WorldWideScience

Sample records for strong oral language

  1. Redefining Individual Growth and Development Indicators: Oral Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradfield, Tracy A.; Besner, Amanda C.; Wackerle-Hollman, Alisha K.; Albano, Anthony D.; Rodriguez, Michael C.; McConnell, Scott R.

    2014-01-01

    Language skills developed during preschool contribute strongly to later reading and academic achievement. Effective preschool assessment and intervention should focus on core components of language development, specifically oral language skills. The Early Language and Literacy Individual Growth and Development Indicators (IGDIs) are a set of…

  2. Conversations about Visual Arts: Facilitating Oral Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ni; Cress, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Visual arts, such as drawings, are attractive to most young children. Marks left on paper by young children contain meaning. Although it is known that children's oral language could be enhanced through communication with adults, rarely is there a series of dialogues between adults and young children about their drawings. Often heard instead…

  3. Obstructive sleep apnea and oral language disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrêa, Camila de Castro; Cavalheiro, Maria Gabriela; Maximino, Luciana Paula; Weber, Silke Anna Theresa

    Children and adolescents with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) may have consequences, such as daytime sleepiness and learning, memory, and attention disorders, that may interfere in oral language. To verify, based on the literature, whether OSA in children was correlated to oral language disorders. A literature review was carried out in the Lilacs, PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science databases using the descriptors "Child Language" AND "Obstructive Sleep Apnea". Articles that did not discuss the topic and included children with other comorbidities rather than OSA were excluded. In total, no articles were found at Lilacs, 37 at PubMed, 47 at Scopus, and 38 at Web of Science databases. Based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria, six studies were selected, all published from 2004 to 2014. Four articles demonstrated an association between primary snoring/OSA and receptive language and four articles showed an association with expressive language. It is noteworthy that the articles used different tools and considered different levels of language. The late diagnosis and treatment of obstructive sleep apnea is associated with a delay in verbal skill acquisition. The professionals who work with children should be alert, as most of the phonetic sounds are acquired during ages 3-7 years, which is also the peak age for hypertrophy of the tonsils and childhood OSA. Copyright © 2016 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  4. Obstructive sleep apnea and oral language disorders

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    Camila de Castro Corrêa

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Children and adolescents with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA may have consequences, such as daytime sleepiness and learning, memory, and attention disorders, that may interfere in oral language. Objective To verify, based on the literature, whether OSA in children was correlated to oral language disorders. Methods A literature review was carried out in the Lilacs, PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science databases using the descriptors “Child Language” AND “Obstructive Sleep Apnea”. Articles that did not discuss the topic and included children with other comorbidities rather than OSA were excluded. Results In total, no articles were found at Lilacs, 37 at PubMed, 47 at Scopus, and 38 at Web of Science databases. Based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria, six studies were selected, all published from 2004 to 2014. Four articles demonstrated an association between primary snoring/OSA and receptive language and four articles showed an association with expressive language. It is noteworthy that the articles used different tools and considered different levels of language. Conclusion The late diagnosis and treatment of obstructive sleep apnea is associated with a delay in verbal skill acquisition. The professionals who work with children should be alert, as most of the phonetic sounds are acquired during ages 3–7 years, which is also the peak age for hypertrophy of the tonsils and childhood OSA.

  5. Strong typing of object-oriented languages revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Ole Lehrmann; Magnusson, Boris; Møller-Pedersen, Birger

    1990-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the relation between subtyping and subclassing and their influence on programming language design. Traditionally subclassing as introduced by Simula has also been used for defining a hierarchical type system. The type system of a language can be characterized as strong...

  6. Effective Oral Language Development Strategies for Elementary Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Karen L.

    2016-01-01

    This action research study explored first and second grade classroom teachers' knowledge of oral language development and interventions for students at-risk of an oral language delay. This was accomplished through collaboration between a speech-language pathologist and classroom teachers. The data was aligned with assessments, the Response to…

  7. Developing Oral Language Skills in Middle School English Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Douglas; Frey, Nancy

    2018-01-01

    Oral language development can help English learners develop academic proficiency with the English language. In this investigation, at one middle school, teachers focused on improving oral language skills. Using a formative experiment process, the teachers developed an intervention to accomplish their pedagogical goal and then tracked data to see…

  8. A Note on Weak vs. Strong Generation in Human Language

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    Fukui Naoki

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper argues that various important results of formal language theory (e.g., the so-called Chomsky Hierarchy may in fact be illusory as far as the human language faculty is concerned, as has been repeatedly emphasized by Chomsky himself. The paper takes up nested dependencies and cross-serial dependencies, the two important dependencies that typically show up in the discussion of the central classes of grammars and languages, and specifically shows that the fact that nested dependencies abound in human language while cross-serial dependencies are rather limited in human language can be naturally explained if we shift our attention from dependencies defined on terminal strings to abstract structures behind them. The paper then shows that nested dependencies are readily obtained by Merge, applying phase-by-phase, whereas cross-serial dependencies are available only as a result of copying Merge, which requires a constituency of the relevant strings. These results strongly suggest that dependencies are possible in human language only to the extent that they are the results from the structures that can be generated by Merge, leading to the conclusion that it is Merge-generability that determines various dependencies in human language, and that dependencies defined on the terminal strings are indeed illusory. A possible brain science experiment to demonstrate this point is also suggested.

  9. Oral Language and Listening Comprehension: Same or Different Constructs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 2017

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to add to our understanding of the dimensionality of oral language in children and to determine whether oral language and listening comprehension are separate constructs in children enrolled in preschool (PK) through 3rd grade. Method: In the spring of the school year, children from 4 states (N = 1,869)…

  10. Supporting Children's Oral Language Development in the Preschool Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whorrall, Jennifer; Cabell, Sonia Q.

    2016-01-01

    Supporting children's oral language development during the preschool years is critical for later reading success. Research shows that preschool teachers may be missing opportunities to engage children in the kinds of conversations that foster the development of rich oral language skills. Teachers hoping to support these skills can provide children…

  11. Building Oral Language and Vocabulary through the Use of Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCorquodale, Gwenyth J.; Kirkland, Lynn

    2006-01-01

    Children are coming to classrooms across the United States with a need to develop their oral language. With the increased promotion of the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001, commercialized programs are being provided for teachers to use to build oral language in their students. The authors believe that schools and teachers can best enhance…

  12. Designing the online oral language learning environment SpeakApps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nic Giolla Mhichíl, Mairéad; Appel, Christine; Ó Ciardubháin, Colm; Jager, Sake; Prizel-Kania, Adriana

    2015-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to report on SpeakApps, a major collaborative computer-assisted language learning project, developed based on an open source techno-pedagogical solution to facilitate online oral language production and interaction. Design/methodology/approach – A mixed method

  13. Early Writing Deficits in Preschoolers with Oral Language Difficulties

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    Puranik, Cynthia S.; Lonigan, Christopher J.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether preschool children with language impairments (LI), a group with documented reading difficulties, also experience writing difficulties. In addition, a purpose was to examine if the writing outcomes differed when children had concomitant cognitive deficits in addition to oral language problems. A…

  14. Oral-diadochokinesis rates across languages: English and Hebrew norms.

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    Icht, Michal; Ben-David, Boaz M

    2014-01-01

    Oro-facial and speech motor control disorders represent a variety of speech and language pathologies. Early identification of such problems is important and carries clinical implications. A common and simple tool for gauging the presence and severity of speech motor control impairments is oral-diadochokinesis (oral-DDK). Surprisingly, norms for adult performance are missing from the literature. The goals of this study were: (1) to establish a norm for oral-DDK rate for (young to middle-age) adult English speakers, by collecting data from the literature (five studies, N=141); (2) to investigate the possible effect of language (and culture) on oral-DDK performance, by analyzing studies conducted in other languages (five studies, N=140), alongside the English norm; and (3) to find a new norm for adult Hebrew speakers, by testing 115 speakers. We first offer an English norm with a mean of 6.2syllables/s (SD=.8), and a lower boundary of 5.4syllables/s that can be used to indicate possible abnormality. Next, we found significant differences between four tested languages (English, Portuguese, Farsi and Greek) in oral-DDK rates. Results suggest the need to set language and culture sensitive norms for the application of the oral-DDK task world-wide. Finally, we found the oral-DDK performance for adult Hebrew speakers to be 6.4syllables/s (SD=.8), not significantly different than the English norms. This implies possible phonological similarities between English and Hebrew. We further note that no gender effects were found in our study. We recommend using oral-DDK as an important tool in the speech language pathologist's arsenal. Yet, application of this task should be done carefully, comparing individual performance to a set norm within the specific language. Readers will be able to: (1) identify the Speech-Language Pathologist assessment process using the oral-DDK task, by comparing an individual performance to the present English norm, (2) describe the impact of language

  15. Discourse Approaches to Oral Language Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Richard F.

    2002-01-01

    Looks at a sample conversation and examines layers of interpretation that different academic traditions have constructed to interpret it. Reviews studies that have compared the discourse of oral interaction in assessment with oral discourse in contexts outside the assessment. Discusses studies that related ways of speaking to cultural values of…

  16. [Neuropsychological profiles associated with the children's oral language disorders].

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    Conde-Guzón, P A; Conde-Guzón, M J; Bartolomé-Albistegui, M T; Quirós-Expósito, P

    Oral language disorders constitute a group of syndromes with a high prevalence among the childhood population. They form a heterogeneous group that ranges from simple problems in articulating a phoneme (dyslalias) to severe disorders affecting communication, such as children's dysarthrias and aphasias. In this paper our objective is to review the neuropsychological profiles of children who manifest different oral language disorders. Due to the wide range of clinical pictures and causations covered by children's oral language disorders, very few systematic reviews have been conducted to obtain an overall view of the neuropsychological profiles of these children. Although the linguistic signs and symptoms of these disorders are well understood, the associated neuropsychological signs and symptoms have not been studied. In some cases, these neuropsychological signs cause greater learning problems in children than the actual language problems themselves. Childhood language disorders are associated with different neuropsychological problems. The most commonly associated neuropsychological deficits are problems involving memory, attention, executive functions, motor dysfunctions, temporal perception, tactile recognition, body scheme, spatial orientation and difficulties in visual discrimination. Mnemonic disorders (essentially in short-term and working auditory memory) are usually a common denominator in the different clinical pictures that make up language disorders. The mnemonic impairment associated to dyslalias deserves special attention as this disorder is sometimes similar to that seen in language problems deriving from clinical pictures with important neurological alterations.

  17. Pathways to the Oral and Written Language Competence Among Young Vietnamese English Language Learners

    OpenAIRE

    Duong, Thao Michelle

    2011-01-01

    This case study, drawing upon the ecological perspectives (Kramsch, 2002; van Lier, 2004) as a theoretical framework, described the learning experiences of two second generation and first grade Vietnamese English Language Learners navigating between home and school to develop oral and written L1 Vietnamese and L2 English competence for one school year. In the second school year, the focal students' oral and written language samples were collected without classroom observations or interviews....

  18. Oral English Language Proficiency and Reading Mastery: The Role of Home Language and School Supports

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    Palacios, Natalia; Kibler, Amanda

    2016-01-01

    The analysis of 21,409 participants of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten cohort focused on home and school factors sought to understand the level of reading mastery that children experienced throughout elementary school and Grade 8 by relating home language use, timing of oral English language proficiency, and the provision of…

  19. 28 CFR 55.13 - Language used for oral assistance and publicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Language used for oral assistance and... THE PROVISIONS OF THE VOTING RIGHTS ACT REGARDING LANGUAGE MINORITY GROUPS Determining the Exact Language § 55.13 Language used for oral assistance and publicity. (a) Languages with more than one dialect...

  20. Monitoring in Language Perception: Mild and Strong Conflicts Elicit Different ERP Patterns

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    van de Meerendonk, Nan; Kolk, Herman H. J.; Vissers, Constance Th. W. M.; Chwilla, Dorothee J.

    2010-01-01

    In the language domain, most studies of error monitoring have been devoted to language production. However, in language perception, errors are made as well and we are able to detect them. According to the monitoring theory of language perception, a strong conflict between what is expected and what is observed triggers reanalysis to check for…

  1. Living Language: Self-Assessment, Oral Production, and Domestic Immersion

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    Dolosic, Haley N.; Brantmeier, Cindy; Strube, Michael; Hogrebe, Mark C.

    2016-01-01

    With 24 adolescent students enrolled in a French language summer camp, the present study examines the relationship between self-assessment and oral production in French, interpreting results through a framework of individual learning variables. Participants were surrounded by French inside and outside the classroom. Self-assessment was measured…

  2. The Relationship between Language Learners’ Willingness to Communicate and Their Oral Language Proficiency with Regard to Gender Differences

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    Amir Valadi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Willingness to communicate (WTC, which is defined as the intention to communicate given a choice, continues to establish itself as a determining construct in bringing about success or failure in  learning a second language (Dӧrnyei, 2005, Peng & Woodrow, 2010. The majority of studies done on the issue are oriented towards ESL contexts leaving us with a gap in English as a foreign language (EFL context literature. The paucity of studies in EFL contexts caused us to investigate whether WTC and language learners’ oral proficiency were related in an Iranian context. To this end, 70 male and female intermediate language learners learning English at a private institute were chosen as the participants of the study. The WTC questionnaire was given to the participants and a standard speaking test was administered. Also, individual semi-structured interviews with some of the participants were used to obtain supportive data. The results of correlational analyses revealed that there was a strong relationship between learners’ WTC and their oral proficiency with no significant gender difference. The possible reasons for the correlation are discussed with regard to different motivational, contextual, and attitudinal factors.

  3. MORPOHOLOGICAL POS TAGGING IN ORAL LANGUAGE CORPUS: CHALLENGES FOR AELIUS

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    Gabriel de Ávila Othero

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present the results of our work with automatic morphological annotation of excerpts from a corpus of spoken language – belonging to the VARSUL project – using the free morphosyntatic tagger Aelius. We present 20 texts containing 154,530 words, annotated automatically and corrected manually. This paper presents the tagger Aelius and our work of manual review of the texts, as well as our suggestions for improvements of the tool, concerning aspects of oral texts. We verify the performance of morphosyntactic tagging a spoken language corpus, an unprecedented challenge for the tagger. Based on the errors of the tagger, we try to infer certain patterns of annotation to overcome limitations presented by the program, and we propose suggestions for implementations in order to allow Aelius to tag spoken language corpora in a more effective way, specially treating cases such as interjections, apheresis, onomatopeia and conversational markers.

  4. Oral History as an Innovative Language Teaching Technique for Spanish Heritage Language Learners

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    Burgo, Clara

    2016-01-01

    Oral history is presented in this article as an interpretative exercise for historical events in a Spanish course for heritage language learners at the university level. Through the interview of a Latino immigrant family, students re-examined the history of their own families and increased their linguistic self-esteem. They were guided to become…

  5. Fundaments for the study of orality in written language

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    José Gaston Hilgert

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we put forth some reflections upon the production of effects of orality in written texts in light of the fundaments of enunciation. In this theoretical context, we show that the study of orality in written language should not depart from the random identification of lexical and syntactic, figurative and thematic, stylistic or rhetoric resources. What matters is the identification of the interactive scenario in which these linguistic resources are manifested. The interactive scenario is configured by the relationship between narrator/narratee revealed in the text. If this relation takes place by means of the interaction between an I (narrator and a you (narratee, either explicit or implicit, then it is instituted, in this scenario, the basic principle of dialog, of conversation, which defines the proximity condition of the interlocutors and, therefore, the interactive scenario favorable to the use of orality resources. When this relation, however, takes place in the form of a third person narrator who addresses him/herself to an implicit reader, the scenario of distancing is installed, in which orality resources may be unfit or, if they occur, they may have specific functions. This text addresses special attention to the interactive scenario set by the interaction between I/you, showing, in different examples, traits of orality determined by such interaction, and also the various degrees of proximity that this interaction may reveal in its various manifestations.

  6. Oral and written language in late adulthood: findings from the Nun Study.

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    Mitzner, Tracy L; Kemper, Susan

    2003-01-01

    As a part of the Nun Study, a longitudinal investigation of aging and Alzheimer's disease, oral and written autobiographies from 118 older women were analyzed to examine the relationship between spoken and written language. The written language samples were more complex than the oral samples, both conceptually and grammatically. The relationship between the linguistic measures and participant characteristics was also examined. The results suggest that the grammatical and conceptual characteristics of oral and written language are affected by participant differences in education, cognitive status, and physical function and that written language samples have greater power than oral language samples to differentiate between high- and low-ability older adults.

  7. Home Literacy Environment and Its Influence on Singaporean Children's Chinese Oral and Written Language Abilities

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    Li, Li; Tan, Chee Lay

    2016-01-01

    In a bilingual environment such as Singaporean Chinese community, the challenge of maintaining Chinese language and sustaining Chinese culture lies in promoting the daily use of Chinese language in oral and written forms among children. Ample evidence showed the effect of the home language and literacy environment (HLE), on children's language and…

  8. What Work of Literature Do You Recommend for Its Use of a Strong Oral Tradition?

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    Adams, Cindy S.; Lujan, Alfredo Celedon; Schulze, Patricia

    2003-01-01

    Presents three teachers' recommendations for works of literature that use a strong oral tradition. Discusses each of the teacher selections: "Harry Potter and the Sorcerer's Stone (J.K. Rowling); "Cuentos: Tales from the Hispanic Southwest" (compiled by Juan B. Rael); and "The Way to Rainy Mountain" (N. Scott Momaday). (SG)

  9. Assessing Young Children's Oral Language: Recommendations for Classroom Practice and Policy

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    Malec, Alesia; Peterson, Shelley Stagg; Elshereif, Heba

    2017-01-01

    A systematic review of research on oral language assessments for four-to-eight-year- old children was undertaken to support a six-year action research project aimed toward co-creating classroom oral language assessment tools with teachers in northern rural and Indigenous Canadian communities. Through an extensive screening process, 10 studies were…

  10. A linguagem oral como elemento integrante da brincadeira Oral language as an integral component of play

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    Dânia Monteiro Vieira Costa

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Este texto discute a importância da brincadeira infantil para o desenvolvimento da linguagem oral nas crianças. É o desdobramento de pesquisa que investigou o trabalho com a linguagem em uma instituição educativa infantil que atende crianças de 2 a 6 anos de idade. O estudo de caso utilizou como técnica de coleta dos dados a observação participante. Conclui que as crianças recriam, nas brincadeiras, situações vivenciadas nas diversas esferas de comunicação humana das quais participam e, portanto, que as brincadeiras são de natureza cultural. Acentua, ainda, a importância do trabalho colaborativo para o desenvolvimento infantilThis paper discusses the importance of children's play in the development of oral language. It is the unfolding of a research whose aim was to assess language acquisition by 2 to 6 year-old children enrolled at an early childhood education institution. This case study uses participant observation as a data collection method. It concludes that, while playing, children recreate the situations they experience in the diverse spheres of human communication in which they take part and, therefore, their playing activities are cultural in nature. It further stresses the importance of collaborative work in child development

  11. Effects of Adapted Dialogic Reading on Oral Language and Vocabulary Knowledge of Latino Preschoolers at Risk for English Language Delays

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    Correa, Vivian I.; Lo, Ya-Yu; Godfrey-Hurrell, Kristi; Swart, Katie; Baker, Doris Luft

    2015-01-01

    In this single-case design study, we examined the effects of an adapted dialogic reading intervention on the oral language and vocabulary skills of four Latino preschool children who were at risk for English language delays. We used adapted dialogic reading strategies in English and two literacy games that included a rapid naming activity and…

  12. The Complex Relationship between Bilingual Home Language Input and Kindergarten Children's Spanish and English Oral Proficiencies

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    Cha, Kijoo; Goldenberg, Claude

    2015-01-01

    This study examined how emergent bilingual children's English and Spanish proficiencies moderated the relationships between Spanish and English input at home (bilingual home language input [BHLI]) and children's oral language skills in each language. The sample comprised over 1,400 Spanish-dominant kindergartners in California and Texas. BHLI was…

  13. Exploring Australian speech-language pathologists' use and perceptions ofnon-speech oral motor exercises.

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    Rumbach, Anna F; Rose, Tanya A; Cheah, Mynn

    2018-01-29

    To explore Australian speech-language pathologists' use of non-speech oral motor exercises, and rationales for using/not using non-speech oral motor exercises in clinical practice. A total of 124 speech-language pathologists practising in Australia, working with paediatric and/or adult clients with speech sound difficulties, completed an online survey. The majority of speech-language pathologists reported that they did not use non-speech oral motor exercises when working with paediatric or adult clients with speech sound difficulties. However, more than half of the speech-language pathologists working with adult clients who have dysarthria reported using non-speech oral motor exercises with this population. The most frequently reported rationale for using non-speech oral motor exercises in speech sound difficulty management was to improve awareness/placement of articulators. The majority of speech-language pathologists agreed there is no clear clinical or research evidence base to support non-speech oral motor exercise use with clients who have speech sound difficulties. This study provides an overview of Australian speech-language pathologists' reported use and perceptions of non-speech oral motor exercises' applicability and efficacy in treating paediatric and adult clients who have speech sound difficulties. The research findings provide speech-language pathologists with insight into how and why non-speech oral motor exercises are currently used, and adds to the knowledge base regarding Australian speech-language pathology practice of non-speech oral motor exercises in the treatment of speech sound difficulties. Implications for Rehabilitation Non-speech oral motor exercises refer to oral motor activities which do not involve speech, but involve the manipulation or stimulation of oral structures including the lips, tongue, jaw, and soft palate. Non-speech oral motor exercises are intended to improve the function (e.g., movement, strength) of oral structures. The

  14. A Comparative Structural Analysis of the Oral Language Materials and the Basic Readers Used in Philippine Schools

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    Maminta, Rosario E.

    1968-01-01

    Outlines a study to determine similarities between language structures in English reading materials and oral language patterns familiar to Filipino children and mentions needs for readability studies of second-language materials. Bibliography. (MD)

  15. Promoting Oral Language Skills in Preschool Children through Sociodramatic Play in the Classroom

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    P.L.N. Randima Rajapaksha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Children best learn language through playful learning experiences in the preschool classroom. The present study focused on developing oral language skills in preschool children through a sociodramatic play intervention. The study employed a case study design under qualitative approach. The researcher conducted a sociodramatic play intervention collaboratively with the class teacher for a group of 10 children selected utilizing purposive sampling method in a preschool classroom. The intervention was conducted in a preschool located in Colombo, Sri Lanka for 3 weeks. The observation, interview and reflective journal were the instrument used to collect data. The observation carried under two criteria namely, ability to initiate a conversation and ability to respond in a conversation revealed that the sociodramatic play intervention created many opportunities to develop oral language skills in the children than the regular classroom activities. The sociodramatic play activities enhanced children's oral language skills while creating a language rich playful learning experiences. Keywords: Language development, Early childhood education, Sociodramatic play

  16. Pedagogy of Attention: Subverting the Strong Language of Intention in Social Justice Education

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    Desroches, Sarah J.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, I explore the possibility of social justice education as pedagogy of "attention" rather than simply pedagogy of "intention." Drawing on Gert Biesta's (2010) concept of "strong" education, I begin by explaining how the language of intention in social justice education relies on a discourse in which…

  17. The Place of Writing in Preserving an Oral Language.

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    Bennett, Ruth; Mattz, Pam; Jackson, Silish; Campbell, Harold

    This paper shows how a traditional story can be used to teach an indigenous language, and how the inclusion of writing can help students learn the language effectively. Hupa people have told Coyote stories for thousands of years. Such Hupa stories are incorporated in Hupa language instruction using the Language Proficiency Method, which involves a…

  18. Oral Transmission: A Marriage of Music, Language, Tradition, and Culture

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    Emma E. Patterson

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available There are a number of misunderstandings about ancient oral transmission that negatively affect the way musicians view music history but also the process of how music was and currently is conceived, recorded, and shared. A common misconception is that oral transmission of music is an ancient practice that occurred before written notation of music was developed. However, I seek to prove that there is a false dichotomy between oral transmission and written notation and I focus on the changing definition and importance of oral tradition. Firstly, I discuss the misconceptions of ancient oral transmission. Secondly, I examine the continuing development of research and definitions of oral transmission—which is changing our concept of ancient as well contemporary oral traditions. Thirdly, I demonstrate how these traditions are still relevant in present, late modern times. Thoughout this discussion I examine and engage with the pivotal specialists and research that has developed our view of oral tradition through time. To better understand these scholars’ commentary as well as my own, it is important to note the combined concepts of oral and aural tradition. Oral culture refers to what is spoken and sung, and aural culture refers to what is heard and comprehended. Both are necessary for effective transmission to occur, and oral and aural methods are almost always simultaneously present in most societies. When aural culture is discussed here, it refers to the combination of both elements and is closely related to aural tradition. The most notable terms to differentiate are oral transmission and oral tradition. Typically oral transmission refers to the basic action of passing information, in this case music, through oral and aural means. Oral tradition, however, is the more general concept that synthesizes oral transmission, tradition, and culture. Despite misconceptions that music was primitive before composers started documenting it, oral

  19. Linguagem oral e escrita em adolescentes infratores institucionalizados Oral and written language in institutionalized juvenile offenders

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    Carla Maria Ariano Destro

    2012-12-01

    / or written language disturbances in a group of institutionalized juvenile offenders, checking how possible language and communication difficulties impact on these subjects' social life. METHOD: exploratory and descriptive study, with 40 interns of Fundação Casa / IU 25 unit - Rio Negro/ Franco da Rocha city complex - SP, between 15 and 18 year old. For collecting the data we applied the Mini-Mental State Examination - MMSE test, to detect individuals who may have cognitive impairment; the Montreal test, to examine simple oral and written language abilities and a semi-structured an interview, whose script was related to General Health, School Path, Vocational Path and perceptions of criminal behavior. RESULTS: the results showed that the majority of the population was literate and there was no occurrence of cognitive impairment. There was a high rate of school dropouts due from difficulties in following school curriculum and adapting to school rules and dynamics, indicating the impacts referring to language difficulties, especially written language, on condition that, in combination with other factors favored the conduct infractions. CONCLUSION: the young offenders had problems to develop and to engage in socio-cultural patterns and values, including school rules, which impose limits on their discursive access and movement, by restricting the uses of language, as a path to the development of personal social practice and citizenship. The findings provide evidence, among other factors, on the social impact that poor schooling and socialization of young people may come to cause. The study demonstrates that language should be designed as a social practice, mostly in the expression and communication forms of these subjects.

  20. Aspects of Oral Language, Speech, and Written Language in Subjects with Temporal Lobe Epilepsy of Difficult Control

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    Berberian, Ana Paula

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction About 50 million people have epilepsy and 30% of them have epilepsy that does not respond to properly conducted drug treatment. Objective Verify the incidence of language disorders in oral language, speech, and written language of subjects with difficult to control temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE and compare the occurrence of these disorders in subjects before and after surgery. Methods Cross-sectional study with quantitative analysis, exploratory type. A questionnaire for data collection was administered covering the following aspects: oral language, speech complaints, and writing production and comprehension. Criteria for inclusion of subjects were a diagnosis of TLE refractory to drug treatment and at least 4 years of schooling. Results The sample of 63 patients with TLE was divided into two groups: presurgical (n = 31 and postsurgical (n = 32. In the postsurgical group, there was a higher frequency of left lobectomy (75% than right (25%. Conclusion Statistical analysis was performed with the chi-square test (significance level of 0.05. Complaints related to speech-language attention were more predominant in postsurgical subjects. Analysis of oral language, speech, and written language in subjects with epilepsy who underwent temporal lobectomy or not showed findings consistent with symptoms related to transient aphasia, with the presence of paraphasias, as well as changes in speech prosody and melody. These symptoms appeared more associated with recurrence after having a temporal lobectomy.

  1. Investigating Mobile-Assisted Oral Feedback in Teaching Chinese as a Second Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qi; Peng, Hongying

    2017-01-01

    This article reports on an exploratory study investigating mobile-assisted oral feedback in teaching Chinese as a second language (CSL). It is aimed at exploring the characteristics of mobile-assisted feedback on oral production with the smartphone social communication app WeChat as a case in point and examining learners' perceptions of…

  2. English as an Additional Language (EAL) "viva voce": The EAL Doctoral Oral Examination Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Is the doctoral "viva voce" a reasonable method of examination? This exploratory paper proposes that the doctoral "viva voce" (oral examination) is a slightly different hurdle for doctoral candidates for whom English is an additional language (EAL, also termed ESL) than for those whose first language is English. It investigates…

  3. Promoting Oral Language Skills in Preschool Children through Sociodramatic Play in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajapaksha, P. L. N. Randima

    2016-01-01

    Children best learn language through playful learning experiences in the preschool classroom. The present study focused on developing oral language skills in preschool children through a sociodramatic play intervention. The study employed a case study design under qualitative approach. The researcher conducted a sociodramatic play intervention…

  4. Restorative Justice Conferencing, Oral Language Competence, and Young Offenders: Are These High-Risk Conversations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, Pamela

    2013-01-01

    This article is concerned with the oral language demands (both talking and listening) associated with restorative justice conferencing--an inherently highly verbal and conversational process. Many vulnerable young people (e.g., those in the youth justice system) have significant, yet unidentified language impairments, and these could compromise…

  5. Oral and Written Language Development of Children Adopted from China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Kathleen A.; Roberts, Jenny A.; Krakow, Rena

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The sharp increase in the number of international adoptions in the United States has prompted a heightened interest in the language development of internationally adopted children. Although recent studies have investigated the early language development of adoptees, little is known about the school-age language and literacy skills of…

  6. Influences of Early English Language Teaching on Oral Fluency

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Wolf, Stephana; Smit, Nienke; Lowie, Wander

    2017-01-01

    Elementary-level foreign language education is currently receiving a lot of attention in the literature on second language learning, and has emerged as an important educational policy issue. The present study aims to contribute to this discussion by focusing on the fluency benefits gained from early foreign language teaching. The participants were…

  7. Restorative Justice conferencing and the youth offender: exploring the role of oral language competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, Pamela C; Sanger, Dixie D

    2011-01-01

    Restorative Justice is an approach to responding to youth offending that aims to be collaborative and conciliatory rather than adversarial. In this respect, it is a welcome innovation in justice, welfare, and educational settings, and is gaining favour around the world. To date, however, the Restorative Justice literature has not considered the possible implications of unidentified language impairment in the young offenders who are asked to participate in face-to-face conferences with their victim(s). The aims of this paper are (1) to bring two paradigms together: Restorative Justice on the one hand, and the literature on language and social cognition impairments in vulnerable and socially marginalized young people on the other; (2) to stimulate awareness and interest in this aspect of public policy and practice by speech-language pathologists; and (3) to suggest some research questions that need to be tackled from an oral language competence perspective. A narrative review of the relevant literature pertaining to both Restorative Justice and oral language competence in vulnerable young people was conducted, with particular emphasis on the implications of the undetected language impairments as a source of possible unintended harm to both victims and offenders in Restorative Justice conferences. This is the first paper that specifically addresses the oral language skills of vulnerable and socially marginalized young people with respect to their capacity to participate in Restorative Justice conferences. It is important that speech-language pathologists contribute their specialized knowledge and clinical skills to public policy-making and debate, and practice that pertains to marginalized young people who may have undetected oral language impairments. Speech-language pathology as a profession is well positioned to plan and execute important programmes of research on this growing approach to dealing with youth offending and reducing recidivism. © 2010 Royal College

  8. How a Strong Government Backed an African Language: The Lessons of Somalia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warsame, Ali A.

    2001-07-01

    Although Somali is the mother tongue of over 95 per cent of the population of Somalia, when the country received independence in 1960 it took English, Italian, and Arabic as its official languages. Because of controversy involving technical, religious and political questions, no script for the Somali language could be agreed upon, either in the colonial era or in parliamentary years, 1960-1969. The consequences of this non-decision were considerable for Somali society. However, when the authoritarian military rulers came to the power in the early 1970s, they made a final decision in regard to script. They also issued a decree to the effect that Somali was to be the language of political and administrative discourse in the Somali Republic. That act marked the beginning of the restoration of cultural and linguistic rights for Somali society. This article examines how Somalia, under a strong and totalitarian regime, was able to promote its language. The article also presents an overview of the organisation and the implementation of the literacy campaigns carried out in Somalia, as well as some notes on planning and the theoretical framework behind the campaigns.

  9. Is Weak Oral Language Associated with Poor Spelling in School-Age Children with Specific Language Impairment, Dyslexia, or Both?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Jillian H.; Hogan, Tiffany P.; Catts, Hugh W.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that word reading accuracy, not oral language, is associated with spelling performance in school-age children. We compared fourth grade spelling accuracy in children with specific language impairment (SLI), dyslexia, or both (SLI/dyslexia) to their typically developing grade-matched peers. Results of the study revealed that children with SLI performed similarly to their typically developing peers on a single word spelling task. Alternatively, those with dyslexia and SLI/dyslexia evidenced poor spelling accuracy. Errors made by both those with dyslexia and SLI/dyslexia were characterized by numerous phonologic, orthographic, and semantic errors. Cumulative results support the hypothesis that word reading accuracy, not oral language, is associated with spelling performance in typically developing school-age children and their peers with SLI and dyslexia. Findings are provided as further support for the notion that SLI and dyslexia are distinct, yet co-morbid, developmental disorders. PMID:22876769

  10. Dimensions of Discourse Level Oral Language Skills and Their Relation to Reading Comprehension and Written Composition: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Suk Grace; Park, Cheahyung; Park, Younghee

    2015-01-01

    We examined the relations of discourse-level oral language skills [i.e., listening comprehension, and oral retell and production of narrative texts (oral retell and production hereafter)] to reading comprehension and written composition. Korean-speaking first grade students (N = 97) were assessed on listening comprehension, oral retell and…

  11. Language mastery, narrative abilities and oral expression abilities in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The importance of language and language mastery for science learning has been the object of extensive investigation in recent decades, leading to ample recognition. However, specific focus on the role of narrative abilities is still scarce. This work focuses on the relevance of narrative abilities for chemistry learning.

  12. Influences of early English language teaching on oral fluency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Wolf, Stephana; Smit, Nienke; Lowie, Wander

    2017-01-01

    Elementary-level foreign language education is currently receiving a lot of attention in the literature on second language learning, and has emerged as an important educational policy issue. The present study aims to contribute to this discussion by focusing on the fluency benefits gained from early

  13. The Role of Oral Language Skills in Reading and Listening Comprehension of Text: A Comparison of Monolingual (L1) and Bilingual (L2) Speakers of English Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babayigit, Selma

    2014-01-01

    The study examined the role of oral language skills in reading comprehension and listening comprehension levels of 125 monolingual (L1) and bilingual (L2) English-speaking learners (M = 121.5 months, SD = 4.65) in England. All testing was conducted in English. The L1 learners outperformed their L2 peers on the measures of oral language and text…

  14. Weak and strong novice readers of English as a foreign language: effects of first language and socioeconomic status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn-Horwitz, Janina; Shimron, Joseph; Sparks, Richard L

    2006-06-01

    This study examined individual differences among beginning readers of English as a foreign language (EFL). The study concentrated on the effects of underlying first language (L1) knowledge as well as EFL letter and vocabulary knowledge. Phonological and morphological awareness, spelling, vocabulary knowledge, and word reading in Hebrew L1, in addition to knowledge of EFL letters and EFL vocabulary, were measured. The study also investigated the effect of socioeconomic background (SES) on beginning EFL readers. Participants included 145 fourth graders from three schools representing two socioeconomic backgrounds in the north of Israel. The results indicate that knowledge of English letters played a more prominent role than knowledge of Hebrew L1 components in differentiating between strong and weak EFL readers. The Linguistic Coding Differences Hypothesis was supported by L1 phonological awareness, word reading, and vocabulary knowledge appearing as part of discriminating functions. The presence of English vocabulary knowledge as part of the discriminant functions provides support for English word reading being more than just a decoding task for EFL beginner readers. Socioeconomic status differentiated the groups for EFL word recognition but not for EFL reading comprehension.

  15. Methodological Considerations concerning the Assessment of Oral Competency in a Second Language (L2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José González-Such

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we review methodological considerations about the assessment of oral proficiency in a second language. We discuss the characteristics of the construct and its definition, in this case with reference to proficiency, including competence in listening comprehension and oral expression. Also, we review concepts like how to design instruments and/or evaluative techniques for assessing the competencies that are involved, and considerations about reliability, validity and standard setting.

  16. Designing a digital pedagogical pattern for improving foreign language learners’ oral proficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina Grobler

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available South African undergraduate foreign language students need more opportunity to practise their oral language skills. Not only do appeals to focus more on oral productive skills feature in scholarly literature (Delena-le Roux 2010, it is also one of the main conclusions from a survey among beginner students of French at the Potchefstroom Campus of North-West University (South Africa. It was therefore necessary to design a teaching and learning intervention, specifically aimed at improving beginner students’ oral communication skills in French. Laurillard’s (2012 Conversational Framework inspired the design of a digital pedagogical pattern (DPP, consisting of context and pedagogy descriptors for the development of foreign language learners’ oral communication skills. The Conversational Framework analyses formal learning and challenges the use of new technologies in learning. The implementation process of a DPP for the development of students’ (French oral skills involved three cycles, each with specific outcomes and three groups of participants: the control group and two experimental groups. Field-testing the proposed DPP provided important insights which should be integrated in the design of subsequent digital pedagogical patterns in the specific context: limiting the participant groups to two; decreasing the number of interventions to be implemented in the limited teaching time of a semester; ensuring that each step adheres to the requirements of the Conversational Framework. Student results from the learning interventions in future studies should reveal which intervention better promotes oral communication skills.

  17. Oral Vocabulary and Language Acquisition Strategies to Increase Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Grace

    2017-01-01

    This study addresses low literacy achievement in students in kindergarten and first grades. The study was designed to help identify how general education teachers can use specific daily research-based oral vocabulary acquisition strategies to close the literacy gap. This quantitative research helped to determine if the implementation of an oral…

  18. The Effects of Type and Quantity of Input on Iranian EFL Learners’ Oral Language Proficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Hassanzadeh

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In the written texts on foreign language learning, a group of studies has stressed the function of learning context and learning chances for learners’ language input. The present thesis had two main goals: on the one hand, different types of input to which Iranian grade four high school EFL learners’ are exposed were looked at; on the other hand, the possible relationship between types and quantity of input and Iranian EFL learners’ oral proficiency was investigated. It was supposed that EFL learners who have access to more input will show better oral proficiency than those who do not have. Instruments used in the present study for the purpose of data collation included  PET test, researcher- made questionnaire, oral language proficiency test and face- to -face interview. Data were gathered from 50 Iranian female grade four high school foreign language learners who were selected from among 120 students whose score on PET test were +1SD from the mean score. The results of the Spearman rank –order correlation test for the types of input and oral language proficiency scores, showed that the participants’ oral proficiency score significantly correlated with the intended four sources of input including spoken (rho= 0.416, sig=0.003, written (rho= 0.364, sig=0.009, aural (rho= 0.343, sig=0.015 and visual or audio-visual types of input (rho= 0.47, sig=0.00. The findings of Spearman rank –order correlation test for the quantity of input and oral language proficiency scores also showed a significant relationship between quantity of input and oral language proficiency (rho= 0.543, sig= 0.00. The findings showed that EFL learners’ oral proficiency is significantly correlated with efficient and effective input. The findings may also suggest  answers to the question why most Iranian English learners fail to speak English fluently, which might be due to  lack of effective input. This may emphasize the importance of the types and quantity of

  19. Oral language skills intervention in pre-school-a cautionary tale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haley, Allyson; Hulme, Charles; Bowyer-Crane, Claudine; Snowling, Margaret J; Fricke, Silke

    2017-01-01

    While practitioners are increasingly asked to be mindful of the evidence base of intervention programmes, evidence from rigorous trials for the effectiveness of interventions that promote oral language abilities in the early years is sparse. To evaluate the effectiveness of a language intervention programme for children identified as having poor oral language skills in preschool classes. A randomized controlled trial was carried out in 13 UK nursery schools. In each nursery, eight children (N = 104, mean age = 3 years 11 months) with the poorest performance on standardized language measures were selected to take part. All but one child were randomly allocated to either an intervention (N = 52) or a waiting control group (N = 51). The intervention group received a 15-week oral language programme in addition to their standard nursery curriculum. The programme was delivered by trained teaching assistants and aimed to foster vocabulary knowledge, narrative and listening skills. Initial results revealed significant differences between the intervention and control group on measures of taught vocabulary. No group differences were found on any standardized language measure; however, there were gains of moderate effect size in listening comprehension. The study suggests that an intervention, of moderate duration and intensity, for small groups of preschool children successfully builds vocabulary knowledge, but does not generalize to non-taught areas of language. The findings strike a note of caution about implementing language interventions of moderate duration in preschool settings. The findings also highlight the importance of including a control group in intervention studies. © 2016 Royal College of Speech and Language Therapists.

