coverage.

  11. The reliability and validity of radiographic measurements for determining the three-dimensional position of the talus in varus and valgus osteoarthritic ankles

    OpenAIRE

    Nosewicz, Tomasz L.; Knupp, Markus; Bolliger, Lilianna; Hintermann, Beat

    2012-01-01

    Objective To assess the most accurate radiographic method to determine talar three-dimensional position in varus and valgus osteoarthritic ankles, we evaluated the reliability and validity of different radiographic measurements. Materials and methods Nine radiographic measurements were performed blindly on weight-bearing mortise, sagittal, and horizontal radiographs of 33 varus and 33 valgus feet (63 patients). Intra- and interobserver reliability was determined with the intraclass coefficien...

  12. Determining Occurrence Dynamics when False Positives Occur: Estimating the Range Dynamics of Wolves from Public Survey Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, David A W; Nichols, James D; Gude, Justin A; Rich, Lindsey N; Podruzny, Kevin M; Hines, James E; Mitchell, Michael S

    2013-01-01

    Large-scale presence-absence monitoring programs have great promise for many conservation applications. Their value can be limited by potential incorrect inferences owing to observational errors, especially when data are collected by the public. To combat this, previous analytical methods have focused on addressing non-detection from public survey data. Misclassification errors have received less attention but are also likely to be a common component of public surveys, as well as many other data types. We derive estimators for dynamic occupancy parameters (extinction and colonization), focusing on the case where certainty can be assumed for a subset of detections. We demonstrate how to simultaneously account for non-detection (false negatives) and misclassification (false positives) when estimating occurrence parameters for gray wolves in northern Montana from 2007-2010. Our primary data source for the analysis was observations by deer and elk hunters, reported as part of the state's annual hunter survey. This data was supplemented with data from known locations of radio-collared wolves. We found that occupancy was relatively stable during the years of the study and wolves were largely restricted to the highest quality habitats in the study area. Transitions in the occupancy status of sites were rare, as occupied sites almost always remained occupied and unoccupied sites remained unoccupied. Failing to account for false positives led to over estimation of both the area inhabited by wolves and the frequency of turnover. The ability to properly account for both false negatives and false positives is an important step to improve inferences for conservation from large-scale public surveys. The approach we propose will improve our understanding of the status of wolf populations and is relevant to many other data types where false positives are a component of observations.

  13. The reliability and validity of radiographic measurements for determining the three-dimensional position of the talus in varus and valgus osteoarthritic ankles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nosewicz, Tomasz L.; Knupp, Markus; Bolliger, Lilianna; Hintermann, Beat

    2012-01-01

    To assess the most accurate radiographic method to determine talar three-dimensional position in varus and valgus osteoarthritic ankles, we evaluated the reliability and validity of different radiographic measurements. Nine radiographic measurements were performed blindly on weight-bearing mortise,

  14. A Cost Effective Method for Determining the Position of Mine Haul Road Defects from the Road Edge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Sokolic

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a simple method for estimating haul road defect positions from alongside roads. It is a method that is cheap and easy to implement, needing only a minimal amount of field equipment and training. Observers are required to estimate the bearing and distance to a defect, and to record their location using a GPS receiver. All further processing is automated and can be done entirely within a spatially-enabled database management system such as Microsoft SQL Server or PostgreSQL.

  15. Quantamatrix Multiplexed Assay Platform system for direct detection of bacteria and antibiotic resistance determinants in positive blood culture bottles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H Y; Uh, Y; Kim, S; Lee, H

    2017-05-01

    Rapid and accurate identification of the causative pathogens of bloodstream infections (BSIs) is crucial for initiating appropriate antimicrobial therapy, which decreases the related morbidity and mortality rates. The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of a newly developed multiplexed, bead-based bioassay system, the Quantamatrix Multiplexed Assay Platform (QMAP) system, obtained directly from blood culture bottles, to simultaneously detect the presence of bacteria and identify the genes for antibiotic resistance. The QMAP system was used to evaluate 619 blood culture bottles from patients with BSIs and to compare the results of conventional culture methods. Using conventional bacterial cultures as the reference standard, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of the QMAP system for detection of bacterial pathogens in positive blood culture (PBC) samples were 99.8% (n=592, 95% CI 0.9852-1.000, p antibiotic resistance were 99.4% (n=158, 95% CI 0.9617-0.9999, p <0.009) and 99.6% (95% CI 0.9763-0.9999, p <0.0001), respectively. Obtaining results using the QMAP system takes about 3 hr, while culture methods can take 48-72 hr. Therefore, analysis using the QMAP system is rapid and reliable for characterizing causative pathogens in BSIs. Copyright © 2016 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Determining position, velocity and acceleration of free-ranging animals with a low-cost unmanned aerial system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Richard J; Roskilly, Kyle; Buse, Chris; Evans, Hannah K; Hubel, Tatjana Y; Wilson, Alan M

    2016-09-01

    Unmanned aerial systems (UASs), frequently referred to as 'drones', have become more common and affordable and are a promising tool for collecting data on free-ranging wild animals. We used a Phantom-2 UAS equipped with a gimbal-mounted camera to estimate position, velocity and acceleration of a subject on the ground moving through a grid of GPS surveyed ground control points (area ∼1200 m(2)). We validated the accuracy of the system against a dual frequency survey grade GPS system attached to the subject. When compared with GPS survey data, the estimations of position, velocity and acceleration had a root mean square error of 0.13 m, 0.11 m s(-1) and 2.31 m s(-2), respectively. The system can be used to collect locomotion and localisation data on multiple free-ranging animals simultaneously. It does not require specialist skills to operate, is easily transported to field locations, and is rapidly and easily deployed. It is therefore a useful addition to the range of methods available for field data collection on free-ranging animal locomotion. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  17. Strongly Correlated Topological Insulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-03

    Strongly Correlated Topological Insulators In the past year, the grant was used for work in the field of topological phases, with emphasis on finding...surface of topological insulators. In the past 3 years, we have started a new direction, that of fractional topological insulators. These are materials...in which a topologically nontrivial quasi-flat band is fractionally filled and then subject to strong interactions. The views, opinions and/or

  18. Determination of User Distribution Image Size and Position of Each Observation Area of Meteorological Imager in COMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong-Soo Seo

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, requirements of Meteorological Administration about Meteorological Imager (MI of Communications, Ocean and Meteorological Satellite (COMS is analyzed for the design of COMS ground station and according to the analysis results, the distribution image size of each observation area suitable for satellite Field Of View (FOV stated at the requirements of meteorological administration is determined and the precise satellite FOV and the size of distribution image is calculated on the basis of the image size of the determined observation area. The results in this paper were applied to the detailed design for COMS ground station and also are expected to be used for the future observation scheduling and the scheduling of distribution of user data.

  19. The NF-κB-like factor DIF could explain some positive effects of a mild stress on longevity, behavioral aging, and resistance to strong stresses in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Bourg, Eric; Malod, Kévin; Massou, Isabelle

    2012-08-01

    A mild cold stress can have positive effects on longevity, aging and resistance to severe stresses in flies (heat, cold, fungal infection), but the causes of these effects remain elusive. In order to know whether these effects could be explained by the DIF transcription factor (a NF-κB-like factor in the Toll innate immunity pathway), the Dif ( 1 ) mutant and its control cn bw strain were subjected to a pretreatment by cold. The DIF factor seems to be involved in the response to fungal infection after a mild cold stress and in the resistance to heat. However, DIF seems to have no role in the increased longevity of non-infected flies and resistance to a severe cold shock, because the cold pretreatment slightly increased longevity in females, mainly in Dif ( 1 ) ones, and resistance to a long cold shock in both sexes of these strains.

  20. Stereotype threat as a determinant of burnout or work engagement. Mediating role of positive and negative emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedyńska, Sylwia; Żołnierczyk-Zreda, Dorota

    2015-01-01

    Stereotype threat as an example of serious interpersonal strain at workplace can lead either to impaired work engagement or it can motivate workers to strengthen their efforts to disconfirm a stereotype and can result in excessive work engagement. Thus, the basic aim of the study was to examine whether stereotype threat is related to burnout or to work engagement. The mediating role of the negative and positive emotions were also tested in the classical approach. Mediational analysis revealed a linear relation of stereotype threat and burnout, mediated by negative emotions and a quadratic relationship between stereotype threat and work engagement. In the latter analysis none of the mediators were significant. Therefore, the results showed that both burnout and work engagement are associated with stereotype threat at the workplace, probably depending on the stage of response to the stereotype threat. Further research should confirm these associations in a longitudinal study.

  1. Mobile System for the Measurement of Dose Rates with locations determined by means of satellite positioning technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baeza, A.; Rio, L.M. del; Macias, J.A.; Vasco, J.

    1998-01-01

    Our laboratory has been developing and implementing a Real Time Radiological Warning Network around the Almaraz Nuclear Power Plant since 1990. It consists of six gamma dosimetry stations, two devices for the detection of radio-iodines and alpha, beta, and gamma emissions in air, a monitor for the continuous measurement of gamma radiation in water, and two basic meteorological stations. In this context, we have developed a mobile station endowed with a device for the measurement of dose rates which uses satellite positioning technology (GPS) so that it can be located remotely. The information gathered is sent back to our central laboratory in real/or deferred time through the digital mobile telephone network. A twofold utility is foreseen for this station: (a) action in the case of a radiological alert situation detected by our network, and (b) the performance of radiological-dosimetric studies of distant geographical zones. (Author)

  2. Positive feedback of greenhouse gas balances to warming is determined by non-growing season emissions in an alpine meadow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, S.; Wang, J.; Quan, Q.; Chen, W.; Wen, X.; Yu, G.

    2017-12-01

    Large uncertainties exist in the sources and sinks of greenhouse gases (CO2, CH4, N2O) in response to climate warming and human activity. So far, numerous previous studies have evaluated the CO2 budget, but little attention has paid to CH4 and N2O budgets and the concurrent balance of these three gases in combination, especially in the non-growing season. Here, we synthesized eddy covariance measurement with the automatic chamber measurements of CO2, CH4, and N2O exposed to three levels of temperature treatments (ambient, +1.5 °C, +2.5 °C) and two disturbance treatments (ummowing, mowing) in an alpine meadow on the Tibetan Plateau. We have found that warming caused increase in CH4 uptake and decrease in N2O emission offset little of the enhancement in CO2 emission, triggering a positive feedback to climate warming. Warming switches the ecosystem from a net sink (-17 ± 14 g CO2-eq m-2 yr-1) in the control to a net source of greenhouse gases of 94 ± 36 gCO2-eq m-2 yr-1 in the plots with +1.5 °C warming treatment, and 177 ± 6 gCO2-eq m-2 yr-1 in the plots with +2.5 °C warming treatment. The changes in the non-growing season balance, rather than those in the growing season, dominate the warming responses of annual greehouse gas balance. And this is not changed by mowing. The dominant role of responses of winter greenhouse gas balance in the positive feedback of ecosystem to climate warming highlights that greenhouse gas balance in cold season has to be considered when assessing climate-carbon cycle feedback.

  3. Determinants of antiretroviral adherence among HIV positive children and teenagers in rural Tanzania: a mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyogea, Daniel; Mtenga, Sally; Henning, Lars; Franzeck, Fabian C; Glass, Tracy R; Letang, Emilio; Tanner, Marcel; Geubbels, Eveline

    2015-01-31

    Around 3.3 million children worldwide are infected with HIV and 90% of them live in sub-Saharan Africa. Our study aimed to estimate adherence levels and find the determinants, facilitators and barriers of ART adherence among children and teenagers in rural Tanzania. We applied a sequential explanatory mixed method design targeting children and teenagers aged 2-19 years residing in Ifakara. We conducted a quantitative cross sectional study followed by a qualitative study combining focus group discussions (FGDs) and in-depth interviews (IDIs). We used pill count to measure adherence and defined optimal adherence as > =80% of pills being taken. We analysed determinants of poor adherence using logistic regression. We held eight FGDs with adolescent boys and girls on ART and with caretakers. We further explored issues emerging in the FGDs in four in-depth interviews with patients and health workers. Qualitative data was analysed using thematic content analysis. Out of 116 participants available for quantitative analysis, 70% had optimal adherence levels and the average adherence level was 84%. Living with a non-parent caretaker predicted poor adherence status. From the qualitative component, unfavorable school environment, timing of the morning ART dose, treatment longevity, being unaware of HIV status, non-parental (biological) care, preference for traditional medicine (herbs) and forgetfulness were seen to be barriers for optimal adherence. The study has highlighted specific challenges in ART adherence faced by children and teenagers. Having a biological parent as a caretaker remains a key determinant of adherence among children and teenagers. To achieve optimal adherence, strategies targeting the caretakers, the school environment, and the health system need to be designed.

  4. Determination of the best position and site for color Doppler ultrasonographic evaluation of the testicular vein to define the clinical grades of varicocele ultrasonographically

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Karami

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There are no generally accepted criteria for the ultrasonographic diagnosis and grading of varicocele. We aimed to determine the best position and site for color Doppler ultrasonographic (CDUS evaluation of the testicular vein to define the clinical grades of varicocele ultrasonographically. Materials and Methods: This study consisted of 103 men (44 normal and 59 with clinical varicocele. First, WHO clinical grade of varicocele was determined by physical examination. Then, the diameter of largest testicular vein at four different sites was measured in both upright and supine positions with or without Valsalva maneuver. Finally, the cut-off points of venous diameter for different clinical grades were determined using the values of the position and sites that had the strongest correlation with the clinical grades. Results: The strongest correlation between venous diameter and clinical grade of varicocele was observed when the venous diameter was measured at the level of epididymal head in the upright position with Valsalva maneuver (r: 0.87, P-value < 0.0001. In aforementioned conditions, venous diameter of 2.35 mm (sensitivity 87%, specificity 87% can distinguish normal subjects from grade 1 varicocele, venous diameter of 3.15 mm (sensitivity 58%, specificity 70% can discriminate grade 1 from grade 2, and venous diameter of 3.75 mm (sensitivity 83%, specificity 70% can differentiate grade 2 from grade 3. Furthermore, venous diameter of 2.65 mm (sensitivity 91%, specificity 89% can distinguish normal subjects from patients with clinical varicocele. Conclusion: The best position for CDUS examination of patients suspected of having varicocele is the upright position with Valsalva maneuver, and the best site for venous diameter measurement is at the level of epididymal head.

  5. Determination of the best position and site for color Doppler ultrasonographic evaluation of the testicular vein to define the clinical grades of varicocele ultrasonographically

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karami, Mehdi; Mazdak, Hamid; Khanbabapour, Saeid; Adibi, Atoosa; Nasr, Nafiseh

    2014-01-01

    Background: There are no generally accepted criteria for the ultrasonographic diagnosis and grading of varicocele. We aimed to determine the best position and site for color Doppler ultrasonographic (CDUS) evaluation of the testicular vein to define the clinical grades of varicocele ultrasonographically. Materials and Methods: This study consisted of 103 men (44 normal and 59 with clinical varicocele). First, WHO clinical grade of varicocele was determined by physical examination. Then, the diameter of largest testicular vein at four different sites was measured in both upright and supine positions with or without Valsalva maneuver. Finally, the cut-off points of venous diameter for different clinical grades were determined using the values of the position and sites that had the strongest correlation with the clinical grades. Results: The strongest correlation between venous diameter and clinical grade of varicocele was observed when the venous diameter was measured at the level of epididymal head in the upright position with Valsalva maneuver (r: 0.87, P-value < 0.0001). In aforementioned conditions, venous diameter of 2.35 mm (sensitivity 87%, specificity 87%) can distinguish normal subjects from grade 1 varicocele, venous diameter of 3.15 mm (sensitivity 58%, specificity 70%) can discriminate grade 1 from grade 2, and venous diameter of 3.75 mm (sensitivity 83%, specificity 70%) can differentiate grade 2 from grade 3. Furthermore, venous diameter of 2.65 mm (sensitivity 91%, specificity 89%) can distinguish normal subjects from patients with clinical varicocele. Conclusion: The best position for CDUS examination of patients suspected of having varicocele is the upright position with Valsalva maneuver, and the best site for venous diameter measurement is at the level of epididymal head. PMID:24592367

  6. Determination of the top-quark pole mass and strong coupling constant from the $t\\bar{t}$ production cross section in pp collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 7 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Chatrchyan, Serguei; Sirunyan, Albert M; Tumasyan, Armen; Adam, Wolfgang; Bergauer, Thomas; Dragicevic, Marko; Erö, Janos; Fabjan, Christian; Friedl, Markus; Fruehwirth, Rudolf; Ghete, Vasile Mihai; Hörmann, Natascha; Hrubec, Josef; Jeitler, Manfred; Kiesenhofer, Wolfgang; Knünz, Valentin; Krammer, Manfred; Krätschmer, Ilse; Liko, Dietrich; Mikulec, Ivan; Rabady, Dinyar; Rahbaran, Babak; Rohringer, Christine; Rohringer, Herbert; Schöfbeck, Robert; Strauss, Josef; Taurok, Anton; Treberer-Treberspurg, Wolfgang; Waltenberger, Wolfgang; Wulz, Claudia-Elisabeth; Mossolov, Vladimir; Shumeiko, Nikolai; Suarez Gonzalez, Juan; Alderweireldt, Sara; Bansal, Monika; Bansal, Sunil; Cornelis, Tom; De Wolf, Eddi A; Janssen, Xavier; Knutsson, Albert; Luyckx, Sten; Mucibello, Luca; Ochesanu, Silvia; Roland, Benoit; Rougny, Romain; Staykova, Zlatka; Van Haevermaet, Hans; Van Mechelen, Pierre; Van Remortel, Nick; Van Spilbeeck, Alex; Blekman, Freya; Blyweert, Stijn; D'Hondt, Jorgen; Kalogeropoulos, Alexis; Keaveney, James; Maes, Michael; Olbrechts, Annik; Tavernier, Stefaan; Van Doninck, Walter; Van Mulders, Petra; Van Onsem, Gerrit Patrick; Villella, Ilaria; Clerbaux, Barbara; De Lentdecker, Gilles; Favart, Laurent; Gay, Arnaud; Hreus, Tomas; Léonard, Alexandre; Marage, Pierre Edouard; Mohammadi, Abdollah; Perniè, Luca; Reis, Thomas; Seva, Tomislav; Thomas, Laurent; Vander Velde, Catherine; Vanlaer, Pascal; Wang, Jian; Adler, Volker; Beernaert, Kelly; Benucci, Leonardo; Cimmino, Anna; Costantini, Silvia; Dildick, Sven; Garcia, Guillaume; Klein, Benjamin; Lellouch, Jérémie; Marinov, Andrey; Mccartin, Joseph; Ocampo Rios, Alberto Andres; Ryckbosch, Dirk; Sigamani, Michael; Strobbe, Nadja; Thyssen, Filip; Tytgat, Michael; Walsh, Sinead; Yazgan, Efe; Zaganidis, Nicolas; Basegmez, Suzan; Beluffi, Camille; Bruno, Giacomo; Castello, Roberto; Caudron, Adrien; Ceard, Ludivine; Delaere, Christophe; Du Pree, Tristan; Favart, Denis; Forthomme, Laurent; Giammanco, Andrea; Hollar, Jonathan; Jez, Pavel; Lemaitre, Vincent; Liao, Junhui; Militaru, Otilia; Nuttens, Claude; Pagano, Davide; Pin, Arnaud; Piotrzkowski, Krzysztof; Popov, Andrey; Selvaggi, Michele; Vizan Garcia, Jesus Manuel; Beliy, Nikita; Caebergs, Thierry; Daubie, Evelyne; Hammad, Gregory Habib; Alves, Gilvan; Correa Martins Junior, Marcos; Martins, Thiago; Pol, Maria Elena; Henrique Gomes E Souza, Moacyr; Aldá Júnior, Walter Luiz; Carvalho, Wagner; Chinellato, Jose; Custódio, Analu; Melo Da Costa, Eliza; De Jesus Damiao, Dilson; De Oliveira Martins, Carley; Fonseca De Souza, Sandro; Malbouisson, Helena; Malek, Magdalena; Matos Figueiredo, Diego; Mundim, Luiz; Nogima, Helio; Prado Da Silva, Wanda Lucia; Santoro, Alberto; Sznajder, Andre; Tonelli Manganote, Edmilson José; Vilela Pereira, Antonio; Bernardes, Cesar Augusto; De Almeida Dias, Flavia; Tomei, Thiago; De Moraes Gregores, Eduardo; Lagana, Caio; Mercadante, Pedro G; Novaes, Sergio F; Padula, Sandra; Genchev, Vladimir; Iaydjiev, Plamen; Piperov, Stefan; Rodozov, Mircho; Sultanov, Georgi; Vutova, Mariana; Dimitrov, Anton; Hadjiiska, Roumyana; Kozhuharov, Venelin; Litov, Leander; Pavlov, Borislav; Petkov, Peicho; Bian, Jian-Guo; Chen, Guo-Ming; Chen, He-Sheng; Jiang, Chun-Hua; Liang, Dong; Liang, Song; Meng, Xiangwei; Tao, Junquan; Wang, Jian; Wang, Xianyou; Wang, Zheng; Xiao, Hong; Xu, Ming; Asawatangtrakuldee, Chayanit; Ban, Yong; Guo, Yifei; Li, Qiang; Li, Wenbo; Liu, Shuai; Mao, Yajun; Qian, Si-Jin; Wang, Dayong; Zhang, Linlin; Zou, Wei; Avila, Carlos; Carrillo Montoya, Camilo Andres; Chaparro Sierra, Luisa Fernanda; Gomez, Juan Pablo; Gomez Moreno, Bernardo; Sanabria, Juan Carlos; Godinovic, Nikola; Lelas, Damir; Plestina, Roko; Polic, Dunja; Puljak, Ivica; Antunovic, Zeljko; Kovac, Marko; Brigljevic, Vuko; Duric, Senka; Kadija, Kreso; Luetic, Jelena; Mekterovic, Darko; Morovic, Srecko; Tikvica, Lucija; Attikis, Alexandros; Mavromanolakis, Georgios; Mousa, Jehad; Nicolaou, Charalambos; Ptochos, Fotios; Razis, Panos A; Finger, Miroslav; Finger Jr, Michael; Abdelalim, Ahmed Ali; Assran, Yasser; Elgammal, Sherif; Ellithi Kamel, Ali; Mahmoud, Mohammed; Radi, Amr; Kadastik, Mario; Müntel, Mait; Murumaa, Marion; Raidal, Martti; Rebane, Liis; Tiko, Andres; Eerola, Paula; Fedi, Giacomo; Voutilainen, Mikko; Härkönen, Jaakko; Karimäki, Veikko; Kinnunen, Ritva; Kortelainen, Matti J; Lampén, Tapio; Lassila-Perini, Kati; Lehti, Sami; Lindén, Tomas; Luukka, Panja-Riina; Mäenpää, Teppo; Peltola, Timo; Tuominen, Eija; Tuominiemi, Jorma; Tuovinen, Esa; Wendland, Lauri; Tuuva, Tuure; Besancon, Marc; Couderc, Fabrice

    2014-01-20

    The inclusive cross section for top-quark pair production measured by the CMS experiment in proton-proton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 7 TeV is compared to the QCD prediction at next-to-next-to-leading order with various parton distribution functions to determine the top-quark pole mass, $m_t^{pole}$, or the strong coupling constant, $\\alpha_S$. With the parton distribution function set NNPDF2.3, a pole mass of 176.7$^{+3.0}_{-2.8}$ GeV is obtained when constraining $\\alpha_S$ at the scale of the Z boson mass, $m_Z$, to the current world average. Alternatively, by constraining $m_t^{pole}$ to the latest average from direct mass measurements, a value of $\\alpha_S(m_Z)$ = 0.1151$^{+0.0028}_{-0.0027}$ is extracted. This is the first determination of $\\alpha_S$ using events from top-quark production.

  7. Application of strong phosphoric acid to radiochemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terada, Kikuo

    1977-01-01

    Not only inorganic and organic compounds but also natural substrances, such as accumulations in soil, are completely decomposed and distilled by heating with strong phosphoric acid for 30 to 50 minutes. As applications of strong phosphoric acid to radiochemistry, determination of uranium and boron by use of solubilization effect of this substance, titration of uranyl ion by use of sulfuric iron (II) contained in this substance, application to tracer experiment, and determination of radioactive ruthenium in environmental samples are reviewed. Strong phosphoric acid is also applied to activation analysis, for example, determination of N in pyrographite with iodate potassium-strong phosphoric acid method, separation of Os and Ru with sulfuric cerium (IV) - strong phosphoric acid method or potassium dechromate-strong phosphoric acid method, analysis of Se, As and Sb rocks and accumulations with ammonium bromide, sodium chloride and sodium bromide-strong phosphoric acid method. (Kanao, N.)

  8. Clinical Interventions for Hyperacusis in Adults: A Scoping Review to Assess the Current Position and Determine Priorities for Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn Fackrell

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. There is no universally accepted definition for hyperacusis, but in general it is characterised by decreased sound tolerance to ordinary environmental sounds. Despite hyperacusis being prevalent and having significant clinical implications, much remains unknown about current management strategies. Purpose. To establish the current position of research on hyperacusis and identify research gaps to direct future research. Design and Sample. Using an established methodological framework, electronic and manual searches of databases and journals identified 43 records that met our inclusion criteria. Incorporating content and thematic analysis approaches, the definitions of hyperacusis, management strategies, and outcome measures were catalogued. Results. Only 67% of the studies provided a definition of hyperacusis, such as “reduced tolerance” or “oversensitivity to sound.” Assessments and outcome measures included Loudness Discomfort Levels, the Hyperacusis Questionnaire, and Tinnitus Retraining Therapy (TRT interview. Management strategies reported were Cognitive Behavioural Therapy, TRT, devices, pharmacological therapy, and surgery. Conclusions. Management strategies were typically evaluated in patients reporting hyperacusis as a secondary complaint or as part of a symptom set. As such the outcomes reported only provided an indication of their effectiveness for hyperacusis. Randomised Controlled Trials are needed to evaluate the effectiveness of management strategies for patients experiencing hyperacusis.

  9. Identification of Drivers in Traffic Accidents and Determination of Passenger Position in a Vehicle by Finger Marks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matej Trapečar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The following paper aims to illustrate certain investigative activities in the forensic analysis and examination of the scene of traffic accidents. When a traffic accident occurs, the scene must be secured as soon as possible to enable professional and proper forensic investigation. Failure to secure the accident scene might result in losing or contaminating the traces, which makes it more difficult to prove or explain trace evidence in further procedure or even makes such evidence inadmissible. The topic is discussed from the viewpoint of crime scene examination, since analysing and investigating traffic accidents requires a great deal of expertise and attention of the investigators. Complex traffic accidents include feigned accidents, hit-and-run accidents as well as accidents in which the driver and passengers, dead or alive, need to be identified. In identifying the passengers, standard criminal investigation methods as well as police forensic and forensic medicine methods are followed. Such methods include confirming the identities with identity documents, other documents and vehicle ownership, fingerprints, biological traces, fibre traces, contact traces, traces of physical injuries on the driver and passengers, etc. According to the results obtained in fingerprint detection on human skin surfaces, this method can also be applied in confirming physical contact between the driver and the passengers in the accident, e.g. in the event of moving the victims and changing the scene of the accident.   Key words: traffic accidents, accident analysis, driver's identity, passengers' position, finger marks, human skin

  10. A new physical mapping approach refines the sex-determining gene positions on the Silene latifolia Y-chromosome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazama, Yusuke; Ishii, Kotaro; Aonuma, Wataru; Ikeda, Tokihiro; Kawamoto, Hiroki; Koizumi, Ayako; Filatov, Dmitry A.; Chibalina, Margarita; Bergero, Roberta; Charlesworth, Deborah; Abe, Tomoko; Kawano, Shigeyuki

    2016-01-01

    Sex chromosomes are particularly interesting regions of the genome for both molecular genetics and evolutionary studies; yet, for most species, we lack basic information, such as the gene order along the chromosome. Because they lack recombination, Y-linked genes cannot be mapped genetically, leaving physical mapping as the only option for establishing the extent of synteny and homology with the X chromosome. Here, we developed a novel and general method for deletion mapping of non-recombining regions by solving “the travelling salesman problem”, and evaluate its accuracy using simulated datasets. Unlike the existing radiation hybrid approach, this method allows us to combine deletion mutants from different experiments and sources. We applied our method to a set of newly generated deletion mutants in the dioecious plant Silene latifolia and refined the locations of the sex-determining loci on its Y chromosome map.

  11. Strong Arcwise Connectedness

    OpenAIRE

    Espinoza, Benjamin; Gartside, Paul; Kovan-Bakan, Merve; Mamatelashvili, Ana

    2012-01-01

    A space is `n-strong arc connected' (n-sac) if for any n points in the space there is an arc in the space visiting them in order. A space is omega-strong arc connected (omega-sac) if it is n-sac for all n. We study these properties in finite graphs, regular continua, and rational continua. There are no 4-sac graphs, but there are 3-sac graphs and graphs which are 2-sac but not 3-sac. For every n there is an n-sac regular continuum, but no regular continuum is omega-sac. There is an omega-sac ...

  12. Abortion: Strong's counterexamples fail

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Nucci, Ezio

    2009-01-01

    This paper shows that the counterexamples proposed by Strong in 2008 in the Journal of Medical Ethics to Marquis's argument against abortion fail. Strong's basic idea is that there are cases--for example, terminally ill patients--where killing an adult human being is prima facie seriously morally......'s scenarios have some valuable future or admitted that killing them is not seriously morally wrong. Finally, if "valuable future" is interpreted as referring to objective standards, one ends up with implausible and unpalatable moral claims....

  13. A strong comeback

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marier, D.

    1992-01-01

    This article presents the results of a financial rankings survey which show a strong economic activity in the independent energy industry. The topics of the article include advisor turnover, overseas banks, and the increase in public offerings. The article identifies the top project finance investors for new projects and restructurings and rankings for lenders

  14. Determination of Tedizolid susceptibility interpretive criteria for gram-positive pathogens according to clinical and laboratory standards institute guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bensaci, Mekki; Flanagan, Shawn; Sandison, Taylor

    2018-03-01

    For effective antibacterial therapy, physicians require qualitative test results using susceptibility breakpoints provided by clinical microbiology laboratories. This article summarizes the key components used to establish the Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) breakpoints for tedizolid. First, in vitro studies using recent surveillance and clinical trial isolates ascertained minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) distributions against pertinent organisms, including staphylococci, streptococci, and enterococci. Studies in animal models of infection determined rates of antibacterial efficacy and survival following administration of tedizolid phosphate at doses equivalent to those in humans. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic analyses examined the relationship between plasma concentrations and MICs against the target organism. Finally, clinical trials assessed clinical and microbiologic outcomes by MIC. All these data were evaluated and combined to obtain the ratified CLSI susceptibility criteria for tedizolid of ≤0.5μg/mL for Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus agalactiae, and Enterococcus faecalis and ≤0.25μg/mL for Streptococcus anginosus group. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. A radio optical reference frame. I. Precise radio source positions determined by Mark III VLBI - Observations from 1979 to 1988 and a tie to the FK5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, C.; Shaffer, D.B.; De Vegt, C.; Johnston, K.J.; Russell, J.L.

    1990-01-01

    Observations from 600 Mark III VLBI experiments from 1979 to 1988, resulting in 237,681 acceptable pairs of group delay and phase delay rate observations, have been used to derive positions of 182 extragalactic radio sources with typical formal standard errors less than 1 mas. The sources are distributed fairly evenly above delta = -30 deg, and 70 sources have delta greater than 0 deg. Analysis with different troposphere models, as well as internal and external comparisons, indicates that a coordinate frame defined by this set of radio sources should be reliable at the 1 mas level. The right ascension zero point of this reference frame has been aligned with the FK5 by using the optical positions of 28 extragalactic radio sources whose positions are on the FK5 system. Because of known defects in the knowledge of astronomical constants, daily nutation offsets in longitude and obliquity were determined relative to an arbitrary reference day in the set of experiments. 30 refs

  16. Detection of S-gene 'a' determinant variants in hepatitis B patients with both positive HBsAg and HBsAb markers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Yueping; Ling Yongwu; Huang Songping; Wang Shipeng; Chen Yufeng; Mao Liping; Lu Jianrong

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To explore the S-gene 'a' determinant variants in hepatitis B patients with both positive HBsAg and HBsAb markers and the effect on the antigenicity of HBsAg. Methods: Quantitative determination of HBV - DNA with competent PCR microfluidic chit method was performed in eight sera specimens from seven hepatitis B patients with both positive HBsAg and HBsAb markers. HBV S-gene was amplified with nested PCR, the PCR product was directly examined for any sequence variant of the amino acids. HBV markers were tested with the very sensitive ELISA/MEIA method in these seven patients. The above rests were also performed in 15 children after failed immunization with hepatitis B vaccine and 9 recipients of liver transplantation for terminal hepatitis B treated with HBIG and lamivudine, serving as controls. Results: The HBsAb contents in the seven patients were all below 80 mIu/ml. Two of the patients with positive HBV-DNA showed no 'a' determinant variant. Two of the four HBV-DNA negative patients demonstrated amino-acid variants (126, 131). One patients who was originally HBV-DNA positive but later turned negative after treatment with interferon and lamivudine demonstrated variant (126). In the 9 patients after successful liver transplantation, the HBsAb contents were all about 150mIu/ml with negative HBV-DNA and no variant. In the 15 immunization failures, HBV-DNA was positive in 14 of them, with 2 cases of variant at 145, 1 case at 126 and 1 case at 134. Conclusion: In some patients with chronic B hepatitis with both positive HBsAg and HBsAb markers, as well as in some vaccine immunization failures, there were 'a' determinant variants, which might alter the antigenicity of HBsAg with escape from the neutralization of low HBsAb. The 'a' determinant variant might also affect the replication of the virus. In this study, no variant was shown in patients after successful liver transplantation. However, the number of patients was too small and the result was of no

  17. The reliability and validity of radiographic measurements for determining the three-dimensional position of the talus in varus and valgus osteoarthritic ankles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosewicz, Tomasz L; Knupp, Markus; Bolliger, Lilianna; Hintermann, Beat

    2012-12-01

    To assess the most accurate radiographic method to determine talar three-dimensional position in varus and valgus osteoarthritic ankles, we evaluated the reliability and validity of different radiographic measurements. Nine radiographic measurements were performed blindly on weight-bearing mortise, sagittal, and horizontal radiographs of 33 varus and 33 valgus feet (63 patients). Intra- and interobserver reliability was determined with the intraclass coefficient (ICC). Discriminant validity of measurements between varus and valgus feet was assessed with effect size (ES). Convergent validity (Pearson's r) was evaluated by correlating measurements to the dichotomized varus and valgus groups. Obtained measurements in both groups were finally compared with each other and with 30 control feet. Reliability was excellent (ICC > 0.80) in all but two measurements. Whereas frontal plane validity was excellent (ES and r > 0.80), horizontal and sagittal measurements showed poor to moderate validity (ES and r between 0.00 and 0.60). Four measurements were significantly different among all groups (p reliability, validity, and difference among the groups. The frontal tibiotalar surface angle, sagittal talocalcaneal inclination angle, and horizontal talometatarsal I angle accurately determine talar three-dimensional radiographic position in weight-bearing varus and valgus osteoarthritic ankles. Careful radiographic evaluation is important, as these deformities affect talar position in all three planes.

  18. Strong Electroweak Symmetry Breaking

    CERN Document Server

    Grinstein, Benjamin

    2011-01-01

    Models of spontaneous breaking of electroweak symmetry by a strong interaction do not have fine tuning/hierarchy problem. They are conceptually elegant and use the only mechanism of spontaneous breaking of a gauge symmetry that is known to occur in nature. The simplest model, minimal technicolor with extended technicolor interactions, is appealing because one can calculate by scaling up from QCD. But it is ruled out on many counts: inappropriately low quark and lepton masses (or excessive FCNC), bad electroweak data fits, light scalar and vector states, etc. However, nature may not choose the minimal model and then we are stuck: except possibly through lattice simulations, we are unable to compute and test the models. In the LHC era it therefore makes sense to abandon specific models (of strong EW breaking) and concentrate on generic features that may indicate discovery. The Technicolor Straw Man is not a model but a parametrized search strategy inspired by a remarkable generic feature of walking technicolor,...

