Coren, Esther; Hutchfield, Jemeela; Thomae, Manuela; Gustafsson, Carina
Intellectual disability may impact on an individual's capacity to parent a child effectively. Research suggests that the number of intellectually disabled people with children is increasing. Children of parents with intellectual disabilities may be at increased risk of neglectful care which could lead to health, developmental and behavioural problems, or increased risk of intellectual disability.However, there is some indication that some parents with intellectual disabilities are able to provide adequate child care if they are given appropriate training and support to do so. To assess the effectiveness of parent training interventions to support the parenting of parents with intellectual disabilities We searched the following databases: Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, The Cochrane Library), MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, ASSIA, Sociological Abstracts, Dissertation Abstracts International, MetaRegister of Controlled Trials, and ZETOC. Randomised controlled trials comparing parent training interventions for parents with intellectual disabilities with usual care or with a control group. Outcomes of interest were: the attainment of parenting skills specific to the intervention, safe home practices and the understanding of child health. Two review authors independently assessed risk of bias and undertook data extraction. Three trials met the inclusion criteria for this review but no meta-analysis was possible. One study reported improved maternal-child interaction following group parent training compared with the control group. The second study reported some improvements in parents knowledge of life threatening emergencies, ability to recognise dangers and identify precautions and smaller improvements in their ability to implement precautions, use medicines safely and recognise child illness and symptoms. The third study reported improvement in child care and safety skills following the intervention. There is some risk of bias in the
Respler-Herman, Melissa; Mowder, Barbara A.; Yasik, Anastasia E.; Shamah, Renee
The present study built on prior research by examining the relationship of parental stress and social support to parenting beliefs and behaviors. A sample of 87 parents provided their views concerning the importance of parenting characteristics as well as their level of parental stress and perceived social support. These parents completed the…
Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to analyze the validity and reliability of the Turkish version of Parental Academic Support Scale (PASS, (Thompson & Mazer, 2012 and to review the research evidences related to consensus the relationship between parental involvement and children’s school performance. Also, the research will increase teachers’ understanding of the relationship between family participation and school succsess. Participants of this study were 200 family from Düzce and Sakarya. 16 items survey was given to parents of the students. The results of confirmatory factor analysis described that the 16 items loaded five factors and the five-dimensional model was well fit (x²=252.98, df=95, RMSEA=.91, NFI=.95, NNFI=.96,CFI=.97,IFI=.97. Overall findings demonstrated that this scale is a valid and reliable instrument for measuring parental academic support in education. The outcome of this study support the idea that parents and educators believe parental involvement plays a significant role in children’s education life.
Singer, George H. S.; Hornby, Garry; Park, Jiyeon; Wang, Mian; Xu, Jiacheng
In Pacific Rim countries parents of children with developmental disabilities have organized peer support organizations. One form of peer support is Parent to Parent based on one to one connections between two parents. The movements to create and sustain peer support in the U.S., New Zealand, China, and Korea are described. Qualitative evidence…
DeVoe, Ellen R.; Paris, Ruth
Through Strong Families Strong Forces, a reflective parenting program for military families with young children, we were privileged to work with contemporary military fathers who served in the post-9/11 conflicts in Afghanistan and Iraq. Due to this work, the authors gained valuable insight into the complexity of fathering during wartime, the…
Forehand, Rex L.; Merchant, Mary Jane; Long, Nicholas; Garai, Emily
This study examined the "Parenting the Strong-Willed Child" ("PSWC") book as a self-directed program for parents of 3- to 6-year-olds. Fifty-two parents were randomly assigned to "PSWC" or a comparison book, "Touchpoints: Three to Six." Assessments occurred at baseline, postintervention (6 weeks after baseline), and 2-month follow-up. The findings…
Huenink, Ellen; Porterfield, Susan
Many neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) parents experience emotional distress leading to adverse infant outcomes. Parents may not cope positively in stressful situations, and support programs often are underutilized. To determine coping mechanisms utilized by NICU parents, and types of support programs parents are likely to attend. To determine whether sociodemographic and length-of-stay differences impact coping mechanisms utilized, and types of support programs preferred. A correlational cross-sectional survey design was used. The 28-item Brief COPE tool, questions about demographics and preferred support program styles, was distributed to a convenience sample of NICU parents in a level IV NICU in the southeastern United States. One hundred one NICU parents used coping mechanisms, with acceptance emotional support, active coping, positive reframing, religion, planning, and instrumental support being the most common. Preferred support classes were infant development and talking with other NICU parents. Caucasians more commonly coped using active coping, planning, emotional support, acceptance, instrumental support, and venting compared with other races. Women utilized self-blame coping mechanisms more often compared with men. Younger parents were more likely to use venting and denial coping mechanisms. Parents with a shorter stay utilized self-distraction coping and preferred the class of talking with other parents. Support program preference, type of coping mechanism utilized, and sociodemographic factors may be used to guide the creation of NICU support programs. Additional studies are needed to determine whether support program offering according to preferences and sociodemographic characteristics increases attendance and decreases emotional distress.
Social networks often provide an important source of support for new parents. General, parent support programs sustain social-emotional development of children. Different aspects could impact both the quantity and quality of the sources of social support and the perception that parents would had. This study examines the role of social support in the couples of new-parents and assesses the influence of attachment models on it. The Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) and the Multidimensional Scale...
Roth, Guy; Kanat-Maymon, Yaniv; Assor, Avi
Two studies explored the role of parents' unconditional positive regard (UCPR) as perceived by adolescents and young adults in promoting the effectiveness of specific parenting practices that may support offspring's academic autonomous motivation. Study 1 tested the hypothesis that UCPR predicts rationale-giving and choice-provision practices and, at the same time, moderates their relations with adolescents' autonomous motivation. Study 2 replicated the association between UCPR and the parental practices, and further explored the role of parents' authenticity as an antecedent of UCPR and parental autonomy support. Study 1 included 125 adolescents and Study 2 considered 128 college-students and their mothers. The offspring reported on their perceptions of their mothers and on their autonomous motivation, and the mothers reported on their sense of authenticity. Both studies found consistent associations between UCPR and parenting practices that may support autonomous motivation. Moreover, Study 1 demonstrated that the rationale giving and choice provision were more strongly related to adolescents' autonomous motivation when adolescents perceived mothers as high on UCPR. Finally, Study 2 demonstrated that mothers' authenticity predicted UCPR, which in turn was related to autonomy-supportive parenting. Findings support the assumption that parents' autonomy-supportive practices are more effective when accompanied by UCPR. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Honig, Alice Sterling; Zdunowski-Sjoblom, Nicole
Family interviews were conducted with 28 7-12-year-old children who had experienced various forms of bullying and relational aggression by their peers, as well as with their parent and with an older sibling. Interviews explored possible supportive strategies of older siblings, parents, and teachers. All bullied children reported negative feelings…
Rossin-Slater, Maya; Wüst, Miriam
We leverage non-linearities in Danish child support guidelines together with rich administrative data to provide causal estimates of parental behavioral responses to child support obligations. We estimate that among families with formal child support agreements, a 1, 000 DKK ($183) increase in a ...
Waller, Rebecca; Gardner, Frances; Dishion, Thomas; Sitnick, Stephanie L.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Winter, Charlotte E.; Wilson, Melvin
A large literature provides strong empirical support for the influence of parenting on child outcomes. The current study addresses enduring research questions testing the importance of early parenting behavior to children’s adjustment. Specifically, we developed and tested a novel multi-method observational measure of parental positive behavior support at age 2. Next, we tested whether early parental positive behavior support was related to child adjustment at school age, within a multi-agent...
The aims of this research were to identify the ways in which parents may most constructively support their children's musical development, and to ascertain whether styles of parent-teacher and parent-pupil interaction would influence the extent to which parents engage in different types of supportive behaviours. A model of parent involvement as…
Coyl, Diana D.; Newland, Lisa A.; Freeman, Harry
Associations between preschoolers' attachment security, parenting behaviours (i.e. parent-child involvement, parenting consistency and co-parenting consistency) and parenting context (i.e. parents' internal working models (IWMs) and use of social support) were examined in a sample of 235 culturally diverse families. The authors predicted that…
Friedman, D E
The competing interests of employers, working parents, and very young children collide in decisions over work schedules, child care arrangements, promotions, children's sicknesses, and overtime hours. With the rising number of women in the labor force, more and more employers are concerned about how their workers balance work and family priorities. This article examines the supports that employers provide to help parents with young children juggle demands on their time and attention. It reviews the availability of traditional benefits, such as vacation and health insurance, and describes family-friendly initiatives. Exciting progress is being made in this arena by leading employers, but coverage remains uneven: Employers say they provide family-friendly policies and programs to improve staff recruitment and retention, reduce absenteeism, and increase job satisfaction and company loyalty. Evaluations demonstrate positive impacts on each of these valued outcomes. Employee benefits and work/family supports seldom reach all layers of the work force, and low-income workers who need assistance the most are the least likely to receive or take advantage of it. Understandably, employer policies seek to maximize productive work time. However, it is often in the best interests of children for a parent to be able to set work aside to address urgent family concerns. The author concludes that concrete work/family supports like on-site child care, paid leave, and flextime are important innovations. Ultimately, the most valuable aid to employees would be a family-friendly workplace culture, with supportive supervision and management practices.
Full Text Available Societal changes have brought about transformation in the family dynamics in India. The youth of today is exposed to a wide variety of influences, and their tendency toward experimentation makes them vulnerable to get into unpleasant situations. Adding to that, issues related to use and abuse of substances sometimes bring them into contact with mental health professionals. Parents come with high expectations that the treatment provider would provide “treatment” that would miraculously mend the ways of the belligerent adolescent. The treatment provider may find himself or herself sandwiched between a poorly motivated, somewhat deviant adolescent and concerned parents who press for a lasting solution. The progression of therapeutic encounters presents certain challenges to the mental health professional. In this case discussion, I would like to present few issues and challenges and put forth some reflections about an adolescent with substance use and behavioral problems brought by family members. Over time, the stance of the therapist changed from attempting to “reform” the adolescent to providing support to the distressed parents. At the same time, the potential ways of dealing with such a situation are explored further.
Lippold, Melissa A; Glatz, Terese; Fosco, Gregory M; Feinberg, Mark E
Prior studies have found that parents' perceptions of control over their lives and their social support may both be important for parenting behaviors. Yet, few studies have examined their unique and interacting influence on parenting behaviors during early adolescence. This longitudinal study of rural parents in two-parent families (N = 636) investigated (a) whether perceived control and social support when their youth were in sixth grade were independently or interactively associated with changes in parenting behaviors (discipline, standard setting) and parent-child warmth and hostility 6 months later and (b) if these linkages differed by parent gender. We also investigated the interactive links between perceived control, social support, and parenting. Specifically, we tested if parents' perceived control moderated the linkages between social support and parenting and if these linkages differed by parent gender. Greater perceived control predicted more increases in parents' consistent discipline and standard setting, whereas greater social support predicted increases in parent-child warmth and decreases in parent-child hostility. Parental perceived control moderated the effect of social support on parental warmth: For mothers only, social support was significantly linked to parent-child warmth only when mothers had low (but not high) perceived self-control. The discussion focuses on reasons why perceived control and social support may have associations with different aspects of parenting and why these might differ for mothers and fathers. © 2017 Family Process Institute.
Leung, Ka-Man; Chung, Pak-Kwong; Kim, Seungmo
This study (a) presented a structural model for examining how parents' perceptions of their children's competence, exercise benefits, exercise barriers and neighbourhood safety influenced parental support and their children's physical activity (PA) and (b) examined the mediating effect of parental support on children's PA. Parents of 478 children…
Kang, Sangwook; Jeon, Hyunsoo; Kwon, Sungho; Park, Seungha
This study examined whether parental attachment mediates the relationship between parental social support and self-esteem in Korean middle and high school athletes. 591 sports athletes attending middle and high schools that specialize in sport volunteered. Parental social support and parental attachment had a significant positive effect on self-esteem; parental attachment had a greater effect on self-esteem. In the structural relationship, direct effects of parental social support on self-esteem were weak, but indirect effects through parental attachment were strong. Therefore, parental attachment complementally mediated the relationship between parental social support and self-esteem. Metric invariance was supported for groups categorized by sex, region, and school level, confirming that the model could be applied to various groups.
Heinze, Justin E.; Heinze, Kathryn L.; Davis, Matthew M.; Butchart, Amy T.; Singer, Dianne C.; Clark, Sarah J.
Pay-to-play fees in public schools place more support for sport participation in the hands of parents; this may disproportionately affect the ability of girls to garner the benefits of sports. Using an online survey of a national sample of parents (N = 814), we examined the relationship between parents' gender role beliefs, parents' beliefs about…
Douma, J.C.H.; Dekker, M.C.; Koot, H.M.
Background: Parents of children and adolescents with both intellectual disabilities (ID) and psychopathology often experience high levels of parenting stress. To support these parents, information is required regarding the types of support they need and whether their needs are met. Method: In a
Gibson, Andrew J.; Lewando‐Hundt, Gillian; Blaxter, Loraine
Abstract Aims We draw on the work of Nancy Fraser, and in particular her concepts of weak and strong publics, to analyze the process of parental involvement in managed neonatal network boards. Background Public involvement has moved beyond the individual level to include greater involvement of both patients and the public in governance. However, there is relatively little literature that explores the nature and outcomes of long‐term patient involvement initiatives or has attempted to theorize, particularly at the level of corporate decision making, the process of patient and public involvement. Methods A repeated survey of all neonatal network managers in England was carried out in 2006–07 to capture developments and changes in parental representation over this time period. This elicited information about the current status of parent representation on neonatal network boards. Four networks were also selected as case studies. This involved interviews with key members of each network board, interviews with parent representatives, observation of meetings and access to board minutes. Results Data collected show that a wide range of approaches to involving parents has been adopted. These range from decisions not to involve parents at this level to relatively well‐developed systems designed to link parent representatives on network boards to parents in neonatal units. Conclusion Despite these variations, we suggest that parental participation within neonatal services remains an example of a weak public because the parent representatives had limited participation with little influence on decision making. PMID:22040481
Matsubu, John C; Zhang, Shuyi; DeRita, Leo; Marinkovic, Nebojsa S; Chen, Jingguang G; Graham, George W; Pan, Xiaoqing; Christopher, Phillip
The optimization of supported metal catalysts predominantly focuses on engineering the metal site, for which physical insights based on extensive theoretical and experimental contributions have enabled the rational design of active sites. Although it is well known that supports can influence the catalytic properties of metals, insights into how metal-support interactions can be exploited to optimize metal active-site properties are lacking. Here we utilize in situ spectroscopy and microscopy to identify and characterize a support effect in oxide-supported heterogeneous Rh catalysts. This effect is characterized by strongly bound adsorbates (HCO x ) on reducible oxide supports (TiO 2 and Nb 2 O 5 ) that induce oxygen-vacancy formation in the support and cause HCO x -functionalized encapsulation of Rh nanoparticles by the support. The encapsulation layer is permeable to reactants, stable under the reaction conditions and strongly influences the catalytic properties of Rh, which enables rational and dynamic tuning of CO 2 -reduction selectivity.
Thorslund, Karin; Johansson Hanse, Jan; Axberg, Ulf
Universal parental support intended to enhance parents' capacity for parenting is an important aspect of public health strategies. However, support has mostly been aimed at parents, especially mothers, of younger children. There is a gap in the research concerning parents of adolescents and fathers' interest in parenting support. To investigate and compare the interest in parenting support of parents of adolescents and younger children, potential differences between mothers and fathers, and their knowledge of what is being offered to them already, and to explore their requirements for future universal parental support. Telephone interviews were conducted with a random sample of 1336 parents. Quantitative methods were used to analyze differences between groups and qualitative methods were used to analyze open-ended questions in regard to parents' requirements for future universal parental support. About 82% of the parents of adolescents interviewed think that offering universal parental support is most important during child's adolescence. There is a substantial interest, particularly among mothers, in most forms of support. Despite their interest, parents have limited awareness of the support available. Only 7% knew about the local municipality website, although 70% reported a possible interest in such a website. Similarly, 3% knew that a parent phone line was available to them, while 59% reported a possible interest. It poses a challenge but is nevertheless important for municipalities to develop support targeted at parents of adolescents which is tailored to their needs, and to reach out with information.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The present study is an evaluation of a 3-year parental program aiming to prevent underage drinking. The intervention was implemented by a non-governmental organization and targeted parents with children aged 13-16 years old and included recurrent activities during the entire period of secondary school. The program consisted of four different types of group and self-administered activities: parent meetings, family dialogues, friend meetings, and family meetings. Methods A quasi-experimental design was used following parents and children with questionnaires during the three years of secondary school. The analytic sample consisted of 509 dyads of parents and children. Measures of parental attitudes and behaviour concerning underage drinking and adolescents' lifetime alcohol consumption and drunkenness were used. Three socio-demographic factors were included: parental education, school, and gender of the child. A Latent Growth Modelling (LGM approach was used to examine changes in parental behaviour regarding youth drinking and in young people's drinking behaviour. To test for the pre-post test differences in parental attitudes repeated measures ANOVA were used. Results The results showed that parents in the program maintained their restrictive attitude toward underage drinking to a higher degree than non-participating parents. Adolescents of participants were on average one year older than adolescents with non-participating parents when they made their alcohol debut. They were also less likely to have ever been drunk in school year 9. Conclusion The results of the study suggested that Strong and Clear contributed to maintaining parents' restrictive attitude toward underage drinking during secondary school, postponing alcohol debut among the adolescents, and significantly reducing their drunkenness.
Hassall, R; Rose, J; McDonald, J
Recent theories of stress and coping in parents of children with intellectual disabilities (ID) emphasize the importance of cognitive appraisals in influencing parents' levels of stress and their adaptations to difficulties presented by the children. This study investigated the relationships between parental cognitions, child characteristics, family support and parenting stress. The aspects of cognitions studied were: parenting self-esteem (including efficacy and satisfaction) and parental locus of control. The group studied consisted of 46 mothers of children with ID. The Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales and Maladaptive Behavior Domain were administered by interview. Mothers also completed four questionnaires: the Family Support Scale, the Parenting Sense of Competence Scale, a shortened form of the Parental Locus of Control Scale and the Parenting Stress Index (Short Form). Data were analysed using Pearson's correlation coefficients, partial correlations and a regression analysis. The results indicated that most of the variance in parenting stress was explained by parental locus of control, parenting satisfaction and child behaviour difficulties. Whilst there was also a strong correlation between family support and parenting stress, this was mediated by parental locus of control. The results demonstrate the potential importance of parental cognitions in influencing parental stress levels. It is argued that these results have implications for clinical interventions for promoting parents' coping strategies in managing children with ID and behavioural difficulties.
Pace, Ugo; Zappulla, Carla
This study examined the relationship of emotional detachment from parents, parental support, and problem behaviors and focused on the unique and common contribution that detachment and parental support made to internalizing and externalizing behavioral problems. A total of 461 young adolescents, 13 to 14 years old ("M" = 13.4;…
Riggs, Laura; Holmbeck, Grayson; Paikoff, Roberta; Bryant, Fred B.
This study investigated whether parenting support moderated relations between age of mother at childbirth and parental responsiveness and monitoring. The sample included 212 African American families living in urban public housing; offspring were entering adolescence when data were collected. Parenting support was measured by assessing the…
Barnett, Melissa A.; de Baca, Tomas Cabeza; Jordan, Ashley; Tilley, Elizabeth; Ellis, Bruce J.
Background: Children and parents often rely on the support provided by non-parental adults such as extended family members. Expanding conceptualizations of social support beyond traditional nuclear family paradigms to include non-parental adults may be particularly relevant to identifying family strengths among economically disadvantaged and…
Gewirtz, Abigail H; DeGarmo, David S; Plowman, Elizabeth J; August, Gerald; Realmuto, George
Long-term homelessness is associated with other psychosocial risk factors (e.g., adult mental illness, substance abuse, and exposure to violence). All of these factors are associated with impairments in parenting effectiveness and child adjustment, but there are very limited data investigating parenting among families who are homeless and highly mobile. In particular, there is no literature examining the relationships among observed parenting, parental mental health, and child adjustment in a supportive housing sample. Data are reported from a multimethod study of 200 children in 127 families residing in supportive housing agencies in a large metro area. Observed parenting and parents' mental health symptoms directly affected children's adjustment. The influence of parenting self-efficacy on children's adjustment was mediated through its impact on observed parenting. However, observed parenting did not mediate the relationship between parental mental health and child adjustment. Implications for research and practice with homeless populations are offered.
Henderson, Rebecca J; Johnson, Andrew; Moodie, Sheila
Parent-to-parent support for parents with children who are deaf or hard of hearing (D/HH) is identified as an important component of Early Hearing Detection and Intervention (EHDI) programs for children with hearing loss. The specific aim of this review was to identify the constructs and components of parent-to-parent support for parents of children who are D/HH. An extensive scoping literature review identified 39 peer-reviewed articles published from 2000 to 2014. Studies were selected and reviewed based on standardized procedures. Data were identified, extracted, and organized into libraries of thematic and descriptive content. A conceptual framework of parent-to-parent support for parents of children who are D/HH was developed and presented in a comprehensive, bidirectional informational graphic. The constructs and components of the conceptual framework are (a) well-being: parent, family, and child; (b) knowledge: advocacy, system navigation, and education; and (c) empowerment: confidence and competence. The findings from this scoping review led to the development of a structured conceptual framework of parent-to-parent support for parents of children who are D/HH. The conceptual framework provides an important opportunity to explore and clearly define the vital contribution of parents in EHDI programs.
Meppelder, Marieke; Hodes, Marja W; Kef, Sabina; Schuengel, Carlo
This study of staff supporting parents with mild intellectual disabilities or borderline intellectual functioning (MID) focused on staff mindset regarding the extent to which parenting skills of parents with MID can change (an incremental mindset) or are static (an entity mindset). Staff mindset was tested as a predictor of two outcome variables: quality of the working alliance and parental waiting time to ask professional support. In addition, mindset was tested as a moderator of associations between parental adaptive functioning and the two outcome variables. A small majority of staff (56%) held a more incremental oriented mindset. A more incremental oriented mindset was associated with a shorter intended waiting time to seek professional support. Staff mindset moderated the association between parental adaptive functioning and working alliance, that is, lower levels of parental adaptive functioning were associated with lower working alliance quality, but the association was less strong when staff held a more incremental oriented mindset. The results of the current study show that staff mindset might be important for the quality of support for parents with MID and for reducing the risks for families where parents have MID. Attention is due to staff mindset in improving support for parents with MID. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kleefman, Marijke; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.; Jansen, Danielle E. M. C.
Background Raising children with borderline to mild intellectual disability (BMID) and psychosocial problems may yield a strong need for support among parents, but evidence for this is lacking. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of need for parenting support in this population,
The present study explores a local initiative to develop parent support services through the school system. In focus are the discourse on home-school relations and parent support and the interplay between discourse and practical occurrences. Official documents, interviews and notes from municipal meetings and informal conversations were obtained…
Schary, David P.; Cardinal, Bradley J.; Loprinzi, Paul D.
Emerging evidence suggests that parenting style may directly or indirectly influence school-aged children's activity behaviour. Given that relatively fewer studies have been conducted among preschool-aged children, this study's primary purpose was to examine the direct relationships between parental support and parenting style on preschool…
Crain, A. Lauren; Senso, Meghan M.; Levy, Rona L.; Sherwood, Nancy E.
Objective: To examine relationships between parenting styles and practices and child moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and screen time. Methods: Participants were children (6.9 ± 1.8 years) with a body mass index in the 70–95th percentile and their parents (421 dyads). Parent-completed questionnaires assessed parental support for child physical activity (PA), parenting styles and child screen time. Children wore accelerometers to assess MVPA. Results: Parenting style did not predict MVPA, but support for PA did (positive association). The association between support and MVPA, moreover, varied as a function of permissive parenting. For parents high in permissiveness, the association was positive (greater support was related to greater MVPA and therefore protective). For parents low in permissiveness, the association was neutral; support did not matter. Authoritarian and permissive parenting styles were both associated with greater screen time. Conclusions: Parenting practices and styles should be considered jointly, offering implications for tailored interventions. PMID:24812256
Langer, Shelby L; Crain, A Lauren; Senso, Meghan M; Levy, Rona L; Sherwood, Nancy E
To examine relationships between parenting styles and practices and child moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and screen time. Participants were children (6.9 ± 1.8 years) with a body mass index in the 70-95th percentile and their parents (421 dyads). Parent-completed questionnaires assessed parental support for child physical activity (PA), parenting styles and child screen time. Children wore accelerometers to assess MVPA. Parenting style did not predict MVPA, but support for PA did (positive association). The association between support and MVPA, moreover, varied as a function of permissive parenting. For parents high in permissiveness, the association was positive (greater support was related to greater MVPA and therefore protective). For parents low in permissiveness, the association was neutral; support did not matter. Authoritarian and permissive parenting styles were both associated with greater screen time. Parenting practices and styles should be considered jointly, offering implications for tailored interventions. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
This study assessed the provision of education and support to parents of children on home enteral nutrition (HEN), current dietetic support available and perceived challenges facing parents and carers. From the 39 responses (13%), 29 (83%, n = 35) parents suggested services for HEN need improvement. 29 (74%, n = 39) parents wanted more structured follow up and 22 (56%) would like one person to co-ordinate HEN, education and discharge. 7 parents (18%) reported a need for further education of health care professionals (HCP). Hospital dietitians were the most common HCPs reported to provide support to patients following discharge. Specialist paediatric HEN dietetic services working in a dedicated HEN team, who would provide accurate training and education and liaise with both parents and community care services post discharge should be in place. This would facilitate transfer to community care, reduce hospital re-admissions, outpatient department attendances and costs.
AugsJoost, Brett; Jerman, Petra; Deardorff, Julianna; Harley, Kim; Constantine, Norman A
Expanding condom-related knowledge and skills and reducing barriers to condom use have the potential to help reduce pregnancies and sexually transmitted infections among youth. These goals are sometimes addressed through condom education and availability (CEA) programs as part of sexuality education in school. Parents are a key constituency in efforts to implement such programs. A representative statewide sample of households with children (N = 1,093) in California was employed to examine parent support for CEA and the potential influences of demographics (gender, age, and Hispanic ethnicity), sociodemographics (education, religious affiliation, religious service attendance, and political ideology), and condom-related beliefs (belief in condom effectiveness and belief that teens who use condoms during sex are being responsible) on parent support for CEA. The parents in our sample reported a high level of support for CEA (M = 3.23 on a 4-point scale) and believing in a high level of condom effectiveness (M = 3.36 on a 4-point scale). In addition, 84% of the parents agreed that teens who use condoms during sex are being responsible. Hierarchical regression analyses showed that parents who were younger, Hispanic, with a lower educational attainment, without a religious affiliation, less religiously observant, and politically liberal were more supportive of CEA. After controlling for these demographic and sociodemographic factors, condom effectiveness and responsibility beliefs each added independently to the predictability of parent support for CEA. These findings suggest that parent education related to condom effectiveness could help increase support for school-based CEA programs.
Full Text Available Parents have the most significant impact on children’s development and the key parenting factors that promote child development and wellbeing are well known. Furthermore, many behavioural, social and emotional problems in children are associated with poor parenting practices. Parenting interventions that address parental skill deficits and teach positive parenting principles based on social learning theory are effective and are the recommended treatment for conduct disorder. Alongside the development of treatment programmes, universal parenting programmes have been developed; many present the same core parenting principles but their rationales vary from promoting children’s development to addressing common behavioural challenges and the evidence for these programmes is less well established. Most parents now have internet access and are making daily use of it, including seeking advice on parenting matters but that advice is often anecdotal and lacking evidence. In the meantime, a small number of web-based programmes, including parenting programmes have been developed and evaluated. This paper summarises the rationale for web-based universal programmes to support parents and briefly describes the history, content and a summary of the initial research on the COPING (confident parent internet guide programme developed by the authors. The paper concludes with suggestions for future research directions.
Henderson, Rebecca J; Johnson, Andrew M; Moodie, Sheila T
A scoping review of the literature was conducted, resulting in the development of a conceptual framework of parent-to-parent support for parents with children who are Deaf or hard of hearing. This is the 2nd stage of a dual-stage scoping review. This study sought stakeholder opinion and feedback with an aim to achieve consensus on the constructs, components, and design of the initial conceptual framework. A modified electronic Delphi study was completed with 21 handpicked experts from 7 countries who have experience in provision, research, or experience in the area of parent-to-parent support. Participants completed an online questionnaire using an 11-point Likert scale (strongly disagree to strongly agree) and open-ended questions to answer various questions related to the descriptor terms, definitions, constructs, components, and overall design of the framework. Participant responses led to the revision of the original conceptual framework. The findings from this dual-stage scoping review and electronic Delphi study provide a conceptual framework that defines the vital contribution of parents in Early Hearing Detection and Intervention programs that will be a useful addition to these programs.
Wotherspoon, Evelyn; McInnis, Jan
This article describes a model for supporting parents and their infants during separations due to temporary foster care. Using a case example, the authors describe a model for visit coaching, including their process for assessment and strategies used for intervention. The lessons learned are: (a) that individual parents can present very…
Connolly, Nuala; Devaney, Carmel
Increasing government interest in parenting support has emerged in response to the increasingly diverse form of families, a growing emphasis on children's rights and a policy shift towards prevention and early intervention. This has contributed to a range of stakeholder activity in the area, with the notion that parenting is a set of skills that…
Kolkhorst, Brittany B.; Yazedjian, Ani; Toews, Michelle L.
The purpose of this study was to explore the quality of the parent-adult child attachment relationship by examining students' perceptions of how their parents support them and facilitate their independence while they are in college. A total of 58 third-year students participated in an online interview via synchronous chat technology. Our findings…
Idro, Richard; van Hove, Geert
Background Children with disabilities in Sub-Saharan Africa depend for a large part of their functioning on their parent or caregiver. This study explores parental stress and support of parents of children with spina bifida in Uganda. Objectives The study aimed to explore perceived stress and support of parents of children with spina bifida living in Uganda and the factors that influence them. Methods A total of 134 parents were interviewed. Focus group discussions were held with four parent support groups in four different regions within the country. The Vineland Adaptive Behaviour Scales, Daily Functioning Subscales and Parental Stress Index Short Form (PSI/SF) were administered to measure the child’s daily functioning level and parental stress levels. Results Parental stress was high in our study population with over half of the parents having a > 90% percentile score on the PSI/SF. Stress outcomes were related to the ability to walk (Spearman’s correlation coefficient [ρ] = −0.245), continence (ρ = −0.182), use of clean intermittent catheterisation (ρ = −0.181) and bowel management (ρ = −0.213), receiving rehabilitative care (ρ = −0.211), household income (ρ = −0.178), geographical region (ρ = −0.203) and having support from another parent in taking care of the child (ρ = −0.234). Linear regression showed parental stress was mostly explained by the child’s inability to walk (β = −0.248), practicing bowel management (β = −0.468) and having another adult to provide support in caring for the child (β = −0.228). Parents in northern Uganda had significantly higher scores compared to parents in other regions (Parental Distress, F = 5.467*; Parent–Child Dysfunctional Interaction, F = 8.815**; Difficult Child score, F = 10.489**). Conclusion Parents of children with spina bifida experience high levels of stress. To reduce this stress, rehabilitation services should focus on improving mobility. Advocacy to reduce stigmatisation
Turner, Melanie; Chur-Hansen, Anna; Winefield, Helen; Stanners, Melinda
Parental stress in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) has been reported, however identifying modifiable stress factors and looking for demographic parent factors related to stress has not been well researched. This study aims to identify the most stressful elements for parents in the neonatal intensive care unit. Parents of babies in an Australian neonatal intensive care unit (N=73) completed both the Parent Stress Scale - Neonatal Intensive Care Unit and a survey of parent and baby demographic and support experience variables (Parent Survey) over an 18-month period. Older parental age, very premature birth and twin birth were significantly associated with a higher Parent Stress Scale - Neonatal Intensive Care Unit score. Having a high score in the Relationship and Parental Role scale was strongly associated with attendance at the parent support group. These results indicate the variables associated with stress and this knowledge can be used by teams within hospitals to provide better supportive emotional care for parents. Copyright © 2015 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The Parent Child Psychological Support Program (PCPS was established in an area of South West Dublin in 2001. Since then until May 2008 it has offered its services to over 700 children and their parents. This preventative, parenting support service is available to all parents of children aged 3 to 18 months within its catchment area. During periodical visits, the infant’s development and growth are measured and parents receive specific information about their child’s progress. Parents are empowered in their parenting practices, thus promoting consistency and synchrony in parent-child interaction. Between 2001 and 2006, 538 parents and their infants participated in the Program. Out of these cases, 130 (24.16% were considered to require additional support and were included in the Monthly Meeting Case Review (MM based on initial concerns The aims of this study were: 1. to review the first five years of MM cases and to explore the socio-demographic profile of the MM cases in comparison to those not in need of additional support (non-MM and 2. To illustrate an approach to refining the case review process which will inform practice and provides the service providers with better understanding of the early detection of parent-child relation difficulties. In pursuing this goal the cases screened over five years of practice were analyzed to explore the structure of the different factors by using statistical techniques of data reduction, i.e. factor analysis. The results showed that the MM group differed on several socio-demographic dimensions from the non-MM group and there was a four factor structure underlying the case review decision process. Implications of this research are discussed.
Cutrona, Carolyn E.; Troutman, Beth R.
Infant temperamental difficulty was strongly related to mothers' level of postpartum depression, both directly and through the mediation of parenting self-efficacy. Social support appeared to function protectively against depression, primarily through self-efficacy. Practical and theoretical implications are discussed. (Author/RH)
McKane, Aimee, T.; Siciliano, Graziella; de los Reyes, Pamela
The ISO 50001 standard is a key mechanism for reducing greenhouse gas emissions and improving energy efficiency globally. An increasing number of companies are seeking certification, creating the need for personnel that are competent to conduct ISO 50001 certification audits. The growth of ISO 50001 is expected to accelerate as more companies integrate ISO 50001 into their corporate sustainability strategies and supplier requirements. Robust implementation of ISO 50001 represents an important tool for countries with climate change mitigation goals. Because of its dual focus on continual improvement of an organization’s energy management system (EnMS) and its energy performance improvement, ISO 50001 requires skills of both implementers and certification auditors that are not well-supported by current credentials and training. This paper describes an effort to address skill gaps of certification auditors, a critical factor to ensure that ISO 50001 implementations are robust and result in continued energy performance improvement. A collaboration of governments through the Energy Management Working Group (EMWG), formerly under Global Superior Energy Performance (GSEP), has formed to build workforce capacity for ISO 50001 certification audits. The EMWG is leading the development of an internationally-relevant certification scheme for ISO 50001 Lead Auditor that meets requirements for ISO/IEC 17024 accreditation and ISO 50003 for defining ISO 50001 Lead Auditor competency. Wider availability of competent ISO 50001 Lead Auditors will ultimately increase the impact and market value of ISO 50001 certification and improve consistency of ISO 50001 certification outcomes by establishing a standardized and high level of knowledge and skills globally.
Eisenberg, Marla E; Bernat, Debra H; Bearinger, Linda H; Resnick, Michael D
Controversy about school-based sexuality education in public schools has continued over the past decade, despite mounting evidence that comprehensive sexuality education effectively promotes sexual health and that parents support these programs in public schools. The present study replicates and expands upon previous findings regarding public views on school-based sexuality education. One thousand six hundred five parents of school-age children in Minnesota responded to telephone surveys in 2006-2007 (63% participation rate), including items regarding general sexuality education, 12 specific topics, the grade level at which each should be taught, and attitudes toward sexuality education. The large majority of parents supported teaching about both abstinence and contraception (comprehensive sexuality education [CSE]; 89.3%), and support was high across all demographic categories of parents. All specific sexuality education topics received majority support (63.4%-98.6%), even those often viewed as controversial. Parents believed most topics should first be taught during the middle school years. Parents held slightly more favorable views on the effectiveness of CSE compared to abstinence-only education, and these views were strongly associated with support for CSE (odds ratio [OR](CSE) = 14.3; OR(abstinence) = 0.11). This study highlights a mismatch between parents' expressed opinions and preferences, and actual sexuality education content as currently taught in the majority of public schools. In light of broad parental support for education that emphasizes multiple strategies for prevention of pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections (including abstinence), parents should be encouraged to express their opinions on sexuality education to teachers, administrators, and school boards regarding the importance of including a variety of topics and beginning instruction during middle school years or earlier.
Natasha CHICHEVSKA JOVANOVA
Full Text Available Parents’ reactions, in the moment when they find out that their child is with developmental disabilities, are absolutely individual. A lot of parents need months, while some of them need years to face the fact that their child is with developmental disabilities. The state and the crises that arise are very hard to be prevented, however they could be overcomed by a good professional help and support. The aim of this research is to examine the stress level that the parents of these children experience as well as the support that they receive by the family and the local community. Thirty one parents of children with intellectual disabilities, cerebral paralysis and visual impairment have been inquired. The questionnaire referred to the way of communication between professionals and parents, the stress level that they experienced because of their child and the support they received from their close family and other family members, their friends and the local community. For parents, the most stressful thing is the moment of finding out their child’s developmental disabilities. The biggest support they receive from their partners and parents.
1Emmanuel Adu-Tutu Bofah works at Department of Mathematics and ICT Education, University of. University ... Studies have shown that students' social support such as parental and teacher support predict their academic .... mediation model (TM) and associated competing models tested in the present study are presented.
Le Foll, Julie
Supporting parenthood in families with multiple problems is a major early prevention challenge. Indeed, the factors of vulnerability, especially if they mount up, expose the child to an increased risk of a somatic pathology, developmental delays, learning difficulties and maltreatment. In order to limit the impact of these vulnerabilities on the health of mothers and infants, it is essential to act early, to adapt the working framework and to collaborate within a network. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Dunietz, Galit Levi; Matos-Moreno, Amilcar; Singer, Dianne C; Davis, Matthew M; O'Brien, Louise M; Chervin, Ronald D
To investigate parental knowledge about adolescent sleep needs, and other beliefs that may inform their support for or objection to later school start times. In 2014, we conducted a cross-sectional, Internet-based survey of a nationally representative sample of parents as part of the C.S. Mott Children's Hospital National Poll on Children's Health. Parents with teens aged 13-17 years reported their children's sleep patterns and school schedules, and whether the parents supported later school start times (8:30 am or later). Responses associated with parental support of later school start times were examined with logistic regression analysis. Overall, 88% of parents reported school start times before 8:30 am, and served as the analysis sample (n = 554). In this group, 51% expressed support for later school start times. Support was associated with current school start times before 7:30 am (odds ratio [OR] = 3.1 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.2, 8.4]); parental opinion that their teen's current school start time was "too early" (OR = 3.8 [1.8, 7.8]); and agreement with American Academy of Pediatrics recommendations about school start times (OR = 4.7 [2.2, 10.1]). Support also was associated with anticipation of improved school performance (OR = 3.0 [1.5, 5.9]) or increased sleep duration (OR = 4.0 [1.8, 8.9]) with later school start times. Conversely, parents who anticipated too little time for after-school activities (OR = 0.5 [0.3, 0.9]) and need for different transportation plans (OR = 0.5 [0.2, 0.9]) were often less supportive. Parental education about healthy sleep needs and anticipated health benefits may increase their support for later school start times. Educational efforts should also publicize the positive experiences of communities that have made this transition, with regard to limited adverse effect on after-school activity schedules and transportation. © 2017 American Academy of Sleep Medicine
The study investigated the effect of peer tutoring-assisted instruction, parent supportiveness and students locus of control on achievement in Senior Secondary Mathematics. It adopted a non-randomized pretest posttest control group design in a quasi experimental setting. It involves 300 senior secondary II students from six ...
... equipped to deal with, the challenges faced by their children. Implications for practice, for planning and for further research are discussed. Keywords: early childhood development; group assessment; group interventions; occupational therapy; parent groups; school readiness; teachers' assessment skills; teacher support ...
Where x …x is Peer tutoring; o o is Teaching + Peer tutoring; and. ○------○ is Conventional method. Discussion and Conclusion. The main effect of peer tutoring, parent supportiveness locus of control and gender on students' achievement in Mathematics was only significant for the treatment and was not significant for ...
When a child is diagnosed with cancer, parents enter unfamiliar terrain, where their basic childrearing tasks are challenged. Life changes from diagnosis onwards, through adjustment and then life beyond the illness. Provision of psychological support for the whole family after primary diagnosis is widely considered ...
Fagan, Jay; Bernd, Elisa; Whiteman, Valerie
The present study examined the relationship between concurrent measures of adolescent fathers' parenting stress, social support, and fathers' care-giving involvement with the 3-month-old infant, controlling for fathers' prenatal involvement. The study sample consisted of 50 teenage father-mother dyads. Findings from multivariate regression…
McCormick, Meghan P.; Cappella, Elise; O'Connor, Erin E.; McClowry, Sandee G.
We examined relations between parent involvement and kindergarten students' behavior problems in classrooms with varying levels of teacher emotional support. Multi-informant data were collected on "n" = 255 low-income Black and Hispanic students, and "n" = 60 kindergarten classrooms in the baseline year of an intervention…
Lemelin, Lucie; Gallagher, Frances; Haggerty, Jeannie
Childhood obesity is a public health epidemic. In Canada 21.5% of children aged 2-5 are overweight, with psychological and physical consequences for the child and economic consequences for society. Parents often do not view their children as overweight. One way to prevent overweight is to adopt a healthy lifestyle (HL). Nurses with direct access to young families could assess overweight and support parents in adopting HL. But what is the best way to support them if they do not view their child as overweight? A better understanding of parents' representation of children's overweight might guide the development of solutions tailored to their needs. This study uses an action research design, a participatory approach mobilizing all stakeholders around a problem to be solved. The general objective is to identify, with nurses working with families, ways to promote HL among parents of preschoolers. Specific objectives are to: 1) describe the prevalence of overweight in preschoolers at vaccination time; 2) describe the representation of overweight and HL, as reported by preschoolers' parents; 3) explore the views of nurses working with young families regarding possible solutions that could become a clinical tool to promote HL; and 4) try to identify a direction concerning the proposed strategies that could be used by nurses working with this population. First, an epidemiological study will be conducted in vaccination clinics: 288 4-5-year-olds will be weighed and measured. Next, semi-structured interviews will be conducted with 20 parents to describe their representation of HL and their child's weight. Based on the results from these two steps, by means of a focus group nurses will identify possible strategies to the problem. Finally, focus groups of parents, then nurses and finally experts will give their opinions of these strategies in order to find a direction for these strategies. Descriptive and correlational statistical analyses will be done on the quantitative
Mellado, Carlos; Cumsille, Patricio; Martínez, M Loreto
The present study examined the relationship between parental support, demand, psychological control and adolescents' beliefs about the legitimacy of parental authority for personal and multifaceted issues in a sample of 1342 Chilean adolescents (M = 16.38, SD = 1.24, age range 14-20). Results from multiple regression analyses separated by age indicated that demand was positively associated with adolescents' beliefs about the legitimacy of parental authority for personal and multifaceted issues and that psychological control was negatively associated with adolescents' legitimacy beliefs concerning personal issues. Furthermore, parental support moderated the relationship between parental demand and adolescents' beliefs about parental legitimacy for personal and multifaceted issues: those who display high levels of demand showed stronger beliefs about parental legitimacy at high level of support. These results support the interactive effect of parental support and demand on adolescent development. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Hill, C; Rose, J
There is a body of evidence that indicates that the cognitions of parents of children with intellectual disabilities (ID) play an important role in influencing parental stress. However, there is a paucity of evidence about the experience of parents of adult children with ID. This study sought to apply a model of parenting stress to mothers of adults with ID. Of particular interest were the parental cognitions of parenting self-esteem and parental locus of control. Face-to face interviews were administered with 44 mothers of adults with ID. They completed the Vineland Adaptive and Maladaptive Behaviour Scale, the Family Support Scale, the Parenting Sense of Competence Scale, a shortened version of the Parental Locus of Control Scale and the Parenting Stress Index. Correlations were observed between parenting stress and the other study variables. Regression analysis revealed that parental cognitive variables predicted 61% of the variance in parenting stress. Parenting satisfaction, a subscale of the measure of parenting sense of competence, mediated the relationships between adaptive behaviour and parenting stress and between family support and parenting stress. These results indicate the importance of cognitive variables in the stress of mothers of adults with ID. Potential avenues of future research might focus on the experience of fathers and the impact of positive perceptions as a cognitive factor.
Full Text Available Grounded in Self-Determination Theory, structural equation modeling (SEM with the aim of examining how parental support/pressure could influence their children´s motivational processes in sport was conducted, as well as the models´ differences in operability regarding gender. The sample size was 321 children ranging in age from 10 to 16 years old who were athletes from Extremadura, and 321 parents (included only the father or mother more involved with the sport of his or her child. 175 participants were male and 146 were female from individual (n = 130, and team sports (n=191. A questionnaire was conducted to assess parental perception of support/pressure and another questionnaire was conducted to measure satisfaction of basic psychological needs, type of motivation and enjoyment/boredom showed by their children towards sport practice. Results revealed that parental pressure negatively predicted satisfaction of the basic psychological needs. It also emerged as a strong positive predictor of intrinsic motivation and negative predictor of amotivation. Moreover, intrinsic motivation emerged as positive predictor of enjoyment and a negative predictor of boredom, whereas amotivation positively predicted boredom and negatively predicted enjoyment. Furthermore, results showed there were mean differences by gender: male athletes perceived greater parental pressure. Hence, it is necessary to decrease parental pressure towards their children in sport, with the aim of making them more motivated and enjoy, promoting positive consequences.
