WorldWideScience

Sample records for strong night-time temperature

  1. High day- and night-time temperatures affect grain growth dynamics in contrasting rice genotypes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shi, Wanju; Yin, Xinyou; Struik, Paul C.; Solis, Celymar; Xie, Fangming; Schmidt, Ralf C.; Huang, Min; Zou, Yingbin; Ye, Changrong; Jagadish, S.V.K.

    2017-01-01

    Rice grain yield and quality are predicted to be highly vulnerable to global warming. Five genotypes including heat-tolerant and susceptible checks, a heat-tolerant near-isogenic line and two hybrids were exposed to control (31 °C/23 °C, day/night), high night-time temperature (HNT; 31 °C/30 °C),

  2. High day- and night-time temperatures affect grain growth dynamics in contrasting rice genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Wanju; Yin, Xinyou; Struik, Paul C; Solis, Celymar; Xie, Fangming; Schmidt, Ralf C; Huang, Min; Zou, Yingbin; Ye, Changrong; Jagadish, S V Krishna

    2017-11-02

    Rice grain yield and quality are predicted to be highly vulnerable to global warming. Five genotypes including heat-tolerant and susceptible checks, a heat-tolerant near-isogenic line and two hybrids were exposed to control (31 °C/23 °C, day/night), high night-time temperature (HNT; 31 °C/30 °C), high day-time temperature (HDT; 38 °C/23 °C) and high day- and night-time temperature (HNDT; 38 °C/30 °C) treatments for 20 consecutive days during the grain-filling stage. Grain-filling dynamics, starch metabolism enzymes, temporal starch accumulation patterns and the process of chalk formation were quantified. Compensation between the rate and duration of grain filling minimized the impact of HNT, but irreversible impacts on seed-set, grain filling and ultimately grain weight were recorded with HDT and HNDT. Scanning electron microscopy demonstrated irregular and smaller starch granule formation affecting amyloplast build-up with HDT and HNDT, while a quicker but normal amylopast build-up was recorded with HNT. Our findings revealed temporal variation in the starch metabolism enzymes in all three stress treatments. Changes in the enzymatic activity did not derail starch accumulation under HNT when assimilates were sufficiently available, while both sucrose supply and the conversion of sucrose into starch were affected by HDT and HNDT. The findings indicate differential mechanisms leading to high day and high night temperature stress-induced loss in yield and quality. Additional genetic improvement is needed to sustain rice productivity and quality under future climates. © Society for Experimental Biology 2017.

  3. Effects of Thermal Mass, Window Size, and Night-Time Ventilation on Peak Indoor Air Temperature in the Warm-Humid Climate of Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Amos-Abanyie

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Most office buildings in the warm-humid sub-Saharan countries experience high cooling load because of the predominant use of sandcrete blocks which are of low thermal mass in construction and extensive use of glazing. Relatively, low night-time temperatures are not harnessed in cooling buildings because office openings remain closed after work hours. An optimization was performed through a sensitivity analysis-based simulation, using the Energy Plus (E+ simulation software to assess the effects of thermal mass, window size, and night ventilation on peak indoor air temperature (PIAT. An experimental system was designed based on the features of the most promising simulation model, constructed and monitored, and the experimental data used to validate the simulation model. The results show that an optimization of thermal mass and window size coupled with activation of night-time ventilation provides a synergistic effect to obtain reduced peak indoor air temperature. An expression that predicts, indoor maximum temperature has been derived for models of various thermal masses.

  4. Passive Cooling of buildings by night-time ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Artmann, Nikolai; Manz, Heinrich; Heiselberg, Per

    coefficients below about 4 W/m2K. Heat transfer during night-time ventilation in case of mixing and displacement ventilation was investigated in a full scale test room at Aalborg University. In the experiments the temperature efficiency of the ventilation was determined. Based on the previous re-sults a method...... are still hesitant to apply passive cooling techniques. As night-time ventilation is highly dependent on climatic conditions, a method for quantifying the climatic cooling potential was developed and the impact of climate warming was investigated. Although a clear decrease was found, significant potential...... will remain, especially if night-time ventilation is applied in combination with other cooling methods. Building energy simulations showed that the performance of night-time ventilation is also affected by the heat transfer at internal room surfaces, as the cooling effect is very limited for heat transfer...

  5. A MIXED MODEL ANALYSIS OF SOIL CO2 EFFLUX AND NIGHT-TIME RESPIRATION RESPONSES TO ELEVATED CO2 AND TEMPERATURE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abstract: We investigated the effects of elevated soil temperature and atmospheric CO2 on soil CO2 efflux and system respiration responses. The study was conducted in sun-lit controlled-environment chambers using two-year-old Douglas-fir seedlings grown in reconstructed litter-so...

  6. Night-time warming and the greenhouse effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kukla, G.; Karl, T.R.

    1993-01-01

    Studies of temperature data collected mainly from rural stations in North America, China, the Commonwealth of Independent States, Australia, Sudan, Japan, Denmark, Northern Finland, several Pacific Islands, Pakistan, South Africa and Europe suggest that the reported warming of the Northern Hemisphere since WWII is principally a result of an increase in night-time temperatures. The average monthly maximum and minimum temperatures, as well as the mean diurnal temperature range (DTR), were calculated for various regions from data supplied by 1000 stations from 1951 to 1990. Average and minimum temperatures generally rose during the analysed interval and the rise in night-time temperatures was more pronounced than the increase in daily maximum temperatures. As a result, the mean DTR decreased almost everywhere. The most probable causes of the rise in night-time temperatures are: an increase in cloudiness owing to natural changes in the circulation patterns of oceans and the atmosphere; increased cloud cover density caused by industrial pollution; urban heat islands, generated by cities, which are strongest during the night; irrigation which keeps the surface warmer at night and cooler by day; and anthropogenic greenhouse gases. 18 refs., 3 figs

  7. Strong interaction at finite temperature

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Quantum chromodynamics; finite temperature; chiral perturbation theory; QCD sum rules. PACS Nos 11.10. ..... at finite temperature. The self-energy diagrams of figure 2 modify it to ..... method of determination at present. Acknowledgement.

  8. Passive cooling of buildings by night-time ventilation - Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Artmann, N.; Manz, H. [Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Testing and Research (EMPA), Duebendorf (Switzerland); Heiselberg, P. [Aalborg University, Aalborg (Denmark)

    2008-07-01

    Due to an overall trend towards an increasing cooling energy demand in buildings in many European countries over the last few decades, passive cooling by night-time ventilation is seen as a promising concept. However, because of uncertainties in thermal comfort predictions, architects and engineers are still hesitant to apply passive cooling techniques. As night-time ventilation is highly dependent on climatic conditions, a method for quantifying the climatic cooling potential was developed and the impact of climate warming was investigated. Although a clear temperature decrease was found, significant potential will remain, especially if night-time ventilation is applied in combination with other cooling methods. Building energy simulations showed that the performance of night-time ventilation is also affected by the heat transfer at internal room surfaces, as the cooling effect is very limited due to heat transfer coefficients below about 4 W/m{sup 2}K. Heat transfer during night-time ventilation in case of mixing and displacement ventilation was investigated in a full scale test room at Aalborg University. In the experiments the temperature efficiency of the ventilation was determined. Based on the previous results a method for estimating the potential for cooling by night-time ventilation at an early stage of design was developed. (author)

  9. Cooling of the Building Structure by Night-time Ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Artmann, Nikolai

    In modern, extensively glazed office buildings, due to high solar and internal loads and increased comfort expectations, air conditioning is increasingly applied even in moderate and cold climates, like in Central and Northern Europe. Particularly in these cases, night-time ventilation is often......, without considering any building-specific parameters. A method for quantifying the climatic cooling potential (CCP) was developed based on degree-hours of the difference between building and external air temperature. Applying this method to climatic data of 259 stations shows very high night cooling...... potential over the whole of Northern Europe and still significant potential in Central, Eastern and even some regions of Southern Europe. However, due to the inherent stochastic properties of weather patterns, series of warmer nights can occur at some locations, where passive cooling by night...

  10. Night-Time Light Dynamics during the Iraqi Civil War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi Li

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we analyzed the night-time light dynamics in Iraq over the period 2012–2017 by using Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS monthly composites. The data quality of VIIRS images was improved by repairing the missing data, and the Night-time Light Ratio Indices (NLRIs, derived from urban extent map and night-time light images, were calculated for different provinces and cities. We found that when the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS attacked or occupied a region, the region lost its light rapidly, with the provinces of Al-Anbar, At-Ta’min, Ninawa, and Sala Ad-din losing 63%, 73%, 88%, and 56%, of their night-time light, respectively, between December 2013 and December 2014. Moreover, the light returned after the Iraqi Security Forces (ISF recaptured the region. In addition, we also found that the night-time light in the Kurdish Autonomous Region showed a steady decline after 2014, with the Arbil, Dihok, and As-Sulaymaniyah provinces losing 47%, 18%, and 31% of their night-time light between December 2013 and December 2016 as a result of the economic crisis in the region. The night-time light in Southern Iraq, the region controlled by Iraqi central government, has grown continuously; for example, the night-time light in Al Basrah increased by 75% between December 2013 and December 2017. Regions formerly controlled by ISIS experienced a return of night-time light during 2017 as the ISF retook almost all this territory in 2017. This indicates that as reconstruction began, electricity was re-supplied in these regions. Our analysis shows the night-time light in Iraq is directly linked to the socioeconomic dynamics of Iraq, and demonstrates that the VIIRS monthly night-time light images are an effective data source for tracking humanitarian disasters in that country.

  11. Finite temperature system of strongly interacting baryons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowers, R.L.; Gleeson, A.M.; Pedigo, R.D.; Wheeler, J.W.

    1976-07-01

    A fully relativistic finite temperature many body theory is constructed and used to examine the bulk properties of a system of strongly interacting baryons. The strong interactions are described by a two parameter phenomenological model fit to a simple description of nuclear matter at T = 0. The zero temperature equation of state for such a system which has already been discussed in the literature was developed to give a realistic description of nuclear matter. The model presented here is the exact finite temperature extension of that model. The effect of the inclusion of baryon pairs for T greater than or equal to 2mc 2 /k is discussed in detail. The phase transition identified with nuclear matter vanishes for system temperatures in excess of T/sub C/ = 1.034 x 10 11 0 K. All values of epsilon (P,T) correspond to systems that are causal in the sense that the locally determined speed of sound never exceeds the speed of light

  12. Finite temperature system of strongly interacting baryons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowers, R.L.; Gleeson, A.M.; Pedigo, R.D.; Wheeler, J.W.

    1976-07-01

    A fully relativistic finite temperature many body theory is constructed and used to examine the bulk properties of a system of strongly interacting baryons. The strong interactions are described by a two parameter phenomenological model fit to a simple description of nuclear matter at T = 0. The zero temperature equation of state for such a system which has already been discussed in the literature was developed to give a realistic description of nuclear matter. The model presented here is the exact finite temperature extension of that model. The effect of the inclusion of baryon pairs for T greater than or equal to 2mc/sup 2//k is discussed in detail. The phase transition identified with nuclear matter vanishes for system temperatures in excess of T/sub C/ = 1.034 x 10/sup 11/ /sup 0/K. All values of epsilon (P,T) correspond to systems that are causal in the sense that the locally determined speed of sound never exceeds the speed of light.

  13. Daytime warming has stronger negative effects on soil nematodes than night-time warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xiumin; Wang, Kehong; Song, Lihong; Wang, Xuefeng; Wu, Donghui

    2017-03-01

    Warming of the climate system is unequivocal, that is, stronger warming during night-time than during daytime. Here we focus on how soil nematodes respond to the current asymmetric warming. A field infrared heating experiment was performed in the western of the Songnen Plain, Northeast China. Three warming modes, i.e. daytime warming, night-time warming and diurnal warming, were taken to perform the asymmetric warming condition. Our results showed that the daytime and diurnal warming treatment significantly decreased soil nematodes density, and night-time warming treatment marginally affected the density. The response of bacterivorous nematode and fungivorous nematode to experimental warming showed the same trend with the total density. Redundancy analysis revealed an opposite effect of soil moisture and soil temperature, and the most important of soil moisture and temperature in night-time among the measured environment factors, affecting soil nematode community. Our findings suggested that daily minimum temperature and warming induced drying are most important factors affecting soil nematode community under the current global asymmetric warming.

  14. Climatic potential for passive cooling of buildings by night-time ventilation in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artmann, N.; Manz, H.; Heiselberg, P.

    2007-01-01

    Due to an overall trend towards less heating and more cooling demands in buildings in many European countries over the last few decades, passive cooling by night-time ventilation is seen as a promising technique, particularly for commercial buildings in the moderate or cold climates of Central, Eastern and Northern Europe. The basic concept involves cooling the building structure overnight in order to provide a heat sink that is available during the occupancy period. In this study, the potential for passive cooling of buildings by night-time ventilation was evaluated by analysing climatic data, without considering any building-specific parameters. An approach for calculating degree-hours based on a variable building temperature - within a standardized range of thermal comfort - is presented and applied to climatic data of 259 stations all over Europe. The results show a high potential for night-time ventilative cooling over the whole of Northern Europe and still significant potential in Central, Eastern and even some regions of Southern Europe. However, due to the inherent stochastic properties of weather patterns, a series of warmer nights can occur at some locations, where passive cooling by night-time ventilation alone might not be sufficient to guarantee thermal comfort

  15. Fast natural color mapping for night-time imagery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogervorst, M.A.; Toet, A.

    2010-01-01

    We present a new method to render multi-band night-time imagery (images from sensors whose sensitive range does not necessarily coincide with the visual part of the electromagnetic spectrum, e.g. image intensifiers, thermal camera's) in natural daytime colors. The color mapping is derived from the

  16. Sleeping position and reported night-time asthma symptoms and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A 49 years old man, known case of bronchial asthma for 43 years, with history of frequent asthmatic attacks, usually responding to double dose of intravenous Aminophylline and double dose of Hydrocortisone was received at medical emergency care unit at midnight with night-time asthma attack. The attack did not settle ...

  17. Cuff inflations do not affect night-time blood pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Emilie H; Theilade, Simone; Hansen, Tine W

    2015-01-01

    Discomfort related to cuff inflation may bias 24 h ambulatory blood pressure (BP) measurements, especially during night-time. We accessed the impact of cuff inflations by comparing 24 h BP recorded with a cuff-less tonometric wrist device and an upper-arm oscillometric cuff device. Fifty...

  18. Dry eye signs and symptoms in night-time workers

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Makateb; Hamed Torabifard

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the effect of night-time working on dry eye signs and symptoms. Methods: A total of 50 healthy subjects completed a dry eye questionnaire and underwent clinical examinations including basic Schirmer's test and tear breakup time (TBUT) test on two consecutive days, before and after the night shift (12-hrs night-shift). Results: All dry eye symptoms were aggravated significantly after the night shift (P 

  19. Parameter study on performance of building cooling by night-time ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Artmann, Nikolai; Manz, H.; Heiselberg, Per

    2008-01-01

    of different parameters such as building construction, heat gains, air change rates, heat transfer coefficients and climatic conditions including annual variations on the number of overheating degree hours (operative room temperature >26 °C) was evaluated. Climatic conditions and air flow rate during night......Especially for commercial buildings in moderate climates, night-time ventilation seems to be a simple and energy-efficient approach to improve thermal comfort in summer. However, due to uncertainties in the prediction of thermal comfort in buildings with night-time ventilation, architects...... and engineers are still hesitant to apply this technique. In order to reduce the uncertainties, the most important parameters affecting night ventilation performance need to be identified. A typical office room was therefore modelled using a building energy simulation programme (HELIOS), and the effect...

  20. Impact of Air Distribution on Heat Transfer during Night-Time Ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Per; Artmann, Nikolai; Jensen, Rasmus Lund

    2009-01-01

    Passive cooling by night-time ventilation is seen as a promising approach for energy efficient cooling of buildings. However, uncertainties in prediction of cooling potential and consequenses for thermal comfort restrain architects and engineers from applying this technique. Heat transfer...... at internal room surfaces determines the performance of night-time ventilation. In order to improve predictability, heat transfer mechanism in case of either mixing or displacement ventilation has been investigated in a full scale test room with an exposed ceiling as the dominating thermal mass. The influence...... of air distribution principle, air flow rate and inlet air temperature were investigated. Results show that for low air flow rates displacement ventilation is more efficient than mixing ventilation. For higher airflow rates the air jet flowing along the ceiling has a significant effect, and mixing...

  1. Experimental Investigation of Heat Transfer during Night-Time Ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Artmann, Nikolai; Jensen, Rasmus Lund; Manz, H.

    2010-01-01

    is the heat transfer at the internal room surfaces. Increased convection is expected due to high air flow rates and the possibility of a cold air jet flowing along the ceiling, but the magnitude of these effects is hard to predict. In order to improve the predictability, heat transfer during night......-time ventilation in case of mixing and displacement ventilation has been investigated in a full scale test room. The results show that for low air flow rates displacement ventilation is more efficient than mixing ventilation. For higher air flow rates the air jet flowing along the ceiling has a significant effect...

  2. Climatic potential for passive cooling of buildings by night-time ventilation in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Artmann, Nikolai; Manz, H.; Heiselberg, Per

    2006-01-01

    Due to an overall trend towards less heating and more cooling demands in buildings in many European countries over the last few decades, passive cooling by night-time ventilation is seen as a promising technique, particularly for commercial buildings in the moderate or cold climates of Central......, without considering any building-specific parameters. An approach for calculating degree-hours based on a variable building temperature - within a standardized range of thermal comfort - is presented and applied to climatic data of 259 stations all over Europe. The results show a high potential for night...

  3. Measuring urban sprawl in China by night time light images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lu; Tang, Lin

    2017-01-01

    In the process of urbanization, a phenomenon called “urban sprawl” usually occurs. This phenomenon may exaggerated the negative effects of urbanization on environment, public and social health, energy efficiency, and maintenance of farmland. Therefore, the understanding of this phenomenon is urgently required for us to achieve sustainable development. This study proposed a group of night time lights (NTL) indicators of urban sprawl, which intend to use the distribution of lightness to quantify urban sprawl. These measures are proved to be efficient in describing urban sprawl. In addition, they are consistent and easy calculating, making comparison analysis easy to be done. These indicators are used to study urban sprawl in China during the year 2000 to 2010, the results show that in the last ten years, metropolitan areas in the northern part of China have undergone a more sprawl-like urban growth compared with other parts of China.

  4. Global Night-Time Lights for Observing Human Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hipskind, Stephen R.; Elvidge, Chris; Gurney, K.; Imhoff, Mark; Bounoua, Lahouari; Sheffner, Edwin; Nemani, Ramakrishna R.; Pettit, Donald R.; Fischer, Marc

    2011-01-01

    We present a concept for a small satellite mission to make systematic, global observations of night-time lights with spatial resolution suitable for discerning the extent, type and density of human settlements. The observations will also allow better understanding of fine scale fossil fuel CO2 emission distribution. The NASA Earth Science Decadal Survey recommends more focus on direct observations of human influence on the Earth system. The most dramatic and compelling observations of human presence on the Earth are the night light observations taken by the Defence Meteorological System Program (DMSP) Operational Linescan System (OLS). Beyond delineating the footprint of human presence, night light data, when assembled and evaluated with complementary data sets, can determine the fine scale spatial distribution of global fossil fuel CO2 emissions. Understanding fossil fuel carbon emissions is critical to understanding the entire carbon cycle, and especially the carbon exchange between terrestrial and oceanic systems.

  5. Snow precipitation on Mars driven by cloud-induced night-time convection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiga, Aymeric; Hinson, David P.; Madeleine, Jean-Baptiste; Navarro, Thomas; Millour, Ehouarn; Forget, François; Montmessin, Franck

    2017-09-01

    Although it contains less water vapour than Earth's atmosphere, the Martian atmosphere hosts clouds. These clouds, composed of water-ice particles, influence the global transport of water vapour and the seasonal variations of ice deposits. However, the influence of water-ice clouds on local weather is unclear: it is thought that Martian clouds are devoid of moist convective motions, and snow precipitation occurs only by the slow sedimentation of individual particles. Here we present numerical simulations of the meteorology in Martian cloudy regions that demonstrate that localized convective snowstorms can occur on Mars. We show that such snowstorms--or ice microbursts--can explain deep night-time mixing layers detected from orbit and precipitation signatures detected below water-ice clouds by the Phoenix lander. In our simulations, convective snowstorms occur only during the Martian night, and result from atmospheric instability due to radiative cooling of water-ice cloud particles. This triggers strong convective plumes within and below clouds, with fast snow precipitation resulting from the vigorous descending currents. Night-time convection in Martian water-ice clouds and the associated snow precipitation lead to transport of water both above and below the mixing layers, and thus would affect Mars' water cycle past and present, especially under the high-obliquity conditions associated with a more intense water cycle.

  6. Strong anisotropy in the low temperature Compton profiles of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    able for comparison with theory, the resistivity data in α-Ga at low temperature strongly support this anisotropic ... renormalized free-atom (RFA) model [3], band model [5–7] and quantum Monte Carlo ... probability distribution function.

  7. Heritability of siesta and night-time sleep as continuously assessed by a circadian-related integrated measure

    OpenAIRE

    Lopez-Minguez, J.; Morosoli, J. J.; Madrid, J. A.; Garaulet, M.; Ordoñana, J. R.

    2017-01-01

    Siesta is a relevant aspect of sleep due to its posited relationship with health or cognitive function. However, unlike night-time sleep, studies about daytime-sleep determinants and characteristics are scarce, and the genetic/environmental structure of siesta is still unknown. Our aim was to explore the relative contribution of genetic and environmental factors to variation in sleep-wake rhythm, measured by a continuous assessment of temperature-activity-position (TAP), which allows for diur...

  8. Longitudinal effect in the night-time mid-latitude ionosphere according to the Interkosmos-19 data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deminov, M.G.; Karpachev, A.T.

    1988-01-01

    Longitudinal effects in the night-time mid-latitude external ionosphere for summer and winter conditions of the high solar activity period are analysed. The high amplitude of longitudinal changes of the external ionosphere, including changes of the height (upto 150 km) and the concentration (7-8 times) of the F2-layer maximum, is shown to be provided under winter mid-night-time conditions with high values of the zone component of the wind velocity and strong latitude gradients and with longitudinal changes of the meridional projection of the wind velocity. N changes with the longitude before the Sun setting, when the zone component of the wind velocity is maximum, made the main contribution in summer to longitudinal changes of the electron concentration of the N night ionosphere. The wind velocity phase shift during the season lleads to the fact that the maximum amplitude of N longitudinal changes is observed till midnight in summer and after midnight in winter

  9. Why does the martensitic transformation temperature strongly depend on composition?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren, X.; Otsuka, K.

    2000-01-01

    The reason for the strong composition and heat-treatment dependence of the martensitic transformation temperature was investigated by a simple Landau-type model. Assuming the anharmonic and coupling coefficients are insensitive to composition, we obtained an important result martensitic transformation occurs at a critical elastic constant c' and a critical TA 2 phonon energy ω η 2 , which are independent of alloy composition. This result gained support from a large body of experimental data of Cu-based alloys. Since c' and phonon energy are strongly dependent on composition, the constancy of c' at Ms demands that the (transformation) temperature must exhibit an opposite effect to compensate the composition effect. Therefore, the lower the c', the higher the Ms is. Because the temperature dependence of c' is weak (due to the 1 st order nature of the transformation), the big c' change by a slight composition change must be compensated by a large change in temperature. Thus Ms has strong composition dependence. The effect of quench is to increase point defects, being equivalent to a composition change, thus has a strong effect on Ms. From the present study, we can conclude that the strong composition dependence of Ms is mainly a harmonic effect. (orig.)

  10. Experimental Investigation of the Heat Transfer in a Room using Night-Time Coling by Mixing Ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Rasmus Lund; Nørgaard, Jesper; Daniels, Ole

    2011-01-01

    of full-scale measurements. The efficiency of night-time ventilation depends on the outdoor temperature and the heat transfer between the room air and the building constructions. In a full-scale test room the heat transfer was investigated during 12 hour of discharging by night-time ventilation. Three...... areas and the convective heat transfer coefficient ranged between 5 and 30 W/m2. The ratio of convective to total heat flow from the ceiling depends on the air change rate, ranging from approximately 40% at the low air change rates to approximately 70% at the high air change rate. Even though radiation......For many years focus has been on reducing the energy need for heating in buildings. This has lead to buildings with low energy demands for heating but often at the expense of the need for cooling of the building. In order to design buildings with low or zero energy need energy efficient strategies...

  11. Potential for passive cooling of buildings by night-time ventilation in present and future climates in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Artmann, Nikolai; Manz, Heinrich; Heiselberg, Per

    2006-01-01

    Given the general shift in recent decades towards a lower heating and higher cooling demand for buildings in many European countries, passive cooling by night-time ventilation has come to be seen as a promising option, particularly in the moderate or cold climates of Central, Eastern and Northern...... Europe. The basic concept involves cooling the building structure overnight in order to provide a heat sink that is available during the occupancy period. In this study, the potential for the passive cooling of buildings by night-time ventilation is evaluated by analysing climatic data, irrespective...... of any building-specific parameters. An approach for calculating degree-hours based on a variable building temperature - within a standardized range of thermal comfort - is presented and applied to climatic data from 259 stations throughout Europe. The results show a very high potential for night...

  12. Universal contact of strongly interacting fermions at finite temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu Hui; Liu Xiaji; Drummond, Peter D, E-mail: hhu@swin.edu.au, E-mail: xiajiliu@swin.edu.au, E-mail: pdrummond@swin.edu.au [ARC Centre of Excellence for Quantum-Atom Optics, Centre for Atom Optics and Ultrafast Spectroscopy, Swinburne University of Technology, Melbourne 3122 (Australia)

    2011-03-15

    The recently discovered universal thermodynamic behavior of dilute, strongly interacting Fermi gases also implies a universal structure in the many-body pair-correlation function at short distances, as quantified by the contact I. Here, we theoretically calculate the temperature dependence of this universal contact for a Fermi gas in free space and in a harmonic trap. At high temperatures above the Fermi degeneracy temperature, T{approx}>T{sub F}, we obtain a reliable non-perturbative quantum virial expansion up to third order. At low temperatures, we compare different approximate strong-coupling theories. These make different predictions, which need to be tested either by future experiments or by advanced quantum Monte Carlo simulations. We conjecture that in the universal unitarity limit, the contact or correlation decreases monotonically with increasing temperature, unless the temperature is significantly lower than the critical temperature, T<

  13. Comparison of daytime and night-time populations adjacent to interstate highways in metropolitan areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, G.S.; Neuhauser, K.S.

    1999-01-01

    Daytime and night-time population densities bordering Interstate highway routes in metropolitan areas are compared at the traffic analysis zone level. In three of the metropolitan areas studied, histograms of daytime to night-time population density ratios are peaked at 1.0. In a smaller metropolitan area, the peak of the histogram moves to values greater than 1.0 but less than 2.0. In view of the typical uncertainties in calculating radiological transport effects (∼2), this study indicates that a distinction between daytime and night-time transport is not warranted, especially since a typical route includes extensive transport outside metropolitan areas. (author)

  14. Radial Distribution Functions of Strongly Coupled Two-Temperature Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, Nathaniel R.; Tiwari, Sanat Kumar; Baalrud, Scott D.

    2017-10-01

    We present tests of three theoretical models for the radial distribution functions (RDFs) in two-temperature strongly coupled plasmas. RDFs are useful in extending plasma thermodynamics and kinetic theory to strong coupling, but they are usually known only for thermal equilibrium or for approximate one-component model plasmas. Accurate two-component modeling is necessary to understand the impact of strong coupling on inter-species transport, e.g., ambipolar diffusion and electron-ion temperature relaxation. We demonstrate that the Seuferling-Vogel-Toeppfer (SVT) extension of the hypernetted chain equations not only gives accurate RDFs (as compared with classical molecular dynamics simulations), but also has a simple connection with the Yukawa OCP model. This connection gives a practical means to recover the structure of the electron background from knowledge of the ion-ion RDF alone. Using the model RDFs in Effective Potential Theory, we report the first predictions of inter-species transport coefficients of strongly coupled plasmas far from equilibrium. This work is supported by NSF Grant No. PHY-1453736, AFSOR Award No. FA9550-16-1-0221, and used XSEDE computational resources.

  15. The relation between residential property and its surroundings and day- and night-time residential burglary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montoya, Lorena; Junger, Marianne; Ongena, Yfke

    This article examines how residential property and its surroundings influence day- and night-time residential burglary. Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design (CPTED) principles of territoriality, surveillance, access control, target hardening, image maintenance, and activity support underpin

  16. The Relation Between Residential Property and its Surroundings and Day- and Night-Time Residential Burglary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montoya, L.; Junger, Marianne; Ongena, Yfke

    This article examines how residential property and its surroundings influence day- and night-time residential burglary. Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design (CPTED) principles of territoriality, surveillance, access control, target hardening, image maintenance, and activity support underpin

  17. Daytime warming has stronger negative effects on soil nematodes than night-time warming

    OpenAIRE

    Yan, Xiumin; Wang, Kehong; Song, Lihong; Wang, Xuefeng; Wu, Donghui

    2017-01-01

    Warming of the climate system is unequivocal, that is, stronger warming during night-time than during daytime. Here we focus on how soil nematodes respond to the current asymmetric warming. A field infrared heating experiment was performed in the western of the Songnen Plain, Northeast China. Three warming modes, i.e. daytime warming, night-time warming and diurnal warming, were taken to perform the asymmetric warming condition. Our results showed that the daytime and diurnal warming treatmen...

  18. Cooling of the Building Structure by Night-time Ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Artmann, Nikolai

    is essential for effective night cooling, and thus a sufficient amount of thermal mass is needed in the building. In order to assess the impact of different parameters, such as slab thickness, material properties and the surface heat transfer, the dynamic heat storage capacity of building elements...... was quantified based on an analytical solution of one-dimensional heat conduction in a slab with convective boundary condition. The potential of increasing thermal mass by using phase change materials (PCM) was also estimated. The results show a significant impact of the heat transfer coefficient on heat storage...... a building energy simulation program (HELIOS), and the effect of different parameters such as building construction, heat gains, air change rates, heat transfer coefficients and climatic conditions on the number of overheating degree hours (operative room temperature >26 °C) was evaluated. Besides climatic...

  19. A multifluid model extended for strong temperature nonequilibrium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Chong [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-08-08

    We present a multifluid model in which the material temperature is strongly affected by the degree of segregation of each material. In order to track temperatures of segregated form and mixed form of the same material, they are defined as different materials with their own energy. This extension makes it necessary to extend multifluid models to the case in which each form is defined as a separate material. Statistical variations associated with the morphology of the mixture have to be simplified. Simplifications introduced include combining all molecularly mixed species into a single composite material, which is treated as another segregated material. Relative motion within the composite material, diffusion, is represented by material velocity of each component in the composite material. Compression work, momentum and energy exchange, virtual mass forces, and dissipation of the unresolved kinetic energy have been generalized to the heterogeneous mixture in temperature nonequilibrium. The present model can be further simplified by combining all mixed forms of materials into a composite material. Molecular diffusion in this case is modeled by the Stefan-Maxwell equations.

  20. WRF-Chem model predictions of the regional impacts of N2O5 heterogeneous processes on night-time chemistry over north-western Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Lowe

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Chemical modelling studies have been conducted over north-western Europe in summer conditions, showing that night-time dinitrogen pentoxide (N2O5 heterogeneous reactive uptake is important regionally in modulating particulate nitrate and has a~modest influence on oxidative chemistry. Results from Weather Research and Forecasting model with Chemistry (WRF-Chem model simulations, run with a detailed volatile organic compound (VOC gas-phase chemistry scheme and the Model for Simulating Aerosol Interactions and Chemistry (MOSAIC sectional aerosol scheme, were compared with a series of airborne gas and particulate measurements made over the UK in July 2010. Modelled mixing ratios of key gas-phase species were reasonably accurate (correlations with measurements of 0.7–0.9 for NO2 and O3. However modelled loadings of particulate species were less accurate (correlation with measurements for particulate sulfate and ammonium were between 0.0 and 0.6. Sulfate mass loadings were particularly low (modelled means of 0.5–0.7 μg kg−1air, compared with measurements of 1.0–1.5 μg kg−1air. Two flights from the campaign were used as test cases – one with low relative humidity (RH (60–70%, the other with high RH (80–90%. N2O5 heterogeneous chemistry was found to not be important in the low-RH test case; but in the high-RH test case it had a strong effect and significantly improved the agreement between modelled and measured NO3 and N2O5. When the model failed to capture atmospheric RH correctly, the modelled NO3 and N2O5 mixing ratios for these flights differed significantly from the measurements. This demonstrates that, for regional modelling which involves heterogeneous processes, it is essential to capture the ambient temperature and water vapour profiles. The night-time NO3 oxidation of VOCs across the whole region was found to be 100–300 times slower than the daytime OH oxidation of these compounds. The difference in contribution was less

  1. Regional amplification of projected changes in extreme temperatures strongly controlled by soil moisture-temperature feedbacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, M. M.; Orth, R.; Cheruy, F.; Hagemann, S.; Lorenz, R.; Hurk, B. J. J. M.; Seneviratne, S. I.

    2017-02-01

    Regional hot extremes are projected to increase more strongly than global mean temperature, with substantially larger changes than 2°C even if global warming is limited to this level. We investigate the role of soil moisture-temperature feedbacks for this response based on multimodel experiments for the 21st century with either interactive or fixed (late 20th century mean seasonal cycle) soil moisture. We analyze changes in the hottest days in each year in both sets of experiments, relate them to the global mean temperature increase, and investigate processes leading to these changes. We find that soil moisture-temperature feedbacks significantly contribute to the amplified warming of the hottest days compared to that of global mean temperature. This contribution reaches more than 70% in Central Europe and Central North America. Soil moisture trends are more important for this response than short-term soil moisture variability. These results are relevant for reducing uncertainties in regional temperature projections.

  2. Regional amplification of projected changes in extreme temperatures strongly controlled by soil moisture-temperature feedbacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Martha Marie; Orth, René; Cheruy, Frederique; Hagemann, Stefan; Lorenz, Ruth; van den Hurk, Bart; Seneviratne, Sonia Isabelle

    2017-04-01

    Regional hot extremes are projected to increase more strongly than global mean temperature, with substantially larger changes than 2°C even if global warming is limited to this level. We investigate here the role of soil moisture-temperature feedbacks for this response based on multi-model experiments for the 21st century with either interactive or fixed (late 20th century mean seasonal cycle) soil moisture. We analyze changes in the hottest days in each year in both sets of experiments, relate them to the global mean temperature increase, and investigate physical processes leading to these changes. We find that soil moisture-temperature feedbacks significantly contribute to the amplified warming of hottest days compared to that of global mean temperature. This contribution reaches more than 70% in Central Europe and Central North America and between 42%-52% in Amazonia, Northern Australia and Southern Africa. Soil moisture trends (multi-decadal soil moisture variability) are more important for this response than short-term (e.g. seasonal, interannual) soil moisture variability. These results are relevant for reducing uncertainties in regional temperature projections. Vogel, M.M. et al.,2017. Regional amplification of projected changes in extreme temperatures strongly controlled by soil moisture-temperature feedbacks. Geophysical Research Letters, accepted.

  3. QUOTAC: QUestionnaire On day and night Time respiratory symptoms in Asthmatic Children -- a validity study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zaane, B.; Droog, R. P.; Stouthard, M. E. A.; van Aalderen, W. M. C.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to validate the QUOTAC, a questionnaire on day and night time respiratory symptoms in asthmatic children. Validity was examined by measuring agreement between the QUOTAC and a self-report diary in children aged 6 to 16 years, divided in an asthma group and a control group.

  4. Safety, surveillance and policing in the night-time economy: a visitor perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brands, J.

    2014-01-01

    The current doctoral thesis takes particular interest in the city-centre night-time economy (NTE), against a background of literatures that link economic vitality of city-centres, consumption and safety to greater need for surveillance and policing. Increasingly, nightlife is being problematized in

  5. Fast and true-to-life application of daytime colours to night-time imagery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogervorst, M.A.; Toet, A.

    2007-01-01

    We developed a fast and efficient method to derive and apply a natural colour mapping for night-time imagery from multi-band sensors. The colour mapping is derived from the combination of a multi-band image and a corresponding natural colour reference image. The mapping optimizes the match between

  6. Factors associated with night-time calf muscle cramps: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawke, Fiona; Chuter, Vivienne; Burns, Joshua

    2013-03-01

    Although highly prevalent and painful, night-time calf muscle cramping is poorly understood, and no treatment has shown consistent efficacy or safety. One hundred sixty adults were recruited from New South Wales, Australia, including 80 who had night-time calf cramping at least once per week and 80 age- and gender-matched adults who did not. Participants were assessed using reliable tests of lower limb strength, flexibility, morphometrics, circulation, and sensation, and were questioned about health and lifestyle factors, diet, medications, exercise, symptomatology, sleeping habits, and footwear. Conditional logistic regression identified 3 factors independently associated with night-time calf muscle cramps: muscle twitching (OR 4.6, 95% CI 1.6-15.5, P = 0.01); lower limb tingling (OR 4.1, 95% CI 1.6-10.3, P = 0.003); and foot dorsiflexion weakness (OR 1.02, 95% CI 1.01-1.03, P = 0.002), which represented other measures of lower limb weakness in the model. Night-time calf muscle cramps were associated with markers of neurological dysfunction and potential musculoskeletal therapeutic targets. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., a Wiley company.

  7. Strong anisotropy in the low temperature Compton profiles of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Compton profiles of momentum distribution of conduction electrons in the orthorhombic phase of -Ga metal at low temperature are calculated in the band model for the three crystallographic directions (100), (010), and (001). Unlike the results at room temperature, previously reported by Lengeler, Lasser and Mair, the ...

  8. A natural-color mapping for single-band night-time image based on FPGA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yilun; Qian, Yunsheng

    2018-01-01

    A natural-color mapping for single-band night-time image method based on FPGA can transmit the color of the reference image to single-band night-time image, which is consistent with human visual habits and can help observers identify the target. This paper introduces the processing of the natural-color mapping algorithm based on FPGA. Firstly, the image can be transformed based on histogram equalization, and the intensity features and standard deviation features of reference image are stored in SRAM. Then, the real-time digital images' intensity features and standard deviation features are calculated by FPGA. At last, FPGA completes the color mapping through matching pixels between images using the features in luminance channel.

  9. Prevalence and correlates of drink driving within patrons of Australian night-time entertainment precincts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Ashlee; Coomber, Kerri; Hyder, Shannon; Droste, Nic; Pennay, Amy; Jenkinson, Rebecca; Mayshak, Richelle; Miller, Peter G

    2016-10-01

    Drink driving is a significant public health concern, and contributes to many road fatalities worldwide. The current study is the first to examine the prevalence and correlates of drink driving behavior in a sample of night-time entertainment precinct attendees in Australia. Interviews were conducted with 4214 night-time entertainment precinct attendees in two metropolitan and three regional cities in Australia. Seven correlates of self-reported drink driving were examined: gender, age, occupation, blood alcohol concentration (BAC), alcohol consumed prior to attending a licensed venue, energy drink consumption, and other drug consumption. Fourteen percent of night-time entertainment precinct attendees reported drink driving in the past three months. Bivariate logistic regression models indicated that males were significantly more likely than females to report drink driving in the past three months. Blue-collar workers and sales/clerical/administrative workers were significantly more likely to report drink driving behavior in the past three months than white-collar workers. The likelihood of reporting drink driving during the three months prior to interview significantly increased as BAC on the current night out increased, and when patrons reported engaging in pre-drinking or other drug use. The multivariate model presented a similar pattern of results, however BAC and pre-drinking on the night of the interview were no longer independent significant predictors. Males, blue collar/sales/clerical/administrative workers, and illicit drug consumers were more likely to report engaging in drink driving behavior than their counterparts. Interventions should focus on addressing the considerable proportion night-time entertainment precinct attendees who report engaging in drink driving behavior. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Lane Departure System Design using with IR Camera for Night-time Road Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman Onur Akırmak

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Today, one of the largest areas of research and development in the automobile industry is road safety. Many deaths and injuries occur every year on public roads from accidents caused by sleepy drivers, that technology could have been used to prevent. Lane detection at night-time is an important issue in driving assistance systems. This paper deals with vision-based lane detection and tracking at night-time. This project consists of a research and development of an algorithm for automotive systems to detect the departure of vehicle from out of lane. Once the situation is detected, a warning is issued to the driver with sound and visual message through “Head Up Display” (HUD system. The lane departure is detected through the images obtained from a single IR camera, which identifies the departure at a satisfactory accuracy via improved quality of video stream. Our experimental results and accuracy evaluation show that our algorithm has good precision and our detecting method is suitable for night-time road conditions.

  11. Strong increase in convective precipitation in response to higher temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, P.; Moseley, C.; Härter, Jan Olaf Mirko

    2013-01-01

    Precipitation changes can affect society more directly than variations in most other meteorological observables, but precipitation is difficult to characterize because of fluctuations on nearly all temporal and spatial scales. In addition, the intensity of extreme precipitation rises markedly...... at higher temperature, faster than the rate of increase in the atmosphere's water-holding capacity, termed the Clausius-Clapeyron rate. Invigoration of convective precipitation (such as thunderstorms) has been favoured over a rise in stratiform precipitation (such as large-scale frontal precipitation......) as a cause for this increase , but the relative contributions of these two types of precipitation have been difficult to disentangle. Here we combine large data sets from radar measurements and rain gauges over Germany with corresponding synoptic observations and temperature records, and separate convective...

  12. Homicides with direct and indirect links to the night-time economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomsen, Stephen

    2018-06-11

    Alcohol use and homicide are a wide community concern with particular interest in understanding and preventing attacks (e.g. 'one punch' male on male attacks) in commercial nightlife settings with high levels of collective drinking. There is insufficient knowledge of the long-term patterns in this violence or the relationship between public drinking and flow on violence in other social settings. Alcohol-related homicides were those in which alcohol consumption was a contributing factor. Those also linked to purchase or consumption in locations where alcohol is sold after dark were classified as night-time economy related. The study comprised a first-hand analysis of files in the archive of the Australian National Homicide Monitoring Program in 2 years with a decade gap (1998/1999-2007/2008), and it classified 73 of all 238 alcohol-related incidents by direct or indirect relation to public nightlife settings. Related homicides in these years were not highly concentrated in developed night-time economies, but more spread outside major nightlife zones. Indirectly related killings were even more dispersed and included more women victims killed in domestic settings. There is a consistent though dispersed relationship between heavy public drinking at night and homicide. Concerns about homicide and night-time drinking leisure with mostly male victims attacked in well-known areas of busy city nightlife, must also consider the broader gendered patterns of 'flow on' nightlife-related incidents, including fatal semi-private and domestic violence that is indirectly but importantly related to drinking and alcohol purchase in public commercial nightlife. © 2018 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  13. Social crowding in the night-time reduces an anxiety-like behavior and increases social interaction in adolescent mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ago, Yukio; Tanaka, Tatsunori; Ota, Yuki; Kitamoto, Mari; Imoto, Emina; Takuma, Kazuhiro; Matsuda, Toshio

    2014-08-15

    Rearing in crowded conditions is a psychosocial stressor that affects biological functions. The effects of continuous crowding for many days have been studied, but those of crowding over a limited time have not. In this study, we examined the effects of night-time or daytime crowding over 2 weeks on behavior in adolescent and adult mice. Crowding (20 mice/cage) in either the night-time or daytime did not affect locomotor activity in the open field test or cognitive function in the fear conditioning test. In contrast, night-time crowding, but not daytime crowding, had an anxiolytic effect in the elevated plus-maze test and increased social interaction in adolescent mice, but not in adult mice. The first night-time, but not daytime, crowding increased plasma corticosterone levels in adolescent mice, although night-time crowding over 2 weeks did not affect the corticosterone levels. Furthermore, no significant effects of the first crowding were observed in adult mice. In a second crowding condition (six mice/small cage), the anxiolytic-like effects of night-time crowding and the change in plasma corticosterone levels were not observed, suggesting that the density of mice is not important for the behavioral consequences of crowding. Night-time crowding did not affect neurotrophic/growth factor levels and hippocampal neurogenesis in adolescent mice. These findings suggest that night-time crowding leads to anxiolytic-like behaviors in adolescent mice, and imply that night-time crowding stress in adolescence may be beneficial to brain functions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. A multistage multinational triangulation approach to hazard identification in night-time offshore helicopter operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nascimento, Felipe A.C.; Majumdar, Arnab; Ochieng, Washington Y.; Jarvis, Steve R.

    2012-01-01

    When visibility is poor offshore helicopter operations are prone to accidents. Given that a significant increase in night-time activities is predicted in the near future, this paper proposes a systemic approach to account for all the factors underlying such accidents. It presents the results of accident analysis and interviews of pilots from five different scenarios using cognitive task analysis, followed by rigorous application of Grounded Theory and Template Analysis to the narratives. The results are used to compile a comprehensive list of the factors that affect the ability of pilots to fly at night. These factors should form the basis for future data collection and safety interventions.

  15. A multistage multinational triangulation approach to hazard identification in night-time offshore helicopter operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nascimento, Felipe A.C., E-mail: f.a.c.nascimento@imperial.ac.uk [Imperial College London, The Lloyd' s Register Educational Trust Transport Risk Management Centre, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, South Kensington campus, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Majumdar, Arnab [Imperial College London, The Lloyd' s Register Educational Trust Transport Risk Management Centre, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, South Kensington campus, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Ochieng, Washington Y., E-mail: w.ochieng@imperial.ac.uk [Imperial College London, Centre for Transport Studies, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, South Kensington campus, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Jarvis, Steve R., E-mail: s.r.jarvis@cranfield.ac.uk [Cranfield University, Cranfield Centre for Aviation Human Factors, Department of Air Transport, School of Engineering, Cranfield, Bedfordshire MK43 0AL (United Kingdom)

    2012-12-15

    When visibility is poor offshore helicopter operations are prone to accidents. Given that a significant increase in night-time activities is predicted in the near future, this paper proposes a systemic approach to account for all the factors underlying such accidents. It presents the results of accident analysis and interviews of pilots from five different scenarios using cognitive task analysis, followed by rigorous application of Grounded Theory and Template Analysis to the narratives. The results are used to compile a comprehensive list of the factors that affect the ability of pilots to fly at night. These factors should form the basis for future data collection and safety interventions.

  16. Sleeping position and reported night-time asthma symptoms and medication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalolella, Admirabilis Beno

    2016-01-01

    A 49 years old man, known case of bronchial asthma for 43 years, with history of frequent asthmatic attacks, usually responding to double dose of intravenous Aminophylline and double dose of Hydrocortisone was received at medical emergency care unit at midnight with night-time asthma attack. The attack did not settle with Aminophylline single Intravenous injection. He was then admitted and put in supine sleep position for re-evaluation while his asthma symptoms were monitored while waiting for the medical officer's evaluation of his asthma status. After 3 hours of observation, asthma symptoms were relieved, and patient was discharged home and advised to sleep in supine position throughout every night to prevent asthma symptoms. The patient was followed up through nighttime sleep diary for one month. After one month period of monitoring, the patient had significance reduction in asthma symptoms and reduced night time medication, reduced episodes of night awakening due to asthma symptoms, and improved capability for normal works. This case report describes a novel approach of management and prophylaxis of asthmatic episodes through sleeping position that reduces and control asthma symptoms resulting in reduced drug consumption.

  17. Sport Transition of JPSS VIIRS Imagery for Night-time Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuell, Kevin; LeRoy, Anita; Smith, Matt; Miller, Steve; Kann, Diedre; Bernhardt, David; Reydell, Nezette; Cox, Robert

    2014-01-01

    The NASA/Short-term Prediction, Research, and Transition (SPoRT) Program and NOAA/Cooperative Institute for Research in the Atmosphere (CIRA) work within the NOAA/Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) Proving Ground to demonstrate the unique capabilities of the VIIRS instrument. Very similar to MODIS, the VIIRS instrument provides many high-resolution visible and infrared channels in a broad spectrum. In addition, VIIRS is equipped with a low-light sensor that is able to detect light emissions from the land and atmosphere as well as reflected sunlight by the lunar surface. This band is referred to as the Day-Night Band due to the sunlight being used at night to see cloud and topographic features just as one would typically see in day-time visible imagery. NWS forecast offices that collaborate with SPoRT and CIRA have utilized MODIS imagery in operations, but have longed for more frequent passes of polar-orbiting data. The VIIRS instrument enhances SPoRT collaborations with WFOs by providing another day and night-time pass, and at times two additional passes due to its large swath width. This means that multi-spectral, RGB imagery composites are more readily available to prepare users for their use in GOES-R era and high-resolution imagery for use in high-latitudes is more frequently able to supplement standard GOES imagery within the SPoRT Hybrid GEO-LEO product. The transition of VIIRS also introduces the new Day-Night Band capability to forecast operations. An Intensive Evaluation Period (IEP) was conducted in Summer 2013 with a group of "Front Range" NWS offices related to VIIRS night-time imagery. VIIRS single-channel imagery is able to better analyze the specific location of fire hotspots and other land features, as well as provide a more true measurement of various cloud and aerosol properties than geostationary measurements, especially at night. Viewed within the SPoRT Hybrid imagery, the VIIRS data allows forecasters to better interpret the more frequent, but

  18. Reducing the ecological consequences of night-time light pollution: options and developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaston, Kevin J; Davies, Thomas W; Bennie, Jonathan; Hopkins, John

    2012-12-01

    1. Much concern has been expressed about the ecological consequences of night-time light pollution. This concern is most often focused on the encroachment of artificial light into previously unlit areas of the night-time environment, but changes in the spectral composition, duration and spatial pattern of light are also recognized as having ecological effects.2. Here, we examine the potential consequences for organisms of five management options to reduce night-time light pollution. These are to (i) prevent areas from being artificially lit; (ii) limit the duration of lighting; (iii) reduce the 'trespass' of lighting into areas that are not intended to be lit (including the night sky); (iv) change the intensity of lighting; and (v) change the spectral composition of lighting.3. Maintaining and increasing natural unlit areas is likely to be the most effective option for reducing the ecological effects of lighting. However, this will often conflict with other social and economic objectives. Decreasing the duration of lighting will reduce energy costs and carbon emissions, but is unlikely to alleviate many impacts on nocturnal and crepuscular animals, as peak times of demand for lighting frequently coincide with those in the activities of these species. Reducing the trespass of lighting will maintain heterogeneity even in otherwise well-lit areas, providing dark refuges that mobile animals can exploit. Decreasing the intensity of lighting will reduce energy consumption and limit both skyglow and the area impacted by high-intensity direct light. Shifts towards 'whiter' light are likely to increase the potential range of environmental impacts as light is emitted across a broader range of wavelengths.4.Synthesis and applications. The artificial lightscape will change considerably over coming decades with the drive for more cost-effective low-carbon street lighting solutions and growth in the artificially lit area. Developing lighting strategies that minimize adverse

  19. Participatory Research to Design a Novel Telehealth System to Support the Night-Time Needs of People with Dementia: NOCTURNAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne Martin

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Strategies to support people living with dementia are broad in scope, proposing both pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions as part of the care pathway. Assistive technologies form part of this offering as both stand-alone devices to support particular tasks and the more complex offering of the “smart home” to underpin ambient assisted living. This paper presents a technology-based system, which expands on the smart home architecture, orientated to support people with daily living. The system, NOCTURNAL, was developed by working directly with people who had dementia, and their carers using qualitative research methods. The research focused primarily on the nighttime needs of people living with dementia in real home settings. Eight people with dementia had the final prototype system installed for a three month evaluation at home. Disturbed sleep patterns, night-time wandering were a focus of this research not only in terms of detection by commercially available technology but also exploring if automated music, light and visual personalized photographs would be soothing to participants during the hours of darkness. The NOCTURNAL platform and associated services was informed by strong user engagement of people with dementia and the service providers who care for them. NOCTURNAL emerged as a holistic service offering a personalised therapeutic aspect with interactive capabilities.

  20. Participatory research to design a novel telehealth system to support the night-time needs of people with dementia: NOCTURNAL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Suzanne; Augusto, Juan Carlos; McCullagh, Paul; Carswell, William; Zheng, Huiru; Wang, Haiying; Wallace, Jonathan; Mulvenna, Maurice

    2013-12-04

    Strategies to support people living with dementia are broad in scope, proposing both pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions as part of the care pathway. Assistive technologies form part of this offering as both stand-alone devices to support particular tasks and the more complex offering of the "smart home" to underpin ambient assisted living. This paper presents a technology-based system, which expands on the smart home architecture, orientated to support people with daily living. The system, NOCTURNAL, was developed by working directly with people who had dementia, and their carers using qualitative research methods. The research focused primarily on the nighttime needs of people living with dementia in real home settings. Eight people with dementia had the final prototype system installed for a three month evaluation at home. Disturbed sleep patterns, night-time wandering were a focus of this research not only in terms of detection by commercially available technology but also exploring if automated music, light and visual personalized photographs would be soothing to participants during the hours of darkness. The NOCTURNAL platform and associated services was informed by strong user engagement of people with dementia and the service providers who care for them. NOCTURNAL emerged as a holistic service offering a personalised therapeutic aspect with interactive capabilities.

  1. Regulating 'unruly' bodies: work tasks, conflict and violence in Britain's night-time economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaghan, Lee F

    2002-09-01

    Security work in urban licensed premises is a risky occupation in Britain's fast expanding liminal night-time economy. Sociologically, little is known about this masculinist work, including those embodied strategies used by doorstaff or 'bouncers' to regulate 'unruly' bodies in and around commercial space. Using participant observational data generated in south-west Britain, this paper describes how the door supervisors' routine work tasks (largely comprising requests and demands) provide the conditions of possibility for hierarchical conflict and (near) violence between themselves and (potential) customers inside and at the entrances to licensed premises. Besides providing a thick description of this work and the phenomenology of physical violence, the paper supports recent theoretical arguments for an explicitly embodied sociology. Centrally, the paper maintains that bodies matter and that an empirical, interpretative sociology cannot ignore the corporeal dimensions of social life if it is to arrive at an adequate understanding of everynight tensions and conflict.

  2. Night-Time Vehicle Detection Algorithm Based on Visual Saliency and Deep Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingfeng Cai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Night vision systems get more and more attention in the field of automotive active safety field. In this area, a number of researchers have proposed far-infrared sensor based night-time vehicle detection algorithm. However, existing algorithms have low performance in some indicators such as the detection rate and processing time. To solve this problem, we propose a far-infrared image vehicle detection algorithm based on visual saliency and deep learning. Firstly, most of the nonvehicle pixels will be removed with visual saliency computation. Then, vehicle candidate will be generated by using prior information such as camera parameters and vehicle size. Finally, classifier trained with deep belief networks will be applied to verify the candidates generated in last step. The proposed algorithm is tested in around 6000 images and achieves detection rate of 92.3% and processing time of 25 Hz which is better than existing methods.

  3. Queensland Alcohol-related violence and Night Time Economy Monitoring project (QUANTEM): a study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Peter G; Ferris, Jason; Coomber, Kerri; Zahnow, Renee; Carah, Nicholas; Jiang, Heng; Kypri, Kypros; Chikritzhs, Tanya; Clough, Alan; Livingston, Michael; de Andrade, Dominique; Room, Robin; Callinan, Sarah; Curtis, Ashlee; Mayshak, Richelle; Droste, Nicolas; Lloyd, Belinda; Matthews, Sharon; Taylor, Nicholas; Crane, Meredythe; Thorn, Michael; Najman, Jake

    2017-10-05

    Alcohol-related harm is a substantial burden on the community in Australia and internationally, particularly harm related to risky drinking practices of young people in the night-time economy. This protocol paper describes a study that will report on the changes in a wide range of health and justice outcome measures associated with major policy changes in the state of Queensland, Australia. A key element includes trading hours restrictions for licensed premises to 2 am for the state and 3 am in Safe Night Precincts (SNPs). Other measures introduced include drinks restrictions after midnight, increased patron banning measures for repeat offenders, mandatory ID scanning of patrons in late-night venues, and education campaigns. The primary aim of the study is to evaluate change in the levels of harm due to these policy changes using administrative data (e.g., police, hospital, ambulance, and court data). Other study elements will investigate the impact of the Policy by measuring foot traffic volume in SNPs, using ID scanner data to quantify the volume of people entering venues and measure the effectiveness of banning notices, using patron interviews to quantify the levels of pre-drinking, intoxication and illicit drug use within night-time economy districts, and to explore the impacts of the Policy on business and live music, and costs to the community. The information gathered through this project aims to evaluate the effectiveness of the Policy and to draw on these findings to inform future prevention and enforcement approaches by policy makers, police, and venue staff.

  4. Night-time care routine interaction and sleep disruption in adult cardiac surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casida, Jesus M; Davis, Jean E; Zalewski, Aaron; Yang, James J

    2018-04-01

    To explore the context and the influence of night-time care routine interactions (NCRIs) on night-time sleep effectiveness (NSE) and daytime sleepiness (DSS) of patients in the cardiac surgery critical-care and progressive-care units of a hospital. There exists a paucity of empirical data regarding the influence of NCRIs on sleep and associated outcomes in hospitalised adult cardiac surgery patients. An exploratory repeated-measures research design was employed on the data provided by 38 elective cardiac surgery patients (mean age 60.0 ± 15.9 years). NCRI forms were completed by the bedside nurses and patients completed a 9-item Visual Analogue Sleep Scale (100-mm horizontal lines measuring NSE and DSS variables). All data were collected during postoperative nights/days (PON/POD) 1 through 5 and analysed with IBM SPSS software. Patient assessment, medication administration and laboratory/diagnostic procedures were the top three NCRIs reported between midnight and 6:00 a.m. During PON/POD 1 through 5, the respective mean NSE and DSS scores ranged from 52.9 ± 17.2 to 57.8 ± 13.5 and from 27.0 ± 22.6 to 45.6 ± 16.5. Repeated-measures ANOVA showed significant changes in DSS scores (p  .05). Finally, of 8 NCRIs, only 1 (postoperative exercises) was significantly related to sleep variables (r > .40, p disruptions and daytime sleepiness in adult cardiac surgery. Worldwide, acute and critical-care nurses are well positioned to lead initiatives aimed at improving sleep and clinical outcomes in cardiac surgery. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Playing it safe: Patron safety strategies and experience of violence in night-time entertainment districts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jin; Droste, Nicolas; Curtis, Ashlee; Zinkiewicz, Lucy; Miller, Peter

    2018-03-01

    Incidences of violence are elevated in night-time entertainment districts. Research suggests that safety-related behavioural strategies adopted while drinking can reduce negative alcohol-related outcomes. The current study investigates the use of safety strategies and its association with experiences of violence among patrons from the general population. Patron interviews (N = 3949) were conducted in and around licenced venues in Newcastle (New South Wales) and Geelong (Victoria) during peak trading hours (Friday and Saturday, 21:00-01:00 h). Participants (mean age = 24.3, SD = 5.8; male 54.4%) were asked to report what measures, if any, they used to keep safe when drinking and whether they had been involved in a violent incident in the last 12 months. After controlling for patron demographics and location, the use of multiple (more than one) safety strategies was significantly associated with reduced odds of involvement in a violent incident (odds ratio = 0.64, 95% confidence interval 0.49-0.85, P = 0.002). Significant gender differences were observed in the number and type of safety strategies reported. Increasing the number of safety-related behaviours during drinking occasions is associated with a small but significant reduction in experiencing alcohol-related harms, such as violence. [Zhou J, Droste N, Curtis A, Zinkiewicz L, Miller P. Playing it safe: Patron safety strategies and experience of violence in night-time entertainment districts. © 2017 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  6. Queensland Alcohol-related violence and Night Time Economy Monitoring project (QUANTEM: a study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter G. Miller

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alcohol-related harm is a substantial burden on the community in Australia and internationally, particularly harm related to risky drinking practices of young people in the night-time economy. This protocol paper describes a study that will report on the changes in a wide range of health and justice outcome measures associated with major policy changes in the state of Queensland, Australia. A key element includes trading hours restrictions for licensed premises to 2 am for the state and 3 am in Safe Night Precincts (SNPs. Other measures introduced include drinks restrictions after midnight, increased patron banning measures for repeat offenders, mandatory ID scanning of patrons in late-night venues, and education campaigns. Methods The primary aim of the study is to evaluate change in the levels of harm due to these policy changes using administrative data (e.g., police, hospital, ambulance, and court data. Other study elements will investigate the impact of the Policy by measuring foot traffic volume in SNPs, using ID scanner data to quantify the volume of people entering venues and measure the effectiveness of banning notices, using patron interviews to quantify the levels of pre-drinking, intoxication and illicit drug use within night-time economy districts, and to explore the impacts of the Policy on business and live music, and costs to the community. Discussion The information gathered through this project aims to evaluate the effectiveness of the Policy and to draw on these findings to inform future prevention and enforcement approaches by policy makers, police, and venue staff.