  19. Measurement of transverse energy-energy correlations in multi-jet events in $pp$ collisions at $\\sqrt{s} = 7$ TeV using the ATLAS detector and determination of the strong coupling constant $\\alpha_{\\mathrm{s}}(m_Z)$

    CERN Document Server

    Aad, Georges; Abdallah, Jalal; Abdinov, Ovsat; Aben, Rosemarie; Abolins, Maris; AbouZeid, Ossama; Abramowicz, Halina; Abreu, Henso; Abreu, Ricardo; Abulaiti, Yiming; Acharya, Bobby Samir; Adamczyk, Leszek; Adams, David; Adelman, Jahred; Adomeit, Stefanie; Adye, Tim; Affolder, Tony; Agatonovic-Jovin, Tatjana; Agricola, Johannes; Aguilar-Saavedra, Juan Antonio; Ahlen, Steven; Ahmadov, Faig; Aielli, Giulio; Akerstedt, Henrik; Åkesson, Torsten Paul Ake; Akimov, Andrei; Alberghi, Gian Luigi; Albert, Justin; Albrand, Solveig; Alconada Verzini, Maria Josefina; Aleksa, Martin; Aleksandrov, Igor; Alexa, Calin; Alexander, Gideon; Alexopoulos, Theodoros; Alhroob, Muhammad; Alimonti, Gianluca; Alio, Lion; Alison, John; Alkire, Steven Patrick; Allbrooke, Benedict; Allport, Phillip; Aloisio, Alberto; Alonso, Alejandro; Alonso, Francisco; Alpigiani, Cristiano; Altheimer, Andrew David; Alvarez Gonzalez, Barbara; Άlvarez Piqueras, Damián; Alviggi, Mariagrazia; Amadio, Brian Thomas; Amako, Katsuya; Amaral Coutinho, Yara; Amelung, Christoph; Amidei, Dante; Amor Dos Santos, Susana Patricia; Amorim, Antonio; Amoroso, Simone; Amram, Nir; Amundsen, Glenn; Anastopoulos, Christos; Ancu, Lucian Stefan; Andari, Nansi; Andeen, Timothy; Anders, Christoph Falk; Anders, Gabriel; Anders, John Kenneth; Anderson, Kelby; Andreazza, Attilio; Andrei, George Victor; Angelidakis, Stylianos; Angelozzi, Ivan; Anger, Philipp; Angerami, Aaron; Anghinolfi, Francis; Anisenkov, Alexey; Anjos, Nuno; Annovi, Alberto; Antonelli, Mario; Antonov, Alexey; Antos, Jaroslav; Anulli, Fabio; Aoki, Masato; Aperio Bella, Ludovica; Arabidze, Giorgi; Arai, Yasuo; Araque, Juan Pedro; Arce, Ayana; Arduh, Francisco Anuar; Arguin, Jean-Francois; Argyropoulos, Spyridon; Arik, Metin; Armbruster, Aaron James; Arnaez, Olivier; Arnal, Vanessa; Arnold, Hannah; Arratia, Miguel; Arslan, Ozan; Artamonov, Andrei; Artoni, Giacomo; Asai, Shoji; Asbah, Nedaa; Ashkenazi, Adi; Åsman, Barbro; Asquith, Lily; Assamagan, Ketevi; Astalos, Robert; 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Battaglia, Marco; Bauce, Matteo; Bauer, Florian; Bawa, Harinder Singh; Beacham, James Baker; Beattie, Michael David; Beau, Tristan; Beauchemin, Pierre-Hugues; Beccherle, Roberto; Bechtle, Philip; Beck, Hans Peter; Becker, Kathrin; Becker, Maurice; Beckingham, Matthew; Becot, Cyril; Beddall, Andrew; Beddall, Ayda; Bednyakov, Vadim; Bee, Christopher; Beemster, Lars; Beermann, Thomas; Begel, Michael; Behr, Janna Katharina; Belanger-Champagne, Camille; Bell, William; Bella, Gideon; Bellagamba, Lorenzo; Bellerive, Alain; Bellomo, Massimiliano; Belotskiy, Konstantin; Beltramello, Olga; Benary, Odette; Benchekroun, Driss; Bender, Michael; Bendtz, Katarina; Benekos, Nektarios; Benhammou, Yan; Benhar Noccioli, Eleonora; Benitez Garcia, Jorge-Armando; Benjamin, Douglas; Bensinger, James; Bentvelsen, Stan; Beresford, Lydia; Beretta, Matteo; Berge, David; Bergeaas Kuutmann, Elin; Berger, Nicolas; Berghaus, Frank; Beringer, Jürg; Bernard, Clare; Bernard, Nathan Rogers; Bernius, Catrin; Bernlochner, Florian Urs; Berry, Tracey; Berta, Peter; Bertella, Claudia; Bertoli, Gabriele; Bertolucci, Federico; Bertsche, Carolyn; Bertsche, David; Besana, Maria Ilaria; Besjes, Geert-Jan; Bessidskaia Bylund, Olga; Bessner, Martin Florian; Besson, Nathalie; Betancourt, Christopher; Bethke, Siegfried; Bevan, Adrian John; Bhimji, Wahid; Bianchi, Riccardo-Maria; Bianchini, Louis; Bianco, Michele; Biebel, Otmar; Biedermann, Dustin; Bieniek, Stephen Paul; Biglietti, Michela; Bilbao De Mendizabal, Javier; Bilokon, Halina; Bindi, Marcello; Binet, Sebastien; Bingul, Ahmet; Bini, Cesare; Biondi, Silvia; Black, Curtis; Black, James; Black, Kevin; Blackburn, Daniel; Blair, Robert; Blanchard, Jean-Baptiste; Blanco, Jacobo Ezequiel; Blazek, Tomas; Bloch, Ingo; Blocker, Craig; Blum, Walter; Blumenschein, Ulrike; Bobbink, Gerjan; Bobrovnikov, Victor; Bocchetta, Simona Serena; Bocci, Andrea; Bock, Christopher; Boehler, Michael; Bogaerts, Joannes Andreas; Bogavac, Danijela; Bogdanchikov, Alexander; Bohm, Christian; Boisvert, Veronique; Bold, Tomasz; Boldea, Venera; Boldyrev, Alexey; Bomben, Marco; Bona, Marcella; Boonekamp, Maarten; Borisov, Anatoly; Borissov, Guennadi; Borroni, Sara; Bortfeldt, Jonathan; Bortolotto, Valerio; Bos, Kors; Boscherini, Davide; Bosman, Martine; Boudreau, Joseph; Bouffard, Julian; Bouhova-Thacker, Evelina Vassileva; Boumediene, Djamel Eddine; Bourdarios, Claire; Bousson, Nicolas; Boveia, Antonio; Boyd, James; Boyko, Igor; Bozic, Ivan; Bracinik, Juraj; Brandt, Andrew; Brandt, Gerhard; Brandt, Oleg; Bratzler, Uwe; Brau, Benjamin; Brau, James; Braun, Helmut; Brazzale, Simone Federico; Breaden Madden, William Dmitri; Brendlinger, Kurt; Brennan, Amelia Jean; Brenner, Lydia; Brenner, Richard; Bressler, Shikma; Bristow, Kieran; Bristow, Timothy Michael; Britton, Dave; Britzger, Daniel; Brochu, Frederic; Brock, Ian; Brock, Raymond; Bronner, Johanna; Brooijmans, Gustaaf; Brooks, Timothy; Brooks, William; Brosamer, Jacquelyn; Brost, Elizabeth; Brown, Jonathan; Bruckman de Renstrom, Pawel; Bruncko, Dusan; 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Canepa, Anadi; Cano Bret, Marc; Cantero, Josu; Cantrill, Robert; Cao, Tingting; Capeans Garrido, Maria Del Mar; Caprini, Irinel; Caprini, Mihai; Capua, Marcella; Caputo, Regina; Cardarelli, Roberto; Cardillo, Fabio; Carli, Tancredi; Carlino, Gianpaolo; Carminati, Leonardo; Caron, Sascha; Carquin, Edson; Carrillo-Montoya, German D; Carter, Janet; Carvalho, João; Casadei, Diego; Casado, Maria Pilar; Casolino, Mirkoantonio; Castaneda-Miranda, Elizabeth; Castelli, Angelantonio; Castillo Gimenez, Victoria; Castro, Nuno Filipe; Catastini, Pierluigi; Catinaccio, Andrea; Catmore, James; Cattai, Ariella; Caudron, Julien; Cavaliere, Viviana; Cavalli, Donatella; Cavalli-Sforza, Matteo; Cavasinni, Vincenzo; Ceradini, Filippo; Cerio, Benjamin; Cerny, Karel; Santiago Cerqueira, Augusto; Cerri, Alessandro; Cerrito, Lucio; Cerutti, Fabio; Cerv, Matevz; Cervelli, Alberto; Cetin, Serkant Ali; Chafaq, Aziz; Chakraborty, Dhiman; Chalupkova, Ina; Chang, Philip; Chapman, John Derek; Charlton, Dave; Chau, Chav Chhiv; Chavez Barajas, Carlos Alberto; Cheatham, Susan; Chegwidden, Andrew; Chekanov, Sergei; Chekulaev, Sergey; Chelkov, Gueorgui; Chelstowska, Magda Anna; Chen, Chunhui; Chen, Hucheng; Chen, Karen; Chen, Liming; Chen, Shenjian; Chen, Xin; Chen, Ye; Cheng, Hok Chuen; Cheng, Yangyang; Cheplakov, Alexander; Cheremushkina, Evgenia; Cherkaoui El Moursli, Rajaa; Chernyatin, Valeriy; Cheu, Elliott; Chevalier, Laurent; Chiarella, Vitaliano; Chiarelli, Giorgio; Chiodini, Gabriele; Chisholm, Andrew; Chislett, Rebecca Thalatta; Chitan, Adrian; Chizhov, Mihail; Choi, Kyungeon; Chouridou, Sofia; Chow, Bonnie Kar Bo; Christodoulou, Valentinos; Chromek-Burckhart, Doris; Chudoba, Jiri; Chuinard, Annabelle Julia; Chwastowski, Janusz; Chytka, Ladislav; Ciapetti, Guido; Ciftci, Abbas Kenan; Cinca, Diane; Cindro, Vladimir; Cioara, Irina Antonela; Ciocio, Alessandra; Cirotto, Francesco; Citron, Zvi Hirsh; Ciubancan, Mihai; Clark, Allan G; Clark, Brian Lee; Clark, Philip James; Clarke, Robert; Cleland, Bill; Clement, Christophe; Coadou, Yann; Cobal, Marina; Coccaro, Andrea; Cochran, James H; Coffey, Laurel; Cogan, Joshua Godfrey; Colasurdo, Luca; Cole, Brian; Cole, Stephen; Colijn, Auke-Pieter; Collot, Johann; Colombo, Tommaso; Compostella, Gabriele; Conde Muiño, Patricia; Coniavitis, Elias; Connell, Simon Henry; Connelly, Ian; Consorti, Valerio; Constantinescu, Serban; Conta, Claudio; Conti, Geraldine; Conventi, Francesco; Cooke, Mark; Cooper, Ben; Cooper-Sarkar, Amanda; Cornelissen, Thijs; Corradi, Massimo; Corriveau, Francois; Corso-Radu, Alina; Cortes-Gonzalez, Arely; Cortiana, Giorgio; Costa, Giuseppe; Costa, María José; Costanzo, Davide; Côté, David; Cottin, Giovanna; Cowan, Glen; Cox, Brian; Cranmer, Kyle; Cree, Graham; Crépé-Renaudin, Sabine; Crescioli, Francesco; Cribbs, Wayne Allen; Crispin Ortuzar, Mireia; Cristinziani, Markus; Croft, Vince; Crosetti, Giovanni; Cuhadar Donszelmann, Tulay; Cummings, Jane; Curatolo, Maria; Cuthbert, Cameron; Czirr, Hendrik; Czodrowski, Patrick; D'Auria, Saverio; D'Onofrio, Monica; Da Cunha Sargedas De Sousa, Mario Jose; Da Via, Cinzia; Dabrowski, Wladyslaw; Dafinca, Alexandru; Dai, Tiesheng; Dale, Orjan; Dallaire, Frederick; Dallapiccola, Carlo; Dam, Mogens; Dandoy, Jeffrey Rogers; Dang, Nguyen Phuong; Daniells, Andrew Christopher; Danninger, Matthias; Dano Hoffmann, Maria; Dao, Valerio; Darbo, Giovanni; Darmora, Smita; Dassoulas, James; Dattagupta, Aparajita; Davey, Will; David, Claire; Davidek, Tomas; Davies, Eleanor; Davies, Merlin; Davison, Peter; Davygora, Yuriy; Dawe, Edmund; Dawson, Ian; Daya-Ishmukhametova, Rozmin; De, Kaushik; de Asmundis, Riccardo; De Benedetti, Abraham; De Castro, Stefano; De Cecco, Sandro; De Groot, Nicolo; de Jong, Paul; De la Torre, Hector; De Lorenzi, Francesco; De Pedis, Daniele; De Salvo, Alessandro; De Sanctis, Umberto; De Santo, Antonella; De Vivie De Regie, Jean-Baptiste; Dearnaley, William James; Debbe, Ramiro; Debenedetti, Chiara; Dedovich, Dmitri; Deigaard, Ingrid; Del Peso, Jose; Del Prete, Tarcisio; Delgove, David; Deliot, Frederic; Delitzsch, Chris Malena; Deliyergiyev, Maksym; Dell'Acqua, Andrea; Dell'Asta, Lidia; Dell'Orso, Mauro; Della Pietra, Massimo; della Volpe, Domenico; Delmastro, Marco; Delsart, Pierre-Antoine; Deluca, Carolina; DeMarco, David; Demers, Sarah; Demichev, Mikhail; Demilly, Aurelien; Denisov, Sergey; Derendarz, Dominik; Derkaoui, Jamal Eddine; Derue, Frederic; Dervan, Paul; Desch, Klaus Kurt; Deterre, Cecile; Deviveiros, Pier-Olivier; Dewhurst, Alastair; Dhaliwal, Saminder; Di Ciaccio, Anna; Di Ciaccio, Lucia; Di Domenico, Antonio; Di Donato, Camilla; Di Girolamo, Alessandro; Di Girolamo, Beniamino; Di Mattia, Alessandro; Di Micco, Biagio; Di Nardo, Roberto; Di Simone, Andrea; Di Sipio, Riccardo; Di Valentino, David; Diaconu, Cristinel; Diamond, Miriam; Dias, Flavia; Diaz, Marco Aurelio; Diehl, Edward; Dietrich, Janet; Diglio, Sara; Dimitrievska, Aleksandra; Dingfelder, Jochen; Dita, Petre; Dita, Sanda; Dittus, Fridolin; Djama, Fares; Djobava, Tamar; Djuvsland, Julia Isabell; Barros do Vale, Maria Aline; Dobos, Daniel; Dobre, Monica; Doglioni, Caterina; Dohmae, Takeshi; Dolejsi, Jiri; Dolezal, Zdenek; Dolgoshein, Boris; Donadelli, Marisilvia; Donati, Simone; Dondero, Paolo; Donini, Julien; Dopke, Jens; Doria, Alessandra; Dova, Maria-Teresa; Doyle, Tony; Drechsler, Eric; Dris, Manolis; Dubreuil, Emmanuelle; Duchovni, Ehud; Duckeck, Guenter; Ducu, Otilia Anamaria; Duda, Dominik; Dudarev, Alexey; Duflot, Laurent; Duguid, Liam; Dührssen, Michael; Dunford, Monica; Duran Yildiz, Hatice; Düren, Michael; Durglishvili, Archil; Duschinger, Dirk; Dyndal, Mateusz; Eckardt, Christoph; Ecker, Katharina Maria; Edgar, Ryan Christopher; Edson, William; Edwards, Nicholas Charles; Ehrenfeld, Wolfgang; Eifert, Till; Eigen, Gerald; Einsweiler, Kevin; Ekelof, Tord; El Kacimi, Mohamed; Ellert, Mattias; Elles, Sabine; Ellinghaus, Frank; Elliot, Alison; Ellis, Nicolas; Elmsheuser, Johannes; Elsing, Markus; Emeliyanov, Dmitry; Enari, Yuji; Endner, Oliver Chris; Endo, Masaki; Erdmann, Johannes; Ereditato, Antonio; Ernis, Gunar; Ernst, Jesse; Ernst, Michael; Errede, Steven; Ertel, Eugen; Escalier, Marc; Esch, Hendrik; Escobar, Carlos; Esposito, Bellisario; Etienvre, Anne-Isabelle; Etzion, Erez; Evans, Hal; Ezhilov, Alexey; Fabbri, Laura; Facini, Gabriel; Fakhrutdinov, Rinat; Falciano, Speranza; Falla, Rebecca Jane; Faltova, Jana; Fang, Yaquan; Fanti, Marcello; Farbin, Amir; Farilla, Addolorata; Farooque, Trisha; Farrell, Steven; Farrington, Sinead; Farthouat, Philippe; Fassi, Farida; Fassnacht, Patrick; Fassouliotis, Dimitrios; Faucci Giannelli, Michele; Favareto, Andrea; Fayard, Louis; Federic, Pavol; Fedin, Oleg; Fedorko, Wojciech; Feigl, Simon; Feligioni, Lorenzo; Feng, Cunfeng; Feng, Eric; Feng, Haolu; Fenyuk, Alexander; Feremenga, Last; Fernandez Martinez, Patricia; Fernandez Perez, Sonia; Ferrando, James; Ferrari, Arnaud; Ferrari, Pamela; Ferrari, Roberto; Ferreira de Lima, Danilo Enoque; Ferrer, Antonio; Ferrere, Didier; Ferretti, Claudio; Ferretto Parodi, Andrea; Fiascaris, Maria; Fiedler, Frank; Filipčič, Andrej; Filipuzzi, Marco; Filthaut, Frank; Fincke-Keeler, Margret; Finelli, Kevin Daniel; Fiolhais, Miguel; Fiorini, Luca; Firan, Ana; Fischer, Adam; Fischer, Cora; Fischer, Julia; Fisher, Wade Cameron; Fitzgerald, Eric Andrew; Flaschel, Nils; Fleck, Ivor; Fleischmann, Philipp; Fleischmann, Sebastian; Fletcher, Gareth Thomas; Fletcher, Gregory; Fletcher, Rob Roy MacGregor; Flick, Tobias; Floderus, Anders; Flores Castillo, Luis; Flowerdew, Michael; Formica, Andrea; Forti, Alessandra; Fournier, Daniel; Fox, Harald; Fracchia, Silvia; Francavilla, Paolo; Franchini, Matteo; Francis, David; Franconi, Laura; Franklin, Melissa; Frate, Meghan; Fraternali, Marco; Freeborn, David; French, Sky; Friedrich, Felix; Froidevaux, Daniel; Frost, James; Fukunaga, Chikara; Fullana Torregrosa, Esteban; Fulsom, Bryan Gregory; Fusayasu, Takahiro; Fuster, Juan; Gabaldon, Carolina; Gabizon, Ofir; Gabrielli, Alessandro; Gabrielli, Andrea; Gach, Grzegorz; Gadatsch, Stefan; Gadomski, Szymon; Gagliardi, Guido; Gagnon, Pauline; Galea, Cristina; Galhardo, Bruno; Gallas, Elizabeth; Gallop, Bruce; Gallus, Petr; Galster, Gorm Aske Gram Krohn; Gan, KK; Gao, Jun; Gao, Yanyan; Gao, Yongsheng; Garay Walls, Francisca; Garberson, Ford; García, Carmen; García Navarro, José Enrique; Garcia-Sciveres, Maurice; Gardner, Robert; Garelli, Nicoletta; Garonne, Vincent; Gatti, Claudio; Gaudiello, Andrea; Gaudio, Gabriella; Gaur, Bakul; Gauthier, Lea; Gauzzi, Paolo; Gavrilenko, Igor; Gay, Colin; Gaycken, Goetz; Gazis, Evangelos; Ge, Peng; Gecse, Zoltan; Gee, Norman; Geich-Gimbel, Christoph; Geisler, Manuel Patrice; Gemme, Claudia; Genest, Marie-Hélène; Gentile, Simonetta; George, Matthias; George, Simon; Gerbaudo, Davide; Gershon, Avi; Ghasemi, Sara; Ghazlane, Hamid; Giacobbe, Benedetto; Giagu, Stefano; Giangiobbe, Vincent; Giannetti, Paola; Gibbard, Bruce; Gibson, Stephen; Gilchriese, Murdock; Gillam, Thomas; Gillberg, Dag; Gilles, Geoffrey; Gingrich, Douglas; Giokaris, Nikos; Giordani, MarioPaolo; Giorgi, Filippo Maria; Giorgi, Francesco Michelangelo; Giraud, Pierre-Francois; Giromini, Paolo; Giugni, Danilo; Giuliani, Claudia; Giulini, Maddalena; Gjelsten, Børge Kile; Gkaitatzis, Stamatios; Gkialas, Ioannis; Gkougkousis, Evangelos Leonidas; Gladilin, Leonid; Glasman, Claudia; Glatzer, Julian; Glaysher, Paul; Glazov, Alexandre; Goblirsch-Kolb, Maximilian; Goddard, Jack Robert; Godlewski, Jan; Goldfarb, Steven; Golling, Tobias; Golubkov, Dmitry; Gomes, Agostinho; Gonçalo, Ricardo; Goncalves Pinto Firmino Da Costa, Joao; Gonella, Laura; González de la Hoz, Santiago; Gonzalez Parra, Garoe; Gonzalez-Sevilla, Sergio; Goossens, Luc; Gorbounov, Petr Andreevich; Gordon, Howard; Gorelov, Igor; Gorini, Benedetto; Gorini, Edoardo; Gorišek, Andrej; Gornicki, Edward; Goshaw, Alfred; Gössling, Claus; Gostkin, Mikhail Ivanovitch; Goujdami, Driss; Goussiou, Anna; Govender, Nicolin; Gozani, Eitan; Grabas, Herve Marie Xavier; Graber, Lars; Grabowska-Bold, Iwona; Gradin, Per Olov Joakim; Grafström, Per; Grahn, Karl-Johan; Gramling, Johanna; Gramstad, Eirik; Grancagnolo, Sergio; Gratchev, Vadim; Gray, Heather; Graziani, Enrico; Greenwood, Zeno Dixon; Grefe, Christian; Gregersen, Kristian; Gregor, Ingrid-Maria; Grenier, Philippe; Griffiths, Justin; Grillo, Alexander; Grimm, Kathryn; Grinstein, Sebastian; Gris, Philippe Luc Yves; Grivaz, Jean-Francois; Grohs, Johannes Philipp; Grohsjean, Alexander; Gross, Eilam; Grosse-Knetter, Joern; Grossi, Giulio Cornelio; Grout, Zara Jane; Guan, Liang; Guenther, Jaroslav; Guescini, Francesco; Guest, Daniel; Gueta, Orel; Guido, Elisa; Guillemin, Thibault; Guindon, Stefan; Gul, Umar; Gumpert, Christian; Guo, Jun; Guo, Yicheng; Gupta, Shaun; Gustavino, Giuliano; Gutierrez, Phillip; Gutierrez Ortiz, Nicolas Gilberto; Gutschow, Christian; Guyot, Claude; Gwenlan, Claire; Gwilliam, Carl; Haas, Andy; Haber, Carl; Hadavand, Haleh Khani; Haddad, Nacim; Haefner, Petra; Hageböck, Stephan; Hajduk, Zbigniew; Hakobyan, Hrachya; Haleem, Mahsana; Haley, Joseph; Hall, David; Halladjian, Garabed; Hallewell, Gregory David; Hamacher, Klaus; Hamal, Petr; Hamano, Kenji; Hamilton, Andrew; Hamity, Guillermo Nicolas; Hamnett, Phillip George; Han, Liang; Hanagaki, Kazunori; Hanawa, Keita; Hance, Michael; Hanke, Paul; Hanna, Remie; Hansen, Jørgen Beck; Hansen, Jorn Dines; Hansen, Maike Christina; Hansen, Peter Henrik; Hara, Kazuhiko; Hard, Andrew; Harenberg, Torsten; Hariri, Faten; Harkusha, Siarhei; Harrington, Robert; Harrison, Paul Fraser; Hartjes, Fred; Hasegawa, Makoto; Hasegawa, Yoji; Hasib, A; Hassani, Samira; Haug, Sigve; Hauser, Reiner; Hauswald, Lorenz; Havranek, Miroslav; Hawkes, Christopher; Hawkings, Richard John; Hawkins, Anthony David; Hayashi, Takayasu; Hayden, Daniel; Hays, Chris; Hays, Jonathan Michael; Hayward, Helen; Haywood, Stephen; Head, Simon; Heck, Tobias; Hedberg, Vincent; Heelan, Louise; Heim, Sarah; Heim, Timon; Heinemann, Beate; Heinrich, Lukas; Hejbal, Jiri; Helary, Louis; Hellman, Sten; Hellmich, Dennis; Helsens, Clement; Henderson, James; Henderson, Robert; Heng, Yang; Hengler, Christopher; Henkelmann, Steffen; Henrichs, Anna; Henriques Correia, Ana Maria; Henrot-Versille, Sophie; Herbert, Geoffrey Henry; Hernández Jiménez, Yesenia; Herrberg-Schubert, Ruth; Herten, Gregor; Hertenberger, Ralf; Hervas, Luis; Hesketh, Gavin Grant; Hessey, Nigel; Hetherly, Jeffrey Wayne; Hickling, Robert; Higón-Rodriguez, Emilio; Hill, Ewan; Hill, John; Hiller, Karl Heinz; Hillier, Stephen; Hinchliffe, Ian; Hines, Elizabeth; Hinman, Rachel Reisner; Hirose, Minoru; Hirschbuehl, Dominic; Hobbs, John; Hod, Noam; Hodgkinson, Mark; Hodgson, Paul; Hoecker, Andreas; Hoeferkamp, Martin; Hoenig, Friedrich; Hohlfeld, Marc; Hohn, David; Holmes, Tova Ray; Homann, Michael; Hong, Tae Min; Hooft van Huysduynen, Loek; Hopkins, Walter; Horii, Yasuyuki; Horton, Arthur James; Hostachy, Jean-Yves; Hou, Suen; Hoummada, Abdeslam; Howard, Jacob; Howarth, James; Hrabovsky, Miroslav; Hristova, Ivana; Hrivnac, Julius; Hryn'ova, Tetiana; Hrynevich, Aliaksei; Hsu, Catherine; Hsu, Pai-hsien Jennifer; Hsu, Shih-Chieh; Hu, Diedi; Hu, Qipeng; Hu, Xueye; Huang, Yanping; Hubacek, Zdenek; Hubaut, Fabrice; Huegging, Fabian; Huffman, Todd Brian; Hughes, Emlyn; Hughes, Gareth; Huhtinen, Mika; Hülsing, Tobias Alexander; Huseynov, Nazim; Huston, Joey; Huth, John; Iacobucci, Giuseppe; Iakovidis, Georgios; Ibragimov, Iskander; Iconomidou-Fayard, Lydia; Ideal, Emma; Idrissi, Zineb; Iengo, Paolo; Igonkina, Olga; Iizawa, Tomoya; Ikegami, Yoichi; Ikematsu, Katsumasa; Ikeno, Masahiro; Ilchenko, Iurii; Iliadis, Dimitrios; Ilic, Nikolina; Ince, Tayfun; Introzzi, Gianluca; Ioannou, Pavlos; Iodice, Mauro; Iordanidou, Kalliopi; Ippolito, Valerio; Irles Quiles, Adrian; Isaksson, Charlie; Ishino, Masaya; Ishitsuka, Masaki; Ishmukhametov, Renat; Issever, Cigdem; Istin, Serhat; Iturbe Ponce, Julia Mariana; Iuppa, Roberto; Ivarsson, Jenny; Iwanski, Wieslaw; Iwasaki, Hiroyuki; Izen, Joseph; Izzo, Vincenzo; Jabbar, Samina; Jackson, Brett; Jackson, Matthew; Jackson, Paul; Jaekel, Martin; Jain, Vivek; Jakobs, Karl; Jakobsen, Sune; Jakoubek, Tomas; Jakubek, Jan; Jamin, David Olivier; Jana, Dilip; Jansen, Eric; Jansky, Roland; Janssen, Jens; Janus, Michel; Jarlskog, Göran; Javadov, Namig; Javůrek, Tomáš; Jeanty, Laura; Jejelava, Juansher; Jeng, Geng-yuan; Jennens, David; Jenni, Peter; Jentzsch, Jennifer; Jeske, Carl; Jézéquel, Stéphane; Ji, Haoshuang; Jia, Jiangyong; Jiang, Yi; Jiggins, Stephen; Jimenez Pena, Javier; Jin, Shan; Jinaru, Adam; Jinnouchi, Osamu; Joergensen, Morten Dam; Johansson, Per; Johns, Kenneth; Jon-And, Kerstin; Jones, Graham; Jones, Roger; Jones, Tim; Jongmanns, Jan; Jorge, Pedro; Joshi, Kiran Daniel; Jovicevic, Jelena; Ju, Xiangyang; Jung, Christian; Jussel, Patrick; Juste Rozas, Aurelio; Kaci, Mohammed; Kaczmarska, Anna; Kado, Marumi; Kagan, Harris; Kagan, Michael; Kahn, Sebastien Jonathan; Kajomovitz, Enrique; Kalderon, Charles William; Kama, Sami; Kamenshchikov, Andrey; Kanaya, Naoko; Kaneti, Steven; Kantserov, Vadim; Kanzaki, Junichi; Kaplan, Benjamin; Kaplan, Laser Seymour; Kapliy, Anton; Kar, Deepak; Karakostas, Konstantinos; Karamaoun, Andrew; Karastathis, Nikolaos; Kareem, Mohammad Jawad; Karentzos, Efstathios; Karnevskiy, Mikhail; Karpov, Sergey; Karpova, Zoya; Karthik, Krishnaiyengar; Kartvelishvili, Vakhtang; Karyukhin, Andrey; Kashif, Lashkar; Kass, Richard; Kastanas, Alex; Kataoka, Yousuke; Kato, Chikuma; Katre, Akshay; Katzy, Judith; Kawagoe, Kiyotomo; Kawamoto, Tatsuo; Kawamura, Gen; Kazama, Shingo; Kazanin, Vassili; Keeler, Richard; Kehoe, Robert; Keller, John; Kempster, Jacob Julian; Keoshkerian, Houry; Kepka, Oldrich; Kerševan, Borut Paul; Kersten, Susanne; Keyes, Robert; Khalil-zada, Farkhad; Khandanyan, Hovhannes; Khanov, Alexander; Kharlamov, Alexey; Khoo, Teng Jian; Khovanskiy, Valery; Khramov, Evgeniy; Khubua, Jemal; Kido, Shogo; Kim, Hee Yeun; Kim, Shinhong; Kim, Young-Kee; Kimura, Naoki; Kind, Oliver Maria; King, Barry; King, Matthew; King, Samuel Burton; Kirk, Julie; Kiryunin, Andrey; Kishimoto, Tomoe; Kisielewska, Danuta; Kiss, Florian; Kiuchi, Kenji; Kivernyk, Oleh; Kladiva, Eduard; Klein, Matthew Henry; Klein, Max; Klein, Uta; Kleinknecht, Konrad; Klimek, Pawel; Klimentov, Alexei; Klingenberg, Reiner; Klinger, Joel Alexander; Klioutchnikova, Tatiana; Kluge, Eike-Erik; Kluit, Peter; Kluth, Stefan; Knapik, Joanna; Kneringer, Emmerich; Knoops, Edith; Knue, Andrea; Kobayashi, Aine; Kobayashi, Dai; Kobayashi, Tomio; Kobel, Michael; Kocian, Martin; Kodys, Peter; Koffas, Thomas; Koffeman, Els; Kogan, Lucy Anne; Kohlmann, Simon; Kohout, Zdenek; Kohriki, Takashi; Koi, Tatsumi; Kolanoski, Hermann; Koletsou, Iro; Komar, Aston; Komori, Yuto; Kondo, Takahiko; Kondrashova, Nataliia; Köneke, Karsten; König, Adriaan; Kono, Takanori; Konoplich, Rostislav; Konstantinidis, Nikolaos; Kopeliansky, Revital; Koperny, Stefan; Köpke, Lutz; Kopp, Anna Katharina; Korcyl, Krzysztof; Kordas, Kostantinos; Korn, Andreas; Korol, Aleksandr; Korolkov, Ilya; Korolkova, Elena; Kortner, Oliver; Kortner, Sandra; Kosek, Tomas; Kostyukhin, Vadim; Kotov, Vladislav; Kotwal, Ashutosh; Kourkoumeli-Charalampidi, Athina; Kourkoumelis, Christine; Kouskoura, Vasiliki; Koutsman, Alex; Kowalewski, Robert Victor; Kowalski, Tadeusz; Kozanecki, Witold; Kozhin, Anatoly; Kramarenko, Viktor; Kramberger, Gregor; Krasnopevtsev, Dimitriy; Krasny, Mieczyslaw Witold; Krasznahorkay, Attila; Kraus, Jana; Kravchenko, Anton; Kreiss, Sven; Kretz, Moritz; Kretzschmar, Jan; Kreutzfeldt, Kristof; Krieger, Peter; Krizka, Karol; Kroeninger, Kevin; Kroha, Hubert; Kroll, Joe; Kroseberg, Juergen; Krstic, Jelena; Kruchonak, Uladzimir; Krüger, Hans; Krumnack, Nils; Kruse, Amanda; Kruse, Mark; Kruskal, Michael; Kubota, Takashi; Kucuk, Hilal; Kuday, Sinan; Kuehn, Susanne; Kugel, Andreas; Kuger, Fabian; Kuhl, Andrew; Kuhl, Thorsten; Kukhtin, Victor; Kukla, Romain; Kulchitsky, Yuri; Kuleshov, Sergey; Kuna, Marine; Kunigo, Takuto; Kupco, Alexander; Kurashige, Hisaya; Kurochkin, Yurii; Kus, Vlastimil; Kuwertz, Emma Sian; Kuze, Masahiro; Kvita, Jiri; Kwan, Tony; Kyriazopoulos, Dimitrios; La Rosa, Alessandro; La Rosa Navarro, Jose Luis; La Rotonda, Laura; Lacasta, Carlos; Lacava, Francesco; Lacey, James; Lacker, Heiko; Lacour, Didier; Lacuesta, Vicente Ramón; Ladygin, Evgueni; Lafaye, Remi; Laforge, Bertrand; Lagouri, Theodota; Lai, Stanley; Lambourne, Luke; Lammers, Sabine; Lampen, Caleb; Lampl, Walter; Lançon, Eric; Landgraf, Ulrich; Landon, Murrough; Lang, Valerie Susanne; Lange, J örn Christian; Lankford, Andrew; Lanni, Francesco; Lantzsch, Kerstin; Lanza, Agostino; Laplace, Sandrine; Lapoire, Cecile; Laporte, Jean-Francois; Lari, Tommaso; Lasagni Manghi, Federico; Lassnig, Mario; Laurelli, Paolo; Lavrijsen, Wim; Law, Alexander; Laycock, Paul; Lazovich, Tomo; Le Dortz, Olivier; Le Guirriec, Emmanuel; Le Menedeu, Eve; LeBlanc, Matthew Edgar; LeCompte, Thomas; Ledroit-Guillon, Fabienne Agnes Marie; Lee, Claire Alexandra; Lee, Shih-Chang; Lee, Lawrence; Lefebvre, Guillaume; Lefebvre, Michel; Legger, Federica; Leggett, Charles; Lehan, Allan; Lehmann Miotto, Giovanna; Lei, Xiaowen; Leight, William Axel; Leisos, Antonios; Leister, Andrew Gerard; Leite, Marco Aurelio Lisboa; Leitner, Rupert; Lellouch, Daniel; Lemmer, Boris; Leney, Katharine; Lenz, Tatjana; Lenzi, Bruno; Leone, Robert; Leone, Sandra; Leonidopoulos, Christos; Leontsinis, Stefanos; Leroy, Claude; Lester, Christopher; Levchenko, Mikhail; Levêque, Jessica; Levin, Daniel; Levinson, Lorne; Levy, Mark; Lewis, Adrian; Leyko, Agnieszka; Leyton, Michael; Li, Bing; Li, Haifeng; Li, Ho Ling; Li, Lei; Li, Liang; Li, Shu; Li, Xingguo; Li, Yichen; Liang, Zhijun; Liao, Hongbo; Liberti, Barbara; Liblong, Aaron; Lichard, Peter; Lie, Ki; Liebal, Jessica; Liebig, Wolfgang; Limbach, Christian; Limosani, Antonio; Lin, Simon; Lin, Tai-Hua; Linde, Frank; Lindquist, Brian Edward; Linnemann, James; Lipeles, Elliot; Lipniacka, Anna; Lisovyi, Mykhailo; Liss, Tony; Lissauer, David; Lister, Alison; Litke, Alan; Liu, Bo; Liu, Dong; Liu, Hao; Liu, Jian; Liu, Jianbei; Liu, Kun; Liu, Lulu; Liu, Miaoyuan; Liu, Minghui; Liu, Yanwen; Livan, Michele; Lleres, Annick; Llorente Merino, Javier; Lloyd, Stephen; Lo Sterzo, Francesco; Lobodzinska, Ewelina; Loch, Peter; Lockman, William; Loebinger, Fred; Loevschall-Jensen, Ask Emil; Loginov, Andrey; Lohse, Thomas; Lohwasser, Kristin; Lokajicek, Milos; Long, Brian Alexander; Long, Jonathan David; Long, Robin Eamonn; Looper, Kristina Anne; Lopes, Lourenco; Lopez Mateos, David; Lopez Paredes, Brais; Lopez Paz, Ivan; Lorenz, Jeanette; Lorenzo Martinez, Narei; Losada, Marta; L{ö}sel, Philipp Jonathan; Lou, XinChou; Lounis, Abdenour; Love, Jeremy; Love, Peter; Lu, Nan; Lubatti, Henry; Luci, Claudio; Lucotte, Arnaud; Luehring, Frederick; Lukas, Wolfgang; Luminari, Lamberto; Lundberg, Olof; Lund-Jensen, Bengt; Lynn, David; Lysak, Roman; Lytken, Else; Ma, Hong; Ma, Lian Liang; Maccarrone, Giovanni; Macchiolo, Anna; Macdonald, Calum Michael; Maček, Boštjan; Machado Miguens, Joana; Macina, Daniela; Madaffari, Daniele; Madar, Romain; Maddocks, Harvey Jonathan; Mader, Wolfgang; Madsen, Alexander; Maeda, Junpei; Maeland, Steffen; Maeno, Tadashi; Maevskiy, Artem; Magradze, Erekle; Mahboubi, Kambiz; Mahlstedt, Joern; Maiani, Camilla; Maidantchik, Carmen; Maier, Andreas Alexander; Maier, Thomas; Maio, Amélia; Majewski, Stephanie; Makida, Yasuhiro; Makovec, Nikola; Malaescu, Bogdan; Malecki, Pawel; Maleev, Victor; Malek, Fairouz; Mallik, Usha; Malon, David; Malone, Caitlin; Maltezos, Stavros; Malyshev, Vladimir; Malyukov, Sergei; Mamuzic, Judita; Mancini, Giada; Mandelli, Beatrice; Mandelli, Luciano; Mandić, Igor; Mandrysch, Rocco; Maneira, José; Manfredini, Alessandro; Manhaes de Andrade Filho, Luciano; Manjarres Ramos, Joany; Mann, Alexander; Manousakis-Katsikakis, Arkadios; Mansoulie, Bruno; Mantifel, Rodger; Mantoani, Matteo; Mapelli, Livio; March, Luis; Marchiori, Giovanni; Marcisovsky, Michal; Marino, Christopher; Marjanovic, Marija; Marley, Daniel; Marroquim, Fernando; Marsden, Stephen Philip; Marshall, Zach; Marti, Lukas Fritz; Marti-Garcia, Salvador; Martin, Brian Thomas; Martin, Tim; Martin, Victoria Jane; Martin dit Latour, Bertrand; Martinez, Mario; Martin-Haugh, Stewart; Martoiu, Victor Sorin; Martyniuk, Alex; Marx, Marilyn; Marzano, Francesco; Marzin, Antoine; Masetti, Lucia; Mashimo, Tetsuro; Mashinistov, Ruslan; Masik, Jiri; Maslennikov, Alexey; Massa, Ignazio; Massa, Lorenzo; Mastrandrea, Paolo; Mastroberardino, Anna; Masubuchi, Tatsuya; Mättig, Peter; Mattmann, Johannes; Maurer, Julien; Maxfield, Stephen; Maximov, Dmitriy; Mazini, Rachid; Mazza, Simone Michele; Mazzaferro, Luca; Mc Goldrick, Garrin; Mc Kee, Shawn Patrick; McCarn, Allison; McCarthy, Robert; McCarthy, Tom; McCubbin, Norman; McFarlane, Kenneth; Mcfayden, Josh; Mchedlidze, Gvantsa; McMahon, Steve; McPherson, Robert; Medinnis, Michael; Meehan, Samuel; Mehlhase, Sascha; Mehta, Andrew; Meier, Karlheinz; Meineck, Christian; Meirose, Bernhard; Mellado Garcia, Bruce Rafael; Meloni, Federico; Mengarelli, Alberto; Menke, Sven; Meoni, Evelin; Mercurio, Kevin Michael; Mergelmeyer, Sebastian; Mermod, Philippe; Merola, Leonardo; Meroni, Chiara; Merritt, Frank; Messina, Andrea; Metcalfe, Jessica; Mete, Alaettin Serhan; Meyer, Carsten; Meyer, Christopher; Meyer, Jean-Pierre; Meyer, Jochen; Meyer Zu Theenhausen, Hanno; Middleton, Robin; Miglioranzi, Silvia; Mijović, Liza; Mikenberg, Giora; Mikestikova, Marcela; Mikuž, Marko; Milesi, Marco; Milic, Adriana; Miller, David; Mills, Corrinne; Milov, Alexander; Milstead, David; Minaenko, Andrey; Minami, Yuto; Minashvili, Irakli; Mincer, Allen; Mindur, Bartosz; Mineev, Mikhail; Ming, Yao; Mir, Lluisa-Maria; Mitani, Takashi; Mitrevski, Jovan; Mitsou, Vasiliki A; Miucci, Antonio; Miyagawa, Paul; Mjörnmark, Jan-Ulf; Moa, Torbjoern; Mochizuki, Kazuya; Mohapatra, Soumya; Mohr, Wolfgang; Molander, Simon; Moles-Valls, Regina; Monden, Ryutaro; Mönig, Klaus; Monini, Caterina; Monk, James; Monnier, Emmanuel; Montejo Berlingen, Javier; Monticelli, Fernando; Monzani, Simone; Moore, Roger; Morange, Nicolas; Moreno, Deywis; Moreno Llácer, María; Morettini, Paolo; Mori, Daniel; Morii, Masahiro; Morinaga, Masahiro; Morisbak, Vanja; Moritz, Sebastian; Morley, Anthony Keith; Mornacchi, Giuseppe; Morris, John; Mortensen, Simon Stark; Morton, Alexander; Morvaj, Ljiljana; Mosidze, Maia; Moss, Josh; Motohashi, Kazuki; Mount, Richard; Mountricha, Eleni; Mouraviev, Sergei; Moyse, Edward; Muanza, Steve; Mudd, Richard; Mueller, Felix; Mueller, James; Mueller, Ralph Soeren Peter; Mueller, Thibaut; Muenstermann, Daniel; Mullen, Paul; Mullier, Geoffrey; Murillo Quijada, Javier Alberto; Murray, Bill; Musheghyan, Haykuhi; Musto, Elisa; Myagkov, Alexey; Myska, Miroslav; Nachman, Benjamin Philip; Nackenhorst, Olaf; Nadal, Jordi; Nagai, Koichi; Nagai, Ryo; Nagai, Yoshikazu; Nagano, Kunihiro; Nagarkar, Advait; Nagasaka, Yasushi; Nagata, Kazuki; Nagel, Martin; Nagy, Elemer; Nairz, Armin Michael; Nakahama, Yu; Nakamura, Koji; Nakamura, Tomoaki; Nakano, Itsuo; Namasivayam, Harisankar; Naranjo Garcia, Roger Felipe; Narayan, Rohin; Narrias Villar, Daniel Isaac; Naumann, Thomas; Navarro, Gabriela; Nayyar, Ruchika; Neal, Homer; Nechaeva, Polina; Neep, Thomas James; Nef, Pascal Daniel; Negri, Andrea; Negrini, Matteo; Nektarijevic, Snezana; Nellist, Clara; Nelson, Andrew; Nemecek, Stanislav; Nemethy, Peter; Nepomuceno, Andre Asevedo; Nessi, Marzio; Neubauer, Mark; Neumann, Manuel; Neves, Ricardo; Nevski, Pavel; Newman, Paul; Nguyen, Duong Hai; Nickerson, Richard; Nicolaidou, Rosy; Nicquevert, Bertrand; Nielsen, Jason; Nikiforou, Nikiforos; Nikiforov, Andriy; Nikolaenko, Vladimir; Nikolic-Audit, Irena; Nikolopoulos, Konstantinos; Nilsen, Jon Kerr; Nilsson, Paul; Ninomiya, Yoichi; Nisati, Aleandro; Nisius, Richard; Nobe, Takuya; Nomachi, Masaharu; Nomidis, Ioannis; Nooney, Tamsin; Norberg, Scarlet; Nordberg, Markus; Novgorodova, Olga; Nowak, Sebastian; Nozaki, Mitsuaki; Nozka, Libor; Ntekas, Konstantinos; Nunes Hanninger, Guilherme; Nunnemann, Thomas; Nurse, Emily; Nuti, Francesco; O'Brien, Brendan Joseph; O'grady, Fionnbarr; O'Neil, Dugan; O'Shea, Val; Oakham, Gerald; Oberlack, Horst; Obermann, Theresa; Ocariz, Jose; Ochi, Atsuhiko; Ochoa, Ines; Ochoa-Ricoux, Juan Pedro; Oda, Susumu; Odaka, Shigeru; Ogren, Harold; Oh, Alexander; Oh, Seog; Ohm, Christian; Ohman, Henrik; Oide, Hideyuki; Okamura, Wataru; Okawa, Hideki; Okumura, Yasuyuki; Okuyama, Toyonobu; Olariu, Albert; Olivares Pino, Sebastian Andres; Oliveira Damazio, Denis; Oliver Garcia, Elena; Olszewski, Andrzej; Olszowska, Jolanta; Onofre, António; Onogi, Kouta; Onyisi, Peter; Oram, Christopher; Oreglia, Mark; Oren, Yona; Orestano, Domizia; Orlando, Nicola; Oropeza Barrera, Cristina; Orr, Robert; Osculati, Bianca; Ospanov, Rustem; Otero y Garzon, Gustavo; Otono, Hidetoshi; Ouchrif, Mohamed; Ould-Saada, Farid; Ouraou, Ahmimed; Oussoren, Koen Pieter; Ouyang, Qun; Ovcharova, Ana; Owen, Mark; Owen, Rhys Edward; Ozcan, Veysi Erkcan; Ozturk, Nurcan; Pachal, Katherine; Pacheco Pages, Andres; Padilla Aranda, Cristobal; Pagáčová, Martina; Pagan Griso, Simone; Paganis, Efstathios; Paige, Frank; Pais, Preema; Pajchel, Katarina; Palacino, Gabriel; Palestini, Sandro; Palka, Marek; Pallin, Dominique; Palma, Alberto; Pan, Yibin; Panagiotopoulou, Evgenia; Pandini, Carlo Enrico; Panduro Vazquez, William; Pani, Priscilla; Panitkin, Sergey; Pantea, Dan; Paolozzi, Lorenzo; Papadopoulou, Theodora; Papageorgiou, Konstantinos; Paramonov, Alexander; Paredes Hernandez, Daniela; Parker, Michael Andrew; Parker, Kerry Ann; Parodi, Fabrizio; Parsons, John; Parzefall, Ulrich; Pasqualucci, Enrico; Passaggio, Stefano; Pastore, Fernanda; Pastore, Francesca; Pásztor, Gabriella; Pataraia, Sophio; Patel, Nikhul; Pater, Joleen; Pauly, Thilo; Pearce, James; Pearson, Benjamin; Pedersen, Lars Egholm; Pedersen, Maiken; Pedraza Lopez, Sebastian; Pedro, Rute; Peleganchuk, Sergey; Pelikan, Daniel; Penc, Ondrej; Peng, Cong; Peng, Haiping; Penning, Bjoern; Penwell, John; Perepelitsa, Dennis; Perez Codina, Estel; Pérez García-Estañ, María Teresa; Perini, Laura; Pernegger, Heinz; Perrella, Sabrina; Peschke, Richard; Peshekhonov, Vladimir; Peters, Krisztian; Peters, Yvonne; 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Valladolid Gallego, Eva; Vallecorsa, Sofia; Valls Ferrer, Juan Antonio; Van Den Wollenberg, Wouter; Van Der Deijl, Pieter; van der Geer, Rogier; van der Graaf, Harry; van Eldik, Niels; van Gemmeren, Peter; Van Nieuwkoop, Jacobus; van Vulpen, Ivo; van Woerden, Marius Cornelis; Vanadia, Marco; Vandelli, Wainer; Vanguri, Rami; Vaniachine, Alexandre; Vannucci, Francois; Vardanyan, Gagik; Vari, Riccardo; Varnes, Erich; Varol, Tulin; Varouchas, Dimitris; Vartapetian, Armen; Varvell, Kevin; Vazeille, Francois; Vazquez Schroeder, Tamara; Veatch, Jason; Veloce, Laurelle Maria; Veloso, Filipe; Velz, Thomas; Veneziano, Stefano; Ventura, Andrea; Ventura, Daniel; Venturi, Manuela; Venturi, Nicola; Venturini, Alessio; Vercesi, Valerio; Verducci, Monica; Verkerke, Wouter; Vermeulen, Jos; Vest, Anja; Vetterli, Michel; Viazlo, Oleksandr; Vichou, Irene; Vickey, Trevor; Vickey Boeriu, Oana Elena; Viehhauser, Georg; Viel, Simon; Vigne, Ralph; Villa, Mauro; Villaplana Perez, Miguel; Vilucchi, Elisabetta; Vincter, Manuella; 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Xella, Stefania; Xu, Da; Xu, Lailin; Yabsley, Bruce; Yacoob, Sahal; Yakabe, Ryota; Yamada, Miho; Yamaguchi, Daiki; Yamaguchi, Yohei; Yamamoto, Akira; Yamamoto, Shimpei; Yamanaka, Takashi; Yamauchi, Katsuya; Yamazaki, Yuji; Yan, Zhen; Yang, Haijun; Yang, Hongtao; Yang, Yi; Yao, Weiming; Yasu, Yoshiji; Yatsenko, Elena; Yau Wong, Kaven Henry; Ye, Jingbo; Ye, Shuwei; Yeletskikh, Ivan; Yen, Andy L; Yildirim, Eda; Yorita, Kohei; Yoshida, Rikutaro; Yoshihara, Keisuke; Young, Charles; Young, Christopher John; Youssef, Saul; Yu, David Ren-Hwa; Yu, Jaehoon; Yu, Jiaming; Yu, Jie; Yuan, Li; Yuen, Stephanie P; Yurkewicz, Adam; Yusuff, Imran; Zabinski, Bartlomiej; Zaidan, Remi; Zaitsev, Alexander; Zalieckas, Justas; Zaman, Aungshuman; Zambito, Stefano; Zanello, Lucia; Zanzi, Daniele; Zeitnitz, Christian; Zeman, Martin; Zemla, Andrzej; Zeng, Qi; Zengel, Keith; Zenin, Oleg; Ženiš, Tibor; Zerwas, Dirk; Zhang, Dongliang; Zhang, Fangzhou; Zhang, Huijun; Zhang, Jinlong; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Ruiqi; Zhang, Xueyao; Zhang, Zhiqing; Zhao, Xiandong; Zhao, Yongke; Zhao, Zhengguo; Zhemchugov, Alexey; Zhong, Jiahang; Zhou, Bing; Zhou, Chen; Zhou, Lei; Zhou, Li; Zhou, Mingliang; Zhou, Ning; Zhu, Cheng Guang; Zhu, Hongbo; Zhu, Junjie; Zhu, Yingchun; Zhuang, Xuai; Zhukov, Konstantin; Zibell, Andre; Zieminska, Daria; Zimine, Nikolai; Zimmermann, Christoph; Zimmermann, Stephanie; Zinonos, Zinonas; Zinser, Markus; Ziolkowski, Michael; Živković, Lidija; Zobernig, Georg; Zoccoli, Antonio; zur Nedden, Martin; Zurzolo, Giovanni; Zwalinski, Lukasz