  20. Contribution of Oral Language Skills, Linguistic Skills, and Transcription Skills to Chinese Written Composition among Fourth-Grade Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Pui-sze; Ho, Connie Suk-han; Chan, David Wai-ock; Chung, Kevin Kien-hoa

    2013-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the contribution of oral language skills, linguistic skills, and transcription skills to Chinese written composition among Grade 4 students in Hong Kong. Measures assessing verbal working memory, oral language skills, linguistic skills (i.e., syntactic skills and discourse skills), transcription skills (i.e.,…

  1. Oral Language Competence and the Transition to School: Socio-Economic and Behavioural Factors That Influence Academic and Social Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, Pamela

    2014-01-01

    Oral language competence (skill in everyday talking and listening) is critical in the early years of school in two key respects: it underpins the transition to literacy in the early years, and is the means by which children form and maintain interpersonal relationships in the school setting. In this paper, the role of oral language competence with…

  2. Linguagem oral na escola em tempo de redes Oral language at school in an age of networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudemir Belintane

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo propõe reflexões sobre as possibilidades de ensino da língua oral, a partir das concepções veiculadas nos Parâmetros Curriculares Nacionais (Brasil do ensino fundamental e de críticas consensuais que evidenciam a carência de materiais didáticos e de currículos que dêem à língua falada e às produções orais um tratamento didático-pedagógico à altura do papel que esses fenômenos desempenham, tanto no uso pragmático da língua como no campo literário. As reflexões são elaboradas a partir de uma concepção que assume a língua como instrumento, meio de interação e constituição de subjetividades; adotam o conceito de gêneros do discurso de Bakthin e constroem sua coerência contextual tendo como base a práxis pedagógica do autor em cursos de formação de professores (iniciais e em serviço. Argumenta em prol de uma perspectiva curricular que considere a oralidade, neste contexto de novas tecnologias, um campo complexo, dinâmico e suficientemente propício a impregnações com a escrita, sobretudo com a literatura. Sugere-se um esboço de modelo que propõe o tratamento didático-pedagógico das atividades de escuta e produção oral em conjunção explícita com as atividades de leitura e produção escrita e, ainda, apresenta reflexões sobre as possibilidades e vantagens de incluir, sem preconceitos, produções orais contemporâneas e as originárias da tradição do oral.This paper offers reflections about the possibilities of teaching the oral language. It starts from the conceptions put forward by the National Curriculum Guidelines (Brazil for the primary school as well as from consensual criticisms that have disclosed the lack of pedagogical material and of curricula that can provide the spoken language and the oral productions with a didactic-pedagogical treatment adequate to the role they play both in the practical use of language and in the literary field. The reflections are developed from

  3. Examining English Language Teachers' TPACK in Oral Communication Skills Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debbagh, Mohammed; Jones, W. Monty

    2018-01-01

    This case study utilized the Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK) theoretical framework (Mishra & Koehler, 2006) as a lens to examine the instructional strategies of four English as a second language (ESL) teachers and their rationales for incorporating technology into their instructional practices in teaching oral communication…

  4. Authentic Tasks to Foster Oral Production among English as a Foreign Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez Ortiz, Sandra Milena; Artunduaga Cuéllar, Marco Tulio

    2018-01-01

    Attaining oral production is a challenge for most English language teachers because most of the strategies implemented in class do not engage students in speaking activities. Tasks are an optimal alternative to engage learners in communicative exchanges. This article presents the results of a qualitative action research study examining the effects…

  5. The Effects of Multimedia Task-Based Language Teaching on EFL Learners' Oral L2 Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    BavaHarji, Madhubala; Gheitanchian, Mehrnaz; Letchumanan, Krishnaveni

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the effects of tasks, with varying levels of complexity, i.e. simple, + complex and ++ complex tasks on EFL learners' oral production in a multimedia task-based language teaching environment. 57 EFL adult learners carried out a total of 12 tasks, in sets of four tasks within three different themes and different levels of…

  6. Social Competence and Oral Language Development for Young Children of Latino Immigrants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Bryant; Reese, Leslie; Hall-Kenyon, Kendra; Bennett, Courtney

    2015-01-01

    Research Findings: In this study we analyze how parent and teacher ratings of young Latino children's social competencies in rural California are associated with children's oral language development. We find (a) that there is considerable incongruence between parent and teacher ratings of child social competence, (b) that both parent and teacher…

  7. Early Home Activities and Oral Language Skills in Middle Childhood: A Quantile Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, James; Rush, Robert; King, Tom; Westrupp, Elizabeth; Reilly, Sheena

    2018-01-01

    Oral language development is a key outcome of elementary school, and it is important to identify factors that predict it most effectively. Commonly researchers use ordinary least squares regression with conclusions restricted to average performance conditional on relevant covariates. Quantile regression offers a more sophisticated alternative.…

  8. The Relationship between Drawing and Oral Language in Deaf Students Aged Three to Five

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestre, Nuria; Cambra, Cristina

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between drawing and oral language acquisition in deaf students aged three to five. The sample is made up of one hundred participants: fifty deaf and fifty hearing children. Goodenough's Human Figure Drawing Test and the WPPSI Scale of Intelligence geometric design subtest have been used to evaluate graphic…

  9. Supporting Oral Narrative Development of Kindergarten English Language Learners Using Multimedia Stories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Sha

    2016-01-01

    Narrative ability comes before literacy for bilingual students and helps narrow down the gap in text-level literacy between English language learners (ELLs) and native English speakers. Kindergarten ELLs are the best age group to receive intervention to improve their oral narrative skills. Multimedia stories have potential to assist kindergarten…

  10. Foreign Language Tutoring in Oral Conversations Using Spoken Dialog Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sungjin; Noh, Hyungjong; Lee, Jonghoon; Lee, Kyusong; Lee, Gary Geunbae

    Although there have been enormous investments into English education all around the world, not many differences have been made to change the English instruction style. Considering the shortcomings for the current teaching-learning methodology, we have been investigating advanced computer-assisted language learning (CALL) systems. This paper aims at summarizing a set of POSTECH approaches including theories, technologies, systems, and field studies and providing relevant pointers. On top of the state-of-the-art technologies of spoken dialog system, a variety of adaptations have been applied to overcome some problems caused by numerous errors and variations naturally produced by non-native speakers. Furthermore, a number of methods have been developed for generating educational feedback that help learners develop to be proficient. Integrating these efforts resulted in intelligent educational robots — Mero and Engkey — and virtual 3D language learning games, Pomy. To verify the effects of our approaches on students' communicative abilities, we have conducted a field study at an elementary school in Korea. The results showed that our CALL approaches can be enjoyable and fruitful activities for students. Although the results of this study bring us a step closer to understanding computer-based education, more studies are needed to consolidate the findings.

  11. How Localized are Language Brain Areas? A Review of Brodmann Areas Involvement in Oral Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardila, Alfredo; Bernal, Byron; Rosselli, Monica

    2016-02-01

    The interest in understanding how language is "localized" in the brain has existed for centuries. Departing from seven meta-analytic studies of functional magnetic resonance imaging activity during the performance of different language activities, it is proposed here that there are two different language networks in the brain: first, a language reception/understanding system, including a "core Wernicke's area" involved in word recognition (BA21, BA22, BA41, and BA42), and a fringe or peripheral area ("extended Wernicke's area:" BA20, BA37, BA38, BA39, and BA40) involved in language associations (associating words with other information); second, a language production system ("Broca's complex:" BA44, BA45, and also BA46, BA47, partially BA6-mainly its mesial supplementary motor area-and extending toward the basal ganglia and the thalamus). This paper additionally proposes that the insula (BA13) plays a certain coordinating role in interconnecting these two brain language systems. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. From oral traditions to elementary textbooks: a description of the maternal languages project in Niger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, C L

    1983-12-01

    Niger is experimenting with maternal language instruction in grades 1-3, within a broader context of educational reform. In these early grades, some 25 experimental schools distributed throughout the country are using 1 of 5 national languages -- Hausa, Zarma-Songhai, Fulfulde, Tamajaq, or Kanuri -- as the language of instruction and of standardized examinations, as in traditional schools. The curriculum in these experimental schools for the early grades is also innovative and favors an interdisciplinary approach. Lessons in various subjects are linked at any given time by a them selected by teachers and students. Niger's national pedagogical institute, in collaboration with the US Agency for International Development (USAID), designed a testbook project which was built around a recorded collection of oral traditions. Once assembled, this collection served as a resource to draw on for production of readers for grades 1 through 3. These readers provide content appropriate to the curriculum and serve as an archive of oral traditions for future use. The Institute's procedure for producing elementary readers in maternal languages has not only yielded the desired books but has also facilitated institutional development in several organizations committed to producing national language materials. The project has had several phases, including the collection, transcription, and cataloging of oral materials; the preselection, adaptation, final editing, and illustration of tests; the publication of the textbooks; and the evaluation of the textbooks. Over 70 primary school teachers participated in the collection phase during the summer vacation of 1981. The teachers were selected to assure a distribution of regions and dialects for each of the 5 languages. Before returning to their villages, trainees were issued Panasonic RQ 230 9A tape recorders, batteries, and a box of 20 cassettes. Supervisory teams composed of at least 1 linguist and 1 pedagogical advisor visited each

  13. English Word-Level Decoding and Oral Language Factors as Predictors of Third and Fifth Grade English Language Learners' Reading Comprehension Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landon, Laura L.

    2017-01-01

    This study examines the application of the Simple View of Reading (SVR), a reading comprehension theory focusing on word recognition and linguistic comprehension, to English Language Learners' (ELLs') English reading development. This study examines the concurrent and predictive validity of two components of the SVR, oral language and word-level…

  14. Early Oral Language and Later Reading Development in Spanish-Speaking English Language Learners: Evidence from a Nine-Year Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieffer, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    Using nationally-representative, longitudinal data on a cohort of Spanish-speaking English language learners in the U.S., this study investigated the extent to which early oral language proficiency in Spanish and English predicts later levels and rates of growth in English reading. Latent growth models indicated that both Spanish and English…

  15. A single sip of a strong alcoholic beverage causes exposure to carcinogenic concentrations of acetaldehyde in the oral cavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linderborg, Klas; Salaspuro, Mikko; Väkeväinen, Satu

    2011-09-01

    The aim of this study was to explore oral exposure to carcinogenic (group 1) acetaldehyde after single sips of strong alcoholic beverages containing no or high concentrations of acetaldehyde. Eight volunteers tasted 5 ml of ethanol diluted to 40 vol.% with no acetaldehyde and 40 vol.% calvados containing 2400 μM acetaldehyde. Salivary acetaldehyde and ethanol concentrations were measured by gas chromatography. The protocol was repeated after ingestion of ethanol (0.5 g/kg body weight). Salivary acetaldehyde concentration was significantly higher after sipping calvados than after sipping ethanol at 30s both with (215 vs. 128 μmol/l, psipping of the alcoholic beverages. Carcinogenic concentrations of acetaldehyde are produced from ethanol in the oral cavity instantly after a small sip of strong alcoholic beverage, and the exposure continues for at least 10 min. Acetaldehyde present in the beverage has a short-term effect on total acetaldehyde exposure. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Executive Functions, Oral Language and Writing in Preschool Children: Development and Correlations

    OpenAIRE

    Pazeto, Talita de Cassia Batista; Seabra, Alessandra Gotuzo; Dias, Natália Martins

    2014-01-01

    Executive functions (EF) and oral language (OL) are important for learning reading and writing (RW) and for the development of other skills in preschool. The study investigated the progression and the relationships between the performances in these competences in pre-schoolers. Participants were 90 children, mean age 4.91 years, students from Kindergarten years I and II of a private school in SP, assessed, individually, with a battery with nine instruments for EF, OL, and RW. There was increa...

  17. Risk factors for proper oral language development in children: a systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurgel, Léia Gonçalves; Vidor, Deisi Cristina Gollo Marques; Joly, Maria Cristina Rodrigues Azevedo; Reppold, Caroline Tozzi

    2014-01-01

    To conduct a systematic review of literature production related to risk factors for proper oral language development in children. We used the terms "child language," "risk factors," and "randomized controlled trial" in MEDLINE (accessed via PubMed), Lilacs, SciELO, and The Cochrane Library from January 1980 to February 2014. Randomized controlled trials involving the study of some risk factors related to child language were included. Works with individuals who were not from the age group 0-12 years and presented no reliable definition of risk factors were excluded. The research findings were classified according to their theme and categorized methodological aspects. We observed the lack of a standardized list of risk factors for language available for health professionals. The main risk factor mentioned was family dynamics, followed by interaction with parents, immediate social environment, and encouragement given to the child in the first years of life. It was also observed that organic hazards such as brain injury, persistent otitis media, and cardiac surgery, besides the type of food and parental counseling, may be related to language disorders. More randomized controlled trials involving the evaluation of risk factors for child language and the creation of further studies involving children above 6 years of age and males are needed.

  18. Standing Strong: Maloney Interdistrict Magnet School Japanese Language and Culture Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haxhi, Jessica; Yamashita-Iverson, Kazumi

    2009-01-01

    Maloney Interdistrict Magnet School (MIMS) is the only elementary school in Waterbury that has a world language program and is one of only two elementary Japanese programs in Connecticut. In the past 15 years, more than 1500 students have participated in its Japanese Language and Culture (JLC) Program in grades Prekindergarten through 5th. The JLC…

  19. Direct and Mediated Effects of Language and Cognitive Skills on Comprehension or Oral Narrative Texts (Listening Comprehension) for Children

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    Kim, Young-Suk Grace

    2016-01-01

    We investigated component language and cognitive skills of oral language comprehension of narrative texts (i.e., listening comprehension). Using the construction--integration model of text comprehension as an overarching theoretical framework, we examined direct and mediated relations of foundational cognitive skills (working memory and…

  20. The Development and Validation of a Spanish Elicited Imitation Test of Oral Language Proficiency for the Missionary Training Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Carrie A.

    2013-01-01

    The Missionary Training Center (MTC), affiliated with the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, needs a reliable and cost effective way to measure the oral language proficiency of missionaries learning Spanish. The MTC needed to measure incoming missionaries' Spanish language proficiency for training and classroom assignment as well as to…

  1. The Importance of SES, Home and School Language and Literacy Practices, and Oral Vocabulary in Bilingual Children's English Reading Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Elizabeth R.; Páez, Mariela M.; August, Diane L.; Barr, Christopher D.; Kenyon, Dorry; Malabonga, Valerie

    2014-01-01

    This study explores the role that socioeconomic status (SES), home and school language and literacy practices, and oral vocabulary play in the development of English reading skills in Latino English language learners (ELLs) and how these factors contribute differentially to English reading outcomes for children of different ages and in different…

  2. Exploring Relationships between Oral Reading Fluency and Reading Comprehension amongst English Second Language Readers in South Africa

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    Pretorius, Elizabeth J.; Spaull, Nic

    2016-01-01

    Most analyses of oral reading fluency (ORF) are based on L1 reading, and the norms that have been developed in English are based on first language reading data. This is problematic for developing countries where many children are learning in English as a second language. The aim of the present study is to model the relationship between English…

  3. Oral language and narrative skills in children with specific language impairment with and without literacy delay: a three-year longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandewalle, Ellen; Boets, Bart; Boons, Tinne; Ghesquière, Pol; Zink, Inge

    2012-01-01

    This longitudinal study compared the development of oral language and more specifically narrative skills (storytelling and story retelling) in children with specific language impairment (SLI) with and without literacy delay. Therefore, 18 children with SLI and 18 matched controls with normal literacy were followed from the last year of kindergarten (mean age=5 years 5 months) until the beginning of grade 3 (mean age=8 years 1 month). Oral language tests measuring vocabulary, morphology, sentence and text comprehension and narrative skills were administered yearly. Based on first and third grade reading and spelling achievement, both groups were divided into a group with and a group without literacy problems. Results showed that the children with SLI and literacy delay had persistent oral language problems across all assessed language domains. The children with SLI and normal literacy skills scored also persistently low on vocabulary, morphology and story retelling skills. Only on listening comprehension and storytelling, they evolved towards the level of the control group. In conclusion, oral language skills in children with SLI and normal literacy skills remained in general poor, despite their intact literacy development during the first years of literacy instruction. Only for listening comprehension and storytelling, they improved, probably as a result of more print exposure. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Cerebral organization of oral and signed language responses: case study evidence from amytal and cortical stimulation studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateer, C A; Rapport, R L; Kettrick, C

    1984-01-01

    A normally hearing left-handed patient familiar with American Sign Language (ASL) was assessed under sodium amytal conditions and with left cortical stimulation in both oral speech and signed English. Lateralization was mixed but complementary in each language mode: the right hemisphere perfusion severely disrupted motoric aspects of both types of language expression, the left hemisphere perfusion specifically disrupted features of grammatical and semantic usage in each mode of expression. Both semantic and syntactic aspects of oral and signed responses were altered during left posterior temporal-parietal stimulation. Findings are discussed in terms of the neurological organization of ASL and linguistic organization in cases of early left hemisphere damage.

  5. Moyamoya disease: impact on the performance of oral and written language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamônica, Dionísia Aparecida Cusin; Ribeiro, Camila da Costa; Ferraz, Plínio Marcos Duarte Pinto; Tabaquim, Maria de Lourdes Merighi

    Moyamoya disease is an unusual form of occlusive, cerebrovascular disorder that affects the arteries of the central nervous system, causing acquired language alterations and learning difficulties. The study aim was to describe the oral/written language and cognitive skills in a seven-year-and-seven-month-old girl diagnosed with Moyamoya disease. The assessment consisted of interviews with her parents and application of the following instruments: Observation of Communicative Behavior, Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test, Academic Performance Test, Profile of Phonological Awareness, Raven's Progressive Matrices Test, Special Scale, Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, Bender Visual Motor Gestalt Test, and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test. Two episodes of stroke in the left and right temporal-parietal and left frontal areas occurred until the age of six years and five months. Revascularization surgery and medication treatment were conducted. The audiologic and ophthalmologic assessments indicated normality. At the time of the study, the girl was attending the second grade of elementary school. She presented changes in oral and written language (syllabic-alphabetic), non-naming of all graphemes, low arithmetic and writing means, reading skill below first grade level and psycholinguistic delay, and pre-school level phonological processing skills. The psychological evaluation indicated satisfactory intellectual level; however, it also showed cognitive performance impairment in verbal and execution tasks and limitations on graphic-perceptual-motor skills and sequential logic organization. The stroke episodes influenced the performance of learning processes, affecting the analysis, integration, and interpretation of relevant visual and auditory information.

  6. Examining Oral Reading Fluency Trajectories Among English Language Learners and English Speaking Students

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    Shane R. Jimerson

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Students’ oral reading fluency growth from first through fourth grade was used to predict their achievement on the Stanford Achievement Test (9th ed.; SAT-9 Reading using a latent growth model. Two conditional variables related to student status were used to determine the effects on reading performance - English language learners (ELLs with low socioeconomic status and low socioeconomic (SES status alone. Results revealed that both types of student status variables reliably predicted low performance on initial first grade oral reading fluency, which later predicted fourth grade performance on the SAT-9. However, the reading fluency trajectories of the ELLs and monolingual English students were not significantly different. In addition, when both student status variables and letter naming fluency were used to predict initial oral reading fluency, letter naming fluency dominated the prediction equation, suggesting that an initial pre-reading skill, letter naming fluency, better explained fourth grade performance on the SAT-9 than either ELL with low SES or low SES alone. The discussion focuses on how to better enable these readers and how oral reading fluency progress monitoring can be used to assist school personnel in determining which students need additional instructional assistance.

  7. Validation of a French language version of the Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale (ECOHIS

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    Veronneau Jacques

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An English language oral health-related negative impact scale for 0–5 year old infants (the Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale [ECOHIS] has recently been developed and validated. The overall aim of our study was to validate a French version of the ECOHIS. The objectives were to investigate the scale's: i internal consistency; ii test-retest reliability; iii convergent validity; and iv discriminant validity. Methods Data were collected from two separate samples. Firstly, from 398 parents of children aged 12 months, recruited to a community-based intervention study, and secondly from 94 parents of 0–5 year-old children attending a hospital dental clinic. In a sub-sample of 101 of the community-based group, the scale was distributed a second time two weeks after initial evaluation. Internal consistency was evaluated through generation of Cronbach's alpha, test-retest reliability through intra-class-correlation coefficients (ICC, convergent validity through comparing scale total scores with a global evaluation of oral health and discriminant validity through investigation of differences in total scale scores between the community- and clinic-based samples. Results Cronbach's alpha for both the child and family impact sections was 0.79, and for the whole scale was 0.82. The ICC was 0.95. Mean ECOHIS scores for parents rating their child's oral health as "relatively poor", "good" and "very good" were 10.8, 3.4 and 2.7 respectively. In the community- and clinic-based samples, the mean ECOHIS scores were 3.7 and 4.9 respectively. Conclusion These results suggest this French language version of the ECOHIS is valid.

  8. The oral disposition index is a strong predictor of incident diabetes in Asian Indian prediabetic men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ram, Jagannathan; Snehalatha, Chamukuttan; Selvam, Sundaram; Nanditha, Arun; Shetty, Ananth Samith; Godsland, Ian F; Johnston, Desmond G; Ramachandran, Ambady

    2015-08-01

    In this analysis, we sought to examine the prospective association of the disposition index (DIo) derived from oral glucose tolerance test with incident diabetes in Asian Indian men with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). These post hoc analyses used data from a 2-year prospective study in primary prevention of diabetes using lifestyle intervention among 517 men with IGT. All the participants received standard lifestyle advice at baseline. The surrogate insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion measures were tested for their hyperbolic relationship. Predictive associations of various surrogate measures with incident diabetes were determined using receiver operating characteristic curves. The combination of total area under the curve of insulin-to-glucose ratio (AUCinsulin/glucose) and Matsuda's insulin sensitivity index was the best equation to depict DIo [β: -0.954 (95 % CI -1.015 to -0.893)] compared to other measures tested in this cohort. There was an inverse association between change in DIo at the final follow-up and development of incident diabetes. Among the surrogate insulin measures studied, DIo [AUC (0.717 (95 % CI 0.675-0.756))] as a composite measure was superior than other surrogate indices. Among the surrogate indices studied, DIo was the best measure associated with incident diabetes.

  9. Oral language supports early literacy: a pilot cluster randomized trial in disadvantaged schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, Pamela C; Eadie, Patricia A; Connell, Judy; Dalheim, Brenda; McCusker, Hugh J; Munro, John K

    2014-10-01

    This study examined the impact of teacher professional development aimed at improving the capacity of primary teachers in disadvantaged schools to strengthen children's expressive and receptive oral language skills and early literacy success in the first 2 years of school. Fourteen low-SES schools in Victoria, Australia were randomly allocated to a research (n = 8) or control arm (n = 6), resulting in an initial sample of 1254 students, (n = 602 in research arm and n = 652 in control arm). The intervention comprised 6 days of teacher and principal professional development (delivered by language and literacy experts), school-based continuing contact with the research team and completion by one staff member of each research school of a postgraduate unit on early language and literacy. Schools in the control arm received standard teaching according to state auspiced curriculum guidelines. Full data were available on 979 students at follow-up (time 2). Students in the research arm performed significantly better on Test of Language Development: Primary (Fourth Edition) sub-tests (p ≤ .002) and the Reading Progress Test (F = 10.4(1); p = .001) than students in the control arm at time 2. Narrative scores were not significantly different at time 2, although students in research schools showed greater gains. Findings provide "proof of concept" for this approach, and are discussed with respect to implications for teacher professional development and pre-service education concerning the psycholinguistic competencies that underpin the transition to literacy.

  10. Analysis of the Conceptions of Teachers of Compulsory Secondary Education and Baccalaureate on the Teaching of Oral Language: Case Study

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    Carolina Arredondo Ruiz

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available People use the language constantly without realizing how valuable it is. The oral language is a basic tool, it is necessary and it is so used that few people stop to think about its complexity, its essence, or its great power. The educational stages of Compulsory Secondary Education and Baccalaureate are essential for the development and improvement of oral skills (speaking and listening. It is about two stages in which students get prepared for later autonomous development in «adult life», so it is a key moment to carry out a correct acquisition and teaching of the suitable use of oral skills. Therefore, it may be deduced that the teachers of any subject in these educational stages, and their conceptions about general didactics, play a fundamental role in teaching and assessment of oral skills. This paper is aimed to present a qualitative research in which the case study will be done through the clinical interview in order to study in depth teachers’ conceptions about teaching and didactics of the oral language of the educational stages that we deal.. Thus, we will analyze the data obtained and we will take the didactic proposals used by teachers interviewed as a starting point to propose a model of action and improvement of the teaching-learning process of oral language in the classrooms of these educational stages.

  11. Ira Hirsh and oral deaf education: The role of audition in language development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geers, Ann

    2002-05-01

    Prior to the 1960s, the teaching of speech to deaf children consisted primarily of instruction in lip reading and tactile perception accompanied by imitative exercises in speech sound production. Hirsh came to Central Institute for the Deaf with an interest in discovering the auditory capabilities of normal-hearing listeners. This interest led him to speculate that more normal speech development could be encouraged in deaf children by maximizing use of their limited residual hearing. Following the tradition of Max Goldstein, Edith Whetnall, and Dennis Fry, Hirsh gave scientific validity to the use of amplified speech as the primary avenue to oral language development in prelingually deaf children. This ``auditory approach,'' combined with an emphasis on early intervention, formed the basis for auditory-oral education as we know it today. This presentation will examine how the speech perception, language, and reading skills of prelingually deaf children have changed as a result of improvements in auditory technology that have occurred over the past 30 years. Current data from children using cochlear implants will be compared with data collected earlier from children with profound hearing loss who used hearing aids. [Work supported by NIH.

  12. Classroom Promotion of Oral Language (CPOL): protocol for a cluster randomised controlled trial of a school-based intervention to improve children’s literacy outcomes at grade 3, oral language and mental health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldfeld, Sharon; Snow, Pamela; Eadie, Patricia; Munro, John; Gold, Lisa; Le, Ha N D; Orsini, Francesca; Shingles, Beth; Lee, Katherine; Connell, Judy; Watts, Amy

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Oral language and literacy competence are major influences on children’s developmental pathways and life success. Children who do not develop the necessary language and literacy skills in the early years of school then go on to face long-term difficulties. Improving teacher effectiveness may be a critical step in lifting oral language and literacy outcomes. The Classroom Promotion of Oral Language trial aims to determine whether a specifically designed teacher professional learning programme focusing on promoting oral language can lead to improved teacher knowledge and practice, and advance outcomes in oral language and literacy for early years school children, compared with usual practice. Methods and analysis This is a two-arm cluster multisite randomised controlled trial conducted within Catholic and Government primary schools across Victoria, Australia. The intervention comprises 4 days of face-to-face professional learning for teachers and ongoing implementation support via a specific worker. The primary outcome is reading ability of the students at grade 3, and the secondary outcomes are teacher knowledge and practice, student mental health, reading comprehension and language ability at grade 1; and literacy, writing and numeracy at grade 3. Economic evaluation will compare the incremental costs of the intervention to the measured primary and secondary outcomes. Ethics and dissemination This trial was approved by the Monash University Human Research Ethics Committee #CF13/2634-2013001403 and later transferred to the University of Melbourne #1545540. The investigators (including Government and Catholic partners) will communicate trial results to stakeholders, collaborators and participating schools and teachers via appropriate presentations and publications. Trial registration number ISRCTN77681972; Pre-results. PMID:29162571

  13. Classroom Promotion of Oral Language (CPOL): protocol for a cluster randomised controlled trial of a school-based intervention to improve children's literacy outcomes at grade 3, oral language and mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldfeld, Sharon; Snow, Pamela; Eadie, Patricia; Munro, John; Gold, Lisa; Le, Ha N D; Orsini, Francesca; Shingles, Beth; Lee, Katherine; Connell, Judy; Watts, Amy

    2017-11-20

    Oral language and literacy competence are major influences on children's developmental pathways and life success. Children who do not develop the necessary language and literacy skills in the early years of school then go on to face long-term difficulties. Improving teacher effectiveness may be a critical step in lifting oral language and literacy outcomes. The Classroom Promotion of Oral Language trial aims to determine whether a specifically designed teacher professional learning programme focusing on promoting oral language can lead to improved teacher knowledge and practice, and advance outcomes in oral language and literacy for early years school children, compared with usual practice. This is a two-arm cluster multisite randomised controlled trial conducted within Catholic and Government primary schools across Victoria, Australia. The intervention comprises 4 days of face-to-face professional learning for teachers and ongoing implementation support via a specific worker. The primary outcome is reading ability of the students at grade 3, and the secondary outcomes are teacher knowledge and practice, student mental health, reading comprehension and language ability at grade 1; and literacy, writing and numeracy at grade 3. Economic evaluation will compare the incremental costs of the intervention to the measured primary and secondary outcomes. This trial was approved by the Monash University Human Research Ethics Committee #CF13/2634-2013001403 and later transferred to the University of Melbourne #1545540. The investigators (including Government and Catholic partners) will communicate trial results to stakeholders, collaborators and participating schools and teachers via appropriate presentations and publications. ISRCTN77681972; Pre-results. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  14. The Effect of Language Specific Factors on Early Written Composition: The Role of Spelling, Oral Language and Text Generation Skills in a Shallow Orthography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arfé, Barbara; Dockrell, Julie E.; De Bernardi, Bianca

    2016-01-01

    Spelling skills have been identified as one of the major barriers to written text production in young English writers. By contrast oral language skills and text generation have been found to be less influential in the texts produced by beginning writers. To date, our understanding of the role of spelling skills in transparent orthographies is…

  15. Hispanic parents' reading language preference and pediatric oral health-related quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazicioglu, Iffet; Jones, Judith A; Cortés, Dharma; Rich, Sharron; Garcia, Raul

    2013-01-01

    This study compared scores and psychometric properties from self-identified Hispanic parents who completed Pediatric Oral Health-related Quality of life (POQL) parent report-on-child questionnaires in Spanish or English. The study hypothesized that there were no differences in psychometric properties or POQL scores by parent reading language preference, controlling for dental needs, child's place of birth, age, insurance and use of care. POQL scores were computed, and the internal consistency, feasibility, factor structure and construct validity of the Spanish language version assessed. Hispanic parents (N = 387) of 8-14 year old children (mean age 10.2) completed the survey; 237 in Spanish and 150 in English. Internal consistency scores were higher (Cronbach α range = .86-.93) among Hispanic parents who completed the questionnaire in Spanish than in English (.66-.86). POQL scores from parents who completed questionnaires in Spanish were higher (worse) overall (6.03 vs. 3.82, P = 0.022), as were physical (11.61 vs. 6.54, P = 0.001) and role functioning domains (1.87 vs. 0.82, P = 0.029). Items for crying, pain, and eating were higher (P parent reports of dental visit in the last year (P = 0.05) and worse oral health than a year ago (P = 0.002), controlling for reading language (not significant) and visit in last year in the final multivariate linear regression. © 2013 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.

  16. Cross-linguistic influence in multilingual language acquisition: The role of L1 and non-native languages in English and Catalan oral production

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    Mireia Ortega

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Most research in third language acquisition has focused on the effects that factors such as language distance, second language (L2 status, proficiency or recency have on the choice of the source language (L1 in cross-linguistic influence (CLI. This paper presents a study of these factors, and of the influence that the L1 (Spanish has on L2 (English and L3 (Catalan oral production. Lexical and syntactic transfer are analysed in the production of Catalan and English of two multilingual speakers with similar knowledge of non-native languages. They were interviewed twice in an informal environment. The results show that the L1 is the main source of transfer, both in L2 and L3 production, but its influence decreases as proficiency in the target language increases. Language distance also plays an important role in CLI, especially if proficiency in the source language is high and if there has been recent exposure to it. The findings also suggest that while syntactic transfer is exclusively L1-based, lexical transfer can occur from a non-native language.

  17. Assessing oral proficiency in computer-assisted foreign language learning: A study in the context of teletandem interactions

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    Douglas Altamiro CONSOLO

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT An innovative aspect in the area of language assessment has been to evaluate oral language proficiency in distant interactions by means of computers. In this paper, we present the results of a qualitative research study that aimed at analyzing features of language spoken in a computer-aided learning and teaching context, which is constituted by teletandem interactions. The data were collected in the scope of the Teletandem Brazil project by means of interviews, audio and video recordings of online interactions, questionnaires and field notes. The results offer contributions for the areas of assessment, teacher education and teaching Portuguese for foreigners.

  18. Language Revitalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinton, Leanne

    2003-01-01

    Surveys developments in language revitalization and language death. Focusing on indigenous languages, discusses the role and nature of appropriate linguistic documentation, possibilities for bilingual education, and methods of promoting oral fluency and intergenerational transmission in affected languages. (Author/VWL)

  19. fMRI as a Preimplant Objective Tool to Predict Postimplant Oral Language Outcomes in Children with Cochlear Implants.

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    Deshpande, Aniruddha K; Tan, Lirong; Lu, Long J; Altaye, Mekibib; Holland, Scott K

    2016-01-01

    Despite the positive effects of cochlear implantation, postimplant variability in speech perception and oral language outcomes is still difficult to predict. The aim of this study was to identify neuroimaging biomarkers of postimplant speech perception and oral language performance in children with hearing loss who receive a cochlear implant. The authors hypothesized positive correlations between blood oxygen level-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) activation in brain regions related to auditory language processing and attention and scores on the Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals-Preschool, Second Edition (CELF-P2) and the Early Speech Perception Test for Profoundly Hearing-Impaired Children (ESP), in children with congenital hearing loss. Eleven children with congenital hearing loss were recruited for the present study based on referral for clinical MRI and other inclusion criteria. All participants were stimulation. A voxel-based analysis technique was utilized to generate z maps showing significant contrast in brain activation between auditory stimulation conditions (spoken narratives and narrow band noise). CELF-P2 and ESP were administered 2 years after implantation. Because most participants reached a ceiling on ESP, a voxel-wise regression analysis was performed between preimplant fMRI activation and postimplant CELF-P2 scores alone. Age at implantation and preimplant hearing thresholds were controlled in this regression analysis. Four brain regions were found to be significantly correlated with CELF-P2 scores. These clusters of positive correlation encompassed the temporo-parieto-occipital junction, areas in the prefrontal cortex and the cingulate gyrus. For the story versus silence contrast, CELF-P2 core language score demonstrated significant positive correlation with activation in the right angular gyrus (r = 0.95), left medial frontal gyrus (r = 0.94), and left cingulate gyrus (r = 0.96). For the narrow band noise versus

  20. Effects of Synchronous and Asynchronous Computer-Mediated Communication (CMC) Oral Conversations on English Language Learners' Discourse Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    AbuSeileek, Ali Farhan; Qatawneh, Khaleel

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the effects of synchronous and asynchronous computer mediated communication (CMC) oral discussions on question types and strategies used by English as a Foreign Language (EFL) learners. The participants were randomly assigned to two treatment conditions/groups; the first group used synchronous CMC, while the second…

  1. Oral and Hand Movement Speeds Are Associated with Expressive Language Ability in Children with Speech Sound Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Beate

    2012-01-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that children with speech sound disorder have generalized slowed motor speeds. It evaluated associations among oral and hand motor speeds and measures of speech (articulation and phonology) and language (receptive vocabulary, sentence comprehension, sentence imitation), in 11 children with moderate to severe SSD…

  2. Oral Storytelling, Speaking and Listening and the Hegemony of Literacy: Non-Instrumental Language Use and Transactional Talk in the Primary Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibbin, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    The oral re-telling of traditional tales, modelled by a storyteller and taught to children in school, can be understood as "non-instrumental" practice in speaking and listening that emphasises oral language over the reading and writing of stories. While oral storytelling has significant benefits to children's education and development,…

  3. Writing fluency and quality in kindergarten and first grade: The role of attention, reading, transcription, and oral language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Shawn; Wanzek, Jeanne; Petscher, Yaacov; Al Otaiba, Stephanie; Kim, Young-Suk

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, we examined the influence of kindergarten component skills on writing outcomes, both concurrently and longitudinally to first grade. Using data from 265 students, we investigated a model of writing development including attention regulation along with students’ reading, spelling, handwriting fluency, and oral language component skills. Results from structural equation modeling demonstrated that a model including attention was better fitting than a model with only language and literacy factors. Attention, a higher-order literacy factor related to reading and spelling proficiency, and automaticity in letter-writing were uniquely and positively related to compositional fluency in kindergarten. Attention and higher-order literacy factor were predictive of both composition quality and fluency in first grade, while oral language showed unique relations with first grade writing quality. Implications for writing development and instruction are discussed. PMID:25132722

  4. Tableau's Influence on the Oral Language Skills of Students with Language-Based Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Alida; Berry, Katherine A.

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the influence of tableau on the expressive language skills of three students with language-based learning disabilities in inclusive urban fourth-grade English language arts (ELA) classroom settings. Data were collected on linguistic productivity, specificity, and narrative cohesion through analysis of students' responses to…

  5. Examining the Oral Language Competency of Children from Korean Immigrant Families in English-Only and Dual Language Immersion Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jane Younga; Lee, Jin Sook; Oh, Janet S.

    2018-01-01

    In this study, we examined the bilingual language development among Korean American first-graders in two southern California cities and explored the opportunities for language use available to them in various spaces: at school (one dual language immersion school and one traditional English-only public school), at home, and in the community. Data…

  6. Oral Language Deficits in Familial Dyslexia: A Meta-Analysis and Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    This article reviews 95 publications (based on 21 independent samples) that have examined children at family risk of reading disorders. We report that children at family risk of dyslexia experience delayed language development as infants and toddlers. In the preschool period, they have significant difficulties in phonological processes as well as with broader language skills and in acquiring the foundations of decoding skill (letter knowledge, phonological awareness and rapid automatized naming [RAN]). Findings are mixed with regard to auditory and visual perception: they do not appear subject to slow motor development, but lack of control for comorbidities confounds interpretation. Longitudinal studies of outcomes show that children at family risk who go on to fulfil criteria for dyslexia have more severe impairments in preschool language than those who are defined as normal readers, but the latter group do less well than controls. Similarly at school age, family risk of dyslexia is associated with significantly poor phonological awareness and literacy skills. Although there is no strong evidence that children at family risk are brought up in an environment that differs significantly from that of controls, their parents tend to have lower educational levels and read less frequently to themselves. Together, the findings suggest that a phonological processing deficit can be conceptualized as an endophenotype of dyslexia that increases the continuous risk of reading difficulties; in turn its impact may be moderated by protective factors. PMID:26727308

  7. The Effect of Explicit Affective Strategy Training on Iranian EFL learners’ Oral Language Proficiency and Anxiety Reduction

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    Fatemeh Mostafavi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The current study aimed at investigating the possible effects of explicit teaching of affective strategies on Iranian EFL learners’ oral language proficiency and the extent of their anxiety in EFL classroom.  First, PET test was administered to a total number of 120 female third grade high school EFL students.  Then, 60 participants whose score fell within the range of + 1 SD from the mean score were selected for the main study.  Next, they were randomly assigned into two groups (one control and one experimental.  The design of the study was Experimental comparison-group plan.  Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety Scale adopted from Horwitz (1986 was used to examine the EFL learners’ anxiety level in English class.  Moreover, two equivalent oral tests adopted from Heaton (1975 were administered to the participants of the two groups both at the beginning and at the end of the study served as pre and post-tests.  The treatment for the experimental group included Oxford's (1990 taxonomy of affective strategies, which included explicit affective strategy instruction (in relaxation, music, visualization, humor, positive self-talk, risk-taking, and monitoring emotions.  The control group did not receive any special instruction in terms of affective strategies.  To investigate the possible effects of explicit affective strategy use instruction on the participants’ oral language proficiency and their anxiety level, the pre and posttests of oral tests and the participants’ self-reports of anxiety control in both groups were analyzed and compared.  The results of independent samples T- test indicated that while the two groups were homogeneous in terms of oral proficiency and level of anxiety control before introducing the treatment, the experimental group performed better than the control group in the oral post-test.  Moreover, the level of anxiety control for the experimental group was significantly different and higher than that of the

  8. Foundamentation of to didactic strategy for oral expression ability development in english language in students of Culture Physics Career

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    Liliana Margarita Martínez-Hernández

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The necessity to favour the development of the oral expression ability in English language in the students of Physical Culture career of “Nancy Uranga Romagoza” Faculty drove to base a didactic strategy centred in the developer learning. The proposal is sustained in the developer didactic conception for the teaching of foreign languages, elaborated by the Dr. C. Arturo Pulido Díaz from the University of Pedagogic Sciences “Rafael María de Mendive of Pinar del Río, which takes its bases from the sciences of the education.

  9. Executive functions, oral language and writing in preschool children: Development and correlations

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    Talita de Cassia Batista Pazeto

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Executive functions (EF and oral language (OL are important for learning reading and writing (RW and for the development of other skills in preschool. The study investigated the progression and the relationships between the performances in these competences in pre-schoolers. Participants were 90 children, mean age 4.91 years, students from Kindergarten years I and II of a private school in SP, assessed, individually, with a battery with nine instruments for EF, OL, and RW. There was increase of the performances as a result of educational level for all OL and RW measures, but only for attention in the field of EF. Significant correlations were found between the measurements assessing the same cognitive domain, as well as inter-domain, although portraying a different pattern. The results indicate that OL and RW seem to develop rapidly in the course of preschool, while the EF have slower development. The fields of OL and RW, EF and RW are more interdependent, and EF and OL are relatively independent.

  10. Analysis of oral narratives of preschool children before and after language stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verzolla, Beatriz Lopes Porto; Isotani, Selma Mie; Perissinoto, Jacy

    2012-01-01

    To verify the oral narrative abilities in preschoolers, before and after language stimulation. Participants were 58 preschoolers. The study was developed in three stages: 1. Pre-stimulation stage (Moment 1) - preschoolers produced the first autonomous narrative based on a sequence of pictures, and the second under adult scaffolding; 2. Stimulation stage - it was conducted a weekly reading of children's stories in group, for ten weeks; 3. Post-stimulation stage (Moment 2): the same procedure of the first stage was repeated. The results analysis considered: the occurrence of central and secondary events; the accountable/explicable conduct, classified according to physical causes, moral/social rules and internal state; the attribution and rectification of false beliefs, analyzed by the internal state's accountable/explicable conduct. There was an increase in the occurrence of central events in Moment 2 as well as after the adult scaffolding, with decrease of secondary events comparing both moments and after the scaffolding. Regarding the accountable/explicable conduct, no differences were found between physical, social/moral rules, and internal state conducts. The internal state accountable/explicable conduct was predominantly found in all the autonomous narratives. Both the reading of children's stories and the adult scaffolding contribute to the increase in the occurrence of events in autonomous narratives. There is no variation on the type of accountable/explicable conduct in the narratives. The internal state accountable/explicable conduct is predominantly used by preschoolers.

  11. Quality Assurance and Foreign Languages--Reflecting on Oral Assessment Practices in Two University Spanish Language Programs in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, Adriana R.; Hortiguera, Hugo; Espinoza Vera, Marcia

    2015-01-01

    In the era of quality assurance (QA), close scrutiny of assessment practices has been intensified worldwide across the board. However, in the Australian context, trends in QA efforts have not reached the field of modern/foreign languages. This has largely resulted in leaving the establishment of language proficiency benchmarking up to individual…

  12. Facilitating English-Language Learners' Oral Reading Fluency with Digital Pen Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chih-Ming; Tan, Chia-Chen; Lo, Bey-Jane

    2016-01-01

    Oral reading fluency is an indicator of overall reading competence. Many studies have claimed that repeated reading can promote oral reading fluency. Currently, novel Web- or computer-based reading technologies offer interactive digital materials that promote English oral reading fluency using the repeated reading strategy; however, paper-based…

  13. Relationships of Attention and Executive Functions to Oral Language, Reading, and Writing Skills and Systems in Middle Childhood and Early Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berninger, Virginia; Abbott, Robert; Cook, Clayton R.; Nagy, William

    2017-01-01

    Relationships between attention/executive functions and language learning were investigated in students in Grades 4 to 9 (N = 88) with and without specific learning disabilities (SLDs) in multiword syntax in oral and written language (OWL LD), word reading and spelling (dyslexia), and subword letter writing (dysgraphia). Prior…

  14. English Language Teaching: The Reflective Practices of an Oral Communication Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juhary, Jowati

    2014-01-01

    Malaysia has come to a point where second and third languages become part of the requirements to be employed especially in the multinational and international companies. After gaining its Independence, English becomes the second language in Malaysia, and Bahasa Melayu is recognised as the official language of the country. This move has greatly…

  15. The Digital Archiving of Endangered Language Oral Traditions: Kaipuleohone at the University of Hawai‘i and C’ek’aedi Hwnax in Alaska

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea L. Berez

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This essay compares and contrasts two small-scale digital endangered language archives with regard to their relevance for oral tradition research. The first is a university-based archive curated at the University of Hawai‘i, which is designed to house endangered language materials arising from the fieldwork of university researchers. The second is an indigenously-administered archive in rural Alaska that serves the language maintenance needs of the Ahtna Athabaskan Alaska Native community.

  16. A case study exploring oral language choice between the target language and the l1s in mainstream CLIL and EFL secondary education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Gené Gil

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This case study explores the purposes for which the target language (TL and the L1s were used orally by students (N=60 and teachers (N=3 in a mainstream CLIL secondary education context compared to EFL instruction in the Balearic Islands (Spain. Data were gathered by means of questionnaires addressed to students and teachers, oral interviews to instructors and observations of class sessions. The findings show some differences in the languages chosen to speak according to pedagogical functions –i.e. planned subject-based discourse– and real functions –i.e. unplanned discourse such as disciplinary or organizational matters– (Chavez 2003, with the TL being much more spoken in the former and with much lesser presence of the TL in the latter, especially in the case of the pupils. Moreover, specialized subject-matter terminology was almost always used in the TL by both the students and the teachers, even when speaking in the L1.

  17. Assessing Yemeni EFL learners’ Oral skills via the Conceptualization of Target Language Use Domain: A Testing Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sami A. Al-wossabi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available There is an evident lack of a comprehensive evaluation basis for Yemeni learners’ speaking skills in the English department, Hodeidah University. The present paper presents a detailed framework of oral assessment criteria that involves a description of target language use domains and then shows how such domains can be systematically related to test design. The framework takes as its main goal the development and description of a criterion referenced rating scale representing real-world criterion elements. The aim of the testing framework, therefore, is to ensure maximum appropriateness of score test interpretations and maximize the validity and fairness of local speaking tests. A five-point likert scale is carried out to elicit 10 trained raters’ perceptions of using the pilot scale. The research findings support the use and appropriateness of the scale as it aids raters identify underlying aspects of their learners’ oral discourse that cannot be observed in traditional discrete point tests.