  7. Behavioural sleep treatments and night time crying in infants: challenging the status quo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blunden, Sarah L; Thompson, Kirrilly R; Dawson, Drew

    2011-10-01

    In Australia, as in many Westernised industrialised nations, the majority of families encourage infants to sleep alone or 'solo' from an early age. Sleeping solo can increase night time crying, which in turn disrupts sleep for both parent and infant. Night time waking and crying are frequently culturally constructed as behavioural sleep 'problems'. The pursuit of solo sleeping is thus achieved through 'behavioural sleep treatments' that teach an infant to sleep alone. Some behavioural extinction treatments necessitate a parent leaving an infant to cry for extended periods unattended, a practice reportedly difficult for parents. Despite parent's anxieties, and the potential (though little studied) stress to the infant, the pursuit of those behavioural sleep treatments are advocated by many psychologists and clinicians as acceptable and necessary interventions. This paper questions this necessity and critically reviews and debates these methods from biological, anthropological and cultural perspectives. Specifically, it considers Foucaultian, Leidloffian, attachment and behavioural perspectives. The central debate in this paper is if and why an infant's nocturnal cries should be ignored. It challenges the aetiology and acceptance of the status quo in the hope of revisiting the underlying belief that these methods are necessary. In doing so, the paper theorises the ways in which current sleep training techniques do or do not satisfy the needs of infants and their parents and questions the extent to which they can be reconciled. The paper posits an agenda for further research in the area that may facilitate the reconciliation of the needs of parents and those of their infants. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Nutrient and water addition effects on day- and night-time conductance and transpiration in a C3 desert annual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, Fulco; Jewitt, Rebecca A; Donovan, Lisa A

    2006-06-01

    Recent research has shown that many C3 plant species have significant stomatal opening and transpire water at night even in desert habitats. Day-time stomatal regulation is expected to maximize carbon gain and prevent runaway cavitation, but little is known about the effect of soil resource availability on night-time stomatal conductance (g) and transpiration (E). Water (low and high) and nutrients (low and high) were applied factorially during the growing season to naturally occurring seedlings of the annual Helianthus anomalus. Plant height and biomass were greatest in the treatment where both water and nutrients were added, confirming resource limitations in this habitat. Plants from all treatments showed significant night-time g (approximately 0.07 mol m(-2) s(-1)) and E (approximately 1.5 mol m(-2) s(-1)). In July, water and nutrient additions had few effects on day- or night-time gas exchange. In August, however, plants in the nutrient addition treatments had lower day-time photosynthesis, g and E, paralleled by lower night-time g and E. Lower predawn water potentials and higher integrated photosynthetic water-use efficiency suggests that the nutrient addition indirectly induced a mild water stress. Thus, soil resources can affect night-time g and E in a manner parallel to day-time, although additional factors may also be involved.

  9. Modelled hydraulic redistribution by sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) matches observed data only after including night-time transpiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Rebecca B; Cardon, Zoe G; Teshera-Levye, Jennifer; Rockwell, Fulton E; Zwieniecki, Maciej A; Holbrook, N Michele

    2014-04-01

    The movement of water from moist to dry soil layers through the root systems of plants, referred to as hydraulic redistribution (HR), occurs throughout the world and is thought to influence carbon and water budgets and ecosystem functioning. The realized hydrologic, biogeochemical and ecological consequences of HR depend on the amount of redistributed water, whereas the ability to assess these impacts requires models that correctly capture HR magnitude and timing. Using several soil types and two ecotypes of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) in split-pot experiments, we examined how well the widely used HR modelling formulation developed by Ryel et al. matched experimental determination of HR across a range of water potential driving gradients. H. annuus carries out extensive night-time transpiration, and although over the last decade it has become more widely recognized that night-time transpiration occurs in multiple species and many ecosystems, the original Ryel et al. formulation does not include the effect of night-time transpiration on HR. We developed and added a representation of night-time transpiration into the formulation, and only then was the model able to capture the dynamics and magnitude of HR we observed as soils dried and night-time stomatal behaviour changed, both influencing HR. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Time evolution and emission factors of aerosol particles from day and night time savannah fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakkari, Ville; Beukes, Johan Paul; Tiitta, Petri; Venter, Andrew; Jaars, Kerneels; Josipovic, Miroslav; van Zyl, Pieter; Kulmala, Markku; Laakso, Lauri

    2013-04-01

    The largest uncertainties in the current global climate models originate from aerosol particle effects (IPCC, 2007) and at the same time aerosol particles also pose a threat to human health (Pope and Dockery, 2006). In southern Africa wild fires and prescribed burning are one of the most important sources of aerosol particles, especially during the dry season from June to September (e.g. Swap et al., 2003; Vakkari et al., 2012). The aerosol particle emissions from savannah fires in southern Africa have been studied in several intensive campaigns such as SAFARI 1992 and 2000 (Swap et al., 2003). However, all previous measurements have been carried out during the daytime, whereas most of the prescribed fires in southern Africa are lit up only after sunset. Furthermore, the previous campaigns followed the plume evolution for up to one hour after emission only. In this study, combining remote sensing fire observations to ground-based long-term measurements of aerosol particle and trace gas properties at the Welgegund measurement station (www.welgegund.org), we have been able to follow the time evolution of savannah fire plumes up to several hours in the atmosphere. For the first time the aerosol particle size distribution measurements in savannah fire plumes cover both day and night time plumes and also the ultrafine size range below 100 nm. During the period from May 20th 2010 to April 15th 2012 altogether 61 savannah fire plumes were observed at Welgegund. The evolution of the aerosol size distribution remained rapid for at least five hours after the fire: during this period the growth rate of the aerosol particle count mean diameter (size range 12 to 840 nm) was 24 nm h-1 for daytime plumes and 8 nm h-1 for night time plumes. The difference in the day and night time growth rate shows that photochemical reactions significantly increase the condensable vapour concentration in the plume. Furthermore, the condensable vapour concentration was found to affect both the

  11. Detorsion night-time bracing for the treatment of early onset idiopathic scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreau, S; Lonjon, G; Mazda, K; Ilharreborde, B

    2014-12-01

    Management for early onset scoliosis has recently changed, with the development of new surgical procedures. However, multiple surgeries are often required and high complication rates are still reported. Conservative management remains an alternative, serial casting achieving excellent results in young children. Better compliance and improvement over natural history have been reported with night-time bracing in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS), but this treatment has never been reported in early onset idiopathic scoliosis (EIOS). All patients treated for progressive EOIS by detorsion night-time bracing (DNB), and meeting the Scoliosis Research Society (SRS) criteria for brace studies were reviewed. Recommendations were given to wear the DNB 8h/night and no restriction was given regarding sports activities. Radiological parameters were compared between referral and latest follow-up. Based on the SRS criteria defined for AIS, a similar classification was used as follows to analyze the course of the curves: success group: patients with a progression of 5° or less; unsuccess group (progression or failure): patients with a progression>5°, patients with curves exceeding 45° at maturity, or who have had recommendation for/undergone surgery, or patients who changed orthopaedic treatment, or who were lost to follow-up. Thirty-three patients were included (21 girls and 12 boys), with a median Cobb angle of 31° (Q1-Q3: 22-40). Age at brace initiation averaged 50months (Q1-Q3: 25-60). Median follow-up was 102-months (Q1-Q3: 63-125). Fifteen patients (45.5%) had reached skeletal maturity at last follow-up. The success rate was 67% (22 patients), with a median Cobb angle reduction of 15° (P<0.001). Four patients stopped DNB due to an important regression. Eleven patients were in the unsuccessful group (33%). Only one had surgery. All patients remained balanced in the frontal plane and normokyphotic. Initial curve magnitude and age at brace initiation appeared to be

  12. Regional amplification of extreme temperatures strongly controlled by soil moisture-temperature feedbacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, M.; Orth, R.; Seneviratne, S. I.

    2016-12-01

    Land temperatures, and in particular hot extremes, will likely increase by more than 2° C in many regions, even in the case that the global temperature increase with respect to pre-industrial levels can be limited to 2°C. We investigate here the role of soil moisture-temperature feedbacks for projected changes of extreme temperatures by comparing experiments from the GLACE-CMIP5 (Global Land-Atmosphere Coupling Experiment - Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5) project. In particular, we consider fully coupled experiments with all 6 involved GCMs and corresponding experiments where soil moisture is fixed to the local present-day seasonal cycle until the end of the 21st century. We consider the yearly hottest days and apply a scaling approach whereby we relate changes of hottest days to global mean temperature increase. We find that soil moisture-temperature coupling significantly contributes to additional future warming of extreme temperatures in many regions: In particular, it can explain more than 70% of the warming amplification of hottest days compared to global mean temperature in Central Europe, Central North America and Northern Australia, and around 50% of this signal in the Amazonian Region and Southern Africa.

  13. The solar wind plasma density control of night-time auroral particle precipitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. G. Vorobjev

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available DMSP F6 and F7 spacecraft observations of the average electron and ion energy, and energy fluxes in different night-time precipitation regions for the whole of 1986 were used to examine the precipitation features associated with solar wind density changes. It was found that during magnetic quietness |AL|<100nT, the enhancement of average ion fluxes was observed at least two times, along with the solar wind plasma density increase from 2 to 24cm–3. More pronounced was the ion flux enhancement that occurred in the b2i–b4s and b4s–b5 regions, which are approximately corresponding to the statistical auroral oval and map to the magnetospheric plasma sheet tailward of the isotropy boundary. The average ion energy decrease of about 2–4kev was registered simultaneously with this ion flux enhancement. The results verify the occurrence of effective penetration of the solar wind plasma into the magnetospheric tail plasma sheet. Key words. Ionosphere (auroral ionosphere, particle precipitation – Magnetospheric physics (solar windmagnetosphere interaction

  14. Equatorial night-time spread-F characteristics observed from stations in the Western Pacific

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Tianxi

    1985-01-01

    A comparative study of the ionospheric spread-F observed at an equatorial station. Port Moresby (9 0 24.5'S, 147 0 9.9'E; magn. Dip lat. 18 0 S), Papua new Guinea, with corresponding data from the East Asian stations during a period 27 May-19 Jun 1983, as well as the same periods for 1981 and 1982, is presented. The Port Moresby spread-F condition is particularly outstanding and persistent at night and the occurrence of spread-F between 23 LT and 05 LT near June solstice is very high, reaching 100% of all observed nights. The latitudinal variation of nocturnal spread-F, its duration and connection with sunspot number are analyzed. The relationship between long-term variation of night-time spread-F occurrence and solar activity during June and December solstices from 1954 up to 1984 at a typical lower magnetic latitudinal station. Wuhan (30 0 32.7'N, 114 0 21.5'E; magn. dip lat. 26 0 N), is also investigated. (author)

  15. Optimizing the night time with dome vents and SNR-QSO at CFHT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devost, Daniel; Mahoney, Billy; Moutou, Claire; CFHT QSO Team, CFHT software Group

    2017-06-01

    Night time is a precious and costly commodity and it is important to get everything we can out of every second of every night of observing. In 2012 the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope started operating 12 new vent doors installed on the dome over the course of the previous two years. The project was highly successful and seeing measurements show that venting the dome greatly enhances image quality at the focal plane. In order to capitalize on the gains brought by the new vents, the observatory started exploring a new mode of observation called SNR-QSO. This mode consist of a new implementation inside our Queued Service Observation (QSO) system. Exposure times are adjusted for each frame depending on the weather conditions in order to reach a specific depth, Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) at a certain magnitude. The goal of this new mode is to capitalize on the exquisite seeing provided by Maunakea, complemented by the minimized dome turbulence, to use the least amount of time to reach the depth required by the science programs. Specific implementations were successfully tested on two different instruments, our wide field camera MegaCam and our high resolution spectrograph ESPaDOnS. I will present the methods used for each instrument to achieve SNR observing and the gains produced by these new observing modes in order to reach the scientific goals of accepted programs in a shorter amount of time.

  16. Mesospheric temperature estimation from meteor decay times of weak and strong meteor trails

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeong-Han; Kim, Yong Ha; Jee, Geonhwa; Lee, Changsup

    2012-11-01

    Neutral temperatures near the mesopause region were estimated from the decay times of the meteor echoes observed by a VHF meteor radar during a period covering 2007 to 2009 at King Sejong Station (62.22°S, 58.78°W), Antarctica. While some previous studies have used all meteor echoes to determine the slope from a height profile of log inverse decay times for temperature estimation, we have divided meteor echoes into weak and strong groups of underdense meteor trails, depending on the strength of estimated relative electron line densities within meteor trails. We found that the slopes from the strong group are inappropriate for temperature estimation because the decay times of strong meteors are considerably scattered, whereas the slopes from the weak group clearly define the variation of decay times with height. We thus utilize the slopes only from the weak group in the altitude region between 86 km and 96 km to estimate mesospheric temperatures. The meteor estimated temperatures show a typical seasonal variation near the mesopause region and the monthly mean temperatures are in good agreement with SABER temperatures within a mean difference of 4.8 K throughout the year. The meteor temperatures, representing typically the region around the altitude of 91 km, are lower on average by 2.1 K than simultaneously measured SATI OH(6-2) rotational temperatures during winter (March-October).

  17. Admission medical records made at night time have the same quality as day and evening time records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amirian, Ilda; Mortensen, Jacob F; Rosenberg, Jacob; Gögenur, Ismail

    2014-07-01

    A thorough and accurate admission medical record is an important tool in ensuring patient safety during the hospital stay. Surgeons' performance might be affected during night shifts due to sleep deprivation. The aim of the study was to assess the quality of admission medical records during day, evening and night time. A total of 1,000 admission medical records were collected from 2009 to 2013 based equally on four diagnoses: mechanical bowel obstruction, appendicitis, gallstone disease and gastrointestinal bleeding. The records were reviewed for errors by a pre-defined checklist based on Danish standards for admission medical records. The time of dictation for the medical record was registered. A total of 1,183 errors were found in 778 admission medical records made during day- and evening time, and 322 errors in 222 admission medical records from night time shifts. No significant overall difference in error was found in the admission medical records when day and evening values were compared to night values. Subgroup analyses made for all four diagnoses showed no difference in day and evening values compared with night time values. Night time deterioration was not seen in the quality of the medical records.

  18. Postmodern Investigations: The Case of Christopher Boone in "The Curious Incident of the Dog in the Night-Time"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciocia, Stefania

    2009-01-01

    Mark Haddon's "The Curious Incident of the Dog in the Night-Time", the first novel to be published simultaneously for the UK adult and children's market, exemplifies the phenomenon of crossover literature better perhaps than the "Harry Potter" series, whose appeal to a dual-aged audience had caught the publishing industry by…

  19. Improving Night Time Driving Safety Using Vision-Based Classification Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Jong-Chih; Chen, Yong-Sheng; Lee, Jiann-Der

    2017-09-24

    The risks involved in nighttime driving include drowsy drivers and dangerous vehicles. Prominent among the more dangerous vehicles around at night are the larger vehicles which are usually moving faster at night on a highway. In addition, the risk level of driving around larger vehicles rises significantly when the driver's attention becomes distracted, even for a short period of time. For the purpose of alerting the driver and elevating his or her safety, in this paper we propose two components for any modern vision-based Advanced Drivers Assistance System (ADAS). These two components work separately for the single purpose of alerting the driver in dangerous situations. The purpose of the first component is to ascertain that the driver would be in a sufficiently wakeful state to receive and process warnings; this is the driver drowsiness detection component. The driver drowsiness detection component uses infrared images of the driver to analyze his eyes' movements using a MSR plus a simple heuristic. This component issues alerts to the driver when the driver's eyes show distraction and are closed for a longer than usual duration. Experimental results show that this component can detect closed eyes with an accuracy of 94.26% on average, which is comparable to previous results using more sophisticated methods. The purpose of the second component is to alert the driver when the driver's vehicle is moving around larger vehicles at dusk or night time. The large vehicle detection component accepts images from a regular video driving recorder as input. A bi-level system of classifiers, which included a novel MSR-enhanced KAZE-base Bag-of-Features classifier, is proposed to avoid false negatives. In both components, we propose an improved version of the Multi-Scale Retinex (MSR) algorithm to augment the contrast of the input. Several experiments were performed to test the effects of the MSR and each classifier, and the results are presented in experimental results section

  20. A comparative study of blood alcohol concentrations in Australian night-time entertainment districts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Peter; Pennay, Amy; Droste, Nicolas; Butler, Erin; Jenkinson, Rebecca; Hyder, Shannon; Quinn, Brendan; Chikritzhs, Tanya; Tomsen, Stephen; Wadds, Phillip; Jones, Sandra C; Palmer, Darren; Barrie, Lance; Lam, Tina; Gilmore, William; Lubman, Dan I

    2014-07-01

    There is little research describing how intoxication levels change throughout the night in entertainment districts. This research aims to describe levels of alcohol intoxication across multiple Australian metropolitan and regional nightlife districts. This study was conducted in the night-time entertainment districts of three metropolitan cities (Sydney, Melbourne and Perth) and two regional cities (Wollongong and Geelong) in Australia. Data collection occurred approximately fortnightly in each city on a Friday or Saturday night between 8 pm and 5 am. Brief structured interviews (3-10 min) and breathalyser tests were undertaken in busy thoroughfares over six months. Of the 7037 individuals approached to participate in the study, 6998 [61.8% male, mean age 24.89 years (standard deviation 6.37; range 18-73)] agreed to be interviewed. There was a linear increase in blood alcohol concentration (BAC) levels throughout the night. Post hoc testing revealed significantly more highly intoxicated participants (i.e. BAC above 0.10 mg of alcohol per 100 mL of blood) after midnight (P gender differences disappeared by 3 am. There was no age differences in intoxication earlier in the night, but after midnight, patrons over the age of 21 showed increasing BAC levels. There is a consistent trend across the cities of high to very high levels of intoxication later in the night, with trends after midnight being significantly different to those before. © 2014 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  1. The relationship between complaints of night-time heartburn and sleep-related gastroesophageal reflux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, W C; Goodrich, S; Estep, M E; Shepherd, K

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated whether the complaint of night-time heartburn (NHB) as opposed to daytime heartburn (DHB) is a reliable reflection of actual sleep-related reflux events. Three groups of individuals were studied: individuals with complaints of NHB at least twice per week (n = 24), individuals with complaints of DHB (n = 23), and normal participants without any complaints of regular heartburn during the day or night (n = 25). All three groups were studied on one occasion with combined pH monitoring and polysomnography, and subjective questionnaires about sleep disturbance and sleep quality were given to all participants. The NHB group had significantly more sleep-related reflux events compared with both DHB and control groups (P < 0.01). DHB subjects had significantly (P < 0.05) more sleep-related reflux events than normal controls. Total acid contact time (ACT) was significantly (P < 0.05) elevated in the NHB group compared with both the DHB and control group. Sleep-related ACT was also significantly (P < 0.05) elevated in the NHB group compared with the other two groups, while upright (daytime) ACT was not significantly different. The NHB group was significantly (P < 0.05) worse regarding measures of both objective and subjective sleep quality. Subjects with exclusively DHB do have sleep-related reflux that is greater than normal controls. Subjects with NHB have significantly more sleep-related reflux, and both objective and subjective sleep abnormalities compared with normal controls. Complaints of NHB reflect sleep-related reflux events and may be indicative of a more clinically significant condition. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus.

  2. Reconfiguring the violent encounter? Preloading, security staff and breathalyser use in the night-time economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrimond, Hannah; Boyd, Katharine; Fleischer, Dreolin

    2018-06-01

    In a culture of preloading and late-night licenses, alcohol-related violence remains a persistent problem for police and public health. Understood as a ritualized 'micro-social' interaction (Collins 2009a, 2009b), entry into bars and clubs is a particular flashpoint for violence between bouncers/door staff and customers. A police-led initiative to deter excessive drunkenness and preloading using hand-held breathalysers (the #RU2Drunk scheme) was investigated from the perspective of security and bar staff using the devices. Interviews (n = 18 + 12), a focus group with security staff (n = 22) and a focus group with a security company (n = 3) were conducted in two seaside towns in the South-West of England, UK. A qualitative thematic analysis was conducted. Door staff emphasised the normality of 'determined drunkenness' and associated violence in their working lives. Breathalyser use appeared to disrupt the 'ritual' of the violent encounter by reconfiguring it into an interaction between customer and technology. This depersonalized the judgement about who was 'too drunk' to enter the venue, with the more discretionary nature of who to breathalyse hidden from customers. Other door staff found it less useful and saw it as a challenge to their authority and expertise. At a managerial level there was concern about the transfer of responsibility for policing the night time economy (NTE). There is potential to reconfigure the violent encounter for door staff using breathalyser devices. However, this is more likely to succeed where other structural limits (e.g. restrictions on late licenses) are in place, and as part of wider policy initiatives to reconfigure the alcohol-saturated NTE leisure scene. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Unknotting night-time muscle cramp: a survey of patient experience, help-seeking behaviour and perceived treatment effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blyton Fiona

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Night-time calf cramping affects approximately 1 in 3 adults. The aim of this study was to explore the experience of night-time calf cramp; if and where people seek treatment advice; and perceived treatment effectiveness. Methods 80 adults who experienced night-time calf cramp at least once per week were recruited from the Hunter region, NSW, Australia through newspaper, radio and television advertisements. All participants completed a pilot-tested survey about muscle cramp. Quantitative data were analysed with independent-sample t-tests, Chi square tests and Fisher's tests. Qualitative data were transcribed and sorted into categories to identify themes. Results Median recalled age of first night-time calf cramp was 50 years. Most participants recalled being awoken from sleep by cramping, and experiencing cramping of either calf muscle, calf-muscle soreness in the days following cramp and cramping during day-time. Despite current therapies, mean usual pain intensity was 66 mm on a 100 mm visual analogue scale. Participants described their cramps as being 'unbearable', 'unmanageable' and 'cruel'. One participant stated that 'sometimes I just wish I could cut my legs open' and another reported 'getting about 2 h sleep a night due to cramps'. Most participants had sought advice about their night-time calf cramps from a health professional. Participants identified 49 different interventions used to prevent night-time calf cramp. Of all treatment ratings, 68% described the intervention used to prevent cramp as being 'useless' or of 'a little help'. Of 14 participants who provided additional information regarding their use of quinine, eight had a current prescription of quinine for muscle cramp at the time of the survey. None had been asked by their prescribing doctor to stop using quinine. Conclusion Night time calf cramps typically woke sufferers from sleep, affected either leg and caused ongoing pain. Most participants

  4. Populus species from diverse habitats maintain high night-time conductance under drought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirelli, Damián; Equiza, María Alejandra; Lieffers, Victor James; Tyree, Melvin Thomas

    2016-02-01

    We investigated the interspecific variability in nocturnal whole-plant stomatal conductance under well-watered and drought conditions in seedlings of four species of Populus from habitats characterized by abundant water supply (mesic and riparian) or from drier upland sites. The study was carried out to determine whether (i) nocturnal conductance varies across different species of Populus according to their natural habitat, (ii) nocturnal conductance is affected by water stress similarly to daytime conductance based on species habitat and (iii) differences in conductance among species could be explained partly by differences in stomatal traits. We measured whole-plant transpiration and conductance (G) of greenhouse-grown seedlings using an automated high-resolution gravimetric technique. No relationship was found between habitat preference and daytime G (GD), but night-time G (GN) was on average 1.5 times higher in riparian and mesic species (P. deltoides Bartr. ex Marsh. and P. trichocarpa Torr. & Gray) than in those from drier environments (P. tremuloides Michx. and P. × petrowskyana Schr.). GN was not significantly reduced under drought in riparian species. Upland species restricted GN significantly in response to drought, but it was still at least one order of magnitude greater that the cuticular conductance until leaf death was imminent. Under both well-watered and drought conditions, GN declined with increasing vapour pressure deficit (D). Also, a small increase in GN towards the end of the night period was observed in P. deltoides and P. × petrowskyana, suggesting the involvement of endogenous regulation. The anatomical analyses indicated a positive correlation between G and variable stomatal pore index among species and revealed that stomata are not likely to be leaky but instead seem capable of complete occlusion, which raises the question of the possible physiological role of the significant GN observed under drought. Further comparisons among

  5. A Scientometric Visualization Analysis for Night-Time Light Remote Sensing Research from 1991 to 2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Hu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we conducted a scientometric analysis based on the Night-Time Light (NTL remote sensing related literature datasets retrieved from Science Citation Index Expanded and Social Science Citation Index in Web of Science core collection database. Using the methods of bibliometric and Social Network Analysis (SNA, we drew several conclusions: (1 NTL related studies have become a research hotspot, especially after 2011 when the second generation of NTL satellites, the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (S-NPP Satellite with the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS sensor was on board. In the same period, the open-access policy of the long historical dataset of the first generation satellite Defense Meteorological Satellite Program’s Operational Linescan System (DMSP/OLS started. (2 Most related studies are conducted by authors from USA and China, and the USA takes the lead in the field. We identified the biggest research communities constructed by co-authorships and the related important authors and topics by SNA. (3 By the visualization and analysis of the topic evolution using the co-word and co-cited reference networks, we can clearly see that: the research topics change from hardware oriented studies to more real-world applications; and from the first generation of the satellite DMSP/OLS to the second generation of satellite S-NPP. Although the Day Night Band (DNB of the S-NPP exhibits higher spatial and radiometric resolution and better calibration conditions than the first generation DMSP/OLS, the longer historical datasets in DMSP/OLS are still important in long-term and large-scale human activity analysis. (4 In line with the intuitive knowledge, the NTL remote sensing related studies display stronger connections (such as interpretive frame, context, and academic purpose to the social sciences than the general remote sensing discipline. The citation trajectories are visualized based on the dual-maps, thus the

  6. Low Temperature Gaseous Nitriding of a Stainless Steel Containing Strong Nitride Formers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandes, Frederico Augusto Pires; Christiansen, Thomas Lundin; Somers, Marcel A. J.

    Low temperature thermochemical surface hardening of the precipitation hardening austenitic stainless steel A286 in solution treated state was investigated. A286 contains, besides high amounts of Cr, also substantial amounts of strong nitride formers as Ti, Al and V. It is shown that simultaneous...

  7. Room temperature strong coupling effects from single ZnO nanowire microcavity

    KAUST Repository

    Das, Ayan; Heo, Junseok; Bayraktaroglu, Adrian; Guo, Wei; Ng, Tien Khee; Phillips, Jamie; Ooi, Boon S.; Bhattacharya, Pallab

    2012-01-01

    Strong coupling effects in a dielectric microcavity with a single ZnO nanowire embedded in it have been investigated at room temperature. A large Rabi splitting of ?100 meV is obtained from the polariton dispersion and a non

  8. Strong-coupling of WSe2 in ultra-compact plasmonic nanocavities at room temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleemann, Marie-Elena; Chikkaraddy, Rohit; Alexeev, Evgeny M; Kos, Dean; Carnegie, Cloudy; Deacon, Will; de Pury, Alex Casalis; Große, Christoph; de Nijs, Bart; Mertens, Jan; Tartakovskii, Alexander I; Baumberg, Jeremy J

    2017-11-03

    Strong coupling of monolayer metal dichalcogenide semiconductors with light offers encouraging prospects for realistic exciton devices at room temperature. However, the nature of this coupling depends extremely sensitively on the optical confinement and the orientation of electronic dipoles and fields. Here, we show how plasmon strong coupling can be achieved in compact, robust, and easily assembled gold nano-gap resonators at room temperature. We prove that strong-coupling is impossible with monolayers due to the large exciton coherence size, but resolve clear anti-crossings for greater than 7 layer devices with Rabi splittings exceeding 135 meV. We show that such structures improve on prospects for nonlinear exciton functionalities by at least 10 4 , while retaining quantum efficiencies above 50%, and demonstrate evidence for superlinear light emission.

  9. a Cross-Sectional Study on Insomnia among Japanese Adult Women in Relation to Night-Time Road Traffic Noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kageyama, T.; Kabuto, M.; Nitta, N.; Kurokawa, Y.; Taira, K.; Suzuki, S.; Takemoto, T.

    1997-08-01

    In an effort to determine the contribution of night-time road traffic noise to insomnia in the general population, 3600 adult Japanese women living in urban residential areas were surveyed. Living near a road with a heavy traffic volume is one of the risk factors for insomnia. The risk for insomnia in the zones 0-20 m from the main roads increased linearly with the night-time traffic volume. This suggests that road traffic noise raises the sound level in bedrooms in such zones, and consequently the prevalence rate of insomnia among the residents, and that noise-induced insomnia is an important public health problem, at least in highly urbanized areas.

  10. Experimental Investigation of the Influence of Obstacle in the Room on Passive Night-Time Cooling using Displacement Ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pomianowski, Michal Zbigniew; Khalegi, Farzad; Domarks, Giedrius

    2011-01-01

    Night-time ventilation is a promising approach for reducing the energy needed for cooling buildings without reducing thermal comfort. The objective of this paper is to determine how an internal obstacle, such as a table, will influence the heat transfer in the room and the efficiency of night......-time ventilation which uses displacement ventilation. Experimental work was conducted on the basis of the work in a similar previous study, performed by (Artmann 2010), and this is an extension of that work. Experimental results obtained for a case with a table were compared with the results obtained by Artmann et...... al. for a room with displacement ventilation, but without table. The results obtained in the experiment with the table indicated that the mean heat flux was slightly lower but very similar compared to the case without the table. The heat flux at the ceiling was measured to be the same for both setups...

  11. Universal linear-temperature resistivity: possible quantum diffusion transport in strongly correlated superconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Tao; Liu, Yinshang; Xiao, Hong; Mu, Gang; Yang, Yi-Feng

    2017-08-25

    The strongly correlated electron fluids in high temperature cuprate superconductors demonstrate an anomalous linear temperature (T) dependent resistivity behavior, which persists to a wide temperature range without exhibiting saturation. As cooling down, those electron fluids lose the resistivity and condense into the superfluid. However, the origin of the linear-T resistivity behavior and its relationship to the strongly correlated superconductivity remain a mystery. Here we report a universal relation [Formula: see text], which bridges the slope of the linear-T-dependent resistivity (dρ/dT) to the London penetration depth λ L at zero temperature among cuprate superconductor Bi 2 Sr 2 CaCu 2 O 8+δ and heavy fermion superconductors CeCoIn 5 , where μ 0 is vacuum permeability, k B is the Boltzmann constant and ħ is the reduced Planck constant. We extend this scaling relation to different systems and found that it holds for other cuprate, pnictide and heavy fermion superconductors as well, regardless of the significant differences in the strength of electronic correlations, transport directions, and doping levels. Our analysis suggests that the scaling relation in strongly correlated superconductors could be described as a hydrodynamic diffusive transport, with the diffusion coefficient (D) approaching the quantum limit D ~ ħ/m*, where m* is the quasi-particle effective mass.

  12. Relation of extended Van Hove singularities to high-temperature superconductivity within strong-coupling theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radtke, R.J.; Norman, M.R.

    1994-01-01

    Recent angle-resolved photoemission (ARPES) experiments have indicated that the electronic dispersion in some of the cuprates possesses an extended saddle point near the Fermi level which gives rise to a density of states that diverges like a power law instead of the weaker logarithmic divergence usually considered. We investigate whether this strong singularity can give rise to high transition temperatures by computing the critical temperature T c and isotope effect coefficient α within a strong-coupling Eliashberg theory which accounts for the full energy variation of the density of states. Using band structures extracted from ARPES measurements, we demonstrate that, while the weak-coupling solutions suggest a strong influence of the strength of the Van Hove singularity on T c and α, strong-coupling solutions show less sensitivity to the singularity strength and do not support the hypothesis that band-structure effects alone can account for either the large T c 's or the different T c 's within the copper oxide family. This conclusion is supported when our results are plotted as a function of the physically relevant self-consistent coupling constant, which shows universal behavior at very strong coupling

  13. Poverty assessment using DMSP/OLS night-time light satellite imagery at a provincial scale in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wen; Cheng, Hui; Zhang, Li

    2012-04-01

    All countries around the world and many international bodies, including the United Nations Development Program (UNDP), United Nations Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO), the International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD) and the International Labor Organization (ILO), have to eliminate rural poverty. Estimation of regional poverty level is a key issue for making strategies to eradicate poverty. Most of previous studies on regional poverty evaluations are based on statistics collected typically in administrative units. This paper has discussed the deficiencies of traditional studies, and attempted to research regional poverty evaluation issues using 3-year DMSP/OLS night-time light satellite imagery. In this study, we adopted 17 socio-economic indexes to establish an integrated poverty index (IPI) using principal component analysis (PCA), which was proven to provide a good descriptor of poverty levels in 31 regions at a provincial scale in China. We also explored the relationship between DMSP/OLS night-time average light index and the poverty index using regression analysis in SPSS and a good positive linear correlation was modelled, with R2 equal to 0.854. We then looked at provincial poverty problems in China based on this correlation. The research results indicated that the DMSP/OLS night-time light data can assist analysing provincial poverty evaluation issues.

  14. A Lunchtime Walk in Nature Enhances Restoration of Autonomic Control during Night-Time Sleep: Results from a Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladwell, Valerie F; Kuoppa, Pekka; Tarvainen, Mika P; Rogerson, Mike

    2016-03-03

    Walking within nature (Green Exercise) has been shown to immediately enhance mental well-being but less is known about the impact on physiology and longer lasting effects. Heart rate variability (HRV) gives an indication of autonomic control of the heart, in particular vagal activity, with reduced HRV identified as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Night-time HRV allows vagal activity to be assessed whilst minimizing confounding influences of physical and mental activity. The aim of this study was to investigate whether a lunchtime walk in nature increases night-time HRV. Participants (n = 13) attended on two occasions to walk a 1.8 km route through a built or a natural environment. Pace was similar between the two walks. HRV was measured during sleep using a RR interval sensor (eMotion sensor) and was assessed at 1-2 h after participants noted that they had fallen asleep. Markers for vagal activity were significantly greater after the walk in nature compared to the built walk. Lunchtime walks in nature-based environments may provide a greater restorative effect as shown by vagal activity than equivalent built walks. Nature walks may improve essential recovery during night-time sleep, potentially enhancing physiological health.

  15. Strong temperature dependence of extraordinary magnetoresistance correlated to mobility in a two-contact device

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Jian

    2012-02-21

    A two-contact extraordinary magnetoresistance (EMR) device has been fabricated and characterized at various temperatures under magnetic fields applied in different directions. Large performance variations across the temperature range have been found, which are due to the strong dependence of the EMR effect on the mobility. The device shows the highest sensitivity of 562ω/T at 75 K with the field applied perpendicularly. Due to the overlap between the semiconductor and the metal shunt, the device is also sensitive to planar fields but with a lower sensitivity of about 20 to 25% of the one to perpendicular fields. © 2012 The Japan Society of Applied Physics.

  16. Measurements of CO2 exchange with an automated chamber system throughout the year: challenges in measuring night-time respiration on porous peat soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Koskinen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We built an automatic chamber system to measure greenhouse gas (GHG exchange in forested peatland ecosystems. We aimed to build a system robust enough which would work throughout the year and could measure through a changing snowpack in addition to producing annual GHG fluxes by integrating the measurements without the need of using models. The system worked rather well throughout the year, but it was not service free. Gap filling of data was still necessary. We observed problems in carbon dioxide (CO2 respiration flux estimation during calm summer nights, when a CO2 concentration gradient from soil/moss system to atmosphere builds up. Chambers greatly overestimated the night-time respiration. This was due to the disturbance caused by the chamber to the soil-moss CO2 gradient and consequent initial pulse of CO2 to the chamber headspace. We tested different flux calculation and measurement methods to solve this problem. The estimated flux was strongly dependent on (1 the starting point of the fit after closing the chamber, (2 the length of the fit, (3 the type of the fit (linear and polynomial, (4 the speed of the fan mixing the air inside the chamber, and (5 atmospheric turbulence (friction velocity, u*. The best fitting method (the most robust, least random variation for respiration measurements on our sites was linear fitting with the period of 120–240 s after chamber closure. Furthermore, the fan should be adjusted to spin at minimum speed to avoid the pulse-effect, but it should be kept on to ensure mixing. If night-time problems cannot be solved, emissions can be estimated using daytime data from opaque chambers.

  17. Measurements of CO2 exchange with an automated chamber system throughout the year: challenges in measuring night-time respiration on porous peat soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koskinen, M.; Minkkinen, K.; Ojanen, P.; Kämäräinen, M.; Laurila, T.; Lohila, A.

    2014-01-01

    We built an automatic chamber system to measure greenhouse gas (GHG) exchange in forested peatland ecosystems. We aimed to build a system robust enough which would work throughout the year and could measure through a changing snowpack in addition to producing annual GHG fluxes by integrating the measurements without the need of using models. The system worked rather well throughout the year, but it was not service free. Gap filling of data was still necessary. We observed problems in carbon dioxide (CO2) respiration flux estimation during calm summer nights, when a CO2 concentration gradient from soil/moss system to atmosphere builds up. Chambers greatly overestimated the night-time respiration. This was due to the disturbance caused by the chamber to the soil-moss CO2 gradient and consequent initial pulse of CO2 to the chamber headspace. We tested different flux calculation and measurement methods to solve this problem. The estimated flux was strongly dependent on (1) the starting point of the fit after closing the chamber, (2) the length of the fit, (3) the type of the fit (linear and polynomial), (4) the speed of the fan mixing the air inside the chamber, and (5) atmospheric turbulence (friction velocity, u*). The best fitting method (the most robust, least random variation) for respiration measurements on our sites was linear fitting with the period of 120-240 s after chamber closure. Furthermore, the fan should be adjusted to spin at minimum speed to avoid the pulse-effect, but it should be kept on to ensure mixing. If night-time problems cannot be solved, emissions can be estimated using daytime data from opaque chambers.

  18. Temperature and rainfall strongly drive temporal growth variation in Asian tropical forest trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlam, Mart; Baker, Patrick J; Bunyavejchewin, Sarayudh; Zuidema, Pieter A

    2014-04-01

    Climate change effects on growth rates of tropical trees may lead to alterations in carbon cycling of carbon-rich tropical forests. However, climate sensitivity of broad-leaved lowland tropical trees is poorly understood. Dendrochronology (tree-ring analysis) provides a powerful tool to study the relationship between tropical tree growth and annual climate variability. We aimed to establish climate-growth relationships for five annual-ring forming tree species, using ring-width data from 459 canopy and understory trees from a seasonal tropical forest in western Thailand. Based on 183/459 trees, chronologies with total lengths between 29 and 62 years were produced for four out of five species. Bootstrapped correlation analysis revealed that climate-growth responses were similar among these four species. Growth was significantly negatively correlated with current-year maximum and minimum temperatures, and positively correlated with dry-season precipitation levels. Negative correlations between growth and temperature may be attributed to a positive relationship between temperature and autotrophic respiration rates. The positive relationship between growth and dry-season precipitation levels likely reflects the strong water demand during leaf flush. Mixed-effect models yielded results that were consistent across species: a negative effect of current wet-season maximum temperatures on growth, but also additive positive effects of, for example, prior dry-season maximum temperatures. Our analyses showed that annual growth variability in tropical trees is determined by a combination of both temperature and precipitation variability. With rising temperature, the predominantly negative relationship between temperature and growth may imply decreasing growth rates of tropical trees as a result of global warming.

  19. Quasiparticles of strongly correlated Fermi liquids at high temperatures and in high magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaginyan, V. R.

    2011-01-01

    Strongly correlated Fermi systems are among the most intriguing, best experimentally studied and fundamental systems in physics. There is, however, lack of theoretical understanding in this field of physics. The ideas based on the concepts like Kondo lattice and involving quantum and thermal fluctuations at a quantum critical point have been used to explain the unusual physics. Alas, being suggested to describe one property, these approaches fail to explain the others. This means a real crisis in theory suggesting that there is a hidden fundamental law of nature. It turns out that the hidden fundamental law is well forgotten old one directly related to the Landau-Migdal quasiparticles, while the basic properties and the scaling behavior of the strongly correlated systems can be described within the framework of the fermion condensation quantum phase transition (FCQPT). The phase transition comprises the extended quasiparticle paradigm that allows us to explain the non-Fermi liquid (NFL) behavior observed in these systems. In contrast to the Landau paradigm stating that the quasiparticle effective mass is a constant, the effective mass of new quasiparticles strongly depends on temperature, magnetic field, pressure, and other parameters. Our observations are in good agreement with experimental facts and show that FCQPT is responsible for the observed NFL behavior and quasiparticles survive both high temperatures and high magnetic fields.

  20. Finite-Temperature Variational Monte Carlo Method for Strongly Correlated Electron Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takai, Kensaku; Ido, Kota; Misawa, Takahiro; Yamaji, Youhei; Imada, Masatoshi

    2016-03-01

    A new computational method for finite-temperature properties of strongly correlated electrons is proposed by extending the variational Monte Carlo method originally developed for the ground state. The method is based on the path integral in the imaginary-time formulation, starting from the infinite-temperature state that is well approximated by a small number of certain random initial states. Lower temperatures are progressively reached by the imaginary-time evolution. The algorithm follows the framework of the quantum transfer matrix and finite-temperature Lanczos methods, but we extend them to treat much larger system sizes without the negative sign problem by optimizing the truncated Hilbert space on the basis of the time-dependent variational principle (TDVP). This optimization algorithm is equivalent to the stochastic reconfiguration (SR) method that has been frequently used for the ground state to optimally truncate the Hilbert space. The obtained finite-temperature states allow an interpretation based on the thermal pure quantum (TPQ) state instead of the conventional canonical-ensemble average. Our method is tested for the one- and two-dimensional Hubbard models and its accuracy and efficiency are demonstrated.

  1. Validating computational predictions of night-time ventilation in Stanford's Y2E2 building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chen; Lamberti, Giacomo; Gorle, Catherine

    2017-11-01

    Natural ventilation can significantly reduce building energy consumption, but robust design is a challenging task. We previously presented predictions of natural ventilation performance in Stanford's Y2E2 building using two models with different levels of fidelity, embedded in an uncertainty quantification framework to identify the dominant uncertain parameters and predict quantified confidence intervals. The results showed a slightly high cooling rate for the volume-averaged temperature, and the initial thermal mass temperature and window discharge coefficients were found to have an important influence on the results. To further investigate the potential role of these parameters on the observed discrepancies, the current study is performing additional measurements in the Y2E2 building. Wall temperatures are recorded throughout the nightflush using thermocouples; flow rates through windows are measured using hotwires; and spatial variability in the air temperature is explored. The measured wall temperatures are found the be within the range of our model assumptions, and the measured velocities agree reasonably well with our CFD predications. Considerable local variations in the indoor air temperature have been recorded, largely explaining the discrepancies in our earlier validation study. Future work will therefore focus on a local validation of the CFD results with the measurements. Center for Integrated Facility Engineering (CIFE).

  2. Low-temperature fabrication of mesoporous solid strong bases by using multifunction of a carbon interlayer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao-Yan; Sun, Lin-Bing; Liu, Xiao-Dan; Li, Ai-Guo; Lu, Feng; Liu, Xiao-Qin

    2013-10-09

    Mesoporous solid strong bases are highly promising for applications as environmentally benign catalysts in various reactions. Their preparation attracts increasing attention for the demand of sustainable chemistry. In the present study, a new strategy was designed to fabricate strong basicity on mesoporous silica by using multifunction of a carbon interlayer. A typical mesoporous silica, SBA-15, was precoated with a layer of carbon prior to the introduction of base precursor LiNO3. The carbon interlayer performs two functions by promoting the conversion of LiNO3 at low temperatures and by improving the alkali-resistant ability of siliceous host. Only a tiny amount of LiNO3 was decomposed on pristine SBA-15 at 400 °C; for the samples containing >8 wt % of carbon, however, LiNO3 can be entirely converted to strongly basic sites Li2O under the same conditions. The guest-host redox reaction was proven to be the answer for the conversion of LiNO3, which breaks the tradition of thermally induced decomposition. More importantly, the residual carbon layer can prevent the siliceous frameworks from corroding by the newly formed strongly basic species, which is different from the complete destruction of mesostructure in the absence of carbon. Therefore, materials possessing both ordered mesostructure and strong basicity were successfully fabricated, which is extremely desirable for catalysis and impossible to realize by conventional methods. We also demonstrated that the resultant mesoporous basic materials are active in heterogeneous synthesis of dimethyl carbonate (DMC) and the yield of DMC can reach 32.4%, which is apparently higher than that over the catalysts without a carbon interlayer (<12.9%) despite the same lithium content. The strong basicity, in combination with the uniform mesopores, is believed to be responsible for such a high activity.

  3. An estimation model of population in China using time series DMSP night-time satellite imagery from 2002-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoyong; Zhang, Zhijie; Chang, Yuguang; Chen, Zhengchao

    2015-12-01

    Accurate data on the spatial distribution and potential growth estimation of human population are playing pivotal role in addressing and mitigating heavy lose caused by earthquake. Traditional demographic data is limited in its spatial resolution and is extremely hard to update. With the accessibility of massive DMSP/OLS night time imagery, it is possible to model population distribution at the county level across China. In order to compare and improve the continuity and consistency of time-series DMSP night-time satellite imagery obtained by different satellites in same year or different years by the same satellite from 2002-2010, normalized method was deployed for the inter-correction among imageries. And we referred to the reference F162007 Jixi city, whose social-economic has been relatively stable. Through binomial model, with average R2 0.90, then derived the correction factor of each year. The normalization obviously improved consistency comparing to previous data, which enhanced the correspondent accuracy of model. Then conducted the model of population density between average night-time light intensity in eight-economic districts. According to the two parameters variation law of consecutive years, established the prediction model of next following years with R2of slope and constant typically 0.85 to 0.95 in different regions. To validate the model, taking the year of 2005 as example, retrieved quantitatively population distribution in per square kilometer based on the model, then compared the results to the statistical data based on census, the difference of the result is acceptable. In summary, the estimation model facilitates the quick estimation and prediction in relieving the damage to people, which is significant in decision-making.

  4. Predictive value of night-time heart rate for cardiovascular events in hypertension. The ABP-International study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palatini, Paolo; Reboldi, Gianpaolo; Beilin, Lawrence J; Eguchi, Kazuo; Imai, Yutaka; Kario, Kazuomi; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Pierdomenico, Sante D; Saladini, Francesca; Schwartz, Joseph E; Wing, Lindon; Verdecchia, Paolo

    2013-09-30

    Data from prospective cohort studies regarding the association between ambulatory heart rate (HR) and cardiovascular events (CVE) are conflicting. To investigate whether ambulatory HR predicts CVE in hypertension, we performed 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure and HR monitoring in 7600 hypertensive patients aged 52 ± 16 years from Italy, U.S.A., Japan, and Australia, included in the 'ABP-International' registry. All were untreated at baseline examination. Standardized hazard ratios for ambulatory HRs were computed, stratifying for cohort, and adjusting for age, gender, blood pressure, smoking, diabetes, serum total cholesterol and serum creatinine. During a median follow-up of 5.0 years there were 639 fatal and nonfatal CVE. In a multivariable Cox model, night-time HR predicted fatal combined with nonfatal CVE more closely than 24h HR (p=0.007 and =0.03, respectively). Daytime HR and the night:day HR ratio were not associated with CVE (p=0.07 and =0.18, respectively). The hazard ratio of the fatal combined with nonfatal CVE for a 10-beats/min increment of the night-time HR was 1.13 (95% CI, 1.04-1.22). This relationship remained significant when subjects taking beta-blockers during the follow-up (hazard ratio, 1.15; 95% CI, 1.05-1.25) or subjects who had an event within 5 years after enrollment (hazard ratio, 1.23; 95% CI, 1.05-1.45) were excluded from analysis. At variance with previous data obtained from general populations, ambulatory HR added to the risk stratification for fatal combined with nonfatal CVE in the hypertensive patients from the ABP-International study. Night-time HR was a better predictor of CVE than daytime HR. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Comparison of in-and outpatients protocols for providence night time only bracing in AIS patients -- compliance and satisfaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Aubaidi, Zaid Tj; Tropp, Hans; Pedersen, Niels W

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Skeletally immature patients diagnosed with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) and a Cobb angle above 25degrees is usually treated with a brace. Standard protocols in many centers include hospitalisation for a few days for the purpose of brace adaptation and fitting. The aim...... of this study is to compare compliance and satisfaction in hospitalization and out patient clinic protocols, at the initiation phase of brace treatment.Materials and methodsTwenty-four consecutive patients with AIS were initiated with the Providence night time only brace at our department between October 2008...

  6. School encounters with Mark Haddon's novel The Curious Incident of the Dog in the NightTime (2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mira Hladnik

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This article adds additional materials to the already large corpus available for inter preting and teaching Haddon's novel The Curious Incident of the Dog in the NightTime. First, the article adheres to a quite copious method of furnishing questions and possible an swers to prepare students for more detailed reading of the work. Further, it lists ideas for student essay titles or topics, letters, presentations, and role play activities. Some specific assignments are added to check students' understanding of the artistic work. In short, it offers a complex of diverse approaches and activities from which the teacher may freely choose.

  7. Extraordinary Photoluminescence and Strong Temperature/Angle-Dependent Raman Responses in Few-Layer Phosphorene

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Shuang; Yang, Jiong; Xu, Renjing; Wang, Fan; Li, Weifeng; Ghufran, Muhammad; Zhang, Yong-wei; Yu, Zongfu; Zhang, Gang; Qin, Qinghua; Lu, Yuerui

    2014-01-01

    Phosphorene is a new family member of two-dimensional materials. We observed strong and highly layer-dependent photoluminescence in few-layer phosphorene (2 to 5 layers). The results confirmed the theoretical prediction that few-layer phosphorene has a direct and layer-sensitive band gap. We also demonstrated that few-layer phosphorene is more sensitive to temperature modulation than graphene and MoS2 in Raman scattering. The anisotropic Raman response in few-layer phosphorene has enabled us ...

  8. Thermally activated flux creep in strongly layered high-temperature superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakravarty, S.; Ivlev, B.I.; Ovchinnikov, Y.N.

    1990-01-01

    Thermal activation energies for single vortices and vortex bundles in the presence of a magnetic field parallel to the layers are calculated. The pinning considered is intrinsic and is due to the strongly layered structure of high-temperature superconductors. The magnetic field and the current dependence of the activation energy are studied in detail. The calculation of the activation energy is used to determine the current-voltage characteristic. It may be possible to observe the effects discussed in this paper in a pure enough sample

  9. Room temperature strong coupling effects from single ZnO nanowire microcavity

    KAUST Repository

    Das, Ayan

    2012-05-01

    Strong coupling effects in a dielectric microcavity with a single ZnO nanowire embedded in it have been investigated at room temperature. A large Rabi splitting of ?100 meV is obtained from the polariton dispersion and a non-linearity in the polariton emission characteristics is observed at room temperature with a low threshold of 1.63 ?J/cm2, which corresponds to a polariton density an order of magnitude smaller than that for the Mott transition. The momentum distribution of the lower polaritons shows evidence of dynamic condensation and the absence of a relaxation bottleneck. The polariton relaxation dynamics were investigated by timeresolved measurements, which showed a progressive decrease in the polariton relaxation time with increase in polariton density. © 2012 Optical Society of America.

  10. Non-thermal distribution of O(1D) atoms in the night-time thermosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, Jeng-Hwa

    1988-01-01

    The 6300 A O(1D-3P) emission has been used for many years to remotely monitor the thermospheric temperature from the Doppler width of its line profile. The O(1D) atoms in the nighttime thermosphere are initially produced by the dissociative recombination of O2(+) ions with kinetic energy much greater than the thermal energy of the ambient neutrals. The validity of the technique to monitor neutral ambient temperature by measuring O(1D) 6300 A emission depends on the degree of thermalization of the O(1D) atoms. The object of this study is to calculate the velocity distribution of the O(1D) atoms and to examine the effect of nonthermal distribution on the nighttime thermospheric neutral temperature determined.

  11. Nonlinear CARS measurement of nitrogen vibrational and rotational temperatures behind hypervelocity strong shock wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osada, Takashi; Endo, Youichi; Kanazawa, Chikara; Ota, Masanori; Maeno, Kazuo

    2009-02-01

    The hypervelocity strong shock waves are generated, when the space vehicles reenter the atmosphere from space. Behind the shock wave radiative and non-equilibrium flow is generated in front of the surface of the space vehicle. Many studies have been reported to investigate the phenomena for the aerospace exploit and reentry. The research information and data on the high temperature flows have been available to the rational heatproof design of the space vehicles. Recent development of measurement techniques with laser systems and photo-electronics now enables us to investigate the hypervelocity phenomena with greatly advanced accuracy. In this research strong shock waves are generated in low-density gas to simulate the reentry range gas flow with a free-piston double-diaphragm shock tube, and CARS (Coherent Anti-stokes Raman Spectroscopy) measurement method is applied to the hypervelocity flows behind the shock waves, where spectral signals of high space/time resolution are acquired. The CARS system consists of YAG and dye lasers, a spectroscope, and a CCD camera system. We obtain the CARS signal spectrum data by this special time-resolving experiment, and the vibrational and rotational temperatures of N2 are determined by fitting between the experimental spectroscopic profile data and theoretically estimated spectroscopic data.

  12. Nonlinear CARS measurement of nitrogen vibrational and rotational temperatures behind hypervelocity strong shock wave

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osada, Takashi; Endo, Youichi [Graduate Student, Chiba University 1-33 Yayoi, Inage, Chiba, 263-8522 (Japan); Kanazawa, Chikara [Undergraduate, Chiba University 1-33 Yayoi, Inage, Chiba, 63-8522 (Japan); Ota, Masanori; Maeno, Kazuo, E-mail: maeno@faculty.chiba-u.j [Graduate School of Engineering, Chiba University 1-33 Yayoi, Inage, Chiba, 263-8522 (Japan)

    2009-02-01

    The hypervelocity strong shock waves are generated, when the space vehicles reenter the atmosphere from space. Behind the shock wave radiative and non-equilibrium flow is generated in front of the surface of the space vehicle. Many studies have been reported to investigate the phenomena for the aerospace exploit and reentry. The research information and data on the high temperature flows have been available to the rational heatproof design of the space vehicles. Recent development of measurement techniques with laser systems and photo-electronics now enables us to investigate the hypervelocity phenomena with greatly advanced accuracy. In this research strong shock waves are generated in low-density gas to simulate the reentry range gas flow with a free-piston double-diaphragm shock tube, and CARS (Coherent Anti-stokes Raman Spectroscopy) measurement method is applied to the hypervelocity flows behind the shock waves, where spectral signals of high space/time resolution are acquired. The CARS system consists of YAG and dye lasers, a spectroscope, and a CCD camera system. We obtain the CARS signal spectrum data by this special time-resolving experiment, and the vibrational and rotational temperatures of N{sub 2} are determined by fitting between the experimental spectroscopic profile data and theoretically estimated spectroscopic data.

  13. Nonlinear CARS measurement of nitrogen vibrational and rotational temperatures behind hypervelocity strong shock wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osada, Takashi; Endo, Youichi; Kanazawa, Chikara; Ota, Masanori; Maeno, Kazuo

    2009-01-01

    The hypervelocity strong shock waves are generated, when the space vehicles reenter the atmosphere from space. Behind the shock wave radiative and non-equilibrium flow is generated in front of the surface of the space vehicle. Many studies have been reported to investigate the phenomena for the aerospace exploit and reentry. The research information and data on the high temperature flows have been available to the rational heatproof design of the space vehicles. Recent development of measurement techniques with laser systems and photo-electronics now enables us to investigate the hypervelocity phenomena with greatly advanced accuracy. In this research strong shock waves are generated in low-density gas to simulate the reentry range gas flow with a free-piston double-diaphragm shock tube, and CARS (Coherent Anti-stokes Raman Spectroscopy) measurement method is applied to the hypervelocity flows behind the shock waves, where spectral signals of high space/time resolution are acquired. The CARS system consists of YAG and dye lasers, a spectroscope, and a CCD camera system. We obtain the CARS signal spectrum data by this special time-resolving experiment, and the vibrational and rotational temperatures of N 2 are determined by fitting between the experimental spectroscopic profile data and theoretically estimated spectroscopic data.

  14. Night-Time Decibel Hell: Mapping Noise Exposure Zones and Individual Annoyance Ratings in an Urban Environment in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel N. Zakpala

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Although accumulating evidence over the past thirty years indicates that noise is an environmental stressor in residential settings, much of the data emanated from studies in high-intensity, noise impact zones around airports or major roads. Little is known about religious noise, especially at night, which is increasingly a growing concern for both the general public and policy-makers in sub-Saharan Africa. Using geographical information systems (GIS, this study measured and mapped exposure to religious noise in a rapidly urbanising municipality in Ghana. Quantitative noise risk assessment was used to evaluate the risk of religious noise-induced hearing loss to residents in the exposed neighbourhoods. The results show that all neighbourhoods where churches were situated had at least one location with significant risk of noise-induced hearing loss. However, there was no statistically significant relationship between neighbourhoods where religious noise exposure was the highest and where noise annoyance was the highest. The magnitude of the noise values for night-time exposure is remarkable particularly given that excessive night-time noise exposure has the greatest detrimental effect on public health. There is the need to focus on vulnerable groups, sensitive hours of the night, and possible confounding with air pollution in order to wholly address this potential hazard.

  15. Modeling the night-time CO2 4.3 μm emissions in the mesosphere/lower thermosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panka, Peter; Kutepov, Alexander; Feofilov, Artem; Rezac, Ladislav; Janches, Diego

    2016-04-01

    We present a detailed non-LTE model of the night-time CO2 4.3 μm emissions in the MLT. The model accounts for various mechanisms of the non-thermal excitation of CO2 molecules and both for inter- and intra-molecular vibrational-vibrational (VV) and vibrational-translational (VT) energy exchanges. In this model, we pay a specific attention to the transfer of vibrational energy of OH(ν), produced in the chemical reaction H + O3, to the CO2(ν3) vibrational mode. With the help of this model, we simulated a set of non-LTE 4.3 μm MLT limb emissions for typical atmospheric scenarios and compared the vertical profiles of integrated radiances with the corresponding SABER/TIMED observations. The implications, which follow from this comparison, for selecting non-LTE model parameters (rate coefficients), as well as for the night-time CO2 density retrieval in the MLT are discussed.