    2015-09-24

    High transverse momentum jets produced in pp collisions at a centre of mass energy of 7 TeV are used to measure the transverse energy--energy correlation function and its associated azimuthal asymmetry. The data were recorded with the ATLAS detector at the LHC in the year 2011 and correspond to an integrated luminosity of 158 $\\mathrm{pb}^{-1}$. The selection criteria demand the average transverse momentum of the two leading jets in an event to be larger than 250 GeV. The data at detector level are well described by Monte Carlo event generators. They are unfolded to the particle level and compared with theoretical calculations at next-to-leading-order accuracy. The agreement between data and theory is good and provides a precision test of perturbative Quantum Chromodynamics at large momentum transfers. From this comparison, the strong coupling constant given at the $Z$ boson mass is determined to be $\\alpha_{\\mathrm{s}}(m_Z) = 0.1173 \\pm 0.0010 \\mbox{ (exp.) }^{+0.0065}_{-0.0026} \\mbox{ (theo.)}$.

  20. Measurement of transverse energy–energy correlations in multi-jet events in pp collisions at s=7 TeV using the ATLAS detector and determination of the strong coupling constant αs(mZ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Aad

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available High transverse momentum jets produced in pp collisions at a centre of mass energy of 7 TeV are used to measure the transverse energy–energy correlation function and its associated azimuthal asymmetry. The data were recorded with the ATLAS detector at the LHC in the year 2011 and correspond to an integrated luminosity of 158 pb−1. The selection criteria demand the average transverse momentum of the two leading jets in an event to be larger than 250 GeV. The data at detector level are well described by Monte Carlo event generators. They are unfolded to the particle level and compared with theoretical calculations at next-to-leading-order accuracy. The agreement between data and theory is good and provides a precision test of perturbative Quantum Chromodynamics at large momentum transfers. From this comparison, the strong coupling constant given at the Z boson mass is determined to be αs(mZ=0.1173±0.0010 (exp. −0.0026+0.0065 (theo..

  1. Plasmons in strong superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldo, M.; Ducoin, C.

    2011-01-01

    We present a study of the possible plasmon excitations that can occur in systems where strong superconductivity is present. In these systems the plasmon energy is comparable to or smaller than the pairing gap. As a prototype of these systems we consider the proton component of Neutron Star matter just below the crust when electron screening is not taken into account. For the realistic case we consider in detail the different aspects of the elementary excitations when the proton, electron components are considered within the Random-Phase Approximation generalized to the superfluid case, while the influence of the neutron component is considered only at qualitative level. Electron screening plays a major role in modifying the proton spectrum and spectral function. At the same time the electron plasmon is strongly modified and damped by the indirect coupling with the superfluid proton component, even at moderately low values of the gap. The excitation spectrum shows the interplay of the different components and their relevance for each excitation modes. The results are relevant for neutrino physics and thermodynamical processes in neutron stars. If electron screening is neglected, the spectral properties of the proton component show some resemblance with the physical situation in high-T c superconductors, and we briefly discuss similarities and differences in this connection. In a general prospect, the results of the study emphasize the role of Coulomb interaction in strong superconductors.

  2. Positional games

    CERN Document Server

    Hefetz, Dan; Stojaković, Miloš; Szabó, Tibor

    2014-01-01

    This text serves as a thorough introduction to the rapidly developing field of positional games. This area constitutes an important branch of combinatorics, whose aim it is to systematically develop an extensive mathematical basis for a variety of two-player perfect information games. These range from such popular games as Tic-Tac-Toe and Hex to purely abstract games played on graphs and hypergraphs. The subject of positional games is strongly related to several other branches of combinatorics such as Ramsey theory, extremal graph and set theory, and the probabilistic method. These notes cover a variety of topics in positional games, including both classical results and recent important developments. They are presented in an accessible way and are accompanied by exercises of varying difficulty, helping the reader to better understand the theory. The text will benefit both researchers and graduate students in combinatorics and adjacent fields.

  3. Position encoder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goursky, Vsevolod

    1975-01-01

    A circuitry for deriving the quotient of signal delivered by position-sensitive detectors is described. Digital output is obtained in the form of 10- to 12-bit words. Impact position may be determined with 0.25% accuracy when the dynamic range of the energy signal is less 1:10, and 0.5% accuracy when the dynamic range is 1:20. The division requires an average time of 5μs for 10-bit words

  4. Position encoder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goursky, V.

    1975-05-01

    This paper describes circuitry for deriving the quotient of signals delivered by position-sensitive detectors. Digital output is obtained in the form of 10 to 12 bit words. Impact position may be determined with 0.25% accuracy when the dynamic range of the energy signal is less than 1:10, and 0.5% accuracy when the dynamic range is 1:20. The division requires an average time of 5μs for 10-bit words [fr

  5. Determination of HER2 phosphorylation at tyrosine 1221/1222 improves prediction of poor survival for breast cancer patients with hormone receptor-positive tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frogne, Thomas; Laenkholm, Anne-Vibeke; Lyng, Maria B

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: High expression of total HER2 protein confers poor prognosis for breast cancer patients. HER2 is a member of the HER family consisting of four receptors, HER1 to HER4. HER receptor activity is regulated by a variety of mechanisms, and phosphorylation of the C-terminal part of the HER......, who had received adjuvant tamoxifen therapy. The observed protein expression levels were analyzed for co-expression, for correlation to clinicopathological parameters and for prognostic value in relation to disease-free survival and overall survival. Lastly, the difference between protein levels...... in primary tumors versus metastasis was evaluated. RESULTS: In the primary tumors, 8%, 18%, 14% and 15% of cases were scored positive for total HER2, pHER1, pHER2 and pHER3 expression, respectively. HER4 was expressed with strong intensity in 68% and at moderate intensity in 29% of cases. The activated forms...

  6. The reliability and validity of radiographic measurements for determining the three-dimensional position of the talus in varus and valgus osteoarthritic ankles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nosewicz, Tomasz L.; Knupp, Markus; Bolliger, Lilianna; Hintermann, Beat

    2012-01-01

    To assess the most accurate radiographic method to determine talar three-dimensional position in varus and valgus osteoarthritic ankles, we evaluated the reliability and validity of different radiographic measurements. Nine radiographic measurements were performed blindly on weight-bearing mortise, sagittal, and horizontal radiographs of 33 varus and 33 valgus feet (63 patients). Intra- and interobserver reliability was determined with the intraclass coefficient (ICC). Discriminant validity of measurements between varus and valgus feet was assessed with effect size (ES). Convergent validity (Pearson's r) was evaluated by correlating measurements to the dichotomized varus and valgus groups. Obtained measurements in both groups were finally compared with each other and with 30 control feet. Reliability was excellent (ICC > 0.80) in all but two measurements. Whereas frontal plane validity was excellent (ES and r > 0.80), horizontal and sagittal measurements showed poor to moderate validity (ES and r between 0.00 and 0.60). Four measurements were significantly different among all groups (p < 0.05). Talar positional tendency was found towards dorsiflexion or endorotation in the varus group and towards plantarflexion or exorotation in the valgus group. The frontal tibiotalar surface angle, sagittal talocalcaneal inclination angle, and horizontal talometatarsal I angle showed the best reliability, validity, and difference among the groups. The frontal tibiotalar surface angle, sagittal talocalcaneal inclination angle, and horizontal talometatarsal I angle accurately determine talar three-dimensional radiographic position in weight-bearing varus and valgus osteoarthritic ankles. Careful radiographic evaluation is important, as these deformities affect talar position in all three planes. (orig.)

  7. The reliability and validity of radiographic measurements for determining the three-dimensional position of the talus in varus and valgus osteoarthritic ankles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nosewicz, Tomasz L. [Kantonsspital Liestal, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery and Traumatology, Liestal (Switzerland); Academic Medical Center, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Meibergdreef 9, AZ, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Knupp, Markus; Bolliger, Lilianna; Hintermann, Beat [Kantonsspital Liestal, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery and Traumatology, Liestal (Switzerland)

    2012-12-15

    To assess the most accurate radiographic method to determine talar three-dimensional position in varus and valgus osteoarthritic ankles, we evaluated the reliability and validity of different radiographic measurements. Nine radiographic measurements were performed blindly on weight-bearing mortise, sagittal, and horizontal radiographs of 33 varus and 33 valgus feet (63 patients). Intra- and interobserver reliability was determined with the intraclass coefficient (ICC). Discriminant validity of measurements between varus and valgus feet was assessed with effect size (ES). Convergent validity (Pearson's r) was evaluated by correlating measurements to the dichotomized varus and valgus groups. Obtained measurements in both groups were finally compared with each other and with 30 control feet. Reliability was excellent (ICC > 0.80) in all but two measurements. Whereas frontal plane validity was excellent (ES and r > 0.80), horizontal and sagittal measurements showed poor to moderate validity (ES and r between 0.00 and 0.60). Four measurements were significantly different among all groups (p < 0.05). Talar positional tendency was found towards dorsiflexion or endorotation in the varus group and towards plantarflexion or exorotation in the valgus group. The frontal tibiotalar surface angle, sagittal talocalcaneal inclination angle, and horizontal talometatarsal I angle showed the best reliability, validity, and difference among the groups. The frontal tibiotalar surface angle, sagittal talocalcaneal inclination angle, and horizontal talometatarsal I angle accurately determine talar three-dimensional radiographic position in weight-bearing varus and valgus osteoarthritic ankles. Careful radiographic evaluation is important, as these deformities affect talar position in all three planes. (orig.)

  8. Applications Of Laser Diodes And Position Sensitive Detectors In Determining Mechanical Misalignments Of Linear Motions And Off-Line Compensation Performed By Cartesian Coordinate Robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myllyla, R.; Ahola, R.; Kopola, H.; Kostamovaara, J.; Voho, P.

    1986-07-01

    The determination of position and orientation errors made by large-scale cartesian coordinate robots using latest 3D-measurement methods has proved to be difficult in practise. A method has been developed to determine the mechanical inaccuracies of linear motions, perpendiculars, deflections, rotations and bends of a robot, relative to the common reference coordinates of the robot and the work area. The measurement method is based on the use of a laser diode and a position sensitive detector (PSD). A PSD is an optoelectronic sensor capable of providing position data about a light spot incident on its surface. The dual-axis, non-discrete PSD provides continuous analog X- and Y-axis information as the light spot transverses its active area. It senses the centroid of the light spot so that the position daa is indpendent of the focus of the spot. The PSD typically has an active area of - 1 cm - 20 cm , a resolution of 1/5000, nonlinearity of + 1% - + 15% and a fast response enabling accurate detection even of a rapidly moving light spot. The system developed consists of a laser diode transmitter, two beam splitters, a retro-reflective mirror, a PSD based receiver and a microcomputer unit for controlling the system and analysing the measured information. The divergence of the laser diode transmitter is - 0.1 mrad, it is small in size and lightweight (about 100 g), the direction of the laser beam of a fastened transmitter can easily be adjusted and it can be modulated electronically. The direction of the laser beam is not so sensitive to temperature variations as is for example an He-Ne-laser. The effective size of the PSD is enlarged with the aid of optics to have a diameter of 10 cm. Using a modulated laser beam the background light can be compensated. The position data from the PSD receiver to the memory of the microcomputer is gathered continuously and information is produced by a graphic printer in the form of graphs or numbers. This enables the measurement of the

  9. Strong-coupling approximations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbott, R.B.

    1984-03-01

    Standard path-integral techniques such as instanton calculations give good answers for weak-coupling problems, but become unreliable for strong-coupling. Here we consider a method of replacing the original potential by a suitably chosen harmonic oscillator potential. Physically this is motivated by the fact that potential barriers below the level of the ground-state energy of a quantum-mechanical system have little effect. Numerically, results are good, both for quantum-mechanical problems and for massive phi 4 field theory in 1 + 1 dimensions. 9 references, 6 figures

  10. Strong interaction and QFD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebata, T.

    1981-01-01

    With an assumed weak multiplet structure for bosonic hadrons, which is consistent with the ΔI = 1/2 rule, it is shown that the strong interaction effective hamiltonian is compatible with the weak SU(2) x U(1) gauge transformation. Especially the rho-meson transforms as a triplet under SU(2)sub(w), and this is the origin of the rho-photon analogy. It is also shown that the existence of the non-vanishing Cabibbo angle is a necessary condition for the absence of the exotic hadrons. (orig.)

  11. Strong Coupling Holography

    CERN Document Server

    Dvali, Gia

    2009-01-01

    We show that whenever a 4-dimensional theory with N particle species emerges as a consistent low energy description of a 3-brane embedded in an asymptotically-flat (4+d)-dimensional space, the holographic scale of high-dimensional gravity sets the strong coupling scale of the 4D theory. This connection persists in the limit in which gravity can be consistently decoupled. We demonstrate this effect for orbifold planes, as well as for the solitonic branes and string theoretic D-branes. In all cases the emergence of a 4D strong coupling scale from bulk holography is a persistent phenomenon. The effect turns out to be insensitive even to such extreme deformations of the brane action that seemingly shield 4D theory from the bulk gravity effects. A well understood example of such deformation is given by large 4D Einstein term in the 3-brane action, which is known to suppress the strength of 5D gravity at short distances and change the 5D Newton's law into the four-dimensional one. Nevertheless, we observe that the ...

  12. Determination of the strong coupling constant αs(MZ2) under regardment of completely resummed leading and next-to-leading logarithms. Analysis of global event variables measured in hadronic Z decays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wehr, A.

    1994-06-01

    The value of the strong coupling constant α s is determined from a combined analysis of the global event shape variables thrust, heavy jet mass and total and wide jet broadening. The extraction of α s includes the full calculation of O(α s 2 ) terms and leading and next-to-leading logarithms resummed to all orders of α s . The analysis is based on data taken with the DELPHI detector at LEP during 1991 and 1992. The dependence of the result on the detailed matching of the resummed and fixed order terms is studied. The result from the combined theory is compared with values coming from a pure NLLA analysis and as pure O(α s 2 ) analysis, respectively. It is found that the inclusion of the resummed logarithms allows the description of the data in the two jet range and reduces the scale dependence of α s (M Z 2 ) compared to pure O(α s 2 ) theory. The value using the combined NLLA+O(α s 2 ) theory at the scale μ 2 =M Z 2 is α S (M Z 2 )=0.118±0.007. The running of α s is measured from the 1991 data in an energy range from 88.5 to 93.7 GeV. The slope of α s obtained at the Z peak is dα s /dQ/ Q=Mz =-(2.9±2.8)x10 -4 GeV -1 . This value is compatible with QCD and exludes an abelian gluon model with more than two standard deviations. (orig.)

  13. Prevalence and determinants of unplanned pregnancy in HIV-positive and HIV-negative pregnant women in Cape Town, South Africa: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyun, Victoria; Brittain, Kirsty; Phillips, Tamsin K; le Roux, Stanzi; McIntyre, James A; Zerbe, Allison; Petro, Greg; Abrams, Elaine J; Myer, Landon

    2018-04-03

    Prevention of unplanned pregnancy is a crucial aspect of preventing mother-to-child HIV transmission. There are few data investigating how HIV status and use of antiretroviral therapy (ART) may influence pregnancy planning in high HIV burden settings. Our objective was to examine the prevalence and determinants of unplanned pregnancy among HIV-positive and HIV-negative women in Cape Town, South Africa. Cross-sectional analysis. Single primary-level antenatal care clinic in Cape Town, South Africa. HIV-positive and HIV-negative pregnant women, booking for antenatal care from March 2013 to August 2015, were included. Unplanned pregnancy was measured at the first antenatal care visit using the London Measure of Unplanned Pregnancy (LMUP). Analyses examined LMUP scores across four groups of participants defined by their HIV status, awareness of their HIV status prior to the current pregnancy and/or whether they were using antiretroviral therapy (ART) prior to the current pregnancy. Among 2105 pregnant women (1512 HIV positive; 593 HIV negative), median age was 28 years, 43% were married/cohabiting and 20% were nulliparous. Levels of unplanned pregnancy were significantly higher in HIV-positive versus HIV-negative women (50% vs 33%, p<0.001); and highest in women who were known HIV positive but not on ART (53%). After adjusting for age, parity and marital status, unplanned pregnancy was most common among women newly diagnosed and women who were known HIV positive but not on ART (compared with HIV-negative women, adjusted OR (aOR): 1.43; 95% CI 1.05 to 1.94 and aOR: 1.57; 95% CI 1.13 to 2.15, respectively). Increased parity and younger age (<24 years) were also associated with unplanned pregnancy (aOR: 1.42; 95% CI 1.25 to 1.60 and aOR: 1.83; 95% CI 1.23 to 2.74, respectively). We observed high levels of unplanned pregnancy among HIV-positive women, particularly among those not on ART, suggesting ongoing missed opportunities for improved family planning and

  14. LIGO: The strong belief

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2016-01-01

    Twenty years of designing, building and testing a number of innovative technologies, with the strong belief that the endeavour would lead to a historic breakthrough. The Bulletin publishes an abstract of the Courier’s interview with Barry Barish, one of the founding fathers of LIGO.   The plots show the signals of gravitational waves detected by the twin LIGO observatories at Livingston, Louisiana, and Hanford, Washington. (Image: Caltech/MIT/LIGO Lab) On 11 February, the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) and Virgo collaborations published a historic paper in which they showed a gravitational signal emitted by the merger of two black holes. These results come after 20 years of hard work by a large collaboration of scientists operating the two LIGO observatories in the US. Barry Barish, Linde Professor of Physics, Emeritus at the California Institute of Technology and former Director of the Global Design Effort for the Internat...

  15. Method and device for determining the position of a cutting tool relative to the rotational axis of a spindle-mounted workpiece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, R.R.

    1980-09-03

    The present invention is directed to a method and device for determining the location of a cutting tool with respect to the rotational axis of a spindle-mounted workpiece. A vacuum cup supporting a machinable sacrificial pin is secured to the workpiece at a location where the pin will project along and encompass the rotational axis of the workpiece. The pin is then machined into a cylinder. The position of the surface of the cutting tool contacting the machine cylinder is spaced from the rotational axis of the workpiece a distance equal to the radius of the cylinder.

  16. Acetylcholinesterase-positive innervation is present at undifferentiated stages of the sea turtle Lepidochelis olivacea embryo gonads: implications for temperature-dependent sex determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Ospina, G; Jiménez-Trejo, F J; Favila, R; Moreno-Mendoza, N A; Granados Rojas, L; Barrios, F A; Díaz-Cintra, S; Merchant-Larios, H

    1999-07-19

    In embryos of different reptile species, incubation temperature triggers a cascade of endocrine events that lead to gonad sex differentiation. The cellular and molecular mechanisms by which temperature sets in motion this process are still controversial. Here, we begin evaluating the possible participation of the nervous system in temperature-dependent sex determination by showing the existence and origin of acetylcholinesterase (AchE)-positive nerve fibers in undifferentiated gonads of the Lepidochelys olivacea (L. olivacea) sea turtle putative male and female embryos, along the thermosensitive period for sex determination (TPSD; stages 20-27). AChE-positive nerve bundles and fibers were readily visualized until developmental stage 24 and thereafter. DiI injections and confocal imaging showed that some of these gonadal nerves arise from the lower thoracic and upper lumbar spinal cord levels, and might thus be sensory in nature. Because the vertebrate spinal cord is capable of integrating by itself thermoregulatory responses with no intervention of uppermost levels of the central nervous system, we also evaluated spinal cord maturation during the TPSD. The maturation of the spinal cord was more advanced in putative female than in male embryos, when sex determination is taking place for each sex; this process starts and ends earlier in male than in female embryos. Together these observations open the possibility that the spinal cord and the innervation derived from it could play a direct role in driving or modulating the process of temperature-dependent gonad sex determination and/or differentiation, particularly in female L. olivacea embryos.