Martin, Debbie; Sweeney, Jennifer; Visitor, Health; Cooke, Jo
This paper describes how a group of health and social care professionals worked together, with support from a Research Development Support Unit (RDSU), to undertake a research project to give teenage parents a voice in identifying their support housing needs. The results informed local planning, and the support housing strategy. Data were collected from 25 young parents (20 mothers and five fathers) through semi-structured interviews and a small focus group. Routes into homelessness for the sample group are described, and their housing and support needs are identified. Key issues include the need to remain close to family links and support networks, help in applying for benefits, and support around mental health issues and domestic violence. Models of support housing were also discussed with the young people, and their preferences identified. The project has implications for practice in identifying at risks groups, inter-agency working, and areas for focussed work, including addressing the mental health needs of this group of young people. The project is an example of health visitors working as family-centred public health practitioners, collecting information in a systematic way, to inform strategy and planning.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Childhood obesity is a public health epidemic. In Canada 21.5% of children aged 2–5 are overweight, with psychological and physical consequences for the child and economic consequences for society. Parents often do not view their children as overweight. One way to prevent overweight is to adopt a healthy lifestyle (HL. Nurses with direct access to young families could assess overweight and support parents in adopting HL. But what is the best way to support them if they do not view their child as overweight? A better understanding of parents’ representation of children’s overweight might guide the development of solutions tailored to their needs. Methods/design This study uses an action research design, a participatory approach mobilizing all stakeholders around a problem to be solved. The general objective is to identify, with nurses working with families, ways to promote HL among parents of preschoolers. Specific objectives are to: 1 describe the prevalence of overweight in preschoolers at vaccination time; 2 describe the representation of overweight and HL, as reported by preschoolers’ parents; 3 explore the views of nurses working with young families regarding possible solutions that could become a clinical tool to promote HL; and 4 try to identify a direction concerning the proposed strategies that could be used by nurses working with this population. First, an epidemiological study will be conducted in vaccination clinics: 288 4–5-year-olds will be weighed and measured. Next, semi-structured interviews will be conducted with 20 parents to describe their representation of HL and their child’s weight. Based on the results from these two steps, by means of a focus group nurses will identify possible strategies to the problem. Finally, focus groups of parents, then nurses and finally experts will give their opinions of these strategies in order to find a direction for these strategies. Descriptive and
Matthews, Alison; Stansfield, Jois
People with intellectual impairments are recognised as having communication difficulties and even people with mild intellectual impairments can be challenged by complex language and limited literacy. The focus of this paper is parents who have learning disabilities, outlining a novel approach to support them in stressful case conference…
حمیده حاجی سیدرضی
Full Text Available The efficacy of a parent-training program based on “Strong Willed Children” for promoting mother’s parenting practices and decreasing childrenn’s behavioural problems was examined among families with 4-6 years old children. A sample of 25 volunteer mothers (mean age=30 and their children from play houses were collected and assigned into intervention (n=13 and comparison (n=12 groups. Parents completed measures of Children’s Reports of Parental Behavior Inventory (CRPBI; Margolies & Weintraub, 1977; including three dimensions of acceptance/rejection, psychological autonomy/ psychological control, firm control/ permissive control; and Eyberg Child Behavior Inventory (ECBI; Eyberg & Ross, 1978. Intervention group participated in a 6 -session of Parent training program weekly. The results showed that Parent training program significantly improved the parenting practices and firm control of mothers in experimental group. No significant differences was found in other dimensions of parenting practices and children’s behavioural problems among two groups. Explanations for obtaining different outcomes for behavioural problems and some dimensions of parenting based on cultural differences, measurements and length of the programme were discussed.
Spinelli, Cathleen G.
Provides guidelines for fostering positive teacher-parent relationships. Discusses recent legislative mandates, how parent/teacher relationships are affected by current policy issues promoted by professional education organizations, and methods of constructive communication. Parents and teachers of students with learning disabilities are urged to…
Erango, Markos Abiso; Ayka, Zikie Ataro
Parental death affects the life of children in many ways, one of which is self-esteem problems. Providing psychosocial support and equipping orphans play a vital role in their lifes. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 7-18-year-old orphans at 17 local districts of Gamo Gofa Zone, Southern Regional State of Ethiopia. From a total of 48,270 orphans in these areas, 4,368 were selected using stratified simple random sampling technique. Data were collected with a designed questionnaire based on the Rosenberg's rating scale to measure their self-esteem levels. Self-esteem with a score less than or equal to an average score was considered to be low self-esteem in the analysis. Binary logistic regression model was used to analyze the data using the SPSS software. The results of the study revealed that the probability of orphans suffering from low self-esteem was 0.59. Several risk factors were found to be significant at the level of 5%. Psychosocial support (good guidance, counseling and treatment, physical protection and amount of love shared, financial and material support, and fellowship with other children), parents living together before death, strong relationship between parents before death, high average monthly income, voluntary support, and consideration from the society are some of the factors that decrease the risk of being low in self-esteem. There are many orphans with low self-esteem in the study areas. The factors negatively affecting the self-esteem of orphans include the lack of psychosocial support, poor social life of parents, and death of parents due to AIDS. Society and parents should be aware of the consequences of these factors which can influence their children's future self-esteem.
Meibos, Alex; Muñoz, Karen; White, Karl; Preston, Elizabeth; Pitt, Cache; Twohig, Michael
Early identification of hearing loss has led to routine fitting of hearing aids in infants and young children. Amplification provides opportunities to optimize child development, although it also introduces challenges for parents to navigate. Audiologists have a central role in providing parents with support to achieve effective management strategies and habits. The purpose of this study was to explore current practices of pediatric audiologists who work with children birth to 5 yr of age, regarding their support of parent learning in achieving effective hearing aid management, identify existing gaps in service delivery, and to determine if audiologists were receptive to receiving training related to effective approaches to provide counseling and support to parents. A cross-sectional, population-based survey was used. Three hundred and forty-nine surveys were analyzed from pediatric audiologists who provided services to children birth to 5 yr of age. Responses were received from 22 states in the United States. Responses were collected through the mail and online. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze the information. More than half (61%) of the audiologists in the study had been providing pediatric hearing aid services to children birth to 5 yr of age for >10 yr. Of the audiologists who reported monitoring hours of hearing aid use, the majority reported that they used data logging (90%). More than half of the audiologists (57%) who shared data logging with parents reported that they encountered defensiveness from parents when addressing hearing aid use. Information and skills that were not routinely provided by one-third to one-half of the audiologists included the following: how to get access to loaner hearing aids (30%), available hearing aid options/accessories (33%), available financial assistance (36%), how to teach hearing aid management to other caregivers (38%), how to do hearing aid maintenance (44%), and how to do a Ling 6 sound check (52%). Many
Whittaker, Karen A; Cowley, Sarah
To examine parental self-efficacy experiences for users of a parenting support programme and consider the pertinence of self-efficacy theory to health visiting (public health nursing) practice. Commonly, successful parenting training programmes are underpinned by social learning principles and aim to strengthen parental self-efficacy. However, research examining programme effectiveness rarely discusses how self-efficacy outcomes are achieved. A descriptive survey was completed as the first part of a realistic evaluation study examining how a UK parenting support programme worked. The first part of the realistic evaluation involved validating outcome measures (the Parenting Self-Agency Measure and Self-Efficacy for Parenting Tasks Index subscales) and administering a questionnaire survey. The questionnaire was completed by adults accessing a parenting support programme during a 10-month period (n = 168). Data were analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Women were the main users of the programme, which included informal drop-in groups as well as more formalised health visiting services and parenting training courses. The Parenting Self-Agency Measure results indicated good general parental self-efficacy; however, the task-specific Self-Efficacy for Parenting Tasks Indexes scales suggested that parents were less self-efficacious in disciplining children. Lower self-efficacy scores correlated with high ratings for 'feeling tired', 'receiving negative comments' and 'giving-in to a child's demands'. Study results indicate that the domain general and task-specific measures provide different, but helpful, insights into parental self-efficacy experiences. By identifying factors associated with the levels of general and task-specific parental self-efficacy, health visitors can gain a fuller appreciation of support needs. To maximise potential through parenting support, attention should be given to addressing factors associated with poorer self
Andrade, Fernando H
Research explaining school effects on alcohol use is scare. This study examined the interactive effect between family support and school characteristics (size, poverty, and sector) on adolescents' alcohol use trajectories in Chicago. Longitudinal and multilevel data were from the Project of Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods and the Common Core of Data (National Center for Educational Statistics). The sample consisted of 2205 adolescents in 558 schools. A three-level hierarchical linear model was used to estimate multilevel growth curve models and school effects on alcohol trajectories. In addition to the strong relationship between parental support and alcohol trajectories; the results also found school effects on the average baseline of alcohol use and the rates of change across time. Interestingly, high levels of parental support were more effective in preventing alcohol use in public schools, while adolescents attending private schools with low levels of parental support were more likely to consume alcohol. Similarly, students attending public schools with higher rates of poverty who enjoy higher levels of parental support were less likely to consume alcohol compared to students with lower parental support attending lower rates of schools poverty. Key findings highlight the importance of the interaction between parental support and school characteristics meaning that protective factors provided by parents could be reinforced or diminished by the school context. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Li, Susan Tinsley; Albert, Arielle Berman; Dwelle, Deborah G.
We investigated the relationship between parent support and peer support as predictors of depression and self-esteem in college students. Several competing models of parental and peer influence were compared including a mediational model in which peer support was hypothesized to mediate the effects of parental support on adjustment. The results…
Huntley, Kristy M.
This study explored the impact that parental levels of education and parental support have on college adjustment for first-year students. An ex post facto design was used to examine parental level of education and parental support as variables. Parental level of education is a categorical variable based on report from the student. Parental support…
Kalina, Ondrej; Geckova, Andrea Madarasova; Klein, Daniel; Jarcuska, Pavol; Orosova, Olga; van Dijk, Jitse P.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.
Background and objectives There is strong evidence that parental processes such as monitoring and social support play an important role with regard to sexual risk behaviour among adolescents. We wished to explore the influence of both parents 'monitoring and support on sexual risk behaviour among
Stewart, Miriam; Letourneau, Nicole; Masuda, Jeffrey R; Anderson, Sharon; McGhan, Shawna
Many families of children with asthma and allergies experience support deficits and isolation. However, support interventions have not been designed to meet their needs. Consequently, parents' intervention preferences were elicited, and an online peer support group intervention was designed based on these preferences and piloted in the study described. In-depth interviews with 44 parents elicited preferences for support interventions for both children and parents. Many said they felt alone and wanted support from others in similar situations. Based on the parents' preferences for accessible online peer support groups, a pilot online intervention was designed and implemented. Parents received information and reassurance from other parents in peer support sessions. Parents appreciated the accessibility and anonymity of the online support group. This innovative online peer support intervention, informed by parents' preferences, could be adapted and tested in intervention trials and guide programs and practice for families affected by asthma, allergies, and other chronic conditions. © The Author(s) 2011
Lowell, Anne; Kildea, Sue; Liddle, Marlene; Cox, Barbara; Paterson, Barbara
The Strong Women, Strong Babies, Strong Culture Program (the Program) evolved from a recognition of the value of Aboriginal knowledge and practice in promoting maternal and child health (MCH) in remote communities of the Northern Territory (NT) of Australia. Commencing in 1993 it continues to operate today. In 2008, the NT Department of Health commissioned an evaluation to identify enabling factors and barriers to successful implementation of the Program, and to identify potential pathways for future development. In this paper we focus on the evaluation findings related specifically to the role of Aborignal cultural knowledge and practice within the Program. A qualitative evaluation utilised purposive sampling to maximise diversity in program history and Aboriginal culture. Semi-structured, in-depth interviews with 76 participants were recorded in their preferred language with a registered Interpreter when required. Thematic analysis of data was verified or modified through further discussions with participants and members of the evaluation team. Although the importance of Aboriginal knowledge and practice as a fundamental component of the Program is widely acknowledged, there has been considerable variation across time and location in the extent to which these cultural dimensions have been included in practice. Factors contributing to this variation are complex and relate to a number of broad themes including: location of control over Program activities; recognition and respect for Aboriginal knowledge and practice as a legitimate component of health care; working in partnership; communication within and beyond the Program; access to transport and working space; and governance and organisational support. We suggest that inclusion of Aboriginal knowledge and practice as a fundamental component of the Program is key to its survival over more than twenty years despite serious challenges. Respect for the legitimacy of Aboriginal knowledge and practice within health
Rootes, Katie M. Heiden
This study sought to understand how parental cultural competence (PCC) develops for transracial adoptive parents. PCC refers to the use of cultural socialization by parents for supporting the racial and ethnic identity development of their transracially-adopted children. PCC remains an under researched area within transracial adoption research…
Wood, Robert G.; McConnell, Sheena; Moore, Quinn; Clarkwest, Andrew; Hsueh, JoAnn
This article examines the impacts of Building Strong Families, a healthy marriage and relationship skills education program serving unmarried parents who were expecting or had recently had a baby. Based on a random assignment research design, the analysis uses survey data from more than 4,700 couples across eight research sites to estimate program…
Exner, Pavel; Jex, Michal
Highlights: • Attractive δ ′ interactions supported by a smooth surface are considered. • Surfaces can be either infinite and asymptotically planar, or compact and closed. • Spectral asymptotics is determined by the geometry of the interaction support. - Abstract: We derive asymptotic expansion for the spectrum of Hamiltonians with a strong attractive δ ′ interaction supported by a smooth surface in R 3 , either infinite and asymptotically planar, or compact and closed. Its second term is found to be determined by a Schrödinger type operator with an effective potential expressed in terms of the interaction support curvatures
Ault, Melinda Jones; Collins, Belva C; Carter, Erik W
Although religion and spirituality have received relatively limited attention in the literature addressing people with disabilities, each is strongly associated with a host of positive outcomes, including enhanced quality of life. One way to participate in religious activities and enhance spirituality is to participate in a faith community. In this article, we report findings from a survey of 416 parents exploring the ways in which they and their children with disabilities participated in their congregations and examining factors associated with participation and inclusion in those communities. Consistent with findings from general social surveys, the majority of parents indicated their faith was important to them and many-along with their sons or daughters with disabilities-participated in congregational activities. Although parents reported their sons and daughters with disabilities participated in somewhat fewer types of activities than they did, this involvement occurred most often in activities involving peers without disabilities. However, parents generally were not satisfied with the level of supports provided by faith communities, and they highly valued a welcoming and supportive attitude by the community. We discuss implications for extending inclusive efforts into congregational contexts and suggest future research directions.
Werner-Lin, Allison; Biank, Nancee M
A child's adjustment to the death of a parent is greatly influenced by the surviving parent's ability to attend to his or her own grief-related needs, to create and sustain a consistent and nurturing environment, and to encourage the child to express distressing or conflicting thoughts, feelings, and fantasies about the loss. Yet, the surviving parent's grief often compromises their ability to parent consistently and empathically. This article will illustrate how, by providing a holding environment for whole families, clinicians can help parents to facilitate children's grief reactions and, thus, mitigate long-term adverse mental health outcomes. Family Matters programs, designed and implemented in a community agency, use a holistic approach to family support and treatment in a milieu setting. Combining therapeutic work with surviving spouses and bereaved children supports children's grief while facilitating newly single parents as they adapt the structure of family life. When clinical work with families begins before the ill parent dies, the clinicians may build a relationship with the dying parent, prepare the child and surviving spouse for life after loss, and support continuity in family culture. We introduce a curriculum for simultaneously supporting bereaved children and parents, present a series of common challenges faced by surviving parents, and suggest avenues for intervention research.
McCormick, Jennifer; Ozuna, Sara M.
In this article, the authors analyze the evolution of parent advocate education standards that illustrate what parents need to know and do to effectively support their children's learning in 6th-12th grade. Focus groups conducted with parent participants revealed that parents were often unaware of the distinction between helping their child…
Hudson, Diane Brage; Elek, Susan M.; Campbell-Grossman, Christie
Examines levels of depression, self-esteem, loneliness, and social support, and the relationships between these variables among adolescent mothers (N=21) participating in the New Parents Project. Depression scores were in the high range for 53% of participants. Strong, significant relationships were found, except between depression and…
Green, Beth L; Furrer, Carrie; McAllister, Carol
The importance of supportive relationships for new parents has been the focus of both research and parenting interventions. Attachment style, typically viewed as a relatively stable trait reflecting one's comfort in social relationships, as well as social support, or one's perception of the social context, have both been found to be important for fostering engaged, involved parenting. Less is known, however, about how these variables work together to influence parenting behavior, especially in families at higher risk for negative child outcomes. Data were collected from 152 urban, predominantly African American, low-income parents when their children were 14 and 36 months of age. Results suggest that parents with more social support show greater increases in the frequency of positive parent-child activities over time, but that this effect is mediated by mothers' attachment style, specifically, their level of anxious/ambivalent attachment. Mothers with more social support tended to be less anxious/ambivalent about close relationships, and this in turn led to increases over time in the frequency of parent-child interactions. Mothers' tendency to avoid close relationships, however, while correlated with social support, was unrelated to changes in parenting behavior. Implications of these findings for program development, parenting, and the malleability of attachment style based on social context are discussed.
Cheah, Charissa S L; Bayram Özdemir, Sevgi; Leung, Christy Y Y
The present study examined the mediating role of perceived parental warmth and support in predicting Chinese Malaysian adolescents' filial behaviors from their age, perceived parental investments, and positive filial emotions toward their parents. The effects of these predictors were examined separately for mothers and fathers. Participants included 122 Chinese adolescents (M = 13.14 years; SD = 2.22) in Malaysia. Adolescents' perceived parental investments, filial emotions, and warmth and support from each parent were positively, and age was negatively associated with their filial behaviors. No gender differences were found. Perceived maternal warmth and support significantly mediated the effect of age, perceived investments from, and filial emotions toward mothers on adolescents' filial behaviors, but perceived paternal warmth and support did not have a mediating role. The present study sheds light on the unique maternal versus paternal filial role, and important familial processes in Chinese-Malaysian children and adolescents from a cultural perspective. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Exner, Pavel; Pankrashkin, K.
Roč. 39, č. 2 (2014), s. 193-212 ISSN 0360-5302 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP203/11/0701 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : Eigenvalue * Schrödinger operator * singular interaction * strong coupling * 35Q40 * 35P15 * 35J10 Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 1.013, year: 2014
Exner, Pavel; Jex, M.
Roč. 378, 30-31 (2014), s. 2091-2095 ISSN 0375-9601 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-06818S Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : delta ' surface interaction * strong coupling expansion Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 1.683, year: 2014
Dittrich, Jaroslav; Exner, Pavel; Kuhn, C.; Pankrashkin, K.
Roč. 97, 1-2 (2016), s. 1-25 ISSN 0921-7134 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-06818S Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : singular Schrodinger operator * delta-interaction * strong coupling * eigenvalue Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 0.933, year: 2016
Oct 25, 2017 ... Abstract. TiO2 supported Au–Pd and Cu–Pd catalysts were prepared by strong electrostatic adsorption (SEA) of Pd followed by electroless deposition (ED) of a second metal with incremental surface coverages of Au or. Cu. High dispersion of small Pd particles on the Pd/TiO2 prepared by SEA led to the ...
Full Text Available Markos Abiso Erango,1 Zikie Ataro Ayka2 1School of Mathematical and Statistical Sciences, Department of Applied Statistics, Hawassa University, Hawassa, 2Department of Biology, Arba Minch University, Arba Minch, Ethiopia Abstract: Parental death affects the life of children in many ways, one of which is self-esteem problems. Providing psychosocial support and equipping orphans play a vital role in their lifes. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 7–18-year-old orphans at 17 local districts of Gamo Gofa Zone, Southern Regional State of Ethiopia. From a total of 48,270 orphans in these areas, 4,368 were selected using stratified simple random sampling technique. Data were collected with a designed questionnaire based on the Rosenberg's rating scale to measure their self-esteem levels. Self-esteem with a score less than or equal to an average score was considered to be low self-esteem in the analysis. Binary logistic regression model was used to analyze the data using the SPSS software. The results of the study revealed that the probability of orphans suffering from low self-esteem was 0.59. Several risk factors were found to be significant at the level of 5%. Psychosocial support (good guidance, counseling and treatment, physical protection and amount of love shared, financial and material support, and fellowship with other children, parents living together before death, strong relationship between parents before death, high average monthly income, voluntary support, and consideration from the society are some of the factors that decrease the risk of being low in self-esteem. There are many orphans with low self-esteem in the study areas. The factors negatively affecting the self-esteem of orphans include the lack of psychosocial support, poor social life of parents, and death of parents due to AIDS. Society and parents should be aware of the consequences of these factors which can influence their children's future self
O'Connor, Amanda; Nolan, Andrea; Bergmeier, Heidi; Hooley, Merrilyn; Olsson, Craig; Cann, Warren; Williams-Smith, Janet; Skouteris, Helen
Building strong relationships between children and parents is vital for children's social and emotional development. A majority of children attend early childhood education and care (ECEC) settings where they experience a range of relationships (educator-child, educator-parent, parent-child). Educators build relationships with children and…
Conclusion: Parents' work stress (particularly mother's work stress was strongly associated with adolescent's suicidal ideation, and the association was partially mediated by low parental support. These results need to be replicated and extended in prospective investigations within and beyond China, in order to explore potential causal pathways as a basis of preventive action.
Bolen, Rebecca M; Leah Lamb, J; Gradante, Jennifer
The purpose of this paper is to present a newly developed measure of guardian support, the Needs-Based Assessment of Parental (Guardian) Support (NAPS), an empirical evaluation of that measure, and its comparison with another measure of guardian support. The theoretical model that underlies this measure applies humanistic theory and Maslow's hierarchy of needs to the understanding of guardian support. The study employed a cross-sectional nonexperimental survey design using 183 nonoffending guardians who accompanied children presenting for a medical/forensic examination for sexual abuse. The NAPS and an existing measure of guardian support were administered during the hospital outpatient visit, and basic information concerning the child and abuse situations were gathered. The NAPS had robust psychometric properties and was culturally sensitive. Tests of specific hypotheses supported the construct validity of the measure and a conceptualization of guardian support as hierarchical, with four stages of support. The brevity and ease of administration of the NAPS for both the clinician and guardian suggest that it is a viable assessment tool. The strong support for the NAPS' underlying theoretical model suggests that the nonoffending guardians' available resources need to be considered when assessing guardian support.
Ginsburg, Kenneth R
Play is essential to development because it contributes to the cognitive, physical, social, and emotional well-being of children and youth. Play also offers an ideal opportunity for parents to engage fully with their children. Despite the benefits derived from play for both children and parents, time for free play has been markedly reduced for some children. This report addresses a variety of factors that have reduced play, including a hurried lifestyle, changes in family structure, and increased attention to academics and enrichment activities at the expense of recess or free child-centered play. This report offers guidelines on how pediatricians can advocate for children by helping families, school systems, and communities consider how best to ensure that play is protected as they seek the balance in children's lives to create the optimal developmental milieu.
Rinat, Michael; Cinamon, Rachel Gali; Most, Tova
The study examined the contribution of parents' occupational status and expectations regarding persons with hearing loss to career-related support they provide their deaf and hard of hearing (dhh) adolescent children. Thirty-eight parents completed the Evaluation of Occupational Competence Scale (Weisel & Cinamon, 2005), the Evaluation of…
Douglas, Tracy; Redley, Bernice; Ottmann, Goetz
To describe the support needs of parents caring for a child with an intellectual disability in the first year of life. Parents of children with intellectual disabilities face significant challenges during the first year of their child's life which is an important developmental period not previously addressed in the literature. The provision of support by health professionals, particularly nurses and midwives, during this crucial period can impact on parental well-being and on the health and developmental outcomes of their children. However, parents often feel unsupported. The study used a qualitative descriptive methodology. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with parents of eleven children with an intellectual disability in Victoria, Australia, during 2014. Interviews were digitally recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed using thematic data analysis. Three key areas of support need were identified to assist parents to provide effective care for their child with an intellectual disability in the first year of life: (1) emotional support as parents adjusted to their role of caring for a child with an intellectual disability; (2) information support as they embarked on a quest for knowledge; and (3) support to facilitate their connection to peer networks. The findings highlighted inconsistent provision of support for parents. This study informs health professionals about how to provide holistic, timely support to parents of children with intellectual disabilities in the first year of life. There is an urgent need to review how nurses and midwives can provide relevant support that is responsive to parents' needs. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Chen, Zhaoting; Wang, Rong Hui; Chen, Li; Dong, Chung Uang [School of Civil Engineering and Transportation, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou (China)
This article investigated the strongly nonlinear free vibration of four edges simply supported stiffened plates with geometric imperfections. The von Karman nonlinear strain-displacement relationships are applied. The nonlinear vibration of stiffened plate is reduced to a one-degree-of-freedom nonlinear system by assuming mode shapes. The Multiple scales Lindstedt-Poincare method (MSLP) and Modified Lindstedt-Poincare method (MLP) are used to solve the governing equations of vibration. Numerical examples for stiffened plates with different initial geometric imperfections are presented in order to discuss the influences to the strongly nonlinear free vibration of the stiffened plate. The results showed that: the frequency ratio reduced as the initial geometric imperfections of plate increased, which showed that the increase of the initial geometric imperfections of plate can lead to the decrease of nonlinear effect; by comparing the results calculated by MSLP method, using MS method to study strongly nonlinear vibration can lead to serious mistakes.
McKinney, Cliff; Milone, Mary Catherine
Research links negative parenting and parental psychopathology to poorer outcomes among youth. Less research examines these effects simultaneously during late adolescence. The current study examines parenting, parental psychopathology, and late adolescent psychopathology as reported by late adolescents (N = 328) with the use of structural equation modeling. Results of measurement models indicate that parental psychopathology and parenting are related to late adolescent psychopathology. However, results of structural models indicate that the effect of parenting on late adolescent psychopathology becomes non-significant in the paternal model and reverses in the maternal model. Interestingly, maternal parenting is associated with higher levels of late adolescent psychopathology, suggesting that mothers provide their late adolescents with more supportive parenting when it is needed most. Overall, results suggest the importance of examining parenting characteristics simultaneously in the context of gender and other variables.
Wang, Qian; Chan, Hoi-Wing; Lin, Li
Despite ample evidence for the benefits of parental autonomy support and the harms of parental psychological control to Chinese adolescents' well-being, little is known about what foreshadows these parenting behaviors among Chinese parents. The current research addressed this gap in the literature. It tested the hypothesis that parents'…
Swallow, Veronica; Knafl, Kathleen; Sanatacroce, Sheila; Hall, Andrew; Smith, Trish; Campbell, Malcolm; Webb, Nicholas J A
This article is a report of a protocol for studying the development and evaluation of an online parent information and support package for home-based care of children with chronic kidney disease stages 3-5. The study is funded by a National Institute of Health Research, Research for Patient Benefit Grant awarded (December 2010). Approval to undetake the study was obtained from the Department of Health National Research Ethics Service (June 2011). Children with chronic kidney disease require skilled, home-based care by parents, supported by professionals. Parents have identified a need for continuously available online resources to supplement professional support, and structured resources tailored to parents' needs are highlighted by policy makers as key to optimizing care; yet, online resource provision is patchy with little evidence base. Using mixed methods, we will (i) conduct parent/child/young person/professional/patient and parent volunteer focus groups to explore views on existing resources, (ii) collaboratively define gaps in provision, identify desirable components, develop/test resources and conduct a feasibility randomized controlled trial, and (iii) of usual professional support versus usual support supplemented by the package. Eighty parents of children with chronic kidney disease will be randomized. Primary outcomes will assess parents' self-efficacy and views of resources, using standardized measures at entry and 24 weeks, and semi-structured interviews at 24 weeks. We will finalize trial components for a later definitive trial. By working collaboratively, we will derive a detailed insight into parents' information and support needs and experiences of using the package, and should see improved parental self-efficacy. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Sumo, Jen'nea; Dancy, Barbara; Julion, Wrenetha; Wilbur, JoEllen
African American grandmothers are known to be a major source of support for their children who are parenting adolescents, but little is known about why they provide support. The purpose of this study was to describe the kinds of support provided by African American maternal and paternal grandmothers to their parenting adolescents and the reasons…
Friedman Narr, Rachel; Kemmery, Megan
This study used a qualitative design to explore parent mentors' summaries of conversations with more than 1,000 individual families of deaf and hard-of-hearing (DHH) children receiving parent-to-parent support as part of an existing family support project. Approximately 35% of the families were Spanish speaking. Five parent mentors who have…
Bassett-Gunter, Rebecca; Stone, Rachael; Jarvis, Jocelyn; Latimer-Cheung, Amy
Parent support for physical activity (PA) is a behavior unto itself that requires motivation. Persuasive messages may be one method for motivating parent support for their children's PA. Message framing is one strategy for optimizing the impact of messages. The current study examined the relative effectiveness of gain- versus loss-framed messages for encouraging parent support for children's PA. Regardless of message frame, parents had an increase in social cognitive antecedents (e.g. perceived behavioral control, intentions) and support for children's PA following message exposure. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Shilling, Val; Morris, Christopher; Thompson-Coon, Jo; Ukoumunne, Obioha; Rogers, Morwenna; Logan, Stuart
To review the qualitative and quantitative evidence of the benefits of peer support for parents of children with disabling conditions in the context of health, well-being, impact on family, and economic and service implications. We comprehensively searched multiple databases. Eligible studies evaluated parent-to-parent support and reported on the psychological health and experience of giving or receiving support. There were no limits on the child's condition, study design, language, date, or setting. We sought to aggregate quantitative data; findings of qualitative studies were combined using thematic analysis. Qualitative and quantitative data were brought together in a narrative synthesis. Seventeen papers were included: nine qualitative studies, seven quantitative studies, and one mixed-methods evaluation. Four themes were identified from qualitative studies: (1) shared social identity, (2) learning from the experiences of others, (3) personal growth, and (4) supporting others. Some quantitative studies reported a positive effect of peer support on psychological health and other outcomes; however, this was not consistently confirmed. It was not possible to aggregate data across studies. No costing data were identified. Qualitative studies strongly suggest that parents perceive benefit from peer support programmes, an effect seen across different types of support and conditions. However, quantitative studies provide inconsistent evidence of positive effects. Further research should explore whether this dissonance is substantive or an artefact of how outcomes have been measured. © The Authors. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology © 2013 Mac Keith Press.
dr. Christa C.C. Nieuwboer; Prof.Dr. Ruben G. Fukkink; Prof.Dr. Jo M.A. Hermanns
The Internet offers many opportunities to provide parenting support. An overview of empirical studies in this domain is lacking, and little is known about the design of web based parenting resources and their evaluations, raising questions about its position in the context of parenting intervention
Meppelder, H.M.; Hodes, M.W.; Kef, S.; Schuengel, C.
This study of staff supporting parents with mild intellectual disabilities or borderline intellectual functioning (MID) focused on staff mindset regarding the extent to which parenting skills of parents with MID can change (an incremental mindset) or are static (an entity mindset). Staff mindset was
Brennan, Susan A.; Luze, Gayle J.; Peterson, Carla
This survey explored the emergent literacy experiences that parents provided for their children with visual impairments, aged 1-8, as well as the parents' perceptions of the professional support that they received to facilitate these activities. The results indicated that the parents and children engaged in reading, singing songs, and writing or…
Lu, Ming-Hui; Wang, Guang-Hai; Lei, Hao; Shi, Meng-Liang; Zhu, Rui; Jiang, Fan
Although numerous studies have demonstrated that social support affects a range of life experiences, few have examined its moderating and mediating effects. In the current study, 479 Chinese parents of children with ASD (aged 3-18 years) completed the surveys assessing parenting stress, social support and life satisfaction. Results indicated that parenting stress, social support and life satisfaction were significantly related. Moreover, social support both mediated and moderated the influence of parenting stress on life satisfaction. These findings imply that parenting stress and social support are critical indicators of life satisfaction and can serve as basic intervention strategies that promote life satisfaction among Chinese parents of children with ASD.
Polgar, Michael F; North, Carol S; Pollio, David E
This article focuses on the stressors of parenting an adult child who experiences homelessness. Parents whose adult children become homeless may provide support to this child, but they may also subsequently experience stress and require social support themselves. Findings from this study support the hypothesis that parents who spend more time or money helping their homeless adult offspring experience higher levels of stress. Results also show higher levels of stress among parents who helped with activities of daily living and among parents who worked to prevent harm involving their adult homeless offspring. Among 37 respondents, a majority of whom were African American mothers parenting homeless sons, parents who engaged in activities to prevent harm and parents who experienced stress from harm prevention received more extensive social support. Health and social service providers should recognize and respond to the financial, emotional, and temporal burdens of parenting an adult who becomes homeless. Service providers can both support people who become homeless and reinforce larger family systems, particularly in circumstances that involve more extensive parental support or more harmful situations.
Puhl, R M; Suh, Y; Li, X
Weight-based bullying is a prevalent problem among youth with overweight and obesity, but remains neglected in existing policy-level strategies to address youth bullying. Parental support is an influential catalyst motivating political will for policy decisions affecting youth, but has received limited research attention. To assess levels of, and predictors of, parental support for school-based policies and state/federal legal measures to address weight-based bullying in 2014 and 2015. Identical online questionnaires were completed by two independent national samples of parents in 2014 and 2015 (N = 1804). Parental support for all policy actions was high (at least 81%) and significantly increased from 2014 to 2015 for legal measures that would a) require state anti-bullying laws to add protections against weight-based bullying, and b) enact a federal anti-bullying law that includes weight-based bullying. These findings can inform policy discourse about remedies for youth bullying, and suggest that parental support for improved legal protections against weight-based bullying is present, consistent, and strong. © 2016 World Obesity Federation.
At the same time, parents focused on anything connected with their chi ld's academic succe ss at school, while less attention was given to the child's involvement in the physical educat ion class. Accordingly, it seems that there was a communication problem between parents and their children's' physical education teachers.
Berger, Eugenia Hepworth
Readiness to learn is a constant state. Two critical aspects of early childhood provide parents sufficient understanding of their child's development: attachment and brain development. Children develop attachments to caregivers but need consistent parental care and love. Human brains continue to quickly grow during the first two years of life.…
Full Text Available Introduction:Each year more families are confronted with unique challenges related to raising a child with ASD. Parenting stress is a significant aspect of fulfilling the role as a parent, and having a child with ASD greatly influences the experienced stress. The literature review indicates that parenting stress is inversely proportional to family support and coping mechanisms. Aim:Appraising the stress level among parents of children with ASD, the coping mechanisms and the level of family support, in comparison with parents of children diagnosed with ID. Method:A group of parents of children with ASD (N=35 and a second group of children with ID (N=35 completed four questionnnaires: PSI-SF, Brief COPE, FSS and demographic questionnaire. The data was analyzed using t-test for comparison, Chi-square test for comparing frequency distributions and Pearson coefficient for correlation, with p
Grounded in Self-Determination Theory, structural equation modeling (SEM) with the aim of examining how parental support/pressure could influence their children´s motivational processes in sport was conducted, as well as the models´ differences in operability regarding gender. The sample size was 321 children ranging in age from 10 to 16 years old who were athletes from Extremadura, and 321 parents (included only the father or mother more involved with the sport of his or her child). 175 participants were male and 146 were female from individual (n = 130), and team sports (n=191). A questionnaire was conducted to assess parental perception of support/pressure and another questionnaire was conducted to measure satisfaction of basic psychological needs, type of motivation and enjoyment/boredom showed by their children towards sport practice. Results revealed that parental pressure negatively predicted satisfaction of the basic psychological needs. It also emerged as a strong positive predictor of intrinsic motivation and negative predictor of amotivation. Moreover, intrinsic motivation emerged as positive predictor of enjoyment and a negative predictor of boredom, whereas amotivation positively predicted boredom and negatively predicted enjoyment. Furthermore, results showed there were mean differences by gender: male athletes perceived greater parental pressure. Hence, it is necessary to decrease parental pressure towards their children in sport, with the aim of making them more motivated and enjoy, promoting positive consequences. PMID:26039062
Jansen, S L G; van der Putten, A A J; Vlaskamp, C
The importance of a partnership between parents and professionals in the support of children with disabilities is widely acknowledged and is one of the key elements of 'family-centred care'. To what extent family-centred principles are also applied to the support of persons with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD) is not yet known. The purpose of this exploratory study was to examine what parents with a child with PIMD find important in the support of their child. In addition, we examined which child or parent characteristics influence these parental opinions. In total, 100 parents completed an adapted version of the Measure of Processes of Care. Mean unweighted and weighted scale scores were computed. Non-parametric tests were used to examine differences in ratings due to child (gender, age, type and number of additional disabilities, type of services used and duration of service use) and parent characteristics (gender, involvement with support and educational level). Parents rated situations related to 'Respectful and Supportive Care' and 'Enabling and Partnership' with averages of 7.07 and 6.87 respectively on a scale from 1 to 10. They were generally satisfied with the services provided, expressed in a mean score of 6.88 overall. The age of the child significantly affected the scores for 'Providing Specific Information about the Child'. Parents of children in the '6-12 years' age group gave significantly higher scores on this scale than did parents of children in the '≥17 years' age group (U = 288, r = -0.34). This study shows that parents with children with PIMD find family-centred principles in the professional support of their children important. Although the majority of parents are satisfied with the support provided for their children, a substantial minority of the parents indicated that they did not receive the support they find important. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Ward, Bernadette; Kippen, Rebecca; Buykx, Penny; Gilligan, Conor; Chapman, Kathy
Environmental and societal factors are significant determinants of children's initiation to and use of alcohol. Schools are important settings for promoting well-being and substantial resources have been devoted to curriculum-based alcohol programs, but the effects of these in reducing the misuse of alcohol have been modest. Adults can and do consume alcohol at school events when students are present, but there is a dearth of evidence about parents' level of support for the practice. The aim of this study was to examine parents' level of support for the purchase and consumption of alcohol at primary school fundraising events when children are present. Four hundred seventy-nine Australian parents of children aged 0-12 years participated in an online survey. Logistic regression was used to assess the impact of parent characteristics on the level of agreement with parental purchase and consumption of alcohol at school fundraising events when children are present. The majority of parents (60%) disagreed/strongly disagreed with the practice of adults being able to purchase and consume alcohol at school fundraising events when children were present. The 21% of parents who supported the practice were more likely to be daily smokers and/or have higher (>6) Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test-alcohol consumption scores. Despite the fact that the majority of parents disagree with this practice, published reports suggest that adults' use of alcohol at primary school events is an emerging issue. It is important that school decision-makers are mindful of the financial and educational value of fundraising activities. © 2014 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.
Gijzen, S.; Hoir, M.P. L; Boere-Boonekamp, M.M.; Need, A.
Background A child’s death is an enormous tragedy for both the parents and other family members. Support for the parents can be important in helping them to cope with the loss of their child. In the Netherlands little is known about parents’ experiences of the support they receive after the death of
Fingerman, Karen; Miller, Laura; Birditt, Kira; Zarit, Steven
Parents may provide many types of support to their grown children. Parents age 40 to 60 (N = 633) reported the support they exchange with each child over age 18 (N = 1,384). Mothers and fathers differentiated among children within families, but provided emotional, financial, and practical help on average every few weeks to each child. Offspring…
Bassett-Gunter, Rebecca; Stone, Rachael; Jarvis, Jocelyn; Latimer-Cheung, Amy
Parent support for physical activity (PA) is a behavior unto itself that requires motivation. Persuasive messages may be one method for motivating parent support for their children's PA. Message framing is one strategy for optimizing the impact of messages. The current study examined the relative effectiveness of gain- versus loss-framed messages…
Boddy, Janet; Smith, Marjorie; Statham, June
The research literature on parenting support typically focuses on English-speaking countries, such as England, the United States and Australia. This article draws on a review, commissioned by the English government, which examined policies and services to support parenting in five European countries: Denmark, France, Germany, Italy and the…
Operario, Don; Tschann, Jeanne; Flores, Elena; Bridges, Margaret
This is an exploratory study of the associations among parental warmth, peer support, gender, and emotional distress in a sample of 308 adolescents in the United States. Parental warmth was associated with less emotional distress, whereas turning to peers for support during family conflict was associated with more emotional distress. Gender…
Zhang, Jiahong; Yuen, Mantak; Chen, Gaowei
Career-related parental support plays an essential role in the process of promoting young people's career development. Currently, research on career-related support from parents in China is still fairly limited; but at a time when the employment situation in China is changing rapidly, it is considered especially important to study this topic with…
Bindman, Samantha W.; Skibbe, Lori E.; Hindman, Annemarie H.; Aram, Dorit; Morrison, Frederick J.
The current study examines the nature and variability of parents' aid to preschoolers in the context of a shared writing task, as well as the relations between this support and children's literacy, vocabulary, and fine motor skills. In total, 135 preschool children (72 girls) and their parents (primarily mothers) in an ethnically diverse, middle-income community were observed while writing a semi-structured invitation for a pretend birthday party together. Children's phonological awareness, alphabet knowledge, word decoding, vocabulary, and fine motor skills were also assessed. Results revealed that parents provided variable, but generally low–level, support for children's approximation of sound-symbol correspondence in their writing (i.e., graphophonemic support), as well as for their production of letter forms (i.e., print support). Parents frequently accepted errors rather than asking for corrections (i.e., demand for precision). Further analysis of the parent-child dyads (n = 103) who wrote the child's name on the invitation showed that parents provided higher graphophonemic, but not print, support when writing the child's name than other words. Overall parental graphophonemic support was positively linked to children's decoding and fine motor skills, whereas print support and demand for precision were not related to any of the child outcomes. In sum, this study indicates that while parental support for preschoolers' writing may be minimal, it is uniquely linked to key literacy-related outcomes in preschool. PMID:25284957
van der Kaap-Deeder, Jolene; Vansteenkiste, Maarten; Soenens, Bart; Loeys, Tom; Mabbe, Elien; Gargurevich, Rafael
Autonomy-supportive parenting yields manifold benefits. To gain more insight into the family-level dynamics involved in autonomy-supportive parenting, the present study addressed three issues. First, on the basis of self-determination theory, we examined whether mothers' satisfaction of the psychological needs for autonomy, competence, and relatedness related to autonomy-supportive parenting. Second, we investigated maternal autonomy support as an intervening variable in the mother-child similarity in psychological need satisfaction. Third, we examined associations between autonomy-supportive parenting and autonomy-supportive sibling interactions. Participants were 154 mothers (M age = 39.45, SD = 3.96) and their two elementary school-age children (M age = 8.54, SD = 0.89 and M age = 10.38, SD = 0.87). Although mothers' psychological need satisfaction related only to maternal autonomy support in the younger siblings, autonomy-supportive parenting related to psychological need satisfaction in both siblings and to an autonomy-supportive interaction style between siblings. We discuss the importance of maternal autonomy support for family-level dynamics. © 2015 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.
) promotes students' self-beliefs (self-confidence and self-concept) towards mathematics in Ghana. Given the important role that students' PSS (from parents and teachers) plays in fostering children's academic interest, this paper aims to ...
Sanders, Matthew R; Burke, Kylie; Prinz, Ronald J; Morawska, Alina
The quality of parenting children receive affects a diverse range of child and youth outcomes. Addressing the quality of parenting on a broad scale is a critical part of producing a more nurturing society. To achieve a meaningful population-level reduction in the prevalence rates of child maltreatment and social and emotional problems that are directly or indirectly influenced by parenting practices requires the adoption of a broad ecological perspective in supporting families to raise children. We make the case for adopting a multilevel, whole of population approach to enhance competent parenting and describe the essential tasks that must be accomplished for the approach to be successful and its effects measurable. We describe how a theoretically integrated system of parenting support based on social learning and cognitive behavioral principles can be further strengthened when the broader community supports parental participation. Implications for policy and practice are discussed.
Serrano-Villar, Maria; Huang, Keng-Yen; Calzada, Esther J
This study focused on social support and its association with child developmental outcomes, indirectly through parenting practices, in families of 4-5 year old Latino children. Data were collected from mothers and teachers of 610 Mexican American (MA) and Dominican American (DA) children. Mothers reported on perceived social support, parenting practices and children's problem and adaptive behavior functioning at home, and teachers reported on mothers' parent involvement and children's problem and adaptive behavior functioning in the classroom. Results showed that support received from family was higher than support received from school networks for both ethnic groups. Moreover, familial support was associated with child behavior, mediated by positive parenting practices, whereas support from school networks was not associated with child outcomes. During early childhood, social support from family members may be an important protective factor that can promote positive behavioral functioning among Latino children.
Reimuller, Alison; Shadur, Julia; Hussong, Andrea M
We examined the moderating effects of parenting on the temporal relationship between negative affect and subsequent alcohol use in adolescents as an indicator of self-medication. Specifically, we tested whether youth are more likely to self-medicate if they receive less parental social support. We used a multi-method, multi-reporter strategy and an experience sampling paradigm to examine these mechanisms in an elevated-risk sample preparing for the transition to high school. Seventy-one adolescents and their parents completed home-based interviews and adolescents completed a 21-day experience sampling protocol in which they reported their alcohol use daily and their affect thrice daily. Parent-reported family communication, though no other parental support indicators, moderated the relation between daily negative affect and alcohol use. Plotting of interactions showed a greater likelihood of drinking on days characterized by greater negative affect only in adolescents with higher levels of parent-reported family communication. This study offers tentative support for parental support as a moderator of the relation between daily negative affect and alcohol use. Parental support may be a response to alcohol use and self-medication in teens such that parents become more involved and open in talking with their teens when they notice these patterns of behavior. Copyright Â© 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
DeGarmo, David S.; Forgatch, Marion S.
This study tested a hypothesized social interaction learning (SIL) model of confidant support and paternal parenting. The latent growth curve analysis employed 230 recently divorced fathers, of which 177 enrolled support confidants, to test confidant support as a predictor of problem solving outcomes and problem solving outcomes as predictors of change in fathers’ parenting. Fathers’ parenting was hypothesized to predict growth in child behavior. Observational measures of support behaviors and problem solving outcomes were obtained from structured discussions of personal and parenting issues faced by the fathers. Findings replicated and extended prior cross-sectional studies with divorced mothers and their confidants. Confidant support predicted better problem solving outcomes, problem solving predicted more effective parenting, and parenting in turn predicted growth in children’s reduced total problem behavior T scores over 18 months. Supporting a homophily perspective, fathers’ antisociality was associated with confidant antisociality but only fathers’ antisociality influenced the support process model. Intervention implications are discussed regarding SIL parent training and social support. PMID:21541814
Degarmo, David S; Forgatch, Marion S
This study tested a hypothesized social interaction learning (SIL) model of confidant support and paternal parenting. The latent growth curve analysis employed 230 recently divorced fathers, of which 177 enrolled support confidants, to test confidant support as a predictor of problem solving outcomes and problem solving outcomes as predictors of change in fathers' parenting. Fathers' parenting was hypothesized to predict growth in child behavior. Observational measures of support behaviors and problem solving outcomes were obtained from structured discussions of personal and parenting issues faced by the fathers. Findings replicated and extended prior cross-sectional studies with divorced mothers and their confidants. Confidant support predicted better problem solving outcomes, problem solving predicted more effective parenting, and parenting in turn predicted growth in children's reduced total problem behavior T scores over 18 months. Supporting a homophily perspective, fathers' antisociality was associated with confidant antisociality but only fathers' antisociality influenced the support process model. Intervention implications are discussed regarding SIL parent training and social support.
Seliner, Brigitte; Latal, Bea; Spirig, Rebecca
The hospitalisation of a multiple disabled child is stressful for parents because they continue to carry out demanding care procedures in hospital. Yet, systematic knowledge of the parental experience and of their support needs is missing. How do parents experience the hospitalisation, and which support needs do they identify for this period? Methods: Twenty-six parents (24 mothers, 2 fathers) of 24 children with multiple disabilities have participated in this qualitative study. Between 1 January 2011 and 1 September 2013, semi-structured interviews were conducted in a children's university hospital. A qualitative content analysis formed the basis for the analysis. “Concerns for the child's well-being” was central for the parents and focussed on the areas of “Pain”, “Complications” and “Development”. Perception of the child's well-being governs the extent of the “Parents' Work” and defines the parental “Support needs” to “Receive information and training”, “Be known and experience continuity”, “Be taken seriously and experience communion”, “Be accompanied by experienced nurses”, and “Be relieved and get organisational support”. Parents work hard to safeguard the well-being of their hospitalised child with multiple handicaps. Care professionals can ease the parents' burden by promoting parental confidence in their child's welfare in hospital. This will be successful if continuity of care and competence are ensured, for instance if it is provided by nurses with Advanced Practice background.