  16. DAILY CHANGES OF CENTRAL HEMODYNAMICS IN PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC HEART FAILURE WITH NIGHT-TIME DYSPNOEA ATTACK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Dovgolis

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study daily changes of central hemodynamics (CHD in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF and the effects of therapy. Materials and methods. 22 patients with ischemic heart disease and CHF of III-IV functional class (FC by NYHA, age 60,5±10,5 were observed. Patients were suffering from night-time dyspnoea attacks and had pulmonary artery occlusion pressure (PAOP 15-20 mm Hg. CHD was monitored invasively before the treatment and after 4 weeks of CHF treatment. Results. According to the cardiac index (CI at admission patients were split into two groups. 9 patients of group-I had CI ≤2,15 l\\min\\m2, and 13 patients of group-II had CI >2,15 l\\min\\m2. In patients of group-I CI increased in 4 weeks of treatment. The treatment caused considerable clinical improvement in all patients. The CHD indexes also improved. Initially evening-night-time peaks of PAOP (р≤0,002, systolic (SBP (р≤0,003, diastolic (DBP (р=0,002 and average (BPa (р=0,0007 blood pressure (BP as well as double multiplication (DM (р≤0,008 were registered in patients of group-I. At the end of treatment only evening-night increase in DBP (р=0,002 and BPa (р≤0,006 were noted. In patients of group-II after 4 weeks of treatment CI decreased or didn’t change. Towards 28-th day of treatment 10 patients had clinical improvements. Only one patient’s FC NYHA increased. At the end of treatment the normalization of CHD was registered totally in group. Initially evening-night-time peaks of PAOP (р≤0,002, SBP (р≤0, 0001, CI (р=0,057 and DM (р=0,084 were registered in patients of group-II. At the end of treatment evening-night-time peaks of PAOP (р≤0,015, SBP (р≤0,044, CI (р≤0,005 and DM (р≤0,044 still remained. Besides, evening-night-time peaks of cardiac output (р≤0,01 and systolic index (р≤0, 06 have added. Conclusion. In patients with CHF with initial CI ≤2,15 l\\min\\m2 treatment results in the normalization of CHD and its daily

  17. Extraordinary photoluminescence and strong temperature/angle-dependent Raman responses in few-layer phosphorene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuang; Yang, Jiong; Xu, Renjing; Wang, Fan; Li, Weifeng; Ghufran, Muhammad; Zhang, Yong-Wei; Yu, Zongfu; Zhang, Gang; Qin, Qinghua; Lu, Yuerui

    2014-09-23

    Phosphorene is a new family member of two-dimensional materials. We observed strong and highly layer-dependent photoluminescence in few-layer phosphorene (two to five layers). The results confirmed the theoretical prediction that few-layer phosphorene has a direct and layer-sensitive band gap. We also demonstrated that few-layer phosphorene is more sensitive to temperature modulation than graphene and MoS2 in Raman scattering. The anisotropic Raman response in few-layer phosphorene has enabled us to use an optical method to quickly determine the crystalline orientation without tunneling electron microscopy or scanning tunneling microscopy. Our results provide much needed experimental information about the band structures and exciton nature in few-layer phosphorene.

  18. Yeast cells proliferation on various strong static magnetic fields and temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otabe, E S; Kuroki, S; Nikawa, J; Matsumoto, Y; Ooba, T; Kiso, K; Hayashi, H

    2009-01-01

    The effect of strong magnetic fields on activities of yeast cells were investigated. Experimental yeast cells were cultured in 5 ml of YPD(Yeast extract Peptone Dextrose) for the number density of yeast cells of 5.0 ±0.2 x 10 6 /ml with various temperatures and magnetic fields up to 10 T. Since the yeast cells were placed in the center of the superconducting magnet, the effect of magnetic force due to the diamagnetism and magnetic gradient was negligibly small. The yeast suspension was opened to air and cultured in shaking condition. The number of yeast cells in the yeast suspension was counted by a counting plate with an optical microscope, and the time dependence of the number density of yeast cells was measured. The time dependence of the number density of yeast cells, ρ, of initial part is analyzed in terms of Malthus equation as given by ρ = ρo exp(kt), where k is the growth coefficient. It is found that, the growth coefficient under the magnetic field is suppressed compared with the control. The growth coefficient decreasing as increasing magnetic field and is saturated at about 5 T. On the other hand, it is found that the suppression of growth of yeast cells by the magnetic field is diminished at high temperatures.

  19. Strong room-temperature ferromagnetism in VSe2 monolayers on van der Waals substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonilla, Manuel; Kolekar, Sadhu; Ma, Yujing; Diaz, Horacio Coy; Kalappattil, Vijaysankar; Das, Raja; Eggers, Tatiana; Gutierrez, Humberto R.; Phan, Manh-Huong; Batzill, Matthias

    2018-04-01

    Reduced dimensionality and interlayer coupling in van der Waals materials gives rise to fundamentally different electronic1, optical2 and many-body quantum3-5 properties in monolayers compared with the bulk. This layer-dependence permits the discovery of novel material properties in the monolayer regime. Ferromagnetic order in two-dimensional materials is a coveted property that would allow fundamental studies of spin behaviour in low dimensions and enable new spintronics applications6-8. Recent studies have shown that for the bulk-ferromagnetic layered materials CrI3 (ref. 9) and Cr2Ge2Te6 (ref. 10), ferromagnetic order is maintained down to the ultrathin limit at low temperatures. Contrary to these observations, we report the emergence of strong ferromagnetic ordering for monolayer VSe2, a material that is paramagnetic in the bulk11,12. Importantly, the ferromagnetic ordering with a large magnetic moment persists to above room temperature, making VSe2 an attractive material for van der Waals spintronics applications.

  20. Night-time restricted feeding normalises clock genes and Pai-1 gene expression in the db/db mouse liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudo, T; Akiyama, M; Kuriyama, K; Sudo, M; Moriya, T; Shibata, S

    2004-08-01

    An increase in PAI-1 activity is thought to be a key factor underlying myocardial infarction. Mouse Pai-1 (mPai-1) activity shows a daily rhythm in vivo, and its transcription seems to be controlled not only by clock genes but also by humoral factors such as insulin and triglycerides. Thus, we investigated daily clock genes and mPai-1 mRNA expression in the liver of db/db mice exhibiting high levels of glucose, insulin and triglycerides. Locomotor activity was measured using an infrared detection system. RT-PCR or in situ hybridisation methods were applied to measure gene expression. Humoral factors were measured using measurement kits. The db/ db mice showed attenuated locomotor activity rhythms. The rhythmic expression of mPer2 mRNA was severely diminished and the phase of mBmal1 oscillation was advanced in the db/db mouse liver, whereas mPai-1 mRNA was highly and constitutively expressed. Night-time restricted feeding led to a recovery not only from the diminished locomotor activity, but also from the diminished Per2 and advanced mBmal1 mRNA rhythms. Expression of mPai-1 mRNA in db/db mice was reduced to levels far below normal. Pioglitazone treatment slightly normalised glucose and insulin levels, with a slight reduction in mPai-1 gene expression. We demonstrated that Type 2 diabetes impairs the oscillation of the peripheral oscillator. Night-time restricted feeding rather than pioglitazone injection led to a recovery from the diminished locomotor activity, and altered oscillation of the peripheral clock and mPai-1 mRNA rhythm. Thus, we conclude that scheduled restricted food intake may be a useful form of treatment for diabetes.

  1. Influence of night-time protein and carbohydrate intake on appetite and cardiometabolic risk in sedentary overweight and obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinsey, Amber W; Eddy, Wyatt R; Madzima, Takudzwa A; Panton, Lynn B; Arciero, Paul J; Kim, Jeong-Su; Ormsbee, Michael J

    2014-08-14

    The present study investigated whether whey (WH) protein, casein (CAS) protein or a carbohydrate placebo (PLA) consumed 30 min before sleep could acutely alter appetite or cardiometabolic risk the following morning. A total of forty-four sedentary overweight and obese women (BMI: 25·7-54·6 kg/m2) completed this stratified, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study (WH: n 16, age 27·4 (sd 5·0) years; CAS: n 15, age 30·3 (sd 8·1) years; PLA: n 13, age 28·5 (sd 7·2) years). The participants came to the laboratory at baseline (visit 1) and again in the morning after night-time ingestion of either protein or PLA (visit 2). Visit 2 was conducted at least 48 h after visit 1. During visits 1 and 2, the following parameters were measured: appetite (hunger, satiety and desire to eat); resting metabolism; blood lipid and glucose levels; the levels of insulin, leptin, C-reactive protein, insulin-like growth factor-1, cortisol and adiponectin. Data were analysed using repeated-measures ANOVA. No group × time interactions were observed for the measured variables; however, a main effect of time was observed for increased satiety (P= 0·03), reduced desire to eat (P= 0·006), and increased insulin levels (P= 0·004) and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance values (P= 0·01) after the consumption of either protein or PLA. The results of the present study reveal that night-time consumption of protein or carbohydrate by sedentary overweight and obese women improves their appetite measures but negatively affects insulin levels. Long-term studies are needed to evaluate the effects of chronic consumption of low-energy snacks at night on body composition and cardiometabolic risk.

  2. Green Grape Detection and Picking-Point Calculation in a Night-Time Natural Environment Using a Charge-Coupled Device (CCD Vision Sensor with Artificial Illumination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juntao Xiong

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Night-time fruit-picking technology is important to picking robots. This paper proposes a method of night-time detection and picking-point positioning for green grape-picking robots to solve the difficult problem of green grape detection and picking in night-time conditions with artificial lighting systems. Taking a representative green grape named Centennial Seedless as the research object, daytime and night-time grape images were captured by a custom-designed visual system. Detection was conducted employing the following steps: (1 The RGB (red, green and blue. Color model was determined for night-time green grape detection through analysis of color features of grape images under daytime natural light and night-time artificial lighting. The R component of the RGB color model was rotated and the image resolution was compressed; (2 The improved Chan–Vese (C–V level set model and morphological processing method were used to remove the background of the image, leaving out the grape fruit; (3 Based on the character of grape vertical suspension, combining the principle of the minimum circumscribed rectangle of fruit and the Hough straight line detection method, straight-line fitting for the fruit stem was conducted and the picking point was calculated using the stem with an angle of fitting line and vertical line less than 15°. The visual detection experiment results showed that the accuracy of grape fruit detection was 91.67% and the average running time of the proposed algorithm was 0.46 s. The picking-point calculation experiment results showed that the highest accuracy for the picking-point calculation was 92.5%, while the lowest was 80%. The results demonstrate that the proposed method of night-time green grape detection and picking-point calculation can provide technical support to the grape-picking robots.

  3. Wind measurements with SODAR during strong temperature inversions near the ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, P.; Vogt, S.

    1989-08-01

    SODAR (Sound Detection and Ranging) equipment has been increasingly used to measure vertical wind profiles with little expenditure in terms of staff, continuously over time and with a good spatial resolution. These informations serve as input variables for atmospheric transport and dispersion models, environmental monitoring of industrial facilities and, generally, for investigating a broad spectrum of meteorological phenomena. The SODAR principle has proved its suitability since long provided that the data recorded with SODAR have served to establish wind statistics valid for extended periods of time. At industrial sites potentially releasing substances prejudicial to health, e.g., chemical plants, nuclear power plants, etc., a SODAR must, moreover, be capable of measuring reliable the wind conditions also during short periods of release. This would, e.g., be important during accidental releases. Especially interesting situations for pollutant dispersion are distinct temperature inversions. It will be examined in this paper whether a SODAR is capable of measuring reliably the wind conditions also during those inversions. The selection of the situations of inversion as well as the direct intercomparison of data supplied by SODAR and conventional wind measuring instruments (anemometer and wind vane) are possible at the 200 m meteorological tower erected at the Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Center. The comparison between SODAR and the meteorological tower has shown that a SODAR is able to measure reliably the wind data also in situations characterized by strong ground-based and elevated inversions, respectively. (orig./KW) [de

  4. Night time cooling by ventilation or night sky radiation combined with in-room radiant cooling panels including phase change materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bourdakis, Eleftherios; Olesen, Bjarne W.; Grossule, Fabio

    Night sky radiative cooling technology using PhotoVoltaic/Thermal panels (PVT) and night time ventilation have been studied both by means of simulations and experiments to evaluate their potential and to validate the created simulation model used to describe it. An experimental setup has been...... depending on the sky clearness. This cooling power was enough to remove the stored heat and regenerate the ceiling panels. The validation simulation model results related to PCM were close to the corresponding results extracted from the experiment, while the results related to the production of cold water...... through the night sky radiative cooling differed significantly. The possibility of night time ventilation was studied through simulations for three different latitudes. It was concluded that for Danish climatic conditions night time ventilation would also be able to regenerate the panels while its...

  5. Night-time heart rate cut-off point definition by resting office tachycardia in untreated hypertensive patients: data of the Spanish ABPM registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinyoles, Ernest; de la Sierra, Alejandro; Roso, Albert; de la Cruz, Juan J; Gorostidi, Manuel; Segura, Julián; Banegas, José R; Martell-Claros, Nieves; Ruilope, Luís M

    2014-05-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown that an elevated resting heart rate (HR) is a risk factor for both total and cardiovascular mortality. Our aim was to estimate the night-time HR cut-off point that best predicts cardiovascular risk office tachycardia in hypertensive patients. Untreated hypertensive patients without concomitant cardiovascular diseases were included. Office and ambulatory HRs were measured. Cardiovascular risk office tachycardia was defined by office HR at least 85 beats per minute (bpm). Different night-time HR cut-offs were estimated by receiver operating characteristic curve analyses to predict cardiovascular risk office tachycardia. The best cut-off was selected on the basis of its combined sensitivity and specificity. A total of 32 569 hypertensive patients were included: 46.5% women, mean age (SD) 52 (14) years, office blood pressure 146 (16)/89 (11) mmHg, diabetes 10.3%, smoking 19.2%, BMI 29 (6.8) kg/m, office HR 77 (11.2) bpm, and night-time HR 64.9 (9.3) bpm. A total of 7070 (21.7%) patients were found to have cardiovascular risk office tachycardia. The night-time HR value that better predicted cardiovascular risk office tachycardia was more than 66 bpm. In comparison with patients with night HR below this value, those with night-time tachycardia were predominantly women, younger, with higher ambulatory blood pressure, greater BMI, and higher prevalence of diabetes and smoking. All comparisons were statistically significant (P less than 0.001). A mean night-time HR more than 66 bpm is a good predictor of cardiovascular risk office tachycardia in untreated hypertensive patients and could be considered a variable associated with an increased cardiovascular risk.

  6. Determinants of day-night difference in blood pressure, a comparison with determinants of daytime and night-time blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musameh, M D; Nelson, C P; Gracey, J; Tobin, M; Tomaszewski, M; Samani, N J

    2017-01-01

    Blunted day-night difference in blood pressure (BP) is an independent cardiovascular risk factor, although there is limited information on determinants of diurnal variation in BP. We investigated determinants of day-night difference in systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) BP and how these compared with determinants of daytime and night-time SBP and DBP. We analysed the association of mean daytime, mean night-time and mean day-night difference (defined as (mean daytime-mean night-time)/mean daytime) in SBP and DBP with clinical, lifestyle and biochemical parameters from 1562 adult individuals (mean age 38.6) from 509 nuclear families recruited in the GRAPHIC Study. We estimated the heritability of the various BP phenotypes. In multivariate analysis, there were significant associations of age, sex, markers of adiposity (body mass index and waist-hip ratio), plasma lipids (total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides), serum uric acid, alcohol intake and current smoking status on daytime or night-time SBP and/or DBP. Of these, only age (P=4.7 × 10 -5 ), total cholesterol (P=0.002), plasma triglycerides (P=0.006) and current smoking (P=3.8 × 10 -9 ) associated with day-night difference in SBP, and age (P=0.001), plasma triglyceride (P=2.2 × 10 -5 ) and current smoking (3.8 × 10 -4 ) associated with day-night difference in DBP. 24-h, daytime and night-time SBP and DBP showed substantial heritability (ranging from 18-43%). In contrast day-night difference in SBP showed a lower heritability (13%) while heritability of day-night difference in DBP was not significant. These data suggest that specific clinical, lifestyle and biochemical factors contribute to inter-individual variation in daytime, night-time and day-night differences in SBP and DBP. Variation in day-night differences in BP is largely non-genetic.

  7. Daytime space cooling with phase change material ceiling panels discharged using rooftop photovoltaic/thermal panels and night-time ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bourdakis, Eleftherios; Pean, Thibault Quentin; Gennari, Luca

    2016-01-01

    The possibility of using photovoltaic/thermal panels for producing cold water through the process of night-time radiative cooling was experimentally examined. The cold water was used to discharge phase change material in ceiling panels in a climatic chamber. Both night-time radiative cooling...... the photovoltaic/thermal varied from 56% to 122%. The phase change material ceiling panels were thus, capable of providing an acceptable thermal environment and the photovoltaic/thermal panels were able to provide most of the required electricity and cold water needed for cooling....

  8. ANALYZING THE VELOCITY OF URBAN DYNAMIC OVER NORTHEASTERN CHINA USING DMSP-OLS NIGHT-TIME LIGHTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Zhou

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Stable night-time lights (NTL data from the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program Operational Line-scan System (DMSPOLS can serve as a good proxy for anthropogenic development. Here DMSP-OLS NTL data was used to detect the urban development status in northeastern China. The spatial and temporal gradients are combined to depict the velocity of urban expanding process. This velocity index represents the instantaneous local velocity along the Earth’s surface needed to maintain constant NTL condition, and has a mean of 0.36 km/yr for northeastern China. The velocity change of NTL is lower in the urban center and its near regions, and the suburbs show a relatively high value. The connecting zones between satellite cities and metropolis have also a rapid rate of NTL evolution. The dynamic process of urbanization over the study area is mainly in a manner of spreading from urban cores to edges. The rank size of the velocity for the prefectures is analyzed and a long tail distribution is found. The velocity index can provide insights for the future pattern of urban sprawl.

  9. Estimating rural populations without access to electricity in developing countries through night-time light satellite imagery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doll, Christopher N.H.; Pachauri, Shonali

    2010-01-01

    A lack of access to energy and, in particular, electricity is a less obvious manifestation of poverty but arguably one of the most important. This paper investigates the extent to which electricity access can be investigated using night-time light satellite data and spatially explicit population datasets to compare electricity access between 1990 and 2000. We present here the first satellite derived estimates of rural population without access to electricity in developing countries to draw insights on issues surrounding the delivery of electricity to populations in rural areas. The paper provides additional evidence of the slow progress in expansion of energy access to households in Sub-Saharan Africa and shows how this might be ascribed in part due to the low population densities in rural areas. The fact that this is a continent with some of the lowest per-capita income levels aggravates the intrinsic difficulties associated with making the investments needed to supply electricity in areas with low population density and high dispersion. Clearly, these spatial dimensions of the distributions of the remaining unelectrified populations in the world have an impact on what options are considered the most appropriate in expanding access to these households and the relative attractiveness of decentralized options.

  10. Analyzing the Velocity of Urban Dynamic Over Northeastern China Using Dmsp-Ols Night-Time Lights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Y.

    2017-09-01

    Stable night-time lights (NTL) data from the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program Operational Line-scan System (DMSPOLS) can serve as a good proxy for anthropogenic development. Here DMSP-OLS NTL data was used to detect the urban development status in northeastern China. The spatial and temporal gradients are combined to depict the velocity of urban expanding process. This velocity index represents the instantaneous local velocity along the Earth's surface needed to maintain constant NTL condition, and has a mean of 0.36 km/yr for northeastern China. The velocity change of NTL is lower in the urban center and its near regions, and the suburbs show a relatively high value. The connecting zones between satellite cities and metropolis have also a rapid rate of NTL evolution. The dynamic process of urbanization over the study area is mainly in a manner of spreading from urban cores to edges. The rank size of the velocity for the prefectures is analyzed and a long tail distribution is found. The velocity index can provide insights for the future pattern of urban sprawl.

  11. Preliminary Analysis of Night-time Aerosol Optical Depth Retrievals at a Rural, Near-urban Site in Southern Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baibakov, K.; O'Neill, N. T.; Firanski, B.; Strawbridge, K.

    2009-01-01

    In the summer of 2007, a SPSTAR03 starphotometer was installed at Egbert, Canada (44 deg. 13' N, 79 deg. 45' W, alt 264 m) and a continuous series of initial measurements was performed between August 26 and September 19. Several sunphotometry parameters such as the aerosol optical depth (AOD) and the 'fine' and 'coarse' optical depths were extracted from the SPSTAR03 extinction spectra. The SPSTAR03 data was analyzed in conjunction with sunphotometry and zenith-pointing lidar data acquired during the same time period. Preliminary results show coarse continuity between the day- and night time AOD values (with the mean difference between the measured and the interpolated values being 0.05) as well as a qualitative correlation between the 'fine' and 'coarse' optical depths and the normalized lidar backscatter coefficient profiles. It was also found that the spectra produced with the differential two-star measurement method were sensitive to non-horizontally homogeneous differences in the line-of-sight conditions of both stars. The one-star method helps to reduce the uncertainties but requires the determination of a calibration constant.

  12. Summer does not always mean lower: seasonality of 24 h, daytime, and night-time blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedecostante, Massimiliano; Barbatelli, Paolo; Guerra, Federico; Espinosa, Emma; Dessì-Fulgheri, Paolo; Sarzani, Riccardo

    2012-07-01

    Evaluation of seasonal influences on ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) values in a very large population living in a mild-climate geographic area. Among patients referred to our Hypertension Center between September 2002 and January 2011 with a reliable ABPM, we considered those in the two hottest (July and August) vs. those in the two coldest (January and February) months. Seven hundred and forty-two men (53.2%) and 653 women (46.8%) were studied; 1245 (89.3%) were hypertensive patients of which 795 (63.9%) were drug-treated. In winter, mean daytime SBP and DBP were higher (P = 0.001 and P hottest summer months are associated with lower daytime BP and also lower 24-h DBP. However, we found an inverse relationship regarding night-time BP, dipping pattern, and INH that were higher or more common in summer. These findings were even more evident in treated patients, especially when not at target. Different sleeping behaviors or improper dose reduction of drug therapy in summer may explain the findings.

  13. Local temperatures inferred from plant communities suggest strong spatial buffering of climate warming across Northern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenoir, Jonathan; Graae, Bente; Aarrestad, Per

    2013-01-01

    -change impacts. Is this local spatial buffering restricted to topographically complex terrains? To answer this, we here study fine-grained thermal variability across a 2500-km wide latitudinal gradient in Northern Europe encompassing a large array of topographic complexities. We first combined plant community...... data, Ellenberg temperature indicator values, locally measured temperatures (LmT) and globally interpolated temperatures (GiT) in a modelling framework to infer biologically relevant temperature conditions from plant assemblages within community-inferred temperatures: CiT). We...... temperature indicator values in combination with plant assemblages explained 46-72% of variation in LmT and 92-96% of variation in GiT during the growing season (June, July, August). Growing-season CiT range within 1-km(2) units peaked at 60-65°N and increased with terrain roughness, averaging 1.97 °C (SD = 0...

  14. An adaptive compensation algorithm for temperature drift of micro-electro-mechanical systems gyroscopes using a strong tracking Kalman filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yibo; Li, Xisheng; Zhang, Xiaojuan

    2015-05-13

    We present an adaptive algorithm for a system integrated with micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) gyroscopes and a compass to eliminate the influence from the environment, compensate the temperature drift precisely, and improve the accuracy of the MEMS gyroscope. We use a simplified drift model and changing but appropriate model parameters to implement this algorithm. The model of MEMS gyroscope temperature drift is constructed mostly on the basis of the temperature sensitivity of the gyroscope. As the state variables of a strong tracking Kalman filter (STKF), the parameters of the temperature drift model can be calculated to adapt to the environment under the support of the compass. These parameters change intelligently with the environment to maintain the precision of the MEMS gyroscope in the changing temperature. The heading error is less than 0.6° in the static temperature experiment, and also is kept in the range from 5° to -2° in the dynamic outdoor experiment. This demonstrates that the proposed algorithm exhibits strong adaptability to a changing temperature, and performs significantly better than KF and MLR to compensate the temperature drift of a gyroscope and eliminate the influence of temperature variation.

  15. An Adaptive Compensation Algorithm for Temperature Drift of Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems Gyroscopes Using a Strong Tracking Kalman Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yibo Feng

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available We present an adaptive algorithm for a system integrated with micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS gyroscopes and a compass to eliminate the influence from the environment, compensate the temperature drift precisely, and improve the accuracy of the MEMS gyroscope. We use a simplified drift model and changing but appropriate model parameters to implement this algorithm. The model of MEMS gyroscope temperature drift is constructed mostly on the basis of the temperature sensitivity of the gyroscope. As the state variables of a strong tracking Kalman filter (STKF, the parameters of the temperature drift model can be calculated to adapt to the environment under the support of the compass. These parameters change intelligently with the environment to maintain the precision of the MEMS gyroscope in the changing temperature. The heading error is less than 0.6° in the static temperature experiment, and also is kept in the range from 5° to −2° in the dynamic outdoor experiment. This demonstrates that the proposed algorithm exhibits strong adaptability to a changing temperature, and performs significantly better than KF and MLR to compensate the temperature drift of a gyroscope and eliminate the influence of temperature variation.

  16. Prevalentie van broek- en/of bedplassen bij hinderen met aandachtsproblemen [Prevalence of daytime and/or night-time incontinence in children with attention problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leerdam, F.J.M. van; Reijneveld, S.A.; Hoog, N. de; Heijden, A.J. van der; Hirasing, R.A.

    2005-01-01

    Aim of the study was to assess the prevalence of daytime and/or night-time incontinence in children with a clinical score on Attention Problems. Of the population sample of 4970 children, 4480 participated (response 90.1%). Parents of 4171 children (2069 boys and 2102 girls) aged between 4 and 15

  17. Analysis of stream temperature and heat budget in an urban river under strong anthropogenic influences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Zhuohang; Kinouchi, Tsuyoshi

    2013-05-01

    Stream temperature variations of the Tama River, which runs through highly urbanized areas of Tokyo, were studied in relation to anthropogenic impacts, including wastewater effluents, dam release and water withdrawal. Both long-term and longitudinal changes in stream temperature were identified and the influences of stream flow rate, temperature and volume of wastewater effluents and air temperature were investigated. Water and heat budget analyses were also conducted for several segments of the mainstream to clarify the relative impacts from natural and anthropogenic factors. Stream temperatures in the winter season significantly increased over the past 20 years at sites affected by intensive and warm effluents from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) located along the mainstream. In the summer season, a larger stream temperature increase was identified in the upstream reaches, which was attributable to the decreased flow rate due to water withdrawal. The relationship between air and stream temperatures indicated that stream temperatures at the upstream site were likely to be affected by a dam release, while temperatures in the downstream reaches have deviated more from air temperatures in recent years, probably due to the increased impacts of effluents from WWTPs. Results of the water and heat budget analyses indicated that the largest contributions to water and heat gains were attributable to wastewater effluents, while other factors such as groundwater recharge and water withdrawal were found to behave as energy sinks, especially in summer. The inflow from tributaries worked to reduce the impacts of dam release and the heat exchanges at the air-water interface contributed less to heat budgets in both winter and summer seasons for all river segments.

  18. Estimating the Impact of Urban Expansion on Land Subsidence Using Time Series of DMSP Night-Time Light Satellite Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, S.; Yu, J.; Wang, Y.; Zhu, L.; Zhou, Q.

    2018-04-01

    In recent decades, urbanization has resulted a massive increase in the amount of infrastructure especially large buildings in large cities worldwide. There has been a noticeable expansion of entire cities both horizontally and vertically. One of the common consequences of urban expansion is the increase of ground loads, which may trigger land subsidence and can be a potential threat of public safety. Monitoring trends of urban expansion and land subsidence using remote sensing technology is needed to ensure safety along with urban planning and development. The Defense Meteorological Satellite Program Operational Line scan System (DMSP/OLS) Night-Time Light (NTL) images have been used to study urbanization at a regional scale, proving the capability of recognizing urban expansion patterns. In the current study, a normalized illuminated urban area dome volume (IUADV) based on inter-calibrated DMSP/OLS NTL images is shown as a practical approach for estimating urban expansion of Beijing at a single period in time and over subsequent years. To estimate the impact of urban expansion on land subsidence, IUADV was correlated with land subsidence rates obtained using the Stanford Method for Persistent Scatterers (StaMPS) approach within the Persistent Scatterers InSAR (PSInSAR) methodology. Moderate correlations are observed between the urban expansion based on the DMSP/OLS NTL images and land subsidence. The correlation coefficients between the urban expansion of each year and land subsidence tends to gradually decrease over time (Coefficient of determination R = 0.80 - 0.64 from year 2005 to year 2010), while the urban expansion of two sequential years exhibit an opposite trend (R = 0.29 - 0.57 from year 2005 to year 2010) except for the two sequential years between 2007 and 2008 (R = 0.14).

  19. New Model of the night-time CO2 4.3 µm emissions in the mesosphere/lower thermosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panka, P.; Kutepov, A. A.; Kalogerakis, K. S.; Janches, D.; Russell, J. M., III; Rezac, L.; Feofilov, A.; Mlynczak, M. G.; Yiğit, E.

    2016-12-01

    We present a new non-LTE model of the night-time CO2 4.3 µm emissions in the MLT which accounts for various mechanisms of the non-thermal excitation of CO2 molecules. We pay specific attention to the transfer of vibrational energy of OH(v), produced in the chemical reaction H + O3, to the CO2(v3) vibrational mode. Two energy transfer channels are studied: 1) the "direct" mechanism, OH(v)→N2(v)→CO2(v3)→4.3 µm, suggested by Kumer et al, [1978], and 2) the new "indirect" mechanism, OH(v)→O(1D)→N2(v)→CO2(ν3)→4.3 µm, recently suggested by Sharma et al. [2015]. We show that for various seasonal scenarios above 75 km, the "direct" mechanism alone under-predicts the observed radiance between 30-70%, from 60°S-80°N. However, considering both the "direct" and "indirect" mechanism brings differences between simulated and measured nighttime SABER 4.3 µm limb radiances down to ±10% from 75-85 km and ±20% from 85-110km for the same region. These results suggest that the important mechanism of the nighttime 4.3 µm emission generation, which was missing in previous models [Lopez-Puertas and Taylor, 2001, Lopez-Puertas et al, 2004], has finally been found. This is an important step towards developing the algorithm suitable for retrieving CO2 densities in the MLT from nighttime limb radiances obtained by SABER, which has been taking continuous measurements for the past 15 years.

  20. Strong temperature effect on the sizes of the Cooper pairs in a two-band superconductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Örd, Teet; Rägo, Küllike; Vargunin, Artjom; Litak, Grzegorz

    2018-01-01

    We study the temperature dependencies of the mean sizes of the Cooper pairs in a two-band BCS-type s-wave superconductivity model with coupling cut-off in the momentum space. It is found that, in contrast to single-band systems, the size of Cooper pairs in the weaker superconductivity band can significantly decrease with a temperature increase due to an interband proximity effect. The relevant spatial behaviour of the wave functions of the Cooper pairs is analyzed. The results also indicate a possibility that the size of Cooper pairs in two-band systems may increase with an increase in temperature.

  1. Efficacy of night-time compression for breast cancer related lymphedema (LYNC): protocol for a multi-centre, randomized controlled efficacy trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNeely, Margaret L.; Campbell, Kristin L.; Webster, Marc; Kuusk, Urve; Tracey, Karen; Mackey, John

    2016-01-01

    Lymphedema is a prevalent long-term effect of breast cancer treatment that is associated with reduced quality of life. More recent observational data suggest that the addition of night-time compression to day-time use of a compression garment results in better long-term control of arm lymphedema. The primary objectives of the randomized controlled phase of the trial are to determine the efficacy of night-time compression on arm lymphedema volume maintenance and quality of life in breast cancer survivors who have completed intensive reduction treatment for their lymphedema. The study will be a parallel 3-arm, multi-centre randomized fast-track trial. A total of 120 women with breast cancer related lymphedema will be recruited from 3 centres in Canada and randomized to group 1: Day-time compression garment alone or Group 2: Day-time compression garment + night-time compression bandaging or Group 3: Day-time compression garment + use of a night-time compression system garment. The duration of the primary intervention period will be 12 weeks. The follow-up period after the intervention (weeks 13 to 24) will follow a longitudinal observational design. The primary outcome variables: differences from baseline to week 12 in arm volume and quality of life (Lymphoedema Functioning, Disability and Health Questionnaire: Lymph-ICF). Secondary outcomes include bioimpedance analysis, sleep disturbance and self-efficacy. All measurements are standardized and will be performed prior to randomization, and at weeks 6, 12, 18 and 24. The use of night-time compression as a self-management strategy for chronic breast cancer related lymphedema is seen as an innovative approach to improve long-term control over the condition. This trial aims to advance the knowledge on self-management strategies for lymphedema

  2. High-temperature stability of electron transport in semiconductors with strong spin-orbital interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomaka, G.; Grendysa, J.; ŚliŻ, P.; Becker, C. R.; Polit, J.; Wojnarowska, R.; Stadler, A.; Sheregii, E. M.

    2016-05-01

    Experimental results of the magnetotransport measurements (longitudinal magnetoresistance Rx x and the Hall resistance Rx y) are presented over a wide interval of temperatures for several samples of Hg1 -xCdxTe (x ≈0.13 -0.15 ) grown by MBE—thin layers (thickness about 100 nm) strained and not strained and thick ones with thickness about 1 μ m . An amazing temperature stability of the SdH-oscillation period and amplitude is observed in the entire temperature interval of measurements up to 50 K. Moreover, the quantum Hall effect (QHE) behavior of the Hall resistance is registered in the same temperature interval. These peculiarities of the Rx x and Rx y for strained thin layers are interpreted using quantum Hall conductivity (QHC) on topologically protected surface states (TPSS) [C. Brüne et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 126803 (2011), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.106.126803]. In the case of not strained layers it is assumed that the QHC on the TPSS (or on the resonant interface states) contributes also to the conductance of the bulk samples.

  3. Determinants of day–night difference in blood pressure, a comparison with determinants of daytime and night-time blood pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musameh, M D; Nelson, C P; Gracey, J; Tobin, M; Tomaszewski, M; Samani, N J

    2017-01-01

    Blunted day–night difference in blood pressure (BP) is an independent cardiovascular risk factor, although there is limited information on determinants of diurnal variation in BP. We investigated determinants of day–night difference in systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) BP and how these compared with determinants of daytime and night-time SBP and DBP. We analysed the association of mean daytime, mean night-time and mean day–night difference (defined as (mean daytime−mean night-time)/mean daytime) in SBP and DBP with clinical, lifestyle and biochemical parameters from 1562 adult individuals (mean age 38.6) from 509 nuclear families recruited in the GRAPHIC Study. We estimated the heritability of the various BP phenotypes. In multivariate analysis, there were significant associations of age, sex, markers of adiposity (body mass index and waist–hip ratio), plasma lipids (total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides), serum uric acid, alcohol intake and current smoking status on daytime or night-time SBP and/or DBP. Of these, only age (P=4.7 × 10−5), total cholesterol (P=0.002), plasma triglycerides (P=0.006) and current smoking (P=3.8 × 10−9) associated with day–night difference in SBP, and age (P=0.001), plasma triglyceride (P=2.2 × 10−5) and current smoking (3.8 × 10−4) associated with day–night difference in DBP. 24-h, daytime and night-time SBP and DBP showed substantial heritability (ranging from 18–43%). In contrast day–night difference in SBP showed a lower heritability (13%) while heritability of day–night difference in DBP was not significant. These data suggest that specific clinical, lifestyle and biochemical factors contribute to inter-individual variation in daytime, night-time and day–night differences in SBP and DBP. Variation in day–night differences in BP is largely non-genetic. PMID:26984683

  4. High-temperature electron-hole superfluidity with strong anisotropic gaps in double phosphorene monolayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saberi-Pouya, S.; Zarenia, M.; Perali, A.; Vazifehshenas, T.; Peeters, F. M.

    2018-05-01

    Excitonic superfluidity in double phosphorene monolayers is investigated using the BCS mean-field equations. Highly anisotropic superfluidity is predicted where we found that the maximum superfluid gap is in the Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) regime along the armchair direction and in the BCS-BEC crossover regime along the zigzag direction. We estimate the highest Kosterlitz-Thouless transition temperature with maximum value up to ˜90 K with onset carrier densities as high as 4 ×1012cm-2 . This transition temperature is significantly larger than what is found in double electron-hole few-layers graphene. Our results can guide experimental research toward the realization of anisotropic condensate states in electron-hole phosphorene monolayers.

  5. Magnetoconductance fluctuations in a strongly correlated disordered ring system at low temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, H.; Ishihara, M.; Li, Z.; Kawazoe, Y.

    1996-01-01

    Using a recursive real-space Green close-quote s-function technique in the tight-binding model, we study the influence of the electron-electron Hubbard interaction on the magnetoconductance fluctuations in a disordered ring at low temperatures. Our numerical results improve the previous theoretical predictions for the magnetoconductance fluctuations as a function of magnetic flux compared with experiments. Meanwhile, we find several anomalous phenomena at low temperatures, which do not survive at high temperatures. For the Fermi level E f =0.1t (t is the hopping integral) the envelope of magnetoconductance fluctuations drops to a lower value at some magnetic flux, while the Hubbard interaction causes the drop to occur at larger flux. The magnetoconductance fluctuations vary with the Hubbard interaction for magnetic flux around 20Φ 0 (Φ 0 =hc/e) mainly in the range of small U. The Hubbard interaction narrows the widths of the main peaks in the Fourier spectrum, but it does not change their positions. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  6. Resting, night-time, and 24 h heart rate as markers of cardiovascular risk in middle-aged and elderly men and women with no apparent heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Christine D; Olsen, Rasmus H; Pedersen, Lene R

    2013-01-01

    AimsIncreased heart rate (HR) is a predictor of all-cause and cardiovascular (CV) mortality. We tested which measure of HR had the strongest prognostic value in a population with no apparent heart disease.Methods and resultsSix hundred and fifty-three men and women between the age of 55 and 75...... adjusted model, only night-time HR remained in the model, hazard ratio = 1.17 (1.05-1.30), P = 0.005.ConclusionIn middle-aged subjects with no apparent heart disease, all measures of increased HR were associated with increased mortality and CV risk. However, night-time HR was the only parameter...

  7. Improved ring potential of QED at finite temperature and in the presence of weak and strong magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadooghi, N.; Anaraki, K. Sohrabi

    2008-01-01

    Using the general structure of the vacuum polarization tensor Π μν (k 0 ,k) in the infrared (IR) limit, k 0 →0, the ring contribution to the QED effective potential at finite temperature and the nonzero magnetic field is determined beyond the static limit, (k 0 →0, k→0). The resulting ring potential is then studied in weak and strong magnetic field limits. In the weak magnetic field limit, at high temperature and for α→0, the improved ring potential consists of a term proportional to T 4 α 5/2 , in addition to the expected T 4 α 3/2 term arising from the static limit. Here, α is the fine structure constant. In the limit of the strong magnetic field, where QED dynamics is dominated by the lowest Landau level, the ring potential includes a novel term consisting of dilogarithmic function (eB)Li 2 (-(2α/π)(eB/m 2 )). Using the ring improved (one-loop) effective potential including the one-loop effective potential and ring potential in the IR limit, the dynamical chiral symmetry breaking of QED is studied at finite temperature and in the presence of the strong magnetic field. The gap equation, the dynamical mass and the critical temperature of QED in the regime of the lowest Landau level dominance are determined in the improved IR as well as in the static limit. For a given value of the magnetic field, the improved ring potential is shown to be more efficient in decreasing the critical temperature arising from the one-loop effective potential.

  8. Availability and night-time use of electronic entertainment and communication devices are associated with short sleep duration and obesity among Canadian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chahal, H; Fung, C; Kuhle, S; Veugelers, P J

    2013-02-01

    What is already known about this subject Short sleep duration is a risk factor for obesity. Television (TV) in the bedroom has been shown to be associated with excess body weight in children. Children increasingly use other electronic entertainment and communication devices (EECDs) such as video games, computers, and smart phones. What this study adds Access to and night-time use of EECDs are associated with shortened sleep duration, excess body weight, poorer diet quality, and lower physical activity levels. Our findings reinforce existing recommendations pertaining to TV and Internet access by the American Academy of Pediatrics and suggest to have these expanded to restricted availability of video games and smart phones in children's bedrooms. While the prevalence of childhood obesity and access to and use of electronic entertainment and communication devices (EECDs) have increased in the past decades, no earlier study has examined their interrelationship. To examine whether night-time access to and use of EECDs are associated with sleep duration, body weights, diet quality, and physical activity of Canadian children. A representative sample of 3398 grade 5 children in Alberta, Canada, was surveyed. The survey included questions on children's lifestyles and health behaviours, the Harvard Youth/Adolescent Food Frequency questionnaire, a validated questionnaire on physical activity, and measurements of heights and weights. Random effect models were used to assess the associations of night-time access to and use of EECDs with sleep, diet quality, physical activity, and body weights. Sixty-four percent of parents reported that their child had access to one or more EECDs in their bedroom. Access to and night-time use of EECDs were associated with shortened sleep duration, excess body weight, poorer diet quality, and lower physical activity levels in a statistically significant manner. Limiting the availability of EECDs in children's bedrooms and discouraging their

  9. Using sonic anemometer temperature to measure sensible heat flux in strong winds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. P. Burns

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Sonic anemometers simultaneously measure the turbulent fluctuations of vertical wind (w' and sonic temperature (Ts', and are commonly used to measure sensible heat flux (H. Our study examines 30-min heat fluxes measured with a Campbell Scientific CSAT3 sonic anemometer above a subalpine forest. We compared H calculated with Ts to H calculated with a co-located thermocouple and found that, for horizontal wind speed (U less than 8 m s−1, the agreement was around ±30 W m−2. However, for U ≈ 8 m s−1, the CSAT H had a generally positive deviation from H calculated with the thermocouple, reaching a maximum difference of ≈250 W m−2 at U ≈ 18 m s−1. With version 4 of the CSAT firmware, we found significant underestimation of the speed of sound and thus Ts in high winds (due to a delayed detection of the sonic pulse, which resulted in the large CSAT heat flux errors. Although this Ts error is qualitatively similar to the well-known fundamental correction for the crosswind component, it is quantitatively different and directly related to the firmware estimation of the pulse arrival time. For a CSAT running version 3 of the firmware, there does not appear to be a significant underestimation of Ts; however, a Ts error similar to that of version 4 may occur if the CSAT is sufficiently out of calibration. An empirical correction to the CSAT heat flux that is consistent with our conceptual understanding of the Ts error is presented. Within a broader context, the surface energy balance is used to evaluate the heat flux measurements, and the usefulness of side-by-side instrument comparisons is discussed.

  10. Simulation comparison between natural and hybrid ventilation by fans at night time for severe hot climate (Aswan, Egypt)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rizk, A. [Department of Architectural Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Tanta University, Tanta (Egypt); El-Deberky, A. [Department of Architecture, Faculty of Fine Arts, Minya University, Minya (Egypt); Guirguis, N. M. [Housing and Building Research Center, Cairo (Egypt)

    2010-07-01

    During the summer in Aswan, Egypt, indoor temperatures rise to a level exceeding thermal comfort. Due to the lag time of the building's envelope, temperature at night is higher inside than outside during the overheated period. The aim of this paper is to assess the effectiveness of ceiling and wall falls in lowering indoor air temperature at night. Computer simulations were carried out with ANSYS FLOTRAN computational fluid dynamic on a single room; 3 models were studied: natural ventilation, hybrid ventilation with a wall fan and hybrid ventilation with a ceiling fan. Results showed that hybrid ventilation fan is more effective in decreasing the temperature than natural cross ventilation alone and it was found that a wall fan is better than a ceiling fan. This study demonstrated that using hybrid ventilation with a side fan is the best option to reduce the air temperature in a room in Aswan, Egypt.

  11. Respiration of the external mycelium in the arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis shows strong dependence on recent photosynthates and acclimation to temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinemeyer, A; Ineson, P; Ostle, N; Fitter, A H

    2006-01-01

    * Although arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi are a major pathway in the global carbon cycle, their basic biology and, in particular, their respiratory response to temperature remain obscure. * A pulse label of the stable isotope (13)C was applied to Plantago lanceolata, either uninoculated or inoculated with the AM fungus Glomus mosseae. The extra-radical mycelium (ERM) of the fungus was allowed to grow into a separate hyphal compartment excluding roots. We determined the carbon costs of the ERM and tested for a direct temperature effect on its respiration by measuring total carbon and the (13)C:(12)C ratio of respired CO(2). With a second pulse we tested for acclimation of ERM respiration after 2 wk of soil warming. * Root colonization remained unchanged between the two pulses but warming the hyphal compartment increased ERM length. delta(13)C signals peaked within the first 10 h and were higher in mycorrhizal treatments. The concentration of CO(2) in the gas samples fluctuated diurnally and was highest in the mycorrhizal treatments but was unaffected by temperature. Heating increased ERM respiration only after the first pulse and reduced specific ERM respiration rates after the second pulse; however, both pulses strongly depended on radiation flux. * The results indicate a fast ERM acclimation to temperature, and that light is the key factor controlling carbon allocation to the fungus.

  12. [Health risk railroad noise - prognosis of potential health risks subsequent to night-time exposure to railroad noise in the German part of the Transversal Rotterdam Genova].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greiser, E

    2014-12-01

    Based on risk coefficients for cardiovascular and psychiatric disease derived from a case-control study in the vicinity of a major German airport, statistics on persons exposed to night-time railroad noise in the vicinity of the Rotterdam-Genova Transversal, and on health expenditure calculations by the Federal Statistical Office of Germany a prognosis on effects of railroad noise was performed. It resulted for 1 10-year period in nearly 75 000 excess cases of diseases, nearly 30 000 excess deaths and health expenditures of 3.8 billion euros. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  13. Fitness Effects of Chlorpyrifos in the Damselfly Enallagma cyathigerum Strongly Depend upon Temperature and Food Level and Can Bridge Metamorphosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssens, Lizanne; Stoks, Robby

    2013-01-01

    Interactions between pollutants and suboptimal environmental conditions can have severe consequences for the toxicity of pollutants, yet are still poorly understood. To identify patterns across environmental conditions and across fitness-related variables we exposed Enallagma cyathigerum damselfly larvae to the pesticide chlorpyrifos at two food levels or at two temperatures and quantified four fitness-related variables (larval survival, development time, mass at emergence and adult cold resistance). Food level and temperature did not affect survival in the absence of the pesticide, yet the pesticide reduced survival only at the high temperature. Animals reacted to the pesticide by accelerating their development but only at the high food level and at the low temperature; at the low food level, however, pesticide exposure resulted in a slower development. Chlorpyrifos exposure resulted in smaller adults except in animals reared at the high food level. Animals reared at the low food level and at the low temperature had a higher cold resistance which was not affected by the pesticide. In summary our study highlight that combined effects of exposure to chlorpyrifos and the two environmental conditions (i) were mostly interactive and sometimes even reversed in comparison with the effect of the environmental condition in isolation, (ii) strongly differed depending on the fitness-related variable under study, (iii) were not always predictable based on the effect of the environmental condition in isolation, and (iv) bridged metamorphosis depending on which environmental condition was combined with the pesticide thereby potentially carrying over from aquatic to terrestrial ecosystems. These findings are relevant when extrapolating results of laboratory tests done under ideal environmental conditions to natural communities. PMID:23840819

  14. Fitness Effects of Chlorpyrifos in the Damselfly Enallagma cyathigerum Strongly Depend upon Temperature and Food Level and Can Bridge Metamorphosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizanne Janssens

    Full Text Available Interactions between pollutants and suboptimal environmental conditions can have severe consequences for the toxicity of pollutants, yet are still poorly understood. To identify patterns across environmental conditions and across fitness-related variables we exposed Enallagma cyathigerum damselfly larvae to the pesticide chlorpyrifos at two food levels or at two temperatures and quantified four fitness-related variables (larval survival, development time, mass at emergence and adult cold resistance. Food level and temperature did not affect survival in the absence of the pesticide, yet the pesticide reduced survival only at the high temperature. Animals reacted to the pesticide by accelerating their development but only at the high food level and at the low temperature; at the low food level, however, pesticide exposure resulted in a slower development. Chlorpyrifos exposure resulted in smaller adults except in animals reared at the high food level. Animals reared at the low food level and at the low temperature had a higher cold resistance which was not affected by the pesticide. In summary our study highlight that combined effects of exposure to chlorpyrifos and the two environmental conditions (i were mostly interactive and sometimes even reversed in comparison with the effect of the environmental condition in isolation, (ii strongly differed depending on the fitness-related variable under study, (iii were not always predictable based on the effect of the environmental condition in isolation, and (iv bridged metamorphosis depending on which environmental condition was combined with the pesticide thereby potentially carrying over from aquatic to terrestrial ecosystems. These findings are relevant when extrapolating results of laboratory tests done under ideal environmental conditions to natural communities.

  15. Experimental Investigation of the Influence of Different Flooring Emissivity on Night-Time Cooling using Displacement Ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le Dréau, Jérôme; Karlsen, Line Røseth; Litewnicki, Michal

    2011-01-01

    , but it was seen that the emissivity of the flooring affected the heat transfer ratio at the internal surfaces. The convective heat flux increased at the ceiling and decreased at the floor for experiments with aluminum flooring compared to the experiments with EPS floor. Temperature efficiency was slightly higher......-time ventilation using displacement ventilation. Experimental work was conducted on the basis of the work performed by Artmann et al. (2009) in a similar previous study. An aluminum-foil floor cover was installed in a full scale test room. Experimental results obtained with aluminum flooring were compared...... to results obtained by Artmann et al. with a flooring consisting of expanded polystyrene (EPS). Results showed that the surface temperature of the floor decreased with decreasing emissivity. Mean convective heat fluxes were similar for experiments conducted with both EPS and aluminum-foil floor cover...

  16. Low-visibility and night-time oil spill response operations; Operacoes noturnas e com baixa visibilidade em resposta a vazamentos com oleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyra, Geraldo Marcelo Barroso; Margem, Henrique da Cunha; Skrepnek, Clarissa Cavalheiro; Lyra, Ana Paula Lopes Coelho de Castro; Silva, Ana Claudia Andriolli Vieira da; Antoun, Augusto Resende [Hidroclean Protecao Ambiental, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The expansion on E and P area and the raise on importation and exportation activities by sea, cause not only commercial benefits, but also expressive environmental risks. This fact is reaffirmed by the actions of Brazilian environmental agencies in order to control potential polluter activities. However, these agencies are against any activity related to oil spill incidents that operate at night-time or during low-visibility condition because of the elevated risk of accidents on this kind of operation. In the other hand, delays on start response operation can be expensive by reducing recovery rates and increasing environmental impacts. Thus, this paper objective is to analyze studies and reports of night-time and low-visibility oil spill response operations occurred in other countries, concluding that when the right equipment is used, it is possible to start or continue oil spill operation independent of weather. However, before choose to start an operation at night, an assessment should be make to know if the risks outweigh the benefits, remarking that safety is always the primary concern. (author)

  17. Transient anhedonia phenotype and altered circadian timing of behaviour during night-time dim light exposure in Per3−/− mice, but not wildtype mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martynhak, Bruno Jacson; Hogben, Alexandra L.; Zanos, Panos; Georgiou, Polymnia; Andreatini, Roberto; Kitchen, Ian; Archer, Simon N.; von Schantz, Malcolm; Bailey, Alexis; van der Veen, Daan R.

    2017-01-01

    Industrialisation greatly increased human night-time exposure to artificial light, which in animal models is a known cause of depressive phenotypes. Whilst many of these phenotypes are ‘direct’ effects of light on affect, an ‘indirect’ pathway via altered sleep-wake timing has been suggested. We have previously shown that the Period3 gene, which forms part of the biological clock, is associated with altered sleep-wake patterns in response to light. Here, we show that both wild-type and Per3−/− mice showed elevated levels of circulating corticosterone and increased hippocampal Bdnf expression after 3 weeks of exposure to dim light at night, but only mice deficient for the PERIOD3 protein (Per3−/−) exhibited a transient anhedonia-like phenotype, observed as reduced sucrose preference, in weeks 2–3 of dim light at night, whereas WT mice did not. Per3−/− mice also exhibited a significantly smaller delay in behavioural timing than WT mice during weeks 1, 2 and 4 of dim light at night exposure. When treated with imipramine, neither Per3−/− nor WT mice exhibited an anhedonia-like phenotype, and neither genotypes exhibited a delay in behavioural timing in responses to dLAN. While the association between both Per3−/− phenotypes remains unclear, both are alleviated by imipramine treatment during dim night-time light. PMID:28071711

  18. Transient anhedonia phenotype and altered circadian timing of behaviour during night-time dim light exposure in Per3-/- mice, but not wildtype mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martynhak, Bruno Jacson; Hogben, Alexandra L; Zanos, Panos; Georgiou, Polymnia; Andreatini, Roberto; Kitchen, Ian; Archer, Simon N; von Schantz, Malcolm; Bailey, Alexis; van der Veen, Daan R

    2017-01-10

    Industrialisation greatly increased human night-time exposure to artificial light, which in animal models is a known cause of depressive phenotypes. Whilst many of these phenotypes are 'direct' effects of light on affect, an 'indirect' pathway via altered sleep-wake timing has been suggested. We have previously shown that the Period3 gene, which forms part of the biological clock, is associated with altered sleep-wake patterns in response to light. Here, we show that both wild-type and Per3 -/- mice showed elevated levels of circulating corticosterone and increased hippocampal Bdnf expression after 3 weeks of exposure to dim light at night, but only mice deficient for the PERIOD3 protein (Per3 -/- ) exhibited a transient anhedonia-like phenotype, observed as reduced sucrose preference, in weeks 2-3 of dim light at night, whereas WT mice did not. Per3 -/- mice also exhibited a significantly smaller delay in behavioural timing than WT mice during weeks 1, 2 and 4 of dim light at night exposure. When treated with imipramine, neither Per3 -/- nor WT mice exhibited an anhedonia-like phenotype, and neither genotypes exhibited a delay in behavioural timing in responses to dLAN. While the association between both Per3 -/- phenotypes remains unclear, both are alleviated by imipramine treatment during dim night-time light.

  19. Extensive phenotypic plasticity of a Red Sea coral over a strong latitudinal temperature gradient suggests limited acclimatization potential to warming

    KAUST Repository

    Sawall, Yvonne

    2015-03-10

    Global warming was reported to cause growth reductions in tropical shallow water corals in both, cooler and warmer, regions of the coral species range. This suggests regional adaptation with less heat-tolerant populations in cooler and more thermo-tolerant populations in warmer regions. Here, we investigated seasonal changes in the in situ metabolic performance of the widely distributed hermatypic coral Pocillopora verrucosa along 12° latitudes featuring a steep temperature gradient between the northern (28.5°N, 21-27°C) and southern (16.5°N, 28-33°C) reaches of the Red Sea. Surprisingly, we found little indication for regional adaptation, but strong indications for high phenotypic plasticity: Calcification rates in two seasons (winter, summer) were found to be highest at 28-29°C throughout all populations independent of their geographic location. Mucus release increased with temperature and nutrient supply, both being highest in the south. Genetic characterization of the coral host revealed low inter-regional variation and differences in the Symbiodinium clade composition only at the most northern and most southern region. This suggests variable acclimatization potential to ocean warming of coral populations across the Red Sea: high acclimatization potential in northern populations, but limited ability to cope with ocean warming in southern populations already existing at the upper thermal margin for corals.

  20. Extensive phenotypic plasticity of a Red Sea coral over a strong latitudinal temperature gradient suggests limited acclimatization potential to warming

    KAUST Repository

    Sawall, Yvonne; Al-Sofyani, Abdulmoshin; Hohn, Sö nke; Banguera Hinestroza, Eulalia; Voolstra, Christian R.; Wahl, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Global warming was reported to cause growth reductions in tropical shallow water corals in both, cooler and warmer, regions of the coral species range. This suggests regional adaptation with less heat-tolerant populations in cooler and more thermo-tolerant populations in warmer regions. Here, we investigated seasonal changes in the in situ metabolic performance of the widely distributed hermatypic coral Pocillopora verrucosa along 12° latitudes featuring a steep temperature gradient between the northern (28.5°N, 21-27°C) and southern (16.5°N, 28-33°C) reaches of the Red Sea. Surprisingly, we found little indication for regional adaptation, but strong indications for high phenotypic plasticity: Calcification rates in two seasons (winter, summer) were found to be highest at 28-29°C throughout all populations independent of their geographic location. Mucus release increased with temperature and nutrient supply, both being highest in the south. Genetic characterization of the coral host revealed low inter-regional variation and differences in the Symbiodinium clade composition only at the most northern and most southern region. This suggests variable acclimatization potential to ocean warming of coral populations across the Red Sea: high acclimatization potential in northern populations, but limited ability to cope with ocean warming in southern populations already existing at the upper thermal margin for corals.

  1. Development of strong-sense validation benchmarks for the fluoride salt-cooled high-temperature reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blandford, E. D.

    2012-01-01

    The Fluoride salt-cooled High-temperature Reactor (FHR) is a class of reactor concepts currently under development for the U. S. Dept. of Energy. The FHR is defined as a Generation IV reactor that features low-pressure liquid fluoride salt cooling, coated-particle fuel, a high-temperature power cycle, and fully passive decay heat rejection. Recent experimental work using simulant fluids have been performed to demonstrate key 'proof of principle' FHR concepts and have helped inform the reactor design process. An important element of developing FHR technology is to sufficiently validate the predictive accuracy of the computer codes used to model system response. This paper presents a set of thermal-hydraulics experiments, defined as Strong-Sense Benchmarks (SSB's), which will help establish the FHR validation domain for simulant fluid suitability. These SSB's are more specifically designed to investigate single-phase natural circulation which is the dominant mode of FHR decay heat removal during off-normal conditions. SSB s should be viewed as engineering reference standards and differ from traditional confirmatory experiments in the sense that they are more focused on fundamental physics as opposed to reproducing high levels of physical similarity with the prototypical design. (authors)

  2. Strong impacts of daily minimum temperature on the green-up date and summer greenness of the Tibetan Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Miaogen; Piao, Shilong; Chen, Xiaoqiu; An, Shuai; Fu, Yongshuo H; Wang, Shiping; Cong, Nan; Janssens, Ivan A

    2016-09-01

    Understanding vegetation responses to climate change on the Tibetan Plateau (TP) helps in elucidating the land-atmosphere energy exchange, which affects air mass movement over and around the TP. Although the TP is one of the world's most sensitive regions in terms of climatic warming, little is known about how the vegetation responds. Here, we focus on how spring phenology and summertime greenness respond to the asymmetric warming, that is, stronger warming during nighttime than during daytime. Using both in situ and satellite observations, we found that vegetation green-up date showed a stronger negative partial correlation with daily minimum temperature (Tmin ) than with maximum temperature (Tmax ) before the growing season ('preseason' henceforth). Summer vegetation greenness was strongly positively correlated with summer Tmin , but negatively with Tmax . A 1-K increase in preseason Tmin advanced green-up date by 4 days (P greenness by 3.6% relative to the mean greenness during 2000-2004 (P green-up date (P > 0.10) and higher summer Tmax even reduced greenness by 2.6% K(-1) (P greenness were probably due to the accompanying decline in water availability. The dominant enhancing effect of nighttime warming indicates that climatic warming will probably have stronger impact on TP ecosystems than on apparently similar Arctic ecosystems where vegetation is controlled mainly by Tmax . Our results are crucial for future improvements of dynamic vegetation models embedded in the Earth System Models which are being used to describe the behavior of the Asian monsoon. The results are significant because the state of the vegetation on the TP plays an important role in steering the monsoon. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Monoterpene emissions in response to long-term night-time warming, elevated CO2 and extended summer drought in a temperate heath ecosystem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tiiva, Päivi; Tang, Jing; Michelsen, Anders

    2017-01-01

    Monoterpenes emitted from plants have an important role in atmospheric chemistry through changing atmospheric oxidative capacity, forming new particles and secondary organic aerosols. The emission rates and patterns can be affected by changing climate. In this study, emission responses to six years...... of climatic manipulations (elevated CO2, extended summer drought and night-time warming) were investigated in a temperate semi-natural heath ecosystem. Samples for monoterpene analysis were collected in seven campaigns during an entire growing season (April-November, 2011). The results showed...... that the temperate heath ecosystem was a considerable source of monoterpenes to the atmosphere, with the emission averaged over the 8month measurement period of 21.7±6.8μgm(-2)groundareah(-1) for the untreated heath. Altogether, 16 monoterpenes were detected, of which the most abundant were α-pinene, δ-3-carene...