  18. Language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanden, Guro Refsum

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: – The purpose of this paper is to analyse the consequences of globalisation in the area of corporate communication, and investigate how language may be managed as a strategic resource. Design/methodology/approach: – A review of previous studies on the effects of globalisation on corporate...... communication and the implications of language management initiatives in international business. Findings: – Efficient language management can turn language into a strategic resource. Language needs analyses, i.e. linguistic auditing/language check-ups, can be used to determine the language situation...... of a company. Language policies and/or strategies can be used to regulate a company’s internal modes of communication. Language management tools can be deployed to address existing and expected language needs. Continuous feedback from the front line ensures strategic learning and reduces the risk of suboptimal...

  19. Direct and mediated effects of language and cognitive skills on comprehension of oral narrative texts (listening comprehension) for children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Suk Grace

    2016-01-01

    We investigated component language and cognitive skills of oral language comprehension of narrative texts (i.e., listening comprehension). Using the construction-integration model of text comprehension as an overarching theoretical framework, we examined direct and mediated relations of foundational cognitive skills (working memory and attention), foundational language skills (vocabulary and grammatical knowledge), and higher-order cognitive skills (inference, theory of mind, and comprehension monitoring) to listening comprehension. A total of 201 first grade children in South Korea participated in the study. Structural equation modeling results showed that listening comprehension is directly predicted by working memory, grammatical knowledge, inference, and theory of mind and is indirectly predicted by attention, vocabulary, and comprehension monitoring. The total effects were .46 for working memory, .07 for attention, .30 for vocabulary, .49 for grammatical knowledge, .31 for inference, .52 for theory of mind, and .18 for comprehension monitoring. These results suggest that multiple language and cognitive skills make contributions to listening comprehension, and their contributions are both direct and indirect. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Spoken language development in oral preschool children with permanent childhood deafness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarant, Julia Z; Holt, Colleen M; Dowell, Richard C; Rickards, Field W; Blamey, Peter J

    2009-01-01

    This article documented spoken language outcomes for preschool children with hearing loss and examined the relationships between language abilities and characteristics of children such as degree of hearing loss, cognitive abilities, age at entry to early intervention, and parent involvement in children's intervention programs. Participants were evaluated using a combination of the Child Development Inventory, the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test, and the Preschool Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals depending on their age at the time of assessment. Maternal education, cognitive ability, and family involvement were also measured. Over half of the children who participated in this study had poor language outcomes overall. No significant differences were found in language outcomes on any of the measures for children who were diagnosed early and those diagnosed later. Multiple regression analyses showed that family participation, degree of hearing loss, and cognitive ability significantly predicted language outcomes and together accounted for almost 60% of the variance in scores. This article highlights the importance of family participation in intervention programs to enable children to achieve optimal language outcomes. Further work may clarify the effects of early diagnosis on language outcomes for preschool children.

  1. Signs of Resistance: Peer Learning of Sign Languages within "Oral" Schools for the Deaf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anglin-Jaffe, Hannah

    2013-01-01

    This article explores the role of the Deaf child as peer educator. In schools where sign languages were banned, Deaf children became the educators of their Deaf peers in a number of contexts worldwide. This paper analyses how this peer education of sign language worked in context by drawing on two examples from boarding schools for the deaf in…

  2. Learner Perspectives on Task Design for Oral-Visual eTandem Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Hariri, Yasmin

    2016-01-01

    Constituting a more specific form of online collaboration, eTandem Language Learning (eTLL) shows great potential for non-formal, self-directed language learning. Research in this field, particularly regarding task design, is still scarce. Focusing on their beliefs and attitudes, this article examines what learners think about how…

  3. Oral Language Expectations for African American Children in Grades 1 through 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Holly K.; Washington, Julie A.; Thompson, Connie A.

    2005-01-01

    Reference profiles for characterizing the language abilities of elementary-grade African American students are important for assessment and instructional planning. H. K. Craig and J. A. Washington (2002) reported performance for 100 typically developing preschoolers and kindergartners on 5 traditional language measures: mean length of…

  4. Evaluating the effectiveness of PrepSTART for promoting oral language and emergent literacy skills in disadvantaged preparatory students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennox, Maria; Westerveld, Marleen F; Trembath, David

    2018-04-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of a classroom-based intervention programme aimed at improving the oral language and emergent literacy skills of students from low socio-economic, culturally diverse backgrounds within their first formal year of schooling ("prep"). Data from 137 students were available for analysis. Participants were from three primary schools located in Queensland, Australia. Eight classes were allocated to intervention and two classes acted as a business as usual control. All students received literacy instruction as per the Australian Curriculum. However, the intervention group received 24 weeks of scripted, classroom-based, book-based intervention targeting code- and meaning-related emergent literacy skills. All students were assessed individually pre- and post-intervention on code-related measures (i.e. letter identification and phonological awareness) and meaning-related measures (i.e. vocabulary, oral narrative comprehension and retell). All students made significant improvement over time for all measures. Students in the intervention group showed significantly more progress than the business as usual group on all measures, except for letter identification and oral narrative comprehension. This classroom-based book-based intervention can improve the code- and meaning-related emergent literacy skills of prep students from low socio-economic backgrounds and provide these students with the building blocks for successful literacy acquisition.

  5. Does oral language underpin the development of later behavior problems? A longitudinal meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Jason C; Ekholm, Erik; Coleman, Heather

    2018-05-24

    The purpose of this article is to estimate the overall weighted mean effect of the relation between early language skills and later behavior problems in school-aged children. A systematic literature search yielded 19,790 unduplicated reports, and a structured search strategy and identification procedure yielded 25 unique data sets, with 114 effect sizes for analysis. Eligible reports were then coded, and effect sizes were extracted and synthesized via robust variance estimation and random-effects meta-analytic techniques. The overall correlation between early language and later behavior problems was negative and small (r = -.14, 95% confidence interval [CI] [-.16, -.11]), and controlling for demographic variables did not reduce the magnitude of the inverse relationship between language skill and problem behavior (r = -.16). Moderator analyses identified receptive language, parent-reported behavior measures, gender, and age as significant predictors of the association between language and behavior. This article corroborates the consistent findings of previous meta-analytic and longitudinal studies and further identifies areas, particularly around measurement, for future research. Furthermore, prospective longitudinal evaluations of the relations between language deficits and behavior problems with different types of measures (teacher-/parent-report, direct assessment, classroom observation) is warranted. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Developing Teacher Oral Competency Framework for Secondary School Teachers: Moving Towards Meaningful Teaching of English Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahainis Mohd. Yusof

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The secondary school English curriculum in Malaysia advocates that English could provide greater opportunities for students to improve their knowledge and skills in cross cultural settings. Additionally, they will be able to interact with students from other countries and improve their proficiency in English. Given the increasing importance of international interactions among English users from different backgrounds and the current approaches in ELT pedagogy in literature, this paper examines the oral competency skills of a group of English teachers. Data was collected in a seminar specially carried out for a group of selected English teachers. Through micro-teachings sessions, the English teachers demonstrated their use of oral communication skills in delivering the content of the subjects. This seminar was an attempt to establish the collaboration among recognised Excellent English Teachers and their colleagues to enhance their oral communication skills in classrooms. The results indicated the potential of developing an oral competency framework that could be constructed and referred to by secondary English teachers so as to enhance their effectiveness of teaching the content knowledge to their students. This oral competency framework would provide an excellent opportunity to help realise the purpose of using English as the medium of instruction as proposed within the curriculum.

  7. Idea Sharing: Using Peer Assessment to Teach How to Make Oral Summaries in English Language Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, Olimpiada F.

    2014-01-01

    In this "Idea Sharing" article, the author describes the techniques used when teaching oral summary making to second-year students studying Business English at the Faculty of World Economy and International Affairs of the National Research University Higher School of Economics, Moscow. The techniques are based on peer assessment, which…

  8. Teacher vs. Peer Oral Corrective Feedback in the German Language Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sippel, Lieselotte; Jackson, Carrie N.

    2015-01-01

    This classroom study investigated the effects of oral teacher and peer corrective feedback on the acquisition of the German present perfect tense, including auxiliary verb selection (a rule-based structure) and past participle formation (an item-based structure). Intermediate learners of German were assigned to a teacher feedback condition, a peer…

  9. Can a "Shouting" Digital Game Help Learners Develop Oral Fluency in a Second Language?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimshaw, Jennica; Cardoso, Walcir; Waddington, David

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the development of oral fluency in a Computer-Mediated Communication (CMC) environment that uses a "shouting" digital game as a pedagogical tool: Spaceteam ESL4. Spaceteam ESL is a game for mobile devices that involves time-sensitive aural exchanges among players (English learners), with great potential to promote…

  10. Une Progression dans la Strategie Pedagogique pour assurer la Construction de Langage Oral L'ecole Maternelle [A Progression in Teaching Strategies to Ensure Oral Language Building in Nursery School].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, C.

    1997-01-01

    Summarizes progressions between 2 and 6 years of age in children's power of concentration, ability to express ideas, build logical relationships, structure spoken words, and play with the semantic, phonetic, syntactical, and morphological aspects of oral language. Notes that the progression depends on the educator's interaction with the child.…

  11. Contrasting Effects of Starting Age and Input on the Oral Performance of Foreign Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    The present study focuses on the influence of starting age and input on foreign language learning. In relation to starting age, the study investigates whether early starters in instructional settings achieve the same kind of long-term advantage as learners in naturalistic settings and it complements previous research by using data from oral…

  12. Parenting Styles and Home Literacy Opportunities: Associations with Children's Oral Language Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingham, Gary E.; Jeon, Hyun-Joo; Kwon, Kyong-Ah; Lim, Chaehyun

    2017-01-01

    This study examined associations among parenting style, home literacy practices, and children's language skills. A total of 181 ethnically diverse parents, primarily African American, and their preschool-aged child participated. Results suggest that an authoritative parenting style was positively associated with informal home literacy (book…

  13. Validation of Linguistic and Communicative Oral Language Tests for Spanish-English Bilingual Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Politzer, Robert L.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    The development, administration, and scoring of a communicative test and its validation with tests of linguistic and sociolinguistic competence in English and Spanish are reported. Correlation with measures of home language use and school achievement are also presented, and issues of test validation for bilingual programs are discussed. (MSE)

  14. Using Webquests for Oral Communication in English as a Foreign Language for Tourism Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laborda, Jesus Garcia

    2009-01-01

    A long-standing debate in native and foreign language learning revolves around the use of computers to promote genuine social and professional communication. Webquests are a very common way of using Web resources to research a variety of topics, and if appropriately used can trigger the situations necessary to develop both written and oral…

  15. Spanish Oral Language Guide: Kindergarten Level. Espanol como Segundo Idioma. Teacher's Guide: Level I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbell, Gloria; And Others

    This teacher's guide to Spanish language at the kindergarten level includes a recommended subject presentation sequence for the Spanish curriculum, a sample schedule, a grouping of students using three stations, and a classroom layout. The grouping would be effective when at least one-third of the children are Spanish-speaking or bilingual. The…

  16. Voice over Instant Messaging as a Tool for Enhancing the Oral Proficiency and Motivation of English-as-a-Foreign-Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ya-Ting C.; Gamble, Jeffrey; Tang, Shiun-Yi S.

    2012-01-01

    The challenge of providing authentic experiences and interactions for fostering oral proficiency and motivation in foreign languages is an opportunity for innovation in educational technology and instructional design. Although several recent innovations have received the attention of scholars, empirical investigation and validation is often…

  17. The Effectiveness of Three Reading Approaches and an Oral Language Stimulation Program with Disadvantaged Children in the Primary Grades: A Follow-Up Report After the Third Grade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Lloyd M.; Bruininks, Robert H.

    The Cooperative Reading Project was a 2-year study designed to test the effectiveness of three initial reading approaches and an oral language stimulation program with inner-city Southern disadvantaged children. This followup study looked for differences among the treatment groups after pupils had completed their third school year. The 354…

  18. Combined oral contraception and obesity are strong predictors of low-grade inflammation in healthy individuals: results from the Danish Blood Donor Study (DBDS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilie J Sørensen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: C-reactive protein (CRP is a well-established marker of inflammation. The level of CRP is affected by several lifestyle factors. A slightly increased CRP level, also known as low-grade inflammation (LGI, is associated with increased risk of several diseases, especially cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to identify predictors of increased CRP levels in healthy individuals. We therefore assessed CRP in a large cohort of blood donors. METHODS: We measured plasma CRP levels in 15,684 participants from the Danish Blood Donor Study. CRP was measured by a commercial assay. Furthermore, all participants completed a standard questionnaire on smoking status, alcohol consumption, physical activity, diet, and various body measurements. Female participants also reported the use of contraception, childbirth, and menopausal status. The relationship between LGI (defined here as a plasma CRP level between 3 mg/L and 10 mg/L and predictors was explored by multivariable logistic regression analysis. Results were presented as odds ratios (OR with 95% confidence intervals (CI. RESULTS: We found LGI in a total of 1,561 (10.0% participants. LGI was more frequent in women using combined oral contraception (OC (29.9% than in men (6.1% and women not using OC (7.9%. Among premenopausal women, OC was the strongest predictor of LGI (odds ratio = 8.98, p<0.001. Additionally, body mass index (BMI and waist circumference were positively associated with LGI. CONCLUSION: High BMI and abdominal obesity strongly predicted LGI among healthy individuals. However, the most striking finding was the high prevalence of LGI among premenopausal women who used combined oral contraception. Although the significance of CRP as a marker of inflammation is well known, the role of CRP in pathogenesis is still uncertain. The impact of oral contraception on CRP levels should nevertheless be considered when CRP is used in risk assessment.

  19. The development of argument and improvement of semantic and pragmatic aspects of oral language by investigative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanessa H. Pickina Silva Suzuki

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The Language is the mechanism that allows us to share all the knowledge acquired in the learning and teaching process. Through it the scientific knowledge is arranged. The language’s communicative property is the most meaningful ability which allows man to report, to reason or to refute an idea. The teaching strategies which aim to develop scientific enculturation, bring science closer to the school routine, introducing distinguished conceptions that favour problematic teaching. The investigative methodologies lead the student to develop communication abilities, specially reasoning, in scientific speech perspective. Knowing about this difficulty that the students, specifically the ones of the seventh grade of the primary school of brazil’s state school, have in understanding certain parts of the contents in the subject of Science, most of the times lacking in a concrete referential idea, the theme of microorganisms was chosen to substantiate the investigative activities proposed. Therefore, the goal of this paper is to identify and to analyse the communicative abilities of language, regarding argumentation and its development, as the improvement of semantic and pragmatic aspects of language. To organize this activity of investigation, the approach of the National Research Council was used, as well as the assumption idealized by S. Toulmin, regarding the argument structure. The pragmatic and semantic abilities were referred through the theory of the Speech Acts. Analyzing the obtained data, it was possible to ascertain that some students were benefited with this methodology and were able to absorb concepts that substantiated and contributed to the structural quality of the argument. Besides that, it was realized that the improvement of the semantic and pragmatic aspects framed an efficient communication.

  20. Analysis of oral narratives of preschool children before and after language stimulation

    OpenAIRE

    Verzolla, Beatriz Lopes Porto; Isotani, Selma Mie [UNIFESP; Perissinoto, Jacy [UNIFESP

    2012-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Verificar as habilidades de narrativa oral em pré-escolares, antes e após estimulação de linguagem. MÉTODOS: Foram analisadas narrativas de 58 pré-escolares. O estudo foi desenvolvido em três etapas: 1. Etapa pré-estimulação (Momento 1) - os pré-escolares produziram a primeira narrativa autônoma a partir de uma sequência de figuras e a segunda narrativa autônoma após tutela do adulto; 2. Etapa de estimulação - foi realizada a leitura de histórias infantis em grupo, semanalmente, dur...

  1. The Extent to Which TOEFL iBT Speaking Scores Are Associated with Performance on Oral Language Tasks and Oral Ability Components for Japanese University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ockey, Gary J.; Koyama, Dennis; Setoguchi, Eric; Sun, Angela

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which performance on the TOEFL iBT speaking section is associated with other indicators of Japanese university students' abilities to communicate orally in an academic English environment and to determine which components of oral ability for these tasks are best assessed by TOEFL iBT. To…

  2. The Effectiveness of Using Linguistic Classroom Activities in Teaching English Language in Developing the Skills of Oral Linguistic Performance and Decision Making Skill among Third Grade Intermediate Students in Makah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshareef, Fahd Majed

    2016-01-01

    The study aimed to reveal the effectiveness of the use of certain classroom language activities in teaching English language in the development of oral linguistic performance and decision-making among intermediate third-grade students in Makah, and it revealed a statistically significant correlation relationship between the averages of the study…

  3. A Quantitative Causal-Comparative Nonexperimental Research Study of English Language Learner and Non-English Language Learner Students' Oral Reading Fluency Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Loughlin, Tricia Ann

    2017-01-01

    Beginning learners of English progress through the same stages to acquire language. However, the length of time each student spends at a particular stage may vary greatly. Under the current educational policies, ELL students are expected to participate in the general education curriculum while developing their proficiency in the English language.…

  4. Identifying the Dimensionality of Oral Language Skills of Children with Typical Development in Preschool through Fifth Grade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonigan, Christopher J.; Milburn, Trelani F.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Language is a multidimensional construct from prior to the beginning of formal schooling to near the end of elementary school. The primary goals of this study were to identify the dimensionality of language and to determine whether this dimensionality was consistent in children with typical language development from preschool through 5th…

  5. Identifying the Dimensionality of Oral Language Skills of Children With Typical Development in Preschool Through Fifth Grade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonigan, Christopher J; Milburn, Trelani F

    2017-08-16

    Language is a multidimensional construct from prior to the beginning of formal schooling to near the end of elementary school. The primary goals of this study were to identify the dimensionality of language and to determine whether this dimensionality was consistent in children with typical language development from preschool through 5th grade. In a large sample of 1,895 children, confirmatory factor analysis was conducted with 19-20 measures of language intended to represent 6 factors, including domains of vocabulary and syntax/grammar across modalities of expressive and receptive language, listening comprehension, and vocabulary depth. A 2-factor model with separate, highly correlated vocabulary and syntax factors provided the best fit to the data, and this model of language dimensionality was consistent from preschool through 5th grade. This study found that there are fewer dimensions than are often suggested or represented by the myriad subtests in commonly used standardized tests of language. The identified 2-dimensional (vocabulary and syntax) model of language has significant implications for the conceptualization and measurement of the language skills of children in the age range from preschool to 5th grade, including the study of typical and atypical language development, the study of the developmental and educational influences of language, and classification and intervention in clinical practice. https://doi.org/10.23641/asha.5154220.

  6. Oral Cancer - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a new window. Burmese (myanma bhasa) Expand Section Betel Nut - English PDF Betel Nut - myanma bhasa (Burmese) PDF Orange County North ... California Dental Association Karen (S’gaw Karen) Expand Section Betel Nut - English PDF Betel Nut - S’gaw Karen (Karen) ...

  7. Strong relationship between oral dose and tenofovir hair levels in a randomized trial: hair as a potential adherence measure for pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Y Liu

    Full Text Available Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP trials using tenofovir-based regimens have demonstrated that high levels of adherence are required to evaluate efficacy; the incorporation of objective biomarkers of adherence in trial design has been essential to interpretation, given the inaccuracy of self-report. Antiretroviral measurements in scalp hair have been useful as a marker of long-term exposure in the HIV treatment setting, and hair samples are relatively easy and inexpensive to collect, transport, and store for analysis. To evaluate the relationship between dose and tenofovir concentrations in hair, we examined the dose proportionality of tenofovir in hair in healthy, HIV-uninfected adults.A phase I, crossover pharmacokinetic study was performed in 24 HIV-negative adults receiving directly-observed oral tenofovir tablets administered 2, 4, and 7 doses/week for 6 weeks, with a ≥3-week break between periods. Small samples of hair were collected after each six-week period and analyzed for tenofovir concentrations. Geometric-mean-ratios compared levels between each pair of dosing conditions. Intensive plasma pharmacokinetic studies were performed during the daily-dosing period to calculate areas-under-the-time-concentration curves (AUCs.Over 90% of doses were observed per protocol. Median tenofovir concentrations in hair increased monotonically with dose. A log-linear relationship was seen between dose and hair levels, with an estimated 76% (95% CI 60-93% increase in hair level per 2-fold dose increase. Tenofovir plasma AUCs modestly predicted drug concentrations in hair.This study found a strong linear relationship between frequency of dosing and tenofovir levels in scalp hair. The analysis of quantitative drug levels in hair has the potential to improve adherence measurement in the PrEP field and may be helpful in determining exposure thresholds for protection and explaining failures in PrEP trials. Hair measures for adherence monitoring may also

  8. A Psycholinguistic Description of the Oral and Written Language of a Selected Group of Middle School Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martellock, Helen Anna

    Six highly skilled middle school readers read aloud a story from a basal reader, then orally retold the story in their own words, wrote a version of the story, and finally read their own version aloud. Typescripts made from audio tape were compared with typescripts of the written compositions. The oral and written retellings were analyzed for…

  9. 'You find yourself.' Perceptions of nursing students from non-English speaking backgrounds of the effect of an intensive language support program on their oral clinical communication skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogan, Fran; San Miguel, Caroline; Brown, Di; Kilstoff, Kathleen

    2006-10-01

    Nurses of ethnically diverse backgrounds are essential in providing multicultural populations in western societies with culturally and linguistically competent health care. However, many nurses from non-English speaking backgrounds (NESB) are at high risk of failure in university programs particularly during clinical placements. Few studies investigate the clinical experiences of students from NESB and strategies to support their learning. This study describes perceptions of fifteen undergraduate nursing students from NESB about their first clinical placement in an Australian university program and the effect of a language support program on their oral clinical communication skills. Three categories arose: *Wanting to belong but feeling excluded; *Wanting to learn how to...; and *You find yourself. While many students find clinical placement challenging, it appeared difficult for students in this study as language and cultural adjustments required some modification of their usual ways of thinking and communicating, often without coping strategies available to other students.

  10. An Inquiry into the Efficiency of WhatsApp for Self- and Peer-Assessments of Oral Language Proficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samaie, Mahmoud; Mansouri Nejad, Ali; Qaracholloo, Mahmoud

    2018-01-01

    Social networking applications such as WhatsApp have been extensively used for language research; however, they have rarely been applied for language assessment purposes. To explore the efficiency of WhatsApp for assessment purposes, 30 Iranian English learners doing self- and peer-assessments on WhatsApp are studied. The changes and the reasons…

  11. Text Comprehension and Oral Language as Predictors of Word-Problem Solving: Insights into Word-Problem Solving as a Form of Text Comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Lynn S; Gilbert, Jennifer K; Fuchs, Douglas; Seethaler, Pamela M; Martin, BrittanyLee N

    2018-01-01

    This study was designed to deepen insights on whether word-problem (WP) solving is a form of text comprehension (TC) and on the role of language in WPs. A sample of 325 second graders, representing high, average, and low reading and math performance, was assessed on (a) start-of-year TC, WP skill, language, nonlinguistic reasoning, working memory, and foundational skill (word identification, arithmetic) and (b) year-end WP solving, WP-language processing (understanding WP statements, without calculation demands), and calculations. Multivariate, multilevel path analysis, accounting for classroom and school effects, indicated that TC was a significant and comparably strong predictor of all outcomes. Start-of-year language was a significantly stronger predictor of both year-end WP outcomes than of calculations, whereas start-of-year arithmetic was a significantly stronger predictor of calculations than of either WP measure. Implications are discussed in terms of WP solving as a form of TC and a theoretically coordinated approach, focused on language, for addressing TC and WP-solving instruction.

  12. Text Comprehension and Oral Language as Predictors of Word-Problem Solving: Insights into Word-Problem Solving as a Form of Text Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Lynn S.; Gilbert, Jennifer K.; Fuchs, Douglas; Seethaler, Pamela M.; Martin, BrittanyLee N.

    2018-01-01

    This study was designed to deepen insights on whether word-problem (WP) solving is a form of text comprehension (TC) and on the role of language in WPs. A sample of 325 second graders, representing high, average, and low reading and math performance, was assessed on (a) start-of-year TC, WP skill, language, nonlinguistic reasoning, working memory, and foundational skill (word identification, arithmetic) and (b) year-end WP solving, WP-language processing (understanding WP statements, without calculation demands), and calculations. Multivariate, multilevel path analysis, accounting for classroom and school effects, indicated that TC was a significant and comparably strong predictor of all outcomes. Start-of-year language was a significantly stronger predictor of both year-end WP outcomes than of calculations, whereas start-of-year arithmetic was a significantly stronger predictor of calculations than of either WP measure. Implications are discussed in terms of WP solving as a form of TC and a theoretically coordinated approach, focused on language, for addressing TC and WP-solving instruction. PMID:29643723

  13. Native language predictors of foreign language proficiency and foreign language aptitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, Richard L; Patton, Jon; Ganschow, Leonore; Humbach, Nancy; Javorsky, James

    2006-06-01

    Fifty-four students were tested at specific time intervals over 10 years to determine best native language (NL) predictors of oral and written foreign language (FL) proficiency and FL aptitude. All participants completed two years of Spanish, French, or German. Each was administered measures of NL literacy, oral language, and cognitive ability in elementary school. A measure of FL aptitude was administered at the beginning of ninth grade and FL proficiency was evaluated at the end of the 10th grade. Among the variables, NL literacy measures were the best predictors of FL proficiency, and NL achievement and general (verbal) intelligence were strong predictors of FL aptitude. Results suggest that indices of NL literacy as early as first grade are related to FL proficiency and FL aptitude nine and 10 years later. Findings provide strong support for connections between L1 and L2 skills, and for speculation that "lower level" skills in phonological processing are important for written language development and oral proficiency in a FL.

  14. The Rudiments of Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canfield, John V.

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the question of whether nonhuman species, such as apes, possess rudimentary language, focusing on the ideas of Ludwig Wittgenstein and Noam Chomsky in regard to the development of oral language in young children and apes. (51 references) (MDM)

  15. The role of gestures in oral language development of typically developing children and children with Down syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Flabiano-Almeida, Fabíola Custódio; Limongi, Suelly Cecilia Olivan

    2010-01-01

    O objetivo do presente estudo foi caracterizar o papel dos gestos nos estágios iniciais do desenvolvimento da linguagem oral de crianças com desenvolvimento típico e crianças com síndrome de Down (SD), a partir de amplo levantamento bibliográfico em bases de dados, abrangendo as duas últimas décadas de estudos na área. A literatura pesquisada sugere que os gestos desempenham papel importante no desenvolvimento da linguagem oral, fornecendo à criança recursos cognitivos extras para a aprendiza...

  16. Oral Academic Language by Design: Bilingual Pre-Service Teachers' Purposeful Infusion of Paired Strategies during Science Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arreguín-Anderson, María G.; Alanis, Iliana

    2017-01-01

    This study explores ways in which university science courses can be infused with opportunities for pre-service teachers to design student student interactions that promote language development and content mastery. Participants included bilingual pre-service teachers enrolled in an elementary science approaches course and its school-based fieldwork…

  17. Teaching and Learning of Aural and Oral Skills in Foreign Languages for Specific Purposes: The Preparation of Bilingual Hosts for the CONFINTEA VI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwiges Conceição de Souza Fernandes

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on a FLSP1 course where principles on the aural and oral development skills were addressed with the aim of preparing competent conference hosts to work for the CONFINTEA VI. The course takers were selected from two Public Brazilian Universities: The State University of Pará and The Federal University of Pará, by a process which involved previous needs assessment, course design, material selection and continuous collaborative teaching. Contextualized communicative strategies were used in order to facilitate interaction in the foreign languages with distinct groups of foreigners invited for the international event. The theoretical foundation of this paper lies principally on the works of Almeida Filho (1998, Dudley-Evans and St. John (1998, Hutchinson and Waters (1987, Munby (1978 and Nunan (1988. This teaching experience is reported through a qualitative perspective and its positive results were accredited to the effective learning environment created for the development of multicultural linguistic knowledge.

  18. Oral Language and Reading; Proceedings of the Annual Reading Conference of the Department of Elementary Education at Indiana State University (3rd, Terre Haute, June 14-15, 1973).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterman, David C., Ed.; Gibbs, Vanita M., Ed.

    This pamphlet is a collection of the speeches given at the Third Annual Reading Conference at Indiana State University, Terre Haute. The theme of the conference was "Oral Language and Reading." The contents include: "Official Program"; opening remarks, "They Led and Followed," by William G. McCarthy; opening address, "Strategies for Reading…

  19. THE EFFECTIVENESS OF THREE READING APPROACHES AND AN ORAL LANGUAGE STIMULATION PROGRAM WITH DISADVANTAGED CHILDREN IN THE PRIMARY GRADES--AN INTERIM REPORT AFTER ONE YEAR OF THE COOPERATIVE READING PROJECT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DUNN, LLOYD M.; AND OTHERS

    THE EFFECTIVENESS OF THREE APPROACHES TO TEACHING BEGINNING READING AND THE INFLUENCE OF AN ORAL LANGUAGE STIMULATION PROGRAM ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF DISADVANTAGED CHILDREN IS REPORTED IN THE FIRST-YEAR REPORT OF A 2-YEAR INTERVENTION STUDY. SUBJECTS WERE 608 FIRST-GRADE PUPILS FROM 12 ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS IN AN INNER-CITY AREA. THE THREE EXPERIMENTAL…

  20. Examining oral reading fluency among Grade 5 rural English Second Language (ESL learners in South Africa? An analysis of NEEDU 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Draper

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The ability to read for meaning and pleasure is arguably the most important skill children learn in primary school. One integral component of learning to read is Oral Reading Fluency (ORF, defined as the ability to read text quickly, accurately, and with meaningful expression. Although widely acknowledged in the literature as important, to date there have been no large-scale studies on ORF in English in South Africa, despite this being the language of learning and teaching for 80% of ESL students from Grade 4 onwards. We analyze data provided by the National Education and Evaluation Development Unit (NEEDU of South Africa, which tested 4667 Grade 5 English Second Language (ESL students from 214 schools across rural areas in South Africa in 2013. This included ORF and comprehension measures for a subset of 1772 students. We find that 41% of the sample were non-readers in English (<40 Words Correct Per Minute, WCPM and only 6% achieved comprehension scores above 60%. By calibrating comprehension levels and WCPM rates we develop tentative benchmarks and argue that a range of 90-100 WCPM in English is acceptable for Grade 5 ESL students in South Africa. In addition we outline policy priorities for remedying the reading crisis in the country.

  1. The Language Growth of Spanish-Speaking English Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Raul; Iglesias, Aquiles

    2013-01-01

    Although the research literature regarding language growth trajectories is burgeoning, the shape and direction of English Language Learners' (ELLs) language growth trajectories are largely not known. This study used growth curve modeling to determine the shape of ELLs' language growth trajectories across 12,248 oral narrative language samples…

  2. Listening in the Language Arts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ediger, Marlow

    2015-01-01

    The process of acquiring language is often depicted as a tiered process of oral development: listening and speaking; and, literacy development: reading, and writing. As infants we first learn language by listening, then speaking. That is, regardless of culture, or dialect we are first immersed in language in this oral context. It is only after one…

  3. Avaliação da linguagem oral e escrita em sujeitos com Síndrome de Asperger Language assessment in subjects with Asperger Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Ziliotto Dias

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar e caracterizar provas fonoaudiológicas de linguagem oral e escrita de sujeitos com Síndrome de Asperger comparativamente a um grupo de sujeitos com desenvolvimento típico. MÉTODOS: avaliou-se 44 sujeitos que constituíram dois grupos: o grupo Asperger, composto por 22 sujeitos diagnosticados por equipe multidisciplinar como portadores de Síndrome de Asperger, conforme os critérios do DSM-IV; e o grupo de comparação, denominado grupo de baixo risco para alterações do desenvolvimento, também com 22 participantes, pareados com os sujeitos do grupo Asperger segundo a idade cronológica. Todos os sujeitos eram do sexo masculino, com idade cronológica entre 10 e 30 anos e quociente intelectual maior ou igual a 68 e foram submetidos à Prova de Consciência Fonológica, Teste de Vocabulário por Imagem Peabody, Prova de Leitura de Palavras e Pseudopalavras, Prova de Compreensão de Leitura, Prova de Escrita sob Ditado de Palavras e Pseudopalavras, Prova de Escrita Semidirigida de Textos. RESULTADOS: a análise estatística revelou diferenças estaticamente significantes entre as medianas da prova de consciência fonológica e entre as médias do teste de vocabulário por imagem Peabody e prova de compreensão de leitura nos dois grupos estudados (pPURPOSE: to evaluate and characterize the oral and written language of subjects with Asperger Syndrome and compare them with a group of subjects with typical development. METHODS: a total of 44 subjects were assessed and divided in two groups. The Asperger group was composed by 22 subjects diagnosed with Asperger Syndrome by an expert clinical team following the DSM-IV criteria. The comparison group, referred to as low risk for developmental disorders was also composed by 22 subjects matched with the subjects in Asperger group by chronological age. All the assessed subjects were right-handed males, with chronological ages between 10 and 30 years and intelligence quotients above

  4. The Fluidez en La Lectura Oral (FLO) Portion of the Indicadores Dinamicos De Exito en La Lectura (IDEL) and the English Language Portion of the Illinois Standard Achievement Test (ISAT): A Correlational Study of Second and Third Grade English Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganan, Brian J.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between Spanish oral reading fluency (ORF) at the end of second grade and students' performance on the third grade ISAT reading test. The major research question guiding this study was: What is the direction and strength of the relationship between performance on the 2nd grade IDEL FLO, a Spanish language ORF…

  5. Using a narrative- and play-based activity to promote low-income preschoolers’ oral language, emergent literacy, and social competence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolopoulou, Ageliki; Cortina, Kai Schnabel; Ilgaz, Hande; Cates, Carolyn Brockmeyer; de Sá, Aline B.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined whether a storytelling and story-acting practice (STSA), integrated as a regular component of the preschool curriculum, can help promote three key dimensions of young children’s school readiness: narrative and other oral-language skills, emergent literacy, and social competence. A total of 149 low-income preschoolers (almost all 3- and 4-year-olds) participated, attending six experimental and seven control classrooms. The STSA was introduced in the experimental classrooms for the entire school year, and all children in both conditions were pre- and post-tested on 11 measures of narrative, vocabulary, emergent literacy, pretend abilities, peer play cooperation, and self-regulation. Participation in the STSA was associated with improvements in narrative comprehension, print and word awareness, pretend abilities, self-regulation, and reduced play disruption. For almost all these measures, positive results were further strengthened by the frequency of participation in storytelling by individual children, indicated by number of stories told (NOST). The STSA is a structured preschool practice that exemplifies child-centered, play-based, and constructivist approaches in early childhood education, and that can operate as a curriculum module in conjunction with a variety of different preschool curricula. This study confirmed that it can contribute to promoting learning, development, and school readiness for low-income and otherwise disadvantaged children. PMID:25866441

  6. IDEA: Stimulating Oral Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easley, Jacob J.

    1995-01-01

    Presents daily activities that facilitate complete sentence response, promote oral production, and aid the learning of vocabulary in foreign-language classes. Because speech is the primary form of communication in the foreign-language classroom, it is important to stimulate students to converse as soon as possible. (Author/CK)

  7. <strong>Mini-project>

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katajainen, Jyrki

    2008-01-01

    In this project the goal is to develop the safe * family of containers for the CPH STL. The containers to be developed should be safer and more reliable than any of the existing implementations. A special focus should be put on strong exception safety since none of the existing prototypes available...

  8. Éléments conversationnels du clavardage : un entraînement à l´expression orale pour les apprenants de langues à distance ? Conversational elements of online chatting: speaking practice for distance language learners?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenza Tudini

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available L'un des enjeux fondamentaux d'un cours de langue à distance est de pouvoir fournir un étayage, un accompagnement et une évaluation qui soient adaptés aux apprenants, et susceptibles de les aider à développer leur interlangue. Tout en constituant l'une des motivations principales du choix des étudiants pour un cours de langue, l'interaction orale est censée contribuer au développement de l'interlangue dans la mesure où elle favorise le processus de négociation du sens. Dans le cas des étudiants en présentiel, les progrès en expression orale en langue cible sont favorisés principalement grâce aux aides fournies en classe lors du cours. On se demandera comment les étudiants à distance/en ligne, qui ne peuvent pas être présents sur le site, peuvent pratiquer l'interaction orale. Dans une perspective conversationnelle et acquisitionnelle en langue seconde, l'auteure envisage les aspects qui sont communs aux interactions en face à face et au clavardage, dans le but d'évaluer le potentiel des outils de communication synchrone à base textuelle comme vecteurs du développement de la compétence d'expression orale et de l'interlangue, chez des apprenants de langue à distance. Pour ce faire, l'auteure propose une synthèse des résultats d'études antérieures portant sur les outils de communication synchrone à base textuelle et procède à l'identification de certaines caractéristiques de l'interaction orale, présentes dans les sessions de clavardage de deux groupes d'apprenants d'italien de niveau intermédiaire. L'étude porte en particulier sur les stratégies de réparation et d'intégration de formes cibles, sur la variété des actes de langage, notamment les questions et les demandes de clarifications, ainsi que sur la présence de marqueurs discursifs.A critical issue in the delivery of language courses at a distance is to provide adequate scaffolding and monitoring1 of learners to assist them in the development of

  9. Strong interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Froissart, Marcel

    1976-01-01

    Strong interactions are introduced by their more obvious aspect: nuclear forces. In hadron family, the nucleon octet, OMEGA - decuplet, and quark triply are successively considered. Pion wave having been put at the origin of nuclear forces, low energy phenomena are described, the force being explained as an exchange of structure corresponding to a Regge trajectory in a variable rotating state instead of the exchange of a well defined particle. At high energies the concepts of pomeron, parton and stratons are introduced, pionization and fragmentation are briefly differentiated [fr

  10. Produção de conhecimento sobre narrativas orais: contribuições para as investigações em linguagem infantil Production of knowledge on oral narratives: contributions to research on child language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jáima Pinheiro de Oliveira

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo tem como objetivo indicar um panorama geral sobre a produção de conhecimento no que tange os padrões para o desenvolvimento da narrativa oral, nos últimos quatro anos por meio de uma revisão bibliográfica sistematizada, voltada para a temática de intervenção em linguagem infantil, com o uso de narrativas orais. A revisão foi realizada em uma única etapa, com critérios específicos, utilizando os seguintes descritores: narrativas, narrativa, narrativas de crianças, linguagem e desenvolvimento, linguagem oral, habilidades linguísticas, linguagem falada, linguagem infantil, narração/narração de histórias e linguagem. O período considerado foi de 2007 a 2011. Foram obtidos 900 registros, dentre os quais, nove (1% atenderam aos critérios estabelecidos para análise. A maioria dos estudos relacionou-se com análises psicolinguísticas. Apenas um estudo utilizou método experimental. No período considerado foram produzidos poucos estudos abordando narrativas orais infantis; a sua grande maioria levou em consideração, fundamentalmente, aspectos cognitivos e linguísticos no processo de desenvolvimento da habilidade narrativa; a grande maioria das pesquisas foi realizada com crianças que possuem algum tipo de alteração em seu desenvolvimento linguístico. Considera-se que a produção de conhecimento, em relação ao desenvolvimento de narrativas orais infantis, exige, atualmente, um olhar voltado para as intervenções que utilizem metodologia experimental. Por fim, considera-se que é necessária uma atenção maior em relação ao desenvolvimento típico da habilidade narrativa.The purpose of this study is to indicate an overview about knowledge production regarding the standards for the development of oral narrative in the past four years through a systematic literature review, focused on intervention thematic in child language, with the use of oral narratives. The review was held in a single step, with specific

  11. Produção de conhecimento sobre narrativas orais: contribuições para as investigações em linguagem infantil Production of knowledge on oral narratives: contributions to research on child language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jáima Pinheiro de Oliveira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo tem como objetivo indicar um panorama geral sobre a produção de conhecimento no que tange os padrões para o desenvolvimento da narrativa oral, nos últimos quatro anos por meio de uma revisão bibliográfica sistematizada, voltada para a temática de intervenção em linguagem infantil, com o uso de narrativas orais. A revisão foi realizada em uma única etapa, com critérios específicos, utilizando os seguintes descritores: narrativas, narrativa, narrativas de crianças, linguagem e desenvolvimento, linguagem oral, habilidades linguísticas, linguagem falada, linguagem infantil, narração/narração de histórias e linguagem. O período considerado foi de 2007 a 2011. Foram obtidos 900 registros, dentre os quais, nove (1% atenderam aos critérios estabelecidos para análise. A maioria dos estudos relacionou-se com análises psicolinguísticas. Apenas um estudo utilizou método experimental. No período considerado foram produzidos poucos estudos abordando narrativas orais infantis; a sua grande maioria levou em consideração, fundamentalmente, aspectos cognitivos e linguísticos no processo de desenvolvimento da habilidade narrativa; a grande maioria das pesquisas foi realizada com crianças que possuem algum tipo de alteração em seu desenvolvimento linguístico. Considera-se que a produção de conhecimento, em relação ao desenvolvimento de narrativas orais infantis, exige, atualmente, um olhar voltado para as intervenções que utilizem metodologia experimental. Por fim, considera-se que é necessária uma atenção maior em relação ao desenvolvimento típico da habilidade narrativa.The purpose of this study is to indicate an overview about knowledge production regarding the standards for the development of oral narrative in the past four years through a systematic literature review, focused on intervention thematic in child language, with the use of oral narratives. The review was held in a single step, with specific

  12. The simple view of second language reading throughout the primary grades

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeven, L.T.W.; Leeuwe, J.F.J. van

    2012-01-01

    In the Simple View of Reading proposed by Hoover and Gough (1990), reading comprehension is conceived as the product of word decoding and listening comprehension. It is claimed that listening comprehension or the linguistic processes involved in the comprehension of oral language strongly constrain

  13. The Arts, the Common Core, and English Language Development in the Primary Grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenfader, Christa Mulker; Brouillette, Liane

    2017-01-01

    Background/Context: Throughout schooling, English learners (ELs) perform well below their monolingual English-speaking peers on literacy assessments, and Hispanics make up the majority of EL students in the United States. There is a strong consensus about the importance of early English oral language skills for ELs' literacy development, yet…

  14. Mobile-Based Chatting for Meaning Negotiation in Foreign Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castrillo, María Dolores; Martín-Monje, Elena; Bárcena, Elena

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyzes the adequacy of mobile chatting via Whatsapp for the enhancement of a type of spontaneous and colloquial written interaction which has a strong connection with oral discourse. This is part of a research project undertaken with Spanish students of German as a foreign language with a beginner's or quasi-beginner's level. The…

  15. strong>A novel oral preparation of human growth hormone (hGH) is absorbed and increases serum IGF-I levels after 7 days administration to GH-deficient adultsstrong>

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Torben; Mindeholm, Linda; Haemmerle, Sibylle

    2007-01-01

    ) as carrier has recently been developed. The aim of this study was to determine if this oral formulation of hGH could be absorbed and be bioactive. Eight GHD men (mean age 50 years) receiving sc hGH therapy were withdrawn from therapy for 7 days and then treated for 7 days orally with tablets of HGH191...