... parents, people are always ready to offer advice. Parenting tips, parents' survival guides, dos, don'ts, shoulds ... right" way to be a good parent. Good parenting includes Keeping your child safe Showing affection and ...
Harper, Susan G.
This participatory action research study used the conceptual framework of social-ecological resilience to explore how Karen (pronounced Ka·rén) refugee parents re-construct cultural resilience in resettlement. The funds of knowledge approach helped to define essential knowledge used by Karen parents within their own community. Framing this study around the concept of resilience situated it within an emancipatory paradigm: refugee parents were actors choosing their own cultural identity and making decisions about what cultural knowledge was important for the science education of their children. Sustainability science with its capacity to absorb indigenous knowledge as legitimate scientific knowledge offered a critical platform for reconciling Karen knowledge with scientific knowledge for science education. Photovoice, participant observation, and semi-structured interviews were used to create visual and written narrative portraits of Karen parents. Narrative analysis revealed that Karen parents had constructed a counter-narrative in Burma and Thailand that enabled them to resist assimilation into the dominant ethnic culture; by contrast, their narrative of life in resettlement in the U.S. focused on the potential for self-determination. Keystone characteristics that contributed to cultural resilience were identified to be the community garden and education as a gateway to a transformed future. Anchored in a cultural tradition of farming, these Karen parents gained perspective and comfort in continuity and the potential of self-determination rooted in the land. Therefore, a cross-cultural learning community for Karen elementary school students that incorporates the Karen language and Karen self-sustaining knowledge of horticulture would be an appropriate venue for building a climate of reciprocity for science learning.
Huang, Cindy Y; Costeines, Jessica; Ayala, Carmen; Kaufman, Joy S
Rates of teenage pregnancies are higher for African American and Latina adolescents compared to their White peers. African American and Latina adolescent mothers also experience more adversities than their White peers, such as higher rates of depression, school dropout, and economic disadvantage. Furthermore, children of adolescent mothers are at higher risk for adverse development. Parenting stress and social support can impact outcomes experienced by adolescent parents and their children. The present study examined the influence of adolescent mothers' parenting stress and perceived social support on maternal depression at baseline (six months after birth), and its impact on infant development one year later (18 months after birth). Participants were 180 adolescent mothers of African American or Latino/Hispanic descent. Results suggest that higher levels of parenting stress and less perceived social support were associated with higher levels of depression in the adolescent mothers at baseline. Higher levels of maternal depression were also associated with more developmental delays in infants one year post-baseline. Additionally, depression mediated the relationship between parenting stress and later child outcomes. These findings highlight the importance of examining parenting factors such as parenting stress, social support, and maternal depression in ethnic minority adolescent parents, and provide valuable information regarding unique risk and protective factors associated with positive maternal outcomes for ethnic minority adolescent parents and healthy development for their children.
Santos, Cátia S A; Blondel, Léa; Sotillo, Alejandro; Müller, Wendt; Stienen, Eric W M; Boeckx, Pascal; Soares, Amadeu M V M; Monteiro, Marta S; Loureiro, Susana; de Neve, Liesbeth; Lens, Luc
Generalist species can potentially exploit a wide variety of resources, but at the individual level they often show a certain degree of foraging specialization. Specific foraging strategies, however, may increase exposure to environmental contaminants that can alter the cost-benefit balance of consuming particular food items. The Lesser Black-backed Gull (Larus fuscus) is known to opportunistically feed on a wide range of marine and terrestrial prey that differ in contaminant load, such as mercury (Hg) that strongly biomagnifies through the aquatic food web. The hypothesis tested in this study were: i) a predominant use of marine prey by females during egg-formation and by both parents during chick rearing increases the exposure to Hg during embryonic development and chick growth, and ii) this affects parental investment in clutch volume, chick growth and body condition. Total Hg burden and isotopic signatures of carbon (δ 13 C) and nitrogen (δ 15 N) were determined for eggs, down feathers, and primary feathers of L. fuscus chicks collected at a coastal colony in Belgium. As expected, eggs and feathers of chicks from parents with a stable isotope signature that suggested a predominantly marine diet had higher levels of Hg. The use of marine resources by females during the egg-formation period positively correlated to maternal investment in egg size, though entailing the cost of increased Hg-concentrations which in turn negatively affected clutch volume. Furthermore, it is shown that the use of chick down feathers is a suitable matrix to non-lethally estimate Hg concentrations in eggs. Contrary to our expectations, no relationship between Hg exposure and chick growth or chick body condition was found, which may be due the low concentrations found. We conclude that currently Hg contamination does not constitute a risk for development and condition of L. fuscus offspring at the levels currently observed at the Belgian coast. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All
Long, Jaqui; Powell, Charlotte; Bamber, Deborah; Garratt, Rosemary; Brown, Jayne; Dyson, Sue; James-Roberts, Ian St
Aim To develop evidence-based materials which provide information and support for parents who are concerned about their baby's excessive crying. As well as meeting these parents' needs, the aim was to develop a package of materials suitable for use by the UK National Health Service (NHS). Parents report that around 20% of infants in Western countries cry excessively without an apparent reason during the first four months of age. Traditionally, research has focused on the crying and its causes. However, evidence is growing that how parents evaluate and respond to the crying needs to receive equal attention. This focus encompasses parental resources, vulnerabilities, well-being and mental health. At present, the UK NHS lacks a set of routine provisions to support parents who are concerned about their baby's excessive crying. The rationales, methods and findings from a study developing materials for this purpose are reported. Following a literature review, 20 parents whose babies previously cried excessively took part in focus groups or interviews. They provided reports on their experiences and the supports they would have liked when their baby was crying excessively. In addition, they identified their preferred delivery methods and devices for accessing information and rated four example support packages identified by the literature review. Findings During the period their baby cried excessively, most parents visited a health service professional and most considered these direct contacts to have provided helpful information and support. Websites were similarly popular. Telephones and tablets were the preferred means of accessing online information. Groups to meet other parents were considered an important additional resource by all the parents. Three package elements - a Surviving Crying website, a printed version of the website and a programme of Cognitive Behaviour Therapy-based support sessions delivered to parents by a qualified practitioner, were developed for
Katz, Idit; Madjar, Nir; Harari, Adi
This article focuses on parents' role in overweight adolescents' motivation to diet and successful weight loss. The study employed Self-Determination Theory (SDT) as the theoretical framework (Deci & Ryan, 2000, 2011). Ninety-nine participants (ages 20-30) who had been overweight during adolescence according to their Body Mass Index (BMI mean = 25, SD = 1.6), completed retrospective questionnaires about their motivation to diet and their parents' behavior in the context of dieting. Findings from a structural equation modeling analysis suggested that participants who viewed their parents' as more need-supportive demonstrated more autonomous motivation to diet, which, in turn, contributed to their successful weight loss. The findings highlight the importance of parental support of adolescents' psychological needs in the quality of their motivation to diet. This is an important insight for parents and professionals who aim to encourage more constructive parent involvement in adolescents' dieting and well-being.
Parents of young children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are more likely to experience high parental stress compared to other parents, and social support has been identified in previous research as an effective buffer against stress. However, limited research has evaluated the associations between different types of social support and stress…
Kleefman, Marijke; Jansen, Danielle E. M. C.; Stewart, Roy E.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.
Background: Children with borderline to mild intellectual disability (BMID) have been shown to be at increased risk for psychosocial problems. The presence of these psychosocial problems leads to parenting stress. Stepping Stones Triple P (SSTP) is a parenting support program to support parents with
AugsJoost, Brett; Jerman, Petra; Deardorff, Julianna; Harley, Kim; Constantine, Norman A.
Expanding condom-related knowledge and skills and reducing barriers to condom use have the potential to help reduce pregnancies and sexually transmitted infections among youth. These goals are sometimes addressed through condom education and availability (CEA) programs as part of sexuality education in school. Parents are a key constituency in…
However, some parents, conservatives and religious critics of these programs are concerned that promoting condom use encourages promiscuity. This has apparently led to an increase in programs designed to promote abstinence from sex before marriage and faithfulness in relationships as safer and more moral ways to ...
Alisic, E.; Boeije, H.R.; Jongmans, M.J.; Kleber, R.J.
Objective. To strengthen trauma-informed health care by exploring parents’ experiences of assisting their child after single-incident trauma (eg, violence, accidents, and sudden loss). Method. Semistructured interviews with parents (N = 33) of 25 exposed children (8-12 years). Results. Responsive
Ha, Jung-Hwa; Greenberg, Jan S.; Seltzer, Marsha Mailick
This paper examines: (1) the impact of having a child with a disability on parents’ mental and physical health among urban-dwelling African Americans and (2) the extent to which positive and negative social interactions with family other than the spouse moderate the impact of child’s disability on parental adaptation. Analyses are based on a probability sample of African Americans living in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. The analytic sample includes 48 parents of a child with a disability and 144 comp...
Full Text Available Family and Consumer Sciences (FCS programs target families in deprived rural and urban communities with the objective of equipping them with skills to improve family well-being, education, and relationships. In recent years, the focus of FCS in Ghana has been on parental styles and education that foster parents’ involvement in their children's school work. Using a child-parent interactive model, a series of math activities were delivered to children between the ages of 6 and 10 years. Group activities were also facilitated by the FCS staff. Parents used local materials, such as small empty cans, bottles, leaves, stones, sticks, old newspapers, and sand, to explain math concepts. Staff, parents, and children used fun activities and role plays to demonstrate developmental processes that enhance effective child development. The lessons identified were tied to the understanding of appropriate parenting styles that foster acquisition of skills for basic math concepts. At the end of the 12-week program, parents reported increased interest and confidence in math and were more proactive in supervising their children to complete their homework. The importance of the model lies in its simplicity in conveying fundamental knowledge that relates to the interwoven aspect of developmental domains to ensure children experience maximal success with math-related activities. The model also promotes acquisition of basic math skills in a naturalistic setting.
Puckett, Julia A; Woodward, Eva N; Mereish, Ethan H; Pantalone, David W
Sexual minority individuals face unique stressors because of their sexual identity. We explored associations between parental reactions to children's coming out, internalized homophobia (IH), social support, and mental health in a sample of 257 sexual minority adults. Path analyses revealed that higher IH and lower social support mediated the association between past parental rejection and current psychological distress. Mental health providers may benefit clients by utilizing interventions that challenge internalized stereotypes about homosexuality, increase social support, and process parental rejection, as well as focusing on how certain crucial experiences of rejection may impact clients' IH and mental health.
Polenick, Courtney A.; Zarit, Steven H.; Birditt, Kira S.; Bangerter, Lauren R.; Seidel, Amber J.; Fingerman, Karen L.
Everyday support given to aging parents is a salient aspect of married life that may have implications for marital quality. Among 132 middle-aged couples drawn from Wave 1 of the Family Exchanges Study, we examined the moderating effects of each spouse’s normative and motivational beliefs about helping parents on associations between the frequency of everyday support that wives and husbands gave to their own parents and marital satisfaction. Husbands' more frequent provision of support was linked to wives' greater marital satisfaction when reports of personal rewards linked to helping parents were high for wives or low for husbands. Conversely, wives’ more frequent provision of support was linked to husbands’ lower marital satisfaction when reports of filial obligation were low for husbands or high for wives. Findings highlight the interdependence within couples, and indicate that both spouses' perceptions are important in understanding linkages between intergenerational support and marital satisfaction. PMID:28154427
Sumontha, Jason; Farr, Rachel H; Patterson, Charlotte J
In this study, we examined associations between qualities of families' social contexts and experiences of coparenting. In a sample of 92 adoptive families, we assessed perceived social support among 23 lesbian, 28 gay, and 41 heterosexual adoptive parent families and its association with parents' perceptions of their coparenting alliances. Results showed that parents in same- and other-sex couples reported receiving similar amounts of social support from family, friends, and significant others. Perceived social support was positively associated with stronger coparenting alliance among all family types. Perceived support from family members explained more variance in parenting alliance than did support from friends or significant others. These findings add to knowledge about fundamental family processes and enhance understanding of parenthood among lesbian and gay adoptive couples. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Mayara Barbosa Sindeaux Lima
Full Text Available Abstract Stress and social support are relevant variables for understanding the impact of disability on the care relationship. Thus, this study investigates the association between the parental stress index, social support indicators, and the sociodemographic variables of caregivers of children with cerebral palsy in a capital city of the Eastern Amazon. The following instruments were applied to 100 caregivers: the Sociodemographic Inventory, the Gross Motor Function Classification System, the Parenting Stress Index, and the Medical Outcomes Study Social Support Survey. For data analysis, descriptive statistics were used, in addition to techniques of multivariate analysis. It was found that most participants had high parental stress and a high perception of social support. Specific aspects of the perception of social support and sociodemographic indicators were associated with stress. This knowledge favors the design of more assertive interventions because it outlines the aspects of these variables that appear to have a more effective impact on parental stress.
Tischler, Victoria; Karim, Khalid; Rustall, Sue; Gregory, Peter; Vostanis, Panos
The objective of the present study was to establish the psychosocial characteristics and perspectives of 49 consecutive homeless families who received input from a new designated family support worker (FSW) post at a large statutory hostel for homeless parents and children. The FSW provided: assessment of social, educational and health needs; support and parent training; and liaison with and referral to specialist services. Measures included quantitative questionnaires (i.e. the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, the Parenting Daily Hassles Scale, the Eyberg Child Behaviour Inventory, and the Health of the Nation Outcome Scales for Children and Adolescents), and a qualitative (semistructured) interview on service experiences and satisfaction. The psychosocial measures indicated high rates of parenting difficulties, mental health and related needs among children and their parents. Parenting difficulties were associated with child behaviour problems. Parents expressed satisfaction with the service whilst they were residents at the hostel, but they were often not clear about the objectives of agencies and interventions. Family support interventions have a key role in service provision for homeless and other vulnerable families by providing direct parenting interventions and ensuring that specialist agencies are appropriately involved. Family support worker involvement needs to continue when families are re-housed in the community.
Estes, Annette; Munson, Jeffrey; St. John, Tanya; Dager, Stephen R.; Rodda, Amy; Botteron, Kelly; Hazlett, Heather; Schultz, Robert T.; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie; Piven, Joseph; Guralnick, Michael J.; Chappell, J. C.; Dager, S.; Shaw, D; McKinstry, R.; Constantino, J.; Pruett, J.; Schultz, R.; Paterson, S.; Evans, A. C.; Collins, D. L.; Pike, G. B.; Kostopolous, P.; Das, S.; Gerig, G.; Styner, M.; Gu, H.; Sullivan, P.; Wright, G.
Preschool-aged siblings of children with ASD are at high-risk (HR) for ASD and related challenges, but little is known about their emerging peer competence and friendships. Parents are the main providers of peer-relationship opportunities during preschool. Understanding parental challenges supporting early peer relationships is needed for optimal…
Forehand, Rex; Parent, Justin; Golub, Andrew; Reid, Megan
Fathers have often been ignored in the parenting literature. The current study focused on male cohabiting partners (MCPs) who can serve as "social stepfathers" and examined the association of coparent support and conflict with their positive parenting behavior (i.e., acceptance, firm control, and monitoring) of adolescents. Participants…
Cheung, Cecilia S.; Pomerantz, Eva M.; Wang, Meifang; Qu, Yang
Research comparing the predictive power of parents' control and autonomy support in the United States and China has relied almost exclusively on children's reports. Such reports may lead to inaccurate conclusions if they do not reflect parents' practices to the same extent in the two countries. A total of 394 American and Chinese children…
Wright, Marcie S.; Wilson, Dawn K.; Griffin, Sarah; Evans, Alexandra
This study obtained qualitative data to assess how parental role modeling and parental social support influence physical activity in underserved (minority, low-income) adolescents. Fifty-two adolescents (22 males, 30 females; ages 10-14 years, 85% African-American) participated in a focus group (6-10 per group, same gender). Focus groups were…
Orkin, Melissa; May, Sidney; Wolf, Maryanne
This research investigated the influence of parental practices on helpless behaviors of struggling readers during homework tasks. Parents (N = 36) of elementary students reported on their children's helpless behaviors, such as task avoidance and negative affect, during homework assignments, and on the nature and frequency of their support.…
Raby, K. Lee; Lawler, Jamie M.; Shlafer, Rebecca J.; Hesemeyer, Paloma S.; Collins, W. Andrew; Sroufe, L. Alan
This study drew on prospective, longitudinal data to test the hypothesis that the intergenerational transmission of positive parenting is mediated by competence in subsequent relationships with peers and romantic partners. Interview-based ratings of supportive parenting were completed with a sample of 113 individuals (46% male) followed from birth…
Having a child with special needs can be overwhelming, emotionally draining and extremely stressful for parents and their family members. Research identifies the support systems families need in order to have quality-of-life. The current study uses mixed methods to evaluate the degree to which parents and other primary caregivers in Arizona view…
Knollmann, Martin; Wild, Elke
Two studies investigated the relationship between parental support, students' motivational orientations, and students' emotions during homework. It was assumed that intrinsically motivated students would feel better when parents provided much learning autonomy, while extrinsically motivated students would experience more positive affect when…
Larose, Simon; Boivin, Michel
Compared adolescents attending college to adolescent nonenrollees and found that (1) college attendees experienced improved means of perceived security to parents, decreased perceptions of social support, and increased feelings of loneliness and social anxiety; and (2) perceived security to parents at end of high school predicted positive changes…
This paper considers the impact of research and development work around parenting by adults with a learning difficulty undertaken at the Norah Fry Research Centre (NFRC) since 2005. It discusses how our understanding of the support needs of parents with learning difficulties grew through an initial mapping study which led to the concept of…
Graaf, I.M. de; Onrust, S.A.; Haverman, M.C.C.; Janssens, J.M.A.M.
The present study evaluated two primary care parenting interventions. First, we evaluated the most widely used Dutch practices for primary care parenting support. Second, we assessed the applicability of the Primary Care Triple P approach, which is now being utilized in a wide variety of primary
Cuzzocrea, Francesca; Murdaca, Anna Maria; Costa, Sebastiano; Filippello, Pina; Larcan, Rosalba
The aim of this research was to compare parental stress, coping strategies and social support perceived in families of children with low functioning autism (n = 8), high functioning autism (n = 10), Down syndrome (n = 12) and parents of typically developing children (n = 20). Specifically, the objective was to investigate which variables (coping…
Veland, Jarmund; Bru, Edvin; Idsøe, Thormod
The roles of parental monitoring and support (parenting styles) as mediators of the relationship between socio-economic status (SES) and perceived inclusion in school were studied in a sample of 7137 Norwegian primary and secondary school pupils aged between 10 and 16 years. To study whether additional social disadvantages moderated the…
Esbjorn, B.H.; Madsen, B.M.; Munck, H.
INTRODUCTION: During the 1990s, knowledge on the psychosocial consequences of extremely preterm birth was requested. The Danish Paediatric Society therefore launched a prospective longitudinal study of all children born in Denmark in 1994-95 with a gestational age of <28 weeks and/or a bodyweight...... and professionals with knowledge of their situation. We therefore need to consider the appropriateness of today's follow-up procedures for prematurely born children and their parents Udgivelsesdato: 2008/10/13...
Harper, Felicity W K; Peterson, Amy M; Albrecht, Terrance L; Taub, Jeffrey W; Phipps, Sean; Penner, Louis A
This study examined the direct and buffering effects of social support on longer-term global psychological distress among parents coping with pediatric cancer. In both sets of analyses, we examined whether these effects depended on the dimension of social support provided (i.e., satisfaction with support versus size of support network). Participants were 102 parents of pediatric cancer patients. At study entry, parents reported their trait anxiety, depression, and two dimensions of their social support network (satisfaction with support and size of support network). Parents subsequently reported their psychological distress in 3- and 9-month follow-up assessments. Parents' satisfaction with support had a direct effect on longer-term psychological distress; satisfaction was negatively associated with distress at both follow-ups. In contrast, size of support network buffered (moderated) the impact of trait anxiety and depression on later distress. Parents with smaller support networks and higher levels of trait anxiety and depression at baseline had higher levels of psychological distress at both follow-ups; for parents with larger support networks, there was no relationship. Social support can attenuate psychological distress in parents coping with pediatric cancer; however, the nature of the effect depends on the dimension of support. Whereas interventions that focus on increasing satisfaction with social support may benefit all parents, at-risk parents will likely benefit from interventions that ensure they have an adequate number of support resources. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Chaudhury, Sumona; Kirk, Catherine M; Ingabire, Charles; Mukunzi, Sylvere; Nyirandagijimana, Beatha; Godfrey, Kalisa; Brennan, Robert T; Betancourt, Theresa S
Few evidence-based interventions exist to support parenting and child mental health during the process of caregiver HIV status disclosure in sub-Saharan Africa. A secondary analysis of a randomized-controlled trial was conducted to examine the role of family-based intervention versus usual social work care (care as usual) in supporting HIV status disclosure within families in Rwanda. Approximately 40 households were randomized to family-based intervention and 40 households to care as usual. Parenting, family unity, and child mental health during the process of disclosure were studied using quantitative and qualitative research methods. Many of the families had at least one caregiver who had not disclosed their HIV status at baseline. Immediately post-intervention, children reported lower parenting and family unity scores compared with those in the usual-care group. These changes resolved at 3-month follow-up. Qualitative reports from clinical counselor intervention sessions described supported parenting during disclosure. Overall findings suggest adjustments in parenting, family unity, and trust surrounding the disclosure process. Family-based intervention may support parenting and promote child mental health during adjustment to caregiver HIV status disclosure. Further investigation is required to examine the role of family-based intervention in supporting parenting and promoting child mental health in HIV status disclosure.
del Valle, Jorge F.; Bravo, Amaia; Lopez, Monica
The authors carried out an assessment of social support networks with a sample of 884 Spanish adolescents aged 12 to 17. The main goal was to analyze the development of the figures of parents and peers as providers of social support in the two basic dimensions of emotional and instrumental support. In peers, they distinguished between the contexts…
The greater part of this thesis concerns the development and testing of an interaction-focused intervention: ‘Video feedback Intervention to promote Positive Parenting adapted to Autism’ (VIPP-AUTI). VIPP-AUTI is a manualised program of a five-session home training, using video-taped fragments of
Psychosocial problems (e.g. aggressive behaviour, fear, anxiety) frequently occur in children and may lead to serious restrictions in daily functioning currently and in later life, and are the major cause of long-term work disability in young adults. Ineffective and inconsistent parenting styles may
literature that supportive social relationships influence students' self-beliefs. Keywords .... Callingham, 2014; OECD, 2013), and they affect the choices students make about educational and career paths ... 2013, p. 1029). Perceived social support has also been characterized as individuals' confidence that adequate.
Barr, Elissa M.; Moore, Michele J.; Johnson, Tammie; Forrest, Jamie; Jordan, Melissa
Background: Numerous studies document support for sexuality education to be taught in high school, and often, in middle school. However, little research has been conducted addressing support for sexuality education in elementary schools. Methods: As part of the state Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) Survey administration, the…
Ben-Cheikh, Imen; Rousseau, Cécile
This qualitative exploratory study examines the impact of an autism diagnosis on the social support networks of North African's parents recently immigrated to Quebec and having a child diagnosed with pervasive developmental disorder. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with ten parents and participant observation took place during support meetings for the mothers. Our results highlight how the autism diagnosis transforms the parents' family and community networks, creating tensions and losses while also generating new links, sources of support. Group meetings between mothers of the same community experiencing the same problem are perceived particularly beneficial. The analysis of the relationship between professional service providers and families underlines how the development of a therapeutic alliance is threatened by major problems caused by administrative obstacles and intercultural communication difficulties. A greater awareness by health and social professionals of the interaction between the migratory context and the social network challenges associated with autism diagnostic for immigrant families would help ease these parents' loneliness and suffering.
Gao, Ling-Ling; Sun, Ke; Chan, Sally Wai-Chi
to examine the changes in and relationship between perceived social support and parenting self-efficacy in the perinatal period among pregnant women in mainland China. this was a secondary analysis with data from part of an experimental study of the effects of an interpersonal-psychotherapy-oriented childbirth psychoeducation programme on maternal adaptation. A longitudinal design was employed in the present study. The study was carried out from July 2008 to May 2009 in one general hospital in Guangzhou, China. a convenience sample of 68 first-time mothers in mainland China completed measurement of social support and parenting self-efficacy during pregnancy and at six weeks and three months post partum. perceived social support and parenting self-efficacy declined during early motherhood. Parenting self-efficacy increased from six weeks post partum to three months post partum. Perceived social support positively correlated with parenting self-efficacy. culturally competent health-care intervention should be developed during early motherhood to promote perceived social support and parenting self-efficacy for the new mothers. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Weaver, Scott R.; Kim, Su Yeong
This longitudinal study examined whether supportive parenting mediates relations between parent-child differences in cultural orientation (generational dissonance) and depressive symptoms with a sample of 451 first and second generation Chinese American parents and adolescents (12-15 years old at time 1). Using a person-centered approach,…
Sorenson Michael D
speciation events or the K-Pg boundary that could systematically mislead inferences from genetic data. Conclusion The 'rock-clock' gap has been interpreted by some to be a result of the vagaries of molecular genetic divergence time estimates. However, despite measures to explore different forms of uncertainty in several key parameters, we fail to reconcile molecular genetic divergence time estimates with dates taken from the fossil record; instead, we find strong support for an ancient origin of modern bird lineages, with many extant orders and families arising in the mid-Cretaceous, consistent with previous molecular estimates. Although there is ample room for improvement on both sides of the 'rock-clock' divide (e.g. accounting for 'ghost' lineages in the fossil record and developing more realistic models of rate evolution for molecular genetic sequences, the consistent and conspicuous disagreement between these two sources of data more likely reflects a genuine difference between estimated ages of (i stem-group origins and (ii crown-group morphological diversifications, respectively. Further progress on this problem will benefit from greater communication between paleontologists and molecular phylogeneticists in accounting for error in avian lineage age estimates.
Muñoz, Karen; Rusk, Stephanie E P; Nelson, Lauri; Preston, Elizabeth; White, Karl R; Barrett, Tyson S; Twohig, Michael P
The aim of this study was to investigate parent learning and support needs related to hearing aid management for young children, and factors that influence parent-reported hours of hearing aid use. A cross-sectional survey design was used to collect survey data in seven states. The child's primary caregiver completed a demographic form, a questionnaire to explore parent learning and support needs as well as their challenges with hearing aid use, and the patient health questionnaire to identify symptoms of depression. Three hundred and eighteen parents completed the questionnaires. Responses were analyzed for 318 parents of children (M = 23.15 months; SD = 10.43; range: 3 to 51) who had been wearing hearing aids (M = 15.52; SD = 10.11; range: hearing aids, what their child can/cannot hear, financial assistance, how to meet other parents, how to do basic hearing aid maintenance, and how to keep the hearing aids on their child. The most frequently reported challenges that interfered with hearing aid use (rated often or always) were child activities, child not wanting to wear the hearing aids, and fear of losing or damaging the hearing aids. Forty-two percent of parents reported that, on good days, their child used hearing aids all waking hours. Multiple regression was used to compare the effect on parent-reported typical hours of hearing aid use based on good days for the variables of (1) presence of depressive symptoms for the parent, (2) child age, (3) family income, (4) primary caregiver education level, (5) presence of additional disabilities for the child, (6) degree of hearing loss, and (7) length of time since the child was fitted with hearing aids. There were statistically significantly fewer hours of reported hearing aid use when parents reported mild to severe symptoms of depression, lower income, less education level, and when children had mild hearing loss or additional disabilities. Although parents reported overall that their needs for hearing aid
Vallotton, Claire; Mastergeorge, Ann; Foster, Tricia; Decker, Kalli B; Ayoub, Catherine
Growing recognition of disparities in early childhood language environments prompt examination of parent-child interactions which support vocabulary. Research links parental sensitivity and cognitive stimulation to child language, but has not explicitly contrasted their effects, nor examined how effects may change over time. We examined maternal sensitivity and stimulation throughout infancy using two observational methods - ratings of parents' interaction qualities, and coding of discrete parenting behaviors - to assess the relative importance of these qualities to child vocabulary over time, and determine whether mothers make related changes in response to children's development. Participants were 146 infants and mothers, assessed when infants were 14, 24, and 36 months. At 14 months, sensitivity had a stronger effect on vocabulary than did stimulation, but the effect of stimulation grew throughout toddlerhood. Mothers' cognitive stimulation grew over time, whereas sensitivity remained stable. While discrete parenting behaviors changed with child age, there was no evidence of trade-offs between sensitive and stimulating behaviors, and no evidence that sensitivity moderated the effect of stimulation on child vocabulary. Findings demonstrate specificity of timing in the link between parenting qualities and child vocabulary which could inform early parent interventions, and supports a reconceptualization of the nature and measurement of parental sensitivity.
Full Text Available Eline Grelland Røkholt,1 Jon-Håkon Schultz,2,3 Åse Langballe2 1Department of Allied Health, Bereavement Support Center, Akershus University Hospital, Lørenskog, 2Norwegian Center for Violence and Traumatic Stress Studies, Oslo, 3Department of Education, University of Tromsø, the Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway Abstract: Parents are advised to get their children back to school soon after exposure to trauma, so that they may receive social support and restore the supportive structure of everyday life. This study explores parents' experiences of supporting adolescents in regaining school functioning after the July 2011 massacre at Utøya summer camp in Norway. One year after the attack, 87 parents of 63 young people who survived the massacre were interviewed using qualitative interviews. The qualitative data were analyzed using thematic analysis. All parents were actively supportive of their children, and described a demanding process of establishing new routines to make school attendance possible. Most parents described radical changes in their adolescents. The struggle of establishing routines often brought conflict and frustration into the parent–adolescent relationship. Parents were given general advice, but reported being left alone to translate this into action. The first school year after the trauma was described as a frustrating and lonely struggle: their adolescents were largely unable to restore normal daily life and school functioning. In 20% of the cases, school–home relationships were strained and were reported as a burden because of poor understanding of needs and insufficient educational adaptive measures; a further 20% reported conflict in school–home relationships, while 50% were either positive or neutral. The last 10%, enrolled in apprenticeship, dropped out, or started working, instead of finishing school. Implications for supporting parents with traumatized adolescent students are indicated. Keywords
Calo, William A; Gilkey, Melissa B; Shah, Parth D; Moss, Jennifer L; Brewer, Noel T
The number of states proposing school-entry requirements for human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination has increased over the last decade. However, data are currently limited regarding parents' support of such laws. We sought to obtain the first national estimates of parents' support of HPV vaccination school-entry requirements. A national sample of 1,501 parents of 11- to 17-year-old children completed a web-based survey between November 2014 and January 2015. Analyses used multivariable logistic regression to assess correlates of support for school-entry requirements for HPV vaccination. Overall, 21% of parents agreed that laws requiring HPV vaccination for school attendance "are a good idea," and 54% disagreed. If school-entry requirements included opt-out provisions, agreement increased to 57%, and only 21% disagreed. Parents more often agreed with requirements without opt-out provisions if they were Hispanic [OR = 1.53; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.05-2.22], believed HPV vaccine was as or more important than other adolescent vaccines (OR = 2.76; 95% CI, 1.98-3.83), or believed HPV vaccine was effective for preventing cervical cancer (OR = 2.55; 95% CI, 1.93-3.37). Parents less often agreed if they resided in Midwest states or believed that HPV vaccine was being pushed to make money for drug companies (both P parents' support for HPV vaccine school-entry requirements. Our findings suggest that race/ethnicity, attitudes about HPV vaccine, and region of residence may influence support for requirements without opt-out provisions. Opt-out provisions greatly increase parent support of school-entry requirements for HPV vaccination but may make them ineffective. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 25(9); 1317-25. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.
Marra, Jaime V; McCarthy, Elissa; Lin, Hsiu-Ju; Ford, Julian; Rodis, Eleni; Frisman, Linda K
Research has shown that having a supportive social network is generally beneficial for individuals, particularly those who are homeless or at risk of homelessness. However, conflict within these networks may diminish the positive effects of social support on well-being, and these effects may be felt acutely within a vulnerable population with multiple needs. This study examined the impact of conflict and social support on parenting behaviors in a sample of mothers who are homeless and were involved in a study of case management interventions of varying intensity. We found that women who reported high emotional and instrumental social support self-reported greater improvements in parenting consistency over time than those who reported lower levels of support. However, three-way interactions showed that conflict in support networks was a risk factor for harsh parenting practices among participants who reported lower levels of instrumental social support. Results suggest that social support may enhance homeless mothers' ability to provide consistent parenting, but that these benefits may be undermined if conflict occurs in combination with limited levels of instrumental social support.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Deliberate self harm (DSH is a major public health concern and has increased among young people in Ireland. While DSH is undoubtedly the result of interacting factors, studies have identified an association between DSH and family dysfunction as well as the protective role of positive family relationships. Following a focus group meeting held to identify the needs of parents and carers of young people with DSH, a support programme (SPACE was developed. The aims of the current study are to evaluate the effectiveness of the SPACE programme in decreasing parental psychological distress, reducing parental report of young peoples' difficulties, increasing parental satisfaction and increasing parents' ratings of their own defined challenges and goals. Methods Participants were recruited from a Mental Health Service within a paediatric hospital, Community Child and Adolescent Mental Health Teams and family support services. All services were located within the greater Dublin area in Ireland. Forty-six parents of children who had engaged in or expressed thoughts of self harm attended the programme and participated in the evaluation study. The programme ran once a week over an 8-week period and included topics such as information on self harm in young people, parenting adolescents, communication and parental self-care. Seventy percent (N = 32 of the original sample at Time 1 completed measures at Time 2 (directly following the programme and 37% (N = 17 of the original sample at Time 1 completed them at Time 3 (6 months following the programme. A repeated measures design was used to identify changes in parental wellbeing after attendance at the programme as well as changes in parental reports of their children's difficulties. Results Participants had lower levels of psychological distress, increased parental satisfaction, lower ratings of their own defined challenges and higher ratings of their goals directly after the programme. These
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Deliberate self harm (DSH) is a major public health concern and has increased among young people in Ireland. While DSH is undoubtedly the result of interacting factors, studies have identified an association between DSH and family dysfunction as well as the protective role of positive family relationships. Following a focus group meeting held to identify the needs of parents and carers of young people with DSH, a support programme (SPACE) was developed. The aims of the current study are to evaluate the effectiveness of the SPACE programme in decreasing parental psychological distress, reducing parental report of young peoples\\' difficulties, increasing parental satisfaction and increasing parents\\' ratings of their own defined challenges and goals. METHODS: Participants were recruited from a Mental Health Service within a paediatric hospital, Community Child and Adolescent Mental Health Teams and family support services. All services were located within the greater Dublin area in Ireland. Forty-six parents of children who had engaged in or expressed thoughts of self harm attended the programme and participated in the evaluation study. The programme ran once a week over an 8-week period and included topics such as information on self harm in young people, parenting adolescents, communication and parental self-care. Seventy percent (N = 32) of the original sample at Time 1 completed measures at Time 2 (directly following the programme) and 37% (N = 17) of the original sample at Time 1 completed them at Time 3 (6 months following the programme).A repeated measures design was used to identify changes in parental wellbeing after attendance at the programme as well as changes in parental reports of their children\\'s difficulties. RESULTS: Participants had lower levels of psychological distress, increased parental satisfaction, lower ratings of their own defined challenges and higher ratings of their goals directly after the programme. These
Brown, Suzanne; Hicks, Laurel M; Tracy, Elizabeth M
Approximately 73% of women entering treatment for substance use disorders are mothers of children younger than 18, and the high rate of mental health disorders among mothers with substance use disorders increases their vulnerability to poor parenting practices. Parenting efficacy and social support for parenting have emerged as significant predictors of positive parenting practices among families at risk for child maltreatment. The purpose of the current study was to examine the impact of parenting support and parenting efficacy on the likelihood of out-of-home placement and custody status among the children of mothers with dual substance use and mental health disorders. This study examined the impact of parenting efficacy and assistance with childcare on the likelihood of child out-of-home placement and custody status among 175 mothers with diagnosed dual substance and mental health disorder and in treatment for substance dependence. Logistic regression was utilized to assess the contributions of parenting efficacy and the number of individuals in mothers' social networks who assist with childcare to the likelihood of out-of-home placement and custody loss of children. Parenting efficacy was also examined as a mediator using bootstrapping in PROCESS for SPSS. Greater parenting efficacy was associated with lower likelihood of having at least one child in out-of-home placement (B = -.064, SE = .029, p = .027) and lower likelihood of loss of child custody (B = -.094, SE = .034, p = .006). Greater number of children in the 6 to 18 age range predicted greater likelihood of having at least one child in the custody of someone else (B = .409, SE = .171, p = .017) and in out-of-home placement (B = .651, SE = .167, p parenting efficacy mediated the relationship between parenting support and likelihood of out-of-home placement (effect = -.0604, SE = .0297, z = 2.035, p = .042) and between parenting support and likelihood of custody loss (effect = -.0332, SE = .0144, z = -2
Gallagher, Stephen; Whiteley, Jenny
The present study tested whether parents caring for children with developmental disabilities would have higher blood pressure compared to parents of typically developing children (controls). It also examined the psychosocial factors underlying this observation. Thirty-five parents of children with developmental disability and thirty controls completed standard measures of perceived stress, child challenging behaviours and social support and wore an ambulatory blood pressure (BP) monitor throughout the day, for one day. Relative to controls, parents caring for children with developmental disabilities reported poorer psychosocial functioning and had a higher mean systolic BP. Of the psychosocial predictors, only social support was found to be predictive. Moreover, variations in social support accounted for some of the between group differences with the β for parental group attenuated from .42 to .34 in regression analyses. It appears that social support may influence blood pressure responses in parental caregivers. Finally, our findings underscore the importance of providing psychosocial interventions to improve the health of family caregivers. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Pavlova, Maria K; Silbereisen, Rainer K; Ranta, Mette; Salmela-Aro, Katariina
It is widely believed that warm and supportive parenting fosters all kinds of prosocial behaviors in the offspring, including civic engagement. However, accumulating international evidence suggests that the effects of family support on civic engagement may sometimes be negative. To address this apparent controversy, we identified several scenarios for the negative effects of supportive parenting on youth civic engagement and tested them using four waves of data from the Finnish Educational Transitions Studies. They followed 1549 students (55 % female) from late adolescence into young adulthood, included both maternal (n = 231) and offspring reports of parental support, and assessed civic engagement in young adulthood. Control variables included socioeconomic status, other sociodemographic indicators, church belonging, personality traits, and earlier civic engagement. Higher maternal warmth and support and a stronger identification with the parental family in adolescence predicted offspring's lower political activism up to 10 years later. Perceived parental support in young adulthood predicted lower volunteering 2 years later. There were no significant effects on general organizational involvement (e.g., in student and hobby associations). None of the a priori scenarios that we identified from the literature appeared to explain the pattern of results satisfactorily. We put forth cultural and life stage explanations of our findings.
Quiroga, Angélica; López-Rodríguez, Lucía; Willis, Guillermo B
In Mexico violence across the country has increased in recent years and has become a social problem of great importance. The continuous exposure to all types of interpersonal violence leads adolescents to cope with experiences and challenges of great risk of development deviations. Trying to find a more comprehensive understanding of violence outcomes on Mexican adolescents and its moderators, the present quantitative, non-experimental, cross-sectional correlation study was performed. Parental support (vs. other sort of social support) was proposed to be a relevant moderator factor for decreasing the negative outcomes of violence exposure on depression, and gender was predicted to play a role in this process. A two-way interaction between violence exposure and parental support was only significant in the case of adolescent girls, whereas there was no evidence of such moderation for adolescent boys. The effect of exposure to violence on girls' depression was stronger when their parental support was relatively low than when their parental support was relatively high. Parental support may serve as a protective factor of depression after violence exposure especially for girls, whereas more research should be conducted in order to detect an efficient protective mechanism for boys who are exposed to violence. © The Author(s) 2015.
Niklas, Frank; Cohrssen, Caroline; Tayler, Collette
In Australia, emphasis in early childhood education policy is placed on the importance of the role of the family as a child's first educator, and finding effective ways to raise the effectiveness of parents in supporting children's learning, development and well-being. International studies demonstrate that the home learning environment (HLE)…
Shorey, Shefaly; Chan, Sally Wai-Chi; Chong, Yap Seng; He, Hong-Gu
To examine the correlation between maternal parental self-efficacy and social support as well as predictors of self-efficacy in the early postpartum period. Maternal parental self-efficacy is important for mothers' adaptation to motherhood. Lack of support could result in decreased maternal parental self-efficacy in newborn care. Limited studies have focused on maternal parental self-efficacy in the postpartum period in Asia and none in Singapore. A correlational study design was adopted. Data were collected from both primiparas and multiparas during the first to third days postpartum in a public hospital, using the Perceived Maternal Parental Self-efficacy and Perinatal Infant Care Social Support Scales. The data were analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Maternal parental self-efficacy in newborn care and the level of social support that mothers received were moderate. In terms of the social support subscales, informational and instrumental support was lower than emotional and appraisal support. Informal support from husbands, parents and parents-in-law was the main source of support. A significant correlation was found between maternal parental self-efficacy and total social support in addition to the informational, instrumental and appraisal subscales of functional support. The predictors of maternal parental self-efficacy were parity, social support and maternal age. The findings highlight the predictors and correlates of maternal parental self-efficacy in newborn care and the social support needs of mothers in the early postpartum period. Healthcare professionals could provide more information and instrumental support and involve family members to enhance maternal parental self-efficacy. Because maternal parental self-efficacy and social support in the early postpartum period are interrelated components, they could be assessed to identify at-risk mothers. There is a need to develop perinatal educational programmes to provide culturally
van Aar, J.V.; Asscher, J.J.; Zijlstra, B.J.H.; Deković, M.; Hoffenaar, P.J.
Background: Home-Start is a parenting support program in which mothers experiencing difficulties in family life and parenting, receive weekly support at home from a volunteer. The present study extends the work of Hermanns et al. (2013), by examining self-reported and observed parenting and child
García-López, Cristina; Sarriá, Encarnación; Pozo, Pilar; Recio, Patricia
In couples parenting children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), the partner becomes a primary source of support for addressing the additional parenting demands. The purpose of this study was to examine the associations between supportive dyadic coping and parental adaptation, and to assess the mediating role of relationship satisfaction between…
Emery, T.; Searle, Beverley A.
Book abstract: The issue of generational transfers is growing in importance. Populations are ageing, placing an increasing burden on provision of pensions, health care and other welfare services. In many nations the imbalance between a growing, older generation, supported by a shrinking younger
Wentzel, Kathryn R.; Russell, Shannon; Baker, Sandra
We examined perceived emotional support and expectations from parents, teachers, and classmates in relation to Mexican American adolescents' (n = 398) social behavior and academic functioning. Results of regression analyses indicated that direct associations between emotional support and expectations differ as a function of source and domain;…
Rossetti, Zachary; Lehr, Donna; Lederer, Leslie; Pelerin, Dana; Huang, Shuoxi
This article describes a qualitative study that examined how 23 young adults with pervasive support needs and limited functional communication spent their time and how their parents (n = 23) and direct support professionals (DSPs; n = 2) defined meaningfulness in relation to the young adults' experiences. Data were collected through…
Seeds, Pamela M.; Harkness, Kate L.; Quilty, Lena C.
The support deterioration model of depression states that stress deteriorates the perceived availability and/or effectiveness of social support, which then leads to depression. The present study examined this model in adolescent depression following parent-perpetrated maltreatment and peer-perpetrated bullying, as assessed by a rigorous contextual…
van der Giessen, D.; Branje, S.T.J.; Meeus, W.H.J.
According to the self-determination theory, experiencing autonomy support in close relationships is thought to promote adolescents' well-being. Perceptions of autonomy support from parents and from best friends have been associated with lower levels of adolescents' depressive symptoms. This
van der Giessen, D.; Branje, S.; Meeus, W.
According to the self-determination theory, experiencing autonomy support in close relationships is thought to promote adolescents' well-being. Perceptions of autonomy support from parents and from best friends have been associated with lower levels of adolescents' depressive symptoms. This
Bucx, Freek; van Wel, Frits; Knijn, Trudie
The authors investigated intergenerational support exchanges in relation to young adults' life course status. In a sample of 2,022 young adults (ages 18-34 years) in The Netherlands, single young adults reported receiving more advice from parents than married young adults, and those with children of their own received more practical support.…
Jeong, Mihye; Kim, So Yeun; Lee, Eunkyung; Lee, Euikyung
The purpose of this study was to examine validity and reliability evidence of a questionnaire regarding parents' beliefs and intentions toward supporting physical activity (PA) participation of their children with disabilities (CWD). A total of 220 parents of CWD in South Korea completed a questionnaire that was developed using the theory of planned behavior (TPB). Exploratory factor analysis revealed that behavioral, control, and normative beliefs accounted for 31.13%, 20.45%, and 19.63% of the total variance of the intention, respectively. Reliability of entire scale was .85 using Cronbach's alpha. Reliabilities of the 3 beliefs were .86, .82, and .87, respectively. Standard multiple-regression analysis indicated that behavioral and normative beliefs significantly predicted parents' intention, p behavior, p < .01. The results of this study indicated that the TPB can be useful to examine parental support for PA participation of their CWD.