  4. The Concentrations of Rumen Fluid Volatile Fatty Acids and Ammonia, and Rumen Microbial Protein Production in Sheep Given Feed During the Day and Night Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumilar, D. A. K. W.; Rianto, E.; Arifin, M.

    2018-02-01

    An experimental study was carried out to investigate the concentrations of volatile (VFA), ammonia and microbial protein production of rumen fluid in sheep given fedd during the day and at night. This study used 12 fat-tailed rams aged 12-18 months and weighed 24,12 ± 25 kg (CV = 10,51%). The rams were fed a complete feed containing 16.64% protein and 68,33% total digestible nutrients (TDN). The rams were allocated into a completely randomised design with 3 treatments and 4 replications. The treatments applied were: T1: day time feeding (6.00 hrs - 18.00 hrs); T2: night time feeding (18.00 hrs - 6.00 hrs); and T3: day and night time feedings (6.00 hrs - 6.00 hrs). The parameters observed were dry matter intake (DMI), rumen VFA concentration, rumen ammonia concentration, rumen rmicrobial protein production and the efficiency of rumen microbial protein production. The results showed that feeding time did not significantly affect (P>0.05) all the parameters observed. Dry matter intake, VFA concentration, ammonia concentration, the microbial protein production of rumen fluid and the efficiency of microbial protein production were 1,073g/d, 49.69 mmol; 4.77 mg N/100 ml, 12,111 g/d and 19.96 g per kg digestible organic matter intake (DOMI), respectively. It is concluded that feeding time did not affect DMI, condition of rumen fluid and rumen microbial protein production in sheep.

  5. Plasma Vitamin D Deficiency Is Associated With Poor Sleep Quality and Night-Time Eating at Mid-Pregnancy in Singapore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuck Seng Cheng

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD deficiency, poor sleep quality, and night-time eating, have been independently associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes, but their inter-relationships are yet to be evaluated. We aimed to investigate the associations between maternal plasma 25OHD status and sleep quality and circadian eating patterns during pregnancy. Data on pregnant women (n = 890 from a prospective cohort (Growing Up in Singapore Towards healthy Outcomes were analyzed. Plasma 25OHD concentration was measured, while the Pittsburgh sleep quality index (PSQI and 24-h dietary recall were administered to women at 26–28 weeks’ gestation. Plasma 25OHD status was defined as sufficient (>75 nmol/L, insufficient (50–75 nmol/L, or deficient (<50 nmol/L. Poor sleep quality was defined by a total global PSQI score >5. Predominantly day-time (pDT and predominantly night-time (pNT were defined according to consumption of greater proportion of calories (i.e., >50% from 07:00–18:59 and from 19:00–06:59, respectively. After adjustment for confounders, women with plasma 25OHD deficiency had higher odds of poor sleep quality (odds ratio (OR 3.49; 95% confidence interval (CI 1.84–6.63 and pNT eating (OR: 1.85; 95% CI 1.00–3.41 than those who were 25OHD sufficient. Our findings show the association of maternal plasma 25OHD deficiency with poor sleep quality and pNT eating at mid-pregnancy.

  6. Judgement of Breath Alcohol Concentration Levels Among Pedestrians in the Night-Time Economy-A Street-Intercept Field Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, M P; Roskruge, M J; Droste, N; Miller, P G

    2018-05-01

    To evaluate how well people in the night-time economy can assess their own breath alcohol concentration (BrAC), in the context of a change in breath alcohol limits for driving. We conducted a field study of 242 participants over 5 nights in the central business district of a university town in New Zealand. Participants completed a short survey, which included questions on their self-reported level of intoxication and the self-estimated BrAC. At the conclusion of the interview each participant was breath-tested. We compared actual and self-estimated BrAC using a scatter plot and multiple regression methods. The average BrAC error was 61.7 μg/l, meaning that on average participants overestimate their BrAC. Participants with a BrAC below 487 μg/l tended to overestimate their BrAC on average, and those with a BrAC above 487 μg/l tended to underestimate their BrAC on average. Regression results supported this observation, but also found that men who are not 'out on a typical night' overestimate their BrAC by more. Drinkers in this naturalistic setting have little idea of their level of intoxication, as measured by BrAC. However, this uncertainty may be advantageous to public health outcomes, since if drinkers are uncertain about their level of intoxication relative to the legal limit, this may lead them to avoid drunk driving. A field study of drinkers in the night-time economy of a New Zealand university town was conducted to evaluate how well drinkers can assess their breath alcohol concentration (BrAC). Drinkers in this setting inaccurately estimate their intoxication, and those with higher BrAC tended to underestimate their BrAC on average.

  7. Light and Strong Hierarchical Porous SiC Foam for Efficient Electromagnetic Interference Shielding and Thermal Insulation at Elevated Temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Caiyun; Wang, Zhenfeng; Wu, Lina; Zhang, Xiaochen; Wang, Huan; Wang, Zhijiang

    2017-09-06

    A novel light but strong SiC foam with hierarchical porous architecture was fabricated by using dough as raw material via carbonization followed by carbothermal reduction with silicon source. A significant synergistic effect is achieved by embedding meso- and nanopores in a microsized porous skeleton, which endows the SiC foam with high-performance electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding, thermal insulation, and mechanical properties. The microsized skeleton withstands high stress. The meso- and nanosized pores enhance multiple reflection of the incident electromagnetic waves and elongate the path of heat transfer. For the hierarchical porous SiC foam with 72.8% porosity, EMI shielding can be higher than 20 dB, and specific EMI effectiveness exceeds 24.8 dB·cm 3 ·g -1 at a frequency of 11 GHz at 25-600 °C, which is 3 times higher than that of dense SiC ceramic. The thermal conductivity reaches as low as 0.02 W·m -1 ·K -1 , which is comparable to that of aerogel. The compressive strength is as high as 9.8 MPa. Given the chemical and high-temperature stability of SiC, the fabricated SiC foam is a promising candidate for modern aircraft and automobile applications.

  8. Extension of the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model predictions at high temperatures and strong external magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomes, Karina P.; Farias, R.L.S.; Pinto, M.B.; Krein, G.

    2013-01-01

    dependent cutoff in the NJL model, incorporating, albeit in a crude way, the property of asymptotic freedom of QCD in the model, as the effective NJL coupling can be made to match QCD coupling at large magnetic fields. We present numerical results of our ongoing study on the effects of a strong external magnetic field on the critical temperature for chiral restoration within our model and compare with lattice result. (author)

  9. Differences in night-time and daytime ambulatory blood pressure when diurnal periods are defined by self-report, fixed-times, and actigraphy: Improving the Detection of Hypertension study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, John N; Muntner, Paul; Abdalla, Marwah; Diaz, Keith M; Viera, Anthony J; Reynolds, Kristi; Schwartz, Joseph E; Shimbo, Daichi

    2016-02-01

    To determine whether defining diurnal periods by self-report, fixed-time, or actigraphy produce different estimates of night-time and daytime ambulatory blood pressure (ABP). Over a median of 28 days, 330 participants completed two 24-h ABP and actigraphy monitoring periods with sleep diaries. Fixed night-time and daytime periods were defined as 0000-0600 h and 1000-2000 h, respectively. Using the first ABP period, within-individual differences for mean night-time and daytime ABP and kappa statistics for night-time and daytime hypertension (systolic/diastolic ABP≥120/70 mmHg and ≥135/85 mmHg, respectively) were estimated comparing self-report, fixed-time, or actigraphy for defining diurnal periods. Reproducibility of ABP was also estimated. Within-individual mean differences in night-time systolic ABP were small, suggesting little bias, when comparing the three approaches used to define diurnal periods. The distribution of differences, represented by 95% confidence intervals (CI), in night-time systolic and diastolic ABP and daytime systolic and diastolic ABP was narrowest for self-report versus actigraphy. For example, mean differences (95% CI) in night-time systolic ABP for self-report versus fixed-time was -0.53 (-6.61, +5.56) mmHg, self-report versus actigraphy was 0.91 (-3.61, +5.43) mmHg, and fixed-time versus actigraphy was 1.43 (-5.59, +8.46) mmHg. Agreement for night-time and daytime hypertension was highest for self-report versus actigraphy: kappa statistic (95% CI) = 0.91 (0.86,0.96) and 1.00 (0.98,1.00), respectively. The reproducibility of mean ABP and hypertension categories was similar using each approach. Given the high agreement with actigraphy, these data support using self-report to define diurnal periods on ABP monitoring. Further, the use of fixed-time periods may be a reasonable alternative approach.

  10. Cross-Curricular Teaching: The Case of Mark Haddon’s The Curious Incident of the Dog in the Night-Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melita Kukovec

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge learners acquire at school has to be applicable in practice to ensure their motivation for learning. Both cross-curricular and interdisciplinary teaching provide a meaningful way in which students can use the knowledge acquired in one context as the basis for learning in other contexts in and out of school. By using interdisciplinary teaching, the instructor can present the topics in a holistic manner: this approach therefore allows us to activate more of the learners’ senses and intelligences. Since Mathematics is one of the least liked subjects by our students, and English one of the favorite ones, the article will demonstrate how we can integrate activities addressing all types of intelligences in a language learning class to achieve the whole range of Bloom’s levels of educational objectives on the basis of a novel which includes a wealth of references to mathematics: The Curious Incident of the Dog in the Night-Time by Mark Haddon, which has recently been compulsory reading in all Slovene grammar school programs.

  11. Demographic and Substance Use Factors Associated with Non-Violent Alcohol-Related Injuries among Patrons of Australian Night-Time Entertainment Districts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerri Coomber

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the relationship between patron demographics, substance use, and experience of recent alcohol-related accidents and injuries that were not due to interpersonal violence in night-time entertainment districts. Cross-sectional interviews (n = 4016 were conducted around licensed venues in entertainment districts of five Australian cities. Demographic factors associated with non-violent alcohol-related injuries were examined, including gender, age, and occupation. The association between substance use on the night of interview; blood alcohol concentration (BAC, pre-drinking, energy drink consumption, and illicit drug use; and experience of injury was also explored. Thirteen percent of participants reported an alcohol-related injury within the past three months. Respondents aged younger than 25 years were significantly more likely to report an alcohol-related injury. Further, a significant occupation effect was found indicating the rate of alcohol-related injury was lower in managers/professionals compared to non-office workers. The likelihood of prior alcohol-related injury significantly increased with BAC, and self-reported pre-drinking, energy drink, or illicit drug consumption on the night of interview. These findings provide an indication of the demographic and substance use-related associations with alcohol-related injuries and, therefore, potential avenues of population-level policy intervention. Policy responses to alcohol-related harm must also account for an assessment and costing of non-violent injuries.

  12. Demographic and Substance Use Factors Associated with Non-Violent Alcohol-Related Injuries among Patrons of Australian Night-Time Entertainment Districts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coomber, Kerri; Mayshak, Richelle; Hyder, Shannon; Droste, Nicolas; Curtis, Ashlee; Pennay, Amy; Gilmore, William; Lam, Tina; Chikritzhs, Tanya; Miller, Peter G

    2017-01-12

    This study examined the relationship between patron demographics, substance use, and experience of recent alcohol-related accidents and injuries that were not due to interpersonal violence in night-time entertainment districts. Cross-sectional interviews ( n = 4016) were conducted around licensed venues in entertainment districts of five Australian cities. Demographic factors associated with non-violent alcohol-related injuries were examined, including gender, age, and occupation. The association between substance use on the night of interview; blood alcohol concentration (BAC), pre-drinking, energy drink consumption, and illicit drug use; and experience of injury was also explored. Thirteen percent of participants reported an alcohol-related injury within the past three months. Respondents aged younger than 25 years were significantly more likely to report an alcohol-related injury. Further, a significant occupation effect was found indicating the rate of alcohol-related injury was lower in managers/professionals compared to non-office workers. The likelihood of prior alcohol-related injury significantly increased with BAC, and self-reported pre-drinking, energy drink, or illicit drug consumption on the night of interview. These findings provide an indication of the demographic and substance use-related associations with alcohol-related injuries and, therefore, potential avenues of population-level policy intervention. Policy responses to alcohol-related harm must also account for an assessment and costing of non-violent injuries.

  13. Night-time sedating H1 -antihistamine increases daytime somnolence but not treatment efficacy in chronic spontaneous urticaria: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staevska, M; Gugutkova, M; Lazarova, C; Kralimarkova, T; Dimitrov, V; Zuberbier, T; Church, M K; Popov, T A

    2014-07-01

    Many physicians believe that the most effective way to treat chronic urticaria is to take a nonsedating second-generation H1 -antihistamine in the morning and a sedating first-generation H1 -antihistamine, usually hydroxyzine, at night to enhance sleep. But is this belief well founded? To test this belief by comparing the effectiveness and prevalence of unwanted sedative effects when treating patients with chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU) with levocetirizine 15 mg daily plus hydroxyzine 50 mg at night (levocetirizine plus hydroxyzine) vs. levocetirizine 20 mg daily (levocetirizine monotherapy). In this randomized, double-blind, cross-over study, 24 patients with difficult-to-treat CSU took levocetirizine plus hydroxyzine or levocetirizine monotherapy for periods of 5 days each. At the end of each treatment period, assessments were made of quality of life (Chronic Urticaria Quality of Life Questionnaire, CU-Q2 oL), severity of urticaria symptoms (Urticaria Activity Score, UAS), sleep disturbance during the night and daytime somnolence. Both treatments significantly decreased UAS, night-time sleep disturbances and CU-Q2 oL scores (P generation H1 -antihistamine, usually hydroxyzine, at night is not supported. These results are in line with the urticaria guidelines, which state that first-line treatment for urticaria should be new-generation, nonsedating H1 -antihistamines only. © 2014 The Authors. British Association of Dermatology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of British Association of Dermatologists.

  14. Strong Temperature Dependence in the Reactivity of H 2 on RuO 2 (110)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henderson, Michael A.; Dahal, Arjun; Dohnálek, Zdenek; Lyubinetsky, Igor

    2016-08-04

    The ability of hydrogen to facilitate many types of heterogeneous catalysis starts with its adsorption. As such, understanding the temperature-dependence sticking of H2 is critical toward controlling and optimizing catalytic conditions in those cases where adsorption is rate-limiting. In this work, we examine the temperature-dependent sticking of H2/D2 to the clean RuO2(110) surface using the King & Wells molecular beam approach, temperature programmed desorption (TPD) and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). We show that the sticking probability (molecular or dissociative) of H2/D2 on this surface is highly temperature-dependent, decreasing from ~0.4-0.5 below 25 K to effectively zero above 200 K. Both STM and TPD reveal that OH/OD formation is severely limited for adsorption temperatures above ~150 K. Previous literature reports of extensive surface hydroxylation from H2/D2 exposures at room temperature were most likely the result of inadvertent contamination brought about from dosing by chamber backfilling.

  15. Solid strong base K-Pt/NaY zeolite nano-catalytic system for completed elimination of formaldehyde at room temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Shaoqing; Wu, Xi; Lu, Changhai; Wen, Meicheng; Le, Zhanggao; Jiang, Shujuan

    2018-06-01

    Solid strong base nano-catalytic system of K-modification NaY zeolite supported 0.08% Pt (K-Pt/NaY) were constructed for eliminating HCHO at room temperature. In the catalytic process, activation energy over K-Pt/NaY nano-catalytic system was greatly decreased along with the enhanced reaction rate. Characterization and catalytic tests revealed the surface electron structure of K-Pt/NaY was improved, as reflected by the enhanced HCHO adsorption capability, high sbnd OH concentration, and low-temperature reducibility. Therefore, the optimal K-Pt/NaY showed high catalytic efficiency and strong H2O tolerance for HCHO elimination by directly promoting the reaction between active sbnd OH and formate species. These results may suggest a new way for probing the advanced solid strong base nano-catalytic system for the catalytic elimination of indoor HCHO.

  16. STRONG CORRELATIONS AND ELECTRON-PHONON COUPLING IN HIGH-TEMPERATURE SUPERCONDUCTORS - A QUANTUM MONTE-CARLO STUDY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MORGENSTERN, [No Value; FRICK, M; VONDERLINDEN, W

    We present quantum simulation studies for a system of strongly correlated fermions coupled to local anharmonic phonons. The Monte Carlo calculations are based on a generalized version of the Projector Quantum Monte Carlo Method allowing a simultaneous treatment of fermions and dynamical phonons. The

  17. Quantitative demonstration of the efficacy of night-time apomorphine infusion to treat nocturnal hypokinesia in Parkinson's disease using wearable sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhidayasiri, Roongroj; Sringean, Jirada; Anan, Chanawat; Boonpang, Kamolwan; Thanawattano, Chusak; Ray Chaudhuri, K

    2016-12-01

    Nocturnal hypokinesia/akinesia is one of the common night-time symptoms in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), negatively affecting quality of life of patients and caregivers. The recognition of this problem and treatment options are limited in clinical practice. To evaluate the efficacy of nocturnal apomorphine infusion, using a wearable sensor, in patients who are already on daytime continuous subcutaneous apomorphine infusion and still suffer from nocturnal hypokinesia. Nocturnal parameters in 10 PD patients before and during nocturnal infusion were assessed over two nights at their homes, using a wearable sensor (trunk). Nocturnal parameters included number, velocity, acceleration, degree, and duration of rolling over, and number of times they got out of bed. Correlations with validated clinical rating scales were performed. Following nocturnal apomorphine infusion (34.8 ± 6.5 mg per night), there were significant improvements in the number of turns in bed (p = 0.027), turning velocity (p = 0.046), and the degree of turning (p = 0.028) in PD patients. Significant improvements of Modified Parkinson's Disease Sleep Scale (p = 0.005), the axial score of Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (p = 0.013), and Nocturnal Akinesia Dystonia and Cramp Scale (p = 0.014) were also observed. Our study was able to demonstrate quantitatively the efficacy of nocturnal apomorphine infusion in PD patients with nocturnal hypokinesia and demonstrated the feasibility of using wearable sensors to yield objective and quantifiable outcomes in a clinical trial setting. More studies are needed to determine the long-term efficacy of this treatment in a large prospective cohort of PD patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Night-time ambulatory blood pressure is the best pretreatment blood pressure predictor of 11-year mortality in treated older hypertensives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wing, Lindon M H; Chowdhury, Enayet K; Reid, Christopher M; Beilin, Lawrence J; Brown, Mark A

    2018-06-02

    Numerous studies have shown a stronger relationship between ambulatory blood pressure (ABP), particularly night ABP, and cardiovascular events/mortality than for office blood pressure (OBP). A previous clinical trial (Syst-Eur) showed that pretreatment ABP was only a better predictor of outcome than OBP in placebo-treated participants. The current study in treated elderly hypertensives from the Second Australian National Blood Pressure study (ANBP2) examined whether pretreatment ABP was a better predictor of mortality than OBP over long-term (∼11 years) follow-up. ANBP2 was a comparative outcome trial in 6083 off-treatment or previously untreated elderly hypertensives. In the ABP substudy, at study entry, participants had ABP and nurse-performed OBP measurements. Cox proportional hazards analysis assessed the relationships between both OBP and ABP at study entry and 11-year all-cause and cardiovascular mortality, with results pooled from both active treatment phases. In 702 participants, over a median of 10.8 years, including 6.7 years after the trial, 167 died (82 cardiovascular). Pretreatment 'night' systolic ABP and pulse pressure were the best predictors of '11-year' cardiovascular mortality (hazard ratios: 1.26; 95% confidence intervals: 1.10-1.45, P=0.001 and 1.18; 1.06-1.31, P=0.003, respectively) and all-cause mortality (hazard ratios: 1.15; 95% confidence intervals:1.05-1.28, P=0.005 and 1.09; 1.10-1.31, P=0.03, respectively). OBP was not a significant predictor of mortality. In actively treated elderly hypertensives participating in ANBP2, all-cause or cardiovascular deaths were significantly related to pretreatment ABP, particularly to night-time systolic ABP and pulse pressure, but not to OBP.

  19. Perception of intoxication in a field study of the night-time economy: Blood alcohol concentration, patron characteristics, and event-level predictors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaestle, Christine E; Droste, Nicolas; Peacock, Amy; Bruno, Raimondo; Miller, Peter

    2018-01-01

    Determine the relationship of subjective intoxication to blood alcohol concentration (BAC) and examine whether patron and event-level characteristics modify the relationship of BAC to subjective intoxication. An in-situ systematic random sample of alcohol consumers attending night-time entertainment districts between 10pm and 3am on Friday and Saturday nights in five Australian cities completed a brief interview (n=4628). Participants reported age, sex, and pre-drinking, energy drink, tobacco, illicit stimulant and other illicit drug use that night, and their subjective intoxication and BAC were assessed. Male and female drinkers displayed equally low sensitivity to the impact of alcohol consumption when self-assessing their intoxication (BAC only explained 19% of variance). The marginal effect of BAC was not constant. At low BAC, participants were somewhat sensitive to increases in alcohol consumption, but at higher BAC levels that modest sensitivity dissipated (actual BAC had less impact on self-assessed intoxication). The slope ultimately leveled out to be non-responsive to additional alcohol intake. Staying out late, pre-drinking, and being young introduced biases resulting in higher self-assessed intoxication regardless of actual BAC. Further, both energy drinks and stimulant use modified the association between BAC and perceived intoxication, resulting in more compressed changes in self-assessment as BAC varies up or down, indicating less ability to perceive differences in BAC level. The ability of intoxicated patrons to detect further intoxication is impaired. Co-consumption of energy drinks and/or stimulant drugs is associated with impaired intoxication judgment, creating an additional challenge for the responsible service and consumption of alcohol. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Association of napping and night-time sleep with impaired glucose regulation, insulin resistance and glycated haemoglobin in Chinese middle-aged adults with no diabetes: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baoying, Huang; Hongjie, Chen; Changsheng, Qiu; Peijian, Wu; Qingfei, Lin; Yinghua, Lin; Huibin, Huang; Jixing, Liang; Liantao, Li; Ling, Chen; Kaka, Tang; Zichun, Chen; Lixiang, Lin; Jieli, Lu; Yufang, Bi; Guang, Ning; Penli, Zhu; Junping, Wen; Gang, Chen

    2014-07-23

    To assess associations between napping and night-time sleep duration with impaired glucose regulation, insulin resistance (IR) and glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c). Cross-sectional study. Fujian Province, China, from June 2011 to January 2012. This study enrolled 9028 participants aged 40-65 years. Data of 7568 participants with no diabetes were included for analysis. Type 2 diabetes was defined applying WHO criteria. Participants' daytime napping and night-time sleep duration data were collected using a standardised self-reported Chinese-language questionnaire about sleep frequency and quality. Anthropometric and laboratory parameters were also measured. IR was defined as a HOMA-IR index value >2.50. ORs and 95% CIs were derived from multivariate logistic regression models. Participants (mean age 51.1±7.0 years) included 3060 males and 4508 females with average night-time sleep of 7.9 h. A higher proportion of males napped than females. After adjustment for potential confounders, ORs for HbA1c >6.0% were 1.28 and 1.26 for those napping ≤1 h and >1 h (p=0.002 and p=0.018), respectively. Statistically significant differences in IR between nappers and non-nappers were only marginal clinically. Odds for HbA1c >6.0% were significantly lower in participants with longer night-time sleep durations than in the reference group (>8 h vs 6-8 h). Odds for IR were significantly lower in participants whose night-time sleep hours deviated from the reference group (8 h vs 6-8 h) Chinese middle-aged adults with no diabetes who napped had higher HbA1c and IR; those with shorter night-time sleep durations had increased HbA1c. Night-time sleep hours that are either 8 tend to be associated with lower odds for IR. Further studies are necessary to determine the underlying clinical significance and mechanisms behind these associations. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  1. Bacterial population and biodegradation potential in chronically crude oil-contaminated marine sediments are strongly linked to temperature

    KAUST Repository

    Bargiela, Rafael

    2015-06-29

    Two of the largest crude oil-polluted areas in the world are the semi-enclosed Mediterranean and Red Seas, but the effect of chronic pollution remains incompletely understood on a large scale. We compared the influence of environmental and geographical constraints and anthropogenic forces (hydrocarbon input) on bacterial communities in eight geographically separated oil-polluted sites along the coastlines of the Mediterranean and Red Seas. The differences in community compositions and their biodegradation potential were primarily associated (P < 0.05) with both temperature and chemical diversity. Furthermore, we observed a link between temperature and chemical and biological diversity that was stronger in chronically polluted sites than in pristine ones where accidental oil spills occurred. We propose that low temperature increases bacterial richness while decreasing catabolic diversity and that chronic pollution promotes catabolic diversification. Our results further suggest that the bacterial populations in chronically polluted sites may respond more promptly in degrading petroleum after accidental oil spills.

  2. Bacterial population and biodegradation potential in chronically crude oil-contaminated marine sediments are strongly linked to temperature

    KAUST Repository

    Bargiela, Rafael; Mapelli, Francesca; Rojo, David; Chouaia, Bessem; Torné s, Jesú s; Borin, Sara; Richter, Michael; Del Pozo, Mercedes V.; Cappello, Simone; Gertler, Christoph; Genovese, Marí a; Denaro, Renata; Martí nez-Martí nez, Mó nica; Fodelianakis, Stilianos; Amer, Ranya A.; Bigazzi, David; Han, Xifang; Chen, Jianwei; Chernikova, Tatyana N.; Golyshina, Olga V.; Mahjoubi, Mouna; Jaouanil, Atef; Benzha, Fatima; Magagnini, Mirko; Hussein, Emad; Al-Horani, Fuad; Cherif, Ameur; Blaghen, Mohamed; Abdel-Fattah, Yasser R.; Kalogerakis, Nicolas; Barbas, Coral; Malkawi, Hanan I.; Golyshin, Peter N.; Yakimov, Michail M.; Daffonchio, Daniele; Ferrer, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Two of the largest crude oil-polluted areas in the world are the semi-enclosed Mediterranean and Red Seas, but the effect of chronic pollution remains incompletely understood on a large scale. We compared the influence of environmental and geographical constraints and anthropogenic forces (hydrocarbon input) on bacterial communities in eight geographically separated oil-polluted sites along the coastlines of the Mediterranean and Red Seas. The differences in community compositions and their biodegradation potential were primarily associated (P < 0.05) with both temperature and chemical diversity. Furthermore, we observed a link between temperature and chemical and biological diversity that was stronger in chronically polluted sites than in pristine ones where accidental oil spills occurred. We propose that low temperature increases bacterial richness while decreasing catabolic diversity and that chronic pollution promotes catabolic diversification. Our results further suggest that the bacterial populations in chronically polluted sites may respond more promptly in degrading petroleum after accidental oil spills.

  3. Strong Effects of Temperature on the Early Life Stages of a Cold Stenothermal Fish Species, Brown Trout (Salmo trutta L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Réalis-Doyelle, Emilie; Pasquet, Alain; De Charleroy, Daniel; Fontaine, Pascal; Teletchea, Fabrice

    2016-01-01

    Temperature is the main abiotic factor that influences the life cycle of poikilotherms. The present study investigated the thermal tolerance and phenotypic plasticity of several parameters (development time, morphometric measures, bioenergetics) for both embryos and fry of a cold stenothermal fish species, brown trout (Salmo trutta L.) in order to allow for a holistic evaluation of the potential effects of temperature. Five temperatures (4°C, 6°C, 8°C, 10°C, and 12°C) were tested, and the effects of temperature were analyzed at three stages: hatching, emergence, and first food intake. A mean of 5,440 (S.E. ± 573) eggs, coming from seven females and seven males (seven families) captured close to Linkebeek (Belgium), were used for each temperature. Maximum survival of well-formed fry at first food intake and better use of energy budget were found at 6°C and 8°C, temperatures at which the possible contribution to the next generation should therefore be greatest. At 12°C, the experimental population fell dramatically (0.9% survival rate for well-formed fry at first food intake), and fry had almost no yolk sac at first food intake. The present results on survival at 12°C are in accordance with predictions of a sharp decrease in brown trout numbers in France over the coming decades according to climate change projections (1°C to 5°C temperature rise by 2100 for France). At 10°C, there was also a lower survival rate (55.4% at first food intake). At 4°C, the survival rate was high (76.4% at first food intake), but the deformity rate was much higher (22% at first food intake) than at 6°C, 8°C, and 10°C. The energetic budget showed that at the two extreme temperatures (4°C and 12°C) there was less energy left in the yolk sac at first food intake, suggesting a limited ability to survive starvation.

  4. Night-time activity forecast by season and weather in a longitudinal design - natural light effects on three years' rest-activity cycles in nursing home residents with dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahnschaffe, Amely; Nowozin, Claudia; Rath, Andreas; Floessner, Theresa; Appelhoff, Stefan; Münch, Mirjam; Kunz, Dieter

    2017-12-01

    Backround: Night-time agitation is a frequent symptom of dementia. It often causes nursing home admission and has been linked to circadian rhythm disturbances. A positive influence of light interventions on night-time agitation was shown in several studies. The aim of our study was to investigate whether there is a long-term association between regional weather data (as indicator for daylight availability) and 24-hour variations of motor activity. Motor activity of 20 elderly nursing home residents living with dementia was analyzed using recordings of continuously worn wrist activity monitors over a three-year period. The average recording duration was 479 ± 206 days per participant (mean ± SD). Regional cloud amount and day length data from the local weather station (latitude: 52°56'N) were included in the analysis to investigate their effects on several activity variables. Nocturnal rest, here defined as the five consecutive hours with the least motor activity during 24 hours (L5), was the most predictable activity variable per participant. There was a significant interaction of night-time activity with day length and cloud amount (F 1,1174 = 4.39; p = 0.036). Night-time activity was higher on cloudy short days than on clear short days (p = 0.007), and it was also higher on cloudy short days than on cloudy long days (p = 0.032). The need for sufficient zeitgeber (time cue) strength during winter time, especially when days are short and skies are cloudy, is crucial for elderly people living with dementia. Activity forecast by season and weather might be a valuable approach to anticipate adequately complementary use of electrical light and thereby foster lower night-time activity.

  5. The exotic invasive plant Vincetoxicum rossicum is a strong competitor even outside its current realized climatic temperature range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurа Sanderson

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Dog-strangling vine (Vincetoxicum rossicum is an exotic plant originating from Central and Eastern Europe that is becoming increasingly invasive in southern Ontario, Canada. Once established, it successfully displaces local native plant species but mechanisms behind this plant’s high competitive ability are not fully understood. It is unknown whether cooler temperatures will limit the range expansion of V. rossicum, which has demonstrated high tolerance for other environmental variables such as light and soil moisture. Furthermore, if V. rossicum can establish outside its current climatic limit it is unknown whether competition with native species can significantly contribute to reduce fitness and slow down invasion. We conducted an experiment to test the potential of V. rossicum to spread into northern areas of Ontario using a set of growth chambers to simulate southern and northern Ontario climatic temperature regimes. We also tested plant-plant competition by growing V. rossicum in pots with a highly abundant native species, Solidago canadensis, and comparing growth responses to plants grown alone. We found that the fitness of V. rossicum was not affected by the cooler climate despite a delay in reproductive phenology. Growing V. rossicum with S. canadensis caused a significant reduction in seedpod biomass of V. rossicum. However, we did not detect a temperature x competition interaction in spite of evidence for adaptation of S. canadensis to cooler temperature conditions. We conclude that the spread of V. rossicum north within the tested range is unlikely to be limited by climatic temperature but competition with an abundant native species may contribute to slow it down.

  6. Two-temperature hydrodynamic expansion and coupling of strong elastic shock with supersonic melting front produced by ultrashort laser pulse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inogamov, Nail A; Khokhlov, Viktor A; Zhakhovsky, Vasily V; Khishchenko, Konstantin V; Demaske, Brian J; Oleynik, Ivan I

    2014-01-01

    Ultrafast processes, including nonmonotonic expansion of material into vacuum, supersonic melting and generation of super-elastic shock wave, in a surface layer of metal irradiated by an ultrashort laser pulse are discussed. In addition to the well-established two-temperature (2T) evolution of heated layer a new effect of electron pressure gradient on early stage of material expansion is studied. It is shown that the expanding material experiences an unexpected jump in flow velocity in a place where stress exceeds the effective tensile strength provided by used EoS of material. Another 2T effect is that supersonic propagation of homogeneous melting front results in distortion of spatial profile of ion temperature, which later imprints on ion pressure profile transforming in a super-elastic shock wave with time.

  7. Room temperature lasing unraveled by a strong resonance between gain and parasitic absorption in uniaxially strained germanium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Shashank; Nam, Donguk; Vuckovic, Jelena; Saraswat, Krishna

    2018-04-01

    A complementary metal-oxide semiconductor compatible on-chip light source is the holy grail of silicon photonics and has the potential to alleviate the key scaling issues arising due to electrical interconnects. Despite several theoretical predictions, a sustainable, room temperature laser from a group-IV material is yet to be demonstrated. In this work, we show that a particular loss mechanism, inter-valence-band absorption (IVBA), has been inadequately modeled until now and capturing its effect accurately as a function of strain is crucial to understanding light emission processes from uniaxially strained germanium (Ge). We present a detailed model of light emission in Ge that accurately models IVBA in the presence of strain and other factors such as polarization, doping, and carrier injection, thereby revising the road map toward a room temperature Ge laser. Strikingly, a special resonance between gain and loss mechanisms at 4%-5% 〈100 〉 uniaxial strain is found resulting in a high net gain of more than 400 cm-1 at room temperature. It is shown that achieving this resonance should be the goal of experimental work rather than pursuing a direct band gap Ge.

  8. 2D Temperature Analysis of Energy and Exergy Characteristics of Laminar Steady Flow across a Square Cylinder under Strong Blockage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ozgun Korukcu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Energy and exergy characteristics of a square cylinder (SC in confined flow are investigated computationally by numerically handling the steady-state continuity, Navier-Stokes and energy equations in the Reynolds number range of Re = 10–50, where the blockage ratio (β = B/H is kept constant at the high level of β = 0.8. Computations indicated for the upstream region that, the mean non-dimensional streamwise (u/Uo and spanwise (v/Uo velocities attain the values of u/Uo = 0.840®0.879 and v/Uo = 0.236®0.386 (Re = 10®50 on the front-surface of the SC, implying that Reynolds number and blockage have stronger impact on the spanwise momentum activity. It is determined that flows with high Reynolds number interact with the front-surface of the SC developing thinner thermal boundary layers and greater temperature gradients, which promotes the thermal entropy generation values as well. The strict guidance of the throat, not only resulted in the fully developed flow character, but also imposed additional cooling; such that the analysis pointed out the drop of duct wall (y = 0.025 m non-dimensional temperature values (ζ from ζ = 0.387®0.926 (Re = 10®50 at xth = 0 mm to ζ = 0.002®0.266 at xth = 40 mm. In the downstream region, spanwise thermal disturbances are evaluated to be most inspectable in the vortex driven region, where the temperature values show decrease trends in the spanwise direction. In the corresponding domain, exergy destruction is determined to grow with Reynolds number and decrease in the streamwise direction (xds = 0®10 mm. Besides, asymmetric entropy distributions as well were recorded due to the comprehensive mixing caused by the vortex system.

  9. Tai chi qigong as a means to improve night-time sleep quality among older adults with cognitive impairment: a pilot randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan AWK

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Aileen WK Chan, Doris SF Yu, KC Choi, Diana TF Lee, Janet WH Sit, Helen YL Chan The Nethersole School of Nursing, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR, People’s Republic of China Purpose: Age-related cognitive decline is a growing public health concern worldwide. More than a quarter of adults with cognitive impairment experience sleep disturbance. The objective of this pilot study was to evaluate the preliminary effects of tai chi qigong (TCQ on improving the night-time sleep quality of older adults with cognitive impairment. Participants: Older adults with cognitive impairment who complain of sleep disturbance. Methods: A randomized controlled trial with two groups. Fifty-two subjects were recruited from two district elderly community centers and randomly assigned to either the TCQ group (n=27 or the control group (n=25. The intervention group received TCQ training consisting of two 60-minute sessions each week for 2 months. The control group was advised to maintain their usual activities. Sleep quality was measured by the Chinese Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Quality of life was measured by Short-form 12, cognitive functions measured by mini-mental state examination, and subjective memory deficits measured by the memory inventory for Chinese. Results: Data were collected at baseline, 2 months, and 6 months. Significant results were noted at 6 months in the Chinese Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index global score (P=0.004, sleep duration (P=0.003, habitual sleep efficiency (P=0.002, and the Short-form 12 mental health component (P<0.001. The TCQ participants reported better sleep quality and a better (quality of life mental health component than the control group. Conclusion: TCQ can be considered a useful nonpharmacological approach for improving sleep quality in older adults with cognitive impairment.Clinical trial registration: CUHK_CCT00448 (https://www2.ccrb.cuhk.edu.hk/registry/public/287. Keywords: cognitive decline, mind

  10. Chronic Maternal Low-Protein Diet in Mice Affects Anxiety, Night-Time Energy Expenditure and Sleep Patterns, but Not Circadian Rhythm in Male Offspring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randy F Crossland

    Full Text Available Offspring of murine dams chronically fed a protein-restricted diet have an increased risk for metabolic and neurobehavioral disorders. Previously we showed that adult offspring, developmentally exposed to a chronic maternal low-protein (MLP diet, had lower body and hind-leg muscle weights and decreased liver enzyme serum levels. We conducted energy expenditure, neurobehavioral and circadian rhythm assays in male offspring to examine mechanisms for the body-weight phenotype and assess neurodevelopmental implications of MLP exposure. C57BL/6J dams were fed a protein restricted (8%protein, MLP or a control protein (20% protein, C diet from four weeks before mating until weaning of offspring. Male offspring were weaned to standard rodent diet (20% protein and single-housed until 8-12 weeks of age. We examined body composition, food intake, energy expenditure, spontaneous rearing activity and sleep patterns and performed behavioral assays for anxiety (open field activity, elevated plus maze [EPM], light/dark exploration, depression (tail suspension and forced swim test, sociability (three-chamber, repetitive (marble burying, learning and memory (fear conditioning, and circadian behavior (wheel-running activity during light-dark and constant dark cycles. We also measured circadian gene expression in hypothalamus and liver at different Zeitgeber times (ZT. Male offspring from separate MLP exposed dams had significantly greater body fat (P = 0.03, less energy expenditure (P = 0.004, less rearing activity (P = 0.04 and a greater number of night-time rest/sleep bouts (P = 0.03 compared to control. MLP offspring displayed greater anxiety-like behavior in the EPM (P<0.01 but had no learning and memory deficit in fear-conditioning assay (P = 0.02. There was an effect of time on Per1, Per 2 and Clock circadian gene expression in the hypothalamus but not on circadian behavior. Thus, transplacental and early developmental exposure of dams to chronic MLP reduces

  11. Evaluation of surface air temperature trend and climate change in the north - east of I. R. of Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alireza, Shahabfar

    2004-01-01

    In this paper maximum, minimum and mean surface air temperature recorded, analysed to reveal spatial and temporal patterns of long-term trends, change points, significant warming (cooling) periods and linear trend per decade. According to this research summer minimum temperatures have generally increased at a larger rate than in spring and autumn minimum temperatures. On the other hand, nighttime warming rates of spring and summer are generally stronger than those that exist in spring and summer daytime temperatures. Considering the significant increasing trends in annual, spring and summer temperatures, it is seen that night-time warming rates are stronger in the northern regions, which are characterized by the Khorasan Province macro climate type: a very hot summer, a relatively hot and late spring and early autumn, and a moderate winter. We have seriously considered the strong warming trends in spring and summer and thus likely in annual minimum air temperatures. It is very likely that significant and very rapid night-time warming trends over much of the province can be related to the widespread, rapid and increased urbanization in Khorasan Province, in addition to long-term and global effects of the human-induced climate change on air temperatures. (Author)

  12. Bacterial population and biodegradation potential in chronically crude oil-contaminated marine sediments are strongly linked to temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargiela, Rafael; Mapelli, Francesca; Rojo, David; Chouaia, Bessem; Tornés, Jesús; Borin, Sara; Richter, Michael; Del Pozo, Mercedes V; Cappello, Simone; Gertler, Christoph; Genovese, María; Denaro, Renata; Martínez-Martínez, Mónica; Fodelianakis, Stilianos; Amer, Ranya A; Bigazzi, David; Han, Xifang; Chen, Jianwei; Chernikova, Tatyana N; Golyshina, Olga V; Mahjoubi, Mouna; Jaouanil, Atef; Benzha, Fatima; Magagnini, Mirko; Hussein, Emad; Al-Horani, Fuad; Cherif, Ameur; Blaghen, Mohamed; Abdel-Fattah, Yasser R; Kalogerakis, Nicolas; Barbas, Coral; Malkawi, Hanan I; Golyshin, Peter N; Yakimov, Michail M; Daffonchio, Daniele; Ferrer, Manuel

    2015-06-29

    Two of the largest crude oil-polluted areas in the world are the semi-enclosed Mediterranean and Red Seas, but the effect of chronic pollution remains incompletely understood on a large scale. We compared the influence of environmental and geographical constraints and anthropogenic forces (hydrocarbon input) on bacterial communities in eight geographically separated oil-polluted sites along the coastlines of the Mediterranean and Red Seas. The differences in community compositions and their biodegradation potential were primarily associated (P polluted sites than in pristine ones where accidental oil spills occurred. We propose that low temperature increases bacterial richness while decreasing catabolic diversity and that chronic pollution promotes catabolic diversification. Our results further suggest that the bacterial populations in chronically polluted sites may respond more promptly in degrading petroleum after accidental oil spills.

  13. Observation of Lorentzian lineshapes in the room temperature optical spectra of strongly coupled Jaggregate/metal hybrid nanostructures by linear two-dimensional optical spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Wei; Sommer, Ephraim; De Sio, Antonietta; Gross, Petra; Vogelgesang, Ralf; Lienau, Christoph; Vasa, Parinda

    2014-01-01

    We analyze the linear optical reflectivity spectra of a prototypical, strongly coupled metal/molecular hybrid nanostructure by means of a new experimental approach, linear two-dimensional optical spectroscopy. White-light, broadband spectral interferometry is used to measure amplitude and spectral phase of the sample reflectivity or transmission with high precision and to reconstruct the time structure of the electric field emitted by the sample upon impulsive excitation. A numerical analysis of this time-domain signal provides a two-dimensional representation of the coherent optical response of the sample as a function of excitation and detection frequency. The approach is used to study a nanostructure formed by depositing a thin J-aggregated dye layer on a gold grating. In this structure, strong coupling between excitons and surface plasmon polaritons results in the formation of hybrid polariton modes. In the strong coupling regime, Lorentzian lineshape profiles of different polariton modes are observed at room temperature. This is taken as an indication that the investigated strongly coupled polariton excitations are predominantly homogeneously broadened at room temperature. This new approach presents a versatile, simple and highly precise addition to nonlinear optical spectroscopic techniques for the analysis of line broadening phenomena. (paper)

  14. Performance and analysis of wireless power charging system from room temperature to HTS magnet via strong resonance coupling method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Y. D.; Lee, S. Y.; Lee, T. W.; Kim, J. S.; Lee, C. Y.

    2016-01-01

    The technology of supplying the electric power by wireless power transfer (WPT) is expected for the next generation power feeding system since it can supply the power to portable devices without any connectors through large air gap. As such a technology based on strongly coupled electromagnetic resonators is possible to deliver the large power and recharge them seamlessly; it has been considered as a noble option to wireless power charging system in the various power applications. Recently, various HTS wires have now been manufactured for demonstrations of transmission cables, motors, MAGLEV, and other electrical power components. However, since the HTS magnets have a lower index n value intrinsically, they are required to be charged from external power system through leads or internal power system. The portable area is limited as well as the cryogen system is bulkier. Thus, we proposed a novel design of wireless power charging system for superconducting HTS magnet (WPC4SM) based on resonance coupling method. As the novel system makes possible a wireless power charging using copper resonance coupled coils, it enables to portable charging conveniently in the superconducting applications. This paper presented the conceptual design and operating characteristics of WPC4SM using different shapes' copper resonance coil. The proposed system consists of four components; RF generator of 370 kHz, copper resonance coupling coils, impedance matching (IM) subsystem and HTS magnet including rectifier system

  15. Performance and analysis of wireless power charging system from room temperature to HTS magnet via strong resonance coupling method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Y. D.; Lee, S. Y.; Lee, T. W.; Kim, J. S. [Suwon Science College, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, C. Y. [Korea Railroad Institute, Uiwang (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-03-15

    The technology of supplying the electric power by wireless power transfer (WPT) is expected for the next generation power feeding system since it can supply the power to portable devices without any connectors through large air gap. As such a technology based on strongly coupled electromagnetic resonators is possible to deliver the large power and recharge them seamlessly; it has been considered as a noble option to wireless power charging system in the various power applications. Recently, various HTS wires have now been manufactured for demonstrations of transmission cables, motors, MAGLEV, and other electrical power components. However, since the HTS magnets have a lower index n value intrinsically, they are required to be charged from external power system through leads or internal power system. The portable area is limited as well as the cryogen system is bulkier. Thus, we proposed a novel design of wireless power charging system for superconducting HTS magnet (WPC4SM) based on resonance coupling method. As the novel system makes possible a wireless power charging using copper resonance coupled coils, it enables to portable charging conveniently in the superconducting applications. This paper presented the conceptual design and operating characteristics of WPC4SM using different shapes' copper resonance coil. The proposed system consists of four components; RF generator of 370 kHz, copper resonance coupling coils, impedance matching (IM) subsystem and HTS magnet including rectifier system.

  16. CARS Measurement of Vibrational/Rotational Temperatures with Total Radiation Visualization behind Strong Shock Waves of 5-7 km/s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, K.; Bindu, V. Hima; Niinomi, S.; Ota, M.; Maeno, K.

    2011-05-01

    In the development of aerospace technology the design of space vehicles is important in phase of reentry flight. The space vehicles reenter into the atmosphere with range of 6-8 km/s. The non-equilibrium flow with radiative heating from strongly shocked air ahead of the vehicles plays an important role on the heat flux to the wall surface structure as well as convective heating. The experimental data for re-entry analyses, however, have remained in classical level. Recent development of optical instruments enables us to have novel approach of diagnostics to the re-entry problems. We employ the CARS (Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Spectroscopy) method for measurement of real gas temperatures of N2 with radiation of the strong shock wave. The CARS signal can be acquired even in the strong radiation area behind the strong shock waves. In addition, we try to use the CCD camera to obtain 2D images of total radiation simultaneously. The strong shock wave in front of the reentering space vehicles is experimentally realigned by free-piston, double-diaphragm shock tube with low density test gas.

  17. Strong interaction at finite temperature

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The first one is the general method of chiral perturbation theory, which may be readily applied to this problem. The other is the method of thermal QCD sum rules. We show that, when the spectral sides of the sum rules are calculated correctly, they do not lead to any new results, but reproduce those of the vacuum sum rules.

  18. Actively heated high-resolution fiber-optic-distributed temperature sensing to quantify streambed flow dynamics in zones of strong groundwater upwelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Martin A.; Buckley, Sean F.; Bagtzoglou, Amvrossios C.; Werkema, Dale D.; Lane, John W.

    2016-01-01

    Zones of strong groundwater upwelling to streams enhance thermal stability and moderate thermal extremes, which is particularly important to aquatic ecosystems in a warming climate. Passive thermal tracer methods used to quantify vertical upwelling rates rely on downward conduction of surface temperature signals. However, moderate to high groundwater flux rates (>−1.5 m d−1) restrict downward propagation of diurnal temperature signals, and therefore the applicability of several passive thermal methods. Active streambed heating from within high-resolution fiber-optic temperature sensors (A-HRTS) has the potential to define multidimensional fluid-flux patterns below the extinction depth of surface thermal signals, allowing better quantification and separation of local and regional groundwater discharge. To demonstrate this concept, nine A-HRTS were emplaced vertically into the streambed in a grid with ∼0.40 m lateral spacing at a stream with strong upward vertical flux in Mashpee, Massachusetts, USA. Long-term (8–9 h) heating events were performed to confirm the dominance of vertical flow to the 0.6 m depth, well below the extinction of ambient diurnal signals. To quantify vertical flux, short-term heating events (28 min) were performed at each A-HRTS, and heat-pulse decay over vertical profiles was numerically modeled in radial two dimension (2-D) using SUTRA. Modeled flux values are similar to those obtained with seepage meters, Darcy methods, and analytical modeling of shallow diurnal signals. We also observed repeatable differential heating patterns along the length of vertically oriented sensors that may indicate sediment layering and hyporheic exchange superimposed on regional groundwater discharge.

  19. Extreme enhancement of blocking temperature by strong magnetic dipoles interaction of α-Fe nanoparticle-based high-density agglomerate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kura, H; Takahashi, M; Ogawa, T

    2011-01-01

    High-volume fraction α-Fe nanoparticle (NP) agglomerates were prepared using chemically synthesized NPs. In the agglomerate, NPs are separated by surfactant and NP superlattice with a hexagonal close-packed structure is locally realized. Volume fractions of NPs at 20% and 42% were obtained in agglomerates consisting of 2.9 nm and 8.2 nm diameter NPs, respectively. The high saturation magnetization of α-Fe NPs and high volume fraction of NPs in the agglomerate provide strong magnetic dipole-dipole interaction. The interaction energy of the agglomerate became much larger than the anisotropic energy of individual NPs. As a result, the blocking temperature of the 8.2 nm NP agglomerate was significantly enhanced from 52.2 K to around 500 K. (fast track communication)

  20. Process for forming unusually strong joints between metals and ceramics by brazing at temperatures that do no exceed 750 degree C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Joseph P.; David, Stan A.; Woodhouse, John J.

    1986-01-01

    This invention is a process for joining metals to ceramics to form very strong bonds using low brazing temperature, i.e., less than 750.degree. C., and particularly for joining nodular cast iron to partially stabilized zirconia. The process provides that the ceramic be coated with an active metal, such as titanium, that can form an intermetallic with a low melting point brazing alloy such as 60Ag-30Cu-10Sn. The nodular cast iron is coated with a noncarbon containing metal, such as copper, to prevent carbon in the nodular cast iron from dissolving in the brazing alloy. These coated surfaces can be brazed together with the brazing alloy between at less than 750.degree. C. to form a very strong joint. An even stronger bond can be formed if a transition piece is used between the metal and ceramic. It is preferred for the transition piece to have a coefficient of thermal compatible with the coefficient of thermal expansion of the ceramic, such as titanium.

  1. Self-Assembled Layered Supercell Structure of Bi2AlMnO6 with Strong Room-Temperature Multiferroic Properties.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Leigang; Boullay, Philippe; Lu, Ping; Perez, Olivier; Steciuk, Gwladys; Wang, Xuejing; Jian, Jie; Huang, Jijie; Gao, Xingyao; Zhang, Wenrui; Zhang, Xinghang; Wang, Haiyan

    2017-02-01

    Room-temperature (RT) multiferroics, possessing ferroelectricity and ferromagnetism simultaneously at RT, hold great promise in miniaturized devices including sensors, actuators, transducers, and multi-state memories. In this work, we report a novel 2D layered RT multiferroic system with self-assembled layered supercell structure consisting of two mismatch-layered sub-lattices of [Bi3O3+δ] and [MO2]1.84 (M=Al/Mn, simply named as BAMO), i.e., alternative layered stacking of two mutually incommensurate sublattices made of a three-layer-thick Bi-O slab and a one-layer-thick Al/Mn-O octahedra slab along the out-of-plane direction. Strong room-temperature multiferroic responses, e.g., ferromagnetic and ferroelectric properties, have been demonstrated and attributed to the highly anisotropic 2D nature of the non-ferromagnetic and ferromagnetic sublattices which are highly mismatched. The work demonstrates an alternative design approach for new 2D layered oxide materials that hold promises as single-phase multiferroics, 2D oxides with tunable bandgaps, and beyond.

  2. Continuous epitaxial growth of extremely strong Cu6Sn5 textures at liquid-Sn/(111)Cu interface under temperature gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Y.; Zhao, N.; Liu, C. Y.; Dong, W.; Qiao, Y. Y.; Wang, Y. P.; Ma, H. T.

    2017-11-01

    As the diameter of solder interconnects in three-dimensional integrated circuits (3D ICs) downsizes to several microns, how to achieve a uniform microstructure with thousands of interconnects on stacking chips becomes a critical issue in 3D IC manufacturing. We report a promising way for fabricating fully intermetallic interconnects with a regular grain morphology and a strong texture feature by soldering single crystal (111) Cu/Sn/polycrystalline Cu interconnects under the temperature gradient. Continuous epitaxial growth of η-Cu6Sn5 at cold end liquid-Sn/(111)Cu interfaces has been demonstrated. The resultant η-Cu6Sn5 grains show faceted prism textures with an intersecting angle of 60° and highly preferred orientation with their ⟨ 11 2 ¯ 0 ⟩ directions nearly paralleling to the direction of the temperature gradient. These desirable textures are maintained even after soldering for 120 min. The results pave the way for controlling the morphology and orientation of interfacial intermetallics in 3D packaging technologies.

  3. Synthesis, strong room-temperature PL and photocatalytic activity of ZnO/ZnWO{sub 4} rod-like nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Validzic, Ivana Lj., E-mail: validzic@vinca.rs [Vinca Institute of Nuclear Sciences, University of Belgrade, P.O. Box 522, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia); Savic, Tatjana D.; Krsmanovic, Radenka M.; Jovanovic, Dragana J.; Novakovic, Mirjana M.; Popovic, Maja C.; Comor, Mirjana I. [Vinca Institute of Nuclear Sciences, University of Belgrade, P.O. Box 522, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia)

    2012-05-25

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Novel low temperature method for the synthesis of ZnO/ZnWO{sub 4} rod-like nanoparticles. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PL showed strong UV band peaked at 3.30 eV and a visible band at 2.71 and 2.53 eV. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Variations of the two PL bands were observed for different excitation wavelengths. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Band-gap energies of ZnO/ZnWO{sub 4} nanoparticles were found to be 3.62 and 3.21 eV. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Photocatalytic behaviour of ZnO is dependent on the formation of ZnWO{sub 4} phase. - Abstract: Zinc oxide (ZnO)/zinc tungstate (ZnWO{sub 4}) rod-like nanoparticles with diameters in the range of 6-11 nm and length of about 30 nm were synthesized by a low temperature soft solution method at 95 Degree-Sign C in the presence of non-ionic copolymer surfactant. It was found that their crystallinity was enhanced with the increase of heating time from 1 h up to 120 h. The photoluminescence (PL) measurements showed very strong, narrow UV band peaked at 3.30 eV and a broad visible band peaking at 2.71 eV with a shoulder at about 2.53 eV, for {lambda}{sub exc} < 300 nm. Quite large variations in the intensities of the two PL bands were observed for different excitation wavelengths. The intensity of the main visible band decreases with decreasing excitation energy and disappears when samples are excited {lambda} = 320 nm (E{sub exc} = 3.875 eV). We found that observed optical properties originate from ZnO phase. UV band gap PL had high intensity for all applied excitations, probably induced by ZnWO{sub 4} phase presence on the surface. In addition, two values were found for direct band-gap energy of ZnO/ZnWO{sub 4} rod-like nanoparticles 3.62 and 3.21 eV, determined from reflectance spectrum. The photocatalytic behaviour of ZnO is strongly dependent on the formation of ZnWO{sub 4} phase, of the obtained rod-like nanoparticles.

  4. <strong>Mini-project>

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katajainen, Jyrki

    2008-01-01

    In this project the goal is to develop the safe * family of containers for the CPH STL. The containers to be developed should be safer and more reliable than any of the existing implementations. A special focus should be put on strong exception safety since none of the existing prototypes available...

  5. Physiological responses of rice to increased day and night temperatures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shi, Wanju

    2017-01-01

    A more rapid increase in night-time temperature compared with day-time temperature and the increased frequency of heat waves associated with climate change present a serious threat to rice (Oryza sativa L.) production and food security. This thesis aims to understand the impact of high

  6. Strong interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Froissart, Marcel

    1976-01-01

    Strong interactions are introduced by their more obvious aspect: nuclear forces. In hadron family, the nucleon octet, OMEGA - decuplet, and quark triply are successively considered. Pion wave having been put at the origin of nuclear forces, low energy phenomena are described, the force being explained as an exchange of structure corresponding to a Regge trajectory in a variable rotating state instead of the exchange of a well defined particle. At high energies the concepts of pomeron, parton and stratons are introduced, pionization and fragmentation are briefly differentiated [fr

  7. High night temperature strongly impacts TCA cycle, amino acid and polyamine biosynthetic pathways in rice in a sensitivity-dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaubitz, Ulrike; Erban, Alexander; Kopka, Joachim; Hincha, Dirk K; Zuther, Ellen

    2015-10-01

    Global climate change combined with asymmetric warming can have detrimental effects on the yield of crop plants such as rice (Oryza sativa L.). Little is known about metabolic responses of rice to high night temperature (HNT) conditions. Twelve cultivars with different HNT sensitivity were used to investigate metabolic changes in the vegetative stage under HNT compared to control conditions. Central metabolism, especially TCA cycle and amino acid biosynthesis, were strongly affected particularly in sensitive cultivars. Levels of several metabolites were correlated with HNT sensitivity. Furthermore, pool sizes of some metabolites negatively correlated with HNT sensitivity under control conditions, indicating metabolic pre-adaptation in tolerant cultivars. The polyamines putrescine, spermidine and spermine showed increased abundance in sensitive cultivars under HNT conditions. Correlations between the content of polyamines and 75 other metabolites indicated metabolic shifts from correlations with sugar-phosphates and 1-kestose under control to correlations with sugars and amino and organic acids under HNT conditions. Increased expression levels of ADC2 and ODC1, genes encoding enzymes catalysing the first committed steps of putrescine biosynthesis, were restricted to sensitive cultivars under HNT. Additionally, transcript levels of eight polyamine biosynthesis genes were correlated with HNT sensitivity. Responses to HNT in the vegetative stage result in distinct differences between differently responding cultivars with a dysregulation of central metabolism and an increase of polyamine biosynthesis restricted to sensitive cultivars under HNT conditions and a pre-adaptation of tolerant cultivars already under control conditions with higher levels of potentially protective compatible solutes. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  8. Using WRF-Chem to investigate the impact of night time nitrate radical chemistry and N2O5 heterogeneous chemistry on the chemical composition of the UK troposphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer-Nicholls, S.; Lowe, D.; Utembe, S.; McFiggans, G.

    2012-04-01

    It is believed that NO3 is the primary oxidant at night time, significantly impacting ozone formation, rain acidification and the formation and transformation of aerosols, particularly through the formation of the ammonium nitrate particulate (Allan et. al., 2000). However, many of the basic chemical processes controlling the formation and removal of NO3, in particular, the N2O5 heterogeneous reactions, are often not represented in models, although general parameterisations have been developed (c.f. Bertram & Thornton, 2009). The ROle of Night time chemistry in controlling the Oxidising Capacity of the atmOsphere (RONOCO) campaign is a project being funded by NERC and being carried out by a collaboration of UK Universities. It aims to better understand the role of the NO3 radical on the chemistry of the night time atmosphere, its oxidation capacity and thus its overall effects on the composition of the troposphere. The Weather Research and Forecasting model with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) is a state of the art regional climate model with fully coupled online air quality and meteorological components allowing for better resolution of aerosol and gas-phase chemistry (Grell et. al., 2005). It has been extended to include the Common Representative Intermediates scheme (CRIv2-R5) (Watson et. al., 2008), a reduced chemical scheme designed to simulate the atmospheric degradation of 220 species of hydrocarbons and VOCs. The MOSAIC aerosol scheme (Zaveri et. al., 2008), has been extended to include a reduced complexity condensed organic phase consisting of 13 semi-volatile and 2 involatile species (Topping et. al., 2012), as well as the N2O5 heterogeneous reaction scheme of Bertram & Thornton (2009). We aim to use WRF-Chem to compare the oxidation capacity of nighttime NO3 chemistry with that of daytime OH chemistry. The model was run using two nested grids: a 15km resolution domain over western Europe, containing a 5km resolution domain over the UK. The RONOCO campaign consisted

  9. Climate-growth analysis for a Mexican dry forest tree shows strong impact of sea surface temperatures and predicts future growth declines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brienen, R.J.W.; Lebrija Trejos, E.E.; Zuidema, P.A.; Martínez- Ramos, M.