  17. Staph ID/R: a rapid method for determining staphylococcus species identity and detecting the mecA gene directly from positive blood culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasko, Chris; Hicke, Brian; Dunn, John; Jaeckel, Heidi; Nieuwlandt, Dan; Weed, Diane; Woodruff, Evelyn; Zheng, Xiaotian; Jenison, Robert

    2012-03-01

    Rapid diagnosis of staphylococcal bacteremia directs appropriate antimicrobial therapy, leading to improved patient outcome. We describe herein a rapid test (Staph ID/R, combines a rapid isothermal nucleic acid amplification method, helicase-dependent amplification (HDA), with a chip-based array that produces unambiguous visible results. The analytic sensitivity was 1 CFU per reaction for the mecA gene and was 1 to 250 CFU per reaction depending on the staphylococcal species present in the positive blood culture. Staph ID/R has excellent specificity as well, with no cross-reactivity observed. We validated the performance of Staph ID/R by testing 104 frozen clinical positive blood cultures and comparing the results with rpoB gene or 16S rRNA gene sequencing for species identity determinations and mecA gene PCR to confirm mecA gene results. Staph ID/R agreed with mecA gene PCR for all samples and agreed with rpoB/16S rRNA gene sequencing in all cases except for one sample that contained a mixture of two staphylococcal species, one of which Staph ID/R correctly identified, for an overall agreement of 99.0% (P Staph ID/R could potentially be used to positively affect patient management for Staphylococcus-mediated bacteremia.

  18. Quantitative determination of caffeine and alcohol in energy drinks and the potential to produce positive transdermal alcohol concentrations in human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayala, Jessica; Simons, Kelsie; Kerrigan, Sarah

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether non-alcoholic energy drinks could result in positive "alcohol alerts" based on transdermal alcohol concentration (TAC) using a commercially available electrochemical monitoring device. Eleven energy drinks were quantitatively assayed for both ethanol and caffeine. Ethanol concentrations for all of the non-alcoholic energy drinks ranged in concentration from 0.03 to 0.230% (w/v) and caffeine content per 8-oz serving ranged from 65 to 126 mg. A total of 15 human subjects participated in the study. Subjects consumed between 6 and 8 energy drinks over an 8-h period. The SCRAM II monitoring device was used to determine TACs every 30 min before, during, and after the study. None of the subjects produced TAC readings that resulted in positive "alcohol alerts". TAC measurements for all subjects before, during and after the energy drink study period (16 h total) were energy drink that greatly exceeds what would be considered typical. Based on these results, it appears that energy drink consumption is an unlikely explanation for elevated TACs that might be identified as potential drinking episodes or "alcohol alerts" using this device.

  19. John Strong (1941 - 2006)

    CERN Multimedia

    Wickens, F

    Our friend and colleague John Strong was cruelly taken from us by a brain tumour on Monday 31st July, a few days before his 65th birthday John started his career working with a group from Westfield College, under the leadership of Ted Bellamy. He obtained his PhD and spent the early part of his career on experiments at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL), but after the early 1970s his research was focussed on experiments in CERN. Over the years he made a number of notable contributions to experiments in CERN: The Omega spectrometer adopted a system John had originally developed for experiments at RAL using vidicon cameras to record the sparks in the spark chambers; He contributed to the success of NA1 and NA7, where he became heavily involved in the electronic trigger systems; He was responsible for the second level trigger system for the ALEPH detector and spent five years leading a team that designed and built the system, which ran for twelve years with only minor interventions. Following ALEPH he tur...

  20. Strong-interaction nonuniversality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkas, R.R.; Foot, R.; He, X.; Joshi, G.C.

    1989-01-01

    The universal QCD color theory is extended to an SU(3) 1 direct product SU(3) 2 direct product SU(3) 3 gauge theory, where quarks of the ith generation transform as triplets under SU(3)/sub i/ and singlets under the other two factors. The usual color group is then identified with the diagonal subgroup, which remains exact after symmetry breaking. The gauge bosons associated with the 16 broken generators then form two massive octets under ordinary color. The interactions between quarks and these heavy gluonlike particles are explicitly nonuniversal and thus an exploration of their physical implications allows us to shed light on the fundamental issue of strong-interaction universality. Nonuniversality and weak flavor mixing are shown to generate heavy-gluon-induced flavor-changing neutral currents. The phenomenology of these processes is studied, as they provide the major experimental constraint on the extended theory. Three symmetry-breaking scenarios are presented. The first has color breaking occurring at the weak scale, while the second and third divorce the two scales. The third model has the interesting feature of radiatively induced off-diagonal Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix elements

  1. Evaluation of BD MAX Staph SR Assay for Differentiating Between Staphylococcus aureus and Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci and Determining Methicillin Resistance Directly From Positive Blood Cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jaewoong; Park, Yeon Joon; Park, Dong Jin; Park, Kang Gyun; Lee, Hae Kyung

    2017-01-01

    We evaluated the performance of the BD MAX StaphSR Assay (SR assay; BD, USA) for direct detection of Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin resistance not only in S. aureus but also in coagulase-negative Staphylococci (CNS) from positive blood cultures. From 228 blood culture bottles, 103 S. aureus [45 methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), 55 methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA), 3 mixed infections (1 MRSA+Enterococcus faecalis, 1 MSSA+MRCNS, 1 MSSA+MSCNS)], and 125 CNS (102 MRCNS, 23 MSCNS) were identified by Vitek 2. For further analysis, we obtained the cycle threshold (Ct) values from the BD MAX system software to determine an appropriate cutoff value. For discrepancy analysis, conventional mecA/mecC PCR and oxacillin minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined. Compared to Vitek 2, the SR assay identified all 103 S. aureus isolates correctly but failed to detect methicillin resistance in three MRSA isolates. All 55 MSSA isolates were correctly identified by the SR assay. In the concordant cases, the highest Ct values for nuc, mecA, and mec right-extremity junction (MREJ) were 25.6, 22, and 22.2, respectively. Therefore, we selected Ct values from 0-27 as a range of positivity, and applying this cutoff, the sensitivity/specificity of the SR assay were 100%/100% for detecting S. aureus, and 97.9%/98.1% and 99.0%/95.8% for detecting methicillin resistance in S. aureus and CNS, respectively. We propose a Ct cutoff value for nuc/mec assay without considering MREJ because mixed cultures of MSSA and MRCNS were very rare (0.4%) in the positive blood cultures.

  2. Atomica ionization by strong coherent radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandi, H.S.; Davidovich, L.

    1979-07-01

    The relation among the three most frequently used non-perturbative methods proposed to study the ionization of atoms by strong electromagnetic fields is established. Their range of validity is also determined. (Author) [pt

  3. Determination of Double Bond Positions in Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Using the Photochemical Paternò-Büchi Reaction with Acetone and Tandem Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Robert C; Okuno, Toshiaki; Johnson, Christopher A; Barkley, Robert M

    2017-08-15

    The positions of double bonds along the carbon chain of methylene interrupted polyunsaturated fatty acids are unique identifiers of specific fatty acids derived from biochemical reactions that occur in cells. It is possible to obtain direct structural information as to these double bond positions using tandem mass spectrometry after collisional activation of the carboxylate anions of an acetone adduct at each of the double bond positions formed by the photochemical Paternò-Büchi reaction with acetone. This reaction can be carried out by exposing a small portion of an inline fused silica capillary to UV photons from a mercury vapor lamp as the sample is infused into the electrospray ion source of a mass spectrometer. Collisional activation of [M - H] - yields a series of reverse Paternò-Büchi reaction product ions that essentially are derived from cleavage of the original carbon-carbon double bonds that yield an isopropenyl carboxylate anion corresponding to each double bond location. Aldehydic reverse Paternò-Büchi product ions are much less abundant as the carbon chain length and number of double bonds increase. The use of a mixture of D 0 /D 6 -acetone facilitates identification of these double bonds indicating product ions as shown for arachidonic acid. If oxygen is present in the solvent stream undergoing UV photoactivation, ozone cleavage ions are also observed without prior collisional activation. This reaction was used to determine the double bond positions in a 20:3 fatty acid that accumulated in phospholipids of RAW 264.7 cells cultured for 3 days.

  4. Technical Note: Using k-means clustering to determine the number and position of isocenters in MLC-based multiple target intracranial radiosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yock, Adam D; Kim, Gwe-Ya

    2017-09-01

    To present the k-means clustering algorithm as a tool to address treatment planning considerations characteristic of stereotactic radiosurgery using a single isocenter for multiple targets. For 30 patients treated with stereotactic radiosurgery for multiple brain metastases, the geometric centroids and radii of each met were determined from the treatment planning system. In-house software used this as well as weighted and unweighted versions of the k-means clustering algorithm to group the targets to be treated with a single isocenter, and to position each isocenter. The algorithm results were evaluated using within-cluster sum of squares as well as a minimum target coverage metric that considered the effect of target size. Both versions of the algorithm were applied to an example patient to demonstrate the prospective determination of the appropriate number and location of isocenters. Both weighted and unweighted versions of the k-means algorithm were applied successfully to determine the number and position of isocenters. Comparing the two, both the within-cluster sum of squares metric and the minimum target coverage metric resulting from the unweighted version were less than those from the weighted version. The average magnitudes of the differences were small (-0.2 cm 2 and 0.1% for the within cluster sum of squares and minimum target coverage, respectively) but statistically significant (Wilcoxon signed-rank test, P k-means clustering algorithm represented an advantage of the unweighted version for the within-cluster sum of squares metric, and an advantage of the weighted version for the minimum target coverage metric. While additional treatment planning considerations have a large influence on the final treatment plan quality, both versions of the k-means algorithm provide automatic, consistent, quantitative, and objective solutions to the tasks associated with SRS treatment planning using a single isocenter for multiple targets. © 2017 The Authors. Journal

  5. Rapid determination of eight bioactive alkaloids in Portulaca oleracea L. by the optimal microwave extraction combined with positive-negative conversion multiple reaction monitor (+/-MRM) technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xiao; Tian, Jinlong; Li, Lingzhi; Gao, Jun; Zhang, Qingyi; Gao, Pinyi; Song, Shaojiang

    2014-03-01

    A rapid and reliable microwave extraction and the triple quadrupole-linear ion trap mass spectrometry method was developed and validated for the determination of eight alkaloids in Portulaca oleracea L. The optimal microwave extraction (MWE) condition was performed at 60 °C for 12 min with ethanol-water (70:30, v/v) as the extracting solvent, and the solvent to solid ratio was 30:1. The alkaloids were first detected simultaneously by electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry under positive-negative conversion multiple reaction monitor ((+/-)MRM) technique. With investigating three different columns, samples were separated in only 8 min on a Waters ACQUITY UPLC HSS T3 (50 × 2.1 mm(2), 1.8 μm) column using acetonitrile and formic acid-water solution as a mobile phase with a flow rate at 0.2 mL/min. All calibration curves showed good linearity (r>0.999) within the test ranges. The method developed was validated with acceptable sensitivity, intra- and inter-day precision, reproducibility, and extraction recoveries. It was successfully applied to the determination of eight alkaloids in Portulaca oleracea L. from different sources and different harvest periods. The method also provide a reference for extraction and determination of alkaloids in other complex systems. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Gas chromatographic determination of pesticides in vegetable samples by sequential positive and negative chemical ionization and tandem mass spectrometric fragmentation using an ion trap analyser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernando, M D; Agüera, A; Fernández-Alba, A R; Piedra, L; Contreras, M

    2001-01-01

    A selective and sensitive chromatographic method is described for the determination of nine organochlorine and organophosphorus pesticides in vegetable samples by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The proposed method combines the use of positive and negative chemical ionisation and tandem mass spectrometric fragmentation, resulting in a significant increase in selectivity and allowing the simultaneous confirmation and quantification of trace levels of pesticides in complex vegetable matrices. Parameters relative to ionisation and fragmentation processes were optimised to obtain maximum sensitivity. Repeatability and reproducibility studies yielded relative standard deviations lower than 25% in all cases. Identification criteria, such as retention time and relative abundance of characteristic product ions, were also evaluated in order to guarantee the correct identification of the target compounds. The method was applied to real vegetable samples to demonstrate its use in routine analysis.

  7. Determination of the positions of aluminum atoms introduced into SSZ-35 and the catalytic properties of the generated Brønsted acid sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyaji, Akimitsu; Kimura, Nobuhiro; Shiga, Akinobu; Hayashi, Yoshihiro; Nishitoba, Toshiki; Motokura, Ken; Baba, Toshihide

    2017-03-01

    The positions of aluminum (Al) atoms in SSZ-35 together with the characteristics of the generated protons were investigated by 27 Al multiple quantum magic-angle spinning (MQ-MAS), 29 Si MAS, and 1 H MAS NMR data analyses accompanied by a variable temperature 1 H MAS NMR analysis. The origin of the acidic -OH groups (Brønsted acid sites) generated by introducing Al atoms into the T sites was investigated and the T sites introduced into the Al atoms were revealed. To further determine the catalytic properties of the acidic protons generated in SSZ-35, the influence of the concentration of the Al atoms on the catalytic activity and selectivity during the transformation of toluene was examined.

  8. Determination of Endograft Apposition, Position, and Expansion in the Aortic Neck Predicts Type Ia Endoleak and Migration After Endovascular Aneurysm Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuurmann, Richte C L; van Noort, Kim; Overeem, Simon P; van Veen, Ruben; Ouriel, Kenneth; Jordan, William D; Muhs, Bart E; 't Mannetje, Yannick W; Reijnen, Michel M P J; Fioole, Bram; Ünlü, Çağdaş; Brummel, Peter; de Vries, Jean-Paul P M

    2018-03-01

    To describe the added value of determining changes in position and apposition on computed tomography angiography (CTA) after endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) to detect early caudal displacement of the device and to prevent type Ia endoleak. Four groups of elective EVAR patients were selected from a dataset purposely enriched with type Ia endoleak and migration (>10 mm) cases. The groups included cases of late type Ia endoleak (n=36), migration (n=9), a type II endoleak (n=16), and controls without post-EVAR complications (n=37). Apposition of the endograft fabric with the aortic neck, shortest distance between the fabric and the renal arteries, expansion of the main body (or dilatation of the aorta in the infrarenal sealing zone), and tilt of the endograft toward the aortic axis were determined on the first postoperative and the last available CTA scan without type Ia endoleak or migration. Differences in these endograft dimensions were compared between the first vs last scan and among the 4 groups. No significant differences in endograft configurations were observed among the groups on the first postoperative CTA scan. On the last CTA scan before a complication arose, the position of the fabric relative to the renal arteries, expansion of the main body, and apposition of the fabric with the aortic neck were significantly different between the type Ia endoleak (median follow-up 15 months) and migration groups (median follow-up 23 months) compared with the control group (median follow-up 19 months). Most endograft dimensions had changed significantly compared with the first postoperative CTA scan for all groups. Apposition had increased in the control group but had decreased significantly in the type Ia endoleak and migration groups. Progressive changes in dimensions of the endograft within the infrarenal neck could be detected on regular CTA scans before the complication became urgent in many patients.

  9. Contrast-enhanced CT in determining resectability in patients with pancreatic carcinoma: a meta-analysis of the positive predictive values of CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somers, Inne; Bipat, Shandra [University of Amsterdam, Department of Radiology, Academic Medical Centre, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2017-08-15

    To obtain a summary positive predictive value (sPPV) of contrast-enhanced CT in determining resectability. The MEDLINE and EMBASE databases from JAN2005 to DEC2015 were searched and checked for inclusion criteria. Data on study design, patient characteristics, imaging techniques, image evaluation, reference standard, time interval between CT and reference standard, and data on resectability/unresectablity were extracted by two reviewers. We used a fixed-effects or random-effects approach to obtain sPPV for resectability. Several subgroups were defined: 1) bolus-triggering versus fixed-timing; 2) pancreatic and portal phases versus portal phase alone; 3) all criteria (liver metastases/lymphnode involvement/local advanced/vascular invasion) versus only vascular invasion as criteria for unresectability. Twenty-nine articles were included (2171 patients). Most studies were performed in multicentre settings, initiated by the department of radiology and retrospectively performed. The I{sup 2}-value was 68%, indicating heterogeneity of data. The sPPV was 81% (95%CI: 75-86%). False positives were mostly liver, peritoneal, or lymphnode metastases. Bolus-triggering had a slightly higher sPPV compared to fixed-timing, 87% (95%CI: 81-91%) versus 78% (95%CI: 66-86%) (p = 0.077). No differences were observed in other subgroups. This meta-analysis showed a sPPV of 81% for predicting resectability by CT, meaning that 19% of patients falsely undergo surgical exploration. (orig.)

  10. Crystallization and preliminary structure determination of the transfer protein TraM from the Gram-positive conjugative plasmid pIP501

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goessweiner-Mohr, Nikolaus; Grumet, Lukas; Pavkov-Keller, Tea; Birner-Gruenberger, Ruth; Grohmann, Elisabeth; Keller, Walter

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports the successful purification, crystallization and preliminary structure solution of the transfer protein TraM from the Gram-positive conjugative plasmid pIP501. The major means of horizontal gene spread (e.g. of antibiotic resistance) is conjugative plasmid transfer. It presents a serious threat especially for hospitalized and immuno-suppressed patients, as it can lead to the accelerated spread of bacteria with multiple antibiotic resistances. Detailed information about the process is available only for bacteria of Gram-negative (G−) origin and little is known about the corresponding mechanisms in Gram-positive (G+) bacteria. Here we present the purification, biophysical characterization, crystallization and preliminary structure determination of the TraM C-terminal domain (TraMΔ, comprising residues 190–322 of the full-length protein), a putative transfer protein from the G+ conjugative model plasmid pIP501. The crystals diffracted to 2.5 Å resolution and belonged to space group P1, with unit-cell parameters a = 39.21, b = 54.98, c = 93.47 Å, α = 89.91, β = 86.44, γ = 78.63° and six molecules per asymmetric unit. The preliminary structure was solved by selenomethionine single-wavelength anomalous diffraction

  11. The stable microbubble test for determining continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) success in very preterm infants receiving nasal CPAP from birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Risha; Morley, Colin J; Argus, Brenda; Tingay, David G; Donath, Susan; Davis, Peter G

    2013-01-01

    Very preterm infants can be treated with nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) from birth, but some fail. A rapid test, such as the stable microbubble test (SMT) on gastric aspirate, may identify those who can be managed successfully using CPAP. To determine if SMT can identify soon after birth, very preterm infants who may be successfully managed on CPAP alone. Stable microbubbles (diameter CPAP from birth. Infants failed CPAP if intubated at CPAP in the delivery room at a median (interquartile range) pressure 7 (6-8) cmH2O and FiO2 0.25 (0.21-0.3). Gastric aspirates were taken at a median (interquartile range) age of 0.5 (0.3-0.6) hours. The best cut-off point for predicting CPAP success or failure was a SMT count of 8 microbubbles/mm(2). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.8 (95% CI 0.7-0.9). A SMT count ≥8 microbubbles/mm(2) had a sensitivity of 53%, a specificity of 100%, a positive predictive value of 100%, and a negative predictive value of 60% for predicting CPAP success. Infants treated with CPAP from birth, who had SMT counts ≥8 microbubbles/mm(2) on their gastric aspirate, did not fail CPAP. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Strongly coupled dust coulomb clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juan Wentau; Lai Yingju; Chen Mingheng; I Lin

    1999-01-01

    The structures and motions of quasi-2-dimensional strongly coupled dust Coulomb clusters with particle number N from few to hundreds in a cylindrical rf plasma trap are studied and compared with the results from the molecular dynamic simulation using more ideal models. Shell structures with periodic packing in different shells and intershell rotational motion dominated excitations are observed at small N. As N increases, the boundary has less effect, the system recovers to the triangular lattice with isotropic vortex type cooperative excitations similar to an infinite N system except the outer shell region. The above generic behaviors are mainly determined by the system symmetry and agree with the simulation results. The detailed interaction form causes minor effect such as the fine structure of packing

  13. Determinants of excellent/good self-rated health among HIV positive individuals in South Africa: evidence from a 2012 nationally representative household survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabaso, M L H; Zungu, N P; Rehle, T; Moyo, S; Jooste, S; Zuma, K

    2018-01-30

    In South Africa, HIV is increasingly becoming a chronic disease as a result of advances in HIV treatment and prevention in the last three decades. This has changed the perception from a life threating to a potentially manageable disease. However, little is known about self-perceived health status of HIV-infected individuals. Self-rated health (SRH) has been shown to be a sensitive indicator of health-relatedchanges directly linked to HIV, but can also be influenced by differences in social and material conditions. The aim of this paper was to identify determinants of excellent/good SRH among HIV-infected individuals using socio-demographic, life style and health related data. The study used data from the nationally representative 2012 South African population-based household survey on HIV prevalence, incidence and behaviour conducted using multi-stage stratified cluster sampling design. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression models were used to identify determinants of SRH among HIV-infected individuals. Out of a total of 2632 HIV positive participants 74.1% (95% CI: 68.4-74.2) reported excellent/good SRH. Increased likelihood of reporting excellent/good SRH was significantly associated with being Black African [OR= 1.97 (95%CI: 1.12-3.46), p = 0.019] and belonging to least poor household [OR= 3.13 (95%CI: 1.26-7.78), p = 0.014]. Decreased likelihood of reporting excellent/good SRH was significantly associated with those aged 25 to 34 years [OR= 0.49 (95% CI: 0.31-0.78), p = 0.003], 35 to 44 years[OR= 0.27 (95% CI: 0.17-0.44), p < 0.001], 45 to 54 years [OR= 0.20 (95% CI: 0.12-0.34), p < 0.001], and those 55 years and older [OR= 0.15 (95% CI: 0.09-0.26), p < 0.001], hospitalization in the past twelve months [OR= 0.40 (95% CI: 0.26-0.60), p < 0.001]. To have positive health effects and improve the perceived health status for PLWH social interventions should seek to enhance to support for the elderly HIV-positive

  14. Inequalities in determinants of health among Aboriginal and Caucasian persons living with HIV/AIDS in Ontario: results from the Positive Spaces, Healthy Places Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monette, Laverne E; Rourke, Sean B; Gibson, Katherine; Bekele, Tsegaye M; Tucker, Ruthann; Greene, Saara; Sobota, Michael; Koornstra, Jay; Byers, Steve; Marks, Elisabeth; Bacon, Jean; Watson, James R; Hwang, Stephen W; Ahluwalia, Amrita; Dunn, James R; Guenter, Dale; Hambly, Keith; Bhuiyan, Shafi

    2011-01-01

    Aboriginal Canadians (i.e., First Nations, Inuit and Métis) are disproportionately affected by HIV/AIDS, and experience greater social and economic marginalization and poorer housing conditions. This study sought to understand the differences in the determinants of health and housing-related characteristics between samples of Aboriginal and Caucasian adults living with HIV/AIDS in Ontario. We analyzed baseline demographic, socio-economic, health, and housing-related data from 521 individuals (79 Aboriginal and 442 Caucasian) living with HIV/AIDS and enrolled in the Positive Spaces, Healthy Places study. We compared the characteristics of Aboriginal and Caucasian participants to identify determinants of health and housing-related characteristics independently associated with Aboriginal ethnicity. Compared to Caucausian participants living with HIV, Aboriginal participants were more likely to be younger, female or transgender women, less educated, unemployed, and homeless or unstably housed. They were also more likely to have low incomes and to have experienced housing-related discrimination. In a multivariate model, gender, income, and experiences of homelessness were independently associated with Aboriginal ethnicity. Aboriginal individuals living with HIV/AIDS in our sample are coping with significantly worse social and economic conditions and are more likely to experience challenging housing situations than a comparison group of Caucasian individuals living with HIV/AIDS. To develop effective care, treatment and support strategies for Aboriginal peoples with HIV, it is critical to address and improve their socio-economic and housing conditions.

  15. STAP-2 Protein Expression in B16F10 Melanoma Cells Positively Regulates Protein Levels of Tyrosinase, Which Determines Organs to Infiltrate in the Body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekine, Yuichi; Togi, Sumihito; Muromoto, Ryuta; Kon, Shigeyuki; Kitai, Yuichi; Yoshimura, Akihiko; Oritani, Kenji; Matsuda, Tadashi

    2015-07-10

    Melanoma is the most serious type of skin cancer, with a highly metastatic phenotype. In this report, we show that signal transducing adaptor protein 2 (STAP-2) is involved in cell migration, proliferation, and melanogenesis as well as chemokine receptor expression and tumorigenesis in B16F10 melanoma cells. This was evident in mice injected with STAP-2 shRNA (shSTAP-2)-expressing B16F10 cells, which infiltrated organs in a completely different pattern from the original cells, showing massive colonization in the liver, kidney, and neck but not in the lung. The most important finding was that STAP-2 expression determined tyrosinase protein content. STAP-2 colocalized with tyrosinase in lysosomes and protected tyrosinase from protein degradation. It is noteworthy that B16F10 cells with knocked down tyrosinase showed similar cell characteristics as shSTAP-2 cells. These results indicated that tyrosinase contributed to some cellular events beyond melanogenesis. Taken together, one possibility is that STAP-2 positively regulates the protein levels of tyrosinase, which determines tumor invasion via controlling chemokine receptor expression. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  16. The albinism of the feral Asinara white donkeys (Equus asinus) is determined by a missense mutation in a highly conserved position of the tyrosinase (TYR) gene deduced protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utzeri, V J; Bertolini, F; Ribani, A; Schiavo, G; Dall'Olio, S; Fontanesi, L

    2016-02-01

    A feral donkey population (Equus asinus), living in the Asinara National Park (an island north-west of Sardinia, Italy), includes a unique white albino donkey subpopulation or colour morph that is a major attraction of this park. Disrupting mutations in the tyrosinase (TYR) gene are known to cause recessive albinisms in humans (oculocutaneous albinism Type 1; OCA1) and other species. In this study, we analysed the donkey TYR gene as a strong candidate to identify the causative mutation of the albinism of these donkeys. The TYR gene was sequenced from 13 donkeys (seven Asinara white albino and six coloured animals). Seven single nucleotide polymorphisms were identified. A missense mutation (c.604C>G; p.His202Asp) in a highly conserved amino acid position (even across kingdoms), which disrupts the first copper-binding site (CuA) of functional protein, was identified in the homozygous condition (G/G or D/D) in all Asinara white albino donkeys and in the albino son of a trio (the grey parents had genotype C/G or H/D), supporting the recessive mode of inheritance of this mutation. Genotyping 82 donkeys confirmed that Asinara albino donkeys had genotype G/G whereas all other coloured donkeys had genotype C/C or C/G. Across-population association between the c.604C>G genotypes and the albino coat colour was highly significant (P = 6.17E-18). The identification of the causative mutation of the albinism in the Asinara white donkeys might open new perspectives to study the dynamics of this putative deleterious allele in a feral population and to manage this interesting animal genetic resource. © 2015 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  17. ImmunoCAP cellulose displays cross-reactive carbohydrate determinant (CCD) epitopes and can cause false-positive test results in patients with high anti-CCD IgE antibody levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmer, Wolfgang; Altmann, Friedrich; Holzweber, Friedrich; Gruber, Clemens; Wantke, Felix; Wöhrl, Stefan

    2018-01-01

    Cross-reactive carbohydrate determinants (CCDs) in plants and insect venoms are a common cause of irrelevant positive test results during in vitro allergy diagnosis. We observed that some CCD-positive sera show nonspecific IgE binding even with CCD-free recombinant allergens when using the Phadia ImmunoCAP platform. We investigated whether cellulose used as an allergen carrier in ImmunoCAP harbors residual N-glycans, causing nonspecific background binding in CCD-positive sera. IgE binding to 6 samples of blank ImmunoCAPs coupled to either streptavidin (SA-CAP-1 or 2) or nonallergenic maltose-binding protein (MBP; MBP-CAP-1 to 4) and binding to a panel of 4 recombinant allergens were compared in CCD-positive sera before and after inhibition with a CCD inhibitor (MUXF 3 -human serum albumin). Of 52 CCD-positive sera (bromelain, 1.01-59.6 kilounits of antigen per liter [kU A /L]) tested on SA-CAP-1, 35 (67%) showed IgE binding of greater than 0.35 kU A /L (0.41-4.22 kU A /L). Among those with anti-CCD IgE levels of greater than 7.0 kU A /L, 90% (26/29) were positive. IgE binding to SA-CAP-1 correlated with IgE binding to bromelain (r = 0.68) and was completely abolished by serum preincubation with the CCD inhibitor (n = 15). Binding scores with SA-CAP-2 and MBP-CAP-1 to MBP-CAP-4 were generally lower but strongly correlated with those of SA-CAP-1 and bromelain. IgE reactivity of 10 CCD-positive sera (14.0-52.5 kU A /L) with the recombinant allergens rPhl p 12, rFel d 1, rAra h 2, and rPru p 3 was positive to at least 1 allergen in 8 of 10 (0.36-1.63 kU A /L) and borderline in 2 of 10 (0.21-0.25 kU A /L). Binding correlated with antibody binding to bromelain (r = 0.61) and to all blank ImmunoCAPs (r > 0.90) and could be completely blocked by the CCD inhibitor. Overall, mean background binding to cellulose CCDs corresponded to 2% to 3% of the reactivity seen with bromelain. Cellulose used as a solid-phase allergen carrier can contain varying amounts of CCDs

  18. Strong seismic ground motion propagation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seale, S.; Archuleta, R.; Pecker, A.; Bouchon, M.; Mohammadioun, G.; Murphy, A.; Mohammadioun, B.

    1988-10-01

    At the McGee Creek, California, site, 3-component strong-motion accelerometers are located at depths of 166 m, 35 m and 0 m. The surface material is glacial moraine, to a depth of 30.5 m, overlying homfels. Accelerations were recorded from two California earthquakes: Round Valley, M L 5.8, November 23, 1984, 18:08 UTC and Chalfant Valley, M L 6.4, July 21, 1986, 14:42 UTC. By separating out the SH components of acceleration, we were able to determine the orientations of the downhole instruments. By separating out the SV component of acceleration, we were able to determine the approximate angle of incidence of the signal at 166 m. A constant phase velocity Haskell-Thomson model was applied to generate synthetic SH seismograms at the surface using the accelerations recorded at 166 m. In the frequency band 0.0 - 10.0 Hz, we compared the filtered synthetic records to the filtered surface data. The onset of the SH pulse is clearly seen, as are the reflections from the interface at 30.5 m. The synthetic record closely matches the data in amplitude and phase. The fit between the synthetic accelerogram and the data shows that the seismic amplification at the surface is a result of the contrast of the impedances (shear stiffnesses) of the near surface materials

  19. Ozone-induced dissociation on a traveling wave high-resolution mass spectrometer for determination of double-bond position in lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Ngoc; Brown, Jeffery; Giles, Kevin; Zhang, Qibin

    2017-09-15

    The position of C=C within fatty acyl chains affects the biological function of lipids. Ozone-induced dissociation mass spectrometry (OzID-MS) has great potential in determination of lipid double-bond position, but has generally been implemented on low-resolution ion trap mass spectrometers. In addition, most of the OzID-MS experiments carried out so far were focused on the sodiated adducts of lipids; fragmentation of the most commonly observed protonated ions generated in LC/MS-based lipidomics workflow has been less explored. Ozone generated in line from an ozone generator was connected to the trap and transfer gas supply line of a Synapt G2 high-resolution mass spectrometer. Protonated ions of different phosphatidylcholines (PC) were generated by electrospray ionization through direct infusion. Different parameters, including traveling wave height and velocity, trap entrance and DC potential, were adjusted to maximize the OzID efficiency. sn-positional isomers and cis/trans isomers of lipids were compared for their reactivity with ozone. Traveling wave height and velocity were tuned to prolong the encounter time between lipid ions and ozone, and resulted in improved OzID efficiency, as did increasing trapping region DC and entrance potential. Under optimized settings, at least 1000 times enhancement in OzID efficiency was achieved compared to that under default settings for monounsaturated PC standards. Monounsaturated C=C in the sn-2 PC isomer reacted faster with ozone than the sn-1 isomer. Similarly, the C=C in trans PC reacted faster than in cis PC. This is the first implementation of OzID in the trap and transfer region of a traveling wave enabled high-resolution mass spectrometer. The OzID reaction efficiency is significantly improved by slowing down ions in the trap region for their prolonged interaction with ozone. This will facilitate application of high-resolution OzID-MS in lipidomics. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Impurity screening in strongly coupled plasma systems

    CERN Document Server

    Kyrkos, S

    2003-01-01

    We present an overview of the problem of screening of an impurity in a strongly coupled one-component plasma within the framework of the linear response (LR) theory. We consider 3D, 2D and quasi-2D layered systems. For a strongly coupled plasma the LR can be determined by way of the known S(k) structure functions. In general, an oscillating screening potential with local overscreening and antiscreening regions emerges. In the case of the bilayer, this phenomenon becomes global, as overscreening develops in the layer of the impurity and antiscreening in the adjacent layer. We comment on the limitations of the LR theory in the strong coupling situation.