Adama, Esther Abena; Bayes, Sara; Sundin, Deborah
To explore parents of preterm infants' experiences of caring for their preterm infants with the grandmother as their primary support after discharge. Preterm delivery is the major cause of high neonatal mortality in sub-Saharan Africa. There is poor neonatal health outcome in the Ghanaian community with some illnesses culturally classified as not-for-hospital. In the community, grandmothers or older women provide support for new parents and decide treatment options for sick infants. However, there is paucity of research on how parents of preterm infants experience this support in the Ghanaian community. Qualitative narrative inquiry methodology was used. Face-to-face interviews using semi-structured interview guide were used to collect data from 21 mothers and nine fathers. Participant observation and field notes were used to complement interview data. Thematic content analysis of data within the three-dimensional narrative space was employed. Analysis focussed on the relationship of time, place, person and cultural practices affecting the care of preterm infants in the community. Three themes emerged from the data, namely (i) Grandmother's prescriptions, (ii) Fighting for the well-being of the infant and (iii) Being in a confused state. Cultural practices mainly initiated by grandmothers resulted in adverse health problems for preterm infants and disruption in parents' mental health. As grandmothers perform their traditional role of supporting new parents to care for preterm infants after discharge, they give both positive and negative advice which can adversely affect the health of vulnerable preterm infants in the community. Grandmothers are the main support providers of parents of preterm infants after neonatal unit discharge. Nurses should identify and include grandmothers in predischarge education in order to equip them to render appropriate support to parents and preterm infants. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Johnston, Robyn S; Stafford, Julia; Jongenelis, Michelle I; Shaw, Therese; Samsa, Hannah; Costello, Eleanor; Kirby, Gary
Mass media education campaigns targeting parents may influence parent factors that reduce adolescent drinking; however few such campaigns have been evaluated. The Parents, Young People and Alcohol campaign included two phases of mass media advertising, Cogs and I See, to deliver consistent messages across multiple media channels. The campaign targeted Western Australian parents of 12-17 year olds with messages describing alcohol's effect on the developing brain and adolescent physical and mental health. The campaign reinforced the National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) Guideline that for under 18s, not drinking is the safest option. Parent knowledge, attitudes and behaviours were assessed via cross-sectional surveys administered before the campaign (Time 1) and at two post-tests (Time 2; Time 3). Post-test campaign awareness and perceptions were also assessed. Campaign awareness was high (48% Time 2; 80% Time 3) and over 86% of parents found the campaign believable and relevant at both post-tests. Increased knowledge of the NHMRC guideline and lower belief in alcohol myths were found at both post-tests compared to Time 1. Less positive attitudes to parental supply were found at Time 2, but were not sustained at Time 3. Parents were more likely to have discussed alcohol risks and limiting drinking with their child at Time 3, but parent-to-child alcohol supply did not change significantly. The campaign achieved high awareness and positively influenced parental outcomes. Longer term campaign implementation supported by policy and environmental measures may be required to change parental supply. © 2018 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.
Volunteer organizations can potentially partner with mainstream professional services to provide better parenting support to immigrant parents. This qualitative study of cooperation between professional agencies and volunteer organizations known as migrant volunteer and community organizations
Lu, Ming-Hui; Wang, Guang-Hai; Lei, Hao; Shi, Meng-Liang; Zhu, Rui; Jiang, Fan
Although numerous studies have demonstrated that social support affects a range of life experiences, few have examined its moderating and mediating effects. In the current study, 479 Chinese parents of children with ASD (aged 3-18 years) completed the surveys assessing parenting stress, social support and life satisfaction. Results indicated that…
Full Text Available Introduction: One of the ways of building and developing a better cooperative relationship between parents of people with severe and profound intellectual disabilities and professional staff is the inclusion of parents in support groups for parents and staff in support groups for staff. Goal: To examine the correlation of the level of cooperative relationship between the parents of people with severe and profound intellectual disabilities and professional staff with the inclusion of parents in support groups for parents and staff in support groups for staff. Methodology: Respondents: parents (296 of people with severe and profound learning disabilities and staff (298 in five centres across Slovenia; Methods: descriptive statistics, test of homogeneity, the rankit method, one-way analysis of variance; Procedures: survey questionnaires for parents and staff. The data was processed using SPSS software for personal computers. Results: The difference between the variances of the groups (parent found is statistically significant (F = 6.16; p = 0.01. Staff included in support groups have a significantly lower level of cooperative relationship with parents (f=10; M = - 0.12 than staff not included in these groups (f = 191; M = 0.04. Conclusion:In contrast to theoretical findings the results indicated less successful cooperation for professional staff included in support groups. The results furthermore did not confirm any differences in the cooperative relationship of parents included in support groups and those who are not. We suggest an in-depth analysis of the workings of support groups.
Fatemeh Mokhtari1 , Soheila Ehsanpour2 and Ashraf Kazemi 3*
Background: Social support is one of the important effective factors on health-related behaviors in different groups. The present study has evaluated the effect of an educational intervention on parents’ nutritional social support for having a healthy diet by teenagers. Methods: This field trial was conducted in two groups on the parents of 63 female early adolescent.The level of parents’ nutritional social support for having a healthy diet were measured using a questionnaire. One month after...
Lariviere, Janice; Rennick, Janet E
To examine the effects of a parent book reading intervention in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) on parent-infant interaction and on the incidence of parents reading to their infants 3 months post-NICU discharge. A nonrandomized, participant blinded intervention study using a historical control group (CG) was conducted. The intervention group (IG: n = 59) consisted of parents of infants admitted to the NICU after the introduction of the parent reading program. The CG (n = 57) consisted of parents of infants discharged from the NICU in the 3-month period before the introduction of the reading program. Questionnaires were mailed to participants 3 months after their infant's discharge and completed verbally, over the telephone. Groups were compared on parenting activities and reading. In addition, a thematic analysis of qualitative descriptive data provided insight into the parents' experiences with reading to their infants. Sixty-nine percent of IG parents reported that reading helped them feel closer to their baby, and 86% reported it was enjoyable. Parents reported an increased sense of control and normalcy and increased intimacy with their infant. Twice as many parents in the IG reported reading 3 or more times a week to their infants (55.9% IG; 23.3% CG). Study results support the use of a parent book-reading intervention in the NICU to enhance parent-infant interactions and promote reading.
Revina Ortizano- Mendoza
Full Text Available This descriptive-correlational study determined which of the factors - students’ attendance, motivation, school climate, and parents’ support - influence college students’ academic performance. A researcher-made instrument was used to gather the data. This instrument underwent content validation and reliability testing. A total of 109 college students in a higher education institution during the first semester of School Year 2015-2016 were randomly chosen as participants. Descriptive statistics such as frequency, percentage, mean, and standard deviation were employed to determine the level of students’ motivation, perception of school climate and the level of parent’s support. Spearman rho was also used to determine which of the factors had influence to the academic performance of students. Results reveal that the participants had high level of motivation, and perceived the school climate as very satisfactory and had assessed their parental support as low. Moreover, only parental support and students’ attendance significantly influenced academic performance. From the findings of the study, it implies that college students, as individuals, still need the support of parents not just financially, but morally as well, in their academic endeavors. Hence, parents are encouraged to give their support to their children in all forms.
Dmitry V. Soldatov
Full Text Available Temporal transspective is understood as ability to connect in whole image of the past, present and future. The article shows the results of a comparative study of temporal transspective of adolescents, whose personality formation takes place in different living conditions. Participants were 50 adolescents without parental support (experimental group and 60 adolescents brought up in a family (control group. The research showed that temporal transspective of adolescents without parental support has not only peculiarities as gap between important events in the past, present and future, but as well such characteristics of their personalities as lack of confidence, ambivalency, anxiety, pessimism, moreover, motivation limited by nearest future.
Healy, K L; Sanders, M R
This study investigated how supportive relationships with peers and parents protect children against ongoing victimization, internalizing problems and depression. The longitudinal data set tracked progress of 111 children recruited for the trial of Resilience Triple P, and previously bullied by peers. Informants included children, parents and teachers. Higher levels of facilitative parenting (warm parenting that supports peer relationships) and peer acceptance predicted lower later levels of both depression and victimization over time. Higher levels of child friendedness predicted lower levels of child reports of internalizing problems. Children's friendships, acceptance by same sex peers and facilitative parenting all played moderating roles in protecting against ongoing victimization and internalizing problems. Peer acceptance mediated the relationships between facilitative parenting and victimization. Facilitative parenting mediated the relationship between peer acceptance and depression. It was concluded that supportive relationships with parents and peers play important and complementary roles in protecting children against ongoing victimization and depression.
D'Andrade, Amy; Simon, James David; Fabella, Danna; Castillo, Lolita; Mejia, Cesar; Shuster, David
Housing instability can complicate parents' efforts to provide for their children. Child welfare service agencies have had difficulty adequately serving parents' housing needs due to limited and constrained funding streams. This article integrates the voices of four important stakeholders to illuminate how an innovative model of service system coordination called Linkages addresses housing needs for child welfare-involved parents eligible for public assistance. Facilitated by Linkages, these parents can receive supportive housing services through programs affiliated with the California public assistance program CalWORKs. Personal narratives reflecting the diverse perspectives of stakeholders in the Linkages collaboration-the statewide program director, a child welfare services coordinator, a CalWORKs caseworker, and a parent program participant-shed light on how the collaboration assists parents in attaining case plan goals, and highlights some of the factors facilitating and hindering effective collaboration between the agencies involved. Stakeholders emphasized the value of flexible service approaches, the intensity of the efforts required, the role of advocacy, and the importance of a shared vision between agencies working together to provide housing supports. © Society for Community Research and Action 2016.
Rhodes, Ryan E; Spence, John C; Berry, Tanya; Deshpande, Sameer; Faulkner, Guy; Latimer-Cheung, Amy E; O'Reilly, Norman; Tremblay, Mark S
Parental support is the critical family-level variable linked to child physical activity (PA), yet the antecedents of support are poorly understood, and its relationship with intention is modest. The purpose of this study was to apply a framework designed to evaluate the intention-behavior gap, known as multiprocess action control (M-PAC), to understand parental support for regular child PA. Mothers (N = 1,253) with children 5-12 years of age completed measures of attitudes, perceived control over support, behavioral regulation tactics (e.g., planning, self-monitoring), and intention to support. Over half (58%) reported on subsequent support behaviors 6 months later. Three intention-behavior profiles emerged: (a) nonintenders (26.4%; n = 331), (b) unsuccessful intenders (36.6%; n = 458), and (c) successful intenders (33%; n = 414). Congruent with M-PAC, a discriminant function analysis showed that affective attitude about support (r = .18), perceived behavioral control over support (r = .55), and behavioral regulation (r = .55) distinguished between all 3 intention-behavior profiles. A disaggregated analysis of specific behavioral regulation tactics showed that most distinguished all 3 profiles, yet planning, information seeking, and monitoring were the critical correlates of the discriminant function. The majority of mothers had positive intentions to support regular child PA, yet over half failed to enact this support. Difficulty of intention translating into support behavior arises from compromised control over support, self-regulation skills, and perceptions that the support experience is unenjoyable. Interventions aimed at strengthening these factors are recommended to improve parental support action control. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Hanková, Libuše; Holub, Ladislav; Jeřábek, Karel
Roč. 66, č. 6 (2006), s. 592-598 ISSN 1381-5148 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA104/02/1104 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : catalysis * polymer supports * resin Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 1.561, year: 2006
Staten, Lisa K; Rodgers, Rylin Christine; Denne, Scott C
Background When parents of young children with special health care needs (CSHCN) receive their child’s diagnosis, they encounter information they may not understand, emotions they may not know how to cope with, and questions about their child’s immediate and long-term future that frequently lack answers. The challenge of health care providers is how to prepare parents for caring for their CSHCN, for coping with any resulting challenges, and for accessing the systems and services that can assist them. Objective The purpose of this work was to review evidence of the information and support needs of parents of young CSHCN and to determine whether online social support can serve as an avenue for learning and empowerment for these parents. Methods A scoping review identified the challenges, coping mechanisms, and support needs among parents of CSHCN, and the reach and effectiveness of digital technologies with these families and health care providers. We also conducted interviews with professionals serving parents of CSHCN. Results The literature review and interviews suggested that parents best learn the information they need, and cope with the emotional challenges of raising a CSHCN, with support from other parents of CSHCN, and that young parents in recent years have most often been finding this parent-to-parent support through digital media, particularly social media, consistent with the theory of online social support. Evidence also shows that social media, particularly Facebook, is used by nearly all women aged 18-29 years across racial and socioeconomic lines in the United States. Conclusions Parents of young CSHCN experience significant stress but gain understanding, receive support, and develop the ability to care for and be advocates for their child through parent-to-parent emotional and informational social support. Online social support is most effective with young adults of childbearing age, with social media and apps being the most useful within the
DeHoff, Beth A; Staten, Lisa K; Rodgers, Rylin Christine; Denne, Scott C
When parents of young children with special health care needs (CSHCN) receive their child's diagnosis, they encounter information they may not understand, emotions they may not know how to cope with, and questions about their child's immediate and long-term future that frequently lack answers. The challenge of health care providers is how to prepare parents for caring for their CSHCN, for coping with any resulting challenges, and for accessing the systems and services that can assist them. The purpose of this work was to review evidence of the information and support needs of parents of young CSHCN and to determine whether online social support can serve as an avenue for learning and empowerment for these parents. A scoping review identified the challenges, coping mechanisms, and support needs among parents of CSHCN, and the reach and effectiveness of digital technologies with these families and health care providers. We also conducted interviews with professionals serving parents of CSHCN. The literature review and interviews suggested that parents best learn the information they need, and cope with the emotional challenges of raising a CSHCN, with support from other parents of CSHCN, and that young parents in recent years have most often been finding this parent-to-parent support through digital media, particularly social media, consistent with the theory of online social support. Evidence also shows that social media, particularly Facebook, is used by nearly all women aged 18-29 years across racial and socioeconomic lines in the United States. Parents of young CSHCN experience significant stress but gain understanding, receive support, and develop the ability to care for and be advocates for their child through parent-to-parent emotional and informational social support. Online social support is most effective with young adults of childbearing age, with social media and apps being the most useful within the theoretical framework of social support. This opens new
van Driessche, Anne; Jotheeswaran, A T; Murthy, G V S; Pilot, Eva; Sagar, Jayanthi; Pant, Hira; Singh, Vivek; Dpk, Babu
Parents of children with hearing impairment are at increased risk of mental health morbidities. We examined the predictive factors associated with caregiver's strain and psychological morbidities in parents and family caregivers of children with hearing impairment. In total, n = 201 parents and family caregivers of children with and without hearing impairment aged 3 to 16 years were recruited. Caregiver's strain and psychological morbidities were measured using the Zarit Burden scale and the World Health Organization's Self-Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ-20). Presence of behavioural problems in children was measured using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. After adjustment, low educational attainment and domestic violence were found to be associated with caregiving strain, whereas dissatisfaction with social support from family, behavioural problems in children, and domestic violence strongly predicted psychological morbidities. Addressing the mental healthcare needs of parents may help in downsizing the impact of psychological morbidities on the well-being of children with hearing impairment.
Sims, Margaret; Ellis, Elizabeth M.; Knox, Vicki
Parents who are plurilingual have a portfolio of assets they can use to support the language development of their children. This portfolio of assets is positioned as a strength that parents bring into their partnership with early childhood educators. However, not all parents who are plurilingual have the same assets in their language portfolios.…
Shorey, Shefaly; Ng, Yvonne Peng Mei; Siew, An Ling; Yoong, Joanne; Mörelius, Evalotte
Supportive educational programs during the perinatal period are scarce in Singapore. There is no continuity of care available in terms of support from community care nurses in Singapore. Parents are left on their own most of the time, which results in a stressful transition to parenthood. There is a need for easily accessible technology-based educational programs that can support parents during this crucial perinatal period. The aim of this study was to describe the study protocol of a randomized controlled trial on a technology-based supportive educational parenting program. A randomized controlled two-group pretest and repeated posttest experimental design will be used. The study will recruit 118 parents (59 couples) from the antenatal clinics of a tertiary public hospital in Singapore. Eligible parents will be randomly allocated to receive either the supportive educational parenting program or routine perinatal care from the hospital. Outcome measures include parenting self-efficacy, parental bonding, postnatal depression, social support, parenting satisfaction, and cost evaluation. Data will be collected at the antenatal period, immediate postnatal period, and at 1 month and 3 months post childbirth. Recruitment of the study participants commenced in December 2016 and is still ongoing. Data collection is projected to finish within 12 months, by December 2017. This study will identify a potentially clinically useful, effective, and cost-effective supportive educational parenting program to improve parental self-efficacy and bonding in newborn care, which will then improve parents' social support-seeking behaviors, emotional well-being, and satisfaction with parenting. It is hoped that better supported and satisfied parents will consider having more children, which may in turn influence Singapore's ailing birth rate. International Standard Randomized Controlled Trial Number (ISRCTN): 48536064; https://www.isrctn.com/ISRCTN48536064 (Archived by WebCite at http
Jiang, Ying Hong; Yau, Jenny; Bonner, Patricia; Chiang, Linda
Introduction: Driven by an overarching conceptual framework adapted from Self-Determination Theory, this study tested the direct and indirect effects of perceived parental academia autonomy support vs. academic planning control on the interrelated variables of adolescents' self-esteem, academic motivation, and academic achievement, using…
This study examined the relationship among grandparent support, family functioning, and parental stress on families with children with and without disabilities between the ages of 2 and 12 years. Families are viewed as an ever-changing complex system with reciprocal interactions. One possible stressor on the family system is the birth of a child…
Merz, E.-M.; Consedine, N.S.; Schulze, H.-J.; Schuengel, C.
The current study describes from an attachment-theoretical viewpoint how ntergenerational support in adult child-parent relationships is associated with wellbeing in both generations. The attachment perspective and its focus on affective relationship characteristics is considered as an important
Simsek, Omer Faruk; Demir, Meliksah
Past empirical research relying on self-determination theory (SDT) has consistently shown that parental support of basic psychological needs (BPN) is associated with adolescent happiness. Yet, the specific mechanisms accounting for this link are still undetermined. The present study aimed to address this gap in the literature by testing a…
Li, Yiqiong; Chen, Peter Y.; Chen, Fu-Li; Wu, Wen-Chi
This article examines how past bullied victims engage two types of bystander behaviors (defender and outsider) when they witness bullying situations.We also investigate if fatalism mediates the relationship between past victimization and two bystander behaviors. Finally, we test if parental support moderates the relationship between fatalism and…
Linden, D. van der; Figueredo, A.J.; Leeuw, R.N.H. de; Scholte, R.H.J.; Engels, R.C.M.E.
In the present study, we tested whether the General Factor of Personality (GFP) is related to the level of parental support. The GFP is assumed to occupy the apex of the hierarchy of human personality structure and is believed to reflect a socially and sexually selected aggregate of behavioral
Van Yperen, N.W.
This study of 65 highly skilled young male soccer players (mean age = 16.6 years) employed a 7-month longitudinal design to examine the causal relationship between performance level and interpersonal stress within the team. Particular attention was paid to the moderating effect of parental support.
Wang, Clare Wen; Neihart, Maureen
This study investigated how perceived external factors such as supports from parents and teachers, and influences from peers contributed to the academic successes and failures of Singaporean twice-exceptional (2e) students. A total of six 2e participants from one secondary school in Singapore voluntarily participated in the study. This study used…
Gagne, Marie-Helene; Melancon, Claudiane
The role of coping strategies (approach and avoidance) as a mediating factor between parental psychological violence and adolescent behavior problems, both internalized and externalized, as well as the protective role of social support were examined separately for boys and girls. A group of 278 adolescents (mean age: 14.2) were recruited in three…
Decker, Kalli B.; Vallotton, Claire D.
Family-centered early intervention for children with hearing loss is intended to strengthen families' interactions with their children to support children's language development, and should include providing parents with information they can use as part of their everyday routines. However, little is known about the information received by families…
Richter, Linda M.
The global community is recognizing how "nurturing care" is critical for the developing child. The term encompasses health and nutrition, safety and security, responsive caregiving, and opportunities for inclusive early learning, all of which are afforded by loving parents and families and supportive communities. Public policies and…
Seltzer, Marsha Mailick; Krauss, Marty Wyngaarden
Predictors of 4 indices of well-being (physical health, life satisfaction, burden, and parenting stress) were examined among 203 aging mothers of mentally retarded adults living at home. Predictive variables examined include maternal characteristics, retarded adult's characteristics, family social climate, mother's social support network, and…
Garcia-Reid, Pauline; Peterson, Christina Hamme; Reid, Robert J.
While a significant portion of Latino immigrant youth are failing to meet their academic potential, many others have been able to acquire the resources needed to excel academically. This study examined social capital assets (i.e., parent and teacher supports) for school engagement and trouble avoidance among a sample of recently arrived, non-U.S.…
Parent support/patient advocacy groups for rare genetic disorders have emerged as an important force. They provide information, encourage research (both by participation in research and by raising money for research), give families and affected family members the opportunity to learn from each other, and open the way ...
Stiefel, Jacob P.
Hybrid learning programs may offer the most benefits for secondary schools to help prepare students for the online learning requirements of higher education and the workforce. Parental support will be necessary for academic success of high school students in a hybrid learning program, though. The purpose of this sequential mixed methods study was…
Poon-McBrayer, Kim Fong; McBrayer, Philip Allen
Parents play a significant role in the education of children with special needs. Recent national policies have aimed to improve support for students with specific learning difficulties and their families in Hong Kong. Literature on the experiences of children with specific learning difficulties in Hong Kong is scarce. This study, by Kim Fong…
Ševcíková, Anna; Machácková, Hana; Wright, Michelle F.; Dedková, Lenka; Cerná, Alena
Victims use social support seeking (SSS) to buffer the negative effects of cyberbullying. It is unknown whether cybervictims' perceptions of harm and having poor peer and parental relationships influence SSS. Using a sample of 451 cyberbullying-victims, aged 12-18, 68% girls, this study examined relationships of gender, harm, peer rejection,…
Mounts, Nina S.; Valentiner, David P.; Anderson, Katherine L.; Boswell, Michelle K.
A path model was tested in an ethnically diverse sample of 350 college students in which shyness, sociability, and parental support for the college transition were related to loneliness and friendship quality. Furthermore, friendship quality and loneliness were related to depression and anxiety. High levels of shyness, low levels of sociability,…
Lewin, Cathy; Luckin, Rosemary
This paper compares and contrasts two projects in order to better understand the complex issues surrounding the use of technology to support parental involvement with schools and their children's learning. The Becta-funded ICT Test Bed evaluation (2002-2006) had the intention of saturating schools (in three areas of social deprivation) with a…
Poon, Cecilia Y. M.; Knight, Bob G.
This study examined whether parental emotional support around emerging adulthood influenced well-being in midlife. We applied latent growth curve (LGC) models on 337 Baby Boomers who were in their late teens to early 20s when they entered the Longitudinal Study of Generations (LSOG) in 1971. There was a small but significant decline in self-rated…
Tomcikova, Z.; Geckova, A. Madarasova; Orosova, O.; van Dijk, J. P.; Reijneveld, S. A.
Background: The aim of this cross-sectional study was to explore the association between parental divorce and adolescent drunkenness in the last 4 weeks and the contribution of socioeconomic position, family structure, social support from family and well-being to this association. Methods: We
Stadler, Christina; Feifel, Julia; Rohrmann, Sonja; Vermeiren, Robert; Poustka, Fritz
The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency and effects of peer-victimization on mental health problems among adolescents. Parental and school support were assumed as protective factors that might interact with one another in acting as buffers for adolescents against the risk of peer-victimization. Besides these protective factors, age…
Chaudhury, Sumona; Kirk, Catherine M.; Ingabire, Charles; Mukunzi, Sylvere; Nyirandagijimana, Beatha; Godfrey, Kalisa; Brennan, Robert T.; Betancourt, Theresa S.
Introduction Few evidence-based interventions exist to support parenting and child mental health during the process of caregiver HIV status disclosure in sub-Saharan Africa. A secondary analysis of a randomized-controlled trial was conducted to examine the role of family-based intervention versus usual social work care (care as usual) in supporting HIV status disclosure within families in Rwanda. Method Approximately 40 households were randomized to family-based intervention and 40...
Petrić, Jasna; Malički, Mario; Marković, Domagoj; Meštrović, Julije
To assess attitudes of students and their parents toward basic life support (BLS) training in primary schools, along with their perceptions of students' fears toward applying and training BLS. In October 2011, a specifically designed, voluntary and anonymous questionnaire was distributed to 7th and 8th grade students and to their parents in two primary schools in Split, Croatia. Completed questionnaires were analyzed to determine the validity of the scale, and to determine sex and group differences in individual items and the whole scale. The questionnaires were completed by 301 school children and 361 parents. Cronbach's alpha of the whole scale was 0.83, indicating good internal consistency. The students' score for the whole attitude scale was 73.7 ∓ 11.1 out of maximum 95, while the parents' score was 68.0 ∓ 11.9. Students' attitude was significantly more positive than that of the parents (U=29.7, Pschool and their parents had a positive attitude toward BLS training in primary schools. Implementing compulsory BLS training in Croatia's primary schools could help increase students' confidence, quell their fears toward applying BLS, and possibly even increase the survival of bystander-witnessed cardiac arrests.
Tiggelman, Dana; van de Ven, Monique O M; van Schayck, Onno C P; Engels, Rutger C M E; van Sluijs, Esther M F
Few studies have examined determinants of physical activity in patients with chronic illnesses, like asthma. The aim of this study was to examine whether baseline maternal and paternal beliefs, support and parenting were associated with changes in sport participation of adolescents with asthma, and investigate the moderating effect of sex. In a population-based cohort study, during home visits in 2012 and 2013, 253 adolescents completed a questionnaire assessing their sport participation. Both parents reported their sport-specific parenting (support, general and asthma-specific beliefs, self-efficacy to encourage sport participation). The collected data was described using descriptive statistics. Path and multi-group analyses were used to examine whether baseline parental factors predicted change in adolescent sport participation, multi-group analyses examined the moderating effect of sex. For all analyses probability p value less than the accepted level of significance α = 0.05 (p sport participation of the adolescents, sex did not moderate the associations. In the fully adjusted models, only maternal asthma-specific beliefs about sport participation were significantly positively associated with change in adolescent sport participation. Sport-specific parenting does not appear to be a determinant of sport participation in adolescents with asthma. Future research should consider other individual, social and environmental determinants to inform intervention development.
de la Iglesia, Guadalupe; Freiberg Hoffmann, Agustin; Fernández Liporace, Mercedes
The aim of this study was to test the ability to predict academic achievement through the perception of parenting and social support in a sample of 354 Argentinean college students. Their mean age was 23.50 years (standard deviation =2.62 years) and most of them (83.3%) were females. As a prerequisite for admission to college, students are required to pass a series of mandatory core classes and are expected to complete them in two semesters. Delay in completing the curriculum is considered low academic achievement. Parenting was assessed taking into account the mother and the father and considering two dimensions: responsiveness and demandingness. Perceived social support was analyzed considering four sources: parents, teachers, classmates, and best friend or boyfriend/girlfriend. Path analysis showed that, as hypothesized, responsiveness had a positive indirect effect on the perception of social support and enhanced achievement. Demandingness had a different effect in the case of the mother as compared to the father. In the mother model, demandingness had a positive direct effect on achievement. In the case of the father, however, the effect of demandingness had a negative and indirect impact on the perception of social support. Teachers were the only source of perceived social support that significantly predicted achievement. The pathway that belongs to teachers as a source of support was positive and direct. Implications for possible interventions are discussed.
Anderson, Samantha F; Salk, Rachel H; Hyde, Janet S
It is well known that stressful life events can play a role in the development of adolescent depressive symptoms; however, there has been little research on romantic stress specifically. The relationship between romantic stress and depressive symptoms is particularly salient in adolescence, as adolescence often involves the onset of dating. This and other stressors are often dealt with in the context of the family. The present study examined the relationship between romantic stress and depressive symptoms both concurrently and prospectively, controlling for preexisting depressive symptoms. We then explored whether support from parents buffers the negative effects of romantic stress on depressive symptoms. In addition, the study sought to determine whether the benefits of support vary by parent and child gender. A community sample of 375 adolescents completed self-report measures of parental support (both maternal and paternal), romantic stress, and depressive symptoms. A behavioral measure of maternal support was also obtained. For boys and girls, romantic stress at age 15 predicted depressive symptoms at ages 15 and 18, even when controlling for age 13 depressive symptoms. Perceived maternal support buffered the stress-depressive symptom relationship for both genders at age 15, even when controlling for age 13 depressive symptoms. Higher perceived paternal support was associated with lower adolescent depressive symptoms; however, it did not have a buffering effect. These results have implications for the development of effective family-centered methods to prevent the development of depressive symptoms in adolescents. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Taylor, Zoe E.; Conger, Rand D.; Robins, Richard W.; Widaman, Keith F.
Social bonds and supportive relationships are widely recognized as being indispensable to healthy psychological functioning and well-being. Social support is a psychological resource that is expected to also contribute positively to parenting practices. The present study longitudinally examined the relations between mothers’ (N = 674) and fathers’ (N = 430) perceived social support and parenting behaviors, and their relations with children’s social competence during early adolescence in Mexican-origin single and two-parent families. Our constructs of interest (warm parenting, monitoring, perceived social support, and children’s social competence) were significantly correlated at T1, and demonstrated significant stability across time for both parental models. Parental warmth (as reported by the child, and opposite parent) and parental monitoring (self-reported by mothers and fathers) were correlated and also showed bidirectional associations across time. Parental monitoring at T2 positively predicted change in children’s social competence at T3 (controlling for T1 social competence) for mothers. Parental warmth at T2 positively predicted change in children’s social competence at T3 (controlling for T1 social competence) for fathers. For mothers, the indirect effect of social support at T1 on children’s social competence at T3 via parental monitoring at T2 (and controlling for prior levels) was significant. Findings suggest that maternal perceived social support contributes to children’s social competence due to its positive relation to maternal monitoring. Results may also suggest that mothers’ and fathers’ parenting behaviors differentially relate to children’s social competence in Latino families, although additional work focused on comparing parenting behaviors in two-parent families is needed. PMID:26751039
Lederberg, Amy R; Golbach, Traci
This longitudinal study investigated the impact of child deafness on mothers' stress, size of social networks, and satisfaction with social support. Twenty-three hearing mothers of deaf children and 23 hearing mothers of hearing children completed a series of self-report questionnaires when their children were 22 months, 3, and 4 years old. When children were 22 months, more mothers of deaf children reported pessimism about their children's achieving self-sufficiency and concerns about their children's communication abilities than did mothers of hearing children. When their children were 3 and 4 years old, mothers of deaf and hearing children did not differ in their reports of general parenting stress, as measured by the Parenting Stress Index (PSI). Likewise, mothers' ratings of satisfaction with social support were not affected by child deafness, nor did they change developmentally. Mothers of deaf and hearing children did differ in the types of support networks utilized. Mothers of deaf 22-month-olds reported significantly larger professional support networks, while mothers of hearing children reported significantly larger general support networks across all child ages. Mothers' feelings of stress and satisfaction with social support were very stable across the 2 years examined. The results suggest that most mothers of deaf children do not feel a high level of general parenting stress or dissatisfaction with their lives and support networks. However, mothers of deaf children are likely to feel stress in areas specific to deafness. In addition, because parenting stress was highly stable, special efforts should be made to intervene when mothers of deaf children are expressing high levels of stress.
de la Iglesia G
Full Text Available Guadalupe de la Iglesia,1,2 Agustin Freiberg Hoffmann,2 Mercedes Fernández Liporace1,2 1National Council of Scientific and Technical Research (CONICET, 2University of Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, Argentina Abstract: The aim of this study was to test the ability to predict academic achievement through the perception of parenting and social support in a sample of 354 Argentinean college students. Their mean age was 23.50 years (standard deviation =2.62 years and most of them (83.3% were females. As a prerequisite for admission to college, students are required to pass a series of mandatory core classes and are expected to complete them in two semesters. Delay in completing the curriculum is considered low academic achievement. Parenting was assessed taking into account the mother and the father and considering two dimensions: responsiveness and demandingness. Perceived social support was analyzed considering four sources: parents, teachers, classmates, and best friend or boyfriend/girlfriend. Path analysis showed that, as hypothesized, responsiveness had a positive indirect effect on the perception of social support and enhanced achievement. Demandingness had a different effect in the case of the mother as compared to the father. In the mother model, demandingness had a positive direct effect on achievement. In the case of the father, however, the effect of demandingness had a negative and indirect impact on the perception of social support. Teachers were the only source of perceived social support that significantly predicted achievement. The pathway that belongs to teachers as a source of support was positive and direct. Implications for possible interventions are discussed. Keywords: academic achievement, parenting, social support, college
Full Text Available Through in-depth interviews with 21 parents and 12 children in lesbian/gayparented families, we explored the experiences of this unique family form in South African schools. Specifically, families reflected on their positive and negative experiences in the children’s education and used these reflections to offer advice to teachers and administrators wishing better to support lesbian/ gay-parented families. The results of our study offer an understanding of the challenges and needs of this diverse family in the school system, as well as a starting point for administrators and teachers wanting to create inclusive environments for all family types.
Haut, C; Peddicord, K; O'Brien, E
New and improved technology in the NICU has assisted in supporting critically ill neonates, especially those born at very low birth weights. These small patients require the dedicated hand of the NICU staff, but also the love and support of their parents. Family bonding in the NICU is often a very difficult process, which is interrupted by separation of parent and child at birth and continued by the physical constraints of this highly complex critical care environment. Neonatal nurses are most often the front line managers and coordinators of family care in the NICU. They are charged with the challenge of understanding and providing "state of the art" technological care in an environment that must also adapt to the ever changing needs of parents and families who cannot be considered visitors, but an integral part of their infants' care and survival. Each infant and family in the NICU requires individualized assessment and nursing care. This article reviews the process of parental bonding as it relates to the premature or ill infant and provides for nurses a plan of care written to foster and support family bonding in the NICU. Stages of bonding with a sick or premature infant are explored in the context of a theoretical framework of adaptation provided by Sister Callista Roy.
Cláudio Tadeu Daniel-Ribeiro
Full Text Available Abstract: Our colleagues at the Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical have been informed of the demise of Professor Pierre Ambroise-Thomas (1937-2014. However, considering that the tribute we paid to him in 2015 - at the 20th anniversary of the Seminário Laveran & Deane sobre Malária - is equally true today, it is worth sharing it with the readers of the RSBMT, in recognition of his many virtues. Pierre Ambroise-Thomas (MD in 1963 and DSc in 1969 was Honorary Professor of Parasitology and Tropical Medicine at the Faculté de Médecine de Grenoble (France, Honorary President of the Académie Nationale de Médecine, member of the Académie Nationale de Pharmacie and Officier dans l'Ordre de La Légion d'Honneur. In addition to his important contributions to tropical medicine and parasitology, working in France during his long and productive career (50 years and 300 publications, Ambroise-Thomas became an admirer and supporter of Brazilian activities related to research, teaching and information in Tropical Medicine.
Takagi, Emiko; Saito, Yasuhiko
Japan presents a unique social laboratory in which to examine how family support impacts on older adults' psychological wellbeing. This is because of its cultural climate where distinctively different expectations of old-age independence and the traditional norm of filial piety coexist. This study investigated how structural and functional dimensions of the family support of older Japanese parents influence their psychological morale, and whether the impacts of family support on parents' morale vary depending on the parents' belief in the traditional cultural norm of filial piety. Four waves of data from the Nihon University Japanese Longitudinal Study of Aging (NUJLSOA) collected in 1999, 2001, 2003 and 2006 were analysed. Combining the two- or three-year span of longitudinal data between each wave (N=3,882), an ordered logistic regression analysis was undertaken. The results reveal that although parents who were widowed or received emotional support from a child tended to report a lower level of morale, the negative influences of such support tended to be mitigated if the parent agreed with the traditional cultural norm of filial responsibilities. These results imply that the meaning and benefit of family support may differ depending on the degree to which Japanese older parents support the traditional norm of filial responsibilities.
Raquel-Amaya Martínez González
Full Text Available This paper focuses on the need to promote Educational Guidance for Family Life as a means to support families in developing a Positive Parenting role, such as suggested by the Council of Europe (2006. This Recommendation is discussed in some detail and some measures that had been put into practice in Spain to support families under special circumstances are revised; in order to do so, Programme-Agreements which had been developed in the last years sponsored by both the central government and the one of the Spanish Autonomous Cities and Communities are described. Moreover, other preventive and community measures focused on socio-educative support for all families through Positive Parenting Programmes are mentioned. This paper ends with some suggestions about actions which require a multidisciplinary, collaborative net approach among the diverse social entities and institutions working in favour of families.
Whittaker, Karen A; Cox, Pat; Thomas, Nigel; Cocker, Karen
United Kingdom policy and practice endorses family support for child well-being. Achieving such support requires multi-agency approaches that consider all aspects of parents' and children's lives and which offer practical, social and emotional help. The potential for services to make a positive impact on parents and their families will depend in part on the level and nature of engagement. In this paper, a case is made for the application of the two-part surface and depth concept for understanding how practitioners engage with families and how they might improve the chances of supporting sustainable differences for parents and families. To illustrate, qualitative data from a review of family centre support provided by a north of England local authority are presented. The review was commissioned to explore why families often need to re-engage with intensive support services. Data were drawn from interviews with parents (n = 18, recruited following a survey of all those registered with the service during April-May 2009) and discussions with family centre support workers (n = 4), and following thematic analysis, three dominant themes emerged--resources available, staff approach and real life--which were appraised in the light of the surface and depth concept. Much of the work with parents effectively dealt with pressing needs. This felt gratifying for both parent and worker and supported immediate service engagement. However, each noted that the more complex issues in parents' lives went unchallenged and thus the sustainability of progress in terms of parenting practice was questionable. A strengths focused approach by staff that understood needs in the context of parents' real-life circumstances was important to parent engagement. Thus, longer term benefits from family support require practitioners to work with parents to problem solve immediate issues while also digging deeper to acknowledge and seek to resolve the more complex challenges parents face in their real
Pan, Yuqin; Jones, Patricia S
Prevalence of stroke and traditional filial responsibility involve adult children in caregiving to their parent stroke survivors in China. Support resources are insufficient because of the shrinking size of family and the underdeveloped support system. The aim of this study was to identify the correlates of perceived social support among adult child caregivers of parent stroke survivors in China. A cross-sectional correlational design was used in this study. A nonproportional quota sample of 126 adult child caregivers was recruited from Zhejiang Province, China. Data were collected at either the hospital stroke units or the respondents' homes using structured questionnaires of caregiving dyadic demographics and caregiving characteristics, 14-item Activities of Daily Living, 15-item Mutuality Scale, and 12-item Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support. SPSS 17.0 was used for analysis. Caregivers' mutuality, education, full employment or being retired, monthly income, having a co-carer, and having a father as the care receiver were significantly positively associated with caregivers' perceived social support. However, mutuality was not significantly associated with caregivers' perceived social support after the other factors were adjusted. Adult child caregivers with higher levels of mutuality, education, or monthly income; who are fully employed or are retired; who have a co-carer; or who are caring for a father perceived more social support. Nursing strategies and social policies need to be directed to enhance caregiver mutuality and support caregiving efforts.
Geense, W W; van Gaal, B G I; Knoll, J L; Cornelissen, E A M; van Achterberg, T
Parents of children with a chronic kidney disease (CKD) have a crucial role in the management of their child's disease. The burden on parents is high: they are often exhausted, depressed and experience high levels of stress and a low quality of life, which could have a negative impact on their child's health outcomes. Support aiming at preventing and reducing parental stress is essential. Therefore, it is necessary to have insight in the problems and support needs among these parents. Our aim is to describe parents' support needs regarding the problems they experience in having a child with CKD. Five focus group interviews were conducted with parents of children: (i) with hereditary kidney disease, (ii) with nephrotic syndrome, (iii) with chronic kidney failure, (iv) using dialysis and (v) after renal transplantation. The children were treated at a paediatric nephrology unit in one university hospital in the Netherlands. The data were thematically analysed. Twenty-one parents participated in the focus groups. Parents need more information about their child's CKD and treatment options, and managing their own hobbies and work. Furthermore, parents need emotional support from their partner, family, friends, peers and healthcare professionals to help them cope with the disease of their child. Additionally, parents need practical support to hand over their care and support in transport, financial management and regarding their child at school. Needs regarding balancing their personal life are seldom prioritized by parents as the child's needs are considered more important. Therefore, it is important that healthcare professionals should not only attend to the abilities of parents concerning their child's disease management, but also focus on the parents' abilities in balancing their responsibilities as a caregiver with their own personal life. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Lutz, Kristin F.; Burnson, Cynthia; Hane, Amanda; Samuelson, Anne; Maleck, Sarah; Poehlmann, Julie
The study investigated family support as a buffer of stress in 153 mothers and preterm toddlers. Data were collected regarding maternal depressive symptoms, parenting stress, and family support; infant health; and videotaped mother-child interactions. Although more parenting stress related to less optimal child play, only information support…
Reardon, Tessa; Harvey, Kate; Young, Bridget; O'Brien, Doireann; Creswell, Cathy
Anxiety disorders are among the most common mental health disorders experienced by children, but only a minority of these children access professional help. Understanding the difficulties parents face seeking support for child anxiety disorders could inform targeted interventions to improve treatment access. The aims of the study were to identify barriers and facilitators to seeking and accessing professional support for child anxiety disorders, and ways to minimise these barriers. A qualitative interview study was conducted with parents of 16 children (aged 7-11 years) with anxiety disorders identified through screening in schools. Barriers and facilitators were identified in relation to four distinct stages in the help-seeking process: parents recognising the anxiety difficulty, parents recognising the need for professional support, parents contacting professionals, and families receiving professional support. Barriers and facilitators at each stage related to the child's difficulties, the role of the parent, and parent perceptions of professionals and services. Findings illustrate the need (1) for readily available tools to help parents and professionals identify clinically significant anxiety in children, (2) to ensure that families and professionals can easily access guidance on the help-seeking process and available support, and (3) to ensure existing services offer sufficient provision for less severe difficulties that incorporates direct support for parents.
Cacciatore, Michael A; Nowak, Glen; Evans, Nathaniel J
Despite consensus among health officials that childhood immunizations are a safe and effective means of protecting people from disease, some parents remain hesitant about vaccinating their children. This hesitancy has been linked to a lack of confidence in recommended vaccinations as well as a desire to delay or further space out scheduled vaccinations but also outright refusal of vaccines. Using two national surveys of parents of children ages five and younger, collected immediately prior to and in the weeks following the 2014-15 US measles outbreak, this study examined the awareness of this vaccine-preventable disease outbreak among parents and whether awareness of the outbreak affected their beliefs about childhood vaccination, confidence, and intentions. The study found that while most parents were aware of the outbreak, many were not, and the level of familiarity mattered, particularly on measures of confidence in vaccines and support for mandates requiring childhood vaccination. Increases in vaccine-related concerns were found as well, indicating that disease outbreaks foster not just awareness of vaccines and their potential to prevent disease but a range of parental responses. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.
Munns, Ailsa; Toye, Christine; Hegney, Desley; Kickett, Marion; Marriott, Rhonda; Walker, Roz
Participatory action research (PAR) is a credible, culturally appropriate methodology that can be used to effect collaborative change within vulnerable populations. This PAR study was undertaken in a Western Australian metropolitan setting to develop and evaluate the suitability, feasibility and effectiveness of an Aboriginal peer-led home visiting programme. A secondary aim, addressed in this paper, was to explore and describe research methodology used for the study and provide recommendations for its implementation in other similar situations. PAR using action learning sets was employed to develop the parent support programme and data addressing the secondary, methodological aim were collected through focus groups using semi-structured and unstructured interview schedules. Findings were addressed throughout the action research process to enhance the research process. The themes that emerged from the data and addressed the methodological aim were the need for safe communication processes; supportive engagement processes and supportive organisational processes. Aboriginal peer support workers (PSWs) and community support agencies identified three important elements central to their capacity to engage and work within the PAR methodology. This research has provided innovative data, highlighting processes and recommendations for child health nurses to engage with the PSWs, parents and community agencies to explore culturally acceptable elements for an empowering methodology for peer-led home visiting support. There is potential for this nursing research to credibly inform policy development for Aboriginal child and family health service delivery, in addition to other vulnerable population groups. Child health nurses/researchers can use these new understandings to work in partnership with Aboriginal communities and families to develop empowering and culturally acceptable strategies for developing Aboriginal parent support for the early years. Impact Statement Child
Dorthe Boe Danbjørg
Full Text Available Background. A development towards earlier postnatal discharge presents a challenge to find new ways to provide information and support to families. A possibility is the use of telemedicine. Objective. To explore how using an app in nursing practice affects the nurses’ ability to offer support and information to postnatal mothers who are discharged early and their families. Design. Participatory design. An app with a chat, a knowledgebase, and automated messages was tried out between hospital and parents at home. Settings. The intervention took place on a postnatal ward with approximately 1,000 births a year. Participants. At the onset of the intervention, 17 nurses, all women, were working on the ward. At the end of the intervention, 16 nurses were employed, all women. Methods. Participant observation and two focus group interviews. The data analysis was inspired by systematic text condensation. Results. The nurses on the postnatal ward consider that the use of the app gives families easier access to timely information and support. Conclusions. The app gives the nurses the possibility to offer support and information to the parents being early discharged. The app is experienced as a lifeline that connects the homes of the new parents with the hospital.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this article was to address questions on how parents use the internet to find information and support regarding children, health and family life. Another aim was to find out how professionals use the internet to provide support and information to parents. This was done by a literature review. Methods Articles were searched for in five databases with a search strategy called "building block" approach. Results The review showed that the majority of today's parents search for both information and social support on the internet. However, there are considerable differences due to gender, age and socio-economic differences. First time middle class mothers aged 30–35 are most active in looking up health and parent information on the internet. In the same time, several studies report diminishing class differences on parent web sites. An important reason to the increasing number of parents who turn to the internet for information and interaction has shown to be the weakened support many of today's parents experience from their own parents, relatives and friends. Professionals have recognized the parents' great interest for going online and offer both information and support on the net. Conclusion Many benefits are reported, for example the possibility to reach out to a wider audience and to increase access to organisations without an increase in costs. Other benefits include the possibility for parents to remain anonymous in their contacts with professionals and that parents' perceived need for information can be effectively met around the clock. Interventions for wider groups of parents, such as parent training on the net, are still very rare and more research is needed to evaluate different types of interventions on the net. However, most studies were empirical and lacked theoretical frameworks which leave questions on how we can more fully understand this phenomenon unanswered.
Murukesan, Gayathri; Leino, Hannu; Mäenpää, Pirkko; Ståhle, Kurt; Raksajit, Wuttinun; Lehto, Harry J.; Allahverdiyeva-Rinne, Yagut; Lehto, Kirsi
Surviving of crews during future missions to Mars will depend on reliable and adequate supplies of essential life support materials, i.e. oxygen, food, clean water, and fuel. The most economical and sustainable (and in long term, the only viable) way to provide these supplies on Martian bases is via bio-regenerative systems, by using local resources to drive oxygenic photosynthesis. Selected cyanobacteria, grown in adequately protective containment could serve as pioneer species to produce life sustaining substrates for higher organisms. The very high (95.3 %) CO2 content in Martian atmosphere would provide an abundant carbon source for photo-assimilation, but nitrogen would be a strongly limiting substrate for bio-assimilation in this environment, and would need to be supplemented by nitrogen fertilizing. The very high supply of carbon, with rate-limiting supply of nitrogen strongly affects the growth and the metabolic pathways of the photosynthetic organisms. Here we show that modified, Martian-like atmospheric composition (nearly 100 % CO2) under various low pressure conditions (starting from 50 mbar to maintain liquid water, up to 200 mbars) supports strong cellular growth. Under high CO2 / low N2 ratio the filamentous cyanobacteria produce significant amount of H2 during light due to differentiation of high amount of heterocysts.
Full Text Available The article presents social and educational aspects of early (teenage pregnancy, young motherhood. The authors grounded negative consequences of early pregnancy and the peculiarities of social and educational support for young parents and their children. The authors described experience Centre for Teen Parents: moral and psychological preparation of pregnant teenagers to deliver the baby, directions and methods of working with young families, especially setting up comfortable psychological interaction using innovative methods of working with preschool children, providing conditions for young mothers to continue education in schools, counseling young families on resolving housing issues, financial support and others. The paper emphasizes the need for preventive work to keep teenagers from pregnancy, carrying out social and educational events in terms of promoting healthy and responsible parenthood and others.