    2010-01-01

    Tropical forests will experience relatively large changes in temperature and rainfall towards the end of this century. Little is known about how tropical trees will respond to these changes. We used tree rings to establish climate-growth relations of a pioneer tree, Mimosa acantholoba, occurring in

  10. High-pressure cells for study of condensed matter by diffraction and inelastic neutron scattering at low temperatures and in strong magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadykov, R. A.; Strassle, Th; Podlesnyak, A.; Keller, L.; Fak, B.; Mesot, J.

    2017-12-01

    We have developed and implemented series of new original clamp high-pressure cells for neutron diffraction and inelastic neutron scattering at low temperatures. The cells design allows one to place them in the standard cryostats or cryomagnets used on neutron sources. Some results obtained for ZnCr2Se4 are demonstrated as an example.

  11. Biophysical control of leaf temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, N.; Prentice, I. C.; Wright, I. J.

    2014-12-01

    In principle sunlit leaves can maintain their temperatures within a narrower range than ambient temperatures. This is an important and long-known (but now overlooked) prediction of energy balance theory. Net radiation at leaf surface in steady state (which is reached rapidly) must be equal to the combination of sensible and latent heat exchanges with surrounding air, the former being proportional to leaf-to-air temperature difference (ΔT), the latter to the transpiration rate. We present field measurements of ΔT which confirm the existence of a 'crossover temperature' in the 25-30˚C range for species in a tropical savanna and a tropical rainforest environment. This finding is consistent with a simple representation of transpiration as a function of net radiation and temperature (Priestley-Taylor relationship) assuming an entrainment factor (ω) somewhat greater than the canonical value of 0.26. The fact that leaves in tropical forests are typically cooler than surrounding air, often already by solar noon, is consistent with a recently published comparison of MODIS day-time land-surface temperatures with air temperatures. Theory further predicts a strong dependence of leaf size (which is inversely related to leaf boundary-layer conductance, and therefore to absolute magnitude of ΔT) on moisture availability. Theoretically, leaf size should be determined by either night-time constraints (risk of frost damage to active leaves) or day-time constraints (risk of heat stress damage),with the former likely to predominate - thereby restricting the occurrence of large leaves - at high latitudes. In low latitudes, daytime maximum leaf size is predicted to increase with temperature, provided that water is plentiful. If water is restricted, however, transpiration cannot proceed at the Priestley-Taylor rate, and it quickly becomes advantageous for plants to have small leaves, which do not heat up much above the temperature of their surroundings. The difference between leaf

  12. Linear temperature behavior of thermopower and strong electron-electron scattering in thick F-doped SnO2 films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Wen-Jing; Li, Zhi-Qing

    2014-07-01

    Both the semi-classical and quantum transport properties of F-doped SnO2 thick films (˜1 μm) were investigated experimentally. We found that the resistivity caused by the thermal phonons obeys Bloch-Grüneisen law from ˜90 to 300 K, while only the diffusive thermopower, which varies linearly with temperature from 300 down to 10 K, can be observed. The phonon-drag thermopower is completely suppressed due to the long electron-phonon relaxation time in the compound. These observations, together with the fact that the carrier concentration has negligible temperature dependence, indicate that the conduction electrons in F-doped SnO2 films possess free-electron-like characteristics. At low temperatures, the electron-electron scattering dominates over the electron-phonon scattering and governs the inelastic scattering process. The theoretical predications of scattering rates of large- and small-energy-transfer electron-electron scattering processes, which are negligibly weak in three-dimensional disordered conventional conductors, are quantitatively tested in this lower carrier concentration and free-electron-like highly degenerate semiconductor.

  13. Linear temperature behavior of thermopower and strong electron-electron scattering in thick F-doped SnO2 films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lang, Wen-Jing; Li, Zhi-Qing

    2014-01-01

    Both the semi-classical and quantum transport properties of F-doped SnO 2 thick films (∼1 μm) were investigated experimentally. We found that the resistivity caused by the thermal phonons obeys Bloch-Grüneisen law from ∼90 to 300 K, while only the diffusive thermopower, which varies linearly with temperature from 300 down to 10 K, can be observed. The phonon-drag thermopower is completely suppressed due to the long electron-phonon relaxation time in the compound. These observations, together with the fact that the carrier concentration has negligible temperature dependence, indicate that the conduction electrons in F-doped SnO 2 films possess free-electron-like characteristics. At low temperatures, the electron-electron scattering dominates over the electron-phonon scattering and governs the inelastic scattering process. The theoretical predications of scattering rates of large- and small-energy-transfer electron-electron scattering processes, which are negligibly weak in three-dimensional disordered conventional conductors, are quantitatively tested in this lower carrier concentration and free-electron-like highly degenerate semiconductor.

  14. A comparative study of night-time enhancement of TEC at a low latitude station on storm and quiet nights including the local time, seasonal and solar activity dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Unnikrishnan

    Full Text Available The main characteristics of night-time enhancements in TEC during magnetic storms are compared with those during quiet nights for different seasons and solar activity conditions at Palehua, a low latitude station during the period 1980–1989. We find that the mean amplitude has both a seasonal and solar activity dependence: in winter, the values are higher for weak storms as compared to those during quiet nights and increase with an increase in solar activity. In summer, the mean amplitude values during weak storms and quiet nights are almost equal. But during equinox, the mean amplitude values for quiet nights are greater than those during weak storms. The mean half-amplitude duration is higher during weak storms as compared to that during quiet nights in summer. However, during winter and equinox, the durations are almost equal for both quiet and weak storm nights. For the mean half-amplitude duration, the quiet night values for all the seasons and equinoctial weak storm values increase with an increase in solar activity. The occurrence frequency (in percent of TEC enhancement during weak storms is greater than during quiet nights for all seasons. The mean amplitude, the mean half-amplitude duration and the occurrence frequency (in percent of TEC enhancement values are higher during major storms as compared to those during quiet nights. The above parameters have their highest values during pre-midnight hours. From the data analysed, this behaviour is true in the case of major storms also.

    Key words. Ionosphere (ionospheric disturbances; plasma convection Magnetospheric physics (storms and substorms

  15. Experimental study and calculations of nitric oxide absorption in the γ(0,0) and γ(1,0) bands for strong temperature conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trad, H.; Higelin, P.; Djebaieli-Chaumeix, N.; Mounaim-Rousselle, C.

    2005-01-01

    Absorption spectra of nitric oxide in the γ(0,0) and γ(1,0) bands have been measured for hard temperature conditions up to 1700 K in order to validate a model for the simulation of these two bands. The good agreement between experiments and calculations (relative errors of 2-5% for the γ(0,0) band and 10-15% for the γ(1,0) band) consolidates the two important assumptions concerning the intermediate Hund's case between (a) and (b) for the X 2 Π state of the γ(0,0) and γ(1,0) absorption bands and the use of collisional broadening parameters of γ(0,0) to simulate the γ(1,0) band. Using this simulation, a study of the Beer-Lambert law behavior at high temperature has been carried out. With the instrument resolution used for these experiments, it was shown that a correction of the Beer-Lambert law is necessary. To apply this technique for the measurements of NO concentrations inside the combustion chamber of an optical SI engine, a new formulation of the Beer-Lambert law has been introduced, since the modified form proposed in the literature is no longer applicable in the total column range of interest

  16. Strong violet-blue light photoluminescence emission at room temperature in SrZrO3: Joint experimental and theoretical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longo, V.M.; Cavalcante, L.S.; Erlo, R.; Mastelaro, V.R.; Figueiredo, A.T. de; Sambrano, J.R.; Lazaro, S. de; Freitas, A.Z.; Gomes, L.; Vieira, N.D.; Varela, J.A.; Longo, Elson

    2008-01-01

    Ultrafine ordered and disordered SrZrO 3 powders were prepared by the polymeric precursor method. The structural evolution from structural disorder to order was monitored by X-ray diffraction and X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy. Complex cluster vacancies [ZrO 5 .V O Z ]and[SrO 11 .V O Z ] (where V O Z =V O X , V O · andV O ·· ) were proposed for disordered powders. The intense violet-blue light photoluminescence emission measured at room temperature in the disordered powders was attributed to complex cluster vacancies. High-level quantum mechanical calculations within the density functional theory framework were used to interpret the experimental results

  17. Strong room-temperature ultraviolet to red excitons from inorganic organic-layered perovskites, (MX4 (M=Pb, Sn, Hg; X=I-, Br-)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Shahab; Prakash, G. Vijaya

    2014-01-01

    Many varieties of layered inorganic-organic (IO) perovskite of type (MX4 (where R: organic moiety, M: divalent metal, and X: halogen) were successfully fabricated and characterized. X-ray diffraction data suggest that these inorganic and organic structures are alternatively stacked up along c-axis, where inorganic mono layers are of extended corner-shared MX6 octahedra and organic spacers are the bi-layers of organic entities. These layered perovskites show unusual room-temperature exciton absorption and photoluminescence due to the quantum and dielectric confinement-induced enhancement in the exciton binding energies. A wide spectral range of optical exciton tunability (350 to 600 nm) was observed experimentally from systematic compositional variation in (i) divalent metal ions (M=Pb, Sn, Hg), (ii) halides (X=I and Br-), and (iii) organic moieties (R). Specific photoluminescence features are due to the structure of the extended MX42- network and the eventual electronic band structure. The compositionally dependent photoluminescence of these IO hybrids could be useful in various photonic and optoelectronic devices.

  18. An important role of temperature dependent scattering time in understanding the high temperature thermoelectric behavior of strongly correlated system: La0.75Ba0.25CoO3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Saurabh; Kumar, Devendra; Pandey, Sudhir K

    2017-03-15

    In the present work, we report the temperature dependent thermopower (α) behavior of La 0.75 Ba 0.25 CoO 3 compound in the temperature range 300-600 K. Using the Heikes formula, the estimated value of α corresponding to high-spin configuration of Co 3+ and Co 4+ ions is found to be  ∼16 [Formula: see text], which is close to the experimental value, ∼13 [Formula: see text], observed at  ∼600 K. The temperature dependent TE behavior of the compound is studied by combining the WIEN2K and BoltzTrap code. The self consistency field calculations show that the compound have ferromagnetic ground state structure. The electronic structure calculations give half metallic characteristic with a small gap of  ∼50 meV for down spin channel. The large and positive value for down spin channel is obtained due to the unique band structure shown by this spin channel. The temperature dependent relaxation time for both the spin-channel charge carriers is considered to study the thermopower data in temperature range 300-600 K. For evaluation of α, almost linear values of [Formula: see text] and a non-linear values of [Formula: see text] are taken into account. By taking the temperature dependent values of relaxation time for both the spin channels, the calculated values of α using two current model are found to be in good agreement with experimental values in the temperature range 300-600 K. At 300 K, the calculated value of electrical conductivity by using the same value of relaxation time, i.e. 0.1 [Formula: see text] 10 -14 seconds for spin-up and [Formula: see text] seconds for spin-dn channel, is found to be equal to the experimentally reported value.

  19. Effect of Irrigation Timing on Root Zone Soil Temperature, Root Growth and Grain Yield and Chemical Composition in Corn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuejun Dong

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available High air temperatures during the crop growing season can reduce harvestable yields in major agronomic crops worldwide. Repeated and prolonged high night air temperature stress may compromise plant growth and yield. Crop varieties with improved heat tolerance traits as well as crop management strategies at the farm scale are thus needed for climate change mitigation. Crop yield is especially sensitive to night-time warming trends. Current studies are mostly directed to the elevated night-time air temperature and its impact on crop growth and yield, but less attention is given to the understanding of night-time soil temperature management. Delivering irrigation water through drip early evening may reduce soil temperature and thus improve plant growth. In addition, corn growers typically use high-stature varieties that inevitably incur excessive respiratory carbon loss from roots and transpiration water loss under high night temperature conditions. The main objective of this study was to see if root-zone soil temperature can be reduced through drip irrigation applied at night-time, vs. daytime, using three corn hybrids of different above-ground architecture in Uvalde, TX where day and night temperatures during corn growing season are above U.S. averages. The experiment was conducted in 2014. Our results suggested that delivering well-water at night-time through drip irrigation reduced root-zone soil temperature by 0.6 °C, increase root length five folds, plant height 2%, and marginally increased grain yield by 10%. However, irrigation timing did not significantly affect leaf chlorophyll level and kernel crude protein, phosphorous, fat and starch concentrations. Different from our hypothesis, the shorter, more compact corn hybrid did not exhibit a higher yield and growth as compared with taller hybrids. As adjusting irrigation timing would not incur an extra cost for farmers, the finding reported here had immediate practical implications for farm

  20. Strongly disordered superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muttalib, K.A.

    1982-01-01

    We examine some universal effects of strong non-magnetic disorder on the electron-phonon and electron-electron interactions in a superconductor. In particular we explicitly take into account the effect of slow diffusion of electrons in a disordered medium by working in an exact impurity eigenstate representation. We find that the normal diffusion of electrons characterized by a constant diffusion coefficient does not lead to any significant correction to the electron-phonon or the effective electron-electron interactions in a superconductor. We then consider sufficiently strong disorder where Anderson localization of electrons becomes important and determine the effect of localization on the electron-electron interactions. We find that due to localization, the diffusion of electrons becomes anomalous in the sense that the diffusion coefficient becomes scale dependent. This results in an increase in the effective electron-electron interaction with increasing disorder. We propose that this provides a natural explanation for the unusual sensitivity of the transition temperature T/sub c/ of the high T/sub c/ superconductors (T/sub c/ > 10 0 K) to damage effects

  1. Low fingertip temperature rebound measured by digital thermal monitoring strongly correlates with the presence and extent of coronary artery disease diagnosed by 64-slice multi-detector computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, Naser; Nabavi, Vahid; Nuguri, Vivek; Hajsadeghi, Fereshteh; Flores, Ferdinand; Akhtar, Mohammad; Kleis, Stanley; Hecht, Harvey; Naghavi, Morteza; Budoff, Matthew

    2009-10-01

    Previous studies showed strong correlations between low fingertip temperature rebound measured by digital thermal monitoring (DTM) during a 5 min arm-cuff induced reactive hyperemia and both the Framingham Risk Score (FRS), and coronary artery calcification (CAC) in asymptomatic populations. This study evaluates the correlation between DTM and coronary artery disease (CAD) measured by CT angiography (CTA) in symptomatic patients. It also investigates the correlation between CTA and a new index of neurovascular reactivity measured by DTM. 129 patients, age 63 +/- 9 years, 68% male, underwent DTM, CAC and CTA. Adjusted DTM indices in the occluded arm were calculated: temperature rebound: aTR and area under the temperature curve aTMP-AUC. DTM neurovascular reactivity (NVR) index was measured based on increased fingertip temperature in the non-occluded arm. Obstructive CAD was defined as >or=50% luminal stenosis, and normal as no stenosis and CAC = 0. Baseline fingertip temperature was not different across the groups. However, all DTM indices of vascular and neurovascular reactivity significantly decreased from normal to non-obstructive to obstructive CAD [(aTR 1.77 +/- 1.18 to 1.24 +/- 1.14 to 0.94 +/- 0.92) (P = 0.009), (aTMP-AUC: 355.6 +/- 242.4 to 277.4 +/- 182.4 to 184.4 +/- 171.2) (P = 0.001), (NVR: 161.5 +/- 147.4 to 77.6 +/- 88.2 to 48.8 +/- 63.8) (P = 0.015)]. After adjusting for risk factors, the odds ratio for obstructive CAD compared to normal in the lowest versus two upper tertiles of FRS, aTR, aTMP-AUC, and NVR were 2.41 (1.02-5.93), P = 0.05, 8.67 (2.6-9.4), P = 0.001, 11.62 (5.1-28.7), P = 0.001, and 3.58 (1.09-11.69), P = 0.01, respectively. DTM indices and FRS combined resulted in a ROC curve area of 0.88 for the prediction of obstructive CAD. In patients suspected of CAD, low fingertip temperature rebound measured by DTM significantly predicted CTA-diagnosed obstructive disease.

  2. Metabolic rates and tissue composition of the coral Pocillopora verrucosa over 12 latitudes in the Red Sea characterized by strong temperature and nutrient gradient, supplement to: Sawall, Yvonne; Al-Sofyani, A; Hohn, S; Banguera-Hinestroza, E; Voolstra, Christian R; Wahl, Martin (2015): Extensive phenotypic plasticity of a Red Sea coral over a strong latitudinal temperature gradient suggests limited acclimatization potential to warming. Scientific Reports, 5, 8940

    KAUST Repository

    Sawall, Yvonne

    2015-01-01

    Global warming was reported to cause growth reductions in tropical shallow water corals in both, cooler and warmer, regions of the coral species range. This suggests regional adaptation with less heat-tolerant populations in cooler and more thermo-tolerant populations in warmer regions. Here, we investigated seasonal changes in the in situ metabolic performance of the widely distributed hermatypic coral Pocillopora verrucosa along 12 degrees latitudes featuring a steep temperature gradient between the northern (28.5 degrees N, 21-27 degrees C) and southern (16.5 degrees N, 28-33 degrees C) reaches of the Red Sea. Surprisingly, we found little indication for regional adaptation, but strong indications for high phenotypic plasticity: Calcification rates in two seasons (winter, summer) were found to be highest at 28-29 degrees C throughout all populations independent of their geographic location. Mucus release increased with temperature and nutrient supply, both being highest in the south. Genetic characterization of the coral host revealed low inter-regional variation and differences in the Symbiodinium clade composition only at the most northern and most southern region. This suggests variable acclimatization potential to ocean warming of coral populations across the Red Sea: high acclimatization potential in northern populations, but limited ability to cope with ocean warming in southern populations already existing at the upper thermal margin for corals

  3. Longitudinal and Seasonal Variations of the Electron Temperature and Density in the Low-Latitude Topside Ionosphere Observed by KOMPSAT-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heejun Kim

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available The electron density and temperature in the topside ionosphere are observed by the Ionosphere Measurement Sensor (IMS onboard the KOMPSAT-1, which has the sun-synchronous orbit of the altitude of 685 km and the orbital inclination of 98deg with a descending node at 22:50LT. Observations have been analyzed to determine the seasonal variations of the electron density and temperature in the low-latitude region. Only the night-time (22:50LT behavior on magnetically quiet days (Kp < 4 has been examined. Observations show a strong longitudinal and seasonal variation. Generally, in the dip equator the density increases and the temperature decreases. In equinox the latitudinal distributions of the electron density and temperature are quite symmetric about the dip equator. However, the local maximum of the density and the local minimum of the temperature shift toward the Northern hemisphere in summer solstice but the Southern hemisphere in winter solstice. Such variations are due to the influences of field-aligned plasma transport induced by F region neutral wind. Compared with the IRI95 model, the observed electron density and temperature show significant differences from those predicted by the IRI95 model.

  4. Testing strong interaction theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, J.

    1979-01-01

    The author discusses possible tests of the current theories of the strong interaction, in particular, quantum chromodynamics. High energy e + e - interactions should provide an excellent means of studying the strong force. (W.D.L.)

  5. Abortion: Strong's counterexamples fail

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Nucci, Ezio

    2009-01-01

    This paper shows that the counterexamples proposed by Strong in 2008 in the Journal of Medical Ethics to Marquis's argument against abortion fail. Strong's basic idea is that there are cases--for example, terminally ill patients--where killing an adult human being is prima facie seriously morally...

  6. Strong Langmuir turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldman, M.V.

    1984-01-01

    After a brief discussion of beam-excited Langmuir turbulence in the solar wind, we explain the criteria for wave-particle, three-wave and strong turbulence interactions. We then present the results of a numerical integration of the Zakharov equations, which describe the strong turbulence saturation of a weak (low-density) high energy, bump-on-tail beam instability. (author)

  7. Strong intrinsic motivation

    OpenAIRE

    Dessi, Roberta; Rustichini, Aldo

    2015-01-01

    A large literature in psychology, and more recently in economics, has argued that monetary rewards can reduce intrinsic motivation. We investigate whether the negative impact persists when intrinsic motivation is strong, and test this hypothesis experimentally focusing on the motivation to undertake interesting and challenging tasks, informative about individual ability. We find that this type of task can generate strong intrinsic motivation, that is impervious to the effect of monetary incen...

  8. Bitcoin Meets Strong Consistency

    OpenAIRE

    Decker, Christian; Seidel, Jochen; Wattenhofer, Roger

    2014-01-01

    The Bitcoin system only provides eventual consistency. For everyday life, the time to confirm a Bitcoin transaction is prohibitively slow. In this paper we propose a new system, built on the Bitcoin blockchain, which enables strong consistency. Our system, PeerCensus, acts as a certification authority, manages peer identities in a peer-to-peer network, and ultimately enhances Bitcoin and similar systems with strong consistency. Our extensive analysis shows that PeerCensus is in a secure state...

  9. Strong gravity and supersymmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chamseddine, Ali H.; Salam, A.; Strathdee, J.

    1977-11-01

    A supersymmetric theory is constructed for a strong f plus a weak g graviton, together with their accompanying massive gravitinos, by gaugin the gradel 0Sp(2,2,1)x 0Sp(2,2,1) structure. The mixing term between f and g fields, which makes the strong graviton massive, can be introduced through a spontaneous symmetry-breaking mechanism implemented in this note by constructing a non-linear realization of the symmetry group

  10. Theoretical studies of strongly correlated fermions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Logan, D [Institut Max von Laue - Paul Langevin (ILL), 38 - Grenoble (France)

    1997-04-01

    Strongly correlated fermions are investigated. An understanding of strongly correlated fermions underpins a diverse range of phenomena such as metal-insulator transitions, high-temperature superconductivity, magnetic impurity problems and the properties of heavy-fermion systems, in all of which local moments play an important role. (author).

  11. Behavioural thermoregulation in a temperature-sensitive coral reef fish, the five-lined cardinalfish (Cheilodipterus quinquelineatus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nay, Tiffany J.; Johansen, Jacob L.; Habary, Adam

    2015-01-01

    provide a strategy to cope with changing conditions. A temperature-sensitive coral reef cardinalfish (Cheilodipterusquinquelineatus) was exposed to 28 °C (average at collection site) or 32 °C (predicted end-of-century) for 6 weeks. Tpref was determined using a shuttlebox system, which allowed fish...... than night-time movements. Understanding temperature-mediated movements is imperative for predicting how ocean warming will influence coral reef species and distribution patterns....

  12. Strongly interacting Fermi gases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakr W.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Strongly interacting gases of ultracold fermions have become an amazingly rich test-bed for many-body theories of fermionic matter. Here we present our recent experiments on these systems. Firstly, we discuss high-precision measurements on the thermodynamics of a strongly interacting Fermi gas across the superfluid transition. The onset of superfluidity is directly observed in the compressibility, the chemical potential, the entropy, and the heat capacity. Our measurements provide benchmarks for current many-body theories on strongly interacting fermions. Secondly, we have studied the evolution of fermion pairing from three to two dimensions in these gases, relating to the physics of layered superconductors. In the presence of p-wave interactions, Fermi gases are predicted to display toplogical superfluidity carrying Majorana edge states. Two possible avenues in this direction are discussed, our creation and direct observation of spin-orbit coupling in Fermi gases and the creation of fermionic molecules of 23Na 40K that will feature strong dipolar interactions in their absolute ground state.

  13. A strong comeback

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marier, D.

    1992-01-01

    This article presents the results of a financial rankings survey which show a strong economic activity in the independent energy industry. The topics of the article include advisor turnover, overseas banks, and the increase in public offerings. The article identifies the top project finance investors for new projects and restructurings and rankings for lenders

  14. Optical spectral weight anomalies and strong correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toschi, A.; Capone, M.; Ortolani, M.; Calvani, P.; Lupi, S.; Castellani, C.

    2007-01-01

    The anomalous behavior observed in the optical spectral weight (W) of the cuprates provides valuable information about the physics of these compounds. Both the doping and the temperature dependences of W are hardly explained through conventional estimates based on the f-sum rule. By computing the optical conductivity of the doped Hubbard model with the Dynamical Mean Field Theory, we point out that the strong correlation plays a key role in determining the basic features of the observed anomalies: the proximity to a Mott insulating phase accounts simultaneously for the strong temperature dependence of W and for its zero temperature value

  15. Night-time road construction operations synthesis of practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-01

    report synthesizes existing literature on nighttime construction operations, identifies gaps in the current state of knowledge, and summarizes research in progress studies that are planned or underway. The literature review and synthesis found the fo...

  16. Swimming Behavior of Individual Zooplankters During Night-Time Foraging

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McGehee, Duncan

    1998-01-01

    Amatzia Genin, Jules Jaffe, Duncan McGehee developed a method for automatically tracking individual plankters swimming through the imaging volume, and applied the method to track approximately 280,000 animals...

  17. Strong Electroweak Symmetry Breaking

    CERN Document Server

    Grinstein, Benjamin

    2011-01-01

    Models of spontaneous breaking of electroweak symmetry by a strong interaction do not have fine tuning/hierarchy problem. They are conceptually elegant and use the only mechanism of spontaneous breaking of a gauge symmetry that is known to occur in nature. The simplest model, minimal technicolor with extended technicolor interactions, is appealing because one can calculate by scaling up from QCD. But it is ruled out on many counts: inappropriately low quark and lepton masses (or excessive FCNC), bad electroweak data fits, light scalar and vector states, etc. However, nature may not choose the minimal model and then we are stuck: except possibly through lattice simulations, we are unable to compute and test the models. In the LHC era it therefore makes sense to abandon specific models (of strong EW breaking) and concentrate on generic features that may indicate discovery. The Technicolor Straw Man is not a model but a parametrized search strategy inspired by a remarkable generic feature of walking technicolor,...

  18. Plasmons in strong superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldo, M.; Ducoin, C.

    2011-01-01

    We present a study of the possible plasmon excitations that can occur in systems where strong superconductivity is present. In these systems the plasmon energy is comparable to or smaller than the pairing gap. As a prototype of these systems we consider the proton component of Neutron Star matter just below the crust when electron screening is not taken into account. For the realistic case we consider in detail the different aspects of the elementary excitations when the proton, electron components are considered within the Random-Phase Approximation generalized to the superfluid case, while the influence of the neutron component is considered only at qualitative level. Electron screening plays a major role in modifying the proton spectrum and spectral function. At the same time the electron plasmon is strongly modified and damped by the indirect coupling with the superfluid proton component, even at moderately low values of the gap. The excitation spectrum shows the interplay of the different components and their relevance for each excitation modes. The results are relevant for neutrino physics and thermodynamical processes in neutron stars. If electron screening is neglected, the spectral properties of the proton component show some resemblance with the physical situation in high-T c superconductors, and we briefly discuss similarities and differences in this connection. In a general prospect, the results of the study emphasize the role of Coulomb interaction in strong superconductors.

  19. Strongly intensive quantities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorenstein, M. I.; Gazdzicki, M.

    2011-01-01

    Analysis of fluctuations of hadron production properties in collisions of relativistic particles profits from use of measurable intensive quantities which are independent of system size variations. The first family of such quantities was proposed in 1992; another is introduced in this paper. Furthermore we present a proof of independence of volume fluctuations for quantities from both families within the framework of the grand canonical ensemble. These quantities are referred to as strongly intensive ones. Influence of conservation laws and resonance decays is also discussed.

  20. Strong-coupling approximations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbott, R.B.

    1984-03-01

    Standard path-integral techniques such as instanton calculations give good answers for weak-coupling problems, but become unreliable for strong-coupling. Here we consider a method of replacing the original potential by a suitably chosen harmonic oscillator potential. Physically this is motivated by the fact that potential barriers below the level of the ground-state energy of a quantum-mechanical system have little effect. Numerically, results are good, both for quantum-mechanical problems and for massive phi 4 field theory in 1 + 1 dimensions. 9 references, 6 figures

  1. Strong Coupling Holography

    CERN Document Server

    Dvali, Gia

    2009-01-01

    We show that whenever a 4-dimensional theory with N particle species emerges as a consistent low energy description of a 3-brane embedded in an asymptotically-flat (4+d)-dimensional space, the holographic scale of high-dimensional gravity sets the strong coupling scale of the 4D theory. This connection persists in the limit in which gravity can be consistently decoupled. We demonstrate this effect for orbifold planes, as well as for the solitonic branes and string theoretic D-branes. In all cases the emergence of a 4D strong coupling scale from bulk holography is a persistent phenomenon. The effect turns out to be insensitive even to such extreme deformations of the brane action that seemingly shield 4D theory from the bulk gravity effects. A well understood example of such deformation is given by large 4D Einstein term in the 3-brane action, which is known to suppress the strength of 5D gravity at short distances and change the 5D Newton's law into the four-dimensional one. Nevertheless, we observe that the ...

  2. LIGO: The strong belief

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2016-01-01

    Twenty years of designing, building and testing a number of innovative technologies, with the strong belief that the endeavour would lead to a historic breakthrough. The Bulletin publishes an abstract of the Courier’s interview with Barry Barish, one of the founding fathers of LIGO.   The plots show the signals of gravitational waves detected by the twin LIGO observatories at Livingston, Louisiana, and Hanford, Washington. (Image: Caltech/MIT/LIGO Lab) On 11 February, the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) and Virgo collaborations published a historic paper in which they showed a gravitational signal emitted by the merger of two black holes. These results come after 20 years of hard work by a large collaboration of scientists operating the two LIGO observatories in the US. Barry Barish, Linde Professor of Physics, Emeritus at the California Institute of Technology and former Director of the Global Design Effort for the Internat...

  3. Strongly interacting Higgs bosons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appelquist, T.; Bernard, C.

    1980-01-01

    The sensitivity of present-energy weak interactions to a strongly interacting heavy-Higgs-boson sector is discussed. The gauged nonlinear sigma model, which is the limit of the linear model as the Higgs-boson mass goes to infinity, is used to organize and catalogue all possible heavy-Higgs-boson effects. As long as the SU(2)/sub L/ x SU(2)/sub R/ symmetry of the Higgs sector is preserved, these effects are found to be small, of the order of the square of the gauge coupling times logarithms (but not powers) of the Higgs-boson mass divided by the W mass. We work in the context of a simplified model with gauge group SU(2)/sub L/; the extension to SU(2)/sub L/ x U(1) is briefly discussed

  4. Strongly correlated perovskite fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, You; Guan, Xiaofei; Zhou, Hua; Ramadoss, Koushik; Adam, Suhare; Liu, Huajun; Lee, Sungsik; Shi, Jian; Tsuchiya, Masaru; Fong, Dillon D.; Ramanathan, Shriram

    2016-06-01

    Fuel cells convert chemical energy directly into electrical energy with high efficiencies and environmental benefits, as compared with traditional heat engines. Yttria-stabilized zirconia is perhaps the material with the most potential as an electrolyte in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), owing to its stability and near-unity ionic transference number. Although there exist materials with superior ionic conductivity, they are often limited by their ability to suppress electronic leakage when exposed to the reducing environment at the fuel interface. Such electronic leakage reduces fuel cell power output and the associated chemo-mechanical stresses can also lead to catastrophic fracture of electrolyte membranes. Here we depart from traditional electrolyte design that relies on cation substitution to sustain ionic conduction. Instead, we use a perovskite nickelate as an electrolyte with high initial ionic and electronic conductivity. Since many such oxides are also correlated electron systems, we can suppress the electronic conduction through a filling-controlled Mott transition induced by spontaneous hydrogen incorporation. Using such a nickelate as the electrolyte in free-standing membrane geometry, we demonstrate a low-temperature micro-fabricated SOFC with high performance. The ionic conductivity of the nickelate perovskite is comparable to the best-performing solid electrolytes in the same temperature range, with a very low activation energy. The results present a design strategy for high-performance materials exhibiting emergent properties arising from strong electron correlations.

  5. Strong-interaction nonuniversality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkas, R.R.; Foot, R.; He, X.; Joshi, G.C.

    1989-01-01

    The universal QCD color theory is extended to an SU(3) 1 direct product SU(3) 2 direct product SU(3) 3 gauge theory, where quarks of the ith generation transform as triplets under SU(3)/sub i/ and singlets under the other two factors. The usual color group is then identified with the diagonal subgroup, which remains exact after symmetry breaking. The gauge bosons associated with the 16 broken generators then form two massive octets under ordinary color. The interactions between quarks and these heavy gluonlike particles are explicitly nonuniversal and thus an exploration of their physical implications allows us to shed light on the fundamental issue of strong-interaction universality. Nonuniversality and weak flavor mixing are shown to generate heavy-gluon-induced flavor-changing neutral currents. The phenomenology of these processes is studied, as they provide the major experimental constraint on the extended theory. Three symmetry-breaking scenarios are presented. The first has color breaking occurring at the weak scale, while the second and third divorce the two scales. The third model has the interesting feature of radiatively induced off-diagonal Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix elements

  6. John Strong (1941 - 2006)

    CERN Multimedia

    Wickens, F

    Our friend and colleague John Strong was cruelly taken from us by a brain tumour on Monday 31st July, a few days before his 65th birthday John started his career working with a group from Westfield College, under the leadership of Ted Bellamy. He obtained his PhD and spent the early part of his career on experiments at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL), but after the early 1970s his research was focussed on experiments in CERN. Over the years he made a number of notable contributions to experiments in CERN: The Omega spectrometer adopted a system John had originally developed for experiments at RAL using vidicon cameras to record the sparks in the spark chambers; He contributed to the success of NA1 and NA7, where he became heavily involved in the electronic trigger systems; He was responsible for the second level trigger system for the ALEPH detector and spent five years leading a team that designed and built the system, which ran for twelve years with only minor interventions. Following ALEPH he tur...

  7. Stirring Strongly Coupled Plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Fadafan, Kazem Bitaghsir; Rajagopal, Krishna; Wiedemann, Urs Achim

    2009-01-01

    We determine the energy it takes to move a test quark along a circle of radius L with angular frequency w through the strongly coupled plasma of N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills (SYM) theory. We find that for most values of L and w the energy deposited by stirring the plasma in this way is governed either by the drag force acting on a test quark moving through the plasma in a straight line with speed v=Lw or by the energy radiated by a quark in circular motion in the absence of any plasma, whichever is larger. There is a continuous crossover from the drag-dominated regime to the radiation-dominated regime. In the crossover regime we find evidence for significant destructive interference between energy loss due to drag and that due to radiation as if in vacuum. The rotating quark thus serves as a model system in which the relative strength of, and interplay between, two different mechanisms of parton energy loss is accessible via a controlled classical gravity calculation. We close by speculating on the implicati...

  8. Strong, Ductile Rotor For Cryogenic Flowmeters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royals, W. T.

    1993-01-01

    Improved magnetic flowmeter rotor resists cracking at cryogenic temperatures, yet provides adequate signal to magnetic pickup outside flowmeter housing. Consists mostly of stainless-steel alloy 347, which is ductile and strong at low temperatures. Small bead of stainless-steel alloy 410 welded in groove around circumference of round bar of stainless-steel alloy 347; then rotor machined from bar. Tips of rotor blades contain small amounts of magnetic alloy, and passage of tips detected.

  9. THE INFLUENCE OF MONK EQUIPPED PONDS ON THE QUALITY OF BASIN HEAD STREAMS, THE EXAMPLE OF WATER TEMPERATURE IN LIMOUSIN AND BERRY (FRANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent TOUCHART

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In the centre-west regions of France, the deep water outlet system known as a “monk” is used in 13% of bodies of water. The authorities are strongly encouraging this to increase, arguing that this system would reduce pond induced warming of the hydrographical network. We have measured the water temperature in four monk equipped ponds for 13 years to such an extent that this paper draws on an analysis of 142,200 original measurements. Compared to a surface outflow, a monk is a system which shifts the warming of the emissary water course to the end of summer and the autumn which reduces average annual warming by about 1°C. This reduces the heating of diurnal maxima but increases warming of the minima. A monk equipped pond warms the river with deep water which has acquired its heat by mechanical convection generated by the wind, as opposed to a weir equipped pond which provides surface water warmed by insolation. In winter the monk equipped pond does not damage the thermal living conditions for Fario trout embryos and larvae under the gravel. In summer, the monk prevents night time cooling of the emissary and increases the temperature of the minima excessively for sensitive species.

  10. Quantifying Uncertainty in Satellite-Retrieved Land Surface Temperature from Cloud Detection Errors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire E. Bulgin

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Clouds remain one of the largest sources of uncertainty in remote sensing of surface temperature in the infrared, but this uncertainty has not generally been quantified. We present a new approach to do so, applied here to the Advanced Along-Track Scanning Radiometer (AATSR. We use an ensemble of cloud masks based on independent methodologies to investigate the magnitude of cloud detection uncertainties in area-average Land Surface Temperature (LST retrieval. We find that at a grid resolution of 625 km 2 (commensurate with a 0.25 ∘ grid size at the tropics, cloud detection uncertainties are positively correlated with cloud-cover fraction in the cell and are larger during the day than at night. Daytime cloud detection uncertainties range between 2.5 K for clear-sky fractions of 10–20% and 1.03 K for clear-sky fractions of 90–100%. Corresponding night-time uncertainties are 1.6 K and 0.38 K, respectively. Cloud detection uncertainty shows a weaker positive correlation with the number of biomes present within a grid cell, used as a measure of heterogeneity in the background against which the cloud detection must operate (e.g., surface temperature, emissivity and reflectance. Uncertainty due to cloud detection errors is strongly dependent on the dominant land cover classification. We find cloud detection uncertainties of a magnitude of 1.95 K over permanent snow and ice, 1.2 K over open forest, 0.9–1 K over bare soils and 0.09 K over mosaic cropland, for a standardised clear-sky fraction of 74.2%. As the uncertainties arising from cloud detection errors are of a significant magnitude for many surface types and spatially heterogeneous where land classification varies rapidly, LST data producers are encouraged to quantify cloud-related uncertainties in gridded products.

  11. Fish oil extracted from fish-fillet by-products is weakly linked to the extraction temperatures but strongly linked to the omega-3 content of the raw material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Honold, Philipp; Nouard, Marie-Louise; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) is the mainspecies produced in Danish fresh water farming. Therefore, a large amount of fileting by-products like heads, bones, and tails (HBT) and intestines are available and can be used to produce high quality fish oil. The main aim in this study was to inve......Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) is the mainspecies produced in Danish fresh water farming. Therefore, a large amount of fileting by-products like heads, bones, and tails (HBT) and intestines are available and can be used to produce high quality fish oil. The main aim in this study...... products, % free fatty acids as well as content of omega-3 PUFA. Furthermore, an experiment was carried out to elucidate the effect of extraction temperature on oil produced from raw materials with a different content of omega-3 fatty acids. For this purpose filleting by-products from conventional (low...

  12. PREFACE: Strongly correlated electron systems Strongly correlated electron systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Siddharth S.; Littlewood, P. B.

    2012-07-01

    make use of 'small' electrons packed to the highest possible density. These are by definition 'strongly correlated'. For example: good photovoltaics must be efficient optical absorbers, which means that photons will generate tightly bound electron-hole pairs (excitons) that must then be ionised at a heterointerface and transported to contacts; efficient solid state refrigeration depends on substantial entropy changes in a unit cell, with large local electrical or magnetic moments; efficient lighting is in a real sense the inverse of photovoltaics; the limit of an efficient battery is a supercapacitor employing mixed valent ions; fuel cells and solar to fuel conversion require us to understand electrochemistry on the scale of a single atom; and we already know that the only prospect for effective high temperature superconductivity involves strongly correlated materials. Even novel IT technologies are now seen to have value not just for novel function but also for efficiency. While strongly correlated electron systems continue to excite researchers and the public alike due to the fundamental science issues involved, it seems increasingly likely that support for the science will be leveraged by its impact on energy and sustainability. Strongly correlated electron systems contents Strongly correlated electron systemsSiddharth S Saxena and P B Littlewood Magnetism, f-electron localization and superconductivity in 122-type heavy-fermion metalsF Steglich, J Arndt, O Stockert, S Friedemann, M Brando, C Klingner, C Krellner, C Geibel, S Wirth, S Kirchner and Q Si High energy pseudogap and its evolution with doping in Fe-based superconductors as revealed by optical spectroscopyN L Wang, W Z Hu, Z G Chen, R H Yuan, G Li, G F Chen and T Xiang Structural investigations on YbRh2Si2: from the atomic to the macroscopic length scaleS Wirth, S Ernst, R Cardoso-Gil, H Borrmann, S Seiro, C Krellner, C Geibel, S Kirchner, U Burkhardt, Y Grin and F Steglich Confinement of chiral magnetic

  13. Nuclear physics from strong coupling QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Fromm, Michael

    2009-01-01

    The strong coupling limit (beta_gauge = 0) of QCD offers a number of remarkable research possibilities, of course at the price of large lattice artifacts. Here, we determine the complete phase diagram as a function of temperature T and baryon chemical potential mu_B, for one flavor of staggered fermions in the chiral limit, with emphasis on the determination of a tricritical point and on the T ~ 0 transition to nuclear matter. The latter is known to happen for mu_B substantially below the baryon mass, indicating strong nuclear interactions in QCD at infinite gauge coupling. This leads us to studying the properties of nuclear matter from first principles. We determine the nucleon-nucleon potential in the strong coupling limit, as well as masses m_A of nuclei as a function of their atomic number A. Finally, we clarify the origin of nuclear interactions at strong coupling, which turns out to be a steric effect.

  14. Strong white photoluminescence from annealed zeolites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai, Zhenhua; Fujii, Minoru; Imakita, Kenji; Hayashi, Shinji

    2014-01-01

    The optical properties of zeolites annealed at various temperatures are investigated for the first time. The annealed zeolites exhibit strong white photoluminescence (PL) under ultraviolet light excitation. With increasing annealing temperature, the emission intensity of annealed zeolites first increases and then decreases. At the same time, the PL peak red-shifts from 495 nm to 530 nm, and then returns to 500 nm. The strongest emission appears when the annealing temperature is 500 °C. The quantum yield of the sample is measured to be ∼10%. The PL lifetime monotonously increases from 223 μs to 251 μs with increasing annealing temperature. The origin of white PL is ascribed to oxygen vacancies formed during the annealing process. -- Highlights: • The optical properties of zeolites annealed at various temperatures are investigated. • The annealed zeolites exhibit strong white photoluminescence. • The maximum PL enhancement reaches as large as 62 times. • The lifetime shows little dependence on annealing temperature. • The origin of white emission is ascribed to the oxygen vacancies

  15. EDITORIAL: Strongly correlated electron systems Strongly correlated electron systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronning, Filip; Batista, Cristian

    2011-03-01

    Strongly correlated electrons is an exciting and diverse field in condensed matter physics. This special issue aims to capture some of that excitement and recent developments in the field. Given that this issue was inspired by the 2010 International Conference on Strongly Correlated Electron Systems (SCES 2010), we briefly give some history in order to place this issue in context. The 2010 International Conference on Strongly Correlated Electron Systems was held in Santa Fe, New Mexico, a reunion of sorts from the 1989 International Conference on the Physics of Highly Correlated Electron Systems that also convened in Santa Fe. SCES 2010—co-chaired by John Sarrao and Joe Thompson—followed the tradition of earlier conferences, in this century, hosted by Buzios (2008), Houston (2007), Vienna (2005), Karlsruhe (2004), Krakow (2002) and Ann Arbor (2001). Every three years since 1997, SCES has joined the International Conference on Magnetism (ICM), held in Recife (2000), Rome (2003), Kyoto (2006) and Karlsruhe (2009). Like its predecessors, SCES 2010 topics included strongly correlated f- and d-electron systems, heavy-fermion behaviors, quantum-phase transitions, non-Fermi liquid phenomena, unconventional superconductivity, and emergent states that arise from electronic correlations. Recent developments from studies of quantum magnetism and cold atoms complemented the traditional subjects and were included in SCES 2010. 2010 celebrated the 400th anniversary of Santa Fe as well as the birth of astronomy. So what's the connection to SCES? The Dutch invention of the first practical telescope and its use by Galileo in 1610 and subsequent years overturned dogma that the sun revolved about the earth. This revolutionary, and at the time heretical, conclusion required innovative combinations of new instrumentation, observation and mathematics. These same combinations are just as important 400 years later and are the foundation of scientific discoveries that were discussed

  16. Temperature retrieval at the southern pole of the Venusian atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garate-Lopez, Itziar; Garcia-Munoz, A.; Hueso, R.; Sanchez-Lavega, A.

    2013-10-01

    Venus’ thermal radiation spectrum is punctuated by CO2 bands of various strengths probing into different atmospheric depths. It is thus possible to invert measured spectra of thermal radiation to infer atmospheric temperature profiles. VIRTIS-M observations of Venus in the 3-5 µm range allow us to study the night time thermal structure of the planet’s upper troposphere and lower mesosphere from 50 to 105 km [1, 2]. Building a forward radiative transfer model that solves the radiative transfer equation for the atmosphere on a line-by-line basis, we confirmed that aerosol scattering must be taken into account and we studied the impact of factors such as cloud opacity, and the size, composition and vertical distribution of aerosols [3]. The cloud top altitude and aerosol scale height have a notable impact on the spectrum. However, their weighting function matrices have similar structures contributing to the degeneracy of the temperature retrieval algorithm [2]. Our retrieval code is focused on the strong 4.3µm CO2 band, which enables the determination of the thermal profile above the cloud top, and based on the algorithm proposed by Grassi et al. (2008) in their equation (2). We present temperature maps for the south pole of Venus, where a highly variable vortex is observed. We aim to combine these maps with our previously measured velocity fields from the same VIRTIS-M infrared images [4], in order to infer the potential vorticity distribution for different vortex configurations and to improve the understanding of its unpredictable character and its role in the general atmospheric circulation. Acknowledgements This work was supported by the Spanish MICIIN projects AYA2009-10701 and AYA2012-36666 with FEDER funds, by Grupos Gobierno Vasco IT-765-13 and by Universidad País Vasco UPV/EHU through program UFI11/55. IGL and AGM gratefully acknowledge ESA/RSSD for hospitality and access to ‘The Grid’ computing resources. References [1] Roos-Serote, M., et al

  17. Quantum electrodynamics of strong fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greiner, W.

    1983-01-01

    Quantum Electrodynamics of Strong Fields provides a broad survey of the theoretical and experimental work accomplished, presenting papers by a group of international researchers who have made significant contributions to this developing area. Exploring the quantum theory of strong fields, the volume focuses on the phase transition to a charged vacuum in strong electric fields. The contributors also discuss such related topics as QED at short distances, precision tests of QED, nonperturbative QCD and confinement, pion condensation, and strong gravitational fields In addition, the volume features a historical paper on the roots of quantum field theory in the history of quantum physics by noted researcher Friedrich Hund

  18. Instabilities in strongly coupled plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Kalman, G J

    2003-01-01

    The conventional Vlasov treatment of beam-plasma instabilities is inappropriate when the plasma is strongly coupled. In the strongly coupled liquid state, the strong correlations between the dust grains fundamentally affect the conditions for instability. In the crystalline state, the inherent anisotropy couples the longitudinal and transverse polarizations, and results in unstable excitations in both polarizations. We summarize analyses of resonant and non-resonant, as well as resistive instabilities. We consider both ion-dust streaming and dust beam-plasma instabilities. Strong coupling, in general, leads to an enhancement of the growth rates. In the crystalline phase, a resonant transverse instability can be excited.

  19. Designing asymmetric multiferroics with strong magnetoelectric coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xuezeng; Xiang, Hongjun; Rondinelli, James; Materials Theory; Design Group Team

    2015-03-01

    Multiferroics offer exciting opportunities for electric-field control of magnetism. Single-phase multiferroics suitable for such applications at room temperature need much more study. Here, we propose the concept of an alternative type of multiferroics, namely, the ``asymmetric multiferroic.'' In asymmetric multiferroics, two locally stable ferroelectric states are not symmetrically equivalent, leading to different magnetic properties between these two states. Furthermore, we predict from first principles that a Fe-Cr-Mo superlattice with the LiNbO3-type structure is such an asymmetric multiferroic. The strong ferrimagnetism, high ferroelectric polarization, and significant dependence of the magnetic transition temperature on polarization make this asymmetric multiferroic an ideal candidate for realizing electric-field control of magnetism at room temperature. Our study suggests that the asymmetric multiferroic may provide an alternative playground for voltage control of magnetism and find its applications in spintronics and quantum computing.

  20. Short proofs of strong normalization

    OpenAIRE

    Wojdyga, Aleksander

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents simple, syntactic strong normalization proofs for the simply-typed lambda-calculus and the polymorphic lambda-calculus (system F) with the full set of logical connectives, and all the permutative reductions. The normalization proofs use translations of terms and types to systems, for which strong normalization property is known.

  1. Strong-back safety latch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeSantis, G.N.

    1995-01-01

    The calculation decides the integrity of the safety latch that will hold the strong-back to the pump during lifting. The safety latch will be welded to the strong-back and will latch to a 1.5-in. dia cantilever rod welded to the pump baseplate. The static and dynamic analysis shows that the safety latch will hold the strong-back to the pump if the friction clamps fail and the pump become free from the strong-back. Thus, the safety latch will meet the requirements of the Lifting and Rigging Manual for under the hook lifting for static loading; it can withstand shock loads from the strong-back falling 0.25 inch

  2. Rydberg-atom formation in strongly correlated ultracold plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bannasch, G.; Pohl, T.

    2011-01-01

    In plasmas at very low temperatures, the formation of neutral atoms is dominated by collisional three-body recombination, owing to the strong ∼T -9/2 scaling of the corresponding recombination rate with the electron temperature T. While this law is well established at high temperatures, the unphysical divergence as T→0 clearly suggests a breakdown in the low-temperature regime. Here, we present a combined molecular dynamics Monte Carlo study of electron-ion recombination over a wide range of temperatures and densities. Our results reproduce the known behavior of the recombination rate at high temperatures, but reveal significant deviations with decreasing temperature. We discuss the fate of the kinetic bottleneck and resolve the divergence problem as the plasma enters the ultracold, strongly coupled domain.

  3. A class of solutions for the strong gravity equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salam, A.; Strathdee, J.

    1976-12-01

    We solve the Einstein equation for strong gravity in the limit that weak gravity is neglected. The class of solutions we find reduces to the Schwarzschild solution (with the weak gravity Newtonian constant replaced by a strong coupling parameter) in the limit M 2 →0 where M is the mass of the strong gravity spin-2 meson. These solutions may be of relevance for the problem of defining temperature in hadronic physics

  4. Bright branes for strongly coupled plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mateos, David; Patino, Leonardo

    2007-01-01

    We use holographic techniques to study photon production in a class of finite temperature, strongly coupled, large-N c SU(N c ) quark-gluon plasmas with N f c quark flavours. Our results are valid to leading order in the electromagnetic coupling constant but non-perturbatively in the SU(N c ) interactions. The spectral function of electromagnetic currents and other related observables exhibit an interesting structure as a function of the photon frequency and the quark mass. We discuss possible implications for heavy ion collision experiments

  5. Machine Learning Phases of Strongly Correlated Fermions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelvin Ch’ng

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Machine learning offers an unprecedented perspective for the problem of classifying phases in condensed matter physics. We employ neural-network machine learning techniques to distinguish finite-temperature phases of the strongly correlated fermions on cubic lattices. We show that a three-dimensional convolutional network trained on auxiliary field configurations produced by quantum Monte Carlo simulations of the Hubbard model can correctly predict the magnetic phase diagram of the model at the average density of one (half filling. We then use the network, trained at half filling, to explore the trend in the transition temperature as the system is doped away from half filling. This transfer learning approach predicts that the instability to the magnetic phase extends to at least 5% doping in this region. Our results pave the way for other machine learning applications in correlated quantum many-body systems.

  6. Strong coupling phase in QED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, Ken-ichi

    1988-01-01

    Existence of a strong coupling phase in QED has been suggested in solutions of the Schwinger-Dyson equation and in Monte Carlo simulation of lattice QED. In this article we recapitulate the previous arguments, and formulate the problem in the modern framework of the renormalization theory, Wilsonian renormalization. This scheme of renormalization gives the best understanding of the basic structure of a field theory especially when it has a multi-phase structure. We resolve some misleading arguments in the previous literature. Then we set up a strategy to attack the strong phase, if any. We describe a trial; a coupled Schwinger-Dyson equation. Possible picture of the strong coupling phase QED is presented. (author)

  7. Strong interactions at high energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anselmino, M.

    1995-01-01

    Spin effects in strong interaction high energy processes are subtle phenomena which involve both short and long distance physics and test perturbative and non perturbative aspects of QCD. Moreover, depending on quantities like interferences between different amplitudes and relative phases, spin observables always test a theory at a fundamental quantum mechanical level; it is then no surprise that spin data are often difficult to accommodate within the existing models. A report is made on the main issues and contributions discussed in the parallel Session on the open-quote open-quote Strong interactions at high energy close-quote close-quote in this Conference. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics

  8. Strong-field dissociation dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DiMauro, L.F.; Yang, Baorui.

    1993-01-01

    The strong-field dissociation behavior of diatomic molecules is examined under two distinctive physical scenarios. In the first scenario, the dissociation of the isolated hydrogen and deuterium molecular ions is discussed. The dynamics of above-threshold dissociation (ATD) are investigated over a wide range of green and infrared intensities and compared to a dressed-state model. The second situation arises when strong-field neutral dissociation is followed by ionization of the atomic fragments. The study results in a direct measure of the atomic fragment's ac-Stark shift by observing the intensity-dependent shifts in the electron or nuclear fragment kinetic energy. 8 figs., 14 refs

  9. Strong correlation between Jc(T, H||c) and Jc(77 K, 3 T||c) in Zr-added (Gd, Y)BaCuO coated conductors at temperatures from 77 down to 20 K and fields up to 9 T

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, A; Delgado, L; Heydari Gharahcheshmeh, M; Khatri, N; Liu, Y; Selvamanickam, V

    2015-01-01

    We have conducted a critical current density J c (T, H) study over a wide temperature T from 77 down to 20 K and a magnetic field H up to 9 T on more than 50 ∼ 0.9 μm-thick REBa 2 Cu 3 O 7−δ (RE = rare earth) thin films containing different concentrations of BaZrO 3 (BZO). We found that, independent of the composition, there is a linear correlation between J c (77 K, 3 T||c) and J c (T, H||c) at T down to 20 K and H up to 9 T. Moreover, J c (77 K, 3 T||c) is also linearly correlated to J c (T, H||ab) below 40 K. We ascribed this linear correlation to the dominant pinning source of BZO nanorods, which act as a strong correlated pinning at T above ∼30 K and provide weak uncorrelated point pins at lower temperatures. Our result emphasizes that J c (77 K, 3 T||c) is a key metric for metal-organic chemical vapor deposited REBa 2 Cu 3 O 7−δ coated conductors. (fast track communication)

  10. Strong drifts effects on neoclassical transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tessarotto, M.; Gregoratto, D.; White, R.B.

    1996-01-01

    It is well known that strong drifts play an important role in plasma equilibrium, stability and confinement A significant example concerns, in particular for tokamak plasmas, the case of strong toroidal differential rotation produced by E x B drift which is currently regarded as potentially important for its influence in equilibrium, stability and transport. In fact, theoretically, it has been found that shear flow can substantially affect the stability of microinstabilities as well modify substantially transport. Recent experimental observations of enhanced confinement and transport regimes in Tokamaks, show, however, evidence of the existence of strong drifts in the plasma core. These are produced not only by the radial electric field [which gives rise to the E x B drift], but also by density [N s ], temperature [T s ] and mass flow [V = ωRe var-phi , with e var-phi the toroidal unit vector, R the distance for the symmetry axis of the torus and ω being the toroidal angular rotation velocity] profiles which are suitably steep. This implies that, in a significant part of the plasma core, the relevant scale lengths of the gradients [of N s , T s , ω], i.e., respectively L N , L T and L ω can be as large as the radial scale length characterizing the banana orbits, L b . Interestingly enough, the transport estimates obtained appear close or even lower than the predictions based on the simplest neoclassical model. However, as is well known, the latter applies, in a strict sense only in the case of weak drifts and also ignoring even the contribution of shear flow related to strong E x B drift. Thus a fundamental problem appears the extension of neoclassical transport theory to include the effect of strong drifts in Tokamak confinement systems. The goal of this investigation is to develop a general formulation of neoclassical transport embodying such important feature

  11. Strong Decomposition of Random Variables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann-Jørgensen, Jørgen; Kagan, Abram M.; Pitt, Loren D.

    2007-01-01

    A random variable X is stongly decomposable if X=Y+Z where Y=Φ(X) and Z=X-Φ(X) are independent non-degenerated random variables (called the components). It is shown that at least one of the components is singular, and we derive a necessary and sufficient condition for strong decomposability...... of a discrete random variable....

  12. Strong coupling electroweak symmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barklow, T.L.; Burdman, G.; Chivukula, R.S.

    1997-04-01

    The authors review models of electroweak symmetry breaking due to new strong interactions at the TeV energy scale and discuss the prospects for their experimental tests. They emphasize the direct observation of the new interactions through high-energy scattering of vector bosons. They also discuss indirect probes of the new interactions and exotic particles predicted by specific theoretical models

  13. Strong coupling electroweak symmetry breaking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barklow, T.L. [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Burdman, G. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Physics; Chivukula, R.S. [Boston Univ., MA (United States). Dept. of Physics

    1997-04-01

    The authors review models of electroweak symmetry breaking due to new strong interactions at the TeV energy scale and discuss the prospects for their experimental tests. They emphasize the direct observation of the new interactions through high-energy scattering of vector bosons. They also discuss indirect probes of the new interactions and exotic particles predicted by specific theoretical models.

  14. The colours of strong interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The aim of this session is to draw a consistent framework about the different ways to consider strong interaction. A large part is dedicated to theoretical work and the latest experimental results obtained at the first electron collider HERA are discussed. (A.C.)

  15. Strong cosmic censorship and the strong curvature singularities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krolak, A.