  1. Measurement of the inclusive 3-jet production differential cross section in proton-proton collisions at 7 TeV and determination of the strong coupling constant in the TeV range

    CERN Document Server

    Khachatryan, Vardan; Tumasyan, Armen; Adam, Wolfgang; Bergauer, Thomas; Dragicevic, Marko; Erö, Janos; Fabjan, Christian; Friedl, Markus; Fruehwirth, Rudolf; Ghete, Vasile Mihai; Hartl, Christian; Hörmann, Natascha; Hrubec, Josef; Jeitler, Manfred; Kiesenhofer, Wolfgang; Knünz, Valentin; Krammer, Manfred; Krätschmer, Ilse; Liko, Dietrich; Mikulec, Ivan; Rabady, Dinyar; Rahbaran, Babak; Rohringer, Herbert; Schöfbeck, Robert; Strauss, Josef; Taurok, Anton; Treberer-Treberspurg, Wolfgang; Waltenberger, Wolfgang; Wulz, Claudia-Elisabeth; Mossolov, Vladimir; Shumeiko, Nikolai; Suarez Gonzalez, Juan; Alderweireldt, Sara; Bansal, Monika; Bansal, Sunil; Cornelis, Tom; De Wolf, Eddi A; Janssen, Xavier; Knutsson, Albert; Luyckx, Sten; Ochesanu, Silvia; Rougny, Romain; Van De Klundert, Merijn; Van Haevermaet, Hans; Van Mechelen, Pierre; Van Remortel, Nick; Van Spilbeeck, Alex; Blekman, Freya; Blyweert, Stijn; D'Hondt, Jorgen; Daci, Nadir; Heracleous, Natalie; Keaveney, James; Lowette, Steven; Maes, Michael; Olbrechts, Annik; Python, Quentin; Strom, Derek; Tavernier, Stefaan; Van Doninck, Walter; Van Mulders, Petra; Van Onsem, Gerrit Patrick; Villella, Ilaria; Caillol, Cécile; Clerbaux, Barbara; De Lentdecker, Gilles; Dobur, Didar; Favart, Laurent; Gay, Arnaud; Grebenyuk, Anastasia; Léonard, Alexandre; Mohammadi, Abdollah; Perniè, Luca; Reis, Thomas; Seva, Tomislav; Thomas, Laurent; Vander Velde, Catherine; Vanlaer, Pascal; Wang, Jian; Zenoni, Florian; Adler, Volker; Beernaert, Kelly; Benucci, Leonardo; Cimmino, Anna; Costantini, Silvia; Crucy, Shannon; Dildick, Sven; Fagot, Alexis; Garcia, Guillaume; Mccartin, Joseph; Ocampo Rios, Alberto Andres; Ryckbosch, Dirk; Salva Diblen, Sinem; Sigamani, Michael; Strobbe, Nadja; Thyssen, Filip; Tytgat, Michael; Yazgan, Efe; Zaganidis, Nicolas; Basegmez, Suzan; Beluffi, Camille; Bruno, Giacomo; Castello, Roberto; Caudron, Adrien; Ceard, Ludivine; Da Silveira, Gustavo Gil; Delaere, Christophe; Du Pree, Tristan; Favart, Denis; Forthomme, Laurent; Giammanco, Andrea; Hollar, Jonathan; Jafari, Abideh; Jez, Pavel; Komm, Matthias; Lemaitre, Vincent; Nuttens, Claude; Pagano, Davide; Perrini, Lucia; Pin, Arnaud; Piotrzkowski, Krzysztof; Popov, Andrey; Quertenmont, Loic; Selvaggi, Michele; Vidal Marono, Miguel; Vizan Garcia, Jesus Manuel; Beliy, Nikita; Caebergs, Thierry; Daubie, Evelyne; Hammad, Gregory Habib; Aldá Júnior, Walter Luiz; Alves, Gilvan; Brito, Lucas; Correa Martins Junior, Marcos; Dos Reis Martins, Thiago; Mora Herrera, Clemencia; Pol, Maria Elena; Carvalho, Wagner; Chinellato, Jose; Custódio, Analu; Melo Da Costa, Eliza; De Jesus Damiao, Dilson; De Oliveira Martins, Carley; Fonseca De Souza, Sandro; Malbouisson, Helena; Matos Figueiredo, Diego; Mundim, Luiz; Nogima, Helio; Prado Da Silva, Wanda Lucia; Santaolalla, Javier; Santoro, Alberto; Sznajder, Andre; Tonelli Manganote, Edmilson José; Vilela Pereira, Antonio; Bernardes, Cesar Augusto; Dogra, Sunil; Tomei, Thiago; De Moraes Gregores, Eduardo; Mercadante, Pedro G; Novaes, Sergio F; Padula, Sandra; Aleksandrov, Aleksandar; Genchev, Vladimir; Iaydjiev, Plamen; Marinov, Andrey; Piperov, Stefan; Rodozov, Mircho; Stoykova, Stefka; Sultanov, Georgi; Tcholakov, Vanio; Vutova, Mariana; Dimitrov, Anton; Glushkov, Ivan; Hadjiiska, Roumyana; Kozhuharov, Venelin; Litov, Leander; Pavlov, Borislav; Petkov, Peicho; Bian, Jian-Guo; Chen, Guo-Ming; Chen, He-Sheng; Chen, Mingshui; Du, Ran; Jiang, Chun-Hua; Plestina, Roko; Romeo, Francesco; Tao, Junquan; Wang, Zheng; Asawatangtrakuldee, Chayanit; Ban, Yong; Li, Qiang; Liu, Shuai; Mao, Yajun; Qian, Si-Jin; Wang, Dayong; Zou, Wei; Avila, Carlos; Chaparro Sierra, Luisa Fernanda; Florez, Carlos; Gomez, Juan Pablo; Gomez Moreno, Bernardo; Sanabria, Juan Carlos; Godinovic, Nikola; Lelas, Damir; Polic, Dunja; Puljak, Ivica; Antunovic, Zeljko; Kovac, Marko; Brigljevic, Vuko; Kadija, Kreso; Luetic, Jelena; Mekterovic, Darko; Sudic, Lucija; Attikis, Alexandros; Mavromanolakis, Georgios; Mousa, Jehad; Nicolaou, Charalambos; Ptochos, Fotios; Razis, Panos A; Bodlak, Martin; Finger, Miroslav; Finger Jr, Michael; Assran, Yasser; Ellithi Kamel, Ali; Mahmoud, Mohammed; Radi, Amr; Kadastik, Mario; Murumaa, Marion; Raidal, Martti; Tiko, Andres; Eerola, Paula; Fedi, Giacomo; Voutilainen, Mikko; Härkönen, Jaakko; Karimäki, Veikko; Kinnunen, Ritva; Kortelainen, Matti J; Lampén, Tapio; Lassila-Perini, Kati; Lehti, Sami; Lindén, Tomas; Luukka, Panja-Riina; Mäenpää, Teppo; Peltola, Timo; Tuominen, Eija; Tuominiemi, Jorma; Tuovinen, Esa; Wendland, Lauri; Talvitie, Joonas; Tuuva, Tuure; Besancon, Marc; Couderc, Fabrice; Dejardin, Marc; Denegri, Daniel; Fabbro, Bernard; Faure, Jean-Louis; Favaro, Carlotta; Ferri, Federico; Ganjour, Serguei; Givernaud, Alain; Gras, Philippe; Hamel de Monchenault, Gautier; Jarry, Patrick; Locci, Elizabeth; Malcles, Julie; Rander, John; Rosowsky, André; Titov, Maksym; Baffioni, Stephanie; Beaudette, Florian; Busson, Philippe; Charlot, Claude; Dahms, Torsten; Dalchenko, Mykhailo; Dobrzynski, Ludwik; Filipovic, Nicolas; Florent, Alice; Granier de Cassagnac, Raphael; Mastrolorenzo, Luca; Miné, Philippe; Mironov, Camelia; Naranjo, Ivo Nicolas; Nguyen, Matthew; Ochando, Christophe; Paganini, Pascal; Regnard, Simon; Salerno, Roberto; Sauvan, Jean-Baptiste; Sirois, Yves; Veelken, Christian; Yilmaz, Yetkin; Zabi, Alexandre; Agram, Jean-Laurent; Andrea, Jeremy; Aubin, Alexandre; Bloch, Daniel; Brom, Jean-Marie; Chabert, Eric Christian; Collard, Caroline; Conte, Eric; Fontaine, Jean-Charles; Gelé, Denis; Goerlach, Ulrich; Goetzmann, Christophe; Le Bihan, Anne-Catherine; Van Hove, Pierre; Gadrat, Sébastien; Beauceron, Stephanie; Beaupere, Nicolas; Boudoul, Gaelle; Bouvier, Elvire; Brochet, Sébastien; Carrillo Montoya, Camilo Andres; Chasserat, Julien; Chierici, Roberto; Contardo, Didier; Depasse, Pierre; El Mamouni, Houmani; Fan, Jiawei; Fay, Jean; Gascon, Susan; Gouzevitch, Maxime; Ille, Bernard; Kurca, Tibor; Lethuillier, Morgan; Mirabito, Laurent; Perries, Stephane; Ruiz Alvarez, José David; Sabes, David; Sgandurra, Louis; Sordini, Viola; Vander Donckt, Muriel; Verdier, Patrice; Viret, Sébastien; Xiao, Hong; Bagaturia, Iuri; Autermann, Christian; Beranek, Sarah; Bontenackels, Michael; Edelhoff, Matthias; Feld, Lutz; Hindrichs, Otto; Klein, Katja; Ostapchuk, Andrey; Perieanu, Adrian; Raupach, Frank; Sammet, Jan; Schael, Stefan; Weber, Hendrik; Wittmer, Bruno; Zhukov, Valery; Ata, Metin; Brodski, Michael; Dietz-Laursonn, Erik; Duchardt, Deborah; Erdmann, Martin; Fischer, Robert; Güth, Andreas; Hebbeker, Thomas; Heidemann, Carsten; Hoepfner, Kerstin; Klingebiel, Dennis; Knutzen, Simon; Kreuzer, Peter; Merschmeyer, Markus; Meyer, Arnd; Millet, Philipp; Olschewski, Mark; Padeken, Klaas; Papacz, Paul; Reithler, Hans; Schmitz, Stefan Antonius; Sonnenschein, Lars; Teyssier, Daniel; Thüer, Sebastian; Weber, Martin; Cherepanov, Vladimir; Erdogan, Yusuf; Flügge, Günter; Geenen, Heiko; Geisler, Matthias; Haj Ahmad, Wael; Heister, Arno; Hoehle, Felix; Kargoll, Bastian; Kress, Thomas; Kuessel, Yvonne; Künsken, Andreas; Lingemann, Joschka; Nowack, Andreas; Nugent, Ian Michael; Perchalla, Lars; Pooth, Oliver; Stahl, Achim; Asin, Ivan; Bartosik, Nazar; Behr, Joerg; Behrenhoff, Wolf; Behrens, Ulf; Bell, Alan James; Bergholz, Matthias; Bethani, Agni; Borras, Kerstin; Burgmeier, Armin; Cakir, Altan; Calligaris, Luigi; Campbell, Alan; Choudhury, Somnath; Costanza, Francesco; Diez Pardos, Carmen; Dooling, Samantha; Dorland, Tyler; Eckerlin, Guenter; Eckstein, Doris; Eichhorn, Thomas; Flucke, Gero; Garay Garcia, Jasone; Geiser, Achim; Gunnellini, Paolo; Hauk, Johannes; Hempel, Maria; Horton, Dean; Jung, Hannes; Kalogeropoulos, Alexis; Kasemann, Matthias; Katsas, Panagiotis; Kieseler, Jan; Kleinwort, Claus; Krücker, Dirk; Lange, Wolfgang; Leonard, Jessica; Lipka, Katerina; Lobanov, Artur; Lohmann, Wolfgang; Lutz, Benjamin; Mankel, Rainer; Marfin, Ihar; Melzer-Pellmann, Isabell-Alissandra; Meyer, Andreas Bernhard; Mittag, Gregor; Mnich, Joachim; Mussgiller, Andreas; Naumann-Emme, Sebastian; Nayak, Aruna; Novgorodova, Olga; Ntomari, Eleni; Perrey, Hanno; Pitzl, Daniel; Placakyte, Ringaile; Raspereza, Alexei; Ribeiro Cipriano, Pedro M; Roland, Benoit; Ron, Elias; Sahin, Mehmet Özgür; Salfeld-Nebgen, Jakob; Saxena, Pooja; Schmidt, Ringo; Schoerner-Sadenius, Thomas; Schröder, Matthias; Seitz, Claudia; Spannagel, Simon; Vargas Trevino, Andrea Del Rocio; Walsh, Roberval; Wissing, Christoph; Aldaya Martin, Maria; Blobel, Volker; Centis Vignali, Matteo; Draeger, Arne-Rasmus; Erfle, Joachim; Garutti, Erika; Goebel, Kristin; Görner, Martin; Haller, Johannes; Hoffmann, Malte; Höing, Rebekka Sophie; Kirschenmann, Henning; Klanner, Robert; Kogler, Roman; Lange, Jörn; Lapsien, Tobias; Lenz, Teresa; Marchesini, Ivan; Ott, Jochen; Peiffer, Thomas; Pietsch, Niklas; Poehlsen, Jennifer; Pöhlsen, Thomas; Rathjens, Denis; Sander, Christian; Schettler, Hannes; Schleper, Peter; Schlieckau, Eike; Schmidt, Alexander; Seidel, Markus; Sola, Valentina; Stadie, Hartmut; Steinbrück, Georg; Troendle, Daniel; Usai, Emanuele; Vanelderen, Lukas; Vanhoefer, Annika; Barth, Christian; Baus, Colin; Berger, Joram; Böser, Christian; Butz, Erik; Chwalek, Thorsten; De Boer, Wim; Descroix, Alexis; Dierlamm, Alexander; Feindt, Michael; Frensch, Felix; Giffels, Manuel; Hartmann, Frank; Hauth, Thomas; Husemann, Ulrich; Katkov, Igor; Kornmayer, Andreas; Kuznetsova, Ekaterina; Lobelle Pardo, Patricia; Mozer, Matthias Ulrich; Müller, Thomas; Nürnberg, Andreas; Quast, Gunter; Rabbertz, Klaus; Ratnikov, Fedor; Röcker, Steffen; Sieber, Georg; Simonis, Hans-Jürgen; Stober, Fred-Markus Helmut; Ulrich, Ralf; Wagner-Kuhr, Jeannine; Wayand, Stefan; Weiler, Thomas; Wolf, Roger; Anagnostou, Georgios; Daskalakis, Georgios; Geralis, Theodoros; Giakoumopoulou, Viktoria Athina; Kyriakis, Aristotelis; Loukas, Demetrios; Markou, Athanasios; Markou, Christos; Psallidas, Andreas; Topsis-Giotis, Iasonas; Agapitos, Antonis; Kesisoglou, Stilianos; Panagiotou, Apostolos; Saoulidou, Niki; Stiliaris, Efstathios; Aslanoglou, Xenofon; Evangelou, Ioannis; Flouris, Giannis; Foudas, Costas; Kokkas, Panagiotis; Manthos, Nikolaos; Papadopoulos, Ioannis; Paradas, Evangelos; Bencze, Gyorgy; Hajdu, Csaba; Hidas, Pàl; Horvath, Dezso; Sikler, Ferenc; Veszpremi, Viktor; Vesztergombi, Gyorgy; Zsigmond, Anna Julia; Beni, Noemi; Czellar, Sandor; Karancsi, János; Molnar, Jozsef; Palinkas, Jozsef; Szillasi, Zoltan; Raics, Peter; Trocsanyi, Zoltan Laszlo; Ujvari, Balazs; Swain, Sanjay Kumar; Beri, Suman Bala; Bhatnagar, Vipin; Gupta, Ruchi; Bhawandeep, Bhawandeep; Kalsi, Amandeep Kaur; Kaur, Manjit; Kumar, Ramandeep; Mittal, Monika; Nishu, Nishu; Singh, Jasbir; Kumar, Ashok; Kumar, Arun; Ahuja, Sudha; Bhardwaj, Ashutosh; Choudhary, Brajesh C; Kumar, Ajay; Malhotra, Shivali; Naimuddin, Md; Ranjan, Kirti; Sharma, Varun; Banerjee, Sunanda; Bhattacharya, Satyaki; Chatterjee, Kalyanmoy; Dutta, Suchandra; Gomber, Bhawna; Jain, Sandhya; Jain, Shilpi; Khurana, Raman; Modak, Atanu; Mukherjee, Swagata; Roy, Debarati; Sarkar, Subir; Sharan, Manoj; Abdulsalam, Abdulla; Dutta, Dipanwita; Kailas, Swaminathan; Kumar, Vineet; Mohanty, Ajit Kumar; Pant, Lalit Mohan; Shukla, Prashant; Topkar, Anita; Aziz, Tariq; Banerjee, Sudeshna; Bhowmik, Sandeep; Chatterjee, Rajdeep Mohan; Dewanjee, Ram Krishna; Dugad, Shashikant; Ganguly, Sanmay; Ghosh, Saranya; Guchait, Monoranjan; Gurtu, Atul; Kole, Gouranga; Kumar, Sanjeev; Maity, Manas; Majumder, Gobinda; Mazumdar, Kajari; Mohanty, Gagan Bihari; Parida, Bibhuti; Sudhakar, Katta; Wickramage, Nadeesha; Bakhshiansohi, Hamed; Behnamian, Hadi; Etesami, Seyed Mohsen; Fahim, Ali; Goldouzian, Reza; Khakzad, Mohsen; Mohammadi Najafabadi, Mojtaba; Naseri, Mohsen; Paktinat Mehdiabadi, Saeid; Rezaei Hosseinabadi, Ferdos; Safarzadeh, Batool; Zeinali, Maryam; Felcini, Marta; Grunewald, Martin; Abbrescia, Marcello; Barbone, Lucia; Calabria, Cesare; Chhibra, Simranjit Singh; Colaleo, Anna; Creanza, Donato; De Filippis, Nicola; De Palma, Mauro; Fiore, Luigi; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Maggi, Giorgio; Maggi, Marcello; My, Salvatore; Nuzzo, Salvatore; Pompili, Alexis; Pugliese, Gabriella; Radogna, Raffaella; Selvaggi, Giovanna; Silvestris, Lucia; Venditti, Rosamaria; Zito, Giuseppe; Abbiendi, Giovanni; Benvenuti, Alberto; Bonacorsi, Daniele; Braibant-Giacomelli, Sylvie; Brigliadori, Luca; Campanini, Renato; Capiluppi, Paolo; Castro, Andrea; Cavallo, Francesca Romana; Codispoti, Giuseppe; Cuffiani, Marco; Dallavalle, Gaetano-Marco; Fabbri, Fabrizio; Fanfani, Alessandra; Fasanella, Daniele; Giacomelli, Paolo; Grandi, Claudio; Guiducci, Luigi; Marcellini, Stefano; Masetti, Gianni; Montanari, Alessandro; Navarria, Francesco; Perrotta, Andrea; Primavera, Federica; Rossi, Antonio; Rovelli, Tiziano; Siroli, Gian Piero; Tosi, Nicolò; Travaglini, Riccardo; Albergo, Sebastiano; Cappello, Gigi; Chiorboli, Massimiliano; Costa, Salvatore; Giordano, Ferdinando; Potenza, Renato; Tricomi, Alessia; Tuve, Cristina; Barbagli, Giuseppe; Ciulli, Vitaliano; Civinini, Carlo; D'Alessandro, Raffaello; Focardi, Ettore; Gallo, Elisabetta; Gonzi, Sandro; Gori, Valentina; Lenzi, Piergiulio; Meschini, Marco; Paoletti, Simone; Sguazzoni, Giacomo; Tropiano, Antonio; Benussi, Luigi; Bianco, Stefano; Fabbri, Franco; Piccolo, Davide; Ferretti, Roberta; Ferro, Fabrizio; Lo Vetere, Maurizio; Robutti, Enrico; Tosi, Silvano; Dinardo, Mauro Emanuele; Fiorendi, Sara; Gennai, Simone; Gerosa, Raffaele; Ghezzi, Alessio; Govoni, Pietro; Lucchini, Marco Toliman; Malvezzi, Sandra; Manzoni, Riccardo Andrea; Martelli, Arabella; Marzocchi, Badder; Menasce, Dario; Moroni, Luigi; Paganoni, Marco; Pedrini, Daniele; Ragazzi, Stefano; Redaelli, Nicola; Tabarelli de Fatis, Tommaso; Buontempo, Salvatore; Cavallo, Nicola; Di Guida, Salvatore; Fabozzi, Francesco; Iorio, Alberto Orso Maria; Lista, Luca; Meola, Sabino; Merola, Mario; Paolucci, Pierluigi; Azzi, Patrizia; Bacchetta, Nicola; Bisello, Dario; Branca, Antonio; Carlin, Roberto; Checchia, Paolo; Dall'Osso, Martino; Dorigo, Tommaso; Galanti, Mario; Gasparini, Fabrizio; Gasparini, Ugo; Giubilato, Piero; Gozzelino, Andrea; Kanishchev, Konstantin; Lacaprara, Stefano; Margoni, Martino; Meneguzzo, Anna Teresa; Pazzini, Jacopo; Pozzobon, Nicola; Ronchese, Paolo; Simonetto, Franco; Torassa, Ezio; Tosi, Mia; Vanini, Sara; Ventura, Sandro; Zotto, Pierluigi; Zucchetta, Alberto; Gabusi, Michele; Ratti, Sergio P; Re, Valerio; Riccardi, Cristina; Salvini, Paola; Vitulo, Paolo; Biasini, Maurizio; Bilei, Gian Mario; Ciangottini, Diego; Fanò, Livio; Lariccia, Paolo; Mantovani, Giancarlo; Menichelli, Mauro; Saha, Anirban; Santocchia, Attilio; Spiezia, Aniello; Androsov, Konstantin; Azzurri, Paolo; Bagliesi, Giuseppe; Bernardini, Jacopo; Boccali, Tommaso; Broccolo, Giuseppe; Castaldi, Rino; Ciocci, Maria Agnese; Dell'Orso, Roberto; Donato, Silvio; Fiori, Francesco; Foà, Lorenzo; Giassi, Alessandro; Grippo, Maria Teresa; Ligabue, Franco; Lomtadze, Teimuraz; Martini, Luca; Messineo, Alberto; Moon, Chang-Seong; Palla, Fabrizio; Rizzi, Andrea; Savoy-Navarro, Aurore; Serban, Alin Titus; Spagnolo, Paolo; Squillacioti, Paola; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, Guido; Venturi, Andrea; Verdini, Piero Giorgio; Vernieri, Caterina; Barone, Luciano; Cavallari, Francesca; D'imperio, Giulia; Del Re, Daniele; Diemoz, Marcella; Grassi, Marco; Jorda, Clara; Longo, Egidio; Margaroli, Fabrizio; Meridiani, Paolo; Micheli, Francesco; Nourbakhsh, Shervin; Organtini, Giovanni; Paramatti, Riccardo; Rahatlou, Shahram; Rovelli, Chiara; Santanastasio, Francesco; Soffi, Livia; Traczyk, Piotr; Amapane, Nicola; Arcidiacono, Roberta; Argiro, Stefano; Arneodo, Michele; Bellan, Riccardo; Biino, Cristina; Cartiglia, Nicolo; Casasso, Stefano; Costa, Marco; Degano, Alessandro; Demaria, Natale; Finco, Linda; Mariotti, Chiara; Maselli, Silvia; Migliore, Ernesto; Monaco, Vincenzo; Musich, Marco; Obertino, Maria Margherita; Ortona, Giacomo; Pacher, Luca; Pastrone, Nadia; Pelliccioni, Mario; Pinna Angioni, Gian Luca; Potenza, Alberto; Romero, Alessandra; Ruspa, Marta; Sacchi, Roberto; Solano, Ada; Staiano, Amedeo; Tamponi, Umberto; Belforte, Stefano; Candelise, Vieri; Casarsa, Massimo; Cossutti, Fabio; Della Ricca, Giuseppe; Gobbo, Benigno; La Licata, Chiara; Marone, Matteo; Schizzi, Andrea; Umer, Tomo; Zanetti, Anna; Chang, Sunghyun; Kropivnitskaya, Anna; Nam, Soon-Kwon; Kim, Dong Hee; Kim, Gui Nyun; Kim, Min Suk; Kong, Dae Jung; Lee, Sangeun; Oh, Young Do; Park, Hyangkyu; Sakharov, Alexandre; Son, Dong-Chul; Kim, Tae Jeong; Kim, Jae Yool; Song, Sanghyeon; Choi, Suyong; Gyun, Dooyeon; Hong, Byung-Sik; Jo, Mihee; Kim, Hyunchul; Kim, Yongsun; Lee, Byounghoon; Lee, Kyong Sei; Park, Sung Keun; Roh, Youn; Choi, Minkyoo; Kim, Ji Hyun; Park, Inkyu; Ryu, Geonmo; Ryu, Min Sang; Choi, Young-Il; Choi, Young Kyu; Goh, Junghwan; Kim, Donghyun; Kwon, Eunhyang; Lee, Jongseok; Seo, Hyunkwan; Yu, Intae; Juodagalvis, Andrius; Komaragiri, Jyothsna Rani; Md Ali, Mohd Adli Bin; Castilla-Valdez, Heriberto; De La Cruz-Burelo, Eduard; Heredia-de La Cruz, Ivan; Hernandez-Almada, Alberto; Lopez-Fernandez, Ricardo; Sánchez Hernández, Alberto; Carrillo Moreno, Salvador; Vazquez Valencia, Fabiola; Pedraza, Isabel; Salazar Ibarguen, Humberto Antonio; Casimiro Linares, Edgar; Morelos Pineda, Antonio; Krofcheck, David; Butler, Philip H; Reucroft, Steve; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Ahmad, Muhammad; Hassan, Qamar; Hoorani, Hafeez R; Khalid, Shoaib; Khan, Wajid Ali; Khurshid, Taimoor; Shah, Mehar Ali; Shoaib, Muhammad; Bialkowska, Helena; Bluj, Michal; Boimska, Bożena; Frueboes, Tomasz; Górski, Maciej; Kazana, Malgorzata; Nawrocki, Krzysztof; Romanowska-Rybinska, Katarzyna; Szleper, Michal; Zalewski, Piotr; Brona, Grzegorz; Bunkowski, Karol; Cwiok, Mikolaj; Dominik, Wojciech; Doroba, Krzysztof; Kalinowski, Artur; Konecki, Marcin; Krolikowski, Jan; Misiura, Maciej; Olszewski, Michał; Wolszczak, Weronika; Bargassa, Pedrame; Beirão Da Cruz E Silva, Cristóvão; Faccioli, Pietro; Ferreira Parracho, Pedro Guilherme; Gallinaro, Michele; Lloret Iglesias, Lara; Nguyen, Federico; Rodrigues Antunes, Joao; Seixas, Joao; Varela, Joao; Vischia, Pietro; Afanasiev, Serguei; Bunin, Pavel; Gavrilenko, Mikhail; Golutvin, Igor; Gorbunov, Ilya; Kamenev, Alexey; Karjavin, Vladimir; Konoplyanikov, Viktor; Lanev, Alexander; Malakhov, Alexander; Matveev, Viktor; Moisenz, Petr; Palichik, Vladimir; Perelygin, Victor; Shmatov, Sergey; Skatchkov, Nikolai; Smirnov, Vitaly; Zarubin, Anatoli; Golovtsov, Victor; Ivanov, Yury; Kim, Victor; Levchenko, Petr; Murzin, Victor; Oreshkin, Vadim; Smirnov, Igor; Sulimov, Valentin; Uvarov, Lev; Vavilov, Sergey; Vorobyev, Alexey; Vorobyev, Andrey; Andreev, Yuri; Dermenev, Alexander; Gninenko, Sergei; Golubev, Nikolai; Kirsanov, Mikhail; Krasnikov, Nikolai; Pashenkov, Anatoli; Tlisov, Danila; Toropin, Alexander; Epshteyn, Vladimir; Gavrilov, Vladimir; Lychkovskaya, Natalia; Popov, Vladimir; Safronov, Grigory; Semenov, Sergey; Spiridonov, Alexander; Stolin, Viatcheslav; Vlasov, Evgueni; Zhokin, Alexander; Andreev, Vladimir; Azarkin, Maksim; Dremin, Igor; Kirakosyan, Martin; Leonidov, Andrey; Mesyats, Gennady; Rusakov, Sergey V; Vinogradov, Alexey; Belyaev, Andrey; Boos, Edouard; Dubinin, Mikhail; Dudko, Lev; Ershov, Alexander; Gribushin, Andrey; Klyukhin, Vyacheslav; Kodolova, Olga; Lokhtin, Igor; Obraztsov, Stepan; Petrushanko, Sergey; Savrin, Viktor; Snigirev, Alexander; Azhgirey, Igor; Bayshev, Igor; Bitioukov, Sergei; Kachanov, Vassili; Kalinin, Alexey; Konstantinov, Dmitri; Krychkine, Victor; Petrov, Vladimir; Ryutin, Roman; Sobol, Andrei; Tourtchanovitch, Leonid; Troshin, Sergey; Tyurin, Nikolay; Uzunian, Andrey; Volkov, Alexey; Adzic, Petar; Ekmedzic, Marko; Milosevic, Jovan; Rekovic, Vladimir; Alcaraz Maestre, Juan; Battilana, Carlo; Calvo, Enrique; Cerrada, Marcos; Chamizo Llatas, Maria; Colino, Nicanor; De La Cruz, Begona; Delgado Peris, Antonio; Domínguez Vázquez, Daniel; Escalante Del Valle, Alberto; Fernandez Bedoya, Cristina; Fernández Ramos, Juan Pablo; Flix, Jose; Fouz, Maria Cruz; Garcia-Abia, Pablo; Gonzalez Lopez, Oscar; Goy Lopez, Silvia; Hernandez, Jose M; Josa, Maria Isabel; Navarro De Martino, Eduardo; Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo, Antonio María; Puerta Pelayo, Jesus; Quintario Olmeda, Adrián; Redondo, Ignacio; Romero, Luciano; Senghi Soares, Mara; Albajar, Carmen; de Trocóniz, Jorge F; Missiroli, Marino; Moran, Dermot; Brun, Hugues; Cuevas, Javier; Fernandez Menendez, Javier; Folgueras, Santiago; Gonzalez Caballero, Isidro; Brochero Cifuentes, Javier Andres; Cabrillo, Iban Jose; Calderon, Alicia; Duarte Campderros, Jordi; Fernandez, Marcos; Gomez, Gervasio; Graziano, Alberto; Lopez Virto, Amparo; Marco, Jesus; Marco, Rafael; Martinez Rivero, Celso; Matorras, Francisco; Munoz Sanchez, Francisca Javiela; Piedra Gomez, Jonatan; Rodrigo, Teresa; Rodríguez-Marrero, Ana Yaiza; Ruiz-Jimeno, Alberto; Scodellaro, Luca; Vila, Ivan; Vilar Cortabitarte, Rocio; Abbaneo, Duccio; Auffray, Etiennette; Auzinger, Georg; Bachtis, Michail; Baillon, Paul; Ball, Austin; Barney, David; Benaglia, Andrea; Bendavid, Joshua; Benhabib, Lamia; Benitez, Jose F; Bernet, Colin; Bianchi, Giovanni; Bloch, Philippe; Bocci, Andrea; Bonato, Alessio; Bondu, Olivier; Botta, Cristina; Breuker, Horst; Camporesi, Tiziano; Cerminara, Gianluca; Colafranceschi, Stefano; D'Alfonso, Mariarosaria; D'Enterria, David; Dabrowski, Anne; David Tinoco Mendes, Andre; De Guio, Federico; De Roeck, Albert; De Visscher, Simon; Di Marco, Emanuele; Dobson, Marc; Dordevic, Milos; Dorney, Brian; Dupont-Sagorin, Niels; Elliott-Peisert, Anna; Eugster, Jürg; Franzoni, Giovanni; Funk, Wolfgang; Gigi, Dominique; Gill, Karl; Giordano, Domenico; Girone, Maria; Glege, Frank; Guida, Roberto; Gundacker, Stefan; Guthoff, Moritz; Hammer, Josef; Hansen, Magnus; Harris, Philip; Hegeman, Jeroen; Innocente, Vincenzo; Janot, Patrick; Kousouris, Konstantinos; Krajczar, Krisztian; Lecoq, Paul; Lourenco, Carlos; Magini, Nicolo; Malgeri, Luca; Mannelli, Marcello; Marrouche, Jad; Masetti, Lorenzo; Meijers, Frans; Mersi, Stefano; Meschi, Emilio; Moortgat, Filip; Morovic, Srecko; Mulders, Martijn; Musella, Pasquale; Orsini, Luciano; Pape, Luc; Perez, Emmanuelle; Perrozzi, Luca; Petrilli, Achille; Petrucciani, Giovanni; Pfeiffer, Andreas; Pierini, Maurizio; Pimiä, Martti; Piparo, Danilo; Plagge, Michael; Racz, Attila; Rolandi, Gigi; Rovere, Marco; Sakulin, Hannes; Schäfer, Christoph; Schwick, Christoph; Sharma, Archana; Siegrist, Patrice; Silva, Pedro; Simon, Michal; Sphicas, Paraskevas; Spiga, Daniele; Steggemann, Jan; Stieger, Benjamin; Stoye, Markus; Takahashi, Yuta; Treille, Daniel; Tsirou, Andromachi; Veres, Gabor Istvan; Wardle, Nicholas; Wöhri, Hermine Katharina; Wollny, Heiner; Zeuner, Wolfram Dietrich; Bertl, Willi; Deiters, Konrad; Erdmann, Wolfram; Horisberger, Roland; Ingram, Quentin; Kaestli, Hans-Christian; Kotlinski, Danek; Langenegger, Urs; Renker, Dieter; Rohe, Tilman; Bachmair, Felix; Bäni, Lukas; Bianchini, Lorenzo; Buchmann, Marco-Andrea; Casal, Bruno; Chanon, Nicolas; Dissertori, Günther; Dittmar, Michael; Donegà, Mauro; Dünser, Marc; Eller, Philipp; Grab, Christoph; Hits, Dmitry; Hoss, Jan; Lustermann, Werner; Mangano, Boris; Marini, Andrea Carlo; Martinez Ruiz del Arbol, Pablo; Masciovecchio, Mario; Meister, Daniel; Mohr, Niklas; Nägeli, Christoph; Nessi-Tedaldi, Francesca; Pandolfi, Francesco; Pauss, Felicitas; Peruzzi, Marco; Quittnat, Milena; Rebane, Liis; Rossini, Marco; Starodumov, Andrei; Takahashi, Maiko; Theofilatos, Konstantinos; Wallny, Rainer; Weber, Hannsjoerg Artur; Amsler, Claude; Canelli, Maria Florencia; Chiochia, Vincenzo; De Cosa, Annapaola; Hinzmann, Andreas; Hreus, Tomas; Kilminster, Benjamin; Lange, Clemens; Millan Mejias, Barbara; Ngadiuba, Jennifer; Robmann, Peter; Ronga, Frederic Jean; Taroni, Silvia; Verzetti, Mauro; Yang, Yong; Cardaci, Marco; Chen, Kuan-Hsin; Ferro, Cristina; Kuo, Chia-Ming; Lin, Willis; Lu, Yun-Ju; Volpe, Roberta; Yu, Shin-Shan; Chang, Paoti; Chang, You-Hao; Chang, Yu-Wei; Chao, Yuan; Chen, Kai-Feng; Chen, Po-Hsun; Dietz, Charles; Grundler, Ulysses; Hou, George Wei-Shu; Kao, Kai-Yi; Lei, Yeong-Jyi; Liu, Yueh-Feng; Lu, Rong-Shyang; Majumder, Devdatta; Petrakou, Eleni; Tzeng, Yeng-Ming; Wilken, Rachel; Asavapibhop, Burin; Singh, Gurpreet; Srimanobhas, Norraphat; Suwonjandee, Narumon; Adiguzel, Aytul; Bakirci, Mustafa Numan; Cerci, Salim; Dozen, Candan; Dumanoglu, Isa; Eskut, Eda; Girgis, Semiray; Gokbulut, Gul; Gurpinar, Emine; Hos, Ilknur; Kangal, Evrim Ersin; Kayis Topaksu, Aysel; Onengut, Gulsen; Ozdemir, Kadri; Ozturk, Sertac; Polatoz, Ayse; Sunar Cerci, Deniz; Tali, Bayram; Topakli, Huseyin; Vergili, Mehmet; Akin, Ilina Vasileva; Bilin, Bugra; Bilmis, Selcuk; Gamsizkan, Halil; Karapinar, Guler; Ocalan, Kadir; Sekmen, Sezen; Surat, Ugur Emrah; Yalvac, Metin; Zeyrek, Mehmet; Gülmez, Erhan; Isildak, Bora; Kaya, Mithat; Kaya, Ozlem; Cankocak, Kerem; Vardarlı, Fuat Ilkehan; Levchuk, Leonid; Sorokin, Pavel; Brooke, James John; Clement, Emyr; Cussans, David; Flacher, Henning; Goldstein, Joel; Grimes, Mark; Heath, Greg P; Heath, Helen F; Jacob, Jeson; Kreczko, Lukasz; Lucas, Chris; Meng, Zhaoxia; Newbold, Dave M; Paramesvaran, Sudarshan; Poll, Anthony; Senkin, Sergey; Smith, Vincent J; Williams, Thomas; Bell, Ken W; Belyaev, Alexander; Brew, Christopher; Brown, Robert M; Cockerill, David JA; Coughlan, John A; Harder, Kristian; Harper, Sam; Olaiya, Emmanuel; Petyt, David; Shepherd-Themistocleous, Claire; Thea, Alessandro; Tomalin, Ian R; Womersley, William John; Worm, Steven; Baber, Mark; Bainbridge, Robert; Buchmuller, Oliver; Burton, Darren; Colling, David; Cripps, Nicholas; Cutajar, Michael; Dauncey, Paul; Davies, Gavin; Della Negra, Michel; Dunne, Patrick; Ferguson, William; Fulcher, Jonathan; Futyan, David; Gilbert, Andrew; Hall, Geoffrey; Iles, Gregory; Jarvis, Martyn; Karapostoli, Georgia; Kenzie, Matthew; Lane, Rebecca; Lucas, Robyn; Lyons, Louis; Magnan, Anne-Marie; Malik, Sarah; Mathias, Bryn; Nash, Jordan; Nikitenko, Alexander; Pela, Joao; Pesaresi, Mark; Petridis, Konstantinos; Raymond, David Mark; Rogerson, Samuel; Rose, Andrew; Seez, Christopher; Sharp, Peter; Tapper, Alexander; Vazquez Acosta, Monica; Virdee, Tejinder; Zenz, Seth Conrad; Cole, Joanne; Hobson, Peter R; Khan, Akram; Kyberd, Paul; Leggat, Duncan; Leslie, Dawn; Martin, William; Reid, Ivan; Symonds, Philip; Teodorescu, Liliana; Turner, Mark; Dittmann, Jay; Hatakeyama, Kenichi; Kasmi, Azeddine; Liu, Hongxuan; Scarborough, Tara; Charaf, Otman; Cooper, Seth; Henderson, Conor; Rumerio, Paolo; Avetisyan, Aram; Bose, Tulika; Fantasia, Cory; Lawson, Philip; Richardson, Clint; Rohlf, James; St John, Jason; Sulak, Lawrence; Alimena, Juliette; Berry, Edmund; Bhattacharya, Saptaparna; Christopher, Grant; Cutts, David; Demiragli, Zeynep; Dhingra, Nitish; Ferapontov, Alexey; Garabedian, Alex; Heintz, Ulrich; Kukartsev, Gennadiy; Laird, Edward; Landsberg, Greg; Luk, Michael; Narain, Meenakshi; Segala, Michael; Sinthuprasith, Tutanon; Speer, Thomas; Swanson, Joshua; Breedon, Richard; Breto, Guillermo; Calderon De La Barca Sanchez, Manuel; Chauhan, Sushil; Chertok, Maxwell; Conway, John; Conway, Rylan; Cox, Peter Timothy; Erbacher, Robin; Gardner, Michael; Ko, Winston; Lander, Richard; Miceli, Tia; Mulhearn, Michael; Pellett, Dave; Pilot, Justin; Ricci-Tam, Francesca; Searle, Matthew; Shalhout, Shalhout; Smith, John; Squires, Michael; Stolp, Dustin; Tripathi, Mani; Wilbur, Scott; Yohay, Rachel; Cousins, Robert; Everaerts, Pieter; Farrell, Chris; Hauser, Jay; Ignatenko, Mikhail; Rakness, Gregory; Takasugi, Eric; Valuev, Vyacheslav; Weber, Matthias; Burt, Kira; Clare, Robert; Ellison, John Anthony; Gary, J William; Hanson, Gail; Heilman, Jesse; Ivova Rikova, Mirena; Jandir, Pawandeep; Kennedy, Elizabeth; Lacroix, Florent; Long, Owen Rosser; Luthra, Arun; Malberti, Martina; Nguyen, Harold; Olmedo Negrete, Manuel; Shrinivas, Amithabh; Sumowidagdo, Suharyo; Wimpenny, Stephen; Andrews, Warren; Branson, James G; Cerati, Giuseppe Benedetto; Cittolin, Sergio; D'Agnolo, Raffaele Tito; Evans, David; Holzner, André; Kelley, Ryan; Klein, Daniel; Lebourgeois, Matthew; Letts, James; Macneill, Ian; Olivito, Dominick; Padhi, Sanjay; Palmer, Christopher; Pieri, Marco; Sani, Matteo; Sharma, Vivek; Simon, Sean; Sudano, Elizabeth; Tadel, Matevz; Tu, Yanjun; Vartak, Adish; Welke, Charles; Würthwein, Frank; Yagil, Avraham; Barge, Derek; Bradmiller-Feld, John; Campagnari, Claudio; Danielson, Thomas; Dishaw, Adam; Flowers, Kristen; Franco Sevilla, Manuel; Geffert, Paul; George, Christopher; Golf, Frank; Gouskos, Loukas; Incandela, Joe; Justus, Christopher; Mccoll, Nickolas; Richman, Jeffrey; Stuart, David; To, Wing; West, Christopher; Yoo, Jaehyeok; Apresyan, Artur; Bornheim, Adolf; Bunn, Julian; Chen, Yi; Duarte, Javier; Mott, Alexander; Newman, Harvey B; Pena, Cristian; Rogan, Christopher; Spiropulu, Maria; Timciuc, Vladlen; Vlimant, Jean-Roch; Wilkinson, Richard; Xie, Si; Zhu, Ren-Yuan; Azzolini, Virginia; Calamba, Aristotle; Carlson, Benjamin; Ferguson, Thomas; Iiyama, Yutaro; Paulini, Manfred; Russ, James; Vogel, Helmut; Vorobiev, Igor; Cumalat, John Perry; Ford, William T; Gaz, Alessandro; Luiggi Lopez, Eduardo; Nauenberg, Uriel; Smith, James; Stenson, Kevin; Ulmer, Keith; Wagner, Stephen Robert; Alexander, James; Chatterjee, Avishek; Chu, Jennifer; Dittmer, Susan; Eggert, Nicholas; Mirman, Nathan; Nicolas Kaufman, Gala; Patterson, Juliet Ritchie; Ryd, Anders; Salvati, Emmanuele; Skinnari, Louise; Sun, Werner; Teo, Wee Don; Thom, Julia; Thompson, Joshua; Tucker, Jordan; Weng, Yao; Winstrom, Lucas; Wittich, Peter; Winn, Dave; Abdullin, Salavat; Albrow, Michael; Anderson, Jacob; Apollinari, Giorgio; Bauerdick, Lothar AT; Beretvas, Andrew; Berryhill, Jeffrey; Bhat, Pushpalatha C; Bolla, Gino; Burkett, Kevin; Butler, Joel Nathan; Cheung, Harry; Chlebana, Frank; Cihangir, Selcuk; Elvira, Victor Daniel; Fisk, Ian; Freeman, Jim; Gao, Yanyan; Gottschalk, Erik; Gray, Lindsey; Green, Dan; Grünendahl, Stefan; Gutsche, Oliver; Hanlon, Jim; Hare, Daryl; Harris, Robert M; Hirschauer, James; Hooberman, Benjamin; Jindariani, Sergo; Johnson, Marvin; Joshi, Umesh; Kaadze, Ketino; Klima, Boaz; Kreis, Benjamin; Kwan, Simon; Linacre, Jacob; Lincoln, Don; Lipton, Ron; Liu, Tiehui; Lykken, Joseph; Maeshima, Kaori; Marraffino, John Michael; Martinez Outschoorn, Verena Ingrid; Maruyama, Sho; Mason, David; McBride, Patricia; Merkel, Petra; Mishra, Kalanand; Mrenna, Stephen; Musienko, Yuri; Nahn, Steve; Newman-Holmes, Catherine; O'Dell, Vivian; Prokofyev, Oleg; Sexton-Kennedy, Elizabeth; Sharma, Seema; Soha, Aron; Spalding, William J; Spiegel, Leonard; Taylor, Lucas; Tkaczyk, Slawek; Tran, Nhan Viet; Uplegger, Lorenzo; Vaandering, Eric Wayne; Vidal, Richard; Whitbeck, Andrew; Whitmore, Juliana; Yang, Fan; Acosta, Darin; Avery, Paul; Bortignon, Pierluigi; Bourilkov, Dimitri; Carver, Matthew; Cheng, Tongguang; Curry, David; Das, Souvik; De Gruttola, Michele; Di Giovanni, Gian Piero; Field, Richard D; Fisher, Matthew; Furic, Ivan-Kresimir; Hugon, Justin; Konigsberg, Jacobo; Korytov, Andrey; Kypreos, Theodore; Low, Jia Fu; Matchev, Konstantin; Milenovic, Predrag; Mitselmakher, Guenakh; Muniz, Lana; Rinkevicius, Aurelijus; Shchutska, Lesya; Snowball, Matthew; Sperka, David; Yelton, John; Zakaria, Mohammed; Hewamanage, Samantha; Linn, Stephan; Markowitz, Pete; Martinez, German; Rodriguez, Jorge Luis; Adams, Todd; Askew, Andrew; Bochenek, Joseph; Diamond, Brendan; Haas, Jeff; Hagopian, Sharon; Hagopian, Vasken; Johnson, Kurtis F; Prosper, Harrison; Veeraraghavan, Venkatesh; Weinberg, Marc; Baarmand, Marc M; Hohlmann, Marcus; Kalakhety, Himali; Yumiceva, Francisco; Adams, Mark Raymond; Apanasevich, Leonard; Bazterra, Victor Eduardo; Berry, Douglas; Betts, Russell Richard; Bucinskaite, Inga; Cavanaugh, Richard; Evdokimov, Olga; Gauthier, Lucie; Gerber, Cecilia Elena; Hofman, David Jonathan; Khalatyan, Samvel; Kurt, Pelin; Moon, Dong Ho; O'Brien, Christine; Silkworth, Christopher; Turner, Paul; Varelas, Nikos; Albayrak, Elif Asli; Bilki, Burak; Clarida, Warren; Dilsiz, Kamuran; Duru, Firdevs; Haytmyradov, Maksat; Merlo, Jean-Pierre; Mermerkaya, Hamit; Mestvirishvili, Alexi; Moeller, Anthony; Nachtman, Jane; Ogul, Hasan; Onel, Yasar; Ozok, Ferhat; Penzo, Aldo; Rahmat, Rahmat; Sen, Sercan; Tan, Ping; Tiras, Emrah; Wetzel, James; Yetkin, Taylan; Yi, Kai; Barnett, Bruce Arnold; Blumenfeld, Barry; Bolognesi, Sara; Fehling, David; Gritsan, Andrei; Maksimovic, Petar; Martin, Christopher; Swartz, Morris; Baringer, Philip; Bean, Alice; Benelli, Gabriele; Bruner, Christopher; Kenny III, Raymond Patrick; Malek, Magdalena; Murray, Michael; Noonan, Daniel; Sanders, Stephen; Sekaric, Jadranka; Stringer, Robert; Wang, Quan; Wood, Jeffrey Scott; Barfuss, Anne-Fleur; Chakaberia, Irakli; Ivanov, Andrew; Khalil, Sadia; Makouski, Mikhail; Maravin, Yurii; Saini, Lovedeep Kaur; Shrestha, Shruti; Skhirtladze, Nikoloz; Svintradze, Irakli; Gronberg, Jeffrey; Lange, David; Rebassoo, Finn; Wright, Douglas; Baden, Drew; Belloni, Alberto; Calvert, Brian; Eno, Sarah Catherine; Gomez, Jaime; Hadley, Nicholas John; Kellogg, Richard G; Kolberg, Ted; Lu, Ying; Marionneau, Matthieu; Mignerey, Alice; Pedro, Kevin; Skuja, Andris; Tonjes, Marguerite; Tonwar, Suresh C; Apyan, Aram; Barbieri, Richard; Bauer, Gerry; Busza, Wit; Cali, Ivan Amos; Chan, Matthew; Di Matteo, Leonardo; Dutta, Valentina; Gomez Ceballos, Guillelmo; Goncharov, Maxim; Gulhan, Doga; Klute, Markus; Lai, Yue Shi; Lee, Yen-Jie; Levin, Andrew; Luckey, Paul David; Ma, Teng; Paus, Christoph; Ralph, Duncan; Roland, Christof; Roland, Gunther; Stephans, George; Stöckli, Fabian; Sumorok, Konstanty; Velicanu, Dragos; Veverka, Jan; Wyslouch, Bolek; Yang, Mingming; Zanetti, Marco; Zhukova, Victoria; Dahmes, Bryan; Gude, Alexander; Kao, Shih-Chuan; Klapoetke, Kevin; Kubota, Yuichi; Mans, Jeremy; Pastika, Nathaniel; Rusack, Roger; Singovsky, Alexander; Tambe, Norbert; Turkewitz, Jared; Acosta, John Gabriel; Oliveros, Sandra; Avdeeva, Ekaterina; Bloom, Kenneth; Bose, Suvadeep; Claes, Daniel R; Dominguez, Aaron; Gonzalez Suarez, Rebeca; Keller, Jason; Knowlton, Dan; Kravchenko, Ilya; Lazo-Flores, Jose; Malik, Sudhir; Meier, Frank; Snow, Gregory R; Zvada, Marian; Dolen, James; Godshalk, Andrew; Iashvili, Ia; Kharchilava, Avto; Kumar, Ashish; Rappoccio, Salvatore; Alverson, George; Barberis, Emanuela; Baumgartel, Darin; Chasco, Matthew; Haley, Joseph; Massironi, Andrea; Morse, David Michael; Nash, David; Orimoto, Toyoko; Trocino, Daniele; Wang, Ren-Jie; Wood, Darien; Zhang, Jinzhong; Hahn, Kristan Allan; Kubik, Andrew; Mucia, Nicholas; Odell, Nathaniel; Pollack, Brian; Pozdnyakov, Andrey; Schmitt, Michael Henry; Stoynev, Stoyan; Sung, Kevin; Velasco, Mayda; Won, Steven; Brinkerhoff, Andrew; Chan, Kwok Ming; Drozdetskiy, Alexey; Hildreth, Michael; Jessop, Colin; Karmgard, Daniel John; Kellams, Nathan; Lannon, Kevin; Luo, Wuming; Lynch, Sean; Marinelli, Nancy; Pearson, Tessa; Planer, Michael; Ruchti, Randy; Valls, Nil; Wayne, Mitchell; Wolf, Matthias; Woodard, Anna; Antonelli, Louis; Brinson, Jessica; Bylsma, Ben; Durkin, Lloyd Stanley; Flowers, Sean; Hill, Christopher; Hughes, Richard; Kotov, Khristian; Ling, Ta-Yung; Puigh, Darren; Rodenburg, Marissa; Smith, Geoffrey; Winer, Brian L; Wolfe, Homer; Wulsin, Howard Wells; Driga, Olga; Elmer, Peter; Hebda, Philip; Hunt, Adam; Koay, Sue Ann; Lujan, Paul; Marlow, Daniel; Medvedeva, Tatiana; Mooney, Michael; Olsen, James; Piroué, Pierre; Quan, Xiaohang; Saka, Halil; Stickland, David; Tully, Christopher; Werner, Jeremy Scott; Zuranski, Andrzej; Brownson, Eric; Mendez, Hector; Ramirez Vargas, Juan Eduardo; Barnes, Virgil E; Benedetti, Daniele; Bortoletto, Daniela; De Mattia, Marco; Gutay, Laszlo; Hu, Zhen; Jha, Manoj; Jones, Matthew; Jung, Kurt; Kress, Matthew; Leonardo, Nuno; Lopes Pegna, David; Maroussov, Vassili; Miller, David Harry; Neumeister, Norbert; Radburn-Smith, Benjamin Charles; Shi, Xin; Shipsey, Ian; Silvers, David; Svyatkovskiy, Alexey; Wang, Fuqiang; Xie, Wei; Xu, Lingshan; Yoo, Hwi Dong; Zablocki, Jakub; Zheng, Yu; Parashar, Neeti; Stupak, John; Adair, Antony; Akgun, Bora; Ecklund, Karl Matthew; Geurts, Frank JM; Li, Wei; Michlin, Benjamin; Padley, Brian Paul; Redjimi, Radia; Roberts, Jay; Zabel, James; Betchart, Burton; Bodek, Arie; Covarelli, Roberto; de Barbaro, Pawel; Demina, Regina; Eshaq, Yossof; Ferbel, Thomas; Garcia-Bellido, Aran; Goldenzweig, Pablo; Han, Jiyeon; Harel, Amnon; Khukhunaishvili, Aleko; Petrillo, Gianluca; Vishnevskiy, Dmitry; Ciesielski, Robert; Demortier, Luc; Goulianos, Konstantin; Lungu, Gheorghe; Mesropian, Christina; Arora, Sanjay; Barker, Anthony; Chou, John Paul; Contreras-Campana, Christian; Contreras-Campana, Emmanuel; Duggan, Daniel; Ferencek, Dinko; Gershtein, Yuri; Gray, Richard; Halkiadakis, Eva; Hidas, Dean; Kaplan, Steven; Lath, Amitabh; Panwalkar, Shruti; Park, Michael; Patel, Rishi; Salur, Sevil; Schnetzer, Steve; Somalwar, Sunil; Stone, Robert; Thomas, Scott; Thomassen, Peter; Walker, Matthew; Rose, Keith; Spanier, Stefan; York, Andrew; Bouhali, Othmane; Castaneda Hernandez, Alfredo; Eusebi, Ricardo; Flanagan, Will; Gilmore, Jason; Kamon, Teruki; Khotilovich, Vadim; Krutelyov, Vyacheslav; Montalvo, Roy; Osipenkov, Ilya; Pakhotin, Yuriy; Perloff, Alexx; Roe, Jeffrey; Rose, Anthony; Safonov, Alexei; Sakuma, Tai; Suarez, Indara; Tatarinov, Aysen; Akchurin, Nural; Cowden, Christopher; Damgov, Jordan; Dragoiu, Cosmin; Dudero, Phillip Russell; Faulkner, James; Kovitanggoon, Kittikul; Kunori, Shuichi; Lee, Sung Won; Libeiro, Terence; Volobouev, Igor; Appelt, Eric; Delannoy, Andrés G; Greene, Senta; Gurrola, Alfredo; Johns, Willard; Maguire, Charles; Mao, Yaxian; Melo, Andrew; Sharma, Monika; Sheldon, Paul; Snook, Benjamin; Tuo, Shengquan; Velkovska, Julia; Arenton, Michael Wayne; Boutle, Sarah; Cox, Bradley; Francis, Brian; Goodell, Joseph; Hirosky, Robert; Ledovskoy, Alexander; Li, Hengne; Lin, Chuanzhe; Neu, Christopher; Wood, John; Clarke, Christopher; Harr, Robert; Karchin, Paul Edmund; Kottachchi Kankanamge Don, Chamath; Lamichhane, Pramod; Sturdy, Jared; Belknap, Donald; Carlsmith, Duncan; Cepeda, Maria; Dasu, Sridhara; Dodd, Laura; Duric, Senka; Friis, Evan; Hall-Wilton, Richard; Herndon, Matthew; Hervé, Alain; Klabbers, Pamela; Lanaro, Armando; Lazaridis, Christos; Levine, Aaron; Loveless, Richard; Mohapatra, Ajit; Ojalvo, Isabel; Perry, Thomas; Pierro, Giuseppe Antonio; Polese, Giovanni; Ross, Ian; Sarangi, Tapas; Savin, Alexander; Smith, Wesley H; Taylor, Devin; Verwilligen, Piet; Vuosalo, Carl; Woods, Nathaniel