Full Text Available This study examined the relationship between home Internet access/parental support and student outcomes. Survey data were collected from 1,576 middle school students in China. Data were analyzed using descriptive analysis, independent-samples T-test, and regression analysis. Results indicate that students who had home Internet access reported higher scores than those without home Internet on all three dimensions: Computer and Internet self-efficacy, Attitudes towards technology and Developmental outcomes. Home Internet access and parental support were significantly positively associated with technology self-efficacy, interest in technology, perceived importance of the Internet, and perceived impact of the Internet on learning. Findings from this study have significant implications for research and practice on how to narrow down the digital divide.
Hurst, Hunter, Ed.; And Others
This document contains the fifth volume of "Today's Delinquent," an annual publication of the National Center for Juvenile Justice. This volume deals with the issue of the family and delinquency, examining the impact of parental behavior on the production of delinquent behavior. "Parents: Neglectful and Neglected" (Laurence D. Steinberg) posits…
The main aim of this thesis was to longitudinally investigate the potential occurrence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among parents of children on cancer treatment (Study I). Additional aims were to describe parents’ perceptions of emotional support and satisfaction with the child’s care (II), perceptions of the child’s symptom burden (III), and parents’ stories about having a child on cancer treatment (IV). The design was prospective, longitudinal, and data was collected at: one wee...
Bruland, D.; Pinheiro, P.; Bröder, J.; Okan, O.; Carvalho, Graça Simões de; Saboga-Nunes, L.; Bond, E.; Wahl, P.; Fretian, A.; Bauer, U.
Children whose parents have mental health issues respond to associated familial stressors with symptomatic behaviors and are, themselves, at considerably higher risk of developing serious mental health problems. Teachers are the most likely professionals who are able to recognize behavior changes and mental health needs of children. This article aims to provide an overview of the current state-of-the-art research on teachers’ mental health literacy including how teachers identify and support ...
Cox, Joanne E; Buman, Matthew; Valenzuela, Jennifer; Joseph, Natalie Pierre; Mitchell, Anna; Woods, Elizabeth R
To investigate the associations between depressive symptoms in adolescent mothers and their perceived maternal caretaking ability and social support. Subjects were participants enrolled in a parenting program that provided comprehensive multidisciplinary medical care to teen mothers and their children. Baseline data of a prospective cohort study were collected by interview at 2 weeks postpartum and follow-up, and standardized measures on entry into postnatal parenting groups. Demographic data included education, social supports, psychological history, family history and adverse life events. Depressive symptoms were measured with the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale for Children short version (CES-DC). The Maternal Self-report Inventory (MSRI) measured perceived maternal self-esteem, and Duke-UNC Functional Social Support Questionnaire measured social support. Data were analyzed with bivariate analyses and linear regression modeling focusing on depressive symptoms as the outcome variable. In the 168 teen mothers, mean age 17.6 +/- 1.2 years, African American (50%), Latina (31%) or Biracial (13%), the prevalence of depressive symptoms was 53.6%. In the linear model, controlling for baby's age, teen's age, ethnicity, Temporary Aid for Families with Dependent Children (TAFDC), and previous suicidal gesture, increased depressive symptoms were associated with decreased perceived maternal caretaking ability (P = 0.003) and lower social support (P moderating effect of social support on the relationship of maternal self-esteem and depression.
Seeds, Pamela M; Harkness, Kate L; Quilty, Lena C
The support deterioration model of depression states that stress deteriorates the perceived availability and/or effectiveness of social support, which then leads to depression. The present study examined this model in adolescent depression following parent-perpetrated maltreatment and peer-perpetrated bullying, as assessed by a rigorous contextual interview and rating system. In 101 depressed and nondepressed community adolescents between the ages of 13 and 18 (M = 15.51, SD = 1.27), peer bullying and father-perpetrated maltreatment were associated with lower perceptions of tangible support and of belonging in a social network. These forms of support mediated the association of bullying and father-perpetrated maltreatment with greater depression severity. In contrast, mother-perpetrated maltreatment was associated with higher perceptions of tangible support.
Sanders, Matthew R; Kirby, James N; Tellegen, Cassandra L; Day, Jamin J
This systematic review and meta-analysis examined the effects of the multilevel Triple P-Positive Parenting Program system on a broad range of child, parent and family outcomes. Multiple search strategies identified 116 eligible studies conducted over a 33-year period, with 101 studies comprising 16,099 families analyzed quantitatively. Moderator analyses were conducted using structural equation modeling. Risk of bias within and across studies was assessed. Significant short-term effects were found for: children's social, emotional and behavioral outcomes (d=0.473); parenting practices (d=0.578); parenting satisfaction and efficacy (d=0.519); parental adjustment (d=0.340); parental relationship (d=0.225) and child observational data (d=0.501). Significant effects were found for all outcomes at long-term including parent observational data (d=0.249). Moderator analyses found that study approach, study power, Triple P level, and severity of initial child problems produced significant effects in multiple moderator models when controlling for other significant moderators. Several putative moderators did not have significant effects after controlling for other significant moderators. The positive results for each level of the Triple P system provide empirical support for a blending of universal and targeted parenting interventions to promote child, parent and family wellbeing. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Chan, Y C
Thirty-seven identified abusive mothers were matched on demographic and socioeconomic parameters with a known nonabusive comparison sample in order to examine the role of parenting stress and maternal social support. The mothers were assessed using a personal (demographic) questionnaire, the Parenting Stress Index (PSI), and the Maternal Support Index (MSSI). Demographic data showed that the two groups were comparable on all variables except abusive mothers had significantly more children (p = .01). Abusive mothers showed significantly more stress on total PSI scores (p = .005), as well as in all three of the subjects: Child Domain (p = .007) Parent Domain (p = .02), and Life Stress (p = .016). Abusive mothers scored lower in all seven items on the MSSI. The difference was significant on the MSSI as a whole (p = .007) and on four subsets: number of people to count on in time of need (p = .02), perceived neighborhood support (p = .04), satisfaction with spousal relationship (p = .01), and degree of community involvement (p = .03). The greatest percentage (74.32%) of correct predictions of child abuse was achieved by combining the number of children, the Life Stress Scale and the MSSI. Implications for future research are discussed.
Bergström, Helena; Haggård, Ulrika; Norman, Åsa; Sundblom, Elinor; Schäfer Elinder, Liselotte; Nyberg, Gisela
The 'Healthy School Start' programme was developed to promote healthy dietary habits and physical activity, targeting parents of 6-year-old children in pre-school class. Knowledge of barriers and facilitators of implementation is crucial before introducing this kind of programme on a larger scale. The aim of this study was to explore the views of teachers and parents regarding factors influencing the implementation of a school-based parental support programme to promote physical activity and healthy diet. An inductive qualitative method was used to explore the experiences and views of teachers and parents involved in the programme. A group discussion was held with three teachers, and semi-structured interviews were conducted with 14 parents. Data were analysed using qualitative content analysis. Clear communication on roles and responsibilities was identified as an overarching theme, emphasising the importance of clear information and well-functioning cooperation between project management, schools and parents when implementing the programme in a school setting. Five categories at a manifest level described aspects influencing the implementation: 1) 'The programme' underlining the importance of flexibility and feed-back; 2) 'the school' referring to management and work routines; 3) 'family conditions', implying various life situations; 4) 'group dynamics' dealing with attitudes among children and parents; and 5) 'the surrounding community' including accessibility and attitudes within society. When implementing a parental support programme in a school setting it is important to facilitate communication and clearly define the division of responsibilities between project management, schools and parents. This emphasises the need for managerial support, and a professional prevention support system.
Stuttard, Lucy; Beresford, Bryony; Clarke, Susan; Beecham, Jennifer; Todd, Samantha; Bromley, Jo
Evidence on the effectiveness of interventions to support parents of disabled children to manage their child's behaviour problems is limited. The aim of this study was to evaluate a group-delivered intervention (Riding the Rapids) which was specifically developed for parents of a child with a disability or autistic spectrum condition. This programme has been routinely delivered by a community-based mental health team across an urban, multi-ethnic locality for a number of years. A non-randomised controlled study design comprising an intervention group (n=48) and comparator (no intervention) group (n=28) was used to evaluate the effects of the intervention on child behaviour (Eyberg Child Behaviour Inventory; parent-set goals) and parenting efficacy and satisfaction (Parents Sense of Competence Scale) at post-intervention and six-month follow-up. Data on costs to the service provider of delivering the intervention were also collected. Receipt of the intervention was associated with significant reductions in parent-reported behaviour problems and significant improvements in parenting efficacy and satisfaction. At six-month follow-up, progress towards achieving parent-set child behaviour goals and parenting satisfaction had been maintained. Post hoc analysis suggests parents who do not have English as a first language may not benefit as much as other parents from this intervention. Findings suggest this is a promising intervention for parents of a child with a disability that is likely to be less resource intensive to service providers than individually delivered interventions. Limitations and implications for future research are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Wright, Michelle F
Little attention has been given to adolescents' experience of cyberstalking and how such experiences relate to their depression and academic performance. It is less clear how other variables, such as perceived social support, might impact these associations. Addressing these gaps in the literature, this study investigated the potential moderating effect of perceived social support from parents on the association between cyberstalking victimization and depression and academic performance, each assessed 1 year later, from 11th to 12th grade. Participants were 413 adolescents (ages 17-19 years old; 54 percent female; M = 17.39 years, SD = 0.53) in the 12th grade from a Midwestern city in the United States. They completed questionnaires on their self-reported face-to-face and cyberstalking victimization, depression, and perceived social support from parents. Adolescents' academic performance was also assessed using their school records. During the 12th grade, depression and academic performance were examined again. The findings indicated that the association between cyberstalking victimization and Time 2 depression was much more positive at lower levels of perceived social support, while such an association was more negative at higher levels of perceived social support. Opposite patterns were found for Time 2 academic performance. The results indicate the need for additional research focused on cyberstalking about adolescents.
Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J; Guimond, Amy B; Updegraff, Kimberly A; Jahromi, Laudan
Guided by a risk and resilience framework, this study used a prospective longitudinal, multiple-reporter design to examine how social support from a mother figure during pregnancy interacted with Mexican-origin adolescent mothers' self-esteem to inform their parenting efficacy when their children were 10 months old. Using reports of perceived social support by adolescent mothers ( M age = 16.24, SD =099) and their mother figures ( M age = 40.84, SD = 7.04) in 205 dyads, and controlling for demographic factors (i.e., adolescent age, adolescent nativity, family income, mothers' educational attainment, adolescent-mother coresidence) and adolescents' social support from a significant other, findings indicated that social support during pregnancy was positively associated with adolescent mothers' future parenting efficacy when adolescent mothers had relatively lower self-esteem. Findings were consistent for adolescents' and mothers' reports, and emphasize the value of social support from a mother figure among adolescent mothers with lower self-esteem. Implications for interventions are presented.
Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J.; Guimond, Amy B.; Updegraff, Kimberly A.; Jahromi, Laudan
Guided by a risk and resilience framework, this study used a prospective longitudinal, multiple-reporter design to examine how social support from a mother figure during pregnancy interacted with Mexican-origin adolescent mothers’ self-esteem to inform their parenting efficacy when their children were 10 months old. Using reports of perceived social support by adolescent mothers (Mage = 16.24, SD =099) and their mother figures (Mage = 40.84, SD = 7.04) in 205 dyads, and controlling for demographic factors (i.e., adolescent age, adolescent nativity, family income, mothers’ educational attainment, adolescent-mother coresidence) and adolescents’ social support from a significant other, findings indicated that social support during pregnancy was positively associated with adolescent mothers’ future parenting efficacy when adolescent mothers had relatively lower self-esteem. Findings were consistent for adolescents’ and mothers’ reports, and emphasize the value of social support from a mother figure among adolescent mothers with lower self-esteem. Implications for interventions are presented. PMID:24244049
Willemen, Agnes M; Goossens, Frits A; Koot, Hans M; Schuengel, Carlo
An Alarm Stress Task was developed to study affect regulation in the context of parent-child interactions in adolescents (mean age = 12.72, standard deviation = 2.06) with (n = 20) and without (n = 20) mental health problems. Changes in heart rate (HR), preejection period (PEP) and respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) were used as indicators of affect regulation. HR increased, and PEP and RSA decreased significantly in reaction to a suggested failure on a simple task, indicating that this procedure induced affective arousal in adolescents. During reunion with the parent, RSA increased significantly. Support seeking on reunion was associated with stronger parasympathetic reactivity during stress and reunion, consistent with the model that the parasympathetic system is involved when affect is regulated by social engagement. Quality of parent-adolescent interactive behaviour was overall lower in the clinical sample. Individual and relationship-based processes of affect regulation may be simultaneously assessed, highlighting the continuing importance of the parent-child relationship in adolescence for affect regulation and mental health. Copyright (c) 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Bywater, T; Hutchings, J; Linck, P; Whitaker, C; Daley, D; Yeo, S T; Edwards, R T
the incidence of conduct disorder in young children is 10% in the general population and 37% among fostered children. Up to 40% of untreated children diagnosed with conduct disorder develop problems later in life including drug misuse, criminal and violent behaviour. There are more than 80,000 looked after children in the UK, with 5000 in Wales. Challenging child behaviour is the main reason for placement breakdown and has huge cost implications as challenging children cost up to 10 times more in service use than children without conduct disorder. The Incredible Years (IY) evidence-based parenting programme is an effective, low cost solution in improving child behaviour and social competence in 'conventional' families and thus has the potential to support foster carers in managing difficult behaviours. Our main aims were to establish: • The feasibility of delivery and the effectiveness of the IY parenting programme in supporting carers in managing difficult behaviour in looked after children. • Service use costs for foster carers and looked after child. This was a 12-month trial platform study with 46 foster carers in three authorities in Wales. Carers were allocated 2:1 intervention to waiting-list control. Validated measures were used to assess 'parenting' competency, carers' depression levels, child behaviour and service use. Measures were administered at baseline and 6-month follow-up. Intervention carers received the programme between baseline and follow-up. Analyses showed a significant reduction in child problem behaviour and improvement in carers' depression levels for intervention families at follow-up, compared with control. Unexpectedly, there was a significant improvement in control carers' self-reported 'parenting' strategies. Special education was the greatest service cost for looked after children. Initial foster carer training could incorporate the IY programme to support carers in establishing positive relationships and managing difficult child
Greguol, Márcia; Gobbi, Erica; Carraro, Attilio
To analyze the practice of physical activity among children and adolescents with visual impairments (VI), regarding the possible influence of parental support and perceived barriers. Twenty-two young people with VIs (10 + 2.74 years old) and one of each of their parents were evaluated. They responded to the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children (PAQ-C), Baecke Questionnaire, the Parental Support Scale and a questionnaire about perceived barriers to physical activity. The independent samples t-test, pearson correlation test and chi-square test were performed. Blind young people showed lower physical activity levels. There were significant correlations both between parents' physical activity and the support offered to children and between the PAQ-C results and the importance given by young people to physical activity, but only for those aged between 8 and 10 years old. The main perceived barriers were lack of security, motivation, professional training and information about available physical activity programs. The influence of parental support seems to be an important factor in the adoption of a physically active lifestyle for young people with VI. Parents and children should have more information about the benefits and opportunities of physical activity. Implications for Rehabilitation Young people with visual impairment should be encouraged by parents to practice physical activity. More information should be provided on the benefits of physical activity to both parents and children. Professional training should be available to help support this group become more active.
Rueger, Sandra Yu; Malecki, Christine Kerres
This study prospectively examined the role of attributional style and perceived parental support as intrapersonal and interpersonal risk and resilience factors to increases in depressive symptoms in the face of stress with a sample of 497 middle school students. Results demonstrated that boys with a pessimistic attributional style and low or moderate levels of parental support had higher levels of depressive symptoms than boys with high levels of support under high levels of stress but not under low levels of stress. Girls with a pessimistic attributional style and low or moderate levels of perceived parental support had higher levels of depressive symptoms than those with an optimistic attributional style, regardless of the level of stress. These results highlight the need to consider more complex models with multiple moderators, such as cognitive styles and parental support, as well as gender differences, in understanding the development of depressive symptoms in early adolescence.
Rimmerman, Arie; Chen, Ariel
This feasibility study examines whether the theory of planned behavior can predict supportive behavior provided by either parents to their offspring--or adult siblings to their brothers and sisters--with an intellectual disability living in 2 Israeli institutional care facilities. Participants were 67 parents and 63 siblings who were interviewed at baseline regarding their intentions to visit their offspring or sibling in the institutional care facility, to contact the caregiving staff, and to accept visits at home. Parents' and siblings' behavior regarding visitation and supportive behavior was examined after 6 months by caregiving staff. Core findings indicated that subjective norms in siblings and parents predicted frequency of home visits. Perceived behavioral control predicted frequency of contact between siblings and staff. Differences between parents and siblings regarding their supportive behaviors are discussed with respect to social work practice.
Schuck, Kathrin; Otten, Roy; Kleinjan, Marloes; Bricker, Jonathan B; Engels, Rutger C M E
Several forms of cessation support have been shown effective in increasing the chance of successful smoking cessation, but cessation support is still underutilized among smokers. Proactive outreach to target audiences may increase use of cessation support. The present study evaluated the efficiency of using study invitation letters distributed through primary schools in recruiting smoking parents into cessation support (quitline support or a self-help brochure). Use and evaluation of cessation support among smoking parents were examined. Findings indicate that recruitment of smokers into cessation support remains challenging. Once recruited, cessation support was well received by smoking parents. Of smokers allocated to quitline support, 88% accepted at least one counselling call. The average number of calls taken was high (5.7 out of 7 calls). Of smokers allocated to receive self-help material, 84% read at least some parts of the brochure. Of the intention-to-treat population, 81% and 69% were satisfied with quitline support or self-help material, respectively. Smoking parents were significantly more positive about quitline support compared to self-help material (pparents recruited through primary schools. Future studies need to examine factors that influence the response to offers of cessation support in samples of nonvolunteer smokers. The protocol for this study is registered with the Netherlands Trial Register NTR2707.
Mbekenga Columba K
Full Text Available Abstract Background In Tanzania, and many sub-Saharan African countries, postpartum health programs have received less attention compared to other maternity care programs and therefore new parents rely on informal support. Knowledge on how informal support is understood by its stakeholders to be able to improve the health in families after childbirth is required. This study aimed to explore discourses on health related informal support to first-time parents after childbirth in low-income suburbs of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Methods Thirteen focus group discussions with first-time parents and female and male informal supporters were analysed by discourse analysis. Results The dominant discourse was that after childbirth a first time mother needed and should be provided with support for care of the infant, herself and the household work by the maternal or paternal mother or other close and extended family members. In their absence, neighbours and friends were described as reconstructing informal support. Informal support was provided conditionally, where poor socio-economic status and non-adherence to social norms risked poor support. Support to new fathers was constructed as less prominent, provided mainly by older men and focused on economy and sexual matters. The discourse conveyed stereotypic gender roles with women described as family caretakers and men as final decision-makers and financial providers. The informal supporters regulated the first-time parents' contacts with other sources of support. Conclusions Strong and authoritative informal support networks appear to persist. However, poverty and non-adherence to social norms was understood as resulting in less support. Family health in this context would be improved by capitalising on existing informal support networks while discouraging norms promoting harmful practices and attending to the poorest. Upholding stereotypic notions of femininity and masculinity implies great burden of care
Hawkins, Jennifer S; Ramachandran, Dhanushya; Henderson, Ashley; Freeman, Jasmine; Carlise, Michael; Harris, Alex; Willison-Headley, Zachary
Sorghum is an essential grain crop whose evolutionary placement within the Andropogoneae has been the subject of scrutiny for decades. Early studies using cytogenetic and morphological data point to a poly- or paraphyletic origin of the genus; however, acceptance of poly- or paraphyly has been met with resistance. This study aimed to address the species relationships within Sorghum, in addition to the placement of Sorghum within the tribe, using a phylogenetic approach and employing broad taxon sampling. From 16 diverse Sorghum species, eight low-copy nuclear loci were sequenced that are known to play a role in morphological diversity and have been previously used to study evolutionary relationships in grasses. Further, the data for four of these loci were combined with those from 57 members of the Andropogoneae in order to determine the placement of Sorghum within the tribe. Both maximum likelihood and Bayesian analyses were performed on multilocus concatenated data matrices. The Sorghum-specific topology provides strong support for two major lineages, in alignment with earlier studies employing chloroplast and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) markers. Clade I is composed of the Eu-, Chaeto- and Heterosorghum, while clade II contains the Stipo- and Parasorghum. When combined with data from the Andropogoneae, Clade II resolves as sister to a clade containing Miscanthus and Saccharum with high posterior probability and bootstrap support, and to the exclusion of Clade I. The results provide compelling evidence for a two-lineage polyphyletic ancestry of Sorghum within the larger Andropogoneae, i.e. the derivation of the two major Sorghum clades from a unique common ancestor. Rejection of monophyly in previous molecular studies is probably due to limited taxon sampling outside of the genus. The clade consisting of Para- and Stiposorghum resolves as sister to Miscanthus and Saccharum with strong node support. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on
Full Text Available Home care, continuous follow-up, and endless post discharge support play vital role in preventing the emergence of mental and physical disabilities and death among preterm infants. Providing necessary care and support for such infants requires huge financial and human resources and exposes heavy costs on hygiene and health system. Internet and information sharing applications, particularly Web 2.0, and social media present innovative techniques to provide a convenient channel to exchange necessary information between infants, parents, and caregivers. Despite the increasingly expanding use of social media in health and medicine, such devices have rarely been applied in more specialized fields, such as the hygiene and health of preterm infants. Thus, the present study aims at investigating studies published on the experiences of parent in regard with the integration of social media in the improvement of preterm infant treatment, determining the function of social media in taking better care of preterm infants, and presenting suggestions for further practical researches in this area of knowledge. This review study was conducted in 2016. To conduct the study, published articles in the years 2005 to 2016, in English with an emphasis on Social media and Preterm infants were studied. Search was done in databases including Pubmed, Science Direct, Google Scholar, Proquest. The collected data were analyzed. The role of social media in three areas of preterm infants care, sharing the knowledge of clinical professionals, and sharing parenting experiences was clarified. Social media provide the necessary background for the distribution of the knowledge of medical experts; it also creates the opportunities of exchanging ideas, sharing parenting experiences, and expanding the knowledge of experts and educated individuals in addition to providing a stress free environment. The potential of social media in facilitating medical interventions for preterm infants
Jamieson, Janet R.; Zaidman-Zait, Anat; Poon, Brenda
Little has been documented about the needs for information, guidance, and support of parents of school-age children with hearing loss, particularly those whose children are about to enter or are in the often turbulent stage of adolescence. The purpose of this study was to provide new knowledge about the specific needs of parents of adolescents and…
Pallock, Linda L.; Lamborn, Susie D.
This study examined adolescents' perceptions of parenting practices and extended kinship support in relation to academic adjustment for 104 African American and 60 European American 9th and 10th graders (14 and 15 year olds). For African-American teens, parental acceptance was associated with school values, teacher bonding, and work orientation.…
Kalmijn, M.; Dronkers, J.
Using data on 14-year old children in four European countries, this study compares the support networks of children in intact and separated families. It is found that a parental separation has significant effects on the nature of these networks. Children of separated parents are less likely to
Bindman, Samantha W.; Pomerantz, Eva M.; Roisman, Glenn I.
This study evaluated whether the positive association between early autonomy-supportive parenting and children's subsequent achievement is mediated by children's executive functions. Using observations of mothers' parenting from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (N…
Sieger, Karin; Renk, Kimberly
This study examined relationships among the ethnic identity, behavior problems, self-esteem, and social support of 166 ethnically diverse pregnant and parenting adolescents, the majority of whom were African American and Hispanic American, and their infants. Results indicated that pregnant and parenting adolescent females were experiencing…
Tracey, Danielle; Johnston, Christine; Papps, Fiona Ann; Mahmic, Sylvana
With the international trend towards individualised funding packages that allocate funds to individuals to spend on disability support needs, the challenge of ensuring parents can readily access useful information to make decisions becomes paramount. The present research used a two stage, mixed method sequential approach (with 291 parents surveyed…
Aquilino, William S.
This research explored the influence of family structure on midlife parents' attitudes toward the economic support of adult children and measured change in those attitudes as their oldest child moved from adolescence to young adulthood. Results suggest that family structure has long-term effects on parents' attitudes toward financial obligations…
Seiffge-Krenke, Inge; Pakalniskiene, Vilmante
Coping research has neglected the study of the reciprocal links between parents' and adolescents' coping behaviors and the potential influence of parental support for the development of adolescent autonomy. This study, therefore, analyzed the coping behaviors of fathers, mothers, and children (53% females) in 196 families who participated in a…
Tajima, Emiko A.; Herrenkohl, Todd I.; Moylan, Carrie A.; Derr, Amelia S.
We investigate parenting characteristics and adolescent peer support as potential moderators of the effects of childhood exposure to intimate partner violence (IPV) on adolescent outcomes. Lehigh Longitudinal Study (N = 416) data include parent and adolescent reports of childhood IPV exposure. Exposure to IPV predicted nearly all adverse outcomes…
Li, Chieh; Li, Huijun
This study investigated Chinese immigrant parents' perspectives on Chinese immigrant children's psychological well-being, acculturative stress, and sources of support. We conducted focus groups with 22 Chinese immigrant parents of school-aged children (16 mothers and 6 fathers); obtained participants' sociocultural and linguistic backgrounds and…
de Graaf, Hanneke; Vanwesenbeeck, Ine; Woertman, Liesbeth; Keijsers, Loes; Meijer, Suzanne; Meeus, Wim
This study investigated age- and gender-specific associations between parental support and parental knowledge of the child's whereabouts, on the one hand, and sexual experience and sexual health (the ability to have safe and pleasurable sexual experiences) on the other hand. A representative Dutch sample of 1,263 males and 1,353 females (aged…
Pan William KY
Full Text Available Abstract Background Immunizations have reduced childhood vaccine preventable disease incidence by 98–100%. Continued vaccine preventable disease control depends on high immunization coverage. Immunization registries help ensure high coverage by recording childhood immunizations administered, generating reminders when immunizations are due, calculating immunization coverage and identifying pockets needing immunization services, and improving vaccine safety by reducing over-immunization and providing data for post-licensure vaccine safety studies. Despite substantial resources directed towards registry development in the U.S., only 48% of children were enrolled in a registry in 2004. Parental attitudes likely impact child participation. Consequently, the purpose of this study was to assess the attitudes of parents of vaccinated and unvaccinated school-aged children regarding: support for immunization registries; laws authorizing registries and mandating provider reporting; opt-in versus opt-out registry participation; and financial worth and responsibility of registry development and implementation. Methods A case control study of parents of 815 children exempt from school vaccination requirements and 1630 fully vaccinated children was conducted. Children were recruited from 112 elementary schools in Colorado, Massachusetts, Missouri, and Washington. Surveys administered to the parents, asked about views on registries and perceived utility and safety of vaccines. Parental views were summarized and logistic regression models compared differences between parents of exempt and vaccinated children. Results Surveys were completed by 56.1% of respondents. Fewer than 10% of parents were aware of immunization registries in their communities. Among parents aware of registries, exempt children were more likely to be enrolled (65.0% than vaccinated children (26.5% (p value = 0.01. A substantial proportion of parents of exempt children support immunization
Stafford, Lesley; Sinclair, Michelle; Turner, Jane; Newman, Louise; Wakefield, Claire; Krishnasamy, Mei; Mann, G Bruce; Gilham, Leslie; Mason, Kylie; Rauch, Paula; Cannell, Julia; Schofield, Penelope
Parents with cancer have high rates of psychological morbidity, and their children are at risk of poor psychosocial outcomes, particularly in the context of parental distress and poor family communication. Parents express concerns about the impact of cancer on their children and report a lack of professional guidance in meeting their children's needs. Few parenting interventions exist and current interventions have extensive infrastructure demands making them unsuitable for routine use in most health settings. The aims of this study are to develop and establish the feasibility and acceptability of a novel and accessible psycho-educational intervention to improve parenting efficacy and decrease parental stress among adults with cancer who have children aged 3-12 years. The intervention will be suitable for parents with cancer who are receiving treatment with a view to longer term survival, irrespective of cancer diagnosis, and their respective co-parents. This study comprises two phases using the UK Medical Research Council framework for developing complex interventions. In the development phase, intervention content will be iteratively developed and evaluated in consultation with consumers, and in the piloting phase, feasibility will be tested in a clinical sample of 20 parents with cancer and their co-parents using a single arm, pre-test post-test design. The intervention will comprise an audiovisual resource (DVD), a question prompt list, and a telephone call with a clinical psychologist. Questionnaires administered pre- and 1 month post-intervention will assess parental stress, psychological morbidity, quality of life, self-efficacy and perceptions of child adjustment, and family functioning. Intervention feasibility will be determined by mixed-method participant evaluation of perceived usefulness, benefits, and acceptability. This new initiative will translate existing descriptive evidence into an accessible intervention that supports parenting during cancer
Grell; Røkholt E; Schultz JH; Langballe Å
Eline Grelland Røkholt,1 Jon-Håkon Schultz,2,3 Åse Langballe2 1Department of Allied Health, Bereavement Support Center, Akershus University Hospital, Lørenskog, 2Norwegian Center for Violence and Traumatic Stress Studies, Oslo, 3Department of Education, University of Tromsø, the Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway Abstract: Parents are advised to get their children back to school soon after exposure to trauma, so that they may receive social su...
de la Iglesia, Guadalupe; Freiberg Hoffmann, Agustin; Fernández Liporace, Mercedes
Guadalupe de la Iglesia,1,2 Agustin Freiberg Hoffmann,2 Mercedes Fernández Liporace1,2 1National Council of Scientific and Technical Research (CONICET), 2University of Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, Argentina Abstract: The aim of this study was to test the ability to predict academic achievement through the perception of parenting and social support in a sample of 354 Argentinean college students. Their mean age was 23.50 years (standard deviation =2.62 years) and most of them (83.3%...
Freisthler, Bridget; Johnson-Motoyama, Michelle; Kepple, Nancy J
Supervisory neglect, or the failure of a caregiver to appropriately supervise a child, is one of the predominant types of neglectful behaviors, with alcohol use being considered a key antecedent to inadequate supervision of children. The current study builds on previous work by examining the role of parental drinking and alcohol outlet densities while controlling for caregiver and child characteristics. Data were obtained from 3,023 participants via a telephone survey from 50 cities throughout California. The telephone survey included items on neglectful parenting practices, drinking behaviors, and socio-demographic characteristics. Densities of alcohol outlets were measured for each of the 202 zip codes in the study. Multilevel Bernoulli models were used to analyze the relationship between four supervisory neglect parenting practices and individual-level and zip code-level variables. In our study, heavy drinking was only significantly related to one of our four outcome variables (leaving a child where he or she may not be safe). The density of on premise alcohol outlets was positively related to leaving a child home alone when an adult should be present. This study demonstrates that discrete relationships exist between alcohol related variables, social support, and specific supervisory neglect subtypes at the ecological and individual levels.
Children born preterm or with low birth weight (LBW) grow up with an increased risk for a range of neurodevelopmental, cognitive, socioemotional, and academic problems. While long-term effects of preterm and LBW birth have traditionally been studied from a deficit perspective, Treyvaud et al. correctly state that the increased risk for impairments in this population urgently requires identification of protective factors. Their new findings add to empirical evidence from observational studies showing that sensitive parenting can protect preterm children from negative developmental outcomes. In order to identify strategies that support preterm children's life chances, well-designed longitudinal studies, such as the one by Treyvaud et al., are indispensable. Next, we will need large randomized trials to test the causality between intervention-induced parenting changes and preterm children's long-term outcomes. We need interdisciplinary and international collaboration to study preterm parent-child dyads within multimethod frameworks and uncover the highly complex mechanisms that shape individual developmental trajectories. © 2016 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.
Kleefman, Marijke; Jansen, Daniëlle E M C; Stewart, Roy E; Reijneveld, Sijmen A
Children with borderline to mild intellectual disability (BMID) have been shown to be at increased risk for psychosocial problems. The presence of these psychosocial problems leads to parenting stress. Stepping Stones Triple P (SSTP) is a parenting support program to support parents with children with BMID and psychosocial problems. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of SSTP compared to Care as Usual (CAU) in reducing psychosocial problems in children with BMID. We conducted a randomized controlled trial in the Northern provinces of the Netherlands. Parents of children aged 5 to 12 with borderline (IQ 70 to 85) or mild (IQ 70 to 50) ID and psychosocial problems were invited. Psychosocial problems were identified using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) parent report (≥14). Measurements were assessed before the intervention (T0), immediately after the intervention (T1) and after a follow-up of six months (T2). SSTP takes 8 to 10 individual sessions of 40-90 minutes, provided over 10 to 12 weeks. CAU concerned any service, except SSTP. Primary outcomes were the child's psychosocial problems (SDQ parent and teacher forms and the Eyberg Child Behavior Inventory, ECBI). Secondary outcomes were parenting stress (Parenting Stress Index, PSI) and parenting skills (Alabama Parenting Questionnaire, APQ). In total 209 parents of children aged 5 to 12 with BMID were allocated blindly to either SSTP (n =111) or CAU (n =98). In the intention to treat analyses, SSTP achieved no significantly better effect than CAU for the SDQ parent report, the ECBI and the APQ on the short- and long- term. In the short term, SSTP was significantly more effective than CAU for the SDQ teacher report (B = -2.25, 95% CI -3.79 to -0.71) and the PSI (B = -7.06, 95% CI -12.11 to -2.01). For both SDQ teacher report and PSI, there was no statistically significant effect in the long term. Dropout from SSTP was considerable (49%), with the effects being
This article deals with the issue of perceived social support among 40 bereaved parents who have lost a child in a terrorist attack in Israel. The aim is to gain a better understanding of the nature and quality of the formal and informal support that the parents received. The parents were interviewed using semistructured in-depth interviews. The content analysis revealed that alongside the positive aspects, the parents also emphasized the negative side of the encounter with the social environment. The positive aspects included feeling of appreciation for the assistance in the coping process. The negative aspects included a sense of abandonment and distress. The dialectic nature of the domain, together with a recognition of its importance, points to the need to reconcile between the desire on the part of the social environment to assist the bereaved parent on one hand and ways to implement it on the other hand.
Barkmann, Claus; Siem, Anna-Katharina; Wessolowski, Nino; Schulte-Markwort, Michael
Hospital clowns, also known as clown doctors, can help paediatric patients with the stress of a hospitalization and to circumvent the accompanying feelings of fear, helplessness and sadness, thus supporting the healing process. The objectives of the present study were to clarify the structural and procedural conditions of paediatric clowning in Germany and to document the evaluations of hospital clowns, parents and hospital staff. A nationwide online survey of hospital clowns currently active in paediatric departments and an accompanying field evaluation in Hamburg hospitals with surveys of parents and hospital staff were conducted. In addition to items developed specifically for the study regarding general conditions, procedures, assessments of effects and attitudes, the Work Satisfaction Scale was used. The sample included n = 87 hospital clowns, 37 parents and 43 hospital staff members. The online survey showed that the hospital clowns are well-trained, motivated and generally satisfied with their work. By their own estimate, they primarily boost morale and promote imagination in the patients. However, hospital clowns also desire better interdisciplinary collaboration and financial security as well as more recognition of their work. The Hamburg field study confirmed the positive results of the clown survey. According to the data, a clown intervention boosts morale and reduces stress in the patients. Moreover, there are practically no side effects. Both parents and hospital staff stated that the patients as well as they themselves benefited from the intervention. The results match those of previous studies and give a very positive picture of hospital clowning, so that its routine use and expansion thereof can be recommended. Furthermore, the intervention should be subject to the rules of evidence-based medicine like other medical treatments.
Jansen, Suzanne Lg; van der Putten, Annette Aj; Vlaskamp, Carla
There is little data on the collaboration between parents and professionals in the support of persons with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities. Since communication is essential to collaboration, this study analysed the frequency, means, and personal experiences of communication between parents and professionals. A multiple case study ( n = 4) was conducted. Observations were logged for every contact between professionals and parents during 12 months. The mean number of contacts a month ranged from 1.9 to 16.7 across the cases. Most of the contacts were with the child's direct support persons (85.2%) and exchanging information (35.5%) was the most common function. Issues concerning health (28.4%) were the most common subjects discussed. The majority of the mothers' experiences were positive. Direct support persons play a crucial role; they need to be aware of this role and to be trained to fulfill their role to acknowledge parents as partners.
Al Aloola, Noha Abdullah; Nissen, Lisa; Alewairdhi, Huda Abdullaziz; Al Faryan, Nawaf; Saini, Bandana
This study sought to investigate parents' needs and preferences for school-based asthma support in Saudi Arabian primary schools. Semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted in the period between November 2015 and February 2016, with a convenience sample that comprised Saudi parents and carers of children with asthma. Recruitment of participants was primarily driven through Saudi primary schools; passive snowballing and social networks were used to boost participation rates further. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim, translated and data were thematically organised using a latent content analysis approach. Twenty interviews were conducted. Six themes emerged from the interviews and were grouped into three major categories: (1) general asthma management issues; (2) school-based asthma management issues; and (3) communication dissatisfaction. Participants expressed concern at schools' social and physical environments and a lack of confidence in the ability of schools to manage their child's asthma, especially when their child was ill. Most of the participants advocated for staff training and school community engagement to improve the management of asthma in Saudi primary schools. This research clearly describes a need for school-based asthma support, including asthma-related policies, procedures and education on asthma and first aid in Saudi primary schools.
Segerstad, Ylva Hård Af; Kasperowski, Dick
The purpose of this paper was to study bereaved parents' use of a closed peer grief support community on Facebook and the features of the community that are important to them. The death of a child is an uncomfortable subject in most contemporary societies. This limits the exploration of experiences and possibilities for coping with grief. However, with the introduction of social media, this has changed. Theoretical perspectives on parental grief recognizing the importance of continued relational bonds with the lost child are used, together with the ontological assumption that social media enhance the dissolving of private/public and time/space. This study is based on questionnaire, interviews, and content from the closed peer grief support community, to which the research team has insider access. The community encompasses a diverse range of experiences and stages of grief, independent of the time elapsed since the loss of a child. Bereavement of children of all ages and from all conceivable causes of death is distributed among the members. The results show how the affordances of social media become vital resources for coping with grief in ways not available previously, comprising aspects of the closed nature of the group, shared experiences, time, and accessibility.
Roth, Guy; Assor, Avi; Niemiec, Christopher P.; Deci, Edward L.; Ryan, Richard M.
The authors conducted 2 studies of 9th-grade Israeli adolescents (169 in Study 1, 156 in Study 2) to compare the parenting practices of conditional positive regard, conditional negative regard, and autonomy support using data from multiple reporters. Two socialization domains were studied: emotion control and academics. Results were consistent…
Muhammad Tariq Bhatti
Full Text Available This study examined the relationship among academic competence, Grade Point Averages (GPAs and factors responsible for students’ academic competence. A four factored questionnaire administered to a nationally representative sample of 100 graduate and post-graduate students to find out the factors responsible for academic competence. In addition, The Academic Competence Evaluation Scale (ACES-College applied for calculating the academic competence. Significant and positive correlations are found between factors affecting academic competence, GPAs and academic competence. Students’ scores on the ACES and their GPAs provided significant evidence to support the idea that the factors such as parental support, clearer self-concept, positive teacher-student relationship and strong motivational orientations are correlated with their GPAs at low magnitude and; academic competence with high ratings. It is concluded that students with stronger presence of these factors have better academic competence than their peers at graduate and post-graduate level. An integrated framework that is related to students’ academic competence and that promotes other related factors is suggested.
Heiney, S P; Ruffin, J; Goon-Johnson, K
Group support for bereaved parents whose child died from cancer has been suggested as a means of helping parents express emotions about their loss and improve their coping. Using a quasi-experimental design, we sought to determine the selected psychosocial effects of participation in a support group for bereaved parents whose child died from cancer. Five bereaved parents completed the Emotions Profile Index, the Family Adaptability and Cohesion Evaluation Scales, and the Social Adjustment Scale Self-Report before and after the seven group sessions. No statistically significant differences were found. Descriptive data were analyzed from the co-therapists' process log and the participants' evaluation forms. The group process log revealed intense pain and grief over the loss of the child and the parents' conscious struggle to adapt to the present and prepare for the future. The discussions poignantly indicated the great extent to which the child's death had changed their lives. Using the group evaluation form parents reported high satisfaction with the group sessions. Tentative conclusions support the value of such a group in providing a forum for some bereaved parents to ventilate feelings and thoughts and validate the normalcy of their reactions.
Arsenault, Lisa N; Xu, Kathleen; Taveras, Elsie M; Hacker, Karen A
Successful childhood obesity interventions frequently focus on behavioral modification and involve parents or family members. Parental confidence in supporting behavior change may be an element of successful family-based prevention efforts. We aimed to determine whether parents' own obesity-related behaviors were related to their confidence in supporting their child's achievement of obesity-related behavioral goals. Cross-sectional analyses of data collected at baseline of a randomized control trial testing a treatment intervention for obese children (n = 787) in primary care settings (n = 14). Five obesity-related behaviors (physical activity, screen time, sugar-sweetened beverage, sleep duration, fast food) were self-reported by parents for themselves and their child. Behaviors were dichotomized on the basis of achievement of behavioral goals. Five confidence questions asked how confident the parent was in helping their child achieve each goal. Logistic regression modeling high confidence was conducted with goal achievement and demographics as independent variables. Parents achieving physical activity or sleep duration goals were significantly more likely to be highly confident in supporting their child's achievement of those goals (physical activity, odds ratio 1.76; 95% confidence interval 1.19-2.60; sleep, odds ratio 1.74; 95% confidence interval 1.09-2.79) independent of sociodemographic variables and child's current behavior. Parental achievements of TV watching and fast food goals were also associated with confidence, but significance was attenuated after child's behavior was included in models. Parents' own obesity-related behaviors are factors that may affect their confidence to support their child's behavior change. Providers seeking to prevent childhood obesity should address parent/family behaviors as part of their obesity prevention strategies. Copyright © 2014 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
DesJardin, Jean L.; Doll, Emily R.; Stika, Carren J.; Eisenberg, Laurie S.; Johnson, Karen J.; Ganguly, Dianne Hammes; Colson, Bethany G.; Henning, Shirley C.
Parent and child joint book reading (JBR) characteristics and parent facilitative language techniques (FLTs) were investigated in two groups of parents and their young children; children with normal hearing (NH; "n" = 60) and children with hearing loss (HL; "n" = 45). Parent-child dyads were videotaped during JBR interactions,…
McKinney, Cliff; Milone, Mary Catherine
Research links negative parenting and parental psychopathology to poorer outcomes among youth. Less research examines these effects simultaneously during late adolescence. The current study examines parenting, parental psychopathology, and late adolescent psychopathology as reported by late adolescents (N = 328) with the use of structural equation…
Berlin, Lisa J; Shanahan, Meghan; Appleyard Carmody, Karen
This pilot randomized trial tested the feasibility and efficacy of supplementing residential substance-abuse treatment for new mothers with a brief, yet rigorous, attachment-based parenting program. Twenty-one predominantly (86%) White mothers and their infants living together in residential substance-abuse treatment were randomly assigned to the program (n = 11) or control (n = 10) group. Program mothers received 10 home-based sessions of Dozier's Attachment and Biobehavioral Catch-up (ABC) intervention. Postintervention observations revealed more supportive parenting behaviors among the randomly assigned ABC mothers. © 2013 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.
Van Assche, E; Moons, T; Van Leeuwen, K; Colpin, H; Verschueren, K; Van Den Noortgate, W; Goossens, L; Claes, S
Parenting dimensions are associated with depressive symptoms in adolescents. We investigated the role of perceived parenting dimensions and gene-environment interactions between these perceived parenting dimensions and five well-known variable number of tandem repeats (VNTRs): 5-HTTLPR, STin2, DAT1, DRD4, and MAO-A, in depressive symptoms. From a non-clinical sample of 1111 Belgian adolescents (mean age: 13.79 years, SD=.94; 51% boys), 1103 adolescents consented for genetic research. Five VNTRs were analyzed using DNA from saliva samples. Perceived parenting dimensions (i.e., support, proactive control, psychological control, punishment, and harsh punishment) were examined using self-report scales completed by adolescents and their parents. Depressive symptoms were investigated using the CES-D self-report scale. Statistical analyses were performed in R using linear regression. Parental support, as perceived by the adolescent, was negatively associated with depressive symptoms (CES-D) and psychological control was positively associated with these symptoms. The only interaction effect withstanding correction for multiple testing was observed for 5-HTTLPR and the difference in proactive control as perceived by adolescents in comparison to parents. Short-allele carriers showed more depressive symptoms when there was a higher discrepancy in proactive control as perceived by adolescents versus parents. Our results suggest that perceived parenting dimensions are associated with depressive symptoms, as measured by the CES-D. We only found modest evidence for 5-HTTLPR as a moderator in the association between the difference in perception of proactive control (adolescents vs. parents) and depressive symptoms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Låftman, Sara Brolin; Bergström, Malin; Modin, Bitte; Östberg, Viveca
Among children with separated parents, the arrangement of joint physical custody, i.e. children living equally much in both parents' homes, has increased substantially during the last decades in Sweden. To date, empirical research on the living conditions of this group is limited. This study analyses family type differences in turning to parents for emotional support and in subjective health among adolescents. The focus of the study is adolescents in joint physical custody, who are compared with those living with two original parents in the same household; those living (only) in a single-parent household; and those living (only) in a reconstituted family. The data come from the Stockholm School Survey of 2004, a total population survey of students in grade 9 (15-16 years) in Stockholm (n=8,840). Ordinary least squares (OLS) regressions were conducted. Turning to both parents about problems is most commonly reported by adolescents in intact families, followed by those in joint physical custody. Adolescents in non-traditional family types report worse subjective health than adolescents in intact families, but the difference is smaller for those in joint physical custody than for those living with a single parent. The slightly poorer health of adolescents in joint physical custody than those in intact families is not explained by their lower use of parents as a source of emotional support. The study suggests that joint physical custody is associated with a higher inclination to use parents as a source of emotional support and better subjective health than other post-divorce family types. © 2014 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.
Wilding, Lucy; Claridge, Simon
The Emotional Literacy Support Assistant (ELSA) programme is an example of an individualised intervention to support pupils experiencing a range of social and emotional needs. Semi-structured interviews were conducted to explore parents' constructions of several aspects of the programme: its aims and how these are achieved; its impact on children,…
Bowtell, Evelyn Cecile; Aroni, Rosalie; Green, Julie; Sawyer, Susan M.