  16. How Does Dissociation between Written and Oral Forms Affect Reading: Evidence from Auxiliary Verbs in Arabic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Raphiq

    2011-01-01

    In Arabic, auxiliary verbs are necessary in the written language, but absent from the oral language. This is contrary to languages such as English and French in which auxiliary verbs are mandatory in both written and oral languages. This fact was exploited to examine if dissociation between written and oral forms affects reading measures like…

  17. Screening for oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jitender, Solanki; Sarika, Gupta; Varada, Hiremath R; Omprakash, Yadav; Mohsin, Khan

    2016-11-01

    Oral cancer is considered as a serious health problem resulting in high morbidity and mortality. Early detection and prevention play a key role in controlling the burden of oral cancer worldwide. The five-year survival rate of oral cancer still remains low and delayed diagnosis is considered as one of the major reasons. This increases the demand for oral screening. Currently, screening of oral cancer is largely based on visual examination. Various evidence strongly suggest the validity of visual inspection in reducing mortality in patients at risk for oral cancer. Simple visual examination is accompanied with adjunctive techniques for subjective interpretation of dysplastic changes. These include toluidine blue staining, brush biopsy, chemiluminescence and tissue autofluorescence. This review highlights the efficacy of various diagnostic methods in screening of oral cancer. © 2016 Old City Publishing, Inc.

  18. Writing through Two Languages: First Language Expertise in a Language Minority Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibler, Amanda

    2010-01-01

    Language minority students' writing is often measured solely in terms of its distance from native speaker norms, yet doing so may ignore the process through which these texts are realized and the role that the first language plays in their creation. This study analyzes oral interactions among adolescent second language writers during an extended…

  19. Gestalt Imagery: A Critical Factor in Language Comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Nanci

    1991-01-01

    Lack of gestalt imagery (the ability to create imaged wholes) can contribute to language comprehension disorder characterized by weak reading comprehension, weak oral language comprehension, weak oral language expression, weak written language expression, difficulty following directions, and a weak sense of humor. Sequential stimulation using an…

  20. The Teacher’s Role in Supporting the ZPD in Students’ English Oral Communication Skills based on the PYP Language Scope and Sequence of Grade EY 3A: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustina Imelda Kurniasari

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available With many international schools implementing bilingual systems in their teaching learning activities, different students who come from different family backgrounds may apply bilingual communication, both at school and at home. For the classroom teacher, one approach to support students’ oral communication skills is through supporting the Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD. In order to make the ZPD happen in the classroom, particularly in the students’ speaking skills, the classroom teacher needs to apply some strategies. The research was descriptive qualitative and the tools used to collect data in the study were in the form of observations, interviews and field notes. The results of the research indicate there are six strategies that the classroom teacher used to support the ZPD. Besides that, there were five aspects that the classroom teacher did to support the students’ oral communication skills and based on the PYP Language Scope and Sequence, the students demonstrated various common trends in their oral communication skills.  BAHASA INDONESIA ABSTRAK: Dengan banyaknya sekolah Internasional yang menerapkan sistem dwibahasa dalam aktivitas belajar mengajar, peserta didik yang berasal dari latar belakang keluarga yang berbeda berkomunikasi menggunakan dua bahasa, baik di sekolah maupun di rumah. Bagi guru kelas, pendekatan yang bisa digunakan untuk mendukung keterampilan berkomunikasi lisan siswa adalah dengan mendukung Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD. Agar ZPD dapat berjalan di kelas, terutama di keterampilan berbicara siswa, guru kelas perlu menerapkan beberapa strategi. Penelitian ini adalah deskriptif kualitatif dan alat yang digunakan untuk mengumpulkan data dalam penelitian ini dalam bentuk observasi, wawancara dan catatan lapangan. Hasil penelitian mengindikasikan ada enam strategi yang  diterapkan guru kelas untuk mendukung Zone of Proximal Development. Di samping itu, ada lima aspek yang dilakukan guru kelas untuk mendukung

  1. 114 African Languages and African Literature Cecilia A. Eme ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ike Odimegwu

    multidimensional realizations which are represented in ideas, beliefs, and oral and ... broadly literature in African languages, literature in European languages etc. ..... death and language maintenance: Theoretical, practical and descriptive ...

  2. The Effects of Selected Language Stimulation Upon the Language Skills of Hard of Hearing School Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spangenberg, Cynthia Pont

    Results of a study involving 20 hard of hearing school aged students indicated that Ss in two experimental conditions (language stimulation by Big Brothers or Big Sisters and special training in oral and written language skills with a hearing specialist) increased in the complexity of their oral language more than control Ss did. (CL)

  3. Linguistic Interdependence between Spanish Language and English Language and Reading: A Longitudinal Exploration from Second through Fifth Grade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, C. Patrick; Harring, Jeffrey R.; Silverman, Rebecca D.

    2017-01-01

    This study explored effects of Spanish oral language skills (vocabulary and syntax) on the development of English oral language skills (vocabulary, morphology, semantics, syntax) and reading comprehension among 156 bilingual Latino children in second through fifth grade whose first language was Spanish and whose second language was English. Using…

  4. Orality, Literacy, and Star Wars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havelock, Eric A.

    1986-01-01

    Argues that the educational system should encourage "down to earth" language by including oral recitation in the curricula, particularly recitation of popular poetry with accompaniment. Using the shuttle disaster as a striking example, claims that the modern media overuses conceptual language to disguise the hard meaning of what is being…

  5. A Model for Community-Based Pediatric Oral Heath: Implementation of an Infant Oral Care Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J. Ramos-Gomez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Affordable Care Act (ACA mandates risk assessments, preventive care, and evaluations based on outcomes. ACA compliance will require easily accessible, cost-effective care models that are flexible and simple to establish. UCLA has developed an Infant Oral Care Program (IOCP in partnership with community-based organizations that is an intervention model providing culturally competent perinatal and infant oral care for underserved, low-income, and/or minority children aged 0–5 and their caregivers. In collaboration with the Venice Family Clinic's Simms/Mann Health and Wellness Center, UCLA Pediatrics, Women, Infants, and Children (WIC, and Early Head Start and Head Start programs, the IOCP increases family-centered care access and promotes early utilization of dental services in nontraditional, primary care settings. Emphasizing disease prevention, management, and care that is sensitive to cultural, language, and oral health literacy challenges, IOCP patients achieve better oral health maintenance “in health” not in “disease modality”. IOCP uses interprofessional education to promote pediatric oral health across multiple disciplines and highlights the necessity for the “age-one visit”. This innovative clinical model facilitates early intervention and disease management. It sets a new standard of minimally invasive dental care that is widely available and prevention focused, with high retention rates due to strong collaborations with the community-based organizations serving these vulnerable, high-risk children.

  6. A model for community-based pediatric oral heath: implementation of an infant oral care program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Gomez, Francisco J

    2014-01-01

    The Affordable Care Act (ACA) mandates risk assessments, preventive care, and evaluations based on outcomes. ACA compliance will require easily accessible, cost-effective care models that are flexible and simple to establish. UCLA has developed an Infant Oral Care Program (IOCP) in partnership with community-based organizations that is an intervention model providing culturally competent perinatal and infant oral care for underserved, low-income, and/or minority children aged 0-5 and their caregivers. In collaboration with the Venice Family Clinic's Simms/Mann Health and Wellness Center, UCLA Pediatrics, Women, Infants, and Children (WIC), and Early Head Start and Head Start programs, the IOCP increases family-centered care access and promotes early utilization of dental services in nontraditional, primary care settings. Emphasizing disease prevention, management, and care that is sensitive to cultural, language, and oral health literacy challenges, IOCP patients achieve better oral health maintenance "in health" not in "disease modality". IOCP uses interprofessional education to promote pediatric oral health across multiple disciplines and highlights the necessity for the "age-one visit". This innovative clinical model facilitates early intervention and disease management. It sets a new standard of minimally invasive dental care that is widely available and prevention focused, with high retention rates due to strong collaborations with the community-based organizations serving these vulnerable, high-risk children.

  7. Oral Communicative Competence of Primary School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo, Isabel Cantón; Barrioluengo, Elena Pérez

    2017-01-01

    Oral communicative competence enables speakers of a language to interact effectively with each other. Oral communicative competence includes a wide semantic field since the oral expression is a way of expression for the thought and it provides feedback and develops by means of the linguistic function (Vygotsky, 1992; Piaget, 1983a, 1983b; Pinker,…

  8. Task Design for L2 Oral Practice in Audioblogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appel, Christine; Borges, Federico

    2012-01-01

    The development of oral skills poses a challenge in language teaching whether this takes place face-to-face, through distance education or in blended learning contexts. Two main problems arise: first of all students don't have enough opportunity to use their target language orally, and secondly, students oral performance is mostly unrecorded and…

  9. Immersion Education in the Context of an Endangered Language: A Linguistic Study of the Oral Production of French Immersion Students in Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betters, Jennifer R.

    2016-01-01

    In the past century, French has shifted from being the native language of many Louisianans to being an endangered dialect. Since the creation of the state agency CODOFIL (Council for the Development of French in Louisiana) in the 1960's, efforts have been made to revitalize French in Louisiana, and since the 1980's, some parishes have offered…

  10. Optimizing the Noticing of Recasts via Computer-Delivered Feedback: Evidence That Oral Input Enhancement and Working Memory Help Second Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagarra, Nuria; Abbuhl, Rebekha

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates whether practice with computer-administered feedback in the absence of meaning-focused interaction can help second language learners notice the corrective intent of recasts and develop linguistic accuracy. A group of 218 beginning Anglophone learners of Spanish received 1 of 4 types of automated feedback (no feedback,…

  11. Oral Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oral cancer can form in any part of the mouth. Most oral cancers begin in the flat cells that cover the ... your mouth, tongue, and lips. Anyone can get oral cancer, but the risk is higher if you are ...

  12. Speech-language therapy program for mouth opening in patients with oral and oropharyngeal cancer undergoing adjuvant radiotherapy: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrafon, Caroline Somera; Matos, Leandro Luongo; Simões-Zenari, Marcia; Cernea, Claudio Roberto; Nemr, Katia

    2018-01-01

    Purpose Assess the effectiveness of an orofacial myofunctional therapeutic program in patients with oral or oropharyngeal cancer submitted to adjuvant radiotherapy through pre- and post-program comparison of maximum mandibular opening. Methods Prospective study involving five adult patients and five elderly patients postoperatively to oral cavity/oropharynx surgery who were awaiting the beginning of radiotherapy or had undergone fewer than five treatment sessions. The study participants had their maximum jaw opening measured using a sliding caliper at the beginning and end of the program. Two mobility exercises and three mandibular traction exercises were selected and weekly monitored presentially for 10 weeks. Descriptive data and pre- and post-therapy comparative measures were statistically analyzed using the Wilcoxon test. Results Ten patients (two women and eight men) with mean age of 58.4 years, median of 57.0 years, completed the therapeutic program. They presented mean maximum mandibular opening of 31.6 ± 11.7 and 36.4 ± 8.0 mm pre- and post-therapy, respectively (p =0.021). Conclusion The proposed orofacial myofunctional therapeutic program increased the maximum jaw opening of patients referred to adjuvant radiotherapy for oral cavity or oropharynx cancer treatment.

  13. Language Contact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelde, Peter Hans

    1995-01-01

    Examines the phenomenon of language contact and recent trends in linguistic contact research, which focuses on language use, language users, and language spheres. Also discusses the role of linguistic and cultural conflicts in language contact situations. (13 references) (MDM)

  14. Preschool language interventions for latino dual language learners with language disorders: what, in what language, and how.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon-Cereijido, Gabriela

    2015-05-01

    About a quarter of young children in the United States are dual language learners. The large majority are Latino children who are exposed to Spanish in their homes. The language needs of Latino dual language preschoolers are different from the needs of monolingual English-speaking children. As a group, they are likely to live in environments that put them at risk of delays in language development. This situation is direr for dual language preschoolers with language impairment. Recent findings from studies on interventions for Spanish-English preschoolers with language impairment suggest that a bilingual approach does not delay English vocabulary and oral language learning and promotes Spanish maintenance. Targets and strategies for different language domains are described. The effects of pullout versus push-in interventions for this population are preliminarily explored. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  15. Children's Expressive Language Skills and Their Impact on the Relation between First-and Second-Language Phonological Awareness Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodrich, J. Marc; Lonigan, Christopher J.; Farver, JoAnn M.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether the cross-language relations between the phonological awareness (PA) skills of preschool children learning more than one language are dependent upon their first-and second-language oral language skills. Four hundred sixty-six Spanish-speaking language minority children participated in this study.…

  16. When Is an English Language Learner Not an English Language Learner? Exploring Individual Differences in Developmental Language and Literacy Acquisition for At-Risk Learners: A Latent Transition Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman-Orth, Danielle Alicia

    2012-01-01

    Empirical evidence suggests oral language proficiency is correlated with literacy outcomes; however, the relationship between oral language proficiency and literacy outcomes for English Language Learners is highly variable. As a result, the field lacks critical direction to identify children who are English Language Learners experiencing general…

  17. LANGUAGE TEACHING WITH CARTOONS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    FLEMING, GERALD

    SHORT WELL-MADE CARTOONS, CAREFULLY MATCHED TO ORAL AND WRITTEN TEXTS, COMMAND THE LANGUAGE STUDENT'S ATTENTION BECAUSE OF THEIR NOVELTY AND MULTISENSORY APPEAL. THEY ARE ALSO IDEAL VEHICLES FOR THE DYNAMIC PRESENTATION OF EVERYDAY SITUATIONS WHICH CAN SERVE AS SETTINGS FOR NORMAL SPEECH PATTERNS. THESE FOUR-MINUTE CARTOONS LEND THEMSELVES TO A…

  18. Assessing Second Language Speaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulcher, Glenn

    2015-01-01

    While the viva voce (oral) examination has always been used in content-based educational assessment (Latham 1877: 132), the assessment of second language (L2) speaking in performance tests is relatively recent. The impetus for the growth in testing speaking during the 19th and 20th centuries is twofold. Firstly, in educational settings the…

  19. The language of football

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossing, Niels Nygaard; Skrubbeltrang, Lotte Stausgaard

    2014-01-01

    levels (Schein, 2004) in which each player and his actions can be considered an artefact - a concrete symbol in motion embedded in espoused values and basic assumptions. Therefore, the actions of each dialect are strongly connected to the underlying understanding of football. By document and video......The language of football: A cultural analysis of selected World Cup nations. This essay describes how actions on the football field relate to the nations’ different cultural understanding of football and how these actions become spoken dialects within a language of football. Saussure reasoned...... language to have two components: a language system and language users (Danesi, 2003). Consequently, football can be characterized as a language containing a system with specific rules of the game and users with actual choices and actions within the game. All football players can be considered language...

  20. Oral myiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thalaimalai Saravanan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Myiasis is a pathologic condition in humans occurring because of parasitic infestation. Parasites causing myiasis belong to the order Diptera. Oral myiasis is seen secondary to oral wounds, suppurative lesions, and extraction wounds, especially in individuals with neurological deficit. In such cases, neglected oral hygiene and halitosis attracts the flies to lay eggs in oral wounds resulting in oral myiasis. We present a case of oral myiasis in 40-year-old male patient with mental disability and history of epilepsy.

  1. Academic Language in Early Childhood Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Erica M.; Grifenhagen, Jill F.; Dickinson, David K.

    2016-01-01

    This article defines academic language by examining the central features of vocabulary, syntax, and discourse function. Examples of each feature are provided, as well as methods of identifying them in oral language and printed text. We describe a yearlong study that found teachers used different types of academic language based on instructional…

  2. Présentation d’un logiciel de visualisation pour l’apprentissage de l’oral en langue seconde The use of speech visualizing software in the acquisition of a second language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Martin

    2000-06-01

    Speech Sciences has greatly developed in recent years, the applications of this research has had difficulties in reaching the language classroom. Limited training of the teachers in Phonetics as well as a restricted dialogue between speech researchers and language teachers explain in part a lack of innovation in technological tools and pedagogic practices. The result of the collaboration between a phonetician/computer engineer/researcher and a phonetician/teaching methodologies theorist/teacher, WinPitch LTL is a real time speech analyzer, visualizer and synthesizer. Building on the research in speech visualization and the importance of feedback in the acquisition of phonological and prosodic systems in a second language, this authoring software aims to facilitate and accelerate the process of auditory discrimination essential at the beginning of all language learning. But, of more significance than a simple visualizer, this software develops in the learner an awareness of the process of his/her learning ; the multiple functions of observation, visual/auditory comparison, segmentation, signal editing, and the ability to redesign the intonation curve or the duration of a segment using synthesis, favour the development of a reflective, progressive and autonomous learning style. Furthermore, and in contrast to automatic speech recognition programs, the originality of WinPitch LTL lies in the precision and quality of the teacher’s feedback to the learner’s oral productions, allowing the latter to critically examine his/her oral production at any time. Finally, an individualized approach is reinforced by the software’s numerous possibilities of (self evaluative dialogue between the learner and the teacher, either in a synchronous relationship in the classroom or asynchronously in a distance learning setting.

  3. Hidden Language Impairments in Children: Parallels between Poor Reading Comprehension and Specific Language Impairment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nation, Kate; Clarke, Paula; Marshall, Catherine M.; Durand, Marianne

    2004-01-01

    This study investigates the oral language skills of 8-year-old children with impaired reading comprehension. Despite fluent and accurate reading and normal nonverbal ability, these children are poor at understanding what they have read. Tasks tapping 3 domains of oral language, namely phonology, semantics, and morphosyntax, were administered,…

  4. O papel dos gestos no desenvolvimento da linguagem oral de crianças com desenvolvimento típico e crianças com síndrome de Down The role of gestures in oral language development of typically developing children and children with Down syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabíola Custódio Flabiano-Almeida

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente estudo foi caracterizar o papel dos gestos nos estágios iniciais do desenvolvimento da linguagem oral de crianças com desenvolvimento típico e crianças com síndrome de Down (SD, a partir de amplo levantamento bibliográfico em bases de dados, abrangendo as duas últimas décadas de estudos na área. A literatura pesquisada sugere que os gestos desempenham papel importante no desenvolvimento da linguagem oral, fornecendo à criança recursos cognitivos extras para a aprendizagem de novas palavras e enunciados. É apontada também a função social dos gestos nesse processo, na medida em que sinalizam ao interlocutor que a criança já está pronta para receber determinado input linguístico, eliciando produções verbais do adulto que fornecem à criança o modelo de como expressar suas ideias inteiramente por meio da fala. Com relação às crianças com SD, os gestos também parecem ser preditivos do desenvolvimento lexical; porém, apenas em relação ao vocabulário receptivo, enquanto as dificuldades específicas relatadas em relação à transição das combinações de gesto e palavra para as combinações de duas ou mais palavras têm sido especuladas como o primeiro indício de futuros déficits no desenvolvimento da sintaxe, frequentemente observados nessa população. Além disso, os estudos na área têm sugerido que características da interação comunicativa entre mãe e criança com SD, tais como a produção de gestos de forma breve e confusa pelas crianças e menor responsividade de suas mães, também podem contribuir para as dificuldades de expressão verbal observadas nessas crianças.The aim of the present study was to characterize the role of gestures at the initial stages of oral language development in typically developing children and children with Down syndrome (DS, based on a large bibliographic review in scientific databases, covering the past two decades of studies on this subject. The

  5. Oral cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer - mouth; Mouth cancer; Head and neck cancer; Squamous cell cancer - mouth; Malignant neoplasm - oral ... National Cancer Institute. PDQ lip and oral cavity cancer ... September 25, 2015. www.cancer.gov/types/head-and-neck/hp/lip- ...

  6. Oral Ketamine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Oral Ketamine: A Four-years Experience in ... Key words: Oral Ketamine, Premedication and Oncology. .... form of a letter published in 19835. .... Acta. Anaesthesiol Scandinavica, 1998; 42: 750-758. 4. Murray P. Substitution of another opioid ...

  7. Assessing reading fluency in Kenya: Oral or silent assessment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piper, Benjamin; Zuilkowski, Stephanie Simmons

    2015-04-01

    In recent years, the Education for All movement has focused more intensely on the quality of education, rather than simply provision. Many recent and current education quality interventions focus on literacy, which is the core skill required for further academic success. Despite this focus on the quality of literacy instruction in developing countries, little rigorous research has been conducted on critical issues of assessment. This analysis, which uses data from the Primary Math and Reading Initiative (PRIMR) in Kenya, aims to begin filling this gap by addressing a key assessment issue - should literacy assessments in Kenya be administered orally or silently? The authors compared second-grade students' scores on oral and silent reading tasks of the Early Grade Reading Assessment (EGRA) in Kiswahili and English, and found no statistically significant differences in either language. They did, however, find oral reading rates to be more strongly related to reading comprehension scores. Oral assessment has another benefit for programme evaluators - it allows for the collection of data on student errors, and therefore the calculation of words read correctly per minute, as opposed to simply words read per minute. The authors therefore recommend that, in Kenya and in similar contexts, student reading fluency be assessed via oral rather than silent assessment.

  8. The Effectiveness of Diagnostic Assessment on the Development of Turkish Language Learners’ Narrative Skills as an Oral Proficiency Interview (OPI Task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjel Tozcu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effectiveness of diagnostic assessment on improving students’ proficiency in narrating past events, an Oral Proficiency Interview (OPI Level 2 task. It found that students who were given a personalized learning plan subsequent to the diagnostic assessment interview significantly improved their proficiency in basic sentence structures than those in a control group. They used a significantly larger number of cohesive devices as compared to the control group and exhibited significantly increased accuracy in using cohesive devices than a control group. The students in the treatment group worked on the recommended activities based on the data gathered during the diagnostic assessment interview and the pre-interview questionnaires, i.e., the E & L, MBTI, and Barsch. The students in the control group spent the same amount of time reading narrations, doing comprehension exercise,s and following standard teacher feedback for improvement. Although both groups showed increases in accurate use of cohesive devices and proficiency in basic sentence structures, the treatment students showed significantly greater gains than the control students.

  9. "I'll Speak in Proper Slang": Language Ideologies in a Daily Editing Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godley, Amanda J.; Carpenter, Brian D.; Werner, Cynthia A.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the language ideologies--the assumptions about the nature of language, language variation, and language learning--reflected in a widespread daily editing activity often known as Daily Oral Language or Daily Language Practice. Through a yearlong ethnographic study of grammar instruction in three urban,…

  10. Spoken Spanish Language Development at the High School Level: A Mixed-Methods Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeller, Aleidine J.; Theiler, Janine

    2014-01-01

    Communicative approaches to teaching language have emphasized the centrality of oral proficiency in the language acquisition process, but research investigating oral proficiency has been surprisingly limited, yielding an incomplete understanding of spoken language development. This study investigated the development of spoken language at the high…

  11. Evaluating Effects of Language Recognition on Language Rights and the Vitality of New Zealand Sign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, Rachel Locker; Manning, Victoria

    2015-01-01

    Status planning through legislation made New Zealand Sign Language (NZSL) an official language in 2006. But this strong symbolic action did not create resources or mechanisms to further the aims of the act. In this article we discuss the extent to which legal recognition and ensuing language-planning activities by state and community have affected…

  12. Language as skill

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chater, Nick; McCauley, Stewart M.; Christiansen, M. H.

    2016-01-01

    occurs on-line. These properties are difficult to reconcile with the 'abstract knowledge' viewpoint, and crucially suggest that language comprehension and production are facets of a unitary skill. This viewpoint is exemplified in the Chunk-Based Learner, a computational acquisition model that processes...... incrementally and learns on-line. The model both parses and produces language; and implements the idea that language acquisition is nothing more than learning to process. We suggest that the Now-or-Never bottleneck also provides a strong motivation for unified perception-production models in other domains......Are comprehension and production a single, integrated skill, or are they separate processes drawing on a shared abstract knowledge of language? We argue that a fundamental constraint on memory, the Now-or-Never bottleneck, implies that language processing is incremental and that language learning...

  13. Effects of early auditory experience on the spoken language of deaf children at 3 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas, Johanna Grant; Geers, Ann E

    2006-06-01

    By age 3, typically developing children have achieved extensive vocabulary and syntax skills that facilitate both cognitive and social development. Substantial delays in spoken language acquisition have been documented for children with severe to profound deafness, even those with auditory oral training and early hearing aid use. This study documents the spoken language skills achieved by orally educated 3-yr-olds whose profound hearing loss was identified and hearing aids fitted between 1 and 30 mo of age and who received a cochlear implant between 12 and 38 mo of age. The purpose of the analysis was to examine the effects of age, duration, and type of early auditory experience on spoken language competence at age 3.5 yr. The spoken language skills of 76 children who had used a cochlear implant for at least 7 mo were evaluated via standardized 30-minute language sample analysis, a parent-completed vocabulary checklist, and a teacher language-rating scale. The children were recruited from and enrolled in oral education programs or therapy practices across the United States. Inclusion criteria included presumed deaf since birth, English the primary language of the home, no other known conditions that interfere with speech/language development, enrolled in programs using oral education methods, and no known problems with the cochlear implant lasting more than 30 days. Strong correlations were obtained among all language measures. Therefore, principal components analysis was used to derive a single Language Factor score for each child. A number of possible predictors of language outcome were examined, including age at identification and intervention with a hearing aid, duration of use of a hearing aid, pre-implant pure-tone average (PTA) threshold with a hearing aid, PTA threshold with a cochlear implant, and duration of use of a cochlear implant/age at implantation (the last two variables were practically identical because all children were tested between 40 and 44

  14. Speak up! Oral Examinations and Political Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buehler, Melissa J.; Schneider, Laura U.

    2009-01-01

    Testing assessments of undergraduate political science students is predictable and stagnant. A missing, yet valuable, testing assessment tool that can contribute to the repertoire of political science is the oral examination. Borrowing this testing tool largely from foreign language departments, oral exams require students to "think on their…

  15. A Contextualized Approach to Describing Oral Proficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalhoub-Deville, Micheline

    1995-01-01

    Studies learners' second-language (L2) oral proficiency, incorporating an interview, a narration, and a read-aloud. Results show that the nature of the L2 oral construct is not constant. The article concludes that proficiency researchers should use dimensions empirically derived according to the specific elicitation task and audience. (53…

  16. Mesenchymal stem cells in oral reconstructive surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, C; Sørensen, J A; Kassem, M

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated clinical outcomes following intraoperative use of adult mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in various oral reconstructive procedures. PubMed was searched without language restrictions from 2000 to 2011 using the search words stem cell, oral surgery, tissue engineering, sinus lift...

  17. A Validation Study of the Student Oral Proficiency Assessment (SOPA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Lynn E.; Kenyon, Dorry M.; Rhodes, Nancy C.

    This study validated the Student Oral Proficiency Assessment (SOPA), an oral proficiency instrument designed for students in elementary foreign language programs. Elementary students who were tested with the SOPA were also administered other instruments designed to measure proficiency. These instruments included the Stanford Foreign Language Oral…

  18. Gender Issues and Language Articulation; a Brief Look at Pros of Gender Neutral Language Articulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, Pouria

    2009-01-01

    As with the language articulated by learners--in both oral and written form--the supremacy of a masculine language use is witnessed. This brings to light the fact that gender has been excessively an unobserved factor in the process of language teaching. Although learners are apparently used to forming masculine-centered articulation, non-sexist…

  19. Gaelic Singing and Oral Tradition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheridan, Mark; MacDonald, Iona; Byrne, Charles G.

    2011-01-01

    A recent report by UNESCO placed Scots Gaelic on a list of 2500 endangered languages highlighting the perilous state of a key cornerstone of Scottish culture. Scottish Gaelic song, poems and stories have been carried through oral transmission for many centuries reflecting the power of indigenous peoples to preserve cultural heritage from…

  20. Canine oral melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, Philip J

    2007-05-01

    Melanoma is the most common oral malignancy in the dog. Oral and/or mucosal melanoma has been routinely considered an extremely malignant tumor with a high degree of local invasiveness and high metastatic propensity. Primary tumor size has been found to be extremely prognostic. The World Health Organization staging scheme for dogs with oral melanoma is based on size, with stage I = or = 4cm tumor and/or lymph node metastasis, and stage IV = distant metastasis. Median survival times for dogs with oral melanoma treated with surgery are approximately 17 to 18, 5 to 6, and 3 months with stage I, II, and III disease, respectively. Significant negative prognostic factors include stage, size, evidence of metastasis, and a variety of histologic criteria. Standardized treatments such as surgery, coarse-fractionation radiation therapy, and chemotherapy have afforded minimal to modest stage-dependent clinical benefits and death is usually due to systemic metastasis. Numerous immunotherapeutic strategies have been employed to date with limited clinical efficacy; however, the use of xenogeneic DNA vaccines may represent a leap forward in clinical efficacy. Oral melanoma is a spontaneous syngeneic cancer occurring in outbred, immunocompetent dogs and appears to be a more clinically faithful therapeutic model for human melanoma; further use of canine melanoma as a therapeutic model for human melanoma is strongly encouraged. In addition, the development of an expanded but clinically relevant staging system incorporating the aforementioned prognostic factors is also strongly encouraged.

  1. Testing strong interaction theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, J.

    1979-01-01

    The author discusses possible tests of the current theories of the strong interaction, in particular, quantum chromodynamics. High energy e + e - interactions should provide an excellent means of studying the strong force. (W.D.L.)

  2. How could language have evolved?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolhuis, Johan J; Tattersall, Ian; Chomsky, Noam; Berwick, Robert C

    2014-08-01

    The evolution of the faculty of language largely remains an enigma. In this essay, we ask why. Language's evolutionary analysis is complicated because it has no equivalent in any nonhuman species. There is also no consensus regarding the essential nature of the language "phenotype." According to the "Strong Minimalist Thesis," the key distinguishing feature of language (and what evolutionary theory must explain) is hierarchical syntactic structure. The faculty of language is likely to have emerged quite recently in evolutionary terms, some 70,000-100,000 years ago, and does not seem to have undergone modification since then, though individual languages do of course change over time, operating within this basic framework. The recent emergence of language and its stability are both consistent with the Strong Minimalist Thesis, which has at its core a single repeatable operation that takes exactly two syntactic elements a and b and assembles them to form the set {a, b}.

  3. How could language have evolved?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan J Bolhuis

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of the faculty of language largely remains an enigma. In this essay, we ask why. Language's evolutionary analysis is complicated because it has no equivalent in any nonhuman species. There is also no consensus regarding the essential nature of the language "phenotype." According to the "Strong Minimalist Thesis," the key distinguishing feature of language (and what evolutionary theory must explain is hierarchical syntactic structure. The faculty of language is likely to have emerged quite recently in evolutionary terms, some 70,000-100,000 years ago, and does not seem to have undergone modification since then, though individual languages do of course change over time, operating within this basic framework. The recent emergence of language and its stability are both consistent with the Strong Minimalist Thesis, which has at its core a single repeatable operation that takes exactly two syntactic elements a and b and assembles them to form the set {a, b}.

  4. Language learning, language use and the evolution of linguistic variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perfors, Amy; Fehér, Olga; Samara, Anna; Swoboda, Kate; Wonnacott, Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    Linguistic universals arise from the interaction between the processes of language learning and language use. A test case for the relationship between these factors is linguistic variation, which tends to be conditioned on linguistic or sociolinguistic criteria. How can we explain the scarcity of unpredictable variation in natural language, and to what extent is this property of language a straightforward reflection of biases in statistical learning? We review three strands of experimental work exploring these questions, and introduce a Bayesian model of the learning and transmission of linguistic variation along with a closely matched artificial language learning experiment with adult participants. Our results show that while the biases of language learners can potentially play a role in shaping linguistic systems, the relationship between biases of learners and the structure of languages is not straightforward. Weak biases can have strong effects on language structure as they accumulate over repeated transmission. But the opposite can also be true: strong biases can have weak or no effects. Furthermore, the use of language during interaction can reshape linguistic systems. Combining data and insights from studies of learning, transmission and use is therefore essential if we are to understand how biases in statistical learning interact with language transmission and language use to shape the structural properties of language. This article is part of the themed issue ‘New frontiers for statistical learning in the cognitive sciences’. PMID:27872370

  5. Language learning, language use and the evolution of linguistic variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kenny; Perfors, Amy; Fehér, Olga; Samara, Anna; Swoboda, Kate; Wonnacott, Elizabeth

    2017-01-05

    Linguistic universals arise from the interaction between the processes of language learning and language use. A test case for the relationship between these factors is linguistic variation, which tends to be conditioned on linguistic or sociolinguistic criteria. How can we explain the scarcity of unpredictable variation in natural language, and to what extent is this property of language a straightforward reflection of biases in statistical learning? We review three strands of experimental work exploring these questions, and introduce a Bayesian model of the learning and transmission of linguistic variation along with a closely matched artificial language learning experiment with adult participants. Our results show that while the biases of language learners can potentially play a role in shaping linguistic systems, the relationship between biases of learners and the structure of languages is not straightforward. Weak biases can have strong effects on language structure as they accumulate over repeated transmission. But the opposite can also be true: strong biases can have weak or no effects. Furthermore, the use of language during interaction can reshape linguistic systems. Combining data and insights from studies of learning, transmission and use is therefore essential if we are to understand how biases in statistical learning interact with language transmission and language use to shape the structural properties of language.This article is part of the themed issue 'New frontiers for statistical learning in the cognitive sciences'. © 2016 The Authors.

  6. Oral Hygiene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Marie Toftdahl; Villadsen, Dorte Buxbom

    The aim of the study was to explore how adults with schizo- phrenia describe their lived experiences with oral hygiene. 23 adults with schizophrenia were interviewed within a period of four months in late 2015. Transcriptions of the interviews were analysed using the Reflective Lifeworld Research...... health care professionals and adults with schizophrenia in order to improve oral health, well-being and recovery....

  7. Oral Hygiene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villadsen, Dorte Buxbom; Sørensen, Marie Toftdahl

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study is to explore how adults with schizophrenia describe their lived experiences with oral hygiene. 23 adults with schizophrenia were interviewed within a period of four months in late 2015. Transcriptions of the interviews were analysed using the Reflective Lifeworld Research ph...... health care professionals and adults with schizophrenia in order to improve oral health, well-being and recovery....

  8. Preparation a l'Autonomie en Expression Orale. (Preparation for Autonomy in Oral Communication). Melanges Pedagogiques, 1972.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulanger, C.

    This article deals with the issue of gaining proficiency in oral expression in a second language. A functional approach to teaching oral proficiency is outlined, an approach which focuses on the audience as a determining factor in the speaker's linguistic output. Claims in the article are based on an experiment in the teaching of oral proficiency…

  9. Home language shift and its implications for Chinese language teaching in Singapore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Li

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In a bilingual society like Singapore, home language environment (HLE of Singaporean children is becoming increasingly concerned, especially for those who are yet to have formal education in schools. The reported rapid shift of family language has increased the tensions among families, schools and communities. This study examined some of the many facets of Singaporean Chinese preschoolers’ HLE, and further discussed how these facets are related to children’s Chinese language proficiency in oral and written forms. Three hundred and seventy-six Singaporean Chinese six-year olds completed Chinese oral and written language proficiency screening. Their parents completed a HLE survey. The findings revealed the possible trend of home language shift from Mandarin Chinese to English in the younger generation. Aside from home language use factors, the importance of other facets that form a rich language environment is also highlighted for children's language development.

  10. Imaging in oral cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arya, Supreeta; Chaukar, Devendra; Pai, Prathamesh

    2012-01-01

    Oral cavity squamous cell cancers form a significant percentage of the cancers seen in India. While clinical examination allows direct visualization, it cannot evaluate deep extension of disease. Cross-sectional imaging has become the cornerstone in the pretreatment evaluation of these cancers and provides accurate information about the extent and depth of disease that can help decide the appropriate management strategy and indicate prognosis. Early cancers are treated with a single modality, either surgery or radiotherapy while advanced cancers are offered a combination of surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Imaging can decide resectability, help plan the precise extent of resection, and indicate whether organ conservation therapy should be offered. Quality of life issues necessitate preservation of form and function and pretreatment imaging helps plan appropriate reconstruction and counsel patients regarding lifestyle changes. Oral cavity has several subsites and the focus of the review is squamous cancers of the gingivobuccal region, oral tongue and retromolar trigone as these are most frequently encountered in the subcontinent. References for this review were identified by searching Medline and PubMed databases. Only articles published in English language literature were selected. This review aims to familiarize the radiologist with the relevant anatomy of the oral cavity, discuss the specific issues that influence prognosis and management at the above subsites, the optimal imaging methods, the role of imaging in accurately staging these cancers and in influencing management. A checklist for reporting will emphasize the information to be conveyed by the radiologist

  11. IMPROVING SPEAKING SKILLS. AN EXAMPLE OF ENGLISH AS A FOREIGN LANGUAGE AT A UNIVERSITY IN NORTHERN FRANCE / DÉVELOPPER L’INTERACTION ORALE DANS LE SECTEUR LANSAD. UN EXEMPLE EN ANGLAIS À L’UNIVERSITÉ DU LITTORAL CÔTE D’OPALE / ÎMBUNĂTĂŢIREA ABILITĂŢILOR DE COMUNICARE ÎN ENGLEZĂ LA O UNIVERSITATE FRANCEZĂ DIN NORDUL ŢĂRII - UNIVERSITÉ DU LITTORAL CÔTE D’OPALE (SECTORUL LASAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie, Dufossé Sournin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This practice report focuses on the development of oral interactions in EFL classes at Dunkirk University. Its aim is to show how role-plays in English used as social games can become part of a broader teaching and pre-professional scheme involving a task-based process recommended by the CEFRL (Common Framework of Reference for languages.

  12. Dynamical Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Huimin

    The following sections are included: * Definition of Dynamical Languages * Distinct Excluded Blocks * Definition and Properties * L and L″ in Chomsky Hierarchy * A Natural Equivalence Relation * Symbolic Flows * Symbolic Flows and Dynamical Languages * Subshifts of Finite Type * Sofic Systems * Graphs and Dynamical Languages * Graphs and Shannon-Graphs * Transitive Languages * Topological Entropy

  13. Oral leukoplakia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmstrup, Palle; Dabelsteen, Erik

    2016-01-01

    The idea of identifying oral lesions with a precancerous nature, i.e. in the sense of pertaining to a pathologic process with an increased risk for future malignant development, of course is to prevent frank malignancy to occur in the affected area. The most common oral lesion with a precancerous...... nature is oral leukoplakia, and for decades it has been discussed how to treat these lesions. Various treatment modalities, such as systemic therapies and surgical removal, have been suggested. The systemic therapies tested so far include retinoids, extracts of green tea, inhibitors of cyclooxygenase-2...

  14. An oral hygiene protocol improves oral health for patients in inpatient stroke rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Joanne; Scholten, Ingrid

    2018-03-01

    To determine whether a simple oral hygiene protocol improves the oral health of inpatients in stroke rehabilitation. Poor oral health can lead to serious complications, such as pneumonia. The comorbidities associated with stroke, such as dysphagia, hemiparesis and cognitive impairment, can further impede independent oral care. International stroke guidelines recommend routine oral care but stop short of detailing specific regimes. The oral health assessment tool (OHAT) was conducted by speech-language pathologists with 100 patients with and without dysphagia in three metropolitan inpatient stroke rehabilitation facilities. A simple nurse-led oral hygiene regime was then implemented with all participants, which included twice daily tooth brushing and mouth rinsing after lunch, and oral health was measured again one week later. Initially, dysphagia was negatively associated with OHAT scores, and independence for oral hygiene was positively associated with oral health. After one week of a simple oral hygiene regime, the OHAT scores available for 89 participants indicated an improvement on average for all participants. In particular, 59% of participants with dysphagia had an improvement of 1 or more points. None of the participants developed pneumonia. A simple, inexpensive oral hygiene regime resulted in positive outcomes for patients with and without dysphagia in inpatient stroke rehabilitation settings. Oral health assessments and oral hygiene regimes that are simple to implement by the interdisciplinary team can be incorporated into standard stroke care with positive effect. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S and The Gerodontology Association. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Language and Social Factors in the Use of Cell Phone Technology by Adolescents with and without Specific Language Impairment (SLI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti-Ramsden, Gina; Durkin, Kevin; Simkin, Zoe

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This study aimed to compare cell phone use (both oral and text-based) by adolescents with and without specific language impairment (SLI) and examine the extent to which language and social factors affect frequency of use. Method: Both interview and diary methods were used to compare oral and text-based communication using cell phones by…

  16. [Oral health in pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blagojević, Duska; Brkanić, Tatjana; Stojić, Sinisa

    2002-01-01

    Good oral health care during pregnancy is essential but often overlooked factor of dental growth as well as of other structures of oral cavity. Pregnancy is the time when conscious approach to preventive oral care should increase. Preventive measures during pregnancy mean usage of fluorides, special dietary measures and increased oral hygiene habits. Preventive measures in pregnant women have one goal: providing conditions for development of fetal teeth as well as preventing tooth decay in pregnant women. The optimal period for introducing preventive measures is the first trimester of pregnancy. Because of hormonal alterations there is an increased incidence of dental diseases: gingivitis and low salivary pH (inflammation and bleeding gums). Eating habits of pregnant women may lead to frequent snacking on candy or other decay-promoting foods, thereby increasing the risk of caries. However, very poor oral health, possible dental complications and their consequences to the health as well as emotional status represent very strong reasons for activation of dental health care in this period.

  17. "L'Atelier d'expression orale" (The Oral Expression Workshop).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabensky, Alexis; Mesana, Corinne

    1990-01-01

    An extracurricular program in an Australian university French language program that brings together adults of varying ages and nationalities for oral language development activities is described. The program uses improvisation, psychodrama and role playing, and suggestopedia all together to develop a theme or in alternation, for creativity and…

  18. Oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerson, S J

    1990-01-01

    In the U.S. oral cancer accounts for 2.1% of all cancers and 1% of cancer deaths. Two to three times as many males as females are affected. Blacks have more intra-oral cancer than whites, and their incidence and mortality rates have increased in recent years. The etiologic process very likely involves several factors. The major etiologic agents are tobacco (all types) and alcoholic beverages. Herpes simplex virus, human papilloma virus, and Candida have been implicated. Host factors include poor state of dentition, nutritional aberrations, cirrhosis of liver, lichen planus, and immunologic impairmant. Cellular changes include amplification of some oncogenes, alterations in antigen expression, production of gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, and disturbance of keratin and involucrin production. Experimentally, cancer is readily produced on the hamster cheek pouch and rat oral mucosa. Unlike oral cancer in humans, most experimental lesions are exophytic, and they rarely metastasize.

  19. Abortion: Strong's counterexamples fail

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Nucci, Ezio

    2009-01-01

    This paper shows that the counterexamples proposed by Strong in 2008 in the Journal of Medical Ethics to Marquis's argument against abortion fail. Strong's basic idea is that there are cases--for example, terminally ill patients--where killing an adult human being is prima facie seriously morally...

  20. Strong Langmuir turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldman, M.V.

    1984-01-01

    After a brief discussion of beam-excited Langmuir turbulence in the solar wind, we explain the criteria for wave-particle, three-wave and strong turbulence interactions. We then present the results of a numerical integration of the Zakharov equations, which describe the strong turbulence saturation of a weak (low-density) high energy, bump-on-tail beam instability. (author)

  1. Teacher Scaffolding of Oral Language Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, May G.

    2011-01-01

    This research involved two observational studies. It explored the scaffolding processes as part of classroom pedagogy. The research shed light on the way a teacher's instructional methodology took shape in the classroom. The target event for this study was the time in which a novice learner was engaged publicly in uttering a sentence in Arabic in…

  2. Oral sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-04-05

    The Gay and Lesbian Medical Association urges HIV prevention specialists to regard male-to-male oral-genital sex as a low-risk activity and concentrate instead on the danger of unprotected anal intercourse. According to the association, the confusion and mixed messages surrounding oral sex are harming efforts to encourage gay men to make rational choices about truly risky behavior. The recommendations appear in the association's position paper issued March 19, 1996.

  3. Oral Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... decrease the risk of oral cavity and oropharyngeal cancer. Oral cavity, pharyngeal, and laryngeal cancer are diseases in ... and treatment of oral cavity, pharyngeal, and laryngeal cancer: Oral Cavity and Oropharyngeal Cancer Prevention Lip and Oral ...