    2015-05-01

    This paper presents a measurement of the inclusive 3-jet production differential cross section at a proton-proton centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV using data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 5 fb$^{-1}$ collected with the CMS detector. The analysis is based on the three jets with the highest transverse momenta. The cross section is measured as a function of the invariant mass of the three jets in a range of 445-3270 GeV and in two bins of the maximum rapidity of the jets up to a value of 2. A comparison between the measurement and the prediction from perturbative QCD at next-to-leading order is performed. Within uncertainties, data and theory are in agreement. The sensitivity of the observable to parameters of the theory such as the parton distribution functions of the proton and the strong coupling constant $\\alpha_S$ is studied. A fit to all data points with 3-jet masses larger than 664 GeV gives a value of the strong coupling constant of $\\alpha_S(M_\\mathrm{Z})$ = 0.1171 $\\pm$ 0.0013 (exp) $^{+0...

  2. Determination of dopant atomic positions with kinematical X-ray standing waves; Untersuchung von Fremdatomen in kristallinen Materialien mit kinematischen stehenden Roentgenwellen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walz, Bente

    2011-11-15

    Recent advances in the kinematic X-ray standing wave technique (KXSW) for the determination of the atomic coordinates and displacement parameters in nonperfect crystalline materials are described in this thesis. The methodology has been improved by considering three significant aspects: - the inclusion of weak multiple beam contributions - the excitation of secondary fluorescence in multiple-element samples - the influence of the crystal mosaicity on the fluorescence yield. The improvements allowed to successfully apply the method to investigate complex oxide materials of current interest for potential device applications. The thermally-induced interdiffusion of cobalt and manganese thin films on zinc oxide single crystals has been studied to determine which lattice sites are occupied preferentially. The data analysis revealed that after thermal diffusion the adsorbed atoms occupied zinc sites in the host lattice. The mean deviation of the cobalt atomic position from the zinc lattice site was comparable to the thermal displacement parameter of the zinc atoms. In the case of manganese a secondary phase was found on the surface. Measurements performed on LaSrMnO{sub 4} provided new insight concerning the rotation of the oxygen octahedron around the manganese atoms and the concomitant displacements of the strontium and lanthanum atoms. It was found that the oxygen octahedra are rotated around the [100]-direction by 4,5 . The measurements in transmission geometry performed on titanium dioxide (rutile) demonstrated that KXSW measurements in the Laue geometry is a viable technique. By performing KXSW under grazing-incidence conditions it is possible to achieve depth resolution. The results clearly show that the extended KXSW technique is a versatile method for characterizing complex material systems. (orig.)

  3. Zinc to cadmium replacement in the A. thaliana SUPERMAN Cys₂ His₂ zinc finger induces structural rearrangements of typical DNA base determinant positions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malgieri, Gaetano; Zaccaro, Laura; Leone, Marilisa; Bucci, Enrico; Esposito, Sabrina; Baglivo, Ilaria; Del Gatto, Annarita; Russo, Luigi; Scandurra, Roberto; Pedone, Paolo V; Fattorusso, Roberto; Isernia, Carla

    2011-11-01

    Among heavy metals, whose toxicity cause a steadily increasing of environmental pollution, cadmium is of special concern due to its relatively high mobility in soils and potential toxicity at low concentrations. Given their ubiquitous role, zinc fingers domains have been proposed as mediators for the toxic and carcinogenic effects exerted by xenobiotic metals. To verify the structural effects of zinc replacement by cadmium in zinc fingers, we have determined the high resolution structure of the single Cys₂ His₂ zinc finger of the Arabidopsis thaliana SUPERMAN protein (SUP37) complexed to the cadmium ion by means of UV-vis and NMR techniques. SUP37 is able to bind Cd(II), though with a dissociation constant higher than that measured for Zn(II). Cd-SUP37 retains the ββα fold but experiences a global structural rearrangement affecting both the relative orientation of the secondary structure elements and the position of side chains involved in DNA recognition: among them Ser17 side chain, which we show to be essential for DNA binding, experiences the largest displacement. 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Differential innate immune response programs in neuronal subtypes determine susceptibility to infection in the brain by positive-stranded RNA viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hyelim; Proll, Sean C; Szretter, Kristy J; Katze, Michael G; Gale, Michael; Diamond, Michael S

    2013-04-01

    Although susceptibility of neurons in the brain to microbial infection is a major determinant of clinical outcome, little is known about the molecular factors governing this vulnerability. Here we show that two types of neurons from distinct brain regions showed differential permissivity to replication of several positive-stranded RNA viruses. Granule cell neurons of the cerebellum and cortical neurons from the cerebral cortex have unique innate immune programs that confer differential susceptibility to viral infection ex vivo and in vivo. By transducing cortical neurons with genes that were expressed more highly in granule cell neurons, we identified three interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs; Ifi27, Irg1 and Rsad2 (also known as Viperin)) that mediated the antiviral effects against different neurotropic viruses. Moreover, we found that the epigenetic state and microRNA (miRNA)-mediated regulation of ISGs correlates with enhanced antiviral response in granule cell neurons. Thus, neurons from evolutionarily distinct brain regions have unique innate immune signatures, which probably contribute to their relative permissiveness to infection.

  5. Determination of boron content and isotopic composition in gypsum by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy and positive thermal ionization mass spectrometry using phase transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yun-Qi; Peng, Zhang-Kuang; Yang, Jian; Xiao, Ying-Kai; Zhang, Yan-Ling

    2017-12-01

    As a stable isotope, boron plays an important role in hydrogeology, environmental geochemistry, ore deposit geochemistry and marine paleoclimatology. However, there is no report of boron isotopic composition in gypsum. This is mainly confined to complete dissolution of Gypsum by water or acid. In this study, gypsum was converted to calcium carbonate (CaCO 3 ) with ammonium bicarbonate(NH 4 HCO 3 ) by two steps at 50°C. In every step, the mass ratio of NH 4 HCO 3 /CaSO 4 ·2H 2 O was twice, and conversion rate reached more than 98%. Converted CaCO 3 was totally dissolved with hydrochloric acid (the dissolution rate was over 99%). In order to overcome the difficulties of the matrix interference and the detection limit of Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-OES), we use Amberlite IRA 743 resin to purify and enrichment the boron at first, then eluting boron from the resin with 10mL 0.1mol/L hydrochloric acid at 75°C. The boron isotopic composition of natural gypsum samples was determined using positive thermal ionization mass spectrometry (P-TIMS). The boron isotopic composition of gypsum may be an excellent indicator for the formation environment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Using the ratio of the magnetic field to the analytic signal of the magnetic gradient tensor in determining the position of simple shaped magnetic anomalies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Kurosh; Shirzaditabar, Farzad

    2017-08-01

    The analytic signal of magnitude of the magnetic field’s components and its first derivatives have been employed for locating magnetic structures, which can be considered as point-dipoles or line of dipoles. Although similar methods have been used for locating such magnetic anomalies, they cannot estimate the positions of anomalies in noisy states with an acceptable accuracy. The methods are also inexact in determining the depth of deep anomalies. In noisy cases and in places other than poles, the maximum points of the magnitude of the magnetic vector components and Az are not located exactly above 3D bodies. Consequently, the horizontal location estimates of bodies are accompanied by errors. Here, the previous methods are altered and generalized to locate deeper models in the presence of noise even at lower magnetic latitudes. In addition, a statistical technique is presented for working in noisy areas and a new method, which is resistant to noise by using a ‘depths mean’ method, is made. Reduction to the pole transformation is also used to find the most possible actual horizontal body location. Deep models are also well estimated. The method is tested on real magnetic data over an urban gas pipeline in the vicinity of Kermanshah province, Iran. The estimated location of the pipeline is accurate in accordance with the result of the half-width method.

  7. Evaluation of the apnea-hypopnea index determined by the S8 auto-CPAP, a continuous positive airway pressure device, in patients with obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Kanako; Kasai, Takatoshi; Brewer, Gregory; Takaya, Hisashi; Maeno, Ken-ichi; Kasagi, Satoshi; Kawana, Fusae; Ishiwata, Sugao; Narui, Koji

    2010-04-15

    Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) has been established as an effective treatment for obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS). Recently, several auto-CPAP devices that can detect upper airway obstructive events and provide information about residual events while patients are on CPAP have come into clinical use. The purpose of this study was to compare the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) determined by the S8 auto-CPAP device with the AHI derived by polysomnography in patients with OSAHS. Consecutive patients with OSAHS titrated on S8 auto-CPAP were included. The correlation between AHI determined by manual scoring (AHI-PSG) and by S8 (AHIS8) during an overnight in-hospital polysomnogram with the patient on CPAP was assessed. Furthermore, the apnea index (Al) and the hypopnea index (HI) were evaluated separately. Seventy patients with OSAHS (94% men) were enrolled. The mean AHI on the diagnostic study was 51.9 +/- 2.4. During the titration, this device markedly suppressed the respiratory events (AHI-PSG, 4.2 +/- 0.4; AI, 1.9 +/- 0.3; HI, 2.3 +/- 0.3). On the other hand, the AHI-S8 was 9.9 +/- 0.6 (AI-S8, 2.4 +/- 0.3; HI-S8, 7.5 +/- 0.4). There was a strong correlation between the overall AHI-PSG and the AHI-S8 (r = 0.85, p S8 (r = 0.93, p S8 (r = 0.67, p S8 was observed. However, the correlation was weakened when the analysis was limited to the HI.

  8. Dendrogeochronologic and Anatomic Analysis of Excavated Plains Cottonwoods Determine Overbank Sedimentation Rates and Historical Channel Positions Along the Interior of a Migrating Meander Bend, Powder River, Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, T. L.; Pizzuto, J. E.; Schook, D. M.; Hasse, T. R.; Affinito, R. A.

    2017-12-01

    Dendrochronological dating of buried trees precisely determines the germination year and identifies the stratigraphic context of germination for the trees. This recently developed application of dendrochronology provides accurate time-averaged sedimentation rates of overbank deposition along floodplains and can be used to identify burial events. Previous studies have demonstrated that tamarisk (Tamarix ramosissima) and sandbar willow (Salix exigua) develop anatomical changes within the tree rings (increased vessel size and decreased ring widths) on burial, but observations of plains cottonwood (Populus deltoides ssp. monilifera) are lacking. In September 2016 and June 2017, five buried plains cottonwoods were excavated along a single transect of the interior of a meander bend of the Powder River, Montana. Sediment samples were obtained near each tree for 210Pb and 137Cs dating, which will allow for comparison between dendrochronological and isotopic dating methods. The plains cottonwood samples collected exhibit anatomical changes associated with burial events that are observed in other species. All trees germinated at the boundary between thinly bedded fine sand and mud and coarse sand underlain by sand and gravel, indicating plains cottonwoods germinate on top of point bars prior to overbank deposition. The precise germination age and depth provide elevations and minimum age constraints for the point bar deposits and maximum ages for the overlying sediment, helping constrain past channel positions and overbank deposition rates. Germination years of the excavated trees, estimated from cores taken 1.5 m above ground level, range from 2014 to 1862. Accurate establishment years determined by cross-dating the buried section of the tree can add an additional 10 years to the cored age. The sedimentation rate and accumulation thickness varied with tree age. The germination year, total sediment accumulation, and average sedimentation rate at the five sampled trees is

  9. Determination of the strong coupling constant α{sub s} from transverse energy-energy correlations in multijet events at √(s) = 8 TeV using the ATLAS detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aaboud, M. [Univ. Mohamed Premier et LPTPM, Oujda (Morocco). Faculte des Sciences; Aad, G. [CPPM, Aix-Marseille Univ. et CNRS/IN2P3, Marseille (France); Abbott, B. [Oklahoma Univ., Norman, OK (United States). Homer L. Dodge Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; Collaboration: ATLAS Collaboration; and others

    2017-12-15

    Measurements of transverse energy-energy correlations and their associated asymmetries in multi-jet events using the ATLAS detector at the LHC are presented. The data used correspond to √(s) = 8 TeV proton-proton collisions with an integrated luminosity of 20.2 fb{sup -1}. The results are presented in bins of the scalar sum of the transverse momenta of the two leading jets, unfolded to the particle level and compared to the predictions from Monte Carlo simulations. A comparison with next-to-leading-order perturbative QCD is also performed, showing excellent agreement within the uncertainties. From this comparison, the value of the strong coupling constant is extracted for different energy regimes, thus testing the running of α{sub s}(μ) predicted in QCD up to scales over 1 TeV. A global fit to the transverse energy-energy correlation distributions yields α{sub s}(m{sub Z}) = 0.1162 ± 0.0011 (exp.){sup +0.0084}{sub -0.0070} (theo.), while a global fit to the asymmetry distributions yields a value of α{sub s}(m{sub Z}) = 0.1196 ± 0.0013 (exp.){sup +0.0075}{sub -0.0045} (theo.). (orig.)

  10. Relationship between the position of the mental foramen and the anterior loop of the inferior alveolar nerve as determined by cone beam computed tomography combined with mimics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhuogeng; Chen, Donghui; Tang, Li; Wang, Fenfen

    2015-01-01

    The position of the mental foramen and the anterior loop length of the inferior alveolar nerve serve as important anatomical landmarks for surgical procedures in the anterior mandibular region. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between the anterior loop of the inferior alveolar nerve and the mental foramen by combining cone beam computed tomography and Mimics, a software used to construct 3-dimensional (3D) interactive models of anatomical structures. Cone beam computed tomography images from a total of 60 patients were obtained and studied using GALAXY viewer or were imported into Mimics. The anterior loop of the inferior alveolar nerve was reconstructed 3-dimensionally, and then relevant parameters were measured. The parameters were measured, and their values include mean (SD) anterior loop length, 1.16 (1.78) mm; anterior loop angle, 19.13 (26.89) degrees; inferior alveolar canal diameter, 3.01 (0.67) mm; height of the inferior alveolar canal, 10.32 (1.56) mm; 2-dimensional mental foramen diameter, 2.97 (0.61) mm; 3D mental foramen diameter, 2.95 (0.59) mm; 2-dimensional vertical height of the mental foramen, 14.67 (1.67) mm; and 3D vertical height of the mental foramen, 14.61 (1.69) mm. The mental foramen was located apically between the first and second premolars in 51.67% and below the second premolar in 40.83% of the cases. A relationship was observed between the location of the mental foramen and the presence of the anterior loop of the inferior alveolar nerve. We highlight the effectiveness of cone beam computed tomography and 3D reconstruction in the identification of important anatomical structures relevant for preoperative assessment for surgical procedures in the anterior region of the mandible.

  11. Quantum electrodynamics of strong fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greiner, W.

    1983-01-01

    Quantum Electrodynamics of Strong Fields provides a broad survey of the theoretical and experimental work accomplished, presenting papers by a group of international researchers who have made significant contributions to this developing area. Exploring the quantum theory of strong fields, the volume focuses on the phase transition to a charged vacuum in strong electric fields. The contributors also discuss such related topics as QED at short distances, precision tests of QED, nonperturbative QCD and confinement, pion condensation, and strong gravitational fields In addition, the volume features a historical paper on the roots of quantum field theory in the history of quantum physics by noted researcher Friedrich Hund

  12. Calculating hadronic properties in strong QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pennington, M.R.

    1996-01-01

    This talk gives a brief review of the progress that has been made in calculating the properties of hadrons in strong QCD. In keeping with this meeting I will concentrate on those properties that can be studied with electromagnetic probes. Though perturbative QCD is highly successful, it only applies in a limited kinematic regime, where hard scattering occur, and the quarks move in the interaction region as if they are free, pointlike objects. However, the bulk of strong interactions are governed by the long distance regime, where the strong interaction is strong. It is this regime of length scales of the order of a Fermi, that determines the spectrum of light hadrons and their properties. The calculation of these properties requires an understanding of non-perturbative QCD, of confinement and chiral symmetry breaking. (author)

  13. Low incidence of minor BRAF V600 mutation-positive subclones in primary and metastatic melanoma determined by sensitive and quantitative real-time PCR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kielsgaard Kristensen, Thomas; Clemmensen, Ole; Hoejberg, Lise

    2013-01-01

    lead to mutation-positive results in patients with melanomas with small subsets of mutation-positive cells who may not benefit from therapy targeting mutant B-Raf. Mutation analysis with high analytical sensitivity is generally preferred, to reduce the risk of false-negative results. In this study...... dichotomous pattern, with most samples either testing mutation positive in a high fraction of alleles (median, 51%) or negative with a high sensitivity (median, 0.06%). This finding demonstrates that the occurrence of small subsets of mutation-positive cells was rare in our study population and indicates...

  14. Strong WW Interaction at LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelaez, Jose R

    1998-12-14

    We present a brief pedagogical introduction to the Effective Electroweak Chiral Lagrangians, which provide a model independent description of the WW interactions in the strong regime. When it is complemented with some unitarization or a dispersive approach, this formalism allows the study of the general strong scenario expected at the LHC, including resonances.

  15. Roles of Self-Stigma, Social Support, and Positive and Negative Affects as Determinants of Depressive Symptoms Among HIV Infected Men who have Sex with Men in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinghua; Mo, Phoenix K H; Wu, Anise M S; Lau, Joseph T F

    2017-01-01

    Poor mental health was prevalent among HIV positive men who have sex with men (HIVMSM), and a tremendous burden extents on their families and society. The present study investigated the prevalence of depression and its relationship with social support, HIV self-stigma, positive affect and negative affect among 321 HIVMSM in Chengdu, China. The study was conducted during July 2013 through October 2013. Findings showed that 55.8 % of the participants had mild to severe depression. The results of structural equation modeling showed that social support and positive affect were negatively associated with depression, while HIV self-stigma and negative affect were positively associated with depression. Social support, positive affect, and negative affect mediated the association between HIV self-stigma and depression. The hypothesized model had a satisfactory fit. Interventions improving mental health among this population are warranted.

  16. Comparison of hot Soxhlet and accelerated solvent extractions with microwave and supercritical fluid extractions for the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and nitrated derivatives strongly adsorbed on soot collected inside a diesel particulate filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oukebdane, K; Portet-Koltalo, F; Machour, N; Dionnet, F; Desbène, P L

    2010-06-30

    Several methods of extraction were optimized to extract polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), their nitrated derivatives and heavy n-alkanes from a highly adsorptive particulate matter resulting from the combustion of diesel fuel in a diesel engine. This particular carbonaceous particulate matter, collected at high temperatures in cordierite diesel particulate filters (DPF), which are optimized for removing diesel particles from diesel engine exhaust emissions, appeared extremely refractory to extractions using the classical extracting conditions for these pollutants. In particular, the method of accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) is described in detail here. Optimization was performed through experimental design to understand the impact of each factor studied and the factors' possible interactions on the recovery yields. The conventional extraction technique, i.e., Soxhlet extraction, was also carried out, but the lack of quantitative extractions led us to use a more effective approach: hot Soxhlet. It appeared that the extraction of the heaviest PAHs and nitroPAHs by either the optimized ASE or hot Soxhlet processes was far from complete. To enhance recovery yields, we tested original solvent mixtures of aromatic and heteroaromatic solvents. Thereafter, these two extraction techniques were compared to microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE). In every case, the only solvent mixture that permitted quantitative extraction of the heaviest PAHs from the diesel soot was composed of pyridine and diethylamine, which has a strong electron-donor character. Conversely, the extraction of the nitrated PAHs was significantly improved by the use of an electron-acceptor solvent or by introducing a small amount of acetic acid into the pyridine. It was demonstrated that, for many desirable features, no single extraction technique stound out as the best: ASE, MAE or SFE could all challenge hot Soxhlet for favourable extractions

  17. Strong-back safety latch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeSantis, G.N.

    1995-01-01

    The calculation decides the integrity of the safety latch that will hold the strong-back to the pump during lifting. The safety latch will be welded to the strong-back and will latch to a 1.5-in. dia cantilever rod welded to the pump baseplate. The static and dynamic analysis shows that the safety latch will hold the strong-back to the pump if the friction clamps fail and the pump become free from the strong-back. Thus, the safety latch will meet the requirements of the Lifting and Rigging Manual for under the hook lifting for static loading; it can withstand shock loads from the strong-back falling 0.25 inch

  18. Strong-back safety latch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeSantis, G.N.

    1995-03-06

    The calculation decides the integrity of the safety latch that will hold the strong-back to the pump during lifting. The safety latch will be welded to the strong-back and will latch to a 1.5-in. dia cantilever rod welded to the pump baseplate. The static and dynamic analysis shows that the safety latch will hold the strong-back to the pump if the friction clamps fail and the pump become free from the strong-back. Thus, the safety latch will meet the requirements of the Lifting and Rigging Manual for under the hook lifting for static loading; it can withstand shock loads from the strong-back falling 0.25 inch.