    1987-01-01

    Conditions are given under which any asymptotically simple and empty space-time that has a partial Cauchy surface with an asymptotically simple past is globally hyperbolic. It is shown that this result suggests that the Cauchy horizons of the type occurring in Reissner--Nordstroem and Kerr space-times are unstable. This in turn gives support for the validity of the strong cosmic censorship hypothesis

  16. Strong-Superstrong Transition in Glass Transition of Metallic Glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dan, Wang; Hong-Yan, Peng; Xiao-Yu, Xu; Bao-Ling, Chen; Chun-Lei, Wu; Min-Hua, Sun

    2010-01-01

    Dynamic fragility of bulk metallic glass (BMG) of Zr 64 Cu 16 Ni 10 Al 10 alloy is studied by three-point beam bending methods. The fragility parameter mfor Zr 64 Cu 16 Ni 10 Al 10 BMG is calculated to be 24.5 at high temperature, which means that the liquid is a 'strong' liquid, while to be 13.4 at low temperature which means that the liquid is a 'super-strong' liquid. The dynamical behavior of Zr 64 Cu 16 Ni 10 Al 10 BMG in the supercooled region undergoes a strong to super-strong transition. To our knowledge, it is the first time that a strong-to-superstrong transition is found in the metallic glass. Using small angle x-ray scattering experiments, we find that this transition is assumed to be related to a phase separation process in supercooled liquid. (condensed matter: structure, mechanical and thermal properties)

  17. First experimental evidence for carbon starvation at warm temperatures in epiphytic orchids of tropical cloud forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoch, Guenter; Roemer, Helena; Fioroni, Tiffany; Olmedo, Inayat; Kahmen, Ansgar

    2017-04-01

    Tropical cloud forests are among the most climate sensitive ecosystems world-wide. The lack of a strong seasonality and the additional dampening of temperature fluctuations by the omnipresence of clouds and fog produce year-round constant climatic conditions. With climate change the presence of clouds and fog is, however, predicted to be reduced. The disappearance of the cooling fog cover will have dramatic consequences for air temperatures, that are predicted to increase locally well over 5 °C by the end of the 21st century. Especially the large number of endemic epiphytic orchids in tropical cloud forests that contribute substantially to the biological diversity of these ecosystems, but are typically adapted to a very narrow climate envelope, are speculated to be very sensitive to the anticipated rise in temperature. In a phytotron experiment we investigated the effect of increasing temperatures on the carbon balance (gas-exchange and the carbon reserve household) of 10 epiphytic orchid species from the genera Dracula, native to tropical, South-American cloud forests. The orchids were exposed to three temperature treatments: i) a constant temperature treatment (23°C/13°C, day/night) simulating natural conditions, ii) a slow temperature ramp of +0.75 K every 10 days, and iii) a fast temperature ramp of +1.5 K every 10 days. CO2 leaf gas-exchanges was determined every 10 days, and concentrations of low molecular weight sugars and starch were analyses from leaf samples throughout the experiment. We found that increasing temperatures had only minor effects on day-time leaf respiration, but led to a moderate increase of respiration during night-time. In contrast to the rather minor effects of higher temperatures on respiration, there was a dramatic decline of net-photosynthesis above day-time temperatures of 29°C, and a complete stop of net-carbon uptake at 33°C in all investigated species. This high sensitivity of photosynthesis to warming was independent of the

  18. Strongly Correlated Systems Theoretical Methods

    CERN Document Server

    Avella, Adolfo

    2012-01-01

    The volume presents, for the very first time, an exhaustive collection of those modern theoretical methods specifically tailored for the analysis of Strongly Correlated Systems. Many novel materials, with functional properties emerging from macroscopic quantum behaviors at the frontier of modern research in physics, chemistry and materials science, belong to this class of systems. Any technique is presented in great detail by its own inventor or by one of the world-wide recognized main contributors. The exposition has a clear pedagogical cut and fully reports on the most relevant case study where the specific technique showed to be very successful in describing and enlightening the puzzling physics of a particular strongly correlated system. The book is intended for advanced graduate students and post-docs in the field as textbook and/or main reference, but also for other researchers in the field who appreciates consulting a single, but comprehensive, source or wishes to get acquainted, in a as painless as po...

  19. Strongly correlated systems numerical methods

    CERN Document Server

    Mancini, Ferdinando

    2013-01-01

    This volume presents, for the very first time, an exhaustive collection of those modern numerical methods specifically tailored for the analysis of Strongly Correlated Systems. Many novel materials, with functional properties emerging from macroscopic quantum behaviors at the frontier of modern research in physics, chemistry and material science, belong to this class of systems. Any technique is presented in great detail by its own inventor or by one of the world-wide recognized main contributors. The exposition has a clear pedagogical cut and fully reports on the most relevant case study where the specific technique showed to be very successful in describing and enlightening the puzzling physics of a particular strongly correlated system. The book is intended for advanced graduate students and post-docs in the field as textbook and/or main reference, but also for other researchers in the field who appreciate consulting a single, but comprehensive, source or wishes to get acquainted, in a as painless as possi...

  20. Strongly correlated systems experimental techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Mancini, Ferdinando

    2015-01-01

    The continuous evolution and development of experimental techniques is at the basis of any fundamental achievement in modern physics. Strongly correlated systems (SCS), more than any other, need to be investigated through the greatest variety of experimental techniques in order to unveil and crosscheck the numerous and puzzling anomalous behaviors characterizing them. The study of SCS fostered the improvement of many old experimental techniques, but also the advent of many new ones just invented in order to analyze the complex behaviors of these systems. Many novel materials, with functional properties emerging from macroscopic quantum behaviors at the frontier of modern research in physics, chemistry and materials science, belong to this class of systems. The volume presents a representative collection of the modern experimental techniques specifically tailored for the analysis of strongly correlated systems. Any technique is presented in great detail by its own inventor or by one of the world-wide recognize...

  1. Lattice fields and strong interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Creutz, M.

    1989-06-01

    I review the lattice formulation of gauge theories and the use of numerical methods to investigate nonperturbative phenomena. These methods are directly applicable to studying hadronic matter at high temperatures. Considerable recent progress has been made in numerical algorithms for including dynamical fermions in such calculations. Dealing with a nonvanishing baryon density adds new unsolved challenges. 33 refs

  2. Noise Spectroscopy in Strongly Correlated Oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsaqqa, Ali M.

    Strongly correlated materials are an interesting class of materials, thanks to the novel electronic and magnetic phenomena they exhibit as a result of the interplay of various degrees of freedom. This gives rise to an array of potential applications, from Mott-FET to magnetic storage. Many experimental probes have been used to study phase transitions in strongly correlated oxides. Among these, resistance noise spectroscopy, together with conventional transport measurements, provides a unique viewpoint to understand the microscopic dynamics near the phase transitions in these oxides. In this thesis, utilizing noise spectroscopy and transport measurements, four different strongly correlated materials were studied: (1) neodymium nickel oxide (NdNiO 3) ultrathin films, (2) vanadium dioxide (VO2) microribbons, (3) copper vanadium bronze (CuxV2O 5) microribbons and (4) niobium triselenide (NbSe3) microribbons. Ultra thin films of rare-earth nickelates exhibit several temperature-driven phase transitions. In this thesis, we studied the metal-insulator and Neel transitions in a series of NdNiO3 films with different lattice mismatches. Upon colling down, the metal-insulator phase transition is accompanied by a structural (orthorohombic to monoclinic) and magnetic (paramagnetic to antiferromagnetic) transitions as well, making the problem more interesting and complex at the same time. The noise is of the 1/f type and is Gaussian in the high temperature phase, however deviations are seen in the low temperature phases. Below the metal-insulator transition, noise magnitude increases by orders of magnitude: a sign of inhomogeneous electrical conduction as result of phase separation. This is further assured by the non-Gaussian noise signature. At very low temperatures (T switches between Gaussian and non-Gaussian over several hours, possibly arising from dynamically competing ground states. VO2 is one of the most widely studied strongly correlated oxides and is important from the

  3. Flavour Democracy in Strong Unification

    CERN Document Server

    Abel, S A; Abel, Steven; King, Steven

    1998-01-01

    We show that the fermion mass spectrum may naturally be understood in terms of flavour democratic fixed points in supersymmetric theories which have a large domain of attraction in the presence of "strong unification". Our approach provides an alternative to the approximate Yukawa texture zeroes of the Froggatt-Nielsen mechanism. We discuss a particular model based on a broken gauged $SU(3)_L\\times SU(3)_R$ family symmetry which illustrates our approach.

  4. String dynamics at strong coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hull, C.M.

    1996-01-01

    The dynamics of superstring, supergravity and M-theories and their compactifications are probed by studying the various perturbation theories that emerge in the strong and weak-coupling limits for various directions in coupling constant space. The results support the picture of an underlying non-perturbative theory that, when expanded perturbatively in different coupling constants, gives different perturbation theories, which can be perturbative superstring theories or superparticle theories. The p-brane spectrum is considered in detail and a criterion found to establish which p-branes govern the strong-coupling dynamics. In many cases there are competing conjectures in the literature, and this analysis decides between them. In other cases, new results are found. The chiral 6-dimensional theory resulting from compactifying the type IIB string on K 3 is studied in detail and it is found that certain strong-coupling limits appear to give new theories, some of which hint at the possibility of a 12-dimensional origin. (orig.)

  5. Strong disorder RG approach of random systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igloi, Ferenc; Monthus, Cecile

    2005-01-01

    There is a large variety of quantum and classical systems in which the quenched disorder plays a dominant ro-circumflex le over quantum, thermal, or stochastic fluctuations: these systems display strong spatial heterogeneities, and many averaged observables are actually governed by rare regions. A unifying approach to treat the dynamical and/or static singularities of these systems has emerged recently, following the pioneering RG idea by Ma and Dasgupta and the detailed analysis by Fisher who showed that the Ma-Dasgupta RG rules yield asymptotic exact results if the broadness of the disorder grows indefinitely at large scales. Here we report these new developments by starting with an introduction of the main ingredients of the strong disorder RG method. We describe the basic properties of infinite disorder fixed points, which are realized at critical points, and of strong disorder fixed points, which control the singular behaviors in the Griffiths-phases. We then review in detail applications of the RG method to various disordered models, either (i) quantum models, such as random spin chains, ladders and higher dimensional spin systems, or (ii) classical models, such as diffusion in a random potential, equilibrium at low temperature and coarsening dynamics of classical random spin chains, trap models, delocalization transition of a random polymer from an interface, driven lattice gases and reaction diffusion models in the presence of quenched disorder. For several one-dimensional systems, the Ma-Dasgupta RG rules yields very detailed analytical results, whereas for other, mainly higher dimensional problems, the RG rules have to be implemented numerically. If available, the strong disorder RG results are compared with another, exact or numerical calculations

  6. Atoms in strong laser fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    L'Huillier, A.

    2002-01-01

    When a high-power laser focuses into a gas of atoms, the electromagnetic field becomes of the same magnitude as the Coulomb field which binds a 1s electron in a hydrogen atom. 3 highly non-linear phenomena can happen: 1) ATI (above threshold ionization): electrons initially in the ground state absorb a large number of photons, many more than the minimum number required for ionization; 2) multiple ionization: many electrons can be emitted one at a time, in a sequential process, or simultaneously in a mechanism called direct or non-sequential; and 3) high order harmonic generation (HHG): efficient photon emission in the extreme ultraviolet range, in the form of high-order harmonics of the fundamental laser field can occur. The theoretical problem consists in solving the time dependent Schroedinger equation (TDSE) that describes the interaction of a many-electron atom with a laser field. A number of methods have been proposed to solve this problem in the case of a hydrogen atom or a single-active electron atom in a strong laser field. A large effort is presently being devoted to go beyond the single-active approximation. The understanding of the physics of the interaction between atoms and strong laser fields has been provided by a very simple model called ''simple man's theory''. A unified view of HHG, ATI, and non-sequential ionization, originating from the simple man's model and the strong field approximation, expressed in terms of electrons trajectories or quantum paths is slowly emerging. (A.C.)

  7. Rydberg atoms in strong fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleppner, D.; Tsimmerman, M.

    1985-01-01

    Experimental and theoretical achievements in studying Rydberg atoms in external fields are considered. Only static (or quasistatic) fields and ''one-electron'' atoms, i.e. atoms that are well described by one-electron states, are discussed. Mainly behaviour of alkali metal atoms in electric field is considered. The state of theoretical investigations for hydrogen atom in magnetic field is described, but experimental data for atoms of alkali metals are presented as an illustration. Results of the latest experimental and theoretical investigations into the structure of Rydberg atoms in strong fields are presented

  8. Strong versions of Bell's theorem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stapp, H.P.

    1994-01-01

    Technical aspects of a recently constructed strong version of Bell's theorem are discussed. The theorem assumes neither hidden variables nor factorization, and neither determinism nor counterfactual definiteness. It deals directly with logical connections. Hence its relationship with modal logic needs to be described. It is shown that the proof can be embedded in an orthodox modal logic, and hence its compatibility with modal logic assured, but that this embedding weakens the theorem by introducing as added assumptions the conventionalities of the particular modal logic that is adopted. This weakening is avoided in the recent proof by using directly the set-theoretic conditions entailed by the locality assumption

  9. Strongly interacting light dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruggisser, Sebastian; Riva, Francesco; Urbano, Alfredo

    2016-07-01

    In the presence of approximate global symmetries that forbid relevant interactions, strongly coupled light Dark Matter (DM) can appear weakly coupled at small-energy and generate a sizable relic abundance. Fundamental principles like unitarity restrict these symmetries to a small class, where the leading interactions are captured by effective operators up to dimension-8. Chiral symmetry, spontaneously broken global symmetries and non-linearly realized supersymmetry are examples of this. Their DM candidates (composite fermions, pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone Bosons and Goldstini) are interesting targets for LHC missing-energy searches.

  10. Weak consistency and strong paraconsistency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemma Robles

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available In a standard sense, consistency and paraconsistency are understood as, respectively, the absence of any contradiction and as the absence of the ECQ (“E contradictione quodlibet” rule that allows us to conclude any well formed formula from any contradiction. The aim of this paper is to explain the concepts of weak consistency alternative to the standard one, the concepts of paraconsistency related to them and the concept of strong paraconsistency, all of which have been defined by the author together with José M. Méndez.

  11. On the strong CP problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dowrick, N.J. (Dept. of Physics, Oxford (United Kingdom)); McDougall, N.A. (National Lab. for High Energy Physics, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan))

    1992-07-09

    We show that two well-known solutions to the strong CP problem, the axion and a massless quark, may be understood in terms of the mechanism recently proposed by Samuel where long-range interactions between topological charges may be responsible for the removal of CP violation. We explain how the axion and a QCD meson (identified as the {eta}' if all quarks are massless) suppress fluctuations in global topological charge by almost identical dynamical although the masses, couplings and relevant length scales are very different. Furthermore, we elucidate the precise origin of the {eta}' mass. (orig.).

  12. Scalar strong interaction hadron theory

    CERN Document Server

    Hoh, Fang Chao

    2015-01-01

    The scalar strong interaction hadron theory, SSI, is a first principles' and nonlocal theory at quantum mechanical level that provides an alternative to low energy QCD and Higgs related part of the standard model. The quark-quark interaction is scalar rather than color-vectorial. A set of equations of motion for mesons and another set for baryons have been constructed. This book provides an account of the present state of a theory supposedly still at its early stage of development. This work will facilitate researchers interested in entering into this field and serve as a basis for possible future development of this theory.

  13. Estimation of strong ground motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watabe, Makoto

    1993-01-01

    Fault model has been developed to estimate a strong ground motion in consideration of characteristics of seismic source and propagation path of seismic waves. There are two different approaches in the model. The first one is a theoretical approach, while the second approach is a semi-empirical approach. Though the latter is more practical than the former to be applied to the estimation of input motions, it needs at least the small-event records, the value of the seismic moment of the small event and the fault model of the large event

  14. Strong Mechanoluminescence from Oxynitridosilicate Phosphors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Lin; Xu Chaonan; Yamada, Hiroshi, E-mail: cn-xu@aist.go.jp [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 807-1 Shuku, Tosu, Saga 841-0052 (Japan)

    2011-10-29

    We successfully developed a novel Mechanoluminescence (ML) material with water resistance, oxynitridosilicate; BaSi{sub 2}O{sub 2}N{sub 2}: Eu{sup 2+}. The crystal structure, photoluminescence (PL) and ML properties were characterized. The ML of BaSi{sub 2}O{sub 2}N{sub 2}: Eu{sup 2+} is so strong that the blue-green emission can be observed by the naked eyes clearly. In addition, it shows superior water resistance property. No changes were found in the ML intensities during the total water treatment test.

  15. Temperature metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, J.; Fellmuth, B.

    2005-05-01

    The majority of the processes used by the manufacturing industry depend upon the accurate measurement and control of temperature. Thermal metrology is also a key factor affecting the efficiency and environmental impact of many high-energy industrial processes, the development of innovative products and the health and safety of the general population. Applications range from the processing, storage and shipment of perishable foodstuffs and biological materials to the development of more efficient and less environmentally polluting combustion processes for steel-making. Accurate measurement and control of temperature is, for instance, also important in areas such as the characterization of new materials used in the automotive, aerospace and semiconductor industries. This paper reviews the current status of temperature metrology. It starts with the determination of thermodynamic temperatures required on principle because temperature is an intensive quantity. Methods to determine thermodynamic temperatures are reviewed in detail to introduce the underlying physical basis. As these methods cannot usually be applied for practical measurements the need for a practical temperature scale for day-to-day work is motivated. The International Temperature Scale of 1990 and the Provisional Low Temperature Scale PLTS-2000 are described as important parts of the International System of Units to support science and technology. Its main importance becomes obvious in connection with industrial development and international markets. Every country is strongly interested in unique measures, in order to guarantee quality, reproducibility and functionability of products. The eventual realization of an international system, however, is only possible within the well-functioning organization of metrological laboratories. In developed countries the government established scientific institutes have certain metrological duties, as, for instance, the maintenance and dissemination of national

  16. Temperature metrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, J; Fellmuth, B

    2005-01-01

    The majority of the processes used by the manufacturing industry depend upon the accurate measurement and control of temperature. Thermal metrology is also a key factor affecting the efficiency and environmental impact of many high-energy industrial processes, the development of innovative products and the health and safety of the general population. Applications range from the processing, storage and shipment of perishable foodstuffs and biological materials to the development of more efficient and less environmentally polluting combustion processes for steel-making. Accurate measurement and control of temperature is, for instance, also important in areas such as the characterization of new materials used in the automotive, aerospace and semiconductor industries. This paper reviews the current status of temperature metrology. It starts with the determination of thermodynamic temperatures required on principle because temperature is an intensive quantity. Methods to determine thermodynamic temperatures are reviewed in detail to introduce the underlying physical basis. As these methods cannot usually be applied for practical measurements the need for a practical temperature scale for day-to-day work is motivated. The International Temperature Scale of 1990 and the Provisional Low Temperature Scale PLTS-2000 are described as important parts of the International System of Units to support science and technology. Its main importance becomes obvious in connection with industrial development and international markets. Every country is strongly interested in unique measures, in order to guarantee quality, reproducibility and functionability of products. The eventual realization of an international system, however, is only possible within the well-functioning organization of metrological laboratories. In developed countries the government established scientific institutes have certain metrological duties, as, for instance, the maintenance and dissemination of national

  17. Impact of drought and increasing temperatures on soil CO2 emissions in a Mediterranean shrubland (gariga)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Dato, Giovanbattista Domenico; De Angelis, Paolo; Sirca, Costantino

    2010-01-01

    the soil and air night-time temperatures and to reduce water input from precipitation. The objective was to analyze the extent to which higher temperatures and a drier climate influence soil CO2 emissions in the short term and on an annual basis. The microclimate was manipulated in field plots (about 25 m2...... temperature probe. The seasonal pattern of soil CO2 efflux was characterized by higher rates during the wet vegetative season and lower rates during the dry non-vegetative season (summer). The Warming treatment did not change SR fluxes at any sampling date. The Drought treatment decreased soil CO2 emissions...... on only three of 10 occasions during 2004. The variation of soil respiration with temperature and soil water content did not differ significantly among the treatments, but was affected by the season. The annual CO2 emissions were not significantly affected by the treatments. In the semi-arid Mediterranean...

  18. Effective lagrangian for strong interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, P.

    1988-01-01

    We attempt to construct a realistic phenomenological Lagrangian in order to describe strong interactions. This is in general a very complicated problem and we shall explore its various aspects. We first include the vector mesons by writing down the most general chiral invariant terms proportional to the Levi-Civita symbol ε μναβ . These terms involve three unknown coefficients, which are calculated by using the experimental results of strong interaction processes. We then calculate the static nucleon properties by finding the solitonic excitations of this model. The results turn out to be, as is also the case for most other vector-pseudoscalar Lagrangians, better than the Skyrme model but are still somewhat different from the experiments. Another aspect that we shall study is the incorporation of scale anomaly of QCD into the Skyrme model. We thus introduce a scalar glueball in our Lagrangian. Here we find an interesting result that the effective glue field dynamically forms a bag for the soliton. Depending on the values of the parameters, we get either a deep bag or a shallow bag. However by including the scalar meson, we find that to get realistic scalar sector we must have the shallow bag. Finally we show some intriguing connections between the chiral quark model, in which the nucleon is described as a solitonic excitation, and the ordinary potential binding quark model

  19. Hydrodynamics in a Degenerate, Strongly Attractive Fermi Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, John E.; Kinast, Joseph; Hemmer, Staci; Turlapov, Andrey; O'Hara, Ken; Gehm, Mike; Granade, Stephen

    2004-01-01

    In summary, we use all-optical methods with evaporative cooling near a Feshbach resonance to produce a strongly interacting degenerate Fermi gas. We observe hydrodynamic behavior in the expansion dynamics. At low temperatures, collisions may not explain the expansion dynamics. We observe hydrodynamics in the trapped gas. Our observations include collisionally-damped excitation spectra at high temperature which were not discussed above. In addition, we observe weakly damped breathing modes at low temperature. The observed temperature dependence of the damping time and hydrodynamic frequency are not consistent with collisional dynamics nor with collisionless mean field interactions. These observations constitute the first evidence for superfluid hydrodynamics in a Fermi gas.

  20. Strong Selective Adsorption of Polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Ting; Rubinstein, Michael

    2015-06-09

    A scaling theory is developed for selective adsorption of polymers induced by the strong binding between specific monomers and complementary surface adsorption sites. By "selective" we mean specific attraction between a subset of all monomers, called "sticky", and a subset of surface sites, called "adsorption sites". We demonstrate that, in addition to the expected dependence on the polymer volume fraction ϕ bulk in the bulk solution, selective adsorption strongly depends on the ratio between two characteristic length scales, the root-mean-square distance l between neighboring sticky monomers along the polymer, and the average distance d between neighboring surface adsorption sites. The role of the ratio l / d arises from the fact that a polymer needs to deform to enable the spatial commensurability between its sticky monomers and the surface adsorption sites for selective adsorption. We study strong selective adsorption of both telechelic polymers with two end monomers being sticky and multisticker polymers with many sticky monomers between sticky ends. For telechelic polymers, we identify four adsorption regimes at l / d 1, we expect that the adsorption layer at exponentially low ϕ bulk consists of separated unstretched loops, while as ϕ bulk increases the layer crosses over to a brush of extended loops with a second layer of weakly overlapping tails. For multisticker chains, in the limit of exponentially low ϕ bulk , adsorbed polymers are well separated from each other. As l / d increases, the conformation of an individual polymer changes from a single-end-adsorbed "mushroom" to a random walk of loops. For high ϕ bulk , adsorbed polymers at small l / d are mushrooms that cover all the adsorption sites. At sufficiently large l / d , adsorbed multisticker polymers strongly overlap. We anticipate the formation of a self-similar carpet and with increasing l / d a two-layer structure with a brush of loops covered by a self-similar carpet. As l / d exceeds the

  1. Land Surface Temperature- Comparing Data from Polar Orbiting and Geostationary Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comyn-Platt, E.; Remedios, J. J.; Good, E. J.; Ghent, D.; Saunders, R.

    2012-04-01

    . Results show that there is a strong agreement for night-time matchups and understandable biases for the daytime matchups, owing to the differing viewing geometry and relative sun position. This comparison gives promise to the possibility of constructing a combined retrieval mechanism which draws the best characteristics from each instrument with possible courses of action identified.

  2. Strong growth for Queensland mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-10-01

    The Queensland mining industry experienced strong growth during 1989-90 as shown in the latest statistics released by the Department of Resource Industries. The total value of Queensland mineral and energy production rose to a new record of $5.1 billion, an increase of 16.5% on 1988-89 production. A major contributing factor was a 20.9 percent increase in the value of coal production. While the quantity of coal produced rose only 1.1 percent, the substantial increase in the value of coal production is attributable to higher coal prices negotiated for export contracts. In Australian dollar terms coal, gold, lead, zinc and crude oil on average experienced higher international prices than in the previous year. Only copper and silver prices declined. 3 tabs.

  3. Strong moduli stabilization and phenomenology

    CERN Document Server

    Dudas, Emilian; Mambrini, Yann; Mustafayev, Azar; Olive, Keith A

    2013-01-01

    We describe the resulting phenomenology of string theory/supergravity models with strong moduli stabilization. The KL model with F-term uplifting, is one such example. Models of this type predict universal scalar masses equal to the gravitino mass. In contrast, A-terms receive highly suppressed gravity mediated contributions. Under certain conditions, the same conclusion is valid for gaugino masses, which like A-terms, are then determined by anomalies. In such models, we are forced to relatively large gravitino masses (30-1000 TeV). We compute the low energy spectrum as a function of m_{3/2}. We see that the Higgs masses naturally takes values between 125-130 GeV. The lower limit is obtained from the requirement of chargino masses greater than 104 GeV, while the upper limit is determined by the relic density of dark matter (wino-like).

  4. Strongly interacting W's and Z's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaillard, M.K.

    1984-01-01

    The study focussed primarily on the dynamics of a strongly interacting W, Z(SIW) sector, with the aim of sharpening predictions for total W, Z yield and W, Z multiplicities expected from WW fusion for various scenarios. Specific issues raised in the context of the general problem of modeling SIW included the specificity of the technicolor (or, equivalently, QCD) model, whether or not a composite scalar model can be evaded, and whether the standard model necessarily implies an I = J = O state (≅ Higgs particle) that is relatively ''light'' (M ≤ hundreds of TeV). The consensus on the last issue was that existing arguments are inconclusive. While the author shall briefly address compositeness and alternatives to the technicolor model, quantitative estimates will be of necessity based on technicolor or an extrapolation of pion data

  5. Uniquely Strongly Clean Group Rings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG XIU-LAN

    2012-01-01

    A ring R is called clean if every element is the sum of an idempotent and a unit,and R is called uniquely strongly clean (USC for short) if every element is uniquely the sum of an idempotent and a unit that commute.In this article,some conditions on a ring R and a group G such that RG is clean are given.It is also shown that if G is a locally finite group,then the group ring RG is USC if and only if R is USC,and G is a 2-group.The left uniquely exchange group ring,as a middle ring of the uniquely clean ring and the USC ring,does not possess this property,and so does the uniquely exchange group ring.

  6. Electrophoresis in strong electric fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barany, Sandor

    2009-01-01

    Two kinds of non-linear electrophoresis (ef) that can be detected in strong electric fields (several hundred V/cm) are considered. The first ("classical" non-linear ef) is due to the interaction of the outer field with field-induced ionic charges in the electric double layer (EDL) under conditions, when field-induced variations of electrolyte concentration remain to be small comparatively to its equilibrium value. According to the Shilov theory, the non-linear component of the electrophoretic velocity for dielectric particles is proportional to the cubic power of the applied field strength (cubic electrophoresis) and to the second power of the particles radius; it is independent of the zeta-potential but is determined by the surface conductivity of particles. The second one, the so-called "superfast electrophoresis" is connected with the interaction of a strong outer field with a secondary diffuse layer of counterions (space charge) that is induced outside the primary (classical) diffuse EDL by the external field itself because of concentration polarization. The Dukhin-Mishchuk theory of "superfast electrophoresis" predicts quadratic dependence of the electrophoretic velocity of unipolar (ionically or electronically) conducting particles on the external field gradient and linear dependence on the particle's size in strong electric fields. These are in sharp contrast to the laws of classical electrophoresis (no dependence of V(ef) on the particle's size and linear dependence on the electric field gradient). A new method to measure the ef velocity of particles in strong electric fields is developed that is based on separation of the effects of sedimentation and electrophoresis using videoimaging and a new flowcell and use of short electric pulses. To test the "classical" non-linear electrophoresis, we have measured the ef velocity of non-conducting polystyrene, aluminium-oxide and (semiconductor) graphite particles as well as Saccharomice cerevisiae yeast cells as a

  7. Nickel: makes stainless steel strong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boland, Maeve A.

    2012-01-01

    Nickel is a silvery-white metal that is used mainly to make stainless steel and other alloys stronger and better able to withstand extreme temperatures and corrosive environments. Nickel was first identified as a unique element in 1751 by Baron Axel Fredrik Cronstedt, a Swedish mineralogist and chemist. He originally called the element kupfernickel because it was found in rock that looked like copper (kupfer) ore and because miners thought that "bad spirits" (nickel) in the rock were making it difficult for them to extract copper from it. Approximately 80 percent of the primary (not recycled) nickel consumed in the United States in 2011 was used in alloys, such as stainless steel and superalloys. Because nickel increases an alloy's resistance to corrosion and its ability to withstand extreme temperatures, equipment and parts made of nickel-bearing alloys are often used in harsh environments, such as those in chemical plants, petroleum refineries, jet engines, power generation facilities, and offshore installations. Medical equipment, cookware, and cutlery are often made of stainless steel because it is easy to clean and sterilize. All U.S. circulating coins except the penny are made of alloys that contain nickel. Nickel alloys are increasingly being used in making rechargeable batteries for portable computers, power tools, and hybrid and electric vehicles. Nickel is also plated onto such items as bathroom fixtures to reduce corrosion and provide an attractive finish.

  8. Strong-coupling approach to nematicity in the cuprates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orth, Peter Philipp; Jeevanesan, Bhilahari; Schmalian, Joerg; Fernandes, Rafael

    The underdoped cuprate superconductor YBa2Cu3O7-δ is known to exhibit an electronic nematic phase in proximity to antiferromagnetism. While nematicity sets in at large temperatures of T ~ 150 K, static spin density wave order only emerges at much lower temperatures. The magnetic response shows a strong in-plane anisotropy, displaying incommensurate Bragg peaks along one of the crystalline directions and a commensurate peak along the other one. Such an anisotropy persists even in the absence of long-range magnetic order at higher temperatures, marking the onset of nematic order. Here we theoretically investigate this situation using a strong-coupling method that takes into account both the localized Cu spins and the holes doped into the oxygen orbitals. We derive an effective spin Hamiltonian and show that charge fluctuations promote an enhancement of the nematic susceptibility near the antiferromagnetic transition temperature.

  9. Strong Ideal Convergence in Probabilistic Metric Spaces

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the present paper we introduce the concepts of strongly ideal convergent sequence and strong ideal Cauchy sequence in a probabilistic metric (PM) space endowed with the strong topology, and establish some basic facts. Next, we define the strong ideal limit points and the strong ideal cluster points of a sequence in this ...

  10. Strong Statistical Convergence in Probabilistic Metric Spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Şençimen, Celaleddin; Pehlivan, Serpil

    2008-01-01

    In this article, we introduce the concepts of strongly statistically convergent sequence and strong statistically Cauchy sequence in a probabilistic metric (PM) space endowed with the strong topology, and establish some basic facts. Next, we define the strong statistical limit points and the strong statistical cluster points of a sequence in this space and investigate the relations between these concepts.

  11. John Strong - 1941-2006

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Our friend and colleague John Strong was cruelly taken from us by a brain tumour on 31 July, a few days before his 65th birthday. John started his career and obtained his PhD in a group from Westfield College, initially working on experiments at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL). From the early 1970s onwards, however, his research was focused on experiments in CERN, with several particularly notable contributions. The Omega spectrometer adopted a system John had originally developed for experiments at RAL using vidicon cameras (a type of television camera) to record the sparks in the spark chambers. This highly automated system allowed Omega to be used in a similar way to bubble chambers. He contributed to the success of NA1 and NA7, where he became heavily involved in the electronic trigger systems. In these experiments the Westfield group joined forces with Italian colleagues to measure the form factors of the pion and the kaon, and the lifetime of some of the newly discovered charm particles. Such h...

  12. Remnants of strong tidal interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mcglynn, T.A.

    1990-01-01

    This paper examines the properties of stellar systems that have recently undergone a strong tidal shock, i.e., a shock which removes a significant fraction of the particles in the system, and where the shocked system has a much smaller mass than the producer of the tidal field. N-body calculations of King models shocked in a variety of ways are performed, and the consequences of the shocks are investigated. The results confirm the prediction of Jaffe for shocked systems. Several models are also run where the tidal forces on the system are constant, simulating a circular orbit around a primary, and the development of tidal radii under these static conditions appears to be a mild process which does not dramatically affect material that is not stripped. The tidal radii are about twice as large as classical formulas would predict. Remnant density profiles are compared with a sample of elliptical galaxies, and the implications of the results for the development of stellar populations and galaxies are considered. 38 refs

  13. Strong seismic ground motion propagation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seale, S.; Archuleta, R.; Pecker, A.; Bouchon, M.; Mohammadioun, G.; Murphy, A.; Mohammadioun, B.

    1988-10-01

    At the McGee Creek, California, site, 3-component strong-motion accelerometers are located at depths of 166 m, 35 m and 0 m. The surface material is glacial moraine, to a depth of 30.5 m, overlying homfels. Accelerations were recorded from two California earthquakes: Round Valley, M L 5.8, November 23, 1984, 18:08 UTC and Chalfant Valley, M L 6.4, July 21, 1986, 14:42 UTC. By separating out the SH components of acceleration, we were able to determine the orientations of the downhole instruments. By separating out the SV component of acceleration, we were able to determine the approximate angle of incidence of the signal at 166 m. A constant phase velocity Haskell-Thomson model was applied to generate synthetic SH seismograms at the surface using the accelerations recorded at 166 m. In the frequency band 0.0 - 10.0 Hz, we compared the filtered synthetic records to the filtered surface data. The onset of the SH pulse is clearly seen, as are the reflections from the interface at 30.5 m. The synthetic record closely matches the data in amplitude and phase. The fit between the synthetic accelerogram and the data shows that the seismic amplification at the surface is a result of the contrast of the impedances (shear stiffnesses) of the near surface materials

  14. Relationship between body temperature and air temperature in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Body temperatures of singing male Gryllus bimaculatus were measured for the first time. Body temperatures were strongly correlated with ambient temperature. This indicates that, unlike some other orthopterans, larger crickets are not dependent on an elevated body temperature for efficient calling. Our results confirm that it ...

  15. Strongly interacting photons and atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alge, W.

    1999-05-01

    This thesis contains the main results of the research topics I have pursued during the my PhD studies at the University of Innsbruck and partly in collaboration with the Institut d' Optique in Orsay, France. It is divided into three parts. The first and largest part discusses the possibility of using strong standing waves as a tool to cool and trap neutral atoms in optical cavities. This is very important in the field of nonlinear optics where several successful experiments with cold atoms in cavities have been performed recently. A discussion of the optical parametric oscillator in a regime where the nonlinearity dominates the evolution is the topic of the second part. We investigated mainly the statistical properties of the cavity output of the three interactive cavity modes. Very recently a system has been proposed which promises fantastic properties. It should exhibit a giant Kerr nonlinearity with negligible absorption thus leading to a photonic turnstile device based on cold atoms in cavity. We have shown that this model suffers from overly simplistic assumptions and developed several more comprehensive approaches to study the behavior of this system. Apart from the division into three parts of different contents the thesis is divided into publications, supplements and invisible stuff. The intention of the supplements is to reach researchers which work in related areas and provide them with more detailed information about the concepts and the numerical tools we used. It is written especially for diploma and PhD students to give them a chance to use the third part of our work which is actually the largest one. They consist of a large number of computer programs we wrote to investigate the behavior of the systems in parameter regions where no hope exists to solve the equations analytically. (author)

  16. Topics in strong Langmuir turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skoric, M.M.

    1981-01-01

    This thesis discusses certain aspects of the turbulence of a fully ionised non-isothermal plasma dominated by the Langmuir mode. Some of the basic properties of strongly turbulent plasmas are reviewed. In particular, interest is focused on the state of Langmuir turbulence, that is the turbulence of a simple externally unmagnetized plasma. The problem of the existence and dynamics of Langmuir collapse is discussed, often met as a non-linear stage of the modulational instability in the framework of the Zakharov equations (i.e. simple time-averaged dynamical equations). Possible macroscopic consequences of such dynamical turbulent models are investigated. In order to study highly non-linear collapse dynamics in its advanced stage, a set of generalized Zakharov equations are derived. Going beyond the original approximation, the author includes the effects of higher electron non-linearities and a breakdown of slow-timescale quasi-neutrality. He investigates how these corrections may influence the collapse stabilisation. Recently, it has been realised that the modulational instability in a Langmuir plasma will be accompanied by the collisionless-generation of a slow-timescale magnetic field. Accordingly, a novel physical situation has emerged which is investigated in detail. The stability of monochromatic Langmuir waves in a self-magnetized Langmuir plasma, is discussed, and the existence of a novel magneto-modulational instability shown. The wave collapse dynamics is investigated and a physical interpretation of the basic results is given. A problem of the transient analysis of an interaction of time-dependent electromagnetic pulses with linear cold plasma media is investigated. (Auth.)

  17. Promoting Strong Written Communication Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, M.

    2015-12-01

    The reason that an improvement in the quality of technical writing is still needed in the classroom is due to the fact that universities are facing challenging problems not only on the technological front but also on the socio-economic front. The universities are actively responding to the changes that are taking place in the global consumer marketplace. Obviously, there are numerous benefits of promoting strong written communication skills. They can be summarized into the following six categories. First, and perhaps the most important: The University achieves learner satisfaction. The learner has documented verbally, that the necessary knowledge has been successfully acquired. This results in learner loyalty that in turn will attract more qualified learners.Second, quality communication lowers the cost per pupil, consequently resulting in increased productivity backed by a stronger economic structure and forecast. Third, quality communications help to improve the cash flow and cash reserves of the university. Fourth, having high quality communication enables the university to justify the need for high costs of tuition and fees. Fifth, better quality in written communication skills result in attracting top-quality learners. This will lead to happier and satisfied learners, not to mention greater prosperity for the university as a whole. Sixth, quality written communication skills result in reduced complaints, thus meaning fewer hours spent on answering or correcting the situation. The University faculty and staff are thus able to devote more time on scholarly activities, meaningful research and productive community service. References Boyer, Ernest L. (1990). Scholarship reconsidered: Priorities of the Professorate.Princeton, NJ: Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching. Hawkins, P., & Winter, J. (1997). Mastering change: Learning the lessons of the enterprise.London: Department for Education and Employment. Buzzel, Robert D., and Bradley T. Gale. (1987

  18. Russia needs a strong counterpart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slovak, K.; Marcan, P.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper an interview with the head of OMV, Wolfgang Ruttenstorfer is published. There is extract from this interview: Q: There have been attempts to take over MOL for a quite long time. Do you think you can still succeed? Since the beginning we kept saying that this would not happen from one day to another. But it may take two to three years. But we are positive that it is justified. Q: Resistance from MOL and the Hungarian government is strong. We have tried to persuade the Hungarian government. We offered them a split company management. A part of the management would be in Budapest. We would locate the management of the largest division - the refinery, there. And of course only the best could be part of the management. We would not nominate people according to their nationality, it would not matter whether the person was Austrian, Hungarian or Slovak. We want a Central European company, not Hungarian, Romanian or Slovak company. Q: Would the transaction still be attractive if, because of pressure exercised by Brussels, you had to sell Slovnaft or your refinery in Szazhalobatta? We do not intend to sell any refineries. Q: Rumours are spreading that the Commission may ask you to sell a refinery? We do not want to speculate. Let us wait and see what happens. We do not want to sell refineries. Q: It is said that OMV is coordinating or at least consulting its attempts to acquire MOL with Gazprom. There are many rumours in Central Europe. But I can tell you this is not true. We are interested in this merger because we feel the increasing pressure exercised by Kazakhstan and Russia. We, of course, have a good relationship with Gazprom which we have had enjoyed for over forty years. As indeed Slovakia has. Q: A few weeks ago Austrian daily Wirtschaftsblatt published an article about Gazprom's interest in OMV shares. That is gossip that is more than ten years' old. Similarly to the rumours that Gazprom is a shareholder of MOL. There are no negotiations with Gazprom

  19. Temperature and humidity control in growing of greenhouse muskmelon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Tetsuji; Nakamura, shin' ichi; Toda, Mikihiko; Ozawa, Akihito

    1986-12-25

    At the Shizuoka Agricultural Experiment Station, a control test of muskmelon was carried out wherein the controlled night temperature was automatically lowered by 2 or 4 /sup 0/C from the present temperature when the sunlight level was below the standard, and the humidity was controlled either individually or in combination with the temperature. Concerning the influence of temperature, no bad effect was observed in the constant early half of midnight temperature (18 /sup 0/C) section which was tested from the viewpoint of energy saving. For the test range of 22 - 18 /sup 0/C (winter growing) and 24 - 18 /sup 0/C (autumn growing), there was no significant difference on the fruit weight and shape;but the content of suger was found better in the complex modified temperature section of 22 - 18 /sup 0/C (winter growing) and 24 - 22 /sup 0/C (autumn growing). As for the humidity-added section, the fruit grew bigger, but the sugar content was significantly reduced. Optimal target value of control was estimated at 80 +-5 % daytime and 90 % night-time. (2 figs, 11 tabs, 10 refs

  20. Confinining properties of QCD in strong magnetic backgrounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonati Claudio

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Strong magnetic backgrounds are known to modify QCD properties at a nonperturbative level. We discuss recent lattice results, obtained for Nf = 2 + 1 QCD with physical quark masses, concerning in particular the modifications and the anisotropies induced at the level of the static quark-antiquark potential, both at zero and finite temperature.

  1. Phase structure of strongly correlated Fermi gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roscher, Dietrich

    2015-01-01

    Strongly correlated fermionic many-body systems are ubiquitous in nature. Their theoretical description poses challenging problems which are further complicated when imbalances in, e.g., the particle numbers of the involved species or their masses are introduced. In this thesis, a number of different approaches is developed and applied in order to obtain predictions for physical observables of such systems that mutually support and confirm each other. In a first step, analytically well-founded mean-field analyses are carried through. One- and three-dimensional ultracold Fermi gases with spin and mass imbalance as well as Gross-Neveu and NJL-type relativistic models at finite baryon chemical potential are investigated with respect to their analytic properties in general and the occurrence of spontaneous breaking of translational invariance in particular. Based on these studies, further methods are devised or adapted allowing for investigations also beyond the mean-field approximation. Lattice Monte Carlo simulations with imaginary imbalance parameters are employed to surmount the infamous sign problem and compute the equation of state of the respective unitary Fermi gases. Moreover, in-medium two-body analyses are used to confirm and explain the characteristics of inhomogeneously ordered phases. Finally, functional RG methods are applied to the unitary Fermi gas with spin and mass imbalance. Besides quantitatively competitive predictions for critical temperatures for the superfluid state, strong hints on the stability of inhomogeneous phases with respect to order parameter fluctuations in the regime of large mass imbalance are obtained. Combining the findings from these different theoretical studies suggests the possibility to find such phases in experiments presently in preparation.

  2. Strong economic growth driving increased electricity consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiusanen, P.

    2000-01-01

    The Finnish economy is growing faster today than anyone dared hope only a few years ago. Growth estimates for 2000 have already had to be raised. This strong level of economic growth has been reflected in electricity consumption, which has continued to increase, despite the exceptionally warm winter. A major part of this increased electricity usage has so far been met through imports. The continued growth in electricity imports has largely been a result of the fact that the good water level situation in Sweden and Norway, together with the mild winter, has kept electricity prices exceptionally low on the Nordic electricity exchange. The short period of low temperatures seen at the end of January showed, however, that this type of temperature fluctuation, combined with the restrictions that exist in regard to transfer capacity, can serve to push Nordic exchange electricity prices to record levels. This increase in price also highlights the fact that we are approaching a situation in which capacity will be insufficient to meet demand. A truly tough winter has not been seen since the Nordic region's electricity markets were deregulated. The lesson that needs to be learnt is that Finland needs sufficient capacity of her own to meet demand even during particularly cold winters. Finland used 77.9 billion kWh of electricity last year, up 1.6% or 1.3 billion kWh on 1998. This growth was relatively evenly distributed among different user groups. This year, electricity consumption is forecast to grow by 2-3%

  3. Jets in a strongly coupled anisotropic plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fadafan, Kazem Bitaghsir [Shahrood University of Technology, Faculty of Physics, Shahrood (Iran, Islamic Republic of); University of Southampton, STAG Research Centre Physics and Astronomy, Southampton (United Kingdom); Morad, Razieh [University of Cape Town, Department of Physics, Rondebosch (South Africa)

    2018-01-15

    In this paper, we study the dynamics of the light quark jet moving through the static, strongly coupled N = 4, anisotropic plasma with and without charge. The light quark is presented by a 2-parameters point-like initial condition falling string in the context of the AdS/CFT. We calculate the stopping distance of the light quark in the anisotropic medium and compare it with its isotropic value. We study the dependency of the stopping distance to the both string initial conditions and background parameters such as anisotropy parameter or chemical potential. Although the typical behavior of the string in the anisotropic medium is similar to the one in the isotropic AdS-Sch background, the string falls faster to the horizon depending on the direction of moving. Particularly, the enhancement of quenching is larger in the beam direction. We find that the suppression of stopping distance is more prominent when the anisotropic plasma have the same temperature as the isotropic plasma. (orig.)

  4. Binary Polymer Brushes of Strongly Immiscible Polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Elza; Babar, Tashnia; Bruist, Michael F; Sidorenko, Alexander

    2015-06-17

    The phenomenon of microphase separation is an example of self-assembly in soft matter and has been observed in block copolymers (BCPs) and similar materials (i.e., supramolecular assemblies (SMAs) and homo/block copolymer blends (HBCs)). In this study, we use microphase separation to construct responsive polymer brushes that collapse to generate periodic surfaces. This is achieved by a chemical reaction between the minor block (10%, poly(4-vinylpyridine)) of the block copolymer and a substrate. The major block of polystyrene (PS) forms mosaic-like arrays of grafted patches that are 10-20 nm in size. Depending on the nature of the assembly (SMA, HBC, or neat BCP) and annealing method (exposure to vapors of different solvents or heating above the glass transition temperature), a range of "mosaic" brushes with different parameters can be obtained. Successive grafting of a secondary polymer (polyacrylamide, PAAm) results in the fabrication of binary polymer brushes (BPBs). Upon being exposed to specific selective solvents, BPBs may adopt different conformations. The surface tension and adhesion of the binary brush are governed by the polymer occupying the top stratum. The "mosaic" brush approach allows for a combination of strongly immiscible polymers in one brush. This facilitates substantial contrast in the surface properties upon switching, previously only possible for substrates composed of predetermined nanostructures. We also demonstrate a possible application of such PS/PAAm brushes in a tunable bioadhesion-bioadhesive (PS on top) or nonbioadhesive (PAAm on top) surface as revealed by Escherichia coli bacterial seeding.

  5. Thermal DBI action for the D3-brane at weak and strong coupling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grignani, Gianluca; Harmark, Troels; Marini, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    We study the effective action for finite-temperature D3-branes with an electromagnetic field at weak and strong coupling. We call this action the thermal DBI action. Comparing at low temperature the leading T4 correction for the thermal DBI action at weak and strong coupling we find that the 3/4 ...

  6. Differential temperature preferences and thresholds among summer campers in Ontario's southern provincial parks: a Canadian case study in tourism climatology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewer, Micah J.; Scott, Daniel J.; Gough, William A.

    2017-08-01

    Weather and climate are important factors in relation to outdoor recreation and tourism. Camping and park visitation are weather sensitive activities very likely to be impacted by projected climate change. Temperature is the weather variable that has received the greatest attention within the tourism climatology literature and was the greatest predictor of park visitation within previous assessments. This study uses a stated climate preferences approach, relying on survey-based data, to explore differences for temperature preferences and thresholds among campers in Ontario parks. Statistically significant differences (at the 95% confidence level) in mean values for temperature preferences and thresholds were recorded based on various camper characteristics, such as the following: activity selection, age, gender, distance travelled, length of stay, life cycle stage, camping experience, and camping equipment. Swimmers preferred warmer day-time temperatures. Older campers preferred cooler temperatures and were more sensitive to heat stress, in the day and night time. Females preferred warmer temperatures and were less sensitive to heat stress during the night time. Campers who had travelled further distances to reach the park or planned to stay for longer periods were less sensitive to heat stress. Campers with children in their group preferred warmer temperatures and were less sensitive to heat stress, in the day and at night. Respondents with higher levels of camping experience preferred warmer temperatures at night. Tent campers were less sensitive to heat stress, in the day and at night. The results of this study have direct implications for previous and future climate change impact assessments on park visitation.

  7. Strong Bisimilarity of Simple Process Algebras

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Srba, Jirí

    2003-01-01

    We study bisimilarity and regularity problems of simple process algebras. In particular, we show PSPACE-hardness of the following problems: (i) strong bisimilarity of Basic Parallel Processes (BPP), (ii) strong bisimilarity of Basic Process Algebra (BPA), (iii) strong regularity of BPP, and (iv......) strong regularity of BPA. We also demonstrate NL-hardness of strong regularity problems for the normed subclasses of BPP and BPA. Bisimilarity problems of simple process algebras are introduced in a general framework of process rewrite systems, and a uniform description of the new techniques used...

  8. Application of strong phosphoric acid to radiochemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terada, Kikuo

    1977-01-01

    Not only inorganic and organic compounds but also natural substrances, such as accumulations in soil, are completely decomposed and distilled by heating with strong phosphoric acid for 30 to 50 minutes. As applications of strong phosphoric acid to radiochemistry, determination of uranium and boron by use of solubilization effect of this substance, titration of uranyl ion by use of sulfuric iron (II) contained in this substance, application to tracer experiment, and determination of radioactive ruthenium in environmental samples are reviewed. Strong phosphoric acid is also applied to activation analysis, for example, determination of N in pyrographite with iodate potassium-strong phosphoric acid method, separation of Os and Ru with sulfuric cerium (IV) - strong phosphoric acid method or potassium dechromate-strong phosphoric acid method, analysis of Se, As and Sb rocks and accumulations with ammonium bromide, sodium chloride and sodium bromide-strong phosphoric acid method. (Kanao, N.)

  9. Violência em ambientes recreativos noturnos de jovens portugueses: relação com consumo de álcool e drogas La violencia entre los jóvenes portugueses en ambientes recreativos nocturnos: relación con el consumo de alcohol y drogas Violence at night time recreational environment among young portuguese people: the relation with alcohol consumption and drug use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Lurdes Lopes de Freitas Lomba

    2012-09-01

    relación positiva entre comportamiento violento, consumo de alcohol y drogas y la participación de los jóvenes en la vida recreativa nocturna. CONCLUSIÓN: Se sugiere que la implementación de medidas preventivas en este contexto atienda a las características de los jóvenes presentados en este estudio, como predictoras de la conducta violenta.BACKGROUND: The night time recreational environments have currently gained an important role in the juvenile life, determining life styles, standardizing the recreational consumption of alcohol and drugs, as well as the adoption of associated risk behaviours. OBJECTIVES: To characterize the profile of Portuguese young people attending nightlife recreational environments and determine the prevalence of violent behaviors based on sociodemographic variables, alcohol consumption and drug use, and engagement in recreational nightlife activities. METHODOLOGY: Interview applied to 1346 young people who used to go to nighttime recreational environments, both sexes, into 10 Portuguese cities, between 2007 and 2010, using the respondent-driven sampling. RESULTS: It was notified the existence of a positive relation among violent behaviours, alcohol consumption and drug use, and young people's engagement in recreational nightlife.Conclusions: It is suggested that preventive actions should be implemented in recreational environments, to meet the characteristics of young people presented in this study as predictors of violent behaviors.

  10. Similar temperature dependencies of glycolytic enzymes : An evolutionary adaptation to temperature dynamics?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cruz, L.A.B.; Hebly, M.; Duong, G.H.; Wahl, S.A.; Pronk, J.T.; Heijnen, J.J.; Daran-Lapujade, P.; Van Gulik, W.M.

    2012-01-01

    Background Temperature strongly affects microbial growth, and many microorganisms have to deal with temperature fluctuations in their natural environment. To understand regulation strategies that underlie microbial temperature responses and adaptation, we studied glycolytic pathway kinetics in

  11. Strong to fragile transition in a model of liquid silica

    OpenAIRE

    Barrat, Jean-Louis; Badro, James; Gillet, Philippe

    1996-01-01

    The transport properties of an ionic model for liquid silica at high temperatures and pressure are investigated using molecular dynamics simulations. With increasing pressure, a clear change from "strong" to "fragile" behaviour (according to Angell's classification of glass-forming liquids) is observed, albeit only on the small viscosity range that can be explored in MD simulations.. This change is related to structural changes, from an almost perfect four-fold coordination to an imperfect fi...

  12. Ionizing gas breakdown waves in strong electric fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klingbeil, R.; Tidman, D. A.; Fernsler, R. F.

    1972-01-01

    A previous analysis by Albright and Tidman (1972) of the structure of an ionizing potential wave driven through a dense gas by a strong electric field is extended to include atomic structure details of the background atoms and radiative effects, especially, photoionization. It is found that photoionization plays an important role in avalanche propagation. Velocities, electron densities, and temperatures are presented as a function of electric field for both negative and positive breakdown waves in nitrogen.

  13. Near-field strong coupling of single quantum dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groß, Heiko; Hamm, Joachim M; Tufarelli, Tommaso; Hess, Ortwin; Hecht, Bert

    2018-03-01

    Strong coupling and the resultant mixing of light and matter states is an important asset for future quantum technologies. We demonstrate deterministic room temperature strong coupling of a mesoscopic colloidal quantum dot to a plasmonic nanoresonator at the apex of a scanning probe. Enormous Rabi splittings of up to 110 meV are accomplished by nanometer-precise positioning of the quantum dot with respect to the nanoresonator probe. We find that, in addition to a small mode volume of the nanoresonator, collective coherent coupling of quantum dot band-edge states and near-field proximity interaction are vital ingredients for the realization of near-field strong coupling of mesoscopic quantum dots. The broadband nature of the interaction paves the road toward ultrafast coherent manipulation of the coupled quantum dot-plasmon system under ambient conditions.

  14. Spin polarized states in strongly asymmetric nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isayev, A.A.; Yang, J.

    2004-01-01

    The possibility of appearance of spin polarized states in strongly asymmetric nuclear matter is analyzed within the framework of a Fermi liquid theory with the Skyrme effective interaction. The zero temperature dependence of the neutron and proton spin polarization parameters as functions of density is found for SLy4 and SLy5 effective forces. It is shown that at some critical density strongly asymmetric nuclear matter undergoes a phase transition to the state with the oppositely directed spins of neutrons and protons while the state with the same direction of spins does not appear. In comparison with neutron matter, even small admixture of protons strongly decreases the threshold density of spin instability. It is clarified that protons become totally polarized within a very narrow density domain while the density profile of the neutron spin polarization parameter is characterized by the appearance of long tails near the transition density

  15. The strongly coupled quark-gluon plasma created at RHIC

    CERN Document Server

    Heinz, Ulrich W

    2009-01-01

    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) was built to re-create and study in the laboratory the extremely hot and dense matter that filled our entire universe during its first few microseconds. Its operation since June 2000 has been extremely successful, and the four large RHIC experiments have produced an impressive body of data which indeed provide compelling evidence for the formation of thermally equilibrated matter at unprecedented temperatures and energy densities -- a "quark-gluon plasma (QGP)". A surprise has been the discovery that this plasma behaves like an almost perfect fluid, with extremely low viscosity. Theorists had expected a weakly interacting gas of quarks and gluons, but instead we seem to have created a strongly coupled plasma liquid. The experimental evidence strongly relies on a feature called "elliptic flow" in off-central collisions, with additional support from other observations. This article explains how we probe the strongly coupled QGP, describes the ideas and measurements whi...

  16. Temperature distributions in trapezoidal built in storage solar water heaters with/without phase change materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarhan, Sefa; Sari, Ahmet; Yardim, M. Hakan

    2006-01-01

    Built in storage solar water heaters (BSSWHs) have been recognized for their more compact constructions and faster solar gain than conventional solar water heaters, however, their water temperatures quickly go down during the cooling period. A trapezoidal BSSWH without PCM storage unit was used as the control heater (reference) to investigate the effect of two differently configured PCM storage units on the temperature distributions in water tanks. In the first design, myristic acid was filled into the PCM storage tank, which also served as an absorbing plate. In the second design, lauric acid was filled into the PCM storage tank, which also served as a baffle plate. The water temperature changes were followed by five thermocouples placed evenly and longitudinally into each of the three BSSWHs. The effects of the PCMs on the water temperature distributions depended on the configuration of the PCM storage unit and the longitudinal position in the water tanks. The use of lauric acid lowered the values of the peak temperatures by 15% compared to the control heater at the upper portion of the water tanks because of the low melting temperature of lauric acid, but it did not have any consistent effect on the retention of the water temperatures during the cooling period. The ability of the myristic acid storage unit to retain the water temperatures got more remarkable, especially at the middle portion of the water tank. The myristic acid storage increased the dip temperatures by approximately 8.8% compared to the control heater. In conclusion, lauric acid storage can be used to stabilize the water temperature during the day time, while the myristic acid storage unit can be used as a thermal barrier against heat loss during the night time because of its relatively high melting temperature and low heat conduction coefficient in its solid phase. The experimental results have also indicated that the thermal characteristics of the PCM and the configuration of the PCM storage

  17. Strong Stationary Duality for Diffusion Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Fill, James Allen; Lyzinski, Vince

    2014-01-01

    We develop the theory of strong stationary duality for diffusion processes on compact intervals. We analytically derive the generator and boundary behavior of the dual process and recover a central tenet of the classical Markov chain theory in the diffusion setting by linking the separation distance in the primal diffusion to the absorption time in the dual diffusion. We also exhibit our strong stationary dual as the natural limiting process of the strong stationary dual sequence of a well ch...

  18. Strongly correlating liquids and their isomorphs

    OpenAIRE

    Pedersen, Ulf R.; Gnan, Nicoletta; Bailey, Nicholas P.; Schröder, Thomas B.; Dyre, Jeppe C.

    2010-01-01

    This paper summarizes the properties of strongly correlating liquids, i.e., liquids with strong correlations between virial and potential energy equilibrium fluctuations at constant volume. We proceed to focus on the experimental predictions for strongly correlating glass-forming liquids. These predictions include i) density scaling, ii) isochronal superposition, iii) that there is a single function from which all frequency-dependent viscoelastic response functions may be calculated, iv) that...

  19. Atom collisions in a strong electromagnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smirnov, V.S.; Chaplik, A.V.

    1976-01-01

    It is shown that the long-range part of interatomic interaction is considerably altered in a strong electromagnetic field. Instead of the van der Waals law the potential asymptote can best be described by a dipole-dipole R -3 law. Impact broadening and the line shift in a strong nonresonant field are calculated. The possibility of bound states of two atoms being formed in a strong light field is discussed

  20. Diel Variation of Biogenic Volatile Organic Compound Emissions- A field Study in the Sub, Low and High Arctic on the Effect of Temperature and Light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindwall, Frida; Faubert, Patrick; Rinnan, Riikka

    2015-01-01

    Many hours of sunlight in the midnight sun period suggest that significant amounts of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) may be released from arctic ecosystems during night-time. However, the emissions from these ecosystems are rarely studied and limited to point measurements during daytime. We measured BVOC emissions during 24-hour periods in the field using a push-pull chamber technique and collection of volatiles in adsorbent cartridges followed by analysis with gas chromatography- mass spectrometry. Five different arctic vegetation communities were examined: high arctic heaths dominated by Salix arctica and Cassiope tetragona, low arctic heaths dominated by Salix glauca and Betula nana and a subarctic peatland dominated by the moss Warnstorfia exannulata and the sedge Eriophorum russeolum. We also addressed how climate warming affects the 24-hour emission and how the daytime emissions respond to sudden darkness. The emissions from the high arctic sites were lowest and had a strong diel variation with almost no emissions during night-time. The low arctic sites as well as the subarctic site had a more stable release of BVOCs during the 24-hour period with night-time emissions in the same range as those during the day. These results warn against overlooking the night period when considering arctic emissions. During the day, the quantity of BVOCs and the number of different compounds emitted was higher under ambient light than in darkness. The monoterpenes α-fenchene, α -phellandrene, 3-carene and α-terpinene as well as isoprene were absent in dark measurements during the day. Warming by open top chambers increased the emission rates both in the high and low arctic sites, forewarning higher emissions in a future warmer climate in the Arctic. PMID:25897519

  1. Diel Variation of Biogenic Volatile Organic Compound Emissions--A field Study in the Sub, Low and High Arctic on the Effect of Temperature and Light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindwall, Frida; Faubert, Patrick; Rinnan, Riikka

    2015-01-01

    Many hours of sunlight in the midnight sun period suggest that significant amounts of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) may be released from arctic ecosystems during night-time. However, the emissions from these ecosystems are rarely studied and limited to point measurements during daytime. We measured BVOC emissions during 24-hour periods in the field using a push-pull chamber technique and collection of volatiles in adsorbent cartridges followed by analysis with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Five different arctic vegetation communities were examined: high arctic heaths dominated by Salix arctica and Cassiope tetragona, low arctic heaths dominated by Salix glauca and Betula nana and a subarctic peatland dominated by the moss Warnstorfia exannulata and the sedge Eriophorum russeolum. We also addressed how climate warming affects the 24-hour emission and how the daytime emissions respond to sudden darkness. The emissions from the high arctic sites were lowest and had a strong diel variation with almost no emissions during night-time. The low arctic sites as well as the subarctic site had a more stable release of BVOCs during the 24-hour period with night-time emissions in the same range as those during the day. These results warn against overlooking the night period when considering arctic emissions. During the day, the quantity of BVOCs and the number of different compounds emitted was higher under ambient light than in darkness. The monoterpenes α-fenchene, α-phellandrene, 3-carene and α-terpinene as well as isoprene were absent in dark measurements during the day. Warming by open top chambers increased the emission rates both in the high and low arctic sites, forewarning higher emissions in a future warmer climate in the Arctic.