Schools in Australia are required to promote equitable access to education and provide support services to students with chronic health conditions (CHCs). This qualitative study was conducted to explore stakeholders' experiences and perceptions regarding school-based support. In-depth interviews were conducted with 38 parents of upper secondary…
Tajima, Emiko A; Herrenkohl, Todd I; Moylan, Carrie A; Derr, Amelia S
We investigate parenting characteristics and adolescent peer support as potential moderators of the effects of childhood exposure to intimate partner violence (IPV) on adolescent outcomes. Lehigh Longitudinal Study (N=416) data include parent and adolescent reports of childhood IPV exposure. Exposure to IPV predicted nearly all adverse outcomes examined, however after accounting for co-occurring child abuse and early child behavior problems, IPV predicted only one outcome. Several moderator effects were identified. Parental "acceptance" of the child moderated the effects of IPV exposure on the likelihood of teenage pregnancy and running away from home. Both peer communication and peer trust moderated the relationship between exposure to IPV and depression and running from home. Peer communication also moderated the effects of IPV exposure on high school dropout. Interventions that influence parenting practices and strengthen peer support for youth exposed to IPV may increase protection and decrease risk of several tested outcomes.
Sanders, Matthew; Calam, Rachel; Durand, Marianne; Liversidge, Tom; Carmont, Sue Ann
This study investigated whether providing self-directed and web-based support for parents enhanced the effects of viewing a reality television series based on the Triple P - Positive Parenting Programme. Parents with a child aged 2 to 9 (N = 454) were randomly assigned to either a standard or enhanced intervention condition. In the standard television alone viewing condition, parents watched the six-episode weekly television series, 'Driving Mum and Dad Mad'. Parents in the enhanced television viewing condition received a self-help workbook, extra web support involving downloadable parenting tip sheets, audio and video streaming of positive parenting messages and email support, in addition to viewing the television series. Parents in both conditions reported significant improvements in their child's disruptive behaviour and improvements in dysfunctional parenting practices. Effects were greater for the enhanced condition as seen on the ECBI, two of the three parenting indicators and overall programme satisfaction. However, no significant differences were seen on other measures, including parent affect indicators. The level of improvement was related to number of episodes watched, with greatest changes occurring in families who watched each episode. Improvements achieved at post-intervention by parents in both groups were maintained at six-month follow-up. Online tip sheets were frequently accessed; uptake of web-based resources was highest early in the series. The value of combining self-help approaches, technology and media as part of a comprehensive public health approach to providing parenting support is discussed.
Sveen, Josefin; Andersson, Gerhard; Buhrman, Bo; Sjöberg, Folke; Willebrand, Mimmie
The aim of the study was to evaluate the feasibility and effects of an internet-based information and self-help program with therapist contact for parents of children and adolescents with burns. The program aimed to reduce parents' symptoms of general and posttraumatic stress. Participants were parents of children treated for burns between 2009-2013 at either of the two specialized Swedish Burn centers. Sixty-two parents were included in a two-armed, randomized controlled trial with a six-week intervention group and a wait-list control group, including a pre and post-assessment, as well as a 3 and 12-month follow-up. The intervention contained psychoeducation, exercises and homework assignments, and the intervention group received weekly written feedback from a therapist. The main outcome was stress (post-traumatic stress, general stress and parental stress). The program had a beneficial effect on posttraumatic stress in the short term, but did not affect general stress or parental stress. The parents rated the program as being informative and meaningful, but some of them thought it was time-consuming. The program has the potential to support parents of children with burns. The intervention is easily accessible, cost-effective and could be implemented in burn care rehabilitation. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Wright, Kevin; Stead, Joan; Riddell, Sheila; Weedon, Elisabet
Partnerships with parents, particularly in the field of education, have featured prominently in policy rhetoric for many years, but routes of redress have not had much attention until relatively recently. The development of Alternative Dispute Resolution in the UK reflects the situation in several jurisdictions (e.g. Norway, Germany, the…
Glozah, Franklin N; Pevalin, David J
To examine the role of perceived social support and parental education on physical activity and eating behaviour of Ghanaian adolescents. Seven hundred and seventy Senior High School students (504 boys and 266 girls) between the ages of 14-21 years participated by completing questionnaires on perceived social support, physical activity and eating behaviour. The highest education attained by either parent or guardian was also obtained. Multivariate analysis of covariance was the main statistical test used to analyse the data. The results showed significant gender differences in physical activity and eating behaviour combined, with boys more likely to engage in physical activity than girls, and girls also more likely to engage in healthy eating behaviour than boys, albeit the effect was not statistically significant. While perceived social support had a significant positive effect on eating behaviour and physical activity, parental education had a significant effect only on eating behaviour but not physical activity. Perceived social support from family coupled with parental education provides more opportunities for adolescents to engage in healthy eating behaviour. Also, parents' educational attainment alone does not necessarily guarantee that adolescents will engage in physical activity; providing the needed social support and conducive home environment is more likely to induce physical activity behaviours. Finally, physical activity and eating behaviour should not be construed as alternative health behaviours as suggested by gender differentials in these health behaviours.
Luu, Thuy Mai; Xie, Li Feng; Peckre, Perrine; Cote, Sylvana; Karsenti, Thierry; Walker, Claire-Dominique; Gosselin, Julie
Preterm birth affects 8% to 11% of the population and conveys a significant risk of developmental delays. Intervention programs that support child development have been shown to have a positive impact on early motor and cognitive development and on parental well-being. However, these programs are often difficult to implement in a real-life setting due to lack of resources. Hence, our multidisciplinary team developed Mieux Agir au Quotidien (MAQ) to teach developmentally supportive care to parents of preterm infants with the goal of improving child development and parental outcomes. Our intervention included 3 in-person workshops that occurred prior to hospital discharge and a Web-based platform with written and videotaped materials that addressed 5 main themes: (1) infant behavioral cues, (2) flexion positioning; (3) oral feeding support, (4) parent-infant interactions, and (5) anticipation of developmental milestones. This study aimed to test the feasibility and acceptability of the intervention by parents of preterm infants and assess clinical benefits on child neurodevelopment and parental outcomes during the first year of life. A total of 107 infants born at children and investigate how Web-based technologies can efficiently complement individualized intervention to alleviate the burden on health care resources. ©Thuy Mai Luu, Li Feng Xie, Perrine Peckre, Sylvana Cote, Thierry Karsenti, Claire-Dominique Walker, Julie Gosselin. Originally published in JMIR Research Protocols (http://www.researchprotocols.org), 30.11.2017.
Full Text Available Raising a child with a developmental disability can be a serious challenge for parents, which leads to increased parenting stress and has multiple impacts on family well-being. Even though there is a well recognized need for support for parents of children with disabilities, our country lacks the systematized support programs and their evaluations. Program 'Our Story' aims to educate parents about the key processes that lead to accepting the child's condition and recognizing an appropriate care model for a child with disabilities. The program is based on attachment theory and the importance of resolution to diagnosis- emotional and cognitive acceptance of the child's health condition and its implications. It is a structured program, consisting of six thematic meetings with a group of parents. The group counseling is led by two professionals who have previously undergone a 32-hour program for the implementation of training. This paper presents the experiences from two preschool institutions, in which the program was implemented and evaluated. Also it discusses the importance and possibilities of implementing a support program for parents of children with disability in the context of early education system.
Kirk, Susan; Milnes, Linda
There is increasing recognition of the Internet's potential role in providing information and support for people living with long-term conditions. However, how young people and parents use online forms of self-care support in the context of living with childhood chronic illness has been under-researched. To explore how online peer support is used by young people and parents to support self-care in relation to cystic fibrosis (CF). Online forum for young people and parents based on a CF charity website. A total of 279 individuals participated in the forum during the study. An online ethnographical approach, involving observing, downloading and analysing discussion group postings. All postings made over a random 4-month period were included (151 discussion threads). The online setting enabled a physically disconnected group to connect and create a safe space to collectively share experiences and receive support to manage and live with cystic fibrosis. Participants exchanged experientially derived advice and views on how to manage treatments, emotions, relationships, identity and support from services. While parents sought information and support on managing specific therapies/services and ways of maintaining their child's health, the information and support young people desired appeared to be more directed at how to 'fit' CF into their everyday lives. Online support groups appear to supplement professional support in relation to self-management. They enable young people and parents to share experiences, feelings and strategies for living with long-term conditions with peers and develop the expertise to empower them in interactions with health-care professionals. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Pyper, Evelyn; Harrington, Daniel; Manson, Heather
Sleep is an essential component of healthy cognitive and physical development. Lack of sleep may put children at risk for a variety of mental and physical health outcomes, including overweight, obesity and related chronic diseases. Given that children's sleep duration has decreased in recent decades, there is a need to understand the determinants of child sleep, including the role of parental support behaviours. This study aims to determine the relative contribution of different types of parental support behaviours for predicting the likelihood that children meet recently established Canadian sleep guidelines. Data were collected using Computer Assisted Telephone Interviews (CATI) of parents or guardians with at least one child under the age of 18 living in Ontario, Canada. To align with sleep guidelines, parents included in this analysis had at least one child between 5 and 17 years of age (n = 1622). Two multivariable logistic regression models were built to predict whether or not parents reported their child was meeting sleep guidelines - one for weekday sleep and another for sleep on weekends. Independent variables included parent and child age and gender, motivational and regulatory parental support behaviours, and socio-demographic characteristics. On weekdays, enforcing rules about child bedtime was a significant positive predictor of children meeting sleep guidelines (OR: 1.59; 95% CI: 1.03-2.44); while encouraging the child to go to bed at a specific time was a significant negative predictor of child meeting sleep guidelines (OR: 0.29; 95% CI: 0.13-0.65). On weekends, none of the parental support behaviours contributed significantly to the predictions of child sleep. For both weekdays and weekends, the child's age group was an important predictor of children meeting sleep guidelines. The contribution of parental support behaviours to predictions of children meeting sleep guidelines varied with the type of support provided, and weekend versus weekday
Ghorbani, Maryam; Dolatian, Mahrokh; Shams, Jamal; Alavi-Majd, Hamid
Background: Premature birth is one of the most important unresolved reproductive health problems. Premature birth is often traumatic and a source of distress for parents. Increased parental stress during the first year of their infant's life is a risk factor for later behavioral problems in infants. Objectives: This study was designed to compare anxiety, post-traumatic stress, and social supports in parents of premature and mature infants. Patients and Methods: This was a comparative descriptive study conducted at healthcare centers of Qom city, in 2012. In this study, 82 couples (164 parents) divided into two groups including parents who have preterm and term infants. Questionnaires including items such as demographic characteristics, obstetric and post-traumatic stress disorders, Spielberger anxiety and Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support were completed two months after childbirth. Data were analyzed using χ2 test, Fisher’s exact test, Mann-Whitney test, independent t-test, and regression logistic using SPSS18 software. Results: The levels of anxiety was not significantly different in mothers and fathers in the two groups, but the trait anxiety level of mothers (P Post-traumatic stress disorder was significantly greater in mothers of preterm infants than those of term infants (P = 0.03), but this amount was not significantly different between the two groups of fathers. Mothers' social support did not differ significantly (P = 0.08), however, it was significantly different in fathers (P = 0.01). Conclusions: Premature infants' parents are more at risk of mental disorders than term infants' parents. This result shows the need of interventions, so these parents can better deal with the problems of premature infants. PMID:24829766
Sanders, Matthew; Calam, Rachel; Durand, Marianne; Liversidge, Tom; Carmont, Sue Ann
Background: This study investigated whether providing self-directed and web-based support for parents enhanced the effects of viewing a reality television series based on the Triple P--Positive Parenting Programme. Method: Parents with a child aged 2 to 9 (N=454) were randomly assigned to either a standard or enhanced intervention condition. In…
Davies, Karen E.; Marshall, Julie; Brown, Laura J. E.; Goldbart, Juliet
Speech and language therapists' (SLTs) roles include enabling parents to provide intervention. We know little about how parents understand their role during speech and language intervention or whether these change during involvement with SLTs. The theory of conceptual change, applied to parents as adult learners, is used as a framework for…
LaForett, Doré R.; Mendez, Julia L.
This study examined parents' developmentally appropriate beliefs about young children's play and parents' views on their child's play skills. This exploratory secondary data analysis was drawn from data on low-income African-American and Latino parents and their children (n = 109) participating in Head Start programmes in the USA. Compared with…
Gallagher, Stephen; Whiteley, Jenny
The present study tested whether parents caring for children with developmental disabilities would have higher blood pressure compared to parents of typically developing children (controls). It also examined the psychosocial factors underlying this observation. Thirty-five parents of children with developmental disability and thirty controls…
Nugent, J. Kevin
The period covering the first 3 months of life consists of a series of pivotal, life-changing transitions for the infant, for the parents, and for the emerging parent-child relationship. The Newborn Behavioral Observations (NBO) system is a relationship-based tool that offers individualized information to parents about their baby's communication…
Parents play an influential role in children's emotional development. Numerous quantitative studies have examined the correlations between a "single" dimension of parents' emotion socialisation practices (e.g. parental emotion expression or attitudes) and children's emotional development. However, little attention has been paid to a…
Jouriles, Ernest N; McDonald, Renee; Rosenfield, David; Norwood, William D; Spiller, Laura; Stephens, Nanette; Corbitt-Shindler, Deborah; Ehrensaft, Miriam
Project Support is an intervention designed to decrease coercive patterns of aggressive discipline and increase positive parenting. This research evaluates Project Support in a sample of families reported to Children's Protective Services (CPS) for allegations of physical abuse or neglect; 35 families with a child between 3- and 8-years-old participated. In all families, CPS allowed the children to remain in the family home while the family received services. Families were randomly assigned to receive either Project Support or services as usual, which were provided by CPS or CPS-contracted service providers. To evaluate intervention effects, a multimethod, multi-informant assessment strategy was used that included data from mothers' reports, direct observation of parents' behavior, and review of CPS records for re-referrals for child maltreatment. Families who received Project Support services showed greater decreases than families who received services as usual in the following areas: mothers' perceived inability to manage childrearing responsibilities, mothers' reports of harsh parenting, and observations of ineffective parenting practices. Only 5.9% of families in the Project Support condition had a subsequent referral to CPS for child maltreatment, compared with 27.7% of families in the comparison condition. The results suggest that Project Support may be a promising intervention for reducing child maltreatment among families in which it has occurred. (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved.
Kukkola, Laura; Hovén, Emma; Cernvall, Martin; von Essen, Louise; Grönqvist, Helena
Most children survive childhood cancer, however parenting a child diagnosed with cancer is a major challenge. The main aim of the current study was to describe Swedish parents' need, opportunity and benefit of support from healthcare professionals and significant others after end of a child's successful cancer treatment. Data was collected from approximately one week after end of successful treatment/six months after transplantation (T4, n = 212) up to five years thereafter (T7, n = 137). Parents answered questions via telephone about need, opportunity and benefit of talking to psychologists, social workers, partners and friends. The proportion reporting need of support from healthcare professionals varied between 73% (mothers' need of support from social workers, T4) and 7% (fathers' need of support from psychologists/social workers, T7). Need of support from significant others varied between 99% (mothers' and fathers' need of support from partners, T4) and 27% (fathers' need of support from friends, T7). The proportion reporting need of support decreased over time (p friends at T5 (p get access to psychosocial support services after end of a child's cancer treatment/transplantation.
Dwyer, John; Needham, Lisa; Simpson, Janis Randall; Heeney, Elizabeth Shaver
There is an increasing trend in childhood obesity in Canada and many preschool children are overweight or obese. The objective of this study was to explore parents' experiences and challenges in supporting healthy eating and physical activity among their preschool children. A qualitative descriptive study involving 5 focus groups was conducted. A convenience sample of 39 parents from 3 childcare centres in Hamilton, Ontario, participated. Parents were English speaking and had a child aged 2-5 years attending the childcare centre for at least 3 months. The research team read transcripts of the audio-taped sessions and used a constant comparison approach to develop themes, which involved coding comments by continually referring to previously coded comments for comparison. The social ecological model was used to organize the themes into 3 higher-level categories: (i) intrapersonal (individual): preschoolers' preferences and health; (ii) interpersonal (interactions): parents' and others' different views and practices, influence of the childcare centre, parents' lack of time, and family structure; and (iii) physical environment: accessibility of healthy foods, preschoolers with special needs, media influence, weather, lack of safety, and inaccessible resources. Parents perceived that there are various intrapersonal, interpersonal, and environmental barriers to supporting healthy eating and physical activity among their children. Program planners and health professionals can consider these barriers when developing interventions to promote healthy bodyweights among preschoolers.
Smith, Michael J.
Urban African American teens are unprepared to compete for jobs in the global marketplace, but higher education professionals could partner with parents to reverse this trend. After reviewing parent involvement literature, this paper shares findings from a study of urban African American parents involved in their children's outreach programs. It…
Full Text Available Shannon A Morrison, Carol J Dashiff, David E Vance School of Nursing, University of Alabama, Birmingham, AL, USA Abstract: Parental influence to promote autonomy and self-determination in their children as they grow up may also motivate them to exercise and eat healthily. Unfortunately, nutritious dietary consumption and physical activity frequency tend to decline during the adolescent years and reaches its lowest level as the adolescent nears adulthood. In this study of 132 freshman and sophomore college students, the influence of parental autonomy support on overall adolescents self-determination was examined to determine whether self-determination influences adolescents' motivation to engage in healthy diet and exercise behaviors. Utilizing hierarchical multiple regression analyses, parental autonomy support was not predictive of older adolescents' motivation for diet and exercise; however, study results did indicate that parental autonomy support remains highly influential in adolescent self-determination (F[2, 130] = 22.21; P = 0.001 during early college years and that in this sample, adolescent self-determination is predictive of motivation for diet (t = 2.21; P < 0.05, but not exercise. Findings suggest that parental autonomy support continues to influence adolescent internalization of attitudes and behaviors during latter adolescence, but may play a lessor role in motivation for specific health-related behaviors as the adolescent nears adulthood. A better understanding of health motivation antecedents of adolescents may facilitate nurses develop new approaches to health-promotion strategies. Keywords: parental autonomy support, self-determination, adolescent health behaviors, motivation
Slattery, Éadaoin; McMahon, Jennifer; Gallagher, Stephen
Researchers have consistently documented the relationship between optimism and benefit finding; however, there is a dearth of research on the psychological mechanisms mediating their association. This cross-sectional study sought to elucidate the mediating role of positive reappraisal and social support in the optimism-benefit finding relationship in parents caring for children with developmental disabilities by testing a parallel multiple mediation model. One hundred and forty-six parents caring for children with developmental disabilities completed an online survey assessing optimism, positive reappraisal, social support and benefit finding. Optimism was not directly related to benefit finding but rather influenced it indirectly through positive reappraisal and social support. Specifically, higher levels of optimism predicted greater positive reappraisal and social support, which in turn led to greater benefit finding in parents. These results underscore the importance of targeting parents' perceptions of benefits through both positive reappraisal and social support in order to help them cope with the demands of the caregiving context. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kang, Bong-Hee; Kang, Jae-Heon; Park, Hyun-Ah; Cho, Young-Gyu; Hur, Yang-Im; Sim, Won Yong; Byeon, Gyeong-Ran; Kim, Kyoungwoo
Youth suicide is increasingly being recognized as a major social problem in South Korea. In this study, we aimed to explore the effects of parental support on the relationship between life stress and suicidal ideation among middle-school students. This study analyzed data from a cross-sectional study on mental health conducted by the South Korea National Youth Policy Institute between May and July of 2013. Questionnaire responses from 3,007 middle-school students regarding stress factors, thoughts of suicide during the past year, and parental support were analyzed in terms of 3 subscale elements: emotional, academic, and financial support. Among the participants, 234 male students (7.8%) and 476 female students (15.8%) reported experiencing suicidal ideation in the past year. Life stress significantly influenced suicidal ideation (Psuicidal ideation. As shown in model 1, life stress increased suicidal ideation (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.318; Psuicidal ideation decreased with parental support (aOR, 1.238; Psuicidal ideation, and life stress was independently related to an increase in suicidal ideation. Parental support buffered the relationship between life stress and suicidal ideation.
Full Text Available Este artículo describe la validación de una escala para evaluar el apoyo social online que perciben los usuarios de recursos web en español para padres y madres. Responde así a la necesidad de crear un instrumento específico que permita captar la complejidad de este nuevo constructo. Para la validación de la Escala de Apoyo Parental Online (EAPO se contó con 301 padres y madres españoles y latinoamericanos, que se matricularon en el programa online 'Educar en Positivo' (http://educarenpositivo.es, quedando registradas automáticamente las respuestas al cuestionario en una base de datos al comienzo de su participación. La estructura factorial se obtuvo a través de la técnica de modelo de ecuaciones estructurales exploratorio (MESE con rotación oblimin y el método de estimación de ponderación de mínimos cuadrados ajustado por la media y la varianza (WLSMW para su confirmación. Los resultados principales muestran una factorización óptima en el constructo de un modelo de cinco factores con una fiabilidad adecuada, que tratan de la participación en programas o recursos para obtener apoyo parental online, el intercambio de consejos con otros padres y con expertos en educación, la autoeficacia parental percibida, las habilidades de parentalidad positiva y el apoyo emocional. Los resultados sugieren que la escala captura adecuadamente las dimensiones hipotetizadas para el constructo de apoyo social online para el fomento de la parentalidad positiva y muestra unas propiedades psicométricas adecuadas que lo hacen recomendable para su uso en el ámbito de los recursos web para padres y madres
Borca, Gabriella; Rabaglietti, Emanuela; Roggero, Antonella; Keller, Peggy; Haak, Eric; Begotti, Tatiana
Tobacco and marijuana smoking are very popular in adolescence and there is a high rate of comorbidity between them, even in young adulthood. Parental support and control may hinder involvement in the use of these substances by promoting conventional values among adolescents. The present study investigates the relations between family functioning (parental support and control) and psychoactive substance use (tobacco and marijuana smoking) and determines whether these relationships are mediated by personal values (in terms of disapproval of deviance and beliefs about the importance of school, health and religion). 175 Italian late adolescents (17 to 20 years old) participated in this two-wave longitudinal study. Data were collected at school through an anonymous questionnaire. Greater parental control and support were directly associated with lower adolescent tobacco and marijuana use; adolescent acceptance of conventional values mediated the association between parenting and adolescent marijuana use. Findings emphasize the influence of family relationships throughout adolescence. The transmission of conventional values to adolescents may be a critical mechanism through which parenting protects adolescents from substance use, especially marijuana use.
Yang, Joyce P; Xie, Tianyi; Simoni, Jane M; Shiu, Cheng-Shi; Chen, Wei-ti; Zhao, Hongxin; Lu, Hongzhou
Parents who are HIV-positive confront difficult decisions regarding whether, when, and how to disclose their HIV status to their children. In China, a setting of acute HIV stigma where family harmony is culturally valued, limited research has been conducted on parental disclosure. We aimed to develop a model of parental disclosure that accounts for the cultural context in China based on a mixed-methods study. In our individual, in-depth interviews (N = 24) as well as survey data (N = 84) collected from parents living with HIV in Shanghai and Beijing, we found the primary barriers to disclosure were stigma, fear of exposing the mode by which they acquired HIV, psychologically burdening the child, rejection by the child, and negative social consequences for the family. Parents concurrently cited many motivations for disclosure, such as disease progression, ensuring safety of the child, gaining assistance, and fulfilling their parental responsibility. Most parents had not actively disclosed their HIV status (68 %); many parents reported some form of partial disclosure (e.g., sharing they have a blood disease but not labeling it HIV), unplanned disclosure, or unintentional disclosure to their children by other people. Findings informed the development of a Chinese Parental HIV Disclosure Model, with primary components accounting for distal cultural factors, decision-making (balancing approach and avoid motivations), the disclosure event, and outcomes resulting from the disclosure. This model highlights the cultural context of the Chinese parental disclosure process, and may be useful in guiding future observational research and intervention work.
Bogart, Kathleen R; Frandrup, Erika; Locke, Taylor; Thompson, Hanna; Weber, Natalie; Yates, Jacqueline; Zike, Nicholas; Hemmesch, Amanda R
Moebius syndrome is a rare congenital disorder resulting in impaired facial and eye movement. People with rare diseases like Moebius syndrome experience stigma and a lack of specialized information. Support conferences may provide important forms of social support for people with rare disorders. To examine reasons for attending, benefits, and limitations of support conferences. 50 adults with Moebius syndrome and 57 parents of people with Moebius syndrome completed open-ended items in an online study. Mixed- methods content analysis revealed that companionship and informational support were most frequently mentioned as reasons for and benefits of attending. Finances were the most frequently mentioned reason for not attending. Parents were more likely than people with Moebius to describe instrumental support as a conference benefit. When describing conference limitations, parents were significantly more concerned by lack of information relevance, while people with Moebius noted more often that conference attributes were not relevant to their age. Being surrounded by others who share one's condition offers a unique opportunity for destigmatizing companionship support, which normalizes, reduces isolation, and promotes solidarity. Ways to increase facilitators and decrease barriers to accessing support for rare disorders should be investigated. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Goldstick, Jason E; Heinze, Justin; Ngo, Quyen; Hsieh, Hsing-Fang; Walton, Maureen A; Cunningham, Rebecca M; Zimmerman, Marc A
Parental support and perceptions of peer behavior on substance use are well-studied, but precisely how their associations vary as a function of age, and how those age-specific patterns vary by gender, remain unknown components of the developmental process underlying substance use. Using data from an 18-year longitudinal study of predominantly African-American students at high-risk for high school dropout in Flint, Michigan (baseline average age = 14.8 years), we examined longitudinal associations between past 30-day marijuana use and three self-reported variables: perceived friend drug use, perceived friend aggression, parental support. We used varying-coefficient regression models to semiparametrically estimate how covariate effects on past 30-day marijuana use vary smoothly as a function of age; gender differences in these age-specific coefficient trajectories were also tested. In the unadjusted tests, the risk-enhancing effect of perceived friend drug use decreased with age in both genders, but the effect of perceived friend aggression varied only in females; in both cases, gender differences were not significant. In males, parental support had protective effects that decreased with age. The effect of both parental support differed in females, with less protective baseline effects and no evidence of age-variation. Adjusted models simultaneously including both friend and parental variables produced qualitatively similar results. Prevention strategies focusing on social exposures may be more effective if they are age- and gender-specific. In particular, interventions focusing on perceived peer behaviors may be more appropriate during adolescence, and those involving parental relationships may be more appropriate for males.
Trillingsgaard, Tea; Maimburg, Rikke Damkjær; Simonsen, Marianne
Inadequate parenting is an important public health problem with possible severe and long-term consequences related to child development. We have solid theoretical and political arguments in favor of efforts enhancing the quality of the early family environment in the population at large. However, little is known about effect of universal approaches to parenting support during the transition to parenthood. This protocol describes an experimental evaluation of group based parenting support, the Family Startup Program (FSP), currently implemented large scale in Denmark. Participants will be approximately 2500 pregnant women and partners. Inclusion criteria are parental age above 18 and the mother expecting first child. Families are recruited when attending routine pregnancy scans provided as a part of the publicly available prenatal care program at Aarhus University Hospital, Skejby. Families are randomized within four geographically defined strata to one of two conditions a) participation in FSP or b) Treatment As Usual (TAU). FSP aims to prepare new families for their roles as parents and enhance parental access to informal sources of support, i.e. social network and community resources. The program consists of twelve group sessions, with nine families in each group, continuing from pregnancy until the child is 15 months old. TAU is the publicly available pre- and postnatal care available to families in both conditions. Analyses will employ survey data, administrative data from health visitors, and administrative register based data from Statistics Denmark. All data sources will be linked via the unique Danish Civil Registration Register (CPR) identifier. Data will be obtained at four time points, during pregnancy, when the child is nine months, 18 months and seven years. The primary study outcome is measured by the Parenting Sense of Competence scale (PSOC) J Clin Child Psychol 18:167-75, 1989. Other outcomes include parenting and couple relationship quality
Roth, Guy; Assor, Avi
This research focuses on offspring's perceptions of their parents' usage of conditional regard and autonomy-supportive practices in response to the offspring's experiences of negative emotion. Participants were 174 college students (60% were females). As predicted from self-determination theory (Ryan & Deci, 2000), students' perceptions of parents…
Sadler, Lois S.; Swartz, Martha K.; Ryan-Krause, Patricia; Seitz, Victoria; Meadows-Oliver, Mikki; Grey, Margaret; Clemmens, Donna A.
Background: This study described a cohort of teen mothers and their children attending an urban high school with a parent support program and school-based child care center. Specific aims of the study were to describe maternal characteristics and outcomes, and child developmental and health outcomes. Methods: A volunteer sample of 65 adolescent…
Poon, Cecilia Y. M.; Knight, Bob G.
Purpose: This study examined whether recalled childhood parental emotional abuse and support were associated with emotional reactivity to network stress among middle-aged and older adults. Design and Methods: Hypotheses were tested by performing 2-level multilevel modeling analysis on 787 participants aged 33-83 who participated in the Daily…
AntÓnio, Raquel; Moleiro, Carla
The aim of this study was to explore homophobic bullying in Portugal, including its forms, prevalence, and consequences, and to verify whether parental and social support moderated the effects of homophobic bullying for victims. An online questionnaire was completed by 211 female and male students, aged 12 to 20 years. Results showed that…
van Roekel, Eeske; Goossens, Luc; Scholte, Ron H. J.; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.; Verhagen, Maaike
Background: Loneliness is a common problem in adolescence. Earlier research focused on genes within the serotonin and oxytocin systems, but no studies have examined the role of dopamine-related genes in loneliness. In the present study, we focused on the dopamine D2 receptor gene (DRD2). Methods: Associations among the DRD2, sex, parental support,…
Fish, Wade W.
This case study investigated parental perceptions of students with autism towards the IEP meeting from one family support group chapter in the north Texas area. Participants were asked to share their experiences of previous IEP meetings and to provide input regarding not only measures that school districts may take towards improving IEP meetings,…
Fernald, Lia C. H.; Kagawa, Rose M. C.; Knauer, Heather A.; Schnaas, Lourdes; Guerra, Armando Garcia; Neufeld, Lynnette M.
We examined effects on child development of a group-based parenting support program ("Educación Inicial" - EI) when combined with Mexico's conditional cash transfer (CCT) program ("Prospera," originally 'Oportunidades" and "Progresa"). This cluster-randomized trial included 204 communities (n = 1,113 children in…
Hermanns, J.M.A.; Asscher, J.J.; Zijlstra, B.J.H.; Hoffenaar, P.J.; Deković, M.
Background: The intervention Home-Start is a wide spread program in a number of countries, among which the Netherlands. In Home-Start, trained volunteers visit families with young children in need of support once or twice a week to help them to deal with problems in family life and parenting. Little
Smith, Tara; Renk, Kimberly
This study examined potential predictors of the academic-related stress experienced by college students. In particular, the relationships among the coping strategies used by college students, social support, the parenting style used by college students' mothers and fathers, college students' experience of anxiety, and academic-related stress were…
Baker, Sarah R; Owens, Jan; Stern, Melanie; Willmot, Derrick
To examine the role of parents' coping strategies and social support in the family impact of cleft lip and palate (CLP) and levels of adjustment and psychological distress and to investigate whether a child's age, type of cleft, or other reported medical problems influenced such outcomes. A cross-sectional study. One hundred three parents of children or young adults with CLP recruited from families attending a multidisciplinary cleft lip and palate clinic. Family impact, psychological distress, and positive adjustment were assessed using validated psychological questionnaires. Findings indicated that while there were many impacts of a child's CLP, negative outcomes (family impact, psychological distress) were not high. In contrast, parents reported high levels of positive adjustment or stress-related growth as a result of their child's condition. Participants also reported high levels of social support and relied more on the use of approach rather than avoidance-oriented coping strategies. Having more support from friends and family was associated with less negative family impact, lower psychological distress, and better adjustment. Greater use of approach coping was associated with more positive adjustment; whereas, avoidant coping was associated with a greater family impact and more psychological distress. Having a younger child and/or a child with medical problems in addition to CLP was associated with a greater impact on the family. How parents cope with their child's condition and the levels of support received may have implications for caregivers, the family unit, and the delivery of more family-oriented CLP services.
Boniel-Nissim, M.; Tabak, I.; Mazur, J.; Borraccino, A.; Brooks, F.; Gommans, R.; Sluijs, W. van der; Zsiros, E.; Craig, W.M.; Harel-Fisch, Y.; Finne, E.
Objectives To examine the impact of electronic media (EM) use on teenagers’ life satisfaction (LS) and to assess the potential moderating effect of supportive communication with parents (SCP). Methods Data were drawn from the cross-national Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study
Boniel-Nissim, Meyran; Tabak, Izabela; Mazur, Joanna; Borraccino, Alberto; Brooks, Fiona; Gommans, Rob|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/372729916; van der Sluijs, Winfried; Zsiros, Emese; Craig, Wendy; Harel-Fisch, Yossi; Finne, Emily
Objectives To examine the impact of electronic media (EM) use on teenagers’ life satisfaction (LS) and to assess the potential moderating effect of supportive communication with parents (SCP). Methods Data were drawn from the cross-national Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study
Chung Gun Lee
Conclusion: The results of this study contributed to the literature by providing important information on the longitudinal effect of parental support during adolescence on the trajectory of sport participation from adolescence through young adulthood using a nationally representative sample of participants transitioning from adolescence to young adulthood.
Petry, K; Maes, B; Vlaskamp, C
Background This study considered the general validity of the basic domains of quality of life that appear in theoretical models, in relation to people with profound multiple disabilities. The authors examined how parents and direct support staff operationalized these basic domains for people with
Rasalingam, Anurajee; Clench-Aas, Jocelyne; Raanaas, Ruth Kjaersti
Peer victimization is a widespread phenomenon especially prevalent in early adolescence. This study investigates the prevalence of peer victimization and its association with mental health problems and impact on everyday life, and the possible mediating effect of parental and peer support. Data are based on a cross-sectional health survey (N =…
Vander Ploeg, Kerry A; Kuhle, Stefan; Maximova, Katerina; McGavock, Jonathan; Wu, Biao; Veugelers, Paul J
Background Parental influences are essential to the behaviours and physical activity of their children. Our study aimed to determine if parental beliefs and support are associated with children’s pedometer measured physical activity levels on school days and weekend days. Methods In the spring of 2009 and 2011, we analyzed cross-sectional data from 1,355 grade five students and parents in 30 schools in Alberta, Canada. Parents reported how much they care about exercising, how much they encour...
De Bourdeaudhuij, I; Te Velde, S J; Maes, L; Pérez-Rodrigo, C; de Almeida, M D V; Brug, J
To investigate whether fruit and vegetable (F&V) intake in 11-year-olds, and social-environmental correlates of F&V intake such as parental modelling and encouragement, family food rules and home availability, differ according to general parenting styles in Belgium, The Netherlands, Portugal and Spain. Cross-sectional study. Primary schools in four countries. Pupils and one of their parents completed questionnaires to measure F&V intake, related social-environmental correlates and general parenting styles. The sample size was 4555 (49.3 % boys); 1180 for Belgium, 883 for The Netherlands, 1515 for Portugal and 977 for Spain. Parenting styles were divided into authoritative, authoritarian, indulgent and neglectful. No differences were found in F&V intake across parenting styles and only very few significant differences in social-environmental correlates. The authoritarian (more parental encouragement and more demands to eat fruit) and the authoritative (more availability of fruit and vegetables) parenting styles resulted in more favourable correlates. Despite earlier studies suggesting that general parenting styles are associated with health behaviours in children, the present study suggests that this association is weak to non-existent for F&V intakes in four different European countries.
Curtin, Carol; Bandini, Linda G; Must, Aviva; Gleason, James; Lividini, Keith; Phillips, Sarah; Eliasziw, Misha; Maslin, Melissa; Fleming, Richard K
To assess whether parent training in behavioral intervention, combined with a 16-session nutrition and activity education program, would improve weight loss relative to nutrition and activity education alone in adolescents and young adults with Down syndrome. Twenty-one patients with Down syndrome aged 13-26 years with a body mass index ≥ 85 th percentile were enrolled and randomized to a 6-month nutrition and activity education intervention (n = 10) or to a nutrition and activity education+behaviorial intervention (n = 11), and followed for 6 months after the active intervention period (1-year follow-up). The primary outcome measure was body weight; secondary outcomes included percentage body fat by bioelectric impedance; intake of fruits, vegetables, and energy-dense low-nutrient snack food (treats) by 3-day food record; and moderate/vigorous physical activity by accelerometry. At 6 months, mean body weight in the nutrition and activity education+behavioral intervention group was 3.2 kg lower than that in the nutrition and activity education group (95% CI, 1.0-5.5 kg; P = .005). Mean group differences were sustained at 1 year (3.6 kg; 95% CI, 1.4-5.9 kg; P = .002). At 6 months, moderate/vigorous physical activity time increased by an average of 18 minutes/day compared with baseline in the nutrition and activity education+behavioral intervention group (P = .01) and decreased by 7 minutes/day in the nutrition and activity education group (P = .30). These changes were largely maintained at 1 year, but were not statistically significant. Vegetable intake in the nutrition and activity education+behavioral intervention group exceeded that in the nutrition and activity education group by a mean of 1.6 servings at 1 year (P = .009), but not at 6 months. No between-group differences were observed for percentage body fat or consumption of fruits or treats. Parent-supported behavioral intervention appears to be a successful adjunct to a 6-month nutrition education
Boe Danbjørg, Dorthe; Wagner, Lis; Rønde Kristensen, Bjarne
and information to postnatal mothers who are discharged early and their families. Design. Participatory design. An app with a chat, a knowledgebase, and automated messages was tried out between hospital and parents at home. Settings. The intervention took place on a postnatal ward with approximately 1,000 births...... that connects the homes of the new parents with the hospital....
Enrolling children in youth sport is an American tradition to keep children active while learning life lessons such as teamwork, commitment, and work ethic. However, youth sport is becoming extremely expensive and demanding, resulting in high parental involvement. Research shows over-involved parents cause stress, anxiety, and even burnout. The…
Cloud, Kate; And Others
The Nuclear Education Project (NEP), a group of five women concerned about parenting in a nuclear age, developed this guide to help parents and others develop a sense of hope and promote a greater involvement in the democratic political process. Chapter I, "The Heart of the Matter," presents sections on answering possible questions children might…
Yardi, Sarita A.
With millions of youth on the Internet in the U.S., millions of parents are trying to understand what their children are doing and why. Understanding how technology use impacts youth learning, growth, and social development is critical for their health and wellbeing and for the welfare of the family. Yet, balancing parent authority with teen…
Larsen, Michael Søgaard; Holm, Anders; Jensen, Bente
is a decisive factor for the positive effects in the remaining ten interventions. However, the review shows that parental involvement, when day care center staff or other facilitators assist the parents, seems to have a positive effect when combined with an intervention in the day care center....
Smith, Sean J.; Burdette, Paula J.; Cheatham, Gregory A.; Harvey, Susan P.
This study, conducted by researchers at the Center on Online Learning and Students With Disabilities, investigated parent perceptions and experiences regarding fully online learning for their children with disabilities. Results suggest that with the growth in K-12 fully online learning experiences, the parent (or adult member) in students'…
Muñoz, Karen; Nelson, Lauri; Blaiser, Kristina; Price, Tanner; Twohig, Michael
When proper protocols are followed, children who are identified with a permanent hearing loss early in life have opportunities to develop language on par with their typical hearing peers. Young children with hearing loss are dependent on their parents to manage intervention during early years critical to their development, and parents' ability to effectively integrate recommendations in daily life is foundational for intervention success. Audiologists and early intervention professionals not only need to provide current evidence-based services, but also must address parents' emotional and learning needs related to their child's hearing loss. This study explored practice patterns related to education and support provided to parents of children with hearing loss and the influence of an in-service training on provider attitudes. This study used a prepost design with a self-report questionnaire to identify practice patterns related to communication skills and support used by providers when working with parents of children with hearing loss. A total of 45 participants (21 professionals and 24 graduate students) currently working with children completed the pretraining questionnaire, and 29 participants (13 professionals and 16 graduate students) completed the postquestionnaire. Data were collected using an online questionnaire before the training and 1 mo after training. Descriptive analyses were done to identify trends, and paired-samples t-tests were used to determine changes pretraining to posttraining. Findings revealed that professionals most frequently teach skills to mothers (91%) and infrequently teach skills to fathers (19%) and other caregivers (10%). Professionals reported frequently collaborating with other intervention providers (76%) and infrequently collaborating with primary care physicians (19%). One-third of the professionals reported addressing symptoms of depression and anxiety as an interfering factor with the ability to implement management
The last two decades have seen an academic and practice based shift in the acknowledgment that children require support following the death of a significant person. However, the needs of children who are living amidst parental life threatening illness are not, as yet, so clearly recognised or acknowledged. These children are often forgotten and their needs are frequently peripheral, if not absent, within the clinical setting. The current study adopted qualitative methodology to explore children's experiences when living with a parent who is dying. A total of 36 people were interviewed, including children, their parents and professionals. The findings highlighted the importance of age appropriate information sharing with the children and the significant role professionals have in facilitating conversations either directly or through supporting the parents to hold these 'difficult' discussions. This paper offers an overview of the vital role community practitioners have in supporting the children of patients. It argues that they often have a more in-depth knowledge of the family and its functioning and that consequently they can add a different dimension to the care provided.
Weinstein, Netta; Ryan, William S; Dehaan, Cody R; Przybylski, Andrew K; Legate, Nicole; Ryan, Richard M
When individuals grow up with autonomy-thwarting parents, they may be prevented from exploring internally endorsed values and identities and as a result shut out aspects of the self perceived to be unacceptable. Given the stigmatization of homosexuality, individuals perceiving low autonomy support from parents may be especially motivated to conceal same-sex sexual attraction, leading to defensive processes such as reaction formation. Four studies tested a model wherein perceived parental autonomy support is associated with lower discrepancies between self-reported sexual orientation and implicit sexual orientation (assessed with a reaction time task). These indices interacted to predict anti-gay responding indicative of reaction formation. Studies 2-4 showed that an implicit/explicit discrepancy was particularly pronounced in participants who experienced their fathers as both low in autonomy support and homophobic, though results were inconsistent for mothers. Findings of Study 3 suggested contingent self-esteem as a link between parenting styles and discrepancies in sexual orientation measures. (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.
Binford Hopf, Roslyn B; Le Grange, Daniel; Moessner, Markus; Bauer, Stephanie
This study aims to examine the feasibility and acceptability of an Internet-based chat support group for parents implementing family-based treatment (FBT). Participants (N = 13) were parents of adolescents with eating disorder who participated in 15 weekly online therapist-guided chat sessions. Sessions focused on encouraging and supporting parental efforts to help their child overcome an eating disorder. Chat programme satisfaction ratings were high (91.7%). Participants reported looking forward to chat sessions and would recommend the chat to others. The vast majority reported that the chat helped them cope with their child's eating disorder and to implement FBT. Participants reported feeling that they could talk openly and honestly in sessions and had a sense of belonging to the group. Relatively few technical problems were reported, and the chat was rated as accessible, convenient and easy to use. Findings provide preliminary support for the utility of an online parent chat as an adjunct to FBT. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.
Full Text Available The transition to adulthood is a developmental period marked by increased stress, especially among African Americans. In addition to stress related to emerging adulthood, neighborhood fear may contribute to depressive symptoms for African Americans. We examined gender differences in longitudinal associations between changes in perceived neighborhood fear, parental support, and depressive symptoms among African American youth who were in transition to adulthood. Five hundred and thirteen African American youths (235 males and 278 females were included in the study. An increase in perceived neighborhood fear was associated with an increase in depressive symptoms, and change in perceived maternal support was predictive of depressive symptoms among males, but not females. The findings suggest that policies and programs should help parents provide support to young adult children who live in violent neighborhoods as a strategy to prevent depressive symptoms during emerging adulthood.
Nanninga, Marieke; Jansen, Danielle E M C; Knorth, Erik J; Reijneveld, Sijmen A
Knowledge about determinants of child and adolescent enrolment in psychosocial care concerns only single types of care and usually only socio-demographic factors. The social environment is also a likely key determinant but evidence is lacking. The aim of this study was to examine the associations between family social support, parenting skills and child and adolescent enrolment in psychosocial care. We obtained data on 1,331 children (response rate 56.6%), 4-18 years old, enrolled in preventive child health care, and child and adolescent social care and mental health care because of psychosocial problems, and on 463 children (response rate 70.3%) not enrolled in psychosocial care. Results showed that enrolment in psychosocial care was associated with low family social support (odds ratio; 95%-confidence interval: 3.2; 2.4-4.4), and with poor parenting skills, i.e. poor supervision (1.5; 1.1-2.1) and inconsistent disciplining (1.5; 1.1-2.1). Children's psychosocial problems partially mediated the associations with family social support and completely with parenting skills. Children's problems did not moderate the associations. Positive parenting was not associated with care enrolment. We conclude that low family social support and poor parenting are important factors associated with enrolment, in particular because they are associated with more frequent occurrence of children's psychosocial problems. This implies that professionals and policymakers need to be aware that factors in children's social environment are related with enrolment in psychosocial care, in addition to children's psychosocial problems.
Schofield, Thomas J; Conger, Rand D; Conger, Kathi J
Harsh, abusive, and rejecting behavior by parents toward their children is associated with increased risk for many developmental problems for youth. Children raised by harsh parents are also more likely to treat their own children harshly. The present study addresses conditions that would break this intergenerational cycle of harsh parenting. Data come from a three-generation study of a cohort of 290 adolescents (Generation 2 [G2], 52% female) grown to adulthood and their parents (Generation 1 [G1]). During adolescence, observers rated G1 harsh parenting to G2. Several years later observers rated G2 harsh parenting toward their oldest child (Generation 3 [G3]). Several adaptive systems fundamental to human resilience attenuate intergenerational continuity in harshness. G2 parents were relatively less harsh to G3 children (notwithstanding a history of harshness from G1) when G2's romantic partner (a) communicated positively with G2 and (b) had a good relationship with G3, and (c) when G2 was high on self-control. Interventions that target all of these protective factors may not only break but also reverse the intergenerational cycle of child maltreatment.
Exner, Pavel; Kondej, S.
Roč. 77, č. 1 (2016), s. 1-17 ISSN 0034-4877 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-06818S Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : singular perturbations * eigenvalue asymptotics Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 0.604, year: 2016
Fearnley, Rachel; Boland, Jason W
Communication between parents and their children about parental life-limiting illness is stressful. Parents want support from health-care professionals; however, the extent of this support is not known. Awareness of family's needs would help ensure appropriate support. To find the current literature exploring (1) how parents with a life-limiting illness, who have dependent children, perceive health-care professionals' communication with them about the illness, diagnosis and treatments, including how social, practical and emotional support is offered to them and (2) how this contributes to the parents' feelings of supporting their children. A systematic literature review and narrative synthesis. Embase, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, CINAHL and ASSIA ProQuest were searched in November 2015 for studies assessing communication between health-care professionals and parents about how to talk with their children about the parent's illness. There were 1342 records identified, five qualitative studies met the inclusion criteria (55 ill parents, 11 spouses/carers, 26 children and 16 health-care professionals). Parents wanted information from health-care professionals about how to talk to their children about the illness; this was not routinely offered. Children also want to talk with a health-care professional about their parents' illness. Health-care professionals are concerned that conversations with parents and their children will be too difficult and time-consuming. Parents with a life-limiting illness want support from their health-care professionals about how to communicate with their children about the illness. Their children look to health-care professionals for information about their parent's illness. Health-care professionals, have an important role but appear reluctant to address these concerns because of fears of insufficient time and expertise.