  4. Modelling language

    CERN Document Server

    Cardey, Sylviane

    2013-01-01

    In response to the need for reliable results from natural language processing, this book presents an original way of decomposing a language(s) in a microscopic manner by means of intra/inter‑language norms and divergences, going progressively from languages as systems to the linguistic, mathematical and computational models, which being based on a constructive approach are inherently traceable. Languages are described with their elements aggregating or repelling each other to form viable interrelated micro‑systems. The abstract model, which contrary to the current state of the art works in int

  5. The Efficacy of Early Language Intervention in Mainstream School Settings: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fricke, Silke; Burgoyne, Kelly; Bowyer-Crane, Claudine; Kyriacou, Maria; Zosimidou, Alexandra; Maxwell, Liam; Lervåg, Arne; Snowling, Margaret J.; Hulme, Charles

    2017-01-01

    Background: Oral language skills are a critical foundation for literacy and more generally for educational success. The current study shows that oral language skills can be improved by providing suitable additional help to children with language difficulties in the early stages of formal education. Methods: We conducted a randomized controlled…

  6. Associations between Preschool Language and First Grade Reading Outcomes in Bilingual Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davison, Megan Dunn; Hammer, Carol; Lawrence, Frank R.

    2011-01-01

    It is well established that monolingual preschoolers' oral language development (vocabulary and oral comprehension) contributes to their later reading abilities; however, less is known about this relationship in bilingual populations where children are developing knowledge of two languages. It may be that children's abilities in one language do…

  7. Designing Surveys for Language Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, James Dean

    A discussion of survey methodology for investigating second language programs and instruction examines two methods: oral interviews and written questionnaires. Each method is defined, and variations are explored. For interviews, this includes individual, group, and telephone interviews. For questionnaires, this includes self-administered and…

  8. Strong intrinsic motivation

    OpenAIRE

    Dessi, Roberta; Rustichini, Aldo

    2015-01-01

    A large literature in psychology, and more recently in economics, has argued that monetary rewards can reduce intrinsic motivation. We investigate whether the negative impact persists when intrinsic motivation is strong, and test this hypothesis experimentally focusing on the motivation to undertake interesting and challenging tasks, informative about individual ability. We find that this type of task can generate strong intrinsic motivation, that is impervious to the effect of monetary incen...

  9. Bitcoin Meets Strong Consistency

    OpenAIRE

    Decker, Christian; Seidel, Jochen; Wattenhofer, Roger

    2014-01-01

    The Bitcoin system only provides eventual consistency. For everyday life, the time to confirm a Bitcoin transaction is prohibitively slow. In this paper we propose a new system, built on the Bitcoin blockchain, which enables strong consistency. Our system, PeerCensus, acts as a certification authority, manages peer identities in a peer-to-peer network, and ultimately enhances Bitcoin and similar systems with strong consistency. Our extensive analysis shows that PeerCensus is in a secure state...

  10. Strong gravity and supersymmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chamseddine, Ali H.; Salam, A.; Strathdee, J.

    1977-11-01

    A supersymmetric theory is constructed for a strong f plus a weak g graviton, together with their accompanying massive gravitinos, by gaugin the gradel 0Sp(2,2,1)x 0Sp(2,2,1) structure. The mixing term between f and g fields, which makes the strong graviton massive, can be introduced through a spontaneous symmetry-breaking mechanism implemented in this note by constructing a non-linear realization of the symmetry group

  11. Role of oral microbiome on oral cancers, a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholizadeh, Pourya; Eslami, Hosein; Yousefi, Mehdi; Asgharzadeh, Mohammad; Aghazadeh, Mohammad; Kafil, Hossein Samadi

    2016-12-01

    The oral cavity is inhibited by many of the bacterial species. Some of them have a key role in the development of oral disease. Interrelationships between oral microbiome and systemic conditions such as head-and-neck cancer have become increasingly appreciated in recent years. Emerging evidence also suggests a link between periodontal disease and oral cancer, and the explanation being that chronic inflammation could be a major factor in both diseases. Squamous cell carcinoma is that the most frequently occurring malignancy of the oral cavity and adjacent sites, representing over 90% of all cancers. The incidence of oral cancer is increasing, significantly among young people and women. Worldwide there are 350,000-400,000 new cases diagnosed every year. Bacteria, viruses, and fungi are strongly implicated as etiological factors in certain cancers. In this review we will discuss the association between the development of oral cancer in potentially malignant oral lesions with chronic periodontitis, chronic Porphyromonas gingivalis, Fusobacterium nucleatum, candida, other microbes and described mechanisms which may be involved in these carcinoma. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Sign Language and Spoken Language for Children With Hearing Loss: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Elizabeth M; Hamel, Candyce; Stevens, Adrienne; Pratt, Misty; Moher, David; Doucet, Suzanne P; Neuss, Deirdre; Bernstein, Anita; Na, Eunjung

    2016-01-01

    Permanent hearing loss affects 1 to 3 per 1000 children and interferes with typical communication development. Early detection through newborn hearing screening and hearing technology provide most children with the option of spoken language acquisition. However, no consensus exists on optimal interventions for spoken language development. To conduct a systematic review of the effectiveness of early sign and oral language intervention compared with oral language intervention only for children with permanent hearing loss. An a priori protocol was developed. Electronic databases (eg, Medline, Embase, CINAHL) from 1995 to June 2013 and gray literature sources were searched. Studies in English and French were included. Two reviewers screened potentially relevant articles. Outcomes of interest were measures of auditory, vocabulary, language, and speech production skills. All data collection and risk of bias assessments were completed and then verified by a second person. Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) was used to judge the strength of evidence. Eleven cohort studies met inclusion criteria, of which 8 included only children with severe to profound hearing loss with cochlear implants. Language development was the most frequently reported outcome. Other reported outcomes included speech and speech perception. Several measures and metrics were reported across studies, and descriptions of interventions were sometimes unclear. Very limited, and hence insufficient, high-quality evidence exists to determine whether sign language in combination with oral language is more effective than oral language therapy alone. More research is needed to supplement the evidence base. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  13. Transcranial magnetic stimulation: language function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, C M

    1998-07-01

    Studies of language using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) have focused both on identification of language areas and on elucidation of function. TMS may result in either inhibition or facilitation of language processes and may operate directly at a presumptive site of language cortex or indirectly through intracortical networks. TMS has been used to create reversible "temporary lesions," similar to those produced by Wada tests and direct cortical electrical stimulation, in cerebral cortical areas subserving language function. Rapid-rate TMS over the left inferior frontal region blocks speech output in most subjects. However, the results are not those predicted from classic models of language organization. Speech arrest is obtained most easily over facial motor cortex, and true aphasia is rare, whereas right hemisphere or bilateral lateralization is unexpectedly prominent. A clinical role for these techniques is not yet fully established. Interfering with language comprehension and verbal memory is currently more difficult than blocking speech output, but numerous TMS studies have demonstrated facilitation of language-related tasks, including oral word association, story recall, digit span, and picture naming. Conversely, speech output also facilitates motor responses to TMS in the dominant hemisphere. Such new and often-unexpected findings may provide important insights into the organization of language.

  14. Endangered Languages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Ken; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Endangered languages, or languages on the verge of becoming extinct, are discussed in relation to the larger process of loss of cultural and intellectual diversity. This article summarizes essays presented at the 1991 Linguistic Society of America symposium, "Endangered Languages and Their Preservation." (11 references) (LB)

  15. [Drug-induced oral ulcerations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madinier, I; Berry, N; Chichmanian, R M

    2000-06-01

    Different side effects of drugs have been described in the oral cavity, including oral ulcerations. Direct contact between drugs and oral mucosa may induce chemical burn or local hypersensitivity. Less frequently, these drug-induced oral ulcerations are part of a complex reaction with cutaneous or systemic manifestations. Sometimes, one or more oral ulcerations appear as the main side-effect of a drug, or exceptionally as solitary lesions. Solitary oral ulcerations usually appear after few weeks of treatment. In most of cases, these lesions resist to conventional treatments, with a rapid healing following the suppression of the responsible drug. This diagnosis is usually difficult, particularly with patients receiving multiple drug therapy. Besides, special attention must be paid to new drugs. Oral ulcerations following symptoms of burning mouth, metallic taste, dysgueusia or agueusia are strongly suggestive of a pharmacological origin. Most of the molecules able to induce solitary oral ulcerations are commonly prescribed in a) rheumatology: NSAI (diclofenac, flurbiprofen, indomethacin, naproxen), long-term rheumatoid arthritis therapy (azathioprine, methotrexate, penicillamine, gold compounds, tiopronin); b) cardiology: angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors (captopril, enalapril), angiotensin 2-receptor antagonist (losartan), anti-angorous (nicorandil), c) psychiatry: antidepressants (fluoxetine, lithium), d) AIDS therapy (foscarnet, zalcitabine).

  16. Specialized Language Activities: A Description of the First Year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxford Hills High School, South Paris, ME.

    The Specialized Language Activities Program (ESEA Title 3 Project) to motivate students to improve their oral language was conducted in an essentially rural section of Maine with an experimental group and a control group of 80 ninth-grade students with an I.Q. range of 85-100 and poor language usage. Sixty-seven percent of them had repeated at…

  17. Oral candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millsop, Jillian W; Fazel, Nasim

    2016-01-01

    Oral candidiasis (OC) is a common fungal disease encountered in dermatology, most commonly caused by an overgrowth of Candida albicans in the mouth. Although thrush is a well-recognized presentation of OC, it behooves clinicians to be aware of the many other presentations of this disease and how to accurately diagnose and manage these cases. The clinical presentations of OC can be broadly classified as white or erythematous candidiasis, with various subtypes in each category. The treatments include appropriate oral hygiene, topical agents, and systemic medications. This review focuses on the various clinical presentations of OC and treatment options. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Oral myiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Treville Pereira

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Myiasis is a relatively rare condition arising from the invasion of body tissues or cavities of living animals or humans by maggots or larvae of certain species of flies. It is an uncommon clinical condition, being more frequent in underdeveloped countries and hot climate regions, and is associated with poor hygiene, suppurative oral lesions; alcoholism and senility. Its diagnosis is made basically by the presence of larvae. The present article reports a case of oral myiasis involving 20 larvae in a patient with neurological deficiency.

  19. Language of Instruction as a Moderator for Transfer of Reading Comprehension Skills among Spanish-Speaking English Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlo, María S.; Barr, Christopher D.; August, Diane; Calderón, Margarita; Artzi, Lauren

    2014-01-01

    This three-year longitudinal study investigated the role of language of instruction in moderating the relationships between initial levels of English oral language proficiency and Spanish reading comprehension and growth in English reading comprehension. The study followed Spanish-speaking English language learners in English-only literacy…

  20. Language Acquisition and Language Revitalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Grady, William; Hattori, Ryoko

    2016-01-01

    Intergenerational transmission, the ultimate goal of language revitalization efforts, can only be achieved by (re)establishing the conditions under which an imperiled language can be acquired by the community's children. This paper presents a tutorial survey of several key points relating to language acquisition and maintenance in children,…

  1. L’ITALIANO DELLE GUIDE TURISTICHE: UNO STUDIO DELLA LINGUA ORALE DEL TURISMO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Mauri

    2014-07-01

    oral discourse of tour guides and the outcome of mediation between specialized and common language. In the second part of the analysis, the oral language used by tourist guides is introduced and developed from a corpus consisting of eighteen transcriptions of recordings of guided tours in Italian, conducted by foreign tourist guides abroad. The study carried out shows that the language choices of the professional depends on the needs and characteristics of recipients: with a tourist who wants to “see”, “know” and “identify” what in the space is being talked about, the guide responds with an extensive use of the verb “chiamarsi” (to be called and components of grammar and vocabulary (verbs, adverbs and prepositions, demonstrative adjectives with strong locative value. 

  2. A Cross-Linguistic Study of the Development of Gesture and Speech in Zulu and French Oral Narratives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolas, Ramona Kunene; Guidetti, Michele; Colletta, Jean-Marc

    2017-01-01

    The present study reports on a developmental and cross-linguistic study of oral narratives produced by speakers of Zulu (a Bantu language) and French (a Romance language). Specifically, we focus on oral narrative performance as a bimodal (i.e., linguistic and gestural) behaviour during the late language acquisition phase. We analyzed seventy-two…

  3. Comparisons of IQ in Children With and Without Cochlear Implants: Longitudinal Findings and Associations With Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cejas, Ivette; Mitchell, Christine M; Hoffman, Michael; Quittner, Alexandra L

    2018-04-05

    To make longitudinal comparisons of intelligence quotient (IQ) in children with cochlear implants (CIs) and typical hearing peers from early in development to the school-age period. Children with additional comorbidities and CIs were also evaluated. To estimate the impact of socioeconomic status and oral language on school-age cognitive performance. This longitudinal study evaluated nonverbal IQ in a multicenter, national sample of 147 children with CIs and 75 typically hearing peers. IQ was evaluated at baseline, prior to cochlear implantation, using the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development and the Leiter International Performance Scale. School-age IQ was assessed using the Wechsler Intelligence Scales for Children. For the current study, only the Perceptual Reasoning and Processing Speed indices were administered. Oral language was evaluated using the Comprehensive Assessment of Spoken Language. Children in the CI group scored within the normal range of intelligence at both time points. However, children with additional comorbidities scored significantly worse on the Processing Speed, but not the Perceptual Reasoning Index. Maternal education and language were significantly related to school-age IQ in both groups. Importantly, language was the strongest predictor of intellectual functioning in both children with CIs and normal hearing. These results suggest that children using cochlear implants perform similarly to hearing peers on measures of intelligence, but those with severe comorbidities are at-risk for cognitive deficits. Despite the strong link between socioeconomic status and intelligence, this association was no longer significant once spoken language performance was accounted for. These results reveal the important contributions that early intervention programs, which emphasize language and parent training, contribute to cognitive functioning in school-age children with CIs. For families from economically disadvantaged backgrounds, who are at

  4. Strongly interacting Fermi gases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakr W.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Strongly interacting gases of ultracold fermions have become an amazingly rich test-bed for many-body theories of fermionic matter. Here we present our recent experiments on these systems. Firstly, we discuss high-precision measurements on the thermodynamics of a strongly interacting Fermi gas across the superfluid transition. The onset of superfluidity is directly observed in the compressibility, the chemical potential, the entropy, and the heat capacity. Our measurements provide benchmarks for current many-body theories on strongly interacting fermions. Secondly, we have studied the evolution of fermion pairing from three to two dimensions in these gases, relating to the physics of layered superconductors. In the presence of p-wave interactions, Fermi gases are predicted to display toplogical superfluidity carrying Majorana edge states. Two possible avenues in this direction are discussed, our creation and direct observation of spin-orbit coupling in Fermi gases and the creation of fermionic molecules of 23Na 40K that will feature strong dipolar interactions in their absolute ground state.

  5. A strong comeback

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marier, D.

    1992-01-01

    This article presents the results of a financial rankings survey which show a strong economic activity in the independent energy industry. The topics of the article include advisor turnover, overseas banks, and the increase in public offerings. The article identifies the top project finance investors for new projects and restructurings and rankings for lenders

  6. Oral calcitonin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamdy RC

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Ronald C Hamdy,1,2 Dane N Daley11Osteoporosis Center, College of Medicine, East Tennessee State University, 2Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Johnson City, TN, USAAbstract: Calcitonin is a hormone secreted by the C-cells of the thyroid gland in response to elevations of the plasma calcium level. It reduces bone resorption by inhibiting mature active osteoclasts and increases renal calcium excretion. It is used in the management of postmenopausal osteoporosis, Paget's disease of bone, and malignancy-associated hypercalcemia. Synthetic and recombinant calcitonin preparations are available; both have similar pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profiles. As calcitonin is a peptide, the traditional method of administration has been parenteral or intranasal. This hinders its clinical use: adherence with therapy is notoriously low, and withdrawal from clinical trials has been problematic. An oral formulation would be more attractive, practical, and convenient to patients. In addition to its effect on active osteoclasts and renal tubules, calcitonin has an analgesic action, possibly mediated through β-endorphins and the central modulation of pain perception. It also exerts a protective action on cartilage and may be useful in the management of osteoarthritis and possibly rheumatoid arthritis. Oral formulations of calcitonin have been developed using different techniques. The most studied involves drug-delivery carriers such as Eligen® 8-(N-2hydroxy-5-chloro-benzoyl-amino-caprylic acid (5-CNAC (Emisphere Technologies, Cedar Knolls, NJ. Several factors affect the bioavailability and efficacy of orally administered calcitonin, including amount of water used to take the tablet, time of day the tablet is taken, and proximity to intake of a meal. Preliminary results looked promising. Unfortunately, in two Phase III studies, oral calcitonin (0.8 mg with 200 mg 5-CNAC, once a day for postmenopausal osteoporosis and twice a day for osteoarthritis failed to

  7. Oral care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitz Lindenmüller, Irène; Lambrecht, J Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Adequate dental and oral hygiene may become a challenge for all users and especially for elderly people and young children because of their limited motor skills. The same holds true for patients undergoing/recovering from chemo-/radiotherapy with accompanying sensitive mucosal conditions. Poor dental hygiene can result in tooth decay, gingivitis, periodontitis, tooth loss, bad breath (halitosis), fungal infection and gum diseases. The use of a toothbrush is the most important measure for oral hygiene. Toothbrushes with soft bristles operated carefully by hand or via an electric device help to remove plaque and to avoid mucosal trauma. A handlebar with a grip cover can be helpful for manually disabled patients or for those with reduced motor skills. In case of oral hygiene at the bedside or of patients during/after chemo-/radiotherapy a gauze pad can be helpful for gently cleaning the teeth, gums and tongue. The use of fluoride toothpaste is imperative for the daily oral hygiene. Detergents such as sodium lauryl sulphate improve the cleaning action but may also dehydrate and irritate the mucous membrane. The use of products containing detergents and flavouring agents (peppermint, menthol, cinnamon) should therefore be avoided by bedridden patients or those with dry mouth and sensitive mucosa. Aids for suitable interdental cleaning, such as dental floss, interdental brushes or dental sticks, are often complicated to operate. Their correct use should be instructed by healthcare professionals. To support dental care, additional fluoridation with a fluoride gel or rinse can be useful. Products further containing antiseptics such as chlorhexidine or triclosan reduce the quantity of bacteria in the mouth. For patients undergoing or having undergone radio-/chemotherapy, a mouthwash that concomitantly moisturizes the oral mucosa is advisable. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. The cognitive functions of language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carruthers, Peter

    2002-12-01

    This paper explores a variety of different versions of the thesis that natural language is involved in human thinking. It distinguishes amongst strong and weak forms of this thesis, dismissing some as implausibly strong and others as uninterestingly weak. Strong forms dismissed include the view that language is conceptually necessary for thought (endorsed by many philosophers) and the view that language is de facto the medium of all human conceptual thinking (endorsed by many philosophers and social scientists). Weak forms include the view that language is necessary for the acquisition of many human concepts and the view that language can serve to scaffold human thought processes. The paper also discusses the thesis that language may be the medium of conscious propositional thinking, but argues that this cannot be its most fundamental cognitive role. The idea is then proposed that natural language is the medium for nondomain-specific thinking, serving to integrate the outputs of a variety of domain-specific conceptual faculties (or central-cognitive "quasimodules"). Recent experimental evidence in support of this idea is reviewed and the implications of the idea are discussed, especially for our conception of the architecture of human cognition. Finally, some further kinds of evidence which might serve to corroborate or refute the hypothesis are mentioned. The overall goal of the paper is to review a wide variety of accounts of the cognitive function of natural language, integrating a number of different kinds of evidence and theoretical consideration in order to propose and elaborate the most plausible candidate.

  9. Skype Videoconferencing for Less Commonly Taught Languages: Examining the Effects on Students' Foreign Language Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terantino, Joe

    2014-01-01

    This study compared students' foreign language anxiety levels while completing oral assessments administered face-to-face (F2F) and via Skype videoconferencing for university courses delivered under the self-instructional language program (SILP) model (Dunkel, Brill, & Kohl, 2002). Data were gathered by administering a modified Foreign…

  10. A dialética da linguagem oral e escrita no desenvolvimento das funções psíquicas superiores La dialéctica del lenguaje oral y escrito en el desarrollo de las funciones psíquicas superiores The dialectics of oral and written language in the development of higher psychological functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Henrique de Souza Gerken

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste texto é examinar as contribuições de Vygotsky e Luria relativas à construção dos processos psíquicos superiores, porquanto estamos certos de que seus conceitos apresentam uma riqueza heurística a ser incorporada nas análises dos processos de escolarização e apropriação da escrita. Essa reflexão teve origem em trabalhos de pesquisa sobre esses processos e suas conseqüências sociais, culturais e cognitivas. As pesquisas desenvolvidas há aproximadamente 20 anos suscitaram problemas teóricos e metodológicos, dentre os quais se destaca a compreensão dos processos por meio dos quais sujeitos pertencentes a culturas tradicionalmente orais constroem referências sobre a cultura escrita, situando-se ainda como sujeitos de sua própria história. O confronto de princípios teóricos e metodológicos disponíveis no campo da psicologia e da antropologia tem sido fundamental nessa busca, acentuando a necessidade de superação das antinomias clássicas na psicologia: indivíduo e cultura, concreto e abstrato.El objetivo de este texto es examinar las contribuciones de Vygotsky y Luria sobre la construcción de formaciones psíquicas superiores, ya que sus conceptos presentan una riqueza heurística que debe ser incorporada en los análisis de los procesos de escolarización y apropiación de la escritura. Esa reflexión se origina a partir de trabajos investigativos sobre eses procesos y sus consecuencias sociales, culturales y cognitivas. Las investigaciones suscitaron problemas teóricos y metodológicos, como la comprensión de los procesos a través de los cuales los sujetos pertenecientes a culturas tradicionalmente orales construyen referencias sobre la cultura escrita, considerándose de esta manera como sujetos de su propia historia. La confrontación de los principios teóricos y metodológicos disponibles en el campo de la Psicología y la Antropología ha sido fundamental en esa búsqueda, destacando la

  11. Neural Language Processing in Adolescent First-Language Learners: Longitudinal Case Studies in American Sign Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferjan Ramirez, Naja; Leonard, Matthew K; Davenport, Tristan S; Torres, Christina; Halgren, Eric; Mayberry, Rachel I

    2016-03-01

    One key question in neurolinguistics is the extent to which the neural processing system for language requires linguistic experience during early life to develop fully. We conducted a longitudinal anatomically constrained magnetoencephalography (aMEG) analysis of lexico-semantic processing in 2 deaf adolescents who had no sustained language input until 14 years of age, when they became fully immersed in American Sign Language. After 2 to 3 years of language, the adolescents' neural responses to signed words were highly atypical, localizing mainly to right dorsal frontoparietal regions and often responding more strongly to semantically primed words (Ferjan Ramirez N, Leonard MK, Torres C, Hatrak M, Halgren E, Mayberry RI. 2014. Neural language processing in adolescent first-language learners. Cereb Cortex. 24 (10): 2772-2783). Here, we show that after an additional 15 months of language experience, the adolescents' neural responses remained atypical in terms of polarity. While their responses to less familiar signed words still showed atypical localization patterns, the localization of responses to highly familiar signed words became more concentrated in the left perisylvian language network. Our findings suggest that the timing of language experience affects the organization of neural language processing; however, even in adolescence, language representation in the human brain continues to evolve with experience. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Oral Health and Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Oral Health and Aging Oral Health and Aging Past Issues / Summer 2016 Table of Contents Jerrold ... they may need. Read More "Oral Health and Aging" Articles Oral Health and Aging / 4 Myths About ...

  13. Strong Electroweak Symmetry Breaking

    CERN Document Server

    Grinstein, Benjamin

    2011-01-01

    Models of spontaneous breaking of electroweak symmetry by a strong interaction do not have fine tuning/hierarchy problem. They are conceptually elegant and use the only mechanism of spontaneous breaking of a gauge symmetry that is known to occur in nature. The simplest model, minimal technicolor with extended technicolor interactions, is appealing because one can calculate by scaling up from QCD. But it is ruled out on many counts: inappropriately low quark and lepton masses (or excessive FCNC), bad electroweak data fits, light scalar and vector states, etc. However, nature may not choose the minimal model and then we are stuck: except possibly through lattice simulations, we are unable to compute and test the models. In the LHC era it therefore makes sense to abandon specific models (of strong EW breaking) and concentrate on generic features that may indicate discovery. The Technicolor Straw Man is not a model but a parametrized search strategy inspired by a remarkable generic feature of walking technicolor,...

  14. Development of a test and flight engineering oriented language. Phase 3: Presentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamsler, W. F.; Case, C. W.; Kinney, E. L.; Gyure, J.

    1970-01-01

    The format material used in an oral presentation of the phase 3 study effort is given. The material includes a description of the language ALOFT and a terminology comparison with other test languages.

  15. Plasmons in strong superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldo, M.; Ducoin, C.

    2011-01-01

    We present a study of the possible plasmon excitations that can occur in systems where strong superconductivity is present. In these systems the plasmon energy is comparable to or smaller than the pairing gap. As a prototype of these systems we consider the proton component of Neutron Star matter just below the crust when electron screening is not taken into account. For the realistic case we consider in detail the different aspects of the elementary excitations when the proton, electron components are considered within the Random-Phase Approximation generalized to the superfluid case, while the influence of the neutron component is considered only at qualitative level. Electron screening plays a major role in modifying the proton spectrum and spectral function. At the same time the electron plasmon is strongly modified and damped by the indirect coupling with the superfluid proton component, even at moderately low values of the gap. The excitation spectrum shows the interplay of the different components and their relevance for each excitation modes. The results are relevant for neutrino physics and thermodynamical processes in neutron stars. If electron screening is neglected, the spectral properties of the proton component show some resemblance with the physical situation in high-T c superconductors, and we briefly discuss similarities and differences in this connection. In a general prospect, the results of the study emphasize the role of Coulomb interaction in strong superconductors.

  16. Foreign language interactive didactics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaldo Moisés Gómez

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Foreign Language Interactive Didactics is intended for foreign language teachers and would-be teachers since it is an interpretation of the foreign language teaching-learning process is conceived from a reflexive social interaction. This interpretation declares learning based on interactive tasks that provide learners with opportunities to interact meaningfully among them, as a way to develop interactional competence as objective in itself and as a means to obtain communicative competence. Foreign language interactive didactics claims for the unity of reflection and action while learning the language system and using it to communicate, by means of solving problems presented in interactive tasks. It proposes a kind of teaching that is interactive, developmental, collaborative, holist, cognitive, problematizing, reflexive, student centered, humanist, and with a strong affective component that empower the influencing psychological factors in learning. This conception appears in the book: DIDÁCTICA INTERACTIVA DE LENGUAS (2007 y 2010. The book is used as a textbook for the subject of Didactics that is part of the curriculum in language teachers’ formation of all the pedagogical sciences universities, in Spanish teachers’ formation who are not Spanish speaking people at Havana University, and also as a reference book for postgraduate courses, master’s and doctorate’ s degrees.

  17. Complexity in language acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Alexander; Lappin, Shalom

    2013-01-01

    Learning theory has frequently been applied to language acquisition, but discussion has largely focused on information theoretic problems-in particular on the absence of direct negative evidence. Such arguments typically neglect the probabilistic nature of cognition and learning in general. We argue first that these arguments, and analyses based on them, suffer from a major flaw: they systematically conflate the hypothesis class and the learnable concept class. As a result, they do not allow one to draw significant conclusions about the learner. Second, we claim that the real problem for language learning is the computational complexity of constructing a hypothesis from input data. Studying this problem allows for a more direct approach to the object of study--the language acquisition device-rather than the learnable class of languages, which is epiphenomenal and possibly hard to characterize. The learnability results informed by complexity studies are much more insightful. They strongly suggest that target grammars need to be objective, in the sense that the primitive elements of these grammars are based on objectively definable properties of the language itself. These considerations support the view that language acquisition proceeds primarily through data-driven learning of some form. Copyright © 2013 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  18. Language and the origin of numerical concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelman, Rochel; Gallistel, C R

    2004-10-15

    Reports of research with the Pirahã and Mundurukú Amazonian Indians of Brazil lend themselves to discussions of the role of language in the origin of numerical concepts. The research findings indicate that, whether or not humans have an extensive counting list, they share with nonverbal animals a language-independent representation of number, with limited, scale-invariant precision. What causal role, then, does knowledge of the language of counting serve? We consider the strong Whorfian proposal, that of linguistic determinism; the weak Whorfian hypothesis, that language influences how we think; and that the "language of thought" maps to spoken language or symbol systems.

  19. Specialized languages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mousten, Birthe; Laursen, Anne Lise

    2016-01-01

    Across different fields of research, one feature is often overlooked: the use of language for specialized purposes (LSP) as a cross-discipline. Mastering cross-disciplinarity is the precondition for communicating detailed results within any field. Researchers in specialized languages work cross...... science fields communicate their findings. With this article, we want to create awareness of the work in this special area of language studies and of the inherent cross-disciplinarity that makes LSP special compared to common-core language. An acknowledgement of the importance of this field both in terms...... of more empirical studies and in terms of a greater application of the results would give language specialists in trade and industry a solid and updated basis for communication and language use....

  20. Long-term improvements in oral communication skills and quality of peer relations in children with cochlear implants: parental testimony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bat-Chava, Y; Martin, D; Imperatore, L

    2014-11-01

    Few research studies have examined longitudinal improvements in oral communication skills and quality of peer relationships of children with implants. Moreover, although the emerging literature suggests that improvement in social functioning follows improvement in oral communication, it is still unknown what factors enhance or impede the relations between these constructs. Based on parent interviews, the current study examined the long-term improvements in speech and oral language skills and relationships with hearing peers in 19 implanted children. Results demonstrate that on average, children continue to improve in oral communication skills and quality of peer relationships even years after implantation, especially those with initial poorer skills. While oral communication ability and quality of peer relationships are strongly associated at each time point, gains in these two variables are associated only for some of the children. Other factors, including self-confidence and peer acceptance, seem to moderate this relationship. Qualitative data are presented to illustrate these relations among variables and to assist in theory building. The results highlight the need for more specific examination of various developmental periods in combination with the progress of oral communication and peer relationships among children with implants. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. The Predictive Value of Preschool Language Assessments on Academic Achievement: A 10-Year Longitudinal Study of Icelandic Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einarsdóttir, Jóhanna T; Björnsdóttir, Amalía; Símonardóttir, Ingibjörg

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between language knowledge at 5 years of age and later academic achievement throughout compulsory school in Iceland. Between 1997 and 1998, 267 Icelandic preschool children aged from 5;4 (years;months) to 5;10 were tested with the HLJÓM-2 (an Icelandic test of phonological awareness; Símonardóttir, Einarsdóttir, & Björnsdóttir, 2002) and the Icelandic version of the Test of Language Development-Primary: Second Edition (TOLD-2P; oral comprehension tasks; Símonardóttir, Guðmundsson, Skúlason, & Pétursdóttir, 1995). In 2011 these individuals, now aged 18-19 years, were contacted again. Of the original 267 participants, 221 (83%) gave permission to link their results from the preschool language assessments with their performance on national tests in 4th, 7th, and 10th grades. The results showed strong correlation between phonological awareness (as measured by the HLJÓM-2) and academic achievement (Icelandic and mathematics) in 4th, 7th, and 10th grades. There was also a significant but lower correlation with oral comprehension skills, as measured with the TOLD-2P. Regression analysis showed that the preschool oral-language assessments in phonological awareness and oral comprehension explained between 35% and 43% of variability in scores on national tests in Icelandic and between 20% and 39% of variability in scores in mathematics. Preschool language knowledge is a reliable predictor of later academic achievement.

  2. Impact of Hydrodynamics on Oral Biofilm Strength

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paramonova, E.; Kalmykowa, O. J.; van der Mei, H. C.; Busscher, H. J.; Sharma, P. K.

    2009-01-01

    Mechanical removal of oral biofilms is ubiquitously accepted as the best way to prevent caries and periodontal diseases. Removal effectiveness strongly depends on biofilm strength. To investigate the influence of hydrodynamics on oral biofilm strength, we grew single- and multi-species biofilms of

  3. Learning bias, cultural evolution of language, and the biological evolution of the language faculty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kenny

    2011-04-01

    The biases of individual language learners act to determine the learnability and cultural stability of languages: learners come to the language learning task with biases which make certain linguistic systems easier to acquire than others. These biases are repeatedly applied during the process of language transmission, and consequently should effect the types of languages we see in human populations. Understanding the cultural evolutionary consequences of particular learning biases is therefore central to understanding the link between language learning in individuals and language universals, common structural properties shared by all the world’s languages. This paper reviews a range of models and experimental studies which show that weak biases in individual learners can have strong effects on the structure of socially learned systems such as language, suggesting that strong universal tendencies in language structure do not require us to postulate strong underlying biases or constraints on language learning. Furthermore, understanding the relationship between learner biases and language design has implications for theories of the evolution of those learning biases: models of gene-culture coevolution suggest that, in situations where a cultural dynamic mediates between properties of individual learners and properties of language in this way, biological evolution is unlikely to lead to the emergence of strong constraints on learning.

  4. Fuzzy Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahonis, George

    The theory of fuzzy recognizable languages over bounded distributive lattices is presented as a paradigm of recognizable formal power series. Due to the idempotency properties of bounded distributive lattices, the equality of fuzzy recognizable languages is decidable, the determinization of multi-valued automata is effective, and a pumping lemma exists. Fuzzy recognizable languages over finite and infinite words are expressively equivalent to sentences of the multi-valued monadic second-order logic. Fuzzy recognizability over bounded ℓ-monoids and residuated lattices is briefly reported. The chapter concludes with two applications of fuzzy recognizable languages to real world problems in medicine.

  5. Language Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Karen M.

    2008-01-01

    Like any other text, instructive texts function within a given cultural and situational setting and may only be available in one language. However, the end users may not be familiar with that language and therefore unable to read and understand the instructions. This article therefore argues...... that instructive texts should always be available in a language that is understood by the end users, and that a corporate communication policy which includes a language policy should ensure that this is in fact the case for all instructive texts....

  6. WHO’s oral health assessment questionnaire for adult: psychometric properties of the Arabic version

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Hossein Khoshnevisan; Ammar N. H. Albujeer; Nona Attaran; Alya Almahafdha; Abbas Taher

    2016-01-01

    Objective It has been well recognized that, oral health is more than beautiful teeth. Mouth has been considered to be the mirror of whole body, as much as a healthy mouth means healthy body. Given the epidemic status of oral diseases, monitoring the oral health status is essential for oral health promotion. The World Health Organization (WHO) have provided standard epidemiological survey methodology that requires systematic oral examination, data collection and recording system. Language barr...

  7. Using Narrative Intervention to Accelerate Canonical Story Grammar and Complex Language Growth in Culturally Diverse Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Douglas B.; Spencer, Trina D.

    2016-01-01

    Oral narratives are a commonly used, meaningful means of communication that reflects academic language. New state curriculum standards include narrative-related language expectations for young school-age children, including story grammar and complex language. This article provides a review of preschool narrative-based language intervention…

  8. Strongly intensive quantities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorenstein, M. I.; Gazdzicki, M.

    2011-01-01

    Analysis of fluctuations of hadron production properties in collisions of relativistic particles profits from use of measurable intensive quantities which are independent of system size variations. The first family of such quantities was proposed in 1992; another is introduced in this paper. Furthermore we present a proof of independence of volume fluctuations for quantities from both families within the framework of the grand canonical ensemble. These quantities are referred to as strongly intensive ones. Influence of conservation laws and resonance decays is also discussed.

  9. Strong-coupling approximations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbott, R.B.

    1984-03-01

    Standard path-integral techniques such as instanton calculations give good answers for weak-coupling problems, but become unreliable for strong-coupling. Here we consider a method of replacing the original potential by a suitably chosen harmonic oscillator potential. Physically this is motivated by the fact that potential barriers below the level of the ground-state energy of a quantum-mechanical system have little effect. Numerically, results are good, both for quantum-mechanical problems and for massive phi 4 field theory in 1 + 1 dimensions. 9 references, 6 figures

  10. Strongly disordered superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muttalib, K.A.

    1982-01-01

    We examine some universal effects of strong non-magnetic disorder on the electron-phonon and electron-electron interactions in a superconductor. In particular we explicitly take into account the effect of slow diffusion of electrons in a disordered medium by working in an exact impurity eigenstate representation. We find that the normal diffusion of electrons characterized by a constant diffusion coefficient does not lead to any significant correction to the electron-phonon or the effective electron-electron interactions in a superconductor. We then consider sufficiently strong disorder where Anderson localization of electrons becomes important and determine the effect of localization on the electron-electron interactions. We find that due to localization, the diffusion of electrons becomes anomalous in the sense that the diffusion coefficient becomes scale dependent. This results in an increase in the effective electron-electron interaction with increasing disorder. We propose that this provides a natural explanation for the unusual sensitivity of the transition temperature T/sub c/ of the high T/sub c/ superconductors (T/sub c/ > 10 0 K) to damage effects

  11. Strong Coupling Holography

    CERN Document Server

    Dvali, Gia

    2009-01-01

    We show that whenever a 4-dimensional theory with N particle species emerges as a consistent low energy description of a 3-brane embedded in an asymptotically-flat (4+d)-dimensional space, the holographic scale of high-dimensional gravity sets the strong coupling scale of the 4D theory. This connection persists in the limit in which gravity can be consistently decoupled. We demonstrate this effect for orbifold planes, as well as for the solitonic branes and string theoretic D-branes. In all cases the emergence of a 4D strong coupling scale from bulk holography is a persistent phenomenon. The effect turns out to be insensitive even to such extreme deformations of the brane action that seemingly shield 4D theory from the bulk gravity effects. A well understood example of such deformation is given by large 4D Einstein term in the 3-brane action, which is known to suppress the strength of 5D gravity at short distances and change the 5D Newton's law into the four-dimensional one. Nevertheless, we observe that the ...

  12. Increasing Language Awareness and Self-Efficacy of FL Students Using Self-Assessment and the ACTFL Proficiency Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kissling, Elizabeth M.; O'Donnell, Mary E.

    2015-01-01

    This study describes how oral language was assessed in an advanced-level college foreign language (FL) conversation course. Learners used the American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages Proficiency Guidelines to guide self-analyses of their oral production at intervals throughout the course. The intent was to provide opportunities for…

  13. The Oral Microbiome in Health and Its Implication in Oral and Systemic Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampaio-Maia, B; Caldas, I M; Pereira, M L; Pérez-Mongiovi, D; Araujo, R

    2016-01-01

    The oral microbiome can alter the balance between health and disease, locally and systemically. Within the oral cavity, bacteria, archaea, fungi, protozoa, and viruses may all be found, each having a particular role, but strongly interacting with each other and with the host, in sickness or in health. A description on how colonization occurs and how the oral microbiome dynamically evolves throughout the host's life is given. In this chapter the authors also address oral and nonoral conditions in which oral microorganisms may play a role in the etiology and progression, presenting the up-to-date knowledge on oral dysbiosis as well as the known underlying pathophysiologic mechanisms involving oral microorganisms in each condition. In oral pathology, oral microorganisms are associated with several diseases, namely dental caries, periodontal diseases, endodontic infections, and also oral cancer. In systemic diseases, nonoral infections, adverse pregnancy outcomes, cardiovascular diseases, and diabetes are among the most prevalent pathologies linked with oral cavity microorganisms. The knowledge on how colonization occurs, how oral microbiome coevolves with the host, and how oral microorganisms interact with each other may be a key factor to understand diseases etiology and progression. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Relating French Immersion Teacher Practices to Better Student Oral Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haj-Broussard, Michelle; Olson Beal, Heather K.; Boudreaux, Nicole

    2017-01-01

    This study examined seven Louisiana kindergarten immersion teachers' practices to evaluate students' oral target language production and compare the oral production elicited when different instructional practices were used over a single semester. Three rounds of three 20-minute observations in three different contexts--circle time, direct…

  15. Deriving Oral Assessment Scales across Different Tests and Rater Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalhoub-Deville, Micheline

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to derive the criteria/dimensions underlying learners' second-language oral ability scores across three tests: an oral interview, a narration, and a read-aloud. A stimulus tape of 18 speech samples was presented to 3 native speaker rater groups for evaluation. Results indicate that researchers might need to reconsider…

  16. The Benefit of Orthographic Support for Oral Vocabulary Learning in Children with Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengoni, Sylvana E.; Nash, Hannah; Hulme, Charles

    2013-01-01

    Children with Down syndrome typically have weaknesses in oral language, but it has been suggested that this domain may benefit from learning to read. Amongst oral language skills, vocabulary is a relative strength, although there is some evidence of difficulties in learning the phonological form of spoken words. This study investigated the effect…

  17. Language and Cognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fusaroli, Riccardo

    The Ph.D dissertation “Language and Cognition” addresses the way social uses of language – e.g. on the media, or in conversation – shape the way we think and act. Cognitive sciences have started focusing on embodiment and joint cognition – the way in which cognitive processes are deeply shaped...... interacting, without making place for and relying upon the external world, for its structures, its resistances and its dynamics. Cognition is thus a relational process aimed at - perceiving the regularities and affordances (possibilities for further action, perception and, more generally, cognition...... to linguistic use, but also the effects of these processes on the coordination of other cognitive processes. It involved conceptual and experimental methodologies. Chapter 2 The cognitive study of metaphors largely focuses on showing how abstract thought and language uses are strongly shaped by embodied...

  18. LIGO: The strong belief

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2016-01-01

    Twenty years of designing, building and testing a number of innovative technologies, with the strong belief that the endeavour would lead to a historic breakthrough. The Bulletin publishes an abstract of the Courier’s interview with Barry Barish, one of the founding fathers of LIGO.   The plots show the signals of gravitational waves detected by the twin LIGO observatories at Livingston, Louisiana, and Hanford, Washington. (Image: Caltech/MIT/LIGO Lab) On 11 February, the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) and Virgo collaborations published a historic paper in which they showed a gravitational signal emitted by the merger of two black holes. These results come after 20 years of hard work by a large collaboration of scientists operating the two LIGO observatories in the US. Barry Barish, Linde Professor of Physics, Emeritus at the California Institute of Technology and former Director of the Global Design Effort for the Internat...

  19. Strongly interacting Higgs bosons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appelquist, T.; Bernard, C.

    1980-01-01

    The sensitivity of present-energy weak interactions to a strongly interacting heavy-Higgs-boson sector is discussed. The gauged nonlinear sigma model, which is the limit of the linear model as the Higgs-boson mass goes to infinity, is used to organize and catalogue all possible heavy-Higgs-boson effects. As long as the SU(2)/sub L/ x SU(2)/sub R/ symmetry of the Higgs sector is preserved, these effects are found to be small, of the order of the square of the gauge coupling times logarithms (but not powers) of the Higgs-boson mass divided by the W mass. We work in the context of a simplified model with gauge group SU(2)/sub L/; the extension to SU(2)/sub L/ x U(1) is briefly discussed

  20. Researching Oral Production Skills of Young Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szpotowicz, Magdalena

    2012-01-01

    This chapter focuses on the development of young learners' ability to communicate in a foreign language. An empirical study was carried out to determine whether, after four years of learning English as a compulsory school subject, children are ready to engage in oral interaction in a semi-controlled task and produce answers and questions in…

  1. Oral Assessment Kit, Levels II & III. Draft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrelo-Gonzalez, Maria; And Others

    The assessment packet includes a series of oral tests to help develop speaking as an integral part of second language instruction at levels II and III. It contains: 8 mini-tests for use at level II; 9 mini-tests for use at level III; a rating scale and score sheet masters for evaluating performance on these tests; and a collection of suggested…

  2. Developing Autonomous Learning for Oral Proficiency Using Digital Storytelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, SoHee

    2014-01-01

    Since online educational technology can support a ubiquitous language learning environment, there are many ways to develop English learners' autonomy through self-access learning. This study investigates whether English as a second language (ESL) learners can improve their oral proficiency through independent study by using online self-study…

  3. On the Importance of Cultural Factors in Oral English Studying

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiong Juan

    2016-01-01

    Language communication, in some way, is cultural communication, in order to have a better ability of communicating, students have to know and understand enough culture knowledge. This paper will analyze the relationship between language and culture, emphasize the importance of cultural factors in oral English studying.