  2. Ethnicity and the policing of nightclub accessibility in the Danish night-time economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Thomas Friis

    2017-01-01

    accessibility contributes to the (re)production of ethnic divisions and inequalities in nocturnal consumer spaces. Based on ethnographic research in Denmark, the article explores the key governmental rationalities informing bouncers’ exclusion of visible ethnic minority men. The article argues that bouncers...

  3. Road transport working time directive: self-employed and night time provision

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goudswaard, A.; Kuipsers, B.; Schoenmaker, N.; Houtman, I.L.D.; Jettinghoff, K.; Ruijs, P.A.J.; Savenije, W.M.; Osinga, D.S.C.; Koomen, M.

    2006-01-01

    On 23 March 2005, Directive 2002/15/EC concerning the organization of working time of persons performing mobile road transport activities came into force for mobile workers. Self-employed are temporally excluded from the scope of this Directive. Firstly, this report describes the implementation of

  4. Artificial light alters natural regimes of night-time sky brightness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Thomas W.; Bennie, Jonathan; Inger, Richard; Gaston, Kevin J.

    2013-01-01

    Artificial light is globally one of the most widely distributed forms of anthropogenic pollution. However, while both the nature and ecological effects of direct artificial lighting are increasingly well documented, those of artificial sky glow have received little attention. We investigated how city lights alter natural regimes of lunar sky brightness using a novel ten month time series of measurements recorded across a gradient of increasing light pollution. In the city, artificial lights increased sky brightness to levels six times above those recorded in rural locations, nine and twenty kilometers away. Artificial lighting masked natural monthly and seasonal regimes of lunar sky brightness in the city, and increased the number and annual regime of full moon equivalent hours available to organisms during the night. The changes have potentially profound ecological consequences.

  5. SST, Aqua MODIS, NPP, 0.0125 degrees, Gulf of Mexico, Night time (11 microns)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA CoastWatch provides SST data from NASA's Aqua Spacecraft. Measurements are gathered by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) carried aboard...

  6. SST, Aqua MODIS, NPP, 0.0125 degrees, Gulf of Mexico, Night time (4 microns)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA CoastWatch provides SST data from NASA's Aqua Spacecraft. Measurements are gathered by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) carried aboard...

  7. Simulation Study of Discharging PCM Ceiling Panels through Night - time Radiative Cooling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bourdakis, Eleftherios; Kazanci, Ongun Berk; Grossule, F.

    2016-01-01

    demand. In the present simulation study, the coupling of nighttime radiative cooling with PCM for cooling an office room was investigated. For cooling water through nighttime radiative cooling two types of solar panels were utilized, an unglazed solar collector and photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) panels...... provided by the PV/T panels was 43 W/m2 for Copenhagen, while for Milan and Athens it was 36 W/m2 and 34 W/m2, respectively. The cooling power of the unglazed solar collector was negligible. Finally, the total electricity produced in Copenhagen for the simulated period was 371 kWh, while for Milan...... and increase use of renewable energy sources. The aim is that by 2020 all new buildings should be nearly zero-energy buildings. A solution that could contribute to this is the combination of photovoltaic panels for the production of electricity and phase change material (PCM) for the reduction of peak cooling...

  8. Night-time airflow in a forest canopy near a mountain crest

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sedlák, Pavel; Aubinet, M.; Heinesch, B.; Janouš, Dalibor; Pavelka, Marian; Potužníková, Kateřina; Yernaux, M.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 150, č. 5 (2010), s. 736-744 ISSN 0168-1923 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA300420803; GA AV ČR KJB3087301 Grant - others:CarboEurope Integrated Project(XE) GOCE-CT-2003-505572 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30420517; CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : Spruce forest * Canopy layer * Slope * Drainage flow * Wind profile Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 3.228, year: 2010

  9. Effects of zolpidem on sleep architecture, night time ventilation, daytime vigilance and performance in heavy snorers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quera-Salva, M A; McCann, C; Boudet, J; Frisk, M; Borderies, P; Meyer, P

    1994-01-01

    1. In a double-blind, crossover, placebo controlled trial, zolpidem 10 mg, a new imidazopyridine hypnotic drug, was administered in a single dose to 10 healthy non-obese heavy snorers. 2. Nocturnal polysomnography showed that zolpidem increased total sleep time, sleep efficiency and the percentage of stage 2. 3. Respiratory monitoring showed that zolpidem did not modify the percentage of total sleep time spent snoring. The percentages of total sleep time with a SaO2 < 4% of the baseline value and with a SaO2 < 90% and the mean SaO2 were also unchanged with zolpidem. The respiratory disturbance index was modestly increased by zolpidem although in all but one subject it remained < 5 with both treatments. 4. Zolpidem intake did not impair daytime vigilance and performance evaluated the day after. PMID:7917771

  10. SST, Aqua MODIS, NPP, 0.0125 degrees, Gulf of Mexico, Night time (11 microns)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA CoastWatch provides SST data from NASA's Terra Spacecraft. Measurements are gathered by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) carried aboard...

  11. Prevalence of night-time dyspnoea in COPD and its implications for prognosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, Peter; Marott, Jacob Louis; Vestbo, Jørgen

    2014-01-01

    forced expiratory volume in 1 s, higher daytime dyspnoea scores (modified Medical Research Council scale) and more wheezing, more often had chronic mucus hypersecretion, ischaemic heart disease and atrial fibrillation, and more often reported stress, nervousness and tiredness. After adjustment for age...

  12. Admission medical records made at night time have the same quality as day and evening time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amirian, Ilda; Mortensen, Jacob F; Rosenberg, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: A thorough and accurate admission medical record is an important tool in ensuring patient safety during the hospital stay. Surgeons' performance might be affected during night shifts due to sleep deprivation. The aim of the study was to assess the quality of admission medical records...

  13. Contrasting trends in light pollution across Europe based on satellite observed night time lights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennie, Jonathan; Davies, Thomas W; Duffy, James P; Inger, Richard; Gaston, Kevin J

    2014-01-21

    Since the 1970s nighttime satellite images of the Earth from space have provided a striking illustration of the extent of artificial light. Meanwhile, growing awareness of adverse impacts of artificial light at night on scientific astronomy, human health, ecological processes and aesthetic enjoyment of the night sky has led to recognition of light pollution as a significant global environmental issue. Links between economic activity, population growth and artificial light are well documented in rapidly developing regions. Applying a novel method to analysis of satellite images of European nighttime lights over 15 years, we show that while the continental trend is towards increasing brightness, some economically developed regions show more complex patterns with large areas decreasing in observed brightness over this period. This highlights that opportunities exist to constrain and even reduce the environmental impact of artificial light pollution while delivering cost and energy-saving benefits.

  14. Fragile-to-strong transition in liquid silica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geske, Julian; Drossel, Barbara; Vogel, Michael

    2016-03-01

    We investigate anomalies in liquid silica with molecular dynamics simulations and present evidence for a fragile-to-strong transition at around 3100 K-3300 K. To this purpose, we studied the structure and dynamical properties of silica over a wide temperature range, finding four indicators of a fragile-to-strong transition. First, there is a density minimum at around 3000 K and a density maximum at 4700 K. The turning point is at 3400 K. Second, the local structure characterized by the tetrahedral order parameter changes dramatically around 3000 K from a higher-ordered, lower-density phase to a less ordered, higher-density phase. Third, the correlation time τ changes from an Arrhenius behavior below 3300 K to a Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann behavior at higher temperatures. Fourth, the Stokes-Einstein relation holds for temperatures below 3000 K, but is replaced by a fractional relation above this temperature. Furthermore, our data indicate that dynamics become again simple above 5000 K, with Arrhenius behavior and a classical Stokes-Einstein relation.

  15. Fragile-to-strong transition in liquid silica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian Geske

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We investigate anomalies in liquid silica with molecular dynamics simulations and present evidence for a fragile-to-strong transition at around 3100 K-3300 K. To this purpose, we studied the structure and dynamical properties of silica over a wide temperature range, finding four indicators of a fragile-to-strong transition. First, there is a density minimum at around 3000 K and a density maximum at 4700 K. The turning point is at 3400 K. Second, the local structure characterized by the tetrahedral order parameter changes dramatically around 3000 K from a higher-ordered, lower-density phase to a less ordered, higher-density phase. Third, the correlation time τ changes from an Arrhenius behavior below 3300 K to a Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann behavior at higher temperatures. Fourth, the Stokes-Einstein relation holds for temperatures below 3000 K, but is replaced by a fractional relation above this temperature. Furthermore, our data indicate that dynamics become again simple above 5000 K, with Arrhenius behavior and a classical Stokes-Einstein relation.

  16. Localized-magnon states in strongly frustrated quantum spin lattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richter, J.

    2005-01-01

    Recent developments concerning localized-magnon eigenstates in strongly frustrated spin lattices and their effect on the low-temperature physics of these systems in high magnetic fields are reviewed. After illustrating the construction and the properties of localized-magnon states we describe the plateau and the jump in the magnetization process caused by these states. Considering appropriate lattice deformations fitting to the localized magnons we discuss a spin-Peierls instability in high magnetic fields related to these states. Last but not least we consider the degeneracy of the localized-magnon eigenstates and the related thermodynamics in high magnetic fields. In particular, we discuss the low-temperature maximum in the isothermal entropy versus field curve and the resulting enhanced magnetocaloric effect, which allows efficient magnetic cooling from quite large temperatures down to very low ones

  17. Invasive Macrophytes Control the Spatial and Temporal Patterns of Temperature and Dissolved Oxygen in a Shallow Lake: A Proposed Feedback Mechanism of Macrophyte Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria P. Vilas

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Submerged macrophytes can have a profound effect on shallow lake ecosystems through their ability to modify the thermal structure and dissolved oxygen levels within the lake. Invasive macrophytes, in particular, can grow rapidly and induce thermal gradients in lakes that may substantially change the ecosystem structure and challenge the survival of aquatic organisms. We performed fine-scale measurements and 3D numerical modeling at high spatiotemporal resolution to assess the effect of the seasonal growth of Potamogeton crispus L. on the spatial and temporal dynamics of temperature and dissolved oxygen in a shallow urban lake (Lake Monger, Perth, WA, Australia. Daytime stratification developed during the growing season and was clearly observed throughout the macrophyte bed. At all times measured, stratification was stronger at the center of the macrophyte bed compared to the bed edges. By fitting a logistic growth curve to changes in plant height over time (r2 = 0.98, and comparing this curve to temperature data at the center of the macrophyte bed, we found that stratification began once the macrophytes occupied at least 50% of the water depth. This conclusion was strongly supported by a 3D hydrodynamic model fitted to weekly temperature profiles measured at four time periods throughout the growing season (r2 > 0.78 at all times. As the macrophyte height increased and stratification developed, dissolved oxygen concentration profiles changed from vertically homogeneous oxic conditions during both the day and night to expression of night-time anoxic conditions close to the sediments. Spatially interpolated maps of dissolved oxygen and 3D numerical modeling results indicated that the plants also reduced horizontal exchange with surrounding unvegetated areas, preventing flushing of low dissolved oxygen water out of the center of the bed. Simultaneously, aerial imagery showed central dieback occurring toward the end of the growing season. Thus, we

  18. Invasive Macrophytes Control the Spatial and Temporal Patterns of Temperature and Dissolved Oxygen in a Shallow Lake: A Proposed Feedback Mechanism of Macrophyte Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilas, Maria P; Marti, Clelia L; Adams, Matthew P; Oldham, Carolyn E; Hipsey, Matthew R

    2017-01-01

    Submerged macrophytes can have a profound effect on shallow lake ecosystems through their ability to modify the thermal structure and dissolved oxygen levels within the lake. Invasive macrophytes, in particular, can grow rapidly and induce thermal gradients in lakes that may substantially change the ecosystem structure and challenge the survival of aquatic organisms. We performed fine-scale measurements and 3D numerical modeling at high spatiotemporal resolution to assess the effect of the seasonal growth of Potamogeton crispus L. on the spatial and temporal dynamics of temperature and dissolved oxygen in a shallow urban lake (Lake Monger, Perth, WA, Australia). Daytime stratification developed during the growing season and was clearly observed throughout the macrophyte bed. At all times measured, stratification was stronger at the center of the macrophyte bed compared to the bed edges. By fitting a logistic growth curve to changes in plant height over time ( r 2 = 0.98), and comparing this curve to temperature data at the center of the macrophyte bed, we found that stratification began once the macrophytes occupied at least 50% of the water depth. This conclusion was strongly supported by a 3D hydrodynamic model fitted to weekly temperature profiles measured at four time periods throughout the growing season ( r 2 > 0.78 at all times). As the macrophyte height increased and stratification developed, dissolved oxygen concentration profiles changed from vertically homogeneous oxic conditions during both the day and night to expression of night-time anoxic conditions close to the sediments. Spatially interpolated maps of dissolved oxygen and 3D numerical modeling results indicated that the plants also reduced horizontal exchange with surrounding unvegetated areas, preventing flushing of low dissolved oxygen water out of the center of the bed. Simultaneously, aerial imagery showed central dieback occurring toward the end of the growing season. Thus, we hypothesized

  19. On the Strong Direct Summand Conjecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullough, Jason

    2009-01-01

    In this thesis, our aim is the study the Vanishing of Maps of Tor Conjecture of Hochster and Huneke. We mainly focus on an equivalent characterization called the Strong Direct Summand Conjecture, due to N. Ranganathan. Our results are separated into three chapters. In Chapter 3, we prove special cases of the Strong Direct Summand Conjecture in…

  20. Physics challenges in the strong interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, S.D.

    1992-01-01

    The study of strong interactions is now a mature field for which scientist now know that the correct underlying theory is QCD. Here, an overview of the challenges to be faced in the area of the strong interactions during the 1990's is presented. As an illustrative example special attention is given to the analysis of jets as studied at hadron colliders

  1. Physics challenges in the strong interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellis, S.D. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle (United States)

    1992-12-31

    The study of strong interactions is now a mature field for which scientist now know that the correct underlying theory is QCD. Here, an overview of the challenges to be faced in the area of the strong interactions during the 1990`s is presented. As an illustrative example special attention is given to the analysis of jets as studied at hadron colliders.

  2. The strong reflecting property and Harrington's Principle

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Yong

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we characterize the strong reflecting property for $L$-cardinals for all $\\omega_n$, characterize Harrington's Principle $HP(L)$ and its generalization and discuss the relationship between the strong reflecting property for $L$-cardinals and Harrington's Principle $HP(L)$.

  3. Strong Nash Equilibria and the Potential Maimizer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Megen, F.J.C.; Facchini, G.; Borm, P.E.M.; Tijs, S.H.

    1996-01-01

    A class of non cooperative games characterized by a `congestion e ect' is studied, in which there exists a strong Nash equilibrium, and the set of Nash equilibria, the set of strong Nash equilibria and the set of strategy pro les maximizing the potential function coincide.The structure of the class

  4. Large N baryons, strong coupling theory, quarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakita, B.

    1984-01-01

    It is shown that in QCD the large N limit is the same as the static strong coupling limit. By using the static strong coupling techniques some of the results of large N baryons are derived. The results are consistent with the large N SU(6) static quark model. (author)

  5. The lambda sigma calculus and strong normalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schack-Nielsen, Anders; Schürmann, Carsten

    Explicit substitution calculi can be classified into several dis- tinct categories depending on whether they are confluent, meta-confluent, strong normalization preserving, strongly normalizing, simulating, fully compositional, and/or local. In this paper we present a variant of the λσ-calculus, ...

  6. Optimization of strong and weak coordinates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swart, M.; Bickelhaupt, F.M.

    2006-01-01

    We present a new scheme for the geometry optimization of equilibrium and transition state structures that can be used for both strong and weak coordinates. We use a screening function that depends on atom-pair distances to differentiate strong coordinates from weak coordinates. This differentiation

  7. 78 FR 15710 - Strong Sensitizer Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-12

    ... the supplemental definition of ``strong sensitizer'' found at 16 CFR 1500.3(c)(5). The Commission is proposing to revise the supplemental definition of ``strong sensitizer'' due to advancements in the science...'' definition, assist manufacturers in understanding how CPSC staff would assess whether a substance and/or...

  8. Seismic switch for strong motion measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harben, P.E.; Rodgers, P.W.; Ewert, D.W.

    1995-05-30

    A seismic switching device is described that has an input signal from an existing microseismic station seismometer and a signal from a strong motion measuring instrument. The seismic switch monitors the signal level of the strong motion instrument and passes the seismometer signal to the station data telemetry and recording systems. When the strong motion instrument signal level exceeds a user set threshold level, the seismometer signal is switched out and the strong motion signal is passed to the telemetry system. The amount of time the strong motion signal is passed before switching back to the seismometer signal is user controlled between 1 and 15 seconds. If the threshold level is exceeded during a switch time period, the length of time is extended from that instant by one user set time period. 11 figs.

  9. Dual field theory of strong interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akers, D.

    1987-01-01

    A dual field theory of strong interactions is derived from a Lagrangian of the Yang-Mills and Higgs fields. The existence of a magnetic monopole of mass 2397 MeV and Dirac charge g = (137/2)e is incorporated into the theory. Unification of the strong, weak, and electromagnetic forces is shown to converge at the mass of the intermediate vector boson W/sup +/-/. The coupling constants of the strong and weak interactions are derived in terms of the fine-structure constant α = 1/137

  10. Strong and superstrong pulsed magnetic fields generation

    CERN Document Server

    Shneerson, German A; Krivosheev, Sergey I

    2014-01-01

    Strong pulsed magnetic fields are important for several fields in physics and engineering, such as power generation and accelerator facilities. Basic aspects of the generation of strong and superstrong pulsed magnetic fields technique are given, including the physics and hydrodynamics of the conductors interacting with the field as well as an account of the significant progress in generation of strong magnetic fields using the magnetic accumulation technique. Results of computer simulations as well as a survey of available field technology are completing the volume.

  11. Semi-strong split domination in graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anwar Alwardi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Given a graph $G = (V,E$, a dominating set $D subseteq V$ is called a semi-strong split dominating set of $G$ if $|V setminus D| geq 1$ and the maximum degree of the subgraph induced by $V setminus D$ is 1. The minimum cardinality of a semi-strong split dominating set (SSSDS of G is the semi-strong split domination number of G, denoted $gamma_{sss}(G$. In this work, we introduce the concept and prove several results regarding it.

  12. AATSR land surface temperature product algorithm verification over a WATERMED site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noyes, E. J.; Sòria, G.; Sobrino, J. A.; Remedios, J. J.; Llewellyn-Jones, D. T.; Corlett, G. K.

    A new operational Land Surface Temperature (LST) product generated from data acquired by the Advanced Along-Track Scanning Radiometer (AATSR) provides the opportunity to measure LST on a global scale with a spatial resolution of 1 km2. The target accuracy of the product, which utilises nadir data from the AATSR thermal channels at 11 and 12 μm, is 2.5 K for daytime retrievals and 1.0 K at night. We present the results of an experiment where the performance of the algorithm has been assessed for one daytime and one night time overpass occurring over the WATERMED field site near Marrakech, Morocco, on 05 March 2003. Top of atmosphere (TOA) brightness temperatures (BTs) are simulated for 12 pixels from each overpass using a radiative transfer model, with the LST product and independent emissivity values and atmospheric data as inputs. We have estimated the error in the LST product over this biome for this set of conditions by applying the operational AATSR LST retrieval algorithm to the modelled BTs and comparing the results with the original AATSR LSTs input into the model. An average bias of -1.00 K (standard deviation 0.07 K) for the daytime data, and -1.74 K (standard deviation 0.02 K) for the night time data is obtained, which indicates that the algorithm is yielding an LST that is too cold under these conditions. While these results are within specification for daytime retrievals, this suggests that the target accuracy of 1.0 K at night is not being met within this biome.

  13. Strong-force theorists scoop Noble Prize

    CERN Multimedia

    Durrani, Matin

    2004-01-01

    Three US theorists have shared the 2004 Nobel Prize in Physics "for the discovery of asymptotic freedom in the theory of the strong interaction". Their theoretical work explains why quarks behave almost as free particles at high energies (½ page)

  14. Strong-coupling theory of superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rainer, D.; Sauls, J.A.

    1995-01-01

    The electronic properties of correlated metals with a strong electron-phonon coupling may be understood in terms of a combination of Landau''s Fermi liquid theory and the strong-coupling theory of Migdal and Eliashberg. In these lecture notes we discuss the microscopic foundations of this phenomenological Fermi-liquid model of correlated, strong-coupling metals. We formulate the basic equations of the model, which are quasiclassical transport equations that describe both equilibrium and non-equilibrium phenomena for the normal and superconducting states of a metal. Our emphasis is on superconductors close to equilibrium, for which we derive the general linear response theory. As an application we calculate the dynamical conductivity of strong-coupling superconductors. (author)

  15. Modeling and synthesis of strong ground motion

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    There have been many developments in modeling techniques, and ... damage life and property in a city or region. How- ... quake of 26 January 2001 as a case study. 2. ...... quake derived from a dense strong-motion network; Bull. Seismol.

  16. Physics challenges in the strong interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellis, S.D.

    1991-01-01

    An overview of the challenges to be faced in the area of the strong interactions during the 1990`s is presented. As an illustrative example special attention is given to the analysis of jets as studied at hadron colliders.

  17. Physics challenges in the strong interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, S.D.

    1991-01-01

    An overview of the challenges to be faced in the area of the strong interactions during the 1990's is presented. As an illustrative example special attention is given to the analysis of jets as studied at hadron colliders

  18. Strong interaction effects in hadronic atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaufmann, W.B.

    1977-01-01

    The WKB method is applied to the calculation of strong interaction-induced level widths and shifts of hadronic atoms. The calculation, while elementary enough for undergraduate quantum mechanics students, gives a good account of kaonic and antiprotonic atom data

  19. Perturbation of an exact strong gravity solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baran, S.A.

    1982-10-01

    Perturbations of an exact strong gravity solution are investigated. It is shown, by using the new multipole expansions previously presented, that this exact and static spherically symmetric solution is stable under odd parity perturbations. (author)

  20. Calculating hadronic properties in strong QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pennington, M.R.

    1996-01-01

    This talk gives a brief review of the progress that has been made in calculating the properties of hadrons in strong QCD. In keeping with this meeting I will concentrate on those properties that can be studied with electromagnetic probes. Though perturbative QCD is highly successful, it only applies in a limited kinematic regime, where hard scattering occur, and the quarks move in the interaction region as if they are free, pointlike objects. However, the bulk of strong interactions are governed by the long distance regime, where the strong interaction is strong. It is this regime of length scales of the order of a Fermi, that determines the spectrum of light hadrons and their properties. The calculation of these properties requires an understanding of non-perturbative QCD, of confinement and chiral symmetry breaking. (author)

  1. Strong Coupling Corrections in Quantum Thermodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perarnau-Llobet, M.; Wilming, H.; Riera, A.; Gallego, R.; Eisert, J.

    2018-03-01

    Quantum systems strongly coupled to many-body systems equilibrate to the reduced state of a global thermal state, deviating from the local thermal state of the system as it occurs in the weak-coupling limit. Taking this insight as a starting point, we study the thermodynamics of systems strongly coupled to thermal baths. First, we provide strong-coupling corrections to the second law applicable to general systems in three of its different readings: As a statement of maximal extractable work, on heat dissipation, and bound to the Carnot efficiency. These corrections become relevant for small quantum systems and vanish in first order in the interaction strength. We then move to the question of power of heat engines, obtaining a bound on the power enhancement due to strong coupling. Our results are exemplified on the paradigmatic non-Markovian quantum Brownian motion.

  2. The Charm and Beauty of Strong Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Bennich, Bruno

    2018-01-01

    We briefly review common features and overlapping issues in hadron and flavor physics focussing on continuum QCD approaches to heavy bound states, their mass spectrum and weak decay constants in different strong interaction models.

  3. Modelling global fresh surface water temperature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beek, L.P.H. van; Eikelboom, T.; Vliet, M.T.H. van; Bierkens, M.F.P.

    2011-01-01

    Temperature directly determines a range of water physical properties including vapour pressure, surface tension, density and viscosity, and the solubility of oxygen and other gases. Indirectly water temperature acts as a strong control on fresh water biogeochemistry, influencing sediment

  4. Magnetohydrodynamic studies of the strong Focus device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vezin, Robert

    1971-01-01

    The POTTER magnetohydrodynamic code is used. It consists of a two-dimensional fluid model with two temperatures Te, Ti and transverse transport coefficients for a fully ionized plasma. Applied to the FOCUS geometry used at Limeil, it gives temperatures consistent with the BENNETT law but much lower than those evaluated experimentally by the X-ray absorbing foils technique. (author) [fr

  5. Interaction of strong electromagnetic fields with atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandi, H.S.; Davidovich, L.; Zagury, N.

    1982-06-01

    Several non-linear processes involvoing the interaction of atoms with strong laser fields are discussed, with particular emphasis on the ionization problem. Non-perturbative methods which have been proposed to tackle this problem are analysed, and shown to correspond to an expansion in the intra-atomic potential. The relation between tunneling and multiphoton absorption as ionization mechanisms, and the generalization of Einstein's photoelectric equation to the strong-field case are discussed. (Author) [pt

  6. Building strong brands – does it matter?

    OpenAIRE

    Aure, Kristin Gaaseide; Nervik, Kristine Dybvik

    2014-01-01

    Brand equity has proven, through several decades of research, to be a primary source of competitive advantage and future earnings (Yoo & Donthu, 2001). Building strong brands has therefore become a priority for many organizations, with the presumption that building strong brands yields these advantages (Yasin et al., 2007). A quantitative survey was conducted at Sunnmøre in Norway in order to answer the two developed research questions. - Does the brand equity dimensions; brand...

  7. Algebra of strong and electroweak interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolokhov, S.V.; Vladimirov, Yu.S.

    2004-01-01

    The algebraic approach to describing the electroweak and strong interactions is considered within the frames of the binary geometrophysics, based on the principles of the Fokker-Feynman direct interparticle interaction theories of the Kaluza-Klein multidimensional geometrical models and the physical structures theory. It is shown that in this approach the electroweak and strong elementary particles interaction through the intermediate vector bosons, are characterized by the subtypes of the algebraic classification of the complex 3 x 3-matrices [ru

  8. Manipulating light with strongly modulated photonic crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Notomi, Masaya

    2010-01-01

    Recently, strongly modulated photonic crystals, fabricated by the state-of-the-art semiconductor nanofabrication process, have realized various novel optical properties. This paper describes the way in which they differ from other optical media, and clarifies what they can do. In particular, three important issues are considered: light confinement, frequency dispersion and spatial dispersion. First, I describe the latest status and impact of ultra-strong light confinement in a wavelength-cubic volume achieved in photonic crystals. Second, the extreme reduction in the speed of light is reported, which was achieved as a result of frequency dispersion management. Third, strange negative refraction in photonic crystals is introduced, which results from their unique spatial dispersion, and it is clarified how this leads to perfect imaging. The last two sections are devoted to applications of these novel properties. First, I report the fact that strong light confinement and huge light-matter interaction enhancement make strongly modulated photonic crystals promising for on-chip all-optical processing, and present several examples including all-optical switches/memories and optical logics. As a second application, it is shown that the strong light confinement and slow light in strongly modulated photonic crystals enable the adiabatic tuning of light, which leads to various novel ways of controlling light, such as adiabatic frequency conversion, efficient optomechanics systems, photon memories and photons pinning.

  9. Nonlinear wave collapse and strong turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, P.A.

    1997-01-01

    The theory and applications of wave self-focusing, collapse, and strongly nonlinear wave turbulence are reviewed. In the last decade, the theory of these phenomena and experimental realizations have progressed rapidly. Various nonlinear wave systems are discussed, but the simplest case of collapse and strong turbulence of Langmuir waves in an unmagnetized plasma is primarily used in explaining the theory and illustrating the main ideas. First, an overview of the basic physics of linear waves and nonlinear wave-wave interactions is given from an introductory perspective. Wave-wave processes are then considered in more detail. Next, an introductory overview of the physics of wave collapse and strong turbulence is provided, followed by a more detailed theoretical treatment. Later sections cover numerical simulations of Langmuir collapse and strong turbulence and experimental applications to space, ionospheric, and laboratory plasmas, including laser-plasma and beam-plasma interactions. Generalizations to self-focusing, collapse, and strong turbulence of waves in other systems are also discussed, including nonlinear optics, solid-state systems, magnetized auroral and astrophysical plasmas, and deep-water waves. The review ends with a summary of the main ideas of wave collapse and strong-turbulence theory, a collection of open questions in the field, and a brief discussion of possible future research directions. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  10. Strong correlation effects in theoretical STM studies of magnetic adatoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Hung T.; dos Santos Dias, Manuel; Liebsch, Ansgar; Lounis, Samir

    2016-03-01

    We present a theoretical study for the scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) spectra of surface-supported magnetic nanostructures, incorporating strong correlation effects. As concrete examples, we study Co and Mn adatoms on the Cu(111) surface, which are expected to represent the opposite limits of Kondo physics and local moment behavior, using a combination of density functional theory and both quantum Monte Carlo and exact diagonalization impurity solvers. We examine in detail the effects of temperature T , correlation strength U , and impurity d electron occupancy Nd on the local density of states. We also study the effective coherence energy scale, i.e., the Kondo temperature TK, which can be extracted from the STM spectra. Theoretical STM spectra are computed as a function of STM tip position relative to each adatom. Because of the multiorbital nature of the adatoms, the STM spectra are shown to consist of a complicated superposition of orbital contributions, with different orbital symmetries, self-energies, and Kondo temperatures. For a Mn adatom, which is close to half-filling, the STM spectra are featureless near the Fermi level. On the other hand, the quasiparticle peak for a Co adatom gives rise to strongly position-dependent Fano line shapes.

  11. Stabilizing strongly correlated photon fluids with non-Markovian reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebreuilly, José; Biella, Alberto; Storme, Florent; Rossini, Davide; Fazio, Rosario; Ciuti, Cristiano; Carusotto, Iacopo

    2017-09-01

    We introduce a frequency-dependent incoherent pump scheme with a square-shaped spectrum as a way to study strongly correlated photons in arrays of coupled nonlinear resonators. This scheme can be implemented via a reservoir of population-inverted two-level emitters with a broad distribution of transition frequencies. Our proposal is predicted to stabilize a nonequilibrium steady state sharing important features with a zero-temperature equilibrium state with a tunable chemical potential. We confirm the efficiency of our proposal for the Bose-Hubbard model by computing numerically the steady state for finite system sizes: first, we predict the occurrence of a sequence of incompressible Mott-insulator-like states with arbitrary integer densities presenting strong robustness against tunneling and losses. Secondly, for stronger tunneling amplitudes or noninteger densities, the system enters a coherent regime analogous to the superfluid state. In addition to an overall agreement with the zero-temperature equilibrium state, exotic nonequilibrium processes leading to a finite entropy generation are pointed out in specific regions of parameter space. The equilibrium ground state is shown to be recovered by adding frequency-dependent losses. The promise of this improved scheme in view of quantum simulation of the zero-temperature many-body physics is highlighted.

  12. Electron screening and kinetic-energy oscillations in a strongly coupled plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Y.C.; Simien, C.E.; Laha, S.; Gupta, P.; Martinez, Y.N.; Mickelson, P.G.; Nagel, S.B.; Killian, T.C.

    2004-01-01

    We study equilibration of strongly coupled ions in an ultracold neutral plasma produced by photoionizing laser-cooled and trapped atoms. By varying the electron temperature, we show that electron screening modifies the equilibrium ion temperature. Even with few electrons in a Debye sphere, the screening is well described by a model using a Yukawa ion-ion potential. We also observe damped oscillations of the ion kinetic energy that are a unique feature of equilibration of a strongly coupled plasma

  13. Strong Motion Earthquake Data Values of Digitized Strong-Motion Accelerograms, 1933-1994

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Strong Motion Earthquake Data Values of Digitized Strong-Motion Accelerograms is a database of over 15,000 digitized and processed accelerograph records from...

  14. The strongly coupled quark-gluon plasma created at RHIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinz, Ulrich

    2009-01-01

    The relativistic heavy-ion collider (RHIC) was built to re-create and study in the laboratory the extremely hot and dense matter that filled our entire universe during its first few microseconds. Its operation since June 2000 has been extremely successful, and the four large RHIC experiments have produced an impressive body of data which indeed provide compelling evidence for the formation of thermally equilibrated matter at unprecedented temperatures and energy densities-a 'quark-gluon plasma (QGP)'. A surprise has been the discovery that this plasma behaves like an almost perfect fluid, with extremely low viscosity. Theorists had expected a weakly interacting gas of quarks and gluons, but instead we seem to have created a strongly coupled plasma liquid. The experimental evidence strongly relies on a feature called 'elliptic flow' in off-central collisions, with additional support from other observations. This paper explains how we probe the strongly coupled QGP, describes the ideas and measurements which led to the conclusion that the QGP is an almost perfect liquid, and shows how they tie relativistic heavy-ion physics into other burgeoning fields of modern physics, such as strongly coupled Coulomb plasmas, ultracold systems of trapped atoms and superstring theory

  15. The extended reciprocity: Strong belief outperforms persistence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurokawa, Shun

    2017-05-21

    The existence of cooperation is a mysterious phenomenon and demands explanation, and direct reciprocity is one key potential explanation for the evolution of cooperation. Direct reciprocity allows cooperation to evolve for cooperators who switch their behavior on the basis of information about the opponent's behavior. Here, relevant to direct reciprocity is information deficiency. When the opponent's last move is unknown, how should players behave? One possibility is to choose cooperation with some default probability without using any further information. In fact, our previous paper (Kurokawa, 2016a) examined this strategy. However, there might be beneficial information other than the opponent's last move. A subsequent study of ours (Kurokawa, 2017) examined the strategy which uses the own last move when the opponent's last move is unknown, and revealed that referring to the own move and trying to imitate it when information is absent is beneficial. Is there any other beneficial information else? How about strong belief (i.e., have infinite memory and believe that the opponent's behavior is unchanged)? Here, we examine the evolution of strategies with strong belief. Analyzing the repeated prisoner's dilemma game and using evolutionarily stable strategy (ESS) analysis against an invasion by unconditional defectors, we find the strategy with strong belief is more likely to evolve than the strategy which does not use information other than the opponent player's last move and more likely to evolve than the strategy which uses not only the opponent player's last move but also the own last move. Strong belief produces the extended reciprocity and facilitates the evolution of cooperation. Additionally, we consider the two strategies game between strategies with strong belief and any strategy, and we consider the four strategies game in which unconditional cooperators, unconditional defectors, pessimistic reciprocators with strong belief, and optimistic reciprocators with

  16. A new class of strongly coupled plasmas inspired by sonoluminescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bataller, Alexander; Plateau, Guillaume; Kappus, Brian; Putterman, Seth

    2014-10-01

    Sonoluminescence originates in a strongly coupled plasma with a near liquid density and a temperature of ~10,000 K. This plasma is in LTE and therefore, it should be a general thermodynamic state. To test the universality of sonoluminescence, similar plasma conditions were generated using femtosecond laser breakdown in high pressure gases. Calibrated streak spectroscopy reveals both transport and thermodynamic properties of a strongly coupled plasma. A blackbody spectrum, which persists long after the exciting laser has turned off, indicates the presence of a highly ionized LTE microplasma. In parallel with sonoluminescence, this thermodynamic state is achieved via a considerable reduction in the ionization potential. We gratefully acknowledge support from DARPA MTO for research on microplasmas. We thank Brian Naranjo, Keith Weninger, Carlos Camara, Gary Williams, and John Koulakis for valuable discussions.

  17. Wigner functions for fermions in strong magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Xin-li; Rischke, Dirk H.; Vasak, David; Wang, Qun

    2018-02-01

    We compute the covariant Wigner function for spin-(1/2) fermions in an arbitrarily strong magnetic field by exactly solving the Dirac equation at non-zero fermion-number and chiral-charge densities. The Landau energy levels as well as a set of orthonormal eigenfunctions are found as solutions of the Dirac equation. With these orthonormal eigenfunctions we construct the fermion field operators and the corresponding Wigner-function operator. The Wigner function is obtained by taking the ensemble average of the Wigner-function operator in global thermodynamical equilibrium, i.e., at constant temperature T and non-zero fermion-number and chiral-charge chemical potentials μ and μ_5, respectively. Extracting the vector and axial-vector components of the Wigner function, we reproduce the currents of the chiral magnetic and separation effect in an arbitrarily strong magnetic field.

  18. Highly Resolved Measurements of a Developing Strong Collisional Plasma Shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinderknecht, Hans G.; Park, H.-S.; Ross, J. S.; Amendt, P. A.; Higginson, D. P.; Wilks, S. C.; Haberberger, D.; Katz, J.; Froula, D. H.; Hoffman, N. M.; Kagan, G.; Keenan, B. D.; Vold, E. L.

    2018-03-01

    The structure of a strong collisional shock front forming in a plasma is directly probed for the first time in laser-driven gas-jet experiments. Thomson scattering of a 526.5 nm probe beam was used to diagnose temperature and ion velocity distribution in a strong shock (M ˜11 ) propagating through a low-density (ρ ˜0.01 mg /cc ) plasma composed of hydrogen. A forward-streaming population of ions traveling in excess of the shock velocity was observed to heat and slow down on an unmoving, unshocked population of cold protons, until ultimately the populations merge and begin to thermalize. Instabilities are observed during the merging, indicating a uniquely plasma-phase process in shock front formation.

  19. Spectator Effects during Leptogenesis in the Strong Washout Regime

    CERN Document Server

    Garbrecht, Bjorn

    2014-01-01

    By including spectator fields into the Boltzmann equations for Leptogenesis, we show that partially equilibrated spectator interactions can have a significant impact on the freeze-out value of the asymmetry in the strong washout regime. The final asymmetry is typically increased, since partially equilibrated spectators "hide" a part of the asymmetry from washout. We study examples with leptonic and non-leptonic spectator processes, assuming thermal initial conditions, and find up to 50% enhanced asymmetries compared to the limit of fully equilibrated spectators. Together with a comprehensive overview of the equilibration temperatures for various Standard Model processes, the numerical results indicate the ranges when the limiting cases of either fully equilibrated or negligible spectator fields are applicable and when they are not. Our findings also indicate an increased sensitivity to initial conditions and finite density corrections even in the strong washout regime.

  20. Effects of cut flower shape and content of sugars in flower organs on the longevity of vase life in standard type carnation [Dianthus] and relationships between the longevity and temperature and solar radiation during the growing period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miura, Y.; Ozawa, Y.; Takahashi, M.; Igarashi, D.; Inoue, T.; Uematsu, H.; Imai, K.; Matsuyama, A.; Soga, A.; Yoshida, M.

    2002-01-01

    We obtained carnation cut flowers 'Fransisco' from a greenhouse on the first Monday every month in February to June, and investigated the relationship between vase life and content of sugars in the cut flowers. Correlations between the longevity of vase life and temperatures in the greenhouse and amount of solar radiation during the growing period were also investigated. 1. Fresh weight and stem diameter of the cut flowers were highest in February and March, and decreased from April to June. Mean vase life was shortest in March (4.5 days) and longest in May (5.9 days). 2. Fructose and glucose contents in petals were highest in May (10.0 mg and 6.5 mg ¥ 100 mg -1 DW) and lowest in March (6.0 mg and 4.8 mg ¥ 100 mg -1 DW). 3. The vase life of carnation was highly correlated with day-time or night-time mean temperatures in 20 days to harvest, and it was estimated that the optimum growing temperature for long vase life of the cut flower was around 22°C in day-time and 14°C in night-time. (author)

  1. Strongly correlated Fermi-Bose mixtures in disordered optical lattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez-Palencia, L; Ahufinger, V; Kantian, A; Zakrzewski, J; Sanpera, A; Lewenstein, M

    2006-01-01

    We investigate theoretically the low-temperature physics of a two-component ultracold mixture of bosons and fermions in disordered optical lattices. We focus on the strongly correlated regime. We show that, under specific conditions, composite fermions, made of one fermion plus one bosonic hole, form. The composite picture is used to derive an effective Hamiltonian whose parameters can be controlled via the boson-boson and the boson-fermion interactions, the tunnelling terms and the inhomogeneities. We finally investigate the quantum phase diagram of the composite fermions and show that it corresponds to the formation of Fermi glasses, spin glasses and quantum percolation regimes

  2. Plasma production and thermalisation in a strong field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinnik, D.V.; Schmidt, S.M.; Prozorkevich, A.V.; Smolyansky, S.A.; Toneev, V.D.; Hecht, M.B.; Roberts, C.D.

    2001-01-01

    Aspects of the formation and equilibration of a quark-gluon plasma are explored using a quantum kinetic equation, which involves a non-Markovian, Abelian source term for quark and antiquark production and, for the collision term, a relaxation time approximation that defines a time-dependent quasi-equilibrium temperature and collective velocity. The strong Abelian field is determined via the simultaneous solution of Maxwell's equation. A particular feature of this approach is the appearance of plasma oscillations in all thermodynamic observables. Their presence can lead to a sharp increase in the time-integrated dilepton yield, although a rapid expansion of the plasma may eliminate this signal. (orig.)

  3. Strongly Coupled Magnetic and Electronic Transitions in Multivalent Strontium Cobaltites

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, J. H.; Choi, Woo Seok; Jeen, H.; Lee, H.-J.; Seo, J. H.; Nam, J.; Yeom, M. S.; Lee, H. N.

    2017-01-01

    The topotactic phase transition in SrCoO x (x = 2.5–3.0) makes it possible to reversibly transit between the two distinct phases, i.e. the brownmillerite SrCoO2.5 that is a room-temperature antiferromagnetic insulator (AFM-I) and the perovskite SrCoO3 that is a ferromagnetic metal (FM-M), owing to their multiple valence states. For the intermediate x values, the two distinct phases are expected to strongly compete with each other. With oxidation of SrCoO2.5, however, it has been conjectured t...

  4. Strongly correlated Fermi-Bose mixtures in disordered optical lattices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez-Palencia, L [Laboratoire Charles Fabry de l' Institut d' Optique, CNRS and Universite Paris-Sud XI, Bat 503, Centre scientifique, F-91403 Orsay Cedex (France); Ahufinger, V [ICREA and Grup d' optica, Departament de FIsica, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, E-08193 Belaterra (Barcelona) (Spain); Kantian, A [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Innsbruck, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Zakrzewski, J [Instytut Fizyki imienia Mariana Smoluchowskiego i Centrum Badan Ukladow Zlozonych imienia Marka Kaca, Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, ulica Reymonta 4, PL-30-059 Krakow (Poland); Sanpera, A [ICREA and Grup de FIsica Teorica, Departament de FIsica, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, E-08193 Belaterra (Barcelona) (Spain); Lewenstein, M [ICREA and ICFO-Institut de Ciencies Fotoniques, Parc Mediterrani de la TecnologIa, E-08860 Castelldefels (Barcelona) (Spain); Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Hannover, D-30167 Hannover (Germany)

    2006-05-28

    We investigate theoretically the low-temperature physics of a two-component ultracold mixture of bosons and fermions in disordered optical lattices. We focus on the strongly correlated regime. We show that, under specific conditions, composite fermions, made of one fermion plus one bosonic hole, form. The composite picture is used to derive an effective Hamiltonian whose parameters can be controlled via the boson-boson and the boson-fermion interactions, the tunnelling terms and the inhomogeneities. We finally investigate the quantum phase diagram of the composite fermions and show that it corresponds to the formation of Fermi glasses, spin glasses and quantum percolation regimes.

  5. Microscopic modeling of photoluminescence of strongly disordered semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bozsoki, P.; Kira, M.; Hoyer, W.; Meier, T.; Varga, I.; Thomas, P.; Koch, S.W.

    2007-01-01

    A microscopic theory for the luminescence of ordered semiconductors is modified to describe photoluminescence of strongly disordered semiconductors. The approach includes both diagonal disorder and the many-body Coulomb interaction. As a case study, the light emission of a correlated plasma is investigated numerically for a one-dimensional two-band tight-binding model. The band structure of the underlying ordered system is assumed to correspond to either a direct or an indirect semiconductor. In particular, luminescence and absorption spectra are computed for various levels of disorder and sample temperature to determine thermodynamic relations, the Stokes shift, and the radiative lifetime distribution

  6. Long-range correlations in rectal temperature fluctuations of healthy infants during maturation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgette Stern

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Control of breathing, heart rate, and body temperature are interdependent in infants, where instabilities in thermoregulation can contribute to apneas or even life-threatening events. Identifying abnormalities in thermoregulation is particularly important in the first 6 months of life, where autonomic regulation undergoes critical development. Fluctuations in body temperature have been shown to be sensitive to maturational stage as well as system failure in critically ill patients. We thus aimed to investigate the existence of fractal-like long-range correlations, indicative of temperature control, in night time rectal temperature (T(rec patterns in maturing infants. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We measured T(rec fluctuations in infants every 4 weeks from 4 to 20 weeks of age and before and after immunization. Long-range correlations in the temperature series were quantified by the correlation exponent, alpha using detrended fluctuation analysis. The effects of maturation, room temperature, and immunization on the strength of correlation were investigated. We found that T(rec fluctuations exhibit fractal long-range correlations with a mean (SD alpha of 1.51 (0.11, indicating that T(rec is regulated in a highly correlated and hence deterministic manner. A significant increase in alpha with age from 1.42 (0.07 at 4 weeks to 1.58 (0.04 at 20 weeks reflects a change in long-range correlation behavior with maturation towards a smoother and more deterministic temperature regulation, potentially due to the decrease in surface area to body weight ratio in the maturing infant. alpha was not associated with mean room temperature or influenced by immunization CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that the quantification of long-range correlations using alpha derived from detrended fluctuation analysis is an observer-independent tool which can distinguish developmental stages of night time T(rec pattern in young infants, reflective of maturation of

  7. Nonlinear Dynamics and Strong Cavity Cooling of Levitated Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, P Z G; Aranas, E B; Millen, J; Monteiro, T S; Barker, P F

    2016-10-21

    Optomechanical systems explore and exploit the coupling between light and the mechanical motion of macroscopic matter. A nonlinear coupling offers rich new physics, in both quantum and classical regimes. We investigate a dynamic, as opposed to the usually studied static, nonlinear optomechanical system, comprising a nanosphere levitated in a hybrid electro-optical trap. The cavity offers readout of both linear-in-position and quadratic-in-position (nonlinear) light-matter coupling, while simultaneously cooling the nanosphere, for indefinite periods of time and in high vacuum. We observe the cooling dynamics via both linear and nonlinear coupling. As the background gas pressure was lowered, we observed a greater than 1000-fold reduction in temperature before temperatures fell below readout sensitivity in the present setup. This Letter opens the way to strongly coupled quantum dynamics between a cavity and a nanoparticle largely decoupled from its environment.

  8. Nonlinear Dynamics and Strong Cavity Cooling of Levitated Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, P. Z. G.; Aranas, E. B.; Millen, J.; Monteiro, T. S.; Barker, P. F.

    2016-10-01

    Optomechanical systems explore and exploit the coupling between light and the mechanical motion of macroscopic matter. A nonlinear coupling offers rich new physics, in both quantum and classical regimes. We investigate a dynamic, as opposed to the usually studied static, nonlinear optomechanical system, comprising a nanosphere levitated in a hybrid electro-optical trap. The cavity offers readout of both linear-in-position and quadratic-in-position (nonlinear) light-matter coupling, while simultaneously cooling the nanosphere, for indefinite periods of time and in high vacuum. We observe the cooling dynamics via both linear and nonlinear coupling. As the background gas pressure was lowered, we observed a greater than 1000-fold reduction in temperature before temperatures fell below readout sensitivity in the present setup. This Letter opens the way to strongly coupled quantum dynamics between a cavity and a nanoparticle largely decoupled from its environment.

  9. Strong, tough and stiff bioinspired ceramics from brittle constituents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouville, Florian; Maire, Eric; Meille, Sylvain; van de Moortèle, Bertrand; Stevenson, Adam J.; Deville, Sylvain

    2014-05-01

    High strength and high toughness are usually mutually exclusive in engineering materials. In ceramics, improving toughness usually relies on the introduction of a metallic or polymeric ductile phase, but this decreases the material’s strength and stiffness as well as its high-temperature stability. Although natural materials that are both strong and tough rely on a combination of mechanisms operating at different length scales, the relevant structures have been extremely difficult to replicate. Here, we report a bioinspired approach based on widespread ceramic processing techniques for the fabrication of bulk ceramics without a ductile phase and with a unique combination of high strength (470 MPa), high toughness (22 MPa m1/2), and high stiffness (290 GPa). Because only mineral constituents are needed, these ceramics retain their mechanical properties at high temperatures (600 °C). Our bioinspired, material-independent approach should find uses in the design and processing of materials for structural, transportation and energy-related applications.

  10. Universal structure of a strongly interacting Fermi gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhnle, Eva; Dyke, Paul; Hoinka, Sascha; Mark, Michael; Hu Hui; Liu Xiaji; Drummond, Peter; Hannaford, Peter; Vale, Chris, E-mail: cvale@swin.edu.au [ARC Centre of Excellence for Quantum Atom Optics, Swinburne University of Technology, Hawthorn 3122 (Australia)

    2011-01-10

    This paper presents studies of the universal properties of strongly interacting Fermi gases using Bragg spectroscopy. We focus on pair-correlations, their relationship to the contact C introduced by Tan, and their dependence on both the momentum and temperature. We show that short-range pair correlations obey a universal law, first derived by Tan through measurements of the static structure factor, which displays a universal scaling with the ratio of the contact to the momentum C/q. Bragg spectroscopy of ultracold {sup 6}Li atoms is employed to measure the structure factor for a wide range of momenta and interaction strengths, providing broad confirmation of this universal law. We show that calibrating our Bragg spectra using the f-sum rule leads to a dramatic improvement in the accuracy of the structure factor measurement. We also measure the temperature dependence of the contact in a unitary gas and compare our results to calculations based on a virial expansion.

  11. Electromagnetic processes in strong crystalline fields

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    We propose a number of new investigations on aspects of radiation from high energy electron and positron beams (10-300 GeV) in single crystals and amorphous targets. The common heading is radiation emission by electrons and positrons in strong electromagnetic fields, but as the setup is quite versatile, other related phenomena in radiation emission can be studied as well. The intent is to clarify the role of a number of important aspects of radiation in strong fields as e.g. observed in crystals. We propose to measure trident 'Klein-like' production in strong crystalline fields, 'crystalline undulator' radiation, 'sandwich' target phenomena, LPM suppression of pair production as well as axial and planar effects in contributions of spin to the radiation.

  12. Coherent Vortices in Strongly Coupled Liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashwin, J.; Ganesh, R.

    2011-01-01

    Strongly coupled liquids are ubiquitous in both nature and laboratory plasma experiments. They are unique in the sense that their average potential energy per particle dominates over the average kinetic energy. Using ''first principles'' molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, we report for the first time the emergence of isolated coherent tripolar vortices from the evolution of axisymmetric flows in a prototype two-dimensional (2D) strongly coupled liquid, namely, the Yukawa liquid. Linear growth rates directly obtained from MD simulations are compared with a generalized hydrodynamic model. Our MD simulations reveal that the tripolar vortices persist over several turn over times and hence may be observed in strongly coupled liquids such as complex plasma, liquid metals and astrophysical systems such as white dwarfs and giant planetary interiors, thereby making the phenomenon universal.

  13. Coherent Vortices in Strongly Coupled Liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashwin, J.; Ganesh, R.

    2011-04-01

    Strongly coupled liquids are ubiquitous in both nature and laboratory plasma experiments. They are unique in the sense that their average potential energy per particle dominates over the average kinetic energy. Using “first principles” molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, we report for the first time the emergence of isolated coherent tripolar vortices from the evolution of axisymmetric flows in a prototype two-dimensional (2D) strongly coupled liquid, namely, the Yukawa liquid. Linear growth rates directly obtained from MD simulations are compared with a generalized hydrodynamic model. Our MD simulations reveal that the tripolar vortices persist over several turn over times and hence may be observed in strongly coupled liquids such as complex plasma, liquid metals and astrophysical systems such as white dwarfs and giant planetary interiors, thereby making the phenomenon universal.

  14. Strong Coupling between Plasmons and Organic Semiconductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel Bellessa

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we describe the properties of organic material in strong coupling with plasmon, mainly based on our work in this field of research. The strong coupling modifies the optical transitions of the structure, and occurs when the interaction between molecules and plasmon prevails on the damping of the system. We describe the dispersion relation of different plasmonic systems, delocalized and localized plasmon, coupled to aggregated dyes and the typical properties of these systems in strong coupling. The modification of the dye emission is also studied. In the second part, the effect of the microscopic structure of the organics, which can be seen as a disordered film, is described. As the different molecules couple to the same plasmon mode, an extended coherent state on several microns is observed.

  15. Institutionalizing Strong Sustainability: A Rawlsian Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konrad Ott

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The article aims to provide some ethical orientation on how sustainability might be actualized by institutions. Since institutionalization is about rules and organization, it presupposes ideas and concepts by which institutions can be substantiated. After outlining terminology, the article deals with underlying ethical and conceptual problems which are highly relevant for any suggestions concerning institutionalization. These problems are: (a the ethical scope of the sustainability perspective (natural capital, poverty, sentient animals, (b the theory of justice on which ideas about sustainability are built (capability approach, Rawlsianism, and (c the favored concept of sustainability (weak, intermediate, and strong sustainability. These problems are analyzed in turn. As a result, a Rawlsian concept of rule-based strong sustainability is proposed. The specific problems of institutionalization are addressed by applying Rawls’s concept of branches. The article concludes with arguments in favor of three transnational duties which hold for states that have adopted Rawlsian strong sustainability.

  16. A theory of the strong interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gross, D.J.

    1979-01-01

    The most promising candidate for a fundamental microscopic theory of the strong interactions is a gauge theory of colored quarks-Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD). There are many excellent reasons for believing in this theory. It embodies the broken symmetries, SU(3) and chiral SU(3)xSU(3), of the strong interactions and reflects the success of (albeit crude) quark models in explaining the spectrum of the observed hadrons. The hidden quantum number of color, necessary to account for the quantum numbers of the low lying hadrons, plays a fundamental role in this theory as the SU(3) color gauge vector 'gluons' are the mediators of the strong interactions. The absence of physical quark states can be 'explained' by the hypothesis of color confinement i.e. that hadrons are permanently bound in color singlet bound states. Finally this theory is unique in being asymptotically free, thus accounting for the almost free field theory behvior of quarks observed at short distances. (Auth.)

  17. Electronic Structure of Strongly Correlated Materials

    CERN Document Server

    Anisimov, Vladimir

    2010-01-01

    Electronic structure and physical properties of strongly correlated materials containing elements with partially filled 3d, 4d, 4f and 5f electronic shells is analyzed by Dynamical Mean-Field Theory (DMFT). DMFT is the most universal and effective tool used for the theoretical investigation of electronic states with strong correlation effects. In the present book the basics of the method are given and its application to various material classes is shown. The book is aimed at a broad readership: theoretical physicists and experimentalists studying strongly correlated systems. It also serves as a handbook for students and all those who want to be acquainted with fast developing filed of condensed matter physics.

  18. Strongly interacting matter in magnetic fields

    CERN Document Server

    Landsteiner, Karl; Schmitt, Andreas; Yee, Ho-Ung

    2013-01-01

    The physics of strongly interacting matter in an external magnetic field is presently emerging as a topic of great cross-disciplinary interest for particle, nuclear, astro- and condensed matter physicists. It is known that strong magnetic fields are created in heavy ion collisions, an insight that has made it possible to study a variety of surprising and intriguing phenomena that emerge from the interplay of quantum anomalies, the topology of non-Abelian gauge fields, and the magnetic field. In particular, the non-trivial topological configurations of the gluon field induce a non-dissipative electric current in the presence of a magnetic field. These phenomena have led to an extended formulation of relativistic hydrodynamics, called chiral magnetohydrodynamics. Hitherto unexpected applications in condensed matter physics include graphene and topological insulators. Other fields of application include astrophysics, where strong magnetic fields exist in magnetars and pulsars. Last but not least, an important ne...

  19. Aperture averaging in strong oceanic turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gökçe, Muhsin Caner; Baykal, Yahya

    2018-04-01

    Receiver aperture averaging technique is employed in underwater wireless optical communication (UWOC) systems to mitigate the effects of oceanic turbulence, thus to improve the system performance. The irradiance flux variance is a measure of the intensity fluctuations on a lens of the receiver aperture. Using the modified Rytov theory which uses the small-scale and large-scale spatial filters, and our previously presented expression that shows the atmospheric structure constant in terms of oceanic turbulence parameters, we evaluate the irradiance flux variance and the aperture averaging factor of a spherical wave in strong oceanic turbulence. Irradiance flux variance variations are examined versus the oceanic turbulence parameters and the receiver aperture diameter are examined in strong oceanic turbulence. Also, the effect of the receiver aperture diameter on the aperture averaging factor is presented in strong oceanic turbulence.

  20. Frictional Coulomb drag in strong magnetic fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bønsager, Martin Christian; Flensberg, Karsten; Hu, Ben Yu-Kuang

    1997-01-01

    A treatment of frictional Coulomb drag between two two-dimensional electron layers in a strong perpendicular magnetic field, within the independent electron picture, is presented. Assuming fully resolved Landau levels, the linear response theory expression for the transresistivity rho(21) is eval......A treatment of frictional Coulomb drag between two two-dimensional electron layers in a strong perpendicular magnetic field, within the independent electron picture, is presented. Assuming fully resolved Landau levels, the linear response theory expression for the transresistivity rho(21...

  1. Analytical solution of strongly nonlinear Duffing oscillators

    OpenAIRE

    El-Naggar, A.M.; Ismail, G.M.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a new perturbation technique is employed to solve strongly nonlinear Duffing oscillators, in which a new parameter α=α(ε)α=α(ε) is defined such that the value of α is always small regardless of the magnitude of the original parameter εε. Therefore, the strongly nonlinear Duffing oscillators with large parameter ε are transformed into a small parameter system with respect to αα. Approximate solution obtained by the present method is compared with the solution of energy balance m...