Kef, S.; Dekovic, M.
In the present study we examined the importance of parental and peer support for well-being of adolescents with and without a visual impairment. The sample included 178 adolescents who are blind or visually impaired and 338 adolescents without visual impairments. Peer and parental support proved to
Kosho, Tomoki; Kuniba, Hideo; Tanikawa, Yuko; Hashimoto, Yoko; Sakurai, Hiroko
We conducted a questionnaire-based study in collaboration with a Japanese trisomy 18 parental support group. Sixty-five children (female, 68%) with full trisomy 18 were evaluated. Diagnosis was made prenatally in 17% (11/65) and 57% (37/65) were born following a cesarean. The mean gestational age at delivery was 38 weeks and 6 days, and the mean birth weight was 1,920 g (-2.6SD). A total of 51% (24/47) of children had apneic episodes. Thirteen children experienced generalized seizures, and a minority was seizure-free with medication. Parents of 36% (18/50) of children were offered intensive treatment. A total of 45% (27/60) of children received intermittent mandatory ventilation, which was weaned off in half of them. Nine had surgeries, including esophageal atresia/omphalocele correction, cardiac surgery, and tracheostomy. A total of 15% (8/55) were fed fully orally, and 45% (29/64) were discharged home. Slow but constant psychomotor development was observed, and in four long-term survivors over 10 years, two walked unassisted. Factors significantly associated with survival over 1 year included diagnosis after birth, absence of prematurity, heavier birth weight, absence of esophageal atresia, extubation, ability to feed orally without medical assistance, and home discharge. Parents appeared to be positive about caring for their children, and the children seemed to interact with parents and siblings as long as they lived, resulting in quality family time. The family point of view, as well as knowledge of natural history, should be considered when policy statements about the care of children with trisomy 18 are made. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
... RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT FAMILY RELATIONSHIPS Relationship as Parent, Grandchild, Brother or Sister § 222.41... died or at the beginning of the period of disability, if the employee had a period of disability. (b...
S.R. Kim (Sarah Richards); E. Szigethy (Eva); S. Meltzer-Brody (Samantha); D.J. Pilowsky (Daniel); F.C. Verhulst (Frank)
textabstractCME EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES 1. List parental risk factors for the development of psychopathology in children. 2. Describe the relationship between treatment of maternal psychopathology and level of child symptomatology. 3. Understand family risk factors for psychopathology in children
Annette W M Spithoven
Full Text Available Gene-by-environment interaction (GxEs studies have gained popularity over the last decade, but the robustness of such observed interactions has been questioned. The current study contributes to this debate by replicating the only study on the interaction between the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR and perceived parental support on adolescents' peer-related loneliness. A total of 1,111 adolescents (51% boys with an average age of 13.70 years (SD = 0.93 participated and three annual waves of data were collected. At baseline, adolescent-reported parental support and peer-related loneliness were assessed and genetic information was collected. Assessment of peer-related loneliness was repeated at Waves 2 and 3. Using a cohort-sequential design, a Latent Growth Curve Model was estimated. Overall, a slight increase of loneliness over time was found. However, the development of loneliness over time was found to be different for boys and girls: girls' levels of loneliness increased over time, whereas boys' levels of loneliness decreased. Parental support was inversely related to baseline levels of loneliness, but unrelated to change of loneliness over time. We were unable to replicate the main effect of 5-HTTLPR or the 5-HTTLPR x Support interaction effect. In the Discussion, we examine the implications of our non-replication.
Full Text Available The Multi-dimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS is one of the most extensively used instruments to assess social support. The purpose of this research was to test the reliability, factorial validity, concurrent validity and measurement invariance across gender groups of the MSPSS in Chinese parents of children with cerebral palsy. A total of 487 participants aged 21–55 years were recruited to complete the Chinese MSPSS and Parenting Stress Index-Short Form (PSI-SF. Composite reliability was calculated as the internal consistency of the Chinese MSPSS and a (multi-group confirmatory factor analysis (CFA was conducted to test the factorial validity and measurement invariance across gender. And Pearson correlations were calculated to test the relationships between MSPSS and PSI-SF. The Chinese MSPSS had satisfactory internal reliability with composite reliability values of more than 0.7. The CFA indicated that the original three-factor model was replicated in this specific population. Importantly, the results of the multi-group CFA demonstrated that configural, metric, and scalar invariance across gender groups was supported. In addition, all the three subscales of MSPSS were significant related with PSI-SF. These findings suggest that the Chinese MSPSS is a reliable and valid tool for assessing social support and can generally be utilized across sex in the parents of children with cerebral palsy.
Wang, Yongli; Wan, Qin; Huang, Zhaoming; Huang, Li; Kong, Feng
The Multi-dimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS) is one of the most extensively used instruments to assess social support. The purpose of this research was to test the reliability, factorial validity, concurrent validity and measurement invariance across gender groups of the MSPSS in Chinese parents of children with cerebral palsy. A total of 487 participants aged 21-55 years were recruited to complete the Chinese MSPSS and Parenting Stress Index-Short Form (PSI-SF). Composite reliability was calculated as the internal consistency of the Chinese MSPSS and a (multi-group) confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was conducted to test the factorial validity and measurement invariance across gender. And Pearson correlations were calculated to test the relationships between MSPSS and PSI-SF. The Chinese MSPSS had satisfactory internal reliability with composite reliability values of more than 0.7. The CFA indicated that the original three-factor model was replicated in this specific population. Importantly, the results of the multi-group CFA demonstrated that configural, metric, and scalar invariance across gender groups was supported. In addition, all the three subscales of MSPSS were significant related with PSI-SF. These findings suggest that the Chinese MSPSS is a reliable and valid tool for assessing social support and can generally be utilized across sex in the parents of children with cerebral palsy.
Steeves, Elizabeth Anderson; Jones-Smith, Jessica; Hopkins, Laura; Gittelsohn, Joel
Objective Evidence of associations between social support and dietary intake among adolescents is mixed. This study examines relationships between social support for healthy and unhealthy eating from friends and parents, and associations with diet quality. Design Cross-sectional analysis of survey data. Setting Baltimore, MD. Participants 296 youth ages 9-15 years, 53% female, 91% African American, participating in the B’More Healthy Communities for Kids study. Main Outcome Measure(s) Primary dependent variable: Diet quality measured using Healthy Eating Index 2010 overall score, calculated from the Block Kids Food Frequency Questionnaire. Independent variables: Social support from parents and friends for healthy eating (4 questions analyzed as a scale) and unhealthy eating (3 questions analyzed individually), age, gender, race, and household income, reported via questionnaire. Analysis Adjusted multiple linear regressions. Alpha, phealthy eating did not have statistically significant relationships with overall HEI scores. Youth who reported their parents offering high fat foods or sweets more frequently had lower overall HEI scores (β=−1.65; SE=0.52; 95% CI: −2.66 to −0.63). Conclusions and Implications These results are novel and demonstrate the need for additional studies examining support for unhealthy eating. These preliminary findings may be relevant to researchers as they develop family-based nutrition interventions. PMID:26865358
van Santvoort, Floor; Hosman, Clemens M H; van Doesum, Karin T M; Janssens, Jan M A M
In various countries preventive support groups are offered to children of mentally ill and/or addicted parents to reduce the risk that they will develop problems themselves. This study assessed the effectiveness of Dutch support groups for children aged 8-12 years old in terms of reducing negative cognitions; improving social support, competence, and parent-child interaction (direct intervention goals); and reducing emotional and behavioural problems (ultimate intervention aim). Children from 254 families were randomly assigned to the intervention or a control condition. Parents and children completed questionnaires at baseline and 3 and 6 months later. Emotional and behavioural problems of intervention group children were also assessed 1 year after the start. Univariate analyses of variance showed that children in the intervention group experienced a greater decrease in negative cognitions and sought more social support, immediately after participation and 3 months later, as compared to control group children. They also remained stable in their feelings of social acceptance (competence aspect) immediately after the intervention, whereas these feelings declined in control group children. The intervention and control groups both improved over time in terms of cognitions, competence, parent-child interaction and emotional and behavioural problem scores. Additional improvement in terms of problem scores was found in the intervention group 1 year after baseline. Further enhancement of effectiveness requires re-consideration of the support group goals; it should be studied whether the goals reflect the most important and influential risk and protective factors for this specific population. Besides, effects should be studied over a longer period.
Herrmann, M M; Van Cleve, L; Levisen, L
The purpose of this descriptive study was to determine whether self-esteem, parenting competence, and social support for teenage mothers changed over the first 18 months of parenting when case managed by a public health nurse (PHN). A sample of 56 first-time teen mothers from a health department parenting project agreed to participate in the study. PHN case managers collected data close to the birth of the infants and at 6, 12, and 18 months. Demographic findings of teen mothers showed that the majority were below expected grade level, over half lived with parents, and over half were children of teen mothers. Outcome findings related to the infants revealed no delays in development as measured on the Denver Development Screening Test, adequate follow-up for identified health problems, and a high percentage of the children with up-to-date with immunizations. The research question findings showed a statistically significant drop in self esteem for the teens between birth and 6 months, and in social support between 6 and 18 months. No other findings were significant, but some trends appeared when the sample was divided by ethnicity, suggesting a need for closer follow-up for certain groups. Implications for public health nursing and nursing education are included.
Hall, Jeffrey A
This article explores the relationships between communication and social support of parents of children with cancer (N = 44), and the importance of gender-role conflict in fathers. Structural equation modeling and the Actor-Partner Interdependence Model were used to test the expected relationships between communication, social support, gender-role conflict, and anxiety, and to control for sample nonindependence. Results suggest communication increases perceived emotional and instrumental social support between parents, and instrumental support from fathers results in less anxiety for mothers. When fathers experienced more conflict about their role as financial supporter for the family (i.e., career achievement gender-role conflict), fathers perceived less instrumental and emotional support from their wives. However, fathers who experienced more conflict about career achievement were also less anxious. A second measure of fathers' gender-role conflict (i.e., emotional expression) was unrelated to either mothers' or fathers' outcomes. The role of gender, communication, and social support in the context of pediatric oncology is discussed.
Keiko Maly Garcia D'Avila-Bacarji
Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo foi investigar o suporte parental recebido por crianças encaminhadas para atendimento psicológico em razão do baixo desempenho escolar, em comparação com crianças não encaminhadas. Os participantes foram 60 crianças de 7 a 11 anos e suas mães, selecionadas em uma clínica de psicologia e em uma escola, ambas públicas. O suporte foi avaliado em três domínios: acadêmico, desenvolvimental e emocional. Da criança avaliou-se o nível de inteligência, o desempenho escolar e a presença de problemas de comportamento. Em concordância com estudos anteriores, o grupo encaminhado mostrou desempenho cognitivo e acadêmico mais baixo e mais problemas de comportamento. O suporte acadêmico não diferiu entre os grupos. As mães de crianças encaminhadas relataram menos suporte desenvolvimental e emocional, com problemas nas práticas educativas e relacionamento pais-criança conflituoso. Os resultados salientam a necessidade de cuidados de saúde mental para crianças vulneráveis que vivem em ambientes pouco apoiadores.The objective of this article was to investigate the parental support received by children directed for psychological attendance due to poor academic achievement, in comparison with children not sent to psychological attendance. Participants consisted of 60 children from 7 to 11 years of age and their mothers, selected at a psychology clinic and at school, both public ones. The support was evaluated in three domains: academic, developmental and emotional. The child was evaluated regarding his/her intelligence level, performance at school and the presence of behavior problems. In agreement with previous studies, the studied group showed lower academic and cognitive development and greater incidence academic of problems regarding behavior. The academic support did not differ among the groups. Mothers of referred children showed less developmental and emotional support, with problems in the educational
Huebner, C E; Milgrom, P
This study developed and tested an intervention to help parents establish a routine of brushing their young children's teeth twice a day. Community-based participatory research methods were used to engage parents in the design of the intervention to maximize its relevance and acceptability to others. Input was obtained by interviews and focus groups. The resulting intervention was four 90-min small-group sessions that provided educational information, direct instruction, practice and peer-to-peer problem-solving. A pre- to post-non-randomized design was used to evaluate the intervention's effect to increase or maintain parents' twice daily brushing. Intervention participants were 67 primary caregivers of children under six years of age. Of the 67 initial participants, 50 completed a post-intervention questionnaire administered 4 to 8 weeks following the intervention. The proportion of parents who reported brushing their young children's teeth twice a day increased significantly from 59 per cent prior to the intervention to 89 per cent post-intervention (McNemar's X(2) = 10.71, P = 0.002). There were concomitant and statistically significant increases over the study period in parents' confidence for brushing twice a day, attitudes about the importance of brushing and their self-efficacy for tooth brushing. Parents' knowledge of children's oral health, assessed by a 15-item scale developed for this study ('Things to Know About Baby Teeth'), also increased significantly. Twice daily tooth brushing is a low-cost, effective strategy to reduce the risk of childhood caries. As demonstrated here, community-based efforts can help parents achieve this important health behaviour. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Cole, J.J.; Carpenter, S.R.; Kitchell, J.; Pace, M.L.; Solomon, C.T.; Weidel, B.
Cross-ecosystem subsidies to food webs can alter metabolic balances in the receiving (subsidized) system and free the food web, or particular consumers, from the energetic constraints of local primary production. Although cross-ecosystem subsidies between terrestrial and aquatic systems have been well recognized for benthic organisms in streams, rivers, and the littoral zones of lakes, terrestrial subsidies to pelagic consumers are more difficult to demonstrate and remain controversial. Here, we adopt a unique approach by using stable isotopes of H, C, and N to estimate terrestrial support to zooplankton in two contrasting lakes. Zooplankton (Holopedium, Daphnia, and Leptodiaptomus) are comprised of ???20-40% of organic material of terrestrial origin. These estimates are as high as, or higher than, prior measures obtained by experimentally manipulating the inorganic 13C content of these lakes to augment the small, natural contrast in 13C between terrestrial and algal photosynthesis. Our study gives credence to a growing literature, which we review here, suggesting that significant terrestrial support of pelagic crustaceans (zooplankton) is widespread.
Cole, Jonathan J.; Carpenter, Stephen R.; Kitchell, Jim; Pace, Michael L.; Solomon, Christopher T.; Weidel, Brian
Cross-ecosystem subsidies to food webs can alter metabolic balances in the receiving (subsidized) system and free the food web, or particular consumers, from the energetic constraints of local primary production. Although cross-ecosystem subsidies between terrestrial and aquatic systems have been well recognized for benthic organisms in streams, rivers, and the littoral zones of lakes, terrestrial subsidies to pelagic consumers are more difficult to demonstrate and remain controversial. Here, we adopt a unique approach by using stable isotopes of H, C, and N to estimate terrestrial support to zooplankton in two contrasting lakes. Zooplankton (Holopedium, Daphnia, and Leptodiaptomus) are comprised of ≈20–40% of organic material of terrestrial origin. These estimates are as high as, or higher than, prior measures obtained by experimentally manipulating the inorganic 13C content of these lakes to augment the small, natural contrast in 13C between terrestrial and algal photosynthesis. Our study gives credence to a growing literature, which we review here, suggesting that significant terrestrial support of pelagic crustaceans (zooplankton) is widespread. PMID:21245299
Full Text Available Upon invading the host erythrocyte, the human malaria parasite P. falciparum lives and replicates within a membrane bound compartment referred to as the parasitophorous vacuole. Recently, interest in this compartment and its protein content has grown, due to the important roles these play in parasite egress and protein traffic to the host cell. Surprisingly, the function of many proteins within this compartment has not been experimentally addressed. Here, we study the importance of one of these proteins, termed PfPV1, for intra-erythrocytic parasite survival. Despite numerous attempts to inactivate the gene encoding PfPV1, we were unable to recover deletion mutants. Control experiments verified that the pv1 gene locus was per se open for gene targeting experiments, allowing us to exclude technical limitations in our experimental strategy. Our data provide strong genetic evidence that PfPV1 is essential for survival of blood stage P. falciparum, and further highlight the importance of parasitophorous vacuole proteins in this part of the parasite's life cycle.
Van Petegem, Stijn; Brenning, Katrijn; Baudat, Sophie; Beyers, Wim; Zimmer-Gembeck, Melanie J
The present longitudinal study tested for the role of perceived parental autonomy-support and late adolescents' self-worth in their intimacy development. A sample of 497 Belgian late adolescents (M age = 17.9, 43.5% girls) participated in this two-wave study. Results indicated that perceived autonomy-supportive parenting did not relate significantly to change in adolescents' experienced intimacy (in terms of closeness and mutuality), but was associated with a decrease in unmitigated agency (an excessive focus on the self) and unmitigated communion (an excessive focus on the other) across time. Adolescents' self-worth predicted an increase in experienced intimacy and a decrease in unmitigated agency and communion, and the initial level of experienced intimacy predicted an increase in self-worth. Finally, results suggested that adolescents' self-worth may mediate some of the longitudinal relations between perceived parental autonomy-support and adolescents' intimate functioning. No evidence was found for moderation by romantic involvement, gender or age. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Metzler, Carol W.; Sanders, Matthew R.; Rusby, Julie C.; Crowley, Ryann N.
Within a public health approach to improving parenting, the mass media offer a potentially more efficient and affordable format for directly reaching a large number of parents with evidence-based parenting information than do traditional approaches to parenting interventions that require delivery by a practitioner. Little is known, however, about…
Full Text Available Family and school are not separated social institution. Many parents view that it is schools and teachers which and who should be responsible for their children education. These views should be challenged by arising concern and awareness of parents and teachers of the importance of shared responsibility and cooperativeness. Parents are responsible for laying the basic/foundation of children’s learning, basic values, moral education, and basic social learning. Teachers and schools bear responsibility for developing those basic education. During their learning at school, students have a chance to develop their social competence. School also can be environment where children are gradually learning to be adult learners. They can be adult learners through engaging in collaborative learning activities. Through this social learning, children can learn develop social concern and sensitivity. Moreover, they can develop their learning through experience.
Raynor, Phyllis A; Pope, Charlene; York, Janet; Smith, Gigi; Mueller, Martina
Very little is known about the self-care behaviors (SCB) that adult parents employ and the preferred supports they utilize to maintain their recovery from substance use disorders (SUD) while also parenting their children. This study used a qualitative descriptive approach to explore perceptions of self-care and parenting to inform future self-care interventions for parents in early recovery. Nineteen mothers and fathers of at least one child between the ages of 6-18 were interviewed by telephone about parental self-care practices while in recovery from SUD, recovery management, and preferred supports in the community. Participants described the experience of parenting as challenging, with variations in the level of support and resources. Self-care included meaningful connection with recovery support and children, taking care of physical health, maintaining spirituality, healthy eating, exercise, journaling, continuing education, staying busy, sponsorship, establishing boundaries, self-monitoring, abstinence, and dealing with destructive emotions. Participants reported SCB as being a critical component of their ongoing recovery and their parenting practices, though differences in SCB by gender and for minorities require further exploration. Parental gains were perceived as benefits of SCB that minimized the negative impact of prior parental drug use on their children.
Vasquez Guerrero, Desi Alonzo
This study examines the relationships between hypermasculinity, sexual aggression, intimate partner violence, social support, and child maltreatment risk among heterosexual fathers completing parenting classes. Hypermasculinity scores were found to be significant predictors of study participants' reported verbal, physical, and sexual aggression toward their intimate partners. Only lack of social support, operationalized as the reported frequency of participants' conversations with friends, relatives, or neighbors about their problems, was found to be a significant predictor of child maltreatment risk. Alcohol frequency, education, and monthly income were not found to be unique, significant predictors of any dependent variables. Implications for clinical practice and research as well as limitations to the current study are discussed.
Parent-to-parent programs provide emotional and informational support to parents of children with special needs by matching trained and experienced parents with parents needing support. This study examined the implementation and effects of a Parent-to-Parent Program in Taiwan that supported 3 families of youngsters with special needs. Based on the…
Beach, Steven R H; Lei, Man Kit; Brody, Gene H; Miller, Gregory E; Chen, Edith; Mandara, Jelani; Philibert, Robert A
We examined two potentially interacting, connected pathways by which parental supportiveness during early adolescence (ages 1-13) may come to be associated with later African American young adult smoking. The first pathway is between parental supportiveness and young adult stress (age 19), with stress, in turn, predicting increased smoking at age 20. The second pathway is between supportive parenting and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) gene methylation (i.e., TNFm), a proinflammatory epitype, with low levels indicating greater inflammatory potential and forecasting increased risk for smoking in response to young adult stress. In a sample of 382 African American youth residing in rural Georgia, followed from early adolescence (age 10-11) to young adulthood (age 20), supportive parenting indirectly predicted smoking via associations with young adult stress, IE = -0.071, 95% confidence interval [-0.132, -0.010]. In addition, supportive parenting was associated with TNFm measured at age 20 (r = .177, p = .001). Further, lower TNFm was associated with a significantly steeper slope (b = 0.583, p = .003) of increased smoking in response to young adult stress compared to those with higher TNFm (b = 0.155, p = .291), indicating an indirect, amplifying role for supportive parenting via TNFm. The results suggest that supportive parenting in early adolescence may play a role in understanding the emergence of smoking in young adulthood.
Willemen, A.M.; Goossens, F.A.; Koot, H.M.; Schuengel, C.
An Alarm Stress Task was developed to study affect regulation in the context of parent-child interactions in adolescents (mean age = 12.72, standard deviation = 2.06) with (n = 20) and without (n = 20) mental health problems. Changes in heart rate (HR), pre-ejection period (PEP) and respiratory
Drost, Louisa M.; Schippers, Gerard M.
From epidemiologic research, we know that children of parents with a mental illness (COPMI) have an elevated risk of developing a serious mental disorder. Aside from studies based on risk and resilience, there has been little research on the children's own perceptions. The aim of this study was to
Nunes, Clarisse; Miranda, Guilhermina Lobato; Amaral, Isabel
This study aimed to analyze how the Social Software tools could respond to the needs of parents and teachers of students with multiple disabilities in improving their practices, as well as provide information and resources related to the topic of multiple disabilities. The study was implemented in Portugal and involved 45 participants: 25 special…
Gates, Peter; Guo, Xumei
Although the high level of achievement experienced by British-Chinese pupils in schools is well documented, the Chinese community in the UK is a relatively under-researched ethnic group. There is only patchy information on ways in which British-Chinese parents and children engage with education. It is often presumed the success of Chinese pupils…
Middle school students from military families face unique challenges, especially when their parents are deployed. Among the challenges they experience are frequent relocations; issues that affect academic achievement; uncertainty; and changes in roles, responsibilities, and relationships at home. Reunification involves issues of the returning…
Manojlovic, Stefan; Boer, Laurens; Sterkenburg, Paula
This paper presents the ongoing design research and preliminary results in the field of family-centered healthcare, in particular directed to families with children at the age of 0-2 years with Down Syndrome. A central concern of these families is parent-child bonding, as bonding is often disrupted...
Sawyer, Brook E.; Manz, Patricia H.; Martin, Kristin A.
Guided by Bronfenbrenner's bio-ecological theory of human development and Moll's theory of funds of knowledge, the aim of this qualitative study was to examine the beliefs of parents and early childhood teachers on (a) the language development of Spanish-speaking preschool dual language learners (DLLs) and (b) how they can collaborate to support…
Rose, India; Prince, Mary; Flynn, Shannon; Kershner, Sarah; Taylor, Doug
Teenage pregnancy is a major public health issue in the USA; this is especially true in the state of South Carolina (SC). Research shows that well developed, good-quality teenage pregnancy prevention (TPP) programmes can be effective in modifying young people's sexual behaviour. While several quantitative studies have examined parents' perceptions…
Melley, Alison Heinhold; Cosgrove, Kim; Norris-Shortle, Carole; Kiser, Laurel J.; Levey, Eric B.; Coble, Catherine A.; Leviton, Audrey
Sensitive parenting and secure attachment can serve as protective factors against developmental risks associated with high-risk environments such as homelessness and shelter living. This article describes a program for mothers with children from birth to 3 years old whose families are living in shelters and who are enrolled in PACT: Helping…
Epstein, Elizabeth G; Arechiga, Jaqueline; Dancy, Margaret; Simon, Jordan; Wilson, Daniel; Alhusen, Jeanne L
To synthesize findings from the published literature on the use of technology in the NICU to improve communications and interactions among health care providers, parents, and infants. Electronic databases including Ovid MEDLINE, CINAHL, Web of Science, and Google Scholar were searched for related research published through May 2016. The reference lists of all studies were reviewed, and a hand search of key journals was also conducted to locate eligible studies. Eleven studies (five quantitative, two qualitative, and four mixed methods) were identified that met the inclusion criteria. Only studies published in English were included. Whittemore and Knafl's methodology for conducting integrative reviews was used to guide data extraction, analysis, and synthesis. Data were extracted and organized according to the following headings: author, year, and location; study purpose and design; sample size and demographics; technology used; study findings; and limitations. Various technologies were used, including videoconferencing, videophone, and commercially available modalities such as Skype, FaceTime, AngelEye, and NICView Webcams. In the 11 studies, three main outcomes were evaluated: parents' perception of technology use, health care providers' perceptions of technology use, and objective outcomes, such as parental anxiety or stress or infant length of stay. Overall, parents and health care providers perceived the varied interventions quite favorably, although a few significant differences were found for the objective measures. Several interventions have been tested to improve communications and promote interactions among NICU health care team members, parents, and infants. Although initial findings are positive, research in this area is quite limited, and the reviewed studies had several limitations. There is a significant need for further rigorous research to be conducted with diverse samples. Copyright © 2017 AWHONN, the Association of Women’s Health, Obstetric and
Cacioppo, Cara N; Conway, Laura J; Mehta, Devanshi; Krantz, Ian D; Noon, Sarah E
There is an abundance of information in the literature on patient experiences with Internet support groups (ISGs). However, studies exploring these experiences in a rare disease population are scarce, even though these families are often at a disadvantage for resources, reliable information, and support. The aim of the current study was to explore the experiences with ISGs for parents of children with Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS), a rare genetic diagnosis, in order to better understand the impact on emotional support and their child's medical care. Focus groups were conducted to inform the design of a large-scale internet survey. The survey asked parents closed- and open-ended questions regarding experiences with ISGs, with a focus on the psychosocial, medical, and logistical aspects. The survey found that 141/170 (82.6%) respondents have visited an Internet-based support group to find support or information about their child's CdLS diagnosis. The majority of respondents (71.7%) reported that ISGs have been helpful in finding emotional support, with the most common areas impacted as a result of ISG participation being behavior toward their children and family dynamic. Regarding medical care, most respondents (63.9%) reported that ISGs have been helpful in finding medical information and support, with the most commonly impacted areas of their child's care including day-to-day management, diet, therapy interventions, and healthcare providers. These findings provide a greater understanding of the role of Internet networking in healthcare and may inform future approaches to medical care and psychosocial support for rare, complex genetic diagnoses. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Odgers, Candice L.; Caspi, Avshalom; Russell, Michael A.; Sampson, Robert J.; Arsenault, Louise; Moffitt, Terrie E.
In this article we report a graded relationship between neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES) and children’s antisocial behavior that (1) can be observed at school entry, (2) widens across childhood, (3) remains after controlling for family-level SES and risk, and (4) is completely mediated by maternal warmth and parental monitoring (defined throughout as supportive parenting). Children were participants in the Environmental Risk (E-Risk) Longitudinal Twin Study (n=2232), which prospectively tracked the development of children and their neighborhoods across childhood. Direct and independent effects of neighborhood-level SES on children’s antisocial behavior were observed as early as age 5 and the gap between children living in deprived versus more affluent neighborhoods widened as children approached adolescence. By age 12, the effect of neighborhood socioeconomic status on children’s antisocial behavior was as large as the effect observed for our most robust predictor of antisocial behavior – sex! (Cohen’s d = .51 when comparing children growing up in deprived versus more affluent neighborhoods in comparison to Cohen’s d = .53 when comparing antisocial behavior among boys versus girls). However, differences in children’s levels and rate of change in antisocial behavior across deprived versus more affluent neighborhoods were completely mediated by supportive parenting practices. Implications of our findings for studying and reducing socioeconomic disparities in antisocial behavior among children are discussed. PMID:22781850
Bottos, A M; Zanon, E; Sartori, M T; Girolami, A
Parents of children affected by haemophilia must face, often without prior knowledge, the difficult challenge imposed by such a pathology. To satisfy the need of information, guideline and psychological support for a better quality of life, 30 parents with haemophiliac children have participated in a programme of counselling and psychological support. Such a programme has the aim of guiding the group trough a process of discovery, comparison and personal growth and stimulating adaptive processes of problem-solving and decision-making. The aim of this paper was to verify how the programme influenced coping strategies and other psychological constructs such as depression and anxiety. Subjects of this study were administered the following psychological tests: COPE (coping, orientation to problems experienced), BDI (beck depression inventory), STAI-Y form (state-trait anxiety inventory) at the beginning and at the end of the programme. The results show that by the end of the programme subjects are characterized by a greater use of problem-focused coping strategies, typical of individuals who think that the situation is susceptible to change, and a minor use of emotion-focused coping strategies, related to individuals who regard the situation as immutable. The use of avoidance -focused coping strategies seems to remain at the same level even if it was low. Also the other psychological aspects investigated, namely depression and anxiety, did receive a positive influence. The results show how significant such programme has been for parents.
Houlihan, D; Sharek, D; Higgins, A
Health professionals, including nurses, stand accused of ignorance or oversight of children whose parent experience a mental health problem. Psychiatric nurses are in an ideal position to respond to children's needs and support their parents in a proactive and sensitive manner. The aim of this study was to explore psychiatric nurses' education, knowledge, confidence and practice with regard to the support needs of children whose parent has a mental health problem. This study employed a self-completion anonymous survey design with a sample of registered psychiatric nurses from one integrated mental health service in Ireland. The sample reported relatively low levels of education, knowledge, confidence and supportive clinical practice when it came to children whose parent has a mental health problem. There is an urgent need for education on family-focused care, and the development of guidelines and child focused services if the needs of parents and children are to be met. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing.
Full Text Available This study investigated the prevalence of psychological distress among parents in Western Sydney households and examined its relationship with household financial, family and life stressors, and potential resilience factors. As part of a longer-term study, parents from Western Sydney, New South Wales (NSW, completed computer-assisted telephone interviews (CATI in May 2011 (N=439. Respondents were primary caregivers of at least one child (aged 4–16. Responses were weighted to reflect the Western Sydney population. Multivariate analyses were conducted to examine the relationship between parent experiences of stressor and resilience factors and reported psychological distress. Overall, 10.7% (95% CI: 7.8, 14.5 reported experiencing high/very high levels of psychological distress. Multivariate analysis indicated that financial hardship factors formed the strongest associations with psychological distress particularly housing and job security factors and, specifically, inability to meet mortgage/rent payments (OR=5.15, 95% CI: 1.74–15.25, p=0.003, poor self-rated health (OR=4.48, 95% CI: 1.88–10.64, p=0.001, adult job loss (OR=3.77, 95% CI: 1.33–10.66, p=0.013, and other family/life events (OR=2.30, 95% CI: 1.05–5.03, p=0.037. High personal resilience was common within this parent population and was a significant protective factor for high psychological distress (OR=0.14, 95% CI: 0.06–0.34, p<0.001. The findings support the development of targeted interventions to promote parent coping strategies in the context of household financial hardship.
Rimmerman, Arie; Chen, Ariel
This research examines the applicability of the Theory of Planned Behavior in predicting supportive behaviors by parents and adult siblings of immediate relatives with intellectual disability. Participants were 67 parents and 63 siblings whose immediate relatives with intellectual disability resided in two institutional care facilities. Three…
Wyss, Shannon E.
The first nonpathologizing book for parents on trans and gender-nonconforming young people, Stephanie Brill and Rachel Pepper's "The Transgender Child: A Handbook for Families and Professionals", urges unconditional love and acceptance of both trans youth and gender-nonconforming children. The authors encourage parents not only to support their…
Harris, Deborah Jayne
The aim of this small-scale study was to evaluate whether music could support communication, language and literacy development within a pre-school setting. The research focused on a music specialist who provided a range of musical activities that engaged both parents and children over a 20-week period. Initial interviews with parents indicated…
This document is comprised of 12 issues of a High/Scope newsletter designed to give parents information on child development and to provide suggestions for ways parents can support their preschool child's development at home. Each issue focuses on one aspect of development or learning. The topics for the 12 issues are: (1) dramatic play; (2)…
Vallotton, Claire D.
Gestures are a natural form of communication between preverbal children and parents which support children's social and language development; however, low-income parents gesture less frequently, disadvantaging their children. In addition to pointing and waving, children are capable of learning many symbolic gestures, known as "infant signs," if…
Jansen, Suzanne L. G.; van der Putten, Annette A. J.; Vlaskamp, Carla
Background: There is little data on the collaboration between parents and professionals in the support of persons with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities. Since communication is essential to collaboration, this study analysed the frequency, means, and personal experiences of communication between parents and professionals. Method: A…
Epstein, Elizabeth G.; Arechiga, Jaqueline; Dancy, Margaret; Simon, Jordan; Wilson, Daniel; Alhusen, Jeanne L.
Objective To synthesize findings from the published literature on the use of technology in the NICU to improve communications and interactions among health care providers, parents, and infants. Data Sources Electronic databases including Ovid MEDLINE, CINAHL, Web of Science, and Google Scholar were searched for related research published through May 2016. The reference lists of all studies were reviewed, and a hand search of key journals was also conducted to locate eligible studies. Study Selection Eleven studies (five quantitative, two qualitative, and four mixed methods) were identified that met the inclusion criteria. Only studies published in English were included. Data Extraction Whittemore and Knafl’s methodology for conducting integrative reviews was used to guide data extraction, analysis, and synthesis. Data were extracted and organized according to the following headings: author, year, and location; study purpose and design; sample size and demographics; technology used; study findings; and limitations. Data Synthesis Various technologies were used, including videoconferencing, videophone, and commercially available modalities such as Skype, FaceTime, AngelEye, and NICView Webcams. In the 11 studies, three main outcomes were evaluated: parents’ perception of technology use, health care providers’ perceptions of technology use, and objective outcomes, such as parental anxiety or stress or infant length of stay. Overall, parents and health care providers perceived the varied interventions quite favorably, although a few significant differences were found for the objective measures. Conclusion Several interventions have been tested to improve communications and promote interactions among NICU health care team members, parents, and infants. Although initial findings are positive, research in this area is quite limited, and the reviewed studies had several limitations. There is a significant need for further rigorous research to be conducted with
Huebner, CE; Milgrom, P
Objectives This study developed and tested an intervention to help parents establish a routine of brushing their young children’s teeth twice a day. Methods Community-based participatory research methods were used to engage parents in the design of the intervention to maximize its relevance and acceptability to others. Input was obtained by interviews and focus groups. The resulting intervention was four 90-min small-group sessions that provided educational information, direct instruction, practice and peer-to-peer problem-solving. A pre- to post-non-randomized design was used to evaluate the intervention’s effect to increase or maintain parents’ twice daily brushing. Results Intervention participants were 67 primary caregivers of children under six years of age. Of the 67 initial participants, 50 completed a post-intervention questionnaire administered 4 to 8 weeks following the intervention. The proportion of parents who reported brushing their young children’s teeth twice a day increased significantly from 59 per cent prior to the intervention to 89 per cent post-intervention (McNemar’s X2 = 10.71, P = 0.002). There were concomitant and statistically significant increases over the study period in parents’ confidence for brushing twice a day, attitudes about the importance of brushing and their self-efficacy for tooth brushing. Parents’ knowledge of children’s oral health, assessed by a 15-item scale developed for this study (‘Things to Know About Baby Teeth’), also increased significantly. Conclusions Twice daily tooth brushing is a low-cost, effective strategy to reduce the risk of childhood caries. As demonstrated here, community-based efforts can help parents achieve this important health behaviour. PMID:25070036
Crisp, Cheryl L
When a child has a life-limiting illness, parents' goals and strategies for their child's life may need to be drastically altered, especially if early death looms. This article reviews literature and research about how families employ faith, hope, spirituality, and biblical perspectives as their child becomes critically ill and faces death. Suggestions are made for best caring practices for families and children encountering this difficult journey.
Stafford, Lesley; Sinclair, Michelle; Turner, Jane; Newman, Louise; Wakefield, Claire; Krishnasamy, Mei; Mann, G. Bruce; Gilham, Leslie; Mason, Kylie; Rauch, Paula; Cannell, Julia; Schofield, Penelope
Background Parents with cancer have high rates of psychological morbidity, and their children are at risk of poor psychosocial outcomes, particularly in the context of parental distress and poor family communication. Parents express concerns about the impact of cancer on their children and report a lack of professional guidance in meeting their children’s needs. Few parenting interventions exist and current interventions have extensive infrastructure demands making them unsuitable for routine...
Milteer, Regina M; Ginsburg, Kenneth R
Play is essential to the social, emotional, cognitive, and physical well-being of children beginning in early childhood. It is a natural tool for children to develop resiliency as they learn to cooperate, overcome challenges, and negotiate with others. Play also allows children to be creative. It provides time for parents to be fully engaged with their children, to bond with their children, and to see the world from the perspective of their child. However, children who live in poverty often face socioeconomic obstacles that impede their rights to have playtime, thus affecting their healthy social-emotional development. For children who are underresourced to reach their highest potential, it is essential that parents, educators, and pediatricians recognize the importance of lifelong benefits that children gain from play.
Cantwell, J; Muldoon, O; Gallagher, S
This study explored the synergistic relationship between stigma, self-esteem and social support, as predictors of depressive symptomology in parents of children with disabilities (e.g. Autism and Down syndrome). One hundred and seventy-three parents (115 parents of children with disabilities and 58 control parents) completed measures of perceived stigma, self-esteem, social support and depressive symptoms. Parents of children with disabilities reported more depressive symptomology; additionally, stigma, self-esteem and social support were associated with depressive symptomology. Moreover, the association between stigma and depressive symptomology was mediated by self-esteem, i.e. parents who reported higher stigma were lower on self-esteem and more depressed. Further, this path varied as a function of emotional support. Results highlight the need for tailored interventions that offer parents effective strategies in dealing with stigma through social support and self-esteem. © 2015 MENCAP and International Association of the Scientific Study of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Stuttard, L; Clarke, S; Thomas, M; Beresford, B
Resource constraints may inhibit the provision of appropriate interventions for children with neurodisabilities presenting with behavioural sleep problems. Telephone calls (TC), as opposed to home visits (HV), may be a more resource efficient means of supporting these families. To conduct a preliminary investigation exploring the feasibility and acceptability of replacing HV with TC to support parents implementing sleep management strategies and to gather evidence to inform the design and methods of a full trial. Parents referred to a sleep management intervention routinely delivered by a community paediatric team were alternately allocated to receive implementation support via HV (n = 7) or TC (n = 8). Activity logs recorded the frequency, duration and mode of support. Parents and practitioners were interviewed about their experiences of receiving/delivering the intervention. Intervention drop-out was low, the frequency, number of contacts and intervention duration appeared comparable. Parents allocated TC received less contact time. Parents valued implementation support irrespective of delivery mode and practitioners reported that despite initial reservations, implementation support via TC appeared to work well. TC appears an acceptable and convenient mode of delivering sleep support, valued by both parents and practitioners. We recommend a full-scale trial to investigate effectiveness. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Goussé, Véronique; Czernecki, Virginie; Denis, Pierre; Stilgenbauer, Jean-Louis; Deniau, Emmanuelle; Hartmann, Andreas
Previous reports have indicated that raising a child with Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS) could be considered a stressful experience. Thus our study aimed to assess the impact of perceived stress (i.e. parental cognitive perception of their child's disorder) and social support (number of people surrounding the subject providing support) on coping strategies-defined as processes of restoring balance between excessive demands and inadequate resources-of parents having a child with GTS. Twenty-eight parents of 21 patients with GTS (aged 6 to 16years) completed questionnaires on perceived stress (ALE Scale), social support (SSQ6), coping strategies (WCC-R) and anxiety-depression (HAD). Principal component analysis showed a negative correlation between social support on one side and perceived stress and anxiety/depression on the other. Problem- and emotion-focused coping both correlated with social support, all of them being independent from perceived stress and anxiety/depression. Hierarchical ascendant classification showed three clusters of individuals in our parents' groups: i) those having high scores in perceived stress and anxiety-depression; ii) those having high scores in social support associated with low scores in perceived stress; iii) parents having lower than average scores on both problem- and emotion- focused coping and social support. Our results reinforce the need for developing training programs for parents with GTS children to better understand and tolerate the disorder to decrease their stress. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Diderich, H M; Pannebakker, F D; Dechesne, M; Buitendijk, S E; Oudesluys-Murphy, A M
The 'Hague Protocol' enables professionals at the adult Emergency Department (ED) to detect child abuse based on three parental characteristics: (i) suicide attempt or self-harm, (ii) domestic violence or (iii) substance abuse, and to refer them to the Reporting Centre for Child Abuse and Neglect (RCCAN). This study investigates what had happened to the families three months after this referral. ED referrals based on parental characteristics (N = 100) in which child abuse was confirmed after investigation by the RCCAN were analysed. Information was collected regarding type of child abuse, reason for reporting, duration of problems prior to the ED referral, previous involvement of support services or other agencies, re-occurrence of the problems and outcome of the RCCAN monitoring according to professionals and the families. Of the 100 referred cases, 68 families were already known to the RCCAN, the police or family support services, prior to the ED referral. Of the 99 cases where information was available, existing support was continued or intensified in 31, a Child Protection Services (CPS) report had to be made in 24, new support was organized for 27 cases and in 17 cases support was not necessary, because the domestic problems were already resolved. Even though the RCCAN is mandated to monitor all referred families after three months, 31 cases which were referred internally were not followed up. Before referral by the ED two thirds of these families were already known to organizations. Monitoring may help provide a better, more sustained service and prevent and resolve domestic problems. A national database could help to link data and to streamline care for victims and families. We recommend a Randomized Controlled Trial to test the effectiveness of this Protocol in combination with the outcomes of the provided family support. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Kim, Ji Dang; Choi, Myong Yong; Choi, Hyun Chul
Graphene-oxide-supported Pt (GO-Pt) nanoparticles were prepared by performing diimide-activated amidation and used in an electrocatalyst for hydrazine electro-oxidation in 0.5 M H2SO4 solution. The physico-chemical properties of the GO-Pt nanoparticles were characterized with various techniques, which revealed that highly dispersed Pt nanoparticles with an average size of 2.6 nm were densely deposited on the amidated GO due to their strong adhesion. Cyclic voltammograms were obtained and demonstrate that the GO-Pt catalyst exhibits significantly improved catalytic activity and long-term stability in hydrazine electro-oxidation in a strong acidic solution when compared to commercial Pt/C and Pt metal electrodes. These enhanced electrochemical properties are attributed to the large electrochemically active surface area that results from the smaller size and excellent dispersion of the Pt nanoparticles on amidated GO.
Vander Ploeg, Kerry A; Kuhle, Stefan; Maximova, Katerina; McGavock, Jonathan; Wu, Biao; Veugelers, Paul J
Parental influences are essential to the behaviours and physical activity of their children. Our study aimed to determine if parental beliefs and support are associated with children's pedometer measured physical activity levels on school days and weekend days. In the spring of 2009 and 2011, we analyzed cross-sectional data from 1,355 grade five students and parents in 30 schools in Alberta, Canada. Parents reported how much they care about exercising, how much they encourage their child to be physically active, and how frequently they engage in physical activities with their child. Physical activity was assessed from step counts obtained from time-stamped pedometers collected over nine consecutive days. Increased parental encouragement was positively associated with boys' and girls' physical activity on school days (Boys: beta = 1373, 95% CI: 606, 2139; Girls: beta = 632, 95% CI: 108, 1155) and girls' physical activity on weekend days (beta = 997, 95% CI: 130, 1864). Increased parental care was positively associated with boys' physical activity on weekend days (beta = 1381, 95% CI: 85, 2676). Increased parental support and engagement was associated with an additional 632-1381 steps/day for children in this study. Parental care, encouragement and engagement are associated with physical activity levels of children 10-11 years of age. Policy makers and researchers should consider the importance of targeting parents when designing strategies to promote physical activity in children. This is particularly relevant to weekends and holidays when children's activity levels are low.
Full Text Available The Macedonian scientific society for autism (MSSA has finished conducting the second year of the project „Equity and social inclusion through positive parenting“ together with their partner organizations and universities from Great Britain, Croatia, Cyprus and Belgium. From the very beginning, the project has the goal to conduct training sessions which are specifically designed for parents of children with autism and who look into subjects and areas which the parents themselves have chosen through previous conducted research based on their need for knowledge for certain specific areas of the autistic spectrum disorder (ASD. So far there have been 5 training sessions that were held, and there are 2 more training sessions that are planned to be held until the end of the project which will be conducted in Bitola and probably Debar. As one of the goals of the project is to hold conferences in each partner country where we inform the wider public about the project and its achievements, as well as which methods and in which ways should be implemented so that we improve the condition of the people with ASD and their families. The next conference that will be held is on the 1st of November in the Museum of the Macedonian Struggle for Independence in Skopje, and it will be intended primarily for parents of children with ASD and professionals from the field of autism. All that are interested may apply on the e-mail email@example.com, or fill out a google form online. At the conference there are lecturers who will present their presentations, such as Prof. Dr. David Preece form the University of Northhampton from England, Ron Fortuna from the organization Target Autism from England, Angela Capper from the organization Target Autism from England, Julia Hardcastle (parent from England from the organization Autism Concern, Angela Winstanley from AASP from Cyprus, Dr. Jasmina Trosanska, Filip Jurtoski and Prof. Dr. Vladimir Trajkovski from MSSA from
Al-Mandwee, Samir F.
The objective of this dissertation was to quantitatively study Iraqi students (N=90) who arrived in the U.S.A. in the last 20 years. A non-experimental, descriptive research design was used for this study, which took place in one of three high schools in a large Midwestern suburban school district, during the 2013--2014 academic year. Three factors, including the students' perception of the value of education, the parental support, and the peer support, were examined using the Facilitating Conditions Questionnaire. The three subscales were part of a larger self-administered questionnaire used by McInerney (1997). In addition to the FCQ survey, a student demographic questionnaire was also used in the survey. Quantitative data from the FCQ survey reported that the students' perception of the value of education and their perception of peer support had a significant relationship with science academic achievement, which was measured for two semesters. Moreover, their peer support was the only predictor for science achievement.