  19. Determination of intensity and position of the extracted electron beam at ELSA by means of high-frequency resonators; Bestimmung von Intensitaet und Position des extrahierten Elektronenstrahls an ELSA mittels Hochfrequenzresonatoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pusch, Thorsten

    2012-06-15

    The electron stretcher facility ELSA provides an electron beam of a few hundred pA used for the generation of bremsstrahlung photons probing the nucleon structure in a detector setup. For the correct interpretation of the events registered, the persistence of the beam position over time is crucial. Its continuous monitoring has been enabled by setting up a measurement system based on resonant cavities. Position signals at a frequency of 1.5 GHz and below one aW of power can be abstracted from the beam without degrading its quality. After frequency down-conversion to a few kHz, a narrow bandwidth detection performed by lock-in amplifiers separates them from noise. A maximum sample rate of 9 Hz and a resolution of one tenth of a millimeter could be achieved. The position signals have to be normalized to the beam current which is monitored by another dedicated resonator. The measurement precision down to a few pA allows for the accelerator extraction mechanism to be controlled by a feedback loop in order to obtain the respective requested current. (orig.)

  20. Determination of curve 1/M profile as a function of control rod bank position; Determinacao do perfil da curva 1/M em funcao da posicao dos bancos de barras de controle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Valmir; Martinez, Aquilino Senra; Silva, Fernando Carvalho da [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia. Programa de Engenharia Nuclear

    2002-07-01

    Determination of the subcritical multiplication curve profile (1/M) as a function of control rod bank position is of paramount importance to the development of a system which allows to foresee and also anticipate determination of criticality of a PWR reactor core. This work aims at determining this profile. For that, the 3D- two group-diffusion equations for a subcritical PWR reactor core with external neutron source is solved for different control rod bank positions. Results obtained are compared with the results from the corresponding eigenvalue problem, in order to verify how the external neutron source interferes with the reactor criticality search. (author)

  1. Tree mortality in response to typhoon-induced floods and mudslides is determined by tree species, size, and position in a riparian Formosan gum forest in subtropical Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzeng, Hsy-Yu; Wang, Wei; Tseng, Yen-Hsueh; Chiu, Ching-An; Kuo, Chu-Chia

    2018-01-01

    Global warming-induced extreme climatic changes have increased the frequency of severe typhoons bringing heavy rains; this has considerably affected the stability of the forest ecosystems. Since the Taiwan 921 earthquake occurred in 21 September 1999, the mountain geology of the Island of Taiwan has become unstable and typhoon-induced floods and mudslides have changed the topography and geomorphology of the area; this has further affected the stability and functions of the riparian ecosystem. In this study, the vegetation of the unique Aowanda Formosan gum forest in Central Taiwan was monitored for 3 years after the occurrence of floods and mudslides during 2009–2011. Tree growth and survival, effects of floods and mudslides, and factors influencing tree survival were investigated. We hypothesized that (1) the effects of floods on the survival are significantly different for each tree species; (2) tree diameter at breast height (DBH) affects tree survival–i.e., the larger the DBH, the higher the survival rate; and (3) the relative position of trees affects tree survival after disturbances by floods and mudslides–the farther trees are from the river, the higher is their survival rate. Our results showed that after floods and mudslides, the lifespans of the major tree species varied significantly. Liquidambar formosana displayed the highest flood tolerance, and the trunks of Lagerstoemia subcostata began rooting after disturbances. Multiple regression analysis indicated that factors such as species, DBH, distance from sampled tree to the above boundary of sample plot (far from the riverbank), and distance from the upstream of the river affected the lifespans of trees; the three factors affected each tree species to different degrees. Furthermore, we showed that insect infestation had a critical role in determining tree survival rate. Our 3-year monitoring investigation revealed that severe typhoon-induced floods and mudslides disturbed the riparian vegetation

  2. Tree mortality in response to typhoon-induced floods and mudslides is determined by tree species, size, and position in a riparian Formosan gum forest in subtropical Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzeng, Hsy-Yu; Wang, Wei; Tseng, Yen-Hsueh; Chiu, Ching-An; Kuo, Chu-Chia; Tsai, Shang-Te

    2018-01-01

    Global warming-induced extreme climatic changes have increased the frequency of severe typhoons bringing heavy rains; this has considerably affected the stability of the forest ecosystems. Since the Taiwan 921 earthquake occurred in 21 September 1999, the mountain geology of the Island of Taiwan has become unstable and typhoon-induced floods and mudslides have changed the topography and geomorphology of the area; this has further affected the stability and functions of the riparian ecosystem. In this study, the vegetation of the unique Aowanda Formosan gum forest in Central Taiwan was monitored for 3 years after the occurrence of floods and mudslides during 2009-2011. Tree growth and survival, effects of floods and mudslides, and factors influencing tree survival were investigated. We hypothesized that (1) the effects of floods on the survival are significantly different for each tree species; (2) tree diameter at breast height (DBH) affects tree survival-i.e., the larger the DBH, the higher the survival rate; and (3) the relative position of trees affects tree survival after disturbances by floods and mudslides-the farther trees are from the river, the higher is their survival rate. Our results showed that after floods and mudslides, the lifespans of the major tree species varied significantly. Liquidambar formosana displayed the highest flood tolerance, and the trunks of Lagerstoemia subcostata began rooting after disturbances. Multiple regression analysis indicated that factors such as species, DBH, distance from sampled tree to the above boundary of sample plot (far from the riverbank), and distance from the upstream of the river affected the lifespans of trees; the three factors affected each tree species to different degrees. Furthermore, we showed that insect infestation had a critical role in determining tree survival rate. Our 3-year monitoring investigation revealed that severe typhoon-induced floods and mudslides disturbed the riparian vegetation in the

  3. Design and validation of a method to determine the position of the fovea by using the nerve-head to fovea distance of the fellow eye.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathijs A J van de Put

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To measure the nerve-head to fovea distance (NFD on fundus photographs in fellow eyes, and to compare the NFD between fellow eyes. METHODS: Diabetic patients without retinopathy, (n = 183 who were screened by fundus photography at the University Medical Center Groningen, the Netherlands from January 1(st 2005 until January 1(st 2006 were included. The NFD was measured in left and right eyes both from the center and from the rim of the nerve-head. To determine inter- and intra-observer agreement, repeated measurements by one observer (n = 3 were performed on all photographs and by two observers on 60 photographs (30 paired eyes. The effect of age, gender, and refractive error on NFD was analysed. RESULTS: The correlation of NFDs between the left and the right eye was 0.958 when measured from the center of the nerve head (mean difference 0.0078 mm. ±SD 0.079 (95% limits of agreement -0.147-0.163 and 0.963 when measured from the rim (mean difference 0.0056±SD 0.073 (95% limits of agreement -0.137-0.149. Using the NFD between fellow eyes interchangeably, resulted in a standard error of 0.153 mm. Intra- and inter-observer variability was small. We found a significant effect of age (center of the nerve-head (P = 0.006 and rim of the nerve head (P = 0.003 and refractive error (center of nerve-head (P<0.001 and rim of nerve head (P<0.001 on NFD. CONCLUSIONS: The NFD in one eye provides a confident, reproducible, and valid method to address the position of the fovea in the fellow eye. We recommend using the NFD measured from the center of the nerve-head since the standard error by this method was smallest. Age and refractive error have an effect on NFD.

  4. Positive or negative feedback of optokinetic signals: degree of the misrouted optic flow determines system dynamics of human ocular motor behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chien-Cheng; Bockisch, Christopher J; Olasagasti, Itsaso; Weber, Konrad P; Straumann, Dominik; Huang, Melody Ying-Yu

    2014-04-09

    The optokinetic system in healthy humans is a negative-feedback system that stabilizes gaze: slow-phase eye movements (i.e., the output signal) minimize retinal slip (i.e., the error signal). A positive-feedback optokinetic system may exist due to the misrouting of optic fibers. Previous studies have shown that, in a zebrafish mutant with a high degree of the misrouting, the optokinetic response (OKR) is reversed. As a result, slow-phase eye movements amplify retinal slip, forming a positive-feedback optokinetic loop. The positive-feedback optokinetic system cannot stabilize gaze, thus leading to spontaneous eye oscillations (SEOs). Because the misrouting in human patients (e.g., with a condition of albinism or achiasmia) is partial, both positive- and negative-feedback loops co-exist. How this co-existence affects human ocular motor behavior remains unclear. We presented a visual environment consisting of two stimuli in different parts of the visual field to healthy subjects. One mimicked positive-feedback optokinetic signals and the other preserved negative-feedback optokinetic signals. By changing the ratio and position of the visual field of these visual stimuli, various optic nerve misrouting patterns were simulated. Eye-movement responses to stationary and moving stimuli were measured and compared with computer simulations. The SEOs were correlated with the magnitude of the virtual positive-feedback optokinetic effect. We found a correlation among the simulated misrouting, the corresponding OKR, and the SEOs in humans. The proportion of the simulated misrouting needed to be greater than 50% to reverse the OKR and at least greater than or equal to 70% to evoke SEOs. Once the SEOs were evoked, the magnitude positively correlated to the strength of the positive-feedback OKR. This study provides a mechanism of how the misrouting of optic fibers in humans could lead to SEOs, offering a possible explanation for a subtype of infantile nystagmus syndrome (INS).

  5. Titanium: light, strong, and white

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodruff, Laurel; Bedinger, George

    2013-01-01

    Titanium (Ti) is a strong silver-gray metal that is highly resistant to corrosion and is chemically inert. It is as strong as steel but 45 percent lighter, and it is twice as strong as aluminum but only 60 percent heavier. Titanium dioxide (TiO2) has a very high refractive index, which means that it has high light-scattering ability. As a result, TiO2 imparts whiteness, opacity, and brightness to many products. ...Because of the unique physical properties of titanium metal and the whiteness provided by TiO2, titanium is now used widely in modern industrial societies.

  6. Gluon scattering amplitudes at strong coupling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alday, Luis F. [Institute for Theoretical Physics and Spinoza Institute, Utrecht University, 3508 TD Utrecht (Netherlands); Maldacena, Juan [School of Natural Sciences, Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States)

    2007-06-15

    We describe how to compute planar gluon scattering amplitudes at strong coupling in N = 4 super Yang Mills by using the gauge/string duality. The computation boils down to finding a certain classical string configuration whose boundary conditions are determined by the gluon momenta. The results are infrared divergent. We introduce the gravity version of dimensional regularization to define finite quantities. The leading and subleading IR divergencies are characterized by two functions of the coupling that we compute at strong coupling. We compute also the full finite form for the four point amplitude and we find agreement with a recent ansatz by Bern, Dixon and Smirnov.

  7. Strong transthyretin immunostaining: potential pitfall in cardiac amyloid typing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoskar, Anjali A; Efebera, Yvonne; Hasan, Ayesha; Brodsky, Sergey; Nadasdy, Gyongyi; Dogan, Ahmet; Nadasdy, Tibor

    2011-11-01

    Although systemic amyloidosis commonly presents with renal disease, cardiac involvement usually determines the patient's prognosis. Cardiac involvement is seen in light chain amyloid and transthyretin amyloidosis. Distinguishing between these two is critical because prognosis and treatment differ. Our study demonstrates the unreliability of transthyretin immunostaining in subtyping cardiac amyloid. Between January 2003 and August 2010, we retrieved 229 native endomyocardial biopsies, of which 24 had amyloid. Immunohistochemistry for κ, λ, transthyretin, and serum amyloid A protein was performed on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded sections. Staining was graded as weak (trace to 1+) or strong (2 to 3+). Mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomic typing of microdissected amyloid material was performed on selected cases. Fifteen patients had monoclonal gammopathy/plasma cell dyscrasia with cardiac amyloid. Eight of them (53%) showed strong transthyretin staining in the cardiac amyloid deposits. MS was performed in 5 of these 8 biopsies, and all 5 biopsies revealed light chain amyloid-type amyloid. Two of these 5 light chain amyloid biopsies did not even have concomitant strong staining for the appropriate light chain. Among the 15 cases with plasma cell dyscrasia, only 7 biopsies showed strong staining for the corresponding monoclonal light chain. Strong, false-positive immunostaining for transthyretin in cardiac amyloid is a potential pitfall, augmented by the frequent lack of staining for immunoglobulin light chains. Therefore, the presence of amyloid in the cardiac biopsy should prompt a search for plasma cell dyscrasia irrespective of transthyretin staining. Confirmation with MS should be sought, particularly if there is any discrepancy between κ/λ staining and serum immunofixation results.

  8. Determination of locational error associated with global positioning system (GPS) radio collars in relation to vegetation and topography in north-central New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, K.; Biggs, J.; Fresquez, P.R.

    1997-02-01

    In 1996, a study was initiated to assess seasonal habitat use and movement patterns of Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) using global positioning system (GPS) radio collars. As part of this study, the authors attempted to assess the accuracies of GPS (non-differentially corrected) positions under various vegetation canopies and terrain conditions with the use of a GPS ``test`` collar. The test collar was activated every twenty minutes to obtain a position location and continuously uplinked to Argos satellites to transfer position data files. They used a Telonics, Inc. uplink receiver to intercept the transmission and view the results of the collar in real time. They placed the collar on a stand equivalent to the neck height of an adult elk and then placed the stand within three different treatment categories: (1) topographical influence (canyon and mesa tops), (2) canopy influence (open and closed canopy), and (3) vegetation type influence (ponderosa pine and pinion pine-juniper). The collar was kept at each location for one hour (usually obtaining three fixes). In addition, the authors used a hand-held GPS to obtain a position of the test collar at the same time and location.

  9. An amino acid at position 142 in nitrilase from Rhodococcus rhodochrous ATCC 33278 determines the substrate specificity for aliphatic and aromatic nitriles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeom, Soo-Jin; Kim, Hye-Jung; Lee, Jung-Kul; Kim, Dong-Eun; Oh, Deok-Kun

    2008-11-01

    Nitrilase from Rhodococcus rhodochrous ATCC 33278 hydrolyses both aliphatic and aromatic nitriles. Replacing Tyr-142 in the wild-type enzyme with the aromatic amino acid phenylalanine did not alter specificity for either substrate. However, the mutants containing non-polar aliphatic amino acids (alanine, valine and leucine) at position 142 were specific only for aromatic substrates such as benzonitrile, m-tolunitrile and 2-cyanopyridine, and not for aliphatic substrates. These results suggest that the hydrolysis of substrates probably involves the conjugated pi-electron system of the aromatic ring of substrate or Tyr-142 as an electron acceptor. Moreover, the mutants containing charged amino acids such as aspartate, glutamate, arginine and asparagine at position 142 displayed no activity towards any nitrile, possibly owing to the disruption of hydrophobic interactions with substrates. Thus aromaticity of substrate or amino acid at position 142 in R. rhodochrous nitrilase is required for enzyme activity.

  10. Proportion of false-positive lesions at interim and end-of-treatment FDG-PET in lymphoma as determined by histology : Systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adams, Hugo J A; Kwee, Thomas C.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To systematically review and meta-analyze the proportion of false-positive lesions at interim and end-of-treatment 18F-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) in lymphoma using biopsy as reference standard. Materials and methods Medline was searched for original

  11. Anticitrullinated protein/peptide antibody multiplexing defines an extended group of ACPA-positive rheumatoid arthritis patients with distinct genetic and environmental determinants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rönnelid, Johan; Hansson, Monika; Mathsson-Alm, Linda; Cornillet, Martin; Reed, Evan; Jakobsson, Per-Johan; Alfredsson, Lars; Holmdahl, Rikard; Skriner, Karl; Serre, Guy; Lundberg, Karin; Klareskog, Lars

    2018-02-01

    The second generation anticycliccitrullinated peptide (anti-CCP2) assay detects the majority but not all anticitrullinated protein/peptide antibodies (ACPA). Anti-CCP2-positive rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is associated with HLA-DRB1* shared epitope (SE) alleles and smoking. Using a multiplex assay to detect multiple specific ACPA, we have investigated the fine specificity of individual ACPA responses and the biological impact of additional ACPA reactivity among anti-CCP2-negative patients. We investigated 2825 patients with RA and 551 healthy controls with full data on anti-CCP2, HLA-DRB1* alleles and smoking history concerning reactivity against 16 citrullinated peptides and arginine control peptides with a multiplex array. The prevalence of the 16 ACPA specificities ranged from 9% to 58%. When reactivity to arginine peptides was subtracted, the mean diagnostic sensitivity increased by 3.2% with maintained 98% specificity. Of the anti-CCP2-negative patients, 16% were found to be ACPA positive. All ACPA specificities associated with SE, and all but one with smoking. Correction for arginine reactivity also conveyed a stronger association with SE for 13/16 peptides. Importantly, when all ACPA specificities were analysed together, SE and smoking associated with RA in synergy among ACPA positive, but not among ACPA-negative subjects also in the anti-CCP2-negative subset. Multiplexing detects an enlarged group of ACPA-positive but anti-CCP2-negative patients with genetic and environmental attributes previously assigned to anti-CCP2-positive patients. The individual correction for arginine peptide reactivity confers both higher diagnostic sensitivity and stronger association to SE than gross ACPA measurement. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  12. The SNAP Strong Lens Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marshall, P.

    2005-01-03

    Basic considerations of lens detection and identification indicate that a wide field survey of the types planned for weak lensing and Type Ia SNe with SNAP are close to optimal for the optical detection of strong lenses. Such a ''piggy-back'' survey might be expected even pessimistically to provide a catalogue of a few thousand new strong lenses, with the numbers dominated by systems of faint blue galaxies lensed by foreground ellipticals. After sketching out our strategy for detecting and measuring these galaxy lenses using the SNAP images, we discuss some of the scientific applications of such a large sample of gravitational lenses: in particular we comment on the partition of information between lens structure, the source population properties and cosmology. Understanding this partitioning is key to assessing strong lens cosmography's value as a cosmological probe.

  13. Strong coupling phase in QED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, Ken-ichi

    1988-01-01

    Existence of a strong coupling phase in QED has been suggested in solutions of the Schwinger-Dyson equation and in Monte Carlo simulation of lattice QED. In this article we recapitulate the previous arguments, and formulate the problem in the modern framework of the renormalization theory, Wilsonian renormalization. This scheme of renormalization gives the best understanding of the basic structure of a field theory especially when it has a multi-phase structure. We resolve some misleading arguments in the previous literature. Then we set up a strategy to attack the strong phase, if any. We describe a trial; a coupled Schwinger-Dyson equation. Possible picture of the strong coupling phase QED is presented. (author)

  14. Cosmological applications of strong gravitational lensing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paraficz, Danuta

    value of the energy density of the two above components, together with measuring the Hubble constant that determines the age of the Universe, is a major goal of modern astrophysics. An interesting method for estimating these parameters is strong gravitational lensing of quasars (QSOs). As shown...... by Refsdal (1964), H0, !m and !! can be measured based on the time delay ("t) between multiply lensed images of QSOs, because "t depends on H0 and on the distances to lens and source, hence!m and !!. Determination of cosmological parameters using gravitational lensing suffers from some degeneracies......, but it is based on well understood physics and unlike distance ladder methods there are no calibration issues. Moreover, it has an advantage over some of the leading methods (such as Type Ia SNe) in that it is a purely cosmological approach. In this thesis, the property of strong gravitational lensing - time...

  15. Effect of the position of the visible sky in determining the sky view factor on micrometeorological and human thermal comfort conditions in urban street canyons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qaid, Adeb; Lamit, Hasanuddin Bin; Ossen, Dilshan Remaz; Rasidi, Mohd Hisyam

    2018-02-01

    Poor daytime and night-time micrometeorological conditions are issues that influence the quality of environmental conditions and can undermine a comfortable human lifestyle. The sky view factor (SVF) is one of the essential physical parameters used to assess the micrometeorological conditions and thermal comfort levels within city streets. The position of the visible sky relative to the path of the sun, in the cardinal and ordinal directions, has not been widely discerned as a parameter that could have an impact on the micrometeorological conditions of urban streets. To investigate this parameter, different urban streets that have a similar SVF value but diverse positions of visible sky were proposed in different street directions intersecting with the path of the sun, namely N-S, NE-SW and NW-SE. The effects of daytime and night-time micrometeorological variables and human thermal comfort variables on the street were investigated by applying ENVI-met V3.1 Beta software. The results show that the position of the visible sky has a greater influence on the street's meteorological and human thermal comfort conditions than the SVF value. It has the ability to maximise or minimise the mean radiation temperature (Tmrt, °C) and the physiological equivalent temperature (PET, °C) at street level. However, the visible sky positioned to the zenith in a NE-SW or N-S street direction and to the SW of a NW-SE street direction achieves the best daytime micrometeorological and thermal comfort conditions. Alternatively, the visible sky positioned to the NE for a NW-SE street direction, to the NW and the zenith for a NE-SW street direction and to the zenith for a N-S street direction reduces the night-time air temperature (Ta, °C). Therefore, SVF and the position of the visible sky relative to the sun's trajectory, in the cardinal and ordinal directions, must be considered during urban street planning to better understand the resultant micrometeorological and human thermal

  16. Position Information

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Position Information Data Asset provides the ability to search for active SSA position descriptions using various search criteria. An individual may search by PD...

  17. Simple area determination of strongly overlapping ion mobility peaks

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Borovcová, L.; Hermannová, M.; Pauk, V.; Šimek, M.; Havlíček, Vladimír; Lemr, Karel

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 981, AUG 15 (2017), s. 71-79 ISSN 0003-2670 Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) LO1305 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Ion mobility-mass spectrometry * Fitting of mobility peaks * Analysis of isomers Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation OBOR OECD: Analytical chemistry Impact factor: 4.950, year: 2016

  18. Aspectos determinantes do posicionamento corporal no ciclismo: uma revisão sistemática Aspects determinants of body positioning for cycling: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Francisco Kleinpaul

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Através de revisão sistemática, fez-se um levantamento de estudos que tratam do posicionamento corporal adequado para o ciclismo. Para isso, buscou-se por referências em língua Portuguesa e Inglesa, nas bases de dados LILACS, ScienceDirect, SciELO e MEDLINE. Os descritores utilizados para a busca dos artigos foram: posicionamento corporal + ciclismo; ajuste + bicicleta; postura + ciclismo; body positioning + cycling; bicycle fitting; cycling posture. Foram considerados artigos originais, de revisão simples, dissertações de mestrado e livros que tratassem de forma clara e objetiva o assunto, desde que publicados entre 1993 e 2009 (outubro. No total 20 estudos atenderam esses requisitos. De modo geral, estes sugerem que o conhecimento e habilidade para ajustar a bicicleta são úteis, no entanto, mesmo existindo protocolos para o ajuste adequado da bicicleta ao ciclista, os estudos denotam que a maioria dos ciclistas ainda as utiliza de forma errônea. Isso sugere a dificuldade de acesso aos estudos.By means of systematic review a surveying of English and Portuguese language studies concerning the expected body positioning for improvement of cycling. Search engines used were LILACS, ScienceDirect, SciELO and MEDLINE. The keywords used to find relevant papers were: posicionamento corporal + ciclismo; ajuste + bicicleta; postura + ciclismo; body positioning + cycling; bicycle fitting; cycling posture. Original papers, short review papers, master thesis and books published from 1993 to 2009 (October were considered when the main subject of discussion was the topic of interest. A total of 20 studies were considered. In general, the studies suggest that is will be useful to know about the bicycle fitting. Even so protocols for body positioning evaluation are available, most of studies concluded that cyclists are not able to use this protocol correctly. It suggests the difficult to access studies.

  19. Positioning consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halkier, Bente; Keller, Margit

    2014-01-01

    This article analyses the ways in which media discourses become a part of contested consumption activities. We apply a positioning perspective with practice theory to focus on how practitioners relate to media discourse as a symbolic resource in their everyday practices. A typology of performance...... positionings emerges based on empirical examples of research in parent–children consumption. Positionings are flexible discursive fixations of the relationship between the performances of the practitioner, other practitioners, media discourse and consumption activities. The basic positioning types...

  20. Positive Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    Positive psychology is a deliberate correction to the focus of psychology on problems. Positive psychology does not deny the difficulties that people may experience but does suggest that sole attention to disorder leads to an incomplete view of the human condition. Positive psychologists concern themselves with four major topics: (1) positive…

  1. Strong Decomposition of Random Variables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann-Jørgensen, Jørgen; Kagan, Abram M.; Pitt, Loren D.

    2007-01-01

    A random variable X is stongly decomposable if X=Y+Z where Y=Φ(X) and Z=X-Φ(X) are independent non-degenerated random variables (called the components). It is shown that at least one of the components is singular, and we derive a necessary and sufficient condition for strong decomposability...

  2. Strong-strong beam-beam simulation on parallel computer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiang, Ji

    2004-08-02

    The beam-beam interaction puts a strong limit on the luminosity of the high energy storage ring colliders. At the interaction points, the electromagnetic fields generated by one beam focus or defocus the opposite beam. This can cause beam blowup and a reduction of luminosity. An accurate simulation of the beam-beam interaction is needed to help optimize the luminosity in high energy colliders.

  3. Strong-strong beam-beam simulation on parallel computer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiang, Ji

    2004-01-01

    The beam-beam interaction puts a strong limit on the luminosity of the high energy storage ring colliders. At the interaction points, the electromagnetic fields generated by one beam focus or defocus the opposite beam. This can cause beam blowup and a reduction of luminosity. An accurate simulation of the beam-beam interaction is needed to help optimize the luminosity in high energy colliders

  4. Ubiquitous positioning

    CERN Document Server

    Mannings, Robin

    2008-01-01

    This groundbreaking resource offers a practical, in-depth understanding of Ubiquitous Positioning - positioning systems that identify the location and position of people, vehicles and objects in time and space in the digitized networked economy. The future and growth of ubiquitous positioning will be fueled by the convergence of many other areas of technology, from mobile telematics, Internet technology, and location systems, to sensing systems, geographic information systems, and the semantic web. This first-of-its-kind volume explores ubiquitous positioning from a convergence perspective, of

  5. PREFACE: Strongly correlated electron systems Strongly correlated electron systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Siddharth S.; Littlewood, P. B.

    2012-07-01

    This special section is dedicated to the Strongly Correlated Electron Systems Conference (SCES) 2011, which was held from 29 August-3 September 2011, in Cambridge, UK. SCES'2011 is dedicated to 100 years of superconductivity and covers a range of topics in the area of strongly correlated systems. The correlated electronic and magnetic materials featured include f-electron based heavy fermion intermetallics and d-electron based transition metal compounds. The selected papers derived from invited presentations seek to deepen our understanding of the rich physical phenomena that arise from correlation effects. The focus is on quantum phase transitions, non-Fermi liquid phenomena, quantum magnetism, unconventional superconductivity and metal-insulator transitions. Both experimental and theoretical work is presented. Based on fundamental advances in the understanding of electronic materials, much of 20th century materials physics was driven by miniaturisation and integration in the electronics industry to the current generation of nanometre scale devices. The achievements of this industry have brought unprecedented advances to society and well-being, and no doubt there is much further to go—note that this progress is founded on investments and studies in the fundamentals of condensed matter physics from more than 50 years ago. Nevertheless, the defining challenges for the 21st century will lie in the discovery in science, and deployment through engineering, of technologies that can deliver the scale needed to have an impact on the sustainability agenda. Thus the big developments in nanotechnology may lie not in the pursuit of yet smaller transistors, but in the design of new structures that can revolutionise the performance of solar cells, batteries, fuel cells, light-weight structural materials, refrigeration, water purification, etc. The science presented in the papers of this special section also highlights the underlying interest in energy-dense materials, which

  6. Positioning consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halkier, Bente; Keller, Margit

    2014-01-01

    This article analyses the ways in which media discourses become a part of contested consumption activities. We apply a positioning perspective with practice theory to focus on how practitioners relate to media discourse as a symbolic resource in their everyday practices. A typology of performance...... positionings emerges based on empirical examples of research in parent–children consumption. Positionings are flexible discursive fixations of the relationship between the performances of the practitioner, other practitioners, media discourse and consumption activities. The basic positioning types...... are the practice maintenance and the practice change position, with different sorts of adapting in between. Media discourse can become a resource for a resistant position against social control or for an appropriating position in favour of space for action. Regardless of the current relation to a particular media...

  7. Determination of accurate 1H positions of an alanine tripeptide with anti-parallel and parallel β-sheet structures by high resolution 1H solid state NMR and GIPAW chemical shift calculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazawa, Koji; Suzuki, Furitsu; Nishiyama, Yusuke; Ohata, Takuya; Aoki, Akihiro; Nishimura, Katsuyuki; Kaji, Hironori; Shimizu, Tadashi; Asakura, Tetsuo

    2012-11-25

    The accurate (1)H positions of alanine tripeptide, A(3), with anti-parallel and parallel β-sheet structures could be determined by highly resolved (1)H DQMAS solid-state NMR spectra and (1)H chemical shift calculation with gauge-including projector augmented wave calculations.

  8. Using Empirical Rules from 13C NMR Analysis to Determine the Stereochemistry of the Epoxide Located at the 5,6-position of Decalinic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel M. Cravero

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available An empiric rule derived from the analysis of the 13C NMR spectral data, allowed us to determine 5,6-epoxide stereochemistry on decalinic systems and a discussion of the scope and limitations of this rule and its extension to other carbon squeletons, is presented.

  9. A Mixed Methods Study to Determine if High School Athletics Participation Carries Any Residual Positive Effects for Nontraditional Student Success in a College in Central Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Kasey Lloyd

    2017-01-01

    Nontraditional students returning to college have many outside stressors that potentially prohibit academic success including full-time jobs, home life (children, spouses, and bills), and lack of time or understanding of college assignments. An explanatory mixed methods study was conducted for the purpose of determining if and for how long the…

  10. Trypsin- and low pH-mediated fusogenicity of avian metapneumovirus fusion proteins is determined by residues at positions 100, 101 and 294.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Bingling; Guan, Xiaolu; Liu, Yongzhen; Gao, Yanni; Wang, Yongqiang; Qi, Xiaole; Cui, Hongyu; Liu, Changjun; Zhang, Yanping; Gao, Li; Li, Kai; Gao, Honglei; Gao, Yulong; Wang, Xiaomei

    2015-10-26

    Avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) and human metapneumovirus (hMPV) are members of the genus Metapneumovirus in the subfamily Pneumovirinae. Metapneumovirus fusion (F) protein mediates the fusion of host cells with the virus membrane for infection. Trypsin- and/or low pH-induced membrane fusion is a strain-dependent phenomenon for hMPV. Here, we demonstrated that three subtypes of aMPV (aMPV/A, aMPV/B, and aMPV/C) F proteins promoted cell-cell fusion in the absence of trypsin. Indeed, in the presence of trypsin, only aMPV/C F protein fusogenicity was enhanced. Mutagenesis of the amino acids at position 100 and/or 101, located at a putative cleavage region in aMPV F proteins, revealed that the trypsin-mediated fusogenicity of aMPV F proteins is regulated by the residues at positions 100 and 101. Moreover, we demonstrated that aMPV/A and aMPV/B F proteins mediated cell-cell fusion independent of low pH, whereas the aMPV/C F protein did not. Mutagenesis of the residue at position 294 in the aMPV/A, aMPV/B, and aMPV/C F proteins showed that 294G played a critical role in F protein-mediated fusion under low pH conditions. These findings on aMPV F protein-induced cell-cell fusion provide new insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying membrane fusion and pathogenesis of aMPV.

  11. Position of coordination of the lithium ion determines the regioselectivity of demethylations of 3,4-dimethoxymorphinans with L-selectride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Huifang; Thatcher, Linn N; Bernard, Denzil; Parrish, Damon A; Deschamps, Jeffrey R; Rice, Kenner C; MacKerell, Alexander D; Coop, Andrew

    2005-06-23

    [reaction: see text] L-Selectride is an efficient agent for the 3-O-demethylation of opioids and is known to cleave the least hindered methoxyl group in a molecule. The treatment of a 3,4-dimethoxymorphinan containing a 6-ketal with L-Selectride gave selective 4-O-demethylation, rather than cleavage of the less hindered 3-methoxyl. In contrast, a 3,4-dimethoxymorphinan lacking a 6-ketal gave selective 3-O-demethylation, suggesting that the regiochemistry of L-Selectride-mediated O-demethylation can be manipulated through altering the position of coordination of the lithium ion.

  12. Proportion of false-positive lesions at interim and end-of-treatment FDG-PET in lymphoma as determined by histology: Systematic review and meta-analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, Hugo J.A., E-mail: h.j.a.adams@gmail.com; Kwee, Thomas C.

    2016-11-15

    Purpose: To systematically review and meta-analyze the proportion of false-positive lesions at interim and end-of-treatment {sup 18}F-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) in lymphoma using biopsy as reference standard. Materials and methods: Medline was searched for original studies. Methodological quality of included studies was evaluated, and results were meta-analytically summarized using random effects (in case of interstudy heterogeneity [I{sup 2} ≤ 50%]) or fixed effects (in case of no interstudy heterogeneity [I{sup 2} > 50%]). Results: Eleven studies, comprising 139 patients who underwent biopsy of an FDG-avid lesion during or after completion of antilymphoma treatment, were included. Overall methodological quality was moderate. The proportion of false-positive results among all biopsied FDG-avid lesions at PET performed during of after completion of treatment ranged between 7.7% and 90.5% (the vast majority was due to inflammatory changes), with a weighted summary proportion (random effects, I{sup 2} = 75.7%) of 55.7% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 32.6–76.6%). There were no available studies on interim FDG-PET in Hodgkin lymphoma. The pooled summary false-positive proportions were 83.0% (95% CI: 72.0%–90.2%) for interim FDG-PET in non-Hodgkin lymphoma (fixed effects, I{sup 2} = 27.7%), 23.1% (95% CI: 4.7%–64.5%) for end-of-treatment FDG-PET in Hodgkin lymphoma (random effects; I{sup 2} = 67.1%), and 31.5% (95% CI: 3.9%–83.9%) for end-of-treatment FDG-PET in non-Hodgkin lymphoma (random effects, I{sup 2} = 68.3%). Conclusion: Both interim and end-of-treatment FDG-PET scans in patients with lymphoma suffer from a very high number of false-positive FDG-avid lesions. This finding, in combination with the previously reported high number of false-negative FGD-PET scans for residual disease detection, suggests that the role of interim and end-of-treatment FDG-PET should be reconsidered.

  13. Proportion of false-positive lesions at interim and end-of-treatment FDG-PET in lymphoma as determined by histology: Systematic review and meta-analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, Hugo J.A.; Kwee, Thomas C.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To systematically review and meta-analyze the proportion of false-positive lesions at interim and end-of-treatment 18 F-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) in lymphoma using biopsy as reference standard. Materials and methods: Medline was searched for original studies. Methodological quality of included studies was evaluated, and results were meta-analytically summarized using random effects (in case of interstudy heterogeneity [I 2 ≤ 50%]) or fixed effects (in case of no interstudy heterogeneity [I 2 > 50%]). Results: Eleven studies, comprising 139 patients who underwent biopsy of an FDG-avid lesion during or after completion of antilymphoma treatment, were included. Overall methodological quality was moderate. The proportion of false-positive results among all biopsied FDG-avid lesions at PET performed during of after completion of treatment ranged between 7.7% and 90.5% (the vast majority was due to inflammatory changes), with a weighted summary proportion (random effects, I 2 = 75.7%) of 55.7% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 32.6–76.6%). There were no available studies on interim FDG-PET in Hodgkin lymphoma. The pooled summary false-positive proportions were 83.0% (95% CI: 72.0%–90.2%) for interim FDG-PET in non-Hodgkin lymphoma (fixed effects, I 2 = 27.7%), 23.1% (95% CI: 4.7%–64.5%) for end-of-treatment FDG-PET in Hodgkin lymphoma (random effects; I 2 = 67.1%), and 31.5% (95% CI: 3.9%–83.9%) for end-of-treatment FDG-PET in non-Hodgkin lymphoma (random effects, I 2 = 68.3%). Conclusion: Both interim and end-of-treatment FDG-PET scans in patients with lymphoma suffer from a very high number of false-positive FDG-avid lesions. This finding, in combination with the previously reported high number of false-negative FGD-PET scans for residual disease detection, suggests that the role of interim and end-of-treatment FDG-PET should be reconsidered.

  14. Mechanics of magnetic fluid column in strong magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polunin, V.M.; Ryapolov, P.A.; Platonov, V.B.