  4. The Effectiveness of Three Reading Approaches and an Oral Language Stimulation Program with Disadvantaged Children in the Primary Grades: A Final Report After Two Years of the Cooperative Reading Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Lloyd M.; And Others

    The Cooperative Reading Project's purpose was to examine the relative effectiveness of three approaches to the teaching of beginning reading and the effectiveness of oral stimulation. This monograph reports the results of the last year of the project. The experimental reading treatments were: (1) the Initial Teaching Alphabet (ITA), (2) the Words…

  5. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Extractions and Other Oral Surgeries Extractions and Other Oral Surgeries Oral and maxillofacial surgeons surgically treat the soft ... Extractions and Other Oral Surgeries Extractions and Other Oral Surgeries Oral and maxillofacial surgeons surgically treat the soft ...

  6. GESTURE'S ROLE IN CREATING AND LEARNING LANGUAGE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldin-Meadow, Susan

    2010-09-22

    Imagine a child who has never seen or heard language. Would such a child be able to invent a language? Despite what one might guess, the answer is "yes". This chapter describes children who are congenitally deaf and cannot learn the spoken language that surrounds them. In addition, the children have not been exposed to sign language, either by their hearing parents or their oral schools. Nevertheless, the children use their hands to communicate--they gesture--and those gestures take on many of the forms and functions of language (Goldin-Meadow 2003a). The properties of language that we find in these gestures are just those properties that do not need to be handed down from generation to generation, but can be reinvented by a child de novo. They are the resilient properties of language, properties that all children, deaf or hearing, come to language-learning ready to develop. In contrast to these deaf children who are inventing language with their hands, hearing children are learning language from a linguistic model. But they too produce gestures, as do all hearing speakers (Feyereisen and de Lannoy 1991; Goldin-Meadow 2003b; Kendon 1980; McNeill 1992). Indeed, young hearing children often use gesture to communicate before they use words. Interestingly, changes in a child's gestures not only predate but also predict changes in the child's early language, suggesting that gesture may be playing a role in the language-learning process. This chapter begins with a description of the gestures the deaf child produces without speech. These gestures assume the full burden of communication and take on a language-like form--they are language. This phenomenon stands in contrast to the gestures hearing speakers produce with speech. These gestures share the burden of communication with speech and do not take on a language-like form--they are part of language.

  7. Syntactic Language Extension via an Algebra of Languages and Transformations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jacob; Brabrand, Claus

    2010-01-01

    We propose an algebra of languages and transformations as a means for extending languages syntactically. The algebra provides a layer of high-level abstractions built on top of languages (captured by context-free grammars) and transformations (captured by constructive catamorphisms). The algebra...... is self-contained in that any term of the algebra specifying a transformation can be reduced to a catamorphism, before the transformation is run. Thus, the algebra comes “for free” without sacrificing the strong safety and efficiency properties of constructive catamorphisms. The entire algebra...... as presented in the paper is implemented as the Banana Algebra Tool which may be used to syntactically extend languages in an incremental and modular fashion via algebraic composition of previously defined languages and transformations. We demonstrate and evaluate the tool via several kinds of extensions....

  8. Strong-interaction nonuniversality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkas, R.R.; Foot, R.; He, X.; Joshi, G.C.

    1989-01-01

    The universal QCD color theory is extended to an SU(3) 1 direct product SU(3) 2 direct product SU(3) 3 gauge theory, where quarks of the ith generation transform as triplets under SU(3)/sub i/ and singlets under the other two factors. The usual color group is then identified with the diagonal subgroup, which remains exact after symmetry breaking. The gauge bosons associated with the 16 broken generators then form two massive octets under ordinary color. The interactions between quarks and these heavy gluonlike particles are explicitly nonuniversal and thus an exploration of their physical implications allows us to shed light on the fundamental issue of strong-interaction universality. Nonuniversality and weak flavor mixing are shown to generate heavy-gluon-induced flavor-changing neutral currents. The phenomenology of these processes is studied, as they provide the major experimental constraint on the extended theory. Three symmetry-breaking scenarios are presented. The first has color breaking occurring at the weak scale, while the second and third divorce the two scales. The third model has the interesting feature of radiatively induced off-diagonal Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix elements

  9. John Strong (1941 - 2006)

    CERN Multimedia

    Wickens, F

    Our friend and colleague John Strong was cruelly taken from us by a brain tumour on Monday 31st July, a few days before his 65th birthday John started his career working with a group from Westfield College, under the leadership of Ted Bellamy. He obtained his PhD and spent the early part of his career on experiments at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL), but after the early 1970s his research was focussed on experiments in CERN. Over the years he made a number of notable contributions to experiments in CERN: The Omega spectrometer adopted a system John had originally developed for experiments at RAL using vidicon cameras to record the sparks in the spark chambers; He contributed to the success of NA1 and NA7, where he became heavily involved in the electronic trigger systems; He was responsible for the second level trigger system for the ALEPH detector and spent five years leading a team that designed and built the system, which ran for twelve years with only minor interventions. Following ALEPH he tur...

  10. Stirring Strongly Coupled Plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Fadafan, Kazem Bitaghsir; Rajagopal, Krishna; Wiedemann, Urs Achim

    2009-01-01

    We determine the energy it takes to move a test quark along a circle of radius L with angular frequency w through the strongly coupled plasma of N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills (SYM) theory. We find that for most values of L and w the energy deposited by stirring the plasma in this way is governed either by the drag force acting on a test quark moving through the plasma in a straight line with speed v=Lw or by the energy radiated by a quark in circular motion in the absence of any plasma, whichever is larger. There is a continuous crossover from the drag-dominated regime to the radiation-dominated regime. In the crossover regime we find evidence for significant destructive interference between energy loss due to drag and that due to radiation as if in vacuum. The rotating quark thus serves as a model system in which the relative strength of, and interplay between, two different mechanisms of parton energy loss is accessible via a controlled classical gravity calculation. We close by speculating on the implicati...

  11. Language and speech outcomes of children with hearing loss and additional disabilities: Identifying the variables that influence performance at 5 years of age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cupples, Linda; Ching, Teresa Y.C.; Button, Laura; Leigh, Greg; Marnane, Vivienne; Whitfield, Jessica; Gunnourie, Miriam; Martin, Louise

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study examined language and speech outcomes in young children with hearing loss and additional disabilities. Design Receptive and expressive language skills and speech output accuracy were evaluated using direct assessment and caregiver report. Results were analysed first for the entire participant cohort, and then to compare results for children with hearing aids (HAs) versus cochlear implants (CIs). Study sample A population-based cohort of 146 5-year-old children with hearing loss and additional disabilities took part. Results Across all participants, multiple regressions showed that better language outcomes were associated with milder hearing loss, use of oral communication, higher levels of cognitive ability and maternal education, and earlier device fitting. Speech output accuracy was associated with use of oral communication only. Average outcomes were similar for children with HAs versus CIs, but their associations with demographic variables differed. For HA users, results resembled those for the whole cohort. For CI users, only use of oral communication and higher cognitive ability levels were significantly associated with better language outcomes. Conclusions The results underscore the importance of early device fitting for children with additional disabilities. Strong conclusions cannot be drawn for CI users given the small number of participants with complete data. PMID:27630013

  12. Towards understanding oral health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaura, E.; ten Cate, J.M.

    2015-01-01

    During the last century, dental research has focused on unraveling the mechanisms behind various oral pathologies, while oral health was typically described as the mere absence of oral diseases. The term ‘oral microbial homeostasis' is used to describe the capacity of the oral ecosystem to maintain

  13. Oral symptoms and functional outcome related to oral and oropharyngeal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamstra, Jolanda I; Jager-Wittenaar, Harriet; Dijkstra, Pieter U; Huisman, Paulien M; van Oort, Rob P; van der Laan, Bernard F A M; Roodenburg, Jan L N

    2011-09-01

    This study aimed to assess: (1) oral symptoms of patients treated for oral or oropharyngeal cancer; (2) how patients rank the burden of oral symptoms; (3) the impact of the tumor, the treatment, and oral symptoms on functional outcome. Eighty-nine patients treated for oral or oropharyngeal cancer were asked about their oral symptoms related to mouth opening, dental status, oral sensory function, tongue mobility, salivary function, and pain. They were asked to rank these oral symptoms according to the degree of burden experienced. The Mandibular Function Impairment Questionnaire (MFIQ) was used to assess functional outcome. In a multivariate linear regression analyses, variables related to MFIQ scores (p≤0.10) were entered as predictors with MFIQ score as the outcome. Lack of saliva (52%), restricted mouth opening (48%), and restricted tongue mobility (46%) were the most frequently reported oral symptoms. Lack of saliva was most frequently (32%) ranked as the most burdensome oral symptom. For radiated patients, an inability to wear a dental prosthesis, a T3 or T4 stage, and a higher age were predictive of MFIQ scores. For non-radiated patients, a restricted mouth opening, an inability to wear a dental prosthesis, restricted tongue mobility, and surgery of the mandible were predictive of MFIQ scores. Lack of saliva was not only the most frequently reported oral symptom after treatment for oral or oropharyngeal cancer, but also the most burdensome. Functional outcome is strongly influenced by an inability to wear a dental prosthesis in both radiated and non-radiated patients.

  14. The Psychosocial Benefits of Oral Storytelling in School: Developing Identity and Empathy through Narrative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibbin, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    The oral re-telling of traditional tales, modelled by a storyteller and taught to children in school, can be understood as 'non-instrumental' practice in speaking and listening that emphasises oral language over the reading and writing of stories. While oral storytelling has significant benefits to children's education and development, it is…

  15. The Evaluation of Oral/Aural Skills within the BA Finals Examination: Analysis and Interim Proposals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawshaw, Robert

    An examination of the principles and techniques of oral testing in British university-level final examinations in modern languages discusses: (1) the shortcomings of present oral testing procedures; (2) the theoretical controversy surrounding the design and value of oral proficiency tests, arising from research in English as a second language…

  16. Comparing Examinee Attitudes Toward Computer-Assisted and Other Oral Proficiency Assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenyon, Dorry M.; Malabonga, Valerie

    2001-01-01

    Examined attitudes toward taking different formats of oral proficiency assessments across three languages: Spanish, Arabic, and Chinese. Students were administered both the tape-mediated Simulated Oral Proficiency Interview (SOPI) and a new Computerized Oral Proficiency Instrument (COPI). Questionnaire responses showed examinees, particularly…

  17. Building Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Glossary Contact Information Information For… Media Policy Makers Building Languages Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Communicating ... any speech and only very loud sounds. Close × “Building Blocks” “Building Blocks” refers to the different skills ...

  18. Oral dirofilariasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahija Janardhanan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Filariasis affecting animals can rarely cause infections in human beings through the accidental bite of potential vectors. The resulting infection in man, known as zoonotic filariasis occur worldwide. Human dirofilariasis, the most common zoonotic filariasis, is caused by the filarial worm belonging to the genus Dirofilaria. Dirofilarial worms, which are recognized as pathogenic in man can cause nodular lesions in the lung, subcutaneous tissue, peritoneal cavity or eyes. Oral dirofilariasis is extremely rare and only a few cases have been documented. We report an interesting case of dirofilariasis due to Dirofilaria repens involving buccal mucosa in a patient who presented with a facial swelling. The clinical features, diagnostic issues and treatment aspects are discussed. This paper stresses the importance of considering dirofilariasis as differential diagnosis for subcutaneous swelling of the face, especially in areas where it is endemic.

  19. Oral dirofilariasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janardhanan, Mahija; Rakesh, S; Savithri, Vindhya

    2014-01-01

    Filariasis affecting animals can rarely cause infections in human beings through the accidental bite of potential vectors. The resulting infection in man, known as zoonotic filariasis occur worldwide. Human dirofilariasis, the most common zoonotic filariasis, is caused by the filarial worm belonging to the genus Dirofilaria. Dirofilarial worms, which are recognized as pathogenic in man can cause nodular lesions in the lung, subcutaneous tissue, peritoneal cavity or eyes. Oral dirofilariasis is extremely rare and only a few cases have been documented. We report an interesting case of dirofilariasis due to Dirofilaria repens involving buccal mucosa in a patient who presented with a facial swelling. The clinical features, diagnostic issues and treatment aspects are discussed. This paper stresses the importance of considering dirofilariasis as differential diagnosis for subcutaneous swelling of the face, especially in areas where it is endemic.

  20. Relations among the Home Language and Literacy Environment and Children's Language Abilities: A Study of Head Start Dual Language Learners and Their Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Kandia; Sandilos, Lia E.; Hammer, Carol Scheffner; Sawyer, Brook E.; Méndez, Lucía I.

    2016-01-01

    Research Findings: This study explored the relations between Spanish-English dual language learner (DLL) children's home language and literacy experiences and their expressive vocabulary and oral comprehension abilities in Spanish and in English. Data from Spanish-English mothers of 93 preschool-age Head Start children who resided in central…

  1. Oral sex, oral health and orogenital infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajiv Saini

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral sex is commonly practiced by sexually active male-female and same-gender couples of various ages, including adolescents. The various type of oral sex practices are fellatio, cunnilingus and analingus. Oral sex is infrequently examined in research on adolescents; oral sex can transmit oral, respiratory, and genital pathogens. Oral health has a direct impact on the transmission of infection; a cut in your mouth, bleeding gums, lip sores or broken skin increases chances of infection. Although oral sex is considered a low risk activity, it is important to use protection and safer sex precautions. There are various methods of preventing infection during oral sex such as physical barriers, health and medical issues, ethical issues and oral hygiene and dental issues. The lesions or unhealthy periodontal status of oral cavity accelerates the phenomenon of transmission of infections into the circulation. Thus consequences of unhealthy or painful oral cavity are significant and oral health should be given paramount importance for the practice of oral sex.

  2. How Could Language Have Evolved?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolhuis, Johan J.; Tattersall, Ian; Chomsky, Noam; Berwick, Robert C.

    2014-01-01

    The evolution of the faculty of language largely remains an enigma. In this essay, we ask why. Language's evolutionary analysis is complicated because it has no equivalent in any nonhuman species. There is also no consensus regarding the essential nature of the language “phenotype.” According to the “Strong Minimalist Thesis,” the key distinguishing feature of language (and what evolutionary theory must explain) is hierarchical syntactic structure. The faculty of language is likely to have emerged quite recently in evolutionary terms, some 70,000–100,000 years ago, and does not seem to have undergone modification since then, though individual languages do of course change over time, operating within this basic framework. The recent emergence of language and its stability are both consistent with the Strong Minimalist Thesis, which has at its core a single repeatable operation that takes exactly two syntactic elements a and b and assembles them to form the set {a, b}. PMID:25157536

  3. Oral genres, argumentation and teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zilda G. O. Aquino

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at dealing with issues related to language spoken in the classroom, focusing on discursive practices that highlight argumentation. We believe that the discussions that were made around genres, especially guided by the studies of Bakhtin and Text Linguistics, have been providing a breakthrough towards the necessity for the school to promote language teaching through the discursive genre approach. That is what we expect to be happening since both writing and spoken modalities deserve space in learning. We believe that oral genres demand that teachers acquire specific knowledge of the features of spoken language interaction that arise from its use in practical situations. Because these studies are recent among our researchers (not longer than three decades, they should still be very present in our discussions. In this paper, we focus on a specific genre of oral tradition – the debate. It is ideal for knowledge building and taking a stand at issues that arise in society, all of which is particularly important to the school. Besides contributing to the development of skills required by certain sociodiscursive practices, it is proposed that the teaching of argumentation in oral genres concentrate on the observation of selected strategies in interactions. We are particularly interested in interactions that emerge when one interaction party is trying to persuade the other. The corpus consists of the transcriptions of debates which occurred both in the classroom and in other contexts, such as the media. The methodological approach is done by identifying the arguments and their strategic use in specific situations. The theoretical discussion rests on the works of Orecchioni (2010, Marcuschi (2004, Dolz and Schneuwly (2004, Perelman and Olbrechts-Tyteca (1996 [1958], among others.

  4. Non-Native Speakers of the Language of Instruction: Self-Perceptions of Teaching Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, Carolyn

    2017-01-01

    Given the linguistically diverse instructor and student populations at Canadian universities, mutually comprehensible oral language may not be a given. Indeed, both instructors who are non-native speakers of the language of instruction (NNSLIs) and students have acknowledged oral communication challenges. Little is known, though, about how the…

  5. The Effect of Focus on Form and Task Complexity on L2 Learners' Oral Task Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salimi, Asghar

    2015-01-01

    Second Language learners' oral task performance has been one of interesting and research generating areas of investigations in the field of second language acquisition specially, task-based language teaching and learning. The main purpose of the present study is to investigate the effect of focus on form and task complexity on L2 learners' oral…

  6. Performance Assessment and the Components of the Oral Construct across Different Tasks and Rater Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalhoub-Deville, Micheline

    This study investigated whether different groups of native speakers assess second language learners' language skills differently for three elicitation techniques. Subjects were six learners of college-level Arabic as a second language, tape-recorded performing three tasks: participating in a modified oral proficiency interview, narrating a picture…

  7. Summer Oral Expression English Course

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2011-01-01

    An English Oral Expression course will take place between 15 August and 30 September 2011. Schedule: to be determined (2 sessions of 2 hours per week). Please note that this course is for learners who have a good knowledge of English (CERN level 7 upwards). If you are interested in following this course, please enrol through the following link https://cta.cern.ch/cta2/f?p=110:9:1576796470009589::::X_STATUS,XS_COURSE_NAME,XS_PROGRAMME,XS_SUBCATEGORY,X_COURSE_ID,XS_LANGUAGE,XS_SESSION:D,,1,,4368,B, Or contact: Kerstin FUHRMEISTER (70896) Tessa OSBORNE (72957)  

  8. An Analysis on Advertising Language from the Perspective of Memetics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RAN Shi-wei

    2016-01-01

    Memetics is a new theory to explain the formation and development of language. It is of great importance in the development of advertising language. The paper is going to study advertising language from the perspective of memetics and at the same time try to study and summarize the sources of advertising language as well as the characteristics of language use. The study will provide the advertising designers with a strong theoretical basis for advertising creation and help us understand memetics deeply.

  9. Two functions of early language experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arshavsky, Yuri I

    2009-05-01

    The unique human ability of linguistic communication, defined as the ability to produce a practically infinite number of meaningful messages using a finite number of lexical items, is determined by an array of "linguistic" genes, which are expressed in neurons forming domain-specific linguistic centers in the brain. In this review, I discuss the idea that infants' early language experience performs two complementary functions. In addition to allowing infants to assimilate the words and grammar rules of their mother language, early language experience initiates genetic programs underlying language production and comprehension. This hypothesis explains many puzzling characteristics of language acquisition, such as the existence of a critical period for acquiring the first language and the absence of a critical period for the acquisition of additional language(s), a similar timetable for language acquisition in children belonging to families of different social and cultural status, the strikingly similar timetables in the acquisition of oral and sign languages, and the surprisingly small correlation between individuals' final linguistic competence and the intensity of their training. Based on the studies of microcephalic individuals, I argue that genetic factors determine not only the number of neurons and organization of interneural connections within linguistic centers, but also the putative internal properties of neurons that are not limited to their electrophysiological and synaptic properties.

  10. TRANSLATION OF ORALITY TRAITS IN LITERARY DIALOGUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorea Ajanić

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates traits of fictive orality and their translations by studying dialogues from Bernhard Schlink’s novel Der Vorleser and their translations into the Croatian and English language. In the first part of the paper the term fictive orality is explained in the context of classification given by Koch and Oesterreicher (1985, which distinguishes between „the language of immediacy” (“Sprache der Nähe” which refers to speech, and “the language of distance” (“Sprache der Distanz” which refers to writing. The ways in which writers create orality in their works, as well as the ways in which it can be recognized in texts, are also represented. In the second part of the paper, selected dialogues from the novel Der Vorleser are analyzed in the source text and in translations. The analysis of dialogues indicates the presence of the following means for expressing fictive orality: punctuation, exclamations, repetition, and descriptions of nonverbal behaviour. These means refer to spoken communication and characters’ emotions – e.g. punctuation is used to express confusion, insecurity, or hesitation in conversations; exclamations are used to express emotions, tone and mood in the analyzed conversations. Additionally, the analysis of translation strategies reveals that the most frequently utilised translation strategies (as proposed by Baker are cultural substitution and paraphrase.

  11. Enigme Policiere et Expression Orale (A Policy Puzzle and Oral Expression).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanche, Patrick

    1996-01-01

    Criticizes the circumstance that limits the opportunity for students to speak French in casual conversation to an extent that would permit them to truly improve their command of the language. The article maintains that giving students the opportunity to develop on their own the ability to express themselves orally is a valuable teaching goal.…

  12. Combined oral contraceptives: venous thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bastos, Marcos; Stegeman, Bernardine H; Rosendaal, Frits R; Van Hylckama Vlieg, Astrid; Helmerhorst, Frans M; Stijnen, Theo; Dekkers, Olaf M

    2014-03-03

    Combined oral contraceptive (COC) use has been associated with venous thrombosis (VT) (i.e., deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism). The VT risk has been evaluated for many estrogen doses and progestagen types contained in COC but no comprehensive comparison involving commonly used COC is available. To provide a comprehensive overview of the risk of venous thrombosis in women using different combined oral contraceptives. Electronic databases (Pubmed, Embase, Web of Science, Cochrane, CINAHL, Academic Search Premier and ScienceDirect) were searched in 22 April 2013 for eligible studies, without language restrictions. We selected studies including healthy women taking COC with VT as outcome. The primary outcome of interest was a fatal or non-fatal first event of venous thrombosis with the main focus on deep venous thrombosis or pulmonary embolism. Publications with at least 10 events in total were eligible. The network meta-analysis was performed using an extension of frequentist random effects models for mixed multiple treatment comparisons. Unadjusted relative risks with 95% confidence intervals were reported.Two independent reviewers extracted data from selected studies. 3110 publications were retrieved through a search strategy; 25 publications reporting on 26 studies were included. Incidence of venous thrombosis in non-users from two included cohorts was 0.19 and 0.37 per 1 000 person years, in line with previously reported incidences of 0,16 per 1 000 person years. Use of combined oral contraceptives increased the risk of venous thrombosis compared with non-use (relative risk 3.5, 95% confidence interval 2.9 to 4.3). The relative risk of venous thrombosis for combined oral contraceptives with 30-35 μg ethinylestradiol and gestodene, desogestrel, cyproterone acetate, or drospirenone were similar and about 50-80% higher than for combined oral contraceptives with levonorgestrel. A dose related effect of ethinylestradiol was observed for gestodene

  13. Consciousness-raising about grammar in the second-language ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Consciousness-raising about grammar in the second-language classroom: Utilising authentic samples of learner-learner interaction in a task-based oral activity. ... More recent studies argue that linguistic support must not be omitted from language teaching programmes within a task-based, communicative approach (Swain, ...

  14. Complementary Languages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Preisler, Bent

    2009-01-01

    society is everywhere unproblematic. A case in point is Higher Education. I will also argue that the recently proposed solution to ‘domain loss' - Danish and English used ‘in parallel', ‘parallel languages' - because it is unrealistic as well as undesirable as a consistent principle - should be replaced......The Danish language debate is dominated by two key concepts: ‘domain loss' and its opposite, ‘parallel languages' (parallelsproglighed). The under­stood reference is to the relationship between Danish and English - i.e. the spread of English at the expense of Danish vs. the coexistence of Danish...... and English within relevant ‘domains' of Danish society. In this article I am going to argue that the concept of ‘domain loss' is not theoretically tenable - its usual depiction ranging from the vague to the nonsensical - which is not to say that the relationship between English and Danish within Danish...

  15. The psychosocial benefits of oral storytelling in school : developing identity and empathy through narrative

    OpenAIRE

    Hibbin, Rebecca Alison

    2016-01-01

    The oral re-telling of traditional tales, modelled by a storyteller and taught to children in school, can be understood as ‘non-instrumental’ practice in speaking and listening that emphasises oral language over the reading and writing of stories. While oral storytelling has significant benefits to children’s education and development, it is under-utilised within Primary Education in the UK. This interview and library-based study explores participant perceptions of oral storytelling in relati...

  16. The effects of sign language on spoken language acquisition in children with hearing loss: a systematic review protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Elizabeth M; Stevens, Adrienne; Garritty, Chantelle; Moher, David

    2013-12-06

    Permanent childhood hearing loss affects 1 to 3 per 1000 children and frequently disrupts typical spoken language acquisition. Early identification of hearing loss through universal newborn hearing screening and the use of new hearing technologies including cochlear implants make spoken language an option for most children. However, there is no consensus on what constitutes optimal interventions for children when spoken language is the desired outcome. Intervention and educational approaches ranging from oral language only to oral language combined with various forms of sign language have evolved. Parents are therefore faced with important decisions in the first months of their child's life. This article presents the protocol for a systematic review of the effects of using sign language in combination with oral language intervention on spoken language acquisition. Studies addressing early intervention will be selected in which therapy involving oral language intervention and any form of sign language or sign support is used. Comparison groups will include children in early oral language intervention programs without sign support. The primary outcomes of interest to be examined include all measures of auditory, vocabulary, language, speech production, and speech intelligibility skills. We will include randomized controlled trials, controlled clinical trials, and other quasi-experimental designs that include comparator groups as well as prospective and retrospective cohort studies. Case-control, cross-sectional, case series, and case studies will be excluded. Several electronic databases will be searched (for example, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO) as well as grey literature and key websites. We anticipate that a narrative synthesis of the evidence will be required. We will carry out meta-analysis for outcomes if clinical similarity, quantity and quality permit quantitative pooling of data. We will conduct subgroup analyses if possible according to severity

  17. A infância na pobreza urbana: linguagem oral e a escrita da história pelas crianças The childhood of urban poverty: verbal language and the children’s writing of the history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Maria Sawaya

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Através da convivência com um grupo de 14 crianças entre 3 e 9 anos, em um bairro da periferia de São Paulo, procurou-se verificar a tese de que essas crianças são portadoras de "deficiência de linguagem" devido à pobreza de seu ambiente verbal, da precariedade da linguagem dos adultos e de sua relação verbal com os filhos. O contato com as crianças, com seus pais e com o bairro revelou a complexidade com que elas se utilizam da linguagem verbal; é através dela que elas conquistam seu lugar no mundo dos adultos e sobretudo expressam constantemente suas vivências em seu ambiente próximo. É através de interações verbais muito ricas, do recurso a músicas folclóricas e metáforas, da narrativa dos acontecimentos do bairro e da expressão verbal de suas fantasias e temores que elas se constituem como porta-vozes e como memória viva e coletiva de um bairro no qual a luta não só pela sobrevivência, mas pela vida digna é a principal tarefa que organiza a vida cotidiana.Through the experience of being with a group of children between 3 and 9 years old, in the outskirts of São Paulo, I wanted to verify the thesis that these children are "language impaired" as a consequence of their poor verbal environment, the precarious use of language by parents and the verbal relationship with their children. The contact with the children, the parents and with the neighborhood revealed the complexity in which they use verbal language; it is through the language that the children determine their place in the adult world and above all constantly express their everyday experiences in their surrounding environment. It is through these rich verbal interactions, availability of popular and folklore music and metaphors, narrative occurrences in the neighborhood and the verbal expression of fantasies and fears, that the children become the "spokesmen" of a living and collective memory of the neighborhood. A neighborhood in which the struggle, not

  18. Hindsight of an English Language Learner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dam, Phap

    This keynote address by a native Vietnamese speaker who did not learn English until he was college-age, through the now obsolete "grammar-translation" method, recounts his difficulties in learning to converse orally in English. He stresses the need to teach conversational English to English Language Learners (ELLs) in addition to…

  19. Oral motor deficits in speech-impaired children with autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belmonte, Matthew K.; Saxena-Chandhok, Tanushree; Cherian, Ruth; Muneer, Reema; George, Lisa; Karanth, Prathibha

    2013-01-01

    Absence of communicative speech in autism has been presumed to reflect a fundamental deficit in the use of language, but at least in a subpopulation may instead stem from motor and oral motor issues. Clinical reports of disparity between receptive vs. expressive speech/language abilities reinforce this hypothesis. Our early-intervention clinic develops skills prerequisite to learning and communication, including sitting, attending, and pointing or reference, in children below 6 years of age. In a cohort of 31 children, gross and fine motor skills and activities of daily living as well as receptive and expressive speech were assessed at intake and after 6 and 10 months of intervention. Oral motor skills were evaluated separately within the first 5 months of the child's enrolment in the intervention programme and again at 10 months of intervention. Assessment used a clinician-rated structured report, normed against samples of 360 (for motor and speech skills) and 90 (for oral motor skills) typically developing children matched for age, cultural environment and socio-economic status. In the full sample, oral and other motor skills correlated with receptive and expressive language both in terms of pre-intervention measures and in terms of learning rates during the intervention. A motor-impaired group comprising a third of the sample was discriminated by an uneven profile of skills with oral motor and expressive language deficits out of proportion to the receptive language deficit. This group learnt language more slowly, and ended intervention lagging in oral motor skills. In individuals incapable of the degree of motor sequencing and timing necessary for speech movements, receptive language may outstrip expressive speech. Our data suggest that autistic motor difficulties could range from more basic skills such as pointing to more refined skills such as articulation, and need to be assessed and addressed across this entire range in each individual. PMID:23847480

  20. Oral Motor Deficits in Speech-Impaired Children with Autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew K Belmonte

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Absence of communicative speech in autism has been presumed to reflect a fundamental deficit in the use of language, but at least in a subpopulation may instead stem from motor and oral motor issues. Clinical reports of disparity between receptive versus expressive speech / language abilities reinforce this hypothesis. Our early-intervention clinic develops skills prerequisite to learning and communication, including sitting, attending, and pointing or reference, in children below 6 years of age. In a cohort of 31 children, gross and fine motor skills and activities of daily living as well as receptive and expressive speech were assessed at intake and after 6 and 10 months of intervention. Oral motor skills were evaluated separately within the first 5 months of the child's enrolment in the intervention programme and again at 10 months of intervention. Assessment used a clinician-rated structured report, normed against samples of 360 (for motor and speech skills and 90 (for oral motor skills typically developing children matched for age, cultural environment and socio-economic status. In the full sample, oral and other motor skills correlated with receptive and expressive language both in terms of pre-intervention measures and in terms of learning rates during the intervention. A motor-impaired group comprising a third of the sample was discriminated by an uneven profile of skills with oral motor and expressive language deficits out of proportion to the receptive language deficit. This group learnt language more slowly, and ended intervention lagging in oral motor skills. In individuals incapable of the degree of motor sequencing and timing necessary for speech movements, receptive language may outstrip expressive speech. Our data suggest that autistic motor difficulties could range from more basic skills such as pointing to more refined skills such as articulation, and need to be assessed and addressed across this entire range in each individual.

  1. Self-Consciousness and Assertiveness as Explanatory Variables of L2 Oral Ability: A Latent Variable Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ockey, Gary

    2011-01-01

    Drawing on current theories in personality, second-language (L2) oral ability, and psychometrics, this study investigates the extent to which self-consciousness and assertiveness are explanatory variables of L2 oral ability. Three hundred sixty first-year Japanese university students who were studying English as a foreign language participated in…

  2. Simplexity, languages and human languaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cowley, Stephen; Gahrn-Andersen, Rasmus

    2018-01-01

    Building on a distributed perspective, the Special Issue develops Alain Berthoz's concept of simplexity. By so doing, neurophysiology is used to reach beyond observable and, specifically, 1st-order languaging. While simplexity clarifies how language uses perception/action, a community's ‘lexicon......’ (a linguistic 2nd order) also shapes human powers. People use global constraints to make and construe wordings and bring a social/individual duality to human living. Within a field of perception-action-language, the phenomenology of ‘words’ and ‘things’ drives people to sustain their own experience....... Simplex tricks used in building bodies co-function with action that grants humans access to en-natured culture where, together, they build human knowing....

  3. The Native Language in Teaching Kindergarten Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espada, Janet P.

    2012-01-01

    The use of the native language as a medium of instruction is believed to be the fastest and most natural route towards developing a strong foundation in mathematics literacy (Mimaropa, In D.O.No. 74, s.2009). This study examined the effect of using the native language in the teaching of kindergarten mathematics. A total of 34 five to six year old…

  4. Starting a New Language Education Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Kathy

    2015-01-01

    Early years and primary teachers have a unique opportunity to apply their strong teaching practices, classroom management and understanding of childhood literacy development to teaching a language. This paper reports on a project from Independent Schools Queensland to increase language programs in schools by retraining classroom teachers.…

  5. Language as a branding tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgitte Norlyk

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Branding normally concerns products or corporations. Coca-Cola is a strong product brand. Applecombines a strong product brand with a unique corporate brand. In the modern businessenvironment, however, the concept of branding now encompasses the branding of managementphilosophies and management activities as reflected in the branding of the popular managementphilosophy of Lean. Language, metaphors and special lexical choices play an important factor in thebranding of Lean management as unique and innovative.

  6. Local language

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monique Turkenburg

    2002-01-01

    Original title: Taal lokaal. Children of immigrants living in the Netherlands have for years had the opportunity to receive lessons in their mother tongue at primary school. Since 1998 this has been referred to as minority language teaching (OALT in Dutch), and has been the responsibility

  7. Body Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, David E.

    1993-01-01

    Discusses how the use of body language in Chinese fiction strikes most Westerners as unusual, if not strange. Considers that, although this may be the result of differences in gestures or different conventions in fiction, it is a problem for translators, who handle the differences by various strategies, e.g., omission or expansion. (NKA)

  8. Language Pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Paul

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the role of linguistics in the investigation of language disorders, focusing on the application of phonetics, descriptive grammatic frameworks, grammatical theory, and concepts from semantics and pragmatics to a variety of disorders and their remediation. Some trends and examples from the field of clinical linguistics are discussed. (GLR)

  9. Teaching Oral English Online - Through Skype (VOIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Neil Coburn

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This article presents an action research study focusing on the online teaching of English conversation using VOIP (Voice Over Internet Protocol in an unusual and challenging international online context. Information elicited from interviews with eight Conversation Facilitators shows how conversation assignments need to be designed in order to facilitate interaction patterns conducive to language learning. A range of skills and qualities likely to lead to ''best practice'' emerge from two interviews which are analysed in more detail. Some implications for the use of audio conferencing for the development of oral proficiency in foreign language teaching are also suggested.

  10. Working Papers in Experimental Speech-Language Pathology and Audiology. Volume VII, 1979.

    Science.gov (United States)

    City Univ. of New York, Flushing, NY. Queens Coll.

    Seven papers review research in speech-language pathology and audiology. K. Polzer et al. describe an investigation of sign language therapy for the severely language impaired. S. Dworetsky and L. Clark analyze the phonemic and nonphonemic error patterns in five nonverbal and five verbal oral apraxic adults. The performance of three language…

  11. Teaching Film with Blinders On: The Importance of Knowing the Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakely, Richard

    1984-01-01

    Suggests the use of foreign films as a teaching aid for foreign language study. However, a thorough knowledge of the film's oral language (or languages) and culture is essential as a first step toward a clear understanding of the film's visual aesthetic. A dependence on subtitles or dubbing is discouraged, due to frequent errors and…

  12. Analysis of various risk factors affecting potentially malignant disorders and oral cancer patients of Central India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidya Kadashetti

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: Chewing tobacco/betel quid is a strong risk factor in the development of PMD and oral cancer. Also age, gender, SES, education, and occupation influence the development of PMD and oral cancer.

  13. Language Training: English Training

    CERN Document Server

    Françoise Benz

    2004-01-01

    General and Professional English Courses The next session will take place from 04 October 2004 to 11 February 2005 (3 weeks break at Christmas). These courses are open to all persons working on the CERN site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mr. Liptow, tel. 72957. Oral Expression This course is intended for people with a good knowledge of English who want to practise and maintain their speaking skills while extending their vocabulary. There will be approximately 8 participants in a class. Speaking activities will include discussions, meeting simulations, role-plays etc. depending on the needs of the students. Duration: 20 hours (2 hours a week) Price: 440 CHF (for 8 students) For further information, please contact Mr. Liptow, tel. 72957. Date and timetable will be fixed when there are sufficient participants enrolled. FORMATION EN LANGUES LANGUAGE TRAINING Françoise Benz 73127 languag...

  14. [First language acquisition research and theories of language acquisition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, S; Jungheim, M; Ptok, M

    2014-04-01

    In principle, a child can seemingly easily acquire any given language. First language acquisition follows a certain pattern which to some extent is found to be language independent. Since time immemorial, it has been of interest why children are able to acquire language so easily. Different disciplinary and methodological orientations addressing this question can be identified. A selective literature search in PubMed and Scopus was carried out and relevant monographies were considered. Different, partially overlapping phases can be distinguished in language acquisition research: whereas in ancient times, deprivation experiments were carried out to discover the "original human language", the era of diary studies began in the mid-19th century. From the mid-1920s onwards, behaviouristic paradigms dominated this field of research; interests were focussed on the determination of normal, average language acquisition. The subsequent linguistic period was strongly influenced by the nativist view of Chomsky and the constructivist concepts of Piaget. Speech comprehension, the role of speech input and the relevance of genetic disposition became the centre of attention. The interactionist concept led to a revival of the convergence theory according to Stern. Each of these four major theories--behaviourism, cognitivism, interactionism and nativism--have given valuable and unique impulses, but no single theory is universally accepted to provide an explanation of all aspects of language acquisition. Moreover, it can be critically questioned whether clinicians consciously refer to one of these theories in daily routine work and whether therapies are then based on this concept. It remains to be seen whether or not new theories of grammar, such as the so-called construction grammar (CxG), will eventually change the general concept of language acquisition.

  15. Cochlear implants and spoken language processing abilities: review and assessment of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Nathaniel R; Pisoni, David B; Miyamoto, Richard T

    2010-01-01

    Cochlear implants (CIs) process sounds electronically and then transmit electric stimulation to the cochlea of individuals with sensorineural deafness, restoring some sensation of auditory perception. Many congenitally deaf CI recipients achieve a high degree of accuracy in speech perception and develop near-normal language skills. Post-lingually deafened implant recipients often regain the ability to understand and use spoken language with or without the aid of visual input (i.e. lip reading). However, there is wide variation in individual outcomes following cochlear implantation, and some CI recipients never develop useable speech and oral language skills. The causes of this enormous variation in outcomes are only partly understood at the present time. The variables most strongly associated with language outcomes are age at implantation and mode of communication in rehabilitation. Thus, some of the more important factors determining success of cochlear implantation are broadly related to neural plasticity that appears to be transiently present in deaf individuals. In this article we review the expected outcomes of cochlear implantation, potential predictors of those outcomes, the basic science regarding critical and sensitive periods, and several new research directions in the field of cochlear implantation.

  16. Spatial Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Zhengling

    2016-01-01

    Spatial language constitutes part of the basic fabric of language. Although languages may have the same number of terms to cover a set of spatial relations, they do not always do so in the same way. Spatial languages differ across languages quite radically, thus providing a real semantic challenge for second language learners. The essay first…

  17. Language and the Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, John

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the language of law and its general interest to the field of applied linguistics. Specific focus is on legal language, the problems and remedies of legal communication (e.g., language and disadvantage before the law, improving legal communication) the legislation of language (e.g., language rights, language crimes), and forensic…

  18. Oral health literacy and oral health outcomes in an adult population in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista, Marília Jesus; Lawrence, Herenia Procopio; Sousa, Maria da Luz Rosário de

    2017-07-26

    To investigate the association between critical and communicative oral health literacy (OHL) and oral health outcomes (status, oral health-related quality of life and practices) in adults. This cross-sectional study examined a household probability sample of 248 adults, representing 149,635 residents (20-64 years old) in Piracicaba-SP, Brazil. Clinical oral health and socioeconomic and demographic data, as well as data on oral health-related quality of life (OHIP-14) and health practices were collected. The oral examinations were carried out in the participants' homes, using the World Health Organization criteria for oral diseases. The critical and communicative OHL instrument was the primary independent variable, and it was measured using five Likert items that were dichotomized as 'high' ('agree' and 'strongly agree' responses for the 5 items) and 'low' OHL. Binary and multinomial logistic regressions were performed on each outcome (oral health status and practices), controlling for age, sex and socioeconomic status (SES). Approximately 71.5% presented low OHL. When adjusted for age and sex (first model) low OHL was associated with untreated caries (Odds Ratio = 1.92, 95% Confidence Interval = 1.07-3.45), tooth brushing oral health impact on quality of life (OR = 2.06, 1.15-3.69). Adjusting for age, sex and SES, OHL is related to a risk factor (biofilm) and a consequence of poor oral health (emergency dental visits) and can interfere with the impact of oral diseases on quality of life. As low OHL can be modified, the results support oral health promotion strategies directed at improving critical and communicative oral health literacy in adult populations.

  19. The Role of Teaching Grammar in First Language Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, Sezgin; Erdogan, Ayse

    2018-01-01

    Grammar; while originating from the natural structure of the language also is the system which makes it possible for different language functions meet within the body of common rules especially communication. Having command of the language used, speaking and writing it correctly require strong grammar knowledge actually. However only knowing the…

  20. The benefits of sign language for deaf learners with language challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Staden, Annalene

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This article argues the importance of allowing deaf children to acquire sign language from an early age. It demonstrates firstly that the critical/sensitive period hypothesis for language acquisition can be applied to specific language aspects of spoken language as well as sign languages (i.e. phonology, grammatical processing and syntax. This makes early diagnosis and early intervention of crucial importance. Moreover, research findings presented in this article demonstrate the advantage that sign language offers in the early years of a deaf child’s life by comparing the language development milestones of deaf learners exposed to sign language from birth to those of late-signers, orally trained deaf learners and hearing learners exposed to spoken language. The controversy over the best medium of instruction for deaf learners is briefly discussed, with emphasis placed on the possible value of bilingual-bicultural programmes to facilitate the development of deaf learners’ literacy skills. Finally, this paper concludes with a discussion of the implications/recommendations of sign language teaching and Deaf education in South Africa.

  1. Intercultural challenge to language learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz María Muñoz de Cote

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the findings of a qualitative research project set to investigate the piloting process of an innovative language program for university students. It challenges traditional English language teaching courses celebrating a view centered on learning; classes become spaces for students to understand the language they are learning through the development of small projects. The approach moves from a teaching transmission paradigm to one where the most important agent is each student who has to engage with a topic of his or her interest. Students are seen as individuals whose knowledge and understanding of the world is valued and not as people whose lack of language skills prevents themfrom engaging in discussions of complex topics. The objective of this innovation is to enhance students’ understanding and use of academic English in their field of interest. In this project, we argue that knowledge and understanding of the mother tongue and culture play key roles in the development of a second language. A number of studies suggest that students who had strong first language literacy skills achieved higher proficiency levels in their second language. Based on this argument and Vygotsky’s sociocultural learning theory, we designed disciplinary content language learning workshops for first-degree students. The main tenet is that students can develop academic English given that they know about their discipline. Findings so far reveal the difficulty of students to take distance from their previous learning experiences. They also show that students’ ideas expressed in English are far more complex than what would be expected of them given their second language skills. The complexity is not only related to thecontent, but to the way they construct their paragraphs and the understanding of how the register of their field  may be used.