Conclusions: The results of the study showed that mother–infant attachment improved by increasing mothers' satisfaction of supportive nursing care. Therefore, it seems necessary to increase maternal satisfaction through given nursing care support, in order to promote mother–infant attachment.
Gremmen, M.C.; Molenaar, I.; Teepe, R.C.
Some children enter elementary school with large vocabulary delays, which negatively influence their later school performance.A rich home language environment can support vocabulary development through frequent high-quality parent–toddler interaction. Elaborated picture home activities can support
Cheah, Charissa S L; Leung, Christy Y Y; Tahseen, Madiha; Schultz, David
The goals of this study were: (a) to examine authoritative parenting style among Chinese immigrant mothers of young children, (b) to test the mediational mechanism between authoritative parenting style and children's outcomes; and (c) to evaluate 3 predictors of authoritative parenting style (psychological well-being, perceived support in the parenting role, parenting stress). Participants included 85 Chinese immigrant mothers and their preschool children. Mothers reported on their parenting style, psychological well-being, perceived parenting support and stress, and children's hyperactivity/attention. Teacher ratings of child adjustment were also obtained. Results revealed that Chinese immigrant mothers of preschoolers strongly endorsed the authoritative parenting style. Moreover, authoritative parenting predicted increased children's behavioral/attention regulation abilities (lower hyperactivity/inattention), which then predicted decreased teacher rated child difficulties. Finally, mothers with greater psychological well-being or parenting support engaged in more authoritative parenting, but only under conditions of low parenting stress. Neither well-being nor parenting support predicted authoritative parenting when parenting hassles were high. Findings were discussed in light of cultural- and immigration-related issues facing immigrant Chinese mothers of young children. Copyright 2009 APA, all rights reserved.
Poon, Cecilia Y M; Knight, Bob G
This study examined whether recalled childhood parental emotional abuse and support were associated with emotional reactivity to network stress among middle-aged and older adults. Hypotheses were tested by performing 2-level multilevel modeling analysis on 787 participants aged 33-83 who participated in the Daily Stress Project (2004-2009). Adult daughters who recalled more childhood emotional abuse from their mother reported a higher average level of daily emotional distress nearly a decade later. The association between network stress and emotional distress was only significant among adult daughters. This emotional reactivity was attenuated by greater childhood emotional support from mothers. Recalled childhood mother-child relationship continues to influence stress and coping across the lifespan, especially among women.
Ault, Melinda Jones; Collins, Belva C.; Carter, Erik W.
Although religion and spirituality have received relatively limited attention in the literature addressing people with disabilities, each is strongly associated with a host of positive outcomes, including enhanced quality of life. One way to participate in religious activities and enhance spirituality is to participate in a faith community. In…
Li, Siwei; Xu, Yao; Chen, Yifu; Li, Weizhen; Lin, Lili; Li, Mengzhu; Deng, Yuchen; Wang, Xiaoping; Ge, Binghui; Yang, Ce; Yao, Siyu; Xie, Jinglin; Li, Yongwang; Liu, Xi; Ma, Ding
A one-step ligand-free method based on an adsorption-precipitation process was developed to fabricate iridium/cerium oxide (Ir/CeO 2 ) nanocatalysts. Ir species demonstrated a strong metal-support interaction (SMSI) with the CeO 2 substrate. The chemical state of Ir could be finely tuned by altering the loading of the metal. In the carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) hydrogenation reaction it was shown that the chemical state of Ir species-induced by a SMSI-has a major impact on the reaction selectivity. Direct evidence is provided indicating that a single-site catalyst is not a prerequisite for inhibition of methanation and sole production of carbon monoxide (CO) in CO 2 hydrogenation. Instead, modulation of the chemical state of metal species by a strong metal-support interaction is more important for regulation of the observed selectivity (metallic Ir particles select for methane while partially oxidized Ir species select for CO production). The study provides insight into heterogeneous catalysts at nano, sub-nano, and atomic scales. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Jeffries, Mark; Phipps, Denham; Howard, Rachel L; Avery, Anthony; Rodgers, Sarah; Ashcroft, Darren
Using strong structuration theory, we aimed to understand the adoption and implementation of an electronic clinical audit and feedback tool to support medicine optimisation for patients in primary care. This is a qualitative study informed by strong structuration theory. The analysis was thematic, using a template approach. An a priori set of thematic codes, based on strong structuration theory, was developed from the literature and applied to the transcripts. The coding template was then modified through successive readings of the data. Clinical commissioning group in the south of England. Four focus groups and five semi-structured interviews were conducted with 18 participants purposively sampled from a range of stakeholder groups (general practitioners, pharmacists, patients and commissioners). Using the system could lead to improved medication safety, but use was determined by broad institutional contexts; by the perceptions, dispositions and skills of users; and by the structures embedded within the technology. These included perceptions of the system as new and requiring technical competence and skill; the adoption of the system for information gathering; and interactions and relationships that involved individual, shared or collective use. The dynamics between these external, internal and technological structures affected the adoption and implementation of the system. Successful implementation of information technology interventions for medicine optimisation will depend on a combination of the infrastructure within primary care, social structures embedded in the technology and the conventions, norms and dispositions of those utilising it. Future interventions, using electronic audit and feedback tools to improve medication safety, should consider the complexity of the social and organisational contexts and how internal and external structures can affect the use of the technology in order to support effective implementation. © Article author(s) (or their
Wolf, Jennifer Price
Social support and collective efficacy are related to child physical abuse. However, little is known about whether these relationships differ for women and men, although mothers and fathers differ in the quantity and quality of time spent with children. This study examined whether the relationship between social support, collective efficacy, and physical abuse is stronger for mothers than fathers. Telephone interviews were conducted with parent respondents in 50 California cities (n=3,023). Data were analyzed via overdispersed multilevel Poisson models. Results suggest that high levels of emotional support were inversely associated with physical abuse for women and men, although this effect was stronger for women. High levels of companionship support were positively associated with physical abuse for women; however the opposite was true for men. There were no significant interactions between collective efficacy variables and gender. The relationships between some types of social support and physical abuse appear to vary for men and women suggesting possibilities for more targeted intervention. PMID:25520320
Moore, Judith B.
Describes an effective, cost-efficient method of intervention with families of failure-to-thrive infants which employs supervised social work students to model nurturing and provide support services to mothers. (Author)
Home care, continuous follow-up, and endless post discharge support play vital role in preventing the emergence of mental and physical disabilities and death among preterm infants. Providing necessary care and support for such infants requires huge financial and human resources and exposes heavy costs on hygiene and health system. Internet and information sharing applications, particularly Web 2.0, and social media present innovative techniques to provide a convenient channel to exch...
Halford, W. Kim; Petch, Jemima
The transition to parenthood is a substantial challenge for many couples, and the extent to which the partners can support each other and their relationship is strongly related to the sensitivity and responsiveness of their parenting of their infant. This paper critically analyses the links between the couple relationship and parenting of infants…
Querido, Jane G; Warner, Tamara D; Eyberg, Sheila M
Examined the relations between parenting styles and child behavior problems in African American preschool children. Participants were 108 African American female caregivers of 3- to 6-year-old children. Correlational analysis showed that parent-reported child behavior problems were associated with maternal education, family income, and parents' endorsement of authoritative parenting, authoritarian parenting, and permissive parenting. Hierarchical regression analysis showed that the authoritative parenting style was most predictive of fewer child behavior problems. These results are consistent with previous findings with European American families and provide strong support for the cross-cultural validity of the authoritative parenting style.
Fekete, Erin M; Antoni, Michael H; Lopez, Corina R; Durán, Ron E; Penedo, Frank J; Bandiera, Frank C; Fletcher, Mary Ann; Klimas, Nancy; Kumar, Mahendra; Schneiderman, Neil
Directly disclosing a positive HIV serostatus to family members can affect psychological and disease status. Perceptions that one is in a supportive family environment may moderate these effects; however, ethnic differences may exist in the support processes of families coping with HIV. We examined the role of serostatus disclosure to parents, HIV-specific family support, and ethnicity (Latino versus non-Hispanic White) in explaining disease status (HIV Viral Load, CD4+ cell count) in a sample of men living with HIV (MLWH). Men (n=120) reported whether they had disclosed their serostatus to their mothers and fathers, rated their perceptions of HIV-specific social support received from family members, and provided morning peripheral venous blood samples to assess immune function. We also collected psychosocial and urinary neuroendocrine indicators of stress/distress as possible mediator variables. A three-way interaction emerged between serostatus disclosure to mothers, HIV-specific family support, and ethnicity in explaining both viral load and CD4+ cell count. Non-Hispanic White men who had disclosed to mothers and were receiving high family support had a lower viral load and higher CD4+ cell count, but Latino men who had disclosed to mothers and were receiving low family support had a higher viral load. These associations were not accounted for by men's medication adherence, psychological distress, or neuroendocrine hormones. Disclosure to fathers was not related to disease status. The effects of serostatus disclosure on disease status may depend, in part, on ethnic differences in the interpersonal processes of men's close family relationships.
Alvariza, Anette; Lövgren, Malin; Bylund-Grenklo, Tove; Hakola, Pia; Fürst, Carl Johan; Kreicbergs, Ulrika
The loss of a parent to cancer is considered one of the most traumatic events a teenager can experience. Studies have shown that teenagers, from the time of diagnosis, are already extremely worried about the consequences of a parent's cancer but tend to be left to manage these concerns on their own. The present study aimed to explore young adults' advice to healthcare professionals on how to support teenagers who are losing a parent to cancer. This work derives from a Swedish nationwide survey and employs a qualitative approach with a descriptive/interpretive design to obtain answers to an open-ended question concerning advice to healthcare professionals. Of the 851 eligible young adults who had lost a parent to cancer when they were 13-16 years of age within the previous 6 to 9 years, 622 participated in our survey (response rate = 73%). Of these 622 young adults, 481 responded to the open-ended question about what advice to give healthcare professionals. Four themes emerged: (1) to be seen and acknowledged; (2) to understand and prepare for illness, treatment, and the impending death; (3) to spend time with the ill parent, and (4) to receive support tailored to the individual teenager's needs. This nationwide study contributes hands-on suggestions to healthcare staff regarding attitudes, communication, and support from the perspective of young adults who, in their teenage years, lost a parent to cancer. Teenagers may feel better supported during a parent's illness if healthcare professionals take this manageable advice forward into practice and see each teenager as individuals; explain the disease, its treatments, and consequences; encourage teenagers to spend time with their ill parent; and recommend sources of support.
Boudreault-Bouchard, Anne-Marie; Dion, Jacinthe; Hains, Jennifer; Vandermeerschen, Jill; Laberge, Luc; Perron, Michel
This study aims at investigating the impact of parental practices on youths' adjustment. In all, 605 adolescents completed questionnaires at ages 14, 16 and 18. Self-esteem, psychological distress as well as parental emotional support and coercive control were measured. Analyses based on individual growth models revealed that self-esteem increased with age, but psychological distress remained stable over time. Boys reported higher levels of self-esteem and lower levels of psychological distress than girls. Maternal and paternal emotional support reinforced self-esteem over time. Maternal coercive control undermined self-esteem, but only at ages 16 and 18. Psychological distress decreased with parental emotional support but increased with parental coercive control at ages 14, 16 and 18. Overall, these results indicate that positive parental practices are related to youths' well-being. These findings support the importance of establishing intervention strategies designed to promote best practices among parents of teenagers to help them develop into well-adjusted adults. Copyright © 2013 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Westerlund, Anna; Garvare, Rickard; Nyström, Monica E; Eurenius, Eva; Lindkvist, Marie; Ivarsson, Anneli
Mental health problems are increasing among children and adolescents worldwide, and parental support programmes have been suggested as one preventive intervention. However, the actual impact and low rates of adoption and sustainability of prevention programmes have proven to be a concern, and thus, further studies on their implementation are needed. This study focused on the initial implementation of the International Child Development Programme (ICDP) in primary care. The aim was to investigate the involved actors' views on factors likely to affect implementation and the strategies used to manage them. A case study design with a mixed-methods approach combining quantitative and qualitative data from questionnaires and interviews was used. Eighty-two professionals at different positions in the involved organisations participated. Directed content analysis was used for analyses, focusing on perceived levels of importance and the manifestation of implementation factors. Interviews and questionnaires provided descriptions of factors influencing the initial ICDP implementation. Uncertainty on how to manage important factors and vague change strategies was reported. Discrepancies in the perceived levels of importance versus manifestation were found regarding several factors, including hands-on support, time and resources, communication and information, a comprehensive plan of action, follow-ups, and external and internal collaborations. Manifested factors were a need for change, motivation and the ICDP's compatibility with existing norms, values and practices. Implementing a parental support programme in a complex setting will benefit from being preceded by a thorough examination of the intervention and the target context and the development of clear implementation strategies based on the results of that examination. This study provides insights into how and by whom knowledge on implementation is applied during the launch of a health promotion programme, and these
Assari, Shervin; Caldwell, Cleopatra Howard; Zimmerman, Marc A
Most studies that have investigated the link between parenting behaviors and risk of obesity among offsprings have mostly used a cross-sectional design, enrolled Caucasian samples, focused on childhood obesity, and covered aspects of parenting behaviors that directly influence energy balance and food intake of the children. Thus, more longitudinal research is needed on how more general aspects of parenting influence obesity in young ethnic minority adults. The current longitudinal study aimed to test if baseline parental support predicts change in body mass index (BMI) of African Americans, and if this prediction varies based on gender of offspring. The current study followed 227 young African American adults (109 male and 118 female) for 12 years from year 2000 (mean age 20) to year 2012 (mean age 32). All participants were enrolled from a disadvantaged urban area in the Midwest of the United States. Baseline demographics (age, gender), socio-economics (family structure, and parental employment), psychological symptoms (anxiety and depression), general parental support (maternal support, and paternal support) were measured. BMI was measured at baseline and at follow up. We used gender-specific linear regressions to test the predictive role of baseline paternal and maternal support (year 2000) on change in BMI (from 2000 to 2012). Regression analysis showed that among female African American young adults, high baseline maternal support was predictive of a lower increase in BMI from 2000 to 2012. The association remained significant while all covariates were in the model. We could not find such an association for male African American young adults. High maternal support appears to be protective against increases in BMI among African American female young adults. As parental support is a modifiable factor within available evidence-based interventions that enhance parenting, it should be included in obesity prevention programs for African American women. Policies and
Scheckner, Bari; Arcoleo, Kimberly; Feldman, Jonathan M
There exists large ethnic disparities in asthma among Latino children; Puerto Ricans (PRs) are disproportionately affected, while Mexicans have the lowest prevalence and morbidity. Disparities are poorly understood, however, acculturation and social support are suggested to influence asthma control among children. This study investigated the relationship between acculturation, social support and asthma control among PR and Mexican children and their caregivers. Primary caregiver-child dyads (n = 267) of PR (n = 79) and Mexican (n = 188) descent were recruited from clinics at two inner-city hospitals in Bronx, NY and three clinics in Phoenix, AZ. Children were 5-12 years of age and had a confirmed asthma diagnosis. Dyads completed measures of social support, acculturation and asthma control; logistic regression was used for analysis. Mexican children had better asthma control than PR children (p acculturated than Mexican caregivers (p acculturation did not predict control. Across Latino subgroups caregivers' total level of social support predicted better asthma control among children (p management enabling caretakers to better control their children's asthma.
Helping daughters recognize science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) in their daily lives, even in tasks like feeding the dog, baking a cake, or packing a suitcase, supports and encourages their STEM interests and abilities. Often young girls, even those who are very bright, aren't accustomed to thinking of themselves as being good at…
Puhl, Rebecca M.; Peterson, Jamie Lee; Luedicke, Joerg
Weight-Based Victimization is a frequent experience for adolescents who are overweight or obese, and is associated with numerous psychosocial and physical consequences for those who are targets of victimization. Assessing targets' preferences for different types of support and intervention has been absent in the context of weight-based…
The present study was designed to examine the effectiveness of visual supports on teaching simultaneous prompting procedure to mothers to provide home-based instruction to their children with developmental disabilities. Three preschool-aged children with moderate developmental disabilities and their mothers were the participants. A multiple probe…
Spielberger, Julie; Rich, Lauren; Gouvea, Marcia; Winje, Carolyn; Scannell, Molly; Harden, Allen; Berg, Kristin
For more than a decade, Florida's Palm Beach County has been building an infrastructure of prevention and early intervention services to promote and support the healthy development and school readiness of children from birth to age 8. The county began this effort with a set of programs focused on serving families in four targeted geographic areas…
Sung, Minjung; Park, Jiyeon
In this study, a family support program was carried out for primary caregivers of children with disabilities. The program included respite care, recreation programs, counseling, and social support coordination based on individual needs of each family. In order to verify the intervention effects, parenting stress and family quality of life were…
Swenson, R.R.; Prelow, H.M.
The present study examined the direct and indirect relationships among supportive parenting, ethnic identity, self-esteem, perceived efficacy, and psychological adjustment in an urban sample of 133 African American (M age=16.37) and 110 European American (M age=16.43) adolescents. Although the mediational model was partially supported for both…
Bean, Roy A.; Bush, Kevin R.; McKenry, Patrick C.; Wilson, Stephan M.
Relationships between adolescent functioning and parent support, behavioral control, and psychological control were examined among European American and African American adolescents. A number of correlations were significant, including maternal support and academic achievement and self-esteem, and paternal psychological control and self-esteem.…
Liem, Joan H; Cavell, Emily Cohen; Lustig, Kara
A diverse sample of 1,143 high school seniors and 182 students who were part of the same cohort but who left high school without graduating were interviewed during late adolescence (Time 1 [T1]) as well as 2 (Time 2 [T2]) and 4 years later (Time 3 [T3]). Perceived self-development, peer support, and prior levels of depressive symptoms (T2) were hypothesized to mediate the relationship between authoritative parenting during adolescence (T1) and depressive symptoms during young adulthood (T3). T2 sense of self as worthy and efficacious and depressive symptoms, but not peer support, fully mediated the effect of authoritative parenting on T3 depressive symptoms. The authors discuss the importance of parenting for healthy, emerging adult self-development and the continuing influence of parenting styles during adolescence on young adult depressive symptoms.
Hensing, G; Holmgren, K; Rohdén, H
Profound changes are taking place in the Swedish welfare state. The general population's attitudes are important insofar changes will be perceived as fair and effective to become implemented. The aim was to study attitudes to the strictness of the sick-leave rules, relocation to other work tasks after 3 months of sick leave and applications for new jobs after 6 months of sick leave. Eligible for this questionnaire study were 1,140 individuals aged 19 to 64 years. Their attitudes were analyzed in relation to age, gender, political ideology and health status. Health status was measured as sick-leave experiences, self-reported health and level of symptoms. Showed that 42% considered the sick-leave rules to be too strict, 60% found relocation to other work tasks to be good while 35% found that applications for new work were good. In logistic regression analyses, high sick-leave experience was associated with increased odds of finding the sick-leave rules too strict and disagreement with relocation to other work tasks or application for new jobs. In conclusion, strong support was found for relocation to other work tasks with the present employer. Earlier research on returning to work has found workplace interventions to be efficient. From a policy perspective it seems relevant to promote such interventions given the strong public opinion in their favor.
Boniel-Nissim, Meyran; Tabak, Izabela; Mazur, Joanna; Borraccino, Alberto; Brooks, Fiona; Gommans, Rob; van der Sluijs, Winfried; Zsiros, Emese; Craig, Wendy; Harel-Fisch, Yossi; Finne, Emily
To examine the impact of electronic media (EM) use on teenagers' life satisfaction (LS) and to assess the potential moderating effect of supportive communication with parents (SCP). Data were drawn from the cross-national Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study (2009/2010) in Canada, England, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Israel, The Netherlands, Poland and Scotland. Sample size: 53,973 students aged 11-15 years. More hours per day spent on the computer were associated with lower LS; more EM communication with friends with higher LS. This relationship became negative if EM use reached and exceeded a certain threshold. SCP moderated the effect of EM communication with friends, but not computer use for the total sample. SCP seems to be more important than computer use or EM communication with friends for LS and it seems to buffer negative effects of EM use. Communication with parents seems to buffer the negative effects of EM use on LS during adolescence. Higher computer use was related to lower LS, but "optimal" frequency of EM communication with friends was country specific.
Judith K. Bernhard
Full Text Available This article describes how a group of Latin American parents became more effective in their dealings with their childrens schools, a mainstream Canadian institution. Ethnicity, along with race, gender, and social class, is a critical determinant in of the interactions between schools and any group of newcomers to a society, particularly when those newcomers are an ethnic minority. Over an eight-month period, twelve Latin American parents met monthly to discuss aspects of their childrens experience with the Canadian educational system. These parents learned to collaborate with teachers and expressed their needs, but also affirmed their ethno-cultural differences. The positive feedback on their activities led to unforeseen gains, not just in relation to education and the schools. This exploratory study focuses on how the experience helped the parents to better comprehend what is expected of them in the support of their childrens schooling while retaining their own cultural assets. This study may serve as a possible model of adaptation for newcomer groups in their efforts to integrate in the school system. Este artículo describe cómo un grupo de padres latinoamericanos aprenden a manejar en forma más efectiva sus experiencias con el sistema educacional canadiense. La etnicidad y variables como sexo y clase social son determinantes críticos en las interacciones sociales, en las cuales los recién llegados constituyen el grupo minoritario. Durante ocho meses, doce padres latinoamericanos compartieron una vez al mes sus experiencias con la escuela. Finalizado el estudio se descubre que estos padres no sólo aprendieron a colaborar con los maestros sino que también los enfrentaron y validaron ante ellos sus diferencias etnoculturales. Esta interacción condujo a ganancias inesperadas más allá de lo relativo al proceso educacional. A través de este examen los padres develaron lo que el sistema escolar considera como intervención familiar
Christiansen, Dorte M.; Olff, Miranda; Elklit, Ask
lost an infant either late in pregnancy, during birth or in the first year of life. Participants filled out questionnaires between 1.2 months and 18 years after the loss (M=3.4 years). Results: Mothers reported significantly more PTSD symptoms, attachment anxiety, emotion-focused coping and feeling let...... down, but significantly lower levels of attachment avoidance than fathers. Attachment anxiety, attachment avoidance and emotion-focused coping were significantly more strongly associated with PTSD severity in mothers than fathers, but only when examined alone. When all variables and time since the loss...... identified for attachment and emotion-focused coping. Overall, more similarities than differences were found between mothers and fathers in the associations between PTSD and covariates. (C) 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved....
Swick, Kevin J.; Williams, Reginald; Fields, Evelyn
This article explores the dynamics of parenting while being in a homeless context. The mosaic of stressors involved in this homeless parenting process are explicated and discussed. In addition, resources and strategies that may support parenting are presented and discussed.
Laure, P; Meyer, C
To describe certain aspects of the physical and mental health of adolescents with restricted or deprived liberty as ordered by the court within the Youth Judicial Protection Service (YJP), and their ability to project themselves into the future. Survey by on-line self-administered questionnaires. Among the adolescents, 373 were randomly selected with restricted or deprived liberty, in the Lorraine region (eastern France). The data were managed and analyzed using the Modalisa(®) 7.0 (Kynos, Paris, France) survey processing software. Depending on the type of variable, comparisons were made using the chi-square test or analysis of variance. The significance threshold used was Pself-esteem score was 32.4±6.4, roughly the same as their peers in the general population (girls, 28.2; boys, 33.2; Pfacts had never been explored among adolescents with restricted or deprived liberty. This study shows results that do not match the usual representation of these adolescents by healthcare or education professionals. The quality of the work during the educational support given by the YJP Service could help explain these results. These findings need to be explored further by additional studies, which could also aim to measure the impact on physical and mental health of the educational support given by Youth Judicial Protection Service. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Background Parental influences are essential to the behaviours and physical activity of their children. Our study aimed to determine if parental beliefs and support are associated with children’s pedometer measured physical activity levels on school days and weekend days. Methods In the spring of 2009 and 2011, we analyzed cross-sectional data from 1,355 grade five students and parents in 30 schools in Alberta, Canada. Parents reported how much they care about exercising, how much they encourage their child to be physically active, and how frequently they engage in physical activities with their child. Physical activity was assessed from step counts obtained from time-stamped pedometers collected over nine consecutive days. Results Increased parental encouragement was positively associated with boys’ and girls’ physical activity on school days (Boys: beta = 1373, 95% CI: 606, 2139; Girls: beta = 632, 95% CI: 108, 1155) and girls’ physical activity on weekend days (beta = 997, 95% CI: 130, 1864). Increased parental care was positively associated with boys’ physical activity on weekend days (beta = 1381, 95% CI: 85, 2676). Increased parental support and engagement was associated with an additional 632–1381 steps/day for children in this study. Conclusions Parental care, encouragement and engagement are associated with physical activity levels of children 10–11 years of age. Policy makers and researchers should consider the importance of targeting parents when designing strategies to promote physical activity in children. This is particularly relevant to weekends and holidays when children’s activity levels are low. PMID:24308428
Craig F. Garfield
Conclusion: A smartphone application used by parents of VLBW infants during the transition home from the NICU can improve parenting self-efficacy, discharge preparedness, and LOS with improved benefits based on usage.
Gevers, Dorus Wm; van Assema, Patricia; de Vries, Nanne K; Kremers, Stef Pj
The high energy intake from energy-dense foods among children in developed countries is undesirable. Improving food parenting practices has the potential to lower snack intakes among children. To inform the development of interventions, we aimed to predict food parenting practice patterns around snacking (i.e. 'high covert control and rewarding', 'low covert control and non-rewarding', 'high involvement and supportive' and 'low involvement and indulgent'). A cross-sectional survey was conducted. To predict the patterns of food parenting practices, multinomial logistic regression analyses were run with 888 parents. Predictors included predisposing factors (i.e. parents' and children's demographics and BMI, parents' personality, general parenting, and parenting practices used by their own parents) and parents' cognitions (i.e. perceived behaviour of other parents, subjective norms, attitudes, self-efficacy and outcome expectations). The Netherlands (October-November 2014). Dutch parents of children aged 4-12 years old. After backward elimination, nineteen factors had a statistically significant contribution to the model (Nagelkerke R 2=0·63). Overall, self-efficacy and outcome expectations were among the strongest explanatory factors. Considering the predisposing factors only, the general parenting factor nurturance most strongly predicted the food parenting clusters. Nurturance particularly distinguished highly involved parents from parents employing a pattern of low involvement. Parental cognitions and nurturance are important factors to explain the use of food parenting practices around snacking. The results suggest that intervention developers should attempt to increase self-efficacy and educate parents about what constitute effective and ineffective parenting practices. Promoting nurturance might be a prerequisite to achieve prolonged change.
Full Text Available Abstract Background In Canada, 31.5 % of children are overweight or obese, putting them at an increased risk of chronic co-morbidities and premature mortality. Physical activity, healthy eating, and screen time are important behavioural determinants of childhood overweight and obesity that are influenced by the family environment, and particularly parents’ support behaviours. However, there is currently a limited understanding of which types of these support behaviours have the greatest positive impact on healthy child behaviours. This study aims to determine the relative contribution of different types of parental support behaviours for predicting the likelihood that children meet established guidelines for daily physical activity, daily fruit and vegetable consumption, and recreational screen time. Methods A Computer Assisted Telephone Interview survey was used to collect data from a random sample of parents or guardians with at least one child under the age of 18 in Ontario (n = 3,206. Three multivariable logistic regression models were built to predict whether or not parents reported their child was meeting guidelines. Independent variables included parent and child age and gender, multiple indicators of parental support behaviours, and socio-demographic characteristics. Parental support behaviours were categorized post-hoc as motivational, instrumental, regulatory, and conditional based on an adapted framework. Results Controlling for all other factors in the model, several parental support behaviours were found to be significant predictors of children meeting established health guidelines. For example, conditional support behaviours including taking the child to places where they can be active (OR: 2.06; 95 % CI: 1.32-3.21, and eating meals as a family away from the TV (95 % CI: 1.15-2.41 were significant positive predictors of children meeting physical activity and fruit and vegetable guidelines, respectively. Conclusions Health
Full Text Available Leehu Zysberg,1 Tali Lang21Graduate School, Gordon College of Education, 2Department of Nursing, University of Haifa, Haifa, IsraelAbstract: This review provides the reader with an integrative view of the literature on the challenges families of patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus face, and the interventions proposed in research and practice to facilitate their coping and efficacy in supporting patient care. We present background information regarding the condition and the general challenges it poses, and then focus on younger patients and their families, while reviewing the literature and emerging patterns describing pitfalls and proposed interventions. We present directions for future thought and further research based on what we find (and fail to find in the literature. Keywords: challenges, interventions, patient care, blood sugar, emotional, psychological
Robinson, Clyde C.; And Others
This study examined the psychometric characteristics of a 62-item parenting questionnaire completed by parents from the United States, Australia, China, and Russia. Factor analyses yielded three global parenting dimensions for each culture which were consistent with D. Baumrind's (1971) authoritative, authoritarian, and permissive typologies. The…
Redwine, Tobin; Blackburn, Joey; Bunch, J. C.; Greenhaw, Laura; Rutherford, Tracy; Wingenbach, Gary; Walther, David
Parents are an integral part of the decision to study abroad, but little research investigates parents' perceptions about study abroad. This study uses the Theory of Planned Behavior as a conceptual framework to explain perceptions and value of study abroad by parents of agriculture students Land-Grant universities based on previous international…
LaBrie, Joseph W; Hummer, Justin F; Lac, Andrew; Ehret, Phillip J; Kenney, Shannon R
Parents often look to other parents for guidance, but how accurate are their perceptions? Expanding on existing normative literature to include parents of college students, this study first sought to determine whether parents accurately estimated the attitudes of other parents concerning their college student's alcohol-related behaviors. The effect of these (mis)perceived injunctive norms on the alcohol-related attitudes and behaviors of the parents' own children was then examined. Participants were 270 college student-parent dyadic pairs who completed independent online surveys. The student sample was 59% female; the parent sample was 78% female. A structural equation model demonstrated that parents significantly overestimated other parents' approval of alcohol use by their respective child and, further, that these misperceptions strongly influenced parental attitudes toward their own child's drinking. Parental attitudes were subsequently found to be significantly associated with their child's attitudes toward drinking but were only marginally associated with the child's actual drinking, thereby underscoring the mediational effect of the child's attitudes. This is the first study to document the influence of parental normative misperceptions regarding alcohol use by their college-age children, reinforcing the importance of parental attitudes on children's alcohol-related attitudes and behaviors in college. These findings support the need to complement student-based interventions with parent-based interventions aimed at increasing parental awareness and involvement. Further, the current findings indicate that normative interventions targeting parents offer a promising avenue by which to indirectly and positively influence college students' alcohol use.
Fronstin, Paul; Helman, Ruth
PUBLIC SUPPORT FOR HEALTH REFORM: Findings from the 2009 Health Confidence Survey--the 12th annual HCS--indicate that Americans have already formed strong opinions regarding various aspects of health reform, even before details have been released regarding various key factors. These issues include health insurance market reform, the availability of a public plan option, mandates on employers and individuals, subsidized coverage for the low-income population, changes to the tax treatment of job-based health benefits, and regulatory oversight of health care. These opinions may change as details surface, especially as they concern financing options. In the absence of such details, the 2009 HCS finds generally strong support for the concepts of health reform options that are currently on the table. U.S. HEALTH SYSTEM GETS POOR MARKS, BUT SO DOES A MAJOR OVERHAUL: A majority rate the nation's health care system as fair (30 percent) or poor (29 percent). Only a small minority rate it excellent (6 percent) or very good (10 percent). While 14 percent of Americans think the health care system needs a major overhaul, 51 percent agree with the statement "there are some good things about our health care system, but major changes are needed." NATIONAL HEALTH PLAN ELEMENTS RATED HIGHLY: Between 68 percent and 88 percent of Americans either strongly or somewhat support health reform ideas such as national health plans, a public plan option, guaranteed issue, expansion of Medicare and Medicaid, and employer and individual mandates. MIXED REACTION TO HEALTH BENEFITS TAX CAP: Reaction to capping the current tax exclusion of employment-based health benefits is mixed. Nearly one-half of Americans (47 percent) would switch to a lower-cost plan if the tax exclusion were capped, 38 percent would stay on their current plan and pay the additional taxes, and 9 percent don't know. CONTINUED FAITH IN EMPLOYMENT-BASED BENEFITS, BUT DOUBTS ON AFFORDABILITY: Individuals with employment
Apparent Life-Threatening Events (ALTEs) are a common presentation to paediatric hospitals and represent a significant cause of parental anxiety. Basic Life Support (BLS) training is recommended for all caregivers following ALTEs. This study aimed to assess the rate of caregiver BLS training and reviewed parents experience following discharge. Parents were interviewed by phone following discharge. Over the study period 25 children attended the Emergency Department with ALTE, 17\\/25 (68%) were trained and 13\\/17 (76%) were contactable for interview. All parents found training decreased their anxiety level and were interested in attending for re-training. BLS resuscitation was subsequently required by 2\\/13 (15%) of children. Non-medical grade monitors were in use by 10\\/13 (77%) of caregivers following discharge. Caregivers are eager to engage in BLS training and it effectively reduces their caregiver anxiety. We recommend an increase in instructor staff and use of group re-training post discharge
Macken, W L; Clarke, N; Nadeem, M; Coghlan, D
Apparent Life-Threatening Events (ALTEs) are a common presentation to paediatric hospitals and represent a significant cause of parental anxiety. Basic Life Support (BLS) training is recommended for all caregivers following ALTEs. This study aimed to assess the rate of caregiver BLS training and reviewed parents experience following discharge. Parents were interviewed by phone following discharge. Over the study period 25 children attended the Emergency Department with ALTE, 17/25 (68%) were trained and 13/17 (76%) were contactable for interview. All parents found training decreased their anxiety level and were interested in attending for re-training. BLS resuscitation was subsequently required by 2/13 (15%) of children. Non-medical grade monitors were in use by 10/13 (77%) of caregivers following discharge. Caregivers are eager to engage in BLS training and it effectively reduces their caregiver anxiety. We recommend an increase in instructor staff and use of group re-training post discharge.
Marcussen, Jette; Thuen, Frode; Poul, Bruun
The aim of this review was to identify research on children and adolescents who experience double bereavement, i.e. the experience of loss through parental divorce followed by either parental death or critical illness with imminent death. This knowledge may identify evidence to underpin knowledge......; challenges in both custodial and non-custodial parental death; risk of mental health problems, and the need of support and interventions....
Natalia I. Heredia
Full Text Available Abstract Background Parents play an important role in providing their children with social support for healthy eating and physical activity. However, different types of social support (e.g., instrumental, emotional, modeling, rules might have different results on children’s actual behavior. The purpose of this study was to assess the association of the different types of social support with children’s physical activity and eating behaviors, as well as to examine whether these associations differ across racial/ethnic groups. Methods We surveyed 1169 low-income, ethnically diverse third graders and their caregivers to assess how children’s physical activity and eating behaviors (fruit and vegetable and sugar-sweetened beverage intake were associated with instrumental social support, emotional social support, modeling, rules and availability of certain foods in the home. We used sequential linear regression to test the association of parental social support with a child’s physical activity and eating behaviors, adjusting for covariates, and then stratified to assess the differences in this association between racial/ethnic groups. Results Parental social support and covariates explained 9–13% of the variance in children’s energy balance-related behaviors. Family food culture was significantly associated with fruit and vegetable and sugar-sweetened beverage intake, with availability of sugar-sweetened beverages in the home also associated with sugar-sweetened beverage intake. Instrumental and emotional support for physical activity were significantly associated with the child’s physical activity. Results indicate that the association of various types of social support with children’s physical activity and eating behaviors differ across racial/ethnic groups. Conclusions These results provide considerations for future interventions that aim to enhance parental support to improve children’s energy balance-related behaviors.
Pak, Alexander J.; Hwang, Gyeong S.
One important attribute of graphene that makes it attractive for high-performance electronics is its inherently large thermal conductivity (κ ) for the purposes of thermal management. Using a combined density-functional theory and classical molecular-dynamics approach, we predict that the κ of graphene supported on hexagonal boron nitride (h -BN) can be as large as 90% of the κ of suspended graphene, in contrast to the significant suppression of κ (more than 70% reduction) on amorphous silica. Interestingly, we find that this enhanced thermal transport is largely attributed to increased lifetimes of the in-plane acoustic phonon modes, which is a notable contrast from the dominant contribution of out-of-plane acoustic modes in suspended graphene. This behavior is possible due to the charge polarization throughout graphene that induces strong interlayer adhesion between graphene and h -BN. These findings highlight the potential benefit of layered dielectric substrates such as h -BN for graphene-based thermal management, in addition to their electronic advantages. Furthermore, our study brings attention to the importance of understanding the interlayer interactions of graphene with layered dielectric materials which may offer an alternative technological platform for substrates in electronics.
Supportive Practices among Low-Income Parents of Academically Successful Elementary Students in Even Start Programs = Practicas Efectivas que Apoyan el Exito Academico en Ninos Hispanos a Traves de la Participacion de sus Padres.
Ebener, Richard; Lara-Alecio, Rafael; Irby, Beverly J.
This study (reported in separate English and Spanish versions) used a qualitative approach to identify the supportive parental behaviors of academically successful children from low income families in Even Start programs, from the parents', teachers', and children's perspectives. The sample contained 12 low income parents who had one or more…
Rogers, Maria; Markel, Clarisa; Midgett, Jonathan D.; Ryan, Bruce A.; Tannock, Rosemary
Practitioners of Conjoint Behavioral Consultation rely on several sources of information to assist in planning and evaluation of consultation efforts. Parental involvement in the home is an important aspect in Conjoint Behavioral Consultation, yet there are few questionnaires available to practitioners to assess this important construct,…
Grotevant, Harold D; Lo, Albert Yh
Challenges in adoptive parenting continue to emerge as adoption policies and practices evolve. We review three areas of research in adoptive parenting that reflect contemporary shifts in adoption. First, we highlight recent findings concerning openness in adoption contact arrangements, or contact between a child's families of birth and rearing. Second, we examine research regarding racial and cultural socialization in transracial and international adoptions. Finally, we review investigations of parenting experiences of lesbian and gay adoptive parents. Overall, parenting processes (e.g., supportive vs. problematic family interaction) are better predictors of child adjustment than are group differences (e.g., open vs. closed adoptions; adoption by heterosexual vs. same-sex parents). The distinctive needs of adopted children call for preparation of adoption-competent mental health, casework, education, and health care professionals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Jackson, Cath; Cheater, Francine M.; Peacock, Rose; Leask, Julie; Trevena, Lyndal
Objective: The objective of this feasibility study was to evaluate the acceptability and potential effectiveness of a web-based MMR decision aid in supporting informed decision-making for the MMR vaccine. Design: This was a prospective before-and-after evaluation. Setting: Thirty parents of children eligible for MMR vaccination were recruited from…
Baker-Ericzen, Mary J.; Hurlburt, Michael S.; Brookman-Frazee, Lauren; Jenkins, Melissa M.; Hough, Richard L.
This study compared data from 34 research trials of five empirically supported treatments (ESTs) with one large usual care (UC) sample on child, parent, and family characteristics for children with Disruptive Behavior Disorders. Large variations were found within and across ESTs on sample characteristics during the past two decades. Most parent…
Bottema-Beutel, Kristen; Yoder, Paul J.; Hochman, Julia M.; Watson, Linda R.
This study examined associations between three parent-child engagement states and social communication, expressive language, and receptive language at 8 month follow-up, in 63 preschool-age children with autism spectrum disorder. We extend the literature on supported joint engagement by dividing this state into higher order (HSJE) and lower order…
Shirazipour, Celina H.; Latimer-Cheung, Amy E.
Children with physical impairments have low rates of physical activity when compared to children without impairments. Given the benefits that result from sport, improving participation rates among children with physical impairments is essential. Parents have a critical role in supporting their child's involvement in sport. The purpose of this…
Garcia, Patrick Raymund James M.; Restubog, Simon Lloyd D.; Toledano, Lemuel S.; Tolentino, Laramie R.; Rafferty, Alannah E.
Guided by the social cognitive career and cognitive evaluation theories, the authors theorize and test differential predictions regarding the moderating role of student- and parent-rated support when considering the influence of students' learning goal orientation on career decision-making self-efficacy. Data were collected from 141 undergraduate…
Reyes, Carla J.
This study examined two resiliency factors: self-concept and perceived parental support, in conjunction with abuse factors that impact psychological functioning. Data were collected on 61 sexually abused children prior to treatment. Findings indicate that a child's self-concept was associated with all the trauma symptoms except sexual concerns and…
Hanson, Cindy L.; And Others
Measured metabolic control, adherence, life stress, social competence, and parental support in adolescents (N=104) with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Found that stress was directly associated with metabolic control, independent of the link between adherence and metabolic control. Social competence buffered negative association between…
Carrizosa, Emilio; Nogales-Gómez, Amaya; Morales, Dolores Romero
In linear classifiers, such as the Support Vector Machine (SVM), a score is associated with each feature and objects are assigned to classes based on the linear combination of the scores and the values of the features. Inspired by discrete psychometric scales, which measure the extent to which...... a factor is in agreement with a statement, we propose the Discrete Level Support Vector Machine (DILSVM) where the feature scores can only take on a discrete number of values, defined by the so-called feature rating levels. The DILSVM classifier benefits from interpretability and it has visual appeal...
Harman, Jennifer J; Biringen, Zeynep; Ratajack, Ellen M; Outland, Pearl L; Kraus, Allyson
According to gender role theory, individuals who confirm expectations associated with their gender roles are rewarded and judged against these expectations when they deviate. Parental roles are strongly tied to gender, and there are very different expectations for behaviors of mothers and fathers. This study examined how mothers' and fathers' behaviors that support or discourage a positive relationship with the other parent are perceived in terms of their acceptability. Two-hundred twenty-eight parents completed an online survey assessing perceptions of acceptability of negative (parental alienating) and positive coparenting behaviors. Results provided support for our hypothesis: Although parental alienating behaviors were rated unacceptable, they were more acceptable for mothers than fathers. Expectancy violation theory can explain why parental alienating behaviors are not viewed as negatively when mothers exhibit them than fathers. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
MacMillan, Freya; Kirk, Alison; Mutrie, Nanette; Moola, Fiona; Robertson, Kenneth
To explore stakeholder's perceptions of physical activity (PA) and sedentary behaviour support in youth with type 1 diabetes (T1D), to aid intervention development. Primary data were collected between February and September 2012. Patients (N = 16), parents (N = 16), and professionals (N = 9) were recruited from a diabetes clinic for a qualitative study. Semi-structured interviews (N = 33) and focus groups (N = 2), using broad open-ended questions, were conducted in patient's/parent's homes, and at the diabetes clinic. Data were analysed thematically. Based on participants' experiences and interpretations, parent and peer support were perceived as essential. Professionals identified they could do more to encourage PA. Technology and information on local opportunities, in addition to in-person support, and a combination of group and one-to-one support were perceived as useful. Important perceived components of support were: diabetes preparation, management and support; enjoyment; education; and incorporation of behaviour change techniques. The time of diagnosis was described as an appropriate point to initiate interventions. The findings will help the development of future PA and sedentary behaviour interventions for youth with T1D. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
... and services designed for military families. Understanding Your Child’s Development April 27, 2018 @ 4:37 PM | 3 Min ... service member, spouse or survivor you know the importance of being a good guardian — of country, ... of factors that can impact your child’s well-being – even into adulthood – is mission-critical. ...
Martin-Biggers, Jennifer; Spaccarotella, Kim; Hongu, Nobuko; Alleman, Gayle; Worobey, John; Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol
Little is known about preschool parents' cognitions, barriers, supports and modeling of key obesogenic behaviors, including breakfast, fruit and vegetable consumption, sugary beverage intake, feeding practices, portion sizes, active playtime, reduced screen-time, sleep and selection of child-care centers with characteristics that promote healthy behaviors. Thus, the purpose of this study was to examine these factors via survey and focus groups among 139 parents of 2- to 5-year-old children. Standard content analysis procedures were used to identify trends and themes in the focus group data, and Analysis of Variance was used to test for differences between groups in the survey data. Results showed 80% of parents ate breakfast daily, consumed sugary beverages 2.7 ± 2.5SD days per week, and had at least two different vegetables and fruits an average of 5.2 ± 1.8SD and 4.6 ± 2.0SD days per week. Older parents and those with greater education drank significantly fewer sugary drinks. Parents played actively a mean 4.2 ± 2.2 hours/week with their preschoolers, who watched television a mean 2.4 ± 1.7 hours/day. Many parents reported having a bedtime routine for their preschooler and choosing childcare centers that replaced screen-time with active play and nutrition education. Common barriers to choosing healthful behaviors included lack of time; neighborhood safety; limited knowledge of portion size, cooking methods, and ways to prepare healthy foods or play active indoor games; the perceived cost of healthy options, and family members who were picky eaters. Supports for performing healthful behaviors included planning ahead, introducing new foods and behaviors often and in tandem with existing preferred foods and behaviors, and learning strategies from other parents. Future education programs with preschool parents should emphasize supports and encourage parents to share helpful strategies with each other.
Bergeron, Félix-Antoine; Blais, Martin; Hébert, Martine
Introduction Sexual-minority youths (SMY) report high rates of psychological distress such as depression, anxiety and suicidal ideation (Burton, Marshal, Chisolm, Sucato et Friedman, 2013; Williams & Chapman, 2011). Several studies confirm that the poor mental health outcomes are partly related to their high likelihood of experiencing homophobic victimization (Blais, Gervais, Boucher, Hébert & Lavoie, 2013; Taylor & Peter, 2011; Hughes, McCabe, Wilsnack, West & Boyd, 2010; Chamberland, Richard & Bernier, 2013). Whereas the development of a positive sexual minority identity is crucial for the mental health of SMY (Chamberland, Richard & Chevrier, 2011; Rosario, Schrimshaw & Hunter, 2011; Luhtanen, 2002), the victimization they experience put them at risk of internalizing societal homophobia and heterosexism (Meyer, 2003; Hatzenbuehler, 2009). It is important to identify variables that may influence the impact of distal and proximal factors that impact SMY's mental health.Objectives The objectives of this paper are 1) to document different forms of homophobic victimization experienced by SMY, according to gender and age, and 2) to test the potential moderating effect of parental support in the relationship between homophobic victimization, internalized homophobia and psychological distress.Method Data come from 228 SMY aged 14 to 22 years old recruited through online means as part of the Quebec Youth's Romantic Relationships Survey. The impact of homophobic victimization, parental support, and internalized homophobia on psychological distress is explored by a linear regression model including moderated mediation effects.Results Results show the relationship between homophobic victimization and psychological distress as well as indirect significant relationship through internalized homophobia. The moderated mediation analysis also confirms the moderating role of parental support in the relationship between homophobic victimization and psychological distress. Thus