  2. Strong WW scattering at photon linear colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, M.S.

    1994-06-01

    We investigate the possibility of observing strong interactions of longitudinally polarized weak vector bosons in the process γγ → ZZ at a photon linear collider. We make use of polarization of the photon beams and cuts on the decay products of the Z bosons to enhance the signal relative to the background of transversely polarized ZZ pairs. We find that the background overwhelms the signal unless there are strong resonant effects, as for instance from a technicolor analogue of the hadronic f 2 (1270) meson

  3. Nonlinear Electron Waves in Strongly Magnetized Plasmas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pécseli, Hans; Juul Rasmussen, Jens

    1980-01-01

    Weakly nonlinear dispersive electron waves in strongly magnetized plasma are considered. A modified nonlinear Schrodinger equation is derived taking into account the effect of particles resonating with the group velocity of the waves (nonlinear Landau damping). The possibility of including the ion...... dynamics in the analysis is also demonstrated. As a particular case the authors investigate nonlinear waves in a strongly magnetized plasma filled wave-guide, where the effects of finite geometry are important. The relevance of this problem to laboratory experiments is discussed....

  4. Universal behavior of strongly correlated Fermi systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaginyan, Vasilii R [B.P. Konstantinov St. Petersburg Institute of Nuclear Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Gatchina, Leningrad region, Rusian Federation (Russian Federation); Amusia, M Ya [A.F. Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Popov, Konstantin G [Komi Scientific Center, Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Syktyvkar (Russian Federation)

    2007-06-30

    This review discusses the construction of a theory and the analysis of phenomena occurring in strongly correlated Fermi systems such as high-T{sub c} superconductors, heavy-fermion metals, and quasi-two-dimensional Fermi systems. It is shown that the basic properties and the universal behavior of strongly correlated Fermi systems can be described in the framework of the Fermi-condensate quantum phase transition and the well-known Landau paradigm of quasiparticles and the order parameter. The concept of fermion condensation may be fruitful in studying neutron stars, finite Fermi systems, ultra-cold gases in traps, and quark plasma. (reviews of topical problems)

  5. Universal behavior of strongly correlated Fermi systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaginyan, Vasilii R; Amusia, M Ya; Popov, Konstantin G

    2007-01-01

    This review discusses the construction of a theory and the analysis of phenomena occurring in strongly correlated Fermi systems such as high-T c superconductors, heavy-fermion metals, and quasi-two-dimensional Fermi systems. It is shown that the basic properties and the universal behavior of strongly correlated Fermi systems can be described in the framework of the Fermi-condensate quantum phase transition and the well-known Landau paradigm of quasiparticles and the order parameter. The concept of fermion condensation may be fruitful in studying neutron stars, finite Fermi systems, ultra-cold gases in traps, and quark plasma. (reviews of topical problems)

  6. De Sitter vacua of strongly interacting QFT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchel, Alex [Department of Applied Mathematics, University of Western Ontario,London, Ontario N6A 5B7 (Canada); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Western Ontario,London, Ontario N6A 5B7 (Canada); Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics,Waterloo, Ontario N2J 2W9 (Canada); Karapetyan, Aleksandr [Department of Applied Mathematics, University of Western Ontario,London, Ontario N6A 5B7 (Canada)

    2017-03-22

    We use holographic correspondence to argue that Euclidean (Bunch-Davies) vacuum is a late-time attractor of the dynamical evolution of quantum gauge theories at strong coupling. The Bunch-Davies vacuum is not an adiabatic state, if the gauge theory is non-conformal — the comoving entropy production rate is nonzero. Using the N=2{sup ∗} gauge theory holography, we explore prospects of explaining current accelerated expansion of the Universe as due to the vacuum energy of a strongly coupled QFT.

  7. Strong cosmic censorship in de Sitter space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Oscar J. C.; Eperon, Felicity C.; Reall, Harvey S.; Santos, Jorge E.

    2018-05-01

    Recent work indicates that the strong cosmic censorship hypothesis is violated by nearly extremal Reissner-Nordström-de Sitter black holes. It was argued that perturbations of such a black hole decay sufficiently rapidly that the perturbed spacetime can be extended across the Cauchy horizon as a weak solution of the equations of motion. In this paper we consider the case of Kerr-de Sitter black holes. We find that, for any nonextremal value of the black hole parameters, there are quasinormal modes which decay sufficiently slowly to ensure that strong cosmic censorship is respected. Our analysis covers both scalar field and linearized gravitational perturbations.

  8. A stable boundary layer perspective on global temperature trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNider, R T; Christy, J R; Biazar, A

    2010-01-01

    One of the most significant signals in the thermometer-observed temperature record since 1900 is the decrease in the diurnal temperature range over land, largely due to warming of the minimum temperatures. While some data sets have indicated this asymmetrical warming has been reduced since 1979, regional analyses (e.g. East Africa) indicate that the nocturnal warming continues at a pace greater than daytime temperatures. The cause for this night time warming in the observed temperatures has been attributed to a variety of causes. Climate models have in general not replicated the change in diurnal temperature range well. Here we would like to try to distinguish between warming in the nocturnal boundary layer due to a redistribution of heat and warming due to the accumulation of heat. The temperature at night at shelter height is a result of competition between thermal stability and mechanical shear. If stability wins then turbulence is suppressed and the cooling surface becomes cut-off from the warmer air aloft, which leads to sharp decay in surface air temperature. If shear wins, then turbulence is maintained and warmer air from aloft is continually mixed to the surface, which leads to significantly lower cooling rates and warmer temperatures. This warming occurs due to a redistribution of heat. As will be shown by techniques of nonlinear analysis the winner of the stability and shear contest can be very sensitive to changes in greenhouse gas forcing, surface roughness, cloudiness, and surface heat capacity (including soil moisture). Further, the minimum temperatures measured in the nocturnal boundary layer represent only a very shallow layer of the atmosphere which is usually only a few hundred meters thick. It is likely that the observed warming in minimum temperature, whether caused by additional greenhouse forcing or land use changes or other land surface dynamics, is reflecting a redistribution of heat by turbulence-not an accumulation of heat. Because minimum

  9. Air-sea interactions during strong winter extratropical storms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Jill; He, Ruoying; Warner, John C.; Bane, John

    2014-01-01

    A high-resolution, regional coupled atmosphere–ocean model is used to investigate strong air–sea interactions during a rapidly developing extratropical cyclone (ETC) off the east coast of the USA. In this two-way coupled system, surface momentum and heat fluxes derived from the Weather Research and Forecasting model and sea surface temperature (SST) from the Regional Ocean Modeling System are exchanged via the Model Coupling Toolkit. Comparisons are made between the modeled and observed wind velocity, sea level pressure, 10 m air temperature, and sea surface temperature time series, as well as a comparison between the model and one glider transect. Vertical profiles of modeled air temperature and winds in the marine atmospheric boundary layer and temperature variations in the upper ocean during a 3-day storm period are examined at various cross-shelf transects along the eastern seaboard. It is found that the air–sea interactions near the Gulf Stream are important for generating and sustaining the ETC. In particular, locally enhanced winds over a warm sea (relative to the land temperature) induce large surface heat fluxes which cool the upper ocean by up to 2 °C, mainly during the cold air outbreak period after the storm passage. Detailed heat budget analyses show the ocean-to-atmosphere heat flux dominates the upper ocean heat content variations. Results clearly show that dynamic air–sea interactions affecting momentum and buoyancy flux exchanges in ETCs need to be resolved accurately in a coupled atmosphere–ocean modeling framework.

  10. Natural strong CP conservation in flipped physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frampton, P.H. (Institute of Field Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (USA)); Kephart, T.W. (Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN (USA))

    1990-08-13

    A natural axion-free solution of the strong {ital CP} problem {ital at} {ital tree} {ital level} is noted within an E(6) grand unified theory. Using this as a springboard, it is shown that several flipped SU(5) theories which occur in superstring phenomenology contain within them a mechanism which enforces {bar {theta}}=0 at high accuracy.

  11. Riesz basis for strongly continuous groups.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwart, Heiko J.

    Given a Hilbert space and the generator of a strongly continuous group on this Hilbert space. If the eigenvalues of the generator have a uniform gap, and if the span of the corresponding eigenvectors is dense, then these eigenvectors form a Riesz basis (or unconditional basis) of the Hilbert space.

  12. Earthquake source model using strong motion displacement

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The strong motion displacement records available during an earthquake can be treated as the response of the earth as the a structural system to unknown forces acting at unknown locations. Thus, if the part of the earth participating in ground motion is modelled as a known finite elastic medium, one can attempt to model the ...

  13. Cosmological applications of strong gravitational lensing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paraficz, Danuta

    value of the energy density of the two above components, together with measuring the Hubble constant that determines the age of the Universe, is a major goal of modern astrophysics. An interesting method for estimating these parameters is strong gravitational lensing of quasars (QSOs). As shown...

  14. Discrete symmetries, strong CP problem and gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senjanovic, G.

    1993-05-01

    Spontaneous breaking of parity or time reversal invariance offers a solution to the strong CP problem, the stability of which under quantum gravitational effects provides an upper limit on the scale of symmetry breaking. Even more important, these Planck scale effects may provide a simple and natural way out of the resulting domain wall problem. (author). 22 refs

  15. Phase transition from strong-coupling expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polonyi, J.; Szlachanyi, K.

    1982-01-01

    Starting with quarkless SU(2) lattice gauge theory and using the strong-coupling expansion we calculate the action of the effective field theory which corresponds to the thermal Wilson loop. This effective action makes evident that the quark liberating phase transition traces back to the spontaneous breaking of a global Z(2) symmetry group. It furthermore describes both phases qualitatively. (orig.)

  16. The stability of the strong gravity solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baran, S.A.

    1978-01-01

    The perturbation of the classical solution to a strong gravity model given by Salam and Strathdee is investigated. Using the Hamiltonian formalism it is shown that this static and spherically symmetric solution is stable under the odd parity perturbations provided some parameters in the solution are suitably restricted

  17. Chaos desynchronization in strongly coupled systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Ye; Liu Weiqing; Xiao, Jinghua; Zhan Meng

    2007-01-01

    The dynamics of chaos desynchronization in strongly coupled oscillator systems is studied. We find a new bifurcation from synchronous chaotic state, chaotic short wave bifurcation, i.e. a chaotic desynchronization attractor is new born in the systems due to chaos desynchronization. In comparison with the usual periodic short wave bifurcation, very rich but distinct phenomena are observed

  18. Strong motion duration and earthquake magnitude relationships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salmon, M.W.; Short, S.A.; Kennedy, R.P.

    1992-06-01

    Earthquake duration is the total time of ground shaking from the arrival of seismic waves until the return to ambient conditions. Much of this time is at relatively low shaking levels which have little effect on seismic structural response and on earthquake damage potential. As a result, a parameter termed ''strong motion duration'' has been defined by a number of investigators to be used for the purpose of evaluating seismic response and assessing the potential for structural damage due to earthquakes. This report presents methods for determining strong motion duration and a time history envelope function appropriate for various evaluation purposes, for earthquake magnitude and distance, and for site soil properties. There are numerous definitions of strong motion duration. For most of these definitions, empirical studies have been completed which relate duration to earthquake magnitude and distance and to site soil properties. Each of these definitions recognizes that only the portion of an earthquake record which has sufficiently high acceleration amplitude, energy content, or some other parameters significantly affects seismic response. Studies have been performed which indicate that the portion of an earthquake record in which the power (average rate of energy input) is maximum correlates most closely with potential damage to stiff nuclear power plant structures. Hence, this report will concentrate on energy based strong motion duration definitions

  19. Strong imploding shock, the representative curve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishkin, E.A.; Alejaldre, C.

    1981-01-01

    The representative curve of the ideal gas behind the front of a spherically, or cylindrically, symmetric strong imploding shock is shown to pass through the point where the reduced pressure is maximum, P(xisub(m)) = Psub(m)sub(a)sub(x). (orig.)

  20. Reducing Weak to Strong Bisimilarity in CCP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Aristizábal

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Concurrent constraint programming (ccp is a well-established model for concurrency that singles out the fundamental aspects of asynchronous systems whose agents (or processes evolve by posting and querying (partial information in a global medium. Bisimilarity is a standard behavioural equivalence in concurrency theory. However, only recently a well-behaved notion of bisimilarity for ccp, and a ccp partition refinement algorithm for deciding the strong version of this equivalence have been proposed. Weak bisimiliarity is a central behavioural equivalence in process calculi and it is obtained from the strong case by taking into account only the actions that are observable in the system. Typically, the standard partition refinement can also be used for deciding weak bisimilarity simply by using Milner's reduction from weak to strong bisimilarity; a technique referred to as saturation. In this paper we demonstrate that, because of its involved labeled transitions, the above-mentioned saturation technique does not work for ccp. We give an alternative reduction from weak ccp bisimilarity to the strong one that allows us to use the ccp partition refinement algorithm for deciding this equivalence.

  1. Physics challenges in the strong interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellis, S.D.

    1991-01-01

    An overview of the challenges to be faced in the area of the strong interactions during the 1990's is presented. As an illustrative example special attention is given to the analysis of jets as studied at hadron colliders.

  2. Strongly \\'etale difference algebras and Babbitt's decomposition

    OpenAIRE

    Tomašić, Ivan; Wibmer, Michael

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a class of strongly \\'{e}tale difference algebras, whose role in the study of difference equations is analogous to the role of \\'{e}tale algebras in the study of algebraic equations. We deduce an improved version of Babbitt's decomposition theorem and we present applications to difference algebraic groups and the compatibility problem.

  3. Strong-coupling diffusion in relativistic systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    hanced values needed to interpret the data at higher energies point towards the importance of strong-coupling effects. ... when all secondary particles have been created. For short times in the initial phase ... It is decisive for a proper representation of the available data for relativistic heavy-ion collisions at and beyond SPS.

  4. Strongly coupled semidirect mediation of supersymmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibe, M.; Izawa, K.-I.; Nakai, Y.

    2009-01-01

    Strongly coupled semidirect gauge mediation models of supersymmetry breaking through massive mediators with standard-model charges are investigated by means of composite degrees of freedom. Sizable mediation is realized to generate the standard-model gaugino masses for a small mediator mass without breaking the standard-model symmetries.

  5. Strong Turbulence in Low-beta Plasmas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tchen, C. M.; Pécseli, Hans; Larsen, Søren Ejling

    1980-01-01

    An investigation of the spectral structure of turbulence in a plasma confined by a strong homogeneous magnetic field was made by means of a fluid description. The turbulent spectrum is divided into subranges. Mean gradients of velocity and density excite turbulent motions, and govern the production......-cathode reflex arc, Stellarator, Zeta discharge, ionospheric plasmas, and auroral plasma turbulence....

  6. Strong industrial base vital for economic revival

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    At the inauguration of a 2-day conference on nuclear technology in Islamabad, the chairman of PAEC said that Pakistan needs to develop a strong industrial base and capability to export equipment to improve the economic condition of the country. He descibed how Pakistan has already had a breakthrough with the export of equipment to CERN, Geneva (1 page).

  7. Strong field control of predissociation dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrales, María E; Balerdi, Garikoitz; Loriot, Vincent; de Nalda, Rebeca; Bañares, Luis

    2013-01-01

    Strong field control scenarios are investigated in the CH3I predissociation dynamics at the origin of the second absorption B-band, in which state-selective electronic predissociation occurs through the crossing with a valence dissociative state. Dynamic Stark control (DSC) and pump-dump strategies are shown capable of altering both the predissociation lifetime and the product branching ratio.

  8. Bottomonia: open bottom strong decays and spectrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santopinto E.

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available We present our results for the bottomonium spectrum with self energy corrections. The bare masses used in the calculation are computed within Godfrey and Isgur’s relativized quark model. We also discuss our results for the open bottom strong decay widths of higher bottomonia in the 3P0 pair-creation model.

  9. Strong and Reversible Monovalent Supramolecular Protein Immobilization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Young, Jacqui F.; Nguyen, Hoang D.; Yang, Lanti; Huskens, Jurriaan; Jonkheijm, Pascal; Brunsveld, Luc

    2010-01-01

    Proteins with an iron clasp: Site-selective incorporation of a ferrocene molecule into a protein allows for easy, strong, and reversible supramolecular protein immobilization through a selective monovalent interaction of the ferrocene with a cucurbit[7]uril immobilized on a gold surface. The

  10. Steering neutral atoms in strong laser fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eilzer, S; Eichmann, U

    2014-01-01

    The seminal strong-field tunnelling theory introduced by L V Keldysh plays a pivotal role. It has shaped our understanding of atomic strong-field processes, where it represents the first step in complex ionisation dynamics and provides reliable tunnelling rates. Tunnelling rates, however, cannot be necessarily equated with ionisation rates. Taking into account the electron dynamics in the Coulomb potential following the tunnelling process, the process of frustrated tunnelling ionisation has been found to lead to excited Rydberg atoms. Here, we excite He atoms in the strong-field tunnelling regime into Rydberg states. A high percentage of these Rydberg atoms survive in high intensity laser fields. We exploit this fact together with their high polarisability to kinematically manipulate the Rydberg atoms with a second elliptically polarised focused strong laser field. By varying the spatial overlap of the two laser foci, we are able to selectively control the deflection of the Rydberg atoms. The results of semi-classical calculations, which are based on the frustrated tunnelling model and on the ponderomotive acceleration, are in accord with our experimental data. (paper)

  11. Rotating compressible fluids under strong stratification

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Feireisl, Eduard; Lu, Y.; Novotný, A.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 19, October (2014), s. 11-18 ISSN 1468-1218 Keywords : rotating fluid * compressible Navier-Stokes * strong stratification Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 2.519, year: 2014 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1468121814000212#

  12. Spin Wave Theory of Strongly Anisotropic Magnets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindgård, Per-Anker

    1977-01-01

    A strong anisotropy gives rise to a non-spherical precession of the spins with different amplitudes in the x and y directions. The highly anharmonic exchange interaction thereby becomes effectively anisotropic. The possibility of detecting a genuine two-ion anisotropy is discussed, and comments...

  13. Black holes and the strong cosmic censorship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krolak, A.

    1984-01-01

    The theory of black holes developed by Hawking in asymptotically flat space-times is generalized so that black holes in the cosmological situations are included. It is assumed that the strong version of the Penrose cosmic censorship hypothesis holds. (author)

  14. Patterns of strong coupling for LHC searches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Da [State Key Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Institute of Theoretical Physics,Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, People’s Republic of (China); Theoretical Particle Physics Laboratory, Institute of Physics,EPFL, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Pomarol, Alex [CERN, Theoretical Physics Department,1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Dept. de Física and IFAE-BIST,Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Rattazzi, Riccardo [Theoretical Particle Physics Laboratory, Institute of Physics,EPFL, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Riva, Francesco [CERN, Theoretical Physics Department,1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland)

    2016-11-23

    Even though the Standard Model (SM) is weakly coupled at the Fermi scale, a new strong dynamics involving its degrees of freedom may conceivably lurk at slightly higher energies, in the multi TeV range. Approximate symmetries provide a structurally robust context where, within the low energy description, the dimensionless SM couplings are weak, while the new strong dynamics manifests itself exclusively through higher-derivative interactions. We present an exhaustive classification of such scenarios in the form of effective field theories, paying special attention to new classes of models where the strong dynamics involves, along with the Higgs boson, the SM gauge bosons and/or the fermions. The IR softness of the new dynamics suppresses its effects at LEP energies, but deviations are in principle detectable at the LHC, even at energies below the threshold for production of new states. We believe our construction provides the so far unique structurally robust context where to motivate several LHC searches in Higgs physics, diboson production, or WW scattering. Perhaps surprisingly, the interplay between weak coupling, strong coupling and derivatives, which is controlled by symmetries, can override the naive expansion in operator dimension, providing instances where dimension-8 dominates dimension-6, well within the domain of validity of the low energy effective theory. This result reveals the limitations of an analysis that is both ambitiously general and restricted to dimension-6 operators.

  15. Super symmetry in strong and weak interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seshavatharam, U.V.S.; Lakshminarayana, S.

    2010-01-01

    For strong interaction two new fermion mass units 105.32 MeV and 11450 MeV are assumed. Existence of "Integral charge quark bosons", "Integral charge effective quark fermions", "Integral charge (effective) quark fermi-gluons" and "Integral charge quark boso-gluons" are assumed and their masses are estimated. It is noticed that, characteristic nuclear charged fermion is X s · 105.32 = 938.8 MeV and corresponding charged boson is X s (105.32/x) = 415.0 where X s = 8.914 is the inverse of the strong coupling constant and x = 2.26234 is a new number by using which "super symmetry" can be seen in "strong and weak" interactions. 11450 MeV fermion and its boson of mass = 11450/x = 5060 MeV plays a crucial role in "sub quark physics" and "weak interaction". 938.8 MeV strong fermion seems to be the proton. 415 MeV strong boson seems to be the mother of the presently believed 493,496 and 547 MeV etc, strange mesons. With 11450 MeV fermion "effective quark-fermi-gluons" and with 5060 MeV boson "quark boso-gluon masses" are estimated. "Effective quark fermi-gluons" plays a crucial role in ground state charged baryons mass generation. Light quark bosons couple with these charged baryons to form doublets and triplets. "Quark boso-gluons" plays a crucial role in ground state neutral and charged mesons mass generation. Fine and super-fine rotational levels can be given by [I or (I/2)] power(1/4) and [I or (I/2)] power(1/12) respectively. Here, I = n(n+1) and n = 1, 2, 3, … (author)

  16. Mixotrophic organisms become more heterotrophic with rising temperature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilken, S.; Huisman, J.; Naus-Wiezer, S.; van Donk, E.

    2013-01-01

    The metabolic theory of ecology predicts that temperature affects heterotrophic processes more strongly than autotrophic processes. We hypothesized that this differential temperature response may shift mixotrophic organisms towards more heterotrophic nutrition with rising temperature. The hypothesis

  17. Laser propagation and soliton generation in strongly magnetized plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, W.; Li, J. Q.; Kishimoto, Y. [Graduate School of Energy Science, Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan)

    2016-03-15

    The propagation characteristics of various laser modes with different polarization, as well as the soliton generation in strongly magnetized plasmas are studied numerically through one-dimensional (1D) particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations and analytically by solving the laser wave equation. PIC simulations show that the laser heating efficiency substantially depends on the magnetic field strength, the propagation modes of the laser pulse and their intensities. Generally, large amplitude laser can efficiently heat the plasma with strong magnetic field. Theoretical analyses on the linear propagation of the laser pulse in both under-dense and over-dense magnetized plasmas are well confirmed by the numerical observations. Most interestingly, it is found that a standing or moving soliton with frequency lower than the laser frequency is generated in certain magnetic field strength and laser intensity range, which can greatly enhance the laser heating efficiency. The range of magnetic field strength for the right-hand circularly polarized (RCP) soliton formation with high and low frequencies is identified by solving the soliton equations including the contribution of ion's motion and the finite temperature effects under the quasi-neutral approximation. In the limit of immobile ions, the RCP soliton tends to be peaked and stronger as the magnetic field increases, while the enhanced soliton becomes broader as the temperature increases. These findings in 1D model are well validated by 2D simulations.

  18. Chemical Evolution of Strongly Interacting Quark-Gluon Plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan, Ying-Hua; Zhang, Wei-Ning

    2014-01-01

    At very initial stage of relativistic heavy ion collisions a wave of quark-gluon matter is produced from the break-up of the strong color electric field and then thermalizes at a short time scale (~1 fm/c). However, the quark-gluon plasma (QGP) system is far out of chemical equilibrium, especially for the heavy quarks which are supposed to reach chemical equilibrium much late. In this paper a continuing quark production picture for strongly interacting QGP system is derived, using the quark number susceptibilities and the equation of state; both of them are from the results calculated by the Wuppertal-Budapest lattice QCD collaboration. We find that the densities of light quarks increase by 75% from the temperature T=400 MeV to T=150 MeV, while the density of strange quark annihilates by 18% in the temperature region. We also offer a discussion on how this late production of quarks affects the final charge-charge correlations

  19. The Bekenstein bound in strongly coupled O(N) scalar field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magalhaes, T. Santos; Svaiter, N.F.; Menezes, G.

    2009-09-01

    We discuss the O(N) self-interacting scalar field theory, in the strong-coupling regime and also in the limit of large N. Considering that the system is in thermal equilibrium with a reservoir at temperature β -1 , we assume the presence of macroscopic boundaries conning the field in a hypercube of side L. Using the strong-coupling perturbative expansion, we generalize previous results, i.e., we obtain the renormalized mean energy E and entropy S for the system in rst order of the strong-coupling perturbative expansion, presenting an analytical proof that the specific entropy also satisfies in some situations a quantum bound. When considering the low temperature behavior of the specific entropy, the sign of the renormalized zero-point energy can invalidate this quantum bound. If the renormalized zero point-energy is a positive quantity, at intermediate temperatures and in the low temperature limit, there is a quantum bound. (author)

  20. Temperature Pill

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    Ingestible Thermal Monitoring System was developed at Johns Hopkins University as means of getting internal temperature readings for treatments of such emergency conditions as dangerously low (hypothermia) and dangerously high (hyperthermia) body temperatures. ITMS's accuracy is off no more than one hundredth of a degree and provides the only means of obtaining deep body temperature. System has additional applicability in fertility monitoring and some aspects of surgery, critical care obstetrics, metabolic disease treatment, gerontology (aging) and food processing research. Three-quarter inch silicone capsule contains telemetry system, micro battery, and a quartz crystal temperature sensor inserted vaginally, rectally, or swallowed.

  1. Strong dynamics and lattice gauge theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaich, David

    In this dissertation I use lattice gauge theory to study models of electroweak symmetry breaking that involve new strong dynamics. Electroweak symmetry breaking (EWSB) is the process by which elementary particles acquire mass. First proposed in the 1960s, this process has been clearly established by experiments, and can now be considered a law of nature. However, the physics underlying EWSB is still unknown, and understanding it remains a central challenge in particle physics today. A natural possibility is that EWSB is driven by the dynamics of some new, strongly-interacting force. Strong interactions invalidate the standard analytical approach of perturbation theory, making these models difficult to study. Lattice gauge theory is the premier method for obtaining quantitatively-reliable, nonperturbative predictions from strongly-interacting theories. In this approach, we replace spacetime by a regular, finite grid of discrete sites connected by links. The fields and interactions described by the theory are likewise discretized, and defined on the lattice so that we recover the original theory in continuous spacetime on an infinitely large lattice with sites infinitesimally close together. The finite number of degrees of freedom in the discretized system lets us simulate the lattice theory using high-performance computing. Lattice gauge theory has long been applied to quantum chromodynamics, the theory of strong nuclear interactions. Using lattice gauge theory to study dynamical EWSB, as I do in this dissertation, is a new and exciting application of these methods. Of particular interest is non-perturbative lattice calculation of the electroweak S parameter. Experimentally S ≈ -0.15(10), which tightly constrains dynamical EWSB. On the lattice, I extract S from the momentum-dependence of vector and axial-vector current correlators. I created and applied computer programs to calculate these correlators and analyze them to determine S. I also calculated the masses

  2. Behavioural thermoregulation in a temperature-sensitive coral reef fish, the five-lined cardinalfish ( Cheilodipterus quinquelineatus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nay, Tiffany J.; Johansen, Jacob L.; Habary, Adam; Steffensen, John F.; Rummer, Jodie L.

    2015-12-01

    As global temperatures increase, fish populations at low latitudes are thought to be at risk as they are adapted to narrow temperature ranges and live at temperatures close to their thermal tolerance limits. Behavioural movements, based on a preference for a specific temperature ( T pref), may provide a strategy to cope with changing conditions. A temperature-sensitive coral reef cardinalfish ( Cheilodipterus quinquelineatus) was exposed to 28 °C (average at collection site) or 32 °C (predicted end-of-century) for 6 weeks. T pref was determined using a shuttlebox system, which allowed fish to behaviourally manipulate their thermal environment. Regardless of treatment temperature, fish preferred 29.5 ± 0.25 °C, approximating summer average temperatures in the wild. However, 32 °C fish moved more frequently to correct their thermal environment than 28 °C fish, and daytime movements were more frequent than night-time movements. Understanding temperature-mediated movements is imperative for predicting how ocean warming will influence coral reef species and distribution patterns.

  3. Strong-Field Control of Laser Filamentation Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levis, Robert; Romanov, Dmitri; Filin, Aleskey; Compton, Ryan

    2008-05-01

    The propagation of short strong-file laser pulses in gas and solution phases often result in formation of filaments. This phenomenon involves many nonlinear processes including Kerr lensing, group velocity dispersion, multi-photon ionization, plasma defocusing, intensity clamping, and self-steepening. Of these, formation and dynamics of pencil-shape plasma areas plays a crucial role. The fundamental understanding of these laser-induced plasmas requires additional effort, because the process is highly nonlinear and complex. We studied the ultrafast laser-generated plasma dynamics both experimentally and theoretically. Ultrafast plasma dynamics was probed using Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering. The measurements were made in a room temperature gas maintained at 1 atm in a flowing cell. The time dependent scattering was measured by delaying the CARS probe with respect to the intense laser excitation pulse. A general trend is observed between the spacing of the ground state and the first allowed excited state with the rise time for the noble gas series and the molecular gases. This trend is consistent with our theoretical model, which considers the ultrafast dynamics of the strong field generated plasma as a three-step process; (i) strong-field ionization followed by the electron gaining considerable kinetic energy during the pulse; (ii) immediate post-pulse dynamics: fast thermalization, impact-ionization-driven electron multiplication and cooling; (iii) ensuing relaxation: evolution to electron-ion equilibrium and eventual recombination.

  4. Waves in strong centrifugal fields: dissipationless gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogovalov, S. V.; Kislov, V. A.; Tronin, I. V.

    2015-04-01

    Linear waves are investigated in a rotating gas under the condition of strong centrifugal acceleration of the order 106 g realized in gas centrifuges for separation of uranium isotopes. Sound waves split into three families of the waves under these conditions. Dispersion equations are obtained. The characteristics of the waves strongly differ from the conventional sound waves on polarization, velocity of propagation and distribution of energy of the waves in space for two families having frequencies above and below the frequency of the conventional sound waves. The energy of these waves is localized in rarefied region of the gas. The waves of the third family were not specified before. They propagate exactly along the rotational axis with the conventional sound velocity. These waves are polarized only along the rotational axis. Radial and azimuthal motions are not excited. Energy of the waves is concentrated near the wall of the rotor where the density of the gas is largest.

  5. Hydrogen atoms in a strong magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, R.R. dos.

    1975-07-01

    The energies and wave functions of the 14 lowest states of a Hydrogen atom in a strong magnetic field are calculated, using a variational scheme. The equivalence between the atomic problem and the problems related with excitons and impurities in semiconductors in the presence of a strong magnetic field are shown. The calculations of the energies and wave functions have been divided in two regions: the first, for the magnetic field ranging between zero and 10 9 G; in the second the magnetic field ranges between 10 9 and 10 11 G. The results have been compared with those obtained by previous authors. The computation time necessary for the calculations is small. Therefore this is a convenient scheme to obtain the energies and wave functions for the problem. Transition probabilities, wavelengths and oscillator strengths for some allowed transitions are also calculated. (Author) [pt

  6. Strongly not relatives Kähler manifolds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zedda Michela

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we study Kähler manifolds that are strongly not relative to any projective Kähler manifold, i.e. those Kähler manifolds that do not share a Kähler submanifold with any projective Kähler manifold even when their metric is rescaled by the multiplication by a positive constant. We prove two results which highlight some relations between this property and the existence of a full Kähler immersion into the infinite dimensional complex projective space. As application we get that the 1-parameter families of Bergman-Hartogs and Fock-Bargmann-Hartogs domains are strongly not relative to projective Kähler manifolds.

  7. Strong ground motion prediction using virtual earthquakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denolle, M A; Dunham, E M; Prieto, G A; Beroza, G C

    2014-01-24

    Sedimentary basins increase the damaging effects of earthquakes by trapping and amplifying seismic waves. Simulations of seismic wave propagation in sedimentary basins capture this effect; however, there exists no method to validate these results for earthquakes that have not yet occurred. We present a new approach for ground motion prediction that uses the ambient seismic field. We apply our method to a suite of magnitude 7 scenario earthquakes on the southern San Andreas fault and compare our ground motion predictions with simulations. Both methods find strong amplification and coupling of source and structure effects, but they predict substantially different shaking patterns across the Los Angeles Basin. The virtual earthquake approach provides a new approach for predicting long-period strong ground motion.

  8. Analytical solution of strongly nonlinear Duffing oscillators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. El-Naggar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a new perturbation technique is employed to solve strongly nonlinear Duffing oscillators, in which a new parameter α=α(ε is defined such that the value of α is always small regardless of the magnitude of the original parameter ε. Therefore, the strongly nonlinear Duffing oscillators with large parameter ε are transformed into a small parameter system with respect to α. Approximate solution obtained by the present method is compared with the solution of energy balance method, homotopy perturbation method, global error minimization method and lastly numerical solution. We observe from the results that this method is very simple, easy to apply, and gives a very good accuracy not only for small parameter εbut also for large values of ε.

  9. Cosmogenic photons strongly constrain UHECR source models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Vliet Arjen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available With the newest version of our Monte Carlo code for ultra-high-energy cosmic ray (UHECR propagation, CRPropa 3, the flux of neutrinos and photons due to interactions of UHECRs with extragalactic background light can be predicted. Together with the recently updated data for the isotropic diffuse gamma-ray background (IGRB by Fermi LAT, it is now possible to severely constrain UHECR source models. The evolution of the UHECR sources especially plays an important role in the determination of the expected secondary photon spectrum. Pure proton UHECR models are already strongly constrained, primarily by the highest energy bins of Fermi LAT’s IGRB, as long as their number density is not strongly peaked at recent times.

  10. New strong interactions above the electroweak scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, A.R.

    1994-01-01

    Theoretical arguments for a new higher-color quark sector, based on Pomeron physics in QCD, are briefly described. The electroweak symmetry-breaking, Strong CP conservation, and electroweak scale CP violation, that is naturally produced by this sector is also outlined. A further consequence is that above the electroweak scale there will be a radical change in the strong interaction. Electroweak states, in particular multiple W's and Z's, and new, semi-stable, very massive, baryons, will be commonly produced. The possible correlation of expected phenomena with a wide range of observed Cosmic Ray effects at and above the primary spectrum knee is described. Related phenomena that might be seen in the highest energy hard scattering events at the Fermilab Tevatron, some of which could be confused with top production, are also briefly discussed

  11. Quantum strongly secure ramp secret sharing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Paul; Matsumoto, Rytaro Yamashita

    2015-01-01

    Quantum secret sharing is a scheme for encoding a quantum state (the secret) into multiple shares and distributing them among several participants. If a sufficient number of shares are put together, then the secret can be fully reconstructed. If an insufficient number of shares are put together...... however, no information about the secret can be revealed. In quantum ramp secret sharing, partial information about the secret is allowed to leak to a set of participants, called an unqualified set, that cannot fully reconstruct the secret. By allowing this, the size of a share can be drastically reduced....... This paper introduces a quantum analog of classical strong security in ramp secret sharing schemes. While the ramp secret sharing scheme still leaks partial information about the secret to unqualified sets of participants, the strong security condition ensures that qudits with critical information can...

  12. Quantum Transport in Strongly Correlated Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohr, Dan

    2007-01-01

    the density matrix renormalization group (DMRG) method. We present two DMRG setups for calculating the linear conductance of strongly correlated nanostructures in the infinitesimal source-drain voltage regime. The first setup describes the leads by modified real-space tight-binding chains, whereas the second....... Thus both coherence and correlation effects are important in this model, and the methods applied should be able to handle both these effects rigorously. We present the DMRG setup for this model and benchmark against existing Greens function results for the model. Then we present initial DMRG results...... screening plays a much less significant role than in bulk systems due to the reduced size of the objects, therefore making it necessary to consider the importance of correlations between electrons. The work presented in this thesis deals with quantum transport through strongly correlated systems using...

  13. Equilibrium and stability in strongly inhomogeneous plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mynick, H.E.

    1978-10-01

    The equilibrium of strongly inhomogeneous, collisionless, slab plasmas, is studied using a generalized version of a formalism previously developed, which permits the generation of self-consistent equilibria, for plasmas with arbitrary magnetic shear, and variation of magnetic field strength. A systematic procedure is developed for deriving the form of the guiding-center Hamiltonian K, for finite eta, in an axisymmetric geometry. In the process of obtaining K, an expression for the first adiabatic invariant (the gyroaction) is obtained, which generalizes the usual expression 1/2 mv/sub perpendicular/ 2 /Ω/sub c/ (Ω/sub c/ = eB/mc), to finite eta and magnetic shear. A formalism is developed for the study of the stability of strongly-inhomogeneous, magnetized slab plasmas; it is then applied to the ion-drift-cyclotron instability

  14. Orbits in weak and strong bars

    CERN Document Server

    Contopoulos, George

    1980-01-01

    The authors study the plane orbits in simple bar models embedded in an axisymmetric background when the bar density is about 1% (weak), 10% (intermediate) or 100% (strong bar) of the axisymmetric density. Most orbits follow the stable periodic orbits. The basic families of periodic orbits are described. In weak bars with two Inner Lindblad Resonances there is a family of stable orbits extending from the center up to the Outer Lindblad Resonance. This family contains the long period orbits near corotation. Other stable families appear between the Inner Lindblad Resonances, outside the Outer Lindblad Resonance, around corotation (short period orbits) and around the center (retrograde). Some families become unstable or disappear in strong bars. A comparison is made with cases having one or no Inner Lindblad Resonance. (12 refs).

  15. Marital Expectations in Strong African American Marriages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaterlaus, J Mitchell; Skogrand, Linda; Chaney, Cassandra; Gahagan, Kassandra

    2017-12-01

    The current exploratory study utilized a family strengths framework to identify marital expectations in 39 strong African American heterosexual marriages. Couples reflected on their marital expectations over their 10 or more years of marriage. Three themes emerged through qualitative analysis and the participants' own words were used in the presentation of the themes. African Americans indicated that there was growth in marital expectations over time, with marital expectations often beginning with unrealistic expectations that grew into more realistic expectations as their marriages progressed. Participants also indicated that core expectations in strong African American marriages included open communication, congruent values, and positive treatment of spouse. Finally, participants explained there is an "I" in marriage as they discussed the importance of autonomy within their marital relationships. Results are discussed in association with existing research and theory. © 2016 Family Process Institute.

  16. Strong spin-photon coupling in silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samkharadze, N.; Zheng, G.; Kalhor, N.; Brousse, D.; Sammak, A.; Mendes, U. C.; Blais, A.; Scappucci, G.; Vandersypen, L. M. K.

    2018-03-01

    Long coherence times of single spins in silicon quantum dots make these systems highly attractive for quantum computation, but how to scale up spin qubit systems remains an open question. As a first step to address this issue, we demonstrate the strong coupling of a single electron spin and a single microwave photon. The electron spin is trapped in a silicon double quantum dot, and the microwave photon is stored in an on-chip high-impedance superconducting resonator. The electric field component of the cavity photon couples directly to the charge dipole of the electron in the double dot, and indirectly to the electron spin, through a strong local magnetic field gradient from a nearby micromagnet. Our results provide a route to realizing large networks of quantum dot–based spin qubit registers.

  17. Electrons in a strong magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itzykson, C.

    1985-05-01

    We first describe the average one-particle spectrum in the presence of a strong magnetic field together with random impurities for a Gaussian distribution, and generalized using a supersymmetric method. We then study the effect of Coulomb interactions on an electron gas in a strong field, within the approximation of a projection on the lowest Landau level. At maximal density (or filling fraction ν equal to unity) the quantum mechanical problem is equivalent to a soluble classical model for a two-dimensional plasma. As ν decreases, more states come into play. Laughlin has guessed the structure of the ground state and its low lying excitations for certain rational values of the filling fraction. A complete proof is however missing, nor is it clear what happens as ν becomes so small that a ''crystalline'' structure becomes favoured. Our presentation shows a link with functions occurring in combinatorics and analytic number theory, which seems not to have been fully exploited

  18. Electromagnetic probes of strongly interacting matter

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-05-07

    May 7, 2015 ... The nuclear matter under extreme conditions of temperatures () and baryonic densities () undergoes a phase transition to quark gluon plasma (QGP). It is expected that such extreme conditions can be achieved by colliding nuclei at ultrarelativistic energies. In the present review, the suitability of ...

  19. Vector mesons in strongly interacting matter

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Results on the light vector mesons ρ, , and , are summarized and compared. Almost all experiments report a softening of the spectral functions with increases in width depending on the density and temperature of the hadronic environment. No evidence for mass shifts is found in majority of the experiments. Remaining ...

  20. Magnetic properties of strongly asymmetric nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kutschera, M.; Wojcik, W.

    1988-01-01

    We investigate stability of neutron matter containing a small proton admixture with respect to spin fluctuations. We establish conditions under which strongly asymmetric nuclear matter could acquire a permanent magnetization. It is shown that if the protons are localized, the system becomes unstable to spin fluctuations for arbitrarily weak proton-neutron spin interactions. For non-localized protons there exists a threshold value of the spin interaction above which the system can develop a spontaneous polarization. 12 refs., 2 figs. (author)

  1. Strong coupling analogue of the Born series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolinszky, T.

    1989-10-01

    In a given partial wave, the strength of the centrifugal term to be incorporated into the WKBA solutions in different spatial regions can be adjusted so as to make the first order wave functions everywhere smooth and, in strong coupling, exactly reproduce Quantum Mechanics throughout the space. The relevant higher order approximations supply an absolute convergent series expansion of the exact scattering state. (author) 4 refs.; 2 figs.; 2 tabs

  2. Hemingway's Scar and His Strong Will

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许颖

    2009-01-01

    Hemingway's inner world is not balanced He had a strong will,and on the other hand,he is hurt severely.Based on the analysis of Hemingway's experience and his works,the paper aims to study Hemingway's life attitude:Men,all sooner or later,go down to defeat:it is how they face the ordeal that determines their status.

  3. Strongly stable real infinitesimally symplectic mappings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cushman, R.; Kelley, A.

    We prove that a mapA εsp(σ,R), the set of infinitesimally symplectic maps, is strongly stable if and only if its centralizerC(A) insp(σ,R) contains only semisimple elements. Using the theorem that everyB insp(σ,R) close toA is conjugate by a real symplectic map to an element ofC(A), we give a new

  4. Electromotive force in strongly compressible magnetohydrodynamic turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoi, N.

    2017-12-01

    Variable density fluid turbulence is ubiquitous in geo-fluids, not to mention in astrophysics. Depending on the source of density variation, variable density fluid turbulence may be divided into two categories: the weak compressible (entropy mode) turbulence for slow flow and the strong compressible (acoustic mode) turbulence for fast flow. In the strong compressible turbulence, the pressure fluctuation induces a strong density fluctuation ρ ', which is represented by the density variance ( denotes the ensemble average). The turbulent effect on the large-scale magnetic-field B induction is represented by the turbulent electromotive force (EMF) (u': velocity fluctuation, b': magnetic-field fluctuation). In the usual treatment in the dynamo theory, the expression for the EMF has been obtained in the framework of incompressible or weak compressible turbulence, where only the variation of the mean density , if any, is taken into account. We see from the equation of the density fluctuation ρ', the density variance is generated by the large mean density variation ∂ coupled with the turbulent mass flux . This means that in the region where the mean density steeply changes, the density variance effect becomes relevant for the magnetic field evolution. This situation is typically the case for phenomena associated with shocks and compositional discontinuities. With the aid of the analytical theory of inhomogeneous compressible magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence, the expression for the turbulent electromotive force is investigated. It is shown that, among others, an obliqueness (misalignment) between the mean density gradient ∂ and the mean magnetic field B may contribute to the EMF as ≈χ B×∂ with the turbulent transport coefficient χ proportional to the density variance (χ ). This density variance effect is expected to strongly affect the EMF near the interface, and changes the transport properties of turbulence. In the case of an interface under the MHD slow

  5. Strong beam production for some elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camplan, J.; Chaumont, J.; Meunier, R.

    1974-01-01

    Three electromagnetic isotope separators are installed in Rene Bernas Laboratory, one being especially adapted to ion implantation. The three apparatus use the same type of ion source and system of beam extraction. The special ion source is distinguishable from the others only by its smaller dimensions. These sources allow strong currents to be obtained for almost every element. The source and its extraction system are briefly described, examples of beams obtained are given [fr

  6. Simulation of turbulent flows containing strong shocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fryxell, Bruce; Menon, Suresh

    2008-01-01

    Simulation of turbulent flows with strong shocks is a computationally challenging problem. The requirements for a method to produce accurate results for turbulence are orthogonal to those needed to treat shocks properly. In order to prevent an unphysical rate of decay of turbulent structures, it is necessary to use a method with very low numerical dissipation. Because of this, central difference schemes are widely used. However, computing strong shocks with a central difference scheme can produce unphysical post-shock oscillations that corrupt the entire flow unless additional dissipation is added. This dissipation can be difficult to localize to the area near the shock and can lead to inaccurate treatment of the turbulence. Modern high-resolution shock-capturing methods usually use upwind algorithms to provide the dissipation necessary to stabilize shocks. However, this upwind dissipation can also lead to an unphysical rate of decay of the turbulence. This paper discusses a hybrid method for simulating turbulent flows with strong shocks that couples a high-order central difference scheme with a high-resolution shock-capturing method. The shock-capturing method is used only in the vicinity of discontinuities in the flow, whereas the central difference scheme is used in the remainder of the computational domain. Results of this new method will be shown for a variety of test problems. Preliminary results for a realistic application involving detonation in gas-particle flows will also be presented.

  7. Transport phenomena in strongly correlated Fermi liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kontani, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    Comprehensive overview. Written by an expert of this topic. Provides the reader with current developments in the field. In conventional metals, various transport coefficients are scaled according to the quasiparticle relaxation time, τ, which implies that the relaxation time approximation (RTA) holds well. However, such a simple scaling does not hold in many strongly correlated electron systems, reflecting their unique electronic states. The most famous example would be cuprate high-Tc superconductors (HTSCs), where almost all the transport coefficients exhibit a significant deviation from the RTA results. To better understand the origin of this discrepancy, we develop a method for calculating various transport coefficients beyond the RTA by employing field theoretical techniques. Near the magnetic quantum critical point, the current vertex correction (CVC), which describes the electron-electron scattering beyond the relaxation time approximation, gives rise to various anomalous transport phenomena. We explain anomalous transport phenomena in cuprate HTSCs and other metals near their magnetic or orbital quantum critical point using a uniform approach. We also discuss spin related transport phenomena in strongly correlated systems. In many d- and f-electron systems, the spin current induced by the spin Hall effect is considerably greater because of the orbital degrees of freedom. This fact attracts much attention due to its potential application in spintronics. We discuss various novel charge, spin and heat transport phenomena in strongly correlated metals.

  8. Strong CP, flavor, and twisted split fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harnik, Roni; Perez, Gilad; Schwartz, Matthew D.; Shirman, Yuri

    2005-01-01

    We present a natural solution to the strong CP problem in the context of split fermions. By assuming CP is spontaneously broken in the bulk, a weak CKM phase is created in the standard model due to a twisting in flavor space of the bulk fermion wavefunctions. But the strong CP phase remains zero, being essentially protected by parity in the bulk and CP on the branes. As always in models of spontaneous CP breaking, radiative corrections to theta bar from the standard model are tiny, but even higher dimension operators are not that dangerous. The twisting phenomenon was recently shown to be generic, and not to interfere with the way that split fermions naturally weaves small numbers into the standard model. It follows that out approach to strong CP is compatible with flavor, and we sketch a comprehensive model. We also look at deconstructed version of this setup which provides a viable 4D model of spontaneous CP breaking which is not in the Nelson-Barr class. (author)

  9. Prevention of strong earthquakes: Goal or utopia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhamediev, Sh. A.

    2010-11-01

    In the present paper, we consider ideas suggesting various kinds of industrial impact on the close-to-failure block of the Earth’s crust in order to break a pending strong earthquake (PSE) into a number of smaller quakes or aseismic slips. Among the published proposals on the prevention of a forthcoming strong earthquake, methods based on water injection and vibro influence merit greater attention as they are based on field observations and the results of laboratory tests. In spite of this, the cited proofs are, for various reasons, insufficient to acknowledge the proposed techniques as highly substantiated; in addition, the physical essence of these methods has still not been fully understood. First, the key concept of the methods, namely, the release of the accumulated stresses (or excessive elastic energy) in the source region of a forthcoming strong earthquake, is open to objection. If we treat an earthquake as a phenomenon of a loss in stability, then, the heterogeneities of the physicomechanical properties and stresses along the existing fault or its future trajectory, rather than the absolute values of stresses, play the most important role. In the present paper, this statement is illustrated by the classical examples of stable and unstable fractures and by the examples of the calculated stress fields, which were realized in the source regions of the tsunamigenic earthquakes of December 26, 2004 near the Sumatra Island and of September 29, 2009 near the Samoa Island. Here, just before the earthquakes, there were no excessive stresses in the source regions. Quite the opposite, the maximum shear stresses τmax were close to their minimum value, compared to τmax in the adjacent territory. In the present paper, we provide quantitative examples that falsify the theory of the prevention of PSE in its current form. It is shown that the measures for the prevention of PSE, even when successful for an already existing fault, can trigger or accelerate a catastrophic

  10. The INGV Real Time Strong Motion Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massa, Marco; D'Alema, Ezio; Mascandola, Claudia; Lovati, Sara; Scafidi, Davide; Gomez, Antonio; Carannante, Simona; Franceschina, Gianlorenzo; Mirenna, Santi; Augliera, Paolo

    2017-04-01

    The INGV real time strong motion data sharing is assured by the INGV Strong Motion Database. ISMD (http://ismd.mi.ingv.it) was designed in the last months of 2011 in cooperation among different INGV departments, with the aim to organize the distribution of the INGV strong-motion data using standard procedures for data acquisition and processing. The first version of the web portal was published soon after the occurrence of the 2012 Emilia (Northern Italy), Mw 6.1, seismic sequence. At that time ISMD was the first European real time web portal devoted to the engineering seismology community. After four years of successfully operation, the thousands of accelerometric waveforms collected in the archive need necessary a technological improvement of the system in order to better organize the new data archiving and to make more efficient the answer to the user requests. ISMD 2.0 was based on PostgreSQL (www.postgresql.org), an open source object- relational database. The main purpose of the web portal is to distribute few minutes after the origin time the accelerometric waveforms and related metadata of the Italian earthquakes with ML≥3.0. Data are provided both in raw SAC (counts) and automatically corrected ASCII (gal) formats. The web portal also provide, for each event, a detailed description of the ground motion parameters (i.e. Peak Ground Acceleration, Velocity and Displacement, Arias and Housner Intensities) data converted in velocity and displacement, response spectra up to 10.0 s and general maps concerning the recent and the historical seismicity of the area together with information about its seismic hazard. The focal parameters of the events are provided by the INGV National Earthquake Center (CNT, http://cnt.rm.ingv.it). Moreover, the database provides a detailed site characterization section for each strong motion station, based on geological, geomorphological and geophysical information. At present (i.e. January 2017), ISMD includes 987 (121

  11. Solar heating and cooling system with absorption chiller and low temperature latent heat storage: Energetic performance and operational experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helm, M.; Keil, C.; Hiebler, S.; Mehling, H.; Schweigler, C. [Bavarian Center for Applied Energy Research (ZAE Bayern) (Germany)

    2009-06-15

    Absorption cooling systems based on water/lithium bromide (LiBr) solution typically require an open wet cooling tower to transfer the reject heat to the ambient. Yet, water consumption, the need for water make-up and cleaning, formation of fog, and the risk of Legionella bacteria growth are hindering factors for the implementation of small solar cooling systems. The application of a latent heat storage supporting the heat rejection of the absorption chiller in conjunction with a dry cooling system allows eliminating the wet cooling tower. By that means heat rejection of the chiller is shifted to periods with lower ambient temperatures, i.e. night time or off-peak hours. The system concept and the hydraulic scheme together with an analysis of the energetic performance of the system are presented, followed by a report on the operation of a first pilot installation. (author)

  12. 77 FR 16131 - Establishing a White House Council on Strong Cities, Strong Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-20

    ... Order 13602 of March 15, 2012 Establishing a White House Council on Strong Cities, Strong Communities By... enable them to develop and implement economic strategies to become more competitive, sustainable, and... resources to develop and implement their economic vision and strategies. Sec. 2. White House Council on...

  13. Numerical Calculation of the Phase Space Density for the Strong-Strong Beam-Beam Interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobol, A.; Ellison, J.A.

    2003-01-01

    We developed a parallel code to calculate the evolution of the 4D phase space density of two colliding beams, which are coupled via the collective strong-strong beam-beam interaction, in the absence of diffusion and damping, using the Perron-Frobenius (PF) operator technique

  14. Engaging Military Fathers in a Reflective Parenting Program: Lessons from Strong Families Strong Forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVoe, Ellen R.; Paris, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    Through Strong Families Strong Forces, a reflective parenting program for military families with young children, we were privileged to work with contemporary military fathers who served in the post-9/11 conflicts in Afghanistan and Iraq. Due to this work, the authors gained valuable insight into the complexity of fathering during wartime, the…

  15. Three-dimensional electromagnetic strong turbulence. II. Wave packet collapse and structure of wave packets during strong turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graham, D. B.; Robinson, P. A.; Cairns, Iver H.; Skjaeraasen, O.

    2011-01-01

    Large-scale simulations of wave packet collapse are performed by numerically solving the three-dimensional (3D) electromagnetic Zakharov equations, focusing on individual wave packet collapses and on wave packets that form in continuously driven strong turbulence. The collapse threshold is shown to decrease as the electron thermal speed ν e /c increases and as the temperature ratio T i /T e of ions to electrons decreases. Energy lost during wave packet collapse and dissipation is shown to depend on ν e /c. The dynamics of density perturbations after collapse are studied in 3D electromagnetic strong turbulence for a range of T i /T e . The structures of the Langmuir, transverse, and total electric field components of wave packets during strong turbulence are investigated over a range of ν e /c. For ν e /c e /c > or approx. 0.17, transverse modes become trapped in density wells and contribute significantly to the structure of the total electric field. At all ν e /c, the Langmuir energy density contours of wave packets are predominantly oblate (pancake shaped). The transverse energy density contours of wave packets are predominantly prolate (sausage shaped), with the major axis being perpendicular to the major axes of the Langmuir component. This results in the wave packet becoming more nearly spherical as ν e /c increases, and in turn generates more spherical density wells during collapse. The results obtained are compared with previous 3D electrostatic results and 2D electromagnetic results.

  16. Strong Photoluminescence Enhancement of Silicon Oxycarbide through Defect Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Ford

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The following study focuses on the photoluminescence (PL enhancement of chemically synthesized silicon oxycarbide (SiCxOy thin films and nanowires through defect engineering via post-deposition passivation treatments. SiCxOy materials were deposited via thermal chemical vapor deposition (TCVD, and exhibit strong white light emission at room-temperature. Post-deposition passivation treatments were carried out using oxygen, nitrogen, and forming gas (FG, 5% H2, 95% N2 ambients, modifying the observed white light emission. The observed white luminescence was found to be inversely related to the carbonyl (C=O bond density present in the films. The peak-to-peak PL was enhanced ~18 and ~17 times for, respectively, the two SiCxOy matrices, oxygen-rich and carbon-rich SiCxOy, via post-deposition passivations. Through a combinational and systematic Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR and PL study, it was revealed that proper tailoring of the passivations reduces the carbonyl bond density by a factor of ~2.2, corresponding to a PL enhancement of ~50 times. Furthermore, the temperature-dependent and temperature-dependent time resolved PL (TDPL and TD-TRPL behaviors of the nitrogen and forming gas passivated SiCxOy thin films were investigated to acquire further insight into the ramifications of the passivation on the carbonyl/dangling bond density and PL yield.

  17. Fracture mechanism of a dispersion-hardened molybdenum alloy with strong structural interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasil'ev, A.D.; Malashenko, I.S.; Moiseev, V.F.; Pechkovskij, Eh.P.; Sul'zhenko, V.K.; Trefilov, V.I.; AN Ukrainskoj SSR, Kiev. Inst. Ehlektrosvarki)

    1978-01-01

    Fracture mechanism in the two-phase Mo-15wt.%Nb-3.5 vol.% TiN alloy known to be of ''brittle matrix-strong interfaces'' type has been investigated depending on tensile test temperature. Several temperature intervals of fracture have been found, each of them having its own peculiarities. A scheme is suggested for fracture mechanism changes in dispersion-hardened alloys with strong interfaces. At low test temperatures brittle cleavage fracture takes place. With temperature increase fracture mechanisms change in the following way: brittle intergranular fracture; fracture of ''microvoid coalescence'' type; fracture typical for reinforced materials with ductile matrix; intergran laru fracture. Particles of strengthening phase have been shown to play different roles depending on the test temperature in the fracture of the alloys studied

  18. TRANSPORT PROPERTIES OF THE STRONGLY CORRELATED SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.Domanski

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The transport properties of various systems are studied here in the context of three different models. These are: - the disordered Hubbard model applicable to correlated binary alloys with a general disorder, - the Anderson model used in describing the Kondo physics of a quantum dot connected to the external superconducting leads, and - the Ranninger-Robaszkiewicz model applied to the study of optical properties of the system with preformed electron pairs above the temperature of transition to the superconducting state. We calculate the density of states, specific heat, the Wilson ratio and conductivity of the correlated binary alloy with off-diagonal disorder. We investigate the conditions under which the Kondo peak appears in the density of states and in the conductance of a dot coupled to the external superconducting leads. We analyze the effect of the pseudogap on the optical spectra in the high temperature superconductors described by the boson-fermion model.

  19. Renormalization in theories with strong vector forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocic, A.

    1991-01-01

    There are not many field theories in four dimensions that have sensible ultraviolet and interesting (non-trivial) infrared behavior. At present, asymptotically free theories seem to have deserved their legitimacy and there is a strong prejudice that they might be the only ones to have such a distinction. This belief stems mostly from the fact that most of the knowledge of field theory in four dimensions comes from perturbation theory. However, nonperturbative studies of the lower dimensional theories reveal a host of interesting phenomena that are perturbative studies of the lower dimensional theories reveal a host of interesting phenomena that perturbatively inaccessible. The lack of asymptotic freedom implies that the coupling constant grows at short distances and perturbation theory breaks down. Thus, in such theories, ultraviolet behavior requires nonperturbative treatment. Recently, the interest in strongly coupled gauge theories has been revived. In particularly, four dimensional quantum electrodynamics has received considerable attention. This was motivated by the discovery of an ultraviolet stable fixed point at strong couplings. If this fixed point would turn out to be non-gaussian, then QED would be the first nontrivial nonasymptotically free theory in four dimensions. The importance of such a result would be twofold. First, the old question of the existence of QED could be settled. Of course, this would be the case provided that the low energy limit of the theory actually describes photons and electrons; apriori, there is no reason to assume this. Second, the discovery of a nontrivial nonasymptotically free theory would be of great paradigmatic value. The theories which quenched QED resembles the most are nonabelian gauge theories with many flavors with beta-function positive or vanishing at weak couplings. These theories are at present considered as viable candidates for technicolor unification schemes

  20. Many Body Structure of Strongly Interacting Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Arenhövel, Hartmuth; Drechsel, Dieter; Friedrich, Jörg; Kaiser, Karl-Heinz; Walcher, Thomas; Symposium on 20 Years of Physics at the Mainz Microtron MAMI

    2006-01-01

    This carefully edited proceedings volume provides an extensive review and analysis of the work carried out over the past 20 years at the Mainz Microtron (MAMI). This research centered around the application of Quantum Chromodynamics in the strictly nonperturbative regime at hadronic scales of about 1 fm. Due to the many degrees of freedom in hadrons at this scale the leitmotiv of this research is "Many body structure of strongly interacting systems". Further, an outlook on the research with the forthcoming upgrade of MAMI is given. This volume is an authoritative source of reference for everyone interested in the field of the electro-weak probing of the structure of hadrons.