  2. Quantum electrodynamics of strong fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greiner, W.

    1983-01-01

    Quantum Electrodynamics of Strong Fields provides a broad survey of the theoretical and experimental work accomplished, presenting papers by a group of international researchers who have made significant contributions to this developing area. Exploring the quantum theory of strong fields, the volume focuses on the phase transition to a charged vacuum in strong electric fields. The contributors also discuss such related topics as QED at short distances, precision tests of QED, nonperturbative QCD and confinement, pion condensation, and strong gravitational fields In addition, the volume features a historical paper on the roots of quantum field theory in the history of quantum physics by noted researcher Friedrich Hund

  3. Instabilities in strongly coupled plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Kalman, G J

    2003-01-01

    The conventional Vlasov treatment of beam-plasma instabilities is inappropriate when the plasma is strongly coupled. In the strongly coupled liquid state, the strong correlations between the dust grains fundamentally affect the conditions for instability. In the crystalline state, the inherent anisotropy couples the longitudinal and transverse polarizations, and results in unstable excitations in both polarizations. We summarize analyses of resonant and non-resonant, as well as resistive instabilities. We consider both ion-dust streaming and dust beam-plasma instabilities. Strong coupling, in general, leads to an enhancement of the growth rates. In the crystalline phase, a resonant transverse instability can be excited.

  4. Language learning interventions | Kilfoil | Journal for Language ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results for that intervention show that the hypothesis was correct and students need more time and structure if they are to improve their language competence sufficiently. Keywords: language learning interventions, English for specific purposes, language competence, fossilization. Journal for Language Teaching Vol.

  5. Introducing People – Genre Analysis and Oral Comprehension and Oral Production Tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keila Rocha Reis de Carvalho

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at presenting an analysis of the genre introducing people and at suggesting listening comprehension and oral production tasks. This work was developed according to the characterization of the rhetorical organization of situations taken from seventeen films that contain the genre under analysis. Although several studies in the ESP area carried out recently (Andrade, 2003; Cardoso, 2003; Shergue, 2003; Belmonte, 2003; Serafini, 2003 have identified listening comprehension and oral production as the abilities that should be prioritized in an English course, much needs to be done, especially concerning the oral genres that take into account the language the learners of English as a second language need in their target situation. This work is based on Hutchinson & Waters (1987 theoretical background on ESP, Swales’ (1990 genre analysis, Ramos’ (2004 pedagogical proposal, and also on Ellis´ (2003 tasks concept. The familiarization of learners of English as a second language with this genre will provide them with the opportunity to better understand and use the English language in their academic and professional life.

  6. Don't Throw Out the Baby with the Bathwater: The Indispensable Role of Memorization in Language Acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blodget, Tom

    This paper asserts that memorization is an under-valued language acquisition strategy, noting that by including memorization in communication classrooms through oral question-and-answer prompts, songs, and memorized dialogues/skits, second language teachers can enhance student learning. The paper explains how oral questions offer a cooperative…

  7. Short proofs of strong normalization

    OpenAIRE

    Wojdyga, Aleksander

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents simple, syntactic strong normalization proofs for the simply-typed lambda-calculus and the polymorphic lambda-calculus (system F) with the full set of logical connectives, and all the permutative reductions. The normalization proofs use translations of terms and types to systems, for which strong normalization property is known.

  8. Association between food intake and oral health in elderly: SEPAHAN systematic review no. 8

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shantia Kazemi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Dental status may influence food intake. The aim of this review was to summarize the earlier investigations on the association between food intake and dental status. We searched the electronic databases of PubMed and the Cochrane library for articles published until 30 February, 2012. To reach the related published articles, Medical Subject Heading (MeSH terms of ′oral health,′ ′masticatory performance,′ ′dental status,′ and ′eating′ or ′food intake′ were used. We included all research articles in the English language that (1 had used the random sampling method, and (2 had investigated the association between dental status and nutrient intake in elderly, non-denture wearer individuals, with no systemic illness. The findings of the seven original research articles had a great variation. Four of them supported a strong association between dietary intake and dental status and three of them found that there was no association between these variables. Most investigations found a significant relationship between the oral health status and nutrient intake; however, longitudinal studies were required for a better understanding of the diet-oral health relations.

  9. STUDENT PLANNING TIME IN ORAL TESTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WangLei

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the process of planning in an oral test situation. Since many researchers have studied the impact of pretask planning in the Second Language Acquisition (SLA) field and some have explored the same subject into the area of oral tests, the present study tries to make a tentative attempt to see what the test takers are actually doing in the planning time while taking an oral test. A questionnaire was designed with the effort to find out whether planning time results in an increased focus on form, particularly at the level of strategic attention to form.The result of the investigation tells us that restricted by the type of situation, test takers can only plan the framework of what they are going to say, which may differ to the results achieved by previous studies.

  10. Strong-back safety latch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeSantis, G.N.

    1995-01-01

    The calculation decides the integrity of the safety latch that will hold the strong-back to the pump during lifting. The safety latch will be welded to the strong-back and will latch to a 1.5-in. dia cantilever rod welded to the pump baseplate. The static and dynamic analysis shows that the safety latch will hold the strong-back to the pump if the friction clamps fail and the pump become free from the strong-back. Thus, the safety latch will meet the requirements of the Lifting and Rigging Manual for under the hook lifting for static loading; it can withstand shock loads from the strong-back falling 0.25 inch

  11. Lexical diversity and omission errors as predictors of language ability in the narratives of sequential Spanish-English bilinguals: a cross-language comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Peggy F; Walden, Patrick R

    2013-08-01

    This study explored the utility of language sample analysis for evaluating language ability in school-age Spanish-English sequential bilingual children. Specifically, the relative potential of lexical diversity and word/morpheme omission as predictors of typical or atypical language status was evaluated. Narrative samples were obtained from 48 bilingual children in both of their languages using the suggested narrative retell protocol and coding conventions as per Systematic Analysis of Language Transcripts (SALT; Miller & Iglesias, 2008) software. An additional lexical diversity measure, VocD, was also calculated. A series of logistical hierarchical regressions explored the utility of the number of different words, VocD statistic, and word and morpheme omissions in each language for predicting language status. Omission errors turned out to be the best predictors of bilingual language impairment at all ages, and this held true across languages. Although lexical diversity measures did not predict typical or atypical language status, the measures were significantly related to oral language proficiency in English and Spanish. The results underscore the significance of omission errors in bilingual language impairment while simultaneously revealing the limitations of lexical diversity measures as indicators of impairment. The relationship between lexical diversity and oral language proficiency highlights the importance of considering relative language proficiency in bilingual assessment.

  12. MODERN MEANS OF EXPRESSIVE ORAL SPEECH CONTROL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadehzda Yurevna Gutareva

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The notion “an oral communicative test in the form of interview” is carried out from linguistics, methods of teaching foreign languages and physiology point of view in the article. The basic components of foreign communicative competence are indicated in the works of Russian and foreign scientists, and the new component parts are added that are actual for a specialist of nonlinguistic institute of higher education. The author of the work also dwells on the concept that there are two types of oral communicative tests in the form of interview and in the form of role playing game in the modern lingvo-didactic testing and the choice of this and that form always depends on purpose, objects and stage of testing and teaching. Purpose: to determine the basic advantages of using oral communicative tests in the form of interview. Methodology: studying and analysis of linguistic, psychological, pedagogical and methodological literature on the theme of investigation, questionnaire and testing of students. Results: the analysis of the purpose and functions of using oral communicative tests in the form of interview has shown importance of their application in practice.Practical implications: it is possible for us to use the results of this work in courses of theory of methodology of teaching foreign languages.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-8-16

  13. Oral contraceptives induced hepatotoxicity

    OpenAIRE

    B. Akshaya Srikanth; V. Manisree

    2013-01-01

    Oral Contraceptives are the pharmacological agents used to prevent pregnancy. These are divided as the combined and progestogen methods and are administered orally, transdermally, systemically and via vaginal route. All these methods contain both oestrogen and progestogen. Vigorous usage of oral contraceptives and anabolic steroids as associated with cholestasis, vascular lesions and hepatic neoplasm. Benign hepatic neoplasms are clearly associated with oral contraceptives. In this article we...

  14. Oral vaccination of fish

    OpenAIRE

    Embregts, Carmen W.E.; Forlenza, Maria

    2016-01-01

    The limited number of oral vaccines currently approved for use in humans and veterinary species clearly illustrates that development of efficacious and safe oral vaccines has been a challenge not only for fish immunologists. The insufficient efficacy of oral vaccines is partly due to antigen breakdown in the harsh gastric environment, but also to the high tolerogenic gut environment and to inadequate vaccine design. In this review we discuss current approaches used to develop oral vaccines fo...

  15. Communicative Language Testing: Implications for Computer Based Language Testing in French for Specific Purposes

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Laborda, Jesús; López Santiago, Mercedes; Otero de Juan, Nuria; Álvarez Álvarez, Alfredo

    2014-01-01

    Current evolutions of language testing have led to integrating computers in FSP assessments both in oral and written communicative tasks. This paper deals with two main issues: learners' expectations about the types of questions in FSP computer based assessments and the relation with their own experience. This paper describes the experience of 23…

  16. Global Trends and Research Aims for English Academic Oral Presentations: Changes, Challenges, and Opportunities for Learning Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Neil E.; Liu, Gi-Zen

    2016-01-01

    English has become the de facto language for communication in academia in many parts of the world, but English language learners often lack the language resources to make effective oral academic presentations. However, English for academic purposes (EAP) research is beginning to provide valuable insights into this emerging field. This literature…

  17. The Effects of Group Members' Personalities on a Test Taker's L2 Group Oral Discussion Test Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ockey, Gary J.

    2009-01-01

    The second language group oral is a test of second language speaking proficiency, in which a group of three or more English language learners discuss an assigned topic without interaction with interlocutors. Concerns expressed about the extent to which test takers' personal characteristics affect the scores of others in the group have limited its…

  18. A Brief Review of Motivation for Second Language Learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Dan-gui

    2014-01-01

    It is an increasingly popular trend in the language field that people become bilingual or even multilingual, which expos-es the fact that people are strongly motivated to learn another language in addition to their mother tongue. A large-scale of re-search has confirmed that motivation, serving as the internal impulse and initiative taste for second language learning, is among on of the key factors in second language acquisition and learning. The paper reviews the recent available literature on motivation of second language learning from both theoretical and empirical perspectives, with the purpose of neatening the important theories and relevant empirical studies in the field of second language motivation.

  19. Oral vaccination of fish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Embregts, Carmen W.E.; Forlenza, Maria

    2016-01-01

    The limited number of oral vaccines currently approved for use in humans and veterinary species clearly illustrates that development of efficacious and safe oral vaccines has been a challenge not only for fish immunologists. The insufficient efficacy of oral vaccines is partly due to antigen

  20. Language courses

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    General and Professional French Courses: The next session will take place from 7 October to 13 December 2013. These courses are open to all persons working on the CERN site, and to their spouses. Oral Expression: This course is aimed for students with a good knowledge of French who want to enhance their speaking skills. Speaking activities will include discussions, meeting simulations, role-plays etc. The next session will take place from 7 October to 13 December 2013. Writing professional documents in French: These courses are designed for non-French speakers with a very good standard of spoken French. The next session will take place from 7 October to 13 December 2013. Cours d'anglais général et professionnel: La prochaine session se déroulera du 7 octobre 2013 au 31 janvier 2014 (interruption à Noël). Ces cours s'adressent à toute personne travaillant au CERN ainsi qu'à leur conjoint. Oral Expression: F...

  1. Language sampling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rijkhoff, Jan; Bakker, Dik

    1998-01-01

    This article has two aims: [1] to present a revised version of the sampling method that was originally proposed in 1993 by Rijkhoff, Bakker, Hengeveld and Kahrel, and [2] to discuss a number of other approaches to language sampling in the light of our own method. We will also demonstrate how our...... sampling method is used with different genetic classifications (Voegelin & Voegelin 1977, Ruhlen 1987, Grimes ed. 1997) and argue that —on the whole— our sampling technique compares favourably with other methods, especially in the case of exploratory research....

  2. Oral pathology in inflammatory bowel disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhvić-Urek, Miranda; Tomac-Stojmenović, Marija; Mijandrušić-Sinčić, Brankica

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) - Crohn’s disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) - has been increasing on a global scale, and progressively, more gastroenterologists will be included in the diagnosis and treatment of IBD. Although IBD primarily affects the intestinal tract, extraintestinal manifestations of the disease are often apparent, including in the oral cavity, especially in CD. Specific oral manifestations in patients with CD are as follows: indurate mucosal tags, cobblestoning and mucogingivitis, deep linear ulcerations and lip swelling with vertical fissures. The most common non-specific manifestations, such as aphthous stomatitis and angular cheilitis, occur in both diseases, while pyostomatitis vegetans is more pronounced in patients with UC. Non-specific lesions in the oral cavity can also be the result of malnutrition and drugs. Malnutrition, followed by anemia and mineral and vitamin deficiency, affects the oral cavity and teeth. Furthermore, all of the drug classes that are applied to the treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases can lead to alterations in the oral cavity due to the direct toxic effects of the drugs on oral tissues, as well as indirect immunosuppressive effects with a risk of developing opportunistic infections or bone marrow suppression. There is a higher occurrence of malignant diseases in patients with IBD, which is related to the disease itself and to the IBD-related therapy with a possible oral pathology. Treatment of oral lesions includes treatment of the alterations in the oral cavity according to the etiology together with treatment of the primary intestinal disease, which requires adequate knowledge and a strong cooperation between gastroenterologists and specialists in oral medicine. PMID:27433081

  3. How To Use A Dental Dam As A Barrier For Oral Sex

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hepatitis Ebola Zika Global AIDS Sexual Health NCHHSTP Dental Dam Use Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Format: ... suitable for some audiences How To Use A Dental Dam As A Barrier For Oral Sex Dental ...

  4. Global distribution and drivers of language extinction risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amano, Tatsuya; Sandel, Brody Steven; Eager, Heidi

    2014-01-01

    latitudes and are strongly linked to high economic growth. Threatened languages are numerous in the tropics, the Himalayas and northwestern North America. These results indicate that small-population languages remaining in economically developed regions are seriously threatened by continued speaker declines....... However, risks of future language losses are especially high in the tropics and in the Himalayas, as these regions harbour many small-population languages and are undergoing rapid economic growth....

  5. Spin Glass Models of Syntax and Language Evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Siva, Karthik; Tao, Jim; Marcolli, Matilde

    2015-01-01

    Using the SSWL database of syntactic parameters of world languages, and the MIT Media Lab data on language interactions, we construct a spin glass model of language evolution. We treat binary syntactic parameters as spin states, with languages as vertices of a graph, and assigned interaction energies along the edges. We study a rough model of syntax evolution, under the assumption that a strong interaction energy tends to cause parameters to align, as in the case of ferromagnetic materials. W...

  6. Approaching Sign Language Test Construction: Adaptation of the German Sign Language Receptive Skills Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haug, Tobias

    2011-01-01

    There is a current need for reliable and valid test instruments in different countries in order to monitor deaf children's sign language acquisition. However, very few tests are commercially available that offer strong evidence for their psychometric properties. A German Sign Language (DGS) test focusing on linguistic structures that are acquired…

  7. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to detect oral cancer during your routine dental examinations. Don't risk it. Perform an oral cancer ... oral cancer self-exam each month. An oral examination is performed using a bright light and a ...

  8. Book Review : INTERCULTURAL LANGUAGE TEACHING AND LEARNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaswan Kaswan

    2013-10-01

    If the goal of language instruction is communicative competence, language instruction must be integrated with cultural and cross-cultural instruction for sociocultural competence is part of   communicative competence, besides linguistic competence, discourse   competence,   formulaic   competence,   and   interactional   competence,   as proposed by Celce-Murcia (1995 in Soler and Jorda (2007. Sociocultural competence refers to the speaker’s pragmatic knowledge, i.e. how to express messages appropriately within  the  overall  social  and  cultural  context  of  communication.  This  includes knowledge of   language variation with reference to sociocultural norms of the target language. In fact a social or cultural blunder can be far more serious than a linguistic error when one is engaged in oral communication.

  9. Deglutição de respiradores orais e nasais: avaliação clínica fonoaudiológica e eletromiográfica Swallowing of oral and nose breathers: speech-language and electromyography assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tais Regina Hennig

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar e comparar a deglutição de sujeitos respiradores orais e nasais, por meio da avaliação clínica e eletromiográfica dos músculos orbiculares orais, superior e inferior. MÉTODOS: participaram deste estudo 16 sujeitos na faixa etária de 6:8 a 10:10 distribuídos em dois grupos, um de respiradores orais e outro de respiradores nasais. Foram submetidos à avaliação clínica fonoaudiológica e eletromiográfica de superfície. O exame fonoaudiológico contemplou as estruturas e funções do sistema estomatognático, e a avaliação eletromiográfica consistiu na captação da atividade elétrica dos músculos orbiculares orais, superior e inferior, durante as situações de isometria e de deglutição. Da avaliação clínica consideraram-se somente os resultados referentes à deglutição, observando-se a presença de ação labial e mentual, e de projeção lingual, as quais foram analisados de forma descritiva. Para análise estatística dos dados eletromiográficos, utilizou-se o Teste t para comparação entre os grupos. A significância adotada foi de 5% (p PURPOSE: to evaluate and compare the swallowing of mouth and nose breathers through of speech-language and electromyography evaluation concerning the orbicularis oris muscles, and lower and upper lips. METHODS: 16 subjects aged 6:8 - 10:10 and divided on two groups participated in this study, one with mouth and another one with nose breathers. Both groups were submitted to clinical and surface electromyography evaluation. The speech-language evaluation contemplated the exam of the structures and functions of the stomatognathic system. The electromyography evaluation consisted of the captivation of the electrical activity at the orbicularis oris muscles, and lower and upper lips, during isometry and swallowing situations. In the clinical results were considered only the swallowing variables. Therefore, our study could observe the presence of labial and mentalis

  10. Language training

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    If one of your New Year’s resolutions is to learn a language, there is no excuse any more.    You can attend one of our English or French courses and you can practise the language with a tandem partner!   General & Professional French courses The next General & Professional French course will start on 26 January. These collective courses aim to bring participants who have at least level A1 to higher levels (up to C2). Each level consists of a combination of face-to-face sessions (40 hours) with personal work (20 hours) following a specially designed programme. A final progress test takes place at the end of the term. Please note that it is mandatory to take the placement test. Please sign up here. French courses for beginners The aim of this course is to give some basic skills to beginners in order to communicate in simple everyday situations in both social and professional life. These courses can start at any time during the year, as soon as a group of beg...

  11. Language Training

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    Permanence A "permanence" for language Training has been set up. If anyone has a question or requires information on any aspect of English or French training please come to our office 5 4-016 at the following times. Lucette Fournier - French courses Monday 13.30 - 15.30 Tuesday\t10.30 - 12.30 Tessa Osborne - English courses Wednesday\t12.00 - 14.00 Thursday\t11.00 - 13.00   New courses Specific English and French courses - Exam preparation/ We are now offering specific courses in English and French leading to a recognised external examination (e.g. Cambridge, DELF, DALF). If you are interested in following one of these courses and have at least an upper intermediate level of English or French, please enrol through the following link:  English courses French courses Or contact: Tessa Osborne 72957 (English courses) Lucette Fournier 73483 (French courses) Language Training Nathalie Dumeaux Tel. 78144 nathalie.dumeaux@cern.ch

  12. Language Training

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    PermanenceA "permanence" for language Training has been set up. If anyone has a question or requires information on any aspect of English or French training please come to our office 5 4-016 at the following times. Lucette Fournier French courses Monday 13.30 - 15.30 Tuesday\t10.30 - 12.30 Tessa Osborne English courses Wednesday\t12.00 - 14.00 Thursday\t11.00 - 13.00 New courses Specific English and French courses - Exam preparation/ We are now offering specific courses in English and French leading to a recognised external examination (e.g. Cambridge, DELF and BULATS). If you are interested in following one of these courses and have at least an upper intermediate level of English or French, please enrol through the following link: http://English courses http://French courses Or contact: Tessa Osborne 72957 (English courses) Lucette Fournier 73483 (French courses) Language Training Nathalie Dumeaux Tel. 78144 mailto:nathalie.dumeaux@cern.ch

  13. LANGUAGE TRAINING

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    If you wish to participate in one of the following courses, please discuss with your supervisor and apply electronically directly from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at: http://www.cern.ch/Training/ or fill in an "application for training" form available from your Divisional Secretariat or from your DTO (Divisional Training Officer). Applications will be accepted in the order of their receipt. LANGUAGE TRAINING Françoise Benz tel. 73127 language.training@cern.ch FRENCH TRAINING General and Professional French Courses The next session will take place from 26 January to 02 April 2004. These courses are open to all persons working on the Cern site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Benz: Tel. 73127. Writing Professional Documents in French The next session will take place from 26 January to 02 April 2004. This course is designed for people wi...

  14. LANGUAGE TRAINING

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    If you wish to participate in one of the following courses, please discuss with your supervisor and apply electronically directly from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at: http://www.cern.ch/Training/ or fill in an "application for training" form available from your Divisional Secretariat or from your DTO (Divisional Training Officer). Applications will be accepted in the order of their receipt. LANGUAGE TRAINING Françoise Benz tel. 73127 language.training@cern.ch FRENCH TRAINING General and Professional French Courses The next session will take place from 26 January to 02 April 2004. These courses are open to all persons working on the Cern site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Benz : Tel. 73127. Writing Professional Documents in French The next session will take place from 26 January to 02 April 2004. This course is designed for peop...

  15. Gradient language dominance affects talker learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bregman, Micah R; Creel, Sarah C

    2014-01-01

    Traditional conceptions of spoken language assume that speech recognition and talker identification are computed separately. Neuropsychological and neuroimaging studies imply some separation between the two faculties, but recent perceptual studies suggest better talker recognition in familiar languages than unfamiliar languages. A familiar-language benefit in talker recognition potentially implies strong ties between the two domains. However, little is known about the nature of this language familiarity effect. The current study investigated the relationship between speech and talker processing by assessing bilingual and monolingual listeners' ability to learn voices as a function of language familiarity and age of acquisition. Two effects emerged. First, bilinguals learned to recognize talkers in their first language (Korean) more rapidly than they learned to recognize talkers in their second language (English), while English-speaking participants showed the opposite pattern (learning English talkers faster than Korean talkers). Second, bilinguals' learning rate for talkers in their second language (English) correlated with age of English acquisition. Taken together, these results suggest that language background materially affects talker encoding, implying a tight relationship between speech and talker representations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Bilingual children referred for psychiatric services: associations of language disorders, language skills, and psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toppelberg, Claudio O; Medrano, Laura; Peña Morgens, Liana; Nieto-Castañon, Alfonso

    2002-06-01

    To investigate (1) the prevalence of language deficits and disorders and (2) the relationship of bilingual language skills and psychopathology, in Spanish-English bilingual children referred for child and adolescent psychiatry services. Bilingual language skills, emotional/behavioral problems, sociodemographics, immigration variables, and nonverbal IQ were studied in 50 consecutively referred children. Estimated prevalence was high for language deficits (48%) and disorders (41%), with most cases (>79%) being of the mixed receptive-expressive type. In children with clinically significant emotional/behavioral problems, bilingual language skills were strongly and inversely correlated with problem scores, particularly global problems (r = -0.67, p or = -0.54; p language disorders and delays and (2) the close tie between poor language skills and emotional/behavioral problems. The data strongly suggest the clinical importance and feasibility of language assessment and the significance of receptive problems in bilingual children referred for psychiatric services. A safe approach is to fully assess language skills, rather than misattributing these children's language delays to normal bilingual acquisition processes.

  17. Interventions for preventing oral mucositis in patients with cancer receiving treatment: oral cryotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Philip; Glenny, Anne-Marie; Worthington, Helen V; Littlewood, Anne; Clarkson, Jan E; McCabe, Martin G

    2015-12-23

    Oral mucositis is a side effect of chemotherapy, head and neck radiotherapy, and targeted therapy, affecting over 75% of high risk patients. Ulceration can lead to severe pain and difficulty eating and drinking, which may necessitate opioid analgesics, hospitalisation and nasogastric or intravenous nutrition. These complications may lead to interruptions or alterations to cancer therapy, which may reduce survival. There is also a risk of death from sepsis if pathogens enter the ulcers of immunocompromised patients. Ulcerative oral mucositis can be costly to healthcare systems, yet there are few preventive interventions proven to be beneficial. Oral cryotherapy is a low-cost, simple intervention which is unlikely to cause side-effects. It has shown promise in clinical trials and warrants an up-to-date Cochrane review to assess and summarise the international evidence. To assess the effects of oral cryotherapy for preventing oral mucositis in patients with cancer who are receiving treatment. We searched the following databases: the Cochrane Oral Health Group Trials Register (to 17 June 2015), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (Cochrane Library 2015, Issue 5), MEDLINE via Ovid (1946 to 17 June 2015), EMBASE via Ovid (1980 to 17 June 2015), CANCERLIT via PubMed (1950 to 17 June 2015) and CINAHL via EBSCO (1937 to 17 June 2015). We searched the US National Institutes of Health Trials Registry, and the WHO Clinical Trials Registry Platform for ongoing trials. No restrictions were placed on the language or date of publication when searching databases. We included parallel-design randomised controlled trials (RCTs) assessing the effects of oral cryotherapy in patients with cancer receiving treatment. We used outcomes from a published core outcome set registered on the COMET website. Two review authors independently screened the results of electronic searches, extracted data and assessed risk of bias. We contacted study authors for information

  18. Foreign Language Teachers' Language Proficiency and Their Language Teaching Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Heather; Conway, Clare; Roskvist, Annelies; Harvey, Sharon

    2013-01-01

    Teachers' subject knowledge is recognized as an essential component of effective teaching. In the foreign language context, teachers' subject knowledge includes language proficiency. In New Zealand high schools, foreign languages (e.g. Chinese, French, German, Japanese and Spanish) have recently been offered to learners earlier in their schooling,…

  19. Technology in Language Use, Language Teaching, and Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Dorothy; Smith, Bryan; Kern, Richard

    2016-01-01

    This article offers a capacious view of technology to suggest broad principles relating technology and language use, language teaching, and language learning. The first part of the article considers some of the ways that technological media influence contexts and forms of expression and communication. In the second part, a set of heuristic…

  20. Essentials of oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, César

    2015-01-01

    Oral cancer is one of the 10 most common cancers in the world, with a delayed clinical detection, poor prognosis, without specific biomarkers for the disease and expensive therapeutic alternatives. This review aims to present the fundamental aspects of this cancer, focused on squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity (OSCC), moving from its definition and epidemiological aspects, addressing the oral carcinogenesis, oral potentially malignant disorders, epithelial precursor lesions and experimental methods for its study, therapies and future challenges. Oral cancer is a preventable disease, risk factors and natural history is already being known, where biomedical sciences and dentistry in particular are likely to improve their poor clinical indicators.

  1. Intraoperative language localization in multilingual patients with gliomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bello, Lorenzo; Acerbi, Francesco; Giussani, Carlo; Baratta, Pietro; Taccone, Paolo; Songa, Valeria; Fava, Marica; Stocchetti, Nino; Papagno, Costanza; Gaini, Sergio M

    2006-07-01

    Intraoperative localization of speech is problematic in patients who are fluent in different languages. Previous studies have generated various results depending on the series of patients studied, the type of language, and the sensitivity of the tasks applied. It is not clear whether languages are mediated by multiple and separate cortical areas or shared by common areas. Globally considered, previous studies recommended performing a multiple intraoperative mapping for all the languages in which the patient is fluent. The aim of this work was to study the feasibility of performing an intraoperative multiple language mapping in a group of multilingual patients with a glioma undergoing awake craniotomy for tumor removal and to describe the intraoperative cortical and subcortical findings in the area of craniotomy, with the final goal to maximally preserve patients' functional language. Seven late, highly proficient multilingual patients with a left frontal glioma were submitted preoperatively to a battery of tests to evaluate oral language production, comprehension, and repetition. Each language was tested serially starting from the first acquired language. Items that were correctly named during these tests were used to build personalized blocks to be used intraoperatively. Language mapping was undertaken during awake craniotomies by the use of an Ojemann cortical stimulator during counting and oral naming tasks. Subcortical stimulation by using the same current threshold was applied during tumor resection, in a back and forth fashion, and the same tests. Cortical sites essential for oral naming were found in 87.5% of patients, those for the first acquired language in one to four sites, those for the other languages in one to three sites. Sites for each language were distinct and separate. Number and location of sites were not predictable, being randomly and widely distributed in the cortex around or less frequently over the tumor area. Subcortical stimulations found

  2. BIBLIOGRAPHY ON LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA. Graduate School of Education.

    THIS BIBLIOGRAPHY LISTS MATERIAL ON VARIOUS ASPECTS OF LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT. APPROXIMATELY 65 UNANNOTATED REFERENCES ARE PROVIDED TO DOCUMENTS DATING FROM 1958 TO 1966. JOURNALS, BOOKS, AND REPORT MATERIALS ARE LISTED. SUBJECT AREAS INCLUDED ARE THE NATURE OF LANGUAGE, LINGUISTICS, LANGUAGE LEARNING, LANGUAGE SKILLS, LANGUAGE PATTERNS, AND…

  3. Inference in `poor` languages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrov, S.

    1996-10-01

    Languages with a solvable implication problem but without complete and consistent systems of inference rules (`poor` languages) are considered. The problem of existence of finite complete and consistent inference rule system for a ``poor`` language is stated independently of the language or rules syntax. Several properties of the problem arc proved. An application of results to the language of join dependencies is given.

  4. Let There Be Languages!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunnarsson, Petur

    1992-01-01

    Examines the resilience of small languages in the face of larger ones. Highlights include the concept of one dominant language, such as Esperanto; the threat of television to small visual-language societies; the power of visual media; man's relationship to language; and the resilience of language. (LRW)

  5. Language as Pure Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Joseph Sung-Yul

    2016-01-01

    Language occupies a crucial position in neoliberalism, due to the reimagination of language as commodified skill. This paper studies the role of language ideology in this transformation by identifying a particular ideology that facilitates this process, namely the ideology which views language as pure potential. Neoliberalism treats language as a…

  6. Linguistics in Language Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rajesh; Yunus, Reva

    2014-01-01

    This article looks at the contribution of insights from theoretical linguistics to an understanding of language acquisition and the nature of language in terms of their potential benefit to language education. We examine the ideas of innateness and universal language faculty, as well as multilingualism and the language-society relationship. Modern…

  7. Language Teachers' Target Language Project: Language for Specific Purposes of Language Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korenev, Alexey; Westbrook, Carolyn; Merry, Yvonne; Ershova, Tatiana

    2016-01-01

    The Language Teachers' Target Language project (LTTL) aims to describe language teachers' target language use domain (Bachman & Palmer 2010) and to develop a language test for future teachers of English. The team comprises four researchers from Moscow State University (MSU) and Southampton Solent University.

  8. Foreign Language Attrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bot, Kees; Weltens, Bert

    1995-01-01

    Reviews recent research on language maintenance and language loss, focusing on the loss of a second language in a first language environment, the linguistic aspects of loss, and relearning a "lost" language. An annotated bibliography discusses nine important works in the field. (43 references) (MDM)

  9. Language variety, language hierarchy, and language choice in the international university

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haberland, Hartmut; Mortensen, Janus

    2012-01-01

    Introduction to thematic issue on Language variety, language hierarchy, and language choice in the international university......Introduction to thematic issue on Language variety, language hierarchy, and language choice in the international university...

  10. Oral biopsy: Oral pathologist′s perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K L Kumaraswamy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Many oral lesions may need to be diagnosed by removing a sample of tissue from the oral cavity. Biopsy is widely used in the medical field, but the practice is not quite widespread in dental practice. As oral pathologists, we have found many artifacts in the tissue specimen because of poor biopsy technique or handling, which has led to diagnostic pitfalls and misery to both the patient and the clinician. This article aims at alerting the clinicians about the clinical faults arising preoperatively, intraoperatively and postoperatively while dealing with oral biopsy that may affect the histological assessment of the tissue and, therefore, the diagnosis. It also reviews the different techniques, precautions and special considerations necessary for specific lesions.

  11. Use of an orton-gillingham approach to teach a foreign language to dyslexic/learning-disabled students: Explicit teaching of phonology in a second language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, R L; Ganschow, L; Kenneweg, S; Miller, K

    1991-01-01

    Recent research findings suggest that students who have difficulty learning a second language have weaknesses in oral and written native-language skills which affect their performance in the foreign-language classroom. These weaknesses involve understanding the phonological, syntactic, and semantic codes of language. Evidence suggests that dyslexic/learning-disabled and other "at risk" students who struggle in the second language classroom exhibit particular difficulty with the phonological and syntactic codes of the language. The Orton-Gillingham method, a multisensory, structured language approach which adheres to the direct and explicit teaching of phonology, is presented as an alternative to the "natural" communication approaches recently developed by foreign-language educators to teach a second language. A method for adapting this approach for teaching Spanish is described.

  12. Health Literacy - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Health Literacy URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/ ... W XYZ List of All Topics All Health Literacy - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  13. Cosmetic Dentistry - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Cosmetic Dentistry URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/ ... W XYZ List of All Topics All Cosmetic Dentistry - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  14. Atrial Fibrillation - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Atrial Fibrillation URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Atrial Fibrillation - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  15. Journal for Language Teaching

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... Journal for Language Teaching = Ijenali Yekufundzisa Lulwimi = Tydskrif vir Taalonderrig ... SAALT was founded in 1964 for the benefit of language teaching and language teachers and ...

  16. Zika Virus - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Zika Virus URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Zika Virus - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  17. Elder Abuse - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Elder Abuse URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Elder Abuse - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  18. Herbal Medicine - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Herbal Medicine URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Herbal Medicine - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  19. Introduction to formal languages

    CERN Document Server

    Révész, György E

    1991-01-01

    Covers all areas, including operations on languages, context-sensitive languages, automata, decidability, syntax analysis, derivation languages, and more. Numerous worked examples, problem exercises, and elegant mathematical proofs. 1983 edition.

  20. Domestic Violence - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Domestic Violence URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Domestic Violence - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  1. Diabetic Foot - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Diabetic Foot URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Diabetic Foot - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  2. Child Abuse - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Child Abuse URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Child Abuse - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  3. A Natural Language Architecture

    OpenAIRE

    Sodiya, Adesina Simon

    2007-01-01

    Natural languages are the latest generation of programming languages, which require processing real human natural expressions. Over the years, several groups or researchers have trying to develop widely accepted natural language languages based on artificial intelligence (AI). But no true natural language has been developed. The goal of this work is to design a natural language preprocessing architecture that identifies and accepts programming instructions or sentences in their natural forms ...

  4. Recognition of oral spelling is diagnostic of the central reading processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Teresa; McCloskey, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The task of recognition of oral spelling (stimulus: "C-A-T", response: "cat") is often administered to individuals with acquired written language disorders, yet there is no consensus about the underlying cognitive processes. We adjudicate between two existing hypotheses: Recognition of oral spelling uses central reading processes, or recognition of oral spelling uses central spelling processes in reverse. We tested the recognition of oral spelling and spelling to dictation abilities of a single individual with acquired dyslexia and dysgraphia. She was impaired relative to matched controls in spelling to dictation but unimpaired in recognition of oral spelling. Recognition of oral spelling for exception words (e.g., colonel) and pronounceable nonwords (e.g., larth) was intact. Our results were predicted by the hypothesis that recognition of oral spelling involves the central reading processes. We conclude that recognition of oral spelling is a useful tool for probing the integrity of the central reading processes.

  5. Strong coupling phase in QED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, Ken-ichi

    1988-01-01

    Existence of a strong coupling phase in QED has been suggested in solutions of the Schwinger-Dyson equation and in Monte Carlo simulation of lattice QED. In this article we recapitulate the previous arguments, and formulate the problem in the modern framework of the renormalization theory, Wilsonian renormalization. This scheme of renormalization gives the best understanding of the basic structure of a field theory especially when it has a multi-phase structure. We resolve some misleading arguments in the previous literature. Then we set up a strategy to attack the strong phase, if any. We describe a trial; a coupled Schwinger-Dyson equation. Possible picture of the strong coupling phase QED is presented. (author)

  6. Relationship between Performance on Oral Narrative Retells and Vocabulary Assessments for Spanish-English Speaking Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Carla; Wofford, Mary Claire; Schatschneider, Christopher

    2018-01-01

    This project aimed to describe oral narrative retells of Spanish-English speaking dual language learners (DLLs) and examine relationships with standardized vocabulary assessments. Investigators described oral narrative retells of 145 DLLs in kindergarten and first grade by number of different words (NDW), words per minute (WPM), and…

  7. The Oral Narrative Comprehension and Production Abilities of Verbal Preschoolers on the Autism Spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerveld, Marleen F.; Roberts, Jacqueline M. A.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This study described the oral narrative comprehension and production skills of verbal preschool-age children on the autism spectrum and investigated correlations between oral narrative ability and norm-referenced language test performance. Method: Twenty-nine preschool-age children (aged 4;0-5;9 years;months) with autism, who obtained an…

  8. Papa Pig Just Left for Pigtown: Children's Oral and Written Picture Descriptions under Varying Instructions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Temple, Jeanne M.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Investigates the extent of variation in children's language performance in a picture description task arising from mode (oral or written) versus degree of demand for decontextualization. Finds that children manipulated the wide range of the oral form of the contextualized/decontextualized continuum more skillfully than the written form. Finds no…

  9. Oral manifestations of lupus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzies, S; O'Shea, F; Galvin, S; Wynne, B

    2018-02-01

    Mucosal involvement is commonly seen in patients with lupus; however, oral examination is often forgotten. Squamous cell carcinoma arising within oral lupoid plaques has been described, emphasizing the importance of identifying and treating oral lupus. We undertook a retrospective single-centre study looking at oral findings in patients attending our multidisciplinary lupus clinic between January 2015 and April 2016. A total of 42 patients were included. The majority of patients were female (88%) and had a diagnosis of discoid lupus erythematosus (62%). Half of the patients had positive oral findings, 26% had no oral examination documented, and 24% had documented normal oral examinations. Our findings suggest that oral pathology is common in this cohort of patients. Regular oral examination is warranted to identify oral lupus and provide treatment. Associated diseases such as Sjogren's syndrome may also be identified. Patients should be encouraged to see their general dental practitioners on a regular basis for mucosal review. Any persistent ulcer that fails to respond to treatment or hard lump needs urgent histopathological evaluation to exclude malignant transformation to squamous cell carcinoma.

  10. Language switching-but not foreign language use per se-reduces the framing effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oganian, Y; Korn, C W; Heekeren, H R

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies reported reductions of well-established biases in decision making under risk, such as the framing effect, during foreign language (FL) use. These modulations were attributed to the use of FL itself, which putatively entails an increase in emotional distance. A reduced framing effect in this setting, however, might also result from enhanced cognitive control associated with language-switching in mixed-language contexts, an account that has not been tested yet. Here we assess predictions of the 2 accounts in 2 experiments with over 1,500 participants. In Experiment 1, we tested a central prediction of the emotional distance account, namely that the framing effect would be reduced at low, but not high, FL proficiency levels. We found a strong framing effect in the native language, and surprisingly also in the foreign language, independent of proficiency. In Experiment 2, we orthogonally manipulated foreign language use and language switching to concurrently test the validity of both accounts. As in Experiment 1, foreign language use per se had no effect on framing. Crucially, the framing effect was reduced following a language switch, both when switching into the foreign and the native language. Thus, our results suggest that reduced framing effects are not mediated by increased emotional distance in a foreign language, but by transient enhancement of cognitive control, putting the interplay of bilingualism and decision making in a new light. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Persistent Language Delay Versus Late Language Emergence in Children With Early Cochlear Implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas, Johanna; Tobey, Emily; Davidson, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of the present investigation is to differentiate children using cochlear implants (CIs) who did or did not achieve age-appropriate language scores by midelementary grades and to identify risk factors for persistent language delay following early cochlear implantation. Materials and Method Children receiving unilateral CIs at young ages (12–38 months) were tested longitudinally and classified with normal language emergence (n = 19), late language emergence (n = 22), or persistent language delay (n = 19) on the basis of their test scores at 4.5 and 10.5 years of age. Relative effects of demographic, audiological, linguistic, and academic characteristics on language emergence were determined. Results Age at CI was associated with normal language emergence but did not differentiate late emergence from persistent delay. Children with persistent delay were more likely to use left-ear implants and older speech processor technology. They experienced higher aided thresholds and lower speech perception scores. Persistent delay was foreshadowed by low morphosyntactic and phonological diversity in preschool. Logistic regression analysis predicted normal language emergence with 84% accuracy and persistent language delay with 74% accuracy. Conclusion CI characteristics had a strong effect on persistent versus resolving language delay, suggesting that right-ear (or bilateral) devices, technology upgrades, and improved audibility may positively influence long-term language outcomes. PMID:26501740

  12. Strong interactions at high energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anselmino, M.

    1995-01-01

    Spin effects in strong interaction high energy processes are subtle phenomena which involve both short and long distance physics and test perturbative and non perturbative aspects of QCD. Moreover, depending on quantities like interferences between different amplitudes and relative phases, spin observables always test a theory at a fundamental quantum mechanical level; it is then no surprise that spin data are often difficult to accommodate within the existing models. A report is made on the main issues and contributions discussed in the parallel Session on the open-quote open-quote Strong interactions at high energy close-quote close-quote in this Conference. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics

  13. Strong-field dissociation dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DiMauro, L.F.; Yang, Baorui.

    1993-01-01

    The strong-field dissociation behavior of diatomic molecules is examined under two distinctive physical scenarios. In the first scenario, the dissociation of the isolated hydrogen and deuterium molecular ions is discussed. The dynamics of above-threshold dissociation (ATD) are investigated over a wide range of green and infrared intensities and compared to a dressed-state model. The second situation arises when strong-field neutral dissociation is followed by ionization of the atomic fragments. The study results in a direct measure of the atomic fragment's ac-Stark shift by observing the intensity-dependent shifts in the electron or nuclear fragment kinetic energy. 8 figs., 14 refs

  14. Vietnamese Oral Health Beliefs and Practices: Impact on the Utilization of Western Preventive Oral Health Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Kim Yen T; Smallidge, Dianne L; Boyd, Linda D; Rainchuso, Lori

    2017-02-01

    Purpose: Infrequent use of the Western health care by the Vietnamese may be explained by deeply-rooted traditional oral health beliefs and practices unique to the Asian culture. This study investigated Vietnamese oral health beliefs and practices and their relationship to the utilization of Western preventive oral health care services among Vietnamese-Americans. Methods: An exploratory, cross-sectional survey design with a convenience sample of 140 par-ticipants (n = 140) was used for this study. Participants were recruited on site of a Vietnamese-owned business, with questionnaires consisting of 28 questions that were distributed in hard copy by the principal investigator (PI) on multiple occasions and at various times of the day. Results: Spearman Rank Correlations tests showed participants who agreed with the statement, "Regular dental visits will help prevent dental problems," were more likely to utilize medical health services (pissues. No statistical significance was found between age, gender, pri-mary language, years spent in the United States, education level, religion and the Vietnamese survey participants' individual oral beliefs and practices. Conclusion: The results suggest that Vietnamese Americans holding the belief that dental visits help prevent oral health problems, were more likely to utilize Western health care services. The study also supports existing literature that Vietnamese oral health beliefs and practices impact the use of Western health care services. Copyright © 2017 The American Dental Hygienists’ Association.

  15. [Early development of language in small children with autism spectrum disorder using alternative systems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortea-Sevilla, M Sol; Escandell-Bermúdez, M Olga; Castro-Sánchez, José Juan; Martos-Pérez, Juan

    2015-02-25

    The latest research findings show the importance of early intervention in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in all areas of development, including language. The use of augmentative and alternative communication systems (AACS) favors linguistic and communicative development. To show the effectiveness of AACS to develop oral language in non-verbal toddlers diagnosed with ASD. Thirty children (25 males and 5 females) diagnosed with ASD when they were between 18 and 30 months of age, through the instruments ADOS and ADIR. None of them displayed oral language development at the time of assessment. An intervention program in the area of language was designed based on the use of total communication by the therapist and training the child in the Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS). One year later, the formal aspects of language were assessed with the PLON-R because oral language had been developed. All the children had developed oral language to some extent over a one-year period. Early intervention and the use of AACS with visual props favor the development of oral language in children with ASD in the first years of life.

  16. Language Assessment Literacy: Implications for Language Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraldo, Frank

    2018-01-01

    Recently, the applied linguistics field has examined the knowledge, skills, and principles needed for assessment, defined as language assessment literacy. Two major issues in language assessment literacy have been addressed but not fully resolved--what exactly language assessment literacy is and how it differs among stakeholders (e.g., students…

  17. Discussion: Imagining the Languaged Worker's Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urciuoli, Bonnie

    2016-01-01

    What people perceive as "a language"--a named entity--is abstracted from practices and notions about those practices. People take for granted that language is somehow a "thing," an objectively distinct and bounded entity. How languages come to be thus imagined indexes the conditions under which they are imagined. The articles…

  18. Language and Language Policy in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, William H., III

    1985-01-01

    Singapore's language policy must balance the wishes of the various ethnic groups, the political situation in the regions, and the needs of economic development. Malay, Mandarin Chinese, English, and Tamil are all recognized as official languages. Malay has special symbolic status as the national language. (RM)

  19. Using a Humanoid Robot to Develop a Dialogue-Based Interactive Learning Environment for Elementary Foreign Language Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chih-Wei; Chen, Gwo-Dong

    2010-01-01

    Elementary school is the critical stage during which the development of listening comprehension and oral abilities in language acquisition occur, especially with a foreign language. However, the current foreign language instructors often adopt one-way teaching, and the learning environment lacks any interactive instructional media with which to…

  20. Auditory Perception and Word Recognition in Cantonese-Chinese Speaking Children with and without Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidd, Joanna C.; Shum, Kathy K.; Wong, Anita M.-Y.; Ho, Connie S.-H.

    2017-01-01

    Auditory processing and spoken word recognition difficulties have been observed in Specific Language Impairment (SLI), raising the possibility that auditory perceptual deficits disrupt word recognition and, in turn, phonological processing and oral language. In this study, fifty-seven kindergarten children with SLI and fifty-three language-typical…

  1. Language-Building Activities and Interaction Variations with Mixed-Ability ESL University Learners in a Content-Based Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serna Dimas, Héctor Manuel; Ruíz Castellanos, Erika

    2014-01-01

    The preparation of both language-building activities and a variety of teacher/student interaction patterns increase both oral language participation and content learning in a course of manual therapy with mixed-language ability students. In this article, the researchers describe their collaboration in a content-based course in English with English…

  2. Gramàtica, interacció i organització informativa en el discurs oral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josep M. Castellà Lidon

    2014-06-01

    elements that are presented, in a panoramic vision, are the tonal unit, basic unit of oral speech; the informative progression and the RUT restriction; the grammatical categories and the verbal style; the role of subordination in clausal composition; and, to conclude, the nature and the function of textual connectors in the organization of oral discourse. On the whole, a contribution to the explanation of the mobile, diverse, polyvalent and complex nature of the oral language is attempted.

  3. Language Games and Musical Understanding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Arbo

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Wittgenstein has often explored language games that have to do with musical objects of different sizes (phrases, themes, formal sections or entire works. These games can refer to a technical language or to common parlance and correspond to different targets. One of these coincides with the intention to suggest a way of conceiving musical understanding. His model takes the form of the invitation to "hear (something as (something": typically, to hear a musical passage as an introduction or as a conclusion or in a certain tonality. However one may ask to what extent or in what terms (literal or metaphorical these procedures, and usually the intervention of language games, is requested by our common ways of understanding music. This article shows through the use of some examples that aspectual perception inherent to musical understanding does not require language games as a necessary condition (although in many cases the link between them seems very strong, in contradiction with the thesis of an essential linguistic character of music. At a basic level, it seems more appropriate to insist on the notion of a game: to understand music means to enter into the orbit of "music games" which show an autonomous functioning. Language games have, however, an important function when we develop this comprehension in the light of the criteria of judgment that substantiate the manner in which music is incorporated in and operates within specific forms of life.

  4. A Blended Learning Scenario to Enhance Learners' Oral Production Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hee-Kyung

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the effectiveness of a mobile assisted blended learning scenario for pronunciation in Korean language. In particular, we analyze how asynchronous oral communication between learners of Korean and native speakers via "kakaotalk" (an open source mobile phone application) may be beneficial to the learner in terms of…

  5. The Primacy of Poetry: Oral Culture and the Young Child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obbink, Laura Apol

    1990-01-01

    Discusses the importance of the spoken word and the tradition of nursery verse and other forms of poetry. Encourages teachers and students to never abandon the rhythm, balance, and pleasurable taste of language as it was first learned through oral chants, jingles, and rhymes of early childhood. (MG)

  6. Oral Reading Fluency Testing: Pitfalls for Children with Speech Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howland, Karole; Scaler Scott, Kathleen

    2016-01-01

    As school districts nationwide have moved toward data driven intervention, oral reading fluency measures have become a prevalent means to monitor progress by assessing the degree to which a child is becoming a fast (and therefore fluent) reader. This article reviews results of a survey of speech-language pathologists (SLPs) working with children…

  7. Phonotactic Constraints: Implications for Models of Oral Reading in Russian

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulicheva, Anastasia; Coltheart, Max; Saunders, Steven; Perry, Conrad

    2016-01-01

    The present article investigates how phonotactic rules constrain oral reading in the Russian language. The pronunciation of letters in Russian is regular and consistent, but it is subject to substantial phonotactic influence: the position of a phoneme and its phonological context within a word can alter its pronunciation. In Part 1 of the article,…

  8. Standard English and Language Attitudes

    OpenAIRE

    ソランキ, ネイディン

    2005-01-01

    This paper investigates the attitudes and opinions surrounding Standard English (SE) within the United Kingdom. The definition of SE, for the purposes of this study, is standard grammar and standard pronunciation of southern English, commonly referred to as 'BBC English'. The subject of SE and attitudes towards different accents and dialects of British English is emotive and attracts strong opinions. The main issues discussed here are the place of language in society, the social implications ...

  9. Advanced ESL Students' Prior EFL Education and Their Perceptions of Oral Corrective Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun Jeong

    2016-01-01

    The author in this study examines how advanced-level adult English as a Second Language (ESL) students' previous English as a Foreign Language (EFL) classroom experiences influence their perceptions of their teachers' oral corrective feedback (CF). It uses in-depth qualitative data to characterize the participants' prior English learning, and to…

  10. The Effects of CLIL on Oral Comprehension and Production: A Longitudinal Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez Cañado, María Luisa; Lancaster, Nina Karen

    2017-01-01

    This article reports on the outcomes of a longitudinal case study to gauge the impact of content and language integrated learning (CLIL) on two of the least researched language skills: oral comprehension and production. It worked with 24 students in the fourth grade of Compulsory Secondary Education in a public school in Andalusia (southern Spain)…

  11. Students' Preferences and Attitude toward Oral Error Correction Techniques at Yanbu University College, Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamri, Bushra; Fawzi, Hala Hassan

    2016-01-01

    Error correction has been one of the core areas in the field of English language teaching. It is "seen as a form of feedback given to learners on their language use" (Amara, 2015). Many studies investigated the use of different techniques to correct students' oral errors. However, only a few focused on students' preferences and attitude…

  12. Strong Decomposition of Random Variables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann-Jørgensen, Jørgen; Kagan, Abram M.; Pitt, Loren D.

    2007-01-01

    A random variable X is stongly decomposable if X=Y+Z where Y=Φ(X) and Z=X-Φ(X) are independent non-degenerated random variables (called the components). It is shown that at least one of the components is singular, and we derive a necessary and sufficient condition for strong decomposability...... of a discrete random variable....

  13. Strong coupling electroweak symmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barklow, T.L.; Burdman, G.; Chivukula, R.S.

    1997-04-01

    The authors review models of electroweak symmetry breaking due to new strong interactions at the TeV energy scale and discuss the prospects for their experimental tests. They emphasize the direct observation of the new interactions through high-energy scattering of vector bosons. They also discuss indirect probes of the new interactions and exotic particles predicted by specific theoretical models

  14. Strong coupling electroweak symmetry breaking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barklow, T.L. [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Burdman, G. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Physics; Chivukula, R.S. [Boston Univ., MA (United States). Dept. of Physics

    1997-04-01

    The authors review models of electroweak symmetry breaking due to new strong interactions at the TeV energy scale and discuss the prospects for their experimental tests. They emphasize the direct observation of the new interactions through high-energy scattering of vector bosons. They also discuss indirect probes of the new interactions and exotic particles predicted by specific theoretical models.

  15. The colours of strong interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The aim of this session is to draw a consistent framework about the different ways to consider strong interaction. A large part is dedicated to theoretical work and the latest experimental results obtained at the first electron collider HERA are discussed. (A.C.)

  16. Radiation induced oral mucositis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P S Satheesh Kumar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients receiving radiotherapy or chemotherapy will receive some degree of oral mucositis The incidence of oral mucositis was especially high in patients: (i With primary tumors in the oral cavity, oropharynx, or nasopharynx; (ii who also received concomitant chemotherapy; (iii who received a total dose over 5,000 cGy; and (iv who were treated with altered fractionation radiation schedules. Radiation-induced oral mucositis affects the quality of life of the patients and the family concerned. The present day management of oral mucositis is mostly palliative and or supportive care. The newer guidelines are suggesting Palifermin, which is the first active mucositis drug as well as Amifostine, for radiation protection and cryotherapy. The current management should focus more on palliative measures, such as pain management, nutritional support, and maintenance, of good oral hygiene

  17. Strong cosmic censorship and the strong curvature singularities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krolak, A.

    1987-01-01

    Conditions are given under which any asymptotically simple and empty space-time that has a partial Cauchy surface with an asymptotically simple past is globally hyperbolic. It is shown that this result suggests that the Cauchy horizons of the type occurring in Reissner--Nordstroem and Kerr space-times are unstable. This in turn gives support for the validity of the strong cosmic censorship hypothesis

  18. Language courses

    CERN Multimedia

    2014-01-01

    Cours d’anglais général et professionnel La prochaine session se déroulera du 22 septembre au 12 décembre. Ces cours s’adressent à toute personne travaillant au CERN ainsi qu’à leur conjoint. Pour vous inscrire et voir tout le détail des cours proposés, consultez nos pages web : http://cern.ch/Training. Oral Expression The next session will take place from 29 September to 5 December. This course is intended for people with a good knowledge of English who want to enhance their speaking skills. There will be an average of 8 participants in a class. Speaking activities will include discussions, meeting simulations, role plays etc. depending on the needs of the students. Writing Professional Documents in English – Administrative Writing Professional Documents in English – Technical The next session will take place from 29 September to 5 December. These courses are...

  19. Language Courses

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2010-01-01

    General and Professional English Courses The next session will take place: from 1st March to end of June 2010 (1/2 weeks break at Easter). These courses are open to all persons working on the CERN site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages or contact Nathalie Dumeaux, tel. 78144. Oral Expression The next session will take place from 1st March to end of June 2010 (1/2 weeks break at Easter). This course is intended for people with a good knowledge of English who want to enhance their speaking skills. There will be on average of 8 participants in a class. Speaking activities will include discussions, meeting simulations, role-plays etc. depending on the needs of the students. Duration: 30 hours Price: 660 CHF (for a minimum of 8 students) More details Writing Professional Documents in English The next session will take place from 1st March to end of June 2010 (1/2 weeks break at Easter). This course is designed for people with a good le...

  20. Language Training

    CERN Multimedia

    Françoise Benz

    2005-01-01

    General and Professional English Courses The next session will take place: from end of September 2005 to middle of February 2006 (2/ 3 weeks break at Christmas). These courses are open to all persons working on the CERN site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mr. Liptow: tel. 72957. Oral Expression in English The next session will take place from end of September to December 2005. This course is intended for people with a good knowledge of English who want to practise and maintain their speaking skills while extending their vocabulary. There will be a maximum of 10 participants in a class. Speaking activities will include discussions, meeting simulations, role-plays etc. depending on the needs of the students. Duration: 20 hours Price: 440 CHF (for a minimum of 8 students) Writing Professional Documents in English The next session will take place from end of September 2005 to middle of Febr...

  1. Language training

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2011-01-01

    General and Professional English Courses The next session will take place: from 28 February to end of June 2011 (1 week break at Easter). These courses are open to all persons working on the CERN site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cta.cern.ch/cta2/f?p=110:9:230045968901998::NO::X_COURSE_ID,X_STATUS:4254%2CD or contact kerstin.fuhrmeister@cern.ch or Nathalie Dumeaux, tel. 78144. Oral Expression The next session will take place from 28 February to end of June 2011 (1/2 weeks break at Easter). This course is intended for people with a good knowledge of English who want to enhance their speaking skills. There will be on average of 8 participants in a class. Speaking activities will include discussions, meeting simulations, role-plays etc. depending on the needs of the students. Duration: 30 hours Price: 720 CHF (for a minimum of 8 students) http://cta.cern.ch/cta2/f?p=110:9:230045968901998::NO::X_COURSE_ID,X_STATUS:4250%...

  2. Language training

    CERN Document Server

    2007-01-01

    General and Professional English Courses The next session will take place from 26 February or 5 March to end of June 2007 (1/2 weeks break at Easter). These courses are open to all persons working on the CERN site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Françoise Benz, tel. 73127. Oral Expression The next session will take place from 26 February or 5 March to end of June 2007 (1/2 weeks break at Easter). This course is intended for people with a good knowledge of English who want to practise and maintain their speaking skills while extending their vocabulary. There will be a maximum of 10 participants in a class. Speaking activities will include discussions, meeting simulations, role-plays etc. depending on the needs of the students. Duration: 30 hours Price: 660 CHF (for a minimum of 8 students). Writing Professional Documents in English The next session will take place from 26 February or...

  3. Language Training

    CERN Multimedia

    Françoise Benz

    2005-01-01

    If you wish to participate in one of the following courses, please tell to your supervisor and apply electronically from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at: http://www.cern.ch/Training/ or fill in an 'application for training' form available from your Departmental Secretariat or from your DTO (Departmental Training Officer). Applications will be accepted in the order in which they are received. General and Professional English Courses The next session will take place: from end of September 2005 to middle of February 2006 (2/ 3 weeks break at Christmas). These courses are open to all persons working on the CERN site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mr. Liptow: tel. 72957. Oral Expression The next session will take place from end of September to December 2005. This course is intended for people with a good knowledge of English who want to practise and maintain the...

  4. Language training

    CERN Document Server

    Françoise Benz

    2005-01-01

    General and Professional English Courses The next session will take place: from end of September 2005 to middle of February 2006 (2/ 3 weeks break at Christmas). These courses are open to all persons working on the CERN site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mr. Liptow: tel. 72957. Oral Expression in English The next session will take place from end of September to December 2005. This course is intended for people with a good knowledge of English who want to practise and maintain their speaking skills while extending their vocabulary. There will be a maximum of 10 participants in a class. Speaking activities will include discussions, meeting simulations, role-plays etc. depending on the needs of the students. Duration: 20 hours Price: 440 CHF (for a minimum of 8 students) Writing Professional Documents in English The next session will take place from end of September 2005 to middle of Feb...

  5. Language training

    CERN Document Server

    Françoise Benz

    2006-01-01

    If you wish to participate in one of the following courses, please tell to your supervisor and apply electronically from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at: http://www.cern.ch/Training/ or fill in an 'application for training'form available from your Departmental Secretariat or from your DTO (Departmental Training Officer). Applications will be accepted in the order in which they are received. General and Professional English Courses The next session will take place from beginning of October 2006 to beginning of February 2007 (3 weeks break at Christmas).These courses are open to all persons working on the CERN site and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Tessa Osborne, tel.16 23 40. Oral Expression The next session will take place from beginning of October 2006 to beginning of February 2007 (3 weeks break at Christmas).This course is intended for people with a goo...

  6. Language Courses

    CERN Document Server

    2007-01-01

    General and Professional English Courses The next session will be held from 26 February or 5 March to end of June 2007 (1/2 week's break at Easter). These courses are open to all persons working on the CERN site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Françoise Benz, tel. 73127. Oral Expression The next session will be held from 26 February or 5 March to end of June 2007 (1/2 week's break at Easter). This course is intended for people with a good knowledge of English who want to practise and maintain their speaking skills while extending their vocabulary. There will be a maximum of 10 participants in a class. Speaking activities will include discussions, meeting simulations, role-play, etc., depending on the needs of the students. Duration: 30 hours Price: 660 CHF (for a minimum of 8 students). Writing Professional Documents in English The next session will be held from 26 February or 5 March to e...

  7. Language training

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    General and Professional English Courses The next session will take place: from 26 February or 5 March to end of June 2007 (1/2 weeks break at Easter). These courses are open to all persons working on the CERN site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Françoise Benz, tel. 73127. Oral Expression The next session will take place from 26 February or 5 March to end of June 2007 (1/2 weeks break at Easter). This course is intended for people with a good knowledge of English who want to practise and maintain their speaking skills while extending their vocabulary. There will be a maximum of 10 participants in a class. Speaking activities will include discussions, meeting simulations, role-plays etc. depending on the needs of the students. Duration: 30 hours Price: 660 CHF (for a minimum of 8 students). Writing Professional Documents in English The next session will take place from 26 February or 5 M...

  8. Language courses

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    General and Professional English Courses The next session will take place from beginning of October 2006 to beginning of February 2007 (3 weeks break at Christmas).These courses are open to all persons working on the CERN site and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Tessa Osborne, tel.16 23 40. Oral Expression The next session will take place from beginning of October 2006 to beginning of February 2007 (3 weeks break at Christmas).This course is intended for people with a good knowledge of English who want to practise and maintain their speaking skills while extending their vocabulary. There will be a maximum of 10 participants in a class. Speaking activities will include discussions, meeting simulations, role-plays etc., depending on the needs of the students. Duration: 30 hours (2 hours a week) Price: 660 CHF (for a minimum of 8 students). Writing Professional Documents in English The next...

  9. Language training

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    If you wish to participate in one of the following courses, please tell to your supervisor and apply electronically from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at: http://www.cern.ch/Training/ or fill in an 'application for training' form available from your Departmental Secretariat or from your DTO (Departmental Training Officer). Applications will be accepted in the order in which they are received. General and Professional English Courses The next session will take place from beginning of October 2006 to beginning of February 2007 (3 weeks break at Christmas).These courses are open to all persons working on the CERN site and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Tessa Osborne, tel.16 23 40. Oral Expression The next session will take place from beginning of October 2006 to beginning of February 2007 (3 weeks break at Christmas).This course is intended for people with a good knowl...

  10. Language training

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    General and Professional English Courses The next session will take place from beginning of October 2006 to beginning of February 2007 (3 weeks break at Christmas).These courses are open to all persons working on the CERN site and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Tessa Osborne, tel.16 23 40. Oral Expression The next session will take place from beginning of October 2006 to beginning of February 2007 (3 weeks break at Christmas).This course is intended for people with a good knowledge of English who want to practise and maintain their speaking skills while extending their vocabulary. There will be a maximum of 10 participants in a class. Speaking activities will include discussions, meeting simulations, role-plays etc., depending on the needs of the students. Duration: 30 hours (2 hours a week) Price: 660 CHF (for a minimum of 8 students). Writing Professional Documents in English The next ses...

  11. Language courses

    CERN Multimedia

    2014-01-01

    General and Professional French Courses The next session will take place from 5 May to 11 July 2014. These courses are open to all persons working on the CERN site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://hr-training.web.cern.ch/hr-training/ or contact Kerstin Fuhrmeister (kerstin.fuhrmeister@cern.ch). Oral Expression This course is aimed for students with a good knowledge of French who want to enhance their speaking skills. Speaking activities will include discussions, meeting simulations, role-plays etc. Suitable candidates should contact Kerstin Fuhrmeister (70896) in order to arrange an appointment for a test. The next session will take place from 5 May to 11 July 2014. Writing professional documents in French These courses are designed for non-French speakers with a very good standard of spoken French. Suitable candidates should contact Kerstin Fuhrmeister (70896) in order to arrange an appointment for a test. The next session...

  12. Influence of Personality and Motivation on Oral Presentation Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Hsin-Yi; Kelsen, Brent

    2018-01-19

    Personality and motivation have been identified as influential variables associated with foreign language learning; however, few studies have investigated their effect on oral presentations. This study addresses the importance of both personality and motivation in students' collaborative oral presentation performance. A Big Five personality trait questionnaire measuring Extraversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Neuroticism and Openness to Experience, together with the Collaborative Inquiry-based Project Questionnaire measuring Task, Project Work, Reinforcement, Social Learning and Social Pressure motivational constructs were employed to evaluate 257 university students. In general, the results showed that Extraversion, Project Work and Social Pressure were significant correlates of oral presentation scores. The first result suggests that extraverts possess superiority in situations where oral language production is central to communication. This was particularly true for lower-level students, inferring that extraverted personalities can compensate for a lower English language ability. The second indicates that the inquiry-based nature of the assignments was an intrinsic motivator especially valued by extraverts. The third implies that extrinsic motivation was a factor influencing student performance. These findings extend previous research by highlighting the contextual relationships between these affective variables and performance in collaborative oral presentation contexts.

  13. Oral microbiota and cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Meurman, Jukka H.

    2010-01-01

    Inflammation caused by infections may be the most important preventable cause of cancer in general. However, in the oral cavity the role of microbiota in carcinogenesis is not known. Microbial populations on mouth mucosa differ between healthy and malignant sites and certain oral bacterial species have been linked with malignancies but the evidence is still weak in this respect. Nevertheless, oral microorganisms inevitably up-regulate cytokines and other inflammatory mediators that affect the...

  14. Spoken language and everyday functioning in 5-year-old children using hearing aids or cochlear implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cupples, Linda; Ching, Teresa Yc; Button, Laura; Seeto, Mark; Zhang, Vicky; Whitfield, Jessica; Gunnourie, Miriam; Martin, Louise; Marnane, Vivienne

    2017-09-12

    This study investigated the factors influencing 5-year language, speech and everyday functioning of children with congenital hearing loss. Standardised tests including PLS-4, PPVT-4 and DEAP were directly administered to children. Parent reports on language (CDI) and everyday functioning (PEACH) were collected. Regression analyses were conducted to examine the influence of a range of demographic variables on outcomes. Participants were 339 children enrolled in the Longitudinal Outcomes of Children with Hearing Impairment (LOCHI) study. Children's average receptive and expressive language scores were approximately 1 SD below the mean of typically developing children, and scores on speech production and everyday functioning were more than 1 SD below. Regression models accounted for 70-23% of variance in scores across different tests. Earlier CI switch-on and higher non-verbal ability were associated with better outcomes in most domains. Earlier HA fitting and use of oral communication were associated with better outcomes on directly administered language assessments. Severity of hearing loss and maternal education influenced outcomes of children with HAs. The presence of additional disabilities affected outcomes of children with CIs. The findings provide strong evidence for the benefits of early HA fitting and early CI for improving children's outcomes.

  15. Language Training: English

    CERN Document Server

    Françoise Benz

    2005-01-01

    Oral Expression The next session will take place from January to March 2005. This course is intended for people with a good knowledge of English who want to practise and maintain their speaking skills while extending their vocabulary. There will be a maximum of 10 participants in a class. Speaking activities will include discussions, meeting simulations, role-plays etc. depending on the needs of the students. Timetable: Tuesday 11.30 to 13.30 Duration: 20 hours Price: 440 CHF (for a minimum of 8 students) Writing Professional Documents in English The next session will take place from January to March 2005. This course is designed for people with a good level of spoken English. Duration: 20 hours Price: 440 CHF (for 8 students) Timetable will be fixed after discussion with the students. For registration and further information on these courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Benz: Tel. 73127. FORMATION EN LANGUES LANGUAGE TRAINING Françoise Benz 73127 langu...

  16. Language Training: English Training

    CERN Multimedia

    Françoise Benz

    2004-01-01

    General and Professional English Courses The next session will take place from 04 October 2004 to 11 February 2005 (3 weeks break at Christmas). These courses are open to all persons working on the CERN site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mr. Liptow, tel. 72957. Oral Expression This course is intended for people with a good knowledge of English who want to practise and maintain their speaking skills while extending their vocabulary. There will be approximately 8 participants in a class. Speaking activities will include discussions, meeting simulations, role-plays etc. depending on the needs of the students. Duration: 20 hours (2 hours a week) Price: 440 CHF (for 8 students) For further information, please contact Mr. Liptow, tel. 72957. Date and timetable will be fixed when there are sufficient participants enrolled. FORMATION EN LANGUES LANGUAGE TRAINING Françoise Benz 73127 langua...

  17. Language Training: English

    CERN Multimedia

    Françoise Benz

    2004-01-01

    Oral Expression The next session will take place from January to March 2005. This course is intended for people with a good knowledge of English who want to practise and maintain their speaking skills while extending their vocabulary. There will be a maximum of 10 participants in a class. Speaking activities will include discussions, meeting simulations, role-plays etc. depending on the needs of the students. Timetable: Tuesday 11.30 to 13.30 Duration: 20 hours Price: 440 CHF (for a minimum of 8 students) Writing Professional Documents in English The next session will take place from January to March 2005. This course is designed for people with a good level of spoken English. Duration: 20 hours Price: 440 CHF (for 8 students) Timetable will be fixed after discussion with the students. For registration and further information on these courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Benz: Tel. 73127. FORMATION EN LANGUES LANGUAGE TRAINING Françoise Benz 73127 langua...

  18. Towards understanding oral health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaura, Egija; ten Cate, Jacob M

    2015-01-01

    During the last century, dental research has focused on unraveling the mechanisms behind various oral pathologies, while oral health was typically described as the mere absence of oral diseases. The term 'oral microbial homeostasis' is used to describe the capacity of the oral ecosystem to maintain microbial community stability in health. However, the oral ecosystem itself is not stable: throughout life an individual undergoes multiple physiological changes while progressing through infancy, childhood, adolescence, adulthood and old age. Recent discussions on the definition of general health have led to the proposal that health is the ability of the individual to adapt to physiological changes, a condition known as allostasis. In this paper the allostasis principle is applied to the oral ecosystem. The multidimensionality of the host factors contributing to allostasis in the oral cavity is illustrated with an example on changes occurring in puberty. The complex phenomenon of oral health and the processes that prevent the ecosystem from collapsing during allostatic changes in the entire body are far from being understood. As yet individual components (e.g. hard tissues, microbiome, saliva, host response) have been investigated, while only by consolidating these and assessing their multidimensional interactions should we be able to obtain a comprehensive understanding of the ecosystem, which in turn could serve to develop rational schemes to maintain health. Adapting such a 'system approach' comes with major practical challenges for the entire research field and will require vast resources and large-scale multidisciplinary collaborations. 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel

  19. Global Oral Health Inequalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, I.; Tabak, L.A.

    2011-01-01

    Despite impressive worldwide improvements in oral health, inequalities in oral health status among and within countries remain a daunting public health challenge. Oral health inequalities arise from a complex web of health determinants, including social, behavioral, economic, genetic, environmental, and health system factors. Eliminating these inequalities cannot be accomplished in isolation of oral health from overall health, or without recognizing that oral health is influenced at multiple individual, family, community, and health systems levels. For several reasons, this is an opportune time for global efforts targeted at reducing oral health inequalities. Global health is increasingly viewed not just as a humanitarian obligation, but also as a vehicle for health diplomacy and part of the broader mission to reduce poverty, build stronger economies, and strengthen global security. Despite the global economic recession, there are trends that portend well for support of global health efforts: increased globalization of research and development, growing investment from private philanthropy, an absolute growth of spending in research and innovation, and an enhanced interest in global health among young people. More systematic and far-reaching efforts will be required to address oral health inequalities through the engagement of oral health funders and sponsors of research, with partners from multiple public and private sectors. The oral health community must be “at the table” with other health disciplines and create opportunities for eliminating inequalities through collaborations that can harness both the intellectual and financial resources of multiple sectors and institutions. PMID:21490232

  20. Oral microbiota and cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jukka H. Meurman

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation caused by infections may be the most important preventable cause of cancer in general. However, in the oral cavity the role of microbiota in carcinogenesis is not known. Microbial populations on mouth mucosa differ between healthy and malignant sites and certain oral bacterial species have been linked with malignancies but the evidence is still weak in this respect. Nevertheless, oral microorganisms inevitably up-regulate cytokines and other inflammatory mediators that affect the complex metabolic pathways and may thus be involved in carcinogenesis. Poor oral health associates statistically with prevalence of many types of cancer, such as pancreatic and gastrointestinal cancer. Furthermore, several oral micro-organisms are capable of converting alcohol to carcinogenic acetaldehyde which also may partly explain the known association between heavy drinking, smoking, poor oral health and the prevalence of oral and upper gastrointestinal cancer. A different problem is the cancer treatment-caused alterations in oral microbiota which may lead to the emergence of potential pathogens and subsequent other systemic health problems to the patients. Hence clinical guidelines and recommendations have been presented to control oral microbiota in patients with malignant disease, but also in this area the scientific evidence is weak. More controlled studies are needed for further conclusion.

  1. African Journal of Oral Health Sciences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The African Journal of Oral Health Sciences is devoted to research into oral diseases and encourages a multidisciplinary approach. Emphasis is on oral pathology, oral microbiology, oral medicine, oral physiology and biochemistry and related clinical sciences.

  2. Oral candidosis in relation to oral immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feller, L; Khammissa, R A G; Chandran, R; Altini, M; Lemmer, J

    2014-09-01

    Symptomatic oral infection with Candida albicans is characterized by invasion of the oral epithelium by virulent hyphae that cause tissue damage releasing the inflammatory mediators that initiate and sustain local inflammation. Candida albicans triggers pattern-recognition receptors of keratinocytes, macrophages, monocytes and dendritic cells, stimulating the production of IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-23. These cytokines induce the differentiation of Th17 cells and the generation of IL-17- and/or IL-22-mediated antifungal protective immuno-inflammatory responses in infected mucosa. Some immune cells including NKT cells, γδ T cells and lymphoid cells that are innate to the oral mucosa have the capacity to produce large quantities of IL-17 in response to C. albicans, sufficient to mediate effective protective immunity against C. albicans. On the other hand, molecular structures of commensal C. albicans blastoconidia, although detected by pattern-recognition receptors, are avirulent, do not invade the oral epithelium, do not elicit inflammatory responses in a healthy host, but induce regulatory immune responses that maintain tissue tolerance to the commensal fungi. The type, specificity and sensitivity of the protective immune response towards C. albicans is determined by the outcome of the integrated interactions between the intracellular signalling pathways of specific combinations of activated pattern-recognition receptors (TLR2, TLR4, Dectin-1 and Dectin-2). IL-17-mediated protective immune response is essential for oral mucosal immunity to C. albicans infection. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Human language reveals a universal positivity bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodds, Peter Sheridan; Clark, Eric M; Desu, Suma; Frank, Morgan R; Reagan, Andrew J; Williams, Jake Ryland; Mitchell, Lewis; Harris, Kameron Decker; Kloumann, Isabel M; Bagrow, James P; Megerdoomian, Karine; McMahon, Matthew T; Tivnan, Brian F; Danforth, Christopher M

    2015-02-24

    Using human evaluation of 100,000 words spread across 24 corpora in 10 languages diverse in origin and culture, we present evidence of a deep imprint of human sociality in language, observing that (i) the words of natural human language possess a universal positivity bias, (ii) the estimated emotional content of words is consistent between languages under translation, and (iii) this positivity bias is strongly independent of frequency of word use. Alongside these general regularities, we describe interlanguage variations in the emotional spectrum of languages that allow us to rank corpora. We also show how our word evaluations can be used to construct physical-like instruments for both real-time and offline measurement of the emotional content of large-scale texts.

  4. Willingness to Communicate Orally: The Case of Iranian EFL Learners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavakoli, Elaheh; Davoudi, Mohammad

    2017-12-01

    This study sets out to develop a questionnaire on willingness to communicate (WTC) orally specific to English as a Foreign Language setting. It also aims to investigate the effect of three independent variables of interlocutor, age and gender on the same construct of WTC orally. Exploratory factor analysis resulted in three dimensions to WTC, namely WTC with teacher, with classmate, and stranger. Also Cronbach's alpha of .86 indicated a high internal consistency. Mixed between-within subjects analysis of variance was used to assess the impact of interlocutors, age and gender on participants' WTC across the three WTC subscale scores. The results showed no interaction effect between any of pairs of variables but the main effect of interlocutor on WTC orally. The results are discussed in the context of language teaching and some pedagogical implications are suggested.

  5. Relationships between narrative language samples and norm-referenced test scores in language assessments of school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danahy Ebert, Kerry; Scott, Cheryl M

    2014-10-01

    Both narrative language samples and norm-referenced language tests can be important components of language assessment for school-age children. The present study explored the relationship between these 2 tools within a group of children referred for language assessment. The study is a retrospective analysis of clinical records from 73 school-age children. Participants had completed an oral narrative language sample and at least one norm-referenced language test. Correlations between microstructural language sample measures and norm-referenced test scores were compared for younger (6- to 8-year-old) and older (9- to 12-year-old) children. Contingency tables were constructed to compare the 2 types of tools, at 2 different cutpoints, in terms of which children were identified as having a language disorder. Correlations between narrative language sample measures and norm-referenced tests were stronger for the younger group than the older group. Within the younger group, the level of language assessed by each measure contributed to associations among measures. Contingency analyses revealed moderate overlap in the children identified by each tool, with agreement affected by the cutpoint used. Narrative language samples may complement norm-referenced tests well, but age combined with narrative task can be expected to influence the nature of the relationship.

  6. The relation between language and arithmetic in bilinguals: insights from different stages of language acquisition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amandine eVan Rinsveld

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Solving arithmetic problems is a cognitive task that heavily relies on language processing. One might thus wonder whether this language-reliance leads to qualitative differences (e.g. greater difficulties, error types, etc. in arithmetic for bilingual individuals who frequently have to solve arithmetic problems in more than one language. The present study investigated how proficiency in two languages interacts with arithmetic problem solving throughout language acquisition in adolescents and young adults. Additionally, we examined whether the number word structure that is specific to a given language plays a role in number processing over and above bilingual proficiency. We addressed these issues in a German-French educational bilingual setting, where there is a progressive transition from German to French as teaching language. Importantly, German and French number naming structures differ clearly, as two-digit number names follow a unit-ten order in German, but a ten-unit order in French. We implemented a transversal developmental design in which bilingual pupils from grades 7, 8, 10, 11, and young adults were asked to solve simple and complex additions in both languages. The results confirmed that language proficiency is crucial especially for complex addition computation. Simple additions in contrast can be retrieved equally well in both languages after extended language practice. Additional analyses revealed that over and above language proficiency, language-specific number word structures (e.g. unit-ten vs. ten-unit also induced significant modulations of bilinguals’ arithmetic performances. Taken together, these findings support the view of a strong relation between language and arithmetic in bilinguals.

  7. Teaching and Learning Foreign Languages via System of “Voice over internet protocol” and Language Interactions Case Study: Skype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wazira Ali Abdul Wahid

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This issue expresses a research study based on the online interactions of English teaching specially conversation through utilizing VOIP (Voice over Internet Protocol and cosmopolitan online theme. Data has been achieved by interviews. Simplifiers indicate how oral tasks require to be planned upon to facilitate engagement models propitious to language interactions and learning. Collected proficiencies and feature presumably change it to be the best workout which is emanated over two analyzed interviews. Several indications according to utilizing vocal conferencing aim to expand the oral performance in a foreign language interaction. Keywords: VOIP, CFs, EFL, Skype

  8. Strongly Correlated Systems Theoretical Methods

    CERN Document Server

    Avella, Adolfo

    2012-01-01

    The volume presents, for the very first time, an exhaustive collection of those modern theoretical methods specifically tailored for the analysis of Strongly Correlated Systems. Many novel materials, with functional properties emerging from macroscopic quantum behaviors at the frontier of modern research in physics, chemistry and materials science, belong to this class of systems. Any technique is presented in great detail by its own inventor or by one of the world-wide recognized main contributors. The exposition has a clear pedagogical cut and fully reports on the most relevant case study where the specific technique showed to be very successful in describing and enlightening the puzzling physics of a particular strongly correlated system. The book is intended for advanced graduate students and post-docs in the field as textbook and/or main reference, but also for other researchers in the field who appreciates consulting a single, but comprehensive, source or wishes to get acquainted, in a as painless as po...

  9. Strongly correlated systems numerical methods

    CERN Document Server

    Mancini, Ferdinando

    2013-01-01

    This volume presents, for the very first time, an exhaustive collection of those modern numerical methods specifically tailored for the analysis of Strongly Correlated Systems. Many novel materials, with functional properties emerging from macroscopic quantum behaviors at the frontier of modern research in physics, chemistry and material science, belong to this class of systems. Any technique is presented in great detail by its own inventor or by one of the world-wide recognized main contributors. The exposition has a clear pedagogical cut and fully reports on the most relevant case study where the specific technique showed to be very successful in describing and enlightening the puzzling physics of a particular strongly correlated system. The book is intended for advanced graduate students and post-docs in the field as textbook and/or main reference, but also for other researchers in the field who appreciate consulting a single, but comprehensive, source or wishes to get acquainted, in a as painless as possi...

  10. Strongly correlated systems experimental techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Mancini, Ferdinando

    2015-01-01

    The continuous evolution and development of experimental techniques is at the basis of any fundamental achievement in modern physics. Strongly correlated systems (SCS), more than any other, need to be investigated through the greatest variety of experimental techniques in order to unveil and crosscheck the numerous and puzzling anomalous behaviors characterizing them. The study of SCS fostered the improvement of many old experimental techniques, but also the advent of many new ones just invented in order to analyze the complex behaviors of these systems. Many novel materials, with functional properties emerging from macroscopic quantum behaviors at the frontier of modern research in physics, chemistry and materials science, belong to this class of systems. The volume presents a representative collection of the modern experimental techniques specifically tailored for the analysis of strongly correlated systems. Any technique is presented in great detail by its own inventor or by one of the world-wide recognize...

  11. Flavour Democracy in Strong Unification

    CERN Document Server

    Abel, S A; Abel, Steven; King, Steven

    1998-01-01

    We show that the fermion mass spectrum may naturally be understood in terms of flavour democratic fixed points in supersymmetric theories which have a large domain of attraction in the presence of "strong unification". Our approach provides an alternative to the approximate Yukawa texture zeroes of the Froggatt-Nielsen mechanism. We discuss a particular model based on a broken gauged $SU(3)_L\\times SU(3)_R$ family symmetry which illustrates our approach.

  12. Literary Language in Development of L2 Competence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Lu

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays it is believed that language in daily communication rather than literary language should be the target of learning in L2 education. This is mainly because literary language is said to be uncommon in life. This paper reports on a study in which some Hong Kong ESL learners’ English proficiency was re-examined through literary texts. These learners had reached intermediate or advanced levels of English prior to the study and were generally competent in daily English. However, many of them encountered difficulty in understanding literary language. Their proficiency in general English test could not match their performances in understanding literary works. The findings reveal that learners who are strong in general proficiency may not be good in understanding literary language. Lack of literary language in the curriculum results in a false and distorted picture about the learners’ proficiency. Literary language helps upgrade L2 learners’ real proficiency in the target language.

  13. The Development of the Standard Lithuanian Language: Ecolinguistic Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaida Buivydienė

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The theory of standard languages is closely linked with the standardization policy and prevailing ideology. The language ideology comprises its value, experience and convictions related to language usage and its dis - course being influenced at institutional, local and global levels. Recently, in the last decades, foreign linguists have linked the theories of the development of standard lan- guages and their ideologies with an ecolinguistic approach towards language standardization phenomena. The article is based on Einar Haugen ’s theory about the development of standard languages and ecolinguistic statements and presents the stages of developing the standard language as well as the factors having an influ - ence on them. In conclusion, a strong political and social impact has been made on the development of the standard Lithuanian language. The stages of the progress of the standard Lithuanian language have rapidly changed each other, some have been held very close to one another and some still have been taken part.

  14. Storytelling, behavior planning, and language evolution in context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, Glen

    2014-01-01

    An attempt is made to specify the structure of the hominin bands that began steps to language. Storytelling could evolve without need for language yet be strongly subject to natural selection and could provide a major feedback process in evolving language. A storytelling model is examined, including its effects on the evolution of consciousness and the possible timing of language evolution. Behavior planning is presented as a model of language evolution from storytelling. The behavior programming mechanism in both directions provide a model of creating and understanding behavior and language. Culture began with societies, then family evolution, family life in troops, but storytelling created a culture of experiences, a final step in the long process of achieving experienced adults by natural selection. Most language evolution occurred in conversations where evolving non-verbal feedback ensured mutual agreements on understanding. Natural language evolved in conversations with feedback providing understanding of changes.

  15. String dynamics at strong coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hull, C.M.

    1996-01-01

    The dynamics of superstring, supergravity and M-theories and their compactifications are probed by studying the various perturbation theories that emerge in the strong and weak-coupling limits for various directions in coupling constant space. The results support the picture of an underlying non-perturbative theory that, when expanded perturbatively in different coupling constants, gives different perturbation theories, which can be perturbative superstring theories or superparticle theories. The p-brane spectrum is considered in detail and a criterion found to establish which p-branes govern the strong-coupling dynamics. In many cases there are competing conjectures in the literature, and this analysis decides between them. In other cases, new results are found. The chiral 6-dimensional theory resulting from compactifying the type IIB string on K 3 is studied in detail and it is found that certain strong-coupling limits appear to give new theories, some of which hint at the possibility of a 12-dimensional origin. (orig.)

  16. Speech and Language Delay

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... OTC Relief for Diarrhea Home Diseases and Conditions Speech and Language Delay Condition Speech and Language Delay Share Print Table of Contents1. ... Treatment6. Everyday Life7. Questions8. Resources What is a speech and language delay? A speech and language delay ...

  17. The Mixed language Debate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    A range of views on mixed languages and their connections to phenomena such as secret languages, massive borrowing, codeswitching and codemixing, and thier origin.......A range of views on mixed languages and their connections to phenomena such as secret languages, massive borrowing, codeswitching and codemixing, and thier origin....

  18. Language Contact and Bilingualism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Appel, René; Muysken, Pieter

    2006-01-01

    What happens - sociologically, linguistically, educationally, politically - when more than one language is in regular use in a community? How do speakers handle these languages simultaneously, and what influence does this language contact have on the languages involved? Although most people in the

  19. Creativity in Language Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Jack C.

    2013-01-01

    One quality among the many that characterize effective teachers is the ability to bring a creative disposition to teaching. In second language teaching, creativity has also been linked to levels of attainment in language learning. Many of the language tasks favored by contemporary language teaching methods are believed to release creativity in…

  20. Language Policy and Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takala, Sauli; Sajavaara, Kari

    2000-01-01

    Focuses on foreign language planning, or the planned changes in foreign language instructional systems and in uses of languages in different social contexts with special reference to the Nordic and Baltic countries. Special attention is given to the relationship between language planning and evaluation. (Author/VWL)