    2017-01-01

    Elastic-and magnetic properties of magnetic fluid confined by ponderomotive force in a tube fixed in horizontal position are considered. The system is placed in a strong magnetic field under the influence of external static and dynamic perturbations. An experimental setup has been developed. A theoretical basis of the processes of magnetic colloid elastic deformation has been proposed. The values of the static ponderomotive elasticity coefficient and the elasticity coefficient under dynamic action are experimentally determined. The calculations of the saturation magnetization for two magnetic fluid samples, carried out according to the equation containing the dynamic elasticity coefficient, are in good agreement with the experimental magnetization curve. The described method is of interest when studying magnetophoresis and aggregation of nanoparticles in magnetic colloids.

  15. Strongly correlated systems experimental techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Mancini, Ferdinando

    2015-01-01

    The continuous evolution and development of experimental techniques is at the basis of any fundamental achievement in modern physics. Strongly correlated systems (SCS), more than any other, need to be investigated through the greatest variety of experimental techniques in order to unveil and crosscheck the numerous and puzzling anomalous behaviors characterizing them. The study of SCS fostered the improvement of many old experimental techniques, but also the advent of many new ones just invented in order to analyze the complex behaviors of these systems. Many novel materials, with functional properties emerging from macroscopic quantum behaviors at the frontier of modern research in physics, chemistry and materials science, belong to this class of systems. The volume presents a representative collection of the modern experimental techniques specifically tailored for the analysis of strongly correlated systems. Any technique is presented in great detail by its own inventor or by one of the world-wide recognize...

  16. Strongly Correlated Systems Theoretical Methods

    CERN Document Server

    Avella, Adolfo

    2012-01-01

    The volume presents, for the very first time, an exhaustive collection of those modern theoretical methods specifically tailored for the analysis of Strongly Correlated Systems. Many novel materials, with functional properties emerging from macroscopic quantum behaviors at the frontier of modern research in physics, chemistry and materials science, belong to this class of systems. Any technique is presented in great detail by its own inventor or by one of the world-wide recognized main contributors. The exposition has a clear pedagogical cut and fully reports on the most relevant case study where the specific technique showed to be very successful in describing and enlightening the puzzling physics of a particular strongly correlated system. The book is intended for advanced graduate students and post-docs in the field as textbook and/or main reference, but also for other researchers in the field who appreciates consulting a single, but comprehensive, source or wishes to get acquainted, in a as painless as po...

  17. Strongly correlated systems numerical methods

    CERN Document Server

    Mancini, Ferdinando

    2013-01-01

    This volume presents, for the very first time, an exhaustive collection of those modern numerical methods specifically tailored for the analysis of Strongly Correlated Systems. Many novel materials, with functional properties emerging from macroscopic quantum behaviors at the frontier of modern research in physics, chemistry and material science, belong to this class of systems. Any technique is presented in great detail by its own inventor or by one of the world-wide recognized main contributors. The exposition has a clear pedagogical cut and fully reports on the most relevant case study where the specific technique showed to be very successful in describing and enlightening the puzzling physics of a particular strongly correlated system. The book is intended for advanced graduate students and post-docs in the field as textbook and/or main reference, but also for other researchers in the field who appreciate consulting a single, but comprehensive, source or wishes to get acquainted, in a as painless as possi...

  18. Strongly nonlinear oscillators analytical solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Cveticanin, Livija

    2014-01-01

    This book provides the presentation of the motion of pure nonlinear oscillatory systems and various solution procedures which give the approximate solutions of the strong nonlinear oscillator equations. The book presents the original author’s method for the analytical solution procedure of the pure nonlinear oscillator system. After an introduction, the physical explanation of the pure nonlinearity and of the pure nonlinear oscillator is given. The analytical solution for free and forced vibrations of the one-degree-of-freedom strong nonlinear system with constant and time variable parameter is considered. Special attention is given to the one and two mass oscillatory systems with two-degrees-of-freedom. The criteria for the deterministic chaos in ideal and non-ideal pure nonlinear oscillators are derived analytically. The method for suppressing chaos is developed. Important problems are discussed in didactic exercises. The book is self-consistent and suitable as a textbook for students and also for profess...

  19. Flavour Democracy in Strong Unification

    CERN Document Server

    Abel, S A; Abel, Steven; King, Steven

    1998-01-01

    We show that the fermion mass spectrum may naturally be understood in terms of flavour democratic fixed points in supersymmetric theories which have a large domain of attraction in the presence of "strong unification". Our approach provides an alternative to the approximate Yukawa texture zeroes of the Froggatt-Nielsen mechanism. We discuss a particular model based on a broken gauged $SU(3)_L\\times SU(3)_R$ family symmetry which illustrates our approach.

  20. [Respect for self-determination and use of coercion in the treatment of mentally ill persons: an ethical position statement of the DGPPN].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    Respect for patient self-determination is a central ethical principle of medical care. Every person has the right to make decisions regarding his or her health autonomously, even if these decisions appear irrational to third parties. Free and informed consent is the necessary prerequisite for every diagnostic and therapeutic procedure. A patient's ability for self-determination is one requirement for valid consent. In illness, the ability for self-determination may be limited or absent in individual cases. An ethical dilemma arises if severely ill patients who are unable to make autonomous decisions put their health at significant risk and refuse medical procedures in this situation. While non-treatment can be severely detrimental to health, forced procedures can result in traumatization and can damage the relationship of trust between the doctor and patient. The dilemma is intensified in cases of danger to others. In these difficult situations doctors, therapists and nursing staff require ethical guidance for the professional conduct. The primary objective thereby is to avoid coercion. For this purpose recommendations for medical practice are formulated that can reduce the use of forced procedures (e.g. de-escalation procedures, communication competency, clinical ethics counseling, treatment agreements and patient living wills) or if they are unavoidable, that allow them to be conducted in an ethically and legally appropriate way. Further and continued education must pay greater attention to this ethical objective; therefore, for ethical reasons adequate personnel, spatial and structural are vital in hospitals.

  1. Strong motion duration and earthquake magnitude relationships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salmon, M.W.; Short, S.A.; Kennedy, R.P.

    1992-06-01

    Earthquake duration is the total time of ground shaking from the arrival of seismic waves until the return to ambient conditions. Much of this time is at relatively low shaking levels which have little effect on seismic structural response and on earthquake damage potential. As a result, a parameter termed ''strong motion duration'' has been defined by a number of investigators to be used for the purpose of evaluating seismic response and assessing the potential for structural damage due to earthquakes. This report presents methods for determining strong motion duration and a time history envelope function appropriate for various evaluation purposes, for earthquake magnitude and distance, and for site soil properties. There are numerous definitions of strong motion duration. For most of these definitions, empirical studies have been completed which relate duration to earthquake magnitude and distance and to site soil properties. Each of these definitions recognizes that only the portion of an earthquake record which has sufficiently high acceleration amplitude, energy content, or some other parameters significantly affects seismic response. Studies have been performed which indicate that the portion of an earthquake record in which the power (average rate of energy input) is maximum correlates most closely with potential damage to stiff nuclear power plant structures. Hence, this report will concentrate on energy based strong motion duration definitions

  2. Strong motion duration and earthquake magnitude relationships

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salmon, M.W.; Short, S.A. [EQE International, Inc., San Francisco, CA (United States); Kennedy, R.P. [RPK Structural Mechanics Consulting, Yorba Linda, CA (United States)

    1992-06-01

    Earthquake duration is the total time of ground shaking from the arrival of seismic waves until the return to ambient conditions. Much of this time is at relatively low shaking levels which have little effect on seismic structural response and on earthquake damage potential. As a result, a parameter termed ``strong motion duration`` has been defined by a number of investigators to be used for the purpose of evaluating seismic response and assessing the potential for structural damage due to earthquakes. This report presents methods for determining strong motion duration and a time history envelope function appropriate for various evaluation purposes, for earthquake magnitude and distance, and for site soil properties. There are numerous definitions of strong motion duration. For most of these definitions, empirical studies have been completed which relate duration to earthquake magnitude and distance and to site soil properties. Each of these definitions recognizes that only the portion of an earthquake record which has sufficiently high acceleration amplitude, energy content, or some other parameters significantly affects seismic response. Studies have been performed which indicate that the portion of an earthquake record in which the power (average rate of energy input) is maximum correlates most closely with potential damage to stiff nuclear power plant structures. Hence, this report will concentrate on energy based strong motion duration definitions.

  3. The Use of Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT to Determine Supernumerary and Impacted Teeth Position in Pediatric Patients: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Nematolahi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A case of a compound odontoma which caused delayed eruption of right maxillary central incisor in a ten year old girl is presented with clinical and radiographic findings. The patient presented with complaint of a hard painless swelling in the right anterior region of the maxilla and absence of right maxillary central incisor. After clinical examination, periapical and occlusal radiographs of the mentioned region were taken. Impacted maxillary right central incisor was seen malformed shape on the intraoral radiographs. After taking a cone beam computed tomography (CBCT a compound odontoma associated with the labial aspect of impacted maxillary right central incisor was diagnosed and then removed by simple local excision under local anesthesia. The removal of the odontoma was followed by forced eruption of the impacted central incisor. After three months the tooth returned to its original position.

  4. Determination of the length and position of the lower oesophageal sphincter (LOS) by correlation of external measurements with combined radiographic and manometric estimations in the cat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashim, M.A.; Waterman, A.E.

    1992-01-01

    Fifty DSH cats were studied radiographically and a highly significant linear correlation was found between the length of the oesophagus measured to the diaphragmatic line on the radiographs and the externally measured distance from the lower jaw incisor teeth to the anterior border of the head of 10th rib. A subsequent manometric study utilizing this correlation in 40 cats suggests that the functional lower oesophageal sphincter (LOS) is situated almost at the level of the diaphragm in the cat. Significant differences were found between the length of the LOS in cats anaesthetized with ketamine compared to alphaxalone-alphadolone or xylazine-ketamine-atropine. The mean lengths of the LOS was 1.42 +/- 0.3 cm. The findings of this study indicate that external measurements can be used to position catheters for accurate oesophageal manometry in the cat

  5. Hirshfeld atom refinement for modelling strong hydrogen bonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woińska, Magdalena; Jayatilaka, Dylan; Spackman, Mark A; Edwards, Alison J; Dominiak, Paulina M; Woźniak, Krzysztof; Nishibori, Eiji; Sugimoto, Kunihisa; Grabowsky, Simon

    2014-09-01

    High-resolution low-temperature synchrotron X-ray diffraction data of the salt L-phenylalaninium hydrogen maleate are used to test the new automated iterative Hirshfeld atom refinement (HAR) procedure for the modelling of strong hydrogen bonds. The HAR models used present the first examples of Z' > 1 treatments in the framework of wavefunction-based refinement methods. L-Phenylalaninium hydrogen maleate exhibits several hydrogen bonds in its crystal structure, of which the shortest and the most challenging to model is the O-H...O intramolecular hydrogen bond present in the hydrogen maleate anion (O...O distance is about 2.41 Å). In particular, the reconstruction of the electron density in the hydrogen maleate moiety and the determination of hydrogen-atom properties [positions, bond distances and anisotropic displacement parameters (ADPs)] are the focus of the study. For comparison to the HAR results, different spherical (independent atom model, IAM) and aspherical (free multipole model, MM; transferable aspherical atom model, TAAM) X-ray refinement techniques as well as results from a low-temperature neutron-diffraction experiment are employed. Hydrogen-atom ADPs are furthermore compared to those derived from a TLS/rigid-body (SHADE) treatment of the X-ray structures. The reference neutron-diffraction experiment reveals a truly symmetric hydrogen bond in the hydrogen maleate anion. Only with HAR is it possible to freely refine hydrogen-atom positions and ADPs from the X-ray data, which leads to the best electron-density model and the closest agreement with the structural parameters derived from the neutron-diffraction experiment, e.g. the symmetric hydrogen position can be reproduced. The multipole-based refinement techniques (MM and TAAM) yield slightly asymmetric positions, whereas the IAM yields a significantly asymmetric position.

  6. Positional Concerns and Institutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landes, Xavier

    2013-01-01

    their implications for economics, positional concerns imply important normative dimensions. There have been presumed to be a symptom of envy, reduce people’s happiness, and create problems of social interaction or economic inefficiencies. Individuals are, for instance, prone to pick states of the world that improve...... that invoking envy or subjective well-being is not fully satisfying for regulating positional concerns. More compelling reasons seem, in complement with efficiency, to be related to considerations for equality. In other words, if institutions could have strong reasons to pay attention to and regulate positional...... concerns, it would be in virtue of their impact on the social product and individuals’ conditions of living....

  7. Long-term fertilization determines different metabolomic profiles and responses in saplings of three rainforest tree species with different adult canopy position.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Gargallo-Garriga

    Full Text Available Tropical rainforests are frequently limited by soil nutrient availability. However, the response of the metabolic phenotypic plasticity of trees to an increase of soil nutrient availabilities is poorly understood. We expected that increases in the ability of a nutrient that limits some plant processes should be detected by corresponding changes in plant metabolome profile related to such processes.We studied the foliar metabolome of saplings of three abundant tree species in a 15 year field NPK fertilization experiment in a Panamanian rainforest. The largest differences were among species and explained 75% of overall metabolome variation. The saplings of the large canopy species, Tetragastris panamensis, had the lowest concentrations of all identified amino acids and the highest concentrations of most identified secondary compounds. The saplings of the "mid canopy" species, Alseis blackiana, had the highest concentrations of amino acids coming from the biosynthesis pathways of glycerate-3P, oxaloacetate and α-ketoglutarate, and the saplings of the low canopy species, Heisteria concinna, had the highest concentrations of amino acids coming from the pyruvate synthesis pathways.The changes in metabolome provided strong evidence that different nutrients limit different species in different ways. With increasing P availability, the two canopy species shifted their metabolome towards larger investment in protection mechanisms, whereas with increasing N availability, the sub-canopy species increased its primary metabolism. The results highlighted the proportional distinct use of different nutrients by different species and the resulting different metabolome profiles in this high diversity community are consistent with the ecological niche theory.

  8. Cosmogenic photons strongly constrain UHECR source models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Vliet Arjen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available With the newest version of our Monte Carlo code for ultra-high-energy cosmic ray (UHECR propagation, CRPropa 3, the flux of neutrinos and photons due to interactions of UHECRs with extragalactic background light can be predicted. Together with the recently updated data for the isotropic diffuse gamma-ray background (IGRB by Fermi LAT, it is now possible to severely constrain UHECR source models. The evolution of the UHECR sources especially plays an important role in the determination of the expected secondary photon spectrum. Pure proton UHECR models are already strongly constrained, primarily by the highest energy bins of Fermi LAT’s IGRB, as long as their number density is not strongly peaked at recent times.

  9. Atoms in strong laser fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    L'Huillier, A.

    2002-01-01

    When a high-power laser focuses into a gas of atoms, the electromagnetic field becomes of the same magnitude as the Coulomb field which binds a 1s electron in a hydrogen atom. 3 highly non-linear phenomena can happen: 1) ATI (above threshold ionization): electrons initially in the ground state absorb a large number of photons, many more than the minimum number required for ionization; 2) multiple ionization: many electrons can be emitted one at a time, in a sequential process, or simultaneously in a mechanism called direct or non-sequential; and 3) high order harmonic generation (HHG): efficient photon emission in the extreme ultraviolet range, in the form of high-order harmonics of the fundamental laser field can occur. The theoretical problem consists in solving the time dependent Schroedinger equation (TDSE) that describes the interaction of a many-electron atom with a laser field. A number of methods have been proposed to solve this problem in the case of a hydrogen atom or a single-active electron atom in a strong laser field. A large effort is presently being devoted to go beyond the single-active approximation. The understanding of the physics of the interaction between atoms and strong laser fields has been provided by a very simple model called ''simple man's theory''. A unified view of HHG, ATI, and non-sequential ionization, originating from the simple man's model and the strong field approximation, expressed in terms of electrons trajectories or quantum paths is slowly emerging. (A.C.)

  10. Strongly Interacting Light Dark Matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Bruggisser, Francesco Riva, Alfredo Urbano

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In the presence of approximate global symmetries that forbid relevant interactions, strongly coupled light Dark Matter (DM can appear weakly coupled at small energy and generate a sizable relic abundance. Fundamental principles like unitarity restrict these symmetries to a small class, where the leading interactions are captured by effective operators up to dimension-8. Chiral symmetry, spontaneously broken global symmetries and non-linearly realized supersymmetry are examples of this. Their DM candidates (composite fermions, pseudo Nambu-Goldstone Bosons and Goldstini are interesting targets for LHC missing-energy searches.

  11. Strongly interacting light dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruggisser, Sebastian; Riva, Francesco; Urbano, Alfredo

    2016-07-01

    In the presence of approximate global symmetries that forbid relevant interactions, strongly coupled light Dark Matter (DM) can appear weakly coupled at small-energy and generate a sizable relic abundance. Fundamental principles like unitarity restrict these symmetries to a small class, where the leading interactions are captured by effective operators up to dimension-8. Chiral symmetry, spontaneously broken global symmetries and non-linearly realized supersymmetry are examples of this. Their DM candidates (composite fermions, pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone Bosons and Goldstini) are interesting targets for LHC missing-energy searches.

  12. Rydberg atoms in strong fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleppner, D.; Tsimmerman, M.

    1985-01-01

    Experimental and theoretical achievements in studying Rydberg atoms in external fields are considered. Only static (or quasistatic) fields and ''one-electron'' atoms, i.e. atoms that are well described by one-electron states, are discussed. Mainly behaviour of alkali metal atoms in electric field is considered. The state of theoretical investigations for hydrogen atom in magnetic field is described, but experimental data for atoms of alkali metals are presented as an illustration. Results of the latest experimental and theoretical investigations into the structure of Rydberg atoms in strong fields are presented

  13. Scalar strong interaction hadron theory

    CERN Document Server

    Hoh, Fang Chao

    2015-01-01

    The scalar strong interaction hadron theory, SSI, is a first principles' and nonlocal theory at quantum mechanical level that provides an alternative to low energy QCD and Higgs related part of the standard model. The quark-quark interaction is scalar rather than color-vectorial. A set of equations of motion for mesons and another set for baryons have been constructed. This book provides an account of the present state of a theory supposedly still at its early stage of development. This work will facilitate researchers interested in entering into this field and serve as a basis for possible future development of this theory.

  14. Strong Plate, Weak Slab Dichotomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, R. I.; Stegman, D. R.; Tackley, P.

    2015-12-01

    Models of mantle convection on Earth produce styles of convection that are not observed on Earth.Moreover non-Earth-like modes, such as two-sided downwellings, are the de facto mode of convection in such models.To recreate Earth style subduction, i.e. one-sided asymmetric recycling of the lithosphere, proper treatment of the plates and plate interface are required. Previous work has identified several model features that promote subduction. A free surface or pseudo-free surface and a layer of material with a relatively low strength material (weak crust) allow downgoing plates to bend and slide past overriding without creating undue stress at the plate interface. (Crameri, et al. 2012, GRL)A low viscosity mantle wedge, possibly a result of slab dehydration, decouples the plates in the system. (Gerya et al. 2007, Geo)Plates must be composed of material which, in the case of the overriding plate, are is strong enough to resist bending stresses imposed by the subducting plate and yet, as in the case of the subducting plate, be weak enough to bend and subduct when pulled by the already subducted slab. (Petersen et al. 2015, PEPI) Though strong surface plates are required for subduction such plates may present a problem when they encounter the lower mantle.As the subducting slab approaches the higher viscosity, lower mantle stresses are imposed on the tip.Strong slabs transmit this stress to the surface.There the stress field at the plate interface is modified and potentially modifies the style of convection. In addition to modifying the stress at the plate interface, the strength of the slab affects the morphology of the slab at the base of the upper mantle. (Stegman, et al 2010, Tectonophysics)Slabs that maintain a sufficient portion of their strength after being bent require high stresses to unbend or otherwise change their shape.On the other hand slabs that are weakened though the bending process are more amenable to changes in morphology. We present the results of

  15. Determination of tolerances in the positioning of the treatment table from an image-guided system; Determinacion de tolerancias en el posicionamiento de la mesa de tratamiento a partir de un sistema de imagen guiada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez Moreno, J. M.; Zucca Aparicio, D.; Fernandez leton, P.; Garcia Ruiz-Zorrilla, J.; Minanbres Moro, A.

    2011-07-01

    The use of techniques of image-guided radiotherapy (TGRT) aims to reduce the uncertainties associated with patient positioning. One of the techniques more recent development is the cone beam CT (CBCT), consisting of the acquisition of volumetric images of the patient by a detector integrated into the linear accelerator. By analyzing the results of all sessions of treatment to all patients in which the positioning has been carried out with image-guided system MV CBCT have been determined tolerance tables for translational coordinates of the table treatment based on pathology and immobilization system used. (Author)

  16. A positive chemical ionization GC/MS method for the determination of airborne ethylene glycol and propylene glycols in non-occupational environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jiping; Feng, Yong-Lai; Aikawa, Bio

    2004-11-01

    An analytical method for ethylene glycol and propylene glycols has been developed for measuring airborne levels of these chemicals in non-occupational environments such as residences and office buildings. The analytes were collected on charcoal tubes, solvent extracted, and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry using a positive chemical ionization technique. The method had a method detection limit of 0.07 microg m(-3) for ethylene glycol and 0.03 microg m(-3) for 1,2- and 1,3-propylene glycols, respectively, based on a 1.44 m3 sampling volume. Indoor air samples of several residential homes and other indoor environments have been analyzed. The median concentrations of ethylene glycol and 1,2-propylene glycol in nine residential indoor air samples were 53 microg m(-3) and 13 microg m(-3) respectively with maximum values of 223 microg m(-3) and 25 microg m(-3) detected for ethylene glycol and 1,2-propylene glycol respectively. The concentrations of these two chemicals in one office and two laboratories were at low microg m(-3) levels. The maximum concentration of 1,3-propylene glycol detected in indoor air was 0.1 microg m(-3).

  17. Chlamydia trachomatis infection positivity rates determined by nucleic acid amplification test in patients of hospitals in the northeastern region of Ukraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belozorov, Alexei; Fedets, Olga; Chastii, Tatjana; Milutina, Elena; Sokol, Oksana; Grigorova, Ritsa; Unuchko, Sergey

    2017-12-01

    There are no accurate data regarding the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection in Ukraine. This study aims to estimate the prevalence in the northeastern region of the country through reviewing nucleic acid amplification test results in patients of medical institutions in the Kharkov region during 2014-2016. Samples from 6920 patients (5028 women and 1892 men) aged 12-76 years were tested. The overall positivity rate was 4.5% (95% CI 4.0-5.0): 3.9% (95% CI 3.4-4.5) in women and 6.1% (95% CI 5.1-7.3) in men. The highest prevalence was found in the 16-20 (8.5%, CI 6.3-11.4) and 21-25 (8.0%, CI 6.7-9.4) year age groups. The prevalence in men was higher than in women in all investigated groups. The results show the need for more attention to the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of chlamydial infection in these age groups of women and men in this region.

  18. Multi-technology positioning

    CERN Document Server

    Lohan, Elena-Simona; Wymeersch, Henk; Seco-Granados, Gonzalo; Nykänen, Ossi

    2017-01-01

    This book provides an overview of positioning technologies, applications and services in a format accessible to a wide variety of readers. Readers who have always wanted to understand how satellite-based positioning, wireless network positioning, inertial navigation, and their combinations work will find great value in this book. Readers will also learn about the advantages and disadvantages of different positioning methods, their limitations and challenges. Cognitive positioning, adding the brain to determine which technologies to use at device runtime, is introduced as well. Coverage also includes the use of position information for Location Based Services (LBS), as well as context-aware positioning services, designed for better user experience. • Brings understanding of positioning technology to readers from a variety of disciplines • Reviews multiple techniques, providing insight on the pros, cons and challenges related to each • Designed to be a tutorial on basic principles, avoiding unnecessary de...

  19. Determination of the distribution of trace elements in human hair as a function of the position on the head by SRXRF AND TXRF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trunova, Valentina; Parshina, Natalia; Kondratyev, Vladimir

    2003-09-01

    On reviewing the data in the literature it is obvious that the differences in the concentrations of certain special elements in human hair for a various number of people are too large to be used as standards or deviations from standards for determining the trace-elemental composition of hair. New questions have arisen with the publication of non-compatible data. What is the distribution of elements on the donor's head area? What is the character of this distribution? Is the distribution function identical for all elements? Hair samples were taken from five points on the heads of six people. The hair samples were analysed using the method of X-ray fluorescence excited by synchrotron radiation (SRXRF), and the results were compared with those from a similar sample analysed using the method of total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF). Elements which show a constant concentration all over the head are identified.

  20. Use of genetic algorithms and virtual reality for the determination of the control cabin position in drilling rigs; O uso de algoritmos geneticos e realidade virtual na determinacao da posicao da cabine de controle em sondas de perfuracao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Robson da Cunha [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas; Cunha, Gerson Gomes [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia. Programa de Engenharia Civil

    2000-07-01

    This paper presents a proposal for a system simulation, verification and optimized positioning, for driller's cabin of drilling rigs. It will be presented assumptions and studies on drilling operations, equipment specification, characteristics of a standard worker (anthropometric measures) and application of virtual reality techniques. During the project phase, it will be verified the sight of operator to simulate the drilling operations for an 'optimum' positioning suggested by the system. Tests were performed in driller's cabins of existing platforms, identifying positions where the operator does not have a complete vision of operations. In certain cases, it was necessary that the operator left the cabin to make some verification of the operations, reducing the efficiency and functionality of the existing system, and allowing occurrence of accidents. Based on genetic algorithms, as well as in techniques of computational geometry, it was developed an algorithm that suggests the best position of the cabin on drill floor, taking into account quantitative and qualitative analyses. Through the virtual reality, is simulated the sight field of the operator inside the cabin allowing to verify the interference between the sight field of the operator and other existing elements in the platform and determining if the position initially suggested by the positioning algorithm is adequate aiming to improve the safety, productivity, efficiency of the system and reduction of costs. (author)

  1. EDITORIAL: Strongly correlated electron systems Strongly correlated electron systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronning, Filip; Batista, Cristian

    2011-03-01

    Strongly correlated electrons is an exciting and diverse field in condensed matter physics. This special issue aims to capture some of that excitement and recent developments in the field. Given that this issue was inspired by the 2010 International Conference on Strongly Correlated Electron Systems (SCES 2010), we briefly give some history in order to place this issue in context. The 2010 International Conference on Strongly Correlated Electron Systems was held in Santa Fe, New Mexico, a reunion of sorts from the 1989 International Conference on the Physics of Highly Correlated Electron Systems that also convened in Santa Fe. SCES 2010—co-chaired by John Sarrao and Joe Thompson—followed the tradition of earlier conferences, in this century, hosted by Buzios (2008), Houston (2007), Vienna (2005), Karlsruhe (2004), Krakow (2002) and Ann Arbor (2001). Every three years since 1997, SCES has joined the International Conference on Magnetism (ICM), held in Recife (2000), Rome (2003), Kyoto (2006) and Karlsruhe (2009). Like its predecessors, SCES 2010 topics included strongly correlated f- and d-electron systems, heavy-fermion behaviors, quantum-phase transitions, non-Fermi liquid phenomena, unconventional superconductivity, and emergent states that arise from electronic correlations. Recent developments from studies of quantum magnetism and cold atoms complemented the traditional subjects and were included in SCES 2010. 2010 celebrated the 400th anniversary of Santa Fe as well as the birth of astronomy. So what's the connection to SCES? The Dutch invention of the first practical telescope and its use by Galileo in 1610 and subsequent years overturned dogma that the sun revolved about the earth. This revolutionary, and at the time heretical, conclusion required innovative combinations of new instrumentation, observation and mathematics. These same combinations are just as important 400 years later and are the foundation of scientific discoveries that were discussed

  2. Analysis of zearalenone and α-zearalenol in 100 foods and medicinal plants determined by HPLC-FLD and positive confirmation by LC-MS-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Wei-Jun; Shen, Hong-Hong; Zhang, Xiao-Fei; Yang, Xiao-Li; Qiu, Feng; Ou-yang, Zhen; Yang, Mei-Hua

    2013-05-01

    Mycotoxins, which may contaminate many foods and medicinal plants, are poisonous to humans. A high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (HPLC-FLD) method was successfully developed for analysing the contamination levels of zearalenone (ZON) and its metabolite α-zearalenol (α-ZOL) in 100 widely consumed foods and medicinal plants in China. Samples were extracted with methanol-water (80:20, v/v), and cleaned up by using an immunoaffinity column. The limits of detection of this developed method for ZON and α-ZOL were 4 µg kg(-1) and 2.5 µg kg(-1) , respectively. Recoveries for the samples spiked with three levels (30, 60 and 300 µg kg(-1) for ZON and α-ZOL) ranged from 85.8% to 96.1% with relative standard deviation (RSD) of 2.6-7.1% for ZON, and from 89.9% to 98.7% with RSD of 1.9-9.2% for α-ZOL. Twelve (12%) of these tested samples were contaminated with ZON at levels ranging from 5.3 to 295.8 µg kg(-1). The most contaminated samples were Semen coicis, four of them in a concentration level exceeding 60 µg kg(-1) 'maximum level' (range 68.9-119.6 µg kg(-1)). Positive samples were further confirmed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The results suggest that it is necessary to control ZON contamination in medicinal plants, especially Semen coicis. This is a successful study on the analysis of ZON and α-ZOL in medicinal plants in China by HPLC-FLD. Immunoaffinity clean-up and HPLC-FLD proved to have broad applicability in the field of simultaneously detecting ZON and α-ZOL in foods and medicinal plants and other complicated matrices. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Performance of a Micro-Strip Gas Chamber for event wise, high rate thermal neutron detection with accurate 2D position determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mindur, B.; Alimov, S.; Fiutowski, T.; Schulz, C.; Wilpert, T.

    2014-12-01

    A two-dimensional (2D) position sensitive detector for neutron scattering applications based on low-pressure gas amplification and micro-strip technology was built and tested with an innovative readout electronics and data acquisition system. This detector contains a thin solid neutron converter and was developed for time- and thus wavelength-resolved neutron detection in single-event counting mode, which improves the image contrast in comparison with integrating detectors. The prototype detector of a Micro-Strip Gas Chamber (MSGC) was built with a solid natGd/CsI thermal neutron converter for spatial resolutions of about 100 μm and counting rates up to 107 neutrons/s. For attaining very high spatial resolutions and counting rates via micro-strip readout with centre-of-gravity evaluation of the signal amplitude distributions, a fast, channel-wise, self-triggering ASIC was developed. The front-end chips (MSGCROCs), which are very first signal processing components, are read out into powerful ADC-FPGA boards for on-line data processing and thereafter via Gigabit Ethernet link into the data receiving PC. The workstation PC is controlled by a modular, high performance dedicated software suite. Such a fast and accurate system is crucial for efficient radiography/tomography, diffraction or imaging applications based on high flux thermal neutron beam. In this paper a brief description of the detector concept with its operation principles, readout electronics requirements and design together with the signals processing stages performed in hardware and software are presented. In more detail the neutron test beam conditions and measurement results are reported. The focus of this paper is on the system integration, two dimensional spatial resolution, the time resolution of the readout system and the imaging capabilities of the overall setup. The detection efficiency of the detector prototype is estimated as well.

  4. Nuclear Positioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundersen, Gregg G.; Worman, Howard J.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY The nucleus is the largest organelle and is commonly depicted in the center of the cell. Yet during cell division, migration and differentiation, it frequently moves to an asymmetric position aligned with cell function. We consider the toolbox of proteins that move and anchor the nucleus within the cell and how forces generated by the cytoskeleton are coupled to the nucleus to move it. The significance of proper nuclear positioning is underscored by numerous diseases resulting from genetic alterations in the toolbox proteins. Finally, we discuss how nuclear position may influence cellular organization and signaling pathways. PMID:23498944

  5. Strong Emergence as a Defese of Non-Reductive Physicalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl Gillett

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Jaegwon Kim, and others, have recently posed a powerful challenge to both emergentism and nom-reductive physicalism by providing arguments that these positions are committed to an untenable combination of both ‘upward’ and ‘dounward’ determination. In section 1, I illuminate how the nature of the realization relation underlies such skeptical arguments However, in section 2, I suggest that such conclusions involve a confusion between the implications of physicalism and those of a related thesis the ‘Completeness of Physics' (Co? I show that the truth of CoP poses a very serious obstacle to realized properties being efficacious in a physicalist universe and suggest that abandoning CoP offers hope for defending non-reductive physicalism. I then formulate a schema for a physicalist metaphysics, in section 3, which rejects CoP. This scenario is one where microphysical properties have a few conditional powers that they contribute to individuals when they realize certain properties In such a situation, I argue, though physicalism holds true there is still plausibly both ‘upward’ and ‘downward’ determination, where the latter is crucially an underappreciated form of determination I temn 'non- causal'. Ultimately, I conclude that this metaphysical schema offers a coherent account of Strongly emergent properties that preserves the truth of NRP albeit, in a form that is purged of any commitment to CoP. Finally, in section: 4, I carefully explore which of Kim's assumptions and arguments this metaphysics undermines.

  6. Physics of Strongly Coupled Plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraeft, Wolf-Dietrich [Universitat Rostock (Germany)

    2007-07-15

    Strongly coupled plasmas (or non-ideal plasmas) are multi-component charged many-particle systems, in which the mean value of the potential energy of the system is of the same order as or even higher than the mean value of the kinetic energy. The constituents are electrons, ions, atoms and molecules. Dusty (or complex) plasmas contain still mesoscopic (multiply charged) particles. In such systems, the effects of strong coupling (non-ideality) lead to considerable deviations of physical properties from the corresponding properties of ideal plasmas, i.e., of plasmas in which the mean kinetic energy is essentially larger than the mean potential energy. For instance, bound state energies become density dependent and vanish at higher densities (Mott effect) due to the interaction of the pair with the surrounding particles. Non-ideal plasmas are of interest both for general scientific reasons (including, for example, astrophysical questions), and for technical applications such as inertially confined fusion. In spite of great efforts both experimentally and theoretically, satisfactory information on the physical properties of strongly coupled plasmas is not at hand for any temperature and density. For example, the theoretical description of non-ideal plasmas is possible only at low densities/high temperatures and at extremely high densities (high degeneracy). For intermediate degeneracy, however, numerical experiments have to fill the gap. Experiments are difficult in the region of 'warm dense matter'. The monograph tries to present the state of the art concerning both theoretical and experimental attempts. It mainly includes results of the work performed in famous Russian laboratories in recent decades. After outlining basic concepts (chapter 1), the generation of plasmas is considered (chapter 2, chapter 3). Questions of partial (chapter 4) and full ionization (chapter 5) are discussed including Mott transition and Wigner crystallization. Electrical and

  7. Double positivity to bee and wasp venom: improved diagnostic procedure by recombinant allergen-based IgE testing and basophil activation test including data about cross-reactive carbohydrate determinants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberlein, Bernadette; Krischan, Lilian; Darsow, Ulf; Ollert, Markus; Ring, Johannes

    2012-07-01

    Specific IgE (sIgE) antibodies to both bee and wasp venom can be due to a sensitivity to both insect venoms or due to cross-reactive carbohydrate determinants (CCDs). Investigating whether a basophil activation test (BAT) with both venoms as well as with bromelain and horseradish peroxidase (HRP) or recombinant allergen-based IgE testing can improve the diagnostic procedure. Twenty-two Hymenoptera-venom allergic patients with sIgE antibodies to both bee and wasp venom were studied. sIgE antibodies to MUXF3 CCD, bromelain, HRP, rApi m 1, and rVes v 5 were determined, and a BAT (Flow2 CAST) with venom extracts, bromelain, and HRP was performed. Further recombinant allergen-based IgE testing was done by using an ELISA, if required. The reactivity of basophils was calculated from the insect venom concentration at half-maximum stimulation. Double positivity/double negativity/single positivity to rApi m 1 and rVes v 5 was seen in 12/1/9 patients. Further recombinant allergen-based IgE testing in the last ones revealed positive results to the other venom in all cases except one. BAT was double positive/double negative/single positive in 6/2/14 patients. Four patients with negative results in sIgE antibodies to CCDs had positive results in BAT. BAT with bromelain/HRP showed a sensitivity of 50%/81% and a specificity of 91%/90%. Component-resolved IgE testing elucidates the pattern of double positivity, showing a majority of true double sensitizations independent of CCD sensitization. BAT seems to add more